Lin, Wen-Yang; Li, He-Yi; Du, Jhih-Wei; Feng, Wen-Yu; Lo, Chiao-Feng; Soo, Von-Wun
Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) is one of the most important issues in the assessment of drug safety. In fact, many adverse drug reactions are not discovered during limited pre-marketing clinical trials; instead, they are only observed after long term post-marketing surveillance of drug usage. In light of this, the detection of adverse drug reactions, as early as possible, is an important topic of research for the pharmaceutical industry. Recently, large numbers of adverse events and the development of data mining technology have motivated the development of statistical and data mining methods for the detection of ADRs. These stand-alone methods, with no integration into knowledge discovery systems, are tedious and inconvenient for users and the processes for exploration are time-consuming. This paper proposes an interactive system platform for the detection of ADRs. By integrating an ADR data warehouse and innovative data mining techniques, the proposed system not only supports OLAP style multidimensional analysis of ADRs, but also allows the interactive discovery of associations between drugs and symptoms, called a drug-ADR association rule, which can be further developed using other factors of interest to the user, such as demographic information. The experiments indicate that interesting and valuable drug-ADR association rules can be efficiently mined.
Singh, Anshi; Bhatt, Parloop
Despite comprehensive and stringent phases of clinical trials and surveillance efforts, unexpected and serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) repeatedly occur after the drug is marketed. ADR reporting is an important aspect of an efficient and effective pharmacovigilance program. Although Medwatch, Yellow Card, CDSCO form, etc. are the protocol forms of ADR collection and reports, a number of countries design and use their respective ADR forms. This review compares similarities and dissimilarities of 13 ADR forms of countries representing their geographical location. This study extracted 73 data elements mentioned in 13 different ADR forms. Only 13 elements were common. An ADR form of Malaysia and Canada covers the highest number of data 43, while Brazil falls to the opposite end with a number of 17 data elements in lieu with the Generic ADR Form. The result of this review highlights 58 data elements of the proposed generic ADR form which ensures that requisite reporting information essential for correct causality assessment of ADRs are included. The proposed “Generic ADR form” could be adopted worldwide mandatorily for reporting any/all ADRs associated with marketed drugs. PMID:23129957
Ghattaoraya, Gurpreet S; Dundar, Yenal; González-Galarza, Faviel F; Maia, Maria Helena Thomaz; Santos, Eduardo José Melo; da Silva, Andréa Luciana Soares; McCabe, Antony; Middleton, Derek; Alfirevic, Ana; Dickson, Rumona; Jones, Andrew R
Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are an important family of genes involved in the immune system. Their primary function is to allow the host immune system to be able to distinguish between self and non-self peptides-e.g. derived from invading pathogens. However, these genes have also been implicated in immune-mediated adverse drug reactions (ADRs), presenting a problem to patients, clinicians and pharmaceutical companies. We have previously developed the Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND) that captures the allelic and haplotype frequencies for these HLA genes across many healthy populations from around the world. Here, we report the development and release of the HLA-ADR database that captures data from publications where HLA alleles and haplotypes have been associated with ADRs (e.g. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis and drug-induced liver injury). HLA-ADR was created by using data obtained through systematic review of the literature and semi-automated literature mining. The database also draws on data already present in AFND allowing users to compare and analyze allele frequencies in both ADR patients and healthy populations. The HLA-ADR database provides clinicians and researchers with a centralized resource from which to investigate immune-mediated ADRs.Database URL: http://www.allelefrequencies.net/hla-adr/.
Faich, G A; Castle, W; Bankowski, Z
A method for standardized postapproval adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting has been developed and implemented by seven multinational pharmaceutical manufacturers and six regulatory authorities. This is based on a set of uniform definitions, procedures and a single reporting form, and has been demonstrated to be useful and effective. When regulators and manufacturers develop requirements and systems for ADR reporting they should consider adapting this method.
Royer, R J; Benichou, C
Under the auspices of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, a working group composed of representatives of seven multinational pharmaceutical manufacturers and six regulatory authorities developed and implemented a standardized method for reporting post-approval adverse drug reactions (ADR). The method is based on a set of uniform definitions and procedures and a single reporting form, and has been demonstrated to be feasible and effective. Regulators and manufacturers, in establishing requirements and systems for reporting of adverse drug reactions, should consider adopting this method.
Kharkar, Mala; Bowalekar, Suresh
Objective: The objective was to assess knowledge, attitude and perceptions/practices (KAP) of medical practitioners (MPs) in India towards Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reporting. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was designed for assessment of KAP of medical practitioners in India toward ADR reporting. This questionnaire was administered to 2-3 medical practitioners from each zone prior to administering final questionnaire which was approved by Disha Independent Ethics Committee, Mumbai. 1200 medical practitioners (about 300 from each zone) from India were selected randomly. Results: 1000 medical practitioners out of 1200 (90%), selected at random were approached. A total of 870 provided responses to the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 73% of 1200 selected randomly. A total of 47.5% respondents reported that they were aware of Government ADR centers. A total of 59.2% reported that they are familiar with the procedure of reporting ADRs to Government centers. However, only 18.5% of MPs have reported the observed ADRs to Government ADR centers. As against this relatively large number of MPs (87.9%) have reported ADRs observed during their routine practice to medical representatives of pharmaceutical company and NGOs (non-Govt. Organizations). A total of 80.5% of respondents agreed that safety plays an important role and 96% reported that ADR centers are useful. However, only 55.6% of respondents have reported that there is a need for ADR centers. Conclusion: The study reveals that practitioners are aware of ADR reporting; their perception toward ADR reporting is right but it is not reflected when it comes to the act of reporting of ADRs. In our sample of 870 respondents only 18.5 % reported ADRs to some organizations. Only 5% of respondents recorded the details of ADR and reported to the manufacturer and 1% of respondents to government health ministry. Thus, medical practitioners in India appear to have a good knowledge about ADR reporting, the right
Avillach, Paul; Dufour, Jean-Charles; Diallo, Gayo; Salvo, Francesco; Joubert, Michel; Thiessard, Frantz; Mougin, Fleur; Trifirò, Gianluca; Fourrier-Réglat, Annie; Pariente, Antoine; Fieschi, Marius
Objectives The aim of this research was to automate the search of publications concerning adverse drug reactions (ADR) by defining the queries used to search MEDLINE and by determining the required threshold for the number of extracted publications to confirm the drug/event association in the literature. Methods We defined an approach based on the medical subject headings (MeSH) ‘descriptor records’ and ‘supplementary concept records’ thesaurus, using the subheadings ‘chemically induced’ and ‘adverse effects’ with the ‘pharmacological action’ knowledge. An expert-built validation set of true positive and true negative drug/adverse event associations (n=61) was used to validate our method. Results Using a threshold of three of more extracted publications, the automated search method presented a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 100%. For nine different drug/event pairs selected, the recall of the automated search ranged from 24% to 64% and the precision from 93% to 48%. Conclusions This work presents a method to find previously established relationships between drugs and adverse events in the literature. Using MEDLINE, following a MeSH approach to filter the signals, is a valid option. Our contribution is available as a web service that will be integrated in the final European EU–ADR project (Exploring and Understanding Adverse Drug Reactions by integrative mining of clinical records and biomedical knowledge) automated system. PMID:23195749
What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The CPD article defined the different types of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and explored when they can occur. It emphasised the importance of being knowledgeable about medications, considering patient safety when patients are taking medications, being alert to the possibility of ADRs, and recognising and responding to suspected ADRs.
Wooten, James M
Pharmacovigilance is the process of identifying, monitoring, and effectively reducing adverse drug reactions. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important consideration when assessing a patient's health. The proliferation of new pharmaceuticals means that the incidence of ADRs is increasing. The goal for all health care providers must be to minimize the risk of ADRs as much as possible. Steps to achieve this include understanding the pharmacology for all drugs prescribed and proactively assessing and monitoring those patients at greatest risk for developing an ADR. Groups at greatest risk for developing ADRs include the elderly, children, and pregnant patients, as well as others. Pharmacovigilance must be effectively practiced by all health care providers in order to avoid ADRs.
Wooten, James M
Pharmacovigilance is the process of identifying, monitoring, and effectively reducing adverse drug reactions. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important consideration when assessing a patient's health. The proliferation of new pharmaceuticals means that the incidence of ADRs is increasing. The goal for all health care providers must be to minimize the risk of ADRs as much as possible. Steps to achieve this include understanding the pharmacology for all drugs prescribed and proactively assessing and monitoring those patients at greatest risk for developing an ADR. Groups at greatest risk for developing ADRs include the elderly, children, and pregnant patients, as well as others. Pharmacovigilance must effectively be practiced by all health providers in order to avoid ADRs.
Gurmesa, Lense Temesgen
Background. Adverse drug reactions are global problems of major concern. Adverse drug reaction reporting helps the drug monitoring system to detect the unwanted effects of those drugs which are already in the market. Aims. To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of health care professionals working in Nekemte town towards adverse drug reaction reporting. Methods and Materials. A cross-sectional study design was conducted on a total of 133 health care professionals by interview to assess their knowledge, attitude, and practice using structured questionnaire. Results. Of the total respondents, only 64 (48.2%), 56 (42.1%), and 13 (9.8%) health care professionals have correctly answered the knowledge, attitude, and practice assessment questions, respectively. Lack of awareness and knowledge on what, when, and to whom to report adverse drug reactions and lack of commitments of health care professionals were identified as the major discouraging factors against adverse drug reaction reporting. Conclusion. This study has revealed that the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the health care professionals working in Nekemte town towards spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting were low that we would like to recommend the concerned bodies to strive on the improvement of the knowledge, attitude, and practice status of health care professionals. PMID:28042569
Jacquot, Julien; Bagheri, Haleh; Montastruc, Jean-Louis
In August 2012, general practitioners of Haute- Garonne received a letter from Health insurance system, informing that prescriptions could be endorsed by "not substituable" after reporting an adverse drug reactions (ADR). Compared to an equivalent period before this letter, we observed an increase of ADRs reports for generics, mainly concerning gastrointestinal ADR and lack of efficacy.
Lortie, F M
The surveillance of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is an unqualified must. However, the optimal means of surveillance is still unclear. Although anecdotal reports are the backbone of an ADR surveillance system, they are not enough. The pharmaceutical industry, academics and regulatory agencies need to expand their efforts in monitoring ADRs. The author discusses the various techniques for counting and evaluating adverse reactions and suggests ways in which the system could be improved. PMID:3719483
White, Ryen W; Wang, Sheng; Pant, Apurv; Harpaz, Rave; Shukla, Pushpraj; Sun, Walter; DuMouchel, William; Horvitz, Eric
The timely and accurate identification of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) following drug approval is a persistent and serious public health challenge. Aggregated data drawn from anonymized logs of Web searchers has been shown to be a useful source of evidence for detecting ADRs. However, prior studies have been based on the analysis of established ADRs, the existence of which may already be known publically. Awareness of these ADRs can inject existing knowledge about the known ADRs into online content and online behavior, and thus raise questions about the ability of the behavioral log-based methods to detect new ADRs. In contrast to previous studies, we investigate the use of search logs for the early detection of known ADRs. We use a large set of recently labeled ADRs and negative controls to evaluate the ability of search logs to accurately detect ADRs in advance of their publication. We leverage the Internet Archive to estimate when evidence of an ADR first appeared in the public domain and adjust the index date in a backdated analysis. Our results demonstrate how search logs can be used to detect new ADRs, the central challenge in pharmacovigilance.
Petrovic, Mirko; van der Cammen, Tischa; Onder, Graziano
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in older adults are an important healthcare problem since they are frequently a cause of hospitalization, occur commonly during admission, and are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Older adults are particularly susceptible to ADRs because they are usually on multiple drug regimens and because age is associated with changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The presentation of an ADR in older adults is often atypical, which further complicates its recognition. One potential strategy for improving recognition of ADRs is to identify those patients who are at risk of an ADR. The recently developed GerontoNet ADR Risk Score is a practical tool for identification of older patients who are at increased risk for an ADR and who may represent a target for interventions aimed at reducing ADRs. Provision of adequate education in the domain of clinical geriatric pharmacology can improve recognition of ADRs. Besides formal surveillance systems, built-in computer programs with electronic prescribing databases and clinical pharmacist involvement in patient care within multidisciplinary geriatric teams might help to minimize the occurrence of ADRs. In addition, a number of actions can be taken in hospitals to stimulate appropriate prescribing and to assure adequate communication between primary and hospital care. In older adults with complex medical problems and needs, a global evaluation obtained through a comprehensive geriatric assessment may be helpful in simplifying drug prescription and prioritizing pharmacological and healthcare needs, resulting in an improvement in quality of prescribing.
Background Reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) has traditionally been the sole province of healthcare professionals. In the European Union, more countries have allowed consumers to report ADRs directly to the regulatory agencies. The aim of this study was to characterize ADRs reported by European consumer for nervous system medications. Methods ADRs reported by consumers for nervous system medications (ATC group N) from 2007 to 2011 and located in the European ADR database, EudraVigilance, were analysed. Data were categorized with respect to age and sex, category and seriousness of reported ADRs and medications. The unit of analysis was one ADR. Results We located 4766 ADRs reported for nervous system medications, and one half of these were serious including 19 deaths. Less than 5% of ADRs were reported in children. Totally, 58% of ADRs were reported for women, 42% for men. The majority of reported ADRs were of the types “nervous system disorders” (18% of total ADRs) followed by “psychiatric disorders” (18% of total ADRs) and “general disorders” (15% of total ADRs) which also were the system organ classes in which the majority of serious ADRs were found. ADR reports encompassed medicines from the therapeutic groups: antiepileptics (ATC group N03) (36% of total ADRs), parasympathomimetics (ATC group N07) (22% of total ADRs) and antidepressants ATC group N06A (9% of total ADRs). Antiepileptics were the therapeutic group with the highest share of serious ADRs (60%) followed by antidepressants (15%). Many serious ADRs were reported for pregabalin and varenicline. Conclusions The majority of ADRs from nervous system mediations reported by consumers that were identified from the EudraVigilance database were serious. The value of consumer reports in pharmacovigilance still remains unclarified. PMID:23763896
Chen, Xiaowen; Shi, Hongbo; Yang, Feng; Yang, Lei; Lv, Yingli; Wang, Shuyuan; Dai, Enyu; Sun, Dianjun; Jiang, Wei
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are responsible for drug failure in clinical trials and affect life quality of patients. The identification of ADRs during the early phases of drug development is an important task. Therefore, predicting potential protein targets eliciting ADRs is essential for understanding the pathogenesis of ADRs. In this study, we proposed a computational algorithm,Integrated Network for Protein-ADR relations (INPADR), to infer potential protein-ADR relations based on an integrated network. First, the integrated network was constructed by connecting the protein-protein interaction network and the ADR similarity network using known protein-ADR relations. Then, candidate protein-ADR relations were further prioritized by performing a random walk with restart on this integrated network. Leave-one-out cross validation was used to evaluate the ability of the INPADR. An AUC of 0.8486 was obtained, which was a significant improvement compared to previous methods. We also applied the INPADR to two ADRs to evaluate its accuracy. The results suggested that the INPADR is capable of finding novel protein-ADR relations. This study provides new insight to our understanding of ADRs. The predicted ADR-related proteins will provide a reference for preclinical safety pharmacology studies and facilitate the identification of ADRs during the early phases of drug development. PMID:27805066
Palaniappan, Muthiah; George, Melvin; Subramaniyan, Ganesan; Dkhar, Steven Aibor; Pillai, Ajith Ananthakrishna; Jayaraman, Balachander; Chandrasekaran, Adithan
Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are one of the leading causes of non-communicable disease related deaths globally. Patients with cardiovascular diseases are often prescribed multiple drugs and have higher risk for developing more adverse drug reactions due to polypharmacy. Aim To evaluate the pattern of adverse drug reactions reported with cardiovascular drugs in an adverse drug reaction monitoring centre (AMC) of a tertiary care hospital. Settings and Design Adverse drug reactions related to cardiovascular drugs reported to an AMC of a tertiary care hospital were included in this prospective observational study. Materials and Methods All cardiovascular drugs related adverse drug reactions (ADRs) received in AMC through spontaneous reporting system and active surveillance method from January 2011 to March 2013 were analysed for demographic profile, ADR pattern, severity and causality assessment. Statistical Analysis used The study used descriptive statistics and the values were expressed in numbers and percentages. Results During the study period, a total of 463 ADRs were reported from 397 patients which included 319 males (80.4%) and 78 females (19.6%). The cardiovascular drug related reports constituted 18.1% of the total 2188 ADR reports. In this study, the most common ADRs observed were cough (17.3%), gastritis (7.5%) and fatigue (6.5%). Assessment of ADRs using WHO-causality scale revealed that 62% of ADRs were possible, 28.2% certain and 6.8% probable. As per Naranjo’s scale most of the reports were possible (68.8%) followed by probable (29.7%). According to Hartwig severity scale majority of the reports were mild (95%) followed by moderate (4.5%). A system wise classification of ADRs showed that gastrointestinal system (20.7%) related reactions were the most frequently observed adverse reactions followed by respiratory system (18.4%) related adverse effects. From the reported ADRs, the drugs most commonly associated with ADRs were found to be
Cao, D-S; Xiao, N; Li, Y-J; Zeng, W-B; Liang, Y-Z; Lu, A-P; Xu, Q-S; Chen, AF
Identifying potential adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is critically important for drug discovery and public health. Here we developed a multiple evidence fusion (MEF) method for the large-scale prediction of drug ADRs that can handle both approved drugs and novel molecules. MEF is based on the similarity reference by collaborative filtering, and integrates multiple similarity measures from various data types, taking advantage of the complementarity in the data. We used MEF to integrate drug-related and ADR-related data from multiple levels, including the network structural data formed by known drug–ADR relationships for predicting likely unknown ADRs. On cross-validation, it obtains high sensitivity and specificity, substantially outperforming existing methods that utilize single or a few data types. We validated our prediction by their overlap with drug–ADR associations that are known in databases. The proposed computational method could be used for complementary hypothesis generation and rapid analysis of potential drug–ADR interactions. PMID:26451329
Witcher, Robert; Dzierba, Amy L.; Kim, Catherine; Smithburger, Pamela L.; Kane-Gill, Sandra L.
Background: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) improves survival and neurologic function in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. Many medications used to support TH have altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics during this treatment. It is unknown if or at what frequency the medications used during TH cause adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) after cardiac arrest and treated with TH from January 2009 to June 2012 at two urban, university-affiliated, tertiary-care medical centres. Medications commonly used during TH were screened for association with significant ADRs (grade 3 or greater per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events) using three published ADR detection instruments. Results: A total of 229 patients were included, the majority being males with median age of 62 presenting with an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in pulseless electrical activity or asystole. The most common comorbidities were hypertension, coronary artery disease, and diabetes mellitus. There were 670 possible ADRs and 69 probable ADRs identified. Of the 670 possible ADRs, propofol, fentanyl, and acetaminophen were the most common drugs associated with ADRs. Whereas fentanyl, insulin, and propofol were the most common drugs associated with a probable ADR. Patients were managed with TH for a median of 22 hours, with 38% of patients surviving to hospital discharge. Conclusions: Patients undergoing TH after cardiac arrest frequently experience possible adverse reactions associated with medications and the corresponding laboratory abnormalities are significant. There is a need for judicious use and close monitoring of drugs in the setting of TH until recommendations for dose adjustments are available to help prevent ADRs.
Gotta, Verena; van den Anker, Johannes; Pfister, Marc
Developmental pharmacology influences the safety profile of drugs in pediatrics. Altered pharmacokinetics and/ or pharmacodynamics of drugs make pediatric patients susceptible to adverse drug reactions (ADRs), especially infants and newborns. Since the efficacy/ safety balance of most available drugs has not been formally evaluated in pediatric clinical trials, optimal dosing is rarely known in pediatrics. Suboptimal pediatric drug formulations make dose optimization even more difficult exposing pediatric patients to medication errors like overdosing and associated ADRs. We provide an overview of pediatric ADRs and discuss recent regulatory and pharmacological measures to understand and reduce risk of ADRs in pediatric patients.
Tian, Xiao-Yin; Liu, Bing; Shi, Hao; Zhao, Zi-Ran; Zhou, Xi-Ping; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Qiu-Ning; Zuo, Ya-Gang
Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are common. However, no prospective study assessing cutaneous ADRs is available for Chinese populations. This study aimed to assess the incidence, manifestations, causative drugs, and other factors related to cutaneous ADRs. A total of 22,866 inpatients were surveyed prospectively from January to April 2012 at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Only cutaneous ADRs induced by systemic drugs were considered. Fifty cases were confirmed as cutaneous ADRs, for an estimated incidence of 2.2 per 1000 during this period (95 % confidence interval 1.6-2.8). Cases of cutaneous ADRs comprised 69 % females, while 63 % of all inpatients were female (χ (2) = 0.641, P = 0.427). The department of infectious diseases was the most frequently involved department. Morbilliform exanthema (40 %) was the most frequent cutaneous ADR, followed by urticaria (23.1 %). Anti-infection drugs (36.9 %) caused most cases of cutaneous ADRs, followed by iodinated contrast media (ICM, 18.5 %) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, 18.5 %). The most frequently associated disorders were cancer (24 %), infection (22 %), cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (20 %), and autoimmune diseases (18 %). In this first prospective study assessing the incidence of cutaneous ADRs in China, anti-infection drugs were the most commonly involved drugs, followed by ICM and NSAIDs. No evidence of increased cutaneous ADR incidence in AIDS or SLE patients was observed. Our findings indicate that cancer and its treatments were often related to cutaneous ADRs in China.
Finkelstein, Joseph; Chen, Qinlang; Adams, Hayden; Friedman, Carol
Academic literature provides rich and up-to-date information concerning adverse drug reactions (ADR), but it is time consuming and labor intensive for physicians to obtain information of ADRs from academic literature because they would have to generate queries, review retrieved articles and summarize the results. In this study, a method is developed to automatically detect and summarize ADRs from journal articles, rank them and present them to physicians in a user-friendly interface. The method studied ADRs for 6 drugs and returned on average 4.8 ADRs that were correct. The results demonstrated this method was feasible and effective. This method can be applied in clinical practice for assisting physicians to efficiently obtain information about ADRs associated with specific drugs. Automated summarization of ADR information from recent publications may facilitate translation of academic research into actionable information at point of care. PMID:27570654
Alomar, Muaed Jamal
Objectives To discuss the effect of certain factors on the occurrence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs). Data Sources A systematic review of the literature in the period between 1991 and 2012 was made based on PubMed, the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, EMBASE and IDIS. Key words used were: medication error, adverse drug reaction, iatrogenic disease factors, ambulatory care, primary health care, side effects and treatment hazards. Summary Many factors play a crucial role in the occurrence of ADRs, some of these are patient related, drug related or socially related factors. Age for instance has a very critical impact on the occurrence of ADRs, both very young and very old patients are more vulnerable to these reactions than other age groups. Alcohol intake also has a crucial impact on ADRs. Other factors are gender, race, pregnancy, breast feeding, kidney problems, liver function, drug dose and frequency and many other factors. The effect of these factors on ADRs is well documented in the medical literature. Taking these factors into consideration during medical evaluation enables medical practitioners to choose the best drug regimen. Conclusion Many factors affect the occurrence of ADRs. Some of these factors can be changed like smoking or alcohol intake others cannot be changed like age, presence of other diseases or genetic factors. Understanding the different effects of these factors on ADRs enables healthcare professionals to choose the most appropriate medication for that particular patient. It also helps the healthcare professionals to give the best advice to patients. Pharmacogenomics is the most recent science which emphasizes the genetic predisposition of ADRs. This innovative science provides a new perspective in dealing with the decision making process of drug selection. PMID:24648818
Visacri, Marília Berlofa; de Souza, Cinthia Madeira; Sato, Catarina Miyako Shibata; Granja, Silvia; de Marialva, Mécia; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Moriel, Patricia
Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and profile of spontaneous reports of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) and quality deviations in a Brazilian teaching hospital and propose a consistent classification to study quality deviations. Methods This is a descriptive and retrospective study involving the analysis of spontaneous reports of ADRs and quality deviations in 2010. ADRs were classified according to the reaction mechanism, severity, and causality. The drugs were classified according to their therapeutic classes and symptoms according to the affected organ. The quality deviations were classified according to the type of deviation and type of medicine available in the Brazilian market. Results A total of 68 forms were examined; ADRs accounted for 39.7% of the notifications, while quality deviations accounted for 60.3%. ADRs occurred more frequently in men (51.9%) and adults (63.0%). The skin (28.0%) was the most affected organ, while anti-infectives (40.7%) were the therapeutic class that caused the most ADRs. The most common ADRs were type B (74.0%), moderates (37.0%), and probables (55.6%). In relation to quality deviations, the most frequent notifications were breaks, splits and leaks (20.9%) and related to generic drugs (43.9%). Conclusion The classification system to study quality deviations was clear and consistent. This study demonstrated that practices and public policies related to more effective pharmacovigilance need to be implemented so that the number of spontaneous reports increases. PMID:25972731
Rosli, Rosliana; Abd Aziz, Noorizan; Manan, Mohamed Mansor
Background Spontaneous reporting on adverse drug reactions (ADR) has been established in Malaysia since 1987, and although these reports are monitored by the Malaysia drug monitoring authority, the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau, information about ADRs in the paediatric patient population still remains unexplored. The aims of this study, therefore, were to characterize the ADRs reported in respect to the Malaysian paediatric population and to relate the data to specific paediatric age groups. Methods Data on all ADRs reported to the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau between 2000 and 2013 for individuals aged from birth to 17 years old were analysed with respect to age and gender, type of reporter, suspected medicines (using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification), category of ADR (according to system organ class) as well as the severity of the ADR. Results In total, 11,523 ADR reports corresponding to 22,237 ADRs were analysed, with half of these reporting one ADR per report. Vaccines comprised 55.7% of the 11,523 ADR reports with the remaining being drug related ADRs. Overall, 63.9% of ADRs were reported for paediatric patients between 12 and 17 years of age, with the majority of ADRs reported in females (70.7%). The most common ADRs reported were from the following system organ classes: application site disorders (32.2%), skin and appendages disorders (20.6%), body as a whole general disorders (12.8%) and central and peripheral nervous system disorders (11.2%). Meanwhile, ADRs in respect to anti-infectives for systemic use (2194/5106; 43.0%) were the most frequently reported across all age groups, followed by drugs from the nervous system (1095/5106; 21.4%). Only 0.28% of the ADR cases were reported as fatal. A large proportion of the reports were received from healthcare providers in government health facilities. Discussion ADR reports concerning vaccines and anti-infectives were the most commonly reported in children, and are mainly
Martínez-Mir, Inocencia; García-López, Mercedes; Palop, Vicente; Ferrer, José M; Rubio, Elena; Morales-Olivas, Francisco J
Aims There are few publications of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among paediatric patients, though ADR incidence is usually stated to be higher during the first year of life and in male patients. We have carried out a prospective study to assess the extent, pattern and profile risk for ADRs in hospitalized patients between 1 and 24 months of age. Methods An intensive events monitoring scheme was used. A total of 512 successive admissions to two medical paediatric wards (47 beds) were analysed. The hospital records were screened daily during two periods (summer, 105 days and winter, 99 days), and adverse clinical events observed were recorded. Results A total of 282 events were detected; of these, 112 were considered to be manifestations of ADRs. The cumulative incidence was 16.6%, no differences being observed between periods. Although there were no differences between patients under and over 12 months of age, risk was found to be significantly higher among girls compared with boys (RR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.03–2.52). The gastro-intestinal system was most frequently affected. The therapeutic group most commonly implicated was anti-infective drugs and vaccines (41.5%). The ADRs were mild or moderate in over 90% of cases. A consistent relationship was noted between the number of drugs administered and the incidence of ADRs. Conclusions Hospitalized patients exhibited an ADR risk profile that included female sex and the number of drugs administered. No particular age predisposition was observed. The most commonly prescribed drugs are those most often implicated in ADRs in paediatric patients. PMID:10383547
Fattinger, Karin; Roos, Malgorzata; Vergères, Patrice; Holenstein, Clemens; Kind, Brigitt; Masche, Urspeter; Stocker, David N; Braunschweig, Suzanne; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Galeazzi, Renato L; Follath, Ferenc; Gasser, Theo; Meier, Peter J
Aims To explore drug exposure, frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), types of ADRs, predisposing risk factors and ADR-related excess hospital stay in medical inpatients. Methods Structured data regarding patient characteristics, ‘events’ (symptoms, laboratory results), diagnoses (ICD10) and drug therapy were collected using a computer-supported data entry system and an interface for data retrieval from electronic patient records. ADR data were collected by ‘event monitoring’ to minimize possible bias by the drug monitor. The causality of each event was assessed in relation to disease(s) and drug therapy. Results The analysis included 4331 (100%) hospitalizations. The median observation period was 8 days. The median number of different drugs administered per patient and day was 6 and varied between 4 (Q1) and 9 (Q3) different drugs in 50% of all hospital days. In 41% of all hospitalizations at least one disease-unrelated event could be possibly attributed to drug therapy. Clinically relevant ADRs occurred in 11% of all hospitalizations. In 3.3% of all hospitalizations ADRs were the cause of hospital admission. The incidence of possibly ADR-related deaths was 1.4. Factors predisposing for clinically relevant ADRs were female gender and polypharmacy. ADR-related excess hospital stay accounted for 8.6% of hospital days. Conclusions These data demonstrate the feasibility of the developed ‘event monitoring’ system for quantitative analysis of ADRs in medical inpatients. With increasing numbers of recorded patients the pharmacoepidemiological database provides a valuable tool to study specific questions regarding drug efficacy and safety in hospitalized patients. PMID:10671911
Vural, Fisun; Ciftci, Seval; Vural, Birol
OBJECTIVE: With the use of any drug comes the possibility of unintended consequences which when harmful are referred to as adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The development of national pharmacovigilance systems is the responsibility of all health workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge of nurses about pharmacovigilance and attitudes about ADR and adverse event reporting. METHODS: This descriptive-cross sectional study was performed in 112 nurses working in a public hospital. The questionnaire was applied about pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions. The knowledge, attitudes and practices about adverse drug reactions were asked. RESULTS: The 74.1% of the nurses definition of “severe adverse effect” of drug therapy. The ratio of participants who knew that ADRs are reported to contact person responsible from pharmacovigilance was 34.9%. Although 70.5% of nurses knew the necessity of ADR reporting, the 8% of the nurses knew Turkish Pharmacovigilance Center (TÜFAM). Only 8% of nurses reported ADRs in their professionality. CONCLUSION: Although most of the participants knew the importance of ADR event reporting, event reporting was low. Thiese results showed that there is a lack of knowledge about pharmacovigilance. Futher studies with different settings and healthcare staff are needed to improve awareness about pharmacovigilance. PMID:28058321
Rydberg, Diana M.; Holm, Lennart; Engqvist, Ida; Fryckstedt, Jessica; Lindh, Jonatan D.; Stiller, Carl-Olav; Asker-Hagelberg, Charlotte
Purpose To identify the prevalence and preventability of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in an emergency ward setting in a tertiary hospital in Sweden and to what extent the detected ADRs were reported to the Medical Product Agency (MPA). Methods In this prospective cross sectional observational study, 706 patients admitted to one of the Emergency Wards, at the Karolinska University Hospital in Solna, Stockholm during September 2008 –September 2009, were included. The electronic patient records were reviewed for patients’ demographic parameters, prevalence of possible ADRs and assessment of their preventability. In addition, the extent of formal and required ADR reporting to national registers was studied. Results Approximately 40 percent of the patient population had at least one possible ADR (n = 284). In the multivariable regression model, age and number of drugs were significantly associated with risk of presenting with an ADR (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). Sex was not identified as a significant predictor of ADRs (p = 0.27). The most common ADRs were cardiovascular, followed by electrolyte disturbances, and hemorrhage. In 18 percent of the patient population ADRs were the reason for admission or had contributed to admission and 24% of these ADRs were assessed as preventable. The under-reporting of ADRs to the MPA was 99%. Conclusions ADRs are common in Emergency Medicine in tertiary care in Sweden, but under-reporting of ADRs is substantial. The most frequent ADRs are caused by cardiovascular drugs, and significantly associated with age and number of drugs. However, only a minority of the detected serious ADRs contributing to admission could have been avoided by increased risk awareness. PMID:27622270
Lavan, Amanda Hanora; Gallagher, Paul
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are common in older adults, with falls, orthostatic hypotension, delirium, renal failure, gastrointestinal and intracranial bleeding being amongst the most common clinical manifestations. ADR risk increases with age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, increasing burden of comorbidity, polypharmacy, inappropriate prescribing and suboptimal monitoring of drugs. ADRs are a preventable cause of harm to patients and an unnecessary waste of healthcare resources. Several ADR risk tools exist but none has sufficient predictive value for clinical practice. Good clinical practice for detecting and predicting ADRs in vulnerable patients includes detailed documentation and regular review of prescribed and over-the-counter medications through standardized medication reconciliation. New medications should be prescribed cautiously with clear therapeutic goals and recognition of the impact a drug can have on multiple organ systems. Prescribers should regularly review medication efficacy and be vigilant for ADRs and their contributory risk factors. Deprescribing should occur at an individual level when drugs are no longer efficacious or beneficial or when safer alternatives exist. Inappropriate prescribing and unnecessary polypharmacy should be minimized. Comprehensive geriatric assessment and the use of explicit prescribing criteria can be useful in this regard. PMID:26834959
Chan, Sze Ling; Ang, Xiaohui; Sani, Levana L.; Ng, Hong Yen; Winther, Michael D.; Liu, Jian Jun; Brunham, Liam R.
Aims Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) contribute to poorer patient outcomes and additional burden to the healthcare system. However, data on the true burden, relevant types and drugs causing ADRs are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ADR‐related hospitalization in the general adult population in Singapore and to investigate their characteristics. Methods We prospectively recruited 1000 adult patients with unplanned admission to a large tertiary‐care hospital. Two independent reviewers evaluated all suspected ADRs for causality, type, severity and avoidability. The prevalence of ADR‐related hospitalization was calculated based on ‘definite’ and ‘probable’ ADRs. Logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors for having an ADR at admission. Results The prevalence of all ADRs at admission was 12.4% (95% CI: 10.5–14.6%) and ADRs causing admission was 8.1% (95% CI: 6.5–10.0%). The most common ADRs were gastrointestinal‐related. The most common drug category causing ADRs were cardiovascular drugs. Patients with ADRs had a longer length of stay than those who did not (median 4 vs. 3 days, P = 1.70 × 10−3). About 30% of ADRs at admission were caused by at least one drug with a clinical annotation in the Pharmacogenomics KnowledgeBase (PharmGKB), suggesting that some of these ADRs may have been predicted by pharmacogenetic testing. Conclusions We have quantified the burden and characteristics of clinically impactful ADRs in the Singaporean general adult population. Our results will provide vital information for efforts in reducing ADRs through targeted vigilance, patient education and pharmacogenomics in Singapore. PMID:27640819
Ernst, E; Sieder, C; März, R
Our knowledge relating to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of phytomedicines is highly fragmentary. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of ADRs following medication with herbal or synthetic expectorants. In a multicentre, comparative post-marketing surveillance study of more than 3000 patients with acute bronchitis, about half were treated with a herbal remedy (SinupretR) and the other half with various other expectorants. In ascending order of incidence, ADRs were noted during mono-medication of SinupretR (0.8%), Ambroxol (1.0%) and acetylcysteine (4.3%). When concomitant drugs were used, this rank order was unchanged but incidence rates were markedly increased (3.4, 6.5 and 8.2%, respectively). The most frequent ADRs were gastrointestinal symptoms. It is concluded that expectorants are associated with ADRs in roughly 1-5% of cases undergoing single drug treatment and in 3-10% when more than one medication is being used. Amongst the expectorants used in this study, the herbal preparation SinupretR is associated with the lowest incidence of ADRs.
Manohar, Hasitha Diana; Adiga, Shalini; Thomas, Joseph; Sharma, Ajitha
Objectives: The aim of the study was to analyze the adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile of microtubule-damaging antineoplastic drugs (taxanes and vinca alkaloids) and to look for unexpected ADRs among the local population. Focused study on these drugs, rampantly used in oncology department for a wide variety of tumors including early and advanced malignancies, would enable better treatment care by physicians. Materials and Methods: Data on ADRs were collected from the cancer patients belonging to both gender and of all ages, on taxanes- or vinca-based cancer chemotherapy and reported in the Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission form. Causality was assessed using the WHO criteria and Naranjo's Algorithm. Preventability and severity of ADRs were also assessed. Results: A total of 97 ADRs were reported among 488 patients on microtubule-damaging anticancer drugs admitted over a period of 1 year. The incidence rate was 19.87%. Gastrointestinal system (40.2%) was the most affected followed by bone marrow (33%) and skin (8.2%). The highest incidence of ADRs was reported among paclitaxel (54.6%), and vincristine (39.2%). Most of the reported ADRs were of milder nature and preventable. The WHO causality assessment scale indicated 71.1% possible reactions. Conclusions: This study showed that most ADRs are preventable with effective ADR monitoring. There is a great need to create awareness among healthcare professionals regarding the importance of the pharmacovigilance system. Judicious use of the preventive measures will lead to a reduction in the incidence of ADRs due to the drug armamentarium, thereby enabling additional economic benefit to the patient and society. PMID:27721535
Lebrun-Vignes, B; Valeyrie-Allanore, L
Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR) represent a heterogeneous field including various clinical patterns without specific features suggesting drug causality. Exanthematous eruptions, urticaria and vasculitis are the most common forms of CADR. Fixed eruption is uncommon in western countries. Serious reactions (fatal outcome, sequelae) represent 2% of CADR: bullous reactions (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome) and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). These forms must be quickly diagnosed to guide their management. The main risk factors are immunosuppression, autoimmunity and some HLA alleles in bullous reactions and DRESS. Most systemic drugs may induce cutaneous adverse reactions, especially antibiotics, anticonvulsivants, antineoplastic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, allopurinol and contrast media. Pathogenesis includes immediate or delayed immunologic mechanism, usually not related to dose, and pharmacologic/toxic mechanism, commonly dose-dependent or time-dependent. In case of immunologic mechanism, allergologic exploration is possible to clarify drug causality, with a variable sensitivity according to the drug and to the CADR type. It includes epicutaneous patch testing, prick test and intradermal test. However, no in vivo or in vitro test can confirm the drug causality. To determine the cause of the eruption, a logical approach based on clinical characteristics, chronologic factors and elimination of differential diagnosis is required, completed with a literature search. A reporting to pharmacovigilance network is essential in case of a serious CADR whatever the suspected drug and in any case if the involved drug is a newly marketed one or unusually related to cutaneous reactions.
Wang, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Chun; Qin, You-Wen; Yan, Shi-Ke; Gao, Yan-Rong
This study was purposed to explore the mechanisms of drug resistance of HL-60/ADR cells and to compare the reversal drug-resistance effects of antisense oligonucleotides (AS ODN) of XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) and AS ODNs of MRP (multidrug resistance-associated protein) by use alone or in combination. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot were applied to detect the expression of XIAP, BCL-2, MRP and MDR1 in mRNA and protein levels of HL-60 cells and HL-60/ADR cells, respectively. Fully phosphorothioated AS ODN of XIAP and MRP was delivered into HL-60/ADR cells with Lipofectamine 2000 in the form of liposome-ODN complexes alone or in combination. CCK-8 cell viability assay was used to determine the effect of AS ODN of XIAP and MRP used alone or in combination on the chemotherapy sensitivity of HL-60/ADR cells to daunorubicin (DNR). Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot were applied to examine the changes of XIAP, MRP in mRNA and protein levels respectively. The results showed that MRP and XIAP were both significantly higher in HL-60/ADR cells than those in HL-60 cells. AS ODN of XIAP and MRP down-regulated the expression of XIAP and MRP in HL-60/ADR cells and increased the sensitivity of HL-60/ADR cells to DNR, respectively. AS ODN of XIAP + MRP did not enhance the inhibition expression of XIAP in HL-60/ADR cells but increased the sensitivity of HL-60/ADR cells to DNR significantly as compared with AS ODN of XIAP (P < 0.05). AS ODN of XIAP + MRP did not increase the concentration of DNR nor enhanced the inhibition expression of MRP in HL-60/ADR cells but increased the sensitivity of HL-60/ADR cells to DNR significantly (P < 0.05), as compared with AS ODN of MRP. It is concluded that both XIAP and MRP may be involved in the drug resistance mechanisms of HL-60/ADR cells. Drug-resistance of HL-60/ADR cells can be reversed significantly when antisense oligonucleotides of XIAP and MRP were used in combination.
Skvrce, Nikica Mirosević; Bozina, Nada; Sarinić, Viola Macolić; Tomić, Sinisa
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are drugs used in the treatment of chronic diseases and frequently in concomitant therapy with many other drugs. Therefore, the risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), especially those caused by interactions is high. Aim of the study was to describe and analyze ADRs caused by statins reported to Croatian Agency from March 2005 to December 2008, and to emphasize reasons of their occurrence. 136 of statin ADRs were reported. 12 % of all reported statins' ADRs were caused by interactions, which is higher than percent (5.6%) of interactions caused by all other drugs in 2005 and 2006. Proportion of serious ADRs related to administered dose and thus preventable was higher than proportion of all ADRs caused by statins (p = 0.003). Most serious ADRs could have been prevented with better understanding of interactions and by use of pharmacogenomics in identifying patients that are because of genetic predisposition more sensitive to standard doses.
Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti
In everyday clinical practice, almost all physicians come across many instances of suspected adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR) in different forms. Although such cutaneous reactions are common, comprehensive information regarding their incidence, severity and ultimate health effects are often not available as many cases go unreported. It is also a fact that in the present world, almost everyday a new drug enters market; therefore, a chance of a new drug reaction manifesting somewhere in some form in any corner of world is unknown or unreported. Although many a times, presentation is too trivial and benign, the early identification of the condition and identifying the culprit drug and omit it at earliest holds the keystone in management and prevention of a more severe drug rash. Therefore, not only the dermatologists, but all practicing physicians should be familiar with these conditions to diagnose them early and to be prepared to handle them adequately. However, we all know it is most challenging and practically difficult when patient is on multiple medicines because of myriad clinical symptoms, poorly understood multiple mechanisms of drug-host interaction, relative paucity of laboratory testing that is available for any definitive and confirmatory drug-specific testing. Therefore, in practice, the diagnosis of ACDR is purely based on clinical judgment. In this discussion, we will be primarily focusing on pathomechanism and approach to reach a diagnosis, which is the vital pillar to manage any case of ACDR.
Davies, E A; O’Mahony, M S
The International Conference on Harmonization considers older people a ‘special population’, as they differ from younger adults in terms of comorbidity, polypharmacy, pharmacokinetics and greater vulnerability to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Medical practice is often based on single disease guidelines derived from clinical trials that have not included frail older people or those with multiple morbidities. This presents a challenge caring for older people, as drug doses in trials may not be achievable in real world patients and risks of ADRs are underestimated in clinical trial populations. The majority of ADRs in older people are Type A, potentially avoidable and associated with commonly prescribed medications. Several ADRs are particularly associated with major adverse consequences in the elderly and their reduction is therefore a clinical priority. Falls are strongly associated with benzodiazepines, neuroleptics, antidepressants and antihypertensives. There is good evidence for medication review as part of a multifactorial intervention to reduce falls risk in community dwelling elderly. Multiple medications also contribute to delirium, another multifactorial syndrome resulting in excess mortality particularly in frail older people. Clostridium difficile associated with use of broad spectrum antibiotics mainly affects frail older people and results in prolonged hospital stay with substantial morbidity and mortality. Antipsychotics increase the risk of stroke by more than three-fold in patients with dementia. Inappropriate prescribing can be reduced by adherence to prescribing guidelines, suitable monitoring and regular medication review. Given the heterogeneity within the older population, providing individualized care is pivotal to preventing ADRs. PMID:25619317
Tan, Yuxiang; Hu, Yong; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Yin, Zhinan; Chen, Xue-Wen; Liu, Mei
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a major public health concern, causing over 100,000 fatalities in the United States every year with an annual cost of $136 billion. Early detection and accurate prediction of ADRs is thus vital for drug development and patient safety. Multiple scientific disciplines, namely pharmacology, pharmacovigilance, and pharmacoinformatics, have been addressing the ADR problem from different perspectives. With the same goal of improving drug safety, this article summarizes and links the research efforts in the multiple disciplines into a single framework from comprehensive understanding of the interactions between drugs and biological system and the identification of genetic and phenotypic predispositions of patients susceptible to higher ADR risks and finally to the current state of implementation of medication-related decision support systems. We start by describing available computational resources for building drug-target interaction networks with biological annotations, which provides a fundamental knowledge for ADR prediction. Databases are classified by functions to help users in selection. Post-marketing surveillance is then introduced where data-driven approach can not only enhance the prediction accuracy of ADRs but also enables the discovery of genetic and phenotypic risk factors of ADRs. Understanding genetic risk factors for ADR requires well organized patient genetics information and analysis by pharmacogenomic approaches. Finally, current state of clinical decision support systems is presented and described how clinicians can be assisted with the integrated knowledgebase to minimize the risk of ADR. This review ends with a discussion of existing challenges in each of disciplines with potential solutions and future directions.
Hernández-Hernández, Dulce María; Vargas-Rivera, María Josefa E; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A; Palma-Aguirre, José Antonio; Sumano-López, Héctor
Background Adverse drug reactions (ADR's) could be expected more frequently in pregnant women. This study was performed in order to identify ADR's to tocolytic drugs in hospitalised pregnant women. Methods A prospective cohort study was performed in two General Hospitals of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) in Mexico City. Two hundred and seven women undergoing labor, premature labor, threatened abortion or suffering any obstetric related disease were included. Drug prescription and signs and symptoms of any potential ADR were registered daily during the hospital stay. Any potential ADR to tocolytic drugs was evaluated and classified by three of the authors using the Kramer's algorithm. Results Of the 207 patients, an ADR was positively classified in 25 cases (12.1%, CI95% 8.1 to 17.5%). All ADR's were classified as minor reactions. Grouping patients with diagnosis of threatened abortion, premature labor or under labor (n= 114), 24 ADR's were related to terbutaline, accounting for a rate of 21.1 ADR's per 100 obstetric patients. Obstetric patients suffering an ADR were older than obstetric patients without any ADR. However, the former received less drugs/day × patient-1 and had a shorter hospital stay (p < 0.05) whereas the dose of terbutaline was similar between the two groups. Terbutaline inhibited uterine motility in women with and without any ADR at a similar rate, 70 and 76% respectively (x2 = 0.07; p = 0.8). Conclusion Terbutaline, used as a tocolytic drug, was related to a high frequency of minor ADRs and to a high rate of effcicacy. PMID:11934352
Rosli, Rosliana; Dali, Ahmad Fauzi; Aziz, Noorizan Abd; Ming, Long Chiau; Manan, Mohamed Mansor
Spontaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reporting is a useful source of drug safety information in infants as only adult patients are routinely tested in clinical trials. This study was aimed to evaluate the spontaneously reported ADRs using WHO Adverse Reaction Terminology and to identify the common drugs associated with ADRs in children under 2 years of age. A retrospective analysis of ADR data for children below 2 years old from 2000 to 2013 was conducted using the data extracted from Malaysia's national pharmacovigilance database, QUEST2 System. From 2000 to 2013, Malaysia's National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau received a total of 11,932 reports for children from various healthcare facilities in Malaysia. 14.0% (n = 1667) of the ADRs reported for those children were related to children under 2 years old. The data retrieved was analyzed in terms of age, gender, source of reporting, type of reporters, suspected medicines and characteristics of ADRs (category, onset, severity, and outcomes). A total of 1312 ADRs reported in 907 ADR reports were analyzed. The most common ADRs reported were skin appendage disorders (60.1%), and the most frequently reported symptoms were rash (n = 215), maculopapular rash (n = 206), urticaria (n = 169), erythematous rash (n = 76), and pruritus (n = 58). In general, drugs from antibacterials for systemic use (58.8%) appeared to be the most common contributors to ADRs in children below 2 years old. Penicillins and other β-Lactam Antibacterials accounted for more than 40% of all drugs implicated in ADRs. The majority of ADRs were subacute reactions that occurred within 24 h of exposure to the drug. A high proportion of ADRs was classified as mild, and most victims had no sequela. Only one fatality was seen. There were 10 cases for each symptom, namely erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, observed in this study. A large proportion of ADRs in children under 2 years old were mainly caused by drugs from antibacterial for
Rosli, Rosliana; Dali, Ahmad Fauzi; Aziz, Noorizan Abd.; Ming, Long Chiau; Manan, Mohamed Mansor
Spontaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reporting is a useful source of drug safety information in infants as only adult patients are routinely tested in clinical trials. This study was aimed to evaluate the spontaneously reported ADRs using WHO Adverse Reaction Terminology and to identify the common drugs associated with ADRs in children under 2 years of age. A retrospective analysis of ADR data for children below 2 years old from 2000 to 2013 was conducted using the data extracted from Malaysia’s national pharmacovigilance database, QUEST2 System. From 2000 to 2013, Malaysia’s National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau received a total of 11,932 reports for children from various healthcare facilities in Malaysia. 14.0% (n = 1667) of the ADRs reported for those children were related to children under 2 years old. The data retrieved was analyzed in terms of age, gender, source of reporting, type of reporters, suspected medicines and characteristics of ADRs (category, onset, severity, and outcomes). A total of 1312 ADRs reported in 907 ADR reports were analyzed. The most common ADRs reported were skin appendage disorders (60.1%), and the most frequently reported symptoms were rash (n = 215), maculopapular rash (n = 206), urticaria (n = 169), erythematous rash (n = 76), and pruritus (n = 58). In general, drugs from antibacterials for systemic use (58.8%) appeared to be the most common contributors to ADRs in children below 2 years old. Penicillins and other β-Lactam Antibacterials accounted for more than 40% of all drugs implicated in ADRs. The majority of ADRs were subacute reactions that occurred within 24 h of exposure to the drug. A high proportion of ADRs was classified as mild, and most victims had no sequela. Only one fatality was seen. There were 10 cases for each symptom, namely erythema multiforme and Stevens–Johnson Syndrome, observed in this study. A large proportion of ADRs in children under 2 years old were mainly caused by drugs from antibacterial
Winstanley, P A; Irvin, L E; Smith, J C; Orme, M L; Breckenridge, A M
A pharmacy-based adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting scheme, using pharmacists, nurses and medical practitioners as initiators of reports, was set up at the end of 1984 in the Royal Liverpool Hospital in order to encourage reporting. New reports were inspected at weekly intervals by a staff pharmacist, and a clinical pharmacologist. Reports were forwarded to the Committee on Safety of Medicines if the reaction was considered to be serious by the clinicians, or the ADR team or involved 'black triangle' drugs. The total number of ADR reports was increased eightfold by the introduction of the scheme (from 14 in 1984 to 76, 102 and 94 in 1985, 1986 and 1987 respectively), and this rate of reporting has been sustained. PMID:2775609
Jadav, Hasmukh R.; Ghetiya, Hitesh; Prashanth, B.; Galib; Patgiri, B. J.; Prajapati, P. K.
Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are an expression that describes harm associated with the use of medications at therapeutic dose. Traditional medicines also can develop ADRs due to their improper use. Shvitrahara Varti, one of such medicines holds Bakuchi as a component and is to be used judiciously. Furanocoumarins like psoralen present in Bakuchi makes skin hypersensitive and causes phytophotodermatitis in few cases. Hence, one should be careful while using medicines that contain Bakuchi. One such case is observed, where extensive reactions with application of Shvitrahara Varti were noticed and managed with Ayurvedic treatment. PMID:24250129
Eriksson, Robert; Aagaard, Lise; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Borisova, Liza; Hørlück, Dorte; Brunak, Søren; Hansen, Ebba Holme
Pharmaceutical product information (PI) supplied by the regulatory authorities serves as a source of information on safe and effective use of drugs. The objectives of this study were to qualitatively and quantitatively compare PIs for selected drugs marketed in both Denmark and the USA with respect to consistency and discrepancy of listed adverse drug reaction (ADR) information. We compared individual ADRs listed in PIs from Denmark and the USA with respect to type and frequency. Consistency was defined as match of ADRs and of ADR frequency or match could not be ruled out. Discrepancies were defined as ADRs listed only in one country or listed with different frequencies. We analyzed PIs for 40 separate drugs from ten therapeutic groups and assigned the 4003 identified ADRs to System Organ Classes (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities [MedDRA] terminology). Less than half of listed ADRs (n = 1874; 47%) showed consistency. Discrepancies (n = 2129; 53%) were split into ADRs listed only in the USA (n = 1558; 39%), ADRs listed only in Denmark (n = 325; 8%) and ADRs listed with different frequencies (n = 246; 6%). The majority of listed ADRs were of the type "gastrointestinal disorders" and "nervous system disorders". Our results show great differences in PIs for drugs approved in both Denmark and the USA illuminating concerns about the credibility of the publicly available PIs. The results also represent an argument for further harmonization across borders to improve consistency between authority-supplied information.
Süsskind, M.; Thürmann, P. A.; Lüke, C.; Jeschke, E.; Tabali, M.; Matthes, H.; Ostermann, T.
Background. Anthroposophic medicine is one of the widely used approaches of complementary and alternative medicine. However, few prospective studies have generated safety data on its use. Objectives. We aimed to assess adverse drug reactions (ADRs) caused by anthroposophical medicines (AMEDs) in the anthroposophical Community Hospital Havelhoehe, GERMANY. Study Design and Methods. Between May and November 2007, patients of six medical wards were prospectively assessed for ADRs. Suspected ADRs occurring during hospitalization were documented and classified in terms of organ manifestation (WHO SOC-code), causality (according to the Uppsala Monitoring Centre WHO criteria), and severity. Only those ADRs with a severity of grade 2 and higher according to the CTCAE classification system are described here. Results. Of the 3,813 patients hospitalized, 174 patients (4.6%) experienced 211 ADRs (CTCAE grade 2/3 n = 191, 90.5%, CTCAE grade 4/5 n = 20, 9.5%) of which 57 ADRs (27.0%) were serious. The median age of patients with ADRs (62.1% females) was 72.0 (IQR: 61.0; 80.0). Six patients (0.2%) experienced six ADRs (2.8% of ADRs) caused by eight suspected AMEDs, all of which were mild reactions (grade 2). Conclusion. Our data show that ADRs caused by AMEDs occur rarely and are limited to mild symptoms. PMID:22315630
Gómez-Pavón, Javier; González García, Paloma; Francés Román, Inés; Vidán Astiz, Maite; Gutiérrez Rodríguez, José; Jiménez Díaz, Gregorio; Montero Fernández, Nuria Pilar; Alvarez Fernández, Baldomero; Jiménez Páez, José María
The elderly are one of the groups at greatest risk for adverse drugs reactions (ADR). The mean prevalence of these reactions in this population is 30%. Dementia is not an independent risk factor of ADR, but is the main condition that increases all risk factors (polypharmacy, comorbidity, inappropriate prescribing, drug-drug interactions, advanced age, and treatment adherence). The present article discusses revised and consensual recommendations for the prevention of ADR in the elderly, as well as recommendations specifically for dementia patients in relation to the management of comorbidity and cognitive, behavioral and psychological symptoms.
Harpaz, Rave; Odgers, David; Gaskin, Greg; DuMouchel, William; Winnenburg, Rainer; Bodenreider, Olivier; Ripple, Anna; Szarfman, Ana; Sorbello, Alfred; Horvitz, Eric; White, Ryen W; Shah, Nigam H
Undetected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) pose a major burden on the health system. Data mining methodologies designed to identify signals of novel ADRs are of deep importance for drug safety surveillance. The development and evaluation of these methodologies requires proper reference benchmarks. While progress has recently been made in developing such benchmarks, our understanding of the performance characteristics of the data mining methodologies is limited because existing benchmarks do not support prospective performance evaluations. We address this shortcoming by providing a reference standard to support prospective performance evaluations. The reference standard was systematically curated from drug labeling revisions, such as new warnings, which were issued and communicated by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2013. The reference standard includes 62 positive test cases and 75 negative controls, and covers 44 drugs and 38 events. We provide usage guidance and empirical support for the reference standard by applying it to analyze two data sources commonly mined for drug safety surveillance.
Pulford, Andrew; Malcolm, William
The reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by health professionals forms an important component of ongoing surveillance of post-marketing drug safety. The extension of responsibility for all health professionals to report ADRs has coincided with national immunization programmes, such as the national childhood immunization, human papillomavirus (HPV), and seasonal and H1N1 influenza programmes. The study objective was to evaluate knowledge of, and attitudes to, reporting ADRs among the professional groups most likely to see suspected reactions to vaccines. This included nursing professionals, whose views have not been included in previous studies. A survey of 91 practice nurses, health visitors, school nurses and GPs working in Ayrshire and Arran during June, July and August 2007 was undertaken. The respondents' knowledge of ADR reporting varied considerably. Although the majority of respondents recognized that it is the responsibility of health professionals to report suspected ADRs, there were lower levels of knowledge about the purpose of the Yellow Card system specifically; less than 50% of the respondents reported good knowledge about the system. The study suggests implications for practice with regard to the implementation of large-scale immunization programmes and potential solutions to under-reporting among these professional groups.
Palaian, Subish; Ibrahim, Mohamed I.M.; Mishra, Pranaya
The pharmacovigilance program in Nepal is less than a decade old, and is hospital centered. This study highlights the findings of a community based pharmacovigilance program involving the community pharmacists. Objectives: To collect the demographic details of the patients experiencing adverse drug reactions (ADR) reported by the community pharmacists; to identify the common drugs causing the ADRs, the common types of ADRs; and to carry out the causality, severity and preventability assessments of the reported ADRs. Methods: The baseline Knowledge-Attitude-Practices (KAP) of 116 community pharmacists from Pokhara valley towards drug safety was evaluated using a validated (Cronbach alpha=0.61) KAP questionnaire having 20 questions [(knowledge 11, attitude 5 and practice 4) maximum possible score 40]. Thirty community pharmacists with high scores were selected for three training sessions, each session lasting for one to two hours, covering the basic knowledge required for the community pharmacists for ADR reporting. Pharmacist from the regional pharmacovigilance center visited the trained community pharmacists every alternate day and collected the filled ADR reporting forms. Results: Altogether 71 ADRs, from 71 patients (37 males) were reported. Antibiotics/ antibacterials caused 42% (n=37) of the total ADRs followed by non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [25% (n=22)]. Ibuprofen/paracetamol combination accounted for ten ADRs. The most common type of ADR was itching [17.2 % (n=20), followed by generalized edema [8.6 % (n=10)]. In order to manage the ADRs, the patients needed medical treatment in 69% (n=49) of the cases. Over two third (69%) of the ADRs had a ‘possible’ association with the suspected drugs and a high percentage (70.4%) were of ‘mild (level 2)’ type. Nearly two third [64.7 % (n=46)] of the ADRs were ‘definitely preventable’. Conclusion: The common class of drugs known to cause ADRs was antibacterial/ antibiotics. Ibuprofen/ Paracetamol
Piparva, Kiran G.; Buch, J. G.; Chandrani, Kalpesh V.
Background: Novel atypical antipsychotics are superior to conventional antipsychotics as they significantly reduce both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and have lower risk of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). However, these drugs have separate set of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Therefore, this study was carried out to assess these ADRs, which can have impact on long-term compliance and achieving successful treatment. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of analysis of ADR of atypical antipsychotic drugs was carried out in the psychiatry outpatient department. Patients of psychotic disorder (any age, either sex), who were prescribed atypical antipsychotic drugs, were included. Those who were prescribed conventional antipsychotics or combinations of antipsychotics were excluded from the study. Apart from spontaneously reported ADRs, a questionnaire related to the likely ADR was used and patients’ responses were recorded in the case record form. Results: Totally 93 ADRs were recorded from 84 prescriptions. Majority of the ADRs (82 out of 93) were seen with risperidone and olanzepine, as they were the commonly prescribed drugs. Weight gain, dizziness, sleep disturbance and appetite disturbance accounted for nearly 78% of the total events. With risperidone (at 4–6 mg/day) and olanzepine (at 10–15 mg/day), gastrointestinal and sleep disturbance were observed in the initial (within 7 days to 2–3 months after treatment) course of treatment, while EPS, fatigue, seizure, increased frequency of micturition and dizziness were observed after long-term (3–9 months) use. Conclusion: The present study adds to the existing information on the prevalence of adverse effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs. Role of active surveillance in post-marketing phase is also emphasized. PMID:22345840
Berreni, Aurélia; Montastruc, François; Bondon-Guitton, Emmanuelle; Rousseau, Vanessa; Abadie, Delphine; Durrieu, Geneviève; Chebane, Leila; Giroud, Jean-Paul; Bagheri, Haleh; Montastruc, Jean-Louis
Although self-medication is widely developed, there are few detailed data about its adverse drug reactions (ADRs). This study investigated the main characteristics of ADRs with self-medication recorded in the Midi-Pyrénées PharmacoVigilance between 2008 and 2014. Self-medication included first OTC drugs and second formerly prescribed drugs later used without medical advice (reuse of previously prescribed drugs). Among the 12 365 notifications recorded, 160 (1.3%) were related to SM with 186 drugs. Around three-forth of the ADRs were 'serious'. Mean age was 48.8 years with 56.3% females. The most frequent ADRs were gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric and main drug classes involved NSAIDs, analgesics, and benzodiazepines. Phytotherapy-homeopathy accounted for 9.1% of drugs.
Clarke, John D; Cherrington, Nathan J
Introduction Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) uptake transporters are important for the disposition of many drugs and perturbed OATP activity can contribute to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). It is well documented that both genetic and environmental factors can alter OATP expression and activity. Genetic factors include single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that change OATP activity and epigenetic regulation that modify OATP expression levels. SNPs in OATPs contribute to ADRs. Environmental factors include the pharmacological context of drug--drug interactions and the physiological context of liver diseases. Liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cholestasis and hepatocellular carcinoma change the expression of multiple OATP isoforms. The role of liver diseases in the occurrence of ADRs is unknown. Areas covered This article covers the roles OATPs play in ADRs when considered in the context of genetic or environmental factors. The reader will gain a greater appreciation for the current evidence regarding the salience and importance of each factor in OATP-mediated ADRs. Expert opinion A SNP in a single OATP transporter can cause changes in drug pharmacokinetics and contribute to ADRs but, because of overlap in substrate specificities, there is potential for compensatory transport by other OATP isoforms. By contrast, the expression of multiple OATP isoforms is decreased in liver diseases, reducing compensatory transport and thereby increasing the probability of ADRs. To date, most research has focused on the genetic factors in OATP-mediated ADRs while the impact of environmental factors has largely been ignored. PMID:22280100
Garon, Sarah L; Pavlos, Rebecca K; White, Katie D; Brown, Nancy J; Stone, Cosby A; Phillips, Elizabeth J
Off-target adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are associated with significant morbidity and costs to the healthcare system and their occurrence is not predictable based on the known pharmacological action of the drug's therapeutic effect. Off-target ADRs may or may not be associated with immunological memory although they can manifest with a variety of shared clinical features including maculopapular exanthema, severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), angioedema, pruritus, and bronchospasm. Discovery of specific genes associated with a particular ADR phenotype is a foundational component of clinical translation into screening programs for their prevention. In this review, genetic associations of off-target drug-induced ADRs that have a clinical phenotype suggestive of an immunologically-mediated process and their mechanisms are highlighted. A significant proportion of these reactions lack immunological memory and current data is informative for these ADRs with regard to disease pathophysiology, therapeutic targets, and biomarkers which may identify patients at greatest risk. Although many serious delayed IM-ADRs show strong HLA associations, only a small subset have successfully been implemented in screening programs. More recently, other factors such as drug metabolism have been shown to contribute to the risk of the IM-ADR. In the future, pharmacogenomic targets and an understanding of how they interact with drugs to cause ADRs will be applied to drug design and pre-clinical testing, and this will allow selection of optimal therapy to improve patient safety.
Bénard-Laribière, Anne; Miremont-Salamé, Ghada; Pérault-Pochat, Marie-Christine; Noize, Pernelle; Haramburu, Françoise
To assess the incidence of hospital admissions related to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in France and the frequency of preventable ADRs in France, a prospective study was conducted among a representative randomly selected sample of medical wards in public hospitals between December 2006 and June 2007; all patients admitted during a 2-week period were included. An ADR-related hospitalization case was defined as a hospital admission because of an ADR, and an independent committee reviewed and validated all potential cases. Preventability was assessed using the French ADR preventability scale. Data were extrapolated to the population of France. Among 2692 admissions, 97 were related to an ADR (incidence 3.6%, 95% confidence interval, CI [2.8-4.4]). Patients admitted for an ADR were significantly older than those admitted for other reasons (P < 0.001). A third (32.0%) of ADR-related hospitalizations were 'preventable', 16.5% 'potentially preventable'. Drug interactions accounted for 29.9% of ADR-related hospitalizations. The most frequent causes of ADR-related hospitalizations were vascular disorders (20.6%), mainly bleeding complications, central nervous system disorders (11.3%), gastrointestinal disorders, and general disorders (9.3%). Antithrombotic and antineoplastic agents were the most frequently involved (12.6% each), followed by diuretics and analgesics (9.0% each). Vitamin-K-antagonists (VKAs) were the most common drugs associated with admission. The estimated annual number of ADR-related hospitalizations in France was 143 915 (95% CI [112 063-175 766]). ADRs were a significant cause of hospital admission in 2006-2007, in particular those due to VKAs. As new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been marketed, more attention needs to be paid to ensure a safe use of antithrombotic agents.
Hirsch, Michael J.; Meneses, Claudio N.; Pardalos, Panos M.; Ragle, Michelle; Resende, Mauricio G. C.
Adverse drag reactions (ADRs) are estimated to be one of the leading causes of death. Many national and international agencies have set up databases of ADR reports for the express purpose of determining the relationship between drugs and adverse reactions that they cause. We formulate the drug-reaction relationship problem as a continuous optimization problem and utilize C-GRASP, a new continuous global optimization heuristic, to approximately determine the relationship between drugs and adverse reactions. Our approach is compared against others in the literature and is shown to find better solutions.
Hirsch, Michael J.; Meneses, Claudio N.; Pardalos, Panos M.; Ragle, Michelle; Resende, Mauricio G. C.
Adverse drag reactions (ADRs) are estimated to be one of the leading causes of death. Many national and international agencies have set up databases of ADR reports for the express purpose of determining the relationship between drugs and adverse reactions that they cause. We formulate the drug-reaction relationship problem as a continuous optimization problem and utilize C-GRASP, a new continuous global optimization heuristic, to approximately determine the relationship between drugs and adverse reactions. Our approach is compared against others in the literature and is shown to find better solutions.
Benichou, C; Castle, W
Global management of drug safety data is the best way to make the detection and validation of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) earlier. Centralization needs a previous standardization, of which terminology is a crucial component. ADR terminology must be designed so as to enable users to know exactly what is covered by each term regarding the nature of the reaction and its significance for public health. A worldwide standardized terminology for all drug reporting purposes is currently being developed by the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use. However, practical definitions of medical terms will be necessary and could be developed by specialists on drug safety in collaboration with specialists of different system organs, as has already been achieved for some of them.
Sridhar, Sathvik Belagodu; Al-Thamer, Sura Saad Faris; Jabbar, Riadh
Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, resulting in increased healthcare cost. Association of psychotropic medications with ADRs is common. Pharmacovigilance can play a vital role in alerting the healthcare providers from the possible ADRs and thus protecting the patients receiving psychotropic medications. Aim: To monitor and report the incidence and nature of ADRs in psychiatry outpatient department (OPD). Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out in the psychiatry OPD. All the patients attending psychiatry outpatient and satisfying the inclusion criteria were monitored for ADRs. The causality, severity and preventability assessment of documented ADRs was done. Chi-square test was done to identify the association between ADRs and sociodemographic, disease and treatment-related variables. Paired Student's t-test was carried out to compare the significance difference in the weight of the patients who reported weight gain to psychotropic medications. Results: The incidence rate of ADR was found to be 10.2%. A total of 112 ADRs were documented. Weight gain 18 (16.07%) followed by somnolence 8 (7.14%) was the most commonly reported ADR. Atypical antipsychotics 37 (33.0%) were the most common class of psychotropic drugs implicated in ADRs. Escitalopram 16 (14.28%) followed by quetiapine 14 (12.5%) were associated with a maximum number of ADRs. No significant association (P > 0.05) documented between demographic and treatment-related variables with number of ADRs. Conclusion: Study revealed a moderate incidence of ADRs in patients attending the psychiatry OPD. Majority of the ADRs reported during the study were mild in nature and not preventable type. PMID:27330260
Background Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are recognised as a common cause of hospital admissions, and they constitute a significant economic burden for hospitals. Hospital-based ADR monitoring and reporting programmes aim to identify and quantify the risks associated with the use of drugs provided in a hospital setting. This information may be useful for identifying and minimising preventable ADRs and may enhance the ability of prescribers to manage ADRs more effectively. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate ADRs that occurred during inpatient stays at the Hospital Geral de Palmas (HGP) in Tocantins, Brazil, and to facilitate the development of a pharmacovigilance service. Methods A prospective study was conducted at HGP over a period of 8 months, from January 2009 to August 2009. This observational, cross-sectional, descriptive study was based on an analysis of medical records. Several parameters were utilised in the data evaluation, including patient demographics, drug and reaction characteristics, and reaction outcomes. The reaction severity and predisposing factors were also assessed. Results The overall incidence of ADRs in the patient population was 3.1%, and gender was not found to be a risk factor. The highest ADR rate (75.8%) was found in the adult age group 15 to 50 years, and the lowest ADR rate was found in children aged 3 to 13 years (7.4%). Because of the high frequency of ADRs in orthopaedic (25%), general medicine (22%), and oncology (16%) patients, improved control of the drugs used in these specialties is required. Additionally, the nurse team (52.7%) registered the most ADRs in medical records, most likely due to the job responsibilities of nurses. As expected, the most noticeable ADRs occurred in skin tissues, with such ADRs are more obvious to medical staff, with rashes being the most common reactions. Metamizole, tramadol, and vancomycin were responsible for 21, 11.6, and 8.4% of ADRs, respectively. The majority of ADRs had
Wahlang, Julie Birdie; Laishram, Purnima Devi; Brahma, Dhriti Kumar; Sarkar, Chayna; Lahon, Joonmoni; Nongkynrih, Banylla Shisha
Background: An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is defined by World Health Organization (WHO) as ‘Any response to a drug which is noxious, unintended and occurs at doses used in man for prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy’. ADRs associated with cancer chemotherapy warrant analysis on their severity and preventability. The outcome would create awareness among health care providers and prevent their recurrence. We have performed a hospital-based prospective observational study designed to analyze the pattern of ADRs to chemotherapeutic agents in cancer patients of a tertiary care hospital. Methods: A total of 119 cancer patients were monitored for suspected ADRs during the course of chemotherapy from November 2014 to December 2015. Clinical events were recorded and analyzed with regard to the demographics and drug details of the patients. Results: A total of 106 ADRs were recorded from 119 cases. The ADRs commonly encountered included constipation, nausea, vomiting, alopecia and hematological changes. Cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, paclitaxel and 5-FU were used for the treatment of commonly found cancers in this region affecting the lungs, esophagus and lymphomas. Naranjo’s causality assessment showed 86.7% possible (score 4) and 13.2% probable (score 5–6). Severity of adverse reactions showed 77.4% mild, 18.9% moderate and 3.8% severe. A total of 45.3% of ADRs were preventable reactions such as nausea, vomiting and constipation. Conclusions: This study highlights the role of active monitoring as an important tool for early detection, assessment and timely management of ADRs in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy. The observed ADRs were preventable although ADRs such as hiccough, anemia, neutropenia and alopecia were not preventable.
Jin, Huidong Warren; Chen, Jie; He, Hongxing; Williams, Graham J; Kelman, Chris; O'Keefe, Christine M
In various real-world applications, it is very useful mining unanticipated episodes where certain event patterns unexpectedly lead to outcomes, e.g., taking two medicines together sometimes causing an adverse reaction. These unanticipated episodes are usually unexpected and infrequent, which makes existing data mining techniques, mainly designed to find frequent patterns, ineffective. In this paper, we propose unexpected temporal association rules (UTARs) to describe them. To handle the unexpectedness, we introduce a new interestingness measure, residual-leverage, and develop a novel case-based exclusion technique for its calculation. Combining it with an event-oriented data preparation technique to handle the infrequency, we develop a new algorithm MUTARC to find pairwise UTARs. The MUTARC is applied to generate adverse drug reaction (ADR) signals from real-world healthcare administrative databases. It reliably shortlists not only six known ADRs, but also another ADR, flucloxacillin possibly causing hepatitis, which our algorithm designers and experiment runners have not known before the experiments. The MUTARC performs much more effectively than existing techniques. This paper clearly illustrates the great potential along the new direction of ADR signal generation from healthcare administrative databases.
Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.
This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…
Moore, Nicholas; Pollack, Charles; Butkerait, Paul
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen have a long history of safe and effective use as both prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics/antipyretics. The mechanism of action of all NSAIDs is through reversible inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzymes. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) including gastrointestinal bleeding as well as cardiovascular and renal effects have been reported with NSAID use. In many cases, ADRs may occur because of drug–drug interactions (DDIs) between the NSAID and a concomitant medication. For example, DDIs have been reported when NSAIDs are coadministered with aspirin, alcohol, some antihypertensives, antidepressants, and other commonly used medications. Because of the pharmacologic nature of these interactions, there is a continuum of risk in that the potential for an ADR is dependent on total drug exposure. Therefore, consideration of dose and duration of NSAID use, as well as the type or class of comedication administered, is important when assessing potential risk for ADRs. Safety findings from clinical studies evaluating prescription-strength NSAIDs may not be directly applicable to OTC dosing. Health care providers can be instrumental in educating patients that using OTC NSAIDs at the lowest effective dose for the shortest required duration is vital to balancing efficacy and safety. This review discusses some of the most clinically relevant DDIs reported with NSAIDs based on major sites of ADRs and classes of medication, with a focus on OTC ibuprofen, for which the most data are available. PMID:26203254
Pathak, Anuj Kumar; Dokania, Shambhu; Mohan, Lalit; Dikshit, Harihar
Introduction Pharmacovigilance (PV) is related to detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) which are incurred when drug is made available in the market and used in different physiological conditions. In many countries, ADRs ranks among the top ten leading cause of morbidity and mortality. There is a lack of formal culture for monitoring and reporting of ADRs in India, with ADR reporting rate being only 1% as compared to 5% in world. This type of academic detailing activity helps to create awareness of ADR reporting in the institutions. Aim This study was planned to evaluate and analyse the incidence and patterns of ADRs in various inpatient and outpatient departments of hospital. Materials and Methods This was an observational, retrospective and record based study conducted by analysing the spontaneous ADR forms, collected over a period of 12 months (September 2014 to August 2015) at Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India. Results During the period of one year, 292 ADR forms were collected from 4,34,965 patients attending OPD and inpatients of the hospital. Incidence of ADR was 0.67 per thousand patients and average of around 24 ADR collected per month. Male:Female ratio was 1.30. Adolescent (16-30 yr) was the most common age group affected. Department of Skin and VD reported the maximum number of ADRs (33.22%), followed by the Departments of Oncology (18.84%). Antibiotics were the most common drug implicated followed by anticancer drugs. Conclusion ADR reporting is an ongoing and continuous process. Studies from the institute helps to identify and rectify the problems related to ADR reporting. Pitfalls can be addressed by creating awareness among physicians and the patients to achieve finally the goal of Pharmacovigilant India. PMID:27656459
Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Imai, Shungo; Uehara, Keiko; Maruyama, Junya; Shimizu, Mikiko; Mochizuki, Mayumi
We investigated factors affecting the timing of signal detection by comparing variations in reporting time of known and unknown ADRs after initial drug release in the USA. Data on adverse event reactions (AERs) submitted to U.S. FDA was used. Six ADRs associated with 6 drugs (rosuvastatin, aripiprazole, teriparatide, telithromycin, exenatide, varenicline) were investigated: Changes in the proportional reporting ratio, reporting odds ratio, and information component as indexes of signal detection were followed every 3 months after each drugs release, and the time for detection of signals was investigated. The time for the detection of signal to be detected after drug release in the USA was 2-10 months for known ADRs and 19-44 months for unknown ones. The median lag time for known and unknown ADRs was 99.0-122.5 days and 185.5-306.0 days, respectively. When the FDA released advisory information on rare but potentially serious health risks of an unknown ADR, the time lag to report from the onset of ADRs to the FDA was shorter. This study suggested that one factor affecting signal detection time is whether an ADR was known or unknown at release.
Spiteri, M. A.; James, D. G.
Drugs acting on various parts of the body may also affect the eye insidiously. Increased awareness of such drug toxicity by the prescribing doctor should encourage him to consider effects on the cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve and elsewhere when checking the patient's progress. The following review concerns adverse ocular effects of systemic drug administration. PMID:6356101
Machado-Alba, Jorge Enrique; Ruiz, Andrés Felipe; Machado-Duque, Manuel Enrique
This study describes the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and their incidence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who were treated in the Colombian health system. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using information from all patients who were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and attended specialized health care centers in the cities of Bogotá, Cali, Manizales, Medellin, and Pereira between 1 December 2009 and 30 August 2013. The ADRs were obtained from medical records and the pharmacovigilance system registry and sorted by frequency and affected tissue according to World Health Organization Adverse Reaction Terminology (WHO-ART). A total of 949 reports of ADRs were obtained from 419 patients (32.8 ADRs per 100 patient-years); these patients were from a cohort of 1,364 patients being treated for rheumatoid arthritis and followed up for an average of 23.8 months (± 12.9). The cohort was mostly female (366, 87.4%) and had a mean age of 52.7 years (± 13.1). The highest numbers of ADRs were reported following the use of tocilizumab, rituximab, and infliximab (28.8, 23.1, and 13.3 reports per 100 patient-years respectively). The most frequently reported ADRs were elevated transaminase levels and dyspepsia. Overall, 87.7% of ADRs were classified as type A, 36.6% as mild, 40.7% as moderate, and 22.7% as severe. As a result, 73.2% of patients who experienced an ADR stopped taking their drugs. The occurrence of ADRs in patients treated for rheumatoid arthritis is common, especially in those associated with the use of biotechnologically produced anti-rheumatic drugs. This outcome should be studied in future research and monitoring is needed to reduce the risks in these patients.
Khan, Kashifullah; Khan, Amer Hayat; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar; Soo, Chow Ting; Akhtar, Ali
In the current study we explored the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to antiretroviral therapy among human immune-deficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients. We concluded an observational retrospective study in all patients who were diagnosed with HIV infection and were receiving highly active antiviral therapy from Jan. 2007 to Dec. 2012 at Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Patient socio-demographic details along with clinical features and susceptible ADRs were observed during the study period. Out of 743 patients, 571 (76.9%) were men, and 172 (23.1%) were women. Overall 314 (42.2%) patients experienced ADRs. A total of 425 ADRs were reported, with 311 (73.1%) occurring in men and 114 (26.8%) in women, with a significant statistical relationship (P value (P) = 0.02, OR = 1.21). Overall 239 (56.2%) ADRs were recorded among Chinese, 94 (22.1%) in Malay, and 71 (16.7%) in Indian patients, which had a statistically significant association with ADRs (P = 0.05, OR = 1.50). Out of a total 425 among ADRs, lipodystrophy was recorded in 151 (35.5%) followed by skin rashes in 80 (18.8%), anemia in 74 (17.4%), and peripheral neuropathy in 27 (6.3%) patients. These findings suggest a need of intensive monitoring of ADRs in HIV treatment centres across Malaysia.
Du, Wei; Lehr, Victoria Tutag; Lieh-Lai, Mary; Koo, Winston; Ward, Robert M; Rieder, Michael J; Van Den Anker, John N; Reeves, Jaxk H; Mathew, Merene; Lulic-Botica, Mirjana; Aranda, Jacob V
Critically ill newborns in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are at greater risk of developing adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Differentiation of ADRs from reactions associated with organ dysfunction/immaturity is difficult. Current ADR algorithm scoring was established arbitrarily without validation in infants. The study objective was to develop a valid and reliable algorithm to identify ADRs in the NICU. Algorithm development began with a 24-item questionnaire for data collection on 100 previously suspected ADRs. Five pediatric pharmacologists independently rated cases as definite, probable, possible, and unlikely ADRs. Consensus "gold standard" was reached via teleconference. Logistic regression and iterative C programs were used to derive the scoring system. For validation, 50 prospectively collected ADR cases were assessed by 3 clinicians using the new algorithm and the Naranjo algorithm. Weighted kappa and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to compare validity and reliability of algorithms. The new algorithm consists of 13 items. Kappa and ICC of the new algorithm were 0.76 and 0.62 versus 0.31 and 0.43 for the Naranjo algorithm. The new algorithm developed using actual patient data is more valid and reliable than the Naranjo algorithm for identifying ADRs in the NICU population. Because of the relatively small and nonrandom samples, further refinement and additional testing are needed.
Kiguba, Ronald; Karamagi, Charles; Bird, Sheila M
We sought to determine the prevalence at admission and incidence during hospitalization of antibiotic-associated suspected adverse drug reactions (aa-ADRs) among Ugandan inpatients; and to characterize these aa-ADRs. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 762 consented adults admitted on medical and gynecological wards of the 1790-bed Mulago National Referral Hospital. Thirty percent were known HIV-seropositive (232/762). Nineteen percent (148/762; 95% CI: 17-22%) of inpatients experienced at least one aa-ADR. At hospital admission, 6% (45/762; 95% CI: 4-8%) of patients had at least one aa-ADR; and 15% (45/300; 11-20%) of those who had received antibiotics in the 4-weeks preadmission. Twenty-four (53%) of these 45 patients had serious aa-ADRs. The incidence of aa-ADRs was 19% (117/629; 95% CI: 16-22%) of patients who received antibiotics [community-acquired: 9% (27/300; 95% CI: 6-13%); hospital-acquired: 16% (94/603; 95% CI: 13-19%)]: 39 (33%) of 117 patients had serious aa-ADRs. Of 269 aa-ADRs, 115 (43%) were community-acquired, 66 (25%) probable/definite, 171 (64%) preventable, 86 (32%) serious, and 24 (9%) rare. Ceftriaxone was the most frequently implicated for serious hospital-acquired aa-ADRs. Cotrimoxazole, isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide were the most frequently linked to serious community-acquired aa-ADRs. Fatal jaundice (isoniazid), life-threatening difficulty in breathing with shortness of breath (rifampicin) and disabling itchy skin rash with numbness of lower swollen legs (ethambutol, isoniazid) were observed. Pharmaceutical quality testing of implicated antibiotics could be worthwhile. Periodic on-ward collection and analysis of antibiotic-safety-data standardized by consumption is an efficient method of tracking antibiotics with 1%-risk for serious aa-ADRs.
Wallach, Izhar; Jaitly, Navdeep; Lilien, Ryan
Adverse drug reactions (ADR), also known as side-effects, are complex undesired physiologic phenomena observed secondary to the administration of pharmaceuticals. Several phenomena underlie the emergence of each ADR; however, a dominant factor is the drug's ability to modulate one or more biological pathways. Understanding the biological processes behind the occurrence of ADRs would lead to the development of safer and more effective drugs. At present, no method exists to discover these ADR-pathway associations. In this paper we introduce a computational framework for identifying a subset of these associations based on the assumption that drugs capable of modulating the same pathway may induce similar ADRs. Our model exploits multiple information resources. First, we utilize a publicly available dataset pairing drugs with their observed ADRs. Second, we identify putative protein targets for each drug using the protein structure database and in-silico virtual docking. Third, we label each protein target with its known involvement in one or more biological pathways. Finally, the relationships among these information sources are mined using multiple stages of logistic-regression while controlling for over-fitting and multiple-hypothesis testing. As proof-of-concept, we examined a dataset of 506 ADRs, 730 drugs, and 830 human protein targets. Our method yielded 185 ADR-pathway associations of which 45 were selected to undergo a manual literature review. We found 32 associations to be supported by the scientific literature. PMID:20808786
Alhawassi, Tariq M; Krass, Ines; Bajorek, Beata V; Pont, Lisa G
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important health issue. While prevalence and risk factors associated with ADRs in the general adult population have been well documented, much less is known about ADRs in the elderly population. The aim of this study was to review the published literature to estimate the prevalence of ADRs in the elderly in the acute care setting and identify factors associated with an increased risk of an ADR in the elderly. A systematic review of studies published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, Google Scholar and MEDLINE. Key search terms included: “adverse drug reactions”, “adverse effects”, “elderly patients and hospital admission”, “drug therapy”, “drug adverse effects”, “drug related”, “aged”, “older patients”, “geriatric”, “hospitalization”, and “emergency admissions”. For inclusion in the review, studies had to focus on ADRs in the elderly and had to include an explicit definition of what was considered an ADR and/or an explicit assessment of causality, and a clear description of the method used for ADR identification, and had to describe factors associated with an increased risk of an ADR. Fourteen hospital-based observational studies exploring ADRs in the elderly in the acute care setting were eligible for inclusion in this review. The mean prevalence of ADRs in the elderly in the studies included in this review was 11.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.1%–16.8%). The median prevalence of ADRs leading to hospitalization was 10.0% (95% CI: 7.2%–12.8%), while the prevalence of ADRs occurring during hospitalization was 11.5% (95% CI: 0%–27.7%). There was wide variation in the overall ADR prevalence, from 5.8% to 46.3%. Female sex, increased comorbid complexity, and increased number of medications were all significantly associated with an increased risk of an ADR. Retrospective studies and those relying on identification by the
Böhmdorfer, Birgit; Schaffarzick, Daniel; Nagano, Marietta; Janowitz, Susanne Melitta; Schweitzer, Ekkehard
We present a multidisciplinary (anaesthesiology--clinical pharmacy--bioinformatics) analysis of pain as possible adverse drug reaction taking different manifestations of pain, indication groups, relevance to the Austrian drug market and possible mechanistic influence of drugs on development and apprehension of pain into consideration.We designed an overview that shows how transmitters that play a part in nociception and antinociception can be influenced by drugs. This allows conclusions to the dolorigene potential of therapeutics.
Rodrigues, Maria Cristina Soares; de Oliveira, Cesar
ABSTRACT Objective: to identify and summarize studies examining both drug-drug interactions (DDI) and adverse drug reactions (ADR) in older adults polymedicated. Methods: an integrative review of studies published from January 2008 to December 2013, according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, in MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases were performed. Results: forty-seven full-text studies including 14,624,492 older adults (≥ 60 years) were analyzed: 24 (51.1%) concerning ADR, 14 (29.8%) DDI, and 9 studies (19.1%) investigating both DDI and ADR. We found a variety of methodological designs. The reviewed studies reinforced that polypharmacy is a multifactorial process, and predictors and inappropriate prescribing are associated with negative health outcomes, as increasing the frequency and types of ADRs and DDIs involving different drug classes, moreover, some studies show the most successful interventions to optimize prescribing. Conclusions: DDI and ADR among older adults continue to be a significant issue in the worldwide. The findings from the studies included in this integrative review, added to the previous reviews, can contribute to the improvement of advanced practices in geriatric nursing, to promote the safety of older patients in polypharmacy. However, more research is needed to elucidate gaps. PMID:27598380
Yu, Yun Mi; Shin, Wan Gyoon; Lee, Ju-Yeun; Choi, Soo An; Jo, Yun Hee; Youn, So Jung; Lee, Mo Se; Choi, Kwang Hoon
Purpose To evaluate the clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) spontaneously reported by community pharmacists and to compare the ADRs by age. Methods ADRs reported to the Regional Pharmacovigilance Center of the Korean Pharmaceutical Association by community pharmacists from January 2013 to June 2014 were included. Causality was assessed using the WHO-Uppsala Monitoring Centre system. The patient population was classified into three age groups. We analyzed 31,398 (74.9%) ADRs from 9,705 patients, identified as having a causal relationship, from a total pool of 41,930 ADRs from 9,873 patients. Median patient age was 58.0 years; 66.9% were female. Results Gastrointestinal system (34.4%), nervous system (14.4%), and psychiatric (12.1%) disorders were the most frequent symptoms. Prevalent causative drugs were those for acid-related disorders (11.4%), anti-inflammatory products (10.5%), analgesics (7.2%), and antibacterials (7.1%). Comparisons by age revealed diarrhea and antibacterials to be most commonly associated with ADRs in children (p < 0.001), whereas dizziness was prevalent in the elderly (p < 0.001). Anaphylactic reaction was the most frequent serious event (19.7%), mainly associated with cephalosporins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Among 612 ADRs caused by nonprescription drugs, the leading symptoms and causative drugs were skin disorders (29.6%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (16.2%), respectively. Conclusions According to the community pharmacist reports, the leading clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with ADRs in outpatients differed among age groups. PMID:26172050
Srikanth, B. Akshaya; Babu, S. Chandra; Yadav, Harlokesh Narayan; Jain, Sunil Kumar
To estimate the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To identify the risk factors associated with ADRs in HIV patients. To analyze reported ADRs based on various parameters like causality, severity, predictability, and preventability. Retrospective case-control study. An 18-month retrospective case-control study of 208 patients newly registered in ART center, RIMS hospital, Kadapa, were intensively monitored for ADRs to HAART. Predictability was calculated based on the history of previous exposure to drug. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify the risk factors for ADRs. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test for estimating the correlation between ADRs and different variables. All statistical calculations were performed using EpiInfo version 3.5.3. Monitoring of 208 retrospective patients by active Pharmacovigilance identified 105 ADRs that were identified in 71 patients. Skin rash and anemia were the most commonly observed ADRs. The organ system commonly affected by ADR was skin and appendages (31.57%). The ADRs that were moderate were 90.14% of cases. The incidence of ADRs (53.52%) was higher with Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine combination. CD4 cell count less than <250 cells/μl were 80.28%, male gender were observed to be the risk factors for ADRs. Our study finding showed that there is a need of active pharmaceutical care with intensive monitoring for ADRs in Indian HIV-positive patients who are illiterate, of male and female gender, with CD4 count ≤250 cells/mm3 with comorbid conditions. PMID:22470896
Prajapati, Kinjal; Desai, Mira; Shah, Samidh; Panchal, Jigar; Kapadia, Jigar; Dikshit, Ramkumar
Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the various aspects of serious adverse drug reactions (serious ADRs) such as clinical presentation, causality, severity, and preventability occurring in a hospital setting. Materials and Methods: All serious ADRs reported from January 2010 to May 2015 at ADR Monitoring Centre, Department of Pharmacology, B. J. Medical College and Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, were selected as per the World health Organization –Uppsala Monitoring Center (WHO-UMC) criteria. A retrospective analysis was carried out for clinical presentation, causality (as per the WHO-UMC scale and Naranjo's algorithm), severity (Hartwig and Siegel scale), and preventability (Schumock and Thornton criteria). Results: Out of 2977 ADRs reported, 375 were serious in nature. The most common clinical presentation involved was skin and appendageal disorders (71, 18.9%). The common causal drug group was antitubercular (129, 34.4%) followed by antiretroviral (76, 20.3%) agents. The criteria for the majority of serious ADRs were intervention to prevent permanent impairment or damage (164, 43.7%) followed by hospitalization (158, 42.1%). Majority of the serious ADRs were continuing (191, 50.9%) at the time of reporting, few recovered (101, 26.9%), and two were fatal. The majority of serious ADRs were categorized as possible (182, 48.8%) followed by probable (173, 46.1%) in nature. Conclusion: Antitubercular, antiretroviral, and antimicrobial drugs were the most common causal drug groups for serious ADRs. This calls for robust ADR monitoring system and education of patients and prescribers for identification and effective management. PMID:27843794
Background Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are a substantial cause of hospital admissions. We conducted a nationwide study to estimate the burden of hospital admissions for ADRs in Spain during a six-year period (2001-2006) along with the associated total health cost. Methods Data were obtained from the national surveillance system for hospital data (Minimum Basic Data Set) maintained by the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs, and covering more than 95% of Spanish hospitals. From these admissions we selected all hospitalization that were code as drug-related (ICD-9-CM codes E), but intended forms of overdoses, errors in administration and therapeutics failure were excluded. The average number of hospitalizations per year, annual incidence of hospital admissions, average length of stay in the hospital, and case-fatality rate, were calculated. Results During the 2001-2006 periods, the total number of hospitalized patients with ADR diagnosis was 350,835 subjects, 1.69% of all acute hospital admissions in Spain. The estimated incidence of admissions due to ADR decreased during the period 2001-2006 (p < 0.05). More than five percent of patients (n = 19,734) died during an ADR-related hospitalization. The drugs most commonly associated with ADR-related hospitalization were antineoplastic and immunosuppressive drugs (n = 75,760), adrenal cortical steroids (n = 47,539), anticoagulants (n = 26,546) and antibiotics (n = 22,144). The costs generated by patients in our study increased by 19.05% between 2001 and 2006. Conclusions Approximately 1.69% of all acute hospital admissions were associated with ADRs. The rates were much higher for elderly patients. The total cost of ADR-related hospitalization to the Spanish health system is high and has increased between 2001 and 2006. ADRs are an important cause of admission, resulting in considerable use of national health system beds and a significant number of deaths. PMID:20942906
Mudzviti, Tinashe; Sibanda, Marvelous; Gavi, Samuel; Maponga, Charles Chiedza; Morse, Gene D.
Background Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs) can cause significant morbidity and distress in patients especially in the HIV infected population on antiretroviral therapy. Adverse Drug Reaction monitoring and ascertaining causality in resource limited settings still remains a challenge. This study was carried out to evaluate causality and measure incidence of cADRs in HIV infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy. The study was also designed to test a 3-step approach in the monitoring and evaluation of ADRs in resource limited settings. Methodology A retrospective patient medical records review was carried out at the Parirenyatwa Family Care Centre, (Harare, Zimbabwe). Cases of cADRs were reported to the Medicines Control Authority of Zimbabwe (Drug regulating body in Zimbabwe) for assessment and causality classification. Results Two hundred and twenty-one patient records were randomly selected and reviewed to determine if any diagnosis of cADRs was made by clinicians. Causality assessment revealed 13.1% of cADRs which were due to an offending agent in the antiretroviral therapy against an initial incidence of 17.6% which had been determined by the physicians. Conclusions cADRs had an incidence of 13.1% within the population under study due to non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Most reactions were due to the NNRTIs which contributed 72.4 % of all cADRs. A panel of experts from the drug regulatory authority can be used as an implementation based mechanism in ascertaining causality objectively in settings where resources are constrained. PMID:23277506
de Rouw, Hendrika J. A.; Jessurun, Naomi T.; Masen-Poos, Lucie J. P.; Derijks, Hieronymus J.
In this report we describe a 53-year-old woman with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, treated with pemetrexed and cisplatin combination therapy, followed by pemetrexed monotherapy. The patient developed severe muscle spasms at least twice, shortly after administration of pemetrexed monotherapy. A possible explanation for this observation is that in combination with cisplatin therapy, the patient was hyperhydrated before administration to promote renal excretion and reduce toxicity. Pemetrexed is also renally excreted, which supports the finding that toxicity did not occur when the patient was hyperhydrated. After discontinuation of pemetrexed the symptoms did not reoccur. All aspects of this case point to a possible relationship between pemetrexed and an adverse drug reaction (ADR). We conclude that muscle spasms are a rare, but possibly dose-related ADR of pemetrexed-based therapy. PMID:28203304
Chan, Kelvin; Zhang, Hongwei; Lin, Zhi-Xiu
The safe use of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and products in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practice conventionally relies on correct pharmacognostic identification, good agricultural and manufacturing practices based on pharmacopoeia standards and rational/correct CMM combinations with TCM-guided clinical prescribing. These experience-based principles may not absolutely ensure safety without careful toxicological investigations when compared with development of new pharmaceutical drugs. Clinically observed toxicity reports remain as guidance for gathering toxicological evidence, though essential as pharmacovigilance, but are considered as late events for ensuring safety. The overview focuses on the following factors: global development of TCM that has affected conventional healthcare; examples of key toxic substances in CMM; reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) consequential to taking CMM and TCM products; and proposals on rational approaches to integrate the knowledge of biomedical science and the principles of TCM practice for detecting early ADRs if both TCM products and orthodox drugs are involved. It is envisaged that good control of the quality and standards of CMM and proprietary Chinese medicines can certainly reduce the incidence of ADRs in TCM practice when these medications are used. PMID:25619530
Boland, Mary Regina; Jacunski, Alexandra; Lorberbaum, Tal; Romano, Joseph; Moskovitch, Robert; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.
Small molecules are indispensable to modern medical therapy. However, their use may lead to unintended, negative medical outcomes commonly referred to as adverse drug reactions (ADRs). These effects vary widely in mechanism, severity, and populations affected, making ADR prediction and identification important public health concerns. Current methods rely on clinical trials and post-market surveillance programs to find novel ADRs; however, clinical trials are limited by small sample size, while post-market surveillance methods may be biased and inherently leave patients at risk until sufficient clinical evidence has been gathered. Systems pharmacology, an emerging interdisciplinary field combining network and chemical biology, provides important tools to uncover and understand ADRs and may mitigate the drawbacks of traditional methods. In particular, network analysis allows researchers to integrate heterogeneous data sources and quantify the interactions between biological and chemical entities. Recent work in this area has combined chemical, biological, and large-scale observational health data to predict ADRs in both individual patients and global populations. In this review, we explore the rapid expansion of systems pharmacology in the study of ADRs. We enumerate the existing methods and strategies and illustrate progress in the field with a model framework that incorporates crucial data elements, such as diet and comorbidities, known to modulate ADR risk. Using this framework, we highlight avenues of research that may currently be underexplored, representing opportunities for future work. PMID:26559926
Boland, Mary Regina; Jacunski, Alexandra; Lorberbaum, Tal; Romano, Joseph D; Moskovitch, Robert; Tatonetti, Nicholas P
Small molecules are indispensable to modern medical therapy. However, their use may lead to unintended, negative medical outcomes commonly referred to as adverse drug reactions (ADRs). These effects vary widely in mechanism, severity, and populations affected, making ADR prediction and identification important public health concerns. Current methods rely on clinical trials and postmarket surveillance programs to find novel ADRs; however, clinical trials are limited by small sample size, whereas postmarket surveillance methods may be biased and inherently leave patients at risk until sufficient clinical evidence has been gathered. Systems pharmacology, an emerging interdisciplinary field combining network and chemical biology, provides important tools to uncover and understand ADRs and may mitigate the drawbacks of traditional methods. In particular, network analysis allows researchers to integrate heterogeneous data sources and quantify the interactions between biological and chemical entities. Recent work in this area has combined chemical, biological, and large-scale observational health data to predict ADRs in both individual patients and global populations. In this review, we explore the rapid expansion of systems pharmacology in the study of ADRs. We enumerate the existing methods and strategies and illustrate progress in the field with a model framework that incorporates crucial data elements, such as diet and comorbidities, known to modulate ADR risk. Using this framework, we highlight avenues of research that may currently be underexplored, representing opportunities for future work.
Kim, Bomi; Kim, Sunwha Zara; Lee, Jin; Jung, Ae Hee; Jung, Sun-Hoi; Hahn, Hyeon-Joo; Kang, Hye Ryun
Children with complex chronic conditions (CCC) are presumed to be vulnerable to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The clinical profiles of ADRs in CCC are not well known. Herein, we aim to describe the ADR profiles in CCC with regard to typical presentations and vulnerable groups. We accessed the ADR yearly reports at a tertiary children's hospital whose practice is mainly dedicated to CCC and descriptively analyzed their clinical profiles according to the presence of a complex chronic condition, ADR severity, and age groups. A total of 1841 cases were analyzed, among which 1258 (68.3%) were mild, 493 (26.8%) moderate, and 90 (4.9%) cases were severe. A total of 1581 (85.9%) cases of complex chronic condition were reported. The proportion of CCC in each severity group increased as the ADR becomes more severe. In CCC, ADRs were most frequently reported by nurses in the adolescent group and in cases where the symptoms involved the gastrointestinal system. The class of antineoplastic and immunomodulating drugs was the most commonly suspected of causing an ADR, followed by one of the antibiotics. When we focus on the trend across the age groups, the ratio of severe-to-total ADRs decreased with older age. Among severe cases, the ratio of off-label prescription-related cases was the highest in the infant/toddler group and decreased as the groups aged. In conclusion, ADRs of CCCs admitted to a tertiary children’s hospital have a unique profile. These groups are vulnerable to ADRs and thus they should be monitored closely, especially when they are infants or toddlers, so that severe ADRs can be identified and treated immediately. PMID:28199420
O’Connor, Karen; Pimpalkhute, Pranoti; Nikfarjam, Azadeh; Ginn, Rachel; Smith, Karen L; Gonzalez, Graciela
Recent research has shown that Twitter data analytics can have broad implications on public health research. However, its value for pharmacovigilance has been scantly studied – with health related forums and community support groups preferred for the task. We present a systematic study of tweets collected for 74 drugs to assess their value as sources of potential signals for adverse drug reactions (ADRs). We created an annotated corpus of 10,822 tweets. Each tweet was annotated for the presence or absence of ADR mentions, with the span and Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concept ID noted for each ADR present. Using Cohen’s kappa1, we calculated the inter-annotator agreement (IAA) for the binary annotations to be 0.69. To demonstrate the utility of the corpus, we attempted a lexicon-based approach for concept extraction, with promising success (54.1% precision, 62.1% recall, and 57.8% F-measure). A subset of the corpus is freely available at: http://diego.asu.edu/downloads. PMID:25954400
Lucca, Jisha M; Ramesh, Madhan; Parthasarathi, Gurumurthy; Raman, Rajesh
Drug interactions are known to play a significant role in the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) both in the community and in hospitals. Both the newer atypical antipsychotics and their more traditional counterparts are subject to drug - drug interactions amongst themselves, with other psychotropics, and with the agents used in the treatment of various physical ailments. The most common interactions encountered in clinical practice are pharmacodynamic in nature. It is well established that antipsychotic drugs reduce the efficacy of levodopa in parkinson's disease by blockade of dopamine receptors in the corpus striatum. The case reported here illustrates a common pharmacodynamic drug interaction of haloperidol with levodopa in a 60-year-old female patient.
Mastroianni, Patricia de Carvalho
Background & objectives Different algorithms have been developed to standardize the causality assessment of adverse drug reactions (ADR). Although most share common characteristics, the results of the causality assessment are variable depending on the algorithm used. Therefore, using 10 different algorithms, the study aimed to compare inter-rater and multi-rater agreement for ADR causality assessment and identify the most consistent to hospitals. Methods Using ten causality algorithms, four judges independently assessed the first 44 cases of ADRs reported during the first year of implementation of a risk management service in a medium complexity hospital in the state of Sao Paulo (Brazil). Owing to variations in the terminology used for causality, the equivalent imputation terms were grouped into four categories: definite, probable, possible and unlikely. Inter-rater and multi-rater agreement analysis was performed by calculating the Cohen´s and Light´s kappa coefficients, respectively. Results None of the algorithms showed 100% reproducibility in the causal imputation. Fair inter-rater and multi-rater agreement was found. Emanuele (1984) and WHO-UMC (2010) algorithms showed a fair rate of agreement between the judges (k = 0.36). Interpretation & conclusions Although the ADR causality assessment algorithms were poorly reproducible, our data suggest that WHO-UMC algorithm is the most consistent for imputation in hospitals, since it allows evaluating the quality of the report. However, to improve the ability of assessing the causality using algorithms, it is necessary to include criteria for the evaluation of drug-related problems, which may be related to confounding variables that underestimate the causal association. PMID:28166274
de Boer, Alie; van Hunsel, Florence; Bast, Aalt
Food supplements and herbal products are increasingly popular amongst consumers. This leads to increased risks of interactions between prescribed drugs and these products containing bioactive ingredients. From 1991 up to 2014, 55 cases of suspected adverse drug reactions due to concomitant intake of health-enhancing products and drugs were reported to Lareb, the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre. An overview of these suspected interactions is presented and their potential mechanisms of action are described. Mainly during the metabolism of xenobiotics and due to the pharmacodynamics effects interactions seem to occur, which may result in adverse drug reactions. Where legislation is seen to distinct food and medicine, legislation concerning these different bioactive products is less clear-cut. This can only be resolved by increasing the molecular knowledge on bioactive substances and their potential interactions. Thereby potential interactions can be better understood and prevented on an individual level. By considering the dietary pattern and use of bioactive substances with prescribed medication, both health professionals and consumers will be increasingly aware of interactions and these interactive adverse effects can be prevented.
Hoban, Claire L; Byard, Roger W; Musgrave, Ian F
Herbal medicines are perceived to be safe by the general public and medical practitioners, despite abundant evidence from clinical trials and case reports that show herbal preparations can have significant adverse effects. The overall impact of adverse events to herbal medicines in Australia is currently unknown. Post marketing surveillance of medications through spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports to the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) is one way to estimate this risk. The patterns of spontaneously reported ADRs provide insight to herbal dangers, especially when compared with patterns of a mechanistically similar conventional drug. The study compared the pattern of spontaneously reported ADRs to St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), a common herbal treatment for depression which contains selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), to fluoxetine, a commonly prescribed synthetic SSRI antidepressant. Spontaneous ADR reports sent to the TGA between 2000-2013 for St. John's Wort (n = 84) and fluoxetine (n = 447) were obtained and analysed. The demographic information, types of interaction, severity of the ADR, and the body systems affected (using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system) were recorded for individual ADR cases. The majority of spontaneously reported ADRs for St. John's Wort and fluoxetine were concerning females aged 26-50 years (28.6%, 22.8%). The organ systems affected by ADRs to St John's Wort and fluoxetine have a similar profile, with the majority of cases affecting the central nervous system (45.2%, 61.7%). This result demonstrates that herbal preparations can result in ADRs similar to those of prescription medications.
Hou, Yongfang; Li, Xinling; Wu, Guizhi; Ye, Xiaofei
It has been more than 25 years since an adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring agency was first established in China. In the past few years, the National ADR Monitoring System (NADRMS) has developed rapidly in the country. However, this system has not been reviewed in detail in the literature. Our aim was to demonstrate how individual case safety reports (ICSRs) are reported and evaluated and how data quality control is achieved in China. We also aimed to discuss the present status and future of NADRMS. We reviewed the relevant regulations and literature around ADR reporting in China. ADR report collection tools in China have gone through three phases, namely paper-based reporting, software-based reporting using standalone computers, and online reporting. Nowadays the online reporting system plays an important role in China and the number of ADR reports has rapidly increased. NADRMS is similar to most of the ADR reporting systems around the world, but also has its own unique characteristics such as four levels of monitoring agencies. In summary, there is still a long way to go for China to establish a high-level ADR monitoring system to ensure drug safety.
Bracken, Louise E.; Nunn, Anthony J.; Kirkham, Jamie J.; Peak, Matthew; Arnott, Janine; Smyth, Rosalind L.; Pirmohamed, Munir; Turner, Mark A.
Aim To develop and test a new tool to assess the avoidability of adverse drug reactions that is suitable for use in paediatrics but which is also applicable to a variety of other settings. Methods The study involved multiple phases. Preliminary work involved using the Hallas scale and a modification of the existing Hallas scale, to assess two different sets of adverse drug reaction (ADR) case reports. Phase 1 defined, modified and refined a new tool using multidisciplinary teams. Phase 2 involved the assessment of 50 ADR case reports from a prospective study of paediatric inpatients by individual assessors. Phase 3 compared assessments with the new tool for individuals and groups in comparison to the ‘gold standard’ (the avoidability outcome set by a panel of senior investigators: an experienced clinical pharmacologist, paediatrician and pharmacist). Main Outcome Measures Inter-rater reliability (IRR), measure of disagreement and utilization of avoidability categories. Results Preliminary work—Pilot phase: results for the original Hallas cases were fair and pairwise kappa scores ranged from 0.21 to 0.36. Results for the modified Hallas cases were poor, pairwise kappa scores ranged from 0.06 to 0.16. Phase 1: on initial use of the new tool, agreement between the two multidisciplinary groups was found on 13/20 cases with a kappa score of 0.29 (95% CI -0.04 to 0.62). Phase 2: the assessment of 50 ADR case reports by six individual reviewers yielded pairwise kappa scores ranging from poor to good 0.12 to 0.75 and percentage exact agreement (%EA) ranged from 52–90%. Phase 3: Percentage exact agreement ranged from 35–70%. Overall, individuals had better agreement with the ‘gold standard’. Conclusion Avoidability assessment is feasible but needs careful attention to methods. The Liverpool ADR avoidability assessment tool showed mixed IRR. We have developed and validated a method for assessing the avoidability of ADRs that is transparent, more objective than
Giofrè, Chiara; Scicchitano, Francesca; Palleria, Caterina; Mazzitello, Carmela; Ciriaco, Miriam; Gallelli, Luca; Paletta, Laura; Marrazzo, Giuseppina; Leporini, Christian; Ventrice, Pasquale; Carbone, Claudia; Saullo, Francesca; Rende, Pierandrea; Menniti, Michele; Mumoli, Laura; Chimirri, Serafina; Patanè, Marinella; Esposito, Stefania; Cilurzo, Felisa; Staltari, Orietta; Russo, Emilio; De Sarro, Giovambattista
Introduction: Pharmacovigilance (PV) is designed to monitor drugs continuously after their commercialization, assessing and improving their safety profile. The main objective is to increase the spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in order to have a wide variety of information. The Italian Drug Agency (Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco [AIFA]) is financing several projects to increase reporting. In Calabria, a PV information center has been created in 2010. Materials and Methods: We obtained data using the database of the National Health Information System AIFA relatively to Italy and Calabria in the year 2012. Descriptive statistics were performed to analyze the ADRs. Results: A total number of 461 ADRs have been reported in the year 2012 with an increase of 234% compared with 2011 (138 reports). Hospital doctors are the main source of this reporting (51.62%). Sorafenib (Nexavar®), the combination of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ketoprofen represent the drugs most frequently reported causing adverse reactions. Adverse events in female patients (61.83%) were more frequently reported, whereas the age groups “41-65” (39.07%) and “over 65” (27.9%) were the most affected. Conclusions: Calabria has had a positive increase in the number of ADRs reported, although it has not yet reached the gold standard set by World Health Organization (about 600 reports), the data have shown that PV culture is making inroads in this region and that PV projects stimulating and increasing PV knowledge are needed. PMID:24347984
Mugoša, Snežana; Djordjević, Nataša; Djukanović, Nina; Protić, Dragana; Bukumirić, Zoran; Radosavljević, Ivan; Bošković, Aneta; Todorović, Zoran
The aim of the present study was to undertake a study on the prevalence of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) poor metabolizer alleles (*3, *4, *5, and *6) on a Montenegrin population and its impact on developing adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of β-blockers in a hospitalized cardiac patient population. A prospective study was conducted in the Cardiology Center of the Clinical Center of Montenegro and included 138 patients who had received any β-blocker in their therapy. ADRs were collected using a specially designed questionnaire, based on the symptom list and any signs that could point to eventual ADRs. Data from patients' medical charts, laboratory tests, and other available parameters were observed and combined with the data from the questionnaire. ADRs to β-blockers were observed in 15 (10.9%) patients. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of ADRs in relation to genetically determined enzymatic activity (P<0.001), with ADRs' occurrence significantly correlating with slower CYP2D6 metabolism. Our study showed that the adverse reactions to β-blockers could be predicted by the length of hospitalization, CYP2D6 poor metabolizer phenotype, and the concomitant use of other CYP2D6-metabolizing drugs. Therefore, in hospitalized patients with polypharmacy CYP2D6 genotyping might be useful in detecting those at risk of ADRs.
Subiela, José D; Dapena, Elida
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) represent the first cause of change of the first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen, therefore, they constitute the main limiting factor in the long-term follow up of HIV patients in treatment. A retrospective study was carried out in a specialized center in Lara State, Venezuela, including 99 patients over 18 years of age who had change of first-line HAART regimen due to ADRs, between 2010 and 2013. The aims of this research were to describe the sociodemographic and clinical variables, frequency of ADRs related to change of HAART, duration of the first-line HAART regimen, to determine the drugs associated with ARVs and to identify the risk factors. The ADRs constituted 47.5% of all causes of change of first-line HAART regimen, the median duration was 1.08±0.28 years. The most frequent ADRs were anemia (34.3%), hypersensitivity reactions (20.2%) and gastrointestinal intolerance (13.1%). The most frequent ARV regimen type was the protease inhibitors-based regimen (59.6%), but zidovudine was the ARV most linked to ADRs (41.4%). The regression analysis showed increased risk of ADRs in singles and students in the univariate analysis and heterosexuals and homosexuals in multivariate analysis; and decreased risk in active workers. The present work shows the high prevalence of ADRs in the studied population and represents the first case-based study that describes the pharmacoepidemiology of a cohort of HIV-positive patients treated in Venezuela.
Olivier, Pascale; Caron, Jacques; Haramburu, Françoise; Imbs, Jean-Louis; Jonville-Béra, Annie-Pierre; Lagier, Georges; Sgro, Catherine; Vial, Thierry; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Lapeyr-Mestre, Maryse
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have been recognised as an important cause of hospital admission. Most of these drug-related admissions were expected ADRs and, thus, partly preventable. However, as far as we know, the assessment of the preventability of ADRs was addressed in only two studies performed in France. In contrast, several other studies have been performed, mainly in the USA, and using different methods of assessing preventability. None of these methods were clearly evaluated with regard to reproducibility, validity or relevance. The purpose of this study was to initiate the validation of a French preventability scale. Here, we propose the first two phases of validation: the content validity and reliability of the scale. A working group of pharmacovigilance experts has been specifically established for this purpose. The content validity was assessed by collecting items representative of preventability. The choice and the formulation of items and a proposal of a score (global and for each item) were adopted after the consensus of the experts. A definitive version of the ADR preventability scale was used for the assessment of reliability. During the second phase, experts independently tested the new scale from observations of ADRs (49 central nervous system haemorrhages with antivitamine K). The concordance of the experts' judgements was calculated using two statistical methods (Kappa statistic and correlation coefficient). The content validity phase was performed during several workshops where experts discussed the choice and formulation of the best items. We decided to construct a scale with a small number of items, allowing a rapid evaluation of the preventability of ADRs. On the basis of a global score, four categories of preventability of ADRs ("preventable", "potentially preventable", "unclassable", "not preventable" ADRs) were proposed. The agreement of experts regarding the global score was low, with a poor correlation coefficient value (coefficient
MARTÍNEZ-MIR, I.; GARCÍA-LÓPEZ, M.; PALOP, V.; FERRER, J. M.; ESTAÑ, L.; RUBIO, E.; MORALES-OLIVAS, F. J.
1A total of 512 consecutive paediatric hospital admissions of children 2 years old or less were evaluated to assess the extent and pattern of admission caused by suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The proportion of suspected ADRs related to hospital admissions was 4.3%. 2The organ-systems most commonly implicated were the central nervous system (40.5%), digestive system (16.7%), and skin and appendages (14.3%). Together, they accounted for 71.5% of admissions attributed to ADRs. The most common clinical manifestations inducing admission were convulsions (4 cases), dizziness (4), vomiting (3), and tremor, fever, itching and apnoea (2 cases each). 3The four classes of drugs most frequently suspected in admissions due to ADRs were respiratory drugs (35%), anti-infective agents (25%), drugs active on the central nervous system (15%) and drugs used in dermatology (10%). The most common drugs related to ADRs were a combination of chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine, phenylephrine, guaiphenesin and salicylic acid (4 cases), followed by fenoterol, adrenaline, paracetamol, DTP vaccine and antipolio vaccine (2 cases each). 4There were no significant differences between children older and younger than 1 year (odds ratio 0.89; 95% CI 0.37–2.17) or between the sexes as regards hospital admittance due to suspected ADRs (odds ratio 1.94; 95% CI 0.72–5.42). 5The results of this kind of study may be influenced by patterns of drug utilization. Nevertheless, the lack of specific studies of drug effects in young children makes it desirable to carry out pharmacoepidemiological studies in this age group. PMID:8877022
Yadav, Sankalp; Kumar, Raj; Wani, Umar Rasool
The Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) to a commonly prescribed anti-microbial can pose a major public health problem. The authors report a rare case of 24-year-old young lady who presented with angioedema of lips after ingestion of Ofloxacin, prescribed to her for treatment of loose motions. Fluoroquinolones are widely prescribed antibiotics for various disease conditions. The history, clinical examination and normal laboratory parameters led to the diagnosis of ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction and the patient was successfully treated with corticosteroids and antihistamines. The hypersensitivity reactions to fluoroquinolones are rare with an incidence of 0.4% to 2%. The pharmacovigilance program and self-reporting of all the ADR’s by the health care workers can help in ensuring the judicious use of the drug, drug safety and thus decrease the associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:28050397
Steele, Megan L; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann
Background. In Europe, mistletoe extracts are widely used as a complementary cancer therapy. We assessed the safety of subcutaneous mistletoe as a conjunctive therapy in cancer patients within an anthroposophic medicine setting in Germany. Methods. A multicentre, observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Suspected mistletoe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were described by frequency, causality, severity, and seriousness. Potential risk factors, dose relationships and drug-drug interactions were investigated. Results. Of 1923 cancer patients treated with subcutaneous mistletoe extracts, 283 patients (14.7%) reported 427 expected effects (local reactions <5 cm and increased body temperature <38°C). ADRs were documented in 162 (8.4%) patients who reported a total of 264 events. ADRs were mild (50.8%), moderate (45.1%), or severe (4.2%). All were nonserious. Logistic regression analysis revealed that expected effects were more common in females, while immunoreactivity decreased with increasing age and tumour stage. No risk factors were identified for ADRs. ADR frequency increased as mistletoe dose increased, while fewer ADRs occurred during mistletoe therapy received concurrent with conventional therapies. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that mistletoe therapy is safe. ADRs were mostly mild to moderate in intensity and appear to be dose-related and explained by the immune-stimulating, pharmacological activity of mistletoe.
Steele, Megan L.; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann
Background. In Europe, mistletoe extracts are widely used as a complementary cancer therapy. We assessed the safety of subcutaneous mistletoe as a conjunctive therapy in cancer patients within an anthroposophic medicine setting in Germany. Methods. A multicentre, observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Suspected mistletoe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were described by frequency, causality, severity, and seriousness. Potential risk factors, dose relationships and drug-drug interactions were investigated. Results. Of 1923 cancer patients treated with subcutaneous mistletoe extracts, 283 patients (14.7%) reported 427 expected effects (local reactions <5 cm and increased body temperature <38°C). ADRs were documented in 162 (8.4%) patients who reported a total of 264 events. ADRs were mild (50.8%), moderate (45.1%), or severe (4.2%). All were nonserious. Logistic regression analysis revealed that expected effects were more common in females, while immunoreactivity decreased with increasing age and tumour stage. No risk factors were identified for ADRs. ADR frequency increased as mistletoe dose increased, while fewer ADRs occurred during mistletoe therapy received concurrent with conventional therapies. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that mistletoe therapy is safe. ADRs were mostly mild to moderate in intensity and appear to be dose-related and explained by the immune-stimulating, pharmacological activity of mistletoe. PMID:24672577
Amin, Mohammad Nurul; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Dewan, Syed Masudur Rahman; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul; Moghal, Mizanur Rahman
Objectives To assess community pharmacists'/pharmacy technicians' knowledge and perceptions about adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and barriers towards the reporting of such reactions in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Method A cross-sectional study was planned to approach potential respondents for the study. A self-administered questionnaire was delivered to community pharmacists/pharmacy technicians (N=292) practising in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Results The overall response to the survey was 69.5% (n=203). The majority of the sample was comprised of pharmacy technicians (152, 74.9%) who possessed a diploma in pharmacy, followed by pharmacists (37, 18.2%) and others (12, 5.9%). Overall, 72 (35.5%) of the respondents disclosed that they had experienced an ADR at their pharmacy, yet more than half (105, 51.7%) were not familiar with the existence of an ADR reporting body in Bangladesh. Exploring the barriers to the reporting of ADRs, it was revealed that the top four barriers to ADR reporting were ‘I do not know how to report (Relative Importance Index (RII)=0.998)’, ‘reporting forms are not available (0.996)’, ‘I am not motivated to report (0.997)’ and ‘Unavailability of professional environment to discuss about ADR (RII=0.939)’. In addition to these, a majority (141, 69.46%) were not confident about the classification of ADRs (RII=0.889) and were afraid of legal liabilities associated with reporting ADRs (RII=0.806). Moreover, a lack of knowledge about pharmacotherapy and the detection of ADRs was another major factor hindering their reporting (RII=0.731). Conclusions The Directorate of Drug Administration in Bangladesh needs to consider the results of this study to help it improve and simplify ADR reporting in Bangladeshi community pharmacy settings. PMID:27489151
Husserl, F E; Messerli, F H
Early essential hypertension is asymptomatic and should remain so throughout treatment. In view of the increasing number of available antihypertensive agents, clinicians need to become familiar with the potential side effects of these drugs. By placing more emphasis on non-pharmacological treatment (sodium restriction, weight loss, exercise) and thoroughly evaluating each case in particular, the pharmacological regimen can be optimally tailored to the patient's needs. Potential side effects should be predicted and can often be avoided; if they become clinically significant they should be rapidly recognised and corrected. These side effects can be easily remembered in most instances, as they fall into 3 broad categories: (a) those caused by an exaggerated therapeutic effect; (b) those due to a non-therapeutic pharmacological effect; and (c) those caused by a non-therapeutic, non-pharmacological effect probably representing idiosyncratic reactions. This review focuses mainly on adverse effects of the second and third kind. Each group of drugs in general shares the common side effects of the first two categories, while each individual drug has its own idiosyncratic side effects.
Seebeck, J; Wulf, F; Sachs, B
In Germany, reports on adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are centrally collected and analyzed by the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM). During routine analysis of ADR reports related to the antiobesity drug sibutramine, we repeatedly observed descriptions of its label*-inconsistent use (*European Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC)). In order to quantify this observation, we analyzed all sibutramine-related ADR reports received by the BfArM so far. Using the same data source, we further analyzed the effect of a Dear Doctor Letter (DDL) which was distributed in 2002 in order to reinforce the label-consistent use of sibutramine. Out of a total of 170 identified reports, 104 were considered as suitable for further analysis. Of these, applying a catalogue of 24 SmPC-derived criteria, 34% (35 reports) contained information indicative of label-inconsistent use. The individual SmPC-criteria most often violated were (% of total analyzed reports): the recommended starting dose of 10 mg/day (9%), the body mass index (BMI)-related threshold permitting drug therapy (6%), and the contraindicated "history of drug abuse" (6%). The DDL was ineffective. The observed percentage of ADR reports, indicating a label-inconsistent use of sibutramine, is considered a signal for a therapeutic risk. This signal should be addressed in a drug utilization study investigating the use of sibutramine by means of a representative patient sample.
Patel, Tejas K; Bhabhor, Prakash H; Desai, Nimisha; Shah, Saurabh; Patel, Parvati B; Vatsala, Ela; Panigrahi, Sanjibani
The epidemiological data are limited for the spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting system in psychiatry and its comparison with intensive monitoring studies in terms of causative drugs, seriousness, preventability and drug interactions. This spontaneous ADR reporting study was carried out over a period of three years in the psychiatry department. We adopted WHO definition for an ADR, Naranjo's algorithm for causality, WHO-ADR terminology for the labeling of involved organ-system, International conference on harmonisation (ICH) E2A guidelines for seriousness, modified Schumock and Thornton's criteria for preventability and Medscape drug interaction checker for drug interactions. Two subgroup analyses were performed to find out the risk factors for the serious and preventable reactions. A total of 97 ADRs from 67 patients were included for analysis. The incidence of 'overall' and 'serious ADRs were 0.69% (95% CI: 0.54%, 0.88%) and 0.18% (95% CI: 0.12-0.29%), respectively. The females experienced more ADRs than males. The most commonly reported ADR, incriminated pharmacology group and drug, were extrapyramidal movement disorders (22.68%), atypical antipsychotics (35.62%) and escitalopram (13.91%), respectively. One out of five and one out three reactions were considered as 'serious' and 'preventable', respectively. The drug interactions contributed in 34.02% reactions. The factors significantly associated with 'serious' reactions were typical antipsychotics [OR: 5.47 (1.68, 17.87)], central and peripheral nervous system disorders [OR: 24.00 (5.12, 112.5)] and extrapyramidal reactions [OR: 14.03 (4.43, 44.43)]. The polypharmacy [OR: 5.85 (1.90, 18.03)] was significantly associated with 'preventable' reactions. The spontaneous reporting system is efficient to detect serious reactions and preventable reactions.
Kiguba, Ronald; Karamagi, Charles; Bird, Sheila M
Objectives To determine the incidence and risk factors of hospital-acquired suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among Ugandan inpatients. We also constructed risk scores to predict and qualitatively assess for peculiarities between low-risk and high-risk ADR patients. Methods Prospective cohort of consented adults admitted on medical and gynaecological wards of the 1790-bed Mulago National Referral Hospital. Hospital-acquired suspected ADRs were dichotomised as possible (possible/probable/definite) or not and probable (probable/definite) or not, using the Naranjo scale. Risk scores were generated from coefficients of ADR risk-factor logistic regression models. Results The incidence of possible hospital-acquired suspected ADRs was 25% (194/762, 95% CI: 22% to 29%): 44% (85/194) experienced serious possible ADRs. The risk of probable ADRs was 11% (87/762, 95% CI 9% to 14%): 46% (40/87) had serious probable ADRs. Antibacterials-only (51/194), uterotonics-only (21/194), cardiovascular drugs-only (16/194), antimalarials-only (12/194) and analgesics-only (10/194) were the most frequently implicated. Treatment with six or more conventional medicines during hospitalisation (OR=2.31, 95% CI 1.29 to 4.15) and self-reported herbal medicine use during the 4 weeks preadmission (OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.13) were the risk factors for probable hospital-acquired ADRs. Risk factors for possible hospital-acquired ADRs were: treatment with six or more conventional medicines (OR=2.72, 95% CI 1.79 to 4.13), herbal medicine use during the 4 weeks preadmission (OR=1.68, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.43), prior 3 months hospitalisation (OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.26) and being on gynaecological ward (OR=2.16, 95% CI 1.36 to 3.44). More drug classes were implicated among high-risk ADR-patients, with cardiovascular drugs being the most frequently linked to possible ADRs. Conclusions The risk of hospital-acquired suspected ADRs was higher with preadmission herbal medicine use and treatment with
Simon, R A
There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.
Palleria, Caterina; Leporini, Christian; Chimirri, Serafina; Marrazzo, Giuseppina; Sacchetta, Sabrina; Bruno, Lucrezia; Lista, Rosaria M.; Staltari, Orietta; Scuteri, Antonio; Scicchitano, Francesca; Russo, Emilio
Introduction: Nowadays, based on several epidemiological data, iatrogenic disease is an emerging public health problem, especially in industrialized countries. Adverse drugs reactions (ADRs) are extremely common and, therefore, clinically, socially, and economically worthy of attention. Spontaneous reporting system for suspected ADRs represents the cornerstone of the pharmacovigilance, because it allows rapid detection of potential alarm signals related to drugs use. However, spontaneous reporting system shows several limitations, which are mainly related to under-reporting. In this paper, we describe two particular case reports, which emphasize some reasons of under-reporting and other common criticisms of spontaneous reporting systems. Materials and Methods: We performed a computer-aided search of Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library databases, national and international databases of suspected ADRs reports in order to identify previous published case reports and spontaneous reports about the ADRs reviewed in this paper, and to examine the role of suspected drugs in the pathogenesis of the described adverse reactions. Results: First, we reported a case of tizanidine-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. In the second case report, we presented an episode of asthma exacerbation after taking bimatoprost. Through the review of these two cases, we highlighted some common criticisms of spontaneous reporting systems: under-reporting and false causality attribution. Discussion and Conclusion: Healthcare workers sometimes do not report ADRs because it is challenging to establish with certainty the causal relationship between drug and adverse reaction; however, according to a key principle of pharmacovigilance, it is always better to report even a suspicion to generate an alarm in the interest of protecting public health. PMID:24347986
Mugoša, Snežana; Djordjević, Nataša; Djukanović, Nina; Protić, Dragana; Bukumirić, Zoran; Radosavljević, Ivan; Bošković, Aneta; Todorović, Zoran
The aim of the present study was to undertake a study on the prevalence of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) poor metabolizer alleles (*3, *4, *5, and *6) on a Montenegrin population and its impact on developing adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of β-blockers in a hospitalized cardiac patient population. A prospective study was conducted in the Cardiology Center of the Clinical Center of Montenegro and included 138 patients who had received any β-blocker in their therapy. ADRs were collected using a specially designed questionnaire, based on the symptom list and any signs that could point to eventual ADRs. Data from patients’ medical charts, laboratory tests, and other available parameters were observed and combined with the data from the questionnaire. ADRs to β-blockers were observed in 15 (10.9%) patients. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of ADRs in relation to genetically determined enzymatic activity (P<0.001), with ADRs’ occurrence significantly correlating with slower CYP2D6 metabolism. Our study showed that the adverse reactions to β-blockers could be predicted by the length of hospitalization, CYP2D6 poor metabolizer phenotype, and the concomitant use of other CYP2D6-metabolizing drugs. Therefore, in hospitalized patients with polypharmacy CYP2D6 genotyping might be useful in detecting those at risk of ADRs. PMID:27536078
Smithburger, Pamela L.; Buckley, Mitchell S.; Culver, Mark A.; Sokol, Sarah; Lat, Ishaq; Handler, Steven M.; Kirisci, Levent; Kane-Gill, Sandra L.
Objective Prior research indicates off-label use is common in the intensive care unit (ICU); however the safety of off-label use has not been assessed. The study objective was to determine the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with off-label use and evaluate off-label use as a risk factor for the development of ADRs in an adult ICU population. Setting Medical ICUs at three academic medical centers Patients Adult patients (age ≥ 18 years old) receiving medication therapy Interventions All administered medications were evaluated for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved or off-label use. Patients were assessed daily for the development of an ADR through active surveillance. Three ADR assessment instruments were used to determine the probability of an ADR resulting from drug therapy. Severity and harm of the ADR were also assessed. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to identify a set of covariates that influenced the rate of ADRs. Measurements and Main Results Overall, 1654 patient days (327 patients) and 16,391 medications were evaluated, with 43% of medications being used off-label. One hundred and sixteen ADRs were categorized dichotomously (FDA or off-label), with 56% and 44% being associated with FDA approved and off-label use, respectively. The number of ADRs for medications administered and number of harmful and severe ADRs did not differ for medications used for FDA approved or off-label use (0.74% vs 0.67%, p = 0.336; 33 vs. 31 events, p=0.567; 24 vs. 24 events, p = 0.276). Age, sex, number of high-risk medications, number of off-label medications, and severity of illness score were included in the Cox proportional hazard regression. It was found that the rate of ADRs increases by 8% for every one additional off-label medication (HR = 1.08; 95 % CI: 1.018–1.154). Conclusion While ADRs do not occur more frequently with off-label use, ADR risk increases with each additional off-label medication used. PMID:25855897
Dubus, Jean-Christophe; Bavoux, Françoise; Boyer-Gervoise, Marie-José; Jean-Pastor, Marie-Josèphe; Chalumeau, Martin
Objective To report pediatric cases of paradoxical respiratory adverse drug reactions (ADRs) after exposure to oral mucolytic drugs (carbocysteine, acetylcysteine) that led to the withdrawal of licenses for these drugs for infants in France and then Italy. Design The study followed the recommendations of the European guidelines of pharmacovigilance for medicines used in the paediatric population. Setting Cases voluntarily reported by physicians from 1989 to 2008 were identified in the national French pharmacovigilance public database and in drug company databases. Patients The definition of paradoxical respiratory ADRs was based on the literature. Exposure to mucolytic drugs was arbitrarily defined as having received mucolytic drugs for at least 2 days (>200 mg) and at least until the day before the first signs of the suspected ADR. Results The non-exclusive paradoxical respiratory ADRs reported in 59 paediatric patients (median age 5 months, range 3 weeks to 34 months, 98% younger than 2 years old) were increased bronchorrhea or mucus vomiting (n = 27), worsening of respiratory distress during respiratory tract infection (n = 35), dyspnoea (n = 18), cough aggravation or prolongation (n = 11), and bronchospasm (n = 1). Fifty-one (86%) children required hospitalization or extended hospitalization because of the ADR; one patient died of pulmonary oedema after mucus vomiting. Conclusion Parents, physicians, pharmacists, and drug regulatory agencies should know that the benefit risk ratio of mucolytic drugs is at least null and most probably negative in infants according to available evidence. PMID:21818391
Tripathi, Raakhi Kaliprasad; Jalgaonkar, Sharmila Vinayak; Sarkate, Pankaj V.; Rege, Nirmala Narayan
Objectives: Underreporting and poor quality of adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports pose a challenge for the Pharmacovigilance Program of India. A module to impart knowledge and skills of ADR reporting to MBBS students was developed and evaluated. Materials and Methods: The module consisted of (a) e-mailing an ADR narrative and online filling of the “suspected ADR reporting form” (SARF) and (b) a week later, practical on ADR reporting was conducted followed by online filling of SARF postpractical at 1 and 6 months. SARF was an 18-item form with a total score of 36. The module was implemented in the year 2012–2013. Feedback from students and faculty was taken using 15-item prevalidated feedback questionnaires. The module was modified based on the feedback and implemented for the subsequent batch in the year 2013–2014. The evaluation consisted of recording the number of students responding and the scores achieved. Results: A total of 171 students in 2012–2013 batch and 179 in 2013–2014 batch participated. In the 2012–2013 batch, the number of students filling the SARF decreased from basal: 171; 1 month: 122; 6 months: 17. The average scores showed improvement from basal 16.2 (45%) to 26.4 (73%) at 1 month and to 27.3 (76%) at 6 months. For the 2013–2014 batch, the number (n = 179) remained constant throughout and the average score progressively increased from basal 10.5 (30%) to 27.8 (77%) at 1 month and 30.3 (84%) at 6 months. Conclusion: This module improved the accuracy of filling SARF by students and this subsequently will led to better ADR reporting. Hence, this module can be used to inculcate better ADR reporting practices in budding physicians. PMID:28031613
Vallano, A; Cereza, G; Pedròs, C; Agustí, A; Danés, I; Aguilera, C; Arnau, J M
Aim To describe the opinions of hospital physicians concerning problems regarding the spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and ways to solve them. Methods A qualitative study was carried out. Fifteen focus groups were conducted among physicians working in a tertiary teaching hospital. A total of 208 physicians from different medical specialities participated. The focus group discussions were recorded by three different observers and the transcripts of each session were analysed for issues and themes emerging from the text. Results Four types of obstacles to spontaneous reporting were considered particularly important: (i) problems with the ADRs diagnosis; (ii) problems with the usual workload and lack of time; (iii) problems related to the organization and activities of the pharmacovigilance system; (iv) and problems related to potential conflicts. The potential solutions suggested for improving spontaneous reporting were to define the kind of ADRs which should be reported, to facilitate an easy contact and quick access to the hospital pharmacovigilance system, to facilitate information and support for reporting and feedback of pharmacovigilance activities. Conclusions The perception of the different obstacles by the hospital physicians is an important factor in determining the causes of the underreporting of ADRs and addressing these obstacles could lead to an improvement in spontaneous reporting. A closer relationship between the doctors and the pharmacovigilance centre is suggested as a means of solving these problems. More information is needed to improve the spontaneous reporting of ADRs in specialized healthcare. PMID:16305591
Alagoz, O; Durham, D; Kasirajan, K
We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of one-time pharmacogenomic testing for preventing adverse drug reactions (ADRs) over a patient's lifetime. We developed a Markov-based Monte Carlo microsimulation model to represent the ADR events in the lifetime of each patient. The base-case considered a 40-year-old patient. We measured health outcomes in life years (LYs) and quality-adjusted LYs (QALYs) and estimated costs using 2013 US$. In the base-case, one-time genetic testing had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $43,165 (95% confidence interval (CI) is ($42,769,$43,561)) per additional LY and $53,680 per additional QALY (95% CI is ($53,182,$54,179)), hence under the base-case one-time genetic testing is cost-effective. The ICER values were most sensitive to the average probability of death due to ADR, reduction in ADR rate due to genetic testing, mean ADR rate and cost of genetic testing.
Tanti, A; Serracino-Inglott, A; Borg, J J
The Maltese Medicines Authority was tasked with developing a reporting form that captures high-quality case information on adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and medication errors in order to fulfil its public-health obligations set by the European Union (EU) legislation on pharmacovigilance. This paper describes the process of introducing the first combined ADR/medication error reporting form in the EU for health-care professionals, the analysis of reports generated by it and the promotion of the system. A review of existing ADR forms was carried out and recommendations from the European Medicines Agency and World Health Organization audits integrated. A new, combined ADR/medication error reporting form was developed and pilot tested based on case studies. The Authority's quality system (ISO 9001 certified) was redesigned and a promotion strategy was deployed. The process used in Malta can be useful for countries that need to develop systems relative to ADR/medication error reporting and to improve the quality of data capture within their systems.
Allegaert, Karel; van den Anker, Johannes N
Drug therapy is a powerful tool to improve outcome, but there is an urgent need to improve pharmacotherapy in neonates through tailored prevention and management of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). At present, infants commonly receive off-label drugs, at dosages extrapolated from those in children or adults. Besides the lack of labelling, inappropriate formulations, (poly)pharmacy, immature organ function and multiple illnesses further raise the risk for ADRs in neonates and infants. Pharmacovigilance to improve the prevention and management of ADRs needs to be tailored to neonates and infants. We illustrate this using prevention strategies for drug prescription and administration errors (e.g. formulation, bedside manipulation, access), detection through laboratory signalling or clinical outlier data (e.g. reference laboratory values, overall high morbidity), assessment through algorithm scoring (e.g. Naranjo or population specific), as well as understanding of the developmental toxicology (e.g. covariates, developmental pharmacology) to avoid re-occurrence and for development of guidelines. Such tailored strategies need collaborative initiatives to combine the knowledge and expertise of different disciplines, but hold promise to become a very effective tool to improve pharmacotherapy and reduce ADRs in infants. PMID:24862557
Khan, Sarfaraz Alam; Goyal, Chhaya; Chandel, Nitibhushansingh; Rafi, Mohammed
Background: Underreporting of spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR) is a threat to pharmacovigilance. Various factors related with the knowledge and attitudes are responsible for underreporting of ADRs. Aims: The study was aimed at investigating the knowledge and attitudes of doctors to ADR reporting. Materials and Methods: It was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. One hundred and eight questionnaires were administered to doctors working in a teaching hospital with an ADR monitoring center. Statistical Analysis Used: The descriptive statistics were used for responses to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward ADR reporting. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to observe the association of knowledge and attitude with experience and position. Results: The response rate was 62.9%. Spontaneous reporting rate was found to be 19.1%. The major factors found to be responsible for underreporting of ADR include inadequate risk perception about newly marketed drugs (77.9%), fear factor (73.5%), diffidence (67.7%), lack of clarity of information on ADR form about reporting (52.9%), lethargy (42.7%), insufficient training to identify ADRs (41.2%), lack of awareness about existence of pharmacovigilance program (30.9%) and ADR monitoring center in the institute (19.1%), and inadequate risk perception of over-the-counter (OTC) product (20.6%) and herbal medicines (13.2%). Experience and position did not influence the knowledge and attitudes of doctors. Conclusion: The deficiencies in knowledge and attitudes require urgent attention not only to improve the rate of spontaneous reporting, but also for enhanced safety of the patients and society at large. PMID:23633861
Wang, Kejian; Weng, Zuquan; Sun, Liya; Sun, Jiazhi; Zhou, Shu-Feng; He, Lin
Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is of great importance to both regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. Various techniques, such as quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) and animal toxicology, are widely used to identify potential risks during the preclinical stage of drug development. Despite these efforts, drugs with safety liabilities can still pass through safety checkpoints and enter the market. This situation raises the concern that conventional chemical structure analysis and phenotypic screening are not sufficient to avoid all clinical adverse events. Genomic expression data following in vitro drug treatments characterize drug actions and thus have become widely used in drug repositioning. In the present study, we explored prediction of ADRs based on the drug-induced gene-expression profiles from cultured human cells in the Connectivity Map (CMap) database. The results showed that drugs inducing comparable ADRs generally lead to similar CMap expression profiles. Based on such ADR-gene expression association, we established prediction models for various ADRs, including severe myocardial and infectious events. Drugs with FDA boxed warnings of safety liability were effectively identified. We therefore suggest that drug-induced gene expression change, in combination with effective computational methods, may provide a new dimension of information to facilitate systematic drug safety evaluation. - Highlights: • Drugs causing common toxicity lead to similar in vitro gene expression changes. • We built a model to predict drug toxicity with drug-specific expression profiles. • Drugs with FDA black box warnings were effectively identified by our model. • In vitro assay can detect severe toxicity in the early stage of drug development.
Lake, C R; Gallant, S; Masson, E; Miller, P
Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is contained in about 106 products, over half of which are available over-the-counter (OTC). Most are cough/cold remedies; nine are OTC diet aids. More than nine million Americans were using OTC diet aids in 1981, making PPA the fifth most used drug in the United States, responsible for over $200 million in revenues. The safety of PPA remains controversial. Although most controlled studies indicate minimal pressor effects with recommended doses, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) continue to be documented. Since 1965, 142 ADRs have been reported in 85 studies, 69% of these in North America. Many such cases may go unrecognized. About two thirds of all ADRs occurred in females and in patients under 30. Of ADRs attributed to legitimately sold PPA products, 85% occurred after consumption of OTC products versus only 15% after prescription drugs. The PPA product often contained combination ingredients, or PPA was consumed along with additional drugs. An overdose of PPA was taken in about a third of the cases. After ingestion of non-overdose amounts, 82% of the ADRs were severe. The most frequent side effects involved symptoms compatible with acute hypertension, with severe headache the most common complaint. Twenty-four intracranial hemorrhages, eight seizures, and eight deaths (most due to stroke) were associated with PPA ingestion. We have summarized these data in an effort to alert clinicians to the prevalence of usage of PPA products and the potential for adverse effects. In patients who present with elevated blood pressure or signs of acute hypertension, especially hypertensive encephalopathy of undetermined origin, we recommend inquiry about recent ingestion of PPA-containing diet aids and cough/cold products and suggest having such patients remain upright rather than supine.
Castillo-Carandang, Nina T; Juban, Noel R; Amarillo, Maria Lourdes; Tagle, Maria Pamela; Baja, Emmanuel S
Background Paper-based adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting has been in practice for more than 6 decades. Health professionals remain the primary source of reports, while the value of patients’ reporting is yet unclear. With the increasing popularity of using electronic gadgets in health, it is expected that the electronic transmission of reports will become the norm within a few years. Objective The aims of this study are to investigate whether short messaging service or texting can provide an alternative or supplemental method for ADR reporting given the increasing role of mobile phones in health care monitoring; to determine the usefulness of texting in addition to paper-based reporting of ADRs by resident physicians; and to describe the barriers to ADR reporting and estimate the cost for setting up and maintaining a texting-computer reporting system. Methods This was a pre-post cross-sectional study that measured the number of ADRs texted by 51 resident physicians for 12 months from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Department of Adult Medicine of a tertiary government hospital in Manila, Philippines, with 1350-bed capacity. Reports were captured by a texting-computer reporting system. Prior to its implementation, key informant interview and focus group discussion were conducted. Baseline information and practice on the existing paper-based reporting system were culled from the records of the hospital’s Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee. A postintervention survey questionnaire was administered at the end of 12 months. Results Only 3 ADRs were texted by 51 resident physicians in 12 months (reporting rate 3/51 or 6%). By contrast, 240 ADRs from the paper-based reporting system from 848 resident physicians of the study hospital were collected and tabulated (reporting rate 240/848 or 28.3%). Texting ADRs was not efficient because of power interruption, competition with the existing paper-based reporting system, and unforeseen expiration of
Seger, Donna; BARKER, Kimberly; McNAUGHTON, Candace D.
Context When an adverse event occurs in an overdose patient, it may be difficult to determine whether the event was caused by the ingested drug or by medical therapy. Naranjo and colleagues developed a probability scale, the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale (Naranjo Scale), to assess the probability that a drug administered in therapeutic doses caused an adverse event thereby classifying the event as an adverse drug reaction (ADR). Although Naranjo et al. specifically excluded the application of this scale to adverse events in overdose patients, case reports demonstrate that authors continue to apply the Naranjo Scale to events in these patients. Objective The World Health Organization defines an ADR as occurring only when drugs are administered in therapeutic doses. Yet ADRs continue to be reported in overdose patients. We sought to examine the use of the Naranjo scale in case reports of overdose patients to assess the potential consequences of that application. Methods A Medline search via PubMed without language limits, through September 2012, using the search terms “Naranjo” and “overdose” or “poisoning” yielded 146 publications. Additional searches were performed to find articles with keywords of the Naranjo Scale development, current applications and validity of application in specific populations such as critically ill and overdose patients. Results From the 146 publications, we identified 17 case reports or series of overdose patients in which the Naranjo Scale was applied to a clinical complication to support a causal relationship between an administered drug and the clinical complication and thereby classify the clinical complication as an ADR. We also identified a recent publication in which the Naranjo Scale was applied to a new treatment modality (lipid emulsion) that is currently administered to overdose patients. Conclusion Adverse events that occur in overdose patients are excluded from the definition of ADR. Yet in case
Digra, Kishour Kumar; Pandita, Aakash; Saini, GS; Bharti, Rajni
AIM To study the pattern of various adverse drug reactions (ADRs) occurring in children attending the Department of Pediatrics, SMGS Hospital, Jammu over 1 year. SUBJECTS AND METHODS This was a prospective study, with study population of patients attending Department of Pediatrics over a period of 1 year. A structured format was used to enroll the participants. A pilot study was conducted to test the suitability of the format and feasibility of the study. The study was carried out to review various pattern of ADRs by using the Naranjo probability scale, and severity was assessed by using the Hartwig severity scale. ADRs were classified according to the classification used by the Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring Center, Central Drugs Standard Control Organization, New Delhi, India. RESULTS In the present study, 104 patients were found to have developed acute drug reactions. Among these, 83.6% were type B, 14.42% type A, and 1.92% were type U. Furthermore, 25.96% ADRs were due to anticonvulsants, followed by antibiotics (22.11%), antipyretics (11.53%), vaccination (8.65%), steroids (6.73%), decongestants (5.67%), snake antivenom and antiemetics (3.84%), and fluids, insulin, and antacids (1.92%). The patients’ dermatological system was involved in 67.30%, followed by the central nervous system (CNS) in 11.53% patients. Renal system was involved in 6.73% patients. Cardiac, musculoskeletal, metabolic, and other systems were involved in 4.80%, 3.84%, 2.88%, and 0.96%, respectively. According to the Hartwig severity scale of ADRs, 64.4% patients had moderate ADRs, 29.8% patients had severe ADRs, and 5.76% had mild ADRs. In the present study, 64.4% patients expressed moderate severity, whereas 29.8% expressed high severity and 5.76% expressed mild ADRs. CONCLUSION ADRs were seen in 71% of the patients between 1 and 5 years of age, 26% in the age group of 5–10 years, and 3% were more than 10 years old. Anticonvulsants (25.96%) and antibiotics (22.11%) were responsible
Aagaard, Lise; Soendergaard, Birthe; Stenver, Doris I; Hansen, Ebba Holme
Aims Spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are often the only documentation used to justify the recall of drugs from the market. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether it would have been possible to foresee serious ADR cases based on available information on ADRs reported in Phase II and III clinical trials before marketing. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of reported ADR data in Phase II/III clinical trials in the registration material for three different ADR scenarios: (i) trovafloxacin/alatrofloxacin and hepatotoxicity; (ii) tolcapone and hepatotoxicity and neuroleptic malignant syndrome; and (iii) rituximab and cytokine release syndrome. We chose the scenarios because they were of serious character and caused great damage to the patients and because of different outcomes of the scientific discussions in the regulatory agencies. Results In all three cases, the registration material contained observations of ADRs, but there had been no follow-up on these observations. ADRs were mentioned in the summary of product information (SPC) purely as information, to some extent accompanied by recommendations. The information was not converted into new knowledge and remained tacit knowledge embedded in the SPCs disseminated to health professionals/prescribers. Conclusions The registration material analysed contained information about ADRs that were reported later, meaning that it would have been possible to foresee the occurrence of the ADRs at the time of licensing. More active utilization of the information from Phase II/III clinical trials is recommended to prevent the appearance of unexpected ADRs and further emphasis in SPC warnings to doctors about possible serious ADRs. What is already known about this subject? Serious and unexpected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have been reported shortly after marketing of a number of drugs.Review of ADR cases by the regulatory authorities has resulted in suspension of drugs or
Cantor, Michael N; Feldman, Henry J; Triola, Marc M
Background As medical care moves towards an outpatient focus, monitoring systems for ambulatory patients are increasingly important. Because adverse outcomes due to medications are an important problem in outpatients, the authors developed an automated monitoring system for detecting adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in ambulatory patients. Methods The authors obtained a set of approximately 110 000 ambulatory care notes from the medicine clinic at Bellevue Hospital Centre for 2003–4, and manually analysed a representative sample of 1250 notes to obtain a gold standard. To detect ADRs in the text of electronic ambulatory notes, the authors used a “trigger phrases” methodology, based on a simple grammar populated with a limited set of keywords. Results Under current functionality, this system detected 38 of 54 cases in the authors' gold standard set, of which 17 were true positives, for a sensitivity of 31%, a specificity of 98%, and a positive predictive value of 45%. Their proxy measure correlated with 70% of the ADRs in the gold standard. These values are comparable or superior to other systems described in the literature. Conclusions These results show that an automated system can detect ADRs with moderate sensitivity and high specificity, and has the potential to serve as the basis for a larger scale reporting system. PMID:17403760
Carrasco-Garrido, P; Hernández-Barrera, V; Esteban-Hernández, J; Jiménez-Trujillo, I; Álvaro-Meca, A; López de Andrés, A; de Miguel Diez, J; Rodríguez Barrios, J M; Muñoz Robles, J A; Jiménez-García, R
Objective To describe and analyse hospitalisations for adverse drug reactions (ADRs) involving anticoagulants. We also analysed the progress of the reactions over time, the factors related with ADRs. Design A retrospective, descriptive, epidemiological study. Setting This study used the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database (Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos, CMBD), over a 4-year period. Participants We selected CMBD data corresponding to hospital discharges with a diagnosis of ADRs to anticoagulants (International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code E934.2) in any diagnostic field during the study period. Main outcome measures We calculated the annual incidence of ADRs to anticoagulants according to sex and age groups. The median lengths of hospital stay and in-hospital mortality (IHM) were also estimated for each year studied. Bivariate analyses of the changes in variables according to year were based on Poisson regression. IHM was analysed using logistic regression models. The estimates were expressed as ORs and their 95% CI. Results During the study period, 50 042 patients were hospitalised because of ADRs to anticoagulants (6.38% of all ADR-related admissions). The number of cases increased from 10 415 in 2010 to 13 891 in 2013. Cumulative incidence of ADRs to anticoagulants was significantly higher for men than women and in all age groups. An adjusted multivariate analysis revealed that IHM did not change significantly over time. We observed a statistically significant association between IHM and age, with the highest risk for the ≥85 age group (OR 2.67; 95% CI 2.44 to 2.93). Conclusions The incidence of ADRs to anticoagulants in Spain increased from 2010 to 2013, and was significantly higher for men than women and in all age groups. Older patients were particularly susceptible to being hospitalised with an adverse reaction to an anticoagulant. PMID:28073793
Paul, Lindsay; Robinson, Kerin M
Allergic responses to prescription drugs are largely preventable, and incur significant cost to the community both financially and in terms of healthcare outcomes. The capacity to minimise the effects of repeated events rests predominantly with the reliability of allergy documentation in medical records and computerised physician order entry systems (CPOES) with decision support such as allergy alerts. This paper presents an overview of the nature and extent of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in Australia and other developed countries, a discussion and evaluation of strategies which have been devised to address this issue, and a commentary on the role of coded data in informing this patient safety issue. It is not concerned with pharmacovigilance systems that monitor ADRs on a global scale. There are conflicting reports regarding the efficacy of these strategies. Although in many cases allergy alerts are effective, lack of sensitivity and contextual relevance can often induce doctors to override alerts. Human factors such as user fatigue and inadequate adverse drug event reporting, including ADRs, are commonplace. The quality of and response to allergy documentation can be enhanced by the participation of nurses and pharmacists, particularly in medication reconciliation. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding of drug allergies potentially yields valuable evidence, but the quality of local and national level coded data is hampered by under-documenting and under-coding.
Yasnoff, William A.; Tomkins, Edward L.; Dunn, Louise M.
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a major source of preventable morbidity and mortality, especially among the elderly, who use more drugs and are more sensitive to them. The insurance industry has recently addressed this problem through the implementation of drug interaction alerts to pharmacists in conjunction with immediate online claims adjudication for almost 60% of prescriptions (expected to reach 90% within 5 years). These alerts are based on stored patient drug profiles maintained by pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) which are updated whenever prescriptions are filled. While these alerts are very helpful, the pharmacist does not prescribe, resulting in time-consuming and costly delays to contact the physician and remedy potential interactions. We have developed and demonstrated the feasibility of the PINPOINT (Pharmaceutical Information Network for prevention of interactions) system for making the drug profile and interaction information easily available to the physician before the prescription is written. We plan to test the cost-effectiveness of the system in a prospective controlled clinical trial.
Rottenkolber, Dominik; Schmiedl, Sven; Rottenkolber, Marietta; Thuermann, Petra A; Hasford, Joerg
Therapy for adverse drug reactions (ADRs) often results in the application of blood components. This study aims to assess the demand for blood components and the resulting economic burden (hospital perspective) in German hospitals induced by ADRs leading to admissions to departments of internal medicine. In this prospective study, ADRs leading to hospitalization were surveyed in four regional pharmacovigilance centres in Germany during the years 2000-2007. ADRs assessed as 'possible', 'likely' or 'very likely' were included. Market prices for blood components and hospitalization data were determined by desktop research. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed. A total of 6099 patients were admitted to internal medicine departments because of an outpatient ADR of whom 1165 patients (19.1%; mean age, 73.0 ± 13.0 years) required treatment with blood components owing to major bleeding events. Overall consumption was 4185 erythrocyte concentrates (EC), 426 fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and 48 thrombocyte (TC) units. On the basis of statistical hospital data, we estimated a nationwide demand of approximately 132,020 EC, 13,440 FFP and 1515 TC units, resulting in total costs of €12.66 million per year for all German hospitals. Some 19.2% of all ADR cases were assessed as preventable. Theoretically, a nationwide decreased demand for blood components and a savings potential of €2.43 million per year could be achieved by preventing ADRs in Germany. Blood components are used in one-fifth (mainly gastrointestinal bleeding) of all ADRs, leading to hospitalizations in internal medicine departments. Both blood demand and hospital procurement costs can be significantly lowered by preventing ADRs.
Lucas, L. M.; Colley, C. A.
Although physicians in practice are most likely to see patients with adverse drug reactions, they may fail to recognize an adverse effect or to attribute it to a drug effect and, when recognized, they may fail to report serious reactions to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). To recognize and attribute an adverse event to a drug effect, physicians should review the patient's clinical course, looking at patient risk factors, the known adverse reactions to the suspected drug, and the likelihood of a causal relationship between the drug and the adverse event-based on the temporal relationship, response to stopping or restarting the drug, and whether other factors could explain the reaction. Once an adverse drug reaction has been identified, the patient should be informed and appropriate documentation made in the patient's medical record. Serious known reactions and all reactions to newly released drugs or those not previously known to occur (even if the certainty is low) should be reported to the FDA. PMID:1536067
van Puijenbroek, Eugène; Diemont, Willem; van Grootheest, Kees
The primary aim of spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) is the timely detection of unknown adverse drug reactions (ADRs), or signal detection. Generally this is carried out by a systematic manual review of every report sent to an SRS. Statistical analysis of the data sets of an SRS, or quantitative signal detection, can provide additional information concerning a possible relationship between a drug and an ADR. We describe the role of quantitative signal detection and the way it is applied at the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb. Results of the statistical analysis are implemented in the traditional case-by-case analysis. In addition, for data-mining purposes, a list of associations of ADRs and suspected drugs that are disproportionally present in the database is periodically generated. Finally, quantitative signal generation can be used to study more complex relationships, such as drug-drug interactions and syndromes. The results of quantitative signal detection should be considered as an additional source of information, complementary to the traditional analysis. Techniques for the detection of drug interactions and syndromes offer a new challenge for pharmacovigilance in the near future.
Wang, Liwei; Jiang, Guoqian; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang
Normalizing data in the Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS), an FDA database, would improve the mining capacity of AERS for drug safety signal detection. In this study, we aim to normalize AERS and build a publicly available normalized Adverse drug events (ADE) data source.he drug information in AERS is normalized to RxNorm, a standard terminology source for medication. Drug class information is then obtained from the National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT). Adverse drug events (ADE) are aggregated through mapping with the PT (Preferred Term) and SOC (System Organ Class) codes of MedDRA. Our study yields an aggregated knowledge-enhanced AERS data mining set (AERS-DM). The AERS-DM could provide more perspectives to mine AERS database for drug safety signal detection and could be used by research community in the data mining field.
Galli, Thamires B.; Reis, Wálleri C.; Andrzejevski, Vânia M.
Background: Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) use in the elderly is associated with increased risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), but there is limited information regarding PIM use in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Objective: The aim of the study is to describe the prevalence and factors associated with the use of PIM and the occurrence of PIM-related adverse reactions in the critically ill elderly. Methods: This study enrolled all critically ill older adults (60 years or more) admitted to medical or cardiovascular ICUs between January and December 2013, in a large tertiary teaching hospital. For all patients, clinical pharmacists listed the medications given during the ICU stay and data on drugs were analyzed using 2012 Beers Criteria, to identify the prevalence of PIM. For each identified PIM the medical records were analyzed to evaluate factors associated with its use. The frequency of ADRs and, the causal relationship between PIM and the ADRs identified were also evaluated through review of medical records. Results: According to 2012 Beers Criteria, 98.2% of elderly patients used at least one PIM (n=599), of which 24.8% were newly started in the ICUs. In 29.6% of PIMs, there was a clinical circumstance that justified their prescription. The number of PIMs was associated with ICU length of stay and total number of medications. There was at least one ADR identified in 17.8% of patients; more than 40% were attributed to PIM, but there was no statistical association. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of PIM used in acutely ill older people, but they do not seem to be the major cause of adverse drug reactions in this population. Although many PIMs had a clinical circumstance that led to their prescription during the course of ICU hospitalization, many were still present upon hospital discharge. Therefore, prescription of PIMs should be minimized to improve the safety of elderly patients. PMID:28042352
Shang, Ning; Xu, Hua; Rindflesch, Thomas C.; Cohen, Trevor
Pharmacovigilance involves continually monitoring drug safety after drugs are put to market. To aid this process; algorithms for the identification of strongly correlated drug/adverse drug reaction (ADR) pairs from data sources such as adverse event reporting systems or Electronic Health Records have been developed. These methods are generally statistical in nature, and do not draw upon the large volumes of knowledge embedded in the biomedical literature. In this paper, we investigate the ability of scalable Literature Based Discovery (LBD) methods to identify side effects of pharmaceutical agents. The advantage of LBD methods is that they can provide evidence from the literature to support the plausibility of a drug/ ADR association, thereby assisting human review to validate the signal, which is an essential component of pharmacovigilance. To do so, we draw upon vast repositories of knowledge that has been extracted from the biomedical literature by two Natural Language Processing tools, MetaMap and SemRep. We evaluate two LBD methods that scale comfortably to the volume of knowledge available in these repositories. Specifically, we evaluate Reflective Random Indexing (RRI), a model based on concept-level co-occurrence, and Predication-based Semantic Indexing (PSI), a model that encodes the nature of the relationship between concepts to support reasoning analogically about drug-effect relationships. An evaluation set was constructed from the Side Effect Resource 2 (SIDER2), which contains known drug/ADR relations, and models were evaluated for their ability to “rediscover” these relations. In this paper, we demonstrate that both RRI and PSI can recover known drug-adverse event associations. However, PSI performed better overall, and has the additional advantage of being able to recover the literature underlying the reasoning pathways it used to make its predictions. PMID:25046831
Meyer, Charles; Behm, Nicole; Brown, Emily; Copeland, Nathanial K; Sklar, Marvin J
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to antibiotics complicate the management of any infection, particularly opportunistic infections in advanced HIV as some ADRs are potentiated by HIV. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) causes ADRs in 40-80% of HIV infected individuals, compared to 3-5% in the general population. The incidence and severity of ADRs among HIV infected individuals appear to increase as they progress from latent infection to AIDS. We present a single case report of a 55-year-old African American male found to have an otherwise asymptomatic acute HIV infection who developed an ADR to TMP-SMX, despite having previously tolerating the medication. The proposed mechanisms for the increased incidence of sulfa hypersensitivity reactions among HIV infected individuals focus on either (1) HIV-induced changes in the immune function driven by falling levels of CD4 cells or (2) other HIV-specific factors correlated with rising viral load. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of new sulfa hypersensitivity in primary HIV and may provide clinical evidence to support the correlation between viral load and ADRs to TMP-SMX without a severely diminished CD4 count, though further research is necessary. This case also demonstrates a rare and easily overlooked presentation of HIV that may aid in early diagnosis.
Angamo, Mulugeta Tarekegn; Chalmers, Leanne; Curtain, Colin M; Bereznicki, Luke R E
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are one of the leading causes of hospital admissions and morbidity in developed countries and represent a substantial burden on healthcare delivery systems. However, there is little data available from low- and middle-income countries. This review compares the prevalence and characteristics of ADR-related hospitalisations in adults in developed and developing countries, including the mortality, severity and preventability associated with these events, commonly implicated drugs and contributing factors. A literature search was conducted via PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, ProQuest and Google Scholar to find articles published in English from 2000 to 2015. Relevant observational studies were included. The median (with interquartile range [IQR]) prevalence of ADR-related hospitalisation in developed and developing countries was 6.3 % (3.3-11.0) and 5.5 % (1.1-16.9), respectively. The median proportions of preventable ADRs in developed and developing countries were 71.7 % (62.3-80.0) and 59.6 % (51.5-79.6), respectively. Similarly, the median proportions of ADRs resulting in mortality in developed and developing countries were 1.7 % (0.7-4.8) and 1.8 % (0.8-8.0), respectively. Commonly implicated drugs in both settings were antithrombotic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular drugs. Older age, female gender, number of medications, renal impairment and heart failure were reported to be associated with an increased risk for ADR-related hospitalisation in both settings while HIV/AIDS was implicated in developing countries only. The majority of ADRs were preventable in both settings, highlighting the importance of improving medication use, particularly in vulnerable patient groups such as the elderly, patients with multiple comorbidities and, in developing countries, patients with HIV/AIDS.
Díaz-Agudelo, Daniela; Burgos-Flórez, Francisco Javier; Vaca, Claudia; Serrano-Meriño, Dolores Vanessa
Introduction: The occurrence of adverse drug reactions is an important issue due to the lack of drug safety data in children. Objective: To describe the Adverse Drug Reactions in inpatient children under 6 years of age in two general pediatrics wards located in Barranquilla, Colombia. Methods: A prospective cohort study based on intensive pharmacovigilance was conducted during six months in order to monitor the emergence of Adverse Drug Reactions in inpatients children under 6 years of age with at least one medication prescribed. The study was conducted in two pediatric wards of two hospitals located in Barranquilla, Colombia. Naranjo´s Algorithm was used to evaluate imputability, the modified Hartwig and Siegel assessment scale to establish severity and the Schumock and Thornton criteria to determine preventability. Results: Of a total of 772 monitored patients, 156 Adverse Drug Reactions were detected on 147 children. The cumulative incidence of Adverse Drug Reactions was 19.0% (147/772); the incidence density was 37.6 Adverse Drug Reactions per 1,000 patients-days (147/3,913). The frequency was higher in children under 2 years of age (12.7%). Emergence of Adverse Drug Reactions was higher in male patients (RR= 1.66; 95% CI= 1.22-2.22, p= 0.001) and in those who used systemic antibiotics (RR= 1.82; 95% CI= 1.17-2.82, p= 0.005). Conclusions: Adverse Drug Reactions are common among hospitalized children and represent an additional burden of morbidity and risk, particularly in those who used several medicines, including antibiotics. PMID:27821893
Stevenson, Jennifer M; Williams, Josceline L; Burnham, Thomas G; Prevost, A Toby; Schiff, Rebekah; Erskine, S David; Davies, J Graham
Adverse drug reaction (ADR) risk-prediction models for use in older adults have been developed, but it is not clear if they are suitable for use in clinical practice. This systematic review aimed to identify and investigate the quality of validated ADR risk-prediction models for use in older adults. Standard computerized databases, the gray literature, bibliographies, and citations were searched (2012) to identify relevant peer-reviewed studies. Studies that developed and validated an ADR prediction model for use in patients over 65 years old, using a multivariable approach in the design and analysis, were included. Data were extracted and their quality assessed by independent reviewers using a standard approach. Of the 13,423 titles identified, only 549 were associated with adverse outcomes of medicines use. Four met the inclusion criteria. All were conducted in inpatient cohorts in Western Europe. None of the models satisfied the four key stages in the creation of a quality risk prediction model; development and validation were completed, but impact and implementation were not assessed. Model performance was modest; area under the receiver operator curve ranged from 0.623 to 0.73. Study quality was difficult to assess due to poor reporting, but inappropriate methods were apparent. Further work needs to be conducted concerning the existing models to enable the development of a robust ADR risk-prediction model that is externally validated, with practical design and good performance. Only then can implementation and impact be assessed with the aim of generating a model of high enough quality to be considered for use in clinical care to prioritize older people at high risk of suffering an ADR.
Stevenson, Jennifer M; Williams, Josceline L; Burnham, Thomas G; Prevost, A Toby; Schiff, Rebekah; Erskine, S David; Davies, J Graham
Adverse drug reaction (ADR) risk-prediction models for use in older adults have been developed, but it is not clear if they are suitable for use in clinical practice. This systematic review aimed to identify and investigate the quality of validated ADR risk-prediction models for use in older adults. Standard computerized databases, the gray literature, bibliographies, and citations were searched (2012) to identify relevant peer-reviewed studies. Studies that developed and validated an ADR prediction model for use in patients over 65 years old, using a multivariable approach in the design and analysis, were included. Data were extracted and their quality assessed by independent reviewers using a standard approach. Of the 13,423 titles identified, only 549 were associated with adverse outcomes of medicines use. Four met the inclusion criteria. All were conducted in inpatient cohorts in Western Europe. None of the models satisfied the four key stages in the creation of a quality risk prediction model; development and validation were completed, but impact and implementation were not assessed. Model performance was modest; area under the receiver operator curve ranged from 0.623 to 0.73. Study quality was difficult to assess due to poor reporting, but inappropriate methods were apparent. Further work needs to be conducted concerning the existing models to enable the development of a robust ADR risk-prediction model that is externally validated, with practical design and good performance. Only then can implementation and impact be assessed with the aim of generating a model of high enough quality to be considered for use in clinical care to prioritize older people at high risk of suffering an ADR. PMID:25278750
Marcilly, Romaric; Chazard, Emmanuel; Beuscart-Zéphir, Marie-Catherine; Hackl, Werner; Băceanu, Adrian; Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth M
This paper presents the design of Adverse Drug Event-Scorecards. The scorecards described are innovative and novel, not having previously been reported in the literature. The Scorecards provide organizations (e.g. hospitals) with summary information about Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) using a Web-based platform. The data used in the Scorecards are routinely updated and report on ADEs detected through data mining processes. The development of the ADE Scorecards is ongoing and they are currently undergoing clinical testing.
Banda, Juan M.; Evans, Lee; Vanguri, Rami S.; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Ryan, Patrick B.; Shah, Nigam H.
Identification of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) during the post-marketing phase is one of the most important goals of drug safety surveillance. Spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) data, which are the mainstay of traditional drug safety surveillance, are used for hypothesis generation and to validate the newer approaches. The publicly available US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) data requires substantial curation before they can be used appropriately, and applying different strategies for data cleaning and normalization can have material impact on analysis results. We provide a curated and standardized version of FAERS removing duplicate case records, applying standardized vocabularies with drug names mapped to RxNorm concepts and outcomes mapped to SNOMED-CT concepts, and pre-computed summary statistics about drug-outcome relationships for general consumption. This publicly available resource, along with the source code, will accelerate drug safety research by reducing the amount of time spent performing data management on the source FAERS reports, improving the quality of the underlying data, and enabling standardized analyses using common vocabularies. PMID:27193236
Banda, Juan M; Evans, Lee; Vanguri, Rami S; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Ryan, Patrick B; Shah, Nigam H
Identification of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) during the post-marketing phase is one of the most important goals of drug safety surveillance. Spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) data, which are the mainstay of traditional drug safety surveillance, are used for hypothesis generation and to validate the newer approaches. The publicly available US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) data requires substantial curation before they can be used appropriately, and applying different strategies for data cleaning and normalization can have material impact on analysis results. We provide a curated and standardized version of FAERS removing duplicate case records, applying standardized vocabularies with drug names mapped to RxNorm concepts and outcomes mapped to SNOMED-CT concepts, and pre-computed summary statistics about drug-outcome relationships for general consumption. This publicly available resource, along with the source code, will accelerate drug safety research by reducing the amount of time spent performing data management on the source FAERS reports, improving the quality of the underlying data, and enabling standardized analyses using common vocabularies.
Black, Corri; Tagiyeva-Milne, Nara; Helms, Peter; Moir, Dorothy
Aims A systematic review of the literature published in English over 10 years was undertaken in order to describe the use of electronic healthcare data in the identification of potential adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in children. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched using MESH headings and text words. Titles, keywords and abstracts were checked for age <18 years, potential ADRs and electronic healthcare data. Information extracted included age, data source, pharmacovigilance method, medicines and ADRs. Studies were quality assessed. Results From 14 804 titles, 314 had a full text review and 71 were included in the final review. Fifty were published in North America, 10 in Scandinavia. Study size ranged from less than 1000 children to more than 10 million. Sixty per cent of studies used data from one source. Comparative observational studies were most commonly reported (66.2%) with 15% using passive surveillance. Electronic healthcare data set linkage and the quality of the data source were poorly reported. ADRs were classified using the International Classification of Disease (ICD10). Multi-system reactions were most commonly studied, followed by central nervous system and mental and behavioural disorders. Vaccines were most frequently prescribed followed by corticosteroids, general anaesthetics and antidepressants. Conclusions Routine electronic healthcare records were increasingly reported to be used for pharmacovigilance in children. This growing and important health protection activity could be enhanced by consistent reporting of studies to improve the identification, interpretation and generalizability of the evidence base. PMID:25819310
LaBute, Montiago X; Zhang, Xiaohua; Lenderman, Jason; Bennion, Brian J; Wong, Sergio E; Lightstone, Felice C
Late-stage or post-market identification of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is a significant public health issue and a source of major economic liability for drug development. Thus, reliable in silico screening of drug candidates for possible ADRs would be advantageous. In this work, we introduce a computational approach that predicts ADRs by combining the results of molecular docking and leverages known ADR information from DrugBank and SIDER. We employed a recently parallelized version of AutoDock Vina (VinaLC) to dock 906 small molecule drugs to a virtual panel of 409 DrugBank protein targets. L1-regularized logistic regression models were trained on the resulting docking scores of a 560 compound subset from the initial 906 compounds to predict 85 side effects, grouped into 10 ADR phenotype groups. Only 21% (87 out of 409) of the drug-protein binding features involve known targets of the drug subset, providing a significant probe of off-target effects. As a control, associations of this drug subset with the 555 annotated targets of these compounds, as reported in DrugBank, were used as features to train a separate group of models. The Vina off-target models and the DrugBank on-target models yielded comparable median area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic-curves (AUCs) during 10-fold cross-validation (0.60-0.69 and 0.61-0.74, respectively). Evidence was found in the PubMed literature to support several putative ADR-protein associations identified by our analysis. Among them, several associations between neoplasm-related ADRs and known tumor suppressor and tumor invasiveness marker proteins were found. A dual role for interstitial collagenase in both neoplasms and aneurysm formation was also identified. These associations all involve off-target proteins and could not have been found using available drug/on-target interaction data. This study illustrates a path forward to comprehensive ADR virtual screening that can potentially scale with increasing number
Liu, Mei; McPeek Hinz, Eugenia Renne; Matheny, Michael Edwin; Denny, Joshua C; Schildcrout, Jonathan Scott; Miller, Randolph A; Xu, Hua
Objective Medication safety requires that each drug be monitored throughout its market life as early detection of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) can lead to alerts that prevent patient harm. Recently, electronic medical records (EMRs) have emerged as a valuable resource for pharmacovigilance. This study examines the use of retrospective medication orders and inpatient laboratory results documented in the EMR to identify ADRs. Methods Using 12 years of EMR data from Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC), we designed a study to correlate abnormal laboratory results with specific drug administrations by comparing the outcomes of a drug-exposed group and a matched unexposed group. We assessed the relative merits of six pharmacovigilance measures used in spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs): proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting OR (ROR), Yule's Q (YULE), the χ2 test (CHI), Bayesian confidence propagation neural networks (BCPNN), and a gamma Poisson shrinker (GPS). Results We systematically evaluated the methods on two independently constructed reference standard datasets of drug–event pairs. The dataset of Yoon et al contained 470 drug–event pairs (10 drugs and 47 laboratory abnormalities). Using VUMC's EMR, we created another dataset of 378 drug–event pairs (nine drugs and 42 laboratory abnormalities). Evaluation on our reference standard showed that CHI, ROR, PRR, and YULE all had the same F score (62%). When the reference standard of Yoon et al was used, ROR had the best F score of 68%, with 77% precision and 61% recall. Conclusions Results suggest that EMR-derived laboratory measurements and medication orders can help to validate previously reported ADRs, and detect new ADRs. PMID:23161894
The classical definition of clinical pharmacology is the study or the knowledge of the effects of drugs in humans. The activities of a clinical pharmacologist can vary from country to country, usually ranging from involvement in clinical trials, especially fundamental pharmacodynamic studies, to studies of pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism, to pharmacogenetics. Most clinical pharmacologists outside industry are in hospitals or university hospitals and research centres. In addition to research, this implies teaching of clinical pharmacology, and interacting with other medical staff: in the field of research, giving advice on clinical trials methodology and often managing a therapeutic drug monitoring centre. Some clinical pharmacologists have clinical departments with beds or consulting offices. Can there be another role for the clinical pharmacologist that would increase his or her usefulness for the medical community? Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are remarkably complex events, related to drug effects, patient characteristics (background diseases, genetics), and drug/disease interactions. Evaluation of ADRs requires understanding of drug mechanisms and interactions, and of disease diagnostics, especially in the discussion of alternative diagnoses. This implies expertise as a pharmacologist and a clinician. In addition, because not all adverse reactions or interactions are in the Summary of Product Characteristics, and because problems arise long before they report in the literature, it is necessary for the clinical pharmacologist to have knowledge of ongoing regulatory processes, in addition to having access to the published literature. Helping clinicians cope with individual patient problems will also improve the clinical pharmacologist's integration into the healthcare process.
Chen, Kan; Yang, Xinyan; Wu, Liqin; Yu, Meilan; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Na; Wang, Shuanghui; Li, Gongchu
Pinelliapedatisecta agglutinin (PPA) has previously been used in labeling fractions of myeloid leukemia cells in our laboratory. We report here that a bacterial expressed recombinant PPA domain b tagged with soluble coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (sCAR-PPAb) preferentially recognized drug resistant cancer cells K562/ADR and H460/5Fu, as compared to their parental cell lines. Pretreatment of K562/ADR cells with sCAR-PPAb significantly enhanced phagocytosis of K562/ADR by macrophages in vivo. Meanwhile, in a K562/ADR xenograft model, intratumoral injection of sCAR-PPAb induced macrophage infiltration and phagocytosis. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry and Western blot identified the membrane target of PPA on K562/ADR as sarcolemmal membrane associated protein (SLMAP). An antibody against SLMAP significantly promoted the phagocytosis of K562/ADR by macrophages in vitro. These findings suggest that PPA not only could be developed into a novel agent that can detect drug resistant cancer cells and predict chemotherapy outcome, but also it has potential value in immunotherapy against drug resistant cancer cells through inducing the tumoricidal activity of macrophages. PMID:24019967
Nikfarjam, Azadeh; Gonzalez, Graciela H
Rapid growth of online health social networks has enabled patients to communicate more easily with each other. This way of exchange of opinions and experiences has provided a rich source of information about drugs and their effectiveness and more importantly, their possible adverse reactions. We developed a system to automatically extract mentions of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) from user reviews about drugs in social network websites by mining a set of language patterns. The system applied association rule mining on a set of annotated comments to extract the underlying patterns of colloquial expressions about adverse effects. The patterns were tested on a set of unseen comments to evaluate their performance. We reached to precision of 70.01% and recall of 66.32% and F-measure of 67.96%.
Nikfarjam, Azadeh; Gonzalez, Graciela H.
Rapid growth of online health social networks has enabled patients to communicate more easily with each other. This way of exchange of opinions and experiences has provided a rich source of information about drugs and their effectiveness and more importantly, their possible adverse reactions. We developed a system to automatically extract mentions of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) from user reviews about drugs in social network websites by mining a set of language patterns. The system applied association rule mining on a set of annotated comments to extract the underlying patterns of colloquial expressions about adverse effects. The patterns were tested on a set of unseen comments to evaluate their performance. We reached to precision of 70.01% and recall of 66.32% and F-measure of 67.96%. PMID:22195162
Alecu, Iulian; Bousquet, Cedric; Mougin, Fleur; Jaulent, Marie-Christine
The WHO-ART and MedDRA terminologies used for coding adverse drug reactions (ADR) do not provide formal definitions of terms. In order to improve groupings, we propose to map ADR terms to equivalent Snomed CT concepts through UMLS Metathesaurus. We performed such mappings on WHO-ART terms and can automatically classify them using a description logic definition expressing their synonymies. Our gold standard was a set of 13 MedDRA special search categories restricted to ADR terms available in WHO-ART. The overlapping of the groupings within the new structure of WHO-ART on the manually built MedDRA search categories showed a 71% success rate. We plan to improve our method in order to retrieve associative relations between WHO-ART terms.
Bhattarai, Prashant; Vance, Dylan; Hatefi, Arash; Khaw, Ban An
Drug resistance is a common phenomenon that occurs in cancer chemotherapy. Delivery of chemotherapeutic agents as polymer pro-drug conjugates (PPDCs) pretargeted with bispecific antibodies could circumvent drug resistance in cancer cells. To demonstrate this approach to overcome drug resistance, Paclitaxel (Ptxl)-resistant SKOV3 TR human ovarian- and doxorubicin (Dox)-resistant MCF7 ADR human mammary-carcinoma cell lines were used. Pre-targeting over-expressed biotin or HER2/neu receptors on cancer cells was conducted by biotinylated anti-DTPA or anti-HER2/neu affibody - anti-DTPA Fab bispecific antibody complexes. The targeting PPDCs are either D-Dox-PGA or D-Ptxl-PGA. Cytotoxicity studies demonstrate that the pretargeted approach increases cytotoxicity of Ptxl or Dox in SKOV3 TR or MCF7 ADR resistant cell lines by 5.4 and 27 times, respectively. Epifluorescent microscopy - used to track internalization of D-Dox-PGA and Dox in MCF7 ADR cells - shows that the pretargeted delivery of D-Dox-PGA resulted in a 2- to 4-fold increase in intracellular Dox concentration relative to treatment with free Dox. The mechanism of internalization of PPDCs is consistent with endocytosis. Enhanced drug delivery and intracellular retention following pretargeted delivery of PPDCs resulted in greater tumor cell toxicity in the current in vitro studies.
Parameswaran Nair, Nibu; Chalmers, Leanne; Connolly, Michael; Bereznicki, Bonnie J.; Peterson, Gregory M.; Curtain, Colin; Castelino, Ronald L.; Bereznicki, Luke R.
Background Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are the major cause of medication-related hospital admissions in older patients living in the community. This study aimed to develop and validate a score to predict ADR-related hospitalization in people aged ≥65 years. Methods ADR-related hospitalization and its risk factors were determined using a prospective, cross-sectional study in patients aged ≥65 years admitted to two hospitals. A predictive model was developed in the derivation cohort (n = 768) and the model was applied in the validation cohort (n = 240). ADR-related hospital admission was determined through expert consensus from comprehensive reviews of medical records and patient interviews. The causality and preventability of the ADR were assessed based on the Naranjo algorithm and modified Schumock and Thornton criteria, respectively. Results In the derivation sample (mean [±SD] age, 80.1±7.7 years), 115 (15%) patients were admitted due to a definite or probable ADR; 92.2% of these admissions were deemed preventable. The number of antihypertensives was the strongest predictor of an ADR followed by presence of dementia, renal failure, drug changes in the preceding 3 months and use of anticholinergic medications; these variables were used to derive the ADR prediction score. The predictive ability of the score, assessed from calculation of the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve, was 0.70 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65–0.75). In the validation sample (mean [±SD] age, 79.6±7.6 years), 30 (12.5%) patients’ admissions were related to definite or probable ADRs; 80% of these admissions were deemed preventable. The area under the ROC curve in this sample was 0.67 (95% CI 0.56–0.78). Conclusions This study proposes a practical and simple tool to identify elderly patients who are at an increased risk of preventable ADR-related hospital admission. Further refinement and testing of this tool is necessary to implement the score in
Zhou, W. P.; Hua, H. Y.; Sun, P. C.; Zhao, Y. X.
The purpose of the present study was to develop the Solutol HS15-based doxorubicin submicron emulsion with good stability and overcoming multi-drug resistance. In this study, we prepared doxorubicin submicron emulsion, and examined the stability after autoclaving, the in vitro cytotoxic activity, the intracellular accumulation and apoptpsis of doxorubicin submicron emulsion in MCF-7/ADR cells. The physicochemical properties of doxorubicin submicron emulsion were not significantly affected after autoclaving. The doxorubicin submicron emulsion significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin submicron emulsion and enhanced cytotoxic activity and apoptotic effects of doxorubicin. These results may be correlated to doxorubicin submicron emulsion inhibitory effects on efflux pumps through the progressive release of intracellular free Solutol HS15 from doxorubicin submicron emulsion. Furthermore, these in vitro results suggest that the Solutol HS15-based submicron emulsion may be a potentially useful drug delivery system to circumvent multi-drug resistance of tumor cells. PMID:26664069
Yang, Y; Chen, S; Yang, F; Zhang, L; Alterovitz, G; Zhu, H; Xuan, J; Yang, X; Luo, H; Mu, J; He, L; Luo, X; Xing, Q
Clindamycin causes cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs), sometimes with the mechanisms of pathogenicity or risk factors unknown. This study aims to assess whether HLA alleles are associated with clindamycin-related cADRs in the Han Chinese population. We performed an association study of 12 subjects with clindamycin-related cADRs, 279 controls and 26 clindamycin-tolerant subjects. Subjects who received clindamycin through intravenous drip were analyzed separately. Unbiased, in silico docking was conducted. We found 6 out of 12 clindamycin-induced cADR patients carried HLA-B*51:01, and all of them received clindamycin via intravenous drip (6/9). The carrier frequency of HLA-B*51:01 is significantly higher compared with the control group (P=0.0006; OR=9.731, 95% CI: 2.927-32.353) and the clindamycin-tolerant group (OR=24.000, 95% CI: 3.247-177.405). In silico docking showed clindamycin is potentially more stable inside HLA-B*51:01 protein. Our results suggested, for the first time, that HLA-B*51:01 is a risk allele for clindamycin-related cADRs in Han Chinese, especially when clindamycin is administered via intravenous drip.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 16 August 2016; doi:10.1038/tpj.2016.61.
Onat, Filiz; Ozkara, Cigdem
Starting with phenobarbital in the 1900s, it took almost 70-80 years to introduce old-generation agents for the treatment of epilepsy. Then, in eleven years, nine more new antiepileptic drugs were added to the armamentarium. These drugs produce a nearly 40-50% decrease in seizure incidence in refractory patients, but few patients have been able to achieve complete freedom from seizures. So the search for more effective drugs with minimal adverse effect profiles will continue. Although the new antiepileptic drugs do not demonstrate a superior efficacy compared to the older ones, they do offer some advantages in terms of tolerability, fewer drug interactions and simpler pharmacokinetics. However, our knowledge concerning their safety profiles can not yet be considered adequate due to the relatively short time these drugs have been on the market and to the limited number of patients exposed to them. The fact that the serious side effects of felbamate and vigabatrine appeared late after marketing should be taken as an important lesson because it implies the potential for unknown side effects at any time during treatment. Antiepileptic drug treatment should begin with diagnosis of the seizure and epileptic syndrome, followed by selection of the drug most appropriate for treatment of the individual patient, and continued with monitoring of not only the seizures but the adverse effect profile as well.
Mattila, Riikka; Gomez-Font, Rafael; Meurman, Jukka H.
Objectives: The main objectives are to present the different adverses effects of the immunomodulatory drugs that can impair the quality of life of the immunosupressed patients and study the impact of immunomodualtion on oral diseases. Immunomodulatory drugs have changed the treatment protocols of many diseases where immune functions play a central role, such as rheumatic diseases. Their effect on oral health has not been systematically investigated, however. Study Design: We review current data on the new immunomodulatory drugs from the oral health perspective based on open literature search of the topic. Results: These target specific drugs appear to have less drug interactions than earlier immunomodulating medicines but have nevertheless potential side effects such as activating latent infections. There are some data showing that the new immunomodulatory drugs may also have a role in the treatment of certain oral diseases such as lichen planus or ameliorating symptoms in Sjögren´s syndrome, but the results have not been overly promising. Conclusions: In general, data are sparse of the effect of these new drugs vs. oral diseases and there are no properly powered randomized controlled trials published on this topic. Key words:Immunomodulatory drugs, oral diseases, adverse effects, therapeutic action. PMID:23986016
Arnet, Isabelle; Seidling, Hanna M; Hersberger, Kurt E
Community pharmacists represent an important pillar for the identification and the reporting of adverse drug effects (ADE}. Thanks to their broad view on the pharmacotherapy, over-the-counter medication included, they contribute greatly to the improvement of drug safety. In principle, the community pharmacy will face three groups of ADE which require specific attention. This article deals with these specific ADE groups and presents some illustrative examples from daily practice. Furthermore, we suggest some solutions to identify potential relevant interactions - including herbal-drug interactions - and give tips for daily practice, along with some often overseen cutaneous ADE.
Oehme, Ann-Kathrin; Rashed, Asia N.; Hefele, Barbara; Wong, Ian C. K.; Rascher, Wolfgang; Neubert, Antje
Background In recent years, efforts have been made to improve paediatric drug therapy. The aim of this research was to investigate any changes regarding the frequency and nature of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in hospitalized children in one paediatric general medical ward over a 9-year period. Methodology Two prospective observational cohort studies were conducted at a large University hospital in Germany in 1999 and 2008, respectively. Children aged 0–18 years admitted to the study ward during the study periods were included. ADRs were identified using intensive chart review. Uni- and multivariable regression has been used for data analysis. Results A total of 520 patients (574 admissions) were included [1999: n = 144 (167); 2008: n = 376 (407)]. Patients received a total of 2053 drugs [median 3, interquartile range (IQR) 2–5]. 19% of patients did not receive any medication. Median length of stay was 4 days (IQR 3–7; range 1–190 days) with a significantly longer length of stay in 1999. The overall ADR incidence was 13.1% (95% CI, 9.8–16.3) varying significantly between the two study cohorts [1999: 21.9%, 95% CI, 14.7–29.0; 2008: 9.2%, 95% CI, 5.9–12.5 (p<0.001)]. Antibacterials and corticosteroids for systemic use caused most of the ADRs in both cohorts (1999; 2008). Exposure to systemic antibacterials decreased from 62.9% to 43.5% whereas exposure to analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs increased from 17.4% to 45.2%, respectively. The use of high risk drugs decreased from 75% to 62.2%. In 1999, 45.7% and in 2008 96.2% of ADRs were identified by treating clinicians (p<0.001). Conclusions Between 1999 and 2008, the incidence of ADRs decreased significantly. Improved treatment strategies and an increased awareness of ADRs by physicians are most likely to be the cause for this positive development. Nevertheless further research on ADRs particularly in primary care and the establishment of prospective pharmacovigilance systems are still
Dimri, Deepak; Thapliyal, Swati; Thawani, Vijay
Introduction Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions (CADR) are the common drug induced adverse reactions which usually have wide range of manifestations and severity. Aim To describe the prevalence and clinical spectrum of CADR’s in a tertiary hospital of the Garhwal region in Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods All patients suspected of having CADRs reported in the various out-patient departments, and in-patients of HNB Base & Teaching Hospital, from 1st January 2012 to 31st December 2014 were retrospectively analysed. Drug history was recorded in a format specified in Indian National Pharmacovigilance Programme. Results Total 111 cases of CADRs were reported from Jan 2012 to Dec 2014. Mean age of patients was 33.34±18.7 years and maximum ADRs were reported in the age group of 20-39 years (36.9%). Female were affected more than male (W:M :: 66:45). Most of the ADRs were exanthematous eruptions (EE) type (33.3%). Medicine department reported maximum cases of CADRs (47.7%), followed by Dermatology. Most of the CADRs were reported with antimicrobial agents (69.4%). Significant associations of different types of various cutaneous reactions were observed in relation to the duration (in days) of ADRs (p = 0.038), types of outcome (p= 0.006), different departments (p= 0.014) and between different groups of medicines (p = 0.008). Conclusion CADRs have proved a significant problem in healthcare for decades. Major bulk of CADR result from physician prescribed drugs. Hence, awareness on part of the physician can help in timely detection of cutaneous reactions, thereby restricting damage from them. PMID:27437240
Low, Siew-Kee; Kiyotani, Kazuma; Mushiroda, Taisei; Daigo, Yataro; Nakamura, Yusuke; Zembutsu, Hitoshi
Cyclophosphamide (CPA)-based combination treatment has known to be effective for breast cancer, but often causes adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Hence, the identification of patients at risk for toxicity by CPA is clinically significant. In this study, a stepwise case-control association study was conducted using 403 patients with breast cancer who received the CPA combination therapy. A total of 143 genetic polymorphisms in 13 candidate genes (CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, ALDH1A1, ALDH3A1, GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, ABCC2 and ABCC4), possibly involved in the activation, metabolism and transport of CPA, were genotyped using 184 cases who developed either > or =grade 3 leukopenia/neutropenia or > or =grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicity and 219 controls who did not show any ADRs throughout the treatment. The association study revealed that one SNP, rs9561778 in ABCC4, showed a significant association with CPA-induced ADRs (Cochran-Armitage trend's P-value=0.00031; odds ratio (OR)=2.06). Subgroup analysis also indicated that the SNP rs9561778 was significantly associated with two major ADR subgroups; gastrointestinal toxicity and leukopenia/neutropenia (Cochran-Armitage trend's P-value=0.00019 and 0.014; OR=2.31 and 1.83). Furthermore, the SNP rs9561778 showed an association with breast cancer patients who were treated with CA(F) drug regimen-induced ADR (Cochran-Armitage trend's P-value=0.00028; OR=3.13). The SNPs in ABCC4 might be applicable in predicting the risk of ADRs in patients receiving CPA combination chemotherapy.
Kekäle, Meri; Peltoniemi, Marikki; Airaksinen, Marja
Purpose To evaluate adverse drug reactions (ADRs) experienced by chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients during per oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment and correlation of ADR symptoms with medication adherence and perceived quality of life (QoL). Patients and methods Eighty-six adult, chronic-phase CML patients who had been on TKI treatment (79% on imatinib, 10.5% dasatinib, and 10.5% nilotinib) for at least 6 months participated in the study (mean age: 57.8 years, 52% males). The mean time from diagnosis was 5.1 years. All patients were interviewed, and patient-reported ADRs were obtained using a structured list. Adherence was assessed using Morisky’s 8-item Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS). The symptoms’ interference with patient’s daily QoL was measured by asking patients about the influence of symptom(s) on their mood, general condition, enjoyment of life, walking, relationships, and work. Results Ninety-seven percent of the patients were suffering from at least one ADR. The mean number of different symptoms was seven (range: 0–15, median 6). The most commonly perceived ADRs were muscle soreness or cramp (69/86, 80%); swelling of hands, legs, feet, or around the eyes (59/86, 69%); and fatigue (43/86, 50%). No correlation was found between adherence and ADRs, because symptoms were equally common in each MMAS adherence class. Half of the patients felt that the ADRs had a negative influence on their daily QoL. A quarter of the patients reported that ADRs affected either their mood, general condition, or enjoyment of life. The incidence of almost all ADRs was much higher among patients reporting negative influence of ADRs on their daily life compared to total study population (P=0.016). Conclusion TKI-related ADRs were common among CML patients irrespective of patient’s adherence level. Patients who reported that ADRs had a negative influence on their daily QoL perceived more ADRs than those who did not experience a negative influence. PMID
Khan, Sarfaraz Alam; Goyal, Chhaya; Tonpay, S. D.
Objective: The aim was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of dental doctors about adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, questionnaire was administered to 95 dental doctors working in a teaching dental hospital attached to a medical college with an ADR monitoring center (AMC). Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics were used to analyze responses. The association of knowledge and attitude with respect to position of dentists was analyzed with Chi-square test. Results: The response rate and spontaneous reporting rate was found to be 61.0% and 13.7%, respectively. Important factors contributing to under reporting of ADRs include lack of awareness about AMC in the institute (81.0%) and pharmacovigilance program (72.4%), complacency (67.2%), lack of training to identify ADRs (65.5%), fear factor (63.7%), lethargy (58.6%), lack of risk perception of over the counter product related ADR (39.6%), inadequate risk perception of nonallopathic and herbal medicines (31%), indifference (27.5%) and concern that report may be wrong (27.5%). No significant difference in knowledge and attitudes of doctors with respect to position was found except for reporting of ADRs of newly marketed drugs and serious reactions to established product (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The deficiencies in knowledge and attitudes appear to be the underlying factor for under reporting by dental practitioners. It should be addressed urgently in order to increase spontaneous reporting by them. PMID:26229750
Naisbitt, Dean J.
Idiosyncratic drug reactions are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for patients; they also markedly increase the uncertainty of drug development. The major targets are skin, liver, and bone marrow. Clinical characteristics suggest that IDRs are immune mediated, and there is substantive evidence that most, but not all, IDRs are caused by chemically reactive species. However, rigorous mechanistic studies are very difficult to perform, especially in the absence of valid animal models. Models to explain how drugs or reactive metabolites interact with the MHC/T-cell receptor complex include the hapten and P-I models, and most recently it was found that abacavir can interact reversibly with MHC to alter the endogenous peptides that are presented to T cells. The discovery of HLA molecules as important risk factors for some IDRs has also significantly contributed to our understanding of these adverse reactions, but it is not yet clear what fraction of IDRs have a strong HLA dependence. In addition, with the exception of abacavir, most patients who have the HLA that confers a higher IDR risk with a specific drug will not have an IDR when treated with that drug. Interindividual differences in T-cell receptors and other factors also presumably play a role in determining which patients will have an IDR. The immune response represents a delicate balance, and immune tolerance may be the dominant response to a drug that can cause IDRs. PMID:23476052
Umar, Muhammad Tukur; Bello, Shaibu Oricha; Chika, Aminu; Oche, Oche Mansur
Objective: Objective of this study was to assess the attitude of nurses and pharmacists towards adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reporting. Methods: The questionnaire was designed based on extended “Inman seven deadly sins.” Two hundred and seventy-two respondents were selected by stratified sampling technique. The questionnaires were delivered to the respondents at their places of practice. The data generated were analyzed by Sigma XL Software Inc. Findings: There was no statistically significant relationship between demographic profiles and reporting attitude except for qualification. On extended “Inman seven deadly sins” awareness of reporting protocol and nearby center for ADRs reporting were low 27.3 and 7.5%, respectively. However, respondents’ score on components of attitude of ADRs reporting is generally encouraging. On comparative basis, no statistical significance exists between pharmacists and nurses. Conclusion: The study showed that attitude of respondents towards ADRs reporting is good. However, there is a need for targeted health education intervention among these cadres of health-care professionals, especially on aspects of awareness of reporting protocol and reporting center. PMID:27512716
Zhang, Lu; Lu, Jiafei; Qiu, Liyan
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression has become the most common cause of occurrence of multidrug resistance in clinical settings. We aimed to construct a micellar polymer carrier to sensitize drug-resistant tumors to doxorubicin (DOX). This A-B-C-type amphiphilic copolymer was prepared by the sequential linkage of β-cyclodextrin, hydrophobic poly(d,l-lactide), and hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol). Upon incubation of the DOX-loaded micelles with DOX-resistant human breast carcinoma MCF-7/ADR cells, significantly enhanced cytotoxicity and apoptosis were achieved. A series of studies on the action mechanism showed that the polymer components such as β-cyclodextrin, hydrophobic poly(d,l-lactide) segment, and poly(ethylene glycol) coordinatively contributed to the improved intracellular ATP depletion and ATPase activity, increased intracellular uptake of P-gp substrates via competitive binding to P-gp, and decreased P-gp expression in MCF-7/ADR cells. More interestingly, a similar phenomenon was observed in the zebrafish xenograft model, resulting in ~64% inhibition of MCF-7/ADR tumor growth. These results implied that the polymeric micelles displayed great potentials as P-gp modulators to reverse DOX resistance in MCF-7/ADR breast carcinoma. PMID:27785023
Wing, S S; Fantus, I G
Propylthiouracil and methimazole are frequently used in the management of hyperthyroidism. Two patients in whom adverse immunologic effects other than isolated agranulocytosis developed during treatment with propylthiouracil are described. A review of the literature revealed 53 similar cases over a 35-year period. Rash, fever, arthralgias and granulocytopenia were the most common manifestations. Vasculitis, particularly with cutaneous manifestations, occurs and may be fatal. The clinical evidence suggests that an immunologic mechanism is involved. A number of different autoantibodies were reported, but antinuclear antibodies were infrequent, and none of the cases met the criteria for a diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Thus, the reactions do not represent a true drug-induced lupus syndrome. Current hypotheses and experimental data regarding the cause of the reactions are reviewed. No specific clinical subgroup at high risk can be identified, and manifestations may occur at any dosage and at any time during therapy. Cross-reactivity between the two antithyroid drugs can be expected. Except for minor symptoms (e.g., mild arthralgias or transient rash), such reactions are an indication for withdrawal of the drug and the use of alternative methods to control the hyperthyroidism. In rare cases of severe vasculitis a short course of high-dose glucocorticoid therapy may be helpful. PMID:3539299
Objective Automatic detection of Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) mentions from text has recently received significant interest in pharmacovigilance research. Current research focuses on various sources of text-based information, including social media — where enormous amounts of user posted data is available, which have the potential for use in pharmacovigilance if collected and filtered accurately. The aims of this study are: (i) to explore natural language processing approaches for generating useful features from text, and utilizing them in optimized machine learning algorithms for automatic classification of ADR assertive text segments; (ii) to present two data sets that we prepared for the task of ADR detection from user posted internet data; and (iii) to investigate if combining training data from distinct corpora can improve automatic classification accuracies. Methods One of our three data sets contains annotated sentences from clinical reports, and the two other data sets, built in-house, consist of annotated posts from social media. Our text classification approach relies on generating a large set of features, representing semantic properties (e.g., sentiment, polarity, and topic), from short text nuggets. Importantly, using our expanded feature sets, we combine training data from different corpora in attempts to boost classification accuracies. Results Our feature-rich classification approach performs significantly better than previously published approaches with ADR class F-scores of 0.812 (previously reported best: 0.770), 0.538 and 0.678 for the three data sets. Combining training data from multiple compatible corpora further improves the ADR F-scores for the in-house data sets to 0.597 (improvement of 5.9 units) and 0.704 (improvement of 2.6 units) respectively. Conclusions Our research results indicate that using advanced NLP techniques for generating information rich features from text can significantly improve classification accuracies over existing
Njuguna, Christine; Stewart, Annemie; Mouton, Johannes P.; Blockman, Marc; Maartens, Gary; Swart, Annoesjka; Chisholm, Briony; Jones, Jackie; Dheda, Mukesh; Igumbor, Ehimario U.
Introduction The National HIV & Tuberculosis Health Care Worker (HCW) Hotline provides advice on the management of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs). We describe suspected ADRs reported to the hotline by HCWs, concordance with advice, and patient outcomes. Methods We reviewed suspected ADRs in HIV-infected patients, patients taking antiretrovirals and patients taking anti-tuberculosis therapy reported from May 2013 to October 2014. We performed causality assessment using the World Health Organization Uppsala Monitoring Centre (WHO-UMC) criteria. We included suspected ADRs categorized as certain, probable or possible in further analysis. Results We received 772 ADR reports, of which 87/772 (11.3 %) were classified as certain, 176/772 (22.8 %) as probable, 361/772 (46.8 %) as possible, and 148/772 (19.2 %) as unlikely or unassessable. The most frequent ADRs were rash, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and kidney injury, comprising 110/624 (17.6 %), 87/624 (13.9 %), and 77/624 (12.3 %), respectively. The ADR was severe in 27.3 % of rashes, 36.4 % of kidney injury reports and 88.5 % of DILI reports. Most frequently implicated drugs, either alone or in combination with other potentially causative drugs, were efavirenz (rashes), efavirenz and anti-tuberculosis drugs (DILI) and tenofovir (kidney injury). In 383 cases with HCW follow-up, 254 (66.3 %) improved, 9 (2.3 %) had complete resolution, 32 (8.4 %) remained unchanged, 6 (1.6 %) deteriorated, 10 (2.6 %) died and 72 (18.8 %) had unknown outcome. Advice provided was followed in 93.2 % of these cases. Of 223 ADRs with preventability data, 40 (17.9 %) were preventable. Conclusion Queries about rashes, DILIs and kidney injuries were common. Detection and management of these ADRs should be included in HCW training. In cases with follow-up, concordance with advice was high, and HCWs reported improvement in the majority. PMID:26547719
Pan, Jian-Bo; Ji, Nan; Pan, Wen; Hong, Ru; Wang, Hao; Ji, Zhi-Liang
Drugs may induce adverse drug reactions (ADRs) when they unexpectedly bind to proteins other than their therapeutic targets. Identification of these undesired protein binding partners, called off-targets, can facilitate toxicity assessment in the early stages of drug development. In this study, a computational framework was introduced for the exploration of idiosyncratic mechanisms underlying analgesic-induced severe adverse drug reactions (SADRs). The putative analgesic-target interactions were predicted by performing reverse docking of analgesics or their active metabolites against human/mammal protein structures in a high-throughput manner. Subsequently, bioinformatics analyses were undertaken to identify ADR-associated proteins (ADRAPs) and pathways. Using the pathways and ADRAPs that this analysis identified, the mechanisms of SADRs such as cardiac disorders were explored. For instance, 53 putative ADRAPs and 24 pathways were linked with cardiac disorders, of which 10 ADRAPs were confirmed by previous experiments. Moreover, it was inferred that pathways such as base excision repair, glycolysis/glyconeogenesis, ErbB signaling, calcium signaling, and phosphatidyl inositol signaling likely play pivotal roles in drug-induced cardiac disorders. In conclusion, our framework offers an opportunity to globally understand SADRs at the molecular level, which has been difficult to realize through experiments. It also provides some valuable clues for drug repurposing. - Highlights: • A novel computational framework was developed for mechanistic study of SADRs. • Off-targets of drugs were identified in large scale and in a high-throughput manner. • SADRs like cardiac disorders were systematically explored in molecular networks. • A number of ADR-associated proteins were identified.
Hoigné, R; Lawson, D H; Weber, E
Age by itself is not an important risk factor for ADRs. Age-related changes are the consequence of a number of individual factors, for example morbidity associated with polypharmacy, decline in renal or liver function in the elderly, hypoalbuminaemia, reduced body weight, etc. The relationship between gastrointestinal bleeding and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can be assessed globally in large cohort studies with access to computerized data, but complete accuracy requires access to the original patient records. The increase in the risk of GI bleeding in users of NSAIDs and aspirin was 50% above that in non-users. About a quarter of ADRs in hospitalized patients seem not to arise from purely pharmacological mechanisms. They are mainly due to allergic, anaphylactoid, or idiosyncratic reactions and to intolerance. In such non-pharmacological reactions, the time of exposure, reaction time, and even dosage may be important factors in identification of the causal drug. The use of benzodiazepines can be optimized by taking into account potency, time of action and the different syndromes encountered after withdrawal. Following long-term use problems of relapse and rebound are being increasingly recognized, in addition to organic withdrawal symptoms. In psychiatric patients extrapyramidal disorders due to neuroleptics are common. The rates of these ADRs differ markedly between various drugs, even after dosages and co-medications are taken into account. Epidemiological screening for potentially carcinogenic drugs can only be done in large cohorts of patients with pre-recorded full information sets as may be found in an HMO (Health Maintenance Organization). The findings of several such studies have been published in specialist cancer journals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Sammons, Helen M.; Choonara, Imti
Drug toxicity is, unfortunately, a significant problem in children both in the hospital and in the community. Drug toxicity in children is different to that seen in adults. At least one in 500 children will experience an adverse drug reaction each year. For children in hospital, the risk is far greater (one in ten). Additionally, different and sometimes unique adverse drug reactions are seen in the paediatric age groups. Some of the major cases of drug toxicity historically have occurred in neonates. It is important that we understand the mechanism of action of adverse drug reactions. Greater understanding alongside rational prescribing should hopefully reduce drug toxicity in children in the future. PMID:27417239
Edwards, I R
Drug safety signals will continue to come mainly from the reporting of alert clinicians and every effort should be made to enhance this and to ease the process. The use of multipurpose health databases for finding signals has much potential, if they are better planned so that the appropriate data is captured and examined routinely. Consumer reports give us information about their concerns and should not be ignored. Better information is needed on poisoning, drug misuse and on herbal remedies. The analysis of signals must be improved and speeded up, if we are even to maintain our current safety standards, given the global release of 'blockbuster products'. Benefit-risk analysis of medicines needs to be better understood in relationship to actual clinical use, both from an individual and public health perspective. Such analysis should become more logical rather than just listing the benefits and risks, and then expressing an essentially unsupported opinion. This is essential if therapies are to be compared, and their costs justified. The communication of medicines safety and benefit-risk information to clinicians, other health professionals and patients is an area where there needs to be considerable improvements. We need to be better informed about the consequences of guidance and warnings given, so that we may improve the service we offer to recipients. In the future, information technology, which provides exciting possibilities with what it offers now, will help us with all the above challenges.
Mudzviti, Tinashe; Maponga, Charles C.; Khoza, Star; Ma, Qing; Morse, Gene D.
Background. The main objective was to determine the impact of herbal drug use on adverse drug reactions in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methodology. Patients receiving first-line ART from the national roll-out program participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were interviewed and a data collection sheet was used to collect information from the corresponding medical record. Results. The majority (98.2%) of participants were using at least one herbal drug together with ART. The most common herbal remedies used were Allium Sativum (72.7%), Bidens pilosa (66.0%), Eucalyptus globulus (52.3%), Moringa oleifera (44.1%), Lippia javanica (36.3%), and Peltoforum africanum (34.3%). Two indigenous herbs, Musakavakadzi (OR = 0.25; 95% CI 0.076–0.828) and Peltoforum africanum (OR = 0.495; 95% CI 0.292–0.839) reduced the occurrence of adverse drug events. Conclusions. The use of herbal drugs is high in the HIV-infected population and there is need for pharmacovigilance programs to recognize the role they play in altering ADR profiles. PMID:22506106
Charoenchokthavee, Wanaporn; Ayudhya, Duangchit Panomvana Na; Sriuranpong, Virote; Areepium, Nutthada
Tamoxifen is a pharmacological estrogen inhibitor that binds to the estrogen receptor (ER) in breast cells. However, it shows an estrogenic effect in other organs, which causes adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) enzyme encoded by the SULT1A1 gene is involved in estrogen metabolism. Previous research has suggested that the SULT1A1 copy number is linked with the plasma estradiol (E2) concentration. Here, a total of 34 premenopausal breast cancer patients, selected from the Thai Tamoxifen (TTAM) Project, were screened for their SULT1A1 copy number, plasma E2 concentration and ADRs. The mean age was 44.3±11.1 years, and they were subtyped as ER+/ progesterone receptor (PR) + (28 patients), ER+/ PR- (5 patients) and ER-/PR- (1 patient). Three patients reported ADRs, which were irregular menstruation (2 patients) and vaginal discharge (1 patient). Most (33) patients had two SULT1A1 copies, with one patient having three copies. The median plasma E2 concentration was 1,575.6 (IQR 865.4) pg/ml. Patients with ADRs had significantly higher plasma E2 concentrations than those patients without ADRs (p = 0.014). The plasma E2 concentration was numerically higher in the patient with three SULT1A1 copies, but this lacked statistical significance.
Bousquet, Cédric; Sadou, Éric; Souvignet, Julien; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Declerck, Gunnar
Although MedDRA has obvious advantages over previous terminologies for coding adverse drug reactions and discovering potential signals using data mining techniques, its terminological organization constrains users to search terms according to predefined categories. Adding formal definitions to MedDRA would allow retrieval of terms according to a case definition that may correspond to novel categories that are not currently available in the terminology. To achieve semantic reasoning with MedDRA, we have associated formal definitions to MedDRA terms in an OWL file named OntoADR that is the result of our first step for providing an "ontologized" version of MedDRA. MedDRA five-levels original hierarchy was converted into a subsumption tree and formal definitions of MedDRA terms were designed using several methods: mappings to SNOMED-CT, semi-automatic definition algorithms or a fully manual way. This article presents the main steps of OntoADR conception process, its structure and content, and discusses problems and limits raised by this attempt to "ontologize" MedDRA.
Issa, Amalia M
The problem of adverse drug reactions is a well-documented global public health problem. Recent withdrawals of several widely used prescription medications in the USA and other countries have raised concerns among patients, clinicians, scientists and policy makers. The increasing interest and concern regarding withdrawal of previously approved prescription medications and drug safety has prompted renewed research efforts aimed at improving surveillance of approved drugs and reducing adverse drug reactions. Pharmacogenomics research is increasingly directed at developing genomic diagnostics and tests with predictive ability for adverse drug reactions. This paper focuses on the problem of adverse drug reactions and reviews the evidence and the state of the science for the application of pharmacogenomics to adverse drug reactions.
Patadia, Vaishali K; Coloma, Preciosa; Schuemie, Martijn J; Herings, Ron; Gini, Rosa; Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Picelli, Gino; Fornari, Carla; Pedersen, Lars; van der Lei, Johan; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Trifirò, Gianluca
A prospective pharmacovigilance signal detection study, comparing the real-world healthcare data (EU-ADR) and two spontaneous reporting system (SRS) databases, US FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System and WHO's Vigibase is reported. The study compared drug safety signals found in the EU-ADR and SRS databases. The potential for signal detection in the EU-ADR system was found to be dependent on frequency of the event and utilization of drugs in the general population. The EU-ADR system may have a greater potential for detecting signals for events occurring at higher frequency in general population and those that are commonly not considered as potentially a drug-induced event. Factors influencing various differences between the datasets are discussed along with potential limitations and applications to pharmacovigilance practice.
Clarke, Janet B
Biologics encompass a broad range of therapeutics that include proteins and other products derived from living systems. Although the multiplicity of target organs often seen with new chemical entities is generally not seen with biologics, they can produce significant adverse reactions. Examples include IL-12 and an anti-CD28 antibody that resulted in patient deaths and/or long stays in intensive care units. Mechanisms of toxicities can be categorized as pharmacological or nonpharmacological, with most, excepting hypersensitivity reactions, associated with the interaction of the agent with its planned target. Unexpected toxicities generally arise as a result of previously unknown biology. Manufacturing quality is a significant issue relative to the toxicity of biologics. The development of recombinant technology represented the single biggest advance leading to humanized products with minimal or no contaminants in comparison to products purified from animal tissues. Nevertheless, the type of manufacturing process including choice of cell type, culture medium, and purification method can result in changes to the protein. For example, a change to the closure system for erythropoietin led to an increase in aplastic anemia as a result of changing the immunogenicity characteristics of the protein. Monoclonal antibodies represent a major class of successful biologics. Toxicities associated with these agents include those associated with the binding of the complementary determining region (CDR) with the target. First dose reactions or infusion reactions are generally thought to be mediated via the Fc region of the antibody activating cytokine release, and have been observed with several antibodies. Usually, these effects (flu-like symptoms, etc.) are transient with subsequent dosing. Although biologics can have nonpharmacologic toxicities, these are less common than with small molecule drugs.
Liabeuf, Sophie; Masmoudi, Kamel; Scailteux, Lucie-Marie; Moragny, Julien; Masson, Henri; Brnet-Dufour, Valérie; Andrejak, Michel; Gras-Champel, Valérie
Abstract Although drug therapy is inherently associated with the risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), some of these events are preventable. The estimated proportion of preventable ADRs varies from one study or clinical context to another. Bleeding caused by antithrombotic agents (and particularly vitamin K antagonists, VKAs) constitutes one of the most frequent causes of ADR-related hospitalization. Hence, the objective of the present study was to adapt and validate an ADR preventability score for bleeding due to VKAs and evaluate the preventability of bleeding in 906 consecutive hospitalized, VKA-treated adult patients with a risk of major bleeding (defined as an international normalized ratio ≥5) over a 2-year period. A specific preventability scale for VKA-associated bleeding was developed by adapting a published tool. Overall, 241 of the 906 patients in the study experienced at least 1 VKA-associated bleeding event. The scale's reliability was tested by 2 different evaluators. The inter-rater reliability (evaluated by calculation of Cohen's kappa) ranged from “good” to “excellent.” Lastly, the validated scale was used to assess the preventability of the VKA-associated bleeding. We estimated that bleeding was preventable or potentially preventable in 109 of the 241 affected patients (45.2%). We have developed a useful, reliable tool for evaluating the preventability of VKA-associated bleeding. Application of the scale in a prospective study revealed that a high proportion of VKA-associated bleeding events in hospitalized, at-risk adult patients were preventable or potentially preventable. PMID:27684801
Chee, Brant W; Berlin, Richard; Schatz, Bruce
Adverse drug events (ADEs) remain a large problem in the United States, being the fourth leading cause of death, despite post market drug surveillance. Much post consumer drug surveillance relies on self-reported "spontaneous" patient data. Previous work has performed datamining over the FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) and other spontaneous reporting systems to identify drug interactions and drugs correlated with high rates of serious adverse events. However, safety problems have resulted from the lack of post marketing surveillance information about drugs, with underreporting rates of up to 98% within such systems. We explore the use of online health forums as a source of data to identify drugs for further FDA scrutiny. In this work we aggregate individuals' opinions and review of drugs similar to crowd intelligence3. We use natural language processing to group drugs discussed in similar ways and are able to successfully identify drugs withdrawn from the market based on messages discussing them before their removal.
Gallelli, Luca; Gallelli, Giuseppe; Codamo, Giuseppe; Argentieri, Angela; Michniewicz, Andzelika; Siniscalchi, Antonio; Stefanelli, Roberta; Cione, Erika; Caroleo, Maria C; Longo, Paola; De Sarro, Giovambattista
Generic formulations represent a way to reduce the costs of brand compounds when their patent is expired. While, the bio-equivalence in generic drugs is guaranteed, some excipients as well as dyes could be different and this could reduce the drug safety. Herein, we report the development of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) in two patients after the switch from brand to generic formulations. We have tested cytochrome P450 enzymes expression as well as drug serum levels. None of these markers were altered. Checking deeply into both patient's medical history, they harbored poly-sensitivity or allergy to pollen and graminacea and used different active ingredients for different health problems coming from the same generic company Almus(®). This company used different dyes and excipients compared to the branded drugs made by distinguished companies. In conclusion, we strongly suggest to both pharmacists and physicians to be careful in giving the advice to change the drug, thinking to reduce health sanitary costs without considering the personal clinical history of each one. Paradoxically this behavior is causing other health issues, bringing to an increase of the overall costs for patients as well as for National Health System.
Suh, JinUk; Yang, MyungSuk; Kang, WonKu; Kim, EunYoung
Objective We analyzed differences between spontaneously reported drug-induced (not including contrast media) and contrast media-induced adverse reactions. Methods Adverse drug reactions reported by an in-hospital pharmacovigilance center (St. Mary’s teaching hospital, Daejeon, Korea) from 2010–2012 were classified as drug-induced or contrast media-induced. Clinical patterns, frequency, causality, severity, Schumock and Thornton’s preventability, and type A/B reactions were recorded. The trends among causality tools measuring drug and contrast-induced adverse reactions were analyzed. Results Of 1,335 reports, 636 drug-induced and contrast media-induced adverse reactions were identified. The prevalence of spontaneously reported adverse drug reaction-related admissions revealed a suspected adverse drug reaction-reporting rate of 20.9/100,000 (inpatient, 0.021%) and 3.9/100,000 (outpatients, 0.004%). The most common adverse drug reaction-associated drug classes included nervous system agents and anti-infectives. Dermatological and gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions were most frequently and similarly reported between drug and contrast media-induced adverse reactions. Compared to contrast media-induced adverse reactions, drug-induced adverse reactions were milder, more likely to be preventable (9.8% vs. 1.1%, p < 0.001), and more likely to be type A reactions (73.5% vs. 18.8%, p < 0.001). Females were over-represented among drug-induced adverse reactions (68.1%, p < 0.001) but not among contrast media-induced adverse reactions (56.6%, p = 0.066). Causality patterns differed between the two adverse reaction classes. The World Health Organization–Uppsala Monitoring Centre causality evaluation and Naranjo algorithm results significantly differed from those of the Korean algorithm version II (p < 0.001). Conclusions We found differences in sex, preventability, severity, and type A/B reactions between spontaneously reported drug and contrast media-induced adverse
Bellet, Florelle; Asfari, Hadyl; Souvignet, Julien; Texier, Nathalie; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Beyens, Marie-Noëlle; Burgun, Anita; Bousquet, Cédric
Background The underreporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) through traditional reporting channels is a limitation in the efficiency of the current pharmacovigilance system. Patients’ experiences with drugs that they report on social media represent a new source of data that may have some value in postmarketing safety surveillance. Objective A scoping review was undertaken to explore the breadth of evidence about the use of social media as a new source of knowledge for pharmacovigilance. Methods Daubt et al’s recommendations for scoping reviews were followed. The research questions were as follows: How can social media be used as a data source for postmarketing drug surveillance? What are the available methods for extracting data? What are the different ways to use these data? We queried PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar to extract relevant articles that were published before June 2014 and with no lower date limit. Two pairs of reviewers independently screened the selected studies and proposed two themes of review: manual ADR identification (theme 1) and automated ADR extraction from social media (theme 2). Descriptive characteristics were collected from the publications to create a database for themes 1 and 2. Results Of the 1032 citations from PubMed and Embase, 11 were relevant to the research question. An additional 13 citations were added after further research on the Internet and in reference lists. Themes 1 and 2 explored 11 and 13 articles, respectively. Ways of approaching the use of social media as a pharmacovigilance data source were identified. Conclusions This scoping review noted multiple methods for identifying target data, extracting them, and evaluating the quality of medical information from social media. It also showed some remaining gaps in the field. Studies related to the identification theme usually failed to accurately assess the completeness, quality, and reliability of the data that were analyzed from social media. Regarding
Hristovski, Dimitar; Kastrin, Andrej; Dinevski, Dejan; Burgun, Anita; Žiberna, Lovro; Rindflesch, Thomas C
We report on our research in using literature-based discovery (LBD) to provide pharmacological and/or pharmacogenomic explanations for reported adverse drug effects. The goal of LBD is to generate novel and potentially useful hypotheses by analyzing the scientific literature and optionally some additional resources. Our assumption is that drugs have effects on some genes or proteins and that these genes or proteins are associated with the observed adverse effects. Therefore, by using LBD we try to find genes or proteins that link the drugs with the reported adverse effects. These genes or proteins can be used to provide insight into the processes causing the adverse effects. Initial results show that our method has the potential to assist in explaining reported adverse drug effects.
Koch, Tina; Mueller, Ralf S.; Dobenecker, Britta; Fischer, Andrea
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders in dogs and life-long treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AED) is frequently required. Adverse events of AED targeting the skin are only rarely reported in veterinary medicine and the true incidence and spectrum of cutaneous reactions in epileptic dogs remains unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that cutaneous reactions commonly occur in epileptic dogs and are related to AED treatment. A retrospective case review of 185 dogs treated for epilepsy identified 20.0% with simultaneous appearance of dermatologic signs. In a subsequent prospective case investigation (n = 137), we identified newly appearing or distinct worsening of skin lesions following initiation of AED therapy in 10.9% of dogs treated for epilepsy (95% CI 6.8–17.7%). Cutaneous lesions were classified as probably drug-induced in 40.0% of these cases. Patch testing and intradermal testing were further investigated as potential diagnostic methods to confirm AED hypersensitivity. They were of high specificity but sensitivity and positive predictive value appeared inappropriate to recommend their routine use in clinical practice. PMID:27148543
Ribeiro-Vaz, Inês; Santos, Cristina Costa; Cruz-Correia, Ricardo
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe different approaches to promote adverse drug reaction reporting among health care professionals, determining their cost-effectiveness. METHODS We analyzed and compared several approaches taken by the Northern Pharmacovigilance Centre (Portugal) to promote adverse drug reaction reporting. Approaches were compared regarding the number and relevance of adverse drug reaction reports obtained and costs involved. Costs by report were estimated by adding the initial costs and the running costs of each intervention. These costs were divided by the number of reports obtained with each intervention, to assess its cost-effectiveness. RESULTS All the approaches seem to have increased the number of adverse drug reaction reports. We noted the biggest increase with protocols (321 reports, costing 1.96 € each), followed by first educational approach (265 reports, 20.31 €/report) and by the hyperlink approach (136 reports, 15.59 €/report). Regarding the severity of adverse drug reactions, protocols were the most efficient approach, costing 2.29 €/report, followed by hyperlinks (30.28 €/report, having no running costs). Concerning unexpected adverse drug reactions, the best result was obtained with protocols (5.12 €/report), followed by first educational approach (38.79 €/report). CONCLUSIONS We recommend implementing protocols in other pharmacovigilance centers. They seem to be the most efficient intervention, allowing receiving adverse drug reactions reports at lower costs. The increase applied not only to the total number of reports, but also to the severity, unexpectedness and high degree of causality attributed to the adverse drug reactions. Still, hyperlinks have the advantage of not involving running costs, showing the second best performance in cost per adverse drug reactions report. PMID:27143614
Dawson, Dominic R
This article provides an overview of the more common toxins and adverse drug reactions, along with more rare toxins and reactions (Table 1), that result in neurologic dysfunction in horses. A wide variety of symptoms, treatments, and outcomes are seen with toxic neurologic disease in horses. An in-depth history and thorough physical examination are needed to determine if a toxin or adverse drug reaction is responsible for the clinical signs. Once a toxin or adverse drug reaction is identified, the specific antidote, if available, and supportive care should be administered promptly.
Song, Qin; Chuan, Xingxing; Chen, Binlong; He, Bing; Zhang, Hua; Dai, Wenbing; Wang, Xueqing; Zhang, Qiang
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent anticancer drug for the treatment of tumors, but the poor specificity and multi-drug resistance (MDR) on tumor cells have restricted its application. Here, a pH and reduction-responsive peptide-drug conjugate (PDC), pHLIP-SS-DOX, was synthesized to overcome these drawbacks. pH low insertion peptide (pHLIP) is a cell penetrating peptide (CPP) with pH-dependent transmembrane ability. And because of the unique cell membrane insertion pattern, it might reverse the MDR. The cellular uptake study showed that on both drug-sensitive MCF-7 and drug-resistant MCF-7/Adr cells, pHLIP-SS-DOX obviously facilitated the uptake of DOX at pH 6.0 and the uptake level on MCF-7/Adr cells was similar with that on MCF-7 cells, indicating that pHLIP-SS-DOX had the ability to target acidic tumor cells and reverse MDR. In vitro cytotoxicity study mediated by GSH-OEt demonstrated that the cytotoxic effect of pHLIP-SS-DOX was reduction responsive, with obvious cytotoxicity at pH 6.0; while it had poor cytotoxicity at pH 7.4, no matter with or without GSH-OEt pretreatment. This illustrated that pHLIP could deliver DOX into tumor cells with acidic microenvironment specifically and could not deliver drugs into normal cells with neutral microenvironment. In summary, pHLIP-SS-DOX is a promising strategy to target drugs to tumors and provides a possibility to overcome MDR.
Karimi, Sarvnaz; Metke-Jimenez, Alejandro; Kemp, Madonna; Wang, Chen
CSIRO Adverse Drug Event Corpus (Cadec) is a new rich annotated corpus of medical forum posts on patient-reported Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). The corpus is sourced from posts on social media, and contains text that is largely written in colloquial language and often deviates from formal English grammar and punctuation rules. Annotations contain mentions of concepts such as drugs, adverse effects, symptoms, and diseases linked to their corresponding concepts in controlled vocabularies, i.e., SNOMED Clinical Terms and MedDRA. The quality of the annotations is ensured by annotation guidelines, multi-stage annotations, measuring inter-annotator agreement, and final review of the annotations by a clinical terminologist. This corpus is useful for studies in the area of information extraction, or more generally text mining, from social media to detect possible adverse drug reactions from direct patient reports. The corpus is publicly available at https://data.csiro.au.(1).
Aronson, Jeffrey K
The terms 'adverse drug effects' and 'adverse drug reactions' are commonly used interchangeably, but they have different implications. Adverse drug reactions arise when a compound (e.g. a drug or metabolite, a contaminant or adulterant) is distributed in the same place as a body tissue (e.g. a receptor, enzyme, or ion channel), and the encounter results in an adverse effect (a physiological or pathological change), which results in a clinically appreciable adverse reaction. Both the adverse effect and the adverse reaction have manifestations by which they can be recognized: adverse effects are usually detected by laboratory tests (e.g. biochemical, haematological, immunological, radiological, pathological) or by clinical investigations (e.g. endoscopy, cardiac catheterization), and adverse reactions by their clinical manifestations (symptoms and/or signs). This distinction suggests five scenarios: (i) adverse reactions can result directly from adverse effects; (ii) adverse effects may not lead to appreciable adverse reactions; (iii) adverse reactions can occur without preceding adverse effects; (iv) adverse effects and reactions may be dissociated; and (v) adverse effects and reactions can together constitute syndromes. Defining an adverse drug reaction as "an appreciably harmful or unpleasant reaction, resulting from an intervention related to the use of a medicinal product" suggests a definition of an adverse drug effect: "a potentially harmful effect resulting from an intervention related to the use of a medicinal product, which constitutes a hazard and may or may not be associated with a clinically appreciable adverse reaction and/or an abnormal laboratory test or clinical investigation, as a marker of an adverse reaction."
Reynolds, J. L.
In this study, 232 Canadian family physicians recorded suspected adverse drug reactions (SADRs) in their practices for five months. Patients' age and sex, the drug(s) implicated, type of reaction and any disability were recorded on a card and sent to a central coordinating office each week. The number of SADRs in clinical practice seems to be small. An estimated 300,000 patients were involved in the study, and a total of 314 suspected adverse drug reactions in 314 patients were reported. A proposal is made for a surveillance system for new drugs. Family physicians would monitor all patients taking a drug or group of drugs and matched controls. The status of patients and controls would be recorded regularly and any SADRs reported to a central coordinating centre. PMID:21283495
Laatikainen, Outi; Sneck, Sami; Bloigu, Risto; Lahtinen, Minna; Lauri, Timo; Turpeinen, Miia
Adverse drug events (ADEs) are more likely to affect geriatric patients due to physiological changes occurring with aging. Even though this is an internationally recognized problem, similar research data in Finland is still lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the number of geriatric medication-related hospitalizations in the Finnish patient population and to discover the potential means of recognizing patients particularly at risk of ADEs. The study was conducted retrospectively from the 2014 emergency department patient records in Oulu University Hospital. A total number of 290 admissions were screened for ADEs, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and drug-drug interactions (DDIs) by a multi-disciplinary research team. Customized Naranjo scale was used as a control method. All admissions were categorized into “probable,” “possible,” or “doubtful” by both assessment methods. In total, 23.1% of admissions were categorized as “probably” or “possibly” medication-related. Vertigo, falling, and fractures formed the largest group of ADEs. The most common ADEs were related to medicines from N class of the ATC-code system. Age, sex, residence, or specialty did not increase the risk for medication-related admission significantly (min p = 0.077). Polypharmacy was, however, found to increase the risk (OR 3.3; 95% CI, 1.5–6.9; p = 0.01). In conclusion, screening patients for specific demographics or symptoms would not significantly improve the recognition of ADEs. In addition, as ADE detection today is largely based on voluntary reporting systems and retrospective manual tracking of errors, it is evident that more effective methods for ADE detection are needed in the future. PMID:27761112
Yu, Yue; Chen, Jun; Li, Dingcheng; Wang, Liwei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Hongfang
Increasing evidence has shown that sex differences exist in Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). Identifying those sex differences in ADEs could reduce the experience of ADEs for patients and could be conducive to the development of personalized medicine. In this study, we analyzed a normalized US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Chi-squared test was conducted to discover which treatment regimens or drugs had sex differences in adverse events. Moreover, reporting odds ratio (ROR) and P value were calculated to quantify the signals of sex differences for specific drug-event combinations. Logistic regression was applied to remove the confounding effect from the baseline sex difference of the events. We detected among 668 drugs of the most frequent 20 treatment regimens in the United States, 307 drugs have sex differences in ADEs. In addition, we identified 736 unique drug-event combinations with significant sex differences. After removing the confounding effect from the baseline sex difference of the events, there are 266 combinations remained. Drug labels or previous studies verified some of them while others warrant further investigation. PMID:27102014
Day, R O; Quinn, D I; Conaghan, P G; Tett, S E
Drugs administered as therapy for rheumatological disorders are a relatively common cause of adverse events. Important data regarding the effects of drugs on patients with rheumatological conditions is being lost or rendered inaccessible because of deficiencies in classification, measurement, and collection methods for adverse drug reactions. A significant number of adverse reactions to drugs will not be known before marketing, and hence vigilance on the part of clinicians and patients in observing and documenting these reactions is paramount in building our knowledge and modifying our practice accordingly. A variety of systems and methods for detecting adverse drug reactions are described, critically evaluated, and compared for cost, potential bias, ethical concerns, and subject recruitment required for necessary statistical power. Systems need to be developed to give access to the wealth of clinical experimental data available in the individual practices of a broad spectrum of clinicians. To facilitate this, representative organizations need to make adverse drug reactions a high priority as well as contributing expertise and finance to database formulation and accessibility.
Böhm, Ingrid; Nairz, Knud; Morelli, John N; Keller, Patricia Silva Hasembank; Heverhagen, Johannes T
Purpose To test the hypothesis that the incomplete diagnosis "iodine allergy" is a possibly dangerous concept for patients under routine radiologic conditions. Materials and Methods 300 patients with a history of an "iodine allergy" were retrospectively screened and compared with two age-, sex-, and procedure-matched groups of patients either diagnosed with a nonspecific "iodine contrast medium (ICM) allergy" or an allergy to a specific ICM agent. For all groups, the clinical symptoms of the most recent past adverse drug reaction (ADR), prophylactic actions taken for subsequent imaging, and ultimate outcome were recorded and analyzed. Results The diagnosis "iodine allergy" was not otherwise specified in 84.3 % patients. For this group, in most cases, the symptoms of the previous ADRs were not documented. In contrast, the type of ADR was undocumented in only a minority of patients in the comparison groups. In the group of patients with an "iodine allergy" the percentage of unenhanced CT scans was greater than within the other two groups (36.7 % vs. 28.7 %/18.6 %). ADRs following prophylactic measures were only observed in the "iodine allergy" group (OR of 9.24 95 % CI 1.16 - 73.45; p < 0.04). Conclusion This data confirms the hypothesis that the diagnosis "iodine allergy" is potentially dangerous and results in uncertainty in clinical management and sometimes even ineffective prophylactic measures. Key points · The term "iodine allergy" is imprecise, because it designates allergies against different substance classes, such as disinfectants with complexed iodine and contrast media containing covalently bound iodine.. · There is a clear correlation between the exactness of the diagnosis - from the alleged "iodine allergy" to "contrast media allergy" to naming the exact culprit CM - and the quality of documentation of the symptoms.. · Management of patients diagnosed with "iodine allergy" was associated with uncertainty leading to
Rozenfeld, Suely; Giordani, Fabiola; Coelho, Sonia
OBJECTIVE To estimate the frequency of and to characterize the adverse drug events at a terciary care hospital. METHODS A retrospective review was carried out of 128 medical records from a hospital in Rio de Janeiro in 2007, representing 2,092 patients. The instrument used was a list of triggers, such as antidotes, abnormal laboratory analysis results and sudden suspension of treatment, among others. A simple random sample of patients aged 15 and over was extracted. Oncologic and obstetric patients were excluded as were those hospitalized for less than 48 hours or in the emergency room. Social and demographic characteristics and those of the disease of patients who underwent adverse events were compared with those of patients who did not in order to test for differences between the groups. RESULTS Around 70.0% of the medical records assessed showed at least one trigger. Adverse drug events triggers had an overall positive predictive value of 14.4%. The incidence of adverse drug events was 26.6 per 100 patients and 15.6% patients suffered one or more event. The median length of stay for patients suffering an adverse drug event was 35.2 days as against 10.7 days for those who did not (p < 0.01). The pharmacological classes most commonly associated with an adverse drug event were related to the cardiovascular system, nervous system and alimentary tract and metabolism. The most common active substances associated with an adverse drug event were tramadol, dypirone, glibenclamide and furosemide. Over 80.0% of events provoked or contributed to temporary harm to the patient and required intervention and 6.0% may have contributed to the death of the patient. It was estimated that in the hospital, 131 events involving drowsiness or fainting 33 involving falls, and 33 episodes of hemorrhage related to adverse drug effects occur annually. CONCLUSIONS Almost one-sixth of in-patients (16,0%) suffered an adverse drug event. The instrument used may prove useful as a technique for
Müntener, C R; Bruckner, L; Gassner, B; Demuth, D C; Althaus, F R; Zwahlen, R
We received 105 reports of suspected adverse events (SARs) following the use of veterinary drugs for the year 2005. This corresponds to a 35% increase compared to 2004. Practicing veterinarians sent most of these declarations. 73% of these concerned drugs used on companion animals. Antiparasitic drugs approved for topical use were the most frequently represented group with 48%, followed by drugs used to treat gastrointestinal disorders (11%) and drugs used off-label (14%; other target species or other indication). For the first time 2 declarations concerning the application of permethrin containing spot-on preparations used by mistake on cats were received. An overview of 20 declarations about adverse reactions following application of different vaccines is also presented with emphasis on the problem of fibrosarcoma in cats. We are pleased by the growing interest shown by practicing veterinarians for the vigilance system and hope to further develop this collaboration in the future.
Hawcutt, Daniel B; O'Connor, Olya; Turner, Mark A
Neonates are vulnerable to adverse drug reactions but reports of these events are relatively infrequent. Reporting can be increased by adapting a number of standard techniques to the unique features of neonatal care and pathology. However, clinicians and parents will be reluctant to report information about harms in the absence of mechanisms to ensure that reports affect clinical practice. Improved reporting will depend on education and cultural change that are informed by research about pharmacovigilance in neonatal settings. The efficient use of neonatal adverse drug reaction reports will require harmonization of terminology and interoperable databases.
Trifirò, Gianluca; Patadia, Vaishali; Schuemie, Martijn J; Coloma, Preciosa M; Gini, Rosa; Herings, Ron; Hippisley-Cox, Julia; Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Giaquinto, Carlo; Scotti, Lorenza; Pedersen, Lars; Avillach, Paul; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; van der Lei, Johan; Eu-Adr Group
The EU-ADR project aims to exploit different European electronic healthcare records (EHR) databases for drug safety signal detection. In this paper we report the preliminary results concerning the comparison of signal detection between EU-ADR network and two spontaneous reporting databases, the Food and Drug Administration and World Health Organization databases. EU-ADR data sources consist of eight databases in four countries (Denmark, Italy, Netherlands, and United Kingdom) that are virtually linked through distributed data network. A custom-built software (Jerboa©) elaborates harmonized input data that are produced locally and generates aggregated data which are then stored in a central repository. Those data are subsequently analyzed through different statistics (i.e. Longitudinal Gamma Poisson Shrinker). As potential signals, all the drugs that are associated to six events of interest (bullous eruptions - BE, acute renal failure - ARF, acute myocardial infarction - AMI, anaphylactic shock - AS, rhabdomyolysis - RHABD, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding - UGIB) have been detected via different data mining techniques in the two systems. Subsequently a comparison concerning the number of drugs that could be investigated and the potential signals detected for each event in the spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) and EU-ADR network was made. SRSs could explore, as potential signals, a larger number of drugs for the six events, in comparison to EU-ADR (range: 630-3,393 vs. 87-856), particularly for those events commonly thought to be potentially drug-induced (i.e. BE: 3,393 vs. 228). The highest proportion of signals detected in SRSs was found for BE, ARF and AS, while for ARF, and UGIB in EU-ADR. In conclusion, it seems that EU-ADR longitudinal database network may complement traditional spontaneous reporting system for signal detection, especially for those adverse events that are frequent in general population and are not commonly thought to be drug
DiPirro, M. J.; Shirron, P. J.
Heat switches are key elements in the cyclic operation of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs). Several of the types of heat switches that have been used for ADRs are described in this paper. Key elements in selection and design of these switches include not only ON/OFF switching ratio, but also method of actuation, size, weight, and structural soundness. Some of the trade-off are detailed in this paper.
DiPirro, M. J.; Shirron, P. J.
Heat switches are key elements in the cyclic operation of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs). Several of the types of heat switches that have been used for ADRs are described in this paper. Key elements in selection and design of these switches include not only ON/OFF switching ratio, but also method of actuation, size, weight, and structural soundness. Some of the trade-off are detailed in this paper.
Elkalmi, Ramadan; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Al-lela, Omar Qutaiba; Jawad Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Al-Shami, Abdul Kareem; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim
Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge of the general population towards ADR and their reporting system. Methods: An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire (15 items) was designed. The questionnaire was subjected to face validity and content validity. The reliability coefficient was found to be 0.71. This study recruited proportionately large convenience sample of the general public in Penang. Interviews using a structured questionnaire were conducted over a week period in August 2009. The recommended sample size was calculated to be 368. Results: Three hundred thirty-four responses were received. Slightly more than half of the respondents were in the age group of 18-25 years (53.6%; n = 179). When asked about the sources of their medication majority of them reported medical doctor (85.6%), whereas small number (34.7%) reported community pharmacists as sources of medications. Three-quarter of the respondents (77.2%) get their information about the side-effects of drugs from physicians, followed by pharmacist (44.6%). More than half of the respondents (65.6%, n = 219) reported unawareness about the existence of ADR center set up by the Ministry of Health. Conclusion: Respondents reflected inadequate knowledge on ADR reporting. This needs to be corrected as the trend of future pharmacovigilance is toward the patient. Moreover, the new trend seems to be more appropriate as the patient is the group of the people who are directly affected from the ADR of a particular drug and not the health-care providers. Furthermore, the patient will be informed about the economic implications of not reporting ADR. It is recommended that government agencies, like MADRAC needs to find ways to increase patient- reported ADR cases. PMID:24082699
Soukavong, Mick; Kim, Jungmee; Park, Kyounghoon; Yang, Bo Ram; Lee, Joongyub; Jin, Xue Mei; Park, Byung Joo
We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability.
We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability. PMID:27510377
Cheng, Feixiong; Li, Weihua; Wang, Xichuan; Zhou, Yadi; Wu, Zengrui; Shen, Jie; Tang, Yun
Adverse drug events (ADEs) are the harms associated with uses of given medications at normal dosages, which are crucial for a drug to be approved in clinical use or continue to stay on the market. Many ADEs are not identified in trials until the drug is approved for clinical use, which results in adverse morbidity and mortality. To date, millions of ADEs have been reported around the world. Methods to avoid or reduce ADEs are an important issue for drug discovery and development. Here, we reported a comprehensive database of adverse drug events (namely MetaADEDB), which included more than 520,000 drug-ADE associations among 3059 unique compounds (including 1330 drugs) and 13,200 ADE items by data integration and text mining. All compounds and ADEs were annotated with the most commonly used concepts defined in Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). Meanwhile, a computational method, namely the phenotypic network inference model (PNIM), was developed for prediction of potential ADEs based on the database. The area under the receive operating characteristic curve (AUC) is more than 0.9 by 10-fold cross validation, while the AUC value was 0.912 for an external validation set extracted from the US-FDA Adverse Events Reporting System, which indicated that the prediction capability of the method was reliable. MetaADEDB is accessible free of charge at http://www.lmmd.org/online_services/metaadedb/. The database and the method provide us a useful tool to search for known side effects or predict potential side effects for a given drug or compound.
Sasidharanpillai, Sarita; Riyaz, Najeeba; Khader, Anza; Rajan, Uma; Binitha, Manikoth P; Sureshan, Deepthi N
Background: Drug eruptions range from transient erythema to the life threatening severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) that encompass Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms complex (DRESS). Aims and Objectives: To study the clinical and epidemiological aspects of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR). Materials and Methods: Ethical clearance was obtained from the institutional ethics committee. All patients admitted in the Dermatology ward of our tertiary care hospital with CADR (those who fit in the category of probable or possible drug reaction as per WHO casuality assessment) from first September 2011 to 31st August 2012 were included in this cross sectional study after obtaining written informed consent. The drug reaction patterns observed in the study population were determined and the common offending drugs were identified. Results: In the study, population of males outnumbered females and the majority were between 46 and 60 years of age. The commonest reaction pattern observed was SJS- TEN spectrum of illness and aromatic anticonvulsants were the common offending drugs. Prompt withdrawal of the culprit drug and administration of systemic steroids with or without I/V Ig reverted the adverse reaction in all except one. Conclusion: Severe drug reactions predominated as the study population was comprised of inpatients of a tertiary referral centre. Though; previous authors had reported a mortality rate of up to 20% in DRESS, all our patients with this reaction pattern, responded well to treatment. The mortality rate among TEN cases was much lower than the previous reports. Early diagnosis, prompt withdrawal of the suspected drug, careful monitoring for development of complications and immediate intervention can improve the prognosis of CADR. PMID:25657416
Sarker, Abeed; O’Connor, Karen; Ginn, Rachel
Objective Social media is becoming increasingly popular as a platform for sharing personal health-related information. This information can be utilized for public health monitoring tasks, particularly for pharmacovigilance, via the use of natural language processing (NLP) techniques. However, the language in social media is highly informal, and user-expressed medical concepts are often nontechnical, descriptive, and challenging to extract. There has been limited progress in addressing these challenges, and thus far, advanced machine learning-based NLP techniques have been underutilized. Our objective is to design a machine learning-based approach to extract mentions of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) from highly informal text in social media. Methods We introduce ADRMine, a machine learning-based concept extraction system that uses conditional random fields (CRFs). ADRMine utilizes a variety of features, including a novel feature for modeling words’ semantic similarities. The similarities are modeled by clustering words based on unsupervised, pretrained word representation vectors (embeddings) generated from unlabeled user posts in social media using a deep learning technique. Results ADRMine outperforms several strong baseline systems in the ADR extraction task by achieving an F-measure of 0.82. Feature analysis demonstrates that the proposed word cluster features significantly improve extraction performance. Conclusion It is possible to extract complex medical concepts, with relatively high performance, from informal, user-generated content. Our approach is particularly scalable, suitable for social media mining, as it relies on large volumes of unlabeled data, thus diminishing the need for large, annotated training data sets. PMID:25755127
Wang, Na; Parimi, Leela; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Furen
Dapsone is a bactericidal and bacteriostatic against Mycobacterium leprae, a causative agent of leprosy. Dapsone is also applied in a range of medical fields because of its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is a rare yet serious adverse drug reaction (ADR) caused by dapsone involving multiple organs. We performed a systematic review of published articles describing dapsone-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, including all Chinese articles and the latest literature available in online databases published between October 2009 and October 2015. We determined the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and mortality rate of DHS. Importantly, we also summarized the recent advances in genetic testing allowing prediction of ADRs. In an initial systematic electronic search, we retrieved 191 articles. Subsequently, these articles were further filtered and ultimately 84 articles (60 Chinese case reports, 21 non-Chinese articles, and three epidemiological studies) were selected, which included 877 patients. The prevalence of DHS among Chinese patients was 1.5% with a fatality rate of 9.6%. Early withdrawal of dapsone and appropriate treatment reduced the fatality rate. Most importantly, genetic screening for the HLA-B 13:01 allele among high-risk populations showed a significant utility as a useful genetic marker to DHS. In conclusion, this review discusses the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of DHS among Chinese patients, which may help physicians to understand this syndrome.
Chabi, Yossounon; Brahim, Kheira; Da Costa, Maryline; Caffin, Anne-Gaëlle; Camus, Gisèle; Paillet, Michel; Bohand, Xavier
The photodegradation of an active substance during treatment is a rare drug-related adverse event which can sometimes have serious consequences. Health professionals must be aware of the specific storage and administration instructions with regard to chlorpromazine and ensure that they are respected.
Resende, Laíse Soares Oliveira; Santos-Neto, Edson Theodoro Dos
This review sought to identify the available scientific evidence on risk factors associated with adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs. We performed a systematic review of studies published in the 1965-2012 period and indexed in the MEDLINE and LILACS databases. A total of 1,389 articles were initially selected. After reading their abstracts, we selected 85 studies. Of those 85 studies, 16 were included in the review. Risk factors for adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs included age > 60 years, treatment regimens, alcoholism, anemia, and HIV co-infection, as well as sodium, iron, and albumin deficiency. Protective factors against hepatic adverse effects of antituberculosis drugs included being male (combined OR = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.20-0.72) and showing a rapid/intermediate N-acetyltransferase 2 acetylator phenotype (combined OR = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.18-0.90). There is evidence to support the need for management of adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs at public health care facilities.
Resende, Laíse Soares Oliveira; dos Santos-Neto, Edson Theodoro
This review sought to identify the available scientific evidence on risk factors associated with adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs. We performed a systematic review of studies published in the 1965-2012 period and indexed in the MEDLINE and LILACS databases. A total of 1,389 articles were initially selected. After reading their abstracts, we selected 85 studies. Of those 85 studies, 16 were included in the review. Risk factors for adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs included age > 60 years, treatment regimens, alcoholism, anemia, and HIV co-infection, as well as sodium, iron, and albumin deficiency. Protective factors against hepatic adverse effects of antituberculosis drugs included being male (combined OR = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.20-0.72) and showing a rapid/intermediate N-acetyltransferase 2 acetylator phenotype (combined OR = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.18-0.90). There is evidence to support the need for management of adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs at public health care facilities. PMID:25750677
Muñoz, Emir; Nováček, Vít; Vandenbussche, Pierre-Yves
We propose a new computational method for discovery of possible adverse drug reactions. The method consists of two key steps. First we use openly available resources to semi-automatically compile a consolidated data set describing drugs and their features (e.g., chemical structure, related targets, indications or known adverse reaction). The data set is represented as a graph, which allows for definition of graph-based similarity metrics. The metrics can then be used for propagating known adverse reactions between similar drugs, which leads to weighted (i.e., ranked) predictions of previously unknown links between drugs and their possible side effects. We implemented the proposed method in the form of a software prototype and evaluated our approach by discarding known drug-side effect links from our data and checking whether our prototype is able to re-discover them. As this is an evaluation methodology used by several recent state of the art approaches, we could compare our results with them. Our approach scored best in all widely used metrics like precision, recall or the ratio of relevant predictions present among the top ranked results. The improvement was as much as 125.79% over the next best approach. For instance, the F1 score was 0.5606 (66.35% better than the next best method). Most importantly, in 95.32% of cases, the top five results contain at least one, but typically three correctly predicted side effect (36.05% better than the second best approach). PMID:28269889
Background In spite of enhanced control efforts, malaria remains a major public health problem causing close to a million deaths annually. With support from several donors, large amounts of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) are being deployed in endemic countries raising safety concerns as little is known about the use of ACT in several of the settings where they are deployed. This project was undertaken to profile the provenance of the pharmacovigilance reporting of all anti-malarials, including ACT to the WHO adverse drug reaction (ADR) database (Vigibase™) over the past 40 years. Methods The WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring, the Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC) provided anonymized extracts of Vigibase™ covering the period 1968-2008. All countries in the programme were clustered according to their malaria control phase and income status. The number of individual case safety reports (ICSRs) of anti-malarials was analyzed according to those clusters. Results From 1968 to 2008, 21,312 ICSRs suspecting anti-malarials were received from 64 countries. Low-income countries, that are also malaria-endemic (categorized as priority 1 countries) submitted only 1.2% of the ICSRs. Only 60 out of 21,312 ICSRs were related to ACT, 51 of which were coming from four sub-Saharan African countries. Although very few ICSRs involved artemisinin-based compounds, many of the adverse events reported were potentially serious. Conclusions This paper illustrates the low reporting of ADRs to anti-malarials in general and ACT in particular. Most reports were submitted by non-endemic and/or high-income countries. Given the current mix of large donor funding, the insufficient information on safety of these drugs, increasing availability of ACT and artemisinin-based monotherapies in public and private sector channels, associated potential for inappropriate use and finally a pipeline of more than 10 new novel anti-malarials in various stages of development, the
Umetsu, Ryogo; Abe, Junko; Ueda, Natsumi; Kato, Yamato; Nakayama, Yoko; Kinosada, Yasutomi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs play an important role in self-medication. To ensure patient safety, pharmacists should ask patients to pay attention to possible adverse events (AE) associated with OTC drugs and educate patients about the symptoms related to those AEs. The aims of the present study were as follows: (1) to assess the tendency of AEs to occur with OTC drug use in Japan; (2) to detect a safety signal for OTC drugs using the reporting odds ratio (ROR); and (3) to evaluate clustery features, which include suspected drugs and therapeutic classifications, and safety signal indices (number of reports and the ROR), using cluster analysis. The number of reports of AEs following use of combination cold remedy, antipyretic and analgesic remedy, and herbal medicine was 1007, 566, and 221, respectively. We set the cluster number at five; clustery features obtained were as follows: (1) high reporting rate for skin and subcutaneous tissue disorder AEs was the largest group related to combination cold remedy; (2) high reporting rate for nervous system disorder AEs including dizziness was the second largest group. The same medicinal ingredient may demonstrate similar tendencies of the occurrence of AEs and similar clustery features in the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database. Our analysis of AEs associated with OTC drugs may be useful for pharmacists and patients alike. Further studies are required to draw better-informed conclusions.
Härmark, Linda; van Hunsel, Florence; Grundmark, Birgitta
Consumer reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) has existed in several countries for decades, but throughout Europe the role of consumers as a source of information on ADRs has not been fully accepted until recently. In Europe, The Netherlands and Sweden were among the first countries to implement consumer reporting well before it was mandated by law throughout the EU. Consumer reporting is an integral part of the spontaneous reporting systems in both The Netherlands and Sweden, with yearly numbers of reports constantly increasing. Consumer reporting forms and handling procedures are essentially the same as for healthcare professional reporting; the message in the reports, not the type of messenger, is what is of importance. Studies have established the significant contribution of consumer reporting to ADR signal detection. Combining all reports regardless of reporter type is recommended since it yields the largest critical mass of reports for signal detection. Examples of signals where consumer reports have been of crucial importance for signal detection are electric shock-like sensations associated with the use of duloxetine, and persistent sexual dysfunction after discontinuation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. An example of consumer reporting significantly strengthening a detected signal is Pandemrix(®) (influenza H1N1 vaccine)-induced narcolepsy. Raising public awareness of ADR reporting is important, but time- and resource-consuming. The minimum effort taken should be to passively inform consumers, e.g. via stakeholders' homepages and via drug product information leaflets. Another possibility of reaching out to this target group could be through co-operation with other (non-government) organizations. Information from consumer reports may give a new perspective on ADRs via the consumers' unfiltered experiences. Consumers' views may change the way the benefit-harm balance of drugs is perceived and assessed today, and, being the ultimate users
Background The new European pharmacovigilance legislation has been suggested as marking the beginning of a new chapter in drug safety, making patients an important part of pharmacovigilance. In Sweden since 2008 it has been possible for consumers to report adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to the Medical Products Agency (MPA), and these reports are now understood as an increasingly valuable contribution in the monitoring of safety aspects in medicines. Already in 2002 it was possible to report experiences with medicines to the non-profit and independent organization Consumer Association for Medicines and Health (KILEN) through a web-based report form with an opportunity to describe ADR experiences in free text comments. The aim of this study was to qualitatively analyze the free text comments appended to consumer reports on antidepressant medication. Methods All reports of suspected adverse reactions regarding antidepressant medications submitted from January 2002 to April 2009 to KILEN’s Internet-based reporting system in Sweden were analyzed according to reported narrative experience(s). Content analysis was used to interpret the content of 181 reports with free text comments. Results Three main categories emerged from the analyzed data material: (1) Experiences of drug treatment with subcategories (a) Severe psychiatric adverse reactions, and (b) Discontinuation symptoms; (2) Lack of communication and (3) Trust and distrust. A majority of the reports to KILEN were from patients experiencing symptoms of mental disturbances (sometimes severe) affecting them in many different ways, especially during discontinuation. Several report included narratives of patients not receiving information of potential ADRs from their doctor, but also that there were no follow-ups of the treatment. Trust was highlighted as especially important and some patients reported losing confidence in their doctor when they were not believed about the suspected ADRs they experienced, making them
Bartalena, L; Bogazzi, F; Martino, E
Thyroid hormone preparations, especially thyroxine, are widely used either at replacement doses to correct hypothyroidism or at suppressive doses to abolish thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone) secretion in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy or with diffuse/ nodular nontoxic goitre. In order to suppress thyrotropin secretion, it is necessary to administer slightly supraphysiological doses of thyroxine. Possible adverse effects of this therapy include cardiovascular changes (shortening of systolic time intervals, increased frequency of atrial premature beats and, possibly, left ventricular hypertrophy) and bone changes (reduced bone density and bone mass), but the risk of these adverse effects can be minimised by carefully monitoring serum free thyroxine and free liothyronine (triiodothyronine) measurements and adjusting the dosage accordingly. Thionamides [thiamazole (methimazole), carbimazole, propylthiouracil] are the most widely used antithyroid drugs. They are given for long periods of time and cause adverse effects in 3 to 5% of patients. In most cases, adverse effects are minor and transient (e.g. skin rash, itching, mild leucopenia). The most dangerous effect is agranulocytosis, which occurs in 0.1 to 0.5% of patients. This life-threatening condition can now be effectively treated by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration. Other major adverse effects (aplastic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, vasculitis) are exceedingly rare.
Staniszewska, Anna; Dąbrowska-Bender, Marta; Olejniczak, Dominik; Duda-Zalewska, Aneta; Bujalska-Zadrożny, Magdalena
Aim The aim of the study was to assess patient knowledge on reporting of adverse drug reactions. Materials and methods A prospective study was conducted among 200 patients. The study was based on an original survey composed of 15 single- and multiple-choice questions. The study involved individuals who have experienced adverse reactions as well as individuals who have never experienced any adverse reactions; people over the age of 18; literate; residing in Mazowieckie Voivodeship, who have not been diagnosed with any disease that could compromise their logical thinking skills. Results The respondents who lived in the city had a greater knowledge compared to the respondents who lived in the countryside (Pearson’s χ2=47.70, P=0.0013). The respondents who lived in the city were also more statistically likely to provide a correct answer to the question about the type of adverse reactions to be reported (Pearson’s χ2=50.66, P=0.012). Statistically significant associations were found between the place of residence of the respondents and the correct answer to the question about the data that must be included in the report on adverse reactions (Pearson’s χ2=11.7, P<0.0001). PMID:28096661
Witt, Juri-Alexander; Elger, Christian E; Helmstaedter, Christoph
The study was set up to evaluate the impact of the total drug load of antiepileptic pharmacotherapy on cognition. Retrospective analyses were based on 834 patients with epilepsy who underwent a brief routine assessment of executive function and verbal memory (EpiTrack Plus) at our department. The total drug load was quantified in two ways: (1) number of concurrent antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and (2) total drug load according to the defined daily dose (DDD) provided by the World Health Organization. The cognitive measures showed higher inverse correlations with the number of AEDs (executive function: r=-0.35, p<0.001; memory: r=-0.22, p<0.001) than with the total DDD (executive function: r=-0.27, p<0.001; memory: r=-0.17, p<0.001). Reanalysis with statistical control for disease severity hardly changed the aforementioned results. With each additional drug in polytherapy, we observed a significantly lower performance in executive function. In this regard an additional explorative approach revealed that regimens combining AEDs with favorable cognitive profiles were associated with higher cognitive performance. Correlations between indicators of disease severity and drug load indices were low: altogether explaining only up to 9% of the observed variance in drug load. The findings demonstrate a considerable adverse effect of a higher drug load on cognition, especially on executive functions. Simply counting the number of drugs may be sufficient as a rough estimate of the risk of side effects. However, the combination of AEDs with favorable cognitive profiles may attenuate the negative effect of the total drug load.
Pushkin, Richard; Frassetto, Lynda; Tsourounis, Candy; Segal, Eleanor S; Kim, Stephanie
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is perceived by the public as having a substantial responsibility to ensure drug safety; however, the FDA has limited resources for active surveillance and relies on voluntary reporting of adverse events and potential adverse drug reactions. Studies have shown that underreporting of adverse events and adverse drug reactions is widespread. Furthermore, a review of several studies demonstrates that most adverse drug reactions are reported by pharmacists and nurses, with physicians reporting the fewest. The hospital setting, with its clearly defined patient population observed around the clock, is an ideal setting in which to identify potential adverse drug reaction signals and to report them to either the drug manufacturer or the FDA. In this article we describe the present system for addressing adverse events, obstacles to reporting them, and the important role any hospital physician could play in reporting adverse events and potential adverse drug reactions.
Roitmann, Eva; Eriksson, Robert; Brunak, Søren
Purpose: New pharmacovigilance methods are needed as a consequence of the morbidity caused by drugs. We exploit fine-grained drug related adverse event information extracted by text mining from electronic medical records (EMRs) to stratify patients based on their adverse events and to determine adverse event co-occurrences. Methods: We analyzed the similarity of adverse event profiles of 2347 patients extracted from EMRs from a mental health center in Denmark. The patients were clustered based on their adverse event profiles and the similarities were presented as a network. The set of adverse events in each main patient cluster was evaluated. Co-occurrences of adverse events in patients (p-value < 0.01) were identified and presented as well. Results: We found that each cluster of patients typically had a most distinguishing adverse event. Examination of the co-occurrences of adverse events in patients led to the identification of potentially interesting adverse event correlations that may be further investigated as well as provide further patient stratification opportunities. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the feasibility of a novel approach in pharmacovigilance to stratify patients based on fine-grained adverse event profiles, which also makes it possible to identify adverse event correlations. Used on larger data sets, this data-driven method has the potential to reveal unknown patterns concerning adverse event occurrences. PMID:25249979
The use of herbal supplements in the US has increased dramatically in recent years. These products are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with the same scrutiny as conventional drugs. Patients who use herbal supplements often do so in conjunction with conventional drugs. This article is a review of potential adverse interactions between some of the commonly used herbal supplements and analgesic drugs. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), particularly aspirin, have the potential to interact with herbal supplements that are known to possess antiplatelet activity (ginkgo, garlic, ginger, bilberry, dong quai, feverfew, ginseng, turmeric, meadowsweet and willow), with those containing coumarin (chamomile, motherworth, horse chestnut, fenugreek and red clover) and with tamarind, enhancing the risk of bleeding. Acetaminophen may also interact with ginkgo and possibly with at least some of the above herbs to increase the risk of bleeding. Further, the incidences of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity may be augmented by acetaminophen when concomitantly used with the potentially hepatotoxic herbs Echinacea and kava, and with herbs containing salicylate (willow, meadowsweet), respectively. The concomitant use of opioid analgesics with the sedative herbal supplements, valerian, kava and chamomile, may lead to increased central nervous system (CNS) depression. The analgesic effect of opioids may also be inhibited by ginseng. It is suggested that health-care professionals should be more aware of the potential adverse interactions between herbal supplements and analgesic drugs, and take appropriate precautionary measures to avoid their possible occurrences. However, as most of the interaction information available is based on individual case reports, animal studies and in vitro data, further research is needed to confirm and assess the clinical significance of these potential interactions.
Recent research has suggested that the case-control study design, unlike the self-controlled study design, performs poorly in controlling confounding in the detection of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) from administrative claims and electronic health record (EHR) data, resulting in biased estimates of the causal effects of drugs on health outcomes of interest (HOI) and inaccurate confidence intervals. Here we show that using rich data on comorbidities and automatic variable selection strategies for selecting confounders can better control confounding within a case-control study design and provide a more solid basis for inference regarding the causal effects of drugs on HOIs. Four HOIs are examined: acute kidney injury, acute liver injury, acute myocardial infarction and gastrointestinal ulcer hospitalization. For each of these HOIs we use a previously published reference set of positive and negative control drugs to evaluate the performance of our methods. Our methods have AUCs that are often substantially higher than the AUCs of a baseline method that only uses demographic characteristics for confounding control. Our methods also give confidence intervals for causal effect parameters that cover the expected no effect value substantially more often than this baseline method. The case-control study design, unlike the self-controlled study design, can be used in the fairly typical setting of EHR databases without longitudinal information on patients. With our variable selection method, these databases can be more effectively used for the detection of ADRs. PMID:27716785
Błaszczyk, Barbara; Lasoń, Władysław; Czuczwar, Stanisław Jerzy
This paper summarizes current views on clinical manifestation, pathogenesis, prognosis and management of antiepileptic drug (AED)-induced adverse skin reactions. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (PubMed) and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched. The recent classification, among drug-induced skin injuries, points to Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis and hypersensitivity syndrome (HSS), which may be also recognized as a drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS). The use of aromatic AEDs, e.g. phenytoin, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, primidone, zonisamide, and lamotrigine is more frequently associated with cutaneous eruption and other signs or symptoms of drug hypersensitivity. There is a high degree of cross-reactivity (40-80%) in patients with hypersensitivity or allergic reactions to AEDs. Pharmacogenetic variations in drug biotransformation may also play a role in inducing these undesired effects. It is suggested that avoidance of specific AEDs in populations at special risk, cautious dose titration and careful monitoring of clinical response and, if applicable, laboratory parameters can minimize the serious consequences of idiosyncratic reactions.
Horen, Benjamin; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Lapeyre-mestre, Maryse
Aims To investigate the potential relationship between off-label drug use and increased risk of adverse drug reactions in paediatric outpatients. Methods A prospective pharmacovigilance survey of drug prescribing in office based paediatricians was carried out in Haute-Garonne County (south west of France). Results The study involved a sample of 1419 children under 16 years old. Forty-two percent of patients were exposed to at least one off-label prescription. The incidence of adverse drug reactions was 1.41% (95% CI 0.79, 2.11). Off-label drug use was significantly associated with adverse drug reactions (relative risk 3.44; 95% CI 1.26, 9.38), particularly when it was due to an indication different than that defined in the Summary Product Characteristics (relative risk 4.42; 95% CI 1.60, 12.25). Conclusions Our data suggest an increasing risk of adverse drug reactions related to off-label drug use. This risk would be acceptable if further studies prove the potential benefit of such a drug use. PMID:12492616
Chazard, Emmanuel; Preda, Cristian; Merlin, Béatrice; Ficheur, Grégoire; Beuscart, Régis
Every year adverse drug events (ADEs) are known to be responsible for 98,000 deaths in the USA. Classical methods rely on report statements, expert knowledge, and staff operated record review. One of our objectives, in the PSIP project framework, is to use data mining (e.g., decision trees) to electronically identify situations leading to risk of ADEs. 10,500 hospitalization records from Denmark and France were used. 500 rules were automatically obtained, which are currently being validated by experts. A decision support system to prevent ADEs is then to be developed. The article examines a decision tree and the rules in the field of vitamin K antagonists.
Yang, Chao; Srinivasan, Padmini; Polgreen, Philip M
We present and test the intuition that letters to the editor in journals carry early signals of adverse drug events (ADEs). Surprisingly these letters have not yet been exploited for automatic ADE detection unlike for example, clinical records and PubMed. Part of the challenge is that it is not easy to access the full-text of letters (for the most part these do not appear in PubMed). Also letters are likely underrated in comparison with full articles. Besides demonstrating that this intuition holds we contribute techniques for post market drug surveillance. Specifically, we test an automatic approach for ADE detection from letters using off-the-shelf machine learning tools. We also involve natural language processing for feature definitions. Overall we achieve high accuracy in our experiments and our method also works well on a second new test set. Our results encourage us to further pursue this line of research.
Alessandrini, Marco; Chaudhry, Mamoonah; Dodgen, Tyren M.
Abstract In a move indicative of the enthusiastic support of precision medicine, the U.S. President Barack Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative in January 2015. The global precision medicine ecosystem is, thus, receiving generous support from the United States ($215 million), and numerous other governments have followed suit. In the context of precision medicine, drug treatment and prediction of its outcomes have been important for nearly six decades in the field of pharmacogenomics. The field offers an elegant solution for minimizing the effects and occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) plays an important role in this context, and it aims at specifically guiding the translation of clinically relevant and evidence-based pharmacogenomics research. In this forward-looking analysis, we make particular reference to several of the CPIC guidelines and their role in guiding the treatment of highly relevant diseases, namely cardiovascular disease, major depressive disorder, cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus, with a view to predicting and managing ADRs. In addition, we provide a list of the top 10 crosscutting opportunities and challenges facing the fields of precision medicine and pharmacogenomics, which have broad applicability independent of the drug class involved. Many of these opportunities and challenges pertain to infrastructure, study design, policy, and science culture in the early 21st century. Ultimately, rational pharmacogenomics study design and the acquisition of comprehensive phenotypic data that proportionately match the genomics data should be an imperative as we move forward toward global precision medicine. PMID:27643672
Alessandrini, Marco; Chaudhry, Mamoonah; Dodgen, Tyren M; Pepper, Michael S
In a move indicative of the enthusiastic support of precision medicine, the U.S. President Barack Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative in January 2015. The global precision medicine ecosystem is, thus, receiving generous support from the United States ($215 million), and numerous other governments have followed suit. In the context of precision medicine, drug treatment and prediction of its outcomes have been important for nearly six decades in the field of pharmacogenomics. The field offers an elegant solution for minimizing the effects and occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) plays an important role in this context, and it aims at specifically guiding the translation of clinically relevant and evidence-based pharmacogenomics research. In this forward-looking analysis, we make particular reference to several of the CPIC guidelines and their role in guiding the treatment of highly relevant diseases, namely cardiovascular disease, major depressive disorder, cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus, with a view to predicting and managing ADRs. In addition, we provide a list of the top 10 crosscutting opportunities and challenges facing the fields of precision medicine and pharmacogenomics, which have broad applicability independent of the drug class involved. Many of these opportunities and challenges pertain to infrastructure, study design, policy, and science culture in the early 21st century. Ultimately, rational pharmacogenomics study design and the acquisition of comprehensive phenotypic data that proportionately match the genomics data should be an imperative as we move forward toward global precision medicine.
Weisser, K; Meyer, C; Petzold, D; Mentzer, D; Keller-Stanislawski, B
Sufficient post-marketing surveillance is necessary for safety monitoring of vaccines. In this respect the spontaneous reporting system of reporting suspected adverse drug reactions (ADR) following vaccination is an essential tool for safety monitoring. The marketing authorization holder and/or pharmaceutical manufacturer has the legal obligation to report suspected adverse drug reactions (German Drug Law and European Regulation). In addition physicians and traditional healers have to report suspected cases of complications after immunizations pursuant to the German Infection Protection Act (Infektionsschutzgesetz, IfSG). The reports are medically assessed and stored in a database at the Paul Ehrlich Institute. For the publication referenced here, all reported suspected cases of adverse drug reactions after immunizations were evaluated for the period from January 1, 2004-December 31, 2005 according to different criteria. In 2004 (2005) a total of 1237 (1393) suspected cases of adverse drug reactions or suspected complications after immunizations were notified. 858 (919) of these adverse drug reactions (ADR) were serious (69 % and 66 %, respectively). 414 (517) of the ADRs (i.e. 33 % and 37 %, respectively) were reported by physicians according to the IfSG; the other reports were from industry and other reporting sources. 251 (229) i.e. 61 % (44 %) of these reactions were serious. The total number of reports divided by the total number of vaccine doses launched on the German market during the observation period (according to the data provided by the pharmaceutical industry) revealed an overall "reporting rate" of approx. 3 reports per 100,000 vaccine doses. The age groups with the highest absolute number of reported cases were infants and young children (0-2 years), and adults (18-59 years) accounting for approx. one third each of the reports. The age distribution of the suspected cases was comparable with that of previous years. In both years, approx. half of all
Krasowski, Matthew D.; McGehee, Daniel S.
Purpose Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase are two closely related enzymes important in the metabolism of acetylcholine and anaesthetic drugs, including succinylcholine, mivacurium, and cocaine. The solanaceous glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are naturally occurring steroids in potatoes and related plants that inhibit both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. There are many clinical examples of direct SGA toxicity due to cholinesterase inhibition. The aim of this study was to review the hypotheses that (1) SGAs may be the evolutionary driving force for atypical butyrylcholinesterase alleles and that (2) SGAs may adversely influence the actions of anaesthetic drugs that metabolized by acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. Source The information was obtained by Medline search and consultation with experts in the study of SGAs and cholinesterases. Principal findings The SGAs inhibit both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in numerous in vitro and in vivo experiments. Although accurate assays of SGA levels are difficult, published data indicate human serum SGA concentrations at least ten-fold lower than required to inhibit acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in vitro. However, we review evidence that suggests the dietary ingestion of SGAs can initiate a cholinergic syndrome in humans. This syndrome occurs at SGA levels lower than those which interfere with anaesthetic drug catabolism. The world distribution of solanaceous plants parallels the distribution of atypical alleles of butyrylcholinesterase and may explain the genetic diversity of the butyrylcholinesterase gene. Conclusion Correlative evidence suggests that dietary SGAs may be the driving force for atypical butyrylcholinesterase alleles. In addition, SGAs may influence the metabolism of anaesthetic drugs and this hypothesis warrants experimental investigation. PMID:9161749
Chazard, Emmanuel; Ficheur, Grégoire; Bernonville, Stéphanie; Luyckx, Michel; Beuscart, Régis
Adverse drug events (ADEs) are a public health issue. Their detection usually relies on voluntary reporting or medical chart reviews. The objective of this paper is to automatically detect cases of ADEs by data mining. 115,447 complete past hospital stays are extracted from six French, Danish, and Bulgarian hospitals using a common data model including diagnoses, drug administrations, laboratory results, and free-text records. Different kinds of outcomes are traced, and supervised rule induction methods (decision trees and association rules) are used to discover ADE detection rules, with respect to time constraints. The rules are then filtered, validated, and reorganized by a committee of experts. The rules are described in a rule repository, and several statistics are automatically computed in every medical department, such as the confidence, relative risk, and median delay of outcome appearance. 236 validated ADE-detection rules are discovered; they enable to detect 27 different kinds of outcomes. The rules use a various number of conditions related to laboratory results, diseases, drug administration, and demographics. Some rules involve innovative conditions, such as drug discontinuations.
Bahna, Sami L; Khalili, Barzin
Our understanding of drug reactions and their management has changed markedly in recent years with the development of several new concepts. Epidermal cell death seen in Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) may result from Fas-Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) contains anti-Fas antibodies that can abrogate apoptosis. Most studies on IVIG in SJS and TEN reported improvement in arresting disease progression and reduction in time to healing. Furthermore, several studies have dispelled the myth of sulfonamide cross-reactivity. Immune-mediated reactions against antibacterial sulfonamides are directed against two unique side chains that non-antibacterial sulfonamides do not contain. Certain patients seem to have a genetic predisposition for "multiple drug sensitivities." Hence, they may react to several drugs that are not necessarily cross-reacting. Also, multiple studies have shown that IgE-mediated nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cross-reactivity is uncommon. Rather, it is cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 inhibition that results in pseudoallergic reactions to multiple NSAIDs. Several studies have indicated that selective COX-2 inhibitors can be safely administered in patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease and NSAID-induced cutaneous reactions, although their use has been curtailed by their cardiovascular side effects. Biological agents, such as infliximab, are being increasingly used for a variety of diseases and have caused adverse reactions in some patients. Studies differ as to whether concomitant immunosuppressive use with infliximab affects the development of drug-specific antibodies and infusion reactions. Successful desensitization protocols have been developed for reactions to some of these agents.
Sawarkar, Abhivyakti; Keohane, Carol A.; Maviglia, Saverio; Gandhi, Tejal K; Poon, Eric G
OBJECTIVE To determine how often serious or life-threatening medication administration errors with the potential to cause patient harm (or potential adverse drug events) result in actual patient harm (or adverse drug events (ADEs)) in the hospital setting. DESIGN Retrospective chart review of clinical events that transpired following observed medication administration errors. BACKGROUND Medication errors are common at the medication administration stage for hospitalized patients. While many of these errors are considered capable of causing patient harm, it is not clear how often patients are actually harmed by these errors. METHODS In a previous study where 14,041 medication administrations in an acute-care hospital were directly observed, investigators discovered 1271 medication administration errors, of which 133 had the potential to cause serious or life-threatening harm to patients and were considered serious or life-threatening potential ADEs. In the current study, clinical reviewers conducted detailed chart reviews of cases where a serious or life-threatening potential ADE occurred to determine if an actual ADE developed following the potential ADE. Reviewers further assessed the severity of the ADE and attribution to the administration error. RESULTS Ten (7.5% [95% C.I. 6.98, 8.01]) actual adverse drug events or ADEs resulted from the 133 serious and life-threatening potential ADEs, of which 6 resulted in significant, three in serious, and one life threatening injury. Therefore 4 (3% [95% C.I. 2.12, 3.6]) serious and life threatening potential ADEs led to serious or life threatening ADEs. Half of the ten actual ADEs were caused by dosage or monitoring errors for anti-hypertensives. The life threatening ADE was caused by an error that was both a transcription and a timing error. CONCLUSION Potential ADEs at the medication administration stage can cause serious patient harm. Given previous estimates of serious or life-threatening potential ADE of 1.33 per 100
Xiang, Fei; Zhang, Xiaogang
Since the state food and drug administration (SFDA) issued the first edition of adverse drug reaction(ADR) information in November, 2001, it has 32 edition, reported the drug 66 species of adverse reactions, involving the variety of 12 traditional Chinese medicines, it was effectively reminds all social concern of adverse drug reaction. For statistical analysis in recent years reported adverse drug reaction of prepared Chinese medicine, collected 462 literatures from 2005-09 CNKI Chinese journal full-text database of medicine health directory. In all the collections, about 94 literatures are closely related to adverse drug reaction report of prepared Chinese medicine. But there are only 7 references could identify traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine correctly in 72 literatures with the value of statistical analysis. That means only 8.9% of literatures can correctly identify western medicine and Chinese traditional medicine. So it proved that TCM workers' knowledge of ADR remains to be greatly improved.
Takeuchi, T; Takenoshita, S; Taka, F; Nakao, M; Nomura, K
Introduction: Very few studies have explored the adverse effect of psychotropic drugs worldwide. Methods: This study analyzed 1 813 suicide-related drug reports involving 553 patients collected from the Japanese National Adverse Drug Report Database between October 2001 and January 2012 to investigate psychotropic drugs associated with completed suicide vs. other suicide-related behaviors, including ideation and self-injury. The drugs investigated included antidepressants, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, non-benzodiazepine hypnotic agents, noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and other drugs. Results: These reports referenced 300 (54.2%) individuals who completed suicide. Adjusting for age, sex, and drugs used, the multivariate model revealed that participants who took antipsychotics were 1.70 times (95% CI, 1.11-2.61) more likely to complete suicide compared with those who did not. All other drugs became non-significant. Compared with those who took only one medication, those prescribed more than 4 drugs were more likely to complete suicide (OR 4.44, 95% CI, 2.40-8.20). Discussion: Antipsychotic drugs and polypharmacy may be regarded as predictors of completed suicide.
Kuroda, Junji; Plassmann, Stephanie; Hayashi, Makoto; Prentice, David E.
To illustrate the process of addressing adverse preclinical findings (APFs) as outlined in the first part of this review, a number of cases with unexpected APF in toxicity studies with drug candidates is discussed in this second part. The emphasis is on risk characterization, especially regarding the mode of action (MoA), and risk evaluation regarding relevance for man. While severe APFs such as retinal toxicity may turn out to be of little human relevance, minor findings particularly in early toxicity studies, such as vasculitis, may later pose a real problem. Rodents are imperfect models for endocrine APFs, non-rodents for human cardiac effects. Liver and kidney toxicities are frequent, but they can often be monitored in man and do not necessarily result in early termination of drug candidates. Novel findings such as the unusual lesions in the gastrointestinal tract and the bones presented in this review can be difficult to explain. It will be shown that well known issues such as phospholipidosis and carcinogenicity by agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) need to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. The latter is of particular interest because the new PPAR α and dual α/γ agonists resulted in a change of the safety paradigm established with the older PPAR α agonists. General toxicologists and pathologists need some understanding of the principles of genotoxicity and reproductive toxicity testing. Both types of preclinical toxicities are major APF and clinical monitoring is difficult, generally leading to permanent use restrictions. PMID:22272032
Böhm, Ruwen; Cascorbi, Ingolf
Adverse drug reactions adverse drug reaction (ADR) occur in approximately 17% of patients. Avoiding ADR is thus mandatory from both an ethical and an economic point of view. Whereas, pharmacogenetics changes of the pharmacokinetics may contribute to the explanation of some type A reactions, strong relationships of genetic markers has also been shown for drug hypersensitivity belonging to type B reactions. We present the classifications of ADR, discuss genetic influences and focus on delayed-onset hypersensitivity reactions, i.e., drug-induced liver injury, drug-induced agranulocytosis, and severe cutaneous ADR. A guidance how to read and interpret the contingency table is provided as well as an algorithm whether and how a test for a pharmacogenetic biomarker should be conducted. PMID:27818635
Wu, Yi Wei; Leow, Kheng Song; Zhu, Yujin; Tan, Cher Heng
Iodinated radiocontrast media (IRCM) is widely used in current clinical practice. Although IRCM is generally safe, serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) may still occur. IRCM-induced ADRs may be subdivided into chemotoxic and hypersensitivity reactions. Several factors have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of ADRs, including previous contrast media reactions, history of asthma and allergic disease, etc. Contrast media with lower osmolality is generally recommended for at-risk patients to prevent ADRs. Current premedication prophylaxis in at-risk patients may reduce the risk of ADRs. However, there is still a lack of consensus on the prophylactic role of premedication. Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is another component of IRCM-related ADRs. Hydration remains the mainstay of CIN prophylaxis in at-risk patients. Despite several preventive measures, ADRs may still occur. Treatment strategies for potential contrast reactions are also summarised in this article. This article summarises the pathophysiology, epidemiology and risk factors of ADRs with emphasis on prevention and treatment strategies. This will allow readers to understand the rationale behind appropriate patient preparation for diagnostic imaging involving IRCM.
Schjøtt, Jan; Bergman, Jenny
Background RELIS is a Norwegian network of four regional medicine-information and pharmacovigilance centers where pharmacists and clinical pharmacologists provide feedback to health care professionals in spontaneous drug-related questions and adverse drug-reaction (ADR) reports published in a question–answer pair (QAP) database (the RELIS database) and the Norwegian ADR database, respectively. Objective To describe the potential of RELIS’s dual service to improve detection and communication of drug-safety problems. Materials and methods We searched the RELIS database for QAPs about ADRs with use of the Norwegian ADR database as a reference. We also searched the Norwegian ADR database for reports that used the RELIS database as a reference. Both searches were limited to the years 2003–2012. We then selected the example of pregabalin and drug abuse after the marketing of Lyrica in Norway in September 2004 to illustrate RELIS’s potential to detect new drug-safety information through a limited number of QAPs and ADR reports. Results A total of 5,427 (26%) of 21,071 QAPs in the RELIS database concerned ADRs. QAPs from this database were used as references in 791 (4%) of a total of 22,090 reports in the Norwegian ADR database. The Norwegian ADR database was used as a reference in 363 (7%) of 5,427 QAPs that concerned ADRs. Between September 2004 and September 2008, RELIS received eleven questions and 13 ADR reports about suspicion of Lyrica (pregabalin) and different aspects of abuse. Conclusion RELIS processes data through two databases that facilitate communication about ADRs. Our service also has the potential to detect new drug-safety problems with a limited number of questions and ADR reports. PMID:25061339
Morimoto, T; Gandhi, T K; Seger, A C; Hsieh, T C; Bates, D W
Investigating the incidence, type, and preventability of adverse drug events (ADEs) and medication errors is crucial to improving the quality of health care delivery. ADEs, potential ADEs, and medication errors can be collected by extraction from practice data, solicitation of incidents from health professionals, and patient surveys. Practice data include charts, laboratory, prescription data, and administrative databases, and can be reviewed manually or screened by computer systems to identify signals. Research nurses, pharmacists, or research assistants review these signals, and those that are likely to represent an ADE or medication error are presented to reviewers who independently categorize them into ADEs, potential ADEs, medication errors, or exclusions. These incidents are also classified according to preventability, ameliorability, disability, severity, stage, and responsible person. These classifications, as well as the initial selection of incidents, have been evaluated for agreement between reviewers and the level of agreement found ranged from satisfactory to excellent (kappa = 0.32-0.98). The method of ADE and medication error detection and classification described is feasible and has good reliability. It can be used in various clinical settings to measure and improve medication safety.
González-Galarza, Faviel F; Takeshita, Louise Y C; Santos, Eduardo J M; Kempson, Felicity; Maia, Maria Helena Thomaz; da Silva, Andrea Luciana Soares; Teles e Silva, André Luiz; Ghattaoraya, Gurpreet S; Alfirevic, Ana; Jones, Andrew R; Middleton, Derek
It has been 12 years since the Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND; http://www.allelefrequencies.net) was first launched, providing the scientific community with an online repository for the storage of immune gene frequencies in different populations across the world. There have been a significant number of improvements from the first version, making AFND a primary resource for many clinical and scientific areas including histocompatibility, immunogenetics, pharmacogenetics and anthropology studies, among many others. The most widely used part of AFND stores population frequency data (alleles, genes or haplotypes) related to human leukocyte antigens (HLA), killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related genes (MIC) and a number of cytokine gene polymorphisms. AFND now contains >1400 populations from more than 10 million healthy individuals. Here, we report how the main features of AFND have been updated to include a new section on 'HLA epitope' frequencies in populations, a new section capturing the results of studies identifying HLA associations with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and one for the examination of infectious and autoimmune diseases associated with KIR polymorphisms-thus extending AFND to serve a new user base in these growing areas of research. New criteria on data quality have also been included.
(1) When oral morphine does not relieve severe pain and when there is no specific treatment for the underlying cause, the first option is to try subcutaneous or intravenous administration. If this standard treatment fails or is poorly tolerated, intrathecal injection is usually preferred as the direct route to the central nervous system. However, one-quarter to one-half of patients still do not achieve adequate pain relief, and adverse effects are relatively frequent; (2) Ziconotide is not an opiate and is not related to the usual classes of drugs that interfere with nervous transmission in the posterior horn of the spinal cord. Marketing authorization has been granted for "severe, chronic pain in patients who require intrathecal analgesia". The Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) recommends continuous infusion via an intrathecal catheter connected to a pump; (3) Clinical evaluation of ziconotide does not include any trials versus morphine in patients with nociceptive pain, or any trials versus tricyclic or antiepileptic drugs in patients with neurogenic pain; (4) In a trial in 220 patients in whom systemic morphine had failed, the mean pain score on a 100-mm visual analogue scale was 69.8 mm after three weeks on ziconotide, compared to 75.8 mm with placebo. This difference, although statistically significant, is clinically irrelevant. The proportion of "responders" (reduction of at least 30% in the initial pain score) was respectively 16.1% and 12.0% (no statistically significant difference); (5) The two other placebo-controlled trials included 112 patients with pain linked to cancer or HIV infection, and 257 patients with non-cancer pain. After a titration phase lasting 5 to 6 days, a combined analysis of the two trials showed that the mean pain score was 48.8 mm with ziconotide and 68.4 mm with placebo (statistically significant difference). However, many patients did not complete the titration phase. Efficacy also appeared to differ according to the type
Nanji, Karen C.; Patel, Amit; Shaikh, Sofia; Seger, Diane L.; Bates, David W.
Background The purpose of this study is to assess the rates of perioperative medication errors (MEs) and adverse drug events (ADEs) as percentages of medication administrations, evaluate their root causes, and formulate targeted solutions to prevent them. Methods In this prospective observational study, anesthesia-trained study staff (anesthesiologists/nurse anesthetists) observed randomly selected operations at a 1,046 bed tertiary care academic medical center to identify MEs and ADEs over eight months. Retrospective chart abstraction was performed to flag events that were missed by observation. All events subsequently underwent review by two independent reviewers. Primary outcomes were the incidence of MEs and ADEs. Results A total of 277 operations were observed with 3,671 medication administrations of which 193 (5.3%, 95% CI 4.5 to 6.0) involved a ME and/or ADE. Of these, 153 (79.3%) were preventable and 40 (20.7%) were non-preventable. The events included 153 (79.3%) errors and 91 (47.2%) ADEs. While 32 (20.9%) of the errors had little potential for harm, 51 (33.3%) led to an observed ADE and an additional 70 (45.8%) had the potential for patient harm. Of the 153 errors, 99 (64.7%) were serious, 51 (33.3%) were significant and 3 (2.0%) were life-threatening. Conclusions One in twenty perioperative medication administrations included an ME and/or ADE. More than one third of the MEs led to observed ADEs, and the remaining two thirds had the potential for harm. These rates are markedly higher than those reported by retrospective surveys. Specific solutions exist which have the potential to decrease the incidence of perioperative MEs. PMID:26501385
Ahn, Hee-Jung; Park, Hyeoun-Ae
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the frequency of adverse drug events can be extracted by analyzing narrative nursing statements documented in standardized terminology-based electronic nursing records. For this study, we reviewed the narrative nursing documentations of 487 admissions of 355 cancer patients who were treated with cisplatin at a tertiary-care hospital in Korea. Narrative nursing statements with the terms "adverse drug reaction," "allergy," "hypersensitivity," and other adverse drug events listed in the safety information were analyzed. In addition, nausea, one of the most frequent adverse drug events, was further examined. Narrative statements documenting the presence or absence of an "adverse drug reaction," "allergy," and "hypersensitivity" were found in 162 admissions (33.3%). The presence or absence of adverse drug events due to cisplatin was documented in 476 admissions (97.7%). At least one adverse drug event was noted in 258 admissions (53.0%). The presence of nausea was documented in 214 admissions (43.9%), and the mean duration of nausea was 5.2 days. The results of this study suggest that adverse drug events can be monitored using narrative nursing statements documented in standardized terminology-based electronic nursing records.
Miguel-Arias, Domingo; Pereiro Gómez, César; Bermejo Barrera, Ana M; López de Abajo Rodríguez, Benito; Sobrido Prieto, María
The aim of this research is to study all people who died in the Autonomous Community of Galicia from acute death after drugconsumption (ADR) in which there was judicial intervention during the period from 1997 to 2011, according to inclusion and exclusión criteria established by the National Drug Plan for the entire national territory. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of deceased subjects were studied, in order to identify key risk factors and/or vulnerable populations.A total of 805 deaths were recorded. The distribution by provinces and municipalities corresponds to the areas of greatest population, incidence of consumption and proximity to the coast. The average age of these patients was 34.34 years, with a gradual increase over years. Most of them were male (91.2%) and single (47.7). 43.5% of the deceased habitually used the parenteral route of administration and 36.4% had positive HIV serology. The most frequently-detected substances corresponded to opiates (heroin: 61.3%, methadone: 35.6%), followed by cocaine (53.7%), although the most common pattern was that of poly-consumption. ADR mortality figures remain relatively stable throughout the study period. The predominant pattern is that of males, opiates and a long history of consumption.
Amalyste is a French patient-advocacy group for victims of two very serious adverse drug reactions: Lyell and Stevens-Johnson syndromes. The aims of this organisation are to represent the interests of patients who have experienced these syndromes; to better inform the public about these syndromes; to provide analyses of drug-related risks; and to demand collective compensation for victims of serious adverse drug reactions. The following text is our translation of an Amalyste position statement on drug-related risks. It provides valuable food for thought, both for healthcare professionals and for drug regulatory agencies, and has the potential to improve practice (a).
Tolba, Mai F; Omar, Hany A; Azab, Samar S; Khalifa, Amani E; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z
Propolis, a honey bee product, has been used in folk medicine for centuries for the treatment of abscesses, canker sores and for wound healing. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is one of the most extensively investigated active components of propolis which possess many biological activities, including antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. CAPE is a polyphenolic compound characterized by potent antioxidant and cytoprotective activities and protective effects against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury in multiple tissues such as brain, retina, heart, skeletal muscles, testis, ovaries, intestine, colon, and liver. Furthermore, several studies indicated the protective effects of CAPE against chemotherapy-induced adverse drug reactions (ADRs) including several antibiotics (streptomycin, vancomycin, isoniazid, ethambutol) and chemotherapeutic agents (mitomycin, doxorubicin, cisplatin, methotrexate). Due to the broad spectrum of pharmacological activities of CAPE, this review makes a special focus on the recently published data about CAPE antioxidant activity as well as its protective effects against I/R-induced injury and many adverse drug reactions.
Aparna, K.; Joshi, Abhishek J.; Vyas, Mahesh
Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an unpleasant reaction related to the use of medicine at its therapeutic dose. Ayurveda is well aware of such adverse reactions. Parasika Yavani (Hyoscyamus niger Linn.) is an Ayurvedic drug effectively used in many psychological disorders, if not used judiciously it causes adverse reactions. In present study two cases of ADR on the usage of Parasika Yavani are reported. Churna in capsule form given in different dosage forms (500 mg once a day, 250 mg twice a day, 250 mg once a day) in Chittodwega (generalised anxiety disorder). 500mg capsule was given to many patients in the study, but no adverse reactions were noticed except in above given two cases. So, in these two cases, the dose was tapered down to 250 mg twice a day, and then to 250 mg once a day to avert the adverse reactions and to fix the therapeutic dose in such individuals (250 mg once a day). On analysis, these two individuals were found to be of Pitta Prakriti. Parasika Yavani is found to increase Pitta and triggers the establishment of ADRs. So, while administering therapeutic dosage, a physician should be vigilant. In the current study, it is observed that 500 mg of Parasika Yavani powder in Pitta Prakriti individuals triggered ADRs while 250 mg once a day was safe. It was also observed that Kapha and Vata Prakriti, patients did not develop any adverse reactions. PMID:27011719
Wu, Shu-Xin; Sun, Hong-Feng; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Long, Hong-Zhu; Ye, Zu-Guang; Ji, Shao-Liang; Zhang, Li
We revisited the "Xiao Chaihu Decoction event (XCHDE)" occurred in late 1980s in Japan and the Bupleuri Radix related adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports in China After careful review, comparison, analysis and evaluation, we think the interstitial pneumonitis, drug induced Liver injury (DILI) and other severe adverse drug envents (ADEs) including death happened in Japan is probably results from multiple factors, including combinatory use of XCHDE with interferon, Kampo usage under modern medicine theory guidance, and use of XCHD on the basis of disease diagnosis instead of traditional Chinese syndrome complex differentiation. There are less ADE case reports related to XCHD preparation in China compared to Japan, mostly manifest with hypersensitivity responses of skin and perfuse perspiration. The symptoms of Radix Bupleuri injection related ADEs mainly manifest hypersensitivity-like response, 2 cases of intravenous infusion instead of intramuscular injection developed hypokalemia and renal failure. One case died from severe hypersensitivity shock. In Chinese literatures, there is no report of the interstitial pneumonitis and DILI associated with XCHDG in Japan. So far, there is no voluntary monitoring data and large sample clinical research data available. The author elaborated the classification of "reevaluation" and clarified "re-evaluation upon events" included the reaction to the suspected safety and efficacy events. Based on the current status of the clinical research on the Radix Bupleuri preparations, the author points out that post-marketing "re-evaluation upon suspected event" is not only a necessity of continuous evaluation of the safety, efficacy of drugs, it is also a necessity for providing objective clinical research data to share with the international and domestic drug administrations in the risk-benefit evaluation. It is also the unavoidable pathway to culture and push the excellent species and famous brands of TCM to the international market, in
Fournier, Jean-Pascal; Sommet, Agnès; Durrieu, Geneviève; Poutrain, Jean-Christophe; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Montastruc, Jean-Louis
Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between antihypertensive drugs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can lead to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Guidelines are available to help prescribers deal with these drug associations, but their implementation is not well evaluated. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of NSAIDs exposure in patients treated with antihypertensive drugs, using the French Pharmacovigilance database, and explore the ADRs related to DDIs between antihypertensive drugs and NSAIDs. Over the 11, 442 notifications of ADRs recorded in this database in patients treated with oral antihypertensive drugs between 2008 and 2010, 517 (4.5 and 95% CI: 4.1-4.9) also included exposure to NSAIDs. These subjects were more frequently women, took more drugs in general, and were younger and less frequently treated with antiplatelet drugs. In 24.2% of them (125 patients), a DDI between NSAIDs and antihypertensive drugs was potentially the cause of the reported ADR. Acute renal failure caused by DDIs between NSAIDs and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or diuretics was the most frequently reported ADR (20.7%). Finally, in the French Pharmacovigilance database, around one-fourth of associations NSAIDs + antihypertensive drugs are associated with a 'serious' ADR (mainly acute renal failure), suggesting that this well-known DDI is not enough taken into account by prescribers.
Saini, V K; Sewal, R K; Ahmad, Yusra; Medhi, B
Adverse drug reactions associated with the use of anticancer drugs are a worldwide problem and cannot be ignored. Adverse drug reactions can range from nausea, vomiting or any other mild reaction to severe myelosuppression. The study was planned to observe the suspected adverse drug reactions of cancer chemotherapy in patients aged >18 years having cancer attending Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh. During the study period, 101 patients of breast cancer and 73 patients of lung cancer were screened for occurrence of adverse drug reactions during their treatment with chemotherapy. About 87.36% patients experienced adverse drug reactions, 90.09% and 83.56% of breast and lung cancer patients experienced at least one adverse drug reaction respectively. In breast cancer patients, 41.58% patients were prescribed fluorouracil+doxorubicin+cyclophosphamide while paclitaxel was prescribed to 22.77% patients. Alopecia (54.94%), nail discolouration (43.96%), dysgeusia (38.46%), anorexia (30.77%), nausea (29.67%), and neuropathy (29.67%) were found to be very common in breast cancer patients treated with single/combined regimen. In lung cancer group of patients, cisplatin with docetaxel, cisplatin with pemetrexed and cisplatin with irinotecan were prescribed to 30.14, 24.65 and 17.81% patients, respectively. Dysgeusia (40.98%), diarrhoea (39.34%), anorexia (32.77%) and constipation (31.15%) and alopecia (31.15%) were commonly observed adverse drug reactions having lung cancer patients. Causality assessments using World Health Organization causality assessment scale showed that observed adverse drug reactions were of probable (64.67%) and possible (35.33%) categories. Alopecia, dysgeusia, anorexia, constipation diarrhoea, nausea, nail discoloration were more prevalent amongst the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.
Berlin, Jesse A; Glasser, Susan C; Ellenberg, Susan S
Premarketing studies of drugs, although large enough to demonstrate efficacy and detect common adverse events, cannot reliably detect an increased incidence of rare adverse events or events with significant latency. For most drugs, only about 500 to 3000 participants are studied, for relatively short durations, before a drug is marketed. Systems for assessment of postmarketing adverse events include spontaneous reports, computerized claims or medical record databases, and formal postmarketing studies. We briefly review the strengths and limitations of each. Postmarketing surveillance is essential for developing a full understanding of the balance between benefits and adverse effects. More work is needed in analysis of data from spontaneous reports of adverse effects and automated databases, design of ad hoc studies, and design of economically feasible large randomized studies.
Wackernagel, Dirk; Obaya, Sami; Nydert, Per
Drug fever caused by dalteparin-sodium (DS), a low-molecular-weight derivative of heparin, is neither listed in the official drug information and nor published as a case report until today. A preterm infant, born at 26 weeks of gestation, developed fever 2 days after starting a treatment with DS for an intracardial thrombus. The fever reverses soon after changing the treatment to unfractionated heparin and reappeared after reintroduction of DS. Once again, after discontinuing DS, the infant regained normothermia. Bacterial and viral infections, tissue damage, impaired liver or kidney function, preservative agents and comedications could be ruled out as fever origin. By using the Naranjo adverse drug reaction (ADR) probability scale and the Liverpool ADR causality assessment tool, this case can be classified as 'probable ADR' and 'definite ADR'. This is the first case report of a drug fever caused by the low-molecular-weight heparin DS in a preterm infant.
Damasceno, Glauciene Santana; Guaraldo, Lusiele; Engstrom, Elyne Montenegro; Filha, Mariza Miranda Theme; Santos, Reinaldo Souza-; Vasconcelos, Ana Gloria Godoi; Rozenfeld, Suely
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize and estimate the frequency of adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs in the population treated at the Centro de Saúde Escola Germano Sinval Faria, a primary health care clinic in Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro City, and to explore the relationship between adverse drug reactions and some of the patients' demographic and health characteristics. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted via patient record review of incident cases between 2004 and 2008. RESULTS: Of the 176 patients studied, 41.5% developed one or more adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs, totaling 126 occurrences. The rate of adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs was higher among women, patients aged 50 years or older, those with four or more comorbidities, and those who used five or more drugs. Of the total reactions, 71.4% were mild. The organ systems most affected were as follows: the gastrointestinal tract (29.4%), the skin and appendages (21.4%), and the central and peripheral nervous systems (14.3%). Of the patients who experienced adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs, 65.8% received no drug treatment for their adverse reactions, and 4.1% had one of the antituberculosis drugs suspended because of adverse reactions. “Probable reactions” (75%) predominated over “possible reactions” (24%). In the study sample, 64.3% of the reactions occurred during the first two months of treatment, and most (92.6%) of the reactions were ascribed to the combination of rifampicin + isoniazid + pyrazinamide (Regimen I). A high dropout rate from tuberculosis treatment (24.4%) was also observed. CONCLUSION: This study suggests a high rate of adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs. PMID:23644852
Khan, Moin; Cheung, Angela M; Khan, Aliya A
Postmenopausal osteoporosis is associated with microarchitectural deterioration and increased risk of fracture. Osteoporosis therapy effectively reduces the risk of vertebral, nonvertebral, and hip fracture and has been associated with increased survival. Currently approved treatments for osteoporosis include bisphosphonates, denosumab, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and teriparatide. This article reviews the adverse events of therapy associated with these medical interventions. Hormone replacement therapy is not included, because it is no longer indicated for the treatment of osteoporosis in all countries. Calcitonin and strontium ranelate are also not included, because their indication for osteoporosis has recently been limited or withdrawn.
Background Pharmacovigilance aims to uncover and understand harmful side-effects of drugs, termed adverse events (AEs). Although the current process of pharmacovigilance is very systematic, the increasing amount of information available in specialized health-related websites as well as the exponential growth in medical literature presents a unique opportunity to supplement traditional adverse event gathering mechanisms with new-age ones. Method We present a semi-automated pipeline to extract associations between drugs and side effects from traditional structured adverse event databases, enhanced by potential drug-adverse event pairs mined from user-comments from health-related websites and MEDLINE abstracts. The pipeline was tested using a set of 12 drugs representative of two previous studies of adverse event extraction from health-related websites and MEDLINE abstracts. Results Testing the pipeline shows that mining non-traditional sources helps substantiate the adverse event databases. The non-traditional sources not only contain the known AEs, but also suggest some unreported AEs for drugs which can then be analyzed further. Conclusion A semi-automated pipeline to extract the AE pairs from adverse event databases as well as potential AE pairs from non-traditional sources such as text from MEDLINE abstracts and user-comments from health-related websites is presented. PMID:24559132
Serlemitsos, Aristides T.; Warner, Brent A.; Sansebastian, Marcelino; Kunes, Evan
Recent developments concerning the performance and reliability of a spaceworthy adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) for the AXAF X-ray spectrometer are considered. They include a procedure for growing the salt pill around a harness made up of 6080 gold-plated copper wires, a totally modular gas gap heat switch, and a suspension system utilizing Kevlar fibers.
Empey, Philip E
Adverse drug reactions are a significant public health problem that leads to mortality, hospital admissions, an increased length of stay, increasing healthcare costs, and withdrawal of drugs from market. Intensive care unit patients are particularly vulnerable and are at an elevated risk. Critical care practitioners, regulatory agencies, and the pharmaceutical industry aggressively seek biomarkers to mitigate patient risk. The rapidly expanding field of pharmacogenomics focuses on the genetic contributions to the variability in drug response. Polymorphisms may explain why some groups of patients have the expected response to pharmacotherapy whereas others experience adverse drug reactions. Historically, genetic association studies have focused on characterizing the effects of variation in drug metabolizing enzymes on pharmacokinetics. Recent work has investigated drug transporters and the variants of genes encoding drug targets, both intended and unintended, that comprise pharmacodynamics. This has led to an appreciation of the role that genetics plays in adverse drug reactions that are either predictable extensions of a drug's known therapeutic effect or idiosyncratic.This review presents the evidence for a genetic predisposition to adverse drug reactions, focusing on gene variants producing alterations in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in intensive care unit patients. Genetic biomarkers with the strongest associations to adverse drug reaction risk in the intensive care unit are presented along with the medications involved. Variant genotypes and phenotypes, allelic frequencies in different populations, and clinical studies are discussed. The article also presents the current recommendations for pharmacogenetic testing in clinical practice and explores the drug, patient, research study design, regulatory, and practical issues that presently limit more widespread implementation.
Sakai, Takamasa; Ohtsu, Fumiko; Sekiya, Yasuaki; Mori, Chiyo; Sakata, Hiroshi; Goto, Nobuyuki
Safety information regarding drug use during pregnancy is insufficient. The present study aimed to establish an optimal signal detection method to identify adverse drug reactions in pregnant women and to evaluate information in the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database between April 2004 and November 2014. We identified reports on pregnant women using the Standardised MedDRA Queries. We calculated the proportional reporting ratio (PRR) and reporting odds ratio (ROR) of the risk factors for the two known risks of antithyroid drugs and methimazole (MMI) embryopathy, and ritodrine and fetal/infant cardiovascular events. The PRR and ROR values differed between all reports in the JADER database and those on pregnant women, affecting whether signal detection criteria were met. Therefore we considered that reports on pregnant women should be used when risks associated with pregnancy were determined using signal detection. Analyses of MMI embryopathy revealed MMI signals [PRR, 159.7; ROR, 669.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 282.4-1588.7] but no propylthiouracil signals (PRR, 1.98; ROR, 2.0; 95%CI, 0.3-15.4). These findings were consistent with those of reported risks. Analyses of fetal/infant cardiovascular events revealed ritodrine signals (PRR, 2.1; ROR, 2.1; 95%CI, 1.4-3.3). These findings were also consistent with reported risks. Mining the JADER database was helpful for analyzing adverse drug reactions in pregnant women.
Becker, Mara L; Leeder, J Steven
Adverse drug reactions are a concern for all clinicians who utilize medications to treat adults and children; however, the frequency of adult and pediatric adverse drug reactions is likely to be under-reported. In this age of genomics and personalized medicine, identifying genetic variation that results in differences in drug biotransformation and response has contributed to significant advances in the utilization of several commonly used medications in adults. In order to better understand the variability of drug response in children however, we must not only consider differences in genotype, but also variation in gene expression during growth and development, namely ontogeny. In this article, recommendations for systematically approaching pharmacogenomic studies in children are discussed, and several examples of studies that investigate the genomic and developmental contribution to adverse drug reactions in children are reviewed. PMID:21121777
Apte, Aditi Anand
Pharmacovigilance is an evolving discipline in the Indian context. However, there is limited regulatory guidance for adverse event reporting outside the purview of clinical trials. There are number of deficiencies in the framework for adverse event reporting from the perspective of pharma industry, health-care professional and general public due to which adverse events for marketed drugs are highly underreported. This article discusses the need to strengthen national safety database by promoting and mandating reporting of adverse events by all the stakeholders. PMID:27453826
Dr. Ansell has produced a scholarly review of the radiology of drug reactions and toxic hazards in his latest book, which is based on over 1,200 articles in the world literature. About 800 of these articles are taken from outside the radiology literature, which indicates the need for this subject to be brought to the attention of the radiologist, particularly as concern about drug reactions and toxic hazards is always increasing. The book includes sections covering the chest, gastrointestinal tract, renal tract, skeletal system and soft tissues, and skull and central nervous system. Each section treats specific substances, such as steroids and heavy metals; specific radiologic signs, such as ureteric dilation; specific symptoms, such as dysphagia; industrial toxins; radiographic abnormalities are discussed; and numerous high-quality radiographs.
Lv, Xiaozhen; Tang, Shaowen; Xia, Yinyin; Wang, Xiaomeng; Yuan, Yanli; Hu, Daiyu; Liu, Feiying; Wu, Shanshan; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Zhirong; Tu, Dehua; Chen, Yixin; Deng, Peiyuan; Ma, Yu; Chen, Ru; Zhan, Siyan
Background More than 1 million tuberculosis (TB) patients are receiving directly observed treatment strategy (DOTS) therapy in China every year. As to the profile of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) due to DOTS therapy, no consensus has been reached. There is no report regarding ADRs due to DOTS therapy with a large Chinese TB population. This study aimed to determine the incidence and prognosis of ADRs due to DOTS therapy, and to evaluate their impact on anti-TB treatment in China. Methods A prospective population-based cohort study was performed during 2007–2008. Sputum smear positive pulmonary TB patients who received DOTS therapy were included and followed up for six to nine months in 52 counties of four regions in China. The suspected ADRs were recorded and reviewed by Chinese State Food and Drug Administration. Results A total of 4304 TB patients were included in this study. 649 patients (15.08%) showed at least one ADR and 766 cases in total were detected. The incidence (count) of ADR based on affected organ was: liver dysfunction 6.34% (273), gastrointestinal disorders 3.74% (161), arthralgia 2.51% (108), allergic reactions 2.35% (101), neurological system disorders 2.04% (88), renal impairment 0.07% (3) and others 0.05% (2). Most cases of ADRs (95%) had a good clinical outcome, while two with hepatotoxicity and one with renal impairment died. Compared with patients without ADRs, patients with ADRs were more likely to have positive smear test results at the end of the intensive phase (adjusted OR, 2.00; 95%CI, 1.44–2.78) and unsuccessful anti-TB outcomes (adjusted OR, 2.58; 95%CI, 1.43–4.68). Conclusions The incidence of ADRs due to DOTS therapy was 15.08%. Those ADRs had a substantial impact on TB control in China. This highlighted the importance of developing strategies to ameliorate ADRs both to improve the quality of patient care and to control TB safely. PMID:23750225
Belachew, Sewunet Admasu; Erku, Daniel Asfaw; Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku
Background Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a global problem and constitute a major clinical problem in terms of human suffering. The high toxicity and narrow therapeutic index of chemotherapeutic agents makes oncology pharmacovigilance essential. The objective of the present study was to assess the pattern of ADRs occurring in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study over a 2-year period from September 2013 to August 2015 was conducted on cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy at Gondar University Referral Hospital Oncology Center. Data were collected directly from patients and their medical case files. The reported ADRs were assessed for causality using the World Health Organization’s causality assessment scale and Naranjo’s algorithm. The severities of the reported reactions were also assessed using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology CTCAE version 4.0. The Pear-son’s chi-square test was employed to examine the association between two categorical variables. Results A total of 815 ADRs were identified per 203 patients included in the study. The most commonly occurring ADRs were nausea and vomiting (18.9%), infections (16.7%), neutropenia (14.7%), fever and/or chills (11.3%), and anemia (9.3%). Platinum compounds (31.4%) were the most common group of drugs causing ADRs. Of the reported ADRs, 65.8% were grades 3–4 (severe level), 29.9% were grades 1–2 (mild level), and 4.3% were grade 5 (toxic level). Significant association was found between age, number of chemotherapeutic agents, as well as dose of chemotherapy with the occurrence of grades 3–5 toxicity. Conclusion The high incidence of chemotherapy-related ADRs among cancer patients is of concern. Setting up an effective ADR monitoring and reporting system (onco-pharmacovigilance) and creating awareness among health care professionals regarding the importance of ADR reporting may help prevent the problem
..., and reporting of postmarketing adverse drug experiences to FDA. (b) Definitions. The following... severity) if the labeling only referred to elevated hepatic enzymes or hepatitis. Similarly, cerebral... and Drug Administration, 5901-B Ammendale Rd., Beltsville, MD 20705-1266. (1) Postmarketing...
Warrer, Pernille; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Juhl-Jensen, Lars; Aagaard, Lise
This literature review included studies that use text-mining techniques in narrative documents stored in electronic patient records (EPRs) to investigate ADRs. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts without restrictions from origin until July 2011. We included empirically based studies on text mining of electronic patient records (EPRs) that focused on detecting ADRs, excluding those that investigated adverse events not related to medicine use. We extracted information on study populations, EPR data sources, frequencies and types of the identified ADRs, medicines associated with ADRs, text-mining algorithms used and their performance. Seven studies, all from the United States, were eligible for inclusion in the review. Studies were published from 2001, the majority between 2009 and 2010. Text-mining techniques varied over time from simple free text searching of outpatient visit notes and inpatient discharge summaries to more advanced techniques involving natural language processing (NLP) of inpatient discharge summaries. Performance appeared to increase with the use of NLP, although many ADRs were still missed. Due to differences in study design and populations, various types of ADRs were identified and thus we could not make comparisons across studies. The review underscores the feasibility and potential of text mining to investigate narrative documents in EPRs for ADRs. However, more empirical studies are needed to evaluate whether text mining of EPRs can be used systematically to collect new information about ADRs.
Liu, Yi; LePendu, Paea; Iyer, Srinivasan; Shah, Nigam H.
Researchers estimate that electronic health record systems record roughly 2-million ambulatory adverse drug events and that patients suffer from adverse drug events in roughly 30% of hospital stays. Some have used structured databases of patient medical records and health insurance claims recently—going beyond the current paradigm of using spontaneous reporting systems like AERS—to detect drug-safety signals. However, most efforts do not use the free-text from clinical notes in monitoring for drug-safety signals. We hypothesize that drug–disease co-occurrences, extracted from ontology-based annotations of the clinical notes, can be examined for statistical enrichment and used for drug safety surveillance. When analyzing such co-occurrences of drugs and diseases, one major challenge is to differentiate whether the disease in a drug–disease pair represents an indication or an adverse event. We demonstrate that it is possible to make this distinction by combining the frequency distribution of the drug, the disease, and the drug-disease pair as well as the temporal ordering of the drugs and diseases in each pair across more than one million patients. PMID:22779050
Vilar, Santiago; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Hripcsak, George
Adverse drugs events (ADEs) detection constitutes a considerable concern in patient safety and public health care. For this reason, it is important to develop methods that improve ADE signal detection in pharmacovigilance databases. Our objective is to apply 3D pharmacophoric similarity models to enhance ADE recognition in Offsides, a pharmacovigilance resource with drug-ADE associations extracted from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). We developed a multi-ADE predictor implementing 3D drug similarity based on a pharmacophoric approach, with an ADE reference standard extracted from the SIDER database. The results showed that the application of our 3D multi-type ADE predictor to the pharmacovigilance data in Offsides improved ADE identification and generated enriched sets of drug-ADE signals. The global ROC curve for the Offsides ADE candidates ranked with the 3D similarity score showed an area of 0.7. The 3D predictor also allows the identification of the most similar drug that causes the ADE under study, which could provide hypotheses about mechanisms of action and ADE etiology. Our method is useful in drug development, screening potential adverse effects in experimental drugs, and in drug safety, applicable to the evaluation of ADE signals selected through pharmacovigilance data mining.
Vilar, Santiago; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Hripcsak, George
Adverse drugs events (ADEs) detection constitutes a considerable concern in patient safety and public health care. For this reason, it is important to develop methods that improve ADE signal detection in pharmacovigilance databases. Our objective is to apply 3D pharmacophoric similarity models to enhance ADE recognition in Offsides, a pharmacovigilance resource with drug-ADE associations extracted from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). We developed a multi-ADE predictor implementing 3D drug similarity based on a pharmacophoric approach, with an ADE reference standard extracted from the SIDER database. The results showed that the application of our 3D multi-type ADE predictor to the pharmacovigilance data in Offsides improved ADE identification and generated enriched sets of drug-ADE signals. The global ROC curve for the Offsides ADE candidates ranked with the 3D similarity score showed an area of 0.7. The 3D predictor also allows the identification of the most similar drug that causes the ADE under study, which could provide hypotheses about mechanisms of action and ADE etiology. Our method is useful in drug development, screening potential adverse effects in experimental drugs, and in drug safety, applicable to the evaluation of ADE signals selected through pharmacovigilance data mining.
Aminkeng, F; Ross, C J D; Rassekh, S R; Brunham, L R; Sistonen, J; Dube, M-P; Ibrahim, M; Nyambo, T B; Omar, S A; Froment, A; Bodo, J-M; Tishkoff, S; Carleton, B C; Hayden, M R
There is established clinical evidence for differences in drug response, cure rates and survival outcomes between different ethnic populations, but the causes are poorly understood. Differences in frequencies of functional genetic variants in key drug response and metabolism genes may significantly influence drug response differences in different populations. To assess this, we genotyped 1330 individuals of African (n=372) and European (n=958) descent for 4535 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 350 key drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxicity genes. Important and remarkable differences in the distribution of genetic variants were observed between Africans and Europeans and among the African populations. These could translate into significant differences in drug efficacy and safety profiles, and also in the required dose to achieve the desired therapeutic effect in different populations. Our data points to the need for population-specific genetic variation in personalizing medicine and care.
Li, Ying; Zhang, Ping; Sun, Zhaonan; Hu, Jianying
Post-market withdrawal of medications because of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) could result in loss of effective compounds which are effective for treating a specific disease but have unfavorable benefit-to- harm ratio. Recent therapeutic successes have renewed interest in drug combinations, which could work synergistically to improve therapeutic efficacy or work antagonistically to alleviate the risk of the ADRs. However, experimental screening approaches are costly and often can identify only a small number of drug combinations. Spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) routinely collect adverse drug events (ADEs) from patients on complex combinations of medications and provide an empirical and cost-effective source to detect unexpected beneficial drug combinations. In this paper, we proposed a novel data-driven method for the prediction of drug combinations where one drug could reduce the ADRs of the other, based on data from SRSs. The predictive model was shown to be effective using a commonly used evaluation approach in pharmacovigilance by constructing a known drug-drug interaction (DDI) reference standard. The method was applied to perform large-scale screening on SRS data for drug-ADR-drug triples where polypharmacy could potentially reduce the ADR. Analysis of the top ranking candidates showed high level of clinical validity. PMID:28269877
Sanger, Todd M.
Drug repositioning (i.e., drug repurposing) is the process of discovering new uses for marketed drugs. Historically, such discoveries were serendipitous. However, the rapid growth in electronic clinical data and text mining tools makes it feasible to systematically identify drugs with the potential to be repurposed. Described here is a novel method of drug repositioning by mining ClinicalTrials.gov. The text mining tools I2E (Linguamatics) and PolyAnalyst (Megaputer) were utilized. An I2E query extracts “Serious Adverse Events” (SAE) data from randomized trials in ClinicalTrials.gov. Through a statistical algorithm, a PolyAnalyst workflow ranks the drugs where the treatment arm has fewer predefined SAEs than the control arm, indicating that potentially the drug is reducing the level of SAE. Hypotheses could then be generated for the new use of these drugs based on the predefined SAE that is indicative of disease (for example, cancer). PMID:28348935
Bender, Ralf; Beckmann, Lars; Lange, Stefan
The analysis of adverse events plays an important role in the benefit assessment of drugs. Consequently, results on adverse events are an integral part of reimbursement dossiers submitted by pharmaceutical companies to health policy decision-makers. Methods applied in the analysis of adverse events commonly include simple standard methods for contingency tables. However, the results produced may be misleading if observations are censored at the time of discontinuation due to treatment switching or noncompliance, resulting in unequal follow-up periods. In this paper, we present examples to show that the application of inadequate methods for the analysis of adverse events in the reimbursement dossier can lead to a downgrading of the evidence on a drug's benefit in the subsequent assessment, as greater harm from the drug cannot be excluded with sufficient certainty. Legal regulations on the benefit assessment of drugs in Germany are presented, in particular, with regard to the analysis of adverse events. Differences in safety considerations between the drug approval process and the benefit assessment are discussed. We show that the naive application of simple proportions in reimbursement dossiers frequently leads to uninterpretable results if observations are censored and the average follow-up periods differ between treatment groups. Likewise, the application of incidence rates may be misleading in the case of recurrent events and unequal follow-up periods. To allow for an appropriate benefit assessment of drugs, adequate survival time methods accounting for time dependencies and duration of follow-up are required, not only for time-to-event efficacy endpoints but also for adverse events. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmaceutical Statistics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Helfenstein, M; Zweifel, S; Barthelmes, D; Meier, F; Fehr, J; Böni, C
Background There are different treatment options for ocular toxoplasmosis (OT). "Classic" therapy consists of pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and folinic acid combined with systemic steroids and is still widely used. However, potentially severe side effects of this therapy have been reported. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the incidence and types of adverse drug reactions in patients treated for OT. Clinical management of each adverse drug reaction was assessed. Patients and Methods In this retrospective analysis, we reviewed data of patients with OT, who were consecutively examined between December 2011 and December 2015 at the Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Zurich. Results In total, 49 patients had at least one episode of active OT. In 54 (83.0 %) of 65 treated episodes, the classic regimen was used. Of the 37 patients who received classic treatment, 9 (24.3 %) developed at least one adverse drug reaction which led to drug discontinuation, including elevated creatinine (5.4 %), elevated liver enzymes (5.4 %), vomiting (5.4 %), rash (5.4 %) and facial swelling (2.7 %). In 5 patients, treatment was switched to another drug, while in the other 4 patients, therapy was stopped. In these 9 patients, inflammation was well controlled 8 weeks after onset of therapy. No patient suffered from severe side effects, such as potentially life-threatening allergic reactions or pancytopenia. Conclusions In OT patients who were treated with classic therapy, adverse drug reactions are common. Therefore, clinical and laboratory monitoring is mandatory. Adverse drug reactions may require interdisciplinary management.
Wang, Kejian; Wan, Mei; Wang, Rui-Sheng
Background Drug repositioning refers to the process of developing new indications for existing drugs. As a phenotypic indicator of drug response in humans, clinical side effects may provide straightforward signals and unique opportunities for drug repositioning. Objective We aimed to identify drugs frequently associated with hypotension adverse reactions (ie, the opposite condition of hypertension), which could be potential candidates as antihypertensive agents. Methods We systematically searched the electronic records of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) through the openFDA platform to assess the association between hypotension incidence and antihypertensive therapeutic effect regarding a list of 683 drugs. Results Statistical analysis of FAERS data demonstrated that those drugs frequently co-occurring with hypotension events were more likely to have antihypertensive activity. Ranked by the statistical significance of frequent hypotension reporting, the well-known antihypertensive drugs were effectively distinguished from others (with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve > 0.80 and a normalized discounted cumulative gain of 0.77). In addition, we found a series of antihypertensive agents (particularly drugs originally developed for treating nervous system diseases) among the drugs with top significant reporting, suggesting the good potential of Web-based and data-driven drug repositioning. Conclusions We found several candidate agents among the hypotension-related drugs on our list that may be redirected for lowering blood pressure. More important, we showed that a pharmacovigilance system could alternatively be used to identify antihypertensive agents and sustainably create opportunities for drug repositioning. PMID:27036325
Henriksson, Aron; Kvist, Maria; Dalianis, Hercules; Duneld, Martin
For the purpose of post-marketing drug safety surveillance, which has traditionally relied on the voluntary reporting of individual cases of adverse drug events (ADEs), other sources of information are now being explored, including electronic health records (EHRs), which give us access to enormous amounts of longitudinal observations of the treatment of patients and their drug use. Adverse drug events, which can be encoded in EHRs with certain diagnosis codes, are, however, heavily underreported. It is therefore important to develop capabilities to process, by means of computational methods, the more unstructured EHR data in the form of clinical notes, where clinicians may describe and reason around suspected ADEs. In this study, we report on the creation of an annotated corpus of Swedish health records for the purpose of learning to identify information pertaining to ADEs present in clinical notes. To this end, three key tasks are tackled: recognizing relevant named entities (disorders, symptoms, drugs), labeling attributes of the recognized entities (negation, speculation, temporality), and relationships between them (indication, adverse drug event). For each of the three tasks, leveraging models of distributional semantics - i.e., unsupervised methods that exploit co-occurrence information to model, typically in vector space, the meaning of words - and, in particular, combinations of such models, is shown to improve the predictive performance. The ability to make use of such unsupervised methods is critical when faced with large amounts of sparse and high-dimensional data, especially in domains where annotated resources are scarce.
Kadoyama, Kaori; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Tamon, Akiko; Okuno, Yasushi
The recent emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens and/or pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics considerations may result in off-label use of a certain class of antibacterials, including tigecycline. This study was performed to clarify the safety profile of tigecycline in the user-derived manner and to compare it with the prescribing information provided by the manufacturer. Numerous spontaneous adverse event reports (AERs) submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were analyzed after a revision of arbitrary drug names and the deletion of duplicated submissions. Standardized official pharmacovigilance tools were used for quantitative detection of signals, i.e., drug-associated adverse events, including the proportional reporting ratio, the reporting odds ratio, the information component given by a Bayesian confidence propagation neural network, and the empirical Bayes geometric mean. Based on 22017956 co-occurrences, i.e., drug-adverse event pairs, found in 1644220 AERs from 2004 to 2009, 248 adverse events were suggested as tigecycline-associated ones. Adverse events with a relatively high frequency included nausea, vomiting, pancreatitis, hepatic failure, hypoglycemia, and increase in levels of alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase. It is noted that cholestasis, jaundice, an increase in International Normalized Ratio, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome were also, although they were infrequent. The adverse events suggested were in agreement with information provided by the manufacturer, suggesting that off-label use hardly results in unexpected adverse events, presumably due to usage with extreme caution.
Croft, Ashley M; Herxheimer, Andrew
Background Mefloquine is a clinically important antimalaria drug, which is often not well tolerated. We critically reviewed 516 published case reports of mefloquine adverse effects, to clarify the phenomenology of the harms associated with mefloquine, and to make recommendations for safer prescribing. Presentation We postulate that many of the adverse effects of mefloquine are a post-hepatic syndrome caused by primary liver damage. In some users we believe that symptomatic thyroid disturbance occurs, either independently or as a secondary consequence of the hepatocellular injury. The mefloquine syndrome presents in a variety of ways including headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, nervousness, fatigue, disorders of sleep, mood, memory and concentration, and occasionally frank psychosis. Previous liver or thyroid disease, and concurrent insults to the liver (such as from alcohol, dehydration, an oral contraceptive pill, recreational drugs, and other liver-damaging drugs) may be related to the development of severe or prolonged adverse reactions to mefloquine. Implications We believe that people with active liver or thyroid disease should not take mefloquine, whereas those with fully resolved neuropsychiatric illness may do so safely. Mefloquine users should avoid alcohol, recreational drugs, hormonal contraception and co-medications known to cause liver damage or thyroid damage. With these caveats, we believe that mefloquine may be safely prescribed in pregnancy, and also to occupational groups who carry out safety-critical tasks. Testing Mefloquine's adverse effects need to be investigated through a multicentre cohort study, with small controlled studies testing specific elements of the hypothesis. PMID:11914150
Brown, S L; Parmentier, C M; Woo, E K; Vishnuvajjala, R L; Headrick, M L
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the adverse event reports on silicone gel breast implants (SGBIs), including death reports, submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from 1984 through 1995 and to analyze changes in the type and complexity of reports following extensive media coverage of breast implants. METHODS: The authors analyzed mandatory and voluntary reports from the adverse events reporting system for medical devices at the FDA. RESULTS: In 1988, adverse event reports related to SGBIs accounted for 2.4% of the 14,473 mandatory reports entered into the FDA database on medical devices. In 1992, SGBI-related reports accounted for 30.3% of the total 66,476 mandatory reports of adverse events. The most frequently reported adverse event in 1988, before the widespread publicity on breast implants, was implant burst or rupture. In contrast, in 1992 the most frequently reported event was reaction, a term used to describe a range of adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: The numbers of mandatory and voluntary reports of SGBI-related adverse events increased exponentially, as did the complexity of the reports, following publicity over the lack of safety data on breast implants and a short voluntary moratorium on their sale. A significant proportion of reports lacked information on specific medical symptoms or diagnoses. PMID:9847926
Takarabe, Masataka; Kotera, Masaaki; Nishimura, Yosuke; Goto, Susumu; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro
Motivation: Unexpected drug activities derived from off-targets are usually undesired and harmful; however, they can occasionally be beneficial for different therapeutic indications. There are many uncharacterized drugs whose target proteins (including the primary target and off-targets) remain unknown. The identification of all potential drug targets has become an important issue in drug repositioning to reuse known drugs for new therapeutic indications. Results: We defined pharmacological similarity for all possible drugs using the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) adverse event reporting system (AERS) and developed a new method to predict unknown drug–target interactions on a large scale from the integration of pharmacological similarity of drugs and genomic sequence similarity of target proteins in the framework of a pharmacogenomic approach. The proposed method was applicable to a large number of drugs and it was useful especially for predicting unknown drug–target interactions that could not be expected from drug chemical structures. We made a comprehensive prediction for potential off-targets of 1874 drugs with known targets and potential target profiles of 2519 drugs without known targets, which suggests many potential drug–target interactions that were not predicted by previous chemogenomic or pharmacogenomic approaches. Availability: Softwares are available upon request. Contact: email@example.com Supplementary Information: Datasets and all results are available at http://cbio.ensmp.fr/~yyamanishi/aers/. PMID:22962489
Background Multi-item adverse drug event (ADE) associations are associations relating multiple drugs to possibly multiple adverse events. The current standard in pharmacovigilance is bivariate association analysis, where each single drug-adverse effect combination is studied separately. The importance and difficulty in the detection of multi-item ADE associations was noted in several prominent pharmacovigilance studies. In this paper we examine the application of a well established data mining method known as association rule mining, which we tailored to the above problem, and demonstrate its value. The method was applied to the FDAs spontaneous adverse event reporting system (AERS) with minimal restrictions and expectations on its output, an experiment that has not been previously done on the scale and generality proposed in this work. Results Based on a set of 162,744 reports of suspected ADEs reported to AERS and published in the year 2008, our method identified 1167 multi-item ADE associations. A taxonomy that characterizes the associations was developed based on a representative sample. A significant number (67% of the total) of potential multi-item ADE associations identified were characterized and clinically validated by a domain expert as previously recognized ADE associations. Several potentially novel ADEs were also identified. A smaller proportion (4%) of associations were characterized and validated as known drug-drug interactions. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that multi-item ADEs are present and can be extracted from the FDA’s adverse effect reporting system using our methodology, suggesting that our method is a valid approach for the initial identification of multi-item ADEs. The study also revealed several limitations and challenges that can be attributed to both the method and quality of data. PMID:21044365
Alladi, Charanraj Goud; Mohan, Anbarasan; Shewade, Deepak Gopal; Rajkumar, Ravi Philip; Adithan, Surendiran; Subramanian, Karthick
Objective: To determine the adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile of risperidone and their association with dopamine (DRD2 − 141 C Ins/Del/rs1799732) and serotonin receptor (5HTR2C −759 C>T/rs3813929) gene polymorphisms in patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 289 patients who were diagnosed with schizophrenia and were on treatment with risperidone (4–8 mg/day)-based therapy for a minimum of 4 weeks. Genotyping was carried by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. All the patients were observed for the occurrences of ADRs during the study. Changes in prolactin levels and body weight were analyzed for a subgroup of 102 and 97 patients, respectively. Results: Risperidone-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs) were seen in 36.7% of patients. Among them, tremors were the most common symptom 31.8%. Risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia and weight gain were seen in 87.2% and 53.6% in subgroup patients. Adverse effects such as sedation, gastrointestinal effects, and amenorrhea were seen in 9.7% (28/289), 5.1% (15/289), and 6.1% (7/114), respectively. Occurrence of DRD2 − 141 Ins/Del and Del/Del polymorphisms were significantly associated with increased prolactin levels in response to risperidone (odds ratio [OR] = 10.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.29–84.89, P = 0.004). No such association was observed with 5HTR2C (−759 C>T) polymorphism. Weight gain and EPS were not associated with the above genetic polymorphisms. Conclusion: Hyperprolactinemia, weight gain, and EPSs (>36.7%) were common adverse effects of risperidone. DRD2 – 141C Ins/Del and Del/Del polymorphisms were significantly associated with increased prolactin levels (OR = 10.45) in response to risperidone.
Karthik, Ramya; Karthik, K. S.; David, Chaya; Ameerunnisa; Keerthi, G.
Gastrointestinal disease is associated with alterations in the mouth or influence the course of the dental diseases, and the dental health care workers are expected to recognize, diagnose, and treat oral conditions associated with gastrointestinal diseases and also provide safe and appropriate dental care for afflicted individuals. Drugs used in the management of these diseases result in oral adverse effects and also are known to interact with those prescribed during dental care. Hence, this article has reviewed the drug considerations and guidelines for drug use during dental management of patients with gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:23066260
Harpaz, Rave; Haerian, Krystl; Chase, Herbert S; Friedman, Carol
Many adverse drug effects (ADEs) can be attributed to drug interactions. Spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) provide a rich opportunity to detect novel post-marketed drug interaction adverse effects (DIAEs), as they include populations not well represented in clinical trials. However, their identification in SRS is nontrivial. Most existing research have addressed the statistical issues used to test or verify DIAEs, but not their identification as part of a systematic large scale database-wide mining process as discussed in this work. This paper examines the application of a highly optimized and tailored implementation of the Apriori algorithm, as well as methods addressing data quality issues, to the identification of DIAEs in FDAs SRS.
Federer, Callie; Yoo, Minjae
Abstract Drug adverse events (AEs) are a major health threat to patients seeking medical treatment and a significant barrier in drug discovery and development. AEs are now required to be submitted during clinical trials and can be extracted from ClinicalTrials.gov (https://clinicaltrials.gov/), a database of clinical studies around the world. By extracting drug and AE information from ClinicalTrials.gov and structuring it into a database, drug-AEs could be established for future drug development and repositioning. To our knowledge, current AE databases contain mainly U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. However, our database contains both FDA-approved and experimental compounds extracted from ClinicalTrials.gov. Our database contains 8,161 clinical trials of 3,102,675 patients and 713,103 reported AEs. We extracted the information from ClinicalTrials.gov using a set of python scripts, and then used regular expressions and a drug dictionary to process and structure relevant information into a relational database. We performed data mining and pattern analysis of drug-AEs in our database. Our database can serve as a tool to assist researchers to discover drug-AE relationships for developing, repositioning, and repurposing drugs. PMID:27631620
Federer, Callie; Yoo, Minjae; Tan, Aik Choon
Drug adverse events (AEs) are a major health threat to patients seeking medical treatment and a significant barrier in drug discovery and development. AEs are now required to be submitted during clinical trials and can be extracted from ClinicalTrials.gov ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ ), a database of clinical studies around the world. By extracting drug and AE information from ClinicalTrials.gov and structuring it into a database, drug-AEs could be established for future drug development and repositioning. To our knowledge, current AE databases contain mainly U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. However, our database contains both FDA-approved and experimental compounds extracted from ClinicalTrials.gov . Our database contains 8,161 clinical trials of 3,102,675 patients and 713,103 reported AEs. We extracted the information from ClinicalTrials.gov using a set of python scripts, and then used regular expressions and a drug dictionary to process and structure relevant information into a relational database. We performed data mining and pattern analysis of drug-AEs in our database. Our database can serve as a tool to assist researchers to discover drug-AE relationships for developing, repositioning, and repurposing drugs.
Rackham, Daniel M; C Herink, Megan; Stevens, Ian G; Cardoza, Natalie M; Singh, Harleen
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) periodically publishes Drug Safety Communications and Drug Alerts notifying health care practitioners and the general public of important information regarding drug therapies following FDA approval. These alerts can result in both positive and negative effects on patient care. Most clinical trials are not designed to detect long-term safety end points, and postmarketing surveillance along with patient reported events are often instrumental in signaling the potential harmful effect of a drug. Recently, many cardiovascular (CV) safety announcements have been released for FDA-approved drugs. Because a premature warning could discourage a much needed treatment or prompt a sudden discontinuation, it is essential to evaluate the evidence supporting these FDA alerts to provide effective patient care and to avoid unwarranted changes in therapy. Conversely, paying attention to these warnings in cases involving high-risk patients can prevent adverse effects and litigation. This article reviews the evidence behind recent FDA alerts for drugs with adverse CV effects and discusses the clinical practice implications.
Chen, Ying-Yu; Li, Jing; Hu, Jian-Da; Zheng, Jing; Zheng, Zhi-Hong; Zhu, Liang-Fang; Chen, Xin-Ji; Lin, Zhen-Xing
This study was aimed to investigate the reversing effects of emodin on multidrug resistance (MDR) in resistant HL-60/ADR cells, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. The MTT assay was used to assess the chemoresistance of HL-60/ADR cells to emodin and 8 chemotherapeutic agents commonly used in clinic. The reversal effects of emodin on MDR of HL-60/ADR cells were also evaluated by MTT method. DNA ploidy analysis and DNA Ladder assay were used to detect apoptosis-induced effects on HL-60/ADR cells via the adriamycin (ADR) and emodin combination. The expression changes of the drug resistance-associated genes and proteins were detected by RT-PCR and Western Blot respectively. The intracellular accumulation and subcellular distribution of ADR and DNR were measured by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results showed that emodin inhibited HL-60/ADR cell proliferation with an average IC50 value of 24.09 ± 1.72 µmol/L, which was similar to that of the parental HL-60 cells (average IC50 = 23.18 ± 0.87 µmol/L). HL-60/ADR cells were resistant to a variety of chemotherapeutic agents, such as ADR, DNR, VP16, VCR,Ara-C, HHT, MTZ and THP. The reversal multiple were between 1.58 and 4.12 after the treatment with low concentration of emodin combined with the above mentioned different agents. The combination of ADR with emodin showed the best reversal effects, and the typical hypodiploid peak (apoptotic peak) and DNA ladder could be detected after the co-treatment.In addition, emodin down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of MRP1, TOPOIIβ, GST π and BCL-2. Furthermore, the addition of emodin enhanced ADR and DNR intracellular accumulation and subcellular distribution in HL-60/ADR cells in dose-dependent manner. It is concluded that the emodin shows reversing effects on the multidrug resistant HL-60/ADR cells, possibly via decreasing the expression levels of drug resistance-associated genes, increasing the intracellular accumulation of
Komeda, Takuji; Ishii, Shingo; Itoh, Yumiko; Ariyasu, Yasuyuki; Sanekata, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Takayoshi; Shimada, Jingoro
Peramivir is the only intravenous formulation among anti-influenza neuraminidase inhibitors currently available. Peramivir was approved for manufacturing and marketing in Japan in January 2010. We conducted a drug use investigation of peramivir from October 2010 to February 2012 and evaluated its safety and effectiveness under routine clinical settings. We collected data of 1309 patients from 189 facilities across Japan and examined safety in 1174 patients and effectiveness in 1158 patients. In total, 143 adverse events were observed with an incidence rate of 7.33% (86/1174). Of these, 78 events were adverse drug reactions (ADRs) with an incidence rate of 4.34% (51/1174). The most frequently reported ADRs were diarrhea, vomiting, and nausea, with incidence rates of 1.87% (22/1174), 0.85% (10/1174), and 0.68% (8/1174), respectively. Moreover, no ADR was reported as serious. ADR onset was within 3 days after the start of peramivir administration in 91.0% (71 events) of the 78 ADRs, and ADRs were resolved or improved within 7 days after onset in 96.2% (75 events) of the 78 ADRs. Neither patient characteristics nor treatment factors appeared to significantly affect drug safety. With regard to effectiveness, the median time to alleviation of both influenza symptoms and fever was 3 days, including the first day of administration. The present study demonstrates the safety and effectiveness of peramivir under routine clinical settings.
Ikeda, Hiroko; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Yamazaki, Etsuko; Fujiwara, Tateki; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Saito, Yoshiro; Aihara, Michiko; Kashiwagi, Mariko; Muramatsu, Masaaki
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is frequently used for treating epilepsy, but this drug causes cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs) that may range from mild to severe. It is reported recently that the human leukocyte antigen HLA-B*1502 is associated with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) induced by CBZ in Han Chinese. We examined HLA class I in 15 Japanese patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for CBZ-induced cADRs (mild in 10 and severe = SJS in 5). HLA-B*1518, HLA-B*5901 and HLA-C*0704 alleles showed higher relative risks (above 10.0) for severe cADRs. The haplotype (HLA-A*2402-B*5901-C*0102) had high relative risk (16.09) for severe cADRs. In patients with severe cADRs, frequencies of HLA-A*1101, HLA-A*3303, HLA-B*1501, HLA-B*4403, HLA-B*5101, HLA-B*5201, HLA-C*0702, and HLA-C*1202 alleles are relatively lower than in the Japanese population. These data may suggest that HLA-B*5901 is one of the candidate markers for CBZ-induced SJS in Japanese.
Petrova, Guenka; Stoimenova, Assena; Dimitrova, Maria; Kamusheva, Maria; Petrova, Daniela; Georgiev, Ognian
Introduction: Adverse drug reactions can cause increased morbidity and mortality, and therefore information needs to be studied systematically. Little is known about the adverse drug reactions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease therapy. The goal of this study is to assess the expectedness, seriousness and severity of adverse drug reactions during chronic obstructive pulmonary disease therapy based on their reporting in the national pharmacovigilance system. Methods: This was a prospective, observational, 1-year, real-life study about the pharmacotherapy of a sample of 390 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Prescribed medicines were systematized and national pharmacovigilance databases were searched for reported adverse drug reactions. The expectedness was evaluated through the review of the summary of product characteristics, the seriousness was evaluated by the clinicians based on the life threatening nature of the adverse drug reactions, and the severity was evaluated through Hartwig’s Severity Assessment Scale. Descriptive statistics of the reported adverse drug reactions was performed and the relative risk of developing an adverse drug reaction with all international non-proprietary names included in the analysis was calculated. Results: Results confirm that the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a disease with high appearance of adverse drug reactions, and causes many additional costs to the healthcare system. Unexpected and severe adverse drug reactions are frequent. A total of 4.8% of adverse drug reactions were evaluated as life threatening. Majority of adverse drug reactions are classified in Levels 1 (32.6%), 2 (26.4%) and 3 (19%) according to Hartwig’s Severity Assessment Scale. Approximately 22% of reported adverse drug reactions affect people’s everyday life to a greater extent and require additional therapy which might further increase the risk. The relative risk of developing an adverse drug reaction was highest for
Visweswaran, Shyam; Hanbury, Paul; Saul, Melissa; Cooper, Gregory F
Detection and prevention of adverse events and, in particular, adverse drug events (ADEs), is an important problem in health care today. We describe the implementation and evaluation of four variations on the simple Bayes model for identifying ADE-related discharge summaries. Our results show that these probabilistic techniques achieve an ROC curve area of up to 0.77 in correctly determining which patient cases should be assigned an ADE-related ICD-9-CM code. These results suggest a potential for these techniques to contribute to the development of an automated system that helps identify ADEs, as a step toward further understanding and preventing them.
[Evaluation of the Association of Hand-Foot Syndrome with Anticancer Drugs Using the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) Databases].
Sasaoka, Sayaka; Matsui, Toshinobu; Abe, Junko; Umetsu, Ryogo; Kato, Yamato; Ueda, Natsumi; Hane, Yuuki; Motooka, Yumi; Hatahira, Haruna; Kinosada, Yasutomi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro
The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare lists hand-foot syndrome as a serious adverse drug event. Therefore, we evaluated its association with anticancer drug therapy using case reports in the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). In addition, we calculated the reporting odds ratio (ROR) of anticancer drugs potentially associated with hand-foot syndrome, and applied the Weibull shape parameter to time-to-event data from JADER. We found that JADER contained 338224 reports from April 2004 to November 2014, while FAERS contained 5821354 reports from January 2004 to June 2014. In JADER, the RORs [95% confidence interval (CI)] of hand-foot syndrome for capecitabine, tegafur-gimeracil-oteracil, fluorouracil, sorafenib, and regorafenib were 63.60 (95%CI, 56.19-71.99), 1.30 (95%CI, 0.89-1.89), 0.48 (95%CI, 0.30-0.77), 26.10 (95%CI, 22.86-29.80), and 133.27 (95%CI, 112.85-157.39), respectively. Adverse event symptoms of hand-foot syndrome were observed with most anticancer drugs, which carry warnings of the propensity to cause these effects in their drug information literature. The time-to-event analysis using the Weibull shape parameter revealed differences in the time-dependency of the adverse events of each drug. Therefore, anticancer drugs should be used carefully in clinical practice, and patients may require careful monitoring for symptoms of hand-foot syndrome.
Naranjo, C A; Busto, U; Janecek, E; Ruiz, I; Roach, C A; Kaplan, K
1 Liver disease can alter the disposition and clinical effects of drugs. However, even though altered drug disposition occurs, there is no clinical evidence relating it to an increased susceptibility to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). 2 An intensive prospective drug monitoring study of 2,582 hospitalized patients was conducted. The adverse drug reactions probability scale (APS) was used to assess ADRs. Only non-mild, definite or probable ADRs (APS greater than or equal to 5) were included. Severity of liver dysfunction was assessed by a composite clinical and laboratory index (CCLI). 3 The frequency of ADRs was higher in 402 patients with cirrhosis (27.4%) than in 661 with renal dysfunction (22.8%) and in 249 with other parenchymatous liver diseases (13.7%) or in 1,270 patients with neither liver diseases nor renal dysfunction (10.9%) (chi 2 3 = 85.53, P less than 0.001). The frequency of ADRs in cirrhotics was highly correlated with the severity of the liver dysfunction measured by CCLI (r = 0.82, P less than 0.001). 4 Drugs predominantly eliminated by liver metabolism were not among those most commonly inducing ADRs or those causing severe reactions in cirrhotics. Thus, frusemide caused the most common and the most severe ADRs, whereas reactions induced by sedatives were uncommon. Drug-induced hepatic encephalopathy was more common in cirrhotics receiving diuretics (13.3%) than in those receiving sedatives (1.8%) (chi 2 y.c. = 5.29, P less than 0.025). Patients with alcoholic liver disease had more drug-induced hepatic encephalopathy (7.7%) than those with non-alcoholic liver disease (1.2%) (chi 2 y.c. = 11.86, P less than 0.001). 5 These results indicate that susceptibility to ADRs is increased only in severe cirrhosis and that the most common and severe ADRs seem more likely related to enhanced pharmacodynamic action than to impaired drug disposition. PMID:6849781
Hochberg, Alan M; Hauben, Manfred; Pearson, Ronald K; O'Hara, Donald J; Reisinger, Stephanie J
The optimum timing of drug safety data mining for a new drug is uncertain. The objective of this study was to compare cumulative data mining versus mining with sliding time windows. Adverse Event Reporting System data (2001-2005) were studied for 27 drugs. A literature database was used to evaluate signals of disproportionate reporting (SDRs) from an urn model data-mining algorithm. Data mining was applied cumulatively and with sliding time windows from 1 to 4 years in width. Time from SDR generation to the appearance of a publication describing the corresponding adverse event was calculated. Cumulative data mining and 1- to 2-year sliding windows produced the most SDRs for recently approved drugs. In the first postmarketing year, data mining produced SDRs an average of 800 days in advance of publications regarding the corresponding drug-event combination. However, this timing advantage reduced to zero by year 4. The optimum window width for sliding windows should increase with time on the market. Data mining may be most useful for early signal detection during the first 3 years of a drug's postmarketing life. Beyond that, it may be most useful for supporting or weakening hypotheses.
Chan, Esther W; Liu, Kirin Q L; Chui, Celine S L; Sing, Chor-Wing; Wong, Lisa Y L; Wong, Ian C K
It is recognised that randomised controlled trials are not feasible for capturing rare adverse events. There is an increasing trend towards observational research methodologies using large population-based health databases. These databases offer more scope for adequate sample sizes, allowing for comprehensive patient characterisation and assessment of the associated factors. While direct causality cannot be established and confounders cannot be ignored, databases present an opportunity to explore and quantify rare events. The use of databases for the detection of rare adverse events in the following conditions, sudden death associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment, retinal detachment associated with the use of fluoroquinolones and toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with drug exposure, are discussed as examples. In general, rare adverse events tend to have immediate and important clinical implications and may be life-threatening. An understanding of the causative factors is therefore important, in addition to the research methodologies and database platforms that enable the undertaking of the research. PMID:25060360
Ji, Yanqing; Ying, Hao; Farber, Margo S.; Yen, John; Dews, Peter; Miller, Richard E.; Massanari, R. Michael
Discovering unknown adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in postmarketing surveillance as early as possible is of great importance. The current approach to postmarketing surveillance primarily relies on spontaneous reporting. It is a passive surveillance system and limited by gross underreporting (<10% reporting rate), latency, and inconsistent reporting. We propose a novel team-based intelligent agent software system approach for proactively monitoring and detecting potential ADRs of interest using electronic patient records. We designed such a system and named it ADRMonitor. The intelligent agents, operating on computers located in different places, are capable of continuously and autonomously collaborating with each other and assisting the human users (e.g., the food and drug administration (FDA), drug safety professionals, and physicians). The agents should enhance current systems and accelerate early ADR identification. To evaluate the performance of the ADRMonitor with respect to the current spontaneous reporting approach, we conducted simulation experiments on identification of ADR signal pairs (i.e., potential links between drugs and apparent adverse reactions) under various conditions. The experiments involved over 275 000 simulated patients created on the basis of more than 1000 real patients treated by the drug cisapride that was on the market for seven years until its withdrawal by the FDA in 2000 due to serious ADRs. Healthcare professionals utilizing the spontaneous reporting approach and the ADRMonitor were separately simulated by decision-making models derived from a general cognitive decision model called fuzzy recognition-primed decision (RPD) model that we recently developed. The quantitative simulation results show that 1) the number of true ADR signal pairs detected by the ADRMonitor is 6.6 times higher than that by the spontaneous reporting strategy; 2) the ADR detection rate of the ADRMonitor agents with even moderate decision-making skills is five
Naples, Jennifer G.; Hanlon, Joseph T.; Schmader, Kenneth E.; Semla, Todd P.
Medication errors and adverse drug events are common in older adults, but locating literature addressing these issues is often challenging. The objective of this article was to summarize recent studies addressing medication errors and adverse drug events in a single location to improve accessibility for individuals working with older adults. The authors conducted a comprehensive literature search for studies published in 2014 and identified 51 potential articles. After critical review, 17 studies were selected for inclusion based on innovation, rigorous observational or experimental study designs, and use of reliable, valid measures. Four articles characterizing potentially inappropriate prescribing and interventions to optimize medication regimens were annotated and critiqued in detail. We hope that health policy makers and clinicians find this information helpful in improving the quality of care for older adults. PMID:26804210
Gattuso, J M; Kamm, M A
Most laxatives, if used intermittently in the absence of contraindications, are relatively safe. Bulking agents may diminish absorption of some minerals and drugs, but this is not usually clinically significant. Ispaghula can cause serious allergic reactions. The chronic ingestion of stimulant laxatives has been blamed for the development of the 'cathartic colon', but there are no definitive studies which have demonstrated this. Dantron (danthron) preparations should only be used in older patients and the terminally ill because of the risk of hepatotoxicity with this drug. Oral oxyphenisatine should no longer be used. Senna would appear to be the stimulant laxative of choice during pregnancy and lactation. Bisacodyl is the polyphenolic derivative of choice. Lactulose, sorbitol and lactilol rarely cause significant adverse effects. Magnesium salt laxatives and phosphate enemas can cause serious metabolic disturbances in babies and young children. Liquid paraffin is contraindicated if there is any risk of aspiration. Interference with the absorption of fat soluble vitamins would not appear to be clinically significant. Docusate sodium may potentiate the hepatotoxicity of other drugs, but reports of this are rare. The role of cisapride in constipation has not been established. Antidiarrhoeal drugs are second line drugs whose use is aimed at minimising inconvenience and discomfort. No antidiarrhoeals can be recommended for children under 4 years of age. Loperamide is the drug of choice in older children and adults. The atropine component of diphenoxylate/atropine combinations can cause significant adverse effects. Bismuth salicylate is an inconvenient treatment for travellers' diarrhoea as large frequent doses of the liquid formulation are needed. Some bismuth can be absorbed and there is the potential to cause encephalopathy. Octreotide, methysergide and cholestyramine have a role for specific causes of diarrhoea only. Octreotide is effective in high output states
Tomé, Ana M; Filipe, Augusto
Quinolones are a class of antibacterial agents for the treatment of several infectious diseases (e.g. urinary and respiratory tract infections). They are used worldwide due to their broad spectrum of activity, high bioavailability and good safety profile. The safety profile varies from quinolone to quinolone. The aim of this article was to review the neurological and psychiatric adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile of quinolones, using a literature search strategy designed to identify case reports and case series. A literature search using PubMed/MEDLINE (from inception to 31 October 2010) was performed to identify case reports and case series related to quinolone-associated neurological and psychiatric ADRs. The search was conducted in two phases: the first phase was the literature search and in the second phase relevant articles were identified through review of the references of the selected articles. Relevant articles were defined as articles referring to adverse events/reactions associated with the use of any quinolone. Abstracts referring to animal studies, clinical trials and observational studies were excluded. Identified case reports were analysed by age group, sex, active substances, dosage, concomitant medication, ambulatory or hospital-based event and seriousness, after Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA®) coding. From a total of 828 articles, 83 were identified as referring to nervous system and/or psychiatric disorders induced by quinolones. 145 individual case reports were extracted from the 83 articles. 40.7% of the individual case reports belonged to psychiatric disorders only, whereas 46.9% related to neurological disorders only. Eight (5.5%) individual case reports presented both neurological and psychiatric ADRs. Ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and pefloxacin were the quinolones with more neurological and psychiatric ADRs reported in the literature. Ciprofloxacin has been extensively used worldwide, which may explain the higher number
Harpaz, R; DuMouchel, W; Shah, N H; Madigan, D; Ryan, P; Friedman, C
An important goal of the health system is to identify new adverse drug events (ADEs) in the postapproval period. Datamining methods that can transform data into meaningful knowledge to inform patient safety have proven essential for this purpose. New opportunities have emerged to harness data sources that have not been used within the traditional framework. This article provides an overview of recent methodological innovations and data sources used to support ADE discovery and analysis.
Background Many biomedical relation extraction systems are machine-learning based and have to be trained on large annotated corpora that are expensive and cumbersome to construct. We developed a knowledge-based relation extraction system that requires minimal training data, and applied the system for the extraction of adverse drug events from biomedical text. The system consists of a concept recognition module that identifies drugs and adverse effects in sentences, and a knowledge-base module that establishes whether a relation exists between the recognized concepts. The knowledge base was filled with information from the Unified Medical Language System. The performance of the system was evaluated on the ADE corpus, consisting of 1644 abstracts with manually annotated adverse drug events. Fifty abstracts were used for training, the remaining abstracts were used for testing. Results The knowledge-based system obtained an F-score of 50.5%, which was 34.4 percentage points better than the co-occurrence baseline. Increasing the training set to 400 abstracts improved the F-score to 54.3%. When the system was compared with a machine-learning system, jSRE, on a subset of the sentences in the ADE corpus, our knowledge-based system achieved an F-score that is 7 percentage points higher than the F-score of jSRE trained on 50 abstracts, and still 2 percentage points higher than jSRE trained on 90% of the corpus. Conclusion A knowledge-based approach can be successfully used to extract adverse drug events from biomedical text without need for a large training set. Whether use of a knowledge base is equally advantageous for other biomedical relation-extraction tasks remains to be investigated. PMID:24593054
Harpaz, Rave; DuMouchel, William; Shah, Nigam H.; Madigan, David; Ryan, Patrick; Friedman, Carol
Introduction Discovery of new adverse drug events (ADEs) in the post-approval period is an important goal of the health system. Data mining methods that can transform data into meaningful knowledge to inform patient safety have proven to be essential. New opportunities have emerged to harness data sources that have not been used within the traditional framework. This article provides an overview of recent methodological innovations and data sources used in support of ADE discovery and analysis. PMID:22549283
Kanjanarat, Penkarn; Winterstein, Almut G; Johns, Thomas E; Hatton, Randy C; Gonzalez-Rothi, Ricardo; Segal, Richard
A literature review was conducted to identify the drug classes, types of errors, and types of adverse outcomes related to preventable adverse drug events (pADEs). Studies were identified by keyword search of MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and by a manual search. The search was limited to peer-reviewed literature reporting pADEs in hospitalized patients and the frequencies of at least one pADE characteristic. The frequencies of pADEs and their characteristics were summarized using median and range. Ten studies published between 1994 and 2001 were included in the review. The reported median frequency of pADEs was 1.8% (range, 1.3-7.8%), and the median preventability rate of ADEs in the hospitals was 35.2% (range, 18.7-73.2%). Cardiovascular drugs were implicated for 17.9% of pADEs (range, 4.3-28.1%). Most pADEs occurred in the prescribing stage of the medication-use process and were dose related. Inappropriate prescribing decisions and patient monitoring were the most frequently identified causes of pADEs. The most common adverse outcomes were allergic reactions, hepatic or renal problems, cardiovascular problems, hematologic problems and bleeding, and central nervous system problems. Frequently reported examples of pADEs included antihypertensive overdose associated with bradycardia or hypotension, antiinfectives prescribed despite a history of allergy, warfarin overdose and inappropriate monitoring resulting in hemorrhage, and opioid overdose or underdose associated with respiratory depression or poor pain control, respectively. Despite the heterogeneity of pADEs, the results of this literature review suggest that a few types of drugs, errors, and adverse outcomes constitute a substantial proportion of pADEs. Targeting these high-priority areas could significantly reduce the overall frequency of pADEs.
Fan, Kai; Sun, Xingzhi; Tao, Ying; Xu, Linhao; Wang, Chen; Mao, Xianling; Peng, Bo; Pan, Yue
Post-marketing pharmacovigilance is important for public health, as many Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) are unknown when those drugs were approved for marketing. However, due to the large number of reported drugs and drug combinations, detecting ADE signals by mining these reports is becoming a challenging task in terms of computational complexity. Recently, a parallel programming model, MapReduce has been introduced by Google to support large-scale data intensive applications. In this study, we proposed a MapReduce-based algorithm, for common ADE detection approach, Proportional Reporting Ratio (PRR), and tested it in mining spontaneous ADE reports from FDA. The purpose is to investigate the possibility of using MapReduce principle to speed up biomedical data mining tasks using this pharmacovigilance case as one specific example. The results demonstrated that MapReduce programming model could improve the performance of common signal detection algorithm for pharmacovigilance in a distributed computation environment at approximately liner speedup rates.
Jakobsen, Klaus Damgaard; Bruhn, Christina Hedegaard; Pagsberg, Anne-Katrine; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Nielsen, Jimmi
Aripiprazole is a partial dopamine agonist with only minor neurological and psychiatric adverse effects, making it a potential first-line drug for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, the evidence of its use in children and adolescents is rather sparse. The aim of this case study is to discuss adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports concerning aripiprazole-associated neurological and psychiatric events in children and adolescents. The ADR report database at Danish Medicines Agency was searched for all ADRs involving children and adolescents (<18 years) reported by the search term [aripiprazole] AND all spontaneous reports since the introduction of aripiprazole in 2003 until December 31, 2015. Nineteen case reports were included in the study and included both patients with psychotic disorders (PS group) and nonpsychotic disorders (non-PS group). The PS group consisted of 5 patients with schizophrenia and psychoses, not otherwise specified; and the non-PS group consisted of fourteen cases including autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Tourette syndrome. The main reported adverse effects in the non-PS group were chronic insomnia, Parkinsonism, behavioral changes psychoses, and weight gain, whereas the adverse effects in the PS group was predominantly anxiety, convulsions, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Although aripiprazole is considered safe and well tolerated in children and adolescents, severe adverse events as neuroleptic malignant syndrome, extreme insomnia, and suicidal behavior has been reported to health authorities. Clinicians should pay attention to these possible hazards when prescribing aripiprazole to this vulnerable group of patients.
Balmer, Nina V; Leist, Marcel
Prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals or drugs has been associated with functional or structural deficits and the development of diseases in later life. For example, developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) is triggered by lead, and this compound may predispose to neurodegenerative diseases in later life. The molecular memory for such late consequences of early exposure is not known, but epigenetic mechanisms (modification of the chromatin structure) could take this role. Examples and underlying mechanisms have been compiled here for the field of DNT. Moreover, we addressed the question as to what readout is suitable for addressing drug memory effects. We summarize how complex developmental processes can be modelled in vitro by using the differentiation of human stem cells. Although cellular models can never replicate the final human DNT phenotype, they can model the adverse effect that a chemical has on key biological processes essential for organ formation and function. Highly information-rich transcriptomics data may inform on these changes and form the bridge from in vitro models to human prediction. We compiled data showing that transcriptome analysis can indicate toxicity patterns of drugs. A crucial question to be answered in our systems is when and how transcriptome changes indicate adversity (as opposed to transient adaptive responses), and how drug-induced changes are perpetuated over time even after washout of the drug. We present evidence for the hypothesis that changes in the histone methylation pattern could represent the persistence detector of an early insult that is transformed to an adverse effect at later time-points in life.
Jha, Anshu Kumar; Gadgade, Akash; Shenoy, Ashok K.; Chowta, Mukta N.; Ramapuram, John T.
Context: The advancement and development of new drugs and treatment strategies increase the risk of unusual Adverse Events (AEs) in HIV patients. Aims: The objective of our study was to assess the incidence, types and nature of AEs in HIV positive subjects. Settings and Design: Patients with WHO stage IV disease irrespective of the CD4 cell count, or WHO stage III disease with a CD4 cell count <350 cell/cu. Mm, or, WHO stage I or II disease with a CD4 cell count of <200 cells/cu. mm, and on prior anti-retroviral therapy for not more than six months preceding the observation date, were included in the study. After initiation of therapy, the patients were examined for the occurrence any adverse events including the type and severity, or any other abnormal laboratory findings. Causality assessment of the adverse events was done using the Naranjo's scale. Results: Out of 327 patients studied prospectively, 43 patients developed AEs. Out of these, 23 (53.5%) were males and 20 (46.5%) were females. A total of 53 (16.21%) AEs were reported. Antitubercular drugs caused the maximum AEs (28.3%) followed by zidovudine (20.7%), nevirapine (15.0%) and efavirenz (5.6%). Stavudine, ethambutol, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, and atazanavir were also responsible for 3.7% of AEs individually. Causality assessment done according to the Naranjo's scale revealed that 66.04% AEs were ‘probable’ and 33.96% were ‘possible’. Conclusions: Anemia, hepatitis and dermatological adverse effects are the most common AEs. Antitubercular drugs contributed significantly for the incidence of AEs in these patients. Frequency of AEs was slightly more in males compared to females. PMID:25657900
Hosoya, Ryuichiro; Ishii-Nozawa, Reiko; Kagaya, Hajime
Hiccups are occasionally experienced by most individuals. Although hiccups are not life-threatening, they may lead to a decline in quality of life. Previous studies showed that hiccups may occur as an adverse effect of certain medicines during chemotherapy. Furthermore, a male dominance in hiccups has been reported. However, due to the limited number of studies conducted on this phenomenon, debate still surrounds the few factors influencing hiccups. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of medicines and patient characteristics on hiccups using a large-sized adverse drug event report database and, specifically, the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database. Cases of adverse effects associated with medications were extracted from JADER, and Fisher’s exact test was performed to assess the presence or absence of hiccups for each medication. In a multivariate analysis, we conducted a multiple logistic regression analysis using medication and patient characteristic variables exhibiting significance. We also examined the role of dexamethasone in inducing hiccups during chemotherapy. Medicines associated with hiccups included dexamethasone, levofolinate, fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, carboplatin, and irinotecan. Patient characteristics associated with hiccups included a male gender and greater height. The combination of anti-cancer agent and dexamethasone use was noted in more than 95% of patients in the dexamethasone-use group. Hiccups also occurred in patients in the anti-cancer agent-use group who did not use dexamethasone. Most of the medications that induce hiccups are used in chemotherapy. The results of the present study suggest that it is possible to predict a high risk of hiccups using patient characteristics. We confirmed that dexamethasone was the drug that has the strongest influence on the induction of hiccups. However, the influence of anti-cancer agents on the induction of hiccups cannot be denied. We consider the results of the
Sastre, J; Rodríguez, F; Campo, P; Laffond, E; Marín, A; Alonso, M D
The aim of the study was to investigate whether adverse drug reactions (ADRs) during immunotherapy with a grass extract (AVANZ® Phleum, ALK-Abelló) are related to the different patterns of sensitization of patients to grass allergens. A total of 192 patients with rhinitis and/or asthma sensitized to grass pollen received a 4-week updosing with five injections. ADRs were evaluated following EAACI guidelines. A total of 432 ADRs in 133 (69%) patients were recorded, 64% local and 31% systemic. There was a significant association between the number of grass allergens that sensitized the patients and the total number of ADRs (P = 0.004) occurred locally (P = 0.003) and systemically (P = 0.01). Sensitization to Phl p1 + Phl p5 or Phl p1 + Phl p5 + Phl p12 was significantly associated with a higher frequency of local or systemic reactions (P = 0.001, both). Different patterns of sensitization to grass allergens may potentially be considered a risk marker to the development of ADRs to immunotherapy.
Stadler, Th; Bader, M; Uckert, S; Staehler, M; Becker, A; Stief, C G
Sexual dysfunctions (SD) are adverse effects of common drug therapies that have rarely been considered in investigations so far. Possibly it is barely known that many widespread and frequently prescribed medications and drug therapies can have significant impact on vascular and nerval processes as well as on endocrinologic and psychoneuroendocrinologic systems and therefore can influence sexual functions. Impotence and disorders of the erectile function can mainly be caused by antidopaminergic mechanisms, whereas ejaculatory disorders and anorgasmia often can be explained by antiserotoninergic effects. Anticholinergic and adrenoloytic agents can also cause a particular impairment of erectile functions. The following considerations will show that the detection and treatment of SD (also in women!) should be given much more attention since drug-induced SDs occur predominantly in indications where a SD itself can be a symptom of the disease.
Marangu, Diana; Kovacs, Stephanie; Walson, Judd; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Ortiz, Justin R.; John-Stewart, Grace; Horne, David J.
Introduction Wheeze is an important sign indicating a potentially severe adverse event in vaccine and drug trials, particularly in children. However, there are currently no consensus definitions of wheeze or associated respiratory compromise in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Objective To identify definitions and severity grading scales of wheeze as an adverse event in vaccine and drug RCTs enrolling children <5 years and to determine their diagnostic performance based on sensitivity, specificity and inter-observer agreement. Methods We performed a systematic review of electronic databases and reference lists with restrictions for trial settings, English language and publication date ≥ 1970. Wheeze definitions and severity grading were abstracted and ranked by a diagnostic certainty score based on sensitivity, specificity and inter-observer agreement. Results Of 1,205 articles identified using our broad search terms, we identified 58 eligible trials conducted in 38 countries, mainly in high-income settings. Vaccines made up the majority (90%) of interventions, particularly influenza vaccines (65%). Only 15 trials provided explicit definitions of wheeze. Of 24 studies that described severity, 11 described wheeze severity in the context of an explicit wheeze definition. The remaining 13 studies described wheeze severity where wheeze was defined as part of a respiratory illness or a wheeze equivalent. Wheeze descriptions were elicited from caregiver reports (14%), physical examination by a health worker (45%) or a combination (41%). There were 21/58 studies in which wheeze definitions included combined caregiver report and healthcare worker assessment. The use of these two methods appeared to have the highest combined sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion Standardized wheeze definitions and severity grading scales for use in pediatric vaccine or drug trials are lacking. Standardized definitions of wheeze are needed for assessment of possible adverse events as
Scoyni, R M; Aiello, L; Trani, I; Felli, B; Masin, A M R; Camponi, V; Dignazio, L; Cortese, M; Pacitti, M T; Carratelli, D; Morocutti, C
We report a brief discussion on a clinical case of a female patient, 85 years old, affected by severe cognitive impairment and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The patient was not taking drugs at home (apart from promazine: 10 drops when necessary to control her behavioral diseases). A previous neuropsychological evaluation had shown a severe cognitive impairment MMSE=16/30; ADL=3/6; IADL=0/8) due to multiple brain ischemic areas (confirmed in 2003 by MRI neuroimaging). When the patient was admitted to our center she was able to perform some basic activities of daily living such as eating and walking and was not too confused. She was included in cognitive rehabilitation groups. Since she showed signs of Parkinsonism, a therapy based on omeprazol 20mg, acetylsalicylic acid, donepezil 10mg, pramipexol 0.18 mg, nimodipine 10 drops, levodopa+carbidopa 100/25mg was started. A few days later she became sleepy during daytime and, once, she lost her balance and fell. She was not self-sufficient any more. At first this was attributed to a lung infection that the patient had, but her state continue after the infection was completely cured with appropriate antibiotics therapy. At that point an adverse drug reaction was suspected and therapy with pramipexol 0.18 mg was interrupted. In a few days the patient regained her previous level of consciousness and self-sufficiency. We consider this a typical case of complex management in a patient with dementia and comorbidity in which adverse drug reactions can play an important role in lowering the level of cognitive functions. In this case the relationship with the family of the patient was made difficult by the attitude of the patient's daughter who decided, after the onset of the adverse drug reaction, to interrupt her mother's stay in our center even at risk of the worst consequences.
Dorr, David A.; Burdon, Rachel; West, Dennis P.; Lagman, Jennifer; Georgopoulos, Christina; Belknap, Steven M.; McKoy, June M.; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Edwards, Beatrice J.; Weitzman, Sigmund A.; Boyle, Simone; Tallman, Martin S.; Talpaz, Moshe; Sartor, Oliver; Bennett, Charles L.
Purpose Serious adverse drug event (sADE) reporting to Institutional Review Boards (IRB) is essential to ensure pharmaceutical safety. However, the quality of these reports has not been studied. Safety reports are especially important for cancer drugs that receive accelerated Food and Drug Administration approval, like imatinib, as preapproval experience with these drugs is limited. We evaluated the quality, accuracy, and completeness of sADE reports submitted to an IRB. Experimental Design sADE reports submitted to an IRB from 14 clinical trials with imatinib were reviewed. Structured case report forms, containing detailed clinical data fields and a validated causality assessment instrument, were developed. Two forms were generated for each ADE, the first populated with data abstracted from the IRB reports, and the second populated with data from the corresponding clinical record. Completeness and causality assessments were evaluated for each of the two sources, and then compared. Accuracy (concordance between sources) was also assessed. Results Of 115 sADEs reported for 177 cancer patients to the IRB, overall completeness of adverse event descriptions was 2.4-fold greater for structured case report forms populated with information from the clinical record versus the corresponding forms from IRB reports (95.0% versus 40.3%, P < 0.05). Information supporting causality assessments was recorded 3.5-fold more often in primary data sources versus IRB adverse event descriptions (93% versus 26%, P < 0.05). Some key clinical information was discrepant between the two sources. Conclusions The use of structured syndrome-specific case report forms could enhance the quality of reporting to IRBs, thereby improving the safety of pharmaceuticals administered to cancer patients. PMID:19458059
Wright, Jackie; Kenneally, Michaela E; Edwards, John W; Walker, G Stewart
The manufacture of methamphetamine in clandestine drug laboratories occurs in various locations, including residential houses and apartments. Unlike the controlled manufacture of chemicals and drugs, clandestine manufacture results in the uncontrolled storage, use, generation, and disposal of a wide range of chemicals and the deposit of methamphetamine drug residues on indoor surfaces (1). These residues have been found at high levels on porous and nonporous surfaces and have been shown to persist for months to years (1). Persons exposed to these environments often have poorly defined exposures and health effects. It is commonly assumed that these levels of exposure are low compared with those related to illicit drug use or therapeutic use of amphetamine-based drugs for managing behavioral issues such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (2). In 2015, a family that was unknowingly exposed to methamphetamine residues in a house in Australia was found to have adverse health effects and elevated methamphetamine levels in hair samples, highlighting the potential for public health risks for persons who might live in methamphetamine-contaminated dwellings. This case study highlights the importance of the identification and effective decontamination of former clandestine drug laboratories.
... schedule to permit the parties to engage in ADR outside of the Board's purview. While any form of ADR may be employed, the forms of ADR commonly employed using Board judges as neutrals are: case evaluation...; and fact-finding. (c) ADR for Non-Docketed Disputes. As a general matter the earlier a dispute...
Background Antibiotics are the widely prescribed drugs for children and most likely to be related with adverse reactions. Record on adverse reactions and allergies from antibiotics considerably affect the prescription choices. We consider this a biomedical decision-making problem and explore hidden knowledge in survey results on data extracted from a big data pool of health records of children, from the Health Center of Osijek, Eastern Croatia. Results We applied and evaluated a k-means algorithm to the dataset to generate some clusters which have similar features. Our results highlight that some type of antibiotics form different clusters, which insight is most helpful for the clinician to support better decision-making. Conclusions Medical professionals can investigate the clusters which our study revealed, thus gaining useful knowledge and insight into this data for their clinical studies. PMID:25079450
Schwenk, Eric S; Goldberg, Stephen F; Patel, Ronak D; Zhou, Jon; Adams, Douglas R; Baratta, Jaime L; Viscusi, Eugene R; Epstein, Richard H
High-dose opioid administration is associated with significant adverse events. Evidence suggests that low-dose ketamine infusions improve perioperative analgesia over conventional opioid management, but usage is highly variable. Ketamine's adverse drug effects (ADEs) are well known, but their prevalence during low-dose infusions in a clinical setting and how often they lead to infusion discontinuation are unknown. The purposes of this study were 3-fold: (1) to identify patient factors associated with initiation of ketamine infusions during spine surgery, (2) to identify specific spine procedures in which ketamine has been used most frequently, and (3) to identify ADEs associated with postoperative ketamine infusions and which ADEs most frequently led to discontinuation. Spine surgery was chosen because of its association with moderate to severe pain and a relatively high use of ketamine infusions in this population at our hospital.
Genco, Emma K.; Forster, Jeri E.; Flaten, Hanna; Goss, Foster; Heard, Kennon J.; Hoppe, Jason; Monte, Andrew A.
Study objective We examine the characteristics of clinical decision support alerts triggered when opioids are prescribed, including alert type, override rates, adverse drug events associated with opioids, and preventable adverse drug events. Methods This was a retrospective chart review study assessing adverse drug event occurrences for emergency department (ED) visits in a large urban academic medical center using a commercial electronic health record system with clinical decision support. Participants include those aged 18 to 89 years who arrived to the ED every fifth day between September 2012 and January 2013. The main outcome was characteristics of opioid drug alerts, including alert type, override rates, opioid-related adverse drug events, and adverse drug event preventability by clinical decision support. Results Opioid drug alerts were more likely to be overridden than nonopioid alerts (relative risk 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21 to 1.50). Opioid drug-allergy alerts were twice as likely to be overridden (relative risk 2.24; 95% CI 1.74 to 2.89). Opioid duplicate therapy alerts were 1.57 times as likely to be overridden (95% CI 1.30 to 1.89). Fourteen of 4,581 patients experienced an adverse drug event (0.31%; 95% CI 0.15% to 0.47%), and 8 were due to opioids (57.1%). None of the adverse drug events were preventable by clinical decision support. However, 46 alerts were accepted for 38 patients that averted a potential adverse drug event. Overall, 98.9% of opioid alerts did not result in an actual or averted adverse drug event, and 96.3% of opioid alerts were overridden. Conclusion Overridden opioid alerts did not result in adverse drug events. Clinical decision support successfully prevented adverse drug events at the expense of generating a large volume of inconsequential alerts. To prevent 1 adverse drug event, providers dealt with more than 123 unnecessary alerts. It is essential to refine clinical decision support alerting systems to eliminate
Uthayathas, Subramaniam; Shaffer, Christopher L; Menniti, Frank S; Schmidt, Christopher J; Papa, Stella M
Research into therapeutics for neuropsychiatric disorders is increasingly focusing on drugs with new mechanisms of action, and such agents are often assessed in preclinical studies using nonhuman primates. However, researchers lack a standardised method to compare different drugs for common adverse effects on the nervous system. We have developed a new scale for this purpose, named "Drug Effects on the Nervous System" (DENS), and tested its utility in an analysis of the second-generation antipsychotic risperidone in monkeys. The behavioural effects of risperidone over a ten-fold clinically relevant exposure range were rated with the DENS scale and compared with a standard motor disability scale for primates. The ratings were correlated with projected D2 and 5-HT2A receptor occupancies over time. The DENS scale detected dose-dependent side effects of risperidone in addition to the motor effects detected with the motor disability scale, including cognitive, sensorimotor and autonomic functions. A consistent temporal association between the DENS scale changes and the projected D2 receptor occupancy was observed, and the DENS scale ratings demonstrated high inter-rater reliability. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the DENS scale as a highly sensitive, reliable and accurate method to identify common adverse effects of risperidone and potentially other neurotropics for translational studies in primates.
Pope, Harrison G.; Wood, Ruth I.; Rogol, Alan; Nyberg, Fred; Bowers, Larry
Despite the high prevalence of performance-enhancing drug (PED) use, media attention has focused almost entirely on PED use by elite athletes to illicitly gain a competitive advantage in sports, and not on the health risks of PEDs. There is a widespread misperception that PED use is safe or that adverse effects are manageable. In reality, the vast majority of PED users are not athletes but rather nonathlete weightlifters, and the adverse health effects of PED use are greatly underappreciated. This scientific statement synthesizes available information on the medical consequences of PED use, identifies gaps in knowledge, and aims to focus the attention of the medical community and policymakers on PED use as an important public health problem. PED users frequently consume highly supraphysiologic doses of PEDs, combine them with other PEDs and/or other classical drugs of abuse, and display additional associated risk factors. PED use has been linked to an increased risk of death and a wide variety of cardiovascular, psychiatric, metabolic, endocrine, neurologic, infectious, hepatic, renal, and musculoskeletal disorders. Because randomized trials cannot ethically duplicate the large doses of PEDs and the many factors associated with PED use, we need observational studies to collect valid outcome data on the health risks associated with PEDs. In addition, we need studies regarding the prevalence of PED use, the mechanisms by which PEDs exert their adverse health effects, and the interactive effects of PEDs with sports injuries and other high-risk behaviors. We also need randomized trials to assess therapeutic interventions for treating the adverse effects of PEDs, such as the anabolic-androgen steroid withdrawal syndrome. Finally, we need to raise public awareness of the serious health consequences of PEDs. PMID:24423981
Oronoz, Maite; Gojenola, Koldo; Pérez, Alicia; de Ilarraza, Arantza Díaz; Casillas, Arantza
The advances achieved in Natural Language Processing make it possible to automatically mine information from electronically created documents. Many Natural Language Processing methods that extract information from texts make use of annotated corpora, but these are scarce in the clinical domain due to legal and ethical issues. In this paper we present the creation of the IxaMed-GS gold standard composed of real electronic health records written in Spanish and manually annotated by experts in pharmacology and pharmacovigilance. The experts mainly annotated entities related to diseases and drugs, but also relationships between entities indicating adverse drug reaction events. To help the experts in the annotation task, we adapted a general corpus linguistic analyzer to the medical domain. The quality of the annotation process in the IxaMed-GS corpus has been assessed by measuring the inter-annotator agreement, which was 90.53% for entities and 82.86% for events. In addition, the corpus has been used for the automatic extraction of adverse drug reaction events using machine learning.
McGlennon, J.A.S.; Schneider, P. )
Environmental managers have been expected to be experts in almost every field, including environmental engineering and science, regulatory affairs and policy, risk assessment and management and toxicology. Now add one more area to the list: Alternative dispute resolution (ADR). ADR uses neutral third parities to defuse adversarial relationships and reach cooperative solutions to environmental problems. ADR is not a new concept, it has been used for more than 15 years by several federal agencies, particularly the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), to develop federal policy and regulations and regulations and resolve conflicts among competing interests. Several state governments--Massachusetts, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Ohio, Florida, Oregon and Hawaii--have funded offices to provide ADR services to state agencies. California, New Hampshire, Montana, Texas and Maine also are developing offices. Many groups, both profit and non-profit, around the country provide ADR services to both public- and private-sector consumers. More than a dozen environmental ADR firms are based in the Northeast alone.
Anti-cancer drugs have relatively low effective rates and high frequencies of adverse reactions, occasionally leading to cessation of their treatments. Use of pharmacogenomic (PGx) information could be able to select the patients with high-response and less-adverse reactions, resulting in increase of patients' QOL and proper use of drugs. We have been collaborating with National Cancer Center for PGx analysis of anti-cancer drugs including irinotecan and gemcitabine in Japanese cancer patients. Irinotecan, now used for treatments of many cancers, is metabolically activated to SN-38 and then inactivated to SN-38 glucuronide by a UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A1. In the UGT1A1 gene, two representative genetic polymorphisms, *28 and *6, were detected at 0.138 and 0.167, respectively in 177 Japanese cancer patients. When the patients were homozygotes of *28 or *6, or compound heterozygotes of them, statistically significant decreases were observed in the SN-38 glucuronidation activity and increases in the rate of severe neutropenia, compared to those in the patients without *28 or *6. Our results and papers were cited in the Japanese package inserts of irinotecan. Gemcitabine was inactivated by cytidine deaminase (CDA) into 2'-2'-difluorodeoxyuridine. A CDA polymorphism 208G>A (Ala70Thr) was detected at 0.037 frequency in 256 Japanese cancer patients and associated with reduced gemcitabine clearance as well as increased frequency of severe neutropenia. In the 4 patients suffered from very severe bone marrow toxicities, 3 patients were homozygous CDA*3, suggesting that this polymorphism is exquisite for predicting severe adverse reactions by gemcitabine in Japanese.
Rodgers, Amie D.; Zhu, Hao; Fourches, Dennis; Rusyn, Ivan; Tropsha, Alexander
Adverse effects of drugs (AEDs) continue to be a major cause of drug withdrawals both in development and post-marketing. While liver-related AEDs are a major concern for drug safety, there are few in silico models for predicting human liver toxicity for drug candidates. We have applied the Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) approach to model liver AEDs. In this study, we aimed to construct a QSAR model capable of binary classification (active vs. inactive) of drugs for liver AEDs based on chemical structure. To build QSAR models, we have employed an FDA spontaneous reporting database of human liver AEDs (elevations in activity of serum liver enzymes), which contains data on approximately 500 approved drugs. Approximately 200 compounds with wide clinical data coverage, structural similarity and balanced (40/60) active/inactive ratio were selected for modeling and divided into multiple training/test and external validation sets. QSAR models were developed using the k nearest neighbor method and validated using external datasets. Models with high sensitivity (>73%) and specificity (>94%) for prediction of liver AEDs in external validation sets were developed. To test applicability of the models, three chemical databases (World Drug Index, Prestwick Chemical Library, and Biowisdom Liver Intelligence Module) were screened in silico and the validity of predictions was determined, where possible, by comparing model-based classification with assertions in publicly available literature. Validated QSAR models of liver AEDs based on the data from the FDA spontaneous reporting system can be employed as sensitive and specific predictors of AEDs in pre-clinical screening of drug candidates for potential hepatotoxicity in humans. PMID:20192250
Dahmke, Hendrike; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Weiler, Stefan
Nalmefene (Selincro®) is a selective opioid receptor antagonist, licensed in April 2014 in Switzerland for the reduction of alcohol consumption in adults with a high drinking risk level. 200 reports of adverse drug reactions of nalmefene have been documented worldwide in the WHO global pharmacovigilance database between 7th March 1997 to 1st March 2015. In 21 cases (10,5%) nalmefene and an opioid were administered concomitantly, causing withdrawal symptoms. Until now, the regional pharmacovigilance center in Zurich received four cases of nalmefene combined with opioids. This combination should be avoided.
Gahr, Maximilian; Freudenmann, Roland W; Hiemke, Christoph; Kölle, Markus A; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos
To retrieve insights into abuse/dependence of methylphenidate (MPH) in Germany, a query of a pharmacovigilance database was performed (observation interval: 1993 until 2012). From 1190 reports of any ADR related to MPH, n=23 (2%) cases of MPH abuse were identified (mean age 29 years; male sex 78%; mean daily MPH-dosage 111 ± 126.6 mg). As oral application was predominant (70%), the majority of reported cases of MPH abuse might be due to pharmacologic neuroenhancement.
Vazzana, M; Andreani, T; Fangueiro, J; Faggio, C; Silva, C; Santini, A; Garcia, M L; Silva, A M; Souto, E B
Tramadol hydrochloride (TrHC) is a synthetic analgesic drug exhibiting opioid and non-opioid properties, acting mainly on the central nervous system. It has been mostly used to treat pain, although its use to treat anxiety and depression has also been documented. These properties arise from the fact that they inhibit serotonin (5-HT) reuptake augmenting 5-HT concentration on the synaptic cleft. Despite this, TrHC has also been described to have several side effects which are mainly due to its fast metabolization and excretion which in turn requires multiple doses per day. To surpass this limitation, new pharmaceutical formulations are being developed intending the protection, target and sustained delivery as well as a reduction on daily dose aiming a reduction on the side effects. In the present work we have revised the efficacy, safety, biological and adverse effects of TrHC, and the added value of developing a novel drug delivery system for topical administration.
Woosley, Raymond L; Romero, Klaus; Heise, Craig W; Gallo, Tyler; Tate, Jared; Woosley, Raymond David; Ward, Sophie
Growing evidence indicates that many drugs have the ability to cause a potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia, torsades de pointes (TdP). This necessitates the development of a compilation of drugs that have this potential toxicity. Such a list is helpful in identifying the etiology of TdP in patients taking multiple drugs and assists decision making by those caring for patients at high risk of TdP. The Arizona Center for Education and Research on Therapeutics (AZCERT) has developed a process to standardize the identification of drugs and place them in risk categories for their clinical ability to cause TdP and QT prolongation. AZCERT's Adverse Drug Event Causality Analysis (ADECA) utilizes 16 types of data drawn from four sources to compile an open-source knowledge base, QTdrugs, which is maintained on the CredibleMeds.org website. Because the evidence for most drugs is incomplete, the ADECA process is used to place drugs into one of three categories that represent different levels of certainty: known TdP risk, possible TdP risk, and conditional TdP risk. Each category has strict evidentiary requirements for clinical evidence of TdP and/or QT prolongation. These are described in this paper. Because evidence can evolve over time, the ADECA process includes the continuous gathering and analysis of newly emerging evidence to revise the lists. The QTdrugs lists have proven to be a valued, readily available, commercial influence-free resource for healthcare providers, patients, researchers, and authors of consensus guidelines for the safe use of medicines.
Weiner, Mark G.; Livshits, Alice; Carozzoni, Carol; McMenamin, Erin; Gibson, Gene; Loren, Alison W.; Hennessy, Sean
A difficult balance exists in the use of cancer chemotherapy in which the cytotoxic medicine must act on the cancer without causing neutropenic fever, a condition that is caused by over-suppression of the immune system. An improved understanding of dosing strategies as well as the use of medications to support the immune system has helped to reduce the likelihood of an admission for neutropenic fever following cancer chemotherapy. Therefore, as with any drug therapy, chemotherapy administration that is temporally associated with an unexpected hospitalization for neutropenia is an adverse drug event (ADE). Analogous to other informatics research to monitor and address the occurrence of ADEs, this work develops and validates the information systems infrastructure necessary to detect the occurrence of and analyze the factors contributing to chemotherapy associated ADEs.
Jiang, Guoqian; Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G
A source of semantically coded Adverse Drug Event (ADE) data can be useful for identifying common phenotypes related to ADEs. We proposed a comprehensive framework for building a standardized ADE knowledge base (called ADEpedia) through combining ontology-based approach with semantic web technology. The framework comprises four primary modules: 1) an XML2RDF transformation module; 2) a data normalization module based on NCBO Open Biomedical Annotator; 3) a RDF store based persistence module; and 4) a front-end module based on a Semantic Wiki for the review and curation. A prototype is successfully implemented to demonstrate the capability of the system to integrate multiple drug data and ontology resources and open web services for the ADE data standardization. A preliminary evaluation is performed to demonstrate the usefulness of the system, including the performance of the NCBO annotator. In conclusion, the semantic web technology provides a highly scalable framework for ADE data source integration and standard query service.
Wang, Wei; Haerian, Krystl; Salmasian, Hojjat; Harpaz, Rave; Chase, Herbert; Friedman, Carol
Adverse drug events (ADEs) create a serious problem causing substantial harm to patients. An executable standardized knowledgebase of drug-ADE relations which is publicly available would be valuable so that it could be used for ADE detection. The literature is an important source that could be used to generate a knowledgebase of drug-ADE pairs. In this paper, we report on a method that automatically determines whether a specific adverse event (AE) is caused by a specific drug based on the content of PubMed citations. A drug-ADE classification method was initially developed to detect neutropenia based on a pre-selected set of drugs. This method was then applied to a different set of 76 drugs to determine if they caused neutropenia. For further proof of concept this method was applied to 48 drugs to determine whether they caused another AE, myocardial infarction. Results showed that AUROC was 0.93 and 0.86 respectively.
Sims, Shannon A; Snow, Laverne A; Porucznik, Christina A
Healthcare safety and quality surveillance is increasingly conducted by public health agencies. We describe a biomedical informatics method that uses multiple public health data sources to perform surveillance of methadone-related adverse drug events. Data from Utah medical examiner records, vital statistics, emergency department encounter administrative data and a database of controlled substances prescriptions are used to examine trends in state-wide adverse events related to methadone. From 1997 to 2004, population-adjusted methadone prescriptions increased 727%, with evidence to suggest the rise in the methadone prescription rate is for treatment of pain, not addiction therapy. During the same period of time, population adjusted, accidental methadone-related deaths in medical examiner data increased 1770%. Population adjusted methadone-related emergency department encounters rose 612% from 1997 to 2003. Our results suggest that the increase in methadone prescription rates from 1997 to 2004 was accompanied by a concurrent increase in methadone-related morbidity and mortality. Although patient data is not linked between data sources, our results demonstrate that utilizing multiple public health data sources captures more cases and provides more clinical detail than individual data sources alone. Our approach is a successful biomedical informatics approach for surveillance of adverse events and utilizes widely available public health data sources, as well as an emerging source of public health data, controlled substance prescription registries.
Duarte-Silva, Daniela; Figueiras, Adolfo; Herdeiro, Maria T.; Teixeira Rodrigues, António; Silva Branco, Fábio; Polónia, Jorge; Figueiredo, Isabel V.
Objective The aim of this study was to design and validate a questionnaire to measure perceived symptoms associated with antihypertensive drugs (PERSYVE). Methods The PERSYVE development and validation included four stages: 1) item development (bibliographic review and questionnaire elaboration); 2) face and content validation; 3) field testing (pre-test); and 4) test-retest validation, assessment of internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) and reproducibility over time (intraclass correlation coefficient and Cohen’s kappa coefficient). Results PERSYVE is divided into six sections according to results obtained from the literature review: (1) drug adherence, (2) perceived symptoms and how they affect quality of life (five-point Likert scale), (3) communication with health professionals, (4) perception of symptoms as adverse reactions, (5) influence on therapy compliance, and (6) adoption of non-pharmacological methods for blood pressure control. Content and face validation of the questionnaire led to some vocabulary changes and the introduction of section 2.1. Field-testing (n=26) revealed high comprehensibility of the questions. The Cronbach's alpha, calculated for section 2 (five-point Likert scale) was 0.850. PERSYVE was reproducible (n=167): kappa values presented fair to substantial reproducibility and, in section 2, ICC values resulted in good to excellent reproducibility. Conclusion Results showed that PERSYVE is a well-structured, objective, patient-friendly, valid and reliable questionnaire. PERSYVE can be a very useful instrument in hypertensive patients’ monitoring and in the screening of adverse effects. PMID:25035716
Burgess, J L; Barnhart, S; Checkoway, H
A retrospective cohort study was conducted among an international group of 46 law enforcement chemists and 13 Washington State clandestine drug laboratory investigation team members with more than 2,800 combined investigations. Each participant completed a questionnaire concerning previous drug laboratory investigations and adverse health effects during response activities. Methamphetamine laboratories accounted for 81-97% of all responses. Total illness incident rates varied between 0.75-3.4% of responses. Most exposures were through inhalation, and many occurred in the years prior to use of personal protective equipment. Symptoms were primarily those of headache and respiratory, mucous membrane, and skin irritation. Most illness episodes occurred during the processing phase of laboratory responses, and none occurred during the entry phase. A majority of illness episodes occurred in laboratories with leak/spills, fire/explosion, or uncontrolled reactions. Responding to an active laboratory was associated with a 7 to 15-fold risk of becoming ill as compared with setup, in-transit, or former (equipment removed) laboratory responses. No other laboratories characteristics were consistently associated with a significantly elevated relative risk of adverse health effects.
Brown, S Lori; Reid, Marie H; Duggirala, Hesha Jani
A silicone adjustable gastric banding system was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in June, 2001. The purpose of this report is to review and characterize the reports on silicone adjustable gastric banding systems received by the FDA through August 8, 2002. We also review medical literature on adverse events with silicone adjustable gastric banding systems. Manufacturers of regulated medical devices, such as adjustable silicone gastric bands, are required to report adverse events, including deaths and serious injuries, to the FDA. We reviewed all such reports received by the FDA through August 8, 2002, for adjustable silicone gastric bands and summarize the data by type of adverse event, reported device problems, and reported patient problems. The FDA received 556 reports of adverse events related to the use of adjustable silicone gastric bands. Two of these reports were for deaths, one during surgery and the other as a result of an erosion of the gastric band into the stomach 9 weeks after implantation. Forty-four reports were for injuries including band erosions, slippage, and infection. The most common type of report (499) was for device malfunction, and of these, 485 (97.2%) described a leak at or near the port. Of the 485 leaks reported as malfunctions, 99.4% were treated surgically. The majority of reports were related to disconnection, breakage, and leakage at or near the access port. Physicians and potential patients should be aware of these problems and recognize the possibility that additional surgery(ies) may be required for leaking access port/connections. The loose connection may cause pain and the device no longer performs as intended when there is a leak.
Timbo, Babgaleh; Koehler, Kathleen M; Wolyniak, Cecilia; Klontz, Karl C
Sulfite-sensitive individuals can experience adverse reactions after consuming foods containing sulfiting agents (sulfites), and some of these reactions may be severe. In the 1980s and 1990s, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) acted to reduce the likelihood that sulfite-sensitive individuals would unknowingly consume foods containing sulfites. The FDA prohibited the use of sulfites on fruits and vegetables (except potatoes) to be served or presented fresh to the public and required that the presence of detectable levels of sulfites be declared on food labels, even when these sulfites are used as a processing aid or are a component of another ingredient in the food. In the present study, data from FDA recall records and adverse event reports were used to examine the current status of problems of sensitivity to sulfites in foods. From 1996 through 1999, the FDA processed a total of 59 recalls of foods containing undeclared sulfites; these 59 recalls involved 93 different food products. Fifty (55%) of the recalled products were classified as class I, a designation indicating that a consumer reasonably could have ingested > or = 10 mg of undeclared sulfites on a single occasion, a level that could potentially cause a serious adverse reaction in a susceptible person. From 1996 through mid-1999, the FDA received a total of 34 reports of adverse reactions allegedly due to eating foods containing undeclared sulfites. The average of 10 reports per year, although derived from a passive surveillance system, was lower than the average of 111 reports per year that the FDA received from 1980 to 1987, a decrease that may have resulted in part from FDA regulatory action.
Novak, Philipp H; Ekins-Daukes, Suzie; Simpson, Colin R; Milne, Robert M; Helms, Peter; McLay, James S
Aims To investigate the extent of acute coprescribing in primary care to children on chronic antiepileptic therapy, which could give rise to potentially harmful drug–drug interactions. Design Acute coprescribing to children on chronic antiepileptic drug therapy in primary care was assessed in 178 324 children aged 0–17 years for the year 1 November 1999 to 31 October 2000. Computerized prescribing data were retrieved from 161 representative general practices in Scotland. Setting One hundred and sixty-one general practices throughout Scotland. Results During the study year 723 (0.41%) children chronically prescribed antiepileptic therapy were identified. Fourteen antiepileptic agents were prescribed, with carbamazepine, sodium valproate and lamotrigine accounting for 80% of the total. During the year children on chronic antiepileptic therapy were prescribed 4895 acute coprescriptions for 269 different medicines. The average number of acute coprescriptions for non-epileptic drug therapy were eight, 11, six, and six for the 0–1, 2–4, 5–11, and 12–17-year-olds, respectively. Of these acute coprescriptions 72 (1.5%) prescribed to 22 (3.0%) children were identified as a potential source of clinically serious interactions. The age-adjusted prevalence rates for potentially serious coprescribing were 86, 26, 22, and 33/1000 children chronically prescribed antiepileptic therapy in the 0–1, 2–4, 5–11, and 12–17-year-old age groups, respectively. The drugs most commonly coprescribed which could give rise to such interactions were antacids, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, theophylline and the low-dose oral contraceptive. For 10 (45.5%0 of the 20 children identified at risk of a potentially clinically serious adverse drug interaction, the acute coprescription was prescribed off label because of age or specific contraindication/warning. Conclusions In primary care, 3.0% of children on chronic antiepileptic therapy are coprescribed therapeutic agents, which could
Phillips-Howard, P. A.; Bjorkman, A. B.
Serious adverse reactions during malaria chemoprophylaxis are reviewed. Three drugs considered to have caused serious reactions in recent years are pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (Fansidar), pyrimethamine/dapsone (Maloprim) and amodiaquine. These reactions are principally independent of dose and cannot be determined during screening for optimal doses. However, host factors may precipitate dose-dependent reactions, some of which could be avoided with improvements in drug licensing. Since serious and life-threatening reactions are relatively rare (between 1:1000 and 1:20,000), Phase I to III trials cannot identify them. Reliance must therefore be placed on Phase IV post-marketing studies, including ongoing reviews of national registers, and specially tailored studies to identify the risk using prescription-event monitoring in high-risk populations. Occasionally, medical-record linkage, case-control and cohort studies may provide supportive data. Although large numbers of travellers must, of necessity, be exposed to a drug before relatively rare reactions are identified, the ascertainment of risk using post-marketing surveillance was prevented by the following five deficiencies: lack of awareness of early alerts, inadequate use of national registers, poor attention to epidemiological and statistical rigour, inadequate verification of denominators, and inadequacy of data records. Recommendations are given for minimizing such errors in the future. PMID:2208562
Toropov, Andrey A; Toropova, Alla P; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor F; Benfenati, Emilio; Gini, Giuseppina; Leszczynska, Danuta; Leszczynski, Jerzy
Classification data related to the Liver-Related Adverse Effects of Drugs have been studied with the CORAL software (http://www.insilico.eu/coral). Two datasets which contain compounds with two serum enzyme markers of liver toxicity: alanine aminotransferase (ALT, n=187) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, n=209) are analyzed. Statistical quality of the prediction for ALT activity is n=35, Sensitivity = 0.5556, Specificity = 0.8077, and Accuracy = 0.7429. In the case of AST activity the prediction is characterized by n=42, Sensitivity = 0.6875, Specificity = 0.7692, and Accuracy = 0.7381. A number of structural alerts which can be related to the studied activities are revealed. It is the first attempt to build up the classification QSAR model by means of the Monte Carlo technique based on representation of the molecular structure by SMILES using the CORAL software.
Harpaz, Rave; Callahan, Alison; Tamang, Suzanne; Low, Yen; Odgers, David; Finlayson, Sam; Jung, Kenneth; LePendu, Paea; Shah, Nigam H
Text mining is the computational process of extracting meaningful information from large amounts of unstructured text. It is emerging as a tool to leverage underutilized data sources that can improve pharmacovigilance, including the objective of adverse drug event (ADE) detection and assessment. This article provides an overview of recent advances in pharmacovigilance driven by the application of text mining, and discusses several data sources-such as biomedical literature, clinical narratives, product labeling, social media, and Web search logs-that are amenable to text mining for pharmacovigilance. Given the state of the art, it appears text mining can be applied to extract useful ADE-related information from multiple textual sources. Nonetheless, further research is required to address remaining technical challenges associated with the text mining methodologies, and to conclusively determine the relative contribution of each textual source to improving pharmacovigilance.
Sudo, Chie; Azuma, Yu-ichiro; Maekawa, Keiko; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Sai, Kimie; Saito, Yoshiro
Spontaneous reports on suspected serious adverse events caused by medicines from manufacturing/distributing pharmaceutical companies or medical institutions/pharmacies are regulated by the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law of Japan, and this system is important for post-marketing safety features. Although causal relationship between the medicine and the adverse event is not evaluated, and one incidence may be redundantly reported, this information would be useful to roughly grasp the current movements of drug-related serious adverse events, We searched open-source data of the spontaneous reports publicized by Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency for 4 serious adverse events (interstitial lung disease, rhabdomyolysis, anaphylaxis, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis) from 2004 to 2010 fiscal year (for 2010, from April 1 st to January 31th). Major drug-classes suspected to the adverse events were antineoplastics for interstitial lung disease, hyperlipidemia agents and psychotropics for rhabdomyolysis, antibiotics/chemotherapeutics, antineoplastics and intracorporeal diagnostic agents for anaphylaxis (anaphylactic shock, anaphylactic reactions, anaphylactoid shock and anaphylactoid reactions), and antibiotics/chemotherapeutics, antipyretics and analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents/common cold drugs, and antiepileptics for Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. These results would help understanding of current situations of the 4 drug-related serious adverse events in Japan.
Background Our objective was to develop a model for measuring re-identification risk that more closely mimics the behaviour of an adversary by accounting for repeated attempts at matching and verification of matches, and apply it to evaluate the risk of re-identification for Canada’s post-marketing adverse drug event database (ADE).Re-identification is only demonstrably plausible for deaths in ADE. A matching experiment between ADE records and virtual obituaries constructed from Statistics Canada vital statistics was simulated. A new re-identification risk is considered, it assumes that after gathering all the potential matches for a patient record (all records in the obituaries that are potential matches for an ADE record), an adversary tries to verify these potential matches. Two adversary scenarios were considered: (a) a mildly motivated adversary who will stop after one verification attempt, and (b) a highly motivated adversary who will attempt to verify all the potential matches and is only limited by practical or financial considerations. Methods The mean percentage of records in ADE that had a high probability of being re-identified was computed. Results Under scenario (a), the risk of re-identification from disclosing the province, age at death, gender, and exact date of the report is quite high, but the removal of province brings down the risk significantly. By only generalizing the date of reporting to month and year and including all other variables, the risk is always low. All ADE records have a high risk of re-identification under scenario (b), but the plausibility of that scenario is limited because of the financial and practical deterrent even for highly motivated adversaries. Conclusions It is possible to disclose Canada’s adverse drug event database while ensuring that plausible re-identification risks are acceptably low. Our new re-identification risk model is suitable for such risk assessments. PMID:24094134
Caplan, Arthur; Zink, Amanda
The ethical challenges of reporting and managing adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs) in the context of mass drug administration (MDA) for the treatment of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) require reassessment of domestic and international policies on a global scale. Although the World Health Organization has set forth AE/SAE guidelines specifically for NTD MDA that incorporate suspected causality, and recommends that only SAEs get reported in this setting, most regulatory agencies continue to require the reporting of all SAEs exhibiting even a merely temporal relationship to activities associated with an MDA program. This greatly increases the potential for excess "noise" and undue risk aversion and is not only impractical but arguably unethical where huge proportions of populations are being treated for devastating diseases, and no good baseline exists against which to compare possible AE/SAE reports. Other population-specific variables that might change the way drug safety ought to be assessed include differing efficacy rates of a drug, background morbidity/mortality rates of the target disease in question, the growth rate of the incidence of disease, the availability of rescue or salvage therapies, and the willingness of local populations to take risks that other populations might not. The fact that NTDs are controllable and potentially eradicable with well-tolerated, effective, existing drugs might further alter our assessment of MDA safety and AE/SAE tolerability. At the same time, diffuseness of population, communication barriers, lack of resources, and other difficult surveillance challenges may present in NTD-affected settings. These limitations could impair the ability to monitor an MDA program's success, as well as hinder efforts to obtain informed consent or provide rescue therapy. Denying beneficial research interventions and MDA programs intended to benefit millions requires sound ethical justification based on more than the identification of
Mihajlovic, Silvija; Gauthier, Jeremie; MacDonald, Erika
Background: Adverse drug events (ADEs) occurring in hospital inpatients can have serious implications. The ability to identify and prioritize patients at higher risk of ADEs could help pharmacists to optimize their impact as members of the patient care team. Objective: To identify risk factors, patient characteristics, and medications associated with a higher likelihood of ADEs in adult inpatients through an overview of reviews on this topic. Data Sources: Systematic reviews and narrative reviews or guidelines identified through a search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (limited to articles published from 1995 to June 4, 2015), as well as a grey literature search. Study Selection and Data Extraction: For inclusion in this overview, a review had to discuss patient characteristics or risk factors associated with ADEs, medications associated with ADEs, or drug–drug interactions associated with ADEs, in adult inpatients. Articles retrieved by the literature search were screened for eligibility by a single reviewer. Data Synthesis: Eleven articles were deemed eligible for inclusion in this overview: 4 systematic reviews and 7 narrative reviews or guidelines. Their results were described narratively. Older age and polypharmacy were the most frequently cited risk factors associated with ADEs in hospital inpatients. Renal impairment, female sex, and decline in cognition were also frequently reported as being associated with ADEs. Medication classes reported to be associated with ADEs during the hospital stay included anticoagulants, anti-infectives/antibiotics, antidiabetic agents, analgesics (including opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), and cardiovascular drugs (including antihypertensive agents, diuretics, and digoxin). Two publications reported on preventable ADEs in hospital inpatients; the medications associated with preventable ADEs were consistent with those reported above. Conclusions: The risk factors, patient
Manini, Alex F.; Hoffman, Robert S.; Stimmel, Barry; Vlahov, David
Objectives It was recently demonstrated that adverse cardiovascular events (ACVE) complicate a high proportion of hospitalizations for patients with acute drug overdoses. The aim of this study was to derive independent clinical risk factors for ACVE in patients with acute drug overdoses. Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted over 3 years at two urban university hospitals. Patients were adults with acute drug overdoses enrolled from the ED. In-hospital ACVE was defined as any of myocardial injury, shock, ventricular dysrhythmia, or cardiac arrest. Results There were 1,562 patients meeting inclusion/exclusion criteria (mean age, 41.8 years; female, 46%; suicidal, 38%). ACVE occurred in 82 (5.7%) patients (myocardial injury, 61; shock, 37; dysrhythmia, 23; cardiac arrests, 22) and there were 18 (1.2%) deaths. On univariate analysis, ACVE risk increased with age, lower serum bicarbonate, prolonged QTc interval, prior cardiac disease, and altered mental status. In a multivariable model adjusting for these factors as well as patient sex and hospital site, independent predictors were: QTc > 500 msec (3.8% prevalence, odds ratio [OR] 27.6), bicarbonate < 20 mEql/L (5.4% prevalence, OR 4.4), and prior cardiac disease (7.1% prevalence, OR 9.5). The derived prediction rule had 51.6% sensitivity, 93.7% specificity, and 97.1% negative predictive value; while presence of two or more risk factors had 90.9% positive predictive value. Conclusions The authors derived independent clinical risk factors for ACVE in patients with acute drug overdose, which should be validated in future studies as a prediction rule in distinct patient populations and clinical settings. PMID:25903997
Betancourt, Blas Y; Marrero-Miragaya, María A; Jiménez-López, Giset; Valenzuela-Silva, Carmen; García-Iglesias, Elizeth; Hernández-Bernal, Francisco; Debesa-García, Francisco; González-López, Tania; Alvarez-Falcón, Leovaldo; López-Saura, Pedro A
Background Streptokinase (SK) is an effective fibrinolytic agent for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The objective of the present study was to assess the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with intravenous recombinant SK in patients with AMI in routine clinical practice. Methods A national, prospective and spontaneous reporting-based pharmacovigilance program was conducted in Cuba. Patient demographics, suspected ADR description, elements to define causality, and outcomes were documented and analyzed. Results A total of 1496 suspected ADRs identified in 792 patients out of the 1660 (47.7 %) prescriptions reported in the program, were received from July 1995 to July 2002. Most of the patients (71.3%) were male, 67.2% were white and mean age was 61.6 ± 13.0 years. The mean time interval between the onset of symptoms and the start of the SK infusion was 4.9 ± 3.7 h. The most frequently reported ADRs were hypotension, arrhythmias, chills, tremors, vomiting, nauseas, allergy, bleeding and fever. ADR severity was 38% mild, 38% moderate, 10% severe, and 4% very severe. Only 3 patients with hemorrhagic stroke were reported. Seventy-two patients died in-hospital mainly because of cardiac causes associated with the patient's underlying clinical condition. Mortality was 3 times more likely in patients suffering arrhythmias than in those without this event (odds ratio 3.1, 95% CI: 1.8 to 5.1). Most of the reported ADRs were classified as possibly or probably associated with the study medication. Conclusion Recombinant SK was associated with a similar post-marketing safety profile to those suggested in previous clinical trials. PMID:16262910
Background Adverse Drug reactions (ADR) cause a high number of deaths among hospitalized patients in developed countries. Major drug agencies have devoted a great interest in the early detection of ADRs due to their high incidence and increasing health care costs. Reporting systems are available in order for both healthcare professionals and patients to alert about possible ADRs. However, several studies have shown that these adverse events are underestimated. Our hypothesis is that health social networks could be a significant information source for the early detection of ADRs as well as of new drug indications. Methods In this work we present a system for detecting drug effects (which include both adverse drug reactions as well as drug indications) from user posts extracted from a Spanish health forum. Texts were processed using MeaningCloud, a multilingual text analysis engine, to identify drugs and effects. In addition, we developed the first Spanish database storing drugs as well as their effects automatically built from drug package inserts gathered from online websites. We then applied a distant-supervision method using the database on a collection of 84,000 messages in order to extract the relations between drugs and their effects. To classify the relation instances, we used a kernel method based only on shallow linguistic information of the sentences. Results Regarding Relation Extraction of drugs and their effects, the distant supervision approach achieved a recall of 0.59 and a precision of 0.48. Conclusions The task of extracting relations between drugs and their effects from social media is a complex challenge due to the characteristics of social media texts. These texts, typically posts or tweets, usually contain many grammatical errors and spelling mistakes. Moreover, patients use lay terminology to refer to diseases, symptoms and indications that is not usually included in lexical resources in languages other than English. PMID:26100267
Aït Moussa, L.; El Bouazzi, O.; Serragui, S.; Soussi Tanani, D.; Soulaymani, A.; Soulaymani, R.
Objective: High concentrations of antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs can be associated with many adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The objective of this study was to examine the plasma concentrations of rifampicin (RMP) and isoniazid (INH) in patients with and without ADRs. Methods: Concentration monitoring data of patients treated with anti-TB drugs were retrospectively analyzed from 2009 to 2011. RMP and INH plasma concentrations were measured 2 and 3 h after drug administration respectively using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: A total of 54 out of 120 patients have experienced ADRs to anti-TB drugs. The median concentrations [interquartile range (IQR)] obtained in patients with and without ADRs were 6.7 mg/l (3.7–9.9) and 5.6 mg/l (2.9–8.6) (p = 0.56) for RMP and 4.3 mg/l (2.3–5.3) and 3.1 mg/l (1.7–4.8) (p = 0.04) for INH, respectively. Related median doses (IQR) were 8.7 mg/kg (8.0–10.0) and 8.6 mg/kg (6.5–9.9) (p = 0.42) for RMP and 4.8 mg/kg (4.3–5.0) and 4.0 mg/kg (2.8–5) (p < 0.01) for INH, respectively. Concentrations above the expected range in patients with and without ADRs were not reached for RMP, but were 76% and 65% for INH, respectively. Correlation between concentrations and doses has not been established for RMP or INH. In addition, high INH concentrations showed no association with sex, age, liver injury or renal or diabetes. Conclusions: High INH concentrations were common in patients with and without ADRs whereas RMP concentrations were low or within the normal range in most patients. Further studies are required to assess the association between high INH concentrations and the occurrence of ADRs. PMID:27904742
Lawton, Kitta; Skjoet, Peter
One way to reduce adverse drug events (ADEs) is to empower the patient to participate in the control of medication. This empowerment can be supported in different ways by making knowledge and information available to the patient. This study examines the usefulness and safety of two different systems on the background of a paper-based medication list presenting prescribed medicine presently used in hospitals in Copenhagen. Each of the systems examined aims to reduce ADEs but presents information in different levels of detail, and anticipates different level of prior knowledge from the patient: a Web-based prototype presenting medication, lab-results and alerts, and a cell phone-based prototype presenting alerts. Six patients were introduced to each of the systems by performing small tasks and subsequently interviewed. The patients found the paper-based medication list useful and comprehensive for control of own prescribed medication. The Web-based prototype also proved to be useful, but drug and lab values were hard to correlate, and the alerts were hard to understand. The cell phone-based prototype proved less useful as the patients were challenged to vision the applicability of the system. Furthermore, it is a safety issue that the information the alert is based upon, stems from the patient alone. We conclude that, in order for the Web-based system as well as the cell phone system to empower patient and increase patient safety, further development of the systems is necessary.
Miller, Paul E.; Mannis, Mark J.
Abstract This article reviews ocular adverse events (AEs) reported in association with administration of antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) in human clinical trials. References reporting ocular toxicity or AEs associated with ADCs were collected using online publication searches. Articles, abstracts, or citations were included if they cited ocular toxicities or vision-impairing AEs with a confirmed or suspected association with ADC administration. Twenty-two references were found citing ocular or vision-impairing AEs in association with ADC administration. All references reported use of ADCs in human clinical trials for treatment of various malignancies. The molecular target and cytotoxic agent varied depending on the ADC used. Ocular AEs affected a diversity of ocular tissues. The most commonly reported AEs involved the ocular surface and included blurred vision, dry eye, and corneal abnormalities (including microcystic corneal disease). Most ocular AEs were not severe (≤ grade 2) or dose limiting. Clinical outcomes were not consistently reported, but when specified, most AEs improved or resolved with cessation of treatment or with ameliorative therapy. A diverse range of ocular AEs are reported in association with administration of ADCs for the treatment of cancer. The toxicologic mechanism(s) and pathogenesis of such events are not well understood, but most are mild in severity and reversible. Drug development and medical professionals should be aware of the clinical features of these events to facilitate early recognition and intervention in the assessment of preclinical development programs and in human clinical trials. PMID:26539624
Chui, Talso C.; Haddad, Nicolas E.
A new method was developed for creating a less expensive shield for ADRs using 1018 carbon steel. This shield has been designed to have similar performance to the expensive vanadium permendur shields, but the cost is 30 to 50% less. Also, these shields can be stocked in a variety of sizes, eliminating the need for special forgings, which also greatly reduces cost.
Liu, Xiao; Chen, Hsinchun
Social media offer insights of patients' medical problems such as drug side effects and treatment failures. Patient reports of adverse drug events from social media have great potential to improve current practice of pharmacovigilance. However, extracting patient adverse drug event reports from social media continues to be an important challenge for health informatics research. In this study, we develop a research framework with advanced natural language processing techniques for integrated and high-performance patient reported adverse drug event extraction. The framework consists of medical entity extraction for recognizing patient discussions of drug and events, adverse drug event extraction with shortest dependency path kernel based statistical learning method and semantic filtering with information from medical knowledge bases, and report source classification to tease out noise. To evaluate the proposed framework, a series of experiments were conducted on a test bed encompassing about postings from major diabetes and heart disease forums in the United States. The results reveal that each component of the framework significantly contributes to its overall effectiveness. Our framework significantly outperforms prior work.
Anderson, James G.; Jay, Stephen J.; Anderson, Marilyn; Hunt, Thaddeus J.
Background: The annual cost of morbidity and mortality due to medication errors in the U.S. has been estimated at $76.6 billion. Information technology implemented systematically has the potential to significantly reduce medication errors that result in adverse drug events (ADEs). Objective: To develop a computer simulation model that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of information technology applications designed to detect and prevent medication errors that result in adverse drug effects. Methods: A computer simulation model was constructed representing the medication delivery system in a hospital. STELLA, a continuous simulation software package, was used to construct the model. Parameters of the model were estimated from a study of prescription errors on two hospital medical/surgical units and used in the baseline simulation. Five prevention strategies were simulated based on information obtained from the literature. Results: The model simulates the four stages of the medication delivery system: prescribing, transcribing, dispensing, and administering drugs. We simulated interventions that have been demonstrated in prior studies to decrease error rates. The results suggest that an integrated medication delivery system can save up to 1,226 days of excess hospitalization and $1.4 million in associated costs annually in a large hospital. The results of the analyses regarding the effects of the interventions on the additional hospital costs associated with ADEs are somewhat sensitive to the distribution of errors in the hospital, more sensitive to the costs of an ADE, and most sensitive to the proportion of medication errors resulting in ADEs. Conclusions: The results suggest that clinical information systems are potentially a cost-effective means of preventing ADEs in hospitals and demonstrate the importance of viewing medication errors from a systems perspective. Prevention efforts that focus on a single stage of the process had limited impact on the
... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Confidentiality in ADR Matters 1109.3 Section 1109... PROCEEDINGS AND THOSE IN WHICH THE BOARD IS A PARTY § 1109.3 Confidentiality in ADR Matters In all ADR matters... provisions of that Act (5 U.S.C. 574) shall bind the Board and all parties and neutrals in those ADR matters....
... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Confidentiality in ADR Matters 1109.3 Section 1109... PROCEEDINGS AND THOSE IN WHICH THE BOARD IS A PARTY § 1109.3 Confidentiality in ADR Matters In all ADR matters... provisions of that Act (5 U.S.C. 574) shall bind the Board and all parties and neutrals in those ADR matters....
... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality in ADR Matters 1109.3 Section 1109... PROCEEDINGS AND THOSE IN WHICH THE BOARD IS A PARTY § 1109.3 Confidentiality in ADR Matters In all ADR matters... provisions of that Act (5 U.S.C. 574) shall bind the Board and all parties and neutrals in those ADR matters....
Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole–Induced Rhabdomyolysis; Gabapentin-Induced Hypoglycemia in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients; Purple Glove Syndrome After Oral Phenytoin Administration; Acute Dystonic Reaction After Methylphenidate Initiation; Serotonin Syndrome with Vilazodone Monotherapy; Cabozantinib-Associated Dermatologic Adverse Reactions
Mancano, Michael A.
The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA’s MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:26715798
Unequal Sized Pupils Due to Escitalopram; Adverse Events to Dietary Supplements Causing Emergency Department Visits; Compulsive Masturbation Due to Pramipexole; Metformin-Induced Lactic Acidosis Masquerading As an Acute Myocardial Infarction.
Mancano, Michael A
The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Med Watch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to Med Watch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: email@example.com). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA's Med Watchprogram and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA Med Watch partner.
Jeon, Yong-Joon; Kim, Jin Hyun; Shin, Jong-Il; Jeong, Mini; Cho, Jaewook; Lee, Kyungho
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α), which is a component of the eukaryotic translation initiation complex, functions in cell death and survival under various stress conditions. In this study, we investigated the roles of eIF2α phosphorylation in cell death using the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR. MCF-7/ADR cells are MCF-7-driven cells that have acquired resistance to doxorubicin (ADR). Treatment of doxorubicin reduced the viability and induced apoptosis in both cell lines, although susceptibility to the drug was very different. Treatment with doxorubicin induced phosphorylation of eIF2α in MCF-7 cells but not in MCF-7/ADR cells. Basal expression levels of Growth Arrest and DNA Damage 34 (GADD34), a regulator of eIF2α, were higher in MCF-7/ADR cells compared to MCF-7 cells. Indeed, treatment with salubrinal, an inhibitor of GADD34, resulted in the upregulation of eIF2α phosphorylation and enhanced doxorubicin-mediated apoptosis in MCF-7/ADR cells. However, MCF-7 cells did not show such synergic effects. These results suggest that dephosphorylation of eIF2α by GADD34 plays an important role in doxorubicin resistance in MCF-7/ADR cells.
Topics Covered: Science drivers for low temperature cooling; and Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR). architectures and cooling capabilities (1) Single-stage ADR (2) Two-stage ADR (3) Astro-H 3-stage (4) Continuous ADR: 5-stage
Bhuvaneswar, Chaya G; Baldessarini, Ross J; Harsh, Veronica L; Alpert, Jonathan E
The article critically reviews selected, clinically significant, adverse endocrine and metabolic effects associated with psychotropic drug treatments, including hyperprolactinaemia, hyponatraemia, diabetes insipidus, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, sexual dysfunction and virilization, weight loss, weight gain and metabolic syndrome (type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia and hypertension). Such effects are prevalent and complex, but can be managed clinically when recognized. They encourage continued critical assessment of benefits versus risks of psychotropic drugs and underscore the importance of close coordination of psychiatric and general medical care to improve long-term health of psychiatric patients. Options for management of hyperprolactinaemia include lowering doses, switching to agents such as aripiprazole, clozapine or quetiapine, managing associated osteoporosis, carefully considering the use of dopamine receptor agonists and ruling out stress, oral contraceptive use and hypothyroidism as contributing factors. Disorders of water homeostasis may include syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), managed by water restriction or slow replacement by hypertonic saline along with drug discontinuation. Safe management of diabetes insipidus, commonly associated with lithium, involves switching mood stabilizer and consideration of potassium-sparing diuretics. Clinical hypothyroidism may be a more useful marker than absolute cut-offs of hormone values, and may be associated with quetiapine, antidepressant and lithium use, and managed by thyroxine replacement. Hyper-parathyroidism requires comprehensive medical evaluation for occult tumours. Hypocalcaemia, along with multiple other psychiatric and medical causes, may result in decreased bone density and require evaluation and management. Strategies for reducing sexual dysfunction with psychotropics remain largely unsatisfactory. Finally, management strategies for obesity and metabolic syndrome
Raschi, Emanuel; Poluzzi, Elisabetta; Godman, Brian; Koci, Ariola; Moretti, Ugo; Kalaba, Marija; Bennie, Marion; Barbui, Corrado; Wettermark, Bjorn; Sturkenboom, Miriam; De Ponti, Fabrizio
Background Antipsychotics (APs) have been associated with risk of torsade de Pointes (TdP). This has important public health implications. Therefore, (a) we exploited the public FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) to characterize their torsadogenic profile; (b) we collected drug utilization data from 12 European Countries to assess the population exposure over the 2005-2010 period. Methods FAERS data (2004-2010) were analyzed based on the following criteria: (1) ≥4 cases of TdP/QT abnormalities; (2) Significant Reporting Odds Ratio, ROR [Lower Limit of the 95% confidence interval>1], for TdP/QT abnormalities, adjusted and stratified (Arizona CERT drugs as effect modifiers); (3) ≥4 cases of ventricular arrhythmia/sudden cardiac death (VA/SCD); (4) Significant ROR for VA/SCD; (5) Significant ROR, combined by aggregating TdP/QT abnormalities with VA and SCD. Torsadogenic signals were characterized in terms of signal strength: from Group A (very strong torsadogenic signal: all criteria fulfilled) to group E (unclear/uncertain signal: only 2/5 criteria). Consumption data were retrieved from 12 European Countries and expressed as defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DID). Results Thirty-five antipsychotics met at least one criterium: 9 agents were classified in Group A (amisulpride, chlorpromazine, clozapine, cyamemazine, haloperidol, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone). In 2010, the overall exposure to antipsychotics varied from 5.94 DID (Estonia) to 13.99 (France, 2009). Considerable increment of Group A agents was found in several Countries (+3.47 in France): the exposure to olanzapine increased across all Countries (+1.84 in France) and peaked 2.96 in Norway; cyamemazine was typically used only in France (2.81 in 2009). Among Group B drugs, levomepromazine peaked 3.78 (Serbia); fluphenazine 1.61 (Slovenia). Conclusions This parallel approach through spontaneous reporting and drug utilization analyses highlighted drug- and
Riew, K Daniel; Schenk-Kisser, Jeannette M.; Skelly, Andrea C.
Study design: Systematic review. Clinical question: Do the rates and timing of adjacent segment disease (ASD) differ between cervical total disc arthroplasty (C-ADR) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in patients treated for cervical degenerative disc disease? Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed and bibliographies of key articles was done to identify studies with long-term follow-up for symptomatic and/or radiographic ASD comparing C-ADR with fusion for degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine. The focus was on studies with longer follow-up (48–60 months) of primary US Food and Drug Administration trials of Prestige ST, Prodisc-C, and Bryan devices as available. Trials of other discs with a minimum of 24 months follow-up were considered for inclusion. Studies evaluating lordosis/angle changes at adjacent segments and case series were excluded. Results: From 14 citations identified, four reports from three randomized controlled trials and four nonrandomized studies are summarized. Risk differences between C-ADR and ACF for symptomatic ASD were 1.5%–2.3% and were not significant across RCT reports. Time to development of ASD did not significantly differ between treatments. Rates of radiographic ASD were variable. No meaningful comparison of ASD rates based on disc design was possible. No statistical differences in adjacent segment range of motion were noted between treatment groups. Conclusion: Our analysis reveals that, to date, there is no evidence that arthroplasty decreases ASD compared with ACDF; the promise of arthroplasty decreasing ASD has not been fulfilled. PMID:23236312
Ohyama, Katsuhiro; Inoue, Michiko
Selective beta-adrenergic drugs are used clinically to treat various diseases. Because of imperfect receptor selectivity, beta-adrenergic drugs cause some adverse drug events by stimulating other adrenergic receptors. To examine the association between selective beta-adrenergic drugs and blood pressure elevation, we reviewed the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Reports (JADERs) submitted to the Japan Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. We used the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) Preferred Terms extracted from Standardized MedDRA queries for hypertension to identify events related to blood pressure elevation. Spontaneous adverse event reports from April 2004 through May 2015 in JADERs, a data mining algorithm, and the reporting odds ratio (ROR) were used for quantitative signal detection, and assessed by the case/non-case method. Safety signals are considered significant if the ROR estimates and lower bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) exceed 1. A total of 2021 reports were included in this study. Among the nine drugs examined, significant signals were found, based on the 95%CI for salbutamol (ROR: 9.94, 95%CI: 3.09-31.93) and mirabegron (ROR: 7.52, 95%CI: 4.89-11.55). The results of this study indicate that some selective beta-adrenergic drugs are associated with blood pressure elevation. Considering the frequency of their indications, attention should be paid to their use in elderly patients to avoid adverse events.
Alopecia is a dermatological condition with limited therapeutic options. Only two drugs, finasteride and minoxidil, are approved by FDA for alopecia treatment. However, little is known about the differences in adverse effects between these two drugs. We examined the clinical reports submitted to the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) from 2004 to 2014. For both female and males, finasteride was found to be more associated with reproductive toxicity as compared to minoxidil. Among male alopecia cases, finasteride was significantly more concurrent with several forms of sexual dysfunction. Among female alopecia cases, finasteride was significantly more concurrent with harm to fetus and disorder of uterus. In addition, drug-gene network analysis indicated that finasteride could profoundly disturb pathways related to sex hormone signaling and oocyte maturation. These findings could provide clues for subsequent toxicological research. Taken together, this analysis suggested that finasteride could be more liable to various reproductive adverse effects. Some of these adverse effects have yet to be warned in FDA-approved drug label. This information can help improve the treatment regimen of alopecia and post-marketing regulation of drug products. PMID:27738338
Chimirri, Serafina; Aiello, Rossana; Mazzitello, Carmela; Mumoli, Laura; Palleria, Caterina; Altomonte, Mariolina; Citraro, Rita; De Sarro, Giovambattista
Introduction: Vertigo, dizziness, and nausea encompass a spectrum of balance-related symptoms caused by a variety of etiologies. Balance is affected by many systems: Proprioceptive pathways and visual, cerebellar, vestibulocochlear, and vascular / vasovagal systems. Vertigo is a subtype of dizziness, in which a subject, as a result to a dysfunction of the vestibular system, improperly experiments the perception of motion. The most useful clinical subdivision is to categorize vertigo into true vertigo and pseudovertigo, whereas from a pathophysiological point of view, vertigo can be classified into central, peripheral, and psychogenic. It is not easy to identify the cause of vertigo since the patients often are not able to precisely describe their symptoms. An impressive list of drugs may cause vertigo or dizziness. Materials and Methods: The aim of the present study was to analyze the data extracted from the reporting cards of the ADRs (adverse drug reactions), received at our Pharmacovigilance Regional Center (Calabria, Italy) in 2012. In particular, the data concerning the occurrence of vertigo and dizziness, after taking certain classes of drugs, have been considered. Results: Our results show that, among the side-effects of different classes of drugs such as anti-convulsants, anti-hypertensives, antibiotics, anti-depressants, anti-psychotics, and anti-inflammatory, also vertigo or dizziness are included. Conclusions: Spontaneous reports of vertigo or dizziness, as side-effect of certain drugs, received at our Pharmacovigilance Center, represented the 5% of all reports in 2012. Considering the high incidence of such an ADR for several drugs’ classes, it can be speculated that under-reporting also affect vertigo and dizziness. Despite the fact that these ADRs might not represent a direct threaten for life, indirectly they can cause secondary damage to patients such as falls, fractures etc. Balance should be accurately monitored during drug use and particularly
Berthe, Anaïs; Fronteau, Clémentine; Le Fur, Éloïse; Morin, Caroline; Huon, Jean-François; Rouiller-Furic, Isabelle; Berlioz-Thibal, Marielle; Berrut, Gilles; Lepelletier, Aline
Iatrogenic effects represent a large part of emergency admissions among elderly people. Throughout the care pathway of a patient, whether he is at home or hospitalized, many different health professionals are involved regarding the patient's medication. Medication reconciliation is one way to prevent adverse drug events at all care transitions for every patient by eliminating undocumented intentional discrepancies and unintentional discrepancies in the patient's medication. The aim of this article is to present the different activities of clinical pharmacy developed since 2011 in a follow up and rehabilitation geriatric care service, including medication reconciliation activity. Monitoring of this activity started in March 2014, indicators show that almost 90% of patients were reconciled at admission and discharge from the geriatric unit. Physicians and pharmacists play an active role in reviewing, managing and monitoring a patient's medication. Care coordination and communication among the many members of the medical care team have become one of the greatest challenges healthcare professionals face. At the time of discharge, the patient also plays a key role in medication reconciliation and should be educated when it's possible on the importance of managing medication information. Finally, the hospital pharmacist's role is to keep the primary care physicians and community pharmacists informed about medication changes.
Yasuda, Kie; Miyoshi, Yoko; Tachibana, Makiko; Namba, Noriyuki; Miki, Kazunori; Nakata, Yukiko; Takano, Toru; Ozono, Keiichi
Abstract. Graves’ disease (GD) accounts for a large proportion of pediatric hyperthyroidism, and the first-line treatment is antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy. Methimazole (MMI) is effective in most patients but is associated with significant adverse events (AEs). We reviewed the medical records of GD patients (n = 56) with onset age of <15 yr and investigated the relationship between MMI dose and AEs. The study population comprised 11 male and 45 female patients and the median age at diagnosis was 11 yr. All patients were initially treated with ATDs. Among the 52 patients initially treated with MMI, 20 received a low dose, and 32 received a high dose of MMI (< 0.7 vs ≥ 0.7 mg/kg/day, respectively). AEs occurred in 20% of the patients in the low-dose MMI group, and in 50% patients in the high-dose MMI group (p = 0.031). A greater variety of AEs was observed in the high-dose group. Neutropenia and rash were observed in both groups. With treatment transition to low-dose MMI according to the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology guidelines, we expect a decrease in the incidence of AEs in future. However, we should be careful as neutropenia and rash can occur independently of the MMI dose. PMID:28203042
Deshpande, Rushikesh Prabhakar; Motghare, Vijay Motiram; Padwal, Sudhir Laxman; Pore, Rakesh Ramkrishna; Bhamare, Chetanraj Ghanshyam; Deshmukh, Vinod Shivaji; Pise, Harshal Nutan
Objectives The study was carried out with the aim of evaluation of the adverse drug reaction profile of anti-snake venom serum (ASV) in a rural tertiary care hospital. Methods An observational study was conducted in SRTR Medical College, Ambajogai, Maharashtra, India. A total number of 296 indoor case papers of snake bite from February to September 2011 and June to August 2012 were retrieved from the record section and the antivenom reactions were assessed. In addition, basic epidemiological data and prescribing practices of ASV were also analyzed. Results Vasculotoxic snake bites were more common (50.61%) than neuroparalytic ones (22.56%). Mild envenomation was the commonest presentation. A total of 92 (56.10%) patients who received ASV suffered from antivenom reactions. The most common nature of reaction was chills, rigors (69.56%) followed by nausea and vomiting (34.8%). 10-15% patients suffered from moderate to severe reactions like hypotension and sudden respiratory arrest. We did not find any dose response relationship of ASV to risk of reactions (odds ratio 0.37). Intradermal sensitivity test was performed in about 72% cases. Conclusion Our study showed a higher incidence of reactions to ASV at our institute. PMID:24396245
Weng, Zuquan; Wang, Kejian; Li, Haibo; Shi, Qiang
It was recently suggested that daily dose, liver metabolism and lipophilicity were associated with an oral drug's potential to cause hepatotoxicity, but this has not been widely accepted. A likely reason is that published data lack comprehensiveness, as they were based on only about one third of all FDA approved single-active-ingredient oral prescription drugs. Here the 975 oral drugs used worldwide which have a Defined Daily Dose (DDD) designated in the World Health Organization's Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system and whose hADRs potential and metabolism data are available in the Micromedex Drugdex® compendium were studied, with their lipophilicity calculated by the partition coefficient LogP. Of the 975 drugs examined, 49% (478) have the potential to induce at least one type of hepatic adverse drug reactions (hADRs) such as fatal hepatotoxicity, acute liver failure, significant ALT/AST elevation, hepatitis, and jaundice. By single factor analysis, a higher DDD (≥100 mg) was found to be associated with all types of hADRs, and extensive liver metabolism (≥50%) was associated with a subset of hADRs including fatal hADRs, hepatitis and jaundice, while LogP showed no relation to any types of hADRs. Contrary to previous reports, none of the combination, neither DDD and liver metabolism, nor DDD and LogP, was found to be more predictive of hADRs than using DDD or liver metabolism alone. These data provide convincing evidence that a higher daily dose and extensive liver metabolism, but not lipophilicity, are independent but not synergistic risk factors for oral drugs to induce hepatotoxicity.
Li, Haibo; Shi, Qiang
It was recently suggested that daily dose, liver metabolism and lipophilicity were associated with an oral drug's potential to cause hepatotoxicity, but this has not been widely accepted. A likely reason is that published data lack comprehensiveness, as they were based on only about one third of all FDA approved single-active-ingredient oral prescription drugs. Here the 975 oral drugs used worldwide which have a Defined Daily Dose (DDD) designated in the World Health Organization's Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system and whose hADRs potential and metabolism data are available in the Micromedex Drugdex® compendium were studied, with their lipophilicity calculated by the partition coefficient LogP. Of the 975 drugs examined, 49% (478) have the potential to induce at least one type of hepatic adverse drug reactions (hADRs) such as fatal hepatotoxicity, acute liver failure, significant ALT/AST elevation, hepatitis, and jaundice. By single factor analysis, a higher DDD (≥100 mg) was found to be associated with all types of hADRs, and extensive liver metabolism (≥50%) was associated with a subset of hADRs including fatal hADRs, hepatitis and jaundice, while LogP showed no relation to any types of hADRs. Contrary to previous reports, none of the combination, neither DDD and liver metabolism, nor DDD and LogP, was found to be more predictive of hADRs than using DDD or liver metabolism alone. These data provide convincing evidence that a higher daily dose and extensive liver metabolism, but not lipophilicity, are independent but not synergistic risk factors for oral drugs to induce hepatotoxicity. PMID:26220713
Summary: How can I quickly find the key events in a pathway that I need to monitor to predict that a/an beneficial/adverse event/outcome will occur? This is a key question when using signaling pathways for drug/chemical screening in pharma-cology, toxicology and risk assessment. ...
Lau, Iris; Kirkwood, Allison
Background: An adverse drug event (ADE) is a noxious, unintended response to a drug, occurring at doses used in humans for prophylaxis, diagnosis, or treatment of disease or for modification of physiological function. ADEs account for about one-quarter of all adverse events in Canadian hospitals. Canadian data on specific types of ADEs and commonly implicated drugs are lacking. In particular, there is a paucity of data on ADEs that occur during hospital admissions. Objectives: The primary objective was to identify the incidence of ADEs in a sample of adult general medicine inpatients over a 1-year period. The secondary objective was to identify the 5 drugs most frequently responsible for ADEs in this setting. Methods: A retrospective chart analysis was conducted for general medicine patients discharged from St Paul’s Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia, from January to December 2011. ADEs were identified using the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) Trigger Tool for Measuring Adverse Drug Events. The Naranjo criteria were applied to assess causality, and a physician independently authenticated the ADEs for preventability and harm using the categories of harm set out by the US National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention. Results: Of the 204 patient encounters reviewed, 15 involved ADEs, which represented an incidence of 7% over the 1-year study period. The 5 drugs most frequently implicated in ADEs were vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, piperacillin–tazobactam, and moxifloxacin. Conclusions: The rate of ADEs during hospital admissions was substantial. These events may necessitate additional investigations and interventions and may prolong the hospital stay. The authors do not recommend the IHI Trigger Tool for Measuring Adverse Drug Events for efficient prospective detection of ADEs in manual chart reviews. Possible modifications to improve the utility of this tool might include incorporating it into a compatible
AIM: To investigate the nature and severity of AE related to sacral neurostimulation (SNS). METHODS: Based on Pubmed and Embase searches, we identified published trials and case series of SNS for fecal incontinence (FI) and extracted data on adverse events, requiring an active intervention. Those problems were operationally defined as infection, device removal explant or need for lead and/or generator replacement. In addition, we analyzed the Manufacturer and User Device Experience registry of the Federal Drug Administration for the months of August - October of 2015. Events were included if the report specifically mentioned gastrointestinal (GI), bowel and FI as indication and if the narrative did not focus on bladder symptoms. The classification, reporter, the date of the recorded complaint, time between initial implant and report, the type of AE, steps taken and outcome were extracted from the report. In cases of device removal or replacement, we looked for confirmatory comments by healthcare providers or the manufacturer. RESULTS: Published studies reported adverse events and reoperation rates for 1954 patients, followed for 27 (1-117) mo. Reoperation rates were 18.6% (14.2-23.9) with device explants accounting for 10.0% (7.8-12.7) of secondary surgeries; rates of device replacement or explant or pocket site and electrode revisions increased with longer follow up. During the period examined, the FDA received 1684 reports of AE related to SNS with FI or GI listed as indication. A total of 652 reports met the inclusion criteria, with 52.7% specifically listing FI. Lack or loss of benefit (48.9%), pain or dysesthesia (27.8%) and complication at the generator implantation site (8.7%) were most commonly listed. Complaints led to secondary surgeries in 29.7% of the AE. Reoperations were performed to explant (38.2%) or replace (46.5%) the device or a lead, or revise the generator pocket (14.6%). Conservative management changes mostly involved changes in stimulation
Serlemitsos, Aristides T.; Sansebastian, Marcelino; Kunes, Evan S.
A spaceworthy Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator is under development at Goddard Space Flight Center as part of the X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS), an instrument on the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). XRS will employ an array of 32 microcalorimeters capable of detecting X-rays in the energy range of 0.3 - 10 keV. In order to achieve a desired resolution of 12 eV, these detectors must be operated at a temperature of 0.065 - 0.100 K. An ADR must be used to cool these detectors in space. A breadboard model was designed and built less than two years ago, and provided excellent results. We are presently at the development stage of the engineering model. Several changes have been made to the original design in order to improve the efficiency of the ADR, to reduce its weight, and to strengthen the salt pill suspension system so that the ADR can survive launch loads and have low sensitivity to microphonic inputs. We shall report on the results of these changes; what worked and what did not.
Serlemitsos, Aristides T.; Sansebastian, Marcelino; Kunes, Evan S.
A spaceworthy Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator is under development at Goddard Space Flight Center as part of the X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS), an instrument on the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). XRS will employ an array of 32 microcalorimeters capable of detecting X-rays in the energy range of 0.3 - 10 keV. In order to achieve a desired resolution of 12 eV, these detectors must be operated at a temperature of 0.065 - 0.100 K. An ADR must be used to cool these detectors in space. A breadboard model was designed and built less than two years ago, and provided excellent results. We are presently at the development stage of the engineering model. Several changes have been made to the original design in order to improve the efficiency of the ADR, to reduce its weight, and to strengthen the salt pill suspension system so that the ADR can survive launch loads and have low sensitivity to microphonic inputs. We shall report on the results of these changes; what worked and what did not.
Wang, S F; Zhan, S Y
Electronic healthcare databases have become an important source for active surveillance of drug safety in the era of big data. The traditional epidemiology research designs are needed to confirm the association between drug use and adverse events based on these datasets, and the selection of the comparative control is essential to each design. This article aims to explain the principle and application of each type of control selection, introduce the methods and parameters for method comparison, and describe the latest achievements in the batch processing of control selection, which would provide important methodological reference for the use of electronic healthcare databases to conduct post-marketing drug safety surveillance in China.
Watanabe, Mamoru; Matsui, Toshiyuki; Hase, Hidenori; Okayasu, Motohiro; Tsuchiya, Tsuyoshi; Shinmura, Yasuhiko; Hibi, Toshifumi
Background and Aims: Data from an all-cases post-marketing study were used to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of adalimumab in Japanese patients with Crohn’s disease [CD]. Methods: Patients received adalimumab for 24 weeks. Data from all patients [n = 1693] were used for the safety assessment. Data from patients with CD activity index [CDAI] ≥ 150 at baseline were used for the effectiveness assessment. Results: The most frequent serious adverse drug reaction [ADR] was infection and infestations [6.6 events/100 patient-years]. The risk of serious infections increased in patients who had a history of malignancy and those with concomitant corticosteroid use. Of 415 patients who had switched from another anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha [TNFα] agent to adalimumab due to ADRs, 7.2% discontinued due to ADRs to adalimumab. Ten of 13 patients with a history of tuberculosis [TB] received prophylactic medication, and none developed TB. TB developed in one patient with no history of TB or anti-TB prophylaxis. Remission rates were 41.3% and 32.4% at 4 and 24 weeks, respectively. Remission rates did not differ between patients with and without concomitant use of immunomodulators. Predictive variables for increased effectiveness were CDAI ≤ 220 and disease duration of ≤ 2 years. Perianal lesions and loss of response to previous anti-TNFα agents affected effectiveness. Conclusions: The most frequent serious ADR was infection. Adalimumab significantly reduced disease activity, without any unexpected ADRs. Development of active TB during adalimumab therapy can be prevented through TB screening and prophylaxis. In patients who switched from another anti-TNFα agent to adalimumab due to ADRs, adalimumab was well tolerated. PMID:26961546
Zhang, Hui; Yu, Peng; Xiang, Ming-Li; Li, Xi-Bo; Kong, Wei-Bao; Ma, Jun-Yi; Wang, Jun-Long; Zhang, Jin-Ping; Zhang, Ji
Drug-induced eosinophilia is a potentially life-threatening adverse effect; clinical manifestations, eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome, mainly include severe skin eruption, fever, hematologic abnormalities, and organ system dysfunction. Using experimental methods to evaluate drug-induced eosinophilia is very complicated, time-consuming, and costly in the early stage of drug development. Thus, in this investigation, we established computational prediction models of drug-induced eosinophilia using SVM and naïve Bayesian approaches. For the SVM modeling, the overall prediction accuracy for the training set by means of fivefold cross-validation is 91.6 and for the external test set is 82.9 %. For the naïve Bayesian modeling, the overall prediction accuracy for the training set is 92.5 and for the external test set is 85.4 %. Moreover, some molecular descriptors and substructures considered as important for drug-induced eosinophilia were identified. Thus, we hope the prediction models of drug-induced eosinophilia built in this work should be applied to filter early-stage molecules for potential eosinophilia adverse effect, and the selected molecular descriptors and substructures of toxic compounds should be taken into consideration in the design of new candidate drugs to help medicinal chemists rationally select the chemicals with the best prospects to be effective and safe.
Harden, Cynthia L
Antiepileptic drug (AED) exposure in utero has been associated with major congenital malformations (MCMs) and adverse cognitive outcomes in the offspring of women with epilepsy (WWE). However, determining the exact risk and the relative risks of AEDs for these outcomes has been challenging, and only in recent years has improved study designs enabled us to get a clearer picture of the risks. Still, there is a startling lack of information for many of the newer and widely used AEDs. At this point of time, studies clearly show that valproate (VPA) as a part of polytherapy or when used as a monotherapy is associated with an increased risk of MCMs, and that it poses about threefold the risk of carbamazepine (CBZ). It is unclear if any other AEDs studied pose an increased risk of MCM occurrence; in the best available large study the absolute rates of MCMs with other several other AEDs were not different from untreated WWE. The absolute risks have been reported as CBZ 2.2%, lamotrigine (LTG) 3.2%, phenytoin (PHT) 3.7%, untreated WWE 3.5%, with VPA as the outlier at 6.2%. In utero VPA exposure is also associated with a risk of lower verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) in children, at approximately 10 points lower than controls. CBZ appears to pose no risk to cognitive outcome, and there is some evidence that PHT and phenobarbital (PB) may be associated with risk of reduced cognitive outcome. Polytherapy is associated with greater risk than monotherapy for both MCMs and cognitive outcome. Although more information is needed and hopefully will be obtained from ongoing prospective studies, it is clear that WWE taking VPA and planning pregnancy should have a discussion with their physician about considering changing to another AED before pregnancy, if possible.
Blandizzi, Corrado; De Paolis, Barbara; Colucci, Rocchina; Lazzeri, Gloria; Baschiera, Fabio; Del Tacca, Mario
This study investigates the mechanisms accounting for the adverse cholinergic effects of the antitumour drug irinotecan. The activity of irinotecan and its active metabolite, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN-38), was assayed in models suitable for pharmacological studies on cholinergic system. Irinotecan moderately inhibited human or electric eel acetylcholinesterase activity, SN-38 had no effect, whereas physostigmine blocked both the enzymes with high potency and efficacy. Irinotecan and SN-38 did not affect spontaneous or electrically-induced contractile activity of human colonic muscle. Acetylcholine and dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) caused phasic contractions or relaxations, respectively. Physostigmine enhanced the motor responses elicited by electrical stimulation. Although irinotecan and SN-38 did not modify the basal contractile activity of guinea-pig ileum longitudinal muscle strips, irinotecan 100 μM moderately enhanced cholinergic twitch contractions. Acetylcholine or DMPP caused phasic contractions, whereas physostigmine enhanced the twitch responses. Electrically-induced [3H]-acetylcholine release was reduced by irinotecan (100 μM) or physostigmine (0.1 μM). Intravenous irinotecan stimulated gastric acid secretion in rats, but no effects were obtained with SN-38, physostigmine or i.c.v. irinotecan. Hypersecretion induced by irinotecan was partly prevented by ondansetron, and unaffected by capsazepine. In the presence of atropine, vagotomy and systemic or vagal ablation of capsaicin-sensitive afferent fibres, irinotecan did not stimulate gastric secretion. The present results indicate that irinotecan and SN-38 do not act as specific acetylcholinesterase blockers or acetylcholine receptor agonists. It is rather suggested that irinotecan promotes a parasympathetic discharge to peripheral organs, mediated by capsaicin-sensitive vagal afferent fibres, and that serotonin 5-HT3 receptors are implicated in the genesis of vago-vagal reflex
Pugsley, Michael K; Authier, Simon; Curtis, Michael J
Cationic compounds are diverse and atypical therapeutic substances. In the present study we examined whether a prototypical class effect of cationic drugs in the cardiovascular system exists and whether this might be predictable on the basis of chemistry. The dose-dependent effects of cationic compounds of varying molecular weights and charge were examined on the blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and the ECG in anesthetized rats. The compounds examined were protamine, hexadimethrine, tetraethylammonium (TEA), low molecular weight poly-L-lysine (LMW-PLL) and high molecular weight PLL (HMW-PLL). All of the compounds examined except TEA produced a dose-dependent reduction in BP. No changes occurred in HR even when high doses were administered. The ECG effects of these cationic compounds included a dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval, especially at higher doses. All compounds transiently decreased the size of the P-wave after i.v. bolus administration whereas only protamine and hexadimethrine prolonged the PR and QRS intervals and only at the highest dose (32 mg/kg) administered. All cationic compounds, except TEA and saline, evoked ventricular premature beats (VPB), and protamine and HMW-PLL also evoked brief episodes of ventricular tachycardia (VT). The incidence and frequency of arrhythmias was not dose-dependent and no animals experienced protracted episodes of arrhythmia incidence. These dose dependent effects of the polycationic compounds tested suggest a collective mechanism of action that relates the effect of charge of the compound to the onset and persistence of observed cardiovascular toxicity, and adverse cardiovascular effect risk appears to be predictable on this basis.
Martins, H H; Alonso, N B; Vidal-Dourado, M; Carbonel, T D; de Araújo Filho, G M; Caboclo, L O; Yacubian, E M; Guilhoto, L M
We report the results of administration of the Portuguese-Brazilian translation of the Liverpool Adverse Events Profile (LAEP) to 100 patients (mean age=34.5, SD=12.12; 56 females), 61 with symptomatic partial epilepsy (SPE) and 39 with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) (ILAE, 1989) who were on a stable antiepileptic drug (AED) regimen and being treated in a Brazilian tertiary epilepsy center. Carbamazepine was the most commonly used AED (43.0%), followed by valproic acid (32.0%). Two or more AEDs were used by 69.0% of patients. The mean LAEP score (19 questions) was 37.6 (SD=13.35). The most common adverse effects were sleepiness (35.0%), memory problems (35.0%), and difficulty in concentrating (25.0%). Higher LAEP scores were associated with polytherapy with three or more AEDs (P=0.005), female gender (P<0.001), older age (P<0.001), and uncontrolled seizures (P=0.045). The intraclass coefficient (test-retest reliability) for LAEP overall score was 0.848 (95% CI=0.782-0.895), with a range from 0.370 (unsteadiness) to 0.750 (memory problems). Cronbach's α coefficient (internal consistency) was 0.903. The LAEP was highly correlated with Quality of Life in Epilepsy-31 inventory (r=-0.804, P>0.001) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Depression: r=0.637, P<0.001; Anxiety: r=0.621, P<0.001) dimensions. LAEP overall scores were similar in people with SPE and IGE and were not helpful in differentiating adverse effects in these two groups. Clinical variables that influenced global LAEP were seizure frequency (P=0.050) and generalized tonic-clonic seizures in the last month (P=0.031) in the IGE group, and polytherapy with three or more AEDs (P=0.003 and P=0.003) in both IGE and SPE groups.
Safdari, Reza; Ferdousi, Reza; Aziziheris, Kamal; Niakan-Kalhori, Sharareh R.; Omidi, Yadollah
Introduction: Health care industry also patients penalized by medical errors that are inevitable but highly preventable. Vast majority of medical errors are related to adverse drug reactions, while drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are the main cause of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). DDIs and ADRs have mainly been reported by haphazard case studies. Experimental in vivo and in vitro researches also reveals DDI pairs. Laboratory and experimental researches are valuable but also expensive and in some cases researchers may suffer from limitations. Methods: In the current investigation, the latest published works were studied to analyze the trend and pattern of the DDI modelling and the impacts of machine learning methods. Applications of computerized techniques were also investigated for the prediction and interpretation of DDIs. Results: Computerized data-mining in pharmaceutical sciences and related databases provide new key transformative paradigms that can revolutionize the treatment of diseases and hence medical care. Given that various aspects of drug discovery and pharmacotherapy are closely related to the clinical and molecular/biological information, the scientifically sound databases (e.g., DDIs, ADRs) can be of importance for the success of pharmacotherapy modalities. Conclusion: A better understanding of DDIs not only provides a robust means for designing more effective medicines but also grantees patient safety. PMID:27525223
Jiang, Guoqian; Wang, Liwei; Liu, Hongfang; Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G
A semantically coded knowledge base of adverse drug events (ADEs) with severity information is critical for clinical decision support systems and translational research applications. However it remains challenging to measure and identify the severity information of ADEs. The objective of the study is to develop and evaluate a semantic web based approach for building a knowledge base of severe ADEs based on the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) reporting data. We utilized a normalized AERS reporting dataset and extracted putative drug-ADE pairs and their associated outcome codes in the domain of cardiac disorders. We validated the drug-ADE associations using ADE datasets from SIDe Effect Resource (SIDER) and the UMLS. We leveraged the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event (CTCAE) grading system and classified the ADEs into the CTCAE in the Web Ontology Language (OWL). We identified and validated 2,444 unique Drug-ADE pairs in the domain of cardiac disorders, of which 760 pairs are in Grade 5, 775 pairs in Grade 4 and 2,196 pairs in Grade 3.
Zhang, Xiaoyan; Hamadeh, Issam S; Song, Shuang; Katz, Joseph; Moreb, Jan S; Langaee, Taimour Y; Lesko, Lawrence J; Gong, Yan
Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a serious adverse drug event that was initially reported with intravenous bisphosphonates (BPs) and more recently with other classes of drugs such as receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) inhibitor, antiangiogenic agents, and mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) inhibitors. The purpose of this study is to analyze the ONJ cases and the associated drugs in the US Food and Drug Administration's adverse event reporting system (FAERS). The FAERS database was queried for the adverse drug events reported from the first quarter of 2010 to the first quarter of 2014. The reporting odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each queried drug. A total of 17,119 unique ONJ cases were identified. In the overall analysis, the drugs with the highest reporting ORs were BPs: pamidronate (OR = 498.9), zoledronate (OR = 171.7), and alendronate (OR = 63.6), whereas denosumab had lower ORs than all the BPs except for etidronate. The antiangiogenic and m-TOR inhibitors had the lowest ORs. In cancer patients who were treated for prevention of skeletal-related events (SREs), the reporting ORs for zoledronate and denosumab were 125.2 and 4.9, respectively. In patients with osteoporosis, the ORs were 1.1 (1.0-1.18) for zoledronate and 0.63 (0.56-0.70) for denosumab, respectively. Our analysis of the FAERS database showed that the intravenous BPs were associated with the highest risk for ONJ, RANKL inhibitor was associated with risk comparable to BPs used for osteoporosis such as etidronate, and the antiangiogenic agents and m-TOR inhibitors were associated with the lowest risk for ONJ. The high risk for ONJ with zoledronate and denosumab was mainly observed in those who were treated for prevention of SREs, whereas there was limited evidence for such risk in those who were treated for osteoporosis.
Wiciński, Michał; Węclewicz, Mateusz M; Miętkiewicz, Mateusz; Malinowski, Bartosz; Grześk, Elżbieta; Klonowska, Joanna
Clozapine is a second-generation antipsychotic which has proven efficacy in treating the symptoms of schizophrenia. Although clozapine therapy is associated with a number of adverse drug reactions, it is frequently used. One of the most common adverse drug reactions is gastroesophageal reflux disease which is an indication for treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Coadministration of clozapine and PPIs increases the risk of hematological adverse drug reactions, including neutropenia and agranulocytosis. The mechanism in idiosyncratic agranulocytosis is not dose related and involves either a direct toxic or an immune-allergic effect. It is suspected that the clozapine metabolites nitrenium ion and N-desmethylclozapine may cause apoptosis or impair growth of granulocytes. Formation of N-desmethylclozapine is correlated with activity of the cytochrome P450 enzymes 1A2 and 3A4 (CYP1A2 and CYP3A4). Nitrenium ion is produced by the flavin-containing monooxygenase system of leukocytes. A drug interaction between clozapine and a PPI is a consequence of the induction of common metabolic pathways either by the PPI or clozapine. Findings to date suggest that indirect induction of flavin-containing monooxygenase by omeprazole through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor increases the expression of the enzyme mRNA and in the long term may cause the increase in activity. Moreover, induction of CYP1A2, especially by omeprazole and lansoprazole, may increase the serum concentration of N-desmethylclozapine, which can accumulate in lymphocytes and may achieve toxic levels. Another hypothesis that may explain hematological adverse drug reactions is competitive inhibition of CYP2C19, which may contribute to increased serum concentrations of toxic metabolites.
Jiang, Jingru; Wang, Xiaohong; Cheng, Kai; Zhao, Wanzhong; Hua, Yitong; Xu, Chengfeng; Yang, Zhenlin
The resistance of cancer to chemotherapeutic agents is a major obstacle during chemotherapy. Clinical multidrug resistance (MDR) is commonly mediated by membrane drug efflux pumps, including ATP‑binding cassette subfamily B member 1, also termed P-glycoprotein (P-gp). P-gp is a membrane transporter encoded by the MDR1 gene. The current study aimed to investigate the impact of psoralen on the expression and function of P‑gp. The 10% inhibitory concentration (IC10) of psoralen, and its capacity to reduce MDR in adriamycin (ADR)‑resistant MCF‑7/ADR cells were determined using MTT assay. The ability of psoralen to modulate the transport activity of P‑gp in MCF‑7/ADR cells was evaluated by measuring the accumulation and efflux of rhodamine 123 (Rh 123) and adriamycin with flow cytometry. The present study evaluated the mRNA level of MDR1 in MCF‑7 and MCF‑7/ADR cells treated with psoralen using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression level of P‑gp was examined by western blot analysis. The current study demonstrated that the IC10 of psoralen in MCF‑7/ADR cells was 8 µg/ml. At 8 µg/ml, psoralen reduced MDR and the sensitivity of the MCF‑7/ADR cells to ADR compared with untreated cells. Additionally, psoralen significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of ADR and Rh 123. However, the IC10 of psoralen did not affect the protein expression levels of P‑gp or mRNA levels of MDR1 (P>0.05). Psoralen reduces MDR by inhibiting the efflux function of P‑gp, which may be important for increasing the efficiency of chemotherapy and improving the clinical protocols aiming to reverse P-gp-mediated MDR.
Böhm, Ruwen; von Hehn, Leocadie; Herdegen, Thomas; Klein, Hans-Joachim; Bruhn, Oliver; Petri, Holger; Höcker, Jan
Pharmacovigilance contributes to health care. However, direct access to the underlying data for academic institutions and individual physicians or pharmacists is intricate, and easily employable analysis modes for everyday clinical situations are missing. This underlines the need for a tool to bring pharmacovigilance to the clinics. To address these issues, we have developed OpenVigil FDA, a novel web-based pharmacovigilance analysis tool which uses the openFDA online interface of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to access U.S. American and international pharmacovigilance data from the Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS). OpenVigil FDA provides disproportionality analyses to (i) identify the drug most likely evoking a new adverse event, (ii) compare two drugs concerning their safety profile, (iii) check arbitrary combinations of two drugs for unknown drug-drug interactions and (iv) enhance the relevance of results by identifying confounding factors and eliminating them using background correction. We present examples for these applications and discuss the promises and limits of pharmacovigilance, openFDA and OpenVigil FDA. OpenVigil FDA is the first public available tool to apply pharmacovigilance findings directly to real-life clinical problems. OpenVigil FDA does not require special licenses or statistical programs. PMID:27326858
During 1988, the Gruppo Italiano Studi Epidemiologici in Dermatologia (GISED) coordinated a pilot study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of a system for spontaneous monitoring of adverse drug reactions in dermatological practice in Italy. Approximately 400 dermatologists were asked to collaborate, and 141 agreed to the study. Procedures similar to those well established in other surveillance programs (including the use of standard forms and standardized assessment procedure) were adopted. In a 2-month period 775 reports were collected, of which 711 were maintained after careful evaluation. The general profile of the adverse reactions reported was in accordance with the experience derived by other spontaneous surveillance programs. The main purpose of spontaneous reporting systems is the identification of new reactions, and a model analysis was proposed, in our study, with reference to skin reactions to bamifylline. The demonstration of the feasibility of a drug-monitoring program in Italy, where little tradition exists in the area, is the most important result of our study.
Kalogirou, Eleni-Marina; Katsoulas, Nikolaos; Tosios, Konstantinos I; Lazaris, Andreas C; Sklavounou, Alexandra
Leflunomide is a member of the disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs group used as a treatment modality in active rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis. "Oral ulcers" are reported in 3-5% of leflunomide medicated rheumatoid arthritis patients with adverse events, but they are not described in detail in the literature. We present a case of an ulcer in the tongue of a rheumatoid arthritis patient managed with leflunomide and contemplate on its pathogenesis. Key words:Leflunomide, oral ulcer, DHODH.
Alvim, Mariana Macedo; da Silva, Lidiane Ayres; Leite, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves; Silvério, Marcelo Silva
Objective To evaluate the incidence of potential drug-drug interactions in an intensive care unit of a hospital, focusing on antimicrobial drugs. Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed electronic prescriptions of patients admitted to the intensive care unit of a teaching hospital between January 1 and March 31, 2014 and assessed potential drug-drug interactions associated with antimicrobial drugs. Antimicrobial drug consumption levels were expressed in daily doses per 100 patient-days. The search and classification of the interactions were based on the Micromedex® system. Results The daily prescriptions of 82 patients were analyzed, totaling 656 prescriptions. Antimicrobial drugs represented 25% of all prescription drugs, with meropenem, vancomycin and ceftriaxone being the most prescribed medications. According to the approach of daily dose per 100 patient-days, the most commonly used antimicrobial drugs were cefepime, meropenem, sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin. The mean number of interactions per patient was 2.6. Among the interactions, 51% were classified as contraindicated or significantly severe. Highly significant interactions (clinical value 1 and 2) were observed with a prevalence of 98%. Conclusion The current study demonstrated that antimicrobial drugs are frequently prescribed in intensive care units and present a very high number of potential drug-drug interactions, with most of them being considered highly significant. PMID:26761473
Du, Dongyi; Goldsmith, John; Aikin, Kathryn J; Encinosa, William E; Nardinelli, Clark
In 2007 the federal government began requiring drug makers to include in their print direct-to-consumer advertisements information for consumers on how to contact the Food and Drug Administration directly, either by phone or through the agency's website, to report any adverse events that they experienced after taking a prescription drug. Adverse events can range from minor skin problems like itching to serious injuries or illness that result in hospitalization, permanent disability, or even death. Even so, current rates of adverse event reporting are low. We studied adverse event reports about 123 drugs that came from patients before and after the enactment of the print advertising requirement and estimated that requirement's impact with model simulations. We found that if monthly spending on print direct-to-consumer advertising increased from zero to $7.7 million per drug, the presence of the Food and Drug Administration contact information tripled the increase in patient-reported adverse events, compared to what would have happened in the absence of the law. However, the absolute monthly increase was fewer than 0.24 reports per drug, suggesting that the public health impact of the increase was small and that the adverse event reporting rate would still be low. The study results suggest that additional measures, such as more publicity about the Adverse Event Reporting System or more consumer education, should be considered to promote patient reporting of adverse events.
Interrater agreement of two adverse drug reaction causality assessment methods: A randomised comparison of the Liverpool Adverse Drug Reaction Causality Assessment Tool and the World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre system
Mehta, Ushma; Rossiter, Dawn P.; Maartens, Gary; Cohen, Karen
Introduction A new method to assess causality of suspected adverse drug reactions, the Liverpool Adverse Drug Reaction Causality Assessment Tool (LCAT), showed high interrater agreement when used by its developers. Our aim was to compare the interrater agreement achieved by LCAT to that achieved by another causality assessment method, the World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre system for standardised case causality assessment (WHO-UMC system), in our setting. Methods Four raters independently assessed adverse drug reaction causality of 48 drug-event pairs, identified during a hospital-based survey. A randomised design ensured that no washout period was required between assessments with the two methods. We compared the methods’ interrater agreement by calculating agreement proportions, kappa statistics, and the intraclass correlation coefficient. We identified potentially problematic questions in the LCAT by comparing raters’ responses to individual questions. Results Overall unweighted kappa was 0.61 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.80) on the WHO-UMC system and 0.27 (95% CI 0.074 to 0.46) on the LCAT. Pairwise unweighted Cohen kappa ranged from 0.33 to 1.0 on the WHO-UMC system and from 0.094 to 0.71 on the LCAT. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.86 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.92) on the WHO-UMC system and 0.61 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.77) on the LCAT. Two LCAT questions were identified as significant points of disagreement. Discussion We were unable to replicate the high interrater agreement achieved by the LCAT developers and instead found its interrater agreement to be lower than that achieved when using the WHO-UMC system. We identified potential reasons for this and recommend priority areas for improving the LCAT. PMID:28235001
Fujiwara, Masakazu; Kawasaki, Yohei; Yamada, Hiroshi
Background Rapid dissemination of information regarding adverse drug reactions is a key aspect for improving pharmacovigilance. There is a possibility that unknown adverse drug reactions will become apparent through post-marketing administration. Currently, although there have been studies evaluating the relationships between a drug and adverse drug reactions using the JADER database which collects reported spontaneous adverse drug reactions, an efficient approach to assess the association between adverse drug reactions of drugs with the same indications as well as the influence of demographics (e.g. gender) has not been proposed. Methods and Findings We utilized the REAC and DEMO tables from the May 2015 version of JADER for patients taking antidepressant drugs (SSRI, SNRI, and NaSSA). We evaluated the associations using association analyses with an apriori algorithm. Support, confidence, lift, and conviction were used as indicators for associations. The highest score in adverse drug reactions for SSRI was obtained for "aspartate aminotransferase increased", "alanine aminotransferase increased", with values of 0.0059, 0.93, 135.5, and 13.9 for support, confidence, lift and conviction, respectively. For SNRI, "international normalized ratio increased", "drug interaction" were observed with 0.0064, 1.00, 71.9, and NA. For NaSSA, "anxiety", "irritability" were observed with 0.0058, 0.80, 49.9, and 4.9. For female taking SSRI, the highest support scores were observed in "twenties", "suicide attempt", whereas "thirties", "neuroleptic malignant syndrome" were observed for male. Second, for SNRI, "eighties", "inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion" were observed for female, whereas "interstitial lung disease" and "hepatitis fulminant" were for male. Finally, for NaSSA, "suicidal ideation" was for female, and "rhabdomyolysis" was for male. Conclusions Different combinations of adverse drug reactions were noted between the antidepressants. In addition, the reported
Wang, Chen; Zimmermann, Michael T; Prodduturi, Naresh; Chute, Christopher G; Jiang, Guoqian
Adverse drug events (ADEs) are a critical factor for selecting cancer therapy options. The underlying molecular mechanisms of ADEs associated with cancer therapy drugs may overlap with their antineoplastic mechanisms; an aspect of toxicity. In the present study, we develop a novel knowledge-driven approach that provides an ADE-based stratification (ADEStrata) of tumor mutations. We demonstrate clinical utility of the ADEStrata approach through performing a case study of breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA) patients receiving aromatase inhibitors (AI) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) (n=212), focusing on the musculoskeletal adverse events (MS-AEs). We prioritized somatic variants in a manner that is guided by MS-AEs codified as 6 Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) terms. Pathway enrichment and hierarchical clustering of prioritized variants reveals clusters associated with overall survival. We demonstrated that the prediction of per-patient ADE propensity simultaneously identifies high-risk patients experiencing poor outcomes. In conclusion, the ADEStrata approach could produce clinically and biologically meaningful tumor subtypes that are potentially predictive of the drug response to the cancer therapy drugs.
Cleck, Jessica N; Blendy, Julie A
Sustained exposure to various psychological stressors can exacerbate neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. Addiction is a chronic brain disease in which individuals cannot control their need for drugs, despite negative health and social consequences. The brains of addicted individuals are altered and respond very differently to stress than those of individuals who are not addicted. In this Review, we highlight some of the common effects of stress and drugs of abuse throughout the addiction cycle. We also discuss both animal and human studies that suggest treating the stress-related aspects of drug addiction is likely to be an important contributing factor to a long-lasting recovery from this disorder.
Mason, Jennifer; Pirmohamed, Munir; Nunn, Tony
The use of unlicensed and off-label medicines in children is common because trials in children have not usually been performed during the drug development process. Consequently, the information available to paediatricians may not always be as detailed or as robust as that available when prescribing a medicine that is licensed for an approved indication. This has led to concerns that children may be receiving drugs at dosages that either lack efficacy or present safety problems. The latter in particular has received a great deal of attention. In this narrative review, we have evaluated the use of off-label and unlicensed medicines in children and whether and how frequently this predisposes to adverse drug reactions.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). 5433.214. Section 5433.214. Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROTESTS, DISPUTES AND APPEALS 5433.214. Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)....
Bian, Zhaoxiang; Shang, Hongcai; Cheng, Chungwah; Wu, Taixiang; Li, Youping; Zhang, Boli
Using Chinese Materia Medica (CM) as injections is an innovation that is proving effective in extensive clinical use in Mainland China. However, recent reports have focused on adverse reactions, ignoring the considerable successes of these preparations. In order to achieve balance in the media and in the minds of the public, we suggest the first step is to clarify the concepts of and differences between adverse drug reactions (ADR) and adverse events (AE) for all concerned-the public, medical practitioners, government officials, and lawmakers. Second, the State Food and Drug Administration should raise the requirements for Chinese Materia Medica Injection (CMI) registration and license approval and emphasize the importance of evidence-based CMI development and evidence-based CMI license approval. Thirdly, drug companies and institutions should reinforce basic research about the quality control of herbs and CMI-drug interactions. Fourth, the Government should clarify the legal responsibilities for CMI approval agencies, CMI developers, medical doctors, and patients. Fifth, the medical association and Government should enhance training for health care professionals concerning the usage of CMIs. And finally sixth, State Food and Drug Administration should monitor the content and quality of the directions for use of CMI.
Raheel, Syed Ahamed; Kujan, Omar Bashar; Tarakji, Bassel; Umar, Dilshad; Ibrahim, Salah
Drug reactions are a group of reactionary lesions generally show their manifestations in the oral cavity. The drug reactions may vary from local rashes to well-developed swellings in the oral cavity especially involving the gingiva. Most of the drug reactions are asymptomatic and commonly triggered from the active metabolite of a drug used for a long time. Nager syndrome is a group of acrofacial dysostosis that usually results in craniofacial and limb malformations. The craniofacial defects are very similar to the mandibulofacial dysostosis. A very early intervention is needed for the habilitation of the patient especially when it is concerned with speech and language development. This paper reports a case of a 32-year-old female with craniofacial, limb, and skeletal abnormalities along with a drug-induced gingival hyperplasia. PMID:27144155
Handler, Steven M.; Boyce, Richard D.; Ligons, Frank; Perera, Subashan; Nace, David A.; Hochheiser, Harry
Objective Although mobile devices equipped with drug reference software may help prevent adverse drug events (ADEs) in the nursing home (NH) by providing medication information at the point-of-care, little is known about their use and perceived benefits. The goal of this study was to conduct a survey of a nationally representative sample of NH physicians to quantify the use and perceived benefits of mobile devices in preventing ADEs in the NH setting. Design/Setting/Participants We surveyed physicians who attended the 2010 the AMDA Annual Symposium about their use of mobile devices and beliefs about the effectiveness of drug reference software in preventing ADEs. Results The overall net valid response rate was 70% (558/800) with 42% (236/558) using mobile devices to assist with prescribing in the NH. Physicians with ≤15 years clinical experience were 67% more likely to be mobile device users, compared to those with >15 years of clinical experience (odds ratio=1.68; 95% confidence interval=1.17-2.41; p=0.005). For those who used a mobile device to assist with prescribing, almost all (98%) reported performing an average of one or more drug look-ups per day, performed an average of 1-2 lookups per day for potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs), and most (88%) believed that drug reference software had helped to prevent at least one potential ADE in the preceding four-week period. Conclusions The proportion of NH physicians who use mobile devices with drug reference software, while significant, is lower than in other clinical environments. Our results suggest that NH physicians who use mobile devices equipped with drug reference software believe they are helpful for reducing ADEs. Further research is needed to better characterize the facilitators and barriers to adoption of the technology in the NH and its precise impact on NH ADEs. PMID:24094901
Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Maruno, Atsuko; Kawashima, Yohei; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Masami; Mine, Tetsuya
The patient was an asymptomatic 43-year-old woman. Abdominal ultrasonography and enhanced computed tomography showed a tumor lesion accompanied by multiple cystic changes in the liver and the pancreatic tail. Endoscopic ultrasound-fine needle aspiration was performed on the pancreatic tumor lesion and revealed pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET). As it was unresectable due to multiple liver metastases, the decision was made to initiate treatment with everolimus and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. The patient ceased menstruating after the start of everolimus administration. When the administration was discontinued due to interstitial lung disease, menstruation resumed, but then again stopped with everolimus resumption. An association between everolimus and amenorrhea was highly suspected. Amenorrhea occurred as a rare adverse event of everolimus. As the younger women might be included in PNETs patients, we should put this adverse event into consideration.
Vozoris, Nicholas T; Wang, Xuesong; Fischer, Hadas D; Bell, Chaim M; O'Donnell, Denis E; Austin, Peter C; Stephenson, Anne L; Gill, Sudeep S; Rochon, Paula A
We evaluated risk of adverse respiratory outcomes associated with incident opioid use among older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD).This was a retrospective population-based cohort study using a validated algorithm applied to health administrative data to identify adults aged 66 years and older with COPD. Inverse probability of treatment weighting using the propensity score was used to estimate hazard ratios comparing adverse respiratory outcomes within 30 days of incident opioid use compared to controls.Incident opioid use was associated with significantly increased emergency room visits for COPD or pneumonia (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.00-1.29; p=0.04), COPD or pneumonia-related mortality (HR 2.16, 95% CI 1.61-2.88; p<0.0001) and all-cause mortality (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.57-1.98; p<0.0001), but significantly decreased outpatient exacerbations (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.83-0.94; p=0.0002). Use of more potent opioid-only agents was associated with significantly increased outpatient exacerbations, emergency room visits and hospitalisations for COPD or pneumonia, and COPD or pneumonia-related and all-cause mortality.Incident opioid use, and in particular use of the generally more potent opioid-only agents, was associated with increased risk for adverse respiratory outcomes, including respiratory-related mortality, among older adults with COPD. Potential adverse respiratory outcomes should be considered when prescribing new opioids in this population.
Palamar, Joseph J.; Fenstermaker, Michael; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Ompad, Danielle C.; Cleland, Charles M.; Weitzman, Michael
Objectives There is debate about whether marijuana (cannabis) use is more dangerous than alcohol use. Although difficult to make objective comparisons, research is needed to compare relative dangers in order to help inform preventive efforts and policy. Methods Data were analyzed from a nationally representative sample of high school seniors in the Monitoring the Future study (2007–2011; Weighted n = 7437; modal age: 18) who reported lifetime use of alcohol or marijuana. Students were asked to indicate whether they experienced various adverse psychosocial outcomes resulting from use of each substance. We examined which outcomes were more prevalent for each substance. Results Compared to alcohol use, marijuana use was more commonly reported to compromise relationships with teachers or supervisors, result in less energy or interest, and result in lower school or job performance. Compared to marijuana use, alcohol was more commonly reported to compromise relationships with friends and significant others; it was also reported to lead to more regret (particularly among females), and driving unsafely. Marijuana users were more likely to report no adverse outcomes. Females and white students were more likely to report various adverse outcomes and higher frequency use of each substance also increased occurrences of reported adverse outcomes. Conclusions Marijuana and alcohol are associated with unique adverse psychosocial outcomes. Outcomes differ by sex and race/ethnicity, and perception or experience of outcomes may also be related to legal status and associated stigma. Public health interventions may be more effective by focusing on harm reduction strategies for these drug-specific outcomes. PMID:25169838
Polton, Gerry A; Elwood, Clive M
This report describes recurrent respiratory distress following vincristine administration to a cat with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. The cat was treated with a combination of vincristine, chlorambucil and prednisolone with initial success. After approximately 4 months, dyspnoea developed within 6 h of vincristine administration. Emergency therapy was instituted resulting in a full recovery. Further vincristine was administered; dyspnoea was similarly noted after all but one of these treatments. Dyspnoeic episodes were not attributable to alterations in vincristine dose or method of administration. The repeated temporal association was consistent with a suspected adverse drug reaction to vincristine.
Kalogirou, Eleni-Marina; Tosios, Konstantinos I.; Lazaris, Andreas C.; Sklavounou, Alexandra
Leflunomide is a member of the disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs group used as a treatment modality in active rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis. “Oral ulcers” are reported in 3-5% of leflunomide medicated rheumatoid arthritis patients with adverse events, but they are not described in detail in the literature. We present a case of an ulcer in the tongue of a rheumatoid arthritis patient managed with leflunomide and contemplate on its pathogenesis. Key words:Leflunomide, oral ulcer, DHODH. PMID:28210457
Tatonetti, NP; Denny, JC; Murphy, SN; Fernald, GH; Krishnan, G; Castro, V; Yue, P; Tsau, PS; Kohane, I; Roden, DM; Altman, RB
The lipid-lowering agent pravastatin and the antidepressant paroxetine are among the most widely prescribed drugs in the world. Unexpected interactions between them could have important public health implications. We mined the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) for side-effect profiles involving glucose homeostasis and found a surprisingly strong signal for comedication with pravastatin and paroxetine. We retrospectively evaluated changes in blood glucose in 104 patients with diabetes and 135 without diabetes who had received comedication with these two drugs, using data in electronic medical record (EMR) systems of three geographically distinct sites. We assessed the mean random blood glucose levels before and after treatment with the drugs. We found that pravastatin and paroxetine, when administered together, had a synergistic effect on blood glucose. The average increase was 19 mg/dl (1.0 mmol/l) overall, and in those with diabetes it was 48 mg/dl (2.7 mmol/l). In contrast, neither drug administered singly was associated with such changes in glucose levels. An increase in glucose levels is not a general effect of combined therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and statins. PMID:21613990
What started as a trickle of new agents that help the body's immune system fight cancer has now become a flood, despite some daunting adverse effects. This report discusses the new drugs, indications, and combinations that continue to emerge.
Kraft, W K; Waldman, S A
Governmental agencies overseeing pharmaceutical products use a risk/benefit approach to analyse data and make regulatory decisions. Comprehensive public dissemination of the safety profile of pharmaceutical products is part of an overall strategy for reducing risk associated with the use of any medical product. In the US, reports of postmarketing surveillance of approved drugs are in the public domain. Some, but not all, of the information in drug interaction studies is available to the public through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). However, there are concerns over the misuse of these data for commercial or other gain. The need to protect intellectual property and foster innovation in drug development, and concerns of legal liability are often cited as reasons to limit full public access to data from drug development studies. In contrast, intellectual freedom. public safety, and a mandate for transparent decision-making processes by regulatory agencies are issues that support open access to these data. Ultimately. concern for the public safety justifies open access to postmarketing surveillance data, and to a lesser degree, data regarding drug interactions in marketed products, and should outweigh the potential loss of competitive advantage by pharmaceutical companies.
Carey, Jennifer L; Nader, Nathalie; Chai, Peter R; Carreiro, Stephanie; Griswold, Matthew K; Boyle, Katherine L
A large number of medications and medical devices removed from the market by the US Food and Drug Administration over the past 4 decades specifically posed greater health risks to women. This article reviews the historical background of sex and gender in clinical research policy and describes several approved drugs and devices targeted for use in women that have caused major morbidity and mortality. The intended population for the medications and devices, population affected, approval process, and the basic and legal actions taken against the medication/drug company are also discussed. It is recognized that women are still at risk for harm from unsafe medications and devices, and continued improvements in legislation that promotes inclusion of sex and gender into the design and analysis of research will improve safety for both men and women.
Somaini, L; Donnini, C; Manfredini, M; Raggi, M A; Saracino, M A; Gerra, M L; Amore, M; Leonardi, C; Serpelloni, G; Gerra, G
Epidemiological and clinical data show frequent associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and substance abuse susceptibility particularly in adolescents. A large body of evidences suggests that the possible dysregulation of neuroendocrine responses as well as neurotransmitters function induced by childhood traumatic experiences and emotional neglect could constitute one of the essential biological changes implementing substance abuse vulnerability. Moreover, genotype variables and its environment interactions have been associated with an increased risk for early onset substance abuse. In this paper we present several data that support the hypothesis of the involvement of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in mediating the combined effect of early adverse experiences and gene variants affecting neurotransmission. The presented data also confirm the relationship between basal plasma levels of cortisol and ACTH, on the one hand, and retrospective measures of neglect during childhood on the other hand: the higher the mother and father neglect (CECA-Q) scores are, the higher the plasma levels of the two HPA hormones are. Furthermore, such positive relationship has been proved to be particularly effective and important when associated with the "S" promoter polymorphism of the gene encoding the 5-HTT transporter, both in homozygote and heterozygote individuals.
Junqueira, Daniela Rezende Garcia; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Perini, Edson
Heparin is a natural agent with antithrombotic action, commercially available for therapeutic use as unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a serious adverse reaction to heparin that promotes antibody-mediated platelet activation. HIT is defined as a relative reduction in platelet count of 50% (even when the platelet count at its lowest level is above>150 x 10(9)/L) occurring within five to 14 days after initiation of the therapy. Thrombocytopenia is the main feature that directs the clinical suspicion of the reaction and the increased risk of thromboembolic complications is the most important and paradoxical consequence. The diagnosis is a delicate issue, and requires a combination of clinical probability and laboratory tests for the detection of platelet activation induced by HIT antibodies. The absolute risk of HIT has been estimated between 1% and 5% under treatment with unfractionated heparin, and less than 1% with low molecular weight heparin. However, high-quality evidence about the risk of HIT from randomized clinical trials is scarce. In addition, information on the frequency of HIT in developing countries is not widely available. This review aims to provide a better understanding of the key features of this reaction and updated information on its frequency to health professionals and other interested parties. Knowledge, familiarity, and access to therapeutic options for the treatment of this adverse reaction are mandatory to minimize the associated risks, improving patient safety.
Giordano, Giuseppe N.; Ohlsson, Henrik; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan
Aims Exposure to extraordinary traumatic experience is one acknowledged risk factor for drug use. We aim to analyse the influence of potentially life-changing childhood stressors, experienced second-hand, on later drug use disorder in a national population of Swedish adolescent and young adults (aged 15–26 years). Design We performed Cox Proportional Hazard regression analyses, complemented with co-relative pair comparisons. Setting Sweden Participants All individuals in the Swedish population born 1984 to 1995, who were registered in Sweden at the end of the calendar year they turned 14 years of age. Our follow-up time (Mean: 6.2 years; Range 11 years) started at the year they turned 15 and continued to December 2011 (N=1,409,218). Measurements Our outcome variable was drug use disorder, identified from medical, legal and pharmacy registry records. Childhood stressors, as per DSM-IV stressor criteria, include death of an immediate family member and second-hand experience of diagnoses of malignant cancer, serious accidental injury, and victim of assault. Other covariates include parental divorce, familial psychological well-being, and familial drug and alcohol use disorders. Findings After adjustment for all considered confounders, individuals exposed to childhood stressors ‘parental death’ or ‘parental assault’ had over twice the risk of drug use disorder than those who were not (HR = 2.63 (2.23–3.09) and 2.39 (2.06–2.79), respectively). Conclusions Children under 15 who experience second-hand an extraordinary traumatic event (such as a parent or sibling being assaulted, diagnosed with cancer, or dying) appear to have approximately twice the risk of developing a drug use disorder than those who do not. PMID:24612271
Shiny, T N; Mahajan, Vikram K; Mehta, Karaninder S; Chauhan, Pushpinder S; Rawat, Ritu; Sharma, Rajni
AIM To evaluate the utility of patch test and cross-sensitivity patterns in patients with adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR) from common anticonvulsants. METHODS Twenty-four (M:F = 13:11) patients aged 18-75 years with ACDR from anticonvulsants were patch tested 3-27 mo after complete recovery using carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbitone, lamotrigine, and sodium valproate in 10%, 20% and 30% conc. in pet. after informed consent. Positive reactions persisting on D3 and D4 were considered significant. RESULTS Clinical patterns were exanthematous drug rash with or without systemic involvement (DRESS) in 18 (75%), Stevens-Johnsons syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) overlap and TEN in 2 (8.3%) patients each, SJS and lichenoid drug eruption in 1 (4.2%) patient each, respectively. The implicated drugs were phenytoin in 14 (58.3%), carbamazepine in 9 (37.5%), phenobarbitone in 2 (8.3%), and lamotrigine in 1 (4.7%) patients, respectively. Twelve (50%) patients elicited positive reactions to implicated drugs; carbamazepine in 6 (50%), phenytoin alone in 4 (33.3%), phenobarbitone alone in 1 (8.3%), and both phenytoin and phenobarbitone in 1 (8.33%) patients, respectively. Cross-reactions occurred in 11 (92%) patients. Six patients with carbamazepine positive patch test reaction showed cross sensitivity with phenobarbitone, sodium valproate and/or lamotrigine. Three (75%) patients among positive phenytoin patch test reactions had cross reactions with phenobarbitone, lamotrigine, and/or valproate. CONCLUSION Carbamazepine remains the commonest anticonvulsant causing ACDRs and cross-reactions with other anticonvulsants are possible. Drug patch testing appears useful in DRESS for drug imputability and cross-reactions established clinically.
Maxey, Dawn M; Ivy, D Dunbar; Ogawa, Michelle T; Feinstein, Jeffrey A
Because most medications for pediatric pulmonary hypertension (PH) are used off label and based on adult trials, little information is available on pediatric-specific adverse events (AEs). Although drug manufacturers are required to submit postmarket AE reports to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), this information is rarely transmitted to practitioners. In the setting of a recent FDA warning for sildenafil, the authors sought to give a better description of the AEs associated with current therapies in pediatric PH. In January 2010, a written request was made to the Food and Drug Administration for AE records of commonly used PH medications. Reports were screened for pediatric patients, analyzed in terms of AEs, and compared with the medical literature. Arbitrarily, AEs that could be attributed to concomitant medications were not attributed to the PH medication in question. Adverse events occurring in more than 5 % of events for each drug were assumed to be associated with the targeted PH medication. Between November 1997 and December 2009, 588 pediatric AE reports (death in 257 cases) were reported for the three most commonly used therapies: bosentan, epoprostenol, and sildenafil. Many of the AEs were similar to those reported previously. However, 27 AEs not previously reported in the literature (e.g., pulmonary hemorrhage, hemoptysis, and pneumonia) were found. The FDA postmarket records for PH medications in pediatric patients show a significant number of AEs. The discovery of AEs not previously reported will better inform those caring for these complex and critically ill children, and the large number of deaths suggest they may be underreported in current literature.
Tramontina, Mariana Y.; Heineck, Isabela; Dos Santos, Luciana
Objective To characterise the prescription of non-formulary drugs to children and neonates at a Brazilian teaching hospital and identify adverse drug reactions (ADRs), drug interactions, and prescription of potentially hazardous medicines. Methods A prospective exploratory study was carried out between January and May 2011 at the general paediatric wards and paediatric oncology, paediatric intensive care, and neonatal care units of the study hospital. Non-formulary drugs were categorised as approved, off-label, or not approved for use in children according to Brazilian compendia. Electronic health records were actively searched for ADRs and the possibility of moderate to severe interactions between non-formulary drugs and other medicines was determined with the Micromedex® database. Results Overall, 109 children or neonates received non-formulary drugs. Of these drugs, 54% were approved for use in children, 12.2% were used off-label, and 33.8% were not approved for use in children. Non-formulary drugs accounted for 13.4% of total prescriptions; 5.3% of drugs had a potential for interactions and five were possibly associated with ADRs. Conclusions Prescription of non-formulary drugs not approved for use in children was common at the study hospital. Studies such as this provide information on the use of medicines for special indications and permit assessment of the relevance of hospital formularies for the paediatric population. PMID:24155845
Shirkey, H C
This is a review of known periods in utero during which drugs alter the process of growth; effects may be shown on the fetus or the newborn and vary with the stage of development of the fetus when exposed. Other variables are the mother and the placenta. There is no safe animal screening mechanism, the human test is by ordeal, and more clinical monitoring and reporting are needed. Cancer chemotherapeutic agents exert their maximal effects on rapidly dividing cells and are therefore hazardous during pregnancy; the greatest risk is in the 1st trimester. In the thalidomide experience the critical days were the 22nd and 23rd days after conception. Masculinizing drugs such as testosterone and other androgenic steroids have been implicated as affecting the female fetus when given early in pregnancy. Oral contraceptives taken by an already pregnant woman are a hazard because of these progestational agents. Progesterone alone is unlikely to cause masculinization but other progestins may cause such changes. Carcinogenesis may develop later in females born of mothers who are treated with diethylstilbestrol to prevent miscarriage. Many antithyroid drugs have caused neonatal goiter. Maternal ingestion of iodides during pregnancy (preparations for treating asthma, cough syrups, radio-contrast media used in diagnoses) is the most frequent cause. Goiter is relatively common in infants whose mothers were treated with propylthiouracil and other antithyroid drugs, yet they usually show normal thyroid function. However, hypothyroidism with cretinism can occur. Lithium, used in psychiatry and as a salt substitute, may alter iodine metabolism and thyroid gland function. It also passes into the milk to continue the potential toxicity. Teratogenic effects in experimental animals suggest other possible effects on infants from lithium and similar drugs.
Langman, Michael J S
This article reviews the clinical and epidemiological features of conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) related peptic ulcer complications, and the associated risk factors. The degree of gastrointestinal toxicity varies widely between the available drugs and with dose of each. The risk of ulcer complications can however be reduced, and perhaps completely removed, by using the lowest dose of the least toxic member of the class. Enteric coating and other delayed release formulations have not been shown to reduce risk. Estimates of the imposed disease burden have varied widely, in part through assuming that risks in selected patient groups will necessarily translate to the general population. Nevertheless, the imposed disease burden is one of the largest associated with current drug treatment. Associated risk factors such as prior ulcer, corticosteroid use and concurrent aspirin as well as general cardiovascular disease will raise the likelihood of an ulcer complication in NSAID takers and non-takers. Therefore, strategies dependent on substituting COX-selective drugs will then be only partially successful.
Antonen, J A; Markula, K P; Pertovaara, M I; Pasternack, A I
Trimethoprim-associated systemic reactions, including aseptic meningitis, have been reported to be very rare adverse drug reactions. Patients with Sjögren's syndrome have been overrepresented, but no epidemiological surveys of the reaction have been conducted. To study the overall frequency of adverse drug reactions, and especially trimethoprim-associated reactions, we interviewed 85 primary Sjögren's syndrome patients and compared the results with those of 45 similarly interviewed osteoarthritis patients. Antimicrobial allergy was more common among Sjögren's syndrome patients than in osteoarthritis patients (46% vs. 27%). Eleven Sjögren's syndrome patients (13%), but no osteoarthritis patient, had experienced at least a partial, non-allergic systemic reaction with trimethoprim. Of them five (6%) had had a full-blown systemic reaction including both chills/fever and headache/backache and at least one of the following: malaise, vomiting, dizziness, confusion or meningeal irritation. Our findings confirm that allergic reactions to antimicrobials are frequent in Sjögren's syndrome. In addition to allergic reactions Sjögren's syndrome patients are prone to a specific trimethoprim-associated systemic reaction. This should be remembered when prescribing antimicrobials.
Siddiqui, Ali Nasir; Khayyam, Khalid Umer
Despite successful implementation of directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) in India, the growing number of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients appears to be a cause in the increasing tuberculosis (TB) incidence, affecting their management. In this regard, a prospective study was conducted on DOTS patients in three primary health care centers in urban slum region of South Delhi, India, to evaluate the effect of DM on sputum conversion, treatment outcome, and adverse drug reactions (ADR) due to anti-TB treatment. Eligible TB patients underwent blood glucose screening at treatment initiation. Disease presentation, clinical outcome, and ADRs were compared between patients of TB with and without DM. Out of 316 patients, the prevalence of DM was found to be 15.8%, in which 19.4% and 9.6% were PTB and EPTB patients, respectively. DM patients have observed higher sputum positivity (OR 1.247 95% CI; 0.539–2.886) at the end of 2-month treatment and poor outcome (OR 1.176 95% CI; 0.310–4.457) at the completion of treatment compared with non DM patients. Presence of DM was significantly associated (OR 3.578 95% CI; 1.114–11.494, p = 0.032) with the development of ADRs. DM influences the treatment outcome of PTB patients in our setting and also on the ADR incidence. PMID:27642601
Rumyantsev, N A; Kukes, V G; Kazakov, R E; Rumyantsev, A A; Sychev, D A
The number of patients receiving statins increases every year and due to the fact that they should take statins during their lives, the problem of their safety use comes to the forefront. The paper analyzes the safety of using the medications of this group and discusses the diagnosis of myopathies induced by statins and the occurrence of immune-mediated statin myopathies. It considers a personalized approach to prescribing statins, analyzes Russian and foreign experience in using pharmacogenetics to reduce the risk of myopathies, publishes the results of the authors' experience in clinically introducing pharmacogenetic testing at hospitals, and analyzes the long-term results of determining the polymorphism of the SLCO1B1 gene for the prediction of the risk of adverse events when using statins and estimating patient compliance to prescribed treatment.
Davis, Jesse; Costa, Vítor Santos; Peissig, Peggy; Caldwell, Michael; Berg, Elizabeth; Page, David
Learning from electronic medical records (EMR) is challenging due to their relational nature and the uncertain dependence between a patient's past and future health status. Statistical relational learning is a natural fit for analyzing EMRs but is less adept at handling their inherent latent structure, such as connections between related medications or diseases. One way to capture the latent structure is via a relational clustering of objects. We propose a novel approach that, instead of pre-clustering the objects, performs a demand-driven clustering during learning. We evaluate our algorithm on three real-world tasks where the goal is to use EMRs to predict whether a patient will have an adverse reaction to a medication. We find that our approach is more accurate than performing no clustering, pre-clust