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Sample records for adsorbed brp batch

  1. Calibration of the Ph. Eur. Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for tetanus vaccine (adsorbed) batch 3.

    PubMed

    Tierney, R; Hockley, J; Rigsby, P; Terao, E; Daas, A; Buchheit, K-H; Sesardic, D

    2011-06-01

    A joint collaborative study was organised by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) and the World Health Organization (WHO)/National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) to establish replacement batches for the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Tetanus Vaccine (adsorbed) Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) batch 2 and for the WHO 3rd International Standard (IS) for Tetanus toxoid (adsorbed). Two freeze-dried stabilised tetanus vaccine (adsorbed) candidate preparations (Preparation A, 08/218 and Preparation B, 08/102) were calibrated against the current 3rd IS/BRP batch 2 (Preparation C) using challenge methods in guinea pigs and mice as described in the Ph. Eur. general chapter 2.7.8. Assay of tetanus vaccine (adsorbed). They were also assayed by serology methods. The WHO 2nd IS for Tetanus toxoid adsorbed (TEXA-2) was additionally included in the sample panel as Preparation D. Thirty-four laboratories (regulatory organisations and manufacturers) from 22 countries participated in the collaborative study. The majority of participants performed 2 independent challenge tests. Nine laboratories performed challenge assays in guinea pigs and 30 laboratories performed challenge assays in mice. Eight laboratories performed serology in guinea pigs and 1 laboratory performed serology in mice. For Preparation A, the geometric mean (GM) potency estimate (with 95 % confidence interval (CI)) in guinea pigs for all laboratories that provided valid results (n = 6) was 488.5 (354.2-673.6) IU/ampoule. For valid mouse assays (n = 25) the GM potency (with 95 % CI) was 259.8 (223.5-302.0) IU/ampoule. The inter-laboratory geometric coefficient of variation (GCV) was 36 % for guinea pig assays and 45 % for mouse assays. This compared favourably with the calibration of the 3rd IS/BRP batch 2 where the inter-laboratory GCV was 36 % and 42 % in guinea pigs and mice, respectively. For Preparation B, the GM potency estimate (with 95 % CI

  2. Establishment of hepatitis A vaccine (inactivated, non-adsorbed) BRP batches 2 and 3.

    PubMed

    Morgeaux, S; Manniam, I; Variot, P; Buchheit, K H; Daas, A; Wierer, M; Costanzo, A

    2015-01-01

    The current hepatitis A vaccine (HAV), inactivated, non-adsorbed, European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) is used for the in vitro potency assay of HAV as prescribed by the Ph. Eur. general chapter 2.7.14 Assay of hepatitis A vaccine. This reference preparation was calibrated in 2008 through an international collaborative study and was assigned a potency of 12 IU/mL. During use of this BRP it appeared to be inapplicable in certain cases due to a low nominal antigen content. Consequently, the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and HealthCare (EDQM) established replacement batches for this BRP, calibrated against the 1(st) WHO International Standard (IS) for HAV (inactivated), using the standard in vitro ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) method validated previously. The results of the study showed that the candidate BRPs were suitable for the intended purpose, and following completion of the study, they were adopted in November 2014 by the Ph. Eur. Commission as HAV (inactivated, non-adsorbed) BRP batches 2 and 3, with an assigned potency of 1350 IU/mL, for in vitro antigen content determination by ELISA. As the amount of material in each vial largely exceeds the amount required for the performance of a single assay, the BRPs are to be aliquoted by users as single-use aliquots and refrozen below -50 °C prior to their use as reference preparations.

  3. Collaborative study for the establishment of erythropoietin BRP batch 4.

    PubMed

    Burns, C; Bristow, A F; Daas, A; Costanzo, A

    2015-01-01

    The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for erythropoietin (EPO) is used as a working standard for potency determination of EPO preparations by in vivo bioassay as prescribed in the Ph. Eur. monograph Erythropoietin concentrated solution (1316). The BRP batch 3 was calibrated in 2006 and its stocks are depleted. The European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) thus initiated a project to calibrate a replacement batch in International Units against the WHO 3(rd) International Standard (IS) for Erythropoietin, recombinant, for bioassay (11/170). A Ph. Eur. Chemical Reference Substance (CRS) was established recently for use as reference in some of the physicochemical tests prescribed in the monograph. Therefore, the EPO BRP batch 4 was only calibrated for the normocythaemic and polycythaemic mouse in vivo bioassays described in the Assay section of the Ph. Eur. monograph (1316). The collaborative study involved seven laboratories from Europe, the USA and South America. The results confirmed that the candidate BRP (cBRP) is suitable for use as a reference preparation in the potency determination of EPO medicinal products by bioassay (using the normocythaemic or polycythaemic mouse methods). The outcome of the study enabled the Ph. Eur. Commission to establish the proposed standard as erythropoietin BRP batch 4 in November 2014 for use as a reference preparation solely for the polycythaemic and normocythaemic mouse bioassay, with an assigned potency of 13 000 IU/vial. Furthermore, the potency of BRP3 was confirmed during the study, thus warranting a good continuity of the IU.

  4. Collaborative study for the calibration of the Ph. Eur. prekallikrein activator in albumin BRP batches 4, 5 and 6.

    PubMed

    Lackner, F; Daas, A; Terao, E

    2015-01-01

    An international collaborative study was organised by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM, Council of Europe) to calibrate replacement batches for the current European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) prekallikrein activator (PKA) in albumin biological reference preparation (BRP), whose stocks were dwindling. The study was run in the framework of the Biological Standardisation Programme (BSP) of the Council of Europe and the European Union (EU) Commission. Twenty three laboratories from official medicines control authorities and manufacturers in Europe and outside Europe took part in the study. Three candidate replacement batches were produced from the same material as the one used for the World Health Organization (WHO) 2(nd) International Standard (IS) for PKA in albumin (02/168) and the Ph. Eur. PKA in albumin BRP batches 1, 2 and 3. Participants were requested to evaluate the candidate batches against the current WHO IS using their routine assay method. The Ph. Eur. PKA in albumin BRP batch 3 (BRP3) was also included in the test panel to ensure the continuity of the consecutive BRP batches. The study confirmed the stability of the PKA content of the current BRP3. The candidate batches were found to be comparable. Previous data on the starting material support its high stability. Thermal stress study on the candidate batches confirmed the stability of their PKA activity. The Commission of the Ph. Eur. officially adopted in November 2013 the 3 candidate batches as Ph. Eur. PKA in albumin BRP batches 4, 5 and 6 with an assigned content of 38 IU/vial. The activity of the 3 new batches of Ph. Eur. PKA in albumin BRP will be regularly monitored.

  5. Establishment of the Ph. Eur. BRP for varicella vaccine batch 1.

    PubMed

    Akkermans, A M; Waeterloos, G; Kemiha, K; Daas, A; Milne, C

    2009-10-01

    The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) monograph for varicella vaccine (live) (0648) requires a vial of an appropriate reference material to be titred in triplicate to validate each assay and the virus concentration of the reference preparation is monitored using a control chart to determine the assay consistency. An international collaborative study involving 9 participants from 7 countries and including both OMCLs and manufacturers was carried out to establish a common reference material for this purpose and establish a Ph. Eur. Biological Reference Preparation. Two candidate reference preparations (X and Y), obtained from 2 different EU manufacturers, were assayed by the participants using their in-house PFU assay methods. Both candidates were found to be suitable for this purpose. Based on logistical considerations, candidate X (4.37 log(10)0 PFU/vial) has been established as BRP batch 1 of varicella vaccine (live) and was adopted at the June 2009 session of the European Pharmacopoeia Commission for immediate use. Candidate Y (3.82 log(10) PFU/vial) will be established as BRP batch 2 upon depletion of BRP batch 1 provided that the stability data supports this.

  6. Collaborative study for the establishment of the Ph. Eur. BRP batch 1 for anti-vaccinia immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, F; Poirier, B; Leparc-Goffart, I; Buchheit, K H

    2005-09-01

    Upon suggestion of the French Official Medicines Control Laboratory, a collaborative study was initiated by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines with the goal of calibrating the candidate European Pharmacopoeia biological reference preparation (Ph. Eur. BRP) for anti-vaccinia immunoglobulin batch 1 in International Units (IU) against the 1(st) British standard (anti-smallpox serum). The candidate BRP batch 1 was obtained by lyophilising a pool of four plasma samples obtained from one donor who was multi-vaccinated with smallpox vaccine (Lister strain) and who had relatively high titres of neutralising anti-vaccinia antibodies. The plasma complied with the requirements of the Ph. Eur. monograph Human plasma for fractionation. For the candidate BRP the precision of fill and the residual moisture after lyophilisation comply with the requirements for biological reference preparations. The stability of the material was shown to be satisfactory for the intended purpose in an accelerated degradation test. Eight laboratories participated in the study. Two samples had to be assayed (candidate BRP batch 1 and 1(st) British standard). All participants were requested to test the samples using a common method (plaque reduction neutralisation) that had been validated beforehand, and their own in-house anti-vaccinia immunoglobulin titration method. From the raw data returned, the potency of the candidate BRP was calculated in IU/ml using the parallel lines method. The precision (intra-assay variation), repeatability (intra-laboratory variation) and reproducibility (inter-laboratory variation) were assessed. All laboratories used the Lister strain of vaccinia virus for the plaque reduction neutralisation assay. For laboratories using cell-adapted vaccinia virus, the results were satisfactory regarding intra-assay variability, intra-laboratory variability and inter-laboratory variability. For laboratories using vaccinia virus produced on animals, results were less

  7. Calibration of European pharmacopoeia biological reference preparation for diphtheria vaccine (adsorbed) batch 4.

    PubMed

    Stickings, P; Rigsby, P; Buchheit, K-H; Sesardic, D

    2009-10-01

    A collaborative study was organised by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) and the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) to establish replacement batches of the current World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard (IS) and European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for Diphtheria Vaccine (Adsorbed). Two candidates were assayed against the current 3rd IS/BRP batch 3 for Diphtheria Vaccine (Adsorbed) with an assigned potency of 160 IU/ampoule using established WHO/Ph. Eur. challenge methods in guinea pigs as described in the Ph. Eur. general chapter 2.7.6. Assay of diphtheria vaccine (adsorbed). Twenty-one laboratories (regulatory organisations and manufacturers) from 17 countries participated in the study. Two freeze-dried, stabilised diphtheria vaccine (adsorbed) preparations were included in the study: Preparation A (07/218) and Preparation B (07/216). As stocks of the 3rd IS were very low, the Diphtheria vaccine (adsorbed) BRP batch 3, which is identical to the 3rd IS but which was kept at the EDQM, was used for the calibration (coded Preparation C). The majority of participants performed 2 independent challenge tests. Five laboratories performed the intradermal challenge test, 16 laboratories performed the systemic challenge test. For Preparation A, the unweighted geometric mean potency estimate (with 95 % confidence limits) for all laboratories that provided valid results (n = 17) was 97.2 (89.5-105.6) IU/ampoule. For systemic challenge assays (n = 14) the unweighted geometric mean potency was 97.0 (88.1-106.7) IU/ampoule. The between-laboratory GCV was 17.4 % for all assays and 18.0 % for systemic challenge assays. There was no significant difference in estimates for intradermal or systemic challenge (p = 0.45). For Preparation B the unweighted geometric mean potency estimate (with 95 % confidence limits) for all laboratories that provided valid results (n

  8. Collaborative study for the establishment of the Ph. Eur. BRP for oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) Batch 3 for use in the potency assay.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, K H; Daas, A; Stalder, J

    2002-06-01

    A collaborative study was initiated by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (EDQM) with the goal to calibrate the trivalent candidate European Pharmacopoeia Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) Batch 3 against the 1st International Standard (IS) for OPV and to establish the material as a working standard. The material is a commercial trivalent stabilised oral poliomyelitis vaccine, consisting of Sabin strains of live attenuated poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3. The new standard is meant to replace the current European Pharmacopoeia BRP for OPV Batch 2, the stocks of which will soon be depleted. Fourteen laboratories participated in the study. Three samples had to be assayed (1st IS, BRP Batch 2, candidate BRP Batch 3). The potency of each virus type in each preparation had to be estimated by using either common monoclonal anti-polio antibody sera and/or the participant's routinely used antisera for neutralizing two of the three virus types present in the trivalent vaccine. In addition the total virus content had to be determined. From the raw data returned, log10 CCID50/ml values were calculated using the probit method (CCID50 is the dose infecting 50% of the cell cultures). The precision (intra-assay variation), repeatability (intralaboratory variation) and reproducibility (inter-laboratory variation) were assessed as absolute titres and as the adjusted titres (potencies of the test samples calculated relative to the 1st IS). An analysis of variance was performed to determine if there were significant differences between assays using mono- or polyclonal antisera. The precision, determined as the width of the uncorrected confidence limits taken across all assays within laboratories, varied on average from +/- 0.13 to +/- 0.34. The repeatability (uncorrected titres) standard deviation varied from 0.08 to 0.27 and was on average 0.174. The repeatability (corrected titres) standard deviation varied from 0.11 to 0

  9. Batch technique to evaluate the efficiency of different natural adsorbents for defluoridation from groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Saraswat, Chitresh; Mishra, Binaya Kumar; Avtar, Ram; Patel, Hiral; Patel, Asha; Sharma, Tejal; Patel, Roshni

    2016-09-01

    Fluoride pollution (with concentration >1.0 mg/L) in groundwater has become a global threat in the recent past due to the lesser availability of potable groundwater resource. In between several defluoridation techniques discovered so far, the adsorption process proved to be most economic and efficient. This study is an effort to evaluate defluoridation efficiency of powdered rice husk, fine chopped rice husk and sawdust by the batch adsorption process. Optimum defluoridation capacity is achieved by optimizing various parameters, viz. dose of adsorbent, pH, contact time and initial concentration. It was found that all three materials can be employed for the defluoridation technique, but powdered rice husk is the best adsorbent in the midst of all three. Powdered rice husk showed fluoride removal efficiency ranging between 85 and 90 % in the contact period of 7 h only in conditions of all optimized parameter. Following this parameter optimization, adsorption efficiency was also evaluated at natural pH of groundwater to minimize the cost of defluoridation. No significant difference was found between fluoride adsorption at optimized pH (pH = 4) and natural one (pH = 7), which concludes that powdered rice husk can be efficiently used for the defluoridation technique at field scale. The adsorption isotherm using this adsorbent perfectly followed Langmuir isotherms. The value of calculated separation factor also suggests the favourable adsorption of fluoride onto this adsorbent under the conditions used for the experiments. The field application for defluoridation of groundwater using this adsorbent (based on pH of natural groundwater there and seasonal variation of temperature) showed the high success rate.

  10. Technique of ethanol food grade production with batch distillation and dehydration using starch-based adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widjaja, Tri; Altway, Ali; Ni'mah, Hikmatun; Tedji, Namira; Rofiqah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    Development and innovation of ethanol food grade production are becoming the reasearch priority to increase economy growth. Moreover, the government of Indonesia has established regulation for increasing the renewable energy as primary energy. Sorghum is cerealia plant that contains 11-16% sugar that is optimum for fermentation process, it is potential to be cultivated, especially at barren area in Indonesia. The purpose of this experiment is to learn about the effect of microorganisms in fermentation process. Fermentation process was carried out batchwise in bioreactor and used 150g/L initial sugar concentration. Microorganisms used in this experiment are Zymomonas mobilis mutation (A3), Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mixed of Pichia stipitis. The yield of ethanol can be obtained from this experiment. For ethanol purification result, distillation process from fermentation process has been done to search the best operation condition for efficiency energy consumption. The experiment for purification was divided into two parts, which are distillation with structured packing steel wool and adsorption (dehydration) sequencely. In distillation part, parameters evaluation (HETP and pressure drop) of distillation column that can be used for scale up are needed. The experiment was operated at pressure of 1 atm. The distillation stage was carried out at 85 °C and reflux ratio of 0.92 with variety porosities of 20%, 40%, and 60%. Then the adsorption process was done at 120°C and two types of adsorbent, which are starch - based adsorbent with ingredient of cassava and molecular sieve 3A, were used. The adsorption process was then continued to purify the ethanol from impurities by using activated carbon. This research shows that the batch fermentation process with Zymomonas mobilis A3 obtain higher % yield of ethanol of 40,92%. In addition to that, for purification process, the best operation condition is by using 40% of porosity of stuctured packing steel wool in distillation

  11. A versatile noninvasive method for adsorber quantification in batch and column chromatography based on the ionic capacity.

    PubMed

    Huuk, Thiemo C; Briskot, Till; Hahn, Tobias; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Within the Quality by Design (QbD) framework proposed by the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH), high-throughput process development (HTPD) and mechanistic modeling are of outstanding importance for future biopharmaceutical chromatography process development. In order to compare the data derived from different column scales or batch chromatographies, the amount of adsorber has to be quantified with the same noninvasive method. Similarly, an important requirement for the implementation of mechanistic modeling is the reliable determination of column characteristics such as the ionic capacity Λ for ion-exchange chromatography with the same method at all scales and formats. We developed a method to determine the ionic capacity in column and batch chromatography, based on the adsorption/desorption of the natural, uv-detectable amino acid histidine. In column chromatography, this method produces results comparable to those of classical acid-base titration. In contrast to acid-base titration, this method can be adapted to robotic batch chromatographic experiments. We are able to convert the adsorber volumes in batch chromatography to the equivalent volume of a compressed column. In a case study, we demonstrate that this method increases the quality of SMA parameters fitted to batch adsorption isotherms, and the capability to predict column breakthrough experiments. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:666-677, 2016.

  12. A versatile noninvasive method for adsorber quantification in batch and column chromatography based on the ionic capacity.

    PubMed

    Huuk, Thiemo C; Briskot, Till; Hahn, Tobias; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Within the Quality by Design (QbD) framework proposed by the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH), high-throughput process development (HTPD) and mechanistic modeling are of outstanding importance for future biopharmaceutical chromatography process development. In order to compare the data derived from different column scales or batch chromatographies, the amount of adsorber has to be quantified with the same noninvasive method. Similarly, an important requirement for the implementation of mechanistic modeling is the reliable determination of column characteristics such as the ionic capacity Λ for ion-exchange chromatography with the same method at all scales and formats. We developed a method to determine the ionic capacity in column and batch chromatography, based on the adsorption/desorption of the natural, uv-detectable amino acid histidine. In column chromatography, this method produces results comparable to those of classical acid-base titration. In contrast to acid-base titration, this method can be adapted to robotic batch chromatographic experiments. We are able to convert the adsorber volumes in batch chromatography to the equivalent volume of a compressed column. In a case study, we demonstrate that this method increases the quality of SMA parameters fitted to batch adsorption isotherms, and the capability to predict column breakthrough experiments. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:666-677, 2016. PMID:27324662

  13. Single stage batch adsorber design for efficient Eosin yellow removal by polyaniline coated ligno-cellulose.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Sushanta; Ballav, Niladri; Maity, Arjun; Pillay, Kriveshini

    2015-01-01

    Polyaniline-coated lignin-based adsorbent (PLC) was synthesized and used for uptake of reactive dye eosin yellow (EY) from aqueous solution. The adsorption capability of the adsorbent was found to be more effective than the unmodified adsorbent (LC). In particular, the adsorption capability of the PLC was effective over a wider pH range. This could be owing to its higher point of zero charge, which is more favorable for the uptake of the anionic dye. Adsorption isotherm models suggested a monolayer adsorption was predominant. The mean free energy of adsorption (E(DR)) was found to have values between 8 and 16 kJ mol(-1) which suggests that an electrostatic mechanism of adsorption predominated over other underlying mechanisms. The adsorption process was also found to be spontaneous, with increasing negative free energy values observed at higher temperatures. Chemisorption process was supported by the changes in enthalpy above 40 kJ mol(-1) and by the results of desorption studies. This new adsorbent was also reusable and regenerable over four successive adsorption-desorption cycles. The single stage adsorber design revealed that PLC can be applicable as an effective biosorbent for the treatment of industrial effluents containing EY dye.

  14. Wastewater treatment by batch adsorption method onto micro-particles of dried Withania frutescens plant as a new adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Chiban, Mohamed; Soudani, Amina; Sinan, Fouad; Persin, Michel

    2012-03-01

    A new adsorbent for removing metallic elements, nitrate and phosphate ions from municipal and industrial wastewaters has been investigated. This new adsorbent consists of micro-particles of dried Withania frutescens plant (<500 μm). Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the removal of metallic elements and anions from raw wastewaters by W. frutescens particles. The results show that the micro-particles of W. frutescens plant presented a good adsorption of metallic elements, nitrate and phosphate ions from both real wastewaters. This adsorption increased with increasing of contact time. The percentage of metallic elements removal from industrial wastewater by W. frutescens plant was 98 ≈ 99% for Pb(II), 92 ≈ 93% for Cd(II), 91 ≈ 92% for Cu(II) and 92 ≈ 93% for Zn(II). The maximum adsorption capacity was dependent on the type of ions. The results also indicate that the values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) decrease after the contact with W. frutescens particles. Based on the results it can be concluded that the dried W. frutescens plant appears to be an economical and environmentally friendly material for wastewater treatment.

  15. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with addition of a low-cost adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sílvia C R; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2015-06-30

    Color removal from textile wastewaters, at a low-cost and consistent technology, is even today a challenge. Simultaneous biological treatment and adsorption is a known alternative to the treatment of wastewaters containing biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants. The present work aims at evaluating the treatability of a simulated textile wastewater by simultaneously combining biological treatment and adsorption in a SBR (sequencing batch reactor), but using a low-cost adsorbent, instead of a commercial one. The selected adsorbent was a metal hydroxide sludge (WS) from an electroplating industry. Direct Blue 85 dye (DB) was used in the preparation of the synthetic wastewater. Firstly, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were studied, in respect to many factors (temperature, pH, WS dosage and presence of salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the aqueous media). At 25 °C and pH 4, 7 and 10, maximum DB adsorption capacities in aqueous solution were 600, 339 and 98.7 mg/g, respectively. These values are quite considerable, compared to other reported in literature, but proved to be significantly reduced by the presence of dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the wastewater. The simulated textile wastewater treatment in SBR led to BOD5 removals of 53-79%, but color removal was rather limited (10-18%). The performance was significantly enhanced by the addition of WS, with BOD5 removals above 91% and average color removals of 60-69%.

  16. Agro-industrial waste: a low cost adsorbent for effective removal of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid herbicide in batch and packed bed modes.

    PubMed

    Deokar, Sunil K; Mandavgane, Sachin A; Kulkarni, Bhaskar D

    2016-08-01

    The present work describes the aqueous phase removal of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid herbicide by rice husk ash (RHA) using batch and packed bed adsorption techniques. The effects of dosage, initial concentration, time, pH, temperature, and particle size of adsorbent in batch compared with effects of influent concentration, flow rate, and bed height in packed bed were studied. The particle size effect reveals that the removal is dependent on chemical composition (silica and carbon content) together with BET surface area of RHA. The aptness of Langmuir isotherm to batch data indicates the favorable adsorption whereas that of Temkin isotherm informs the heterogeneous nature of RHA. The kinetics of adsorption follows the pseudo-second order and Elovich models while thermodynamics of process indicates the exothermic adsorption. Among the models applied in packed bed study, the deactivation kinetic, Yoon-Nelson and bed depth service time (BDST) models are suitable to explain the packed bed adsorption. The adsorption capacity of RHA in packed bed study is found greater than that in batch. The adsorption capacity of RHA determined by the BDST model is 3019 mg/L for 90 % saturation of bed. The adsorption capacity of RHA based on weight is ∼2.3 times and that based on surface area is ∼55.55 times greater than that of granular activated carbon.

  17. Agro-industrial waste: a low cost adsorbent for effective removal of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid herbicide in batch and packed bed modes.

    PubMed

    Deokar, Sunil K; Mandavgane, Sachin A; Kulkarni, Bhaskar D

    2016-08-01

    The present work describes the aqueous phase removal of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid herbicide by rice husk ash (RHA) using batch and packed bed adsorption techniques. The effects of dosage, initial concentration, time, pH, temperature, and particle size of adsorbent in batch compared with effects of influent concentration, flow rate, and bed height in packed bed were studied. The particle size effect reveals that the removal is dependent on chemical composition (silica and carbon content) together with BET surface area of RHA. The aptness of Langmuir isotherm to batch data indicates the favorable adsorption whereas that of Temkin isotherm informs the heterogeneous nature of RHA. The kinetics of adsorption follows the pseudo-second order and Elovich models while thermodynamics of process indicates the exothermic adsorption. Among the models applied in packed bed study, the deactivation kinetic, Yoon-Nelson and bed depth service time (BDST) models are suitable to explain the packed bed adsorption. The adsorption capacity of RHA in packed bed study is found greater than that in batch. The adsorption capacity of RHA determined by the BDST model is 3019 mg/L for 90 % saturation of bed. The adsorption capacity of RHA based on weight is ∼2.3 times and that based on surface area is ∼55.55 times greater than that of granular activated carbon. PMID:27151241

  18. Amino-functionalized mesoporous MCM-41 silica as an efficient adsorbent for water treatment: batch and fixed-bed column adsorption of the nitrate anion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi-Gatkash, Mehdi; Younesi, Habibollah; Shahbazi, Afsaneh; Heidari, Ava

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, amino-functionalized Mobil Composite Material No. 41 (MCM-41) was used as an adsorbent to remove nitrate anions from aqueous solutions. Mono-, di- and tri-amino functioned silicas (N-MCM-41, NN-MCM-41 and NNN-MCM-41) were prepared by post-synthesis grafting method. The samples were characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. The effects of pH, initial concentration of anions, and adsorbent loading were examined in batch adsorption system. Results of adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption capacity increased with increasing adsorbent loading and initial anion concentration. It was found that the Langmuir mathematical model indicated better fit to the experimental data than the Freundlich. According to the constants of the Langmuir equation, the maximum adsorption capacity for nitrate anion by N-MCM-41, NN-MCM-41 and NNN-MCM-41 was found to be 31.68, 38.58 and 36.81 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption kinetics were investigated with pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model. Adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. The coefficients of determination for pseudo-second-order kinetic model are >0.99. For continuous adsorption experiments, NNN-MCM-41 adsorbent was used for the removal of nitrate anion from solutions. Breakthrough curves were investigated at different bed heights, flow rates and initial nitrate anion concentrations. The Thomas and Yan models were utilized to calculate the kinetic parameters and to predict the breakthrough curves of different bed height. Results from this study illustrated the potential utility of these adsorbents for nitrate removal from water solution.

  19. Fed-batch cultivation of the marine bacterium Sulfitobacter pontiacus using immobilized substrate and purification of sulfite oxidase by application of membrane adsorber technology.

    PubMed

    Muffler, Kai; Ulber, Roland

    2008-03-01

    Sulfitobacter pontiacus, a gram-negative heterotrophic bacterium isolated from the Black Sea is well known to produce a soluble AMP-independent sulfite oxidase (sulfite: acceptor oxidoreductase) of high activity. Such an enzyme can be of great help in establishing biosensor systems for detection of sulfite in food and beverages considering the high sensitivity of biosensors and the increasing demand for such biosensor devices. For obtaining efficient amounts of the enzyme, an induction of its biosynthesis by supplementing sufficient concentrations of sodium sulfite to the fermentation broth is required. Owing to the fact that a high initial concentration of sodium sulfite decreases dramatically the enzyme expression, different fed-batch strategies can be applied to circumvent such inhibition or repression of the enzyme respectively. By the use of sulfite species immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol gels, an approach to the controlled and continuous feeding of sulfite to the cultivation media could be established to diminish inhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, the purification of the enzyme is described by using membrane adsorber technology.

  20. Calibration of replacement international standard and European Pharmacopoeia Biological Reference Preparation for Diphtheria Toxoid, Adsorbed.

    PubMed

    Sesardic, D; Winsnes, R; Rigsby, P; Gaines-Das, R

    2001-06-01

    We report here the characterisation of a preparation of diphtheria toxoid, adsorbed, and its calibration by twenty laboratories in fourteen countries in terms of the Second International Standard (I.S.) for Diphtheria Toxoid, Adsorbed, coded sample A (DIXA) using the established World Health Organisation (WHO)/European Pharmacopoeia (Ph Eur) challenge methods. The replacement standard preparation was found to have a unitage of 160 IU/ampoule on the basis of its calibration by in vivo bioassay. Stability was assessed within the collaborative study, and as part of candidate characterisation. Results suggest that the replacement standard will have satisfactory stability. This study also provided an opportunity to investigate serology as alternative to in vivo bioassay for potency testing of diphtheria vaccines. Six laboratories participated by performing serology according to in-house protocol. The calibration of the replacement standard in a mouse Vero cell assay gave a significantly higher results than in the established WHO/Ph Eur methods. Based on the results of this study and with the agreement of participants, the candidate standard was established as the Third International Standard for Diphtheria Toxoid, Adsorbed (coded 98/560) by the WHO Expert Committee of Biological Standardization in October 1999. The same preparation was also established as the second Ph Eur Biological Reference Preparation (Ph Eur BRP, batch no. 3) by the Steering Committee of the Biological Standardisation Programme of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and approved by the European Pharmacopoeia Commission.

  1. Collaborative study for the calibration of replacement batches for the heparin low-molecular-mass for assay biological reference preparation.

    PubMed

    Terao, E; Daas, A

    2016-01-01

    The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) prescribes the control of the activity of low molecular mass heparins by assays for anti-Xa and anti-IIa activities (monograph 0828), using a reference standard calibrated in International Units (IU). An international collaborative study coded BSP133 was launched in the framework of the Biological Standardisation Programme (BSP) run under the aegis of the Council of Europe and the European Commission to calibrate replacement batches for the dwindling stocks of the Heparin low-molecular-mass for assay Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) batch 8. Thirteen official medicines control and manufacturers laboratories from European and non-European countries took part in this study to calibrate two freeze-dried candidate batches against the 3rd International Standard (IS) for heparin, low molecular weight (11/176; 3rd IS). The Heparin low-molecular-mass for assay BRP (batch 8) was also included in the test panel to check the continuity between subsequent BRP batches. Taking into account the stability data, the results of this collaborative study and on the basis of the central statistical analysis performed at the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM), the 2 candidate batches were officially adopted by the Commission of the European Pharmacopoeia as Heparin low-molecular-mass for assay BRP batches 9 and 10 with assigned anti-Xa activities of 102 and 100 IU/vial and anti-IIa activities of 34 and 33 IU/vial respectively.

  2. Collaborative study for the calibration of replacement batches for the heparin low-molecular-mass for assay biological reference preparation.

    PubMed

    Terao, E; Daas, A

    2016-01-01

    The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) prescribes the control of the activity of low molecular mass heparins by assays for anti-Xa and anti-IIa activities (monograph 0828), using a reference standard calibrated in International Units (IU). An international collaborative study coded BSP133 was launched in the framework of the Biological Standardisation Programme (BSP) run under the aegis of the Council of Europe and the European Commission to calibrate replacement batches for the dwindling stocks of the Heparin low-molecular-mass for assay Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) batch 8. Thirteen official medicines control and manufacturers laboratories from European and non-European countries took part in this study to calibrate two freeze-dried candidate batches against the 3rd International Standard (IS) for heparin, low molecular weight (11/176; 3rd IS). The Heparin low-molecular-mass for assay BRP (batch 8) was also included in the test panel to check the continuity between subsequent BRP batches. Taking into account the stability data, the results of this collaborative study and on the basis of the central statistical analysis performed at the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM), the 2 candidate batches were officially adopted by the Commission of the European Pharmacopoeia as Heparin low-molecular-mass for assay BRP batches 9 and 10 with assigned anti-Xa activities of 102 and 100 IU/vial and anti-IIa activities of 34 and 33 IU/vial respectively. PMID:27507705

  3. BRP, a polysaccharide fraction isolated from Boschniakia rossica, protects against galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide induced hepatic failure in mice.

    PubMed

    Quan, Jishu; Jin, Meihua; Xu, Huixian; Qiu, Delai; Yin, Xuezhe

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of BRP, a polysaccharide fraction isolated from Boschniakia rossica, against galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide induced fulminant hepatic failure. Mice were injected with a single dose of galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide with or without pretreatment of BRP. Results showed marked reduction of hepatic necrosis, serum marker enzymes and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in BRP pretreated mice when compared with galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-challenged mice. Mice pretreated with BRP decreased the activation of caspases-3 and caspase-8, and showed a reduced level of DNA fragmentation of liver cells. BRP also reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation, increased potential of hepatic antioxidative defense system, and reduced hepatic nitric oxide level which was elevated by galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide injection. Immunoblot analysis showed down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 proteins of liver tissues in BRP pretreated group when compared with galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-challenged group. Furthermore, treatment with galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide markedly increased toll-like receptor 4, nuclear level of nuclear factor-κB, and phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in liver tissues. However, these increases were attenuated by pretreatment with BRP. The results suggest that BRP alleviates galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury by enhancing antioxidative defense system, suppressing inflammatory responses and reducing apoptotic signaling.

  4. Retention of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and heavy metals from industrial waste water by using the low cost adsorbent pine bark in a batch experiment.

    PubMed

    Nehrenheim, E; Odlare, M; Allard, B

    2011-01-01

    Pine bark is a low cost sorbent originating from the forest industry. In recent years, it has been found to show promise as an adsorbent for metals and organic substances in contaminated water, especially landfill leachates and storm water. This study aims to investigate if pine bark can replace commercial adsorbents such as active carbon. An industrial effluent, collected from a treatment plant of a demilitarization factory, was diluted to form concentration ranges of contaminants and shaken with pine bark for 24 hours. Metals (e.g. Pb, Zn, Cd, As and Ni) and explosives, e.g., 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), were analysed before and after treatment. The aim of the experiment was twofold; firstly, it was to investigate whether metals are efficiently removed in the presence of explosives and secondly, if adsorption of explosive substances to pine bark was possible. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to describe the adsorption process where this was possible. It was found that metal uptake was possible in the presence of TNT and other explosive contaminants. The uptake of TNT was satisfactory with up to 80% of the TNT adsorbed by pine bark.

  5. BrpSPL9 (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis SPL9) controls the earliness of heading time in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yali; Wu, Feijie; Bai, Jinjuan; He, Yuke

    2014-04-01

    The leafy heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis), Brussels sprouts (B. oleracea ssp. gemmifera) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) comprise extremely incurved leaves that are edible vegetable products. The heading time is important for high quality and yield of these crops. Here, we report that BrpSPL9-2 (B. rapa ssp. pekinensis SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE 9-2), a target gene of microRNA brp-miR156, controls the heading time of Chinese cabbage. Quantitative measurements of leaf shapes, sizes, colour and curvature indicated that heading is a late adult phase of vegetative growth. During the vegetative period, miR156 levels gradually decreased from the seedling stage to the heading one, whereas BrpSPL9-2 and BrpSPL15-1 mRNAs increased progressively and reached the highest levels at the heading stage. Overexpression of a mutated miR156-resistant form of BrpSPL9-2 caused the significant earliness of heading, concurrent with shortening of the seedling and rosette stages. By contrast, overexpression of miR156 delayed the folding time, concomitant with prolongation of the seedling and rosette stages. Morphological analysis reveals that the significant earliness of heading in the transgenic plants overexpressing BrpSPL9-2 gene was produced because the juvenile phase was absent and the early adult phase shortened, whereas the significant delay of folding in the transgenic plants overexpressing Brp-MIR156a was due to prolongation of the juvenile and early adult phases. Thus, miR156 and BrpSPL9 genes are potentially important for genetic improvement of earliness of Chinese cabbage and other crops.

  6. 78 FR 48795 - Airworthiness Directives; BRP-Powertrain GmbH & Co KG Rotax Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... & Co KG Rotax model 912 F2; 912 F3; 912 F4; 912 S2; 912 S3; 912 S4; 914 F2; 914 F3; and 914 F4... INFORMATION: Discussion On April 4, 2013, we issued AD 2013-07-12, amendment 39-17416 (78 FR 22166, April 15, 2013), for certain BRP-Powertrain GmbH & Co KG Rotax model 912 F2; 912 F3; 912 F4; 912 S2; 912 S3;...

  7. Homogeneity of the geochemical reference material BRP-1 (paraná basin basalt) and assessment of minimum mass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cotta, Aloisio J. B.; Enzweiler, Jacinta; Wilson, Stephen A.; Perez, Carlos A.; Nardy, Antonio J. R.; Larizzatti, Joao H.

    2007-01-01

    Reference materials (RM) are required for quantitative analyses and their successful use is associated with the degree of homogeneity, and the traceability and confidence limits of the values established by characterisation. During the production of a RM, the chemical characterisation can only commence after it has been demonstrated that the material has the required level of homogeneity. Here we describe the preparation of BRP-1, a proposed geochemical reference material, and the results of the tests to evaluate its degree of homogeneity between and within bottles. BRP-1 is the first of two geochemical RM being produced by Brazilian institutions in collaboration with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the International Association of Geoanalysts (IAG). Two test portions of twenty bottles of BRP-1 were analysed by wavelength dispersive-XRF spectrometry and major, minor and eighteen trace elements were determined. The results show that for most of the investigated elements, the units of BRP-1 were homogeneous at conditions approximately three times more rigorous than those strived for by the test of “sufficient homogeneity”. Furthermore, the within bottle homogeneity of BRP-1 was evaluated using small beam (1 mm2) synchrotron radiation XRF spectrometry and, for comparison, the USGS reference materials BCR-2 and GSP-2 were also evaluated. From our data, it has been possible to assign representative minimum masses for some major constituents (1 mg) and for some trace elements (1-13 mg), except Zr in GSP-2, for which test portions of 74 mg are recommended.

  8. Role of breast regression protein 39 (BRP-39)/chitinase 3-like-1 in Th2 and IL-13-induced tissue responses and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun Geun; Hartl, Dominik; Lee, Gap Ryol; Koller, Barbara; Matsuura, Hiroshi; Da Silva, Carla A; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Cohn, Lauren; Homer, Robert J; Kozhich, Alexander A; Humbles, Alison; Kearley, Jennifer; Coyle, Anthony; Chupp, Geoffrey; Reed, Jennifer; Flavell, Richard A; Elias, Jack A

    2009-05-11

    Mouse breast regression protein 39 (BRP-39; Chi3l1) and its human homologue YKL-40 are chitinase-like proteins that lack chitinase activity. Although YKL-40 is expressed in exaggerated quantities and correlates with disease activity in asthma and many other disorders, the biological properties of BRP-39/YKL-40 have only been rudimentarily defined. We describe the generation and characterization of BRP-39(-/-) mice, YKL-40 transgenic mice, and mice that lack BRP-39 and produce YKL-40 only in their pulmonary epithelium. Studies of these mice demonstrated that BRP-39(-/-) animals have markedly diminished antigen-induced Th2 responses and that epithelial YKL-40 rescues the Th2 responses in these animals. The ability of interleukin13 to induce tissue inflammation and fibrosis was also markedly diminished in the absence of BRP-39. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that BRP-39 and YKL-40 play an essential role in antigen sensitization and immunoglobulin E induction, stimulate dendritic cell accumulation and activation, and induce alternative macrophage activation. These proteins also inhibit inflammatory cell apoptosis/cell death while inhibiting Fas expression, activating protein kinase B/AKT, and inducing Faim 3. These studies establish novel regulatory roles for BRP-39/YKL-40 in the initiation and effector phases of Th2 inflammation and remodeling and suggest that these proteins are therapeutic targets in Th2- and macrophage-mediated disorders.

  9. REUSABLE ADSORBENTS FOR DILUTE SOLUTIONS SEPARATION. 6. BATCH AND CONTINUOUS REACTORS FOR ADSORPTION AND DEGRADATION OF 1,2-DICHLOROBENZENE FROM DILUTE WASTEWATER STREAMS USING TITANIA AS A PHOTOCATALYST. (R828598C753)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two types of external lamp reactors were investigated for the titania catalyzed photodegradation of 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB) from a dilute water stream. The first one was a batch mixed slurry reactor and the second one was a semi-batch reactor with continuous feed recycle wit...

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of C(5)-substituted derivatives of leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitor BRP-7.

    PubMed

    Levent, Serkan; Gerstmeier, Jana; Olgaç, Abdurrahman; Nikels, Felix; Garscha, Ulrike; Carotti, Andrea; Macchiarulo, Antonio; Werz, Oliver; Banoglu, Erden; Çalışkan, Burcu

    2016-10-21

    Pharmacological intervention with 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway leading to suppression of leukotriene (LT) biosynthesis is a clinically validated strategy for treatment of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases such as asthma and atherosclerosis. Here we describe the synthesis of a series of C(5)-substituted analogues of the previously described 5-LO-activating protein (FLAP) inhibitor BRP-7 (IC50 = 0.31 μM) to explore the effects of substitution at the C(5)-benzimidazole (BI) ring as a strategy to increase the potency against FLAP-mediated 5-LO product formation. Incorporation of polar substituents on the C(5) position of the BI core, exemplified by compound 11 with a C(5)-nitrile substituent, significantly enhances the potency for suppression of 5-LO product synthesis in human neutrophils (IC50 = 0.07 μM) and monocytes (IC50 = 0.026 μM). PMID:27423639

  11. Adsorbent phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, S.

    1983-01-01

    An adsorbent which uses as its primary ingredient phosphoric acid salts of zirconium or titanium is presented. Production methods are discussed and several examples are detailed. Measurements of separating characteristics of some gases using the salts are given.

  12. Establishment of the Ph. Eur. erythropoietin chemical reference substance batch 1.

    PubMed

    Burns, C; Bristow, A F; Buchheit, K H; Daas, A; Wierer, M; Costanzo, A

    2015-01-01

    The Erythropoietin (EPO) European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) batch 3 was calibrated in 2006 by in vivo bioassay and was used as a reference preparation for these assays as well as for the physicochemical methods in the Ph. Eur. monograph Erythropoietin concentrated solution (1316). In order to avoid the frequent replacement of this standard and thus reduce the use of animals, a new EPO Chemical Reference Substance (CRS) was established to be used solely for the physicochemical methods. Here we report the outcome of a collaborative study aimed at demonstrating the suitability of the candidate CRS (cCRS) as a reference for the physicochemical methods in the Ph. Eur. monograph. Results from the study demonstrated that for the physicochemical methods currently required in the monograph (capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE)/immunoblotting and peptide mapping), the cCRS is essentially identical to the existing BRP. However, data also indicated that, for the physicochemical methods under consideration for inclusion in a revised monograph (test for oxidised forms and glycan mapping), the suitability of the cCRS as a reference needs to be confirmed with additional work. Further to completion of the study, the Ph. Eur. Commission adopted the cCRS as "Erythropoietin for physicochemical tests CRS batch 1" to be used for CZE, PAGE/immunoblotting and peptide mapping.

  13. Metagenomic Identification of a Novel Salt Tolerance Gene from the Human Gut Microbiome Which Encodes a Membrane Protein with Homology to a brp/blh-Family β-Carotene 15,15′-Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Culligan, Eamonn P.; Sleator, Roy D.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Hill, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The human gut microbiome consists of at least 3 million non-redundant genes, 150 times that of the core human genome. Herein, we report the identification and characterisation of a novel stress tolerance gene from the human gut metagenome. The locus, assigned brpA, encodes a membrane protein with homology to a brp/blh-family β-carotene monooxygenase. Cloning and heterologous expression of brpA in Escherichia coli confers a significant salt tolerance phenotype. Furthermore, when cultured in the presence of exogenous β-carotene, cell pellets adopt a red/orange pigmentation indicating the incorporation of carotenoids in the cell membrane. PMID:25058308

  14. Collaborative study for establishment of a European Pharmacopoei Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for B19 virus DNA testing of plasma pools by nucleic acid amplification technique.

    PubMed

    Nübling, C M; Daas, A; Buchheit, K H

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the collaborative study was to calibrate the B19 DNA content of a candidate Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) that is intended to be used for the validation of the analytical procedure, as threshold control and/or as quantitative reference material in the Nucleic Acid Amplification Technique (NAT) test of plasma pools for detection of B19 contamination. The candidate BRP was calibrated against the 1st International Standard for B19 DNA NAT assays. According to the European Pharmacopoeia monograph Human anti-D immunoglobulin, the threshold control needs to have a titre of 10( 4) IU/ml of B19 virus DNA. The lyophilised candidate BRP was prepared from 0.5 ml aliquots of a plasma pool spiked with B19 virus. The B19 virus originated from a "B19 virus window phase" blood donation (anti-B19 negative, B19-DNA high titre positive) and was diluted in a plasma pool tested negative by both serological and NAT assays for Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 to obtain a B19-DNA concentration level in the range of 10( 6) copies/ml. The residual water content of the lyophilised candidate BRP was determined as 0.98 +/- 0.65% (mean +/- relative standard deviation). Sixteen laboratories (Official Medicine Control Laboratories, manufacturers of plasma derivatives, NAT test laboratories and NAT kit manufacturers) from nine countries participated. Participants were requested to test the candidate BRP and the International Standard (99/800) in four independent test runs on different days using their in-house qualitative and/or quantitative NAT methods. Sixteen laboratories reported results. Thirteen laboratories reported results from qualitative assays and 5 laboratories reported results from quantitative assays. Two laboratories reported results from both types of assay. For the qualitative assays a weighted combined potency of 5.64 log( 10) IU/ml with 95 per cent confidence limits of +/- 0.17 log( 10) which corresponds to 67 to 150

  15. Collaborative study for establishment of a European Pharmacopoei Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for B19 virus DNA testing of plasma pools by nucleic acid amplification technique.

    PubMed

    Nübling, C M; Daas, A; Buchheit, K H

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the collaborative study was to calibrate the B19 DNA content of a candidate Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) that is intended to be used for the validation of the analytical procedure, as threshold control and/or as quantitative reference material in the Nucleic Acid Amplification Technique (NAT) test of plasma pools for detection of B19 contamination. The candidate BRP was calibrated against the 1st International Standard for B19 DNA NAT assays. According to the European Pharmacopoeia monograph Human anti-D immunoglobulin, the threshold control needs to have a titre of 10( 4) IU/ml of B19 virus DNA. The lyophilised candidate BRP was prepared from 0.5 ml aliquots of a plasma pool spiked with B19 virus. The B19 virus originated from a "B19 virus window phase" blood donation (anti-B19 negative, B19-DNA high titre positive) and was diluted in a plasma pool tested negative by both serological and NAT assays for Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 to obtain a B19-DNA concentration level in the range of 10( 6) copies/ml. The residual water content of the lyophilised candidate BRP was determined as 0.98 +/- 0.65% (mean +/- relative standard deviation). Sixteen laboratories (Official Medicine Control Laboratories, manufacturers of plasma derivatives, NAT test laboratories and NAT kit manufacturers) from nine countries participated. Participants were requested to test the candidate BRP and the International Standard (99/800) in four independent test runs on different days using their in-house qualitative and/or quantitative NAT methods. Sixteen laboratories reported results. Thirteen laboratories reported results from qualitative assays and 5 laboratories reported results from quantitative assays. Two laboratories reported results from both types of assay. For the qualitative assays a weighted combined potency of 5.64 log( 10) IU/ml with 95 per cent confidence limits of +/- 0.17 log( 10) which corresponds to 67 to 150

  16. Batch-to-batch reproducibility of Transferon™.

    PubMed

    Medina-Rivero, Emilio; Merchand-Reyes, Giovanna; Pavón, Lenin; Vázquez-Leyva, Said; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Salinas-Jazmín, Nohemí; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra

    2014-01-01

    Human dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLEs) are heterogeneous mixtures of low-molecular-weight peptides that modulate immune responses in various diseases. Due their complexity, standardized methods to identify their physicochemical properties and determine that production batches are biologically active must be established. We aimed to develop and validate a size exclusion ultra performance chromatographic (SE-UPLC) method to characterize Transferon™, a DLE that is produced under good manufacturing practices (GMPs). We analyzed an internal human DLE standard and 10 representative batches of Transferon™, all of which had a chromatographic profile characterized by 8 main peaks and a molecular weight range between 17.0 and 0.2kDa. There was high homogeneity between batches with regard to retention times and area percentages, varying by less than 0.2% and 30%, respectively, and the control chart was within 3 standard deviations. To analyze the biological activity of the batches, we studied the ability of Transferon™ to stimulate IFN-γ production in vitro. Transferon™ consistently induced IFN-γ production in Jurkat cells, demonstrating that this method can be included as a quality control step in releasing Transferon™ batches. Because all analyzed batches complied with the quality attributes that were evaluated, we conclude that the DLE Transferon™ is produced with high homogeneity. PMID:24099727

  17. The Arabidopsis acetylated histone-binding protein BRAT1 forms a complex with BRP1 and prevents transcriptional silencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cui-Jun; Hou, Xiao-Mei; Tan, Lian-Mei; Shao, Chang-Rong; Huang, Huan-Wei; Li, Yong-Qiang; Li, Lin; Cai, Tao; Chen, She; He, Xin-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements and other repetitive DNA sequences are usually subject to DNA methylation and transcriptional silencing. However, anti-silencing mechanisms that promote transcription in these regions are not well understood. Here, we describe an anti-silencing factor, Bromodomain and ATPase domain-containing protein 1 (BRAT1), which we identified by a genetic screen in Arabidopsis thaliana. BRAT1 interacts with an ATPase domain-containing protein, BRP1 (BRAT1 Partner 1), and both prevent transcriptional silencing at methylated genomic regions. Although BRAT1 mediates DNA demethylation at a small set of loci targeted by the 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase ROS1, the involvement of BRAT1 in anti-silencing is largely independent of DNA demethylation. We also demonstrate that the bromodomain of BRAT1 binds to acetylated histone, which may facilitate the prevention of transcriptional silencing. Thus, BRAT1 represents a potential link between histone acetylation and transcriptional anti-silencing at methylated genomic regions, which may be conserved in eukaryotes. PMID:27273316

  18. The uranium from seawater program at PNNL: Overview of marine testing, adsorbent characterization, adsorbent durability, adsorbent toxicity, and deployment studies

    DOE PAGES

    Gill, Gary A.; Kuo, Li -Jung; Janke, Christopher James; Park, Jiyeon; Jeters, Robert T.; Bonheyo, George T.; Pan, Horng -Bin; Wai, Chien; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Bianucci, Laura; et al

    2016-02-07

    at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution with the ORNL AF1 adsorbent produced 15% and 55% higher adsorption capacities than observed at PNNL for column and flume testing, respectively. Variations in competing ions may be the explanation for the regional differences. In addition to marine testing, a number of other efforts are underway to characterize adsorbents and impacts of deployment on the marine environment. Highlights include: Hydrodynamic modelling predicts that a farm of adsorbent materials will likely have minimal effect on ocean currents and removal of uranium and other elements from seawater when densities are < 1800 braids/km2. A decrease in U adsorption capacity of up to 30% was observed after 42 days of exposure due to biofouling when the ORNL braided adsorbent AI8 was exposed to raw seawater in a flume in the presence of light. An identical raw seawater exposure with no light exposure showed little or no impact to adsorption capacity from biofouling. No toxicity was observed with column effluents of any absorbent materials tested to date. Toxicity could be induced with some non amidoxime-based absorbents only when the ratio of solid absorbent to test media was increased to highly unrealistic levels. Thermodynamic modeling of the seawater-amidoxime adsorbent was performed using the geochemical modeling program PHREEQC. Modeling of the binding of Ca, Mg, Fe, Ni, Cu, U, and V from batch interactions with seawater across a variety of concentrations of the amidoxime binding group reveal that when binding sites are limited (1 x 10-8 binding sites/kg seawater), vanadium heavily out-competes other ions for the amidoxime sites. In contrast, when binding sites are abundant magnesium and calcium dominate the total percentage of metals bound to the sorbent.« less

  19. 12 Batch coalescing studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kourbanis, I.; Wildman, D.; /Fermilab

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify and correct the problems in the 12 batch coalescing. The final goal is to be able to coalesce 12 booster batches of 11 bunches each into 12 bunches spaced at 21 buckets apart with an average intensity of 200 E9 ppb.

  20. Application of quantum descriptors for predicting adsorption performance of starch and cyclodextrin adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Okoli, Chukwunonso Peter; Guo, Qing Jun; Adewuyi, Gregory Olufemi

    2014-01-30

    Adsorption trend of aromatic compounds on epichlorohydrin (EPI), 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), and 4,4-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) cross-linked starch and cyclodextrin adsorbents were comparatively studied by density functional theorem (DFT) based interaction descriptors and batch adsorption studies. The DFT quantum chemical descriptors predicted adsorption trend of MDI adsorbents>HDI adsorbents>EPI adsorbents. The values of the fractional number of electrons transferred (ΔN) for all the studied adsorbent-adsorbate pair were negative, indicating that the adsorbents were electron donors in the studied adsorption interaction. The batch adsorption performance for the studied cross-linked adsorbents was in agreement with the DFT predictions. Energy gap, chemical hardness, and softness showed good linear correlation (R(2)=0.8,073 ± 0.2259) to the batch adsorption performance for most of the studied adsorbent-adsorbate pairs. The present study demonstrated that DFT quantum chemical parameters are suitable adsorption descriptors for predicting adsorption performance of cross-linked adsorbents.

  1. Modeling adsorption: Investigating adsorbate and adsorbent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Charles Edwin

    1999-12-01

    Surface catalyzed reactions play a major role in current chemical production technology. Currently, 90% of all chemicals are produced by heterogeneously catalyzed reactions. Most of these catalyzed reactions involve adsorption, concentrating the substrate(s) (the adsorbate) on the surface of the solid (the adsorbent). Pore volumes, accessible surface areas, and the thermodynamics of adsorption are essential in the understanding of solid surface characteristics fundamental to catalyst and adsorbent screening and selection. Molecular properties such as molecular volumes and projected molecular areas are needed in order to convert moles adsorbed to surface volumes and areas. Generally, these molecular properties have been estimated from bulk properties, but many assumptions are required. As a result, different literature values are employed for these essential molecular properties. Calculated molar volumes and excluded molecular areas are determined and tabulated for a variety of molecules. Molecular dimensions of molecules are important in the understanding of molecular exclusion as well as size and shape selectivity, diffusion, and adsorbent selection. Molecular dimensions can also be used in the determination of the effective catalytic pore size of a catalyst. Adsorption isotherms, on zeolites, (crystalline mineral oxides) and amorphous solids, can be analyzed with the Multiple Equilibrium Analysis (MEA) description of adsorption. The MEA produces equilibrium constants (Ki), capacities (ni), and thermodynamic parameters (enthalpies, ΔHi, and entropies, ΔSi) of adsorption for each process. Pore volumes and accessible surface areas are calculated from the process capacities. Adsorption isotherms can also be predicted for existing and new adsorbate-adsorbent systems with the MEA. The results show that MEA has the potential of becoming a standard characterization method for microporous solids that will lead to an increased understanding of their behavior in gas

  2. 40 CFR 63.491 - Batch front-end process vents-recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and the total emissions associated with one batch cycle, as described in either paragraph (a)(2)(i) or... with § 63.487(a)(2), records documenting the batch cycle percent reduction as specified in § 63.490(c... place of continuous records. (ii) For carbon adsorbers, the records specified in Table 6 of this...

  3. 40 CFR 63.491 - Batch front-end process vents-recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and the total emissions associated with one batch cycle, as described in either paragraph (a)(2)(i) or... with § 63.487(a)(2), records documenting the batch cycle percent reduction as specified in § 63.490(c... place of continuous records. (ii) For carbon adsorbers, the records specified in Table 6 of this...

  4. Collaborative study for the establishment of replacement batches for human coagulation factor IX concentrate reference standards.

    PubMed

    Gray, E; Pickering, W; Hockley, J; Rigsby, P; Weinstein, M; Terao, E; Buchheit, K-H

    2008-12-01

    The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) batch 1, the World Health Organisation (WHO) 3rd International Standard, Human (IS, 96/854) and the FDA Standard for human blood coagulation Factor IX concentrate have been available since 1996, following their establishment by a common collaborative study. Due to dwindling stocks of all three standards, a new WHO-EDQM-FDA tri-partite collaborative study was launched to establish replacement batches. Thirty laboratories from fourteen countries took part in the collaborative study to assign potency values to candidate preparations. Three candidates, one of recombinant and two of human plasma-derived origins, were assayed against the 3rd IS for Blood Coagulation Factor IX, Concentrate, Human (96/854). The 3rd IS for Blood Coagulation Factors II, VII, IX and X, Plasma, Human (99/826) was also included to evaluate the relationship between the factor IX plasma and concentrate unitage. Thirty-two sets of clotting assay results and two sets of chromogenic assay data were analysed. There was a significant difference in potency estimates by these two methods for the recombinant candidate (sample B) and the plasma IS (sample P). Similar potency values were obtained for the plasma derived products (monoclonal antibody- and chromatography-purified factor IX, samples C and D) by clotting and chromogenic assays. For the clotting assays, intra-laboratory variability (GCV) was found to range from 0.5 - 21.7%, with the GCV for the majority of laboratories being less than 10%. Good inter-laboratory agreement, with the majority of the GCV being less than 10% (GCV range = 4.7 - 10.6 %) was also obtained. The mean potency values estimated by the clotting assay using plasma as pre-diluent (as directed by the Ph. Eur. general chapter method) did not differ from values obtained using buffer. Taking into account the preliminary stability data, the intra- and inter-laboratory variability, and the differences

  5. Software for batch farms

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Bird; Bryan Hess; Andy Kowalski

    2000-02-01

    Over the past few years, LSF has become a standard for job management on batch farms. However, there are many instances where it cannot be deployed for a variety of reasons. In large farms the cost may be prohibitive for the set of features actually used; small university groups who wish to clone the farms and software of larger laboratories often have constraints which preclude the use of LSF. This paper discusses a generic interface developed at Jefferson Lab to provide a set of common services to the user, while using any one of a variety of underlying batch management software products. Initially the system provides an interface to LSF and an alternative--Portable Batch System (PBS) developed by NASA and freely available in source form. It is straightforward to extend this to other systems. Such a generic interface allows users to move from one location to another and run their jobs with no modification, and by extension provides a framework for a ''global'' batch system where jobs submitted at one site may be transparently executed at another. The interface also provides additional features not found in the underlying batch software. Being written in Java, the client can be easily installed anywhere and allows for authenticated remote job submission and manipulation, including a web interface. This paper will also discuss the problem of keeping a large batch farm occupied with work without waiting for slow tape access. The use of file caching, pre-staging of files from tape and the interconnection with the batch system will be discussed. As well as automated techniques, the provision of appropriate information to the user to allow optimization should not be overlooked.

  6. Debiasing Crowdsourced Batches

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Honglei; Parameswaran, Aditya; Roth, Dan; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is the de-facto standard for gathering annotated data. While, in theory, data annotation tasks are assumed to be attempted by workers independently, in practice, data annotation tasks are often grouped into batches to be presented and annotated by workers together, in order to save on the time or cost overhead of providing instructions or necessary background. Thus, even though independence is usually assumed between annotations on data items within the same batch, in most cases, a worker's judgment on a data item can still be affected by other data items within the batch, leading to additional errors in collected labels. In this paper, we study the data annotation bias when data items are presented as batches to be judged by workers simultaneously. We propose a novel worker model to characterize the annotating behavior on data batches, and present how to train the worker model on annotation data sets. We also present a debiasing technique to remove the effect of such annotation bias from adversely affecting the accuracy of labels obtained. Our experimental results on both synthetic data and real-world data demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method. PMID:26713175

  7. GIDEP Batching Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Danny; Odell,Dorice; Barry, Peter; Abrahamian, Tomik

    2008-01-01

    This software provides internal, automated search mechanics of GIDEP (Government- Industry Data Exchange Program) Alert data imported from the GIDEP government Web site. The batching tool allows the import of a single parts list in tab-delimited text format into the local JPL GIDEP database. Delimiters from every part number are removed. The original part numbers with delimiters are compared, as well as the newly generated list without the delimiters. The two lists run against the GIDEP imports, and output any matches. This feature only works with Netscape 2.0 or greater, or Internet Explorer 4.0 or greater. The user selects the browser button to choose a text file to import. When the submit button is pressed, this script will import alerts from the text file into the local JPL GIDEP database. This batch tool provides complete in-house control over exported material and data for automated batch match abilities. The batching tool has the ability to match capabilities of the parts list to tables, and yields results that aid further research and analysis. This provides more control over GIDEP information for metrics and reports information not provided by the government site. This software yields results quickly and gives more control over external data from the government site in order to generate other reports not available from the external source. There is enough space to store years of data. The program relates to risk identification and management with regard to projects and GIDEP alert information encompassing flight parts for space exploration.

  8. Molecular Adsorber Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straka, Sharon; Peters, Wanda; Hasegawa, Mark; Hedgeland, Randy; Petro, John; Novo-Gradac, Kevin; Wong, Alfred; Triolo, Jack; Miller, Cory

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses a zeolite-based sprayable molecular adsorber coating that has been developed to alleviate the size and weight issues of current ceramic puck-based technology, while providing a configuration that more projects can use to protect against degradation from outgassed materials within a spacecraft, particularly contamination-sensitive instruments. This coating system demonstrates five times the adsorption capacity of previously developed adsorber coating slurries. The molecular adsorber formulation was developed and refined, and a procedure for spray application was developed. Samples were spray-coated and tested for capacity, thermal optical/radiative properties, coating adhesion, and thermal cycling. Work performed during this study indicates that the molecular adsorber formulation can be applied to aluminum, stainless steel, or other metal substrates that can accept silicate-based coatings. The coating can also function as a thermal- control coating. This adsorber will dramatically reduce the mass and volume restrictions, and is less expensive than the currently used molecular adsorber puck design.

  9. Using specialized adsorbents for remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Hochmuth, D.P.; Grant, A.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes two remediation case studies in which specialized adsorbents were used. In one case, the adsorbents were used to treat effluent from a soil vapor extraction system. In the other case, the adsorbents were used to treat air from a groundwater air stripper. The specialized adsorbents effectively removed volatile organic compounds from each air stream.

  10. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  11. Biodegradable metal adsorbent synthesized by graft polymerization onto nonwoven cotton fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Ayako; Seko, Noriaki; Tamada, Masao; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2010-01-01

    A fibrous adsorbent for Hg ions was synthesized by radiation-induced emulsion graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto a nonwoven cotton fabric and subsequent chemical modification. The optimal pre-irradiation dose for initiation of the graft polymerization of GMA, which minimized the effects of radiation damage on the mechanical strength of the nonwoven cotton fabric, was found to be 10 kGy. The GMA-grafted nonwoven cotton fabric was subsequently modified with ethylenediamine (EDA) or diethylenetriamine (DETA) to obtain a Hg adsorbent. The resulting amine-type adsorbents were evaluated for batch and continuous adsorption of Hg. In batch adsorption, the distribution coefficients of Hg reached 1.9×10 5 and 1.0×10 5 for EDA- and DETA-type adsorbents, respectively. A column packed with EDA-type adsorbent removed Hg from 1.8 ppm Hg solution at a space velocity of 100 h -1, which corresponds to 16,000 times the volume of the packed adsorbent. The adsorbed Hg on the EDA-type adsorbent could be completely eluted by 1 M HCl solution. A microbial oxidative degradation test revealed that the EDA-type adsorbent is biodegradable.

  12. Performance comparison of suspended bed and batch contactor chromatography.

    PubMed

    Quiñones-García, I; Rayner, I; Levison, P R; Dickson, N; Purdom, G

    2001-01-26

    In some applications, the purification and recovery of biomolecules is performed via a cascade of batch adsorption and desorption stages using agitated contactors and related filtration devices. Suspended bed chromatography is a recent process-scale innovation that is applicable to these separations. This hybrid technique exploits the benefits of combining batch adsorption in an agitated contactor with elution in an enclosed column system. To some extent, the process is similar to batch contactor chromatography but can be fully contained and significantly quicker. The process has two steps; first the fluid containing the sample is mixed with the adsorbent in a stirred tank. Second, the slurry suspension is transferred directly into a specialized column, such as an IsoPak column. The media with the adsorbed product is formed as a packed bed, whilst the suspension liquid is passed out of the column. The product is then eluted from the packed bed utilizing standard column-chromatography techniques. The performance of the suspended bed and the agitated contactor operations are demonstrated both by full-scale experimental results and process simulations. The purification of ovalbumin from a hen-egg white feedstock by anion-exchange chromatography was used as a case study in order to prove the concept. With the availability of both pump-packed systems and shear-resistant media, suspended bed chromatography is a better alternative for a range of applications than the traditional batch separations using agitated contactors. PMID:11218119

  13. Flow-batch miniaturization.

    PubMed

    Monte-Filho, Severino S; Lima, Marcelo B; Andrade, Stéfani I E; Harding, David P; Fagundes, Yebá N M; Santos, Sergio R B; Lemos, Sherlan G; Araújo, Mario C U

    2011-10-30

    This study introduces the first micro-flow-batch analyzer (μFBA). A simple, low-cost, deep urethane-acrylate photo-resist ultraviolet-lithographic technique was used in its development. Details of the microfabrication process are presented including; the use of two superimposed photo-masks to improve the micro-channel and stop chamber border definition, as well as integration of an LED/phototransistor photometric pair, while using an open nylon-thread (fishing line) micro-mixing system for solutions homogenization. The system was used for photometric determination of Fe(II) in oral solution iron supplements employing the well-known 1,10-phenanthroline method, with instantaneously prepared micro-chamber calibration solutions. All analytical processes were accomplished by simply changing the timing parameters in the control software. It must be emphasized here that there was no outside preparation of the standard calibration solutions; the mixing was all done in-chamber/in-line, with all solutions maintained flowing while being proportioned for the measurement processes. The μFBA results were acceptable when compared to the reference method, and comparable to normal flow-batch systems. It was possible both to project and build a low-cost probe with high sample throughput (about 120 h(-1)), low relative standard deviations (about 1.1%), and reduced reagent consumption (30 times less than the reference method). The μFBA system based on urethane-acrylate presented satisfactory physical and chemical properties while keeping the flexibility, versatility, robustness, and multi-task characteristics of normal flow-batch analyzers. The μFBA system contributes to the advance of micro-analytical instrumentation, while realizing the basic principles of "Green Chemistry". PMID:22063532

  14. Adsorbent and adsorbent bed for materials capture and separation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei

    2011-01-25

    A method device and material for performing adsorption wherein a fluid mixture is passed through a channel in a structured adsorbent bed having a solid adsorbent comprised of adsorbent particles having a general diameter less than 100 um, loaded in a porous support matrix defining at least one straight flow channel. The adsorbent bed is configured to allow passage of a fluid through said channel and diffusion of a target material into said adsorbent under a pressure gradient driving force. The targeted molecular species in the fluid mixture diffuses across the porous support retaining layer, contacts the adsorbent, and adsorbs on the adsorbent, while the remaining species in the fluid mixture flows out of the channel.

  15. Applications and limits of theoretical adsorption models for predicting the adsorption properties of adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Ju; Nguyen, Duc Canh; Na, Choon-Ki; Kim, Chung-il

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the applicability of adsorption models for predicting the properties of adsorbents. The kinetics of the adsorption of NO3- ions on a PP-g-AA-Am non-woven fabric have been investigated under equilibrium conditions in both batch and fixed bed column processes. The adsorption equilibrium experiments in the batch process were carried out under different adsorbate concentration and adsorbent dosage conditions and the results were analyzed using adsorption isotherm models, energy models, and kinetic models. The results of the analysis indicate that the adsorption occurring at a fixed adsorbate concentration with a varying adsorbent dosage occur more easily compared to those under a fixed adsorbent dosage with a varying adsorbate concentration. In the second part of the study, the experimental data obtained using fixed bed columns were fit to Bed Depth Service Time, Bohart-Adams, Clark, and Wolborska models, to predict the breakthrough curves and determine the column kinetic parameters. The adsorption properties of the NO3- ions on the PP-g-AA-Am non-woven fabric were differently described by different models for both the batch and fixed bed column process. Therefore, it appears reasonable to assume that the adsorption properties were dominated by multiple mechanisms, depending on the experimental conditions.

  16. Evaluation of a cesium adsorbent grafted with ammonium 12-molybdophosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Takuya; Seko, Noriaki; Amada, Haruyo; Kasai, Noboru; Saiki, Seiichi; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Ueki, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    A fibrous cesium (Cs) adsorbent was developed using radiation-induced graft polymerization with a cross-linked structure containing a highly stable adsorption ligand. The ligand, ammonium 12-molybdophosphate (AMP), was successfully introduced onto the fibrous polyethylene trunk material. The resulting Cs adsorbent contained 36% nonwoven fabric polyethylene (NFPE), 1% AMP, 2% triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) and 61% glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). The adsorbent's Cs adsorption capacity was evaluated using batch and column tests. It was determined that the adsorbent could be used in a wide pH range. The amount of desorbed molybdenum, which can be used as an estimate for AMP stability on the Cs adsorbent, was minimized at the standard drinking water pH range of 5.8-8.6. Based from the inspection on the adherence of these results to the requirements set forth by the Food Sanitation Act by a third party organization, it can be concluded that the developed Cs adsorbent can be safely utilized for drinking water.

  17. Evaluation of pharmaceuticals removal by sewage sludge-derived adsorbents with rapid small-scale column tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P.; Ding, R.; Wallace, R.; Bandosz, T.

    2015-12-01

    New composite adsorbents were developed by pyrolyzing sewage sludge and fish waste (75:25 or 90:10 dry mass ratio) at 650 oC and 950 oC. Batch adsorption experiments demonstrated that the composite adsorbents were able to adsorb a wide range of organic contaminants (volatile organic compounds, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and nitrosamine disinfection byproducts) with high capacities. Here we further examine the performance of the adsorbents for the simultaneous removal of 8 pharmaceuticals and EDCs with rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCT). Results show that the order of breakthrough in RSSCT is in general consistent with the affinity determined via batch tests. As expected, the maximum amount of adsorption for each compound obtained from RSSCT is identical to or less than that obtained from batch tests (with only one exception), due to adsorption kinetics. However, despite the very different input concentration (1 mg/L vs. 100 mg/L) and contact time (2 min empty bed contact time vs. 16 hour equilibrium time) used in RSSCT and batch tests, the maximum amount of pharmaceuticals and EDCs adsorbed under RSSCT is still about one half of that under equilibrium batch tests, validating the approach of using batch tests with much higher input concentrations to determine adsorption capacities. Results of a pilot-scale column test in a drinking water treatment plant for pharmaceuticals removal will also be presented.

  18. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.D.

    1985-01-10

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  19. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, John D.

    1986-01-01

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid stream serially through a plurality of prehydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose; and cooling the dilute acid stream containing glucose after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  20. Utility of adsorbents in the purification of drinking water: a review of characterization, efficiency and safety evaluation of various adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Shashi Prabha; Gopal, Krishna; Bersillon, J L

    2009-05-01

    Clean drinking water is one of the implicit requisites fora healthy human population. However the growing industrialization and extensive use of chemicals for various concerns, has increased the burden of unwanted pollutants in the drinking water of developing countries like India. The entry of potentially hazardous substances into the biota has been magnifying day by day. In the absence of a possible stoppage of these, otherwise, useful chemicals, the only way to maintain safer water bodies is to develop efficient purifying technologies. One such immensely beneficial procedure that has been in use is that of purification of water using 'adsorbents'. Indigenous minerals and natural plants products have potential for removing many pollutants viz. fluoride, arsenic, nitrate, heavy metals, pesticides as well as trihalomethanes. Adsorbents which are derived from carbon, alumina, zeolite, clay minerals, iron ores, industrial by products, and natural products viz. parts of the plants, herbs and algal biomass offer promising potential of removal. In the recent years attention has been paid to develop process involving screening/pretreatment/activation/impregnation using alkalies, acids, alum, lime, manganese dioxide, ferric chloride and other chemicals which are found to enhance their adsorbing efficiency. Chemical characterization of these adsorbents recapitulates the mechanism of the process. It is imperative to observe that capacities of the adsorbents may vary depending on the characteristics, chemical modifications and concentration of the individual adsorbent. Removal kinetics is found to be based on the experimental conditions viz. pH, concentration of the adsorbate, quantity of the adsorbent and temperature. It is suggested that isotherm model is suitable tool to assess the adsorption capacities in batch and column modes. Safety evaluation and risk assessment of the process/products may be useful to provide guidelines for its sustainable disposal.

  1. Adsorbent Alkali Conditioning for Uranium Adsorption from Seawater. Adsorbent Performance and Technology Cost Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsouris, Costas; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Dai, Sheng; Das, S.; Liao, W. -P.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Wood, Jordana; Gill, Gary; Byers, Maggie Flicker; Schneider, Eric

    2015-09-30

    The Fuel Resources program of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is focused on identifying and implementing actions to assure that nuclear fuel resources are available in the United States. An immense source of uranium is seawater, which contains an estimated amount of 4.5 billion tonnes of dissolved uranium. This unconventional resource can provide a price cap and ensure centuries of uranium supply for future nuclear energy production. NE initiated a multidisciplinary program with participants from national laboratories, universities, and research institutes to enable technical breakthroughs related to uranium recovery from seawater. The goal is to develop advanced adsorbents to reduce the seawater uranium recovery technology cost and uncertainties. Under this program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a new amidoxime-based adsorbent of high surface area, which tripled the uranium capacity of leading Japanese adsorbents. Parallel efforts have been focused on the optimization of the physicochemical and operating parameters used during the preparation of the adsorbent for deployment. A set of parameters that need to be optimized are related to the conditioning of the adsorbent with alkali solution, which is necessary prior to adsorbent deployment. Previous work indicated that alkali-conditioning parameters significantly affect the adsorbent performance. Initiated in 2014, this study had as a goal to determine optimal parameters such as base type and concentration, temperature, and duration of conditioning that maximize the uranium adsorption performance of amidoxime functionalized adsorbent, while keeping the cost of uranium production low. After base-treatment at various conditions, samples of adsorbent developed at ORNL were tested in this study with batch simulated seawater solution of 8-ppm uranium concentration, batch seawater spiked with uranium nitrate at 75-100 ppb uranium, and continuous

  2. Removal of arsenic from groundwater by granular titanium dioxide adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Bang, Sunbaek; Patel, Manish; Lippincott, Lee; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2005-07-01

    A novel granular titanium dioxide (TiO2) was evaluated for the removal of arsenic from groundwater. Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent and the effect of anions on arsenic removal. Batch experimental results showed that more arsenate [As(V)] was adsorbed on TiO2 than arsenite [As(III)] in US groundwater at pH 7.0. The adsorption capacities for As(V) and As(III) were 41.4 and 32.4 mgg(-1) TiO2, respectively. However, the adsorbent had a similar adsorption capacity for As(V) and As(III) (approximately 40 mgg(-1)) when simulated Bangladesh groundwater was used. Silica (20 mgl(-1)) and phosphate (5.8 mgl(-1)) had no obvious effect on the removal of As(V) and As(III) by TiO2 at neutral pH. Point-of-entry (POE) filters containing 3 l of the granular adsorbent were tested for the removal of arsenic from groundwater in central New Jersey, USA. Groundwater was continuously passed through the filters at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 3 min. Approximately 45,000 bed volumes of groundwater containing an average of 39 microgl(-1) of As(V) was treated by the POE filter before the effluent arsenic concentration increased to 10 microgl(-1). The total treated water volumes per weight of adsorbent were about 60,000 l per 1 kg of adsorbent. The field filtration results demonstrated that the granular TiO2 adsorbent was very effective for the removal of arsenic in groundwater. PMID:15924958

  3. Phosphate adsorption on granular palygorskite: batch and column studies.

    PubMed

    Fangqun, Gan; Jianmin, Zhou; Huoyan, Wang; Changwen, Du; Wenzhao, Zhang; Xiaoqin, Chen

    2011-02-01

    A method to prepare granular palygorskite (GPA) was put forward in this research, and its potential use to remove phosphate species from aqueous solution was assessed. Batch experiments were performed to study the adsorption equilibrium and influence of contact time and pH on the adsorption and desorption of phosphate onto GPA in water. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity of GPA was 13.1 mg/g. Kinetic data revealed that more than 90% of phosphate was adsorbed onto GPA within 2 hours. Phosphate adsorption capacity was 0.10 mg/g in column experiments, and co-existing anions could decrease phosphate removal. The saturated column was regenerated by 0.2 mol/L sodium hydroxide, and the GPA could be reused in phosphate removal. The data obtained from both batch and column studies indicated that GPA could be used effectively to remove phosphate from water.

  4. Data-driven batch schuduling

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, John; Denehy, Tim; Arpaci - Dusseau, Remzi; Livny, Miron; Arpaci - Dusseau, Andrea C

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop data-driven strategies for batch computing schedulers. Current CPU-centric batch schedulers ignore the data needs within workloads and execute them by linking them transparently and directly to their needed data. When scheduled on remote computational resources, this elegant solution of direct data access can incur an order of magnitude performance penalty for data-intensive workloads. Adding data-awareness to batch schedulers allows a careful coordination of data and CPU allocation thereby reducing the cost of remote execution. We offer here new techniques by which batch schedulers can become data-driven. Such systems can use our analytical predictive models to select one of the four data-driven scheduling policies that we have created. Through simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our predictive models and show how they can reduce time to completion for some workloads by as much as 80%.

  5. Batch compositions for cordierite ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Hickman, David L.

    1994-07-26

    Ceramic products consisting principally of cordierite and a method for making them are provided, the method employing batches comprising a mineral component and a chemical component, the mineral component comprising clay and talc and the chemical component consisting essentially of a combination of the powdered oxides, hydroxides, or hydrous oxides of magnesium, aluminum and silicon. Ceramics made by extrusion and firing of the batches can exhibit low porosity, high strength and low thermal expansion coefficients.

  6. Adaptive Batch Mode Active Learning.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Shayok; Balasubramanian, Vineeth; Panchanathan, Sethuraman

    2015-08-01

    Active learning techniques have gained popularity to reduce human effort in labeling data instances for inducing a classifier. When faced with large amounts of unlabeled data, such algorithms automatically identify the exemplar and representative instances to be selected for manual annotation. More recently, there have been attempts toward a batch mode form of active learning, where a batch of data points is simultaneously selected from an unlabeled set. Real-world applications require adaptive approaches for batch selection in active learning, depending on the complexity of the data stream in question. However, the existing work in this field has primarily focused on static or heuristic batch size selection. In this paper, we propose two novel optimization-based frameworks for adaptive batch mode active learning (BMAL), where the batch size as well as the selection criteria are combined in a single formulation. We exploit gradient-descent-based optimization strategies as well as properties of submodular functions to derive the adaptive BMAL algorithms. The solution procedures have the same computational complexity as existing state-of-the-art static BMAL techniques. Our empirical results on the widely used VidTIMIT and the mobile biometric (MOBIO) data sets portray the efficacy of the proposed frameworks and also certify the potential of these approaches in being used for real-world biometric recognition applications.

  7. A new adsorbent for boron removal from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Kluczka, Joanna; Korolewicz, Teofil; Zołotajkin, Maria; Simka, Wojciech; Raczek, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    A new adsorbent based on natural clinoptilolite and amorphous zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) was prepared for the uptake of boron from fresh water. The sorption behaviour of this adsorbent for boron was investigated using a batch system and found to obey Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. The ZrO2 loading level, pH, temperature, contact time, initial boron concentration and adsorbent dose, on the removal of boron were studied. It was found that the removal of boron increased while the adsorbent dose increased and the temperature decreased at an optimum pH (pH = 8) and a contact time of 30 min. At optimum conditions, the maximum boron percentage removal was 75%. According to the D-R model, the maximum capacity was estimated to be > 3 mg B/g of the adsorbent. The adsorption energy value (calculated as 9.13 kJ/mol) indicated that the adsorption of boron on clinoptilolite modified with ZrO2 was physical in nature. The parameters of the adsorption models and the pH investigations pointed to the possibility of a chemisorption process. The thermodynamic parameters (standard entropy deltaS degrees, enthalpy deltaH degrees , and free energy deltaG degrees changes) of boron adsorption were also calculated. The negative value of deltaS degrees indicated a decreased randomness at the solid-solution interface during the boron adsorption. Negative values of deltaH degrees showed the exothermic nature of the process. The negative values of deltaG degrees implied that the adsorption of boron on clinoptilolite modified with amorphous ZrO2 at 25 degrees C was spontaneous. It was considered that boron dissolved in water had been adsorbed both physically and chemically on clinoptilolite modified with 30% ZrO2.

  8. A new adsorbent for boron removal from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Kluczka, Joanna; Korolewicz, Teofil; Zołotajkin, Maria; Simka, Wojciech; Raczek, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    A new adsorbent based on natural clinoptilolite and amorphous zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) was prepared for the uptake of boron from fresh water. The sorption behaviour of this adsorbent for boron was investigated using a batch system and found to obey Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. The ZrO2 loading level, pH, temperature, contact time, initial boron concentration and adsorbent dose, on the removal of boron were studied. It was found that the removal of boron increased while the adsorbent dose increased and the temperature decreased at an optimum pH (pH = 8) and a contact time of 30 min. At optimum conditions, the maximum boron percentage removal was 75%. According to the D-R model, the maximum capacity was estimated to be > 3 mg B/g of the adsorbent. The adsorption energy value (calculated as 9.13 kJ/mol) indicated that the adsorption of boron on clinoptilolite modified with ZrO2 was physical in nature. The parameters of the adsorption models and the pH investigations pointed to the possibility of a chemisorption process. The thermodynamic parameters (standard entropy deltaS degrees, enthalpy deltaH degrees , and free energy deltaG degrees changes) of boron adsorption were also calculated. The negative value of deltaS degrees indicated a decreased randomness at the solid-solution interface during the boron adsorption. Negative values of deltaH degrees showed the exothermic nature of the process. The negative values of deltaG degrees implied that the adsorption of boron on clinoptilolite modified with amorphous ZrO2 at 25 degrees C was spontaneous. It was considered that boron dissolved in water had been adsorbed both physically and chemically on clinoptilolite modified with 30% ZrO2. PMID:24191469

  9. Evaluating of arsenic(V) removal from water by weak-base anion exchange adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Awual, M Rabiul; Hossain, M Amran; Shenashen, M A; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Jyo, Akinori

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater has been called the largest mass poisoning calamity in human history and creates severe health problems. The effective adsorbents are imperative in response to the widespread removal of toxic arsenic exposure through drinking water. Evaluation of arsenic(V) removal from water by weak-base anion exchange adsorbents was studied in this paper, aiming at the determination of the effects of pH, competing anions, and feed flow rates to improvement on remediation. Two types of weak-base adsorbents were used to evaluate arsenic(V) removal efficiency both in batch and column approaches. Anion selectivity was determined by both adsorbents in batch method as equilibrium As(V) adsorption capacities. Column studies were performed in fixed-bed experiments using both adsorbent packed columns, and kinetic performance was dependent on the feed flow rate and competing anions. The weak-base adsorbents clarified that these are selective to arsenic(V) over competition of chloride, nitrate, and sulfate anions. The solution pH played an important role in arsenic(V) removal, and a higher pH can cause lower adsorption capacities. A low concentration level of arsenic(V) was also removed by these adsorbents even at a high flow rate of 250-350 h(-1). Adsorbed arsenic(V) was quantitatively eluted with 1 M HCl acid and regenerated into hydrochloride form simultaneously for the next adsorption operation after rinsing with water. The weak-base anion exchange adsorbents are to be an effective means to remove arsenic(V) from drinking water. The fast adsorption rate and the excellent adsorption capacity in the neutral pH range will render this removal technique attractive in practical use in chemical industry.

  10. Removal of malachite green dye from wastewater by different organic acid-modified natural adsorbent: kinetics, equilibriums, mechanisms, practical application, and disposal of dye-loaded adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hou; Yuan, Xingzhong; Zeng, Guangming; Leng, Lijian; Peng, Xin; Liao, Kailingli; Peng, Lijuan; Xiao, Zhihua

    2014-10-01

    Natural adsorbent (Cinnamomum camphora sawdust) modified by organic acid (oxalic acid, citric acid, and tartaric acid) was investigated as a potential adsorbent for the removal of hazardous malachite green (MG) dye in aqueous media in a batch process. The extent of MG adsorption onto modified sawdust increased with increasing organic acid concentrations, pH, contact time, and temperature but decreased with increasing adsorbent dosage and ionic strength. Kinetic study indicated that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model could best describe the adsorption kinetics of MG. Equilibrium data were found to fit well with the Langmuir model, and the maximum adsorption capacity of the three kinds of organic acid-modified sawdust was 280.3, 222.8, and 157.5 mg/g, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters suggested that the sorption of MG was an endothermic process. The adsorption mechanism, the application of adsorbents in practical wastewater, the prediction of single-stage batch adsorption system, and the disposal of depleted adsorbents were also discussed.

  11. MBASIC batch processor architectural overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    The MBASIC (TM) batch processor, a language translator designed to operate in the MBASIC (TM) environment is described. Features include: (1) a CONVERT TO BATCH command, usable from the ready mode; and (2) translation of the users program in stages through several levels of intermediate language and optimization. The processor is to be designed and implemented in both machine-independent and machine-dependent sections. The architecture is planned so that optimization processes are transparent to the rest of the system and need not be included in the first design implementation cycle.

  12. The entropies of adsorbed molecules.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Charles T; Sellers, Jason R V

    2012-10-31

    Adsorbed molecules are involved in many reactions on solid surface that are of great technological importance. As such, there has been tremendous effort worldwide to learn how to predict reaction rates and equilibrium constants for reactions involving adsorbed molecules. Theoretical calculation of both the rate and equilibrium constants for such reactions requires knowing the entropy and enthalpy of the adsorbed molecule. While much effort has been devoted to measuring and calculating the enthalpies of well-defined adsorbates, few measurements of the entropies of adsorbates have been reported. We present here a new way to determine the standard entropies of adsorbed molecules (S(ad)(0)) on single crystal surfaces from temperature programmed desorption data, prove its accuracy by comparison to entropies measured by equilibrium methods, and apply it to published data to extract new entropies. Most importantly, when combined with reported entropies, we find that at high coverage, they linearly track the entropy of the gas-phase molecule at the same temperature (T), such that S(ad)(0)(T) = 0.70 S(gas)(0)(T) - 3.3R (R = the gas constant), with a standard deviation of only 2R over a range of 50R. These entropies, which are ~2/3 of the gas, are huge compared to most theoretical predictions. This result can be extended to reliably predict prefactors in the Arrhenius rate constant for surface reactions involving such species, as proven here for desorption. PMID:23033909

  13. NDA BATCH 2002-02

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2009-12-09

    QC sample results (daily background checks, 20-gram and 100-gram SGS drum checks) were within acceptable criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on 5 drums with IDs LL85101099TRU, LL85801147TRU, LL85801109TRU, LL85300999TRU and LL85500979TRU. All replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. Note that the batch covered 5 weeks of SGS measurements from 23-Jan-2002 through 22-Feb-2002. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-02 generated using gamma spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with established control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable. An Expert Review was performed on the data packet between 28-Feb-02 and 09-Jul-02 to check for potential U-235, Np-237 and Am-241 interferences and address drum cases where specific scan segments showed Se gamma ray transmissions for the 136-keV gamma to be below 0.1 %. Two drums in the batch showed Pu-238 at a relative mass ratio more than 2% of all the Pu isotopes.

  14. Simulated Batch Production of Penicillin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, A.; Walker, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a program in applied biology in which the simulation of the production of penicillin in a batch fermentor is used as a teaching technique to give students experience before handling a genuine industrial fermentation process. Details are given for the calculation of minimum production cost. (JR)

  15. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches.

    PubMed

    Medina-Rivero, Emilio; Vallejo-Castillo, Luis; Vázquez-Leyva, Said; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Favari, Liliana; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Pavón, Lenin; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra

    2016-01-01

    Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS) for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes. PMID:27525277

  16. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Favari, Liliana; Estrada-Parra, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS) for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes. PMID:27525277

  17. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches.

    PubMed

    Medina-Rivero, Emilio; Vallejo-Castillo, Luis; Vázquez-Leyva, Said; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Favari, Liliana; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Pavón, Lenin; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra

    2016-01-01

    Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS) for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes.

  18. Batching System for Superior Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Veridian's Portable Batch System (PBS) was the recipient of the 1997 NASA Space Act Award for outstanding software. A batch system is a set of processes for managing queues and jobs. Without a batch system, it is difficult to manage the workload of a computer system. By bundling the enterprise's computing resources, the PBS technology offers users a single coherent interface, resulting in efficient management of the batch services. Users choose which information to package into "containers" for system-wide use. PBS also provides detailed system usage data, a procedure not easily executed without this software. PBS operates on networked, multi-platform UNIX environments. Veridian's new version, PBS Pro,TM has additional features and enhancements, including support for additional operating systems. Veridian distributes the original version of PBS as Open Source software via the PBS website. Customers can register and download the software at no cost. PBS Pro is also available via the web and offers additional features such as increased stability, reliability, and fault tolerance.A company using PBS can expect a significant increase in the effective management of its computing resources. Tangible benefits include increased utilization of costly resources and enhanced understanding of computational requirements and user needs.

  19. Microwave assisted thermal treatment of defective coffee beans press cake for the production of adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Franca, Adriana S; Oliveira, Leandro S; Nunes, Anne A; Alves, Cibele C O

    2010-02-01

    Defective coffee press cake, a residue from coffee oil biodiesel production, was evaluated as an adsorbent for removal of basic dyes (methylene blue--MB) from aqueous solutions. The adsorbent was prepared by microwave treatment, providing a significant reduction in processing time coupled to an increase in adsorption capacity in comparison to conventional carbonization in a muffle furnace. Batch adsorption tests were performed at 25 degrees C and the effects of particle size, contact time, adsorbent dosage and initial solution pH were investigated. Adsorption kinetics was better described by a second-order model. The experimental adsorption equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin adsorption models, with Langmuir providing the best fit. The results presented in this study show that microwave activation presents great potential as an alternative method in the production of adsorbents. PMID:19767204

  20. Batch manufacturing: Six strategic needs

    SciTech Connect

    Ash, R.H.; Chappell, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    Since the advent of industrial digital control systems in the mid-1970s, industry has had the promise of integrated, configurable digital batch control systems to replace the morass of electromechanical devices like relays and stepping switches, recorders, and indicators which comprised the components of previous generations of batch control systems - the {open_quotes}monolithic monsters{close_quotes} of the 1960s and earlier. To help fulfill that promise, there have been many wide-ranging proprietary automation solutions for batch control since 1975, many of them technically excellent. However, even the best examples suffered from the lack of a common language and unifying concept permitting separate systems to be interconnected and work together. Today, some 20 years after the digital revolution began, industry has microprocessors, memory chips, data highways, and other marvelous technology to help automate the control of discontinuous processes. They also are on the way to having an accepted standard for batch automation, ISA S88. Batching systems are at once conceptually simple but executionally complex. The notion of adding ingredients one at a time to a vat, mixing, and then processing into final form is as old as the stone age. Every homemaker on earth, male or female, is familiar with how to follow a recipe to create some sumptuous item of culinary delight. Food recipes, so familiar and ubiquitous, are really just microcosms of the S88 recipe standard. They contain the same components: (1) Header (name and description of item being prepared, sometimes serving size); (2) Formula (list and amount of ingredients); (3) Equipment requirements (pans, mixing and cooking equipment); (4) Procedure (description of order of ingredient addition, mixing and other processing steps, baking/cooling time, and other processing steps); and (5) Other information (safety, cautions, and other miscellaneous instructions).

  1. Rotary adsorbers for continuous bulk separations

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Frederick S.

    2011-11-08

    A rotary adsorber for continuous bulk separations is disclosed. The rotary adsorber includes an adsorption zone in fluid communication with an influent adsorption fluid stream, and a desorption zone in fluid communication with a desorption fluid stream. The fluid streams may be gas streams or liquid streams. The rotary adsorber includes one or more adsorption blocks including adsorbent structure(s). The adsorbent structure adsorbs the target species that is to be separated from the influent fluid stream. The apparatus includes a rotary wheel for moving each adsorption block through the adsorption zone and the desorption zone. A desorption circuit passes an electrical current through the adsorbent structure in the desorption zone to desorb the species from the adsorbent structure. The adsorbent structure may include porous activated carbon fibers aligned with their longitudinal axis essentially parallel to the flow direction of the desorption fluid stream. The adsorbent structure may be an inherently electrically-conductive honeycomb structure.

  2. Enhanced removal of sulfonamide antibiotics by KOH-activated anthracite coal: Batch and fixed-bed studies.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Linzi; Ai, Jing; Fu, Heyun; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Shourong; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2016-04-01

    The presence of sulfonamide antibiotics in aquatic environments poses potential risks to human health and ecosystems. In the present study, a highly porous activated carbon was prepared by KOH activation of an anthracite coal (Anth-KOH), and its adsorption properties toward two sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine) and three smaller-sized monoaromatics (phenol, 4-nitrophenol and 1,3-dinitrobenzene) were examined in both batch and fixed-bed adsorption experiments to probe the interplay between adsorbate molecular size and adsorbent pore structure. A commercial powder microporous activated carbon (PAC) and a commercial mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) possessing distinct pore properties were included as comparative adsorbents. Among the three adsorbents Anth-KOH exhibited the largest adsorption capacities for all test adsorbates (especially the two sulfonamides) in both batch mode and fixed-bed mode. After being normalized by the adsorbent surface area, the batch adsorption isotherms of sulfonamides on PAC and Anth-KOH were displaced upward relative to the isotherms on CMK-3, likely due to the micropore-filling effect facilitated by the microporosity of adsorbents. In the fixed-bed mode, the surface area-normalized adsorption capacities of Anth-KOH for sulfonamides were close to that of CMK-3, and higher than that of PAC. The irregular, closed micropores of PAC might impede the diffusion of the relatively large-sized sulfonamide molecules and in turn led to lowered fixed-bed adsorption capacities. The overall superior adsorption of sulfonamides on Anth-KOH can be attributed to its large specific surface area (2514 m(2)/g), high pore volume (1.23 cm(3)/g) and large micropore sizes (centered at 2.0 nm). These findings imply that KOH-activated anthracite coal is a promising adsorbent for the removal of sulfonamide antibiotics from aqueous solution.

  3. Performance evaluation of low cost adsorbents in reduction of COD in sugar industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Parande, Anand K; Sivashanmugam, A; Beulah, H; Palaniswamy, N

    2009-09-15

    Studies on reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in effluent from sugar industry have been carried out by employing different absorbents optimizing various parameters, such as initial concentration of adsorbate, pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. Experimental studies were carried out in batches using metakaolin, tamarind nut carbon and dates nut carbon as adsorbents by keeping initial adsorbent dosage at 1 g l(-1), agitation time over a range of 30-240 min, adsorbent dosage at 100-800 mg l(-1) by varying the pH range from 4 to 10. Characterization of there adsorbents were done using techniques such as Fourier transforms infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The experimental adsorption data fitted well to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The isotherms of the adsorbents indicate appreciable adsorption capacity. Higher COD removal was observed at neutral pH conditions. Studies reveal that maximum reduction efficiency of COD takes place using metakaolin as an absorbent at a dosage of 500 mg l(-1) in a contact time of 180 min at pH 7 and it could be used as an efficient absorbent for treating sugar industrial effluent.

  4. M4FT-15OR03100415 - Update on COF-based Adsorbent Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, Richard T.; Dai, Sheng

    2015-02-01

    This letter report provides an update on activities focused on generating nanoporous adsorbents involving covalent organic frameworks (COF) and zeolitic imidazolium frameworks (ZIF). The adsorbents have been generated and screened in a uranyl-spiked brine (6 ppm U) to understand uranyl-binding behavior. Porous organic polymers (POP) also qualify under this title and are similar to the COF PPN-6 that is discussed herein. Seven COF/POP and one 1 ZIF were synthesized and screened for uranyl adsorption. Seawater screening is on-going via batch testing while flow screening systems are being developed at PNNL.

  5. NDA Batch 2002-13

    SciTech Connect

    Hollister, R

    2009-09-17

    QC sample results (daily background check drum and 100-gram SGS check drum) were within acceptance criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on drum LL85501243TRU. Replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. HWM NCAR No. 02-1000168 issued on 17-Oct-2002 regarding a partially dislodged Cd sheet filter on the HPGe coaxial detector. This physical geometry occurred on 01-Oct-2002 and was not corrected until 10-Oct-2002, during which period is inclusive of the present batch run of drums. Per discussions among the Independent Technical Reviewer, Expert Reviewer and the Technical QA Supervisor, as well as in consultation with John Fleissner, Technical Point of Contact from Canberra, the analytical results are technically reliable. All QC standard runs during this period were in control. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-13 generated using passive gamma-ray spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with establiShed control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable.

  6. Bayer Electrofilter Fines as Potential Se(VI) Adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Julia; Fernández, Begoña

    2015-11-01

    Removal of Se(VI) from an aqueous solution under different conditions was investigated using Bayer electrofilter fines (BEFs), a waste from alumina production, as an adsorbent. Adsorption selenate was studied using batch adsorption experiments as a function of pH (2-12), contact time (0.08-30 h), adsorbent concentration (4-80 g/L), initial selenium concentration (5-203 mg/L), and ionic strength (0-0.1 M NaCl). The results showed that adsorption was significantly affected by pH Se(VI) having the highest affinity for BEFs at pH 3. Sorption Se(VI) reached equilibrium in 4 h. Increasing ionic strength decreased selenate sorption. The adsorption of Se(VI) onto BEFs was found to fit the Langmuir isotherm. Maximum selenium uptake values were calculated as 2.3613 mg/g and 1.5608 mg/g when using adsorbent concentrations of 20 g/L and 40 g/L, respectively.

  7. Low-cost magnetic adsorbent for As(III) removal from water: adsorption kinetics and isotherms.

    PubMed

    Kango, Sarita; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles as adsorbent for arsenic (As) were coated on sand particles. The coated sand was used for the removal of highly toxic element 'As(III)' from drinking water. Here, batch experiments were performed with the variation of solution pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial arsenic concentration. The adsorbent showed significant removal efficiency around 99.6 % for As(III). Analysis of adsorption kinetics revealed that the adsorbent follows pseudo-second-order kinetics model showing R (2) = 0.999, whereas for pseudo-first-order kinetics model, the value of R (2) was 0.978. In the case of adsorption equilibrium, the data is well fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm model (R (2) > 0.99), indicating monolayer adsorption of As(III) on the surface of adsorbent. The existence of commonly present ions in water influences the removal efficiency of As(III) minutely in the following order PO4 (3-) > HCO3 (-) > Cl(-) > SO4 (2-). The obtained adsorbent can be used to overcome the problem of water filtration in rural areas. Moreover, as the nano-magnetite is coated on the sand, it avoids the problem of extraction of nanoparticles from treated water and can easily be removed by a simple filtration process. PMID:26711813

  8. Low-cost magnetic adsorbent for As(III) removal from water: adsorption kinetics and isotherms.

    PubMed

    Kango, Sarita; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles as adsorbent for arsenic (As) were coated on sand particles. The coated sand was used for the removal of highly toxic element 'As(III)' from drinking water. Here, batch experiments were performed with the variation of solution pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial arsenic concentration. The adsorbent showed significant removal efficiency around 99.6 % for As(III). Analysis of adsorption kinetics revealed that the adsorbent follows pseudo-second-order kinetics model showing R (2) = 0.999, whereas for pseudo-first-order kinetics model, the value of R (2) was 0.978. In the case of adsorption equilibrium, the data is well fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm model (R (2) > 0.99), indicating monolayer adsorption of As(III) on the surface of adsorbent. The existence of commonly present ions in water influences the removal efficiency of As(III) minutely in the following order PO4 (3-) > HCO3 (-) > Cl(-) > SO4 (2-). The obtained adsorbent can be used to overcome the problem of water filtration in rural areas. Moreover, as the nano-magnetite is coated on the sand, it avoids the problem of extraction of nanoparticles from treated water and can easily be removed by a simple filtration process.

  9. Natural Iraqi palygorskite clay as low cost adsorbent for the treatment of dye containing industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Nassir Taha, Dakhil; Sadi Samaka, Isra'a

    2012-01-01

    In this study, natural Iraqi low- cost locally available clay (palygorskite) was studied for its potential use as an adsorbent for removal Congo red from aqueous solutions. Batch type experiments were conducted to study the effect of contact time, initial pH of the dye solution, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, and particle size of adsorbent on adsorption capacity of Congo red. The adsorption occurred very fast initially and attains equilibrium within 60 min. When the effect of pH of solution dye on the yield adsorption has been carried in a range of 2-10, the adsorption obtained was nearly the same with very slightly effect of pH and it was reported that above 49.07 mg/g of Cong red by palygorskite clay occurred in the pH range 2 to 10. It was observed that the removal of Congo red increase with increasing initial dye concentration and adsorbent dose, but, adsorption capacity decrease with increasing adsorbent dose. The adsorption capacity increase with decreasing particle size of adsorbent. The equilibrium adsorption data were interpreted using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The obtained results revealed that the equilibrium data closely followed both models, but the Langmuir isotherm fitted the data better. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 99 mg/g at ambient temperature. Results indicate that Iraqi palygorskite clay could be employed as a low cost alternative to commercial activated carbon in wastewater treatment for the removal of colour and dyes. PMID:23196874

  10. Novel adsorbent applicability for decontamination of printing wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiurski, Jelena; Oros, Ivana; Ranogajec, Jonjaua; Kecic, Vesna

    2013-04-01

    (up to 93.5%) to remove Zn(II) ion from printing wastewaters. The results showed that fired clay, fired clay modified with polymer addition, natural zeolite and bentonite can be used for Zn(II) ion removal from printing wastewaters by adsorption method in laboratory batch mode. Based on higher affinity to the Zn(II) ion adsorption than fired clay, bentonite and zeolite it was concluded that feasibility of newly designed clayey adsorbent, fired clay with 5 mass% PEG addition is very good. A new designed clayey adsorbent is an effective and economical alternative for the Zn(II) ion removal from printing wastewaters. Acknowledgment: The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Projects No. TR 34014, III 45008 and III 46009).

  11. Supercritical fluid regeneration of adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defilippi, R. P.; Robey, R. J.

    1983-05-01

    The results of a program to perform studies supercritical (fluid) carbon dioxide (SCF CO2) regeneration of adsorbents, using samples of industrial wastewaters from manufacturing pesticides and synthetic solution, and to estimate the economics of the specific wastewater treatment regenerations, based on test data are given. Processing costs for regenerating granular activated carbon GAC) for treating industrial wastewaters depend on stream properties and regeneration throughput.

  12. From MDF and PB wastes to adsorbents for the removal of pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, J. A. F. L.; Azaruja, B. A.; Mourão, P. A. M.

    2016-09-01

    The production of activated carbons in powder and monolith forms, by physical activation with CO2, with specific surface areas between 804 and 1469 m2 g-1, porous volume between 0.33 and 0.59 cm3 g-1, with basic nature (PZC ∼ 9.6-10.6) was achieved in our lab, from medium density fibreboard (MDF) and particleboard (PB), engineered wood composites wastes. These highly porous adsorbents were applied in kinetic and equilibrium adsorption studies, in batch and dynamic modes, in powder and monolith forms, of specific adsorptives, considered pollutants, namely phenol (P), p-nitrophenol (PNP) and neutral red (NR). In batch the maximum adsorbed amount was 267, 162 and 92 mg g-1, for PNP, P and NR, respectively. The application of different kinetic models (pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion model) leads to a better knowledge of the adsorption mechanisms of those adsorptives. The results obtained in the kinetic and equilibrium tests show that the combination of the structural features and the surface chemistry nature of the adsorbents, with the adsorptives properties, establish the kinetic performance, the type and amount adsorbed for each system. This work confirms the potential of these types of wastes in the production of activated carbons and its application in adsorption from liquid phase.

  13. Characteristics of activated carbon and carbon nanotubes as adsorbents to remove annatto (norbixin) in cheese whey.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Pan, Kang; Zhong, Qixin

    2013-09-25

    Removing annatto from cheese whey without bleaching has potential to improve whey protein quality. In this work, the potential of two activated carbon products and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT) was studied for extracting annatto (norbixin) in aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption experiments were studied for the effects of solution pH, adsorbent mass, contact duration, and ionic strength. The equilibrium adsorption data were observed to fit both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic parameters estimated from adsorption isotherms demonstrated that the adsorption of norbixin on three adsorbents is exothermic, and the entropic contribution differs with adsorbent structure. The adsorption kinetics, with CNT showing a higher rate than activated carbon, followed the pseudo first order and second order rate expressions and demonstrated the significance of intraparticle diffusion. Electrostatic interactions were observed to be significant in the adsorption. The established adsorption parameters may be used in the dairy industry to decolorize cheese whey without applying bleaching agents.

  14. Preparation of metal adsorbent from poly(methyl acrylate)-grafted-cassava starch via gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwanmala, Phiriyatorn; Hemvichian, Kasinee; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Srinuttrakul, Wannee; Seko, Noriaki

    2012-08-01

    Metal adsorbent containing hydroxamic acid groups was successfully synthesized by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate (MA) onto cassava starch. The optimum conditions for grafting were studied in terms of % degree of grafting (Dg). Conversion of the ester groups present in poly(methyl acrylate)-grafted-cassava starch copolymer into hydroxamic acid was carried out by treatment with hydroxylamine (HA) in the presence of alkaline solution. The maximum percentage conversion of the ester groups of the grafted copolymer, % Dg=191 (7.63 mmol/g of MA), into the hydroxamic groups was 70% (5.35 mmol/g of MA) at the optimum condition. The adsorbent of 191%Dg had total adsorption capacities of 2.6, 1.46, 1.36, 1.15 and 1.6 mmol/g-adsorbent for Cd2+, Al3+, UO22+, V5+ and Pb2+, respectively, in the batch mode adsorption.

  15. Adsorption and removal kinetics of phosphonate from water using natural adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R Anil; Velayudhan, K T; Ramachandran, V; Bhai, R Susheela; Unnikrishnan, G; Vasu, K

    2010-01-01

    The removal of phosphonate from water was studied using some natural adsorbents. Potassium phosphonate is a fungicide used for the control of Phytophthora capsici, which is prevalent in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.). Batch adsorption kinetic experiments were conducted on the adsorption of phosphonate onto the adsorbents. The concentration of phosphonate was measured on a high-performance liquid chromatograph fitted with a conductivity detector. The percentage removal of phosphonate by powdered laterite stone (PLS) from water was 40.4%, within a residence time of 15 minutes. The mechanisms of the rate of adsorption were analyzed and compared using the pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion models. The experimental data was found to correlate well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating adsorption as a chemisorption process. A possible reaction in the phosphonate-PLS system also has been proposed. The PLS can be used as a low-cost natural adsorbent for phosphonate removal from water.

  16. Adding coal dust to coal batch

    SciTech Connect

    V.S. Shved; A.V.Berezin

    2009-05-15

    The granulometric composition of coke dust from the dry-slaking machine is determined. The influence of additions of 3-7% coke dust on the quality of industrial coking batch and the coke obtained by box coking is estimated. Adding 1% coke dust to coking batch does not markedly change the coke quality. Industrial equipment for the supply of dry-slaking dust to the batch is described.

  17. Plutonium immobilization feed batching system concept report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.

    2000-07-19

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Feed batching is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. It will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization feed batching process preliminary concept, batch splitting concepts, and includes a process block diagram, concept descriptions, a preliminary equipment list, and feed batching development areas.

  18. Synthesis of azeotropic batch distillation separation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Safrit, B.T.; Westerberg, A.W.

    1997-05-01

    The sequencing of batch distillation systems, in particular batch distillation columns, can be complicated by the existence of azeotropes in the mixture. These azeotropes can form batch distillation regions where, depending on the initial feed to the batch column, the types of feasible products and separations are limited. It is very important that these distillation regions are known while attempting to synthesize sequences of batch columns so infeasible designs can be eliminated early on in the design phase. The distillation regions also give information regarding the feasible products that can be obtained when the mixture is separated by using a variety of batch column configurations. The authors will show how a tool for finding the batch distillation regions of a particular mixture can be used in the synthesis of batch distillation column sequences. These sequences are determined by the initial feed composition to the separation network. The network of all possible sequences will be generated by using state-task networks when batch rectifying, stripping, middle vessel, and extractive middle vessel columns are allowed. The authors do not determine which sequence is the best, as the best sequence will depend on the particular application to which one is applying the algorithms. They show an example problem for illustration of this technique.

  19. Method And Apparatus For Regenerating Nox Adsorbers

    DOEpatents

    Driscoll, J. Joshua; Endicott, Dennis L.; Faulkner, Stephen A.; Verkiel, Maarten

    2006-03-28

    Methods and apparatuses for regenerating a NOx adsorber coupled with an exhaust of an engine. An actuator drives a throttle valve to a first position when regeneration of the NOx adsorber is desired. The first position is a position that causes the regeneration of the NOx adsorber. An actuator drives the throttle valve to a second position while regeneration of the NOx adsorber is still desired. The second position being a position that is more open than the first position and operable to regenerate a NOx adsorber.

  20. Collaborative study for the establishment of the WHO 3(rd) International Standard for Endotoxin, the Ph. Eur. endotoxin biological reference preparation batch 5 and the USP Reference Standard for Endotoxin Lot H0K354.

    PubMed

    Findlay, L; Desai, T; Heath, A; Poole, S; Crivellone, M; Hauck, W; Ambrose, M; Morris, T; Daas, A; Rautmann, G; Buchheit, K H; Spieser, J M; Terao, E

    2015-01-01

    unitage for the testing of endotoxins in parenteral pharmaceutical products. Based on the results of the collaborative study, batch 10/178 was established by the European Pharmacopoeia Commission as the Ph. Eur. Endotoxin Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) batch 5. The same batch was also established by the Expert Committee on Biological Standardisation (ECBS) of WHO as the WHO 3(rd) IS for Endotoxin. Batch 10/190 was adopted as the USP Endotoxin Reference Standard, lot H0K354 and vials from this same batch (10/190) will serve as the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) Endotoxin Standard, EC-7.

  1. Computer Batch Files Shorten Many Complicated Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deppa, Joan

    1987-01-01

    Defines "batch files," claiming that they can shorten many complicated computer procedures. Describes how batch file was created using the computer program "PC-Write" to streamline the process of creating a work disk and increase students' computer literacy. Lists and discusses each element in the file. Provides references for more information.…

  2. Method and apparatus for melting glass batch

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alexander G.; Walkup, Paul C.; Mudge, Lyle K.

    1988-01-01

    A glass melting system involving preheating, precalcining, and prefluxing of batch materials prior to injection into a glass furnace. The precursors are heated by convection rather than by radiation in present furnaces. Upon injection into the furnace, batch materials are intimately coated with molten flux so as to undergo or at least begin the process of dissolution reaction prior to entering the melt pool.

  3. [Governmental batch sample testing of allergen products].

    PubMed

    Bartel, D; Führer, F; Vieths, S

    2012-03-01

    Allergen products for specific immunotherapy of type I allergies were first authorized for the German market in the 1970s. In addition to finished products manufactured in advance and in batches, so-called named patient products have recently been defined as Medicinal Products by the German Medicinal Products Act ("Arzneimittelgesetz", AMG 14th Revision 2005). Some allergen products previously marketed as named patient products are now required to obtain marketing authorization according to the German ordinance for therapy allergens. Products have to be batch released by the competent German Federal Agency, the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI). Samples of product batches are delivered to the PEI in order to perform experimental quality controls. With regard to named patient products, PEI tests batch samples of the bulk extract preparations used for manufacturing of the respective, named patient products. The institute releases approximately 2,800 allergen product batches annually.

  4. Adsorption of copper cyanide on chemically active adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.S.; Deorkar, N.V.; Tavlarides, L.L.

    1998-07-01

    An inorganic chemically active adsorbent (ICAA), SG(1)-TEPA (tetraethylenepentaamine)-propyl, is developed for removal, recovery, and recycling of copper cyanide from industrial waste streams. Equilibrium studies are executed to determine and model adsorption of the copper cyanide complex from aqueous solutions in a batch and packed column. It appears that adsorption is dependent on anionic copper cyanide species and the basicity of the ligand. Aqueous-phase equilibrium modeling shows that monovalent (Cu(CN){sub 2}{sup {minus}}), divalent (Cu(CN){sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), and trivalent (Cu(CN){sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}) species of copper cyanide exist in the solution, depending on the pH and the concentration of total cyanide ions. Batch adsorption data are modeled using a modified multicomponent Langmuir isotherm which includes aqueous-phase speciation and basicity of the SG(1)-TEPA-propyl. This developed model is applied with a mass balance equation to describe the adsorption of copper cyanide complexes in a packed column.

  5. Batch Scheduling a Fresh Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardo, Nicholas P.; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Network Queueing System (NQS) was designed to schedule jobs based on limits within queues. As systems obtain more memory, the number of queues increased to take advantage of the added memory resource. The problem now becomes too many queues. Having a large number of queues provides users with the capability to gain an unfair advantage over other users by tailoring their job to fit in an empty queue. Additionally, the large number of queues becomes confusing to the user community. The High Speed Processors group at the Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation (NAS) Facility at NASA Ames Research Center developed a new approach to batch job scheduling. This new method reduces the number of queues required by eliminating the need for queues based on resource limits. The scheduler examines each request for necessary resources before initiating the job. Also additional user limits at the complex level were added to provide a fairness to all users. Additional tools which include user job reordering are under development to work with the new scheduler. This paper discusses the objectives, design and implementation results of this new scheduler

  6. Removal of sulfamethazine by hypercrosslinked adsorbents in aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Grimmett, Maria E

    2013-01-01

    Four hundred tons of sulfamethazine are fed to livestock annually in North America to prevent disease and promote growth, but most of the drug is excreted unmetabolized into the environment. Because of slow degradation and high mobility, sulfamethazine contaminates groundwater supplies and causes aquatic ecosystem damage. Current water treatment methods to remove pharmaceuticals are not universally effective and have considerable limitations, which necessitate newer remediation techniques. Hypercrosslinked adsorbents, polystyrene polymers 100% crosslinked with methylene bridges, show promise because of high surface areas, high mechanical strength, and regenerable properties. This study screened four Purolite hypercrosslinked adsorbents (MN152, MN250, PAD400, and PAD600) to remove sulfamethazine from contaminated water and then characterized the most efficient resin, MN250, with batch adsorption and desorption experiments to optimize its use. Sulfamethazine adsorption onto MN250 displayed an L-class isotherm shape consistent with monolayer adsorption, negligible solute-solute interactions at the adsorbent surface, and decreasing activation energies of desorption with increasing surface coverage. MN250 had a maximum experimental adsorption capacity of 111 mg g, showing high correlation to the Langmuir and Freundlich models. Adsorption kinetics revealed prolonged adsorption over 59 h and were best described by Ho's pseudo-second-order model. There was minimal desorption from MN250 in distilled water, indicating an irreversible adsorption process. MN250's high capacity for sulfamethazine adsorption, minimal desorption in water, and ability to be regenerated make it a practical solution for sulfamethazine removal in areas that have contaminated groundwater supplies (e.g., areas near concentrated livestock operations), especially as current treatment methods have significant drawbacks.

  7. Visualization and Measurement of Adsorption/Desorption Process of Ethanol in Activated Carbon Adsorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Hitoshi; Murata, Kenta; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Saito, Yasushi

    Adsorption refrigerator is one of the efficient tools for waste heat recovery, because the system is driven by heat at relative low temperature. However, the coefficient of performance is low due to its batch operation and the heat capacity of the adsorber. In order to improve the performance, it is important to optimize the configuration to minimize the amount of driving heat, and to clarify adsorption/desorption phenomena in transient conditions. Neutron radiography was applied to visualize and measure the adsorption amount distribution in an adsorber. The visualization experiments had been performed at the neutron radiography facility of E-2 port of Kyoto University Research Reactor. Activated carbon and ethanol were used as the adsorbent and refrigerant. From the acquired radiographs, adsorption amount was quantitatively measured by applying the umbra method using a checkered neutron absorber with boron powder. Then, transient adsorption and desorption processes of a rectangular adsorber with 84 mm in width, 50 mm in height and 20 mm in depth were visualized. As the result, the effect of fins in the adsorbent layer on the adsorption amount distribution was clearly visualized.

  8. Enhanced removal of nitrate from water using surface modification of adsorbents--a review.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kandasamy, Jaya

    2013-12-15

    Elevated concentration of nitrate results in eutrophication of natural water bodies affecting the aquatic environment and reduces the quality of drinking water. This in turn causes harm to people's health, especially that of infants and livestock. Adsorbents with the high capacity to selectively adsorb nitrate are required to effectively remove nitrate from water. Surface modifications of adsorbents have been reported to enhance their adsorption of nitrate. The major techniques of surface modification are: protonation, impregnation of metals and metal oxides, grafting of amine groups, organic compounds including surfactant coating of aluminosilicate minerals, and heat treatment. This paper reviews current information on these techniques, compares the enhanced nitrate adsorption capacities achieved by the modifications, and the mechanisms of adsorption, and presents advantages and drawbacks of the techniques. Most studies on this subject have been conducted in batch experiments. These studies need to include continuous mode column trials which have more relevance to real operating systems and pilot-plant trials. Reusability of adsorbents is important for economic reasons and practical treatment applications. However, only limited information is available on the regeneration of surface modified adsorbents. PMID:24211565

  9. Investigation on removal of malachite green using EM based compost as adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Bhagavathi Pushpa, T; Vijayaraghavan, J; Sardhar Basha, S J; Sekaran, V; Vijayaraghavan, K; Jegan, J

    2015-08-01

    The discarded materials from different sources can be utilized as effective materials in wastewater remediation. This proposed study was aimed mainly to investigate the possibility of Effective Microorganisms based compost (EMKC), which is derived from the kitchen solid waste, as a non-conventional low cost adsorbent for the removal of malachite green from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the optimum operating parameters like pH (2-9), initial dye concentration (50-1000mg/L), adsorbent particle size (0.6-2.36mm) and adsorbent dosage (2-12g/L). EMKC recorded maximum uptake of 136.6mg/g of MG at pH 8, initial dye concentration 1000mg/L, adsorbent particle size 1.18mm and adsorbent dosage 4g/L. Two and three parameter adsorption models were employed to describe experimental biosorption isotherm data. The results revealed that the Sips model resulted in better fit than other models. The pseudo-first and -second order models were applied to describe kinetic data, of which the pseudo-second order described experimental data better with high correlation coefficient. This investigation suggested that EMKC could be an effective and low cost material for the removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution. PMID:25938698

  10. Investigation on removal of malachite green using EM based compost as adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Bhagavathi Pushpa, T; Vijayaraghavan, J; Sardhar Basha, S J; Sekaran, V; Vijayaraghavan, K; Jegan, J

    2015-08-01

    The discarded materials from different sources can be utilized as effective materials in wastewater remediation. This proposed study was aimed mainly to investigate the possibility of Effective Microorganisms based compost (EMKC), which is derived from the kitchen solid waste, as a non-conventional low cost adsorbent for the removal of malachite green from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the optimum operating parameters like pH (2-9), initial dye concentration (50-1000mg/L), adsorbent particle size (0.6-2.36mm) and adsorbent dosage (2-12g/L). EMKC recorded maximum uptake of 136.6mg/g of MG at pH 8, initial dye concentration 1000mg/L, adsorbent particle size 1.18mm and adsorbent dosage 4g/L. Two and three parameter adsorption models were employed to describe experimental biosorption isotherm data. The results revealed that the Sips model resulted in better fit than other models. The pseudo-first and -second order models were applied to describe kinetic data, of which the pseudo-second order described experimental data better with high correlation coefficient. This investigation suggested that EMKC could be an effective and low cost material for the removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution.

  11. Enhanced removal of nitrate from water using surface modification of adsorbents--a review.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kandasamy, Jaya

    2013-12-15

    Elevated concentration of nitrate results in eutrophication of natural water bodies affecting the aquatic environment and reduces the quality of drinking water. This in turn causes harm to people's health, especially that of infants and livestock. Adsorbents with the high capacity to selectively adsorb nitrate are required to effectively remove nitrate from water. Surface modifications of adsorbents have been reported to enhance their adsorption of nitrate. The major techniques of surface modification are: protonation, impregnation of metals and metal oxides, grafting of amine groups, organic compounds including surfactant coating of aluminosilicate minerals, and heat treatment. This paper reviews current information on these techniques, compares the enhanced nitrate adsorption capacities achieved by the modifications, and the mechanisms of adsorption, and presents advantages and drawbacks of the techniques. Most studies on this subject have been conducted in batch experiments. These studies need to include continuous mode column trials which have more relevance to real operating systems and pilot-plant trials. Reusability of adsorbents is important for economic reasons and practical treatment applications. However, only limited information is available on the regeneration of surface modified adsorbents.

  12. The application of textile sludge adsorbents for the removal of Reactive Red 2 dye.

    PubMed

    Sonai, Gabriela G; de Souza, Selene M A Guelli U; de Oliveira, Débora; de Souza, Antônio Augusto U

    2016-03-01

    Sludge from the textile industry was used as a low-cost adsorbent to remove the dye Reactive Red 2 from an aqueous solution. Adsorbents were prepared through the thermal and chemical treatment of sludge originating from physical-chemical (PC) and biological (BIO) effluent treatment processes. The adsorbent characterization was carried out through physical-chemical analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, pHPZC determination, Boehm titration method, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Batch kinetic experiments and adsorption isotherm modeling were conducted under different pH and temperature conditions. The results for the kinetic studies indicate that the adsorption processes associated with these systems can be described by a pseudo-second-order model and for the equilibrium data the Langmuir model provided the best fit. The adsorption was strongly dependent on the pH but not on the temperature within the ranges studied. The maxima adsorption capacities were 159.3 mg g(-1) for the BIO adsorbent and 213.9 mg g(-1) for PC adsorbent at pH of 2 and 25 °C. PMID:26706227

  13. The application of textile sludge adsorbents for the removal of Reactive Red 2 dye.

    PubMed

    Sonai, Gabriela G; de Souza, Selene M A Guelli U; de Oliveira, Débora; de Souza, Antônio Augusto U

    2016-03-01

    Sludge from the textile industry was used as a low-cost adsorbent to remove the dye Reactive Red 2 from an aqueous solution. Adsorbents were prepared through the thermal and chemical treatment of sludge originating from physical-chemical (PC) and biological (BIO) effluent treatment processes. The adsorbent characterization was carried out through physical-chemical analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, pHPZC determination, Boehm titration method, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Batch kinetic experiments and adsorption isotherm modeling were conducted under different pH and temperature conditions. The results for the kinetic studies indicate that the adsorption processes associated with these systems can be described by a pseudo-second-order model and for the equilibrium data the Langmuir model provided the best fit. The adsorption was strongly dependent on the pH but not on the temperature within the ranges studied. The maxima adsorption capacities were 159.3 mg g(-1) for the BIO adsorbent and 213.9 mg g(-1) for PC adsorbent at pH of 2 and 25 °C.

  14. Thermal Analysis of Waste Glass Batches: Effect of Batch Makeup on Gas-Evolving Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, David A.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Marcial, Jose

    2013-01-21

    Batches made with a variety of precursors were subjected to thermo-gravimetric analysis. The baseline modifications included all-nitrate batch with sucrose addition, all-carbonate batch, and batches with different sources of alumina. All batches were formulated for a single glass composition (a vitrified simulated high-alumina high-level waste). Batch samples were heated from the ambient temperature to 1200°C at constant heating rates ranging from 1 K/min to 50 K/min. Major gas evolving reactions began at temperatures just above 100°C and were virtually complete by 650°C. Activation energies for major reactions were obtained with the Kissinger’s method. A rough model for the overall kinetics of the batch-conversion was developed to be eventually applied to a mathematical model of the cold cap.

  15. A novel fiber-based adsorbent technology

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, T.A.

    1997-10-01

    In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program, Chemica Technologies, Inc. is developing an economical, robust, fiber-based adsorbent technology for removal of heavy metals from contaminated water. The key innovation is the development of regenerable adsorbent fibers and adsorbent fiber cloths that have high capacity and selectivity for heavy metals and are chemically robust. The process has the potential for widespread use at DOE facilities, mining operations, and the chemical process industry.

  16. Quasiparticle excitations of adsorbates on doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lischner, Johannes; Wickenburg, Sebastian; Wong, Dillon; Karrasch, Christoph; Wang, Yang; Lu, Jiong; Omrani, Arash A.; Brar, Victor; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Wu, Qiong; Corsetti, Fabiano; Mostofi, Arash; Kawakami, Roland K.; Moore, Joel; Zettl, Alex; Louie, Steven G.; Crommie, Mike

    Adsorbed atoms and molecules can modify the electronic structure of graphene, but in turn it is also possible to control the properties of adsorbates via the graphene substrate. In my talk, I will discuss the electronic structure of F4-TCNQ molecules on doped graphene and present a first-principles based theory of quasiparticle excitations that captures the interplay of doping-dependent image charge interactions between substrate and adsorbate and electron-electron interaction effects on the molecule. The resulting doping-dependent quasiparticle energies will be compared to experimental scanning tunnelling spectra. Finally, I will also discuss the effects of charged adsorbates on the electronic structure of doped graphene.

  17. Batch Proving and Proof Scripting in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.

    2007-01-01

    The batch execution modes of PVS are powerful, but highly technical, features of the system that are mostly accessible to expert users. This paper presents a PVS tool, called ProofLite, that extends the theorem prover interface with a batch proving utility and a proof scripting notation. ProofLite enables a semi-literate proving style where specification and proof scripts reside in the same file. The goal of ProofLite is to provide batch proving and proof scripting capabilities to regular, non-expert, users of PVS.

  18. INTERIOR VIEW OF MIXER LOCATED ON SECOND FLOOR OF BATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF MIXER LOCATED ON SECOND FLOOR OF BATCH PLANT. RECENTLY PURCHASED TO REPLACE OLD MIXER. USED TO MIX THE BATCH - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Batch Plant, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  19. DETAIL VIEW OF BATCH CAR, BUILT BY ATLAS CAR & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BATCH CAR, BUILT BY ATLAS CAR & MANUFACTURING COMPANY. BATCH STORAGE SILOS IN BACKGROUND - Chambers Window Glass Company, Batch Plant, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

  20. Development of long-life-cycle tablet ceramic adsorbent for geosmin removal from water solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rongzhi; Xue, Qiang; Zhang, Zhenya; Sugiura, Norio; Yang, Yingnan; Li, Miao; Chen, Nan; Ying, Zhao; Lei, Zhongfang

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the tablet ceramic adsorbent (TCA), a silica/iron(III) oxide composite material, has been developed for geosmin (GSM) removal from the water solution. The physicochemical characteristics of TCA were examined with XRD, SEM, EDX and BET analyses. The sorption characteristics of GSM on TCA were investigated in a batch system. Attempts have been made to understand the adsorption kinetics, the effect of initial GSM concentration, solution pH, and reaction time. The batch experiments equilibrium data were well fitted to the Lagergren kinetic equation, which indicate the first-order nature adsorption. Over 82% of the GSM was removed by the TCA within 600 min at an initial concentration of 200 ng/L with 20 g/L of TCA dose. The batch and regeneration study indicated that the TCA is a cost-effective GSM adsorbent with sufficient mechanical strength to retain its physical integrity after long-time adsorption, and high regeneration performance for long-life-cycle application. Almost no second contamination (toxic sludge or leached iron) was observed after adsorption, and the gas resultant of thermal regeneration is harmless to atmospheric environment.

  1. Development of adsorbent for the simultaneous removal of organic and inorganic contaminants from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Choi, J W; Chung, S G; Hong, S W; Kim, D J; Lee, S H

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a modified adsorbent, alginate complex beads, was prepared and applied to the removal of mixed contaminants from wastewater. The alginate complex beads were generated by the immobilization of powdered activated carbon and synthetic zeolites onto alginate gel beads, which were then dried at 110 °C for 20 h until the diameter had been reduced to 1 mm. This dry technique increased the hardness of the adsorbent to assure its durability and application. The adsorption onto the alginate complex beads of organic and inorganic compounds, as target contaminants, was investigated by performing both equilibrium and kinetic batch experiments. From the adsorption isotherms, according to the Langmuir equation, the alginate complex bead was capable of effectively removing benzene, toluene, zinc and cadmium. From kinetic batch experiments, the removal efficiencies of benzene, toluene, zinc and cadmium were found to be 66.5, 92.4, 74.1 and 76.7%, respectively, for initial solution concentrations of 100 mg L(-1). The results indicated that the adsorbent developed in this study has the potential to be a promising material for the removal of mixed pollutants from industrial wastewater or contaminated groundwater. PMID:22020474

  2. Complete braided adsorbent for marine testing to demonstrate 3g-U/kg-adsorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, Chris; Yatsandra, Oyola; Mayes, Richard; none,; Gill, Gary; Li-Jung, Kuo; Wood, Jordana; Sadananda, Das

    2014-04-30

    ORNL has manufactured four braided adsorbents that successfully demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities ranging from 3.0-3.6 g-U/kg-adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. Four new braided and leno woven fabric adsorbents have also been prepared by ORNL and are currently undergoing marine testing at PNNL.

  3. Treatment of wastewater by batches saves money

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-21

    This paper examines the Sequencing Batch Reactor which treats up to 6 million gal/d of wastewater in the batch mode rather than in the continuous stirred-tank reactor typical of biologically-based systems. It offers several advantages, chief of which is greater control over the biological reaction. The fully automatic system can quickly adapt to changing flow conditions, thereby contributing to the lower operating cost.

  4. Arsenic(III) Removal from Contaminated Water using Silica Ceramic: A Batch Adsorption Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Md.; Munekage, Yukihiro; Naing, Kyaw Min

    The silica ceramic (S-K) has been used as a potential low-cost adsorbent for the removal of As(III) from contaminated water in batch studies. Results showed that an adsorbent dose at 90 g L1 could effectively remove 96% of As(III) from initial concentration of 0.5 mg L1 within 3 h. It was also reveled that As(III) uptake increased with increasing contact time and As(III) concentration decreased with increasing adsorbent dosage. It was observed that As(III) removal is relatively dependent on pH and temperature variations. High adsorption of As(III) was found at pH 7.5 and at 25°C. The adsorption equilibrium data followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The Freundlich isotherm provided the best correlation for the adsorption of As(III) onto the silica ceramic. The maximum capacity of adsorption was found (qm) 1.1041 mg g1 at different concentrations at 40 g L1 fixed adsorption dosage. The results suggest that silica ceramic (S-K) is a potential adsorbent for removal As(III) ions effectively from contaminated water.

  5. Database of Novel and Emerging Adsorbent Materials

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 205 NIST/ARPA-E Database of Novel and Emerging Adsorbent Materials (Web, free access)   The NIST/ARPA-E Database of Novel and Emerging Adsorbent Materials is a free, web-based catalog of adsorbent materials and measured adsorption properties of numerous materials obtained from article entries from the scientific literature. Search fields for the database include adsorbent material, adsorbate gas, experimental conditions (pressure, temperature), and bibliographic information (author, title, journal), and results from queries are provided as a list of articles matching the search parameters. The database also contains adsorption isotherms digitized from the cataloged articles, which can be compared visually online in the web application or exported for offline analysis.

  6. NOx adsorber and method of regenerating same

    DOEpatents

    Endicott, Dennis L.; Verkiel, Maarten; Driscoll, James J.

    2007-01-30

    New technologies, such as NOx adsorber catalytic converters, are being used to meet increasingly stringent regulations on undesirable emissions, including NOx emissions. NOx adsorbers must be periodically regenerated, which requires an increased fuel consumption. The present disclosure includes a method of regenerating a NOx adsorber within a NOx adsorber catalytic converter. At least one sensor positioned downstream from the NOx adsorber senses, in the downstream exhaust, at least one of NOx, nitrous oxide and ammonia concentrations a plurality of times during a regeneration phase. The sensor is in communication with an electronic control module that includes a regeneration monitoring algorithm operable to end the regeneration phase when a time rate of change of the at least one of NOx, nitrous oxide and ammonia concentrations is after an expected plateau region begins.

  7. Fluorescence dynamics of microsphere-adsorbed sunscreens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, R.

    2005-03-01

    Sunscreens are generally oily substances which are prepared in organic solvents, emulsions or dispersions with micro- or nanoparticles. These molecules adsorb to and integrate into skin cells. In order to understand the photophysical properties of the sunscreen, we compare steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence in organic solvent of varying dielectric constant ɛ and adsorbed to polystyrene microspheres and dispersed in water. Steady-state fluorescence is highest and average fluorescence lifetime longest in toluene, the solvent of lowest ɛ. However, there is no uniform dependence on ɛ. Sunscreens PABA and padimate-O show complex emission spectra. Microsphere-adsorbed sunscreens exhibit highly non-exponential decay, illustrative of multiple environments of the adsorbed molecule. The heterogeneous fluorescence dynamics likely characterizes sunscreen adsorbed to cells.

  8. Inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Ally, M.R.; Tavlarides, L.

    1997-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers are developing a technology that combines metal chelation extraction technology and synthesis chemistry. They begin with a ceramic substrate such as alumina, titanium oxide or silica gel because they provide high surface area, high mechanical strength, and radiolytic stability. One preparation method involves silylation to hydrophobize the surface, followed by chemisorption of a suitable chelation agent using vapor deposition. Another route attaches newly designed chelating agents through covalent bonding by the use of coupling agents. These approaches provide stable and selective, inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs) tailored for removal of metals. The technology has the following advantages over ion exchange: (1) higher mechanical strength, (2) higher resistance to radiation fields, (3) higher selectivity for the desired metal ion, (4) no cation exchange, (5) reduced or no interference from accompanying anions, (6) faster kinetics, and (7) easy and selective regeneration. Target waste streams include metal-containing groundwater/process wastewater at ORNL`s Y-12 Plant (multiple metals), Savannah River Site (SRS), Rocky Flats (multiple metals), and Hanford; aqueous mixed wastes at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); and scrubber water generated at SRS and INEL. Focus Areas that will benefit from this research include Mixed Waste, and Subsurface Contaminants.

  9. Highly stabilized amorphous 3-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)methylene-2-indolinone (TAS-301) in melt-adsorbed products with silicate compounds.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Masahiro; Baba, Kazuhiko; Nagayasu, Atsushi; Yamabe, Kanoo; Azuma, Mami; Houchi, Hitoshi; Minakuchi, Kazuo

    2003-05-01

    3-Bis(4-Methoxyphenyl)methylene-2-indolinone (TAS-301) is a poorly water-soluble drug showing low oral bioavailability in rats and dogs. Previously, we reported that when a physical mixture of TAS-301 and a porous calcium silicate, Florite RE (FLR), was heated at high temperature (250 degrees C), the drug melted and was adsorbed by the FLR in an amorphous state, and that the preparation (melt-adsorbed product) showed a significantly increased solubility and dissolution rate, and a significantly enhanced oral bioavailability of the drug. The aim of the present study was to elucidate important factors for preparing a melt-adsorbed product showing greater stability of drug in an amorphous state. We examined the effects of the kind of adsorbent, drug/adsorbent ratio, heating conditions, and drug particle size on converting drug crystal into an amorphous state, the stability of amorphous state, and chemical stability of the drug in the melt-adsorbed products under a high temperature and high humidity condition (60 degrees C/80% RH, open). FLR, light anhydrous silicic acid and two types of hydrated silicon dioxides were tested as adsorbents. For the batch method, TAS-301 was converted into an amorphous state by heating TAS-301/adsorbents physical mixtures above the melting point of TAS-301 for more than 2 min. The amorphous state was most stabilized when FLR was used as an adsorbent and drug/FLR ratio was 1:0.5 and more. For the continuous method using the twin screw extruder that enables significantly larger scale manufacturing than batch method, TAS-301 melt-adsorbed products were able to produce when only FLR was used as adsorbent. The heating temperature was needed to be set above the melting point of TAS-301 to convert it into an amorphous state as well as batch method. The amorphous state was stabilized when drug/FLR ratio was 1:2 and more. The micronization of the drug decreased the stability of the amorphous state. These results indicate the importance of

  10. Separation of Lanthanoids by SiO{sub 2}-P Adsorbent Impregnated with Extractants - 13103

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanishi, Kei; Mimura, Hitoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu; Sasaki, Yuji; Morita, Yasuji

    2013-07-01

    The adsorption and separation properties of lanthanoids (Ln) were investigated for the mutual separation of trivalent minor actinoids (MA) by using different adsorbents of hydrophobic extractant/SiO{sub 2}-P in solutions of hydrophilic extractant/HNO{sub 3}. The synergistic effect by use of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic extractants was evaluated by batch and column experiments. The results of batch experiments showed the synergistic effect which lowered the K{sub d} values of Ln. In column experiments, effective mutual separation between Nd and Sm was demonstrated. These results suggest that the mutual separation between Am and Cm is possible because the K{sub d} values of Am and Cm are probably similar to those of Nd and Sm. (authors)

  11. Biotransformation of pink water TNT on the surface of a low-cost adsorbent pine bark.

    PubMed

    Chusova, O; Nõlvak, H; Odlare, M; Truu, J; Truu, M; Oopkaup, K; Nehrenheim, E

    2015-09-01

    This two-week anaerobic batch study evaluated 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) removal efficiency from industrial pink water by (1) adsorption on low-cost adsorbent pine bark, and (2) adsorption coupled with TNT biotransformation by specialised microbial communities. Samples of the supernatant and acetonitrile extracts of pine bark were analysed by HPLC, while the composition of the bacterial community of the experimental batches, inocula and pine bark were profiled by high-throughput sequencing the V6 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Integrated adsorption and biotransformation proved to be the most efficient method for TNT removal from pink water. The type of applied inoculum had a profound effect on TNT removal efficiencies and microbial community structures, which were dominated by phylotypes belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. The analysis of acetonitrile extracts of pine bark supported the hypothesis that the microbial community indigenous to pine bark has the ability to degrade TNT. PMID:26142875

  12. Comparison between Brazilian agro-wastes and activated carbon as adsorbents to remove Ni(II) from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Dotto, Guilherme Luiz; Meili, Lucas; de Souza Abud, Ana Karla; Tanabe, Eduardo Hiromitsu; Bertuol, Daniel Assumpção; Foletto, Edson Luiz

    2016-01-01

    This research was performed to find an alternative, low-cost, competitive, locally available and efficient adsorbent to treat nickel (Ni) containing effluents. For this purpose, several Brazilian agro-wastes like sugarcane bagasse (SCB), passion fruit wastes (PFW), orange peel (OP) and pineapple peel (PP) were compared with an activated carbon (AC). The adsorbents were characterized. Effects of fundamental factors affecting the adsorption were investigated using batch tests. Kinetic and equilibrium studies were performed using conventional models. It was verified that the adsorption was favored at pH of 6.0 for all agro-wastes, being dependent of the Ni speciation, point of zero charge and surface area of the adsorbents. The Ni removal percentage was in the following order: SCB > OP > AC > PFW > PP. From the kinetic viewpoint, the Elovich model was appropriate to fit the Ni adsorption onto SCB, while for the other adsorbents, the pseudo-first-order model was the most suitable. For all adsorbents, the Langmuir model was the more adequate to represent the equilibrium data, being the maximum adsorption capacities of 64.1 mg g(-1), 60.7 mg g(-1), 63.1 mg g(-1), 48.1 mg g(-1) and 64.3 mg g(-1) for SCB, PFW, OP, PP and AC, respectively. These results indicated that mainly SCB and OP can be used as alternative adsorbents to treat Ni containing effluents. PMID:27232408

  13. Study on the methylene blue adsorption from wastewaters by pore-expanded calcium fluoride sludge adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Hong, Junming; Lin, Bing; Hong, Gui-Bing; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2014-04-01

    The adsorption of methylene blue (MB) onto pore-expanded calcium fluoride sludge (ECF) by the batch adsorption technique was investigated. The results showed that the adsorption capacity increased with increasing MB concentration but decreased as pH was increased. In order to investigate the adsorption mechanisms, three simplified isotherm models and kinetic models were used in this study. The best-fit adsorption isotherm was achieved with the Temkin model. Furthermore, the pseudo-second-order kinetic model agreed very well with the dynamical behavior for the adsorption of MB onto ECF. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption process of MB onto ECF was spontaneous and exothermic. The results indicated that ECF adsorbed MB efficiently and could be used as a waste adsorbent for the removal of cationic dyes in wastewater treatment.

  14. Pullulan Production by Aureobasidium pullulans ATCC 201253 Cells Adsorbed onto Cellulose Anion and Cation Exchangers

    PubMed Central

    West, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    The anion exchanger phosphocellulose and the cation exchanger triethylaminoethyl cellulose were used to immobilize cells of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans ATCC 201253 and the adsorbed cells were subsequently investigated for their ability to produce the polysaccharide pullulan using batch fermentation. The cells adsorbed on the triethylaminoethyl cellulose at pH 7.5 produced higher pullulan levels than those cells immobilized on phosphocellulose at pH 4.0 for 2 cycles of 168 h at 30 °C. Relative to the initial cycle of 168 h, pullulan production by the cells immobilized on the triethylaminoethyl cellulose decreased slightly after 168 h of the second production cycle while pullulan production by the phosphocellulose-immobilized cells remained about the same after 168 h of the second production cycle. PMID:23762749

  15. Heat transfer to the adsorbent in solar adsorption cooling device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilat, Peter; Patsch, Marek; Papucik, Stefan; Vantuch, Martin

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with design and construction of solar adsorption cooling device and with heat transfer problem in adsorber. The most important part of adsorption cooling system is adsorber/desorber containing adsorbent. Zeolith (adsorbent) type was chosen for its high adsorption capacity, like a coolant was used water. In adsorber/desorber occur, at heating of adsorbent, to heat transfer from heat change medium to the adsorbent. The time required for heating of adsorber filling is very important, because on it depend flexibility of cooling system. Zeolith has a large thermal resistance, therefore it had to be adapted the design and construction of adsorber. As the best shows the tube type of adsorber with double coat construction. By this construction is ensured thin layer of adsorbent and heating is quick in all volume of adsorbent. The process of heat transfer was experimentally measured, but for comparison simulated in ANSYS, too.

  16. 21 CFR 211.188 - Batch production and control records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Batch production and control records. 211.188... Reports § 211.188 Batch production and control records. Batch production and control records shall be prepared for each batch of drug product produced and shall include complete information relating to...

  17. 21 CFR 211.188 - Batch production and control records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Batch production and control records. 211.188... Reports § 211.188 Batch production and control records. Batch production and control records shall be prepared for each batch of drug product produced and shall include complete information relating to...

  18. 21 CFR 211.188 - Batch production and control records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Batch production and control records. 211.188... Reports § 211.188 Batch production and control records. Batch production and control records shall be prepared for each batch of drug product produced and shall include complete information relating to...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1321 - Batch process vents provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batch process vents provisions. 63... Batch process vents provisions. (a) Batch process vents. Except as specified in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section, owners and operators of new and existing affected sources with batch...

  20. 21 CFR 211.188 - Batch production and control records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Batch production and control records. 211.188... Reports § 211.188 Batch production and control records. Batch production and control records shall be prepared for each batch of drug product produced and shall include complete information relating to...

  1. 21 CFR 211.188 - Batch production and control records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Batch production and control records. 211.188... Reports § 211.188 Batch production and control records. Batch production and control records shall be prepared for each batch of drug product produced and shall include complete information relating to...

  2. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jian; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Despite technical advances to reduce air pollution emissions, motor vehicles still account for 30 to 70% emissions of all urban air pollutants. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require 100 cities in the United States to reduce the amount of their smog within 5 to 15 years. Hence, auto emissions, the major cause of smog, must be reduced 30 to 60% by 1998. Natural gas con be combusted with less pollutant emissions. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) uses adsorbents and operates with a low storage pressure which results in lower capital costs and maintenance. This paper describes the production of an activated carbon adsorbent produced from an Illinois coal for ANG.

  3. States of water adsorbed on perindopril crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, V. A.; Khmelevskaya, V. S.; Bogdanov, N. Yu.; Gorchakov, K. A.

    2011-10-01

    The relationship between the structural state of adsorbed water, the crystal structure of the substances, and the solubility of the perindopril salt C19H32N2O5 · C4H11N in water was studied by IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The high-frequency shift of the stretching vibrations of adsorbed water and the solubility depend on the crystal structure of the drug substance. A reversible chemical reaction occurred between the adsorbed water and the perindopril salt.

  4. Removal of antibiotics from water using sewage sludge- and waste oil sludge-derived adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Ding, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Seredych, Mykola; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2012-09-01

    Sewage sludge- and waste oil sludge-derived materials were tested as adsorbents of pharmaceuticals from diluted water solutions. Simultaneous retention of eleven antibiotics plus two anticonvulsants was examined via batch adsorption experiments. Virgin and exhausted adsorbents were examined via thermal and FTIR analyses to elucidate adsorption mechanisms. Maximum adsorption capacities for the 6 materials tested ranged from 80 to 300 mg/g, comparable to the adsorption capacities of antibiotics on various activated carbons (200-400 mg/g) reported in the literature. The performance was linked to surface reactivity, polarity and porosity. A large volume of pores similar in size to the adsorbate molecules with hydrophobic carbon-based origin of pore walls was indicated as an important factor promoting the separation process. Moreover, the polar surface of an inorganic phase in the adsorbents attracted the functional groups of target molecules. The presence of reactive alkali metals promoted reaction with acidic groups, formation of salts and their precipitation in the pore system. PMID:22673337

  5. Adsorption of Procion Red MX 8B using spent tea leaves as adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heraldy, Eddy; Osa, Riesta Ramdhaniyati; Suryanti, Venty

    2016-02-01

    The adsorption of Procion Red MX 8B using spent tea leaves (STL) as adsorbent, has been studied by batch adsorption technique. The adsorbent was activated by NaOH 4% for 24 hours for delignification process. The adsorbent was characterized using FTIR to indetify the functional groups of cellulose was shown by uptake -OH, C-H and C-O. The optimum conditions of adsorption experiments were achieved when pH was set as 6 with contact time of 75 minutes and capacity of adsorption was 3.28 mg/g. The equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir and Isotherm Freundlichs. The kinetic models, pseudo first order and pseudo second order were employed to describe the adsorption mechanism. The experimental results showed that the pseudo second order equation was the best model that described the adsorption behavior with the coefficient of correlation (R2) was equal higher than 0.99 The results suggested that STL had high potential to be used as effective adsorbent for Procion Red MX 8B removal.

  6. Removal of antibiotics from water using sewage sludge- and waste oil sludge-derived adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Ding, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Seredych, Mykola; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2012-09-01

    Sewage sludge- and waste oil sludge-derived materials were tested as adsorbents of pharmaceuticals from diluted water solutions. Simultaneous retention of eleven antibiotics plus two anticonvulsants was examined via batch adsorption experiments. Virgin and exhausted adsorbents were examined via thermal and FTIR analyses to elucidate adsorption mechanisms. Maximum adsorption capacities for the 6 materials tested ranged from 80 to 300 mg/g, comparable to the adsorption capacities of antibiotics on various activated carbons (200-400 mg/g) reported in the literature. The performance was linked to surface reactivity, polarity and porosity. A large volume of pores similar in size to the adsorbate molecules with hydrophobic carbon-based origin of pore walls was indicated as an important factor promoting the separation process. Moreover, the polar surface of an inorganic phase in the adsorbents attracted the functional groups of target molecules. The presence of reactive alkali metals promoted reaction with acidic groups, formation of salts and their precipitation in the pore system.

  7. Fluoride removal from aqueous solution by Al(III)-Zr(IV) binary oxide adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiuya; Lin, Xiaoyan; Wu, Pengwei; Zhou, Qiusheng; Luo, Xuegang

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a novel binary oxide adsorbent of Al2O3-ZrO2 was prepared via coprecipitation followed by calcination method, and the calcination temperatures were investigated. The adsorbent was characterized by XRD, EDX and XPS. The batch adsorption experiments were carried out at different parameters, such as solution pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial fluoride concentration and adsorption temperature, to evaluate the fluoride removal performance. The results showed that the adsorption isotherm was better described by the linear Langmuir model, and a maximum adsorption capacity was 114.54 mg/g. The adsorption kinetics was well fitted by the linear pseudo-second-order, and the correlation coefficient value (R2) was 0.997. The thermodynamic parameters of ΔH0, ΔS0 and ΔG0 were calculated, which showed that the fluoride adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. And the possible adsorption mechanism of the adsorbent for fluoride could involve the ligand-exchange and ion-exchange based on the results in the study.

  8. Oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes as adsorbent for the removal of manganese from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Pandian; Kamaraj, Ramakrishnan; Sozhan, Ganapathy; Vasudevan, Subramanyan

    2013-02-01

    A batch adsorption process was applied to investigate the removal of manganese from aqueous solution by oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). In doing so, the thermodynamic, adsorption isotherm, and kinetic studies were also carried out. MWCNT with 5-10-nm outer diameter, surface area of 40-600 m(2)/g, and purity above 95 % was used as an adsorbent. A systematic study of the adsorption process was performed by varying pH, ionic strength, and temperature. Manganese-adsorbed MWCNT was characterized by Raman, FTIR, X-ray diffraction, XPS, SEM, and TEM. The adsorption efficiency could reach 96.82 %, suggesting that MWCNT is an excellent adsorbent for manganese removal from water. The results indicate that second-order kinetics model was well suitable to model the kinetic adsorption of manganese. Equilibrium data were well described by the typical Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption reaction was spontaneous and endothermic process. The experimental results showed that MWCNT is an excellent manganese adsorbent. The MWCNTs removed the manganese present in the water and reduced it to a permissible level making it drinkable.

  9. Carbonised jackfruit peel as an adsorbent for the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Inbaraj, B Stephen; Sulochana, N

    2004-08-01

    The fruit of the jack (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is one of the popular fruits in India, where the total area under this fruit is about 13,460 ha. A significant amount of peel (approximately 2,714-11,800 kg per tree per year) is discarded as agricultural waste, as apart from its use as a table fruit, it is popular in many culinary preparations. Treatment of jackfruit peel with sulphuric acid produced a carbonaceous product which was used to study its efficiency as an adsorbent for the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were performed as a function of process parameters; agitation time, initial metal concentration, adsorbent concentration and pH. Kinetic analyses made with Lagergren pseudo-first-order, Ritchie second-order and modified Ritchie second-order models showed better fits with modified Ritchie second-order model. The Langmuir-Freundlich (Sips equation) model best defined the experimental equilibrium data among the three isotherm models (Freundlich, Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich) tested. Taking a particular metal concentration, the optimum dose and pH required for the maximum metal removal was established. A complete recovery of the adsorbed metal ions from the spent adsorbent was achieved by using 0.01 M HCl.

  10. Volumetric Interpretation of Protein Adsorption: Capacity Scaling with Adsorbate Molecular Weight and Adsorbent Surface Energy

    PubMed Central

    Parhi, Purnendu; Golas, Avantika; Barnthip, Naris; Noh, Hyeran; Vogler, Erwin A.

    2009-01-01

    Silanized-glass-particle adsorbent capacities are extracted from adsorption isotherms of human serum albumin (HSA, 66 kDa), immunoglobulin G (IgG, 160 kDa), fibrinogen (Fib, 341 kDa), and immunoglobulin M (IgM, 1000 kDa) for adsorbent surface energies sampling the observable range of water wettability. Adsorbent capacity expressed as either mass-or-moles per-unit-adsorbent-area increases with protein molecular weight (MW) in a manner that is quantitatively inconsistent with the idea that proteins adsorb as a monolayer at the solution-material interface in any physically-realizable configuration or state of denaturation. Capacity decreases monotonically with increasing adsorbent hydrophilicity to the limit-of-detection (LOD) near τo = 30 dyne/cm (θ~65o) for all protein/surface combinations studied (where τo≡γlvocosθ is the water adhesion tension, γlvo is the interfacial tension of pure-buffer solution, and θ is the buffer advancing contact angle). Experimental evidence thus shows that adsorbent capacity depends on both adsorbent surface energy and adsorbate size. Comparison of theory to experiment implies that proteins do not adsorb onto a two-dimensional (2D) interfacial plane as frequently depicted in the literature but rather partition from solution into a three-dimensional (3D) interphase region that separates the physical surface from bulk solution. This interphase has a finite volume related to the dimensions of hydrated protein in the adsorbed state (defining “layer” thickness). The interphase can be comprised of a number of adsorbed-protein layers depending on the solution concentration in which adsorbent is immersed, molecular volume of the adsorbing protein (proportional to MW), and adsorbent hydrophilicity. Multilayer adsorption accounts for adsorbent capacity over-and-above monolayer and is inconsistent with the idea that protein adsorbs to surfaces primarily through protein/surface interactions because proteins within second (or higher

  11. A Batch Feeder for Inhomogeneous Bulk Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vislov, I. S.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.; Bogdan, A. M.

    2016-04-01

    The work includes the mechanical analysis of mechanical feeders and batchers that find application in various technological processes and industrial fields. Feeders are usually classified according to their design features into two groups: conveyor-type feeders and non-conveyor feeders. Batchers are used to batch solid bulk materials. Less frequently, they are used for liquids. In terms of a batching method, they are divided into volumetric and weighting batchers. Weighting batchers do not provide for sufficient batching accuracy. Automatic weighting batchers include a mass controlling sensor and systems for automatic material feed and automatic mass discharge control. In terms of operating principle, batchers are divided into gravitational batchers and batchers with forced feed of material using conveyors and pumps. Improved consumption of raw materials, decreased loss of materials, ease of use in automatic control systems of industrial facilities allows increasing the quality of technological processes and improve labor conditions. The batch feeder suggested by the authors is a volumetric batcher that has no comparable counterparts among conveyor-type feeders and allows solving the problem of targeted feeding of bulk material batches increasing reliability and hermeticity of the device.

  12. Kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of olive oil in batch and fed-batch systems.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Paloma Souza; Filho, Arion Zandoná; Voll, Fernando Augusto Pedersen; Corazza, Marcos Lúcio

    2014-07-01

    This work reports experimental data, kinetic modeling, and simulations of enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of olive oil. This reaction was performed in batch system and an ordered-sequential Bi Bi model was used to model the kinetic mechanism. A fed-batch system was proposed and experimental data were obtained and compared to the simulated values. The kinetic model used was able to correlate the experimental data, in which a satisfactory agreement between the experimental data and modeling results was obtained under different enzyme concentration and initial free water content. Therefore, the modeling allowed a better understanding of the reaction kinetics and affords a fed-batch simulation for this system. From the results obtained, it was observed that the fed-batch approach showed to be more advantageous when compared to the conventional batch system. PMID:24793196

  13. Kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of olive oil in batch and fed-batch systems.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Paloma Souza; Filho, Arion Zandoná; Voll, Fernando Augusto Pedersen; Corazza, Marcos Lúcio

    2014-07-01

    This work reports experimental data, kinetic modeling, and simulations of enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of olive oil. This reaction was performed in batch system and an ordered-sequential Bi Bi model was used to model the kinetic mechanism. A fed-batch system was proposed and experimental data were obtained and compared to the simulated values. The kinetic model used was able to correlate the experimental data, in which a satisfactory agreement between the experimental data and modeling results was obtained under different enzyme concentration and initial free water content. Therefore, the modeling allowed a better understanding of the reaction kinetics and affords a fed-batch simulation for this system. From the results obtained, it was observed that the fed-batch approach showed to be more advantageous when compared to the conventional batch system.

  14. Sample displacement batch chromatography of proteins.

    PubMed

    Kotasinska, Marta; Richter, Verena; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Schlüter, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    In downstream processing large scale chromatography plays an important role. For its development screening experiments followed by pilot plant chromatography are mandatory steps. Here we describe fast, simple, and inexpensive methods for establishing a preparative chromatography for the separation of complex protein mixtures, based on sample displacement batch chromatography. The methods are demonstrated by anion-exchange chromatography of a human plasma protein fraction (Cohn IV-4), including the screening step and scaling up of the chromatography by a factor of 100. The results of the screening experiments and the preparative chromatography are monitored by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. In summary we provide a protocol which should be easily adaptable for the chromatographic large scale purification of other proteins, in the laboratory as well as in industry for commercial manufacturing. For the latter these protocols cover the initial piloting steps for establishing a sample batch chromatography based on packed columns rather than batch chromatography. PMID:24648085

  15. Development of Composite Adsorbents for LLW Treatment and Their Adsorption Properties for Cs and Sr - 13127

    SciTech Connect

    Susa, Shunsuke; Mimura, Hitoshi; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Yasuo

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the composite adsorbents (KCoFC-NM (NM: natural mordenite), KCoFC-SG (SG: porous silica gel), AMP-SG and so on) were prepared by impregnation-precipitation methods. As for the distribution properties, the largest K{sub d,Cs} value of 3.8 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup 3}/g was obtained for KCoFC-SG (Davi.) composite. KCoFC-SG (NH, MB5D) and T-KCFC also had relatively large K{sub d,Cs} values above 1.0 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup 3}/g. The uptake rate of Cs{sup +} ions was examined by batch method. KCoFC-SG (NH, MB5D) and AMP-SG (Davi.) had relatively large uptake rate of Cs{sup +}, and the uptake attained equilibrium within 1 h. The maximum uptake capacity of Cs{sup +} ions was estimated to be above 0.5 mmol/g for KCoFC-NM and KCoFC-CP composites. KCoFC-X composite had a relatively large uptake capacity of Cs{sup +} ions (0.23 mmol/g > 0.17 mmol/g (T-KCFC)) and this composite also had a selectivity towards Sr{sup 2+} ions; KCoFC-X is effective adsorbent for both Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} ions. The largest value of K{sub d,Sr} was estimated to be 218 cm{sup 3}/g for titanic acid-PAN. Titanic acid-PAN had the largest uptake rate of Sr{sup 2+} ions, and the uptake attained equilibrium within 8 h. Adsorbability of other nuclides was further examined by batch method. All adsorbents had adsorbability for Rb{sup +} and RuNO{sup 3+} ions. KCoFC-SG (NH), KCoFC-CP and T-KCFC had higher selectivity towards Cs{sup +} than other adsorbents; these adsorbents had adsorbability to Cs{sup +} ions even in the presence of Ba{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} ions. The separation factor of K{sub d,Sr}/K{sub d,Ba} for titanic acid-PAN was about 1, indicating that the K{sub d,Sr} for titanic acid-PAN tends to decrease with Ba{sup 2+} concentration. As for the breakthrough properties, the largest 5 % breakpoint and 5 % breakthrough capacity of Cs{sup +} ions were estimated to be 47.1 cm{sup 3} and 0.07 mmol/g for the column of KCoFC-SG (NH), respectively. The order of 5 % breakthrough capacity

  16. PERVAPORATION USING ADSORBENT-FILLED MEMBRANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Membranes containing selective fillers, such as zeolites and activated carbon, can improve the separation by pervaporation. Applications of adsorbent-filled membranes in pervaporation have been demonstrated by a number of studies. These applications include removal of organic co...

  17. Investigation of naphthalene sorption in soils and soil fractions using batch and column assays

    SciTech Connect

    Bayard, R.; Barna, L.; Mahjoub, B.; Gourdon, R.

    1998-12-01

    The adsorption-desorption of naphthalene on several soil fractions and model soils has been studied in batch and column experiments to investigate the complementarity between the two methods. Batch experiments, in which the sorbents were suspended in aqueous solutions of naphthalene at different initial concentrations, were used to determine the states of apparent equilibrium and approach the kinetics of adsorption and desorption. Apparent equilibrium was reached in batch within 10 to 15 h and could be described with simple linear isotherms in the ranges of concentrations studied. A significant fraction of naphthalene was found to be adsorbed almost instantaneously, the rest being absorbed more progressively, following first-order kinetics. Adsorption of naphthalene mainly takes place on the organic matter of the soils or soil fractions. Adsorption is directly related to the organic content of the soil fractions and not to the size of the particles with which the organic matter is associated. Naphthalene adsorption was found to be well reversible when the pollutant-sorbent contact time was short (24 h) and the sorbed concentration was relatively low. At higher sorbed concentrations, a slight hysteresis effect was observed in batch studies. Data obtained from soil column experiments conducted with water as mobile phase were in good agreement with the results obtained in batch. The adsorption was described using a double-compartment model, considering a nonuniform distribution of the adsorption sites (organic matter) between the external surface of soil microaggregates and the internal compartment inside the microaggregates. The site distribution depends on the nature and degree of humification of the soil organic matter.

  18. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Sheldon H. D.

    1992-01-01

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases.

  19. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOEpatents

    Lee, S.H.D.

    1992-12-22

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases. 6 figs.

  20. Mesoporous Silica: A Suitable Adsorbent for Amines

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Mesoporous silica with KIT-6 structure was investigated as a preconcentrating material in chromatographic systems for ammonia and trimethylamine. Its adsorption capacity was compared to that of existing commercial materials, showing its increased adsorption power. In addition, KIT-6 mesoporous silica efficiently adsorbs both gases, while none of the employed commercial adsorbents did. This means that KIT-6 Mesoporous silica may be a good choice for integrated chromatography/gas sensing micro-devices. PMID:20628459

  1. Hydrophobic Porous Material Adsorbs Small Organic Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Hickey, Gregory S.

    1994-01-01

    Composite molecular-sieve material has pore structure designed specifically for preferential adsorption of organic molecules for sizes ranging from 3 to 6 angstrom. Design based on principle that contaminant molecules become strongly bound to surface of adsorbent when size of contaminant molecules is nearly same as that of pores in adsorbent. Material used to remove small organic contaminant molecules from vacuum systems or from enclosed gaseous environments like closed-loop life-support systems.

  2. Mineral Adsorbents for Removal of Metals in Urban Runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorklund, Karin; Li, Loretta

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the capacity of four different soil minerals to adsorb metals frequently detected in urban runoff. These are low-cost, natural and commercially available soil minerals. Contaminated surface runoff from urban areas is a major cause of concern for water quality and aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Pollution in urban areas is generated by a wide array of non-point sources, including vehicular transportation and building materials. Some of the most frequently detected pollutants in urban runoff are metals. Exhaust gases, tire wear and brake linings are major sources of such metals as Pb, Zn and Cu, while impregnated wood, plastics and galvanized surfaces may release As, Cd, Cr and Zn. Many metals have toxic effects on aquatic plants and animals, depending on metal speciation and bioavailability. The removal efficiency of pollutants in stormwater depends on treatment practices and on the properties the pollutant. The distribution of metals in urban runoff has shown, for example, that Pb is predominantly particle-associated, whereas Zn and Cd are present mainly in dissolved form. Many metals are also attached to colloids, which may act as carriers for contaminants, thereby facilitating their transport through conventional water treatment processes. Filtration of stormwater is one of the most promising techniques for removal of particulates, colloidal and truly dissolved pollutants, provided that effective filtration and adsorption media are used. Filtration and infiltration are used in a wide array of stormwater treatment methods e.g. porous paving, infiltration drains and rain gardens. Several soil minerals were investigated for their potential as stormwater filter materials. Laboratory batch tests were conducted to determine the adsorption capacity of these minerals. A synthetic stormwater was tested, with spiked concentrations corresponding to levels reported in urban runoff, ranging from 50-1,500 µg/L for Zn; 5-250 µg/L for Cu

  3. Production of nattokinase by batch and fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Han; Song, Jae Yong; Kim, Kyung Mi; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Lee, In Young; Kim, Sang Bum; Kim, Hyeon Shup; Han, Nam Soo; Lee, Bong Hee; Kim, Beom Soo

    2010-09-30

    Nattokinase was produced by batch and fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis in flask and fermentor. Effect of supplementing complex media (peptone, yeast extract, or tryptone) was investigated on the production of nattokinase. In flask culture, the highest cell growth and nattokinase activity were obtained with 50 g/L of peptone supplementation. In this condition, nattokinase activity was 630 unit/ml at 12 h. In batch culture of B. subtilis in fermentor, the highest nattokinase activity of 3400 unit/ml was obtained at 10h with 50 g/L of peptone supplementation. From the batch kinetics data, it was shown that nattokinase production was growth-associated and culture should be harvested before stationary phase for maximum nattokinase production. In fed-batch culture of B. subtilis using pH-stat feeding strategy, cell growth (optical density monitored at 600 nm) increased to ca. 100 at 22 h, which was 2.5 times higher than that in batch culture. The highest nattokinase activity was 7100 unit/ml at 19 h, which was also 2.1 times higher than that in batch culture.

  4. Optimal operation of multivessel batch distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Furlonge, H.I.; Pantelides, C.C.; Soerensen, E.

    1999-04-01

    Increased interest in unconventional batch distillation column configurations offers new opportunities for increasing the flexibility and energy efficiency of batch distillation. One configuration of particular interest is the multivessel column, which can be viewed as a generalization of all previously studied batch column configurations. A detailed dynamic model was used for comparing various optimal operating policies for a batch distillation column with two intermediate vessels. A wide variety of degrees of freedom including reflux ratios, product withdrawal rates, heat input to the reboiler, and initial feed distribution were considered. A mixture consisting of methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and n-butanol was studied using an objective function relating to the economics of the column operation. Optimizing the initial distribution of the feed among the vessels improved column performance significantly. For some separations, withdrawing product from the vessels into accumulators was better than total reflux operation in terms of energy consumption. Open-loop optimal operation was also compared to a recently proposed feedback control strategy where the controller parameters are optimized. The energy consumption of a regular column was about twice that of a multivessel column having the same number of stages.

  5. JOB BUILDER remote batch processing subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlov, I. G.; Orlova, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    The functions of the JOB BUILDER remote batch processing subsystem are described. Instructions are given for using it as a component of a display system developed by personnel of the System Programming Laboratory, Institute of Space Research, USSR Academy of Sciences.

  6. Preparation of char from lotus seed biomass and the exploration of its dye removal capacity through batch and column adsorption studies.

    PubMed

    Nethaji, S; Sivasamy, A; Kumar, R Vimal; Mandal, A B

    2013-06-01

    Char was obtained from lotus seed biomass by a simple single-step acid treatment process. It was used as an adsorbent for the removal of malachite green dye (MG) from simulated dye bath effluent. The adsorbent was characterized for its surface morphology, surface functionalities, and zero point charge. Batch studies were carried out by varying the parameters such as initial aqueous pH, adsorbent dosage, adsorbent particle size, and initial adsorbate concentration. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to test the isotherm data and the Freundlich isotherm best fitted the data. Thermodynamic studies were carried out and the thermodynamic parameters such as ∆G, ∆H, and ∆S were evaluated. Adsorption kinetics was carried out and the data were tested with pseudofirst-order model, pseudosecond-order model, and intraparticle diffusion model. Adsorption of MG was not solely by intraparticle diffusion but film diffusion also played a major role. Continuous column experiments were also conducted using microcolumn and the spent adsorbent was regenerated using ethanol and was repeatedly used for three cycles in the column to determine the reusability of the regenerated adsorbent. The column data were modeled with the modeling equations such as Adam-Bohart model, Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model, and Yoon-Nelson model for all the three cycles.

  7. Insight into the adsorption of PPCPs by porous adsorbents: Effect of the properties of adsorbents and adsorbates.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zengyin; Xie, Jiawen; Zhang, Mancheng; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Fuqiang

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption is an efficient method for removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Magnetic resins are efficient adsorbents for water treatment and exhibit potential for PPCP removal. In this study, the magnetic hypercrosslinked resin Q100 was used for adsorption of PPCPs. The adsorption behavior of this resin was compared with those of two activated carbons, namely, Norit and F400D. Norit exhibited the fastest adsorption kinetics, followed by Q100. Norit featured a honeycomb shape and long-range ordered pore channels, which facilitated the diffusion of PPCPs. Moreover, the large average pore size of Q100 reduced diffusion resistance. The adsorbed amounts of 11 PPCPs on the three adsorbents increased with increasing adsorbate hydrophobicity. For Q100, a significant linear correlation was observed between the adsorption performance for PPCPs and hydrophobicity (logD value) of adsorbates (R(2) = 0.8951); as such, PPCPs with high logD values (>1.69) could be efficiently removed. Compared with those of Norit and F400D, the adsorption performance of Q100 was less affected by humic acid because of the dominant hydrophobic interaction. Furthermore, Q100 showed improved regeneration performance, which renders it promising for PPCP removal in practical applications. PMID:27131811

  8. Batch testing for noroviruses in frozen raspberries.

    PubMed

    De Keuckelaere, Ann; Li, Dan; Deliens, Bart; Stals, Ambroos; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Berries, in particular raspberries, have been associated with multiple recalls due to norovirus contamination and were linked to a number of norovirus (NoV) outbreaks. In the present study a total of 130 samples of frozen raspberries were collected from 26 batches in four different raspberry processing companies. In two companies the samples consisted of bulk frozen raspberries serving as raw material for the production of raspberry puree (an intermediate food product in a business to business setting). In two other companies, the samples consisted of bulk individually quick frozen (IQF) raspberries serving as raw material for the production of frozen fruit mixes (as a final food product for consumer). Enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliforms was performed as well as real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) detection of GI and GII NoV (in 2 × 10 g). In addition, in cases where positive NoV GI or GII RT-qPCR signals were obtained, an attempt to sequence the amplicons was undertaken. Six out of 70 samples taken from the 14 batches of frozen raspberries serving raspberry puree production provided a NoV RT-qPCR signal confirmed by sequencing. Four of these six positive samples clustered in one batch whereas the other two positive samples clustered in another batch from the same company. All six positive samples showed NoV RT-qPCR signals above the limit of quantification of the RT-qPCR assay. These two positive batches of frozen raspberries can be classified as being of insufficient sanitary quality. The mean NoV level in 20 g of these raspberry samples was 4.3 log genomic copies NoV GI/20 g. The concern for public health is uncertain as NoV RT-qPCR detection is unable to discriminate between infectious and non-infectious virus particles. For the IQF raspberries, one batch out of 12 tested NoV positive, but only 1 out of the 5 samples analyzed in this batch showed a positive RT-qPCR GI NoV signal confirmed by sequencing. The RT-qPCR signal was below the

  9. Removal of uranium from aqueous solution by a low cost and high-efficient adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun-Hai; Wang, You-Qun; Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Cao, Xiao-Hong; Nie, Wen-Bin; Li, Qin; Hua, Rong

    2013-05-01

    In this study, a low-cost and high-efficient carbonaceous adsorbent (HTC-COOH) with carboxylic groups was developed for U(VI) removal from aqueous solution compared with the pristine hydrothermal carbon (HTC). The structure and chemical properties of resultant adsorbents were characterized by Scanning electron microscope (SEM), N2 adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform-infrared spectra (FT-IR) and acid-base titration. The key factors (solution pH, contact time, initial U(VI) concentrations and temperature) affected the adsorption of U(VI) on adsorbents were investigated using batch experiments. The adsorption of U(VI) on HTC and HTC-COOH was pH-dependent, and increased with temperature and initial ion concentration. The adsorption equilibrium of U(VI) on adsorbents was well defined by the Langmuir isothermal equation, and the monolayer adsorption capacity of HTC-COOH was found to be 205.8 mg/g. The kinetics of adsorption was very in accordance with the pseudo-second-order rate model. The adsorption processes of U(VI) on HTC and HTC-COOH were endothermic and spontaneous in nature according to the thermodynamics of adsorption. Furthermore, HTC-COOH could selectively adsorption of U(VI) in aqueous solution containing co-existing ions (Mg2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+). From the results of the experiments, it is found that the HTC-COOH is a potential adsorbent for effective removal of U(VI) from polluted water.

  10. Size selective hydrophobic adsorbent for organic molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor); Hickey, Gregory S. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to an adsorbent formed by the pyrolysis of a hydrophobic silica with a pore size greater than 5 .ANG., such as SILICALITE.TM., with a molecular sieving polymer precursor such as polyfurfuryl alcohol, polyacrylonitrile, polyvinylidene chloride, phenol-formaldehyde resin, polyvinylidene difluoride and mixtures thereof. Polyfurfuryl alcohol is the most preferred. The adsorbent produced by the pyrolysis has a silicon to carbon mole ratio of between about 10:1 and 1:3, and preferably about 2:1 to 1:2, most preferably 1:1. The pyrolysis is performed as a ramped temperature program between about 100.degree. and 800.degree. C., and preferably between about 100.degree. and 600.degree. C. The present invention also relates to a method for selectively adsorbing organic molecules having a molecular size (mean molecular diameter) of between about 3 and 6 .ANG. comprising contacting a vapor containing the small organic molecules to be adsorbed with the adsorbent composition of the present invention.

  11. Black Molecular Adsorber Coatings for Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Hasegawa, Mark Makoto; Straka, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular adsorber coating is a new technology that was developed to mitigate the risk of on-orbit molecular contamination on spaceflight missions. The application of this coating would be ideal near highly sensitive, interior surfaces and instruments that are negatively impacted by outgassed molecules from materials, such as plastics, adhesives, lubricants, epoxies, and other similar compounds. This current, sprayable paint technology is comprised of inorganic white materials made from highly porous zeolite. In addition to good adhesion performance, thermal stability, and adsorptive capability, the molecular adsorber coating offers favorable thermal control characteristics. However, low reflectivity properties, which are typically offered by black thermal control coatings, are desired for some spaceflight applications. For example, black coatings are used on interior surfaces, in particular, on instrument baffles for optical stray light control. Similarly, they are also used within light paths between optical systems, such as telescopes, to absorb light. Recent efforts have been made to transform the white molecular adsorber coating into a black coating with similar adsorptive properties. This result is achieved by optimizing the current formulation with black pigments, while still maintaining its adsorption capability for outgassing control. Different binder to pigment ratios, coating thicknesses, and spray application techniques were explored to develop a black version of the molecular adsorber coating. During the development process, coating performance and adsorption characteristics were studied. The preliminary work performed on black molecular adsorber coatings thus far is very promising. Continued development and testing is necessary for its use on future contamination sensitive spaceflight missions.

  12. Black molecular adsorber coatings for spaceflight applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Nithin S.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Straka, Sharon A.

    2014-09-01

    The molecular adsorber coating is a new technology that was developed to mitigate the risk of on-orbit molecular contamination on spaceflight missions. The application of this coating would be ideal near highly sensitive, interior surfaces and instruments that are negatively impacted by outgassed molecules from materials, such as plastics, adhesives, lubricants, epoxies, and other similar compounds. This current, sprayable paint technology is comprised of inorganic white materials made from highly porous zeolite. In addition to good adhesion performance, thermal stability, and adsorptive capability, the molecular adsorber coating offers favorable thermal control characteristics. However, low reflectivity properties, which are typically offered by black thermal control coatings, are desired for some spaceflight applications. For example, black coatings are used on interior surfaces, in particular, on instrument baffles for optical stray light control. Similarly, they are also used within light paths between optical systems, such as telescopes, to absorb light. Recent efforts have been made to transform the white molecular adsorber coating into a black coating with similar adsorptive properties. This result is achieved by optimizing the current formulation with black pigments, while still maintaining its adsorption capability for outgassing control. Different binder to pigment ratios, coating thicknesses, and spray application techniques were explored to develop a black version of the molecular adsorber coating. During the development process, coating performance and adsorption characteristics were studied. The preliminary work performed on black molecular adsorber coatings thus far is very promising. Continued development and testing is necessary for its use on future contamination sensitive spaceflight missions.

  13. Deactivation of titanium dioxide photocatalyst by oxidation of polydimethylsiloxane and silicon sealant off-gas in a recirculating batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Chemweno, Maurice K; Cernohlavek, Leemer G; Jacoby, William A

    2008-01-01

    We have studied deactivation of titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst by oxidation of polydimethylsiloxane and silicone sealant off-gas in a recirculating batch reactor. Polydimethylsiloxane vapor is a model indoor air pollutant. It does not adsorb strongly on TiO2 in the dark, but undergoes oxidation when the ultraviolet (UV) photons are also present. Commercial silicone (room-temperature vulcanizing) sealant off-gas is an actual indoor air pollutant subject to short-term spikes in concentration. It does adsorb on the TiO2 surface in the dark, but UV photons also catalyze its oxidation. The oxidation of the Si-containing vapors was monitored using a Fourier transform infrared spectroscope equipped with a gas cell. Subsequent to each incremental exposure, a hexane oxidation reaction was performed to track the titania catalyst's activity. The exposures were repeated until substantial deactivation was achieved. We have also documented the regenerative effect of washing the catalyst surface with water. Surface science techniques were used to view the topography of the catalyst and to identify the elements causing the deactivation. Procedural observations of interest in the context of our recirculating batch reactor include the following: the rate of oxidation of hexane was used to assess the activity of a photocatalyst sample; hexane is an appropriate choice of a probe molecule because it does not adsorb in the dark and it undergoes photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) completely, forming CO2; and hexane does not deactivate the photocatalyst surface.

  14. Revisiting Verhulst and Monod models: analysis of batch and fed-batch cultures.

    PubMed

    Shirsat, Nishikant; Mohd, Avesh; Whelan, Jessica; English, Niall J; Glennon, Brian; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    The paper re-evaluates Verhulst and Monod models. It has been claimed that standard logistic equation cannot describe the decline phase of mammalian cells in batch and fed-batch cultures and in some cases it fails to fit somatic growth data. In the present work Verhulst, population-based mechanistic growth model was revisited to describe successfully viable cell density (VCD) in exponential and decline phases of batch and fed-batch cultures of three different CHO cell lines. Verhulst model constants, K, carrying capacity (VCD/ml or μg/ml) and r, intrinsic growth factor (h(-1)) have physical meaning and they are of biological significance. These two parameters together define the course of growth and productivity and therefore, they are valuable in optimisation of culture media, developing feeding strategies and selection of cell lines for productivity. The Verhulst growth model approach was extended to develop productivity models for batch and fed-batch cultures. All Verhulst models were validated against blind data (R(2) > 0.95). Critical examination of theoretical approaches concluded that Monod parameters have no physical meaning. Monod-hybrid (pseudo-mechanistic) batch models were validated against specific growth rates of respective bolus and continuous fed-batch cultures (R(2) ≈ 0.90). The reduced form of Monod-hybrid model CL/(KL + CL) describes specific growth rate during metabolic shift (R(2) ≈ 0.95). Verhulst substrate-based growth models compared favourably with Monod-hybrid models. Thus, experimental evidence implies that the constants in the Monod-hybrid model may not have physical meaning but they behave similarly to the biological constants in Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics, the basis of the Monod growth model.

  15. Trivalent chromium removal from aqueous solutions by a sol–gel synthesized silica adsorbent functionalized with sulphonic acid groups

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Gonzalez, Sergio Efrain; Carbajal-Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe; Manriquez-Gonzalez, Ricardo; De la Cruz-Hernandez, Wencel; Gomez-Salazar, Sergio

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Corpuscular sulphonic acid-functionalized silica holds improved uptake of chromium. • Mesopores on adsorbent facilitate (CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}Cr{sup +} ion uptake on sulphonate sites. • Formation of chromium acetate sulphonate complex proposed from XPS results. • Fixed bed chromium uptake results suggest potential industrial use. - Abstract: A high capacity hybrid silica adsorbent was synthesized via sol–gel processing with sulphonic acid groups as trivalent chromium complex ions chelators from aqueous solutions. The synthesis included co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) with 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPS), and oxidation of thiol to sulphonic acid groups. Chromium uptake kinetic, batch and fixed-bed experiments were performed to assess the removal of this metal from aqueous solutions. {sup 13}C, {sup 29}Si CPMAS NMR, FTIR, XPS were used to characterize the adsorbent structure and the nature of chromium complexes on the adsorbent surface. Chromium maximum uptake was obtained at pH 3 (72.8 mg/g). Elemental analysis results showed ligand density of 1.48 mmol sulphonic groups/g. About 407 mL of Cr(III) solution (311 mg/L) were treated to breakthrough point reaching ≤0.06 mg/L at the effluent. These results comply with USEPA regulation for chromium concentration in drinking water (≤0.1 mg/L). The adsorbent shows potential to be used in chromium separations to the industrial level.

  16. Method for modifying trigger level for adsorber regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Ruth, Michael J.; Cunningham, Michael J.

    2010-05-25

    A method for modifying a NO.sub.x adsorber regeneration triggering variable. Engine operating conditions are monitored until the regeneration triggering variable is met. The adsorber is regenerated and the adsorbtion efficiency of the adsorber is subsequently determined. The regeneration triggering variable is modified to correspond with the decline in adsorber efficiency. The adsorber efficiency may be determined using an empirically predetermined set of values or by using a pair of oxygen sensors to determine the oxygen response delay across the sensors.

  17. Uranium Adsorption on Ion-Exchange Resins - Batch Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    The uranium adsorption performance of five resins (Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 [fresh], Dowex 21K 16-30 [regenerated], Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200) were tested using unspiked, nitrate-spiked, and nitrate-spiked/pH adjusted source water from well 299-W19-36. These batch tests were conducted in support of a resin selection process in which the best resin to use for uranium treatment in the 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system will be identified. The results from these tests are as follows: • The data from the high-nitrate (1331 mg/L) tests indicated that Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 all adsorbed uranium similarly well with Kd values ranging from ~15,000 to 95,000 ml/g. All four resins would be considered suitable for use in the treatment system based on uranium adsorption characteristics. • Lowering the pH of the high nitrate test conditions from 8.2 to 7.5 did not significantly change the uranium adsorption isotherms for the four tested resins. The Kd values for these four resins under high nitrate (1338 mg/L), lower pH (7.5) ranged from ~15,000 to 80,000 ml/g. • Higher nitrate concentrations greatly reduced the uranium adsorption on all four resins. Tests conducted with unspiked (no amendments; nitrate at 337 mg/L and pH at 8.2) source water yielded Kd values for Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 resins ranging from ~800,000 to >3,000,000 ml/g. These values are about two orders of magnitude higher than the Kd values noted from tests conducted using amended source water. • Compared to the fresh resin, the regenerated Dowex 21K 16-30 resin exhibited significantly lower uranium-adsorption performance under all test conditions. The calculated Kd values for the regenerated resin were typically an order of magnitude lower than the values calculated for the fresh resin. • Additional testing using laboratory columns is recommended to better

  18. Production of fructosyltransferase by Aureobasidium sp. ATCC 20524 in batch and two-step batch cultures.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Martín A; Perotti, Nora I

    2009-01-01

    A comparison of fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.9) production by Aureobasidium sp. ATCC 20524 in batch and two step batch cultures was investigated in a 1-l stirred tank reactor using a sucrose supply of 200 g/l. Results showed that the innovative cultivation in two step of Aureobasidium sp. produced more fructosyltransferase (FFase) than the single batch culture at the same sucrose concentration with a maximal enzyme production of 523 U/ml, which was 80.5% higher than the one obtained in the batch culture. The production of fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) was also analyzed; their concentration reached a maximum value of 160 g/l the first day in the two-step culture and 127 g/l in the single-batch mode. The use of the two-step batch culture with Aureobasidium sp. ATCC 20524 in allowing the microorganism to grow up prior to the induction of sucrose (second step), proved to be a powerful method for producing fructosyltransferase and FOSs. PMID:18810518

  19. 3. INSIDE BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT REGENERATIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INSIDE BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT REGENERATIVE BATCH FURNACES ON LEFT AND 5 TON CAPACITY CHARGING MACHINE ON RIGHT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 7. NORTHWEST VIEW OF FLUX CONVEYORS FEEDING BATCH HOPPERS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. NORTHWEST VIEW OF FLUX CONVEYORS FEEDING BATCH HOPPERS ON THE BATCHING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  1. Using Forensics to Untangle Batch Effects in TCGA Data - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    Rehan Akbani, Ph.D., and colleagues at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a tool called MBatch to detect, diagnose, and correct batch effects in TCGA data. Read more about batch effects in this Case Study.

  2. VIEW OF BATCH STORAGE SILOS LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM DREY STREET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BATCH STORAGE SILOS LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM DREY STREET, SHOWING RUINS OF BOILER HOUSE WITH SALVAGED MACHINERY IN FOREGROUND - Chambers Window Glass Company, Batch Plant, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

  3. GENERAL VIEW OF BATCH PLANT, CONVEYOR AND GLASS FURNACE STACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF BATCH PLANT, CONVEYOR AND GLASS FURNACE STACK LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM DREY STREET - Chambers Window Glass Company, Batch Plant, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

  4. DETAIL VIEW OF BATCH BIN AFTER PLANT DEMOLITION, LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BATCH BIN AFTER PLANT DEMOLITION, LOOKING EAST TOWARD ARNOLD - Chambers Window Glass Company, Batch Plant, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

  5. Job Scheduling Under the Portable Batch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Robert L.; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The typical batch queuing system schedules jobs for execution by a set of queue controls. The controls determine from which queues jobs may be selected. Within the queue, jobs are ordered first-in, first-run. This limits the set of scheduling policies available to a site. The Portable Batch System removes this limitation by providing an external scheduling module. This separate program has full knowledge of the available queued jobs, running jobs, and system resource usage. Sites are able to implement any policy expressible in one of several procedural language. Policies may range from "bet fit" to "fair share" to purely political. Scheduling decisions can be made over the full set of jobs regardless of queue or order. The scheduling policy can be changed to fit a wide variety of computing environments and scheduling goals. This is demonstrated by the use of PBS on an IBM SP-2 system at NASA Ames.

  6. Ceria modified activated carbon: an efficient arsenic removal adsorbent for drinking water purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawana, Radha; Somasundar, Yogesh; Iyer, Venkatesh Shankar; Baruwati, Babita

    2016-03-01

    Ceria (CeO2) coated powdered activated carbon was synthesized by a single step chemical process and demonstrated to be a highly efficient adsorbent for the removal of both As(III) and As(V) from water without any pre-oxidation process. The formation of CeO2 on the surface of powdered activated carbon was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The percentage of Ce in the adsorbent was confirmed to be 3.5 % by ICP-OES. The maximum removal capacity for As(III) and As(V) was found to be 10.3 and 12.2 mg/g, respectively. These values are comparable to most of the commercially available adsorbents. 80 % of the removal process was completed within 15 min of contact time in a batch process. More than 95 % removal of both As(III) and As(V) was achieved within an hour. The efficiency of removal was not affected by change in pH (5-9), salinity, hardness, organic (1-4 ppm of humic acid) and inorganic anions (sulphate, nitrate, chloride, bicarbonate and fluoride) excluding phosphate. Presence of 100 ppm phosphate reduced the removal significantly from 90 to 18 %. The equilibrium adsorption pattern of both As(III) and As(V) fitted well with the Freundlich model with R 2 values 0.99 and 0.97, respectively. The material shows reusability greater than three times in a batch process (arsenic concentration reduced below 10 ppb from 330 ppb) and a life of at least 100 L in a column study with 80 g material when tested under natural hard water (TDS 1000 ppm, pH 7.8, hardness 600 ppm as CaCO3) spiked with 330 ppb of arsenic.

  7. Heat Integration in Batch Distillation Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Debadrita; Jana, Amiya K.; Samanta, Amar Nath

    2010-10-01

    A new heat integrated batch distillation column has been configured in this paper. Here the column and reboiler are connected in an annular arrangement and a compressor is positioned between them to maintain the pressure difference. The heat integration is between the rectifying batch column and one concentric reboiler. Ethanol-Water binary system is chosen as an example for the design and analysis of this heat integrated batch distillation column (HIBDiC). In this work, a sensitivity test for selecting the optimal value of the total number of trays and reboiler duty and a thermodynamic feasibility test for its design acceptability has been accomplished. The principal objective of this study is to investigate the influence of compression ratio (CR) on the energy consumption of distillation and to find out the optimal value of CR. Also a comparative analysis of HIBiDC on energy consumption in steady state as well as in dynamic state has been carried out on the basis of its conventional model. The proposed scheme is capable to save the energy up to 50.52% compared to its conventional one by selecting the CR of 1.4 as an optimal value.

  8. Pollution prevention applications in batch manufacturing operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, Derek W.; O'Shaughnessy, James

    2004-02-01

    Older, "low-tech" batch manufacturing operations are often fertile grounds for gains resulting from pollution prevention techniques. This paper presents a pollution prevention technique utilized for wastewater discharge permit compliance purposes at a batch manufacturer of detergents, deodorants, and floor-care products. This manufacturer generated industrial wastewater as a result of equipment rinses required after each product batch changeover. After investing a significant amount of capital on end of pip-line wastewater treatment technology designed to address existing discharge limits, this manufacturer chose to investigate alternate, low-cost approaches to address anticipated new permit limits. Mass balances using spreadsheets and readily available formulation and production data were conducted on over 300 products to determine how each individual product contributed to the total wastewater pollutant load. These mass balances indicated that 22 products accounted for over 55% of the wastewater pollutant. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine whether these same products could accept their individual changeover rinse water as make-up water in formulations without sacrificing product quality. This changeover reuse technique was then implement at the plant scale for selected products. Significant reductions in wastewater volume (25%) and wastewater pollutant loading (85+%) were realized as a direct result of this approach.

  9. 40 CFR 63.462 - Batch cold cleaning machine standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batch cold cleaning machine standards... National Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.462 Batch cold cleaning machine standards. (a) Each owner or operator of an immersion batch cold solvent cleaning machine shall comply with...

  10. 40 CFR 63.462 - Batch cold cleaning machine standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batch cold cleaning machine standards... National Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.462 Batch cold cleaning machine standards. (a) Each owner or operator of an immersion batch cold solvent cleaning machine shall comply with...

  11. 40 CFR 63.462 - Batch cold cleaning machine standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batch cold cleaning machine standards... National Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.462 Batch cold cleaning machine standards. (a) Each owner or operator of an immersion batch cold solvent cleaning machine shall comply with...

  12. 40 CFR 63.462 - Batch cold cleaning machine standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch cold cleaning machine standards... National Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.462 Batch cold cleaning machine standards. (a) Each owner or operator of an immersion batch cold solvent cleaning machine shall comply with...

  13. 40 CFR 63.462 - Batch cold cleaning machine standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batch cold cleaning machine standards... National Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.462 Batch cold cleaning machine standards. (a) Each owner or operator of an immersion batch cold solvent cleaning machine shall comply with...

  14. 21 CFR 80.38 - Treatment of batch after certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment of batch after certification. 80.38... COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.38 Treatment of batch after certification. (a) Immediately upon notification that a batch of color additive has been certified, the person...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1321 - Batch process vents provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batch process vents provisions. 63... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1321 Batch process vents provisions. (a) Batch process vents. Except as specified in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this...

  16. 21 CFR 80.37 - Treatment of batch pending certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment of batch pending certification. 80.37... COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.37 Treatment of batch pending certification. Immediately after the sample that is to accompany a request for certification of a batch of color additive...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Reactor batch process vent provisions... § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources shall comply with paragraph (a)(1) or...

  18. 21 CFR 80.37 - Treatment of batch pending certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of batch pending certification. 80.37... COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.37 Treatment of batch pending certification. Immediately after the sample that is to accompany a request for certification of a batch of color additive...

  19. 21 CFR 80.38 - Treatment of batch after certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of batch after certification. 80.38... COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.38 Treatment of batch after certification. (a) Immediately upon notification that a batch of color additive has been certified, the person...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reactor batch process vent provisions... Resins § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources shall comply with paragraph...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reactor batch process vent provisions... § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources shall comply with paragraph (a)(1) or...

  2. 21 CFR 80.37 - Treatment of batch pending certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of batch pending certification. 80.37... COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.37 Treatment of batch pending certification. Immediately after the sample that is to accompany a request for certification of a batch of color additive...

  3. 21 CFR 80.37 - Treatment of batch pending certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Treatment of batch pending certification. 80.37... COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.37 Treatment of batch pending certification. Immediately after the sample that is to accompany a request for certification of a batch of color additive...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1321 - Batch process vents provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Batch process vents provisions. 63.1321... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1321 Batch process vents provisions. (a) Batch process vents. Except as specified in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reactor batch process vent provisions... § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources shall comply with paragraph (a)(1) or...

  6. 21 CFR 80.37 - Treatment of batch pending certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment of batch pending certification. 80.37... COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.37 Treatment of batch pending certification. Immediately after the sample that is to accompany a request for certification of a batch of color additive...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1321 - Batch process vents provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents provisions. 63.1321... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1321 Batch process vents provisions. (a) Batch process vents. Except as specified in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reactor batch process vent provisions... Resins § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources shall comply with paragraph...

  9. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the optional ingredients, shall be thoroughly commingled and the contents pasteurized at a temperature of at least 158...

  10. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the optional ingredients, shall be thoroughly commingled and the contents pasteurized at a temperature of at least 158...

  11. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the optional ingredients, shall be thoroughly commingled and the contents pasteurized at a temperature of at least 158...

  12. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the optional ingredients, shall be thoroughly commingled and the contents pasteurized at a temperature of at least 158...

  13. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the optional ingredients, shall be thoroughly commingled and the contents pasteurized at a temperature of at least 158...

  14. A Semi-Batch Reactor Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derevjanik, Mario; Badri, Solmaz; Barat, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This experiment and analysis offer an economic yet challenging semi-batch reactor experience. Household bleach is pumped at a controlled rate into a batch reactor containing pharmaceutical hydrogen peroxide solution. Batch temperature, product molecular oxygen, and the overall change in solution conductivity are metered. The reactor simulation…

  15. 40 CFR 63.1408 - Aggregate batch vent stream provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aggregate batch vent stream provisions... Resins § 63.1408 Aggregate batch vent stream provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of aggregate batch vent streams at a new or existing affected source shall comply with either paragraph...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1408 - Aggregate batch vent stream provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aggregate batch vent stream provisions... § 63.1408 Aggregate batch vent stream provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of aggregate batch vent streams at a new or existing affected source shall comply with either paragraph...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1408 - Aggregate batch vent stream provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aggregate batch vent stream provisions... Resins § 63.1408 Aggregate batch vent stream provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of aggregate batch vent streams at a new or existing affected source shall comply with either paragraph...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1321 - Batch process vents provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vent streams except as specified in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(2) of this section. For continuous... and aggregate batch vent streams, the control requirements for individual batch process vents or aggregate batch vent streams (e.g., 90 percent emission reduction) as specified in § 63.1322(a)(1),...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1408 - Aggregate batch vent stream provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Aggregate batch vent stream provisions... § 63.1408 Aggregate batch vent stream provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of aggregate batch vent streams at a new or existing affected source shall comply with either paragraph...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1408 - Aggregate batch vent stream provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Aggregate batch vent stream provisions... § 63.1408 Aggregate batch vent stream provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of aggregate batch vent streams at a new or existing affected source shall comply with either paragraph...

  1. Food-processes wastewaters treatment using food solid-waste materials as adsorbents or absorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapti, Ilaira; Georgopoulos, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Papadaki, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The wastewaters generated by olive-mills during the production of olive oil, wastewaters from a dairy and a cow-farm unit and wastewaters from a small food factory have been treated by means of selected materials, either by-products of the same units, or other solid waste, as absorbents or adsorbents in order to identify the capacity of those materials to remove organic load and toxicity from the aforementioned wastewaters. The potential of both the materials used as absorbents as well as the treated wastewaters to be further used either as fertilizers or for agricultural irrigation purposes are examined. Dry olive leaves, sheep wool, rice husks, etc. were used either in a fixed-bed or in a stirred batch arrangemen,t employing different initial concentrations of the aforementioned wastewaters. The efficiency of removal was assessed using scpectrophotometric methods and allium test phytotoxicity measurements. In this presentation the response of each material employed is shown as a function of absorbent/adsorbent quantity and kind, treatment time and wastewater kind and initial organic load. Preliminary results on the potential uses of the adsorbents/absorbents and the treated wastewaters are also shown. Keywords: Olive-mill wastewaters, dairy farm wastewaters, olive leaves, zeolite, sheep wool

  2. Guava (Psidium guajava) leaf powder: novel adsorbent for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Ponnusami, V; Vikram, S; Srivastava, S N

    2008-03-21

    Batch sorption experiments were carried out using a novel adsorbent, guava leaf powder (GLP), for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. Potential of GLP for adsorption of MB from aqueous solution was found to be excellent. Effects of process parameters pH, adsorbent dosage, concentration, particle size and temperature were studied. Temperature-concentration interaction effect on dye uptake was studied and a quadratic model was proposed to predict dye uptake in terms of concentration, time and temperature. The model conforms closely to the experimental data. The model was used to find optimum temperature and concentration that result in maximum dye uptake. Langmuir model represent the experimental data well. Maximum dye uptake was found to be 295mg/g, indicating that GLP can be used as an excellent low-cost adsorbent. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models were tested. From experimental data it was found that adsorption of MB onto GLP follow pseudo second order kinetics. External diffusion and intraparticle diffusion play roles in adsorption process. Free energy of adsorption (DeltaG degrees ), enthalpy change (DeltaH degrees ) and entropy change (DeltaS degrees ) were calculated to predict the nature of adsorption. Adsorption in packed bed was also evaluated.

  3. Removal of aqueous nickel (II) using laterite as a low-cost adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Somnath; Kumar, Sunil; Misra, A K; Acharya, P C

    2006-10-01

    The present paper describes the laboratory study of laterite as a low-cost adsorbent for removal of aqueous nickel (II). At pH 7 and a temperature of 30 degrees C, a sorbent dose of 15 mg/L resulted in approximately 90% removal of nickel (II) from its initial concentration of 10 mg/L. A maximum removal of 98% of the adsorbate was observed with an adsorbent particle size of 210 micro with the above conditions. Batch kinetics results were described by fitting in a Langmuir isotherm. Helffrich's half-time equation (Helffrich, 1962) has been applied to evaluate the adsorption process. It appears that film diffusion would be the rate-limiting step. The effect of pH on the sorption process was carried out to a value of 8.0. The removal rate of nickel was found to be the function of pH of the reaction mixture. The rate of nickel uptake by laterite with the decrease in pH value has been explained on the basis of aqueous-complex formation and the subsequent acid-base dissociation at the solid-solution interface. PMID:17120446

  4. Adsorption and removal kinetics of phosphonate from water using natural adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R Anil; Velayudhan, K T; Ramachandran, V; Bhai, R Susheela; Unnikrishnan, G; Vasu, K

    2010-01-01

    The removal of phosphonate from water was studied using some natural adsorbents. Potassium phosphonate is a fungicide used for the control of Phytophthora capsici, which is prevalent in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.). Batch adsorption kinetic experiments were conducted on the adsorption of phosphonate onto the adsorbents. The concentration of phosphonate was measured on a high-performance liquid chromatograph fitted with a conductivity detector. The percentage removal of phosphonate by powdered laterite stone (PLS) from water was 40.4%, within a residence time of 15 minutes. The mechanisms of the rate of adsorption were analyzed and compared using the pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion models. The experimental data was found to correlate well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating adsorption as a chemisorption process. A possible reaction in the phosphonate-PLS system also has been proposed. The PLS can be used as a low-cost natural adsorbent for phosphonate removal from water. PMID:20112539

  5. Comparative study of the removal of phenolic compounds by biological and non-biological adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Abel E; Cuizano, Norma A; Lazo, Jose C; Sun-Kou, María R; Llanos, Bertha P

    2009-05-30

    The ability of biological and non-biological adsorbents to remove 2-nitrophenol (2-NP) and 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) from aqueous solutions in batch experiments at room temperature was compared. The marine seaweeds Macrocystis integrifolia Bory (S1) and Lessonia nigrescens Bory (S2) were cross-linked with CaCl(2) to enhance their mechanical properties. Natural bentonite was chemically exchanged with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (B1) and bencyltriethylammonium chloride (B2) to increase their affinity towards organic compounds as well. The adsorption capacity of all of the adsorbents strongly depends on solution pH, whereas equilibrium assays showed a mixed mechanism according to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity of 2-NP follows the trend: S1>S2>B2>B1 within the range of 97.37 and 18.64 mg g(-1) whereas for 2-CP, it ranged between 24.18 and 9.95 mg g(-1) with the trend: S1>S2>B2 approximately B1. The importance of the octanol-water partition coefficient as the main factor on the adsorption of these compounds on two different kinds of adsorbents is discussed. PMID:18990486

  6. Removal of aqueous nickel (II) using laterite as a low-cost adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Somnath; Kumar, Sunil; Misra, A K; Acharya, P C

    2006-10-01

    The present paper describes the laboratory study of laterite as a low-cost adsorbent for removal of aqueous nickel (II). At pH 7 and a temperature of 30 degrees C, a sorbent dose of 15 mg/L resulted in approximately 90% removal of nickel (II) from its initial concentration of 10 mg/L. A maximum removal of 98% of the adsorbate was observed with an adsorbent particle size of 210 micro with the above conditions. Batch kinetics results were described by fitting in a Langmuir isotherm. Helffrich's half-time equation (Helffrich, 1962) has been applied to evaluate the adsorption process. It appears that film diffusion would be the rate-limiting step. The effect of pH on the sorption process was carried out to a value of 8.0. The removal rate of nickel was found to be the function of pH of the reaction mixture. The rate of nickel uptake by laterite with the decrease in pH value has been explained on the basis of aqueous-complex formation and the subsequent acid-base dissociation at the solid-solution interface.

  7. Mesoporous Magnesium Oxide Hollow Spheres as Superior Arsenite Adsorbent: Synthesis and Adsorption Behavior.

    PubMed

    Purwajanti, Swasmi; Zhang, Hongwei; Huang, Xiaodan; Song, Hao; Yang, Yannan; Zhang, Jun; Niu, Yuting; Meka, Anand Kumar; Noonan, Owen; Yu, Chengzhong

    2016-09-28

    Arsenic contamination in natural water has posed a significant threat to global health due to its toxicity and carcinogenity. Adsorption technology is an easy and flexible method for arsenic removal with high efficiency. In this Article, we demonstrated the synthesis of mesoporous MgO hollow spheres (MgO-HS) and their application as high performance arsenite (As(III)) adsorbent. MgO-HS with uniform particle size (∼180 nm), high specific surface area (175 m(2) g(-1)), and distinguished mesopores (9.5 nm in size) have been prepared by hard-templating approach using mesoporous hollow carbon spheres as templates. An ultrahigh maximum As(III) adsorption capacity (Qmax) of 892 mg g(-1) was achieved in batch As(III) removal study. Adsorption kinetic study demonstrated that MgO-HS could enable As(III) adsorption 6 times faster as a commercial MgO adsorbent. The ultrahigh adsorption capacity and faster adsorption kinetics were attributed to the unique structure and morphology of MgO-HS that enabled fast transformation into a flower-like porous structure composed of ultrathin Mg(OH)2 nanosheets. This in situ formed structure provided abundant and highly accessible hydroxyl groups, which enhanced the adsorption performance toward As(III). The outstanding As(III) removal capability of MgO-HS showed their great promise as highly efficient adsorbents for As(III) sequestration from contaminated water. PMID:27600107

  8. Treatment of malachite green-containing wastewater using poultry feathers as adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Beak, Mi H; Ijagbemi, Christianah O; Kim, Dong S

    2009-04-01

    The feasibility of using feathers, a waste from poultry as an absorbent for malachite green in dye wastewater was studied. The batch adsorption tests were shown to be influenced by the concentration of the dye, reaction temperature, solution pH, and pre-treatment with ethanol. In order to establish the equilibrium state of the process, a kinetic study was conducted for an optimal practice of adsorption treatment process. The adsorption reached equilibrium within 120 min in the range of dye concentration studied. It was found that the adsorption rate increases especially at low concentrations of dye and the adsorption data fitted well to the first-order reaction kinetics over all dye concentration range. Absolute amount of adsorbed malachite green at equilibrium condition decreased as concentration decreases. Adsorption of malachite green on poultry feathers fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model. As temperature increases, the adsorbed amount of malachite green at equilibrium also increased, indicating an endothermic adsorption reaction. In addition, the color removal of malachite green rapidly increased with increase in dye's water pH. The pre-treatment of adsorbent with ethanol produced initial slow rate of malachite green removal but after about 100 min of reaction time, same removal rate was observed compare with the untreated feathers.

  9. Semiautomated, Reproducible Batch Processing of Soy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thoerne, Mary; Byford, Ivan W.; Chastain, Jack W.; Swango, Beverly E.

    2005-01-01

    A computer-controlled apparatus processes batches of soybeans into one or more of a variety of food products, under conditions that can be chosen by the user and reproduced from batch to batch. Examples of products include soy milk, tofu, okara (an insoluble protein and fiber byproduct of soy milk), and whey. Most processing steps take place without intervention by the user. This apparatus was developed for use in research on processing of soy. It is also a prototype of other soy-processing apparatuses for research, industrial, and home use. Prior soy-processing equipment includes household devices that automatically produce soy milk but do not automatically produce tofu. The designs of prior soy-processing equipment require users to manually transfer intermediate solid soy products and to press them manually and, hence, under conditions that are not consistent from batch to batch. Prior designs do not afford choices of processing conditions: Users cannot use previously developed soy-processing equipment to investigate the effects of variations of techniques used to produce soy milk (e.g., cold grinding, hot grinding, and pre-cook blanching) and of such process parameters as cooking times and temperatures, grinding times, soaking times and temperatures, rinsing conditions, and sizes of particles generated by grinding. In contrast, the present apparatus is amenable to such investigations. The apparatus (see figure) includes a processing tank and a jacketed holding or coagulation tank. The processing tank can be capped by either of two different heads and can contain either of two different insertable mesh baskets. The first head includes a grinding blade and heating elements. The second head includes an automated press piston. One mesh basket, designated the okara basket, has oblong holes with a size equivalent to about 40 mesh [40 openings per inch (.16 openings per centimeter)]. The second mesh basket, designated the tofu basket, has holes of 70 mesh [70 openings

  10. The biogeochemical cycle of the adsorbed template. II - Selective adsorption of mononucleotides on adsorbed polynucleotide templates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazard, Daniel; Lahav, Noam; Orenberg, James B.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for the verification of the specific interaction step of the 'adsorbed template' biogeochemical cycle, a simple model for a primitive prebiotic replication system. The experimental system consisted of gypsum as the mineral to which an oligonucleotide template attaches (Poly-C or Poly-U) and (5-prime)-AMP, (5-prime)-GMP, (5-prime)-CMP and (5-prime)-UMP as the interacting biomonomers. When Poly-C or Poly-U were used as adsorbed templates, (5-prime)-GMP and (5-prime)-AMP, respectively, were observed to be the most strongly adsorbed species.

  11. SLUDGE BATCH 5 SIMULANT FLOWSHEET STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M; Bradley Pickenheim, B; David Best, D; David Koopman, D

    2008-10-03

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will transition from Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) processing to Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in early fiscal year 2009. Tests were conducted using non-radioactive simulants of the expected SB5 composition to determine the impact of varying the acid stoichiometry during the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) processes. The work was conducted to meet the Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2007-0007, Rev. 1 and followed the guidelines of a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT&QAP). The flowsheet studies are performed to evaluate the potential chemical processing issues, hydrogen generation rates, and process slurry rheological properties as a function of acid stoichiometry. Initial SB5 flowsheet studies were conducted to guide decisions during the sludge batch preparation process. These studies were conducted with the estimated SB5 composition at the time of the study. The composition has changed slightly since these studies were completed due to changes in the washing plan to prepare SB5 and the estimated SB4 heel mass. Nine DWPF process simulations were completed in 4-L laboratory-scale equipment using both a batch simulant (Tank 51 simulant after washing is complete) and a blend simulant (Tank 40 simulant after Tank 51 transfer is complete). Each simulant had a set of four SRAT and SME simulations at varying acid stoichiometry levels (115%, 130%, 145% and 160%). One additional run was made using blend simulant at 130% acid that included additions of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) waste prior to acid addition and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) waste following SRAT dewatering. There are several parameters that are noteworthy concerning SB5 sludge: (1) This is the first batch DWPF will be processing that contains sludge that has had a significant fraction of aluminum removed through aluminum dissolution. (2) The sludge is high in mercury

  12. Radon emanation from radium specific adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Alabdula'aly, Abdulrahman I; Maghrawy, Hamed B

    2010-01-01

    Pilot studies were undertaken to quantify the total activity of radon that is eluted following no-flow periods from several Ra-226 adsorbents loaded to near exhaustion. The adsorbents studied included two types of barium sulphate impregnated alumina (ABA-8000 and F-1) and Dowex MSC-1 resin treated by either barium hydroxide or barium chloride. In parallel, radium loaded plain activated aluminas and Dowex MSC-1 resin were similarly investigated. The results revealed that radon was quantitatively eluted during the first few bed volumes of column operation after no-flow periods. Although similar radon elution profiles were obtained, the position of the radon peak was found to vary and depended on the adsorbent type. Radon levels up to 24 and 14 kBq dm(-3) were measured after a rest period of 72h from radium exhausted Dowex MSC-1 treated with barium chloride and F-1 impregnated alumina with barium sulphate, respectively. The eluted radon values measured experimentally were compared to those calculated theoretically from accumulated radium quantities for the different media. For plain adsorbents, an agreement better than 10% was obtained. For treated resin-types a consistency within 30% but for impregnated alumina-types high discrepancy between respective values were obtained.

  13. Unoccupied electronic states in adsorbate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertel, E.

    1991-11-01

    Experimental work on unoccupied electronic states in adsorbate systems on metallic substrates is reviewed with emphasis on recent developments. The first part is devoted to molecular adsorbates. Weakly chemisorbed hydrocarbons are briefly discussed. An exhaustive inverse photoemission (IPE) study of the CO bond to the transition metals Ni, Pb, and Pt is presented. Adsorbed NO is taken as an example to demonstrate the persisting discrepancies in the interpretation of IPE spectra. Atomic adsorbates are discussed in the second part. The quantum well state model is applied to interpret the surface states in reconstructing and non-reconstructing adsorption systems of alkali metals and hydrogen. A recent controversy on the unoccupied electronic states of the Cu(110)/O p(2×1) surface is critically reviewed. The quantum well state model is then compared to tight binding and local-density-functional calculations of the unoccupied bands and the deficiencies of the various approaches are pointed out. Finally, the relation between the surface state model and more chemically oriented models of surface bonding is briefly discussed.

  14. Continuum elastic theory of adsorbate vibrational relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Steven P.; Pykhtin, M. V.; Mele, E. J.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    1998-01-01

    An analytical theory is presented for the damping of low-frequency adsorbate vibrations via resonant coupling to the substrate phonons. The system is treated classically, with the substrate modeled as a semi-infinite elastic continuum and the adsorbate overlayer modeled as an array of point masses connected to the surface by harmonic springs. The theory provides a simple expression for the relaxation rate in terms of fundamental parameters of the system: γ=mω¯02/AcρcT, where m is the adsorbate mass, ω¯0 is the measured frequency, Ac is the overlayer unit-cell area, and ρ and cT are the substrate mass density and transverse speed of sound, respectively. This expression is strongly coverage dependent, and predicts relaxation rates in excellent quantitative agreement with available experiments. For a half-monolayer of carbon monoxide on the copper (100) surface, the predicted damping rate of in-plane frustrated translations is 0.50×1012s-1, as compared to the experimental value of (0.43±0.07)×1012s-1. Furthermore it is shown that, for all coverages presently accessible to experiment, adsorbate motions exhibit collective effects which cannot be treated as stemming from isolated oscillators.

  15. Blue Ribbon Panel Report - BRP - Cancer Moonshot

    Cancer.gov

    The Blue Ribbon Panel Report outlines 10 recommendations to accelerate progress against cancer. The panel was established to ensure that the Cancer Moonshot's approaches are grounded in the best science.

  16. BATCH-GE: Batch analysis of Next-Generation Sequencing data for genome editing assessment

    PubMed Central

    Boel, Annekatrien; Steyaert, Woutert; De Rocker, Nina; Menten, Björn; Callewaert, Bert; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Willaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis by the CRISPR/Cas9 system is currently revolutionizing genetics. The ease of this technique has enabled genome engineering in-vitro and in a range of model organisms and has pushed experimental dimensions to unprecedented proportions. Due to its tremendous progress in terms of speed, read length, throughput and cost, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly used for the analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing experiments. However, the current tools for genome editing assessment lack flexibility and fall short in the analysis of large amounts of NGS data. Therefore, we designed BATCH-GE, an easy-to-use bioinformatics tool for batch analysis of NGS-generated genome editing data, available from https://github.com/WouterSteyaert/BATCH-GE.git. BATCH-GE detects and reports indel mutations and other precise genome editing events and calculates the corresponding mutagenesis efficiencies for a large number of samples in parallel. Furthermore, this new tool provides flexibility by allowing the user to adapt a number of input variables. The performance of BATCH-GE was evaluated in two genome editing experiments, aiming to generate knock-out and knock-in zebrafish mutants. This tool will not only contribute to the evaluation of CRISPR/Cas9-based experiments, but will be of use in any genome editing experiment and has the ability to analyze data from every organism with a sequenced genome. PMID:27461955

  17. BATCH-GE: Batch analysis of Next-Generation Sequencing data for genome editing assessment.

    PubMed

    Boel, Annekatrien; Steyaert, Woutert; De Rocker, Nina; Menten, Björn; Callewaert, Bert; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Willaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis by the CRISPR/Cas9 system is currently revolutionizing genetics. The ease of this technique has enabled genome engineering in-vitro and in a range of model organisms and has pushed experimental dimensions to unprecedented proportions. Due to its tremendous progress in terms of speed, read length, throughput and cost, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly used for the analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing experiments. However, the current tools for genome editing assessment lack flexibility and fall short in the analysis of large amounts of NGS data. Therefore, we designed BATCH-GE, an easy-to-use bioinformatics tool for batch analysis of NGS-generated genome editing data, available from https://github.com/WouterSteyaert/BATCH-GE.git. BATCH-GE detects and reports indel mutations and other precise genome editing events and calculates the corresponding mutagenesis efficiencies for a large number of samples in parallel. Furthermore, this new tool provides flexibility by allowing the user to adapt a number of input variables. The performance of BATCH-GE was evaluated in two genome editing experiments, aiming to generate knock-out and knock-in zebrafish mutants. This tool will not only contribute to the evaluation of CRISPR/Cas9-based experiments, but will be of use in any genome editing experiment and has the ability to analyze data from every organism with a sequenced genome.

  18. BATCH-GE: Batch analysis of Next-Generation Sequencing data for genome editing assessment.

    PubMed

    Boel, Annekatrien; Steyaert, Woutert; De Rocker, Nina; Menten, Björn; Callewaert, Bert; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Willaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis by the CRISPR/Cas9 system is currently revolutionizing genetics. The ease of this technique has enabled genome engineering in-vitro and in a range of model organisms and has pushed experimental dimensions to unprecedented proportions. Due to its tremendous progress in terms of speed, read length, throughput and cost, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly used for the analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing experiments. However, the current tools for genome editing assessment lack flexibility and fall short in the analysis of large amounts of NGS data. Therefore, we designed BATCH-GE, an easy-to-use bioinformatics tool for batch analysis of NGS-generated genome editing data, available from https://github.com/WouterSteyaert/BATCH-GE.git. BATCH-GE detects and reports indel mutations and other precise genome editing events and calculates the corresponding mutagenesis efficiencies for a large number of samples in parallel. Furthermore, this new tool provides flexibility by allowing the user to adapt a number of input variables. The performance of BATCH-GE was evaluated in two genome editing experiments, aiming to generate knock-out and knock-in zebrafish mutants. This tool will not only contribute to the evaluation of CRISPR/Cas9-based experiments, but will be of use in any genome editing experiment and has the ability to analyze data from every organism with a sequenced genome. PMID:27461955

  19. Development and Testing of Molecular Adsorber Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Nithin; Hasegawa, Mark; Straka, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    The effect of on-orbit molecular contamination has the potential to degrade the performance of spaceflight hardware and diminish the lifetime of the spacecraft. For example, sensitive surfaces, such as optical surfaces, electronics, detectors, and thermal control surfaces, are vulnerable to the damaging effects of contamination from outgassed materials. The current solution to protect these surfaces is through the use of zeolite coated ceramic adsorber pucks. However, these pucks and its additional complex mounting hardware requirements result in several disadvantages, such as size, weight, and cost related concerns, that impact the spacecraft design and the integration and test schedule. As a result, a new innovative molecular adsorber coating was developed as a sprayable alternative to mitigate the risk of on-orbit molecular contamination. In this study, the formulation for molecular adsorber coatings was optimized using various binders, pigment treatment methods, binder to pigment ratios, thicknesses, and spray application techniques. The formulations that passed coating adhesion and vacuum thermal cycling tests were further tested for its adsorptive capacity. Accelerated molecular capacitance tests were performed in an innovatively designed multi-unit system containing idealized contaminant sources. This novel system significantly increased the productivity of the testing phase for the various formulations that were developed. Work performed during the development and testing phases has demonstrated successful application of molecular adsorber coatings onto metallic substrates, as well as, very promising results for the adhesion performance and the molecular capacitance of the coating. Continued testing will assist in the qualification of molecular adsorber coatings for use on future contamination sensitive spaceflight missions.

  20. Coalesced chitosan activated carbon composite for batch and fixed-bed adsorption of cationic and anionic dyes.

    PubMed

    Auta, M; Hameed, B H

    2013-05-01

    A renewable waste tea activated carbon (WTAC) was coalesced with chitosan to form composite adsorbent used for waste water treatment. Adsorptive capacities of crosslinked chitosan beads (CCB) and its composite (WTAC-CCB) for Methylene blue dye (MB) and Acid blue 29 (AB29) were evaluated through batch and fixed-bed studies. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms were tested for the adsorption process and the experimental data were best fitted by Langmuir model and least by Freundlich model; the suitability of fitness was adjudged by the Chi-square (χ(2)) and Marquadt's percent standard deviation error functions. Judging by the values of χ(2), pseudo-second-order reaction model best described the adsorption process than pseudo-first-order kinetic model for MB/AB29 on both adsorbents. After five cycles of adsorbents desorption test, more than 50% WTAC-CCB adsorption efficiency was retained while CCB had <20% adsorption efficiency. The results of this study revealed that WTAC-CCB composite is a promising adsorbent for treatment of anionic and cationic dyes in effluent wastewaters.

  1. Natural Transformation of Azotobacter vinelandii by Adsorbed Chromosomal DNA: Role of Adsorbed DNA Conformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, N.; Zilles, J.; Nguyen, H.

    2008-12-01

    Recent increases in antibiotic resistance among pathogenic microorganisms and the accompanying public health concerns result both from the widespread use of antibiotics and from the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes among microorganisms. To understand the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes and identify efficient measures to minimize these transfers, an interdisciplinary approach was used to identify physical and chemical factors that control the fate and biological availability of extracellular DNA. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was used to study extracellular DNA adsorption and the conformation of the adsorbed DNA on silica and natural organic matter (NOM) surfaces. Solution chemistry was varied systematically to investigate the role of adsorbed DNA conformation on transformation. Gene transfer was assessed under the same conditions using natural transformation of chromosomal DNA into the soil bacteria Azotobacter vinelandii. DNA adsorbed to both silica and NOM surfaces has a more compact and rigid conformation in the presence of Ca2+ compared to Na+. Extracellular DNA adsorbed on silica and NOM surfaces transformed A. vinelandii. The transformation efficiency of adsorbed DNA was up to 4 orders of magnitude lower than that of dissolved DNA. Preliminary results suggest that the presence of Ca2+ in groundwater (e.g. hardness) reduces the availability of adsorbed DNA for transformation.

  2. Batch treatment controls corrosion in pumping wells

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, S.; Doran, C.R.

    1984-02-01

    Conoco recently developed a batch treatment program to control corrosion in sucker rod pumped wells. The program was intended to prolong equipment life, reduce pulling jobs and cut operating costs. Tested on MCA Unit near Maljamar in southeast New Mexico, and since applied to more than 400 producing wells near Hobbs, the new program has been remarkably successful. Pulling jobs, which had totaled 178 a year at MCA Unit, dropped to 50 a year, reduced inhibitor requirements cut treatment costs by an estimated $6,100 per month and production increased.

  3. Removal of phosphate from water by a Fe-Mn binary oxide adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaosheng; Liu, Huijuan; Liu, Ruiping; Qu, Jiuhui

    2009-07-15

    Phosphate removal is important in the control of eutrophication of water bodies and adsorption is one of the promising approaches for this purpose. A Fe-Mn binary oxide adsorbent with a Fe/Mn molar ratio of 6:1 for phosphate removal was synthesized by a simultaneous oxidation and coprecipitation process. Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate adsorption kinetics and equilibrium, in batch mode. The effects of different experimental parameters, namely contact time, initial phosphate concentration, solution pH, and ionic strength on the phosphate adsorption were investigated. The adsorption data were analyzed by both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models and the data were well fit by the Freundlich isotherm model. Kinetic data correlated well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, suggesting that the adsorption process might be chemical sorption. The maximal adsorption capacity was 36 mg/g at pH 5.6. The phosphate adsorption was highly pH dependent. The effects of anions such as Cl(-),SO42-, and CO32- on phosphate removal were also investigated. The results suggest that the presence of these ions had no significant effect on phosphate removal. The phosphate removal was mainly achieved by the replacement of surface hydroxyl groups by the phosphate species and formation of inner-sphere surface complexes at the water/oxide interface. In addition, the adsorbed phosphate ions can be effectively desorbed by dilute NaOH solutions. This adsorbent, with large adsorption capacity and high selectivity, is therefore a very promising adsorbent for the removal of phosphate ions from aqueous solutions.

  4. Magnesium oxide-impregnated tuff soil-derived ceramic: a novel cadmium(II) adsorbing media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Md; Bhakta, Jatindra N.; Maneesh, Namburath; Munekage, Yukihiro; Motomura, Kevin

    2015-07-01

    The contamination of cadmium (Cd) in the aquatic environment is one of the serious environmental and human health's risks. The present study attempted to develop the potential magnesium oxide (MgO)-impregnated tuff soil-derived ceramic (MITDC)-based novel adsorbent media for adsorbing higher rate of cadmium [Cd(II)] from water phase. A potential MITDC adsorbent media was developed using volcanic raw tuff soil and its Cd(II) adsorption capacity from water phase was evaluated comparing with the raw tuff soil. A series of studies were carried out in an agitated batch method at 20 ± 2 °C to characterize the adsorption capacity of MITDC under different conditions of factors, such as contact time (0-360 min), initial pH (3-11) of solution, dose of MITDC (2, 5, 7.5 and 10 g/L), and initial concentration of Cd(II) (5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg/L), influencing the adsorption mechanism. MITDC exhibited the equilibrium state of maximum Cd(II) adsorption at the contact time 120 min and pH 4.7 (removed 98.2 % Cd) when initial Cd(II) concentration was 10 mg/L in the present study. The dose of 7.5 g MITDC/L showed maximum removal of Cd(II) from water. Experimental data were described by the Freundlich and the Langmuir isotherms and equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model (R 2 = 0.996). The Cd(II) adsorption capacity of MITDC was 31.25 mg/g. The high Cd(II) adsorption capacity indicated that novel MITDC could be used as a potential ceramic adsorbent media to remove high rate of Cd(II) from aqueous phase.

  5. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: DEMONSTRATION OF AMBERSORB 563 ADSORBENT TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field pilot study was conducted to demonstrate the technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness of Ambersorb® 5631 carbonaceous adsorbent for remediating groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Ambersorb adsorbent technology demonstration consist...

  6. Transfer of Campylobacter from a Positive Batch to Broiler Carcasses of a Subsequently Slaughtered Negative Batch: A Quantitative Approach.

    PubMed

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Van Damme, Inge; Gisbert Algaba, Ignacio; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify Campylobacter cross-contamination from a positive batch of broiler chicken carcasses to a negative batch at selected processing steps and to evaluate the duration of this cross-contamination. During each of nine visits conducted in three broiler slaughterhouses, Campylobacter levels were determined on broiler carcasses originating from Campylobacter-negative batches processed immediately after Campylobacter-positive batches. Data were collected after four steps during the slaughter process (scalding, plucking, evisceration, and washing) at 1, 10, and 20 min after the start of the slaughter of the batches. Campylobacter levels in ceca of birds from Campylobacter-positive batches ranged from 5.62 to 9.82 log CFU/g. When the preceding positive batch was colonized at a low level, no (enumerable) carcass contamination was found in a subsequent negative batch. However, when Campylobacter levels were high in the positive batch, Campylobacter was found on carcasses of the subsequent negative batch but at levels significantly lower than those found on carcasses from the preceding positive batch. The scalding and the evisceration process contributed the least (< 1.5 log CFU/g) and the most (up to 4 log CFU/ g), respectively, to the Campylobacter transmission from a positive batch to a negative batch. Additionally, the number of Campylobacter cells transferred from positive to negative batches decreased over the first 20 min of sampling time. However, the reduction was slower than previously estimated in risk assessment studies, suggesting that pathogen transfer during crosscontamination is a complex process.

  7. Application of Glycyrrhiza glabra root as a novel adsorbent in the removal of toluene vapors: equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic study.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi-Moghadam, Fazel; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Khiadani Hajian, Mehdi; Momenbeik, Fariborz; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah; Hatamipour, Mohammad Sadegh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the removal of toluene from gaseous solution through Glycyrrhiza glabra root (GGR) as a waste material. The batch adsorption experiments were conducted at various conditions including contact time, adsorbate concentration, humidity, and temperature. The adsorption capacity was increased by raising the sorbent humidity up to 50 percent. The adsorption of toluene was also increased over contact time by 12 h when the sorbent was saturated. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich model fitted the adsorption data better than other kinetic and isotherm models, respectively. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm also showed that the sorption by GGR was physical in nature. The results of the thermodynamic analysis illustrated that the adsorption process is exothermic. GGR as a novel adsorbent has not previously been used for the adsorption of pollutants.

  8. Application of Glycyrrhiza glabra Root as a Novel Adsorbent in the Removal of Toluene Vapors: Equilibrium, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi-Moghadam, Fazel; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Khiadani (Hajian), Mehdi; Momenbeik, Fariborz; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah; Hatamipour, Mohammad Sadegh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the removal of toluene from gaseous solution through Glycyrrhiza glabra root (GGR) as a waste material. The batch adsorption experiments were conducted at various conditions including contact time, adsorbate concentration, humidity, and temperature. The adsorption capacity was increased by raising the sorbent humidity up to 50 percent. The adsorption of toluene was also increased over contact time by 12 h when the sorbent was saturated. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich model fitted the adsorption data better than other kinetic and isotherm models, respectively. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm also showed that the sorption by GGR was physical in nature. The results of the thermodynamic analysis illustrated that the adsorption process is exothermic. GGR as a novel adsorbent has not previously been used for the adsorption of pollutants. PMID:23554821

  9. Polymer composite adsorbents using particles of molecularly imprinted polymers or aluminium oxide nanoparticles for treatment of arsenic contaminated waters.

    PubMed

    Önnby, L; Pakade, V; Mattiasson, B; Kirsebom, H

    2012-09-01

    Removal of As(V) by adsorption from water solutions was studied using three different synthetic adsorbents. The adsorbents, (a) aluminium nanoparticles (Alu-NPs, <50 nm) incorporated in amine rich cryogels (Alu-cryo), (b) molecular imprinted polymers (<38 μm) in polyacrylamide cryogels (MIP-cryo) and (c) thiol functionalised cryogels (SH-cryo) were evaluated regarding material characteristics and arsenic removal in batch test and continuous mode. Results revealed that a composite design with particles incorporated in cryogels was a successful means for applying small particles (nano- and micro- scale) in water solutions with maintained adsorption capacity and kinetics. Low capacity was obtained from SH-cryo and this adsorbent was hence excluded from the study. The adsorption capacities for the composites were 20.3 ± 0.8 mg/g adsorbent (Alu-cryo) and 7.9 ± 0.7 mg/g adsorbent (MIP-cryo) respectively. From SEM images it was seen that particles were homogeneously distributed in Alu-cryo and heterogeneously distributed in MIP-cryo. The particle incorporation increased the mechanical stability and the polymer backbones of pure polyacrylamide (MIP-cryo) were of better stability than the amine containing polymer backbone (Alu-cryo). Both composites worked well in the studied pH range of pH 2-8. Adsorption tested in real wastewater spiked with arsenic showed that co-ions (nitrate, sulphate and phosphate) affected arsenic removal for Alu-cryo more than for MIP-cryo. Both composites still adsorbed well in the presence of counter-ions (copper and zinc) present at low concentrations (μg/l). The unchanged and selective adsorption in realistic water observed for MIP-cryo was concluded to be due to a successful imprinting, here controlled using a non-imprinted polymer (NIP). A development of MIP-cryo is needed, considering its low adsorption capacity.

  10. Computer simulations of adsorbed liquid crystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Greg D.; Cleaver, Douglas J.

    2003-01-01

    The structures adopted by adsorbed thin films of Gay-Berne particles in the presence of a coexisting vapour phase are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. The films are adsorbed at a flat substrate which favours planar anchoring, whereas the nematic-vapour interface favours normal alignment. On cooling, a system with a high molecule-substrate interaction strength exhibits substrate-induced planar orientational ordering and considerable stratification is observed in the density profiles. In contrast, a system with weak molecule-substrate coupling adopts a director orientation orthogonal to the substrate plane, owing to the increased influence of the nematic-vapour interface. There are significant differences between the structures adopted at the two interfaces, in contrast with the predictions of density functional treatments of such systems.

  11. Magnesium silicates adsorbents of organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesielczyk, Filip; Krysztafkiewicz, Andrzej; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2007-08-01

    Studies were presented on production of highly dispersed magnesium silicate at a pilote scale. The process of silicate adsorbent production involved precipitation reaction using water glass (sodium metasilicate) solution and appropriate magnesium salt, preceded by an appropriate optimization stage. Samples of best physicochemical parameters were in addition modified (in order to introduce to silica surface of several functional groups) using the dry technique and various amounts of 3-isocyanatepropyltrimethoxysilane, 3-thiocyanatepropyltrimethoxysilane, N-phenyl-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. The so prepared samples were subjected to a comprehensive physicochemical analysis. At the terminal stage of studies attempts were made to adsorb phenol from its aqueous solutions on the surface of unmodified and modified magnesium silicates. Particle size distributions were determined using the ZetaSizer Nano ZS apparatus. In order to define adsorptive properties of studied magnesium silicates isotherms of nitrogen adsorption/desorption on their surfaces were established. Efficiency of phenol adsorption was tested employing analysis of post-adsorption solution.

  12. Analysis of Adsorbed Natural Gas Tank Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Ernest; Schultz, Conrad; Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Stalla, David; Gillespie, Andrew; Sweany, Mark; Seydel, Florian; Pfeifer, Peter

    With gasoline being an ever decreasing finite resource and with the desire to reduce humanity's carbon footprint, there has been an increasing focus on innovation of alternative fuel sources. Natural gas burns cleaner, is more abundant, and conforms to modern engines. However, storing compressed natural gas (CNG) requires large, heavy gas cylinders, which limits space and fuel efficiency. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) technology allows for much greater fuel storage capacity and the ability to store the gas at a much lower pressure. Thus, ANG tanks are much more flexible in terms of their size, shape, and weight. Our ANG tank employs monolithic nanoporous activated carbon as its adsorbent material. Several different configurations of this Flat Panel Tank Assembly (FPTA) along with a Fuel Extraction System (FES) were examined to compare with the mass flow rate demands of an engine.

  13. Gas storage using fullerene based adsorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loutfy, Raouf O. (Inventor); Lu, Xiao-Chun (Inventor); Li, Weijiong (Inventor); Mikhael, Michael G. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    This invention is directed to the synthesis of high bulk density high gas absorption capacity adsorbents for gas storage applications. Specifically, this invention is concerned with novel gas absorbents with high gravimetric and volumetric gas adsorption capacities which are made from fullerene-based materials. By pressing fullerene powder into pellet form using a conventional press, then polymerizing it by subjecting the fullerene to high temperature and high inert gas pressure, the resulting fullerene-based materials have high bulk densities and high gas adsorption capacities. By pre-chemical modification or post-polymerization activation processes, the gas adsorption capacities of the fullerene-based adsorbents can be further enhanced. These materials are suitable for low pressure gas storage applications, such as oxygen storage for home oxygen therapy uses or on-board vehicle natural gas storage. They are also suitable for storing gases and vapors such as hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor.

  14. Conversion of batch to molten glass, I: Volume expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Samuel H; Hrma, Pavel R; Swearingen, Kevin J; Schweiger, Michael J; Marcial, Jose; Tegrotenhuis, Nathan E

    2011-02-01

    Batches designed to simulate nuclear high-level waste glass were compressed into pellets that were heated at a rate of 5 K/min and photographed to obtain the profile area as a function of temperature. Three types of batches were prepared with different nitrate-carbonate ratios. To determine the impact of the heat supply by an exothermic reaction and the batch expansion, the nitrated batches were prepared with varying addition of sucrose. To obtain the impact of the grain size of the quartz component, the mixed nitrate-carbonate batches were prepared with silica particles ranging in size from 5 µm to 195 µm. One batch containing only carbonates was also tested. Sucrose addition had little effect on the batch expansion, while the size of silica was very influential. The 5-μm grains had a strongest effect, causing the generation of both primary and secondary foam, whereas only secondary foam was produced in batches with grains of 45 µm and larger. The retention of gases evolved as the batch melts creates primary foam. Gases evolved from oxidation-reduction reactions once the batch has melted produce secondary foam. We suggest that the viscosity of the melt and the amount of gas evolved are the main influences on foam production. As more gas is produced in the melt and as the glass becomes less viscous, the bubbles of gas coalesce into larger and larger cavities, until the glass can no longer contain the bubbles and they burst, causing the foam to collapse.

  15. Medication Waste Reduction in Pediatric Pharmacy Batch Processes

    PubMed Central

    Veltri, Michael A.; Hamrock, Eric; Mollenkopf, Nicole L.; Holt, Kristen; Levin, Scott

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To inform pediatric cart-fill batch scheduling for reductions in pharmaceutical waste using a case study and simulation analysis. METHODS: A pre and post intervention and simulation analysis was conducted during 3 months at a 205-bed children's center. An algorithm was developed to detect wasted medication based on time-stamped computerized provider order entry information. The algorithm was used to quantify pharmaceutical waste and associated costs for both preintervention (1 batch per day) and postintervention (3 batches per day) schedules. Further, simulation was used to systematically test 108 batch schedules outlining general characteristics that have an impact on the likelihood for waste. RESULTS: Switching from a 1-batch-per-day to a 3-batch-per-day schedule resulted in a 31.3% decrease in pharmaceutical waste (28.7% to 19.7%) and annual cost savings of $183,380. Simulation results demonstrate how increasing batch frequency facilitates a more just-in-time process that reduces waste. The most substantial gains are realized by shifting from a schedule of 1 batch per day to at least 2 batches per day. The simulation exhibits how waste reduction is also achievable by avoiding batch preparation during daily time periods where medication administration or medication discontinuations are frequent. Last, the simulation was used to show how reducing batch preparation time per batch provides some, albeit minimal, opportunity to decrease waste. CONCLUSIONS: The case study and simulation analysis demonstrate characteristics of batch scheduling that may support pediatric pharmacy managers in redesign toward minimizing pharmaceutical waste. PMID:25024671

  16. 21 CFR 111.260 - What must the batch record include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What must the batch record include? 111.260... for the Batch Production Record § 111.260 What must the batch record include? The batch production record must include the following: (a) The batch, lot, or control number: (1) Of the finished batch...

  17. 21 CFR 111.260 - What must the batch record include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must the batch record include? 111.260... for the Batch Production Record § 111.260 What must the batch record include? The batch production record must include the following: (a) The batch, lot, or control number: (1) Of the finished batch...

  18. Remediation of Organic and Inorganic Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater using a Nonocrystalline TiO2 Based Adsorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, C.; Meng, X; Calvache, E; Jiang, G

    2009-01-01

    A nanocrystalline TiO2-based adsorbent was evaluated for the simultaneous removal of As(V), As(III), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in contaminated groundwater. Batch experimental results show that As adsorption followed pseudo-second order rate kinetics. The competitive adsorption was described with the charge distribution multi-site surface complexation model (CD-MUSIC). The groundwater containing an average of 329 ?g L-1 As(III), 246 ?g L-1 As(V), 151 ?g L-1 MMA, and 202 ?g L-1 DMA was continuously passed through a TiO2 filter at an empty bed contact time of 6 min for 4 months. Approximately 11 000, 14 000, and 9900 bed volumes of water had been treated before the As(III), As(V), and MMA concentration in the effluent increased to 10 ?g L-1. However, very little DMA was removed. The EXAFS results demonstrate the existence of a bidentate binuclear As(V) surface complex on spent adsorbent, indicating the oxidation of adsorbed As(III). A nanocrystalline TiO2-based adsorbent could be used for the simultaneous removal of As(V), As(III), MMA, and DMA in contaminated groundwater.

  19. Application of carbon foam for heavy metal removal from industrial plating wastewater and toxicity evaluation of the adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Gu; Song, Mi-Kyung; Ryu, Jae-Chun; Park, Chanhyuk; Choi, Jae-Woo; Lee, Sang-Hyup

    2016-06-01

    Electroplating wastewater contains various types of toxic substances, such as heavy metals, solvents, and cleaning agents. Carbon foam was used as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from real industrial plating wastewater. Its sorption capacity was compared with those of a commercial ion-exchange resin (BC258) and a heavy metal adsorbent (CupriSorb™) in a batch system. The experimental carbon foam has a considerably higher sorption capacity for Cr and Cu than commercial adsorbents for acid/alkali wastewater and cyanide wastewater. Additionally, cytotoxicity test showed that the newly developed adsorbent has low cytotoxic effects on three kinds of human cells. In a pilot plant, the carbon foam had higher sorption capacity for Cr (73.64 g kg(-1)) than for Cu (14.86 g kg(-1)) and Ni (7.74 g kg(-1)) during 350 h of operation time. Oxidation pretreatments using UV/hydrogen peroxide enhance heavy metal removal from plating wastewater containing cyanide compounds.

  20. Preparative separation and purification of epigallocatechin gallate from green tea extracts using a silica adsorbent containing β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shih-Ming; Gu, Jhe-Yu; Huang, Bing-Hao; Chang, Chieh-Ming J; Lee, Wen-Lung

    2012-03-01

    A silica adsorbent containing β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) has been developed and used for the separation and purification of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) from the green tea extracts. The batch adsorption experiments demonstrated that, the β-CD bonded silica adsorbent possessed excellent adsorption equilibrium capacity (> 55 mg/g adsorbent) and adsorption ratio (>95%) for EGCG compared to the other tea catechins and caffeine. The excellent adsorption capacity and selectivity for EGCG are attributed to the specific interactions between β-CD and EGCG. The preparative separation and purification performance of EGCG on the β-CD bonded silica column (220 mm L × 15 mm i.d., 40-63 μm) was then evaluated. The column was operated in the polar organic mode using methanol/acetonitrile/acetic acid as the mobile phase and eluted under a three-step gradient elution program. The sample was dissolved in acetonitrile and loaded on a preparative scale of about 0.8 mg/g adsorbent. Under the optimal chromatographic conditions, the target compound, EGCG, being the most retained species, was obtained at a purity of about 90% with a recovery of about 90%. The productivity of EGCG was about 6 mg per injection, which can be further increased by scaling-up the chromatographic system. PMID:22336694

  1. Selection of an adsorbent for lead removal from drinking water by a point-of-use treatment device.

    PubMed

    Sublet, Renaud; Simonnot, Marie-Odile; Boireau, Alain; Sardin, Michel

    2003-12-01

    The removal of lead from drinking water was investigated to develop a point-of-use water filter that could meet the regulation imposed by the new European Directive 98-83 lowering lead concentration in drinking water below 10 microgL(-1). The objective of this research was to assess the potential of different adsorbents (zeolites, resins, activated carbon, manganese oxides, cellulose powder) to remove lead from tap water with a very short contact time. To begin, the repartition of the lead species in a tap water and a mineral water was computed with the computer model CHESS. It showed that in bicarbonated waters lead is mainly under lead carbonate form, either in the aqueous or in the mineral phase. Batch experiments were then conducted to measure the equilibrium adsorption isotherms of the adsorbents. Then, for five of them, dynamic experiments in micro-columns were carried out to assess the outlet lead concentration level. Three adsorbents gave rise to a leakage concentration lower than 10 microgL(-1) and were then selected for prototypes experiments: chabasite, an activated carbon coated with a synthetic zeolite and a natural manganese oxide. The proposed method clearly showed that the measurement of equilibrium isotherms is not sufficient to predict the effectiveness of an adsorbent, and must be coupled with dynamic experiments.

  2. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Adsorbent Packed Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Hideo; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Suguru

    The effective thermal conductivity of adsorbent packed beds of granular zeolite 13X and granular silica gel A in the presence of stagnant steam or air was measured under different conditions of the adsorbent bed temperature, particle size and filler-gas pressure. The measured effective thermal conductivity showed to become smaller with decreasing particle size or decreasing pressure, but it was nearly independent of the bed temperature. When steam was the filler-gas, the rise in the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent particles due to steam adsorption led to the increase in the effective thermal conductivity of the bed, and this effect was not negligible at high steam pressure for the bed of large particle size. It was found that both the predictions of the effective thermal conductivity by the Hayashi et al.'s model and the Bauer-Schlünder model generally agreed well with the measurements, by considering the particle thermal conductivity rise due to steam adsorption. The thermal conductivity of a consolidated bed of granular zeolite 13X was also measured, and it was found to be much larger than that of the packed bed especially at lower pressure. The above prediction models underestimated the effective thermal conductivity of the consolidated bed.

  3. Orbital tomography for highly symmetric adsorbate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadtmüller, B.; Willenbockel, M.; Reinisch, E. M.; Ules, T.; Bocquet, F. C.; Soubatch, S.; Puschnig, P.; Koller, G.; Ramsey, M. G.; Tautz, F. S.; Kumpf, C.

    2012-10-01

    Orbital tomography is a new and very powerful tool to analyze the angular distribution of a photoemission spectroscopy experiment. It was successfully used for organic adsorbate systems to identify (and consequently deconvolute) the contributions of specific molecular orbitals to the photoemission data. The technique was so far limited to surfaces with low symmetry like fcc(110) oriented surfaces, owing to the small number of rotational domains that occur on such surfaces. In this letter we overcome this limitation and present an orbital tomography study of a 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetra-carboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) monolayer film adsorbed on Ag(111). Although this system exhibits twelve differently oriented molecules, the angular resolved photoemission data still allow a meaningful analysis of the different local density of states and reveal different electronic structures for symmetrically inequivalent molecules. We also discuss the precision of the orbital tomography technique in terms of counting statistics and linear regression fitting algorithm. Our results demonstrate that orbital tomography is not limited to low-symmetry surfaces, a finding which makes a broad field of complex adsorbate systems accessible to this powerful technique.

  4. Batch Model for Batched Timestamps Data Analysis with Application to the SSA Disability Program

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Qingqi; Yuan, Ao; Che, Xuan; Huynh, Minh; Zhou, Chunxiao

    2016-01-01

    The Office of Disability Adjudication and Review (ODAR) is responsible for holding hearings, issuing decisions, and reviewing appeals as part of the Social Security Administration’s disability determining process. In order to control and process cases, the ODAR has established a Case Processing and Management System (CPMS) to record management information since December 2003. The CPMS provides a detailed case status history for each case. Due to the large number of appeal requests and limited resources, the number of pending claims at ODAR was over one million cases by March 31, 2015. Our National Institutes of Health (NIH) team collaborated with SSA and developed a Case Status Change Model (CSCM) project to meet the ODAR’s urgent need of reducing backlogs and improve hearings and appeals process. One of the key issues in our CSCM project is to estimate the expected service time and its variation for each case status code. The challenge is that the systems recorded job departure times may not be the true job finished times. As the CPMS timestamps data of case status codes showed apparent batch patterns, we proposed a batch model and applied the constrained least squares method to estimate the mean service times and the variances. We also proposed a batch search algorithm to determine the optimal batch partition, as no batch partition was given in the real data. Simulation studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods. Finally, we applied the method to analyze a real CPMS data from ODAR/SSA. PMID:27747132

  5. Batch-to-batch pharmacokinetic variability confounds current bioequivalence regulations: A dry powder inhaler randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Burmeister Getz, E; Carroll, K J; Jones, B; Benet, L Z

    2016-09-01

    Current pharmacokinetic (PK) bioequivalence guidelines do not account for batch-to-batch variability in study design or analysis. Here we evaluate the magnitude of batch-to-batch PK variability for Advair Diskus 100/50. Single doses of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol combinations were administered by oral inhalation to healthy subjects in a randomized clinical crossover study comparing three different batches purchased from the market, with one batch replicated across two treatment periods. All pairwise comparisons between different batches failed the PK bioequivalence statistical test, demonstrating substantial PK differences between batches that were large enough to demonstrate bio-inequivalence in some cases. In contrast, between-replicate PK bioequivalence was demonstrated for the replicated batch. Between-batch variance was ∼40-70% of the estimated residual error. This large additional source of variability necessitates re-evaluation of bioequivalence assessment criteria to yield a result that is both generalizable and consistent with the principles of type I and type II error rate control.

  6. MELT RATE TESTING FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Miller, D.; Pickenheim, B.

    2010-05-13

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to provide Savannah River Remediation (SRR) with a recommended frit composition for Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) to optimize processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This report discusses the results of a series of melt rate experiments that were completed in support of the frit recommendation and the preparation of the feed used in the testing. The objective of the work was to identify the impact of individual frit component concentrations on melt rate for both SB6 and for DWPF sludge batches in general. The dry fed, Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) was used to compare the relative melt rate performance of several candidate frit compositions. Sludge composition projection changes and variation led to the fabrication and testing of several new frits along with Frit 418, which is currently utilized at the DWPF for Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing. The melt rate testing results show that changes in the frit composition, such as increases in B{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Li{sub 2}O concentrations, can provide a faster melt rate for SB6 relative to Frit 418. However, the composition of SB6 as currently projected (February 2010 blended with a 40 inch heel of SB5) does not allow for significant changes in frit composition relative to Frit 418 without compromising the projected operating windows. Only one of the new frits tested, Frit IS7, remains viable for SB6 processing based on the current composition projections. The melt rate results also demonstrated that a low Na{sub 2}O concentration frit (particularly Frit IS7) can provide reasonable melt rates if the concentrations of Li{sub 2}O or B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the frit are increased. The measured melt rate for Frit IS7 with the simulated SB6 feed was about 15% faster than that for Frit 418. The projected operating windows for Frits 418 and IS7 are very similar with the current SB6 projections. However, waste loadings with Frit IS7 are limited by low viscosity

  7. Competitive adsorption and selectivity sequence of heavy metals by chicken bone-derived biochar: Batch and column experiment.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Cho, Ju-Sik; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Seong-Heon; Kang, Se-Won; Choi, Ik-Won; Heo, Jong-Soo; DeLaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate adsorption of heavy metals in single- and ternary-metal forms onto chicken bone biochar (CBB). Competitive sorption of heavy metals by CBB has never been reported previously. The maximum adsorption capacities of metals by CBB were in the order of Cu (130 mg g(-1)) > Cd (109 mg g(-1)) > Zn (93 mg g(-1)) in the single-metal adsorption isotherm and Cu (108 mg g(-1)) > Cd (54 mg g(-1)) ≥ Zn (44 mg g(-1)) in the ternary-metal adsorption isotherm. Cu was the most retained cation, whereas Zn could be easily exchanged and substituted by Cu. Batch experimental data best fit the Langmuir model rather than the Freundlich isotherms. In the column experiments, the total adsorbed amounts of the metals were in the following order of Cu (210 mg g(-1)) > Cd (192 mg g(-1)) > Zn (178) in single-metal conditions, and Cu (156) > Cd (123) > Zn (92) in ternary-metal conditions. Results from both the batch and column experiments indicate that competitive adsorption among metals increases the mobility of these metals. Especially, Zn in single-metal conditions lost it adsorption capacity most significantly. Based on the 3D simulation graphs of heavy metals, adsorption patterns under single adsorption condition were different than under competitive adsorption condition. Results from both the batch and column experiments show that competitive adsorption among metals increases the mobility of these metals. The maximum metal adsorption capacity of the metals in the column experiments was higher than that in the batch experiment indicating other metal retention mechanisms rather than adsorption may be involved. Therefore, both column and batch experiments are needed for estimating retention capacities and removal efficiencies of metals in CBB.

  8. Adsorption of arsenate from aqueous solution by rice husk-based adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Taimur; Chaudhuri, Malay

    2013-06-01

    Rice husk-based adsorbent (RHBA) was prepared by burning rice husk in a muffle furnace at 400°C for 4 h and adsorption of arsenate by the RHBA from aqueous solution was examined. Batch adsorption test showed that extent of arsenate adsorption depended on contact time and pH. Equilibrium adsorption was attained in 60 min, with maximum adsorption occurring at pH 7. Equilibrium adsorption data were well described by the Freundlich isotherm model. Freundlich constants Kf and 1/n were 3.62 and 2, respectively. The RHBA is effective in the adsorption of arsenate from water and is a potentially suitable filter medium for removing arsenate from groundwater at wells or in households.

  9. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests

  10. Development of a mixed mode adsorption process for the direct product sequestration of an extracellular protease from microbial batch cultures.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, G E; Luechau, F; Burton, S C; Lyddiatt, A

    2000-04-28

    Direct product sequestration of extracellular proteins from microbial batch cultures can be achieved by continuous or intermittent broth recycle through an external extractive loop. Here, we describe the development of a fluidisable, mixed mode adsorbent, designed to tolerate increasing ionic strength (synonymous with extended productive batch cultures). This facilitated operations for the integrated recovery of an extracellular acid protease from cultures of Yarrowia lipolytica. Mixed mode adsorbents were prepared using chemistries containing hydrophobic and ionic groups. Matrix hydrophobicity and titration ranges were matched to the requirements of integrated protease adsorption. A single expanded bed was able to service the productive phase of growth without recourse to the pH adjustment of the broth previously required for ion exchange adsorption. This resulted in increased yields of product, accompanied by further increases in enzyme specific activity. A step change from pH 4.5 to 2.6, across the isoelectric point of the protease, enabled high resolution fixed bed elution induced by electrostatic repulsion. The generic application of mixed mode chemistries, which combine the physical robustness of ion-exchange ligands in sanitisation and sterilisation procedures with a selectivity, which approaches that of affinity interactions, is discussed.

  11. Arsenate removal by layered double hydroxides embedded into spherical polymer beads: Batch and column studies.

    PubMed

    Nhat Ha, Ho Nguyen; Kim Phuong, Nguyen Thi; Boi An, Tran; Mai Tho, Nguyen Thi; Ngoc Thang, Tran; Quang Minh, Bui; Van Du, Cao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the performance of poly(layered double hydroxides) [poly(LDHs)] beads as an adsorbent for arsenate removal from aqueous solution was investigated. The poly(LDHs) beads were prepared by immobilizing LDHs into spherical alginate/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-glutaraldehyde beads (spherical polymer beads). Batch adsorption studies were conducted to assess the effect of contact time, solution pH, initial arsenate concentrations and co-existing anions on arsenate removal performance. The potential reuse of these poly(LDHs) beads was also investigated. Approximately 79.1 to 91.2% of arsenic was removed from an arsenate solution (50 mg As L(-1)) by poly(LDHs). The adsorption data were well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and the Langmuir isotherm model, and the adsorption capacities of these poly(LDHs) beads at pH 8 were from 1.64 to 1.73 mg As g(-1), as calculated from the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption ability of the poly(LDHs) beads decreased by approximately 5-6% after 5 adsorption-desorption cycles. Phosphates markedly decreased arsenate removal. The effect of co-existing anions on the adsorption capacity declined in the following order: HPO4 (2-) > HCO3 (-) > SO4 (2-) > Cl(-). A fixed-bed column study was conducted with real-life arsenic-containing water. The breakthrough time was found to be from 7 to 10 h. Under optimized conditions, the poly(LDHs) removed more than 82% of total arsenic. The results obtained in this study will be useful for further extending the adsorbents to the field scale or for designing pilot plants in future studies. From the viewpoint of environmental friendliness, the poly(LDHs) beads are a potential cost-effective adsorbent for arsenate removal in water treatment. PMID:26818806

  12. Arsenate removal by layered double hydroxides embedded into spherical polymer beads: Batch and column studies.

    PubMed

    Nhat Ha, Ho Nguyen; Kim Phuong, Nguyen Thi; Boi An, Tran; Mai Tho, Nguyen Thi; Ngoc Thang, Tran; Quang Minh, Bui; Van Du, Cao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the performance of poly(layered double hydroxides) [poly(LDHs)] beads as an adsorbent for arsenate removal from aqueous solution was investigated. The poly(LDHs) beads were prepared by immobilizing LDHs into spherical alginate/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-glutaraldehyde beads (spherical polymer beads). Batch adsorption studies were conducted to assess the effect of contact time, solution pH, initial arsenate concentrations and co-existing anions on arsenate removal performance. The potential reuse of these poly(LDHs) beads was also investigated. Approximately 79.1 to 91.2% of arsenic was removed from an arsenate solution (50 mg As L(-1)) by poly(LDHs). The adsorption data were well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and the Langmuir isotherm model, and the adsorption capacities of these poly(LDHs) beads at pH 8 were from 1.64 to 1.73 mg As g(-1), as calculated from the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption ability of the poly(LDHs) beads decreased by approximately 5-6% after 5 adsorption-desorption cycles. Phosphates markedly decreased arsenate removal. The effect of co-existing anions on the adsorption capacity declined in the following order: HPO4 (2-) > HCO3 (-) > SO4 (2-) > Cl(-). A fixed-bed column study was conducted with real-life arsenic-containing water. The breakthrough time was found to be from 7 to 10 h. Under optimized conditions, the poly(LDHs) removed more than 82% of total arsenic. The results obtained in this study will be useful for further extending the adsorbents to the field scale or for designing pilot plants in future studies. From the viewpoint of environmental friendliness, the poly(LDHs) beads are a potential cost-effective adsorbent for arsenate removal in water treatment.

  13. A batch fabricated biomimetic dry adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northen, Michael T.; Turner, Kimberly L.

    2005-08-01

    The fine hair adhesive system found in nature is capable of reversibly adhering to just about any surface. This dry adhesive, best demonstrated in the pad of the gecko, makes use of a multilevel conformal structure to greatly increase inelastic surface contact, enhancing short range interactions and producing significant amounts of attractive forces. Recent work has attempted to reproduce and test the terminal submicrometre 'hairs' of the system. Here we report the first batch fabricated multi-scale conformal system to mimic nature's dry adhesive. The approach makes use of massively parallel MEMS processing technology to produce 20-150 µm platforms, supported by single slender pillars, and coated with ~2 µm long, ~200 nm diameter, organic looking polymer nanorods, or 'organorods'. To characterize the structures a new mesoscale nanoindenter adhesion test technique has been developed. Experiments indicate significantly improved adhesion with the multiscale system. Additional processing caused a hydrophilic to hydrophobic transformation of the surface and testing indicated further improvement in adhesion.

  14. Materials selection for kraft batch digesters

    SciTech Connect

    Wensley, A.; Moskal, M.; Wilton, W.

    1997-08-01

    Several candidate materials were evaluated by corrosion testing in autoclaves containing white and black liquors for batch digesters. The relationship between corrosion rate and corrosion potential was determined for ASTM SA516-Grade 70 carbon steel, UNS S30403 (Type 304L) austenitic stainless steel, UNS S31803 (2205) and UNS S32550 (2605) duplex stainless steels, and two stainless steel weld overlays, applied by the GMAW (gas metal arc welding) and SAW (submerged arc welding) processes. The tests revealed that SA516-Grade 70 carbon steel and type 304L stainless steel can experience high rates of corrosion. For the duplex stainless steels and weld overlays, corrosion resistance improved with chromium content. A chromium content of at least 25% was found to be necessary for good corrosion resistance.

  15. Optimizing Resource Utilization in Grid Batch Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellrich, Andreas

    2012-12-01

    On Grid sites, the requirements of the computing tasks (jobs) to computing, storage, and network resources differ widely. For instance Monte Carlo production jobs are almost purely CPU-bound, whereas physics analysis jobs demand high data rates. In order to optimize the utilization of the compute node resources, jobs must be distributed intelligently over the nodes. Although the job resource requirements cannot be deduced directly, jobs are mapped to POSIX UID/GID according to the VO, VOMS group and role information contained in the VOMS proxy. The UID/GID then allows to distinguish jobs, if users are using VOMS proxies as planned by the VO management, e.g. ‘role=production’ for Monte Carlo jobs. It is possible to setup and configure batch systems (queuing system and scheduler) at Grid sites based on these considerations although scaling limits were observed with the scheduler MAUI. In tests these limitations could be overcome with a home-made scheduler.

  16. Batch sequential designs for computer experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Leslie M; Williams, Brian J; Loeppky, Jason L

    2009-01-01

    Computer models simulating a physical process are used in many areas of science. Due to the complex nature of these codes it is often necessary to approximate the code, which is typically done using a Gaussian process. In many situations the number of code runs available to build the Guassian process approximation is limited. When the initial design is small or the underlying response surface is complicated this can lead to poor approximations of the code output. In order to improve the fit of the model, sequential design strategies must be employed. In this paper we introduce two simple distance based metrics that can be used to augment an initial design in a batch sequential manner. In addition we propose a sequential updating strategy to an orthogonal array based Latin hypercube sample. We show via various real and simulated examples that the distance metrics and the extension of the orthogonal array based Latin hypercubes work well in practice.

  17. Reducing variance in batch partitioning measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, Paul E.

    2010-08-11

    The partitioning experiment is commonly performed with little or no attention to reducing measurement variance. Batch test procedures such as those used to measure K{sub d} values (e.g., ASTM D 4646 and EPA402 -R-99-004A) do not explain how to evaluate measurement uncertainty nor how to minimize measurement variance. In fact, ASTM D 4646 prescribes a sorbent:water ratio that prevents variance minimization. Consequently, the variance of a set of partitioning measurements can be extreme and even absurd. Such data sets, which are commonplace, hamper probabilistic modeling efforts. An error-savvy design requires adjustment of the solution:sorbent ratio so that approximately half of the sorbate partitions to the sorbent. Results of Monte Carlo simulations indicate that this simple step can markedly improve the precision and statistical characterization of partitioning uncertainty.

  18. Batch-to-batch uniformity of bacterial community succession and flavor formation in the fermentation of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zong-Min; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Yu, Yong-Jian; Li, Guo-Quan; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2015-09-01

    Solid-state fermentation of traditional Chinese vinegar is a mixed-culture refreshment process that proceeds for many centuries without spoilage. Here, we investigated bacterial community succession and flavor formation in three batches of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar using pyrosequencing and metabolomics approaches. Temporal patterns of bacterial succession in the Pei (solid-state vinegar culture) showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) among three batches of fermentation. In all the batches investigated, the average number of community operational taxonomic units (OTUs) decreased dramatically from 119 ± 11 on day 1 to 48 ± 16 on day 3, and then maintained in the range of 61 ± 9 from day 5 to the end of fermentation. We confirmed that, within a batch of fermentation process, the patterns of bacterial diversity between the starter (took from the last batch of vinegar culture on day 7) and the Pei on day 7 were similar (90%). The relative abundance dynamics of two dominant members, Lactobacillus and Acetobacter, showed high correlation (coefficient as 0.90 and 0.98 respectively) among different batches. Furthermore, statistical analysis revealed dynamics of 16 main flavor metabolites were stable among different batches. The findings validate the batch-to-batch uniformity of bacterial community succession and flavor formation accounts for the quality of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar. Based on our understanding, this is the first study helps to explain the rationality of age-old artistry from a scientific perspective.

  19. A unified mechanism to quantitatively understand silica particle formation from tetraethyl orthosilicate in batch and semi-batch processes.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Daisuke; Nakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Haruyuki; Konno, Mikio

    2013-03-15

    Factors for controlling sizes of silica particles formed in the hydrolysis and condensation of silicon alkoxides were examined in batch and semi-batch processes with our model previously proposed. Particle sizes in the particle formation were simulated for buffer systems to reduce time-variation in pH. Effectiveness of the buffer system to suppress time-variation in ionic strength was experimentally verified in a silicon alkoxide concentration range of 0.01-0.1 M. Comparison of experimental particle sizes with calculated ones showed that the addition of electrolytes slightly decreased surface potential of silica particles in both batch and semi-batch processes, and the surface potential values estimated for the semi-batch process were lower than that for batch process. In simulation of the number of particles formed in the processes, the particle number had strong dependences on surface potential and Debye-Hückel parameter. The simulated number of particles formed in semi-batch process was smaller than that in batch process under the same surface potential and Debye-Hückel parameter. The combination of the low surface potential and the small number of particles revealed that the semi-batch process was suitable for producing a small number of particles, which provides enlargement of size range of silica particles formed in the method. PMID:23295029

  20. Recovery of Technetium Adsorbed on Charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, Mark D.; Metz, Lori A.; Ballou, Nathan E.

    2006-05-01

    Two methods capable of near complete recovery of technetium adsorbed on charcoal are presented. The first involves liquid extraction of the technetium from the charcoal by hot 4M nitric acid. An average recovery of 98% (n=3) is obtained after three rounds of extraction. The second method involves dry ashing with air in a quartz combustion tube at 400-450 C. This method yields an average recovery of 96% (n=5). Other thermal methods were attempted, but resulted in reduced recovery and incomplete material balance

  1. Conformational properties of an adsorbed charged polymer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chi-Ho; Lai, Pik-Yin

    2005-06-01

    The behavior of a strongly charged polymer adsorbed on an oppositely charged surface of a low-dielectric constant is formulated by the functional integral method. By separating the translational, conformational, and fluctuational degrees of freedom, the scaling behaviors for both the height of the polymer and the thickness of the diffusion layer are determined. Unlike the results predicted by scaling theory, we identified the continuous crossover from the weak compression to the compression regime. All the analytical results are found to be consistent with Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, an alternative (operational) definition of a charged polymer adsorption is proposed. PMID:16089715

  2. Magnetic adsorbents for actinide and heavy metal removal from waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

    1994-08-01

    Magnetic adsorbents can be applied to the treatment of waste water in various physical forms. For example, barium ferrite (BaO{center_dot}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has been used successfully as powder, granules or pellets. Iron ferrite, or magnetite, a naturally occurring ore, can also be used in much the same manner. However, natural magnetic needs activation to have the same capacity as freshly prepared ferrite. Furthermore, ferrites have been used solely in a batch mode because of their finely divided nature. To permit utilization of activated magnetite in a column mode with good water flow-through properties, magnetic resins were prepared. In this work, the authors discovered a synergistic effect in using the magnetic resin in a column mode in conjunction with an external magnetic field for concentration of plutonium and americium from waste water. Thus ferrities in a column made surrounded by a magnetic field greatly surpasses the metal removal capacity of ferrite used in a batch mode.

  3. Evaluation of vermicompost as a raw natural adsorbent for adsorption of pesticide methylparathion.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Camila Bitencourt; Lima, Giovana de Fátima; Alves, Vanessa Nunes; Coelho, Nívia Maria Melo; Dragunski, Douglas Cardoso; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of vermicompost (VC) as a low-cost and alternative adsorbent for the removal of the pesticide methylparathion (MP) from an aqueous medium has been investigated by batch and column experiments. Parameters related to MP adsorption, i.e. equilibrium time (61.5 min) and adsorption pH (6.8) were optimized by using Doehlert design. The initial and final MP concentrations after adsorption assays were determined by square-wave adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry using an electrode composed of a multiwalled carbon nanotube dispersed in mineral oil. Batch adsorption experimental data were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm adsorptions, and a very good fit to the Langmuir linear model, giving a maximum adsorption capacity (MAC) of 0.17 mg g(-1). This result was very similar to that obtained with the column experiments. In order to evaluate the MP desorption from column packed VC, 100.0 ml of nitric acid solution (pH 3.0) has been percolated through material. No leaching of MP was observed, thus confirming the strong interaction between MP and VC. The satisfactory MAC obtained and low cost makes the VC a reliable natural material for the removal of MP from aqueous effluents.

  4. Removal of copper ions from aqueous solution by adlai shell (Coix lacryma-jobi L.) adsorbents.

    PubMed

    de Luna, Mark Daniel G; Flores, Edgar D; Cenia, Marie Chela B; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2015-09-01

    Adlai shell (Coix lacryma-jobi L.) adsorbents (ASA) were used to remove copper ions from aqueous solutions under batch conditions. The effect of physical and chemical modification of ASA on Cu(II) removal was evaluated. Results showed that the high coefficients of determination for the pseudo-second order (R(2) > 0.9999) and for the intraparticle diffusion (R(2) > 0.9843) equations indicate that the rate-determining step is a combination of pore diffusion and chemisorption at low Cu(II) concentration and boundary layer, pore diffusion and chemisorption at high Cu(II) concentration. At 298K and 100 mg L(-1) Cu(II), the computed qe and k2 values were 17.2 mg g(-1) and 0.012 g mg(-1) min(-1), respectively. The Freundlich model (R(2) > 0.9636) adequately describes the experimental data indicating heterogeneous adsorption. Overall, the results of the study demonstrate the potential of adlai shell adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. PMID:26081160

  5. Investigation on the adsorption of phosphorus by Fe-loaded ceramic adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Chen, Nan; Yu, Yang; Hu, Weiwu; Feng, Chuanping

    2016-02-15

    This aim of this study was to remove phosphorus from aqueous solution using a Fe-loaded ceramic (Fe-LC) adsorbent prepared by mixing dolomite, montmorillonite, FeSO4·7H2O and starch. Simplex-centroid mixture design method was used to determine the optimum mixture proportions by evaluating both phosphorus adsorption efficiency and adsorbent hardness. The study found that the optimum adsorption capacity and the strength can be achieved with the composition of 3.87g dolomite, 3.00g starch, 2.13g montmorillonite and 1.00g FeSO4·7H2O (10g in total). The optimized Fe-LC was evaluated in the batch and the fixed bed experiments. The point of zero charge, pHpzc was found to be 6.0. The adsorption kinetic and isotherm data well agreed with the pseudo-second-order kinetic and the Langmuir isotherm models, respectively. The breakthrough time increased with increasing in the bed depth, whereas inverse relationship was observed with the initial phosphorus concentration in the fixed bed studies. The co-existing anions (SO4(2-), NO3(-) and Cl(-)) had negligible influence on phosphorus removal. The BDST and Thomas model explained the breakthrough behavior for phosphorus removal with a high degree of correlation. PMID:26624533

  6. Alkaline deoxygenated graphene oxide as adsorbent for cadmium ions removal from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Du, Hongyan; Yuan, Shaowei; He, Wanxia; Yan, Pengju; Liu, Zhanhong

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline deoxygenated graphene oxide (aGO) was prepared through alkaline hydrothermal treatment and used as adsorbent to remove Cd(II) ions from aqueous solutions for the first time. The characterization results of transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra indicate that aGO was successfully synthesized. The batch adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption kinetics could be described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the isotherms equilibrium data were well fitted with the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity of Cd(II) on aGO was 156 mg/g at pH 5 and T=293 K. The adsorption thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption process was a spontaneous and endothermic reaction. The mainly adsorption mechanism speculated from FT-IR results may be attributed to the electrostatic attraction between Cd2+ and negatively charged groups (-CO-) of aGO and cation-π interaction between Cd2+ and the graphene planes. The findings of this study demonstrate the potential utility of the nanomaterial aGO as an effective adsorbent for Cd(II) removal from aqueous solutions. PMID:26038925

  7. Removal of copper ions from aqueous solution by adlai shell (Coix lacryma-jobi L.) adsorbents.

    PubMed

    de Luna, Mark Daniel G; Flores, Edgar D; Cenia, Marie Chela B; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2015-09-01

    Adlai shell (Coix lacryma-jobi L.) adsorbents (ASA) were used to remove copper ions from aqueous solutions under batch conditions. The effect of physical and chemical modification of ASA on Cu(II) removal was evaluated. Results showed that the high coefficients of determination for the pseudo-second order (R(2) > 0.9999) and for the intraparticle diffusion (R(2) > 0.9843) equations indicate that the rate-determining step is a combination of pore diffusion and chemisorption at low Cu(II) concentration and boundary layer, pore diffusion and chemisorption at high Cu(II) concentration. At 298K and 100 mg L(-1) Cu(II), the computed qe and k2 values were 17.2 mg g(-1) and 0.012 g mg(-1) min(-1), respectively. The Freundlich model (R(2) > 0.9636) adequately describes the experimental data indicating heterogeneous adsorption. Overall, the results of the study demonstrate the potential of adlai shell adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions.

  8. Cadmium telluride nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon as adsorbent for removal of sunset yellow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaedi, M.; Hekmati Jah, A.; Khodadoust, S.; Sahraei, R.; Daneshfar, A.; Mihandoost, A.; Purkait, M. K.

    2012-05-01

    Adsorption is a promising technique for decolorization of effluents of textile dyeing industries but its application is limited due to requirement of high amounts of adsorbent required. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of cadmium telluride nanoparticles loaded onto activated carbon (CdTN-AC) for the removal of sunset yellow (SY) dye from aqueous solution. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch mode varying solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration, CdTN-AC dose, and temperature. In order to investigate the efficiency of SY adsorption on CdTN-AC, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models were studied. It was observed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits better than other kinetic models with good correlation coefficient. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir model. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy, entropy, activation energy, and sticking probability were also calculated. It was found that the sorption of SY onto CdTN-AC was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The proposed adsorbent is applicable for SY removal from waste of real effluents including pea-shooter, orange drink and jelly banana with efficiency more than 97%.

  9. Investigation on the adsorption of phosphorus by Fe-loaded ceramic adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Chen, Nan; Yu, Yang; Hu, Weiwu; Feng, Chuanping

    2016-02-15

    This aim of this study was to remove phosphorus from aqueous solution using a Fe-loaded ceramic (Fe-LC) adsorbent prepared by mixing dolomite, montmorillonite, FeSO4·7H2O and starch. Simplex-centroid mixture design method was used to determine the optimum mixture proportions by evaluating both phosphorus adsorption efficiency and adsorbent hardness. The study found that the optimum adsorption capacity and the strength can be achieved with the composition of 3.87g dolomite, 3.00g starch, 2.13g montmorillonite and 1.00g FeSO4·7H2O (10g in total). The optimized Fe-LC was evaluated in the batch and the fixed bed experiments. The point of zero charge, pHpzc was found to be 6.0. The adsorption kinetic and isotherm data well agreed with the pseudo-second-order kinetic and the Langmuir isotherm models, respectively. The breakthrough time increased with increasing in the bed depth, whereas inverse relationship was observed with the initial phosphorus concentration in the fixed bed studies. The co-existing anions (SO4(2-), NO3(-) and Cl(-)) had negligible influence on phosphorus removal. The BDST and Thomas model explained the breakthrough behavior for phosphorus removal with a high degree of correlation.

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Batch Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batch Processes 1 Table 1 to Subpart H of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Subpart H of Part 63—Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other than Connectors...

  11. 27 CFR 19.598 - Dump/batch records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dump/batch records. 19.598.../batch records. A proprietor who processes, mixes, or blends spirits in the processing account must maintain “dump/batch” records setting forth detailed information regarding the processing of the...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Batch Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batch Processes 1 Table 1 to Subpart H of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Subpart H of Part 63—Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other than Connectors...

  13. 27 CFR 19.598 - Dump/batch records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dump/batch records. 19.598.../batch records. A proprietor who processes, mixes, or blends spirits in the processing account must maintain “dump/batch” records setting forth detailed information regarding the processing of the...

  14. 27 CFR 19.598 - Dump/batch records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dump/batch records. 19.598.../batch records. A proprietor who processes, mixes, or blends spirits in the processing account must maintain “dump/batch” records setting forth detailed information regarding the processing of the...

  15. Searching CA Condensates, On-Line and Batch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminecki, Ronald M.; And Others

    Batch mode processing is compared, using cost-effectiveness, with on-line processing for computer-aided searching of chemical abstracts. Consideration for time, need, coverage, and adaptability are found to be the criteria by which a searcher selects a method, and sometimes both methods are used. There is a tradeoff between batch mode's slower…

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Batch Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batch Processes 1 Table 1 to Subpart H of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Subpart H of Part 63—Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other than Connectors...

  17. 27 CFR 19.598 - Dump/batch records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dump/batch records. 19.598.../batch records. A proprietor who processes, mixes, or blends spirits in the processing account must maintain “dump/batch” records setting forth detailed information regarding the processing of the...

  18. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Batch Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batch Processes 1 Table 1 to Subpart H of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Subpart H of Part 63—Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other than Connectors...

  19. System Requirements for On-Line and Batch Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Information Science, Washington, DC. Special Interest Group on Computerized Retrieval Services.

    Three papers on system requirements for on-line and batch retrieval presented at the American Society for Information Science (ASIS) annual meeting are included here. At G.D. Searle, data for records related to pharmacology screening are used in a batch system, and an on-line system is used to search information on mutagenic, carcinogenic, and…

  20. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING BATCH SCALES. SERIES OF FIVE SCALES WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING BATCH SCALES. SERIES OF FIVE SCALES WITH SIX DIFFERENT MATERIALS. MIX SIFTED DOWN FROM SILOS ABOVE. INGREDIENTS: SAND, SODA ASH, DOLOMITE LIMESTONE, NEPHELINE SYENITE, SALT CAKE. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Batch Plant, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  1. Mimetite Formation from Goethite-Adsorbed Ions.

    PubMed

    Kleszczewska-Zębala, Anna; Manecki, Maciej; Bajda, Tomasz; Rakovan, John; Borkiewicz, Olaf J

    2016-06-01

    Bioavailability of arsenic in contaminated soils and wastes can be reduced to insignificant levels by precipitation of mimetite Pb5(AsO4)3Cl. The objective of this study is to elucidate mechanisms of the reaction between solution containing lead ions and arsenates adsorbed on synthetic goethite (AsO4-goethite), or arsenate ions in the solution and goethite saturated with adsorbed Pb (Pb-goethite). These reactions, in the presence of Cl, result in rapid crystallization of mimetite. Formation of mimetite is faster than desorption of AsO4 but slower than desorption of Pb from the goethite surface. Slow desorption of arsenates from AsO4-goethite results in heterogeneous precipitation and formation of mimetite incrustation on goethite crystals. Desorption of lead from Pb-goethite is at least as fast as diffusion and advection of AsO4 and Cl in suspension allowing for homogeneous crystallization of mimetite in intergranular solution. Therefore, the mechanism of nucleation is primarily driven by the kinetics of constituent supply to the saturation front, rather than by the thermodynamics of nucleation. The products of the reactions are well documented using microscopy methods such as scanning electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  2. The persistence length of adsorbed dendronized polymers.

    PubMed

    Grebikova, Lucie; Kozhuharov, Svilen; Maroni, Plinio; Mikhaylov, Andrey; Dietler, Giovanni; Schlüter, A Dieter; Ullner, Magnus; Borkovec, Michal

    2016-07-21

    The persistence length of cationic dendronized polymers adsorbed onto oppositely charged substrates was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and quantitative image analysis. One can find that a decrease in the ionic strength leads to an increase of the persistence length, but the nature of the substrate and of the generation of the side dendrons influence the persistence length substantially. The strongest effects as the ionic strength is being changed are observed for the fourth generation polymer adsorbed on mica, which is a hydrophilic and highly charged substrate. However, the observed dependence on the ionic strength is much weaker than the one predicted by the Odijk, Skolnik, and Fixman (OSF) theory for semi-flexible chains. Low-generation polymers show a variation with the ionic strength that resembles the one observed for simple and flexible polyelectrolytes in solution. For high-generation polymers, this dependence is weaker. Similar dependencies are found for silica and gold substrates. The observed behavior is probably caused by different extents of screening of the charged groups, which is modified by the polymer generation, and to a lesser extent, the nature of the substrate. For highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), which is a hydrophobic and weakly charged substrate, the electrostatic contribution to the persistence length is much smaller. In the latter case, we suspect that specific interactions between the polymer and the substrate also play an important role. PMID:27353115

  3. Nitric oxide releasing material adsorbs more fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Lantvit, Sarah M; Barrett, Brittany J; Reynolds, Melissa M

    2013-11-01

    One mechanism of the failure of blood-contacting devices is clotting. Nitric oxide (NO) releasing materials are seen as a viable solution to the mediation of surface clotting by preventing platelet activation; however, NO's involvement in preventing clot formation extends beyond controlling platelet function. In this study, we evaluate NO's effect on factor XII (fibrinogen) adsorption and activation, which causes the initiation of the intrinsic arm of the coagulation cascade. This is done by utilizing a model plasticized poly(vinyl) chloride (PVC), N-diazeniumdiolate system and looking at the adsorption of fibrinogen, an important clotting protein, to these surfaces. The materials have been prepared in such a way to eliminate changes in surface properties between the control (plasticized PVC) and composite (NO-releasing) materials. This allows us to isolate NO release and determine the effect on the adsorption of fibrinogen, to the material surface. Surprisingly, it was found that an NO releasing material with a surface flux of 17.4 ± 0.5 × 10(-10) mol NO cm(-2) min(-1) showed a significant increase in the amount of fibrinogen adsorbed to the material surface compared to one with a flux of 13.0 ± 1.6 × 10(-10) mol NO cm(-2) min(-1) and the control (2334 ± 496, 226 ± 99, and 103 ±31% fibrinogen adsorbed of control, respectively). This study suggests that NO's role in controlling clotting is extended beyond platelet activation. PMID:23554300

  4. Optimizing heterosurface adsorbent synthesis for liquid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoslovskii, S. Yu.; Serdan, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The structural and geometric parameters of a silica matrix (SM) for the synthesis of heterosurface adsorbents (HAs) are optimized. Modification is performed by shielding the external surfaces of alkyl-modified silica (AS) using human serum albumin and its subsequent crosslinking. The structural and geometric characteristics of the SM, AS, and HA are measured via low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. It is found that the structural characteristics of AS pores with diameters D < 6 nm do not change during HA synthesis, while the volume of pores with diameters of 6 nm < D < 9 nm shrinks slightly due to the adsorption of albumin in the pore orifices. It is established that the volume of pores with diameters D > 9 nm reduces significantly due to adsorption of albumin. It is concluded that silica gel with a maximum pore size distribution close to 5 nm and a minimal proportion of pores with D > 9 nm is optimal for HA synthesis; this allows us to achieve the greatest similarity between the chromatographic retention parameters for HA and AS. The suitability of the synthesized adsorbents for analyzing drugs in biological fluids through direct sample injection is confirmed by chromatography. It was found that the percentage of the protein fraction detected at the outlet of the chromatographic column is 98%.

  5. Batch and continuous flow studies of adsorptive removal of Cr(VI) by adapted bacterial consortia immobilized in alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Jastin; Pulimi, Mrudula; Paul, Madona L; Maurya, Arun; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    The adsorptive removal of Cr(VI) by alginate beads containing Cr(VI)-adapted Acinetobacter junii, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis in batch and continuous packed bed column reactors was investigated. Under optimized conditions (pH 3.0; contact time, 180 min; 30 °C; initial Cr(VI) concentration of 100 mg/L), 65.86 mg/g adsorption capacity was recorded in the batch study. When an adsorbent dosage of 1g/L, a flow rate of 5 mL/min, a bed height of 20 cm, an initial Cr(VI) concentration of 300 mg/L was employed, a capacity of 657 mg/g was noted for the continuous column assay. The batch sorption data followed the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second order kinetics. Five sorption/desorption cycles yielded 100%, 99.63%, 95.31%, 80.7% and 74.22% regeneration, respectively. Cr(VI) adsorption studies using spiked ground water, freshwater and domestic wastewater in a packed bed reactor demonstrated Cr(VI) removals of 64.8%, 55.08%, 56.86% respectively. Cr(VI) sorption on immobilized bacteria was confirmed with Fourier-transform infrared and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. PMID:23201524

  6. Equilibrium molecular theory of two-dimensional adsorbate drops on surfaces of heterogeneous adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovbin, Yu. K.

    2016-08-01

    A molecular statistical theory for calculating the linear tension of small multicomponent droplets in two-dimensional adsorption systems is developed. The theory describes discrete distributions of molecules in space (on a scale comparable to molecular size) and continuous distributions of molecules (at short distances inside cells) in their translational and vibrational motions. Pair intermolecular interaction potentials (the Mie type potential) in several coordination spheres are considered. For simplicity, it is assumed that distinctions in the sizes of mixture components are slight and comparable to the sizes of adsorbent adsorption centers. Expressions for the pressure tensor components inside small droplets on the heterogeneous surface of an adsorbent are obtained, allowing calculations of the thermodynamic characteristics of a vapor-fluid interface, including linear tension. Problems in refining the molecular theory are discussed: describing the properties of small droplets using a coordination model of their structure, considering the effect an adsorbate has on the state of a near-surface adsorbent region, and the surface heterogeneity factor in the conditions for the formation of droplets.

  7. Dynamic Simulation of Batch Photocatalytic Reactor (BPR) for Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Suman

    2012-08-01

    Reactive dyes discharged from dyehouse causes a serious environmental problem. UV/TiO2 photocatalysis has been employed effectively for these organic dyes removal from dye-house effluent. This process produces less amount of non-toxic final product. In this paper a photocatalytic reactor has been designed for Reactive red 198 (RR198) removal from aqueous solution. The reactor is operating in batch mode. After each batch, TiO2 catalyst has been separated and recycled in the next batch. Mathematical model equation of this batch photocatalytic reactor (BPR) has been developed considering Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. Simulation of BPR has been carried out using fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK) method and fifth order RK method (Butcher method). This simulation results can be used to develop an automatic photocatlytic reactor for industrial wastewater treatment. Catalyst activity decay and its effect on each batch have been incorporated in this model.

  8. A canned food scheduling problem with batch due date

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Tsui-Ping; Liao, Ching-Jong; Smith, Milton

    2014-09-01

    This article considers a canned food scheduling problem where jobs are grouped into several batches. Jobs can be sent to the next operation only when all the jobs in the same batch have finished their processing, i.e. jobs in a batch, have a common due date. This batch due date problem is quite common in canned food factories, but there is no efficient heuristic to solve the problem. The problem can be formulated as an identical parallel machine problem with batch due date to minimize the total tardiness. Since the problem is NP hard, two heuristics are proposed to find the near-optimal solution. Computational results comparing the effectiveness and efficiency of the two proposed heuristics with an existing heuristic are reported and discussed.

  9. The fate of arsenic adsorbed on iron oxides in the presence of arsenite-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhennan; Yin, Naiyi; Du, Huili; Cai, Xiaolin; Cui, Yanshan

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a redox-active metalloid whose toxicity and mobility in soil depend on its oxidation state. Arsenite [As(III)] can be oxidized by microbes and adsorbed by minerals in the soil. However, the combined effects of these abiotic and biotic processes are not well understood. In this study, the fate of arsenic in the presence of an isolated As(III)-oxidizing bacterium (Pseudomonas sp. HN-1, 10(9) colony-forming units (CFUs)·ml(-1)) and three iron oxides (goethite, hematite, and magnetite at 1.6 g L(-1)) was determined using batch experiments. The total As adsorption by iron oxides was lower with bacteria present and was higher with iron oxides alone. The total As adsorption decreased by 78.6%, 36.0% and 79.7% for goethite, hematite and magnetite, respectively, due to the presence of bacteria. As(III) adsorbed on iron oxides could also be oxidized by Pseudomonas sp. HN-1, but the oxidation rate (1.3 μmol h(-1)) was much slower than the rate in the aqueous phase (96.2 μmol h(-1)). Therefore, the results of other studies with minerals only might overestimate the adsorptive capacity of solids in natural systems; the presence of minerals might hinder As(III) oxidation by microbes. Under aerobic conditions, in the presence of iron oxides and As(III)-oxidizing bacteria, arsenic is adsorbed onto iron oxides within the adsorption capacity, and As(V) is the primary form in the solid and aqueous phases.

  10. Effect of glass-batch makeup on the melting process

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R; Schweiger, Michael J; Humrickhouse, Carissa J; Moody, J Adam; Tate, Rachel M; Rainsdon, Timothy T; Tegrotenhuis, Nathan E; Arrigoni, Benjamin M; Marcial, Jose; Rodriguez, Carmen P; Tincher, Benjamin

    2010-03-29

    The response of a glass batch to heating is determined by the batch makeup and in turn determines the rate of melting. Batches formulated for a high-alumina nuclear waste to be vitrified in an all-electric melter were heated at a constant temperature-increase rate to determine changes in melting behavior in response to the selection of batch chemicals and silica grain-size as well as the addition of heat-generating reactants. The type of batch materials and the size of silica grains determine how much, if any, primary foam occurs during melting. Small quartz grains, 5-μm in size, caused extensive foaming because their major portion dissolved at temperatures <800°C, contributing to the formation of viscous glass-forming melt that trapped evolving batch gases. Primary foam did not occur in batches with larger quartz grains, ±75 μm in size, because their major portion dissolved at temperatures >800°C when batch gases no longer evolved. The exothermal reaction of nitrates with sucrose was ignited at a temperature as low as 160°C and caused a temporary jump in temperature of several hundred degrees. Secondary foam, the source of which is oxygen from redox reactions, occurred in all batches of a limited composition variation involving five oxides, B2O3, CaO, Li2O, MgO, and Na2O. The foam volume at the maximum volume-increase rate was a weak function of temperature and melt basicity. Neither the batch makeup nor the change in glass composition had a significant impact on the dissolution of silica grains. The impacts of primary foam generation on glass homogeneity and the rate of melting in large-scale continuous furnaces have yet to be established via mathematical modeling and melter experiments.

  11. Fabrication of a biomimetic adsorbent imprinted with a common specificity determinant for the removal of α- and β-amanitin from plasma.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lei; He, Rong; Li, Yongxian; Liang, Yong; Li, He; Tang, Youwen

    2016-08-12

    α-Amanitin and β-amanitin are the main toxins of mushroom poisoning. The application of traditional non-selective adsorbents is not satisfactory in clinical treatment of amanita mushroom poisoning due to lack of specificity adsorption capability of these adsorbents toward amanitin toxins. In the current work, we introduce a novel molecularly imprinted biomimetic adsorbent based on a ligand specificity determinant through surface imprinted strategy. Owing to the expensive price of the amanitin sources, we selected a typical common moiety of α, β-amanitin as specificity determinant to synthesize a template necessary for the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). Computer simulation was used to initially select acidic methacrylic acid (MAA) and basic 4-vinyl pyridine (4-VP) together as functional monomers. The experiments further demonstrated that the synergistic interaction of MAA and 4-VP played a primary role in the recognition of α, β-amanitin by MIPs. By means of batch and packed-bed column experiment and the hemocompatibility evaluation, the resultant biomimetic adsorbent has been proved to be capable of selectively removing α, β-amanitin and possess good hemocompatibility. This novel adsorbent has great potential to find application in human plasma purification. PMID:27394089

  12. Inside the removal of lead(II) from aqueous solutions by De-Oiled Allspice Husk in batch and continuous processes.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Olivares, J; Pérez-Alonso, C; Barrera-Díaz, C; López, G; Balderas-Hernández, P

    2010-09-15

    A new adsorbent material for removing lead ions from aqueous solutions has been investigated. The residue of the allspice extraction process (De-Oiled Allspice Husk) was used on the removal of Pb(II) from water solutions. The lead sorption capacity of De-Olied Allspice Husk (DOAH) was studied in batch and continuous processes. It was found that percentage removals of Pb(II) depend on the pH and the initial lead concentrations. The Pb(II) uptake process was maximum at pH 5 in a range concentrations of 5-25 mg L(-1). The overall sorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model under conditions of pH 5 (0.1 g adsorbent per 100 mL of contaminated solution) 0.001 mass/volume ratio and 25 degrees C. The sorption capacity of lead(II) onto DOAH in batch process was 5.00, 8.02, 11.59, 15.23 and 20.07 mg g(-1), when the concentration solutions were 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg L(-1) respectively. These values are lower than obtained in continuous process, where lead was removed by 95% and the experimental results were appropriately fitted by the Yoon-Nelson model. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provides information regarding the interactions between lead ions and the adsorbent surface indicating that the formation of 2 complexes depends on the functional groups associated.

  13. Extraction of uranium from seawater using magnetic adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, H.; Fujita, K.; Nakajima, F.; Ozawa, Y.; Murata, T.

    1981-01-01

    A new process for the extraction of uranium from seawater was developed. In the process, uranium adsorption is effected using powdered magnetic adsorbents; the adsorbents are then separated from seawater using magnetic separation technology. This process is superior to a column method using a granulated hydrous titanium oxide adsorber bed in the following ways: (1) a higher rate of adsorption is realized because smaller particles are used in the uranium adsorption; and (2) blocking, which is inevitable in an adsorber bed, is eliminated. The composite hydrous titanium-iron oxide as a magnetic adsorbent having high uranium adsorption capacity and magnetization can be prepared by adding urea to a mixed solution of titanium sulfate and ferrous sulfate. Adsorption and desoprtion of uranium and the removal of the adsorbent using a small-scale uranium extraction plant (about 15 m/sup 3//d) is reported, and the feasibility of uranium extraction from seawater by this process is demonstrated. 10 figures.

  14. Biodenitrification in Sequencing Batch Reactors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, J.

    1996-01-23

    One plan for stabilization of the Solar Pond waters and sludges at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), is evaporation and cement solidification of the salts to stabilize heavy metals and radionuclides for land disposal as low-level mixed waste. It has been reported that nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sub {minus}}) salts may interfere with cement stabilization of heavy metals and radionuclides. Therefore, biological nitrate removal (denitrification) may be an important pretreatment for the Solar Pond wastewaters at RFP, improving the stability of the cement final waste form, reducing the requirement for cement (or pozzolan) additives and reducing the volume of cemented low-level mixed waste requiring ultimate disposal. A laboratory investigation of the performance of the Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) activated sludge process developed for nitrate removal from a synthetic brine typical of the high-nitrate and high-salinity wastewaters in the Solar Ponds at Rocky Flats Plant was carried out at the Environmental Engineering labs at the University of Colorado, Boulder, between May 1, 1994 and October 1, 1995.

  15. Biodegradability of industrial textile wastewater - batch tests.

    PubMed

    Paździor, Katarzyna; Klepacz-Smółka, Anna; Wrębiak, Julita; Liwarska-Bizukojć, Ewa; Ledakowicz, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Following new trends we applied oxygen uptake rate (OUR) tests as well as long-term tests (in two batch bioreactors systems) in order to assess the biodegradability of textile wastewater. Effluents coming from a dyeing factory were divided into two streams which differed in inorganic and organic contaminants loads. Usefulness of the stream division was proved. Biodegradation of the low-loaded stream led to over 97% reduction of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) together with 80% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Most of the controlled parameter values were below the levels allowed by legislation for influents to surface water, whereas the high-loaded stream was so contaminated with recalcitrant organic compounds that despite the reduction of BOD5 by over 95%, COD, TOC, total nitrogen and total phosphorus levels exceeded permissible values. OUR tests were aimed at determination of the following kinetic parameters: maximum specific growth rate (μMax), half-saturation constant, hydrolysis constant and decay coefficient for activated sludge biomass for both types of textile wastewater studied. The values of kinetic parameters will be applied in activated sludge models used for prediction and optimisation of biological treatment of textile wastewater. PMID:27642827

  16. 40 CFR 204.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batch... § 204.57-7 Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. (a) The manufacturer will continue to inspect consecutive batches until the batch sequence is accepted or rejected. The batch sequence will be accepted...

  17. 40 CFR 204.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batch... § 204.57-7 Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. (a) The manufacturer will continue to inspect consecutive batches until the batch sequence is accepted or rejected. The batch sequence will be accepted...

  18. 21 CFR 320.35 - Requirements for in vitro testing of each batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements for in vitro testing of each batch... of each batch. If a bioequivalence requirement specifies a currently available in vitro test or an in... conduct the test on a sample of each batch of the drug product to assure batch-to-batch uniformity....

  19. 21 CFR 320.35 - Requirements for in vitro testing of each batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requirements for in vitro testing of each batch... of each batch. If a bioequivalence requirement specifies a currently available in vitro test or an in... conduct the test on a sample of each batch of the drug product to assure batch-to-batch uniformity....

  20. 21 CFR 320.35 - Requirements for in vitro testing of each batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for in vitro testing of each batch... of each batch. If a bioequivalence requirement specifies a currently available in vitro test or an in... conduct the test on a sample of each batch of the drug product to assure batch-to-batch uniformity....

  1. 40 CFR 204.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batch... § 204.57-7 Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. (a) The manufacturer will continue to inspect consecutive batches until the batch sequence is accepted or rejected. The batch sequence will be accepted...

  2. 40 CFR 205.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batches... Acceptance and rejection of batches. (a) The batch from which a batch sample is selected will be accepted or rejected based upon the number of failing vehicles in the batch sample. A sufficient number of test...

  3. 40 CFR 205.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Acceptance and rejection of batches... Acceptance and rejection of batches. (a) The batch from which a batch sample is selected will be accepted or rejected based upon the number of failing vehicles in the batch sample. A sufficient number of test...

  4. 40 CFR 204.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batch... § 204.57-7 Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. (a) The manufacturer will continue to inspect consecutive batches until the batch sequence is accepted or rejected. The batch sequence will be accepted...

  5. 40 CFR 205.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batches... Acceptance and rejection of batches. (a) The batch from which a batch sample is selected will be accepted or rejected based upon the number of failing vehicles in the batch sample. A sufficient number of test...

  6. 21 CFR 320.35 - Requirements for in vitro testing of each batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements for in vitro testing of each batch... of each batch. If a bioequivalence requirement specifies a currently available in vitro test or an in... conduct the test on a sample of each batch of the drug product to assure batch-to-batch uniformity....

  7. 40 CFR 204.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Acceptance and rejection of batch... § 204.57-7 Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. (a) The manufacturer will continue to inspect consecutive batches until the batch sequence is accepted or rejected. The batch sequence will be accepted...

  8. 40 CFR 205.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batches... Acceptance and rejection of batches. (a) The batch from which a batch sample is selected will be accepted or rejected based upon the number of failing vehicles in the batch sample. A sufficient number of test...

  9. Isomerization reactions on single adsorbed molecules.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Karina

    2009-02-17

    Molecular switches occur throughout nature. In one prominent example, light induces the isomerization of retinal from the compact 11-cis form to the elongated all-trans form, a conversion that triggers the transformation of light into a neural impulse in the eye. Applying these natural principles to synthetic systems offers a promising way to construct smaller and faster nanoelectronic devices. In such systems, electronic switches are essential components for storage and logical operations. The development of molecular switches on the single-molecule level would represent a major step toward incorporating molecules as building units into nanoelectronic circuits. Molecular switches must be both reversible and bistable. To meet these requirements, a molecule must have at least two different thermally stable forms and a way to repeatedly interconvert between those forms based on changes in light, heat, pressure, magnetic or electric fields, pH, mechanical forces, or electric currents. The conversion should be connected to a measurable change in electronic, optical, magnetic, or mechanical properties. Because isomers can differ significantly in physical and chemical properties, isomerization could serve as a molecular switching mechanism. Integration of molecular switches into larger circuits will probably require arranging them on surfaces, which will require a better understanding of isomerization reactions in these environments. In this Account, we describe our scanning tunneling microscopy studies of the isomerization of individual molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. Investigating chlorobenzene and azobenzene derivatives on the fcc(111) faces of Ag, Cu, and Au, we explored the influence of substituents and the substrate on the excitation mechanism of the isomerization reaction induced by inelastically tunneling electrons. We achieved an irreversible configurational (cis-trans) isomerization of individual 4-dimethyl-amino-azobenzene-4-sulfonic acid molecules on Au

  10. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOEpatents

    Senum, Gunnar I.; Dietz, Russell N.

    1994-01-01

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

  11. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOEpatents

    Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

    1994-04-05

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

  12. Purification of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) using magnetic ion exchange adsorbents in combination with high-gradient magnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christine; Heidenreich, Elena; Franzreb, Matthias; Frankenfeld, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Current purification of the glycoprotein equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) from horse serum includes consecutive precipitation steps beginning with metaphosphoric acid pH fractionation, two ethanol precipitation steps, and dialysis followed by a numerous of fixed-bed chromatography steps up to the specific activity required. A promising procedure for a more economic purification procedure represents a simplified precipitation process requiring only onethird of the solvent, followed by the usage of magnetic ion exchange adsorbents employed together with a newly designed 'rotor-stator' type High Gradient Magnetic Fishing (HGMF) system for large-scale application, currently up to 100 g of magnetic adsorbents. Initially, the separation process design was optimized for binding and elution conditions for the target protein in mL scale. Subsequently, the magnetic filter for particle separation was characterized. Based on these results, a purification process for eCG was designed consisting of (i) pretreatment of the horse serum; (ii) binding of the target protein to magnetic ion exchange adsorbents in a batch reactor; (iii) recovery of loaded functionalized adsorbents from the pretreated solution using HGMF; (iv) washing of loaded adsorbents to remove unbound proteins; (v) elution of the target protein. Finally, the complete HGMF process was automated and conducted with either multiple single-cycles or multicycle operation of four sequential cycles, using batches of pretreated serum of up to 20 L. eCG purification with yields of approximately 53% from single HGMF cycles and up to 80% from multicycle experiments were reached, with purification and concentration factors of around 2,500 and 6.7, respectively.

  13. Air stripper VOC treatment using specialized adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Craven, C.N.; Blystone, P.G.; Grant, A.

    1994-12-31

    Abatement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions is required by federal, state and local regulatory agencies. Sources of VOC emissions include air stripping processes at groundwater remediation and industrial wastewater operations. The Purus A2000 system is an innovative emission control system that utilizes specialized adsorbent resins, on-site regeneration and solvent recovery for abatement of VOCs. This paper describes two applications in which air stripper off-gas is treated by the Purus A2000 Adsorption System. The first is a groundwater remediation pump-and-treat operation in which the air stripper off-gas contains chlorinated solvents. At the second site, benzene and styrene emissions from an industrial wastewater air stripper operation were successfully treated. At both sites the recovered solvent was recycled. Capital and operating costs will be compared to other treatment methods.

  14. Trends in adsorbate induced core level shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Viktor; Van den Bossche, Maxime; Hellman, Anders; Grönbeck, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    Photoelectron core level spectroscopy is commonly used to monitor atomic and molecular adsorption on metal surfaces. As changes in the electron binding energies are convoluted measures with different origins, calculations are often used to facilitate the decoding of experimental signatures. The interpretation could in this sense benefit from knowledge on trends in surface core level shifts for different metals and adsorbates. Here, density functional theory calculations have been used to systematically evaluate core level shifts for (111) and (100) surfaces of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals upon CO, H, O and S adsorption. The results reveal trends and several non-intuitive cases. Moreover, the difficulties correlating core level shifts with charging and d-band shifts are underlined.

  15. Linear transport models for adsorbing solutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, K.; Jury, W. A.

    1993-04-01

    A unified linear theory for the transport of adsorbing solutes through soils is presented and applied to analyze movement of napropamide through undisturbed soil columns. The transport characteristics of the soil are expressed in terms of the travel time distribution of the mobile phase which is then used to incorporate local interaction processes. This approach permits the analysis of all linear transport processes, not only the small subset for which a differential description is known. From a practical point of view, it allows the direct use of measured concentrations or fluxes of conservative solutes to characterize the mobile phase without first subjecting them to any model. For complicated flow regimes, this may vastly improve the identification of models and estimation of their parameters for the local adsorption processes.

  16. The persistence length of adsorbed dendronized polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebikova, Lucie; Kozhuharov, Svilen; Maroni, Plinio; Mikhaylov, Andrey; Dietler, Giovanni; Schlüter, A. Dieter; Ullner, Magnus; Borkovec, Michal

    2016-07-01

    The persistence length of cationic dendronized polymers adsorbed onto oppositely charged substrates was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and quantitative image analysis. One can find that a decrease in the ionic strength leads to an increase of the persistence length, but the nature of the substrate and of the generation of the side dendrons influence the persistence length substantially. The strongest effects as the ionic strength is being changed are observed for the fourth generation polymer adsorbed on mica, which is a hydrophilic and highly charged substrate. However, the observed dependence on the ionic strength is much weaker than the one predicted by the Odijk, Skolnik, and Fixman (OSF) theory for semi-flexible chains. Low-generation polymers show a variation with the ionic strength that resembles the one observed for simple and flexible polyelectrolytes in solution. For high-generation polymers, this dependence is weaker. Similar dependencies are found for silica and gold substrates. The observed behavior is probably caused by different extents of screening of the charged groups, which is modified by the polymer generation, and to a lesser extent, the nature of the substrate. For highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), which is a hydrophobic and weakly charged substrate, the electrostatic contribution to the persistence length is much smaller. In the latter case, we suspect that specific interactions between the polymer and the substrate also play an important role.The persistence length of cationic dendronized polymers adsorbed onto oppositely charged substrates was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and quantitative image analysis. One can find that a decrease in the ionic strength leads to an increase of the persistence length, but the nature of the substrate and of the generation of the side dendrons influence the persistence length substantially. The strongest effects as the ionic strength is being changed are observed for the fourth

  17. Active Batch Selection via Convex Relaxations with Guaranteed Solution Bounds.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Shayok; Balasubramanian, Vineeth; Sun, Qian; Panchanathan, Sethuraman; Ye, Jieping

    2015-10-01

    Active learning techniques have gained popularity to reduce human effort in labeling data instances for inducing a classifier. When faced with large amounts of unlabeled data, such algorithms automatically identify the exemplar instances for manual annotation. More recently, there have been attempts towards a batch mode form of active learning, where a batch of data points is simultaneously selected from an unlabeled set. In this paper, we propose two novel batch mode active learning (BMAL) algorithms: BatchRank and BatchRand. We first formulate the batch selection task as an NP-hard optimization problem; we then propose two convex relaxations, one based on linear programming and the other based on semi-definite programming to solve the batch selection problem. Finally, a deterministic bound is derived on the solution quality for the first relaxation and a probabilistic bound for the second. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research effort to derive mathematical guarantees on the solution quality of the BMAL problem. Our extensive empirical studies on 15 binary, multi-class and multi-label challenging datasets corroborate that the proposed algorithms perform at par with the state-of-the-art techniques, deliver high quality solutions and are robust to real-world issues like label noise and class imbalance.

  18. FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Zamecnik, J.

    2010-05-13

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated a large number of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) composition projections to support frit optimization for SB6 vitrification at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The evaluations discussed in this report occurred over a period of about 4 months, and included about 40 composition projections, developed by both Savannah River Remediation (SRR) and SRNL. Paper study assessments were used to evaluate the sludge composition projections with arrays of potential frit compositions using the predictive models in the DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Both nominal sludge compositions and sludge compositions with anticipated compositional variation were considered. The model predictions were used to identify candidate frit compositions for each SB6 projection and to provide some guidance to SRR on washing and blending strategies for SB6 preparation. This report presents a chronological review of this process and summarizes the findings at each stage. Following initial feedback from this work, the number of washes in Tank 51 was reduced to increase the projected sodium concentration in SB6. Analyses of predicted frit performance before and after a potential decant of Tank 40 showed that the post-decant SB6 composition would be difficult to process with any frit composition and that this scenario should be avoided. Based on the most recent SB6 projections (February 2010 SB6 composition projections developed at SRNL using the measured SB6 qualification sample composition and the revised Tank Farm washing plan), Frit 418 appears to be viable for SB6 processing at a target waste loading of 36%. A Nominal Stage PCCS Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) assessment gave projected operating windows of 25-41% waste loading, limited by predictions of nepheline crystallization. The projected operating window is reduced to 25-38% waste loading when anticipated compositional variation is considered, again limited by

  19. Main Ring Cycle Time Limitations and Multi-Batch Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Dugan, G.; Martin, P.; Pruss, S.; /Fermilab

    1986-02-01

    This note is a compilation of comments on the limitations on the Main Ring cycle time, and multi-batch operation of the Main Ring. The first page is a summary of three talks given in january 1986 by the authors about limitations to Main Ring cycle rates and the possibilities for multi-batch targeting schemes. Following this is a writeup by Stan pruss on the Main Ring cycle time limitations. This is followed in turn by some comments by G. Dugan on the general topic, from the pbar Source perspective. The basic conclusions of the talks are: (1) The main ring should be able to ramp to 120 GeV with a cycle time of less than 2.15 sec, with existing hardware. The principal limits are due to voltage limitations on the MR power supplies, both on the upgramp and on invert, and RF bucket area limitations. The magnet cooling is adequate to run at 120 GeV DC. (2) Bunch narrowing techniques for multiple batch operation, with up to 4 batches on flat top, is possible with the existing hardware and results in a very small ({approx} 3%) longitudinal emittance dilution per batch. This conclusion does not include the effects of instabilities, if any. Although the optimum bunch length with multiple batches will be wider than with one batch, this is not a large effect and probably is of no significance for the pbar yield (although this should be checked). (3) With a small modification to the existing hardware, the E17 kicker can be upgraded to allow operation with 3 batches on the flat top. Some additional effort (which is planned) will be required to allow four batches, beyond this point, major effort (not planned at present) will be required.

  20. Utilization of maize husk (Zea mays L.) as low-cost adsorbent in removal of iron from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Indah, S; Helard, D; Sasmita, A

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption of iron from aqueous solution by using maize husk (Zea mays L.) as a low-cost adsorbent was studied. Batch experiments were carried out at ambient temperature, 0.075-0.250 mm of particle size and 100 rpm of agitation speed to determine the influence of initial pH, adsorbent dose, initial concentration and contact time on the removal of iron. Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to describe the adsorption isotherm of iron by maize husk. The results showed that optimum condition of iron removal were 4 of pH solution, 20 g/L of adsorbent dose, 10 mg/L of Fe concentration and 15 min of contact time of adsorption with 0.499 mg Fe/g maize husk of adsorption capacity. Experimental data fitted well to Langmuir's adsorption equilibrium isotherm within the concentration range studied. This study demonstrated that maize husk, which is an agricultural waste, has potential for iron removal from groundwater or other polluted waters.

  1. Adsorption of metals from aqueous solutions using a magnetic adsorbent in the presence of a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.; Navratil, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    We are studying the effects of an applied magnetic field on the adsorption of metals from aqueous solutions using magnetic adsorbent materials. Certain magnetic adsorbent materials are well known for their metal adsorption properties, e.g., magnetite readily removes metals from aqueous solutions in the absence of a magnetic field. However, recent results from our work suggest that a synergistic effect between a magnetic adsorbent material and an external magnetic field may be responsible for the enhanced removal of metals from waste water. Epichlorohydrin resin beads coated with magnetite, when placed in a fixed-bed surrounded by a magnetic field, exhibited a significant increase in the magnetite capacity for plutonium and americium compared to numerous batch studies done with various forms of magnetite in the absence of a magnetic field. The removal of various metals from aqueous solutions at different pHs, concentrations, and magnetic field strengths is currently being investigated using the non-porous, magnetite-coated epichlorohydrin resin. The objective of this presentation is to give an overview of our most recent experimental findings.

  2. Removal of aluminium from aqueous solutions using PAN-based adsorbents: characterisation, kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Aly, Zaynab; Graulet, Adrien; Scales, Nicholas; Hanley, Tracey

    2014-03-01

    Economic adsorbents in bead form were fabricated and utilised for the adsorption of Al(3+) from aqueous solutions. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) beads, PAN powder and the thermally treated PAN beads (250 °C/48 h/Ar and 600 °C/48 h/Ar-H2) were characterised using different techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, specific surface analysis (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller), thermogravimetric analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy. Effects of pH, contact time, kinetics and adsorption isotherms at different temperatures were investigated in batch mode experiments. Aluminium kinetic data best fit the Lagergren pseudo-second-order adsorption model indicating a one-step, surface-only, adsorption process with chemisorption being the rate limiting step. Equilibrium adsorption data followed a Langmuir adsorption model with fairly low monolayer adsorption capacities suitable for freshwater clean-up only. Various constants including thermodynamic constants were evaluated from the experimental results obtained at 20, 40 and 60 °C. Positive values of ΔH° indicated that the adsorption of Al(3+) onto all three adsorbents was endothermic with less energy input required for PAN powder compared to PAN beads and low-temperature thermally treated PAN. Negative ΔG° values indicated that the aluminium adsorption process was spontaneous for all adsorbents examined.

  3. Carboxylated carbon nanotubes as an efficient and cost-effective adsorbent for sustainable removal of insecticide fenvalerate from contaminated solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeimi, Atena; Saeidi, Mahboubeh; Baroumand, Naser

    2016-10-01

    In this study, carboxylic multiwall carbon nanotubes (CMNTs) were used as an adsorbent for removing fenvalerate as a toxic insecticide from solution through batch experiments. The influence of four independent parameters of HCl, initial fenvalerate concentration, CMNTs dosage, and contact time on the fenvalerate adsorption process was investigated. Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that the adsorption and maximum adsorption capacity (40.0 mg g-1) showed high adsorption potential of the proposed sorbent. The kinetic, isothermic, and thermodynamic of fenvalerate adsorptionon CMNTs were evaluated to better understand this environmental friendly adsorption strategy. A pseudo-first-order kinetic described very well the experimental data of the adsorption kinetics. The experimental data found to be properly fitted to Freundlich model, which indicates that the sorption takes place on a heterogeneous material. The thermodynamic results showed the negative value of the standard free energy (Δ G0 ) and standard enthalpy change (Δ H0 ) showing an exothermic and spontaneous system. Repeated availability of adsorbent investigated and SEM and HRTEM of reused adsorbent showed stability and non-aggregatable attributes of CMNTs.

  4. Utilization of maize husk (Zea mays L.) as low-cost adsorbent in removal of iron from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Indah, S; Helard, D; Sasmita, A

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption of iron from aqueous solution by using maize husk (Zea mays L.) as a low-cost adsorbent was studied. Batch experiments were carried out at ambient temperature, 0.075-0.250 mm of particle size and 100 rpm of agitation speed to determine the influence of initial pH, adsorbent dose, initial concentration and contact time on the removal of iron. Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to describe the adsorption isotherm of iron by maize husk. The results showed that optimum condition of iron removal were 4 of pH solution, 20 g/L of adsorbent dose, 10 mg/L of Fe concentration and 15 min of contact time of adsorption with 0.499 mg Fe/g maize husk of adsorption capacity. Experimental data fitted well to Langmuir's adsorption equilibrium isotherm within the concentration range studied. This study demonstrated that maize husk, which is an agricultural waste, has potential for iron removal from groundwater or other polluted waters. PMID:27332838

  5. Remediation of organic and inorganic arsenic contaminated groundwater using a nanocrystalline TiO2-based adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Jing, Chuanyong; Meng, Xiaoguang; Calvache, Edwin; Jiang, Guibin

    2009-01-01

    A nanocrystalline TiO2-based adsorbent was evaluated for the simultaneous removal of As(V), As(III), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in contaminated groundwater. Batch experimental results show that As adsorption followed pseudo-second order rate kinetics. The competitive adsorption was described with the charge distribution multi-site surface complexation model (CD-MUSIC). The groundwater containing an average of 329 microg L(-1) As(III), 246 microg L(-1) As(V), 151 microg L(-1) MMA, and 202 microg L(-1) DMA was continuously passed through a TiO2 filter at an empty bed contact time of 6 min for 4 months. Approximately 11,000, 14,000, and 9900 bed volumes of water had been treated before the As(III), As(V), and MMA concentration in the effluent increased to 10 microg L(-1). However, very little DMA was removed. The EXAFS results demonstrate the existence of a bidentate binuclear As(V) surface complex on spent adsorbent, indicating the oxidation of adsorbed As(III).

  6. The Electrophysiological Biosensor for Batch-Measurement of Cell Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kengo; Tanabe, Masato; Ezaki, Takahiro; Konishi, Satoshi; Oka, Hiroaki; Ozaki, Nobuhiko

    This paper presents the development of electrophysiological biosensor. The developed sensor allows a batch-measurement by detecting all signals from a large number of cells together. The developed sensor employs the same measurement principle as the patch-clamp technique. A single cell is sucked and clamped in a micro hole with detecting electrode. Detecting electrodes in arrayed micro holes are connected together for the batch-measurement of signals a large number of cell signals. Furthermore, an array of sensors for batch-measurement is designed to improve measurement-throughput to satisfy requirements for the drug screening application.

  7. Radionuclide migration laboratory studies for validation of batch sorption data

    SciTech Connect

    Triay, I.R.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.

    1991-12-31

    Advective and diffusive migration experiments (within the Dynamic Transport Column Experiments and Diffusion Studies of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project) involve utilizing crushed material, intact, and fractured tuff in order to test and improve (if necessary) transport models by experimentally observing the migration of sorbing and non-sorbing radionuclides on a laboratory scale. Performing a validation of the sorption data obtained with batch techniques (within the Batch Sorption Study) is an integral part of the mission of the Dynamic Transport Column Experiments and Diffusion Studies. In this paper the work scope of the radionuclide migration laboratory experiments (as they apply to validation of batch sorption data) is reviewed.

  8. Targeting early apoptotic genes in batch and fed-batch CHO cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Wong, Danny Chee Furng; Wong, Kathy Tin Kam; Nissom, Peter Morin; Heng, Chew Kiat; Yap, Miranda Gek Sim

    2006-10-20

    Based on the transcriptional profiling of CHO cell culture using microarray, four key early apoptosis signaling genes, Fadd, Faim, Alg-2, and Requiem, were identified and CHO GT (Gene Targeted) cell lines were developed by targeting these four genes. Two were CHO GT(O) cell lines overexpressing anti-apoptotic genes, Faim and Fadd DN and two were CHO GT(KD) cell lines involving knockdown of Alg-2 and Requiem which are pro-apoptotic genes using small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology. Comparisons of these CHO GT cell lines with the parental cell line in batch culture (BC) and fed-batch culture (FBC) were performed. Compared to parental cells, the CHO GT cell lines showed apoptosis resistance as they significantly delayed and/or suppressed initiator caspase-8 and -9 and executioner caspase-3 activities during culture. FBC of CHO GT cell lines reached significantly higher maximum viable cell densities (up to 9 x 10(6) cells/mL) compared with the parental cell line (5 x 10(6) cells/mL). The recombinant interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) yields were increased by up to 2.5-fold. Furthermore, it was observed that the IFN-gamma was more highly sialylated.

  9. Novel Anionic Clay Adsorbents for Boiler-Blow-Down Waters Reclaim and Reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Muhammad Sahimi; Theodore Tsotsis

    2010-01-08

    Arsenic (As) and Selenium (Se) are found in water in the form of oxyanions. Relatively high concentrations of As and Se have been reported both in power plant discharges, as well as, in fresh water supplies. The International Agency for Research on Cancer currently classifies As as a group 1 chemical, that is considered to be carcinogenic to humans. In Phase I of this project we studied the adsorption of As and Se by uncalcined and calcined layered double hydroxide (LDH). The focus of the present work is a systematic study of the adsorption of As and Se by conditioned LDH adsorbents. Conditioning the adsorbent significantly reduced the Mg and Al dissolution observed with uncalcined and calcined LDH. The adsorption rates and isotherms have been investigated in batch experiments using particles of four different particle size ranges. As(V) adsorption is shown to follow a Sips-type adsorption isotherm. The As(V) adsorption rate on conditioned LDH increases with decreasing adsorbent particle size; the adsorption capacity, on the other hand, is independent of the particle size. A homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM) and a bi-disperse pore model (BPM) - the latter viewing the LDH particles as assemblages of microparticles and taking into account bulk diffusion in the intraparticle pore space, and surface diffusion within the microparticles themselves - were used to fit the experimental kinetic data. The HSDM estimated diffusivity values dependent on the particle size, whereas the BPM predicted an intracrystalline diffusivity, which is fairly invariant with particle size. The removal of As(V) on conditioned LDH adsorbents was also investigated in flow columns, where the impact of important solution and operational parameters such as influent As concentration, pH, sorbent particle size and flow rate were studied. An early breakthrough and saturation was observed at higher flow rates and at higher influent concentrations, whereas a decrease in the sorbent particle

  10. 21. photographer unknown undated RECORDING CONTROL BOARD AND BATCHING TUBES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. photographer unknown undated RECORDING CONTROL BOARD AND BATCHING TUBES OF CONCRETE PLANT. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  11. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, 22' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, 22' BAR MILL BUILDING, AND 22 BAR MILL MOTOR ROOM. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  12. 11. GASFIRED CRUCIBLE FURNACES WERE USED TO MELT SMALL, BATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GAS-FIRED CRUCIBLE FURNACES WERE USED TO MELT SMALL, BATCH QUANTITIES OF BRONZE IN STOCKHAM'S BRASS FOUNDRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BRONZE VALVES, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  13. 19. Main deck just forward of fish batch, portion of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Main deck just forward of fish batch, portion of fish hatch cover has been opened to show the ventilation grate below. - Schooner "Lettie G. Howard", South Street Seaport Museum, New York County, NY

  14. 8. VIEW OF BATCHING HOPPER ON SERVICE FLOOR OF FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF BATCHING HOPPER ON SERVICE FLOOR OF FURNACE AISLE IN BOP SHOP LOOKING SOUTH. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  15. 6. FLUX WEIGH HOPPERS AND SCALES ON THE BATCHING FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FLUX WEIGH HOPPERS AND SCALES ON THE BATCHING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  16. 12. Interior view of cement and aggregate batch plant showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior view of cement and aggregate batch plant showing storage bins. Photographer unknown, c. 1926. Source: Ralph Pleasant. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. GENERAL VIEW OF WAREHOUSE ADJACENT TO BATCH PLANT, LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF WAREHOUSE ADJACENT TO BATCH PLANT, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM DREY STREET PLANT, INSIDE WELCOME WALL - Chambers Window Glass Company, Warehouse & Shipping, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

  18. Groundwater arsenic remediation using zerovalent iron: Batch and column tests

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, increasing efforts have been made to explore the applicability and limitations of zerovalent iron (Fe0) for the treatment of arsenicbearing groundwater and wastewater. The experimental batch and column tests have demonstrated that arsenate and arsenite are removed effec...

  19. Structure and properties of water film adsorbed on mica surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gutian; Tan, Qiyan; Xiang, Li; Cai, Di; Zeng, Hongbo; Yi, Hong; Ni, Zhonghua; Chen, Yunfei

    2015-09-14

    The structure profiles and physical properties of the adsorbed water film on a mica surface under conditions with different degrees of relative humidity are investigated by a surface force apparatus. The first layer of the adsorbed water film shows ice-like properties, including a lattice constant similar with ice crystal, a high bearing capacity that can support normal pressure as high as 4 MPa, a creep behavior under the action of even a small normal load, and a character of hydrogen bond. Adjacent to the first layer of the adsorbed water film, the water molecules in the outer layer are liquid-like that can flow freely under the action of external loads. Experimental results demonstrate that the adsorbed water layer makes the mica surface change from hydrophilic to weak hydrophobic. The weak hydrophobic surface may induce the latter adsorbed water molecules to form water islands on a mica sheet. PMID:26374054

  20. Structure and properties of water film adsorbed on mica surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gutian; Tan, Qiyan; Xiang, Li; Cai, Di; Zeng, Hongbo; Yi, Hong; Ni, Zhonghua; Chen, Yunfei

    2015-09-14

    The structure profiles and physical properties of the adsorbed water film on a mica surface under conditions with different degrees of relative humidity are investigated by a surface force apparatus. The first layer of the adsorbed water film shows ice-like properties, including a lattice constant similar with ice crystal, a high bearing capacity that can support normal pressure as high as 4 MPa, a creep behavior under the action of even a small normal load, and a character of hydrogen bond. Adjacent to the first layer of the adsorbed water film, the water molecules in the outer layer are liquid-like that can flow freely under the action of external loads. Experimental results demonstrate that the adsorbed water layer makes the mica surface change from hydrophilic to weak hydrophobic. The weak hydrophobic surface may induce the latter adsorbed water molecules to form water islands on a mica sheet.

  1. Characterization of Russian ballistic furnace shells, February, 1999, batch

    SciTech Connect

    Fearon, E

    1999-04-02

    This report documents the characterization of the latest batch of shells produced in the Ballistic Furnace System at the Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia, that we received in mid-February, 1999. The batch consisted of three cassettes containing 36 shells in each cassette. An initial sphericity measurement was done, each shell was weighed, and shells were selected that were spherical enough to run on the Sphere Mapper AFM.

  2. Sorption speciation of nickel(II) onto Ca-montmorillonite: batch, EXAFS techniques and modeling.

    PubMed

    Tan, XiaoLi; Hu, Jun; Montavon, Gilles; Wang, XiangKe

    2011-11-01

    The sorption speciation of Ni(II) on Ca-montmorillonite was evaluated using a combination of batch experiments, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and modeling. The pH and temperature at the aqueous-montmorillonite interface affects both the extent of Ni(II) sorption as well as the local atomic structure of the adsorbed Ni(II) ions. At 0.001 mol L(-1) Ca(NO(3))(2) and low pH, the study reveals that the majority of Ni(II) is adsorbed in the interlayers of Ca-montmorillonite coordinated by six water molecules in an octahedron as an outer-sphere complex. At higher pH, inner-sphere surface complexes are formed. The Ni-Si/Al distances (R(Ni-Al) = 3.00 Å, R(Ni-Si1) = 3.10 Å and R(Ni-Si2) = 3.26 Å) determined by EXAFS confirm the formation of mononuclear complexes located at the edges of Ca-montmorillonite platelets at pH 7.5 and 8.5. At pH 10.0, the Ni-Ni/Si distances (R(Ni-Ni) = 3.07 Å and R(Ni-Si) = 3.26 Å) indicates the formation of Ni-phyllosilicate precipitates. A rise in temperature promotes inner-sphere complexation, which in turn leads to an increase in Ni(II) sorption on Ca-montmorillonite. Sorption edges are fitted excellently by surface complexation model (SCM) with the aid of surface species determined from EXAFS spectroscopy. PMID:21918750

  3. OPLS in batch monitoring - Opens up new opportunities.

    PubMed

    Souihi, Nabil; Lindegren, Anders; Eriksson, Lennart; Trygg, Johan

    2015-02-01

    In batch statistical process control (BSPC), data from a number of "good" batches are used to model the evolution (trajectory) of the process and they also define model control limits, against which new batches may be compared. The benchmark methods used in BSPC include partial least squares (PLS) and principal component analysis (PCA). In this paper, we have used orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) in BSPC and compared the results with PLS and PCA. The experimental study used was a batch hydrogenation reaction of nitrobenzene to aniline characterized by both UV spectroscopy and process data. The key idea is that OPLS is able to separate the variation in data that is correlated to the process evolution (also known as 'batch maturity index') from the variation that is uncorrelated to process evolution. This separation of different types of variations can generate different batch trajectories and hence lead to different established model control limits to detect process deviations. The results demonstrate that OPLS was able to detect all process deviations and provided a good process understanding of the root causes for these deviations. PCA and PLS on the other hand were shown to provide different interpretations for several of these process deviations, or in some cases they were unable to detect actual process deviations. Hence, the use of OPLS in BSPC can lead to better fault detection and root cause analysis as compared to existing benchmark methods and may therefore be used to complement the existing toolbox. PMID:25604817

  4. [Characteristic of Particulate Emissions from Concrete Batching in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Xue, Yi-feng; Zhou, Zhen; Zhong, Lian-hong; Yan, Jing; Qu, Song; Huang, Yu-hu; Tian, He- zhong; Pan, Tao

    2016-01-15

    With the economic development and population growth in Beijing, there is a strong need for construction and housing, which leads to the increase of the construction areas. Meanwhile, as a local provided material, the production of concrete has been raised. In the process of concrete production by concrete batching, there are numerous particulates emitted, which have large effect on the atmospheric environment, however, systematic study about the tempo-spatial characteristics of pollutant emission from concrete batching is still rare. In this study, we estimated the emission of particulates from concrete batching from 1991 to 2012 using emission factor method, analyzed the tempo-spatial characteristics of pollutant emission, established the uncertainty range by adopting Monte-Carlo method, and predicted the future emission in 2020 based on the relative environmental and economical policies. The results showed that: (1) the emissions of particulates from concrete batching showed a trend of "first increase and then decrease", reaching the maximum in 2005, and then decreased due to stricter emission standard and enhanced environmental management. (2) according to spatial distribution, the emission of particulates from concrete batch mainly concentrated in the urban area with more human activities, and the area between the fifth ring and the sixth ring contributed the most. (3) through scenarios analysis, for further reducing the emission from concrete batching in 2020, more stricter standard for green production as well as powerful supervision is needed.

  5. Milestone Report - Complete New Adsorbent Materials for Marine Testing to Demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg Adsorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, Christopher James; Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Yatsandra; Mayes, Richard T.; Saito, Tomonori; Brown, Suree; Gill, Gary; Kuo, Li-Jung; Wood, Jordana

    2014-08-01

    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-14OR03100115 (8/20/2014) entitled, “Complete new adsorbent materials for marine testing to demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent”. This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed two new families of fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. One adsorbent was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile onto high surface area polyethylene fibers followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. This fiber showed a capacity of 4.6 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. The second adsorbent was prepared by atom-transfer radical polymerization of t-butyl acrylate and acrylonitrile onto halide-functionalized round fibers followed by amidoximation and base hydrolysis. This fiber demonstrated uranium adsorption capacity of 5.4 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL.

  6. Online batch scheduling of equal-length jobs on two identical batch machines to maximise the number of early jobs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjie; Li, Shisheng

    2015-03-01

    We study the online batch scheduling of equal-length jobs on two identical batch machines. Each batch machine can process up to b jobs simultaneously as a batch (where b is called the capacity of the machines). The goal is to determine a schedule that maximises the (weighted) number of early jobs. For the non-preemptive model, we first present an upper bound that depends on the machine capacity b, and then we provide a greedy online algorithm with a competitive ratio of 1/(b + 1). For the preemption-restart model with b = ∞, we first show that no online algorithm has a competitive ratio greater than 0.595, and then we design an online algorithm with a competitive ratio of ?.

  7. NASA Applications of Molecular Adsorber Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Nithin S.

    2015-01-01

    The Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC) is a new, innovative technology that was developed to reduce the risk of molecular contamination on spaceflight applications. Outgassing from materials, such as plastics, adhesives, lubricants, silicones, epoxies, and potting compounds, pose a significant threat to the spacecraft and the lifetime of missions. As a coating made of highly porous inorganic materials, MAC offers impressive adsorptive capabilities that help capture and trap contaminants. Past research efforts have demonstrated the coating's promising adhesion performance, optical properties, acoustic durability, and thermal stability. These results advocate its use near or on surfaces that are targeted by outgassed materials, such as internal optics, electronics, detectors, baffles, sensitive instruments, thermal control coatings, and vacuum chamber test environments. The MAC technology has significantly progressed in development over the recent years. This presentation summarizes the many NASA spaceflight applications of MAC and how the coatings technology has been integrated as a mitigation tool for outgassed contaminants. For example, this sprayable paint technology has been beneficial for use in various vacuum chambers for contamination control and hardware bake-outs. The coating has also been used in small instrument cavities within spaceflight instrument for NASA missions.

  8. Bowl inversion of surface-adsorbed sumanene.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Rached; Pignedoli, Carlo A; Bussi, Giovanni; Aït-Mansour, Kamel; Groening, Oliver; Amaya, Toru; Hirao, Toshikazu; Fasel, Roman; Ruffieux, Pascal

    2014-10-01

    Bowl-shaped π-conjugated compounds offer the possibility to study curvature-dependent host-guest interactions and chemical reactivity in ideal model systems. For surface-adsorbed π bowls, however, only conformations with the bowl opening pointing away from the surface have been observed so far. Here we show for sumanene on Ag(111) that both bowl-up and bowl-down conformations can be stabilized. Analysis of the molecular layer as a function of coverage reveals an unprecedented structural phase transition involving a bowl inversion of one-third of the molecules. On the basis of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and complementary atomistic simulations, we develop a model that describes the observed phase transition in terms of a subtle interplay between inversion-dependent adsorption energies and intermolecular interactions. In addition, we explore the coexisting bowl-up and -down conformations with respect to host-guest binding of methane. STM reveals a clear energetic preference for methane binding to the concave face of sumanene. PMID:25181621

  9. Morphological characterization of furfuraldehyde resins adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.; Monteiro, S.N.; D`Almeida, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Sugar cane is one of the most traditional plantation cultivated crops in large areas in Brazil. The State University of the North of Rio de Janeiro, UENF, is currently engaged in a program aimed to exploit the potentialities of sugar cane industry as a self sustained non-polluting enterprise. One of the projects being carried out at the UENF is the transformation of sugar cane bagasse in precursor materials for the industry of furan derivatives such as the furfuraldehyde resins obtained by acid catalysis. The possibility of employing acid catalyzed furfuraldehyde resins as selective adsorbents has arisen during a comprehensive study of physical-chemical adsorption properties of these materials. The morphology of these resins depend on the synthesis method. Scanning Electron Microscopic studies of these materials which were synthesized, in bulk (FH-M) and solution (FH-D), showed differences in surface density and particle size. Using mercury porosimeter techniques and BET adsorption methods, it was found different pore size distributions and a decrement in surface area when solvent was employed in the synthesis process. By thermogravimetric analysis it was found similar weight losses (6%) of water adsorption and a small differences in thermal stabilities.

  10. Selective recovery of minor trivalent actinides from high level liquid waste by R-BTP/SiO2-P adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Yuichi; Surugaya, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masahiko

    2010-03-01

    Concerning the selective recovery of minor trivalent actinides (MA(III) = Am(III) and Cm(III)) from high level liquid waste (HLLW) by extraction chromatography, adsorption and elution behaviours of MA(III) and fission products (FP) in a nitric acid media were studied using iHex-BTP/SiO2-P adsorbents, which is expected to show high adsorption affinity for MA(III) even in concentrated HNO3 solution, such as HLLW. In the batch experiments, Pd showed strong adsorption on iHex-BTP/SiO2-P adsorbents under any concentration of HNO3. The MA(III) and heavy Ln(III) (Sm(III), Eu(III) and Gd(III)) were also adsorbed at the condition of high HNO3 concentration, but they showed no adsorption under low HNO3concentration. The separation factor for MA(III)/heavy Ln(III) took the maximum value (over 100) at around 1mol/dm3 HNO3. It was difficult to elute MA(III) or heavy Ln(III) selectively by HNO3 from the iHex-BTP/SiO2-P adsorbents degradated by γ-ray irradiation. The chromatographic separation of real HLLW by an iHex-BTP/SiO2-P column showed that MA(III) could be recovered selectively by adjusting the acidity of the feed solution, i.e. HLLW, to 1mol/dm3 and using H2O as eluant. The adsorption of Pd(II) can be decreased by the addition of appropriate complexing reagents, e.g. DTPA, into HLLW without any effects on the MA(III) adsorption.

  11. A high-fidelity batch simulation environment for integrated batch and piloted air combat simulation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Mcmanus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics and to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics, and databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. A Tactical Autopilot is implemented in the aircraft simulation model to convert guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft.

  12. SLUDGE BATCH VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) initiated processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) in the summer of 2010. In support of processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 to process SB6. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB6 available at the time from the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of SB6, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB6. The durability models were assessed over the expected Frit 418-SB6 composition range. Seventeen glasses were selected for the variability study based on the sludge projections used in the frit recommendation. Five of the glasses are based on the centroid of the compositional region, spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 32 to 40%. The remaining twelve glasses are extreme vertices (EVs) of the sludge region of interest for SB6 combined with Frit 418 and are all at 36% WL. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). After initiating the SB6 variability study, the measured composition of the SB6 Tank 51 qualification glass produced at the SRNL Shielded Cells Facility indicated that thorium was present in the glass at an appreciable concentration (1.03 wt%), which made it a reportable element for SB6. This concentration of ThO{sub 2} resulted in a second phase of experimental studies. Five glasses were formulated that were based on the centroid of the new sludge compositional region combined with Frit 418, spanning a WL range of 32 to 40%. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis and the PCT. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses (with and without thorium) were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass

  13. SLUDGE BATCH 7B GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2011-10-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frits 418 with a 6% Na{sub 2}O addition (26 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) and 702 with a 4% Na{sub 2}O addition (24 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) to process SB7b. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB7b available at the time from the Savannah River Remediation (SRR). To support qualification of SB7b, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB7b. The durability models were assessed over the expected composition range of SB7b, including potential caustic additions, combined with Frits 702 and 418 over a 32-40% waste loading (WL) range. Thirty four glasses were selected based on Frits 418 and 702 coupled with the sludge projections with an additional 4-6% Na{sub 2}O to reflect the potential caustic addition. Six of these glasses, based on average nominal sludge compositions including the appropriate caustic addition, were developed for both Frit 418 and Frit 702 at 32, 36 and 40% WL to provide coverage in the center of the anticipated SB7b glass region. All glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To comply with the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, a total of thirty four glasses were fabricated to assess the applicability of the current DWPF PCCS durability models. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass regardless of thermal history. The NL[B] values of the SB7b variability study glasses were less than 1.99 g/L as compared to 16.695 g/L for EA. A small number of the D-optimally selected 'outer layer' extreme vertices (EV) glasses were not predictable

  14. Butanol production by immobilised Clostridium acetobutylicum in repeated batch, fed-batch, and continuous modes of fermentation.

    PubMed

    Dolejš, Igor; Krasňan, Vladimír; Stloukal, Radek; Rosenberg, Michal; Rebroš, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum immobilised in polyvinylalcohol, lens-shaped hydrogel capsules (LentiKats(®)) was studied for production of butanol and other products of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation. After optimising the immobilisation protocol for anaerobic bacteria, continuous, repeated batch, and fed-batch fermentations in repeated batch mode were performed. Using glucose as a substrate, butanol productivity of 0.41 g/L/h and solvent productivity of 0.63 g/L/h were observed at a dilution rate of 0.05 h(-1) during continuous fermentation with a concentrated substrate (60 g/L). Through the process of repeated batch fermentation, the duration of fermentation was reduced from 27.8h (free-cell fermentation) to 3.3h (immobilised cells) with a solvent productivity of 0.77 g/L/h (butanol 0.57 g/L/h). The highest butanol and solvent productivities of 1.21 and 1.91 g/L/h were observed during fed-batch fermentation operated in repeated batch mode with yields of butanol (0.15 g/g) and solvents (0.24 g/g), respectively, produced per gram of glucose.

  15. Batch and Pulsed Fed-Batch Cultures of Aspergillus flavipes FP-500 Growing on Lemon Peel at Stirred Tank Reactor.

    PubMed

    Wolf-Márquez, V E; García-García, E; García-Rivero, M; Aguilar-Osorio, G; Martínez Trujillo, M A

    2015-11-01

    Aspergillus flavipes FP-500 grew up on submerged cultures using lemon peel as the only carbon source, developing several batch and pulsed fed-batch trials on a stirred tank reactor. The effect of carbon source concentration, reducing sugar presence and initial pH on exopectinase and endopectinase production, was analyzed on batch cultures. From this, we observed that the highest substrate concentration favored biomass (X max) but had not influence on the corresponding specific production (q p) of both pectinases; the most acid condition provoked higher endopectinase-specific productions but had not a significant effect on those corresponding to exopectinases; and reducing sugar concentrations higher than 1.5 g/L retarded pectinase production. On the other hand, by employing the pulsed fed-batch operation mode, we observed a prolonged growth phase, and an increase of about twofold on endopectinase production without a significant raise on biomass concentration. So, pulsed fed-batch seems to be a good alternative for obtaining higher endopectinase titers by using high lemon peel quantities without having mixing and repression problems to the system. The usefulness of unstructured kinetic models for explaining, under a theoretic level, the behavior of the fungus along the batch culture with regard to pectinase production was evident.

  16. Batch and Pulsed Fed-Batch Cultures of Aspergillus flavipes FP-500 Growing on Lemon Peel at Stirred Tank Reactor.

    PubMed

    Wolf-Márquez, V E; García-García, E; García-Rivero, M; Aguilar-Osorio, G; Martínez Trujillo, M A

    2015-11-01

    Aspergillus flavipes FP-500 grew up on submerged cultures using lemon peel as the only carbon source, developing several batch and pulsed fed-batch trials on a stirred tank reactor. The effect of carbon source concentration, reducing sugar presence and initial pH on exopectinase and endopectinase production, was analyzed on batch cultures. From this, we observed that the highest substrate concentration favored biomass (X max) but had not influence on the corresponding specific production (q p) of both pectinases; the most acid condition provoked higher endopectinase-specific productions but had not a significant effect on those corresponding to exopectinases; and reducing sugar concentrations higher than 1.5 g/L retarded pectinase production. On the other hand, by employing the pulsed fed-batch operation mode, we observed a prolonged growth phase, and an increase of about twofold on endopectinase production without a significant raise on biomass concentration. So, pulsed fed-batch seems to be a good alternative for obtaining higher endopectinase titers by using high lemon peel quantities without having mixing and repression problems to the system. The usefulness of unstructured kinetic models for explaining, under a theoretic level, the behavior of the fungus along the batch culture with regard to pectinase production was evident. PMID:26304128

  17. Carbon dioxide pressure swing adsorption process using modified alumina adsorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gaffney, T.R.; Golden, T.C.; Mayorga, S.G.; Brzozowski, J.R.; Taylor, F.W.

    1999-06-29

    A pressure swing adsorption process for absorbing CO[sub 2] from a gaseous mixture containing CO[sub 2] comprises introducing the gaseous mixture at a first pressure into a reactor containing a modified alumina adsorbent maintained at a temperature ranging from 100 C and 500 C to adsorb CO[sub 2] to provide a CO[sub 2] laden alumina adsorbent and a CO[sub 2] depleted gaseous mixture and contacting the CO[sub 2] laden adsorbent with a weakly adsorbing purge fluid at a second pressure which is lower than the first pressure to desorb CO[sub 2] from the CO[sub 2] laden alumina adsorbent. The modified alumina adsorbent which is formed by depositing a solution having a pH of 3.0 or more onto alumina and heating the alumina to a temperature ranging from 100 C and 600 C, is not degraded by high concentrations of water under process operating conditions. 1 fig.

  18. Carbon dioxide pressure swing adsorption process using modified alumina adsorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gaffney, Thomas Richard; Golden, Timothy Christopher; Mayorga, Steven Gerard; Brzozowski, Jeffrey Richard; Taylor, Fred William

    1999-01-01

    A pressure swing adsorption process for absorbing CO.sub.2 from a gaseous mixture containing CO.sub.2 comprising introducing the gaseous mixture at a first pressure into a reactor containing a modified alumina adsorbent maintained at a temperature ranging from 100.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. to adsorb CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 laden alumina adsorbent and a CO.sub.2 depleted gaseous mixture and contacting the CO.sub.2 laden adsorbent with a weakly adsorbing purge fluid at a second pressure which is lower than the first pressure to desorb CO.sub.2 from the CO.sub.2 laden alumina adsorbent. The modified alumina adsorbent which is formed by depositing a solution having a pH of 3.0 or more onto alumina and heating the alumina to a temperature ranging from 100.degree. C. and 600.degree. C., is not degraded by high concentrations of water under process operating conditions.

  19. From adsorption to condensation: the role of adsorbed molecular clusters.

    PubMed

    Yaghoubian, Sima; Zandavi, Seyed Hadi; Ward, C A

    2016-08-01

    The adsorption of heptane vapour on a smooth silicon substrate with a lower temperature than the vapour is examined analytically and experimentally. An expression for the amount adsorbed under steady state conditions is derived from the molecular cluster model of the adsorbate that is similar to the one used to derive the equilibrium Zeta adsorption isotherm. The amount adsorbed in each of a series of steady experiments is measured using a UV-vis interferometer, and gives strong support to the amount predicted to be adsorbed. The cluster distribution is used to predict the subcooling temperature required for the adsorbed vapour to make a disorder-order phase transition to become an adsorbed liquid, and the subcooling temperature is found to be 2.7 ± 0.4 K. The continuum approach for predicting the thickness of the adsorbed liquid film originally developed by Nusselt is compared with that measured and is found to over-predict the thickness by three-orders of magnitude. PMID:27426944

  20. Mercury adsorption properties of sulfur-impregnated adsorbents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hsi, N.-C.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Chen, S.; Chang, R.

    2002-01-01

    Carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous adsorbents were impregnated with elemental sulfur to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of the adsorbents and their equilibrium mercury adsorption capacities. Simulated coal combustion flue gas conditions were used to determine the equilibrium adsorption capacities for Hg0 and HgCl2 gases to better understand how to remove mercury from gas streams generated by coal-fired utility power plants. Sulfur was deposited onto the adsorbents by monolayer surface deposition or volume pore filling. Sulfur impregnation increased the total sulfur content and decreased the total and micropore surface areas and pore volumes for all of the adsorbents tested. Adsorbents with sufficient amounts of active adsorption sites and sufficient microporous structure had mercury adsorption capacities up to 4,509 ??g Hg/g adsorbent. Elemental sulfur, organic sulfur, and sulfate were formed on the adsorbents during sulfur impregnation. Correlations were established with R2>0.92 between the equilibrium Hg0/HgCl2 adsorption capacities and the mass concentrations of elemental and organic sulfur. This result indicates that elemental and organic sulfur are important active adsorption sites for Hg0 and HgCl2.

  1. Novel adhesion properties of irreversibly adsorbed polymer chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhizhao; Sen, Mani; Cheung, Justin; Barkley, Deborah; Jiang, Naisheng; Zeng, Wenduo; Endoh, Maya K.; Koga, Tadanori

    The stability of thin polymer films on solids is of vital interest in traditional technologies and in new emerging nanotechnologies. We recently found that nanoscale structures of polymer chains adsorbed onto a silicon (Si) substrate (``adsorbed nanolayers'') play a crucial role in the thermal stability of the film. To understand the adhesion mechanism at the adsorbed polymer-free polymer interface, we mimicked the interface by preparing bilayers where a 200 nm-thick polymer film and an adsorbed nanolayer, both prepared on Si, were pressed together at high temperature. The bilayers were then subjected to an adhesion test by measuring the critical normal force required to separate the two films. Polystyrene was used as a model. The results are intriguing as they show an absence of adhesion between the ``flattened'' adsorbed chains, which lie flat on the solid, and the chemically identical free chains. On the other hand, the ``loosely adsorbed'' polymer chains, which are formed as a result of limited adsorption space on the solid surface, do display a degree of adhesion with the bulk polymer. We postulate that the loosely adsorbed chains act as ``connectors'' which promote adhesion effectively across the solid-polymer interface. We acknowledge the financial support from NSF Grant No. CMMI-1332499.

  2. Methane Recovery from Gaseous Mixtures Using Carbonaceous Adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczek, Bronisław

    2016-06-01

    Methane recovery from gaseous mixtures has both economical and ecological aspect. Methane from different waste gases like mine gases, nitrogenated natural gases and biogases can be treated as local source for production electric and heat energy. Also occurs the problem of atmosphere pollution with methane that shows over 20 times more harmful environmental effect in comparison to carbon dioxide. One of the ways utilisation such gases is enrichment of methane in the PSA technique, which requires appropriate adsorbents. Active carbons and carbon molecular sieve produced by industry and obtained in laboratory scale were examined as adsorbent for methane recuperation. Porous structure of adsorbents was investigated using densimetry measurements and adsorption of argon at 77.5K. On the basis of adsorption data, the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation parameters, micropore volume (Wo) and characteristics of energy adsorption (Eo) as well as area micropores (Smi) and BET area (SBET) were determined. The usability of adsorbents in enrichment of the methane was evaluated in the test, which simulate the basic stages of PSA process: a) adsorbent degassing, b) pressure raise in column by feed gas, c) cocurrent desorption with analysis of out flowing gas. The composition of gas phase was accepted as the criterion of the suitability of adsorbent for methane separation from gaseous mixtures. The relationship between methane recovery from gas mixture and texture parameters of adsorbents was found.

  3. Nanocellulose/nanobentonite composite anchored with multi-carboxyl functional groups as an adsorbent for the effective removal of Cobalt(II) from nuclear industry wastewater samples.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, T S; Deepa, J R; Christa, J

    2016-04-01

    A novel adsorbent, poly(itaconic acid/methacrylic acid)-grafted-nanocellulose/nanobentonite composite [P(IA/MAA)-g-NC/NB] with multi carboxyl functional groups for the effective removal of Cobalt(II) [Co(II)] from aqueous solutions. The adsorbent was characterized using FTIR, XRD, SEM-EDS, AFM and potentiometric titrations before and after adsorption of Co(II) ions. FTIR spectra revealed that Co(II) adsorption on to the polymer may be due to the involvement of COOH groups. The surface morphological changes were observed by the SEM images. The pH was optimized as 6.0. An adsorbent dose of 2.0g/L found to be sufficient for the complete removal of Co(II) from 100mg/L at room temperature. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models were tested to describe kinetic data and adsorption of Co(II) follows pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium attained at 120min. Isotherm studies were conducted and data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips isotherm models and best fit was Sips model. Thermodynamic study confirmed endothermic and physical nature of adsorption of the Co(II) onto the adsorbent. Desorption experiments were done with 0.1MHCl proved that without significant loss in performance adsorbent could be reused for six cycles. The practical efficacy and effectiveness of the adsorbent were tested using nuclear industrial wastewater. A double stage batch adsorption system was designed from the adsorption isotherm data of Co(II) by constructing operating lines. PMID:26844393

  4. Nanocellulose/nanobentonite composite anchored with multi-carboxyl functional groups as an adsorbent for the effective removal of Cobalt(II) from nuclear industry wastewater samples.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, T S; Deepa, J R; Christa, J

    2016-04-01

    A novel adsorbent, poly(itaconic acid/methacrylic acid)-grafted-nanocellulose/nanobentonite composite [P(IA/MAA)-g-NC/NB] with multi carboxyl functional groups for the effective removal of Cobalt(II) [Co(II)] from aqueous solutions. The adsorbent was characterized using FTIR, XRD, SEM-EDS, AFM and potentiometric titrations before and after adsorption of Co(II) ions. FTIR spectra revealed that Co(II) adsorption on to the polymer may be due to the involvement of COOH groups. The surface morphological changes were observed by the SEM images. The pH was optimized as 6.0. An adsorbent dose of 2.0g/L found to be sufficient for the complete removal of Co(II) from 100mg/L at room temperature. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models were tested to describe kinetic data and adsorption of Co(II) follows pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium attained at 120min. Isotherm studies were conducted and data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips isotherm models and best fit was Sips model. Thermodynamic study confirmed endothermic and physical nature of adsorption of the Co(II) onto the adsorbent. Desorption experiments were done with 0.1MHCl proved that without significant loss in performance adsorbent could be reused for six cycles. The practical efficacy and effectiveness of the adsorbent were tested using nuclear industrial wastewater. A double stage batch adsorption system was designed from the adsorption isotherm data of Co(II) by constructing operating lines.

  5. Repeated-batch fermentative for bio-hydrogen production from.

    PubMed

    Sangyoka, Suksaman; Reungsang, Alissara; Moonamart, Samart

    2007-06-01

    Anaerobic hydrogen production from cassava wastewater by heat-treated UASB granules was conducted in a 10 L bioreactor with a working volume of 8 L at room temperature and pH 6.0 by batch and repeated-batch fermentations. Specific hydrogen production potential, hydrogen yield and the maximum hydrogen production rate of 39, 304.81 mL, 0.22 mL mg-COID(-1) and 851.84 mL h(-1), respectively, were obtained in a batch reactor. A repeated-batch was conducted when the glucose concentration in fermentative broth was depleted to 150-250 mg L(-1) which equivalent to 10-15% of initial glucose concentration. Repeated-batch reactor was operated at 3 different feed-in/feed-out rates i.e., 25, 50 and 75%. Results revealed that a suitable feed-in/feed out rate for production of hydrogen from cassava wastewater was at 75%. This was indicated by the highest hydrogen yield, the highest potential maximal amount of hydrogen produced, a relatively high maximum hydrogen production rate, a relatively high maximum specific hydrogen production rate and a relatively short lag time of 0.0094 mL mg-COD(-1), 12,532.80 mL, 540.46 mL h(-1), 3.5 mL g-VSS(-1) h and 5.31 h, respectively. Major soluble metabolites were acetic and butyric acids. Our results indicated that repeated batch fermentation was more effective in producing hydrogen from cassava wastewater than batch fermentation.

  6. Use of sepiolite as an adsorbent for the removal of copper (II) from industrial waste leachate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamze Turan, N.; Ardali, Yüksel

    2013-04-01

    as talc, but it has discontinuities and inversion of the silica sheets, which give rise to structural tunnels and blocks. In the inner blocks, all corners of the silica tetrahedral are connected to adjacent blocks, but in the outer blocks, some of the corners are Si atoms bound to hydroxyls (Si-OH). This unique structure allows the penetration of organic and inorganic species into the structure and assigns sepiolite an industrial importance in adsorption. The objective of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of using sepiolite for the adsorptive removal of Cu (II) from the industrial waste leachate. The adsorption capacities and sorption efficiencies are determined. The pseudo first order, the pseudo-second order, Elovich and the intra particle diffusion kinetic models are used to describe the kinetic data to estimate the rate constants. The adsorption of Cu (II) from the aqueous leachate of industrial wastes onto sepiolite was performed using a batch equilibrium technique. At first stage, one-factor-at-a-time experiments were performed to see the individual effects of initial pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. The adsorption of Cu (II) was favorably influenced by an increase in the adsorbent dosage. The maximum percent removal of Cu (II) were observed at pH>6, and significantly decreased at lower pH value. The optimum contact time is found as 10 min. for the removal of Cu (II). The increment in contact time from 10 min. to 120 min. did not show a significant effect on efficiency. The maximum Cu (II) adsorption efficiencies were obtained at 94.45%. The pseudo second order kinetic model agrees very well with the dynamical behavior for the adsorption of Cu (II) from aqueous leachate of industrial waste onto sepiolite. The results indicate that the use of sepiolite that is locally available and almost free of cost as an adsorbent could be a viable alternative to activated carbon for the removal of Cu (II) ions from aqueous solutions.

  7. Batch and fixed-bed adsorption of tartrazine azo-dye onto activated carbon prepared from apricot stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albroomi, H. I.; Elsayed, M. A.; Baraka, A.; Abdelmaged, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    This work describes the potential of utilizing prepared activated carbon from apricot stones as an efficient adsorbent material for tartrazine (TZ) azo-dye removal in a batch and dynamic adsorption system. The results revealed that activated carbons with well-developed surface area (774 m2/g) and pore volume (1.26 cm3/g) can be manufactured from apricot stones by H3PO4 activation. In batch experiments, effects of the parameters such as initial dye concentration and temperature on the removal of the dye were studied. Equilibrium was achieved in 120 min. Adsorption capacity was found to be dependent on the initial concentration of dye solution, and maximum adsorption was found to be 76 mg/g at 100 mg/L of TZ. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium (q e) increased from 22.6 to 76 mg/g with an increase in the initial dye concentrations from 25 to 100 mg/L. The thermodynamic parameters such as change in free energy (ΔG 0), enthalpy (ΔH 0) and entropy (ΔS 0) were determined and the positive value of (ΔH) 78.1 (K J mol-1) revealed that adsorption efficiency increased with an increase in the process temperature. In fixed-bed column experiments, the effect of selected operating parameters such as bed depth, flow rate and initial dye concentration on the adsorption capacity was evaluated. Increase in bed height of adsorption columns leads to an extension of breakthrough point as well as the exhaustion time of adsorbent. However, the maximum adsorption capacities decrease with increases of flow rate. The breakthrough data fitted well to bed depth service time and Thomas models with high coefficient of determination, R 2 ≥ 94.

  8. Batch experiments versus soil pore water extraction--what makes the difference in isoproturon (bio-)availability?

    PubMed

    Folberth, Christian; Suhadolc, Metka; Scherb, Hagen; Munch, Jean Charles; Schroll, Reiner

    2009-10-01

    Two approaches to determine pesticide (bio-)availability in soils (i) batch experiments with "extraction with an excess of water" (EEW) and (ii) the recently introduced "soil pore water (PW) extraction" of pesticide incubated soil samples have been compared with regard to the sorption behavior of the model compound isoproturon in soils. A significant correlation between TOC and adsorbed pesticide amount was found when using the EEW approach. In contrast, there was no correlation between TOC and adsorbed isoproturon when using the in situ PW extraction method. Furthermore, sorption was higher at all concentrations in the EEW method when comparing the distribution coefficients (K(d)) for both methods. Over all, sorption in incubated soil samples at an identical water tension (-15 kPa) and soil density (1.3 g cm(-3)) appears to be controlled by a complex combination of sorption driving soil parameters. Isoproturon bioavailability was found to be governed in different soils by binding strength and availability of sorption sites as well as water content, whereas the dominance of either one of these factors seems to depend on the individual composition and characteristics of the respective soil sample. Using multiple linear regression analysis we obtained furthermore indications that the soil pore structure is affected by the EEW method due to disaggregation, resulting in a higher availability of pesticide sorption sites than in undisturbed soil samples. Therefore, it can be concluded that isoproturon sorption is overestimated when using the EEW method, which should be taken into account when using data from this approach or similar batch techniques for risk assessment analysis.

  9. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of pyrazole adsorbed on silver colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio; Neto, Natale; Sbrana, Giuseppe

    1999-05-01

    SERS spectra of pyrazole adsorbed on silver hydrosol at different pH values and on silver colloidal substrate deposited on filters were obtained and interpreted on the basis of the existence of three forms in equilibrium, cationic, neutral and anionic. SERS data indicate that the neutral molecule is preferentially adsorbed in acidic environment, pyrazolide anion is instead favoured over all the other pH values. Addition of chloride anions induces the formation of reaction products when pyrazole is adsorbed on silver hydrosols, while this effect is missing on dry silver substrate.

  10. Electron shuttle-mediated biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine adsorbed to granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Millerick, Kayleigh; Drew, Scott R; Finneran, Kevin T

    2013-08-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) effectively removes hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from groundwater but generates RDX-laden GAC that must be disposed of or regenerated. Batch reactors containing GAC to which RDX was preadsorbed were used in experiments to test the potential for adsorbed RDX reduction and daughter product formation using (i) chemically reduced anthrahydroquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AH2QDS), (ii) resting Geobacter metallireducens strain GS-15, and (iii) a combined system containing AQDS and GS-15. Approximately 97.0% of the adsorbed RDX was transformed in each of these experimental systems by 90 h. Chemically reduced AQDS (AH2QDS) transformed 99.2% of adsorbed RDX; formaldehyde was produced rapidly and was stoichiometric (3 mol HCHO per mol RDX). Geobacter metallireducens also reduced RDX with and without AQDS present. This is the first study to demonstrate biological transformation of RDX adsorbed to GAC. Formaldehyde increased and then decreased in biological systems, suggesting a previously unreported capacity for G. metallireducens to oxidize formaldehyde, which was confirmed with resting cell suspensions. These data suggest the masses of GAC waste currently produced by activated carbon at RDX remediation sites can be minimized, decreasing the carbon footprint of the treatment technology. Alternatively, this strategy may be used to develop a Bio-GAC system for ex situ RDX treatment. PMID:23837558

  11. Use of waste materials--Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya, as potential adsorbents for the removal of Amaranth from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Alok; Kurup Krishnan, Lisha; Gupta, Vinod K

    2005-01-31

    Bottom Ash, a power plan t waste material and De-Oiled Soya, an agriculture waste product were successfully utilized in removing trisodium 2-hydroxy-1-(4-sulphonato-1-naphthylazo)naphthalene-3,6-disulphonate--a water-soluble hazardous azo dye (Amaranth). The paper incorporates thermodynamic and kinetic studies for the adsorption of the dye on these two waste materials as adsorbents. Characterization of each adsorbent was carried out by I.R. and D.T.A. curves. Batch adsorption studies were made by measuring effects of pH, adsorbate concentration, sieve size, adsorbent dosage, contact time, temperature etc. Specific rate constants for the processes were calculated by kinetic measurements and a first order adsorption kinetics was observed in each case. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were applied to calculate thermodynamic parameters. The adsorption on Bottom Ash takes place via film diffusion process at lower concentrations and via particle diffusion process at higher concentrations, while in the case of De-Oiled Soya process only particle diffusion takes place in the entire concentration range.

  12. Electron shuttle-mediated biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine adsorbed to granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Millerick, Kayleigh; Drew, Scott R; Finneran, Kevin T

    2013-08-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) effectively removes hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from groundwater but generates RDX-laden GAC that must be disposed of or regenerated. Batch reactors containing GAC to which RDX was preadsorbed were used in experiments to test the potential for adsorbed RDX reduction and daughter product formation using (i) chemically reduced anthrahydroquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AH2QDS), (ii) resting Geobacter metallireducens strain GS-15, and (iii) a combined system containing AQDS and GS-15. Approximately 97.0% of the adsorbed RDX was transformed in each of these experimental systems by 90 h. Chemically reduced AQDS (AH2QDS) transformed 99.2% of adsorbed RDX; formaldehyde was produced rapidly and was stoichiometric (3 mol HCHO per mol RDX). Geobacter metallireducens also reduced RDX with and without AQDS present. This is the first study to demonstrate biological transformation of RDX adsorbed to GAC. Formaldehyde increased and then decreased in biological systems, suggesting a previously unreported capacity for G. metallireducens to oxidize formaldehyde, which was confirmed with resting cell suspensions. These data suggest the masses of GAC waste currently produced by activated carbon at RDX remediation sites can be minimized, decreasing the carbon footprint of the treatment technology. Alternatively, this strategy may be used to develop a Bio-GAC system for ex situ RDX treatment.

  13. Regenerable adsorbents for removal of arsenic from contaminated waters and synthesis and characterization of multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles for environmental and biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdugo Gonzalez, Brenda

    The present work is divided into two sections. The first section deals with the synthesis of regenerable adsorbents for the removal of arsenic from contaminated waters. An adsorbent based on carboxymethylated polyethylenimine grafted agarose gels was synthesized and characterized as a regenerable synthetic ferric oxide adsorbent with high capacity for arsenate ions at pH 3.0. Similarly, four metal ion chelating adsorbents based on dipicolylamine were synthesized and characterized with respect to their Cu(II), Fe(III) and As(V) adsorption capacities. The most efficient adsorbents were Nov-PEI-DPA and Nov-TREN-DPA. Additionally, a commercial ion exchange resin was modified with permanganate to oxidize arsenite into arsenate. A complete oxidation-adsorption system was proposed in which a column packed with the oxidation resin was connected in series with an adsorbent column composed of the polyethylenimine grafted agarose gels. The second section involved work with magnetic nanoparticles. First, composite adsorbents consisting of magnetic particles encapsulated within agarose beads with and without grafted iminodiacetic acid (IDA) chelating groups were synthesized. The adsorption capacity of the adsorbents for Cu(II), Fe(III) and As(V) at different concentrations was investigated. Batch experiments were carried out to determine the Fe(III) and As(V) adsorption isotherms for the magnetic Novarose-IDA. Regenerability of the adsorbent was achieved with a pH change of the inlet solution, without affecting its magnetic or adsorption properties. Magnetic composite particles were synthesized for biomedical applications. First, magnetic nanoparticles were coated with silica and then used for gold nanoshell production. These nanoshells were functionalized with a Brij S10 derivative, containing carboxylic groups, using dodecanethiol as a bridging agent to incorporate a fluorescent biomolecule. Finally, magnetic and gold particles were encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles

  14. Mysterious Lattice Rotations in Adsorbed Monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, Renee D.

    1997-03-01

    Lattice rotations due to a mismatch in structure have been observed in film growth for many years, probably beginning in the 1930's with the Nishiyama-Wasserman and Kurdjumov-Sachs orientations observed when fcc(111) films grow on bcc(110) surfaces, or vice versa. Early analysis of this problem was carried out with the aid of Moiré patterns and the observation that the preferred lattice orientations are those which maximize the Moiré fringe spacing. Later energy calculations indicated that the structures which were predicted by the the Moiré technique actually do correspond to energy minima. Epitaxial rotation in adsorbed monolayers is a conceptually simpler problem since in principle it involves only two planes of atoms, and it was first observed in 1977 for Ar on a graphite surface(C. G. Shaw, M. D. Chinn, S. C. Fain, Jr. Phys. Rev. Lett. 41 (1978) 955.). This observation came only a few months after a new theory, based on the expected elastic behavior of an overlayer, was developed by A. D. Novaco and J. P. McTague(A. D. Novaco and J. P. McTague, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38 (1977) 1286.), and the agreement with the experimental results was remarkable. It was later shown that a few symmetry principles similar to those used for the film growth studies sometimes can also predict the observed structures. However, the situation for incommensurate layers physisorbed on metal surfaces currently looks bleak. None of the existing theories or models appears to describe the experimental results. New data for physisorbed gases on metal surfaces will be presented, along with some half-baked (and probably wrong) ideas for what might be happening. This work was supported by NSF.

  15. Evaluation of Adsorption Properties for Cs and Sr Selective Adsorbents-13171

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, Tomonori; Wakabayashi, Syunya; Mimura, Hitoshi; Niibori, Yuichi; Kurosaki, Fumio; Matsukura, Minoru; Tanigawa, Hiroshi; Ishizaki, Eiji

    2013-07-01

    The development of effective treatment and disposal methods is very urgent and important subject. Tohoku University and UNION SHOWA have developed various selective adsorbents (zeolites, zeolite sheets and composites loaded with insoluble ferrocyanides) for the effective decontamination of radioactive Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} As for Cs{sup +} adsorption, CST, chabazite and insoluble ferrocyanides composites had relatively large distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) above 10{sup 3} cm{sup 3}/g and excellent adsorption kinetics in seawater. Even after high temperature calcination at 1,100 deg. C, cesium was still immobilized in the calcined products of Cs{sup +}-zeolites, suggesting high immobilization ability of zeolites for Cs{sup +}. As for Sr{sup 2+} adsorption, A and X zeolites had relatively large K{sub d} values around 10{sup 2} cm{sup 3}/g, and zeolite sheet (A zeolite) exhibited excellent adsorption kinetics in seawater. Considering the decontamination of radioactive Sr{sup 2+} in groundwater, the effects of Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} ions on the K{sub d} value of Sr{sup 2+} were further examined by batch method. The K{sub d} value of Sr{sup 2+} was almost independent of Mg{sup 2+} concentration up to 2,500 ppm, while gradually lowered in the presence of Ca{sup 2+} above 200 ppm, due to the differences in the ionic radius of hydrated ion. The Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} adsorption ability for KNiFC-A (composite of A zeolite loaded with insoluble ferrocyanides) was examined by batch method. Here the matrix of composite (A zeolite) and loaded ferrocyanides (KNiFC) have high selectivity towards Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +}, respectively. The K{sub d} values of Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +} in seawater were estimated to be above 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 3} cm{sup 3}/g, respectively, indicating the effectiveness for the decontamination of both Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +}. The basic data on the Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} adsorption properties for selective adsorbents are effective for

  16. 21 CFR 111.255 - What is the requirement to establish a batch production record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is the requirement to establish a batch... System: Requirements for the Batch Production Record § 111.255 What is the requirement to establish a batch production record? (a) You must prepare a batch production record every time you manufacture...

  17. 40 CFR 205.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batch....57-7 Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. (a) The manufacturer will continue to inspect consecutive batches until the batch sequence is accepted or rejected based upon the number of rejected...

  18. 40 CFR 205.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Acceptance and rejection of batch....57-7 Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. (a) The manufacturer will continue to inspect consecutive batches until the batch sequence is accepted or rejected based upon the number of rejected...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1327 - Batch process vents-reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Batch process vents-reporting... Batch process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch process vent or aggregate batch vent stream at an affected source shall submit the information specified in paragraphs...

  20. 40 CFR 204.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batches... Acceptance and rejection of batches. (a) A failing compressor is one whose measured sound level is in excess of the applicable noise emission standard. (b) The batch from which a batch sample is selected...

  1. 40 CFR 204.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batches... Acceptance and rejection of batches. (a) A failing compressor is one whose measured sound level is in excess of the applicable noise emission standard. (b) The batch from which a batch sample is selected...

  2. 40 CFR 63.492 - Batch front-end process vents-reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents... § 63.492 Batch front-end process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch front-end process vent or aggregate batch vent stream at an affected source shall submit the...

  3. 40 CFR 204.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batches... Acceptance and rejection of batches. (a) A failing compressor is one whose measured sound level is in excess of the applicable noise emission standard. (b) The batch from which a batch sample is selected...

  4. 40 CFR 205.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batch....57-7 Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. (a) The manufacturer will continue to inspect consecutive batches until the batch sequence is accepted or rejected based upon the number of rejected...

  5. 40 CFR 63.492 - Batch front-end process vents-reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents... § 63.492 Batch front-end process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch front-end process vent or aggregate batch vent stream at an affected source shall submit the...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.341 - CVS and batch sampler verification (propane check).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CVS and batch sampler verification... Measurements § 1065.341 CVS and batch sampler verification (propane check). (a) A propane check serves as a CVS... also serves as a batch-sampler verification to determine if there is a discrepancy in a batch...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is the requirement to establish a batch... System: Requirements for the Batch Production Record § 111.255 What is the requirement to establish a batch production record? (a) You must prepare a batch production record every time you manufacture...

  8. 40 CFR 63.486 - Batch front-end process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batch front-end process vent... Batch front-end process vent provisions. (a) Batch front-end process vents. Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, owners and operators of new and existing affected sources with batch...

  9. 40 CFR 63.492 - Batch front-end process vents-reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reporting... Batch front-end process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch front-end process vent or aggregate batch vent stream at an affected source shall submit the information...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1327 - Batch process vents-reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batch process vents-reporting... Batch process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch process vent or aggregate batch vent stream at an affected source shall submit the information specified in paragraphs...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1327 - Batch process vents-reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batch process vents-reporting... § 63.1327 Batch process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch process vent or aggregate batch vent stream at an affected source shall submit the information specified...

  12. 40 CFR 63.486 - Batch front-end process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vent provisions... Batch front-end process vent provisions. (a) Batch front-end process vents. Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, owners and operators of new and existing affected sources with batch...

  13. 40 CFR 205.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batch....57-7 Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. (a) The manufacturer will continue to inspect consecutive batches until the batch sequence is accepted or rejected based upon the number of rejected...

  14. 40 CFR 204.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Acceptance and rejection of batches... Acceptance and rejection of batches. (a) A failing compressor is one whose measured sound level is in excess of the applicable noise emission standard. (b) The batch from which a batch sample is selected...

  15. 40 CFR 204.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batches... Acceptance and rejection of batches. (a) A failing compressor is one whose measured sound level is in excess of the applicable noise emission standard. (b) The batch from which a batch sample is selected...

  16. 40 CFR 63.486 - Batch front-end process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batch front-end process vent... Batch front-end process vent provisions. (a) Batch front-end process vents. Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, owners and operators of new and existing affected sources with batch...

  17. 40 CFR 63.486 - Batch front-end process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batch front-end process vent provisions... Batch front-end process vent provisions. (a) Batch front-end process vents. Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, owners and operators of new and existing affected sources with batch...

  18. 40 CFR 63.486 - Batch front-end process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batch front-end process vent... Batch front-end process vent provisions. (a) Batch front-end process vents. Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, owners and operators of new and existing affected sources with batch...

  19. 21 CFR 111.255 - What is the requirement to establish a batch production record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the requirement to establish a batch... System: Requirements for the Batch Production Record § 111.255 What is the requirement to establish a batch production record? (a) You must prepare a batch production record every time you manufacture...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1327 - Batch process vents-reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-reporting... Batch process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch process vent or aggregate batch vent stream at an affected source shall submit the information specified in paragraphs...

  1. Novel Anionic Clay Adsorbents for Boiler-Blow Down Waters Reclaim and Reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Muhammad Sahimi; Theodore T. Tsotsis

    2005-12-01

    Our goal in this study is to utilize novel anionic clay sorbents for treating and reclaiming/reusing power-plant effluents, in particular, boiler blow-down waters containing heavy metals, such as As and Se. Developing and using novel materials for such application is dictated by the challenge posed by reclaiming and recycling these too-clean-to-clean effluent streams, generated during electricity production, whose contaminant levels are in the ppm/ppb (or even less) trace levels. During the study model blow-down streams have been treated in batch experiments. Adsorption isotherms as a function of pH/temperature have been established for both As and Se. Adsorption rates have also measured as a function of concentration, temperature, pH, and space time. For both the equilibrium and rate measurements, we have studied the As/Se interaction, and competition from background anions. A homogeneous surface diffusion model is used to describe the experimental kinetic data. The estimated diffusivity values are shown to depend on the particle size. On the other hand, a model taking into account the polycrystalline nature of these adsorbent particles, and the presence of an intercrystallite porous region predicts correctly that the surface diffusivity is particle size independent. A mathematical model to describe flow experiments in packed-beds has also been developed during phase I of this project. The goal is to validate this model with flow experiments in packed-beds during the phase II of this project, to determine the adsorption capacity under flow conditions, and to compare it with the capacity estimated from the adsorption isotherms determined from the batch studies.

  2. Towards Batched Linear Solvers on Accelerated Hardware Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Haidar, Azzam; Dong, Tingzing Tim; Tomov, Stanimire; Dongarra, Jack J

    2015-01-01

    As hardware evolves, an increasingly effective approach to develop energy efficient, high-performance solvers, is to design them to work on many small and independent problems. Indeed, many applications already need this functionality, especially for GPUs, which are known to be currently about four to five times more energy efficient than multicore CPUs for every floating-point operation. In this paper, we describe the development of the main one-sided factorizations: LU, QR, and Cholesky; that are needed for a set of small dense matrices to work in parallel. We refer to such algorithms as batched factorizations. Our approach is based on representing the algorithms as a sequence of batched BLAS routines for GPU-contained execution. Note that this is similar in functionality to the LAPACK and the hybrid MAGMA algorithms for large-matrix factorizations. But it is different from a straightforward approach, whereby each of GPU's symmetric multiprocessors factorizes a single problem at a time. We illustrate how our performance analysis together with the profiling and tracing tools guided the development of batched factorizations to achieve up to 2-fold speedup and 3-fold better energy efficiency compared to our highly optimized batched CPU implementations based on the MKL library on a two-sockets, Intel Sandy Bridge server. Compared to a batched LU factorization featured in the NVIDIA's CUBLAS library for GPUs, we achieves up to 2.5-fold speedup on the K40 GPU.

  3. A graphical technique for wastewater minimisation in batch processes.

    PubMed

    Majozi, Thokozani; Brouckaert, C J; Buckley, C A

    2006-03-01

    Presented in this paper is a graphical technique for freshwater and wastewater minimisation in completely batch operations. Water minimisation is achieved through the exploitation of inter- and intra-process water reuse and recycle opportunities. In the context of this paper, a completely batch operation is one in which water reuse or recycle can only be effected either at the start or the end of the process. During the course of the operation, water reuse and recycle opportunities are completely nullified. The intrinsic two-dimensionally constrained nature of batch processes is taken into consideration. In the first instance, time dimension is taken as a primary constraint and concentration a secondary constraint. Subsequently, the priority of constraints is reversed so as to demonstrate the effect of the targeting procedure on the final design. Attention is brought to the fact that first and cyclic-state targeting are essential in completely batch operations. Moreover, the exploration and use of inherent storage in batch processes is demonstrated using a real-life case study. Like most graphical techniques, the presented methodology is limited to single contaminants.

  4. Material prepared from drinking waterworks sludge as adsorbent for ammonium removal from wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lan; Wei, Jie; Liu, Zhongyuan; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Dongtian

    2015-03-01

    Drinking waterworks sludge (DWS) is not an effective adsorbent for ammonium removal without any treatment. In this study, DWS was used as a starting material to prepare ammonium adsorbent (M-DWS) by means of an ultrasonic assisted extraction and synthesis method. Two materials (M-DWS1# and M-DWS2#) were prepared according to two different routes. The composition, structure, and surface properties of DWS and M-DWS were characterized and their ammonium adsorption abilities were examined. Characterization results showed that the lamellar structure of DWS was converted into the spherical units of M-DWS and that the cation exchange capacity and specific surface area of M-DWS were many times higher than that of DWS. Batch test results indicated that the adsorption equilibrium data of M-DWS fitted well to both the Langmuir and Frendlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity of M-DWS1# and M-DWS2# evaluated from the Langmuir isotherm was 6.11 mg/g and 5.10 mg/g, respectively. It was also observed that the initial pH affected ammonium adsorption on M-DWS greatly. Under an optimum pH of 7-8, the highest ammonium removal rate of 90% for M-DWS1# and 80% for M-DWS2# were achieved at an initial concentration of 50 mg NH4+/L. The advantage of M-DWS2# lies in its higher yield and less waste discharge compared with M-DWS1#.

  5. Radiation grafted adsorbents for newly emerging environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud Nasef, Mohamed; Ting, T. M.; Abbasi, Ali; Layeghi-moghaddam, Alireza; Sara Alinezhad, S.; Hashim, Kamaruddin

    2016-01-01

    Radiation induced grafting (RIG) is acquired to prepare a number of adsorbents for newly emerging environmental applications using a single route involving RIG of glycidymethacrylate (GMA) onto polyethylene-polypropylene (PE-PP) non-woven fabric. The grafted fabric was subjected to one of three functionalization reactions to impart desired ionic characters. This included treatment with (1) N-dimethyl-D-glucamine, (2) triethylamine and (3) triethylamine and alkalisation with KOH. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to study the changes in chemical and physical structures of the obtained fibrous adsorbents. The potential applications of the three adsorbents for removal of boron from solutions, capturing CO2 from CO2/N2 mixtures and catalysing transesterification of triacetin/methanol to methyl acetate (biodiesel) were explored. The obtained fibrous adsorbents provide potential alternatives to granular resins for the investigated applications and require further development.

  6. Trace contaminant studies of HSC adsorbent. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yieh, D. T. N.

    1978-01-01

    The adsorption and desorption of fifteen trace contaminants on HSC (polyethylenimine coated acrylic ester) adsorbent were experimentally investigated with the following two objectives: to test the removal potential and the adsorption reversibility of the selected trace contaminants, and to test the effect a preadsorbed trace contaminant has on the CO2 adsorption capacity. The experimental method for acquiring the adsorption equilibrium data used is based on the volumetric (or displacement) concept of vacuum adsorption. From the experimental results, it was found that the HSC adsorbent has good adsorption potential for contaminants of alcohol compounds, esters, and benzene compounds; whereas, adsorption of ketone compounds, oxidizing and reducing agents are detrimental to the adsorbent. In addition, all liquid contaminants reduce the CO2 capacity of HSC adsorbent.

  7. Adsorption of β-galactosidase on silica and aluminosilicate adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atyaksheva, L. F.; Dobryakova, I. V.; Pilipenko, O. S.

    2015-03-01

    It is shown that adsorption of β-galactosidase of Aspergillus oryzae fungi on mesoporous and biporous silica and aluminosilicate adsorbents and the rate of the process grow along with the diameter of the pores of the adsorbent. It is found that the shape of the adsorption isotherms changes as well, depending on the texture of the adsorbent: the Michaelis constant rises from 0.3 mM for the enzyme in solution to 0.4-0.5 mM for the enzyme on a surface in the hydrolysis of o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside. It is concluded that β-galactosidase displays its maximum activity on the surface of biporous adsorbents.

  8. Mycotoxin detoxication of animal feed by different adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Huwig, A; Freimund, S; Käppeli, O; Dutler, H

    2001-06-20

    The contamination of animal feed with mycotoxins represents a worldwide problem for farmers. These toxins originate from molds whose growth on living and stored plants is almost unavoidable particularly under moist conditions. Mycotoxin-containing feed can cause serious diseases in farm animals resulting in suffering and even death and thus can cause substantial economic losses. The most applied method for protecting animals against mycotoxicosis is the utilization of adsorbents mixed with the feed which are supposed to bind the mycotoxins efficiently in the gastro-intestinal tract. Aluminosilicates are the preferred adsorbents, followed by activated charcoal and special polymers. The efficiency of mycotoxin binders, however, differs considerably depending mainly on the chemical structure of both the adsorbent and the toxin. This review describes the most important types of adsorbents and the respective mechanisms of adsorption. Data of the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of detoxication are given.

  9. New insights into perfluorinated adsorbents for analytical and bioanalytical applications.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Nicola; Guzzinati, Roberta; Catani, Martina; Massi, Alessandro; Pasti, Luisa; Cavazzini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorinated (F-) adsorbents are generally prepared by bonding perfluoro-functionalized silanes to silica gels. They have been employed for a long time essentially as media for solid-phase extraction of F-molecules or F-tagged molecules in organic chemistry and heterogeneous catalysis. More recently, this approach has been extended to proteomics and metabolomics. Owing to their unique physicochemical properties, namely fluorophilicity and proteinophilicity, and a better understanding of some fundamental aspects of their behavior, new applications of F-adsorbents in the field of environmental science and bio-affinity studies can be envisaged. In this article, we revisit the most important features of F-adsorbents by focusing, in particular, on some basic information that has been recently obtained through (nonlinear) chromatographic studies. Finally, we try to envisage new applications and possibilities that F-adsorbents will allow in the near future. PMID:25358910

  10. Electronic structure of benzene adsorbed on Ni and Cu surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Weinelt, M.; Nilsson, A.; Wassdahl, N.

    1997-04-01

    Benzene has for a long time served as a prototype adsorption system of large molecules. It adsorbs with the molecular plane parallel to the surface. The bonding of benzene to a transition metal is typically viewed to involve the {pi} system. Benzene adsorbs weakly on Cu and strongly on Ni. It is interesting to study how the adsorption strength is reflected in the electronic structure of the adsorbate-substrate complex. The authors have used X-ray Emission (XE) and X-ray Absorption (XA) spectroscopies to selectively study the electronic states localized on the adsorbed benzene molecule. Using XES the occupied states can be studies and with XAS the unoccupied states. The authors have used beamline 8.0 and the Swedish endstation equipped with a grazing incidence x-ray spectrometer and a partial yield absorption detector. The resolution in the XES and XAS were 0.5 eV and 0.05 eV, respectively.

  11. Oil palm biomass as an adsorbent for heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Vakili, Mohammadtaghi; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Salamatinia, Babak; Gholami, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Many industries discharge untreated wastewater into the environment. Heavy metals from many industrial processes end up as hazardous pollutants of wastewaters.Heavy metal pollution has increased in recent decades and there is a growing concern for the public health risk they may pose. To remove heavy metal ions from polluted waste streams, adsorption processes are among the most common and effective treatment methods. The adsorbents that are used to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous media have both advantages and disadvantages. Cost and effectiveness are two of the most prominent criteria for choosing adsorbents. Because cost is so important, great effort has been extended to study and find effective lower cost adsorbents.One class of adsorbents that is gaining considerable attention is agricultural wastes. Among many alternatives, palm oil biomasses have shown promise as effective adsorbents for removing heavy metals from wastewater. The palm oil industry has rapidly expanded in recent years, and a large amount of palm oil biomass is available. This biomass is a low-cost agricultural waste that exhibits, either in its raw form or after being processed, the potential for eliminating heavy metal ions from wastewater. In this article, we provide background information on oil palm biomass and describe studies that indicate its potential as an alternative adsorbent for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater. From having reviewed the cogent literature on this topic we are encouraged that low-cost oil-palm-related adsorbents have already demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants.Because cost is so important to those who choose to clean waste streams by using adsorbents, the use of cheap sources of unconventional adsorbents is increasingly being investigated. An adsorbent is considered to be inexpensive when it is readily available, is environmentally friendly, is cost-effective and be effectively used in economical processes. The

  12. Oil palm biomass as an adsorbent for heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Vakili, Mohammadtaghi; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Salamatinia, Babak; Gholami, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Many industries discharge untreated wastewater into the environment. Heavy metals from many industrial processes end up as hazardous pollutants of wastewaters.Heavy metal pollution has increased in recent decades and there is a growing concern for the public health risk they may pose. To remove heavy metal ions from polluted waste streams, adsorption processes are among the most common and effective treatment methods. The adsorbents that are used to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous media have both advantages and disadvantages. Cost and effectiveness are two of the most prominent criteria for choosing adsorbents. Because cost is so important, great effort has been extended to study and find effective lower cost adsorbents.One class of adsorbents that is gaining considerable attention is agricultural wastes. Among many alternatives, palm oil biomasses have shown promise as effective adsorbents for removing heavy metals from wastewater. The palm oil industry has rapidly expanded in recent years, and a large amount of palm oil biomass is available. This biomass is a low-cost agricultural waste that exhibits, either in its raw form or after being processed, the potential for eliminating heavy metal ions from wastewater. In this article, we provide background information on oil palm biomass and describe studies that indicate its potential as an alternative adsorbent for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater. From having reviewed the cogent literature on this topic we are encouraged that low-cost oil-palm-related adsorbents have already demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants.Because cost is so important to those who choose to clean waste streams by using adsorbents, the use of cheap sources of unconventional adsorbents is increasingly being investigated. An adsorbent is considered to be inexpensive when it is readily available, is environmentally friendly, is cost-effective and be effectively used in economical processes. The

  13. Residence time determination for adsorbent beds of different configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Otermat, J.E.; Wikoff, W.O.; Kovach, J.L.

    1995-02-01

    The residence time calculations of ASME AG-1 Code, Section FC, currently specify a screen surface area method, that is technically incorrect. Test data has been obtained on Type II adsorber trays of different configurations to establish residence time in the adsorber trays. These data indicate that the air volume/carbon volume ratio or the average screen area are more appropriate for the calculation of the residence time calculation than the currently used, smallest screen area basis.

  14. Application of gain scheduling to the control of batch bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardello, Ralph; San, Ka-Yiu

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of control algorithms to batch bioreactors is often complicated by the inherent variations in process dynamics during the course of fermentation. Such a wide operating range may render the performance of fixed gain PID controllers unsatisfactory. In this work, a detailed study on the control of batch fermentation is performed. Furthermore, a simple batch controller design is proposed which incorporates the concept of gain-scheduling, a subclass of adaptive control, with oxygen uptake rate as an auxiliary variable. The control of oxygen tension in the biorector is used as a vehicle to convey the proposed idea, analysis and results. Simulation experiments indicate significant improvement in controller performance can be achieved by the proposed approach even in the presence of measurement noise.

  15. Batch Statistical Process Monitoring Approach to a Cocrystallization Process.

    PubMed

    Sarraguça, Mafalda C; Ribeiro, Paulo R S; Santos, Adenilson O Dos; Lopes, João A

    2015-12-01

    Cocrystals are defined as crystalline structures composed of two or more compounds that are solid at room temperature held together by noncovalent bonds. Their main advantages are the increase of solubility, bioavailability, permeability, stability, and at the same time retaining active pharmaceutical ingredient bioactivity. The cocrystallization between furosemide and nicotinamide by solvent evaporation was monitored on-line using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a process analytical technology tool. The near-infrared spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis. Batch statistical process monitoring was used to create control charts to perceive the process trajectory and define control limits. Normal and non-normal operating condition batches were performed and monitored with NIRS. The use of NIRS associated with batch statistical process models allowed the detection of abnormal variations in critical process parameters, like the amount of solvent or amount of initial components present in the cocrystallization.

  16. Optimization for a recombinant E. coli fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q; Bentley, W E; Weigand, W A

    1995-01-01

    The operating strategy that produces the maximum foreign protein expression for a fed-batch process is desired. This is achieved by using a feasible quadratic programming (FSQP) algorithm with a structured model that describes cell growth and product formation for recombinant E. coli. Optimization calculations for a fed-batch culture have not been performed with a model of this complexity up to this point. A constraint on the maximum cell concentration was included. For a fixed value of batch time, the results show that the optimal time profile of feed flow rate can increase the yield of foreign protein by 12-29% over a constant feed rate policy. Also, it was found that the computation time for the FSQP algorithm can be reduced significantly by considering suboptimal profiles of the feed rate, with a minor effect on calculated protein yield.

  17. Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun

    2013-08-28

    This document discusses ongoing work with non-oxide aerogels, called chalcogels, that are under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as sorbents for gaseous iodine. Work was conducted in fiscal year 2012 to demonstrate the feasibility of converting Sn2S3 chalcogel without iodine into a glass. This current document summarizes the work conducted in fiscal year 2013 to assess the consolidation potential of non-oxide aerogels with adsorbed iodine. The Sn2S3 and Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels were selected for study. The first step in the process for these experiments was to load them with iodine (I2). The I2 uptake was ~68 mass% for Sn2S3 and ~50 mass% for Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of both sets of sorbents showed that metal-iodide complexes were formed during adsorption, i.e., SnI4 for Sn2S3 and SbI3 for Sb13.5Sn5S20. Additionally, metal-sulfide-iodide complexes were formed, i.e., SnSI for Sn2S3 and SbSI for Sb13.5Sn5S20. No XRD evidence for unreacted iodine was found in any of these samples. Once the chalcogels had reached maximum adsorption, the consolidation potential was assessed. Here, the sorbents were heated for consolidation in vacuum-sealed quartz vessels. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogel was heated both (1) in a glassy carbon crucible within a fused quartz tube and (2) in a single-containment fused quartz tube. The Sn2S3 chalcogel was only heated in a single-containment fused quartz tube. In both cases with the single-containment fused quartz experiments, the material consolidated nicely. However, in both cases, there were small fractions of metal iodides not incorporated into the final product as well as fused quartz particles within the melt due to the sample attacking the quartz wall during the heat treatment. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 did not appear to attack the glassy carbon crucible so, for future experiments, it would be ideal to apply a coating, such as pyrolytic graphite, to the inner walls of the fused quartz vessel to prevent

  18. Radiation synthesis of spherical cellulose-based adsorbent for efficient adsorption and detoxification of Cr(VI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Du, Jifu; Li, Cancan; Zhao, Long

    2016-09-01

    Spherical cellulose-based adsorbent (2-AMPR) with 2-aminomethyl pyridine was synthesized by radiation method. The adsorption behaviors of 2-AMPR for Cr(VI) removal were evaluated through batch and column experiments. The results presented that the adsorption kinetics well obeyed pseudo-second-order mode and the adsorption isotherm of Cr(VI) followed the Langmuir model with adsorption capacity of 209.6 mg/g at optimal pH 2.0. Dynamical experiments revealed that the 2-AMPR could selectively and simultaneously separate and detoxify trace amount of Cr(VI) even from simulated electroplating wastewater including high concentration of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) ions. Additionally, FTIR and XPS analysis verified that part of Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) during adsorption process by adsorption-reduction mechanism.

  19. Bionanocomposites based on layered silicates and cationic starch as eco-friendly adsorbents for hexavalent chromium removal.

    PubMed

    Koriche, Yamina; Darder, Margarita; Aranda, Pilar; Semsari, Saida; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo

    2014-07-21

    Functional bionanocomposites based on two layered silicates, the commercial montmorillonite known as Cloisite®Na and a natural bentonite from Algeria, were prepared by intercalation of cationic starch, synthesized with two different degrees of substitution, 0.85 and 0.55. After characterization of the prepared bionanocomposites by XRD and zeta potential measurements, batch studies were conducted to evaluate the adsorption capacity of hexavalent chromium anions from aqueous solution. The adsorption isotherms, adsorption kinetics, and the effect of pH on the process were studied. The removal efficiency was evaluated in the presence of competing anions such as NO3(-), ClO4(-), SO4(2-) and Cl(-). In order to regenerate the adsorbent for its repeated use, the regeneration process was studied in two different extractant solutions, 0.1 M NaCl at pH 10 and 0.28 M Na2CO3 at pH 12. PMID:24658793

  20. Evaluation of a low-cost adsorbent for removal of toxic metal ions from wastewater of an electroplating factory.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Francisco W; Sousa, Marcelo James; Oliveira, Isadora R N; Oliveira, André G; Cavalcante, Rivelino M; Fechine, Pierre B A; Neto, Vicente O S; de Keukeleire, Denis; Nascimento, Ronaldo F

    2009-08-01

    In this study, sugar cane residue or bagasse was used for removal of toxic metal ions from wastewater of an electroplating factory located in northeast Brazil. Prior acid treatment increased the adsorption efficacies in batch wise experiments. The microstructure of the material before and after the treatment was investigated by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Column operations showed that removals of Cu(2+), Ni(2+) and Zn(2+) from wastewater (in the absence of cyanide) were 95.5%, 96.3.0%, and 97.1%, respectively. Regeneration of the adsorbent obtained in acid indicated that the efficiencies decreased only after the fourth cycle of re-use. Acid-treated sugar cane bagasse can be considered a viable alternative to common methods to remove toxic metal ions from aqueous effluents of electroplating industries.

  1. Cryogenic adsorber design in a helium refrigeration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhongjun; Zhang, Ning; Li, Zhengyu; Li, Q.

    2012-06-01

    The cryogenic adsorber is specially designed to eliminate impurities in gaseous helium such as O2, and N2 which is normally difficult to remove, based on the reversible cryotrapping of impurities on an activated carbon bed. The coconut shell activated carbon is adopted because of its developed micropore structure and specific surface area. This activated carbon adsorption is mostly determined by the micropore structure, and the adsorption rate of impurities is inversely proportional to the square of the particle sizes. The active carbon absorber's maximum permissible flow velocity is 0.25 m/s. When the gas flow velocity increases, the adsorption diffusion rate of the adsorbent is reduced, because an increase in the magnitude of the velocity resulted in a reduced amount of heat transfer to a unit volume of impure gas. According to the numerical simulation of N2 adsorption dynamics, the appropriate void tower link speed and the saturated adsorption capacity are determined. Then the diameter and height of the adsorber are designed. The mass transfer length should be taken into account in the adsorber height design. The pressure decrease is also calculated. The important factors that influence the adsorber pressure decrease are the void tower speed, the adsorbed layer height, and the active carbon particle shape and size.

  2. Activity of lactoperoxidase when adsorbed on protein layers.

    PubMed

    Haberska, Karolina; Svensson, Olof; Shleev, Sergey; Lindh, Liselott; Arnebrant, Thomas; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas

    2008-09-15

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is an enzyme, which is used as an antimicrobial agent in a number of applications, e.g., food technology. In the majority of applications LPO is added to a homogeneous product phase or immobilised on product surface. In the latter case, however, the measurements of LPO activity are seldom reported. In this paper we have assessed LPO enzymatic activity on bare and protein modified gold surfaces by means of electrochemistry. It was found that LPO rapidly adsorbs to bare gold surfaces resulting in an amount of LPO adsorbed of 2.9mg/m(2). A lower amount of adsorbed LPO is obtained if the gold surface is exposed to bovine serum albumin, bovine or human mucin prior to LPO adsorption. The enzymatic activity of the adsorbed enzyme is in general preserved at the experimental conditions and varies only moderately when comparing bare gold and gold surface pretreated with the selected proteins. The measurement of LPO specific activity, however, indicate that it is about 1.5 times higher if LPO is adsorbed on gold surfaces containing a small amount of preadsorbed mucin in comparison to the LPO directly adsorbed on bare gold.

  3. Control of acid gases using a fluidized bed adsorber.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Bo-Chin; Wey, Ming-Yen; Yeh, Chia-Lin

    2003-08-01

    During incineration, secondary pollutants such as acid gases, organic compounds, heavy metals and particulates are generated. Among these pollutants, the acid gases, including sulfur oxides (SO(x)) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), can cause corrosion of the incinerator piping and can generate acid rain after being emitted to the atmosphere. To address this problem, the present study used a novel combination of air pollution control devices (APCDs), composed of a fluidized bed adsorber integrated with a fabric filter. The major objective of the work is to demonstrate the performance of a fluidized bed adsorber for removal of acid gases from flue gas of an incinerator. The adsorbents added in the fluidized bed adsorber were mainly granular activated carbon (AC; with or without chemical treatment) and with calcium oxide used as an additive. The advantages of a fluidized bed reactor for high mass transfer and high gas-solid contact can enhance the removal of acid gases when using a dry method. On the other hand, because the fluidized bed can filter particles, fine particles prior to and after passing through the fluidized bed adsorber were investigated. The competing adsorption on activated carbon between different characteristics of pollutants was also given preliminary discussion. The results indicate that the removal efficiencies of the investigated acid gases, SO(2) and HCl, are higher than 94 and 87%, respectively. Thus, a fluidized bed adsorber integrated with a fabric filter has the potential to replace conventional APCDs, even when there are other pollutants at the same time.

  4. Synthesis and CO₂ adsorption properties of molecularly imprinted adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; Shen, Yanmei; Bai, Lu; Hao, Rongjie; Dong, Liyan

    2012-02-01

    A series of molecularly imprinted adsorbents of CO(2) were developed by molecular self-assembly procedures, using ethanedioic acid, acrylamide, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as template, functional monomer, and cross-linker, respectively. Textural properties of these adsorbents were characterized by N(2) adsorption experiment, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. CO(2) adsorption capacities of adsorbents were investigated by thermo-gravimetric balance under 15% CO(2)/85% Ar atmosphere. Adsorption selectivity of CO(2) was studied by fixed-bed adsorption/desorption experiments. All the adsorbents displayed good thermal stability at 200 °C. Among them, MIP1b, with the higher amine content, exhibited the largest CO(2) capacity, which maintained steady after 50 adsorption-desorption cycles. Although MIP3 showed the highest specific surface, the CO(2) capacity was lower than that of MIP1b. CO(2) adsorption mechanism of molecularly imprinted adsorbents was determined to be physical sorption according to the adsorption enthalpies integrated from the DSC heatflow profiles. The calculated separation factors of CO(2) under 15% CO(2)/85% N(2) atmosphere were above 100 for all adsorbents.

  5. A High-Fidelity Batch Simulation Environment for Integrated Batch and Piloted Air Combat Simulation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics. The environment can also be used to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics equivalent to those used in high-fidelity piloted simulation. Databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. To simplify the task of developing and implementing maneuvering logics in the TMS, an outer-loop control system known as the Tactical Autopilot (TA) is implemented in the aircraft simulation model. The TA converts guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft. This report describes the capabilities and operation of the TMS.

  6. Use of residues and by-products of the olive-oil production chain for the removal of pollutants from environmental media: A review of batch biosorption approaches.

    PubMed

    Anastopoulos, Ioannis; Massas, Ioannis; Ehaliotis, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    Residues and by-products of the olive-oil production chain have been widely studied as biosorbents for the removal of various pollutants from environmental media due to their significant adsorption properties, low cost, production at local level and renewability. In this review, adsorbents developed from olive-tree cultivation residues and olive-oil extraction by-products and wastes are examined, and their sorption characteristics are described and discussed. Recent information obtained using batch sorption studies is summarized and the adsorption mechanisms involved, regarding various aquatic and soil pollutants (metal ions, dyes, radionuclides, phenolic compounds, pesticides) are presented and discussed. It is evident that several biosorbents show the potential to effectively remove a wide variety of pollutants from aqueous solutions, especially Pb and Cd. However, there is need to (a) develop standardized batch study protocols, and potentially reference materials, for effective cross-evaluation of biosorbents of similar nature and for improved understanding of mechanisms involved and (b) investigate scaling-up and regeneration issues that hold back industry-level application of preselected adsorbents.

  7. Biodegradation of high explosives on granular activated carbon [GAC]: Enhanced desorption of high explosives from GAC -- Batch studies

    SciTech Connect

    Morley, M.C.; Speitel, G.E. Jr.

    1999-03-01

    Adsorption to GAC is an effective method for removing high explosives (HE) compounds from water, but no permanent treatment is achieved. Bioregeneration, which treats adsorbed contaminants by desorption and biodegradation, is being developed as a method for reducing GAC usage rates and permanently degrading RDX and HMX. Because desorption is often the limiting mass transfer mechanism in bioregeneration systems, several methods for increasing the rate and extent of desorption of RDX and HMX are being studied. These include use of cosolvents (methanol and ethanol), surfactants (both anionic and nonionic), and {beta}- and {gamma}-cyclodextrins. Batch experiments to characterize the desorption of these HEs from GAC have been completed using Northwestern LB-830, the GAC being used at Pantex. Over a total of 11 days of desorption, about 3% of the adsorbed RDX was desorbed from the GAC using buffered water as the desorption fluid. In comparison, about 96% of the RDX was extracted from the GAC by acetonitrile over the same desorption period. Ethanol and methanol were both effective in desorbing RDX and HMX; higher alcohol concentrations were able to desorb more HE from the GAC. Surfactants varied widely in their abilities to enhance desorption of HEs. The most effective surfactant that was studied was sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), which desorbed 56.4% of the adsorbed RDX at a concentration of 500 mg SDS/L. The cyclodextrins that were used were marginally more effective than water. Continuous-flow column tests are underway for further testing the most promising of these methods. These results will be compared to column experiments that have been completed under baseline conditions (using buffered water as the desorption fluid). Results of this research will support modeling and design of further desorption and bioregeneration experiments.

  8. Gold recovery from low concentrations using nanoporous silica adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aledresse, Adil

    The development of high capacity adsorbents with uniform porosity denoted 5%MP-HMS (5% Mercaptopropyl-Hexagonal Mesoporous Structure) to extract gold from noncyanide solutions is presented. The preliminary studies from laboratory simulated noncyanide gold solutions show that the adsorption capacities of these materials are among the highest reported. The high adsorption saturation level of these materials, up to 1.9 mmol/g (37% of the adsorbent weight) from gold chloride solutions (potassium tetrachloroaurate) and 2.9 mmol/g (57% of the adsorbent weight) from gold bromide solutions (potassium tetrabromoaurate) at pH = 2, is a noteworthy feature of these materials. This gold loading from [AuC4]- and [AuBr4 ]- solutions corresponds to a relative Au:S molar ratio of 2.5:1 and 3.8:1, respectively. These rates are significantly higher than the usual 1:1 (Au:S) ratio expected for metal ion binding with the material. The additional gold ions loaded have been spontaneously reduced to metallic gold in the mesoporous material. Experimental studies indicated high maximum adsorptions of gold as high as 99.9% recovery. Another promising attribute of these materials is their favourable adsorption kinetics. The MP-HMS reaches equilibrium (saturation) in less than 1 minute of exposure in gold bromide and less than 10 minutes in gold chloride. The MP-HMS materials adsorption is significantly improved by agitation and the adsorption capacity of Au (III) ions increases with the decrease in pH. The recovery of adsorbed gold and the regeneration of spent adsorbent were investigated for MP-HMS adsorbent. The regenerated adsorbent (MP-HMS) maintained its adsorption capacity even after repeated use and all the gold was successfully recovered from the spent adsorbent. For the fist time, a promising adsorbent system has been found that is capable of effectively concentrating gold thiosulphate complexes, whereas conventional carbon-inpulp (CIP) and carbon-in-leach (CIL) systems fail. The

  9. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    SciTech Connect

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah; Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2014-06-19

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  10. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah; Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  11. Dissolution retardation of solid silica during glass batch-melting

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Marcial, Jose

    2011-07-15

    During glass-batch melting, solid silica (quartz) usually dissolves last. A retardation function was defined as a measure of the progressive inhibition of silica dissolution that occurs during batch melting. This function is based on the comparison of the measured rate of dissolution of silica particles with the hypothetical diffusion-controlled volume flux from regularly distributed particles with uniform concentration layers around them. The severe inhibition of silica dissolution has been attributed to the irregular spatial distribution of silica particles that is associated with the formation of nearly saturated melt at a portion of their surfaces. Irregular shapes and unequal sizes of particles also contribute to their extended lifetime.

  12. [Hydroxycinnamic acid levels of various batches from mugwort flowering tops].

    PubMed

    Fraisse, D; Carnat, A; Carnat, A-P; Guédon, D; Lamaison, J-L

    2003-07-01

    Dried flowering tops of 24 harvested batches (Artemisia vulgaris: 13; Artemisia verlotiorum: 11) and 12 batches of mugwort from commercial origin were examined. The levels of principal compounds averaged respectively: total hydroxycinnamic acids 6.09; 10.29 and 9.13%, chlorogenic acid 0.79; 2.05 and 1.35%, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid 0.51; 4.01 and 1.25%, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid 2.21; 1.25 and 2.60%. Specifications were discussed for an European Pharmacopoeial monography.

  13. [Hydroxycinnamic acid levels of various batches from mugwort flowering tops].

    PubMed

    Fraisse, D; Carnat, A; Carnat, A-P; Guédon, D; Lamaison, J-L

    2003-07-01

    Dried flowering tops of 24 harvested batches (Artemisia vulgaris: 13; Artemisia verlotiorum: 11) and 12 batches of mugwort from commercial origin were examined. The levels of principal compounds averaged respectively: total hydroxycinnamic acids 6.09; 10.29 and 9.13%, chlorogenic acid 0.79; 2.05 and 1.35%, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid 0.51; 4.01 and 1.25%, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid 2.21; 1.25 and 2.60%. Specifications were discussed for an European Pharmacopoeial monography. PMID:12843960

  14. Evaluation of Sludge Batch 5 Qualification with ISDP Salt Batch 1 Compliance to DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, A.

    2010-05-05

    The purpose of this report is to document the acceptability of Sludge Batch 5 with the initial macrobatch operation of the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) waste to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This report was prepared to comply with the requirements listed in the Waste Acceptance Criteria for Sludge, Actinide Removal Process (ARP), and Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Process Transfers to 512-S and DWPF. The requirements for transfers to 512-S were evaluated during ISDP Salt Batch 1 qualification. The calculations of sludge concentrations are based entirely on the Tank 51 sample processed at SRNL. This is conservative because Tank 51 is blended with the dilute feed in the DWPF Feed Tank (Tank 40). This report documents the acceptability of sludge only as well as Sludge Batch 5 sludge slurry combined with ARP/MCU products for feed to DWPF. All criteria were met for unblended Tank 51 material.

  15. Fabricating electrospun cellulose nanofibre adsorbents for ion-exchange chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Dods, Stewart R.; Hardick, Oliver; Stevens, Bob; Bracewell, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Protein separation is an integral step in biopharmaceutical manufacture with diffusion-limited packed bed chromatography remaining the default choice for industry. Rapid bind-elute separation using convective mass transfer media offers advantages in productivity by operating at high flowrates. Electrospun nanofibre adsorbents are a non-woven fibre matrix of high surface area and porosity previously investigated as a bioseparation medium. The effects of compression and bed layers, and subsequent heat treatment after electrospinning cellulose acetate nanofibres were investigated using diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) or carboxylate (COO) functionalisations. Transbed pressures were measured and compared by compression load, COO adsorbents were 30%, 70% and 90% higher than DEAE for compressions 1, 5 and 10 MPa, respectively, which was attributed to the swelling effect of hydrophilic COO groups. Dynamic binding capacities (DBCs) at 10% breakthrough were measured between 2000 and 12,000 CV/h (2 s and 0.3 s residence times) under normal binding conditions, and DBCs increased with reactant concentration from 4 to 12 mg BSA/mL for DEAE and from 10 to 21 mg lysozyme/mL for COO adsorbents. Comparing capacities of compression loads applied after electrospinning showed that the lowest load tested, 1 MPa, yielded the highest DBCs for DEAE and COO adsorbents at 20 mg BSA/mL and 27 mg lysozyme/mL, respectively. At 1 MPa, DBCs were the highest for the lowest flowrate tested but stabilised for flowrates above 2000 CV/h. For compression loads of 5 MPa and 10 MPa, adsorbents recorded lower DBCs than 1 MPa as a result of nanofibre packing and reduced surface area. Increasing the number of bed layers from 4 to 12 showed decreasing DBCs for both adsorbents. Tensile strengths were recorded to indicate the mechanical robustness of the adsorbent and be related to packing the nanofibre adsorbents in large scale configurations such as pleated cartridges. Compared with an

  16. Elution by Le Chatelier's principle for maximum recyclability of adsorbents: applied to polyacrylamidoxime adsorbents for extraction of uranium from seawater.

    PubMed

    Oyola, Yatsandra; Vukovic, Sinisa; Dai, Sheng

    2016-05-28

    Amidoxime-based polymer adsorbents have attracted interest within the last decade due to their high adsorption capacities for uranium and other rare earth metals from seawater. The ocean contains an approximated 4-5 billion tons of uranium and even though amidoxime-based adsorbents have demonstrated the highest uranium adsorption capacities to date, they are still economically impractical because of their limited recyclability. Typically, the adsorbed metals are eluted with a dilute acid solution that not only damages the amidoxime groups (metal adsorption sites), but is also not strong enough to remove the strongly bound vanadium, which decreases the adsorption capacity with each cycle. We resolved this challenge by incorporating Le Chatelier's principle to recycle adsorbents indefinitely. We used a solution with a high concentration of amidoxime-like chelating agents, such as hydroxylamine, to desorb nearly a 100% of adsorbed metals, including vanadium, without damaging the metal adsorption sites and preserving the high adsorption capacity. The method takes advantage of knowing the binding mode between the amidoxime ligand and the metal and mimics it with chelating agents that then in a Le Chatelier's manner removes metals by shifting to a new chemical equilibrium. For this reason the method is applicable to any ligand-metal adsorbent and it will make an impact on other extraction technologies. PMID:27117598

  17. Batch culture and repeated-batch culture of Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 for lipid production as a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Dashti, Marjan Ganjali; Abdeshahian, Peyman

    2016-03-01

    This research was performed based on a comparative study on fungal lipid production by a locally isolated strain Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 in batch culture and repeated-batch culture using a nitrogen-limited medium. Lipid production in the batch culture was conducted to study the effect of different agitation rates on the simultaneous consumption of ammonium tartrate and glucose sources. Lipid production in the repeated-batch culture was studied by considering the effect of harvesting time and harvesting volume of the culture broth on the lipid accumulation. The batch cultivation was carried out in a 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask containing 200 ml of the fresh nitrogen-limited medium. Microbial culture was incubated at 30 °C under different agitation rates of 120, 180 and 250 rpm for 120 h. The repeated-batch culture was performed at three harvesting times of 12, 24 and 48 h using four harvesting cultures of 60%, 70%, 80% and 90%. Experimental results revealed that nitrogen source (ammonium tartrate) was fully utilized by C. bainieri 2A1 within 24 h in all agitation rates tested. It was also observed that a high amount of glucose in culture medium was consumed by C. bainieri 2A1 at 250 rpm agitation speed during the batch fermentation. Similar results showed that the highest lipid concentration of 2.96 g/L was obtained at an agitation rate of 250 rpm at 120 h cultivation time with the maximum lipid productivity of 7.0 × 10(-2) mg/ml/h. On the other hand, experimental results showed that the highest lipid concentration produced in the repeated-batch culture was 3.30 g/L at the first cycle of 48 h harvesting time using 70% harvesting volume, while 0.23 g/L gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) was produced at the last cycle of 48 h harvesting time using 80% harvesting volume.

  18. Batch culture and repeated-batch culture of Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 for lipid production as a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Dashti, Marjan Ganjali; Abdeshahian, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    This research was performed based on a comparative study on fungal lipid production by a locally isolated strain Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 in batch culture and repeated-batch culture using a nitrogen-limited medium. Lipid production in the batch culture was conducted to study the effect of different agitation rates on the simultaneous consumption of ammonium tartrate and glucose sources. Lipid production in the repeated-batch culture was studied by considering the effect of harvesting time and harvesting volume of the culture broth on the lipid accumulation. The batch cultivation was carried out in a 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask containing 200 ml of the fresh nitrogen-limited medium. Microbial culture was incubated at 30 °C under different agitation rates of 120, 180 and 250 rpm for 120 h. The repeated-batch culture was performed at three harvesting times of 12, 24 and 48 h using four harvesting cultures of 60%, 70%, 80% and 90%. Experimental results revealed that nitrogen source (ammonium tartrate) was fully utilized by C. bainieri 2A1 within 24 h in all agitation rates tested. It was also observed that a high amount of glucose in culture medium was consumed by C. bainieri 2A1 at 250 rpm agitation speed during the batch fermentation. Similar results showed that the highest lipid concentration of 2.96 g/L was obtained at an agitation rate of 250 rpm at 120 h cultivation time with the maximum lipid productivity of 7.0 × 10−2 mg/ml/h. On the other hand, experimental results showed that the highest lipid concentration produced in the repeated-batch culture was 3.30 g/L at the first cycle of 48 h harvesting time using 70% harvesting volume, while 0.23 g/L gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) was produced at the last cycle of 48 h harvesting time using 80% harvesting volume. PMID:26980997

  19. Heterocoagulated clay-derived adsorbents for phosphate decontamination from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Gan, Fangqun; Luo, Yufeng; Hang, Xiaoshuai; Zhao, Hongting

    2016-01-15

    A series of nanocomposite adsorbents were prepared by heterocoagulation of negatively charged delaminated montmorillonite (Mt) and positively charged synthetic layered double hydroxide (LDH) colloids with different LDH loading amounts. The mineralogy and physicochemical properties of the resulting nanocomposites were characterized. Their potential applications for phosphate (P) removal from aqueous solution, as a function of P concentration (2.5-200 mg/L), contact time (1 min-48 h) and pH (3-10), were evaluated by using batch adsorption modes. It was found that the adsorption data could be well described by both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity of three different LDH heterocoagulated montmorillonites (LDH-Mts) for P removal was found to increase with LDH loadings, reaching 12.6, 16.2 and 23.3 mg/g respectively; Adsorption kinetic data revealed that 90% of adsorption onto LDH-Mts was completed within 1 h (h) and the adsorption process could be well described by the pseudo-second-order model. These results demonstrated that heterocoagulation of Mt and LDH could preserve the adsorption capacity of LDH for P and enhance the stability of both clay minerals, and LDH-Mts could be effectively used as a potential promising filtration medium for P removal.

  20. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of carboxylic acids adsorbed onto mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubicki, J. D.; Schroeter, L. M.; Itoh, M. J.; Nguyen, B. N.; Apitz, S. E.

    1999-09-01

    A suite of naturally-occurring carboxylic acids (acetic, oxalic, citric, benzoic, salicylic and phthalic) and their corresponding sodium salts were adsorbed onto a set of common mineral substrates (quartz, albite, illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite) in batch slurry experiments. Solution pH's of approximately 3 and 6 were used to examine the effects of pH on sorption mechanisms. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to obtain vibrational frequencies of the organic ligands on the mineral surfaces and in solution. UV/visible spectroscopy on supernatant solutions was also employed to confirm that adsorption from solution had taken place for benzoic, salicylic and phthalic acids. Molecular orbital calculations were used to model possible surface complexes and interpret the experimental spectra. In general, the tectosilicates, quartz and albite feldspar, did not chemisorb (i.e., strong, inner-sphere adsorption) the carboxylate anions in sufficient amounts to produce infrared spectra of the organics after rinsing in distilled water. The clays (illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite) each exhibited similar ATR FTIR spectra. However, the illite sample used in this study reacted to form strong surface and aqueous complexes with salicylic acid before being treated to remove free Fe-hydroxides. Chemisorption of carboxylic acids onto clays is shown to be limited without the presence of Fe-hydroxides within the clay matrix.

  1. Characterization of cross-linked cellulosic ion-exchange adsorbents: 2. Protein sorption and transport.

    PubMed

    Angelo, James M; Cvetkovic, Aleksandar; Gantier, Rene; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2016-03-18

    Adsorption behavior in the HyperCel family of cellulosic ion-exchange materials (Pall Corporation) was characterized using methods to assess, quantitatively and qualitatively, the dynamics of protein uptake as well as static adsorption as a function of ionic strength and protein concentration using several model proteins. The three exchangers studied all presented relatively high adsorptive capacities under low ionic strength conditions, comparable to commercially available resins containing polymer functionalization aimed at increasing that particular characteristic. The strong cation- and anion-exchange moieties showed higher sensitivity to increasing salt concentrations, but protein affinity on the salt-tolerant STAR AX HyperCel exchanger remained strong at ionic strengths normally used in downstream processing to elute material fully during ion-exchange chromatography. Very high uptake rates were observed in both batch kinetics experiments and time-series confocal laser scanning microscopy, suggesting low intraparticle transport resistances relative to external film resistance, even at higher bulk protein concentrations where the opposite is typically observed. Electron microscopy imaging of protein adsorbed phases provided additional insight into particle structure that could not be resolved in previous work on the bare resins.

  2. Removal of heavy metal ions from water by using calcined phosphate as a new adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Aklil, A; Mouflih, M; Sebti, S

    2004-08-30

    Calcined phosphate (CP) has been employed in our laboratories as a heterogeneous catalyst in a variety of reactions. In this study, CP was evaluated as a new product for removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution. Removal of Pb2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ on the CP was investigated in batch experiments. The kinetic of lead on CP adsorption efficiency and adsorption process were evaluated and analysed using the theories of Langmuir and Freundlich. The influence of pH was studied. The adsorption capacity obtained at pH 5 were 85.6, 29.8, and 20.6 mg g(-1) for Pb2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+, respectively. We hypothesize at pH 2 and 3, the dissolution of CP and precipitation of a fluoropyromorphite for lead and the formation of solid-solution type fluorapatite for copper. The results obtained show that CP is a good adsorbent for these toxic heavy metals. The abundance of natural phosphate, its low price and non-aggressive nature towards the environment are advantage for its utilisation in point of view of wastewater and wastes clean up.

  3. Heterocoagulated clay-derived adsorbents for phosphate decontamination from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Gan, Fangqun; Luo, Yufeng; Hang, Xiaoshuai; Zhao, Hongting

    2016-01-15

    A series of nanocomposite adsorbents were prepared by heterocoagulation of negatively charged delaminated montmorillonite (Mt) and positively charged synthetic layered double hydroxide (LDH) colloids with different LDH loading amounts. The mineralogy and physicochemical properties of the resulting nanocomposites were characterized. Their potential applications for phosphate (P) removal from aqueous solution, as a function of P concentration (2.5-200 mg/L), contact time (1 min-48 h) and pH (3-10), were evaluated by using batch adsorption modes. It was found that the adsorption data could be well described by both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity of three different LDH heterocoagulated montmorillonites (LDH-Mts) for P removal was found to increase with LDH loadings, reaching 12.6, 16.2 and 23.3 mg/g respectively; Adsorption kinetic data revealed that 90% of adsorption onto LDH-Mts was completed within 1 h (h) and the adsorption process could be well described by the pseudo-second-order model. These results demonstrated that heterocoagulation of Mt and LDH could preserve the adsorption capacity of LDH for P and enhance the stability of both clay minerals, and LDH-Mts could be effectively used as a potential promising filtration medium for P removal. PMID:26468604

  4. Hydrogenation of olefin adsorbed on Pt/SiO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, T.; Burwell, R.L. Jr.

    1986-11-01

    Cyclopentene and cyclooctene have been hydrogenated in a batch reactor on supported platinum catalysts at temperatures such that over 99.99% of the olefin was in the adsorbed state and primarily on the support. Reaction temperatures were -75/sup 0/C for cyclopentene and -22/sup 0/C for cyclooctene and P(H/sub 2/) was usually 100 Torr. At coverages of one molecule of cyclopentene per nm/sub 2/ on Pt/(wide pore silica gel), the rate was zero order in olefin up to a conversion of about 70% following which the rate declined. The rate was about one-half order in hydrogen. Pt/alumina and Pt/silica gel gave similar results. Transport of olefin from the surface of the support to crystallites of platinum occurred primarily by surface migration rather than through the vapor phase. Significant contribution to hydrogenation by hydrogen spillover from platinum to silica can be excluded. Small particles of platinum on silica gel gave somewhat larger values of turnover frequency, N/sub t/, than did larger particles, at least after the pretreatment O/sub 2/, 300/sup 0/C; He, 450/sup 0/C; cool in He. N/sub t/ for cyclopentene was roughly equal to that for propylene in conventional vapor phase hydrogenation extrapolated to -75/sup 0/C.

  5. Adaptation to high throughput batch chromatography enhances multivariate screening.

    PubMed

    Barker, Gregory A; Calzada, Joseph; Herzer, Sibylle; Rieble, Siegfried

    2015-09-01

    High throughput process development offers unique approaches to explore complex process design spaces with relatively low material consumption. Batch chromatography is one technique that can be used to screen chromatographic conditions in a 96-well plate. Typical batch chromatography workflows examine variations in buffer conditions or comparison of multiple resins in a given process, as opposed to the assessment of protein loading conditions in combination with other factors. A modification to the batch chromatography paradigm is described here where experimental planning, programming, and a staggered loading approach increase the multivariate space that can be explored with a liquid handling system. The iterative batch chromatography (IBC) approach is described, which treats every well in a 96-well plate as an individual experiment, wherein protein loading conditions can be varied alongside other factors such as wash and elution buffer conditions. As all of these factors are explored in the same experiment, the interactions between them are characterized and the number of follow-up confirmatory experiments is reduced. This in turn improves statistical power and throughput. Two examples of the IBC method are shown and the impact of the load conditions are assessed in combination with the other factors explored.

  6. Batch Studies of Sodium Tetraphenylborate Decomposition on Reduced Palladium Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    2001-02-13

    In these batch experiments we obtained preliminary information on palladium based catalytic decomposition of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB). These preliminary data provide necessary data to design subsequent catalytic decomposition experiments for NaTPB using a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR).

  7. Tier 3 batch system data locality via managed caches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Kühn, Eileen; Quast, Günter

    2015-05-01

    Modern data processing increasingly relies on data locality for performance and scalability, whereas the common HEP approaches aim for uniform resource pools with minimal locality, recently even across site boundaries. To combine advantages of both, the High- Performance Data Analysis (HPDA) Tier 3 concept opportunistically establishes data locality via coordinated caches. In accordance with HEP Tier 3 activities, the design incorporates two major assumptions: First, only a fraction of data is accessed regularly and thus the deciding factor for overall throughput. Second, data access may fallback to non-local, making permanent local data availability an inefficient resource usage strategy. Based on this, the HPDA design generically extends available storage hierarchies into the batch system. Using the batch system itself for scheduling file locality, an array of independent caches on the worker nodes is dynamically populated with high-profile data. Cache state information is exposed to the batch system both for managing caches and scheduling jobs. As a result, users directly work with a regular, adequately sized storage system. However, their automated batch processes are presented with local replications of data whenever possible.

  8. Comparison of neptunium sorption results using batch and column techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Triay, I.R.; Furlano, A.C.; Weaver, S.C.; Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1996-08-01

    We used crushed-rock columns to study the sorption retardation of neptunium by zeolitic, devitrified, and vitric tuffs typical of those at the site of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. We used two sodium bicarbonate waters (groundwater from Well J-13 at the site and water prepared to simulate groundwater from Well UE-25p No. 1) under oxidizing conditions. It was found that values of the sorption distribution coefficient, Kd, obtained from these column experiments under flowing conditions, regardless of the water or the water velocity used, agreed well with those obtained earlier from batch sorption experiments under static conditions. The batch sorption distribution coefficient can be used to predict the arrival time for neptunium eluted through the columns. On the other hand, the elution curves showed dispersivity, which implies that neptunium sorption in these tuffs may be nonlinear, irreversible, or noninstantaneous. As a result, use of a batch sorption distribution coefficient to calculate neptunium transport through Yucca Mountain tuffs would yield conservative values for neptunium release from the site. We also noted that neptunium (present as the anionic neptunyl carbonate complex) never eluted prior to tritiated water, which implies that charge exclusion does not appear to exclude neptunium from the tuff pores. The column experiments corroborated the trends observed in batch sorption experiments: neptunium sorption onto devitrified and vitric tuffs is minimal and sorption onto zeolitic tuffs decreases as the amount of sodium and bicarbonate/carbonate in the water increases.

  9. 21 CFR 80.38 - Treatment of batch after certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment of batch after certification. 80.38 Section 80.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... requesting certification shall maintain storage in such manner as to prevent change in composition until...

  10. 21 CFR 80.38 - Treatment of batch after certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Treatment of batch after certification. 80.38 Section 80.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... requesting certification shall maintain storage in such manner as to prevent change in composition until...

  11. 21 CFR 80.38 - Treatment of batch after certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of batch after certification. 80.38 Section 80.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... requesting certification shall maintain storage in such manner as to prevent change in composition until...

  12. Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit shell carbon: A calcium-rich promising adsorbent for fluoride removal from groundwater.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, V; Rajkumar, S; Murugesh, S; Darchen, A

    2012-07-30

    Tamarindus indica fruit shells (TIFSs) are naturally calcium rich compounds. They were impregnated with ammonium carbonate and then carbonized, leading to ammonium carbonate activated ACA-TIFS carbon. The resulting materials and carbon arising from virgin fruit shells V-TIFS were characterized and assayed as adsorbent for the removal of fluoride anions from groundwater. The fluoride scavenging ability of TIFS carbons was due to naturally dispersed calcium compounds. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that TIFS carbon contained a mixture of calcium oxalate and calcium carbonate. Batch studies on the fluoride removal efficiency of TIFS carbons with respect to contact time, pH, initial fluoride concentration, and co-ion interference were conducted. Applicability of various kinetic models (viz., pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intra-particle diffusion and Elovich) and sorption isotherms were tested for batch techniques. The fluoride removal capacity of TIFS carbons was found to be 91% and 83% at a pH of 7.05 for V-TIFS and ACA-TIFS carbons, respectively. The practical applicability of TIFS carbons using groundwater samples was approved. The fluoride removal was greater in groundwater without hydrogen carbonate ions than those containing these ions. The characterizations of fluoride unloaded and loaded TIFS carbons were done by SEM and XRD studies.

  13. Schiff base - Chitosan grafted L-monoguluronic acid as a novel solid-phase adsorbent for removal of congo red.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bo; Qiu, Li-Gan; Su, Hong-Zhen; Cao, Cheng-Liang; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2016-01-01

    A novel modified chitosan adsorbent (GL-SBCS) was synthesized by covalently grafting a Schiff base-chitosan (SBCS) onto the surface of l-monoguluronic acid. Physico-chemical investigation on the adsorption of congo red, an anionic azo dye by GL-SBCS has been carried out. The effect of different weight contents of chitosan in GL-SBCS composite, adsorbent dosage, initial pH and contract time were studied in detail using batch adsorption. Results showed that GL-SBCS exhibited better than normal CS and l-monoguluronic acid. Further investigation demonstrated that the adsorption pattern fitted well with the Langmuir model (R(2)>0.99) but less-satisfied the Freundlich model. Both ionic interaction as well as physical forces is responsible for binding of congo red with GL-SBCS as determined by zeta potential measurement Both sodium chloride and sodium dodecyl sulfate significantly influenced the adsorption process. SBCS would be a good method and resource to increase absorption efficiency for the removal of anionic dyes in a wastewater treatment process.

  14. Evaluating the long-term performance of low-cost adsorbents using small-scale adsorption column experiments.

    PubMed

    Callery, O; Healy, M G; Rognard, F; Barthelemy, L; Brennan, R B

    2016-09-15

    This study investigated a novel method of predicting the long-term phosphorus removal performance of large-scale adsorption filters, using data derived from short-term, small-scale column experiments. The filter media investigated were low-cost adsorbents such as aluminum sulfate drinking water treatment residual, ferric sulfate drinking water treatment residual, and fine and coarse crushed concretes. Small-bore adsorption columns were loaded with synthetic wastewater, and treated column effluent volume was plotted against the mass of phosphorus adsorbed per unit mass of filter media. It was observed that the curve described by the data strongly resembled that of a standard adsorption isotherm created from batch adsorption data. Consequently, it was hypothesized that an equation following the form of the Freundlich isotherm would describe the relationship between filter loading and media saturation. Moreover, the relationship between filter loading and effluent concentration could also be derived from this equation. The proposed model was demonstrated to accurately predict the performance of large-scale adsorption filters over a period of up to three months with a very high degree of accuracy. Furthermore, the coefficients necessary to produce said model could be determined from just 24 h of small-scale experimental data. PMID:27295617

  15. Kinetics and isotherm analysis of Tropaeoline 000 adsorption onto unsaturated polyester resin (UPR): a non-carbon adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rajeev; Sharma, Pooja; Sikarwar, Shalini

    2013-03-01

    The presence of dyes in water is undesirable due to the toxicological impact of their entrance into the food chain. Owing to the recalcitrant nature of dyes to biological oxidation, a tertiary treatment like adsorption is required. In the present study, unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) has been used as a sorbent in the treatment of dye-contaminated water. Different concentrations of Tropaeoline 000 containing water were treated with UPR. The preliminary investigations were carried out by batch adsorption to examine the effects of pH, adsorbate concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and temperature. A plausible mechanism for the ongoing adsorption process and thermodynamic parameters have also been obtained from Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameter showed that the sorption process of Tropaeoline 000 onto activated carbon (AC) and UPR were feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic under studied conditions. The estimated values for (ΔG) are -10.48 × 10(3) and -6.098 × 10(3) kJ mol(-1) over AC and UPR at 303 K (30 °C), indicating towards a spontaneous process. The adsorption process followed pseudo-first-order model. The mass transfer property of the sorption process was studied using Lagergren pseudo-first-order kinetic models. The values of % removal and k (ad) for dye systems were calculated at different temperatures (303-323 K). The mechanism of the adsorption process was determined from the intraparticle diffusion model. PMID:22689095

  16. Polypyrrole/cobalt ferrite/multiwalled carbon nanotubes as an adsorbent for removing uranium ions from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Zhu, Jiahui; Tan, Lichao; Jing, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jingyuan; Song, Dalei; Zhang, Hongsen; Li, Rumin; Emelchenko, G A; Wang, Jun

    2016-05-31

    A novel rod-like, dual-shell structural adsorbent of polypyrrole/cobalt ferrite/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PPy/CoFe2O4/MWCNTs) was successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method, which could easily separate uranium(vi) ions with an external magnetic field. The structure and morphology of PPy/CoFe2O4/MWCNTs were characterized by VSM, XRD, XPS TEM and FT-IR. The results proved that the dual-shell structure was obtained in which a shell of cobalt ferrite and polypyrrole formed around the MWCNTs core. In batch adsorption experiments, including pH, equilibrium time and temperature on uranium adsorption, were investigated. The main results show that the PPy/CoFe2O4/MWCNTs composite has a higher affinity towards the uptake of uranium(vi) from aqueous solutions. The highest adsorption capacity reached was 148.8 mg U per g at pH 7. A kinetic analysis showed that the adsorption process was best described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The uranium sorption equilibrium data correlated well with the Langmuir sorption isotherm model in the thermodynamic analysis. 0.5 mol per L NaHCO3 was used as the desorbent and good adsorption properties were shown after the desorption procedures were repeated three times. Thus, PPy/CoFe2O4/MWCNTs was an excellent adsorbent for removing uranium(vi) ions. PMID:27169495

  17. Polypyrrole/cobalt ferrite/multiwalled carbon nanotubes as an adsorbent for removing uranium ions from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Zhu, Jiahui; Tan, Lichao; Jing, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jingyuan; Song, Dalei; Zhang, Hongsen; Li, Rumin; Emelchenko, G A; Wang, Jun

    2016-05-31

    A novel rod-like, dual-shell structural adsorbent of polypyrrole/cobalt ferrite/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PPy/CoFe2O4/MWCNTs) was successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method, which could easily separate uranium(vi) ions with an external magnetic field. The structure and morphology of PPy/CoFe2O4/MWCNTs were characterized by VSM, XRD, XPS TEM and FT-IR. The results proved that the dual-shell structure was obtained in which a shell of cobalt ferrite and polypyrrole formed around the MWCNTs core. In batch adsorption experiments, including pH, equilibrium time and temperature on uranium adsorption, were investigated. The main results show that the PPy/CoFe2O4/MWCNTs composite has a higher affinity towards the uptake of uranium(vi) from aqueous solutions. The highest adsorption capacity reached was 148.8 mg U per g at pH 7. A kinetic analysis showed that the adsorption process was best described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The uranium sorption equilibrium data correlated well with the Langmuir sorption isotherm model in the thermodynamic analysis. 0.5 mol per L NaHCO3 was used as the desorbent and good adsorption properties were shown after the desorption procedures were repeated three times. Thus, PPy/CoFe2O4/MWCNTs was an excellent adsorbent for removing uranium(vi) ions.

  18. Removal of chemical oxygen demand from landfill leachate using cow-dung ash as a low-cost adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kamalpreet; Mor, Suman; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-05-01

    The application of cow dung ash was assessed for the removal of organic contamination from the wastewater using landfill leachate of known Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) concentration in batch mode. The effect of various parameters like adsorbents dose, time, pH and temperature was investigated. Results indicate that upto 79% removal of COD could be achieved using activated cow dung ash (ACA) at optimum temperature of 30 °C at pH 6.0 using 20 g/L dose in 120 min, whereas cow dung ash (CA) shows 66% removal at pH 8.0 using 20 g/L dose, also in 120 min. Data also shows that ACA exhibited 11-13% better removal efficiency than CA. COD removal efficiency of various adsorbents was also compared and it was found that ACA offers significantly higher efficiency. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were also applied, which depicts good correlations (0.921 and 0.976) with the experimental data. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images shows that after the activation, carbon particles disintegrate and surface of particles become more rough and porous, indicating the reason for high adsorption efficiency of ACA. Hence, ACA offers a cost-effective solution for the removal of organic contaminants from the wastewater and for the direct treatment of landfill leachate.

  19. Batch and fixed-bed column studies for biosorption of Zn(II) ions onto pongamia oil cake (Pongamia pinnata) from biodiesel oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Shanmugaprakash, M; Sivakumar, V

    2015-12-01

    The present work, analyzes the potential of defatted pongamia oil cake (DPOC) for the biosorption of Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions in the both batch and column mode. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the optimal pH, effect of adsorbent dosage, initial Zn(II) ions concentration and contact time. The biosorption equilibrium and kinetics data for Zn(II) ions onto the DPOC were studied in detail, using several models, among all it was found to be that, Freundlich and the second-order model explained the equilibrium data well. The calculated thermodynamic parameters had shown that the biosorption of Zn(II) ions was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Batch desorption studies showed that the maximum Zn(II) recovery occurred, using 0.1 M EDTA. The Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) and the Thomas model was successfully employed to evaluate the model parameters in the column mode. The results indicated that the DPOC can be applied as an effective and eco-friendly biosorbent for the removal of Zn(II) ions in polluted wastewater.

  20. Batch and fixed-bed column studies for biosorption of Zn(II) ions onto pongamia oil cake (Pongamia pinnata) from biodiesel oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Shanmugaprakash, M; Sivakumar, V

    2015-12-01

    The present work, analyzes the potential of defatted pongamia oil cake (DPOC) for the biosorption of Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions in the both batch and column mode. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the optimal pH, effect of adsorbent dosage, initial Zn(II) ions concentration and contact time. The biosorption equilibrium and kinetics data for Zn(II) ions onto the DPOC were studied in detail, using several models, among all it was found to be that, Freundlich and the second-order model explained the equilibrium data well. The calculated thermodynamic parameters had shown that the biosorption of Zn(II) ions was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Batch desorption studies showed that the maximum Zn(II) recovery occurred, using 0.1 M EDTA. The Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) and the Thomas model was successfully employed to evaluate the model parameters in the column mode. The results indicated that the DPOC can be applied as an effective and eco-friendly biosorbent for the removal of Zn(II) ions in polluted wastewater. PMID:26366934

  1. Structure and Reactivity of Adsorbed Fibronectin Films on Mica

    PubMed Central

    Hull, James R.; Tamura, Glen S.; Castner, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the interactions of adsorbed fibronectin (Fn) with other biomolecules is important for many biomedical applications. Fn is found in almost all body fluids, in the extracellular matrix, and plays a fundamental role in many biological processes. This study found that the structure (conformation, orientation) and reactivity of Fn adsorbed onto mica is dependent on the Fn surface concentration. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to determine the surface coverage of adsorbed Fn from isolated molecules at low surface coverage to full monolayers at high surface coverage. Both methods showed that the thickness of Fn film continued to increase after the mica surface was completely covered, consistent with Fn adsorbed in a more upright conformation at the highest surface-Fn concentrations. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry showed that relative intensities of both sulfur-containing (cystine, methionine) and hydrophobic (glycine, leucine/isoleucine) amino acids varied with changing Fn surface coverage, indicating that the conformation of adsorbed Fn depended on surface coverage. Single-molecule force spectroscopy with collagen-related peptides immobilized onto the atomic force microscope tip showed that the specific interaction force between the peptide and Fn increases with increasing Fn surface coverage. PMID:17890402

  2. High capacity cryogel-type adsorbents for protein purification.

    PubMed

    Singh, Naveen Kumar; Dsouza, Roy N; Grasselli, Mariano; Fernández-Lahore, Marcelo

    2014-08-15

    Cryogel bodies were modified to obtain epoxy groups by graft-copolymerization using both chemical and gamma irradiation initiation techniques. The free epoxy adsorbents were reacted further to introduce diethylaminoethanol (DEAE) functionalities. The resulting weak anion-exchange cryogel adsorbents showed dynamic binding capacities of ca. 27±3mg/mL, which was significantly higher than previously reported for this type of adsorbent material. Gamma irradiated grafting initiation showed a 4-fold higher capacity for proteins than chemical grafting initiation procedures. The phosphate capacity for these DEAE cryogels was 119mmol/L and also showed similar column efficiency as compared to commercial adsorbents. The large pores in the cryogel structure ensure convective transport of the molecules to active binding sites located on the polymer-grafted surface of cryogels. However, as cryogels have relatively large pores (10-100μm), the BET area available for surface activation is low, and consequently, the capacity of the cryogels is relatively low for biomolecules, especially when compared to commercial beaded adsorbents. Nevertheless, we have shown that gamma ray mediated surface grafting of cryogel matrices greatly enhance their functional and adsorptive properties.

  3. High capacity cryogel-type adsorbents for protein purification.

    PubMed

    Singh, Naveen Kumar; Dsouza, Roy N; Grasselli, Mariano; Fernández-Lahore, Marcelo

    2014-08-15

    Cryogel bodies were modified to obtain epoxy groups by graft-copolymerization using both chemical and gamma irradiation initiation techniques. The free epoxy adsorbents were reacted further to introduce diethylaminoethanol (DEAE) functionalities. The resulting weak anion-exchange cryogel adsorbents showed dynamic binding capacities of ca. 27±3mg/mL, which was significantly higher than previously reported for this type of adsorbent material. Gamma irradiated grafting initiation showed a 4-fold higher capacity for proteins than chemical grafting initiation procedures. The phosphate capacity for these DEAE cryogels was 119mmol/L and also showed similar column efficiency as compared to commercial adsorbents. The large pores in the cryogel structure ensure convective transport of the molecules to active binding sites located on the polymer-grafted surface of cryogels. However, as cryogels have relatively large pores (10-100μm), the BET area available for surface activation is low, and consequently, the capacity of the cryogels is relatively low for biomolecules, especially when compared to commercial beaded adsorbents. Nevertheless, we have shown that gamma ray mediated surface grafting of cryogel matrices greatly enhance their functional and adsorptive properties. PMID:24980092

  4. Glucoamylase production in batch, chemostat and fed-batch cultivations by an industrial strain of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, H; Beyer, M; Nielsen, J

    2000-03-01

    The Aspergillus niger strain BO-1 was grown in batch, continuous (chemostat) and fed-batch cultivations in order to study the production of the extracellular enzyme glucoamylase under different growth conditions. In the pH range 2.5-6.0, the specific glucoamylase productivity and the specific growth rate of the fungus were independent of pH when grown in batch cultivations. The specific glucoamylase productivity increased linearly with the specific growth rate in the range 0-0.1 h(-1) and was constant in the range 0.1-0.2 h(-1). Maltose and maltodextrin were non-inducing carbon sources compared to glucose, and the maximum specific growth rate was 0.19 +/- 0.02 h(-1) irrespective of whether glucose or maltose was the carbon source. In fed-batch cultivations, glucoamylase titres of up to 6.5 g l(-1) were obtained even though the strain contained only one copy of the glaA gene.

  5. Theoretical framework for the interpretation of STM images of adsorbates.

    PubMed

    Kenkre, V M; Biscarini, F; Bustamante, C

    1992-07-01

    A theoretical formalism for the interpretation of STM images of adsorbates is developed by approaching the calculation of the observed current as a transport problem in quantum statistical mechanics. The STM configuration is treated as a system of three groups of states--the substrate, the adsorbate and the tip--in contact with a thermal reservoir, with which it exchanges energy. A new definition of current is introduced, and shown to be related to that given in the traditional transfer Hamiltonian approach. The transport instrument used for the description is the stochastic Liouville equation, known to have the advantage of allowing the incorporation of thermal effects as well as arbitrary degree of coherence in the quantum transport. Some preliminary calculations of STM images of simple adsorbate models are presented.

  6. Ultraviolet and electron radiation induced fragmentation of adsorbed ferrocene

    SciTech Connect

    Welipitiya, D.; Green, A.; Woods, J.P.; Dowben, P.A.; Robertson, B.W.; Byun, D.; Zhang, J.

    1996-06-01

    From thermal desorption spectroscopy we find that ferrocene, Fe(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}, adsorbs and desorbs associatively on Ag(100). Photoemission results indicate that the initially adsorbed surface species closely resembles that of molecular ferrocene. The shift in photoemission binding energies relative to the gas phase is largely independent of the molecular orbital. We find that ultraviolet light does lead to partial fragmentation of the ferrocene and that the molecular fragments are much more strongly bound to the surface than the associatively adsorbed ferrocene. Since fragmentation occurs only in the presence of incident radiation, selective area deposition from this class of molecules is possible. Using a focused electron beam in a scanning transmission electron microscope, we show that selective area deposition of features with resolution of a few hundred angstroms is readily achieved. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating and Molecular Adsorber Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Connor, Kenneth M.; Abraham, Nithin S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed two unique coating formulations that will keep surfaces clean and sanitary and contain contaminants.The Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating, modeled after the self-cleaning, water-repellant lotus leaf, disallows buildup of dust, dirt, water, and more on surfaces. This coating, has been successfully tested on painted, aluminum, glass, silica, and some composite surfaces, could aid in keeping medical assets clean.The Molecular Adsorber Coating is a zeolite-based, sprayable molecular adsorber coating, designed to prevent outgassing in materials in vacuums. The coating works well to adsorb volatiles and contaminates in manufacturing and processing, such as in pharmaceutical production. The addition of a biocide would also aid in controlling bacteria levels.

  8. Method of recovering adsorbed liquid compounds from molecular sieve columns

    DOEpatents

    Burkholder, Harvey R.; Fanslow, Glenn E.

    1983-01-01

    Molecularly adsorbed volatile liquid compounds are recovered from molecular sieve adsorbent columns by directionally applying microwave energy to the bed of the adsorbent to produce a mixed liquid-gas effluent. The gas portion of the effluent generates pressure within the bed to promote the discharge of the effluent from the column bottoms. Preferably the discharged liquid-gas effluent is collected in two to three separate fractions, the second or intermediate fraction having a substantially higher concentration of the desorbed compound than the first or third fractions. The desorption does not need to be assisted by passing a carrier gas through the bed or by applying reduced pressure to the outlet from the bed.

  9. Adsorption of lead ions on composite biopolymer adsorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    1996-04-01

    A fundamental study about the application of biopolymers to the recovery of lead from dilute solution was carried out. A membranous composite biopolymer adsorbent containing two kind of biopolymers, alginic acid (AA) and humic acid (HA), was prepared. HA, which has high solubility in water, was almost completely immobilized in the adsorbent by a combination of calcium alginate gel and activated carbon powder. A general model for complexation between divalent metal ions and acidic sites on biopolymers was applied to explain the adsorption mechanism of lead on the adsorbent (HA-M). The results showed that the complexation constants and the complexation capacities of lead-AA and lead-HA systems were scarcely influenced by immobilization.

  10. Method of recovering adsorbed liquid compounds from molecular sieve columns

    DOEpatents

    Burkholder, H.R.; Fanslow, G.E.

    1983-12-20

    Molecularly adsorbed volatile liquid compounds are recovered from molecular sieve adsorbent columns by directionally applying microwave energy to the bed of the adsorbent to produce a mixed liquid-gas effluent. The gas portion of the effluent generates pressure within the bed to promote the discharge of the effluent from the column bottoms. Preferably the discharged liquid-gas effluent is collected in two to three separate fractions, the second or intermediate fraction having a substantially higher concentration of the desorbed compound than the first or third fractions. The desorption does not need to be assisted by passing a carrier gas through the bed or by applying reduced pressure to the outlet from the bed. 8 figs.

  11. Experimental characterization of adsorbed protein orientation, conformation, and bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Thyparambil, Aby A.; Wei, Yang; Latour, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Protein adsorption on material surfaces is a common phenomenon that is of critical importance in many biotechnological applications. The structure and function of adsorbed proteins are tightly interrelated and play a key role in the communication and interaction of the adsorbed proteins with the surrounding environment. Because the bioactive state of a protein on a surface is a function of the orientation, conformation, and accessibility of its bioactive site(s), the isolated determination of just one or two of these factors will typically not be sufficient to understand the structure–function relationships of the adsorbed layer. Rather a combination of methods is needed to address each of these factors in a synergistic manner to provide a complementary dataset to characterize and understand the bioactive state of adsorbed protein. Over the past several years, the authors have focused on the development of such a set of complementary methods to address this need. These methods include adsorbed-state circular dichroism spectropolarimetry to determine adsorption-induced changes in protein secondary structure, amino-acid labeling/mass spectrometry to assess adsorbed protein orientation and tertiary structure by monitoring adsorption-induced changes in residue solvent accessibility, and bioactivity assays to assess adsorption-induced changes in protein bioactivity. In this paper, the authors describe the methods that they have developed and/or adapted for each of these assays. The authors then provide an example of their application to characterize how adsorption-induced changes in protein structure influence the enzymatic activity of hen egg-white lysozyme on fused silica glass, high density polyethylene, and poly(methyl-methacrylate) as a set of model systems. PMID:25708632

  12. Experimental characterization of adsorbed protein orientation, conformation, and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Thyparambil, Aby A; Wei, Yang; Latour, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Protein adsorption on material surfaces is a common phenomenon that is of critical importance in many biotechnological applications. The structure and function of adsorbed proteins are tightly interrelated and play a key role in the communication and interaction of the adsorbed proteins with the surrounding environment. Because the bioactive state of a protein on a surface is a function of the orientation, conformation, and accessibility of its bioactive site(s), the isolated determination of just one or two of these factors will typically not be sufficient to understand the structure-function relationships of the adsorbed layer. Rather a combination of methods is needed to address each of these factors in a synergistic manner to provide a complementary dataset to characterize and understand the bioactive state of adsorbed protein. Over the past several years, the authors have focused on the development of such a set of complementary methods to address this need. These methods include adsorbed-state circular dichroism spectropolarimetry to determine adsorption-induced changes in protein secondary structure, amino-acid labeling/mass spectrometry to assess adsorbed protein orientation and tertiary structure by monitoring adsorption-induced changes in residue solvent accessibility, and bioactivity assays to assess adsorption-induced changes in protein bioactivity. In this paper, the authors describe the methods that they have developed and/or adapted for each of these assays. The authors then provide an example of their application to characterize how adsorption-induced changes in protein structure influence the enzymatic activity of hen egg-white lysozyme on fused silica glass, high density polyethylene, and poly(methyl-methacrylate) as a set of model systems. PMID:25708632

  13. Adsorbent selection for endosulfan removal from water environment.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, Y; Dikshit, A K

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to select a low cost adsorbing material for the removal of endosulfan [C,C'-(1,4,5,6,7,7-hexachloro-8,9,10- trinorborn-5-en-2,3-ylene)(dimethylsulphite)] from water. Various low cost adsorbents like wood charcoal, kimberlite tailings, silica, macro fungi sojar caju were tried with activated charcoal as reference material. The above materials were selected from various sources encompassing organic, inorganic, clayey, and biological sources. For the selection of suitable adsorbent for endosulfan uptake, maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax) was chosen as the parameter. Kinetic profiles of removal were generated for all the materials to assess the equilibrium time. Equilibrium studies were carried out for all materials to assess the adsorption equilibrium model that they followed. The model that gave the best correlation coefficient by linear regression analysis, was adopted for the calculation of Qmax of the corresponding adsorbent material. Using linearised forms of equilibrium models like Langmuir, BET, and Freundlich, maximum adsorptive capacities were determined. Activated charcoal showed the best adsorptive capacity with Qmax of 2.145 mg/g followed by wood charcoal 1.773 mg/g, sojar caju 1.575 mg/g, kimberlite tailings 0.8821 mg/g, and silica 0.3231 mg/g. Albeit activated charcoal gave better performance, it was not considered as a candidate material because of its high cost. Wood charcoal was the next best adsorbent with Qmax 1.773 mg/g. Therefore, wood charcoal was chosen as the best material for endosulfan removal. The study of physical and chemical characteristics of wood charcoal revealed that it is a potential adsorbent and can even be improved further.

  14. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AF series adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-02

    Here, a new family of high surface area polyethylene fiber adsorbents (AF series) was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series of were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/co-monomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154 354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170-200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/co-monomer mol ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through exposure uptake experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning time at 80 C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1hr and 3hrs of KOH conditioning at 80 C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 3hrs to 1hr at 80 C resulted in 22-27% increase in uranium loading capacity in seawater.

  15. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AF series adsorbents

    DOE PAGES

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-02

    Here, a new family of high surface area polyethylene fiber adsorbents (AF series) was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series of were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/co-monomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154 354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8more » ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170-200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/co-monomer mol ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through exposure uptake experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning time at 80 C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1hr and 3hrs of KOH conditioning at 80 C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 3hrs to 1hr at 80 C resulted in 22-27% increase in uranium loading capacity in seawater.« less

  16. Adsorbent selection for endosulfan removal from water environment.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, Y; Dikshit, A K

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to select a low cost adsorbing material for the removal of endosulfan [C,C'-(1,4,5,6,7,7-hexachloro-8,9,10- trinorborn-5-en-2,3-ylene)(dimethylsulphite)] from water. Various low cost adsorbents like wood charcoal, kimberlite tailings, silica, macro fungi sojar caju were tried with activated charcoal as reference material. The above materials were selected from various sources encompassing organic, inorganic, clayey, and biological sources. For the selection of suitable adsorbent for endosulfan uptake, maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax) was chosen as the parameter. Kinetic profiles of removal were generated for all the materials to assess the equilibrium time. Equilibrium studies were carried out for all materials to assess the adsorption equilibrium model that they followed. The model that gave the best correlation coefficient by linear regression analysis, was adopted for the calculation of Qmax of the corresponding adsorbent material. Using linearised forms of equilibrium models like Langmuir, BET, and Freundlich, maximum adsorptive capacities were determined. Activated charcoal showed the best adsorptive capacity with Qmax of 2.145 mg/g followed by wood charcoal 1.773 mg/g, sojar caju 1.575 mg/g, kimberlite tailings 0.8821 mg/g, and silica 0.3231 mg/g. Albeit activated charcoal gave better performance, it was not considered as a candidate material because of its high cost. Wood charcoal was the next best adsorbent with Qmax 1.773 mg/g. Therefore, wood charcoal was chosen as the best material for endosulfan removal. The study of physical and chemical characteristics of wood charcoal revealed that it is a potential adsorbent and can even be improved further. PMID:10048207

  17. Nature, strength, and consequences of indirect adsorbate interactions on metals

    SciTech Connect

    BOGICEVIC,ALEXANDER; OVESSON,S.; HYLDGAARD,P.; LUNDQVIST,B.I.; JENNISON,DWIGHT R.

    2000-02-14

    Atoms and molecules adsorbed on metals affect each other even over considerable distances. In a tour-de-force of density-functional methods, the authors establish the nature and strength of such indirect interactions, and explain for what adsorbate systems they can critically affect important materials properties. These perceptions are verified in kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of epitaxial growth, and help rationalize a cascade of recent experimental reports on anomalously low diffusion prefactors. The authors focus their study on two metal systems: Al/Al(111) and Cu/Cu(111).

  18. Adsorbates in a Box: Titration of Substrate Electronic States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhihai; Wyrick, Jonathan; Luo, Miaomiao; Sun, Dezheng; Kim, Daeho; Zhu, Yeming; Lu, Wenhao; Kim, Kwangmoo; Einstein, T. L.; Bartels, Ludwig

    2010-08-01

    Nanoscale confinement of adsorbed CO molecules in an anthraquinone network on Cu(111) with a pore size of ≈4nm arranges the CO molecules in a shell structure that coincides with the distribution of substrate confined electronic states. Molecules occupy the states approximately in the sequence of rising electron energy. Despite the sixfold symmetry of the pore boundary itself, the adsorbate distribution adopts the threefold symmetry of the network-substrate system, highlighting the importance of the substrate even for such quasi-free-electron systems.

  19. Carbon adsorbents from products of solid fuel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pokonova, Yu.V.; Grabovskii, A.I.

    1995-01-10

    Total shale phenols (mixture of alkylresorcinols) or their solution in commercial-grade furfural can be used for forming carbon adsorbents with high mechanical strength (up to 97%), high microporosity (up to 0.41 cm{sup 3}{center_dot}cm{sup -3}), and higher sorption capacity. Samples with medium burnout exhibit higher selectivity (than those molded from conventional wood tar) in the recovery of noble metals from multicomponent metal salt solutions. In these parameters they surpass commercial adsorbents as well. Samples with low burnout exhibit high selectivity and separation ability with respect to gas mixtures.

  20. AQUATIC PHOTOLYSIS OF OXY-ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ADSORBED ON GOETHITE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, Marvin C.

    1985-01-01

    Organic materials that will not absorb light at wavelengths longer than 295 nanometers (the solar wavelength cutoff) may nevertheless, undergo electron transfer reactions initiated by light. These reactions occur when the organic materials are adsorbed as ligand complexes to the surface of iron oxy-hydroxide (goethite). The adsorbed materials can be either inner or outer coordination sphere complexes. Goethite was chosen as the iron oxyhydroxide surface because it has the highest thermodynamic stability of any of the oxyhydroxides in water and it can be synthesized easily, with high purity.