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Sample records for adsorbed water vapor

  1. SiO(2)-LiBr Nanocomposite Sol-Gel Adsorbents of Water Vapor: Preparation and Properties.

    PubMed

    Mrowiec-Bialoń; Lachowski; Jarz&ecedil;bski; Gordeeva; Aristov

    1999-10-15

    Water vapor adsorption on SiO(2)-LiBr sol-gel materials strongly depends on bromide content. Adsorption capacities exhibited by these materials at higher relative pressures can be as high as 0.8 kg of water/kg of adsorbent. These adsorbents can be regenerated by heating at 473 K and reused. However, a gradual decay of adsorption properties occurs during repeated adsorption-desorption cycles. Thus, this family of adsorbents seems to be less attractive than the corresponding SiO(2)-CaCl(2) composites. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  2. Adsorption characteristics of water vapor on gear-pellet and honeycomb-pellet types of adsorbents containing A-type zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, A.; Munakata, K.; Hara, K.; Narita, S.; Sugiyama, T.; Kotoh, K.; Tanaka, M.; Uda, T.

    2015-03-15

    It is necessary to recover or process tritiated species that are extensively coexistent in nuclear fusion installations. A conventional way to recover tritium release to atmosphere is catalytic oxidation of tritiated species and adsorption of tritiated water vapor on adsorbents with high surface areas. Therefore, new adsorbents with low pressure loss and high surface areas need to be developed and utilized for such large-scale adsorption systems. In this study, attention was focused on new adsorbents, which are gear-type pellet MS5A adsorbent, gear-type pellet MS4A adsorbent and honeycomb-type pellet MS5A adsorbent. The adsorption characteristics of the new adsorbent were comparatively studied with conventional type of adsorbents (pellet-type MS5A adsorbent and pebble-type MS5A adsorbent), in terms of adsorption capacity, pressure loss and adsorption rate. It was found that the adsorption capacity of water vapor on the gear-type adsorbents is higher than that on a honeycomb-type adsorbent. The experimental breakthrough curves indicate that the adsorption rates of water vapor on gear-type and honeycomb-type adsorbents are smaller than that on conventional type adsorbents. Various adsorption models were also tested to correlate the experimental isotherms. It was found that the Langmuir-Freundlich model could properly correlate the experimental adsorption isotherms.

  3. Adsorbed Water Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander detected small and variable amounts of water in the Martian soil.

    In this schematic illustration, water molecules are represented in red and white; soil minerals are represented in green and blue. The water, neither liquid, vapor, nor solid, adheres in very thin films of molecules to the surfaces of soil minerals. The left half illustrates an interpretation of less water being adsorbed onto the soil-particle surface during a period when the tilt, or obliquity, of Mars' rotation axis is small, as it is in the present. The right half illustrates a thicker film of water during a time when the obliquity is greater, as it is during cycles on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years. As the humidity of the atmosphere increases, more water accumulates on mineral surfaces. Thicker films behave increasingly like liquid water.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Stratospheric water vapor feedback.

    PubMed

    Dessler, A E; Schoeberl, M R; Wang, T; Davis, S M; Rosenlof, K H

    2013-11-05

    We show here that stratospheric water vapor variations play an important role in the evolution of our climate. This comes from analysis of observations showing that stratospheric water vapor increases with tropospheric temperature, implying the existence of a stratospheric water vapor feedback. We estimate the strength of this feedback in a chemistry-climate model to be +0.3 W/(m(2)⋅K), which would be a significant contributor to the overall climate sensitivity. One-third of this feedback comes from increases in water vapor entering the stratosphere through the tropical tropopause layer, with the rest coming from increases in water vapor entering through the extratropical tropopause.

  5. Stratospheric water vapor feedback

    PubMed Central

    Dessler, A. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Wang, T.; Davis, S. M.; Rosenlof, K. H.

    2013-01-01

    We show here that stratospheric water vapor variations play an important role in the evolution of our climate. This comes from analysis of observations showing that stratospheric water vapor increases with tropospheric temperature, implying the existence of a stratospheric water vapor feedback. We estimate the strength of this feedback in a chemistry–climate model to be +0.3 W/(m2⋅K), which would be a significant contributor to the overall climate sensitivity. One-third of this feedback comes from increases in water vapor entering the stratosphere through the tropical tropopause layer, with the rest coming from increases in water vapor entering through the extratropical tropopause. PMID:24082126

  6. Adsorption equilibrium and dynamics of gasoline vapors onto polymeric adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lijuan; Yu, Weihua; Long, Chao; Li, Aimin

    2014-03-01

    The emission of gasoline vapors is becoming a significant environmental problem especially for the population-dense area and also results in a significant economic loss. In this study, adsorption equilibrium and dynamics of gasoline vapors onto macroporous and hypercrosslinked polymeric resins at 308 K were investigated and compared with commercial activated carbon (NucharWV-A 1100). The results showed that the equilibrium and breakthrough adsorption capacities of virgin macroporous and hypercrosslinked polymeric resins were lower than virgin-activated carbon. Compared with origin adsorbents, however, the breakthrough adsorption capacities of the regenerated activated carbon for gasoline vapors decreased by 58.5 % and 61.3 % when the initial concentration of gasoline vapors were 700 and 1,400 mg/L, while those of macroporous and hypercrosslinked resins decreased by 17.4 % and 17.5 %, and 46.5 % and 45.5 %, respectively. Due to the specific bimodal property in the region of micropore (0.5-2.0 nm) and meso-macropore (30-70 nm), the regenerated hypercrosslinked polymeric resin exhibited the comparable breakthrough adsorption capacities with the regenerated activated carbon at the initial concentration of 700 mg/L, and even higher when the initial concentration of gasoline vapors was 1,400 mg/L. In addition, 90 % of relative humidity had ignorable effect on the adsorption of gasoline vapors on hypercrosslinked polymeric resin. Taken together, it is expected that hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbent would be a promising adsorbent for the removal of gasoline vapors from gas streams.

  7. Water vapor diffusion membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, F. F., Jr.; Smith, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    The program is reported, which was designed to define the membrane technology of the vapor diffusion water recovery process and to test this technology using commercially available or experimental membranes. One membrane was selected, on the basis of the defined technology, and was subjected to a 30-day demonstration trial.

  8. Water vapor lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellingson, R.; Mcilrath, T.; Schwemmer, G.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility was studied of measuring atmospheric water vapor by means of a tunable lidar operated from the space shuttle. The specific method evaluated was differential absorption, a two-color method in which the atmospheric path of interest is traversed by two laser pulses. Results are reported.

  9. Thermodynamic formalism of water uptakes on solid porous adsorbents for adsorption cooling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Baichuan; Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2014-05-01

    This Letter presents a thermodynamic formulation to calculate the amount of water vapor uptakes on various adsorbents such as zeolites, metal organic frameworks, and silica gel for the development of an advanced adsorption chiller. This formalism is developed from the rigor of the partition distribution function of each water vapor adsorptive site on adsorbents and the condensation approximation of adsorptive water molecules and is validated with experimental data. An interesting and useful finding has been established that the proposed model is thermodynamically connected with the pore structures of adsorbent materials, and the water vapor uptake highly depends on the isosteric heat of adsorption at zero surface coverage and the adsorptive sites of the adsorbent materials. Employing the proposed model, the thermodynamic trends of water vapor uptakes on various adsorbents can be estimated.

  10. Water vaporization on Ceres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    A'Hearn, Michael F.; Feldman, Paul D.

    1992-01-01

    A search is presently conducted for OH generated by the photodissociation of atmospheric water vapor in long-exposure IUE spectra of the region around Ceres. A statistically significant detection of OH is noted in an exposure off the northern limb of Ceres after perihelion. The amount of OH is consistent with a polar cap that might be replenished during winter by subsurface percolation, but which dissipates in summer.

  11. SOFIA Water Vapor Monitor Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, R.; Roellig, T. L.; Yuen, L.; Shiroyama, B.; Meyer, A.; Devincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The SOFIA Water Vapor Monitor (WVM) is a heterodyne radiometer designed to determine the integrated amount of water vapor along the telescope line of sight and directly to the zenith. The basic technique that was chosen for the WVM uses radiometric measurements of the center and wings of the 183.3 GHz rotational line of water to measure the water vapor. The WVM reports its measured water vapor levels to the aircraft Mission Controls and Communication System (MCCS) while the SOFIA observatory is in normal operation at flight altitude. The water vapor measurements are also available to other scientific instruments aboard the observatory. The electrical, mechanical and software design of the WVM are discussed.

  12. Dynamics of benzene vapor adsorption on carbon adsorbents having different volumes of transporting pores

    SciTech Connect

    Ivakhnyuk, G.K.; Fedorov, N.F.; Babkin, O.E.; Smetanin, G.N.; Belotserkovskii, G.M.

    1986-08-20

    To ascertain the effect of the porosity peculiarities on the benzene vapor adsorption process under dynamic conditions, a series of adsorbents was synthesized in this work from zirconium carbide. Their porous structure was studied by a traditional set of methods, viz., pycnometric, porometric, and sorption. Carbon adsorbents derived from zirconium carbide have an open-pore system of adsorbing pores which communicate directly with the outer surface. Transporting porosity of carbon adsorbents derived from zirconium carbide does not affect the mass transport processes during adsorption of benzene vapors on them under the conditions of a dynamic experiment.

  13. Correcting Tritium Concentrations in Water Vapor Monitored with Silica Gel

    SciTech Connect

    Fledderman, P.D.

    1999-01-19

    A correction is needed to calculate the concentration of airborne tritium oxide when dried silica gel is used as the collector. This tracer study with tritiated water shows that the concentration of tritium in the water desorbed from silica gel is lower than in the adsorbed water by a fraction that increases with the amount of adsorbed water. The hypothesis was tested that the tritium in adsorbed tritiated water is diluted by isotopic exchange with non-tritiated water and hydroxyl groups in the silica gel collector. The extent of dilution was measured from 4 percent to 14 percent adsorbed water, which is typical of moisture on field collectors for monitoring airborne tritium oxide. For this entire range of percent adsorbed water, the inferred percent exchangeable water in the silica gel under study was 6.3 +/- 0.1 percent. This value compares to the silica gel weight loss of 5.3 percent by heating to 1,050 degrees C. An explanation of the difference is proposed. The contribution of the HTO/H2O vapor pressure isotope effect was considered in calculating isotopic exchange. A curve is presented for correcting the measured tritium concentration in the distillate from the silica gel as a function of the amount of adsorbed water. The tritium tracer procedure is recommended for determining the percent exchangeable water in other silica gels to correct tritium measurements of water vapor collected by them.

  14. Adsorption and Desorption of Nitrogen and Water Vapor by clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Deshan; Chen, Qiong; Xiang, Wei; Huang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Adsorption and desorption of nitrogen and water vapor by clay has a significant impact on unsaturated soil physical and mechanical properties. In order to study the adsorption and desorption characteristics of nitrogen and water vapor by montmorillonite, kaolin and sliding zone soils, the Autosorb-iQ specific surface area and pore size analyzer instrument of United State was taken to carry out the analysis test. The adsorption and desorption of nitrogen at 77K and water vapor at 293K on clay sample were conducted. The theories of BET, FHH and hydration energy were taken to calculate the specific surface, surface fractal dimension and adsorption energy. The results show that the calculated specific surface of water vapor by clay is bigger than nitrogen adsorption test because clay can adsorb more water vapor molecule than nitrogen. Smaller and polar water vapor molecule can access the micropore and then adsorb on the mineral surface and mineral intralayer, which make the mineral surface cations hydrate and the mineral surface smoother. Bigger and nonpolar nitrogen molecule can not enter into the micropore as water vapor molecule and has weak interaction with clay surface.

  15. Water vapor diffusion membranes, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, F. F.; Klein, E.; Smith, J. K.; Eyer, C.

    1976-01-01

    Transport mechanisms were investigated for the three different types of water vapor diffusion membranes. Membranes representing porous wetting and porous nonwetting structures as well as dense diffusive membrane structures were investigated for water permeation rate as a function of: (1) temperature, (2) solids composition in solution, and (3) such hydrodynamic parameters as sweep gas flow rate, solution flow rate and cell geometry. These properties were measured using nitrogen sweep gas to collect the effluent. In addition, the chemical stability to chromic acid-stabilized urine was measured for several of each type of membrane. A technology based on the mechanism of vapor transport was developed, whereby the vapor diffusion rates and relative susceptibility of membranes to fouling and failure could be projected for long-term vapor recovery trials using natural chromic acid-stabilized urine.

  16. The atmospheric water vapor line.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, M.; Sharp, Z. D.; Gutzler, D. S.

    2008-12-01

    We have measured the hydrogen and oxygen isotope composition of atmospheric water vapor periodically across the American Southwest through most of 2007. Samples were primarily collected over Albuquerque, NM on the roof of the 3-story UNM geology building on a near-daily basis with occasional sampling in southern Arizona and southern Texas. Water vapor was captured by pumping ~60 to ~600 liters of air (amount depending on dew point) through a cold trap, producing ~1mL of water. Precipitation samples were also collected in Albuquerque throughout the year and analyzed for hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition. Isotopic compositions of both vapor and precipitation were determined by CO2 equilibration for oxygen and chromium reduction for hydrogen, with resulting gasses analyzed on a mass spectrometer. Nearly all water vapor samples lie parallel to the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL) but with a deuterium excess of ~17 (δD = 8δO + 17). This is true regardless of relative humidity, dew point, location, time of day, or season. Precipitation samples fall to the right of the GMWL with a slope of ~5. Within our dataset we have identified 10 pairs of vapor and precipitation samples that were collected within 24 hours. Half of these sample pairs have values consistent with equilibrium conditions at ground temperature, while the other half are not in equilibrium at any temperature. Simple modeling of nonequilibrium fractionation processes suggests that the array of precipitation samples can be derived from the array of vapor samples by equilibrium condensation followed by partial evaporation of falling raindrops. Our data suggests that atmospheric water vapor has a relatively constant deuterium excess value regardless of moisture source, degree of rainout, and/or evapotranspiration contributions.

  17. Electrical Breakdown in Water Vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Skoro, N.; Maric, D.; Malovic, G.; Petrovic, Z. Lj.; Graham, W. G.

    2011-11-15

    In this paper investigations of the voltage required to break down water vapor are reported for the region around the Paschen minimum and to the left of it. In spite of numerous applications of discharges in biomedicine, and recent studies of discharges in water and vapor bubbles and discharges with liquid water electrodes, studies of the basic parameters of breakdown are lacking. Paschen curves have been measured by recording voltages and currents in the low-current Townsend regime and extrapolating them to zero current. The minimum electrical breakdown voltage for water vapor was found to be 480 V at a pressure times electrode distance (pd) value of around 0.6 Torr cm ({approx}0.8 Pa m). The present measurements are also interpreted using (and add additional insight into) the developing understanding of relevant atomic and particularly surface processes associated with electrical breakdown.

  18. Zeolite Y Adsorbents with High Vapor Uptake Capacity and Robust Cycling Stability for Potential Applications in Advanced Adsorption Heat Pumps.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiansen; Narayanan, Shankar; Michaelis, Vladimir K; Ong, Ta-Chung; Keeler, Eric G; Kim, Hyunho; McKay, Ian S; Griffin, Robert G; Wang, Evelyn N

    2015-01-01

    Modular and compact adsorption heat pumps (AHPs) promise an energy-efficient alternative to conventional vapor compression based heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. A key element in the advancement of AHPs is the development of adsorbents with high uptake capacity, fast intracrystalline diffusivity and durable hydrothermal stability. Herein, the ion exchange of NaY zeolites with ingoing Mg(2+) ions is systematically studied to maximize the ion exchange degree (IED) for improved sorption performance. It is found that beyond an ion exchange threshold of 64.1%, deeper ion exchange does not benefit water uptake capacity or characteristic adsorption energy, but does enhance the vapor diffusivity. In addition to using water as an adsorbate, the uptake properties of Mg,Na-Y zeolites were investigated using 20 wt.% MeOH aqueous solution as a novel anti-freeze adsorbate, revealing that the MeOH additive has an insignificant influence on the overall sorption performance. We also demonstrated that the labscale synthetic scalability is robust, and that the tailored zeolites scarcely suffer from hydrothermal stability even after successive 108-fold adsorption/desorption cycles. The samples were analyzed using N2 sorption, (27)Al/(29)Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, ICP-AES, dynamic vapor sorption, SEM, Fick's 2(nd) law and D-R equation regressions. Among these, close examination of sorption isotherms for H2O and N2 adsorbates allows us to decouple and extract some insightful information underlying the complex water uptake phenomena. This work shows the promising performance of our modified zeolites that can be integrated into various AHP designs for buildings, electronics, and transportation applications.

  19. Zeolite Y Adsorbents with High Vapor Uptake Capacity and Robust Cycling Stability for Potential Applications in Advanced Adsorption Heat Pumps

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiansen; Narayanan, Shankar; Michaelis, Vladimir K.; Ong, Ta-Chung; Keeler, Eric G.; Kim, Hyunho; McKay, Ian S.; Griffin, Robert G.; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2014-01-01

    Modular and compact adsorption heat pumps (AHPs) promise an energy-efficient alternative to conventional vapor compression based heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. A key element in the advancement of AHPs is the development of adsorbents with high uptake capacity, fast intracrystalline diffusivity and durable hydrothermal stability. Herein, the ion exchange of NaY zeolites with ingoing Mg2+ ions is systematically studied to maximize the ion exchange degree (IED) for improved sorption performance. It is found that beyond an ion exchange threshold of 64.1%, deeper ion exchange does not benefit water uptake capacity or characteristic adsorption energy, but does enhance the vapor diffusivity. In addition to using water as an adsorbate, the uptake properties of Mg,Na-Y zeolites were investigated using 20 wt.% MeOH aqueous solution as a novel anti-freeze adsorbate, revealing that the MeOH additive has an insignificant influence on the overall sorption performance. We also demonstrated that the labscale synthetic scalability is robust, and that the tailored zeolites scarcely suffer from hydrothermal stability even after successive 108-fold adsorption/desorption cycles. The samples were analyzed using N2 sorption, 27Al/29Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, ICP-AES, dynamic vapor sorption, SEM, Fick’s 2nd law and D-R equation regressions. Among these, close examination of sorption isotherms for H2O and N2 adsorbates allows us to decouple and extract some insightful information underlying the complex water uptake phenomena. This work shows the promising performance of our modified zeolites that can be integrated into various AHP designs for buildings, electronics, and transportation applications. PMID:25395877

  20. Zeolite Y adsorbents with high vapor uptake capacity and robust cycling stability for potential applications in advanced adsorption heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Li, XS; Narayanan, S; Michaelis, VK; Ong, TC; Keeler, EG; Kim, H; Mckay, IS; Griffin, RG; Wang, EN

    2015-01-01

    Modular and compact adsorption heat pumps (AHPs) promise an energy-efficient alternative to conventional vapor compression based heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. A key element in the advancement of AHPs is the development of adsorbents with high uptake capacity, fast intracrystalline diffusivity and durable hydrothermal stability. Herein, the ion exchange of NaY zeolites with ingoing Mg2+ ions is systematically studied to maximize the ion exchange degree (IED) for improved sorption performance. It is found that beyond an ion exchange threshold of 64.1%, deeper ion exchange does not benefit water uptake capacity or characteristic adsorption energy, but does enhance the vapor diffusivity. In addition to using water as an adsorbate, the uptake properties of Mg, Na-Y zeolites were investigated using 20 wt.% MeOH aqueous solution as a novel anti-freeze adsorbate, revealing that the MeOH additive has an insignificant influence on the overall sorption performance. We also demonstrated that the lab-scale synthetic scalability is robust, and that the tailored zeolites scarcely suffer from hydrothermal stability even after successive 108-fold adsorption/desorption cycles. The samples were analyzed using N-2 sorption, Al-27/Si-29 MAS NMR spectroscopy, ICP-AES, dynamic vapor sorption, SEM, Fick's 2nd law and D-R equation regressions. Among these, close examination of sorption isotherms for H2O and N-2 adsorbates allows us to decouple and extract some insightful information underlying the complex water uptake phenomena. This work shows the promising performance of our modified zeolites that can be integrated into various AHP designs for buildings, electronics, and transportation applications. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The condensation of water on adsorbed viruses.

    PubMed

    Alonso, José María; Tatti, Francesco; Chuvilin, Andrey; Mam, Keriya; Ondarçuhu, Thierry; Bittner, Alexander M

    2013-11-26

    The wetting and dewetting behavior of biological nanostructures and to a greater degree single molecules is not well-known even though their contact with water is the basis for all biology. Here, we show that environmental electron microscopy (EM) can be applied as a means of imaging the condensation of water onto viruses. We captured the formation of submicrometer water droplets and filaments on single viral particles by environmental EM and by environmental transmission EM. The condensate structures are compatible with capillary condensation between adsorbed virus particles and with known droplet shapes on patterned surfaces. Our results confirm that such droplets exist down to <50 nm. The viruses preserved their shape after a condensation/evaporation cycle as expected from their stability in air and water. Moreover we developed procedures that overcome problems of beam damage and of resolving structures with a low atomic number.

  2. Vertical Water Vapor Distribution at Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2016-09-01

    The Phoenix SSI camera data along with radiative transfer modeling are used to retrieve the vertical water vapor profile. Preliminary results indicate that water vapor is often confined near the surface.

  3. Water vapor in protoplanetary disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzatti, Andrea

    2013-03-01

    This thesis is devoted to a study of the conditions and evolution of the planet formation region in young circumstellar disks, by means of spectroscopic observations of molecular gas emission. The main focus of this work is the infrared spectrum of water (H2O), which provides thousands of emission lines tracing the warm and dense gas inward of the water snow line in disks. The analysis includes also emission from some organic molecules that trace the carbon chemistry, C2H2, HCN, and CO2, as well as emission from OH that is connected to the formation and destruction of the water molecule. Two are the main directions explored in this work, for which we used spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope (IRS) and the Very Large Telescope (VISIR and X-shooter). The first is to investigate how variable accretion phenomena occurring during the T Tauri phase affect the molecular environments in the planet formation region of disks. By monitoring T Tauri stars in different phases of accretion, we found that outbursts can remarkably affect their mid-infrared molecular emission. We propose a scenario where accretion flares trigger a recession of the water snow line, increasing water emission from the disk, when the accretion luminosity keeps higher over long enough timescales for the thermal structure of the disk to change (at least a few weeks, as observed in the strongly variable EX Lupi). In addition, enhanced UV radiation is found to produce OH from photodissociation of water in the disk. Organic molecules instead disappear during a strong outburst, and we are currently investigating the long-term evolution of these effects. A second direction was taken to tackle another fundamental problem: the origin of water vapor in inner disks. Some models predict that water is produced by evaporation of icy solids migrating inward of the snow line. One way to probe this scenario is by measuring the abundance of water vapor in the inner disk, and compare it to the oxygen abundance

  4. Water Vapor Feedbacks to Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David

    1999-01-01

    The response of water vapor to climate change is investigated through a series of model studies with varying latitudinal temperature gradients, mean temperatures, and ultimately, actual climate change configurations. Questions to be addressed include: what role does varying convection have in water vapor feedback; do Hadley Circulation differences result in differences in water vapor in the upper troposphere; and, does increased eddy energy result in greater eddy vertical transport of water vapor in varying climate regimes?

  5. Adsorption of Water Vapor on a Graphitized Carbon Black.

    PubMed

    Easton; Machin

    2000-11-01

    Absorption isotherms for water vapor on a highly graphitized carbon black, Sterling FT-G (2700), have been determined at 280.15 and 295.15 K. Interparticle capillary condensation with extensive hysteresis is observed but capillary condensation (adsorption) occurs under metastable, supersaturation conditions. Contact angles for water adsorbed on this carbon black are calculated and two models for capillary condensation are discussed. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  6. Water vapor diffusion membrane development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, M. K.

    1976-01-01

    A total of 18 different membranes were procured, characterized, and tested in a modified bench-scale vapor diffusion water reclamation unit. Four membranes were selected for further studies involving membrane fouling. Emphasis was placed on the problem of flux decline due to membrane fouling. This is discussed in greater details under "Summary and Discussion on Membrane Fouling Studies" presented in pages 47-51. The system was also investigated for low temperature application on wash-water where the permeated water is not recovered but vented into space vacuum.

  7. Hydration level dependence of the microscopic dynamics of water adsorbed in ultramicroporous carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Mamontov, Eugene; Yue, Yanfeng; Bahadur, Jitendra; Guo, Junjie; Contescu, Cristian I.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Melnichenko, Yuri B.

    2016-10-20

    Even when not functionalized intentionally, most carbon materials are not hydrophobic and readily adsorb water molecules from atmospheric water vapor. We have equilibrated an ultramicroporous carbon at several levels of relative humidity, thereby attaining various hydration levels. The water molecules were adsorbed on the pore walls (but did not fill completely the pore volume) and thus could be better described as hydration, or surface, rather than confined, water. We used quasielastic neutron scattering to perform a detailed investigation of the dependence of microscopic dynamics of these adsorbed water species on the hydration level and temperature. The behavior of hydration water in ultramicroporous carbon clearly demonstrates the same universal traits that characterize surface (hydration) water in other materials that are surface-hydrated. In addition, unless special treatment is intentionally applied to ultramicroporous carbon, the species filling its pores in various applications, ranging from hydrogen molecules to electrolytes, likely find themselves in contact with non-freezing water molecules characterized by rich microscopic dynamics.

  8. Water vapor adsorption on activated carbon preadsorbed with naphtalene.

    PubMed

    Zimny, T; Finqueneisel, G; Cossarutto, L; Weber, J V

    2005-05-01

    The adsorption of water vapor on a microporous activated carbon derived from the carbonization of coconut shell has been studied. Preadsorption of naphthalene was used as a tool to determine the location and the influence of the primary adsorbing centers within the porous structure of active carbon. The adsorption was studied in the pressure range p/p0=0-0.95 in a static water vapor system, allowing the investigation of both kinetic and equilibrium experimental data. Modeling of the isotherms using the modified equation of Do and Do was applied to determine the effect of preadsorption on the mechanism of adsorption.

  9. Internal Water Vapor Photoacoustic Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Water vapor absorption is ubiquitous in the infrared wavelength range where photoacoustic trace gas detectors operate. This technique allows for discontinuous wavelength tuning by temperature-jumping a laser diode from one range to another within a time span suitable for photoacoustic calibration. The use of an internal calibration eliminates the need for external calibrated reference gases. Commercial applications include an improvement of photoacoustic spectrometers in all fields of use.

  10. What Good is Raman Water Vapor Lidar?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitman, David

    2011-01-01

    Raman lidar has been used to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere for various scientific studies including mesoscale meteorology and satellite validation. Now the international networks of NDACC and GRUAN have interest in using Raman water vapor lidar for detecting trends in atmospheric water vapor concentrations. What are the data needs for addressing these very different measurement challenges. We will review briefly the scientific needs for water vapor accuracy for each of these three applications and attempt to translate that into performance specifications for Raman lidar in an effort to address the question in the title of "What good is Raman water vapor Iidar."

  11. Water vapor diffusion membrane development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    An application of the water vapor diffusion technique is examined whereby the permeated water vapor is vented to space vacuum to alleviate on-board waste storage and provide supplemental cooling. The work reported herein deals primarily with the vapor diffusion-heat rejection (VD-HR) as it applies to the Space Shuttle. A stack configuration was selected, designed and fabricated. An asymmetric cellulose acetate membrane, used in reverse osmosis application was selected and a special spacer was designed to enhance mixing and promote mass transfer. A skid-mount unit was assembled from components used in the bench unit although no attempt was made to render it flight-suitable. The operating conditions of the VD-HR were examined and defined and a 60-day continuous test was carried out. The membranes performed very well throughout the test; no membrane rupture and no unusual flux decay was observed. In addition, a tentative design for a flight-suitable VD-HR unit was made.

  12. Water vapor, whence comest thou.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, J. W., Jr.; Hills, H. K.; Vondrak, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    During a 14-hour period on Mar. 7, 1971, the Apollo 14 ALSEP suprathermal ion detector experiment (SIDE) observed an intense, prolonged series of bursts of 48.6-eV ions at the lunar surface. The SIDE mass analyzer showed the mass per unit charge of these ions to be characteristic of water vapor if singly ionized. The event was also observed by the SIDE total ion detectors (TIDs) at the Apollo 14 site and at Apollo 12 (located 183 km to the west). The TID data from SIDE 14 indicate that the energy spectrum was narrower than the 20-eV interval between energy channels. Ion spectra due to the LM exhaust gases are shown to be readily identified by the SIDE and are distinctly different in character from the spectra obtained on March 7. Detailed consideration of other possible sources of water, including the Apollo 14 CSM, leads to the conclusion that the water vapor did not come from a man-made source. Also, it is estimated that the event may have involved a quantity of water much greater than that which has been artificially introduced into the lunar environment. Consequently, it appears to be of lunar origin.

  13. Vapor pressure of water nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Factorovich, Matías H; Molinero, Valeria; Scherlis, Damián A

    2014-03-26

    Classical thermodynamics is assumed to be valid up to a certain length-scale, below which the discontinuous nature of matter becomes manifest. In particular, this must be the case for the description of the vapor pressure based on the Kelvin equation. However, the legitimacy of this equation in the nanoscopic regime can not be simply established, because the determination of the vapor pressure of very small droplets poses a challenge both for experiments and simulations. In this article we make use of a grand canonical screening approach recently proposed to compute the vapor pressures of finite systems from molecular dynamics simulations. This scheme is applied to water droplets, to show that the applicability of the Kelvin equation extends to unexpectedly small lengths, of only 1 nm, where the inhomogeneities in the density of matter occur within spatial lengths of the same order of magnitude as the size of the object. While in principle this appears to violate the main assumptions underlying thermodynamics, the density profiles reveal, however, that structures of this size are still homogeneous in the nanosecond time-scale. Only when the inhomogeneity in the density persists through the temporal average, as it is the case for clusters of 40 particles or less, do the macroscopic thermodynamics and the molecular descriptions depart from each other.

  14. Venus Balloons using Water Vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izutsu, N.; Yajima, N.; Honda, H.; Imamura, T.

    We propose an inflatable balloon using water vapor for the lifting gas, which is liquid in the transportation stage before entry into the high temperature atmosphere. The envelope of the balloon has an outer layer for gas barrier (a high-temperature resistant film) and an inner layer for liquid water keeping. In the descent stage using a parachute, water widely held just inside the balloon envelope can be quickly vaporized by a lot of heat flux from the surrounding high-temperature atmosphere owing to the large surface area of the balloon. As neither gas containers nor heat exchangers are necessary, we can construct a simple, lightweight and small size Venus balloon probe system. Tentative floating altitude is 35 km below the thick clouds in the Venusian atmosphere. Selection of balloon shape and material for balloon envelope are discussed in consideration of the Venusian environment such as high-temperature, high-pressure, and sulfuric acid. Balloon deployment and inflation sequence is numerically simulated. In case of the total floating mass of 10 kg at the altitude of 35 km, the volume and mass of the balloon is 1.5 cubic meters, and 3.5 kg, respectively. The shape of the balloon is chosen to be cylindrical with a small diameter. The mass of li fting gas can be determined as 4.3 kg and the remaining 2.2 kg becomes the payload mass. The mass of the total balloon system is also just 10 kg excluding the entry capsule.

  15. Advanced Raman water vapor lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Melfi, S. Harvey; Ferrare, Richard A.; Evans, Keith A.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Staley, O. Glenn; Disilvestre, Raymond W.; Gorin, Inna; Kirks, Kenneth R.; Mamakos, William A.

    1992-01-01

    Water vapor and aerosols are important atmospheric constituents. Knowledge of the structure of water vapor is important in understanding convective development, atmospheric stability, the interaction of the atmosphere with the surface, and energy feedback mechanisms and how they relate to global warming calculations. The Raman Lidar group at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) developed an advanced Raman Lidar for use in measuring water vapor and aerosols in the earth's atmosphere. Drawing on the experience gained through the development and use of our previous Nd:YAG based system, we have developed a completely new lidar system which uses a XeF excimer laser and a large scanning mirror. The additional power of the excimer and the considerably improved optical throughput of the system have resulted in approximately a factor of 25 improvement in system performance for nighttime measurements. Every component of the current system has new design concepts incorporated. The lidar system consists of two mobile trailers; the first (13m x 2.4m) houses the lidar instrument, the other (9.75m x 2.4m) is for system control, realtime data display, and analysis. The laser transmitter is a Lambda Physik LPX 240 iCC operating at 400 Hz with a XeF gas mixture (351 nm). The telescope is a .75m horizontally mounted Dall-Kirkham system which is bore sited with a .8m x 1.1m elliptical flat which has a full 180 degree scan capability - horizon to horizon within a plane perpendicular to the long axis of the trailer. The telescope and scan mirror assembly are mounted on a 3.65m x .9m optical table which deploys out the rear of the trailer through the use of a motor driven slide rail system. The Raman returns from water vapor (403 nm), nitrogen (383 nm) and oxygen (372 nm) are measured in addition to the direct Rayleigh/Mie backscatter (351). The signal from each of these is split at about a 5/95 ratio between two photomultiplier detectors. The 5 percent detector is used for

  16. Profiling atmospheric water vapor by microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Wilheit, T. T.; Szejwach, G.; Gesell, L. H.; Nieman, R. A.; Niver, D. S.; Krupp, B. M.; Gagliano, J. A.; King, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    High-altitude microwave radiometric observations at frequencies near 92 and 183.3 GHz were used to study the potential of retrieving atmospheric water vapor profiles over both land and water. An algorithm based on an extended kalman-Bucy filter was implemented and applied for the water vapor retrieval. The results show great promise in atmospheric water vapor profiling by microwave radiometry heretofore not attainable at lower frequencies.

  17. Cell for electrolysis of water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celino, V. A.; Roebelen, G.

    1972-01-01

    Electrolytic cells regenerate oxygen from the water vapor in the air of closed-loop life-support system and remove water vapor from air circulated through them. Water is converted into oxygen and hydrogen; the oxygen is returned to the air, the hydrogen is vented or used elsewhere.

  18. Eyeing the Sky's Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, and many like it, are one way NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is measuring trace amounts of water vapor in the atmosphere over far-northern Mars. Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) uses solar filters, or filters designed to image the sun, to make these images. The camera is aimed at the sky for long exposures.

    SSI took this image as a test on June 9, 2008, which was the Phoenix mission's 15th Martian day, or sol, since landing, at 5:20 p.m. local solar time. The camera was pointed about 38 degrees above the horizon. The white dots in the sky are detector dark current that will be removed during image processing and analysis.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space

  19. A Lithium Vapor Box similarity experiment employing water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Ja; Jagoe, C.; Goldston, Rj; Jaworski, Ma

    2016-10-01

    Handling high power loads and heat flux in the divertor is a major challenge for fusion power plants. A detached plasma will likely be required. However, hydrogenic and impurity puffing experiments show that detached operation leads easily to X-point MARFEs, impure plasmas, degradation in confinement, and lower helium pressure at the exhaust. The concept of the Lithium Vapor Box Divertor is to use local evaporation and strong differential pumping through condensation to localize the gas-phase material that absorbs the plasma heat flux, and so avoid those difficulties. In order to design such a box first the vapor without plasma must be simulated. The density of vapor required can be estimated using the SOL power, major radius, poloidal box length, and cooling energy per lithium atom. For an NSTX-U-sized machine, the Knudsen number Kn spans 0.01 to 1, the transitional flow regime. This regime cannot handled by fluid codes or collisionless Monte Carlo codes, but can be handled by Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) codes. To validate a DSMC model, we plan to build a vapor box test stand employing more-convenient water vapor instead of lithium vapor as the working fluid. Transport of vapor between the chambers at -50C will be measured and compared to the model. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  20. X-ray-induced water vaporization

    SciTech Connect

    Weon, B. M.; Lee, J. S.; Je, J. H.; Fezzaa, K.

    2011-09-15

    We present quantitative evidence for x-ray-induced water vaporization: water is vaporized at a rate of 5.5 pL/s with the 1-A-wavelength x-ray irradiation of {approx}0.1 photons per A{sup 2}; moreover, water vapor is reversibly condensed during pauses in irradiation. This result fundamentally suggests that photoionization induces vaporization. This phenomenon is attributed to surface-tension reduction by ionization and would be universally important in radiological and electrohydrodynamic situations.

  1. Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Guastad, Krista; Riihimaki, Laura; none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (TWRMR) value-added product (VAP) is to calculate water-vapor mixing ratio at the 25-meter and 60-meter levels of the meteorological tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility.

  2. Mars water vapor, near-surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. A.; Sharman, R. D.; Lucich, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    In a previous paper we concluded that the temperature sensors aboard the Viking landers (VL-1 and VL-2) were detecting the water vapor frost point. Analysis of one Mars year of data at both lander sites substantiates this conclusion. At VL-1 it is found that the water vapor mixing ratio is constant with height through the bulk of the atmosphere, most of the time. Exceptions are during the onset phases of the two major dust storms when temporary enhancement of near-surface vapor occurs (the same phenomenon is observed at VL-2), and some depletion of near-surface vapor during the decay phase of the first storm, possibly the second storm as well. The former suggests near-surface, northward transport of water vapor with the storms. The latter suggests adsorption of vapor on dust particles followed by surface deposition. At VL-2, severe near-surface depletion of water vapor occurs during northern autumn and winter. The residual vapor is in equilibrium with the surface condensate observed at the site during this period, indicating that the source region for the condensate must be aloft with downward transport by dust fall-out. Since the near-surface water vapor mixing ratio and concentration at VL-1 generally parallels the column abundance over VL-1 obtained by the orbiters, this suggests that VL-1 can be used to give a measure of column abundance for as long as the temperature sensors remain operational.

  3. Water vapor retrieval over many surface types

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.C.; Johnson, J.

    1996-04-01

    In this paper we present a study of of the water vapor retrieval for many natural surface types which would be valuable for multi-spectral instruments using the existing Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) for the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature. An atmospheric code (6S) and 562 spectra were used to compute the top of the atmosphere radiance near the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature in steps of 2.5 nm as a function of precipitable water (PW). We derive a novel technique called ``Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption`` (APDA) and show that APDA performs better than the CIBR over many surface types.

  4. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Fujun; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-09-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work, we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Lyα photons, since the Lyα line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more extended distribution of warm water vapor, while dust growth and settling tends to reduce the amount of warm water vapor. Based on typical assumptions regarding the elemental oxygen abundance and the water chemistry, the column density of warm water vapor can be as high as 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. A small amount of hot water vapor with temperature higher than ∼300 K exists in a more extended region in the upper atmosphere of the disk. Cold water vapor with temperature lower than 100 K is distributed over the entire disk, produced by photodesorption of the water ice.

  5. Copper ions removal from water using functionalized carbon nanotubes–mullite composite as adsorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Tofighy, Maryam Ahmadzadeh; Mohammadi, Toraj

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • CNTs–mullite composite was prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. • The prepared composite was modified with concentrated nitric acid and chitosan. • The modified CNTs–mullite composites were used as novel adsorbents. • Copper ion removal from water by the prepared adsorbents was performed. • Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and two kinetic models were applied to fit the experimental data. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes–mullite composite was synthesized by direct growth of carbon nanotubes on mullite particles via chemical vapor deposition method using cyclohexanol and ferrocene as carbon precursor and catalyst, respectively. The carbon nanotubes–mullite composite was oxidized with concentrated nitric acid and functionalized with chitosan and then used as a novel adsorbent for copper ions removal from water. The results demonstrated that modification with concentrated nitric acid and chitosan improves copper ions adsorption capacity of the prepared composite, significantly. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and two kinetic models were applied to fit the experimental data. The carbon nanotubes growth on mullite particles to form the carbon nanotubes–mullite composite with further modification is an inherently safe approach for many promising environmental applications to avoid some concerns regarding environment, health and safety. It was found that the modified carbon nanotubes–mullite composite can be considered as an excellent adsorbent for copper ions removal from water.

  6. Water vapor retrieval from OMI visible spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; González Abad, G.; Miller, C. Chan

    2014-06-01

    There are distinct spectral features of water vapor in the wavelength range covered by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) visible channel. Although these features are much weaker than those at longer wavelengths, they can be exploited to retrieve useful information about water vapor. They have an advantage in that their small optical depth leads to fairly simple interpretation as measurements of the total water vapor column density. We have used the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) OMI operational retrieval algorithm to derive the slant column density (SCD) of water vapor using the 430-480 nm spectral region after extensive optimization. We convert from SCD to vertical column density (VCD) using the air mass factor (AMF), which is calculated using look-up tables of scattering weights and assimilated water vapor profiles. Our Level 2 product includes not only water vapor VCD but also the associated scattering weights and AMF. In the tropics, our standard water vapor product has a median SCD of 1.3 × 1023 molecules cm-2 and a median relative uncertainty of about 11%, about a factor of 2 better than that from a similar OMI algorithm that uses a narrower retrieval window. The corresponding median VCD is about 1.2 × 1023 molecules cm-2. We have examined the sensitivities of SCD and AMF to various parameters and compared our results with those from the GlobVapour product, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET).

  7. CO2 DIAL measurements of water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.; Margolis, Jack S.; Brothers, Alan M.; Tratt, David M.

    1987-01-01

    CO2 lidars have heretofore been used to measure water vapor concentrations primarily using the 10R(20) line at 10.247 microns, which has a strong overlap with a water vapor absorption line. This paper discusses the use of that line as well as other CO2 laser lines for which the absorption coefficients are weaker. The literature on measurement of water vapor absorption coefficients using CO2 lasers is reviewed, and the results from four laboratories are shown to be generally consistent with each other after they are normalized to the same partial pressure, temperature, and ethylene absorption coefficent for the 10P(14) CO2 laser line; however, the agreement with the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory's HITRAN and FASCOD 2 spectral data tapes is not good either for the water vapor absorption lines or for the water vapor continuum. Demonstration measurements of atmospheric water vapor have been conducted using the Mobile Atmospheric Pollutant Mapping System, a dual CO2 lidar system using heterodyne detection. Results are discussed for measurements using three sets of laser line pairs covering a wide range of water vapor partial pressures.

  8. Adsorption isotherms of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane and toluene vapors on hydrocarbon adsorber and light-off catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Jung

    2004-01-15

    Two monolithic hydrocarbon adsorbers and a monolithic light-off catalyst were selected as adsorbents, and the adsorptive capacity of a hydrocarbon for the adsorbents was measured by using a precise volumetric adsorption apparatus. 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane and toluene vapors were chosen as adsorbates. Equilibrium experiments were carried out at three different temperatures of 303.15, 323.15, and 343.15 K. Adsorption data of each hydrocarbon was fitted to the well-known isotherms such as the Langmuir equation and the Freundlich equation. The Freundlich isotherm predicted equilibrium data better than the Langmuir isotherm. Furthermore, the surface energetic heterogeneity of the adsorbents was evaluated using the isosteric heat of adsorption based on Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The surface energetic heterogeneity of the adsorbents depended on the precious metal (PM) loading and H-ZSM5 loading.

  9. Water vapor radiometry research and development phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, G. M.; Chavez, M. C.; Yamane, N. L.; Barbier, K. M.; Chandlee, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the research and development phase for eight dual-channel water vapor radiometers constructed for the Crustal Dynamics Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, and for the NASA Deep Space Network. These instruments were developed to demonstrate that the variable path delay imposed on microwave radio transmissions by atmospheric water vapor can be calibrated, particularly as this phenomenon affects very long baseline interferometry measurement systems. Water vapor radiometry technology can also be used in systems that involve moist air meteorology and propagation studies.

  10. Gravity sensitivity of a resistojet water vaporizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morren, W. Earl

    1993-01-01

    A laboratory model of a water vaporizer for resistojet applications was designed, fabricated, and steady and transient characteristics were measured. Vaporizer operation was not impacted by rotation about a horizontal axis normal to its own. The vaporizer was operated under low and high accelerations aboard a jet aircraft for periods up to 25 s at flow rates ranging from 159(10)(exp -6) to 230(10)(exp -6) kg/s. Slight changes in inlet and outlet pressures and some heat exchanger temperatures were observed during the low-gravity tests. However, the results of these tests indicated probable compatibility of the vaporizer design tested with a low-gravity environment.

  11. A new passive sampler for collecting atmospheric tritiated water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bin; Chen, Bo; Zhuo, Weihai; Zhang, Weiyuan

    2017-04-01

    A new passive sampler was developed for collecting environmental tritiated water vapor. The construction of the sampler was improved according to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations in which the influence on vapor collection by the turbulence inside the sampler was considered. Through changes in temperature from 5 °C to 35 °C and relative humidity from 45% to 90%, the new sampler revealed stable performance of the sampling rate. Compared with the previous samplers, the new sampler significantly lowered the effect of wind speed. Using the adsorption kinetic curve of the sampler provided in the co-comparison experiments, the quantitative relationship between the mass of adsorbed water and the cumulative absolute humidity exposure was established. Field applications in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant show that the data obtained by the new samplers is consistent with the active measurement. The sampler was preliminarily proven to be reliable and flexible for field investigation of HTO in the atmosphere.

  12. Water vapor recovery from plant growth chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. J.; Newbold, D. D.; Colton, R. H.; Mccray, S. B.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is investigating the use of plant growth chambers (PGCs) for space missions and for bases on the moon and Mars. Key to successful development of PGCs is a system to recover and reuse the water vapor that is transpired from the leaves of the plants. A design is presented for a simple, reliable, membrane-based system that allows the recovery, purification, and reuse of the transpired water vapor through control of temperature and humidity levels in PGCs. The system is based on two membrane technologies: (1) dehumidification membrane modules to remove water vapor from the air, and (2) membrane contactors to return water vapor to the PGC (and, in doing so, to control the humidity and temperature within the PGC). The membrane-based system promises to provide an ideal, stable growth environment for a variety of plants, through a design that minimizes energy usage, volume, and mass, while maximizing simplicity and reliability.

  13. AVIRIS Spectrometer Maps Total Water Vapor Column

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, James E.; Green, Robert O.; Carrere, Veronique; Margolis, Jack S.; Alley, Ronald E.; Vane, Gregg A.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Gary, Bruce L.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) processes maps of vertical-column abundances of water vapor in atmosphere with good precision and spatial resolution. Maps provide information for meteorology, climatology, and agriculture.

  14. Interaction of gases with lunar materials. [surface properties of lunar fines, especially on exposure to water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, H. F.; Gammage, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The surface properties of lunar fines were investigated. Results indicate that, for the most part, these properties are independent of the chemical composition and location of the samples on the lunar surface. The leaching of channels and pores by adsorbed water vapor is a distinguishing feature of their surface chemistry. The elements of air, if adsorbed in conjunction with water vapor or liquid water, severely impedes the leaching process. In the absence of air, liquid water is more effective than water vapor in attacking the grains. The characteristics of Apollo 17 orange fines were evaluated and compared with those of other samples. The interconnecting channels produced by water vapor adsorption were found to be wider than usual for other types of fines. Damage tracks caused by heavy cosmic ray nuclei and an unusually high halogen content might provide for stronger etching conditions upon exposure to water vapor.

  15. Water vapor - Stratospheric injection by thunderstorms.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, P. M.; Lojko, M. S.; Petersen, E. V.

    1971-01-01

    Infrared radiometric inference measurements of the mass of water vapor injected into the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere by a number of plains thunderstorms show an average threefold increase over the fair weather background mass of water vapor. These airborne measurements, made from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Convair 990 jet laboratory, extended over a sample size much larger than that possible by balloon and other techniques.

  16. Water vapor retrieval from OMI visible spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Miller, C. Chan

    2014-01-01

    There are distinct spectral features of water vapor in the wavelength range covered by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) visible channel. Although these features are much weaker than those at longer wavelengths, they can be exploited to retrieve useful information about water vapor. They have an advantage in that their small optical depth leads to fairly simple interpretation as measurements of the total water vapor column density. We have used the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO)'s OMI operational retrieval algorithm to derive the Slant Column Density (SCD) of water vapor from OMI measurements using the 430-480 nm spectral region after extensive optimization of retrieval windows and parameters. The Air Mass Factor (AMF) is calculated using look-up tables of scattering weights and monthly mean water vapor profiles from the GEOS-5 assimilation products. We convert from SCD to Vertical Column Density (VCD) using the AMF and generate associated retrieval averaging kernels and shape factors. Our standard water vapor product has a median SCD of ~ 1.3 × 1023 molecule cm-2 and a median relative uncertainty of ~ 11% in the tropics, about a factor of 2 better than that from a similar OMI algorithm but using narrower retrieval window. The corresponding median VCD is ~ 1.2 × 1023 molecule cm-2. We have also explored the sensitivities to various parameters and compared our results with those from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET).

  17. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOEpatents

    Kebabian, P.

    1998-06-02

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma. 5 figs.

  18. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOEpatents

    Kebabian, Paul

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

  19. Structure of water adsorbed on a single graphene sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo, M. C.; Martí, J.

    2008-08-01

    We present the result of molecular-dynamics simulations of water adsorbed on top of a single graphene layer at temperatures between 25 and 50°C . The analysis of the energy per particle and the density profiles indicate that the behavior of the adsorbed liquid is similar to the case of multiple graphene layers (graphite) with the only difference being the values of configurational energy. Other structural properties, such as stability ranges, hydrogen bond distributions, and molecular orientations are also presented.

  20. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  1. The vertical distribution of Mars water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of observations made from the Viking 1 Orbiter indicates that the water vapor over the Viking 1 landing site is uniformly mixed with the atmosphere and not concentrated near the surface. The analysis incorporates the effects of atmospheric scattering and explains why previous earth-based observations showed a strong diurnal variation in water content. It also explains the lack of an early morning fog and removes the necessity of daily exchange of large amounts of water between the surface and the atmosphere. A water vapor volume mixing ratio of 1.5 x 10 to the -4th is inferred for the Viking 1 site in late summer.

  2. Distribution of Water Vapor in Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnick, Gary J.; Tolls, Volker; Snell, Ronald L.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Hollenbach, David J.; Kaufman, Michael J.; Li, Di; Neufeld, David A.

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of a large-area study of water vapor along the Orion Molecular Cloud ridge, the purpose of which was to determine the depth-dependent distribution of gas-phase water in dense molecular clouds. We find that the water vapor measured toward 77 spatial positions along the face-on Orion ridge, excluding positions surrounding the outflow associated with BN/KL and IRc2, display integrated intensities that correlate strongly with known cloud surface tracers such as CN, C2H, 13CO J = 5-4, and HCN, and less well with the volume tracer N2H+. Moreover, at total column densities corresponding to A V< 15 mag, the ratio of H2O to C18O integrated intensities shows a clear rise approaching the cloud surface. We show that this behavior cannot be accounted for by either optical depth or excitation effects, but suggests that gas-phase water abundances fall at large A V. These results are important as they affect measures of the true water-vapor abundance in molecular clouds by highlighting the limitations of comparing measured water-vapor column densities with such traditional cloud tracers as 13CO or C18O. These results also support cloud models that incorporate freeze out of molecules as a critical component in determining the depth-dependent abundance of water vapor.

  3. 21 CFR 868.1975 - Water vapor analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water vapor analyzer. 868.1975 Section 868.1975...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1975 Water vapor analyzer. (a) Identification. A water vapor analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of water vapor in...

  4. 21 CFR 868.1975 - Water vapor analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water vapor analyzer. 868.1975 Section 868.1975...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1975 Water vapor analyzer. (a) Identification. A water vapor analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of water vapor in...

  5. 21 CFR 868.1975 - Water vapor analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water vapor analyzer. 868.1975 Section 868.1975...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1975 Water vapor analyzer. (a) Identification. A water vapor analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of water vapor in...

  6. 21 CFR 868.1975 - Water vapor analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Water vapor analyzer. 868.1975 Section 868.1975...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1975 Water vapor analyzer. (a) Identification. A water vapor analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of water vapor in...

  7. Hydration level dependence of the microscopic dynamics of water adsorbed in ultramicroporous carbon

    DOE PAGES

    Mamontov, Eugene; Yue, Yanfeng; Bahadur, Jitendra; ...

    2016-10-20

    Even when not functionalized intentionally, most carbon materials are not hydrophobic and readily adsorb water molecules from atmospheric water vapor. We have equilibrated an ultramicroporous carbon at several levels of relative humidity, thereby attaining various hydration levels. The water molecules were adsorbed on the pore walls (but did not fill completely the pore volume) and thus could be better described as hydration, or surface, rather than confined, water. We used quasielastic neutron scattering to perform a detailed investigation of the dependence of microscopic dynamics of these adsorbed water species on the hydration level and temperature. The behavior of hydration watermore » in ultramicroporous carbon clearly demonstrates the same universal traits that characterize surface (hydration) water in other materials that are surface-hydrated. In addition, unless special treatment is intentionally applied to ultramicroporous carbon, the species filling its pores in various applications, ranging from hydrogen molecules to electrolytes, likely find themselves in contact with non-freezing water molecules characterized by rich microscopic dynamics.« less

  8. Advanced Atmospheric Water Vapor DIAL Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.; DeYoung, Russell J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of atmospheric water vapor is very important for understanding the Earth's climate and water cycle. The remote sensing Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique is a powerful method to perform such measurement from aircraft and space. This thesis describes a new advanced detection system, which incorporates major improvements regarding sensitivity and size. These improvements include a low noise advanced avalanche photodiode detector, a custom analog circuit, a 14-bit digitizer, a microcontroller for on board averaging and finally a fast computer interface. This thesis describes the design and validation of this new water vapor DIAL detection system which was integrated onto a small Printed Circuit Board (PCB) with minimal weight and power consumption. Comparing its measurements to an existing DIAL system for aerosol and water vapor profiling validated the detection system.

  9. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit water vapor radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sukamto, L. M.; Cooley, T. W.; Janssen, M. A.; Parks, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    A proof of concept Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) is under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). WVR's are used to remotely sense water vapor and cloud liquid water in the atmosphere and are valuable for meteorological applications as well as for determination of signal path delays due to water vapor in the atmosphere. The high cost and large size of existing WVR instruments motivate the development of miniature MMIC WVR's, which have great potential for low cost mass production. The miniaturization of WVR components allows large scale deployment of WVR's for Earth environment and meteorological applications. Small WVR's can also result in improved thermal stability, resulting in improved calibration stability. Described here is the design and fabrication of a 31.4 GHz MMIC radiometer as one channel of a thermally stable WVR as a means of assessing MMIC technology feasibility.

  10. Refraction of microwave signals by water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfinger, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    Tropospheric water vapor causes a refractive path length effect which is typically 5-10% of the 'dry' tropospheric effect and as large as several meters at elevation angles below 5 deg. The vertical water vapor profile is quite variable, and measurements of intensive atmospheric parameters such as temperature and humidity limited to the surface do not adequately predict the refractive effect. It is suggested that a water vapor refraction model that is a function of the amount of precipitable water alone can be successful at low elevation angles. From an extensive study of numerical ray tracings through radiosonde balloon data, such a model has been constructed. The model predicts the effect at all latitudes and elevation angles between 2 and 10 deg to an accuracy of better than 4% (11 cm at 3 deg elevation angle).

  11. Distribution of tropical tropospheric water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, De-Zheng; Lindzen, Richard S.

    1993-01-01

    Utilizing a conceptual model for tropical convection and observational data for water vapor, the maintenance of the vertical distribution of the tropical tropospheric water vapor is discussed. While deep convection induces large-scale subsidence that constrains the turbulent downgradient mixing to within the convective boundary layer and effectively dries the troposphere through downward advection, it also pumps hydrometeors into the upper troposphere, whose subsequent evaporation appears to be the major source of moisture for the large-scale subsiding motion. The development of upper-level clouds and precipitation from these clouds may also act to dry the outflow, thus explaining the low relative humidity near the tropopause. A one-dimensional model is developed to simulate the mean vertical structure of water vapor in the tropical troposphere. It is also shown that the horizontal variation of water vapor in the tropical troposphere above the trade-wind boundary layer can be explained by the variation of a moisture source that is proportional to the amount of upper-level clouds. Implications for the nature of water vapor feedback in global warming are discussed.

  12. Water dimer equilibrium constant of saturated vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malomuzh, N. P.; Mahlaichuk, V. N.; Khrapatyi, S. V.

    2014-08-01

    The value and temperature dependence of the dimerization constant for saturated water vapor are determined. A general expression that links the second virial coefficient and the dimerization constant is obtained. It is shown that the attraction between water monomers and dimers is fundamental, especially at T > 350 K. The range of application for the obtained results is determined.

  13. EFFECTS OF COVAPORS ON ADSORPTION RATE COEFFICIENTS OF ORGANIC VAPORS ADSORBED ONTO ACTIVATED CARBON FROM FLOWING AIR

    SciTech Connect

    G. WOOD

    2000-12-01

    Published breakthrough time, adsorption rate, and capacity data for components of organic vapor mixtures adsorbed from flows through fixed activated carbon beds have been analyzed. Capacities (as stoichiometric centers of constant pattern breakthrough curves) yielded stoichiometric times {tau}, which are useful for determining elution orders of mixture components. We also calculated adsorption rate coefficients k{sub v} of the Wheeler (or, more general Reaction Kinetic) breakthrough curve equation, when not reported, from breakthrough times and {tau}. Ninety-five k{sub v} (in mixture)/ k{sub v} (single vapor) ratios at similar vapor concentrations were calculated and averaged for elution order categories. For 43 first-eluting vapors the average ratio (1.07) was statistically no different (0.21 standard deviation) than unity, so that we recommend using the single-vapor k{sub v} for such. Forty-seven second-eluting vapor ratios averaged 0.85 (0.24 standard deviation), also not significantly different from unity; however, other evidence and considerations lead us recommend using k{sub v} (in mixture) = 0.85 k{sub v} (single vapor). Five third- and fourth-eluting vapors gave an average of 0.56 (0.16 standard deviation) for a recommended k{sub v} (in mixture) = 0.56 k{sub v} (single vapor) for such.

  14. Adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Progress is reported on: adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks; theoretical investigation of adsorption; estimation of adsorption parameters from transient experiments; transient adsorption experiment -- salinity and noncondensible gas effects; the physics of injection of water into, transport and storage of fluids within, and production of vapor from geothermal reservoirs; injection optimization at the Geysers Geothermal Field; a model to test multiwell data interpretation for heterogeneous reservoirs; earth tide effects on downhole pressure measurements; and a finite-difference model for free surface gravity drainage well test analysis.

  15. Hydraulic properties of adsorbed water films in unsaturated porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.

    2009-03-01

    Adsorbed water films strongly influence residual water saturations and hydraulic conductivities in porous media at low saturations. Hydraulic properties of adsorbed water films in unsaturated porous media were investigated through combining Langmuir's film model with scaling analysis, without use of any adjustable parameters. Diffuse double layer influences are predicted to be important through the strong dependence of adsorbed water film thickness (f) on matric potential ({Psi}) and ion charge (z). Film thickness, film velocity, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity are predicted to vary with z{sup -1}, z{sup -2}, and z{sup -3}, respectively. In monodisperse granular media, the characteristic grain size ({lambda}) controls film hydraulics through {lambda}{sup -1} scaling of (1) the perimeter length per unit cross sectional area over which films occur, (2) the critical matric potential ({Psi}{sub c}) below which films control flow, and (3) the magnitude of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity when {Psi} < {Psi}{sub c}. While it is recognized that finer textured sediments have higher unsaturated hydraulic conductivities than coarser sands at intermediate {Psi}, the {lambda}{sup -1} scaling of hydraulic conductivity predicted here extends this understanding to very low saturations where all pores are drained. Extremely low unsaturated hydraulic conductivities are predicted under adsorbed film-controlled conditions (generally < 0.1 mm y{sup -1}). On flat surfaces, the film hydraulic diffusivity is shown to be constant (invariant with respect to {Psi}).

  16. Validation of adsorbents for sample preconcentration in compound-specific isotope analysis of common vapor intrusion pollutants.

    PubMed

    Klisch, Monika; Kuder, Tomasz; Philp, R Paul; McHugh, Thomas E

    2012-12-28

    Isotope ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the environment are often of interest in contaminant fate studies. Adsorbent preconcentration-thermal desorption of VOCs can be used to collect environmental vapor samples for compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA). While active adsorbent samplers offer logistic benefits in handling large volumes of air, their performance in preserving VOCs isotope ratios was not previously tested under sampling conditions corresponding to typical indoor air sampling conditions. In this study, the performance of selected adsorbents was tested for preconcentration of TCE (for determination of C and Cl isotope ratios), PCE (C and Cl) and benzene (C and H). The key objective of the study was to identify the adsorbent(s) permitting preconcentration of the target VOCs present in air at low μg/m(3) concentrations, without significant alteration of their isotope ratios. Carboxen 1016 was found to perform well for the full range of tested parameters. Carboxen 1016 can be recommended for sampling of TCE, PCE and benzene, for CSIA, from air volumes up to 100 L. Variable extent of isotope ratio alteration was observed in the preconcentration of the target VOCs on Carbopack B and Carbopack X, resulting from partial analyte loss via adsorbent bed breakthrough and (possibly) via incomplete desorption. The results from testing the Carbopack B and Carbopack X highlight the need of adsorbent performance validation at conditions fully representative of actual sample collection conditions, and caution against extrapolation of performance data toward more challenging sampling conditions.

  17. Water Vapor in an Unexpected Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-09-01

    The protoplanetary disk around DoAr 44 is fairly ordinary in most ways. But a recent study has found that this disk contains water vapor in its inner regions the first such discovery for a disk of its type.Drying Out DisksDoAr 44 is a transitional disk: a type of protoplanetary disk that has been at least partially cleared of small dust grains in the inner regions of the disk. This process is thought to happen as a result of dynamical interactions with a protoplanet embedded in the disk; the planet clears out a gap as it orbits.A schematic of the differences between a full protoplanetary disk, a pre-transitional disk, and a transitional disk. [Catherine Espaillat] Classical protoplanetary disks surrounding young, low-mass stars often contain water vapor, but transitional disks are typically dry no water vapor is detected from the disk inner regions. This is probably because water vapor is easily dissociated by far-UV radiation from the young, hot star. Once the dust is cleared out from the inner regions of the disk, the water vapor is no longer shielded from the UV radiation, so the disk dries out.Enter the exception: DoAr 44. The disk in this system doesnt have a fully cleared inner region, which labels it pre-transitional. Its composed of an inner ring out to 2 AU, a cleared gap between 2 and 36 AU, and then the outer disk. What makes DoAr 44 unusual, however, is that its the only disk with a large inner gap known to harbor detectable quantities of water vapor. The authors of this study ask a key question: where is this water vapor located?Unusual SystemLed by Colette Salyk (NOAO and Vassar College), the authors examined the system using the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph, a visiting instrument on the Gemini North telescope. They discovered that the water vapor emission originates from about 0.3 AU the inner disk region, where terrestrial-type planets may well be forming.Both dust-shielding and water self-shielding seem to have protected this water

  18. Detection of adsorbed water and hydroxyl on the Moon.

    PubMed

    Clark, Roger N

    2009-10-23

    Data from the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on Cassini during its flyby of the Moon in 1999 show a broad absorption at 3 micrometers due to adsorbed water and near 2.8 micrometers attributed to hydroxyl in the sunlit surface on the Moon. The amounts of water indicated in the spectra depend on the type of mixing and the grain sizes in the rocks and soils but could be 10 to 1000 parts per million and locally higher. Water in the polar regions may be water that has migrated to the colder environments there. Trace hydroxyl is observed in the anorthositic highlands at lower latitudes.

  19. Detection of adsorbed water and hydroxyl on the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    Data from the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIAAS) on Cassini during its flyby of the AAoon in 1999 show a broad absorption at 3 micrometers due to adsorbed water and near 2.8 micrometers attributed to hydroxyl in the sunlit surface on the AAoon. The amounts of water indicated in the spectra depend on the type of mixing and the grain sizes in the rocks and soils but could be 10 to 1000 parts per million and locally higher. Water in the polar regions may be water that has migrated to the colder environments there. Trace hydroxyl is observed in the anorthositic highlands at lower latitudes.

  20. Adsorbent selection for endosulfan removal from water environment.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, Y; Dikshit, A K

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to select a low cost adsorbing material for the removal of endosulfan [C,C'-(1,4,5,6,7,7-hexachloro-8,9,10- trinorborn-5-en-2,3-ylene)(dimethylsulphite)] from water. Various low cost adsorbents like wood charcoal, kimberlite tailings, silica, macro fungi sojar caju were tried with activated charcoal as reference material. The above materials were selected from various sources encompassing organic, inorganic, clayey, and biological sources. For the selection of suitable adsorbent for endosulfan uptake, maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax) was chosen as the parameter. Kinetic profiles of removal were generated for all the materials to assess the equilibrium time. Equilibrium studies were carried out for all materials to assess the adsorption equilibrium model that they followed. The model that gave the best correlation coefficient by linear regression analysis, was adopted for the calculation of Qmax of the corresponding adsorbent material. Using linearised forms of equilibrium models like Langmuir, BET, and Freundlich, maximum adsorptive capacities were determined. Activated charcoal showed the best adsorptive capacity with Qmax of 2.145 mg/g followed by wood charcoal 1.773 mg/g, sojar caju 1.575 mg/g, kimberlite tailings 0.8821 mg/g, and silica 0.3231 mg/g. Albeit activated charcoal gave better performance, it was not considered as a candidate material because of its high cost. Wood charcoal was the next best adsorbent with Qmax 1.773 mg/g. Therefore, wood charcoal was chosen as the best material for endosulfan removal. The study of physical and chemical characteristics of wood charcoal revealed that it is a potential adsorbent and can even be improved further.

  1. Tunable lasers for water vapor measurements and other lidar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, R. W.; Mcilrath, T. J.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1977-01-01

    A tunable dye laser suitable for differential absorption (DIAL) measurements of water vapor in the troposphere was constructed. A multi-pass absorption cell for calibration was also constructed for use in atmospheric DIAL measurements of water vapor.

  2. 21 CFR 868.1975 - Water vapor analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water vapor analyzer. 868.1975 Section 868.1975 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1975 Water vapor analyzer. (a) Identification. A water vapor analyzer is a device...

  3. Quality and Control of Water Vapor Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from the geostationary satellites such as GOES, Meteosat, and GMS provides synoptic views of dynamical events on a continual basis. Because the imagery represents a non-linear combination of mid- and upper-tropospheric thermodynamic parameters (three-dimensional variations in temperature and humidity), video loops of these image products provide enlightening views of regional flow fields, the movement of tropical and extratropical storm systems, the transfer of moisture between hemispheres and from the tropics to the mid- latitudes, and the dominance of high pressure systems over particular regions of the Earth. Despite the obvious larger scale features, the water vapor imagery contains significant image variability down to the single 8 km GOES pixel. These features can be quantitatively identified and tracked from one time to the next using various image processing techniques. Merrill et al. (1991), Hayden and Schmidt (1992), and Laurent (1993) have documented the operational procedures and capabilities of NOAA and ESOC to produce cloud and water vapor winds. These techniques employ standard correlation and template matching approaches to wind tracking and use qualitative and quantitative procedures to eliminate bad wind vectors from the wind data set. Techniques have also been developed to improve the quality of the operational winds though robust editing procedures (Hayden and Veldon 1991). These quality and control approaches have limitations, are often subjective, and constrain wind variability to be consistent with model derived wind fields. This paper describes research focused on the refinement of objective quality and control parameters for water vapor wind vector data sets. New quality and control measures are developed and employed to provide a more robust wind data set for climate analysis, data assimilation studies, as well as operational weather forecasting. The parameters are applicable to cloud-tracked winds as well with minor

  4. Broad band airborne water vapor radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Peter M.

    An infrared radiometer with a pass band of 280 to 520 cm-1 (35.7 to 19.2 µm) is employed on the NASA Ames Research Center U-2 and C-141A aircraft in the measurement of water vapor burden in the upper troposphere and stratosphere. Coincidentally with altitude changes the water vapor mass mixing ratio is also inferred by observing the change in optical depth over a known vertical distance. Data from the December 1980 U-2 Water Vapor Exchange Experiment over the Panama Canal Zone adds to the concept that overshooting cumulonimbus towers “moisten” the lower stratosphere. The average mass mixing ratio in close proximity to or above such towers ranges from 3.5 to 5.0 parts per million above 18 km while the average background mass mixing ratio is only 2.9 parts per million. Generally the lowest background mixing ratios, averaging 2.6 parts per million occurred in the 18 to 21 km layer. For the same levels background Panama mass mixing ratios averaged from 1.0 to 3.0 parts per million higher than in middle latitudes.

  5. Water vapor interactions with polycrystalline titanium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azoulay, A.; Shamir, N.; Volterra, V.; Mintz, M. H.

    1999-02-01

    The initial interactions of water vapor with polycrystalline titanium surfaces were studied at room temperature. Measurements of water vapor surface accumulation were performed in a combined surface analysis system incorporating direct recoils spectrometry (DRS), Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The kinetics of accommodation of the water dissociation fragments (H, O and OH) displayed a complex behavior depending not only on the exposure dose but also on the exposure pressure. For a given exposure dose the efficiency of chemisorption increased with increasing exposure pressure. DRS measurements indicated the occurrence of clustered hydroxyl moieties with tilted O-H bonds formed even at very low surface coverage. A model which assumes two parallel routes of chemisorption, by direct collisions (Langmuir type) and by a precursor state is proposed to account for the observed behavior. The oxidation efficiency of water seemed to be much lower than that of oxygen. No Ti 4+ states were detected even at high water exposure values. It is likely that hydroxyl species play an important role in the reduced oxidation efficiency of water.

  6. Overall Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficient of Water Vapor Adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Mori, Hideo; Godo, Masazumi; Miura, Kunio; Watanabe, Yutaka; Ishizawa, Toshihiko; Takatsuka, Takeshi

    A fundamental investigation was performed to develop a compact and simple desiccant ventilation unit which is one of the main components of a novel energy saving air-conditioning system. Water vapor in the air is adsorbed and/or desorbed to be controlled the humidity of supply air through a unit of an adsorbent rotor. A numerical simulation helps to understand the phenomena of heat and mass transfer in the rotor block. Overall transfer coefficients were estimated by performing both experiment and calculation. It was examined that the transient overall equivalent heat and mass transfer coefficient was not constant. It seems that both film fluid and diffusion resistance govern the coefficients in the block, and the influence of air flow on the time averaged coefficients is estimated by a considering the laminar forced convection from a flat plate. There is little difference of the coefficient between adsorption and desorption process. The correlation and fitting parameters are presented for prediction of the overall heat and mass transfer coefficients. The estimation accuracy was improved.

  7. Water Vapor Effects on Silica-Forming Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, E. J.; Greenbauer-Seng, L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Silica-forming ceramics such as SiC and Si3N4 are proposed for applications in combustion environments. These environments contain water vapor as a product of combustion. Oxidation of silica-formers is more rapid in water vapor than in oxygen. Parabolic oxidation rates increase with the water vapor partial pressure with a power law exponent value close to one. Molecular water vapor is therefore the mobile species in silica. Rapid oxidation rates and large amounts of gases generated during the oxidation reaction in high water vapor pressures may result in bubble formation in the silica and nonprotective scale formation. It is also shown that silica reacts with water vapor to form Si(OH)4(g). Silica volatility has been modeled using a laminar flow boundary layer controlled reaction equation. Silica volatility depends on the partial pressure of water vapor, the total pressure, and the gas velocity. Simultaneous oxidation and volatilization reactions have been modeled with paralinear kinetics.

  8. Transient water vapor at Europa's south pole.

    PubMed

    Roth, Lorenz; Saur, Joachim; Retherford, Kurt D; Strobel, Darrell F; Feldman, Paul D; McGrath, Melissa A; Nimmo, Francis

    2014-01-10

    In November and December 2012, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaged Europa's ultraviolet emissions in the search for vapor plume activity. We report statistically significant coincident surpluses of hydrogen Lyman-α and oxygen OI 130.4-nanometer emissions above the southern hemisphere in December 2012. These emissions were persistently found in the same area over the 7 hours of the observation, suggesting atmospheric inhomogeneity; they are consistent with two 200-km-high plumes of water vapor with line-of-sight column densities of about 10(20) per square meter. Nondetection in November 2012 and in previous HST images from 1999 suggests varying plume activity that might depend on changing surface stresses based on Europa's orbital phases. The plume was present when Europa was near apocenter and was not detected close to its pericenter, in agreement with tidal modeling predictions.

  9. Interaction of water vapor with clean and oxygen-covered uranium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winer, K.; Colmenares, C. A.; Smith, R. L.; Wooten, F.

    1987-04-01

    The interaction of water vapor with clean and oxygen-covered high-purity polycrystalline uranium surfaces was studied between 85 and 298 K with thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Saturation of the uranium surface with oxygen or water vapor produced an asymmetric O1s photoelectron peak that consisted of a main oxide contribution and a small component assigned to strongly chemisorbed oxygen or hydroxyl ions, respectively. Saturation of the clean or oxygen-covered surface with water vapor at 85 K produced multilayer ice that was converted to oxide and adsorbed hydroxyl ions after warming to room temperature. A significant difference in binding energies was observed in the O1s spectra between water vapor adsorption on clean and oxygen-covered surfaces that lends support to the oxygen inhibition of the water vapor-uranium reaction by a surface mechanism. The initial oxidation mechanisms of uranium with oxygen and water vapor are discussed.

  10. Daytime Raman lidar measurements of water vapor during the ARM 1997 water vapor intensive observation period

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.D.; Goldsmith, J.E.M.

    1998-04-01

    Because of the importance of water vapor, the ARM program initiated a series of three intensive operating periods (IOPs) at its CART (Cloud And Radiation Testbed) site. The goal of these IOPs is to improve and validate the state-of-the-art capabilities in measuring water vapor. To date, two of the planned three IOPs have occurred: the first was in September of 1996, with an emphasis on the lowest kilometer, while the second was conducted from September--October 1997 with a focus on both the upper troposphere and lowest kilometer. These IOPs provided an excellent opportunity to compare measurements from other systems with those made by the CART Raman lidar. This paper addresses primarily the daytime water vapor measurements made by the lidar system during the second of these IOPs.

  11. Effects of vertical distribution of water vapor and temperature on total column water vapor retrieval error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Jielun

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of a test of the physically based total column water vapor retrieval algorithm of Wentz (1992) for sensitivity to realistic vertical distributions of temperature and water vapor. The ECMWF monthly averaged temperature and humidity fields are used to simulate the spatial pattern of systematic retrieval error of total column water vapor due to this sensitivity. The estimated systematic error is within 0.1 g/sq cm over about 70 percent of the global ocean area; systematic errors greater than 0.3 g/sq cm are expected to exist only over a few well-defined regions, about 3 percent of the global oceans, assuming that the global mean value is unbiased.

  12. Utility of adsorbents in the purification of drinking water: a review of characterization, efficiency and safety evaluation of various adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Shashi Prabha; Gopal, Krishna; Bersillon, J L

    2009-05-01

    Clean drinking water is one of the implicit requisites fora healthy human population. However the growing industrialization and extensive use of chemicals for various concerns, has increased the burden of unwanted pollutants in the drinking water of developing countries like India. The entry of potentially hazardous substances into the biota has been magnifying day by day. In the absence of a possible stoppage of these, otherwise, useful chemicals, the only way to maintain safer water bodies is to develop efficient purifying technologies. One such immensely beneficial procedure that has been in use is that of purification of water using 'adsorbents'. Indigenous minerals and natural plants products have potential for removing many pollutants viz. fluoride, arsenic, nitrate, heavy metals, pesticides as well as trihalomethanes. Adsorbents which are derived from carbon, alumina, zeolite, clay minerals, iron ores, industrial by products, and natural products viz. parts of the plants, herbs and algal biomass offer promising potential of removal. In the recent years attention has been paid to develop process involving screening/pretreatment/activation/impregnation using alkalies, acids, alum, lime, manganese dioxide, ferric chloride and other chemicals which are found to enhance their adsorbing efficiency. Chemical characterization of these adsorbents recapitulates the mechanism of the process. It is imperative to observe that capacities of the adsorbents may vary depending on the characteristics, chemical modifications and concentration of the individual adsorbent. Removal kinetics is found to be based on the experimental conditions viz. pH, concentration of the adsorbate, quantity of the adsorbent and temperature. It is suggested that isotherm model is suitable tool to assess the adsorption capacities in batch and column modes. Safety evaluation and risk assessment of the process/products may be useful to provide guidelines for its sustainable disposal.

  13. Titanate-based adsorbents for radioactive ions entrapment from water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongjiang; Liu, Hongwei; Zheng, Zhanfeng; Sarina, Sarina; Zhu, Huaiyong

    2013-03-21

    This feature article reviews some titanate-based adsorbents for the removal of radioactive wastes (cations and anions) from water. At the beginning, we discuss the development of the conventional ion-exchangeable titanate powders for the entrapment of radioactive cations, such as crystalline silicotitanate (CST), monosodium titanate (MST), peroxotitanate (PT). Then, we specially emphasize the recent progress in the uptake of radioactive ions by one-dimensional (1D) sodium titanate nanofibers and nanotubes, which includes the synthesis and phase transformation of the 1D nanomaterials, adsorption ability (capacity, selectivity, kinetics, etc.) of radioactive cations and anions, and the structural evolution during the adsorption process.

  14. Intensive use of biomass feedstock in ethanol conversion: The alcohol-water, vapor-phase separation

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, G.H.; Doyle, L.R.; Pavlath, A.E.

    1983-12-01

    Fermentation of ethanol in a system whereby the biomass is used intensively (both to separate alcohol from water by vapor phase adsorption and to serve as the feedstock) is shown to be possible on theoretical grounds when the biomass is grain. The rationale for a vapor-phase adsorption process as an alternative to distillation is shown to be energetically valid above 84 wt % ethanol. The capacity of grain in new vapor-phase ambient adsorption processes was estimated experimentally with the finding that sufficient capacity exists for the intensive use but that the adsorption is dynamically controlled so that the grain form and particle size are important. Pretreatments such as explosive dehydration improve the transfer of water to the grain in adsorption with potential improvement in the efficiency of liquefaction and saccharification. At room temperature, these sorbents are not perfectly selective for water but adsorb ethanol which will be carried to the liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation with the feedstock.

  15. Column atmospheric water vapor retrievals from airborne imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Bo-Cai; Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1989-01-01

    High-spatial-resolution column atmospheric water vapor amounts were derived from spectral data collected by the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). The quantitative derivation is made by curve fitting observed spectra with calculated spectra in the 1.14- and 0.94-micron water-vapor band absorption regions with a nonlinear least-squares technique. The precision of the retrieved column water vapor is approximately 5 percent. The derived column water vapor amounts are independent of the absolute surface reflectance. Curve fitting of spectra near 1 micron from areas covered with vegetation indicates that both the amount of atmospheric water vapor and the moisture content of vegetation can be retrieved simultaneously. It should be possible to measure column water vapor over land areas from satellite altitude with the proposed high-resolution imaging spectrometer or even the moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer.

  16. Water vapor measurements by Raman lidar during the ARM 1997 water vapor intensive observation period

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.D.; Whiteman, D.N.; Schwemmer, G.K.; Evans, K.D. |; Melfi, S.H.; Goldsmith, J.E.

    1998-04-01

    Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, as it is the most active infrared absorber and emitter of radiation, and it also plays an important role in energy transport and cloud formation. Accurate, high resolution measurements of this variable are critical in order to improve the understanding of these processes and thus their ability to model them. Because of the importance of water vapor, the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program initiated a series of three intensive operating periods (IOPs) at its Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site in northern Oklahoma. The goal of these IOPs is to improve and validate the state-of-the-art capabilities in measuring water vapor. To date, two of the planned three IOPs have occurred: the first was in September of 1996, with an emphasis on the lowest kilometer, while the second was conducted from September--October 1997 with a focus on both the upper troposphere and lowest kilometer. The ARM CART site is the home of several different water vapor measurement systems. These systems include a Raman lidar, a microwave radiometer, a radiosonde launch site, and an instrumented tower. During these IOPs, additional instrumentation was brought to the site to augment the normal measurements in the attempt to characterize the CART instruments and to address the need to improve water vapor measurement capabilities. Some of the instruments brought to the CART site include a scanning Raman lidar system from NASA/GSFC, additional microwave radiometers from NOAA/ETL, a chilled mirror that was flown on a tethersonde and kite system, and dewpoint hygrometer instruments flow on the North Dakota Citation. This paper will focus on the Raman lidar intercomparisons from the second IOP.

  17. Removal of acutely hazardous pharmaceuticals from water using multi-template imprinted polymer adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Avinash; Chopra, Nikita; Krupadam, Reddithota J

    2014-05-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymer adsorbent has been prepared to remove a group of recalcitrant and acutely hazardous (p-type) chemicals from water and wastewaters. The polymer adsorbent exhibited twofold higher adsorption capacity than the commercially used polystyrene divinylbenzene resin (XAD) and powdered activated carbon adsorbents. Higher adsorption capacity of the polymer adsorbent was explained on the basis of high specific surface area formed during molecular imprinting process. Freundlich isotherms drawn showed that the adsorption of p-type chemicals onto polymer adsorbent was kinetically faster than the other reference adsorbents. Matrix effect on adsorption of p-type chemicals was minimal, and also polymer adsorbent was amenable to regeneration by washing with water/methanol (3:1, v/v) solution. The polymer adsorbent was unaltered in its adsorption capacity up to 10 cycles of adsorption and desorption, which will be more desirable in cost reduction of treatment compared with single-time-use activated carbon.

  18. The role of adsorbed water on the friction of a layer of submicron particles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sammis, Charles G.; Lockner, David A.; Reches, Ze’ev

    2011-01-01

    Anomalously low values of friction observed in layers of submicron particles deformed in simple shear at high slip velocities are explained as the consequence of a one nanometer thick layer of water adsorbed on the particles. The observed transition from normal friction with an apparent coefficient near μ = 0.6 at low slip speeds to a coefficient near μ = 0.3 at higher slip speeds is attributed to competition between the time required to extrude the water layer from between neighboring particles in a force chain and the average lifetime of the chain. At low slip speeds the time required for extrusion is less than the average lifetime of a chain so the particles make contact and lock. As slip speed increases, the average lifetime of a chain decreases until it is less than the extrusion time and the particles in a force chain never come into direct contact. If the adsorbed water layer enables the otherwise rough particles to rotate, the coefficient of friction will drop to μ = 0.3, appropriate for rotating spheres. At the highest slip speeds particle temperatures rise above 100°C, the water layer vaporizes, the particles contact and lock, and the coefficient of friction rises to μ = 0.6. The observed onset of weakening at slip speeds near 0.001 m/s is consistent with the measured viscosity of a 1 nm thick layer of adsorbed water, with a minimum particle radius of approximately 20 nm, and with reasonable assumptions about the distribution of force chains guided by experimental observation. The reduction of friction and the range of velocities over which it occurs decrease with increasing normal stress, as predicted by the model. Moreover, the analysis predicts that this high-speed weakening mechanism should operate only for particles with radii smaller than approximately 1 μm. For larger particles the slip speed required for weakening is so large that frictional heating will evaporate the adsorbed water and weakening will not occur.

  19. Aircraft water vapor measurements utilizing an aluminum oxide hygrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, E.

    1973-01-01

    A hygrometer for water vapor measurements from an aircraft has been developed. An aluminum oxide hygrometer mounted in an aircraft Rosemount air temperature scoop was flown on NASA and USAF aircraft. Water vapor measurements were conducted up to 40,000 feet with penetration into the stratosphere. Good agreement was obtained with simultaneously flown remote sounders of water vapor. During transcontinental flights the hygrometer demonstrated adequate response to measure the natural variability of water vapor near the tropopause. Rapid response was demonstrated in pursuit of the jet wake of an F-104 at 35,000 feet.

  20. Aircraft water vapor measurements utilizing an aluminum oxide hygrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, E.

    1974-01-01

    A hygrometer for water vapor measurements from an aircraft was developed. An aluminum oxide hygrometer mounted in an aircraft Rosemount air temperature scoop was flown on the NASA Convair 990 and on a USAF B-57 aircraft. Water vapor measurements from the Convair 990 were conducted up to 40,000 ft with penetration into the stratosphere. Good agreement was obtained with simultaneously flown remote sounders of water vapor. During transcontinental flights the hygrometer demonstrated adequate response to measure the natural variability of water vapor near the tropopause. Rapid response was demonstrated in pursuit of the jet wake of an F-104 at 35,000 ft.

  1. Water vapor permeabilities through polymers: diffusivities from experiments and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seethamraju, Sindhu; Chandrashekarapura Ramamurthy, Praveen; Madras, Giridhar

    2014-09-01

    This study experimentally determines water vapor permeabilities, which are subsequently correlated with the diffusivities obtained from simulations. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used for determining the diffusion of water vapor in various polymeric systems such as polyethylene, polypropylene, poly (vinyl alcohol), poly (vinyl acetate), poly (vinyl butyral), poly (vinylidene chloride), poly (vinyl chloride) and poly (methyl methacrylate). Cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) based methodology has been used to determine the water vapor transmission rates. These values were then used to calculate the diffusion coefficients for water vapor through these polymers. A comparative analysis is provided for diffusivities calculated from CRDS and MD based results by correlating the free volumes.

  2. Water Vapor Remote Sensing Techniques: Radiometry and Solar Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somieski, A.; Buerki, B.; Cocard, M.; Geiger, A.; Kahle, H.-G.

    The high variability of atmospheric water vapor content plays an important role in space geodesy, climatology and meteorology. Water vapor has a strong influence on transatmospheric satellite signals, the Earth's climate and thus the weather forecasting. Several remote sensing techniques have been developed for the determination of inte- grated precipitable water vapor (IPWV). The Geodesy and Geodynamics Lab (GGL) utilizes the methods of Water Vapor Radiometry and Solar Spectrometry to quantify the amount of tropospheric water vapor and its temporal variations. The Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) measures the radiation intensity of the atmosphere in a frequency band ranging from 20 to 32 GHz. The Solar Atmospheric MOnitoring Spectrome- ter (SAMOS) of GGL is designed for high-resolution measurements of water vapor absorption lines using solar radiation. In the framework of the ESCOMPTE (ExpÊrience sur Site pour COntraindre les Mod- Éles de Pollution atmosphÊrique et de Transport d'Emissions) field campaign these instruments have been operated near Marseille in 2001. They have aquired a long time series of integrated precipitable water vapor content (IPWV). The accuracy of IPWV measured by WVR and SAMOS is 1 kg/m2. Furthermore meteorological data from radiosondes were used to calculate the IPWV in order to provide comparisons with the results of WVR and SAMOS. The methods of Water Vapor Radiometry and So- lar Spectrometry will be discussed and first preliminary results retrieved from WVR, SAMOS and radiosondes during the ESCOMPTE field campaign will be presented.

  3. Holographic studies of the vapor explosion of vaporizing water-in-fuel emulsion droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffield, S. A.; Hess, C. F.; Trolinger, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Holographic studies were performed which examined the fragmentation process during vapor explosion of a water-in-fuel (hexadecane/water) emulsion droplet. Holograms were taken at 700 to 1000 microseconds after the vapor explosion. Photographs of the reconstructed holograms reveal a wide range of fragment droplet sizes created during the explosion process. Fragment droplet diameters range from below 10 microns to over 100 microns. It is estimated that between ten thousand and a million fragment droplets can result from this extremely violent vapor explosion process. This enhanced atomization is thus expected to have a pronounced effect on vaporization processes which are present during combustion of emulsified fuels.

  4. Advanced Water Vapor Lidar Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsayed-Ali, Hani

    1998-01-01

    In the present water vapor lidar system, the detected signal is sent over long cables to a waveform digitizer in a CAMAC crate. This has the disadvantage of transmitting analog signals for a relatively long distance, which is subjected to pickup noise, leading to a decrease in the signal to noise ratio. Generally, errors in the measurement of water vapor with the DIAL method arise from both random and systematic sources. Systematic errors in DIAL measurements are caused by both atmospheric and instrumentation effects. The selection of the on-line alexandrite laser with a narrow linewidth, suitable intensity and high spectral purity, and its operation at the center of the water vapor lines, ensures minimum influence in the DIAL measurement that are caused by the laser spectral distribution and avoid system overloads. Random errors are caused by noise in the detected signal. Variability of the photon statistics in the lidar return signal, noise resulting from detector dark current, and noise in the background signal are the main sources of random error. This type of error can be minimized by maximizing the signal to noise ratio. The increase in the signal to noise ratio can be achieved by several ways. One way is to increase the laser pulse energy, by increasing its amplitude or the pulse repetition rate. Another way, is to use a detector system with higher quantum efficiency and lower noise, on the other hand, the selection of a narrow band optical filter that rejects most of the day background light and retains high optical efficiency is an important issue. Following acquisition of the lidar data, we minimize random errors in the DIAL measurement by averaging the data, but this will result in the reduction of the vertical and horizontal resolutions. Thus, a trade off is necessary to achieve a balance between the spatial resolution and the measurement precision. Therefore, the main goal of this research effort is to increase the signal to noise ratio by a factor of

  5. Effect of Increased Water Vapor Levels on TBC Lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A; Garner, George Walter; Lowe, Tracie M; Haynes, James A; Zhang, Ying

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of increased water vapor levels on thermal barrier coating (TBC) lifetime, furnace cycle tests were performed at 1150 C in air with 10 vol.% water vapor (similar to natural gas combustion) and 90 vol.%. Either Pt diffusion or Pt-modified aluminide bond coatings were applied to specimens from the same batch of a commercial second-generation single-crystal superalloy and commercial vapor-deposited yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats were applied. Three coatings of each type were furnace cycled to failure to compare the average lifetimes obtained in dry O{sub 2}, using the same superalloy batch and coating types. Average lifetimes with Pt diffusion coatings were unaffected by the addition of water vapor. In contrast, the average lifetime of Pt-modified aluminide coatings was reduced by more than 50% with 10% water vapor but only slightly reduced by 90% water vapor. Based on roughness measurements from similar specimens without a YSZ coating, the addition of 10% water vapor increased the rate of coating roughening more than 90% water vapor. Qualitatively, the amount of {beta}-phase depletion in the coatings exposed in 10% water vapor did not appear to be accelerated.

  6. Measurement of atmospheric precipitable water using a solar radiometer. [water vapor absorption effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. E.; Dillinger, A. E.; Mcallum, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is described and tested that allows the determination of atmospheric precipitable water from two measurements of solar intensity: one in a water-vapor absorption band and another in a nearby spectral region unaffected by water vapor.

  7. Water Vapor Enhancement in Prescribed Fire Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, C. M.; Clements, C. B.; Potter, B. E.; Strenfel, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    In situ radiosonde measurements were obtained during multiple prescribed fires at the Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center at Ichauway, Georgia in March and July of 2008. Data were obtained from prescribed fires conducted in longleaf pine ecosystems. After significant smoke generation was observed, radiosondes were launched downwind of the fire front and rose directly into the smoke plumes. Radiosondes were also launched before each burn to obtain ambient background conditions. This provided a unique dataset of smoke plume moisture to determine how moisture enhancement from fire smoke alters the dynamics of the smoke plume. Preliminary analysis of results show moisture enhancement occurred in all smoke plumes with relative humidity values increasing by 10 to 30 percent and water vapor mixing ratios increasing by 1 to 4 g kg-1. Understanding the moisture enhancement in prescribed fire smoke plumes will help determine the convective dynamics that occur in major wildland fires and convection columns.

  8. The seasonal and global behavior of water vapor in the Mars atmosphere - Complete global results of the Viking atmospheric water detector experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakosky, B. M.; Farmer, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    A key question regarding the evolution of Mars is related to the behavior of its volatiles. The present investigation is concerned with the global and seasonal abundances of water vapor in the Mars atmosphere as mapped by the Viking Mars Atmospheric Water Detector (MAWD) instrument for almost 1-1/2 Martian years from June 1976 to April 1979. Attention is given to the implications of the observed variations for determining the relative importance of those processes which may be controlling the vapor cycle on a seasonal basis. The processes considered include buffering of the atmosphere water by a surface or subsurface reservior of ground ice, physically adsorbed water, or chemically bound water. Other processes are related to the supply of water from the residual or seasonal north polar ice cap, the redistribution of the vapor resulting from atmospheric circulation, and control of the vapor holding capacity of the atmosphere by the local atmospheric temperatures.

  9. Water recovery by catalytic treatment of urine vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budininkas, P.; Quattrone, P. D.; Leban, M. I.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of water recovery on a man-rated scale by the catalytic processing of untreated urine vapor. For this purpose, two catalytic systems, one capable of processing an air stream containing low urine vapor concentrations and another to process streams with high urine vapor concentrations, were designed, constructed, and tested to establish the quality of the recovered water.

  10. Operating a radio-frequency plasma source on water vapor.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Sonca V T; Foster, John E; Gallimore, Alec D

    2009-08-01

    A magnetically enhanced radio-frequency (rf) plasma source operating on water vapor has an extensive list of potential applications. In this work, the use of a rf plasma source to dissociate water vapor for hydrogen production is investigated. This paper describes a rf plasma source operated on water vapor and characterizes its plasma properties using a Langmuir probe, a residual gas analyzer, and a spectrometer. The plasma source operated first on argon and then on water vapor at operating pressures just over 300 mtorr. Argon and water vapor plasma number densities differ significantly. In the electropositive argon plasma, quasineutrality requires n(i) approximately = n(e), where n(i) is the positive ion density. But in the electronegative water plasma, quasineutrality requires n(i+) = n(i-) + n(e). The positive ion density and electron density of the water vapor plasma are approximately one and two orders of magnitude lower, respectively, than those of argon plasma. These results suggest that attachment and dissociative attachment are present in electronegative water vapor plasma. The electron temperature for this water vapor plasma source is between 1.5 and 4 eV. Without an applied axial magnetic field, hydrogen production increases linearly with rf power. With an axial magnetic field, hydrogen production jumps to a maximum value at 500 W and then saturates with rf power. The presence of the applied axial magnetic field is therefore shown to enhance hydrogen production.

  11. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  12. Putting Water Vapor Feedback Back On It's Feet (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, G. L.; Cai, M.; Stackhouse, P. W.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.

    2009-12-01

    Authors: Stephens, Graeme L., Ming Cai, Paul Stackhouse, and Tristan L'Ecuyer It has been understood for some time that changes to the strength of the greenhouse effect are fundamental to our understanding of global warming. The role of the positive water vapor feedback that occurs through the connections between temperature, water vapor, and emission of infrared radiation has also been equally understood for some time. Recently, debate about the magnitude of this feedback has mostly focused on the role of changes to tiny amounts of water vapor high in the troposphere on atmospheric emission and it's now perceived by many that the water vapor climate feedback is entirely defined by changes to upper tropospheric water vapor through its influence on the outgoing longwave radiation. This talk will demonstrate this isn't entirely correct and will demonstrate the fundamental importance of the downward longwave radiation to the surfaces as the driving force of the water vapor feedback. Our current state of knowledge of the DLR will be reviewed by comparing various data sources that have been used to create global composites of this quantity, including new data from the A-Train. The role of DLR in climate change through the water vapor feedback and it's control of global precipitation is also discussed highlighting it's relation to low level water vapor.

  13. The National Shipbuilding Research Program, Heavy Metal Adsorbents for Storm Water Pollution Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    Heavy Metal Adsorbents for Storm Water Pollution Prevention U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CARDEROCK DIVISION, NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE CENTER in...National Shipbuilding Research Program, Heavy Metal Adsorbents for Storm Water Pollution Prevention 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...States Navy. ANY POSSIBLE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE ARE SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMED. FINAL REPORT HEAVY METAL ADSORBENTS

  14. Water Vapor Monitoring at the Roque de LOS Muchachos Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Kidger, M.; del Rosario, J. C.; Trancho, G.

    1997-12-01

    We present the first results from a long-term campaign of water vapor monitoring at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Canary Islands, Spain). This observatory is situated on a volcanic peak, on the small island of La Palma. Although its altitude is relatively low (2400 meters), our initial site-testing, taken for site selection for the Spanish 10m telescope project, shows that a significant fraction of nights have water vapor column of 1mm, or lower, with values of 2mm and lower being relatively common, even in summer. The water vapor column can be stable at under 1mm for several nights, with only minimal variations. We contrast the results obtained using an infrared radiometer (on loan from Kitt Peak National Observatory), with those obtained using the 940nm water vapor line and comment briefly on plans for future automatic monitoring of water vapor at the observatory.

  15. Confirmation of Europa's water vapor plume activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Lorenz

    2013-10-01

    STIS spectral UV images of Jupiter's satellite Europa obtained during HST Cycle 20 revealed atomic H and O auroral emissions in intensity ratios which uniquely identify the source as electron impact excitation of water molecules above Europa's south pole and hypothesized to be associated with water vapor plumes as reported in Roth et al., Science, 2014. The plumes were detected when Europa was at apocenter on December 30/31, 2012. Two other sets of STIS observations when Europa was near pericenter did not show plume emission within the sensitivity of STIS. The plume variability is predicted to be correlated with Europa's distance from Jupiter in the observed way. However, the one plume detection at apocenter and the two non-detections near pericenter require confirmation. Therefore we request two visits of 5 orbits each to observe Europa at orbital positions of the predicted maximum plume activity {similar to the December 2012 STIS Europa visit} to provide confirmation of the initial STIS discovery and to consolidate the predicted geophysical variability pattern.

  16. Water vapor weathering of Taurus-Littrow orange soil - A pore-structure analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadenhead, D. A.; Mikhail, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    A pore-volume analysis was performed on water vapor adsorption data previously obtained on a fresh sample of Taurus-Littrow orange soil, and the analysis was repeated on the same sample after its exposure to moist air for a period of approximately six months. The results indicate that exposure of an outgassed sample to high relative pressures of water vapor can result in the formation of substantial micropore structure, the precise amount being dependent on the sample pretreatment, particularly the outgassing temperature. Micropore formation is explained in terms of water penetration into surface defects. In contrast, long-term exposure to moist air at low relative pressures appears to reverse the process with the elimination of micropores and enlargement of mesopores possibly through surface diffusion of metastable adsorbent material. The results are considered with reference to the storage of lunar samples.

  17. DSMC simulation of Europa water vapor plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, J. J.; Goldstein, D. B.; Varghese, P. L.; Trafton, L. M.

    2016-10-01

    A computational investigation of the physics of water vapor plumes on Europa was performed with a focus on characteristics relevant to observation and spacecraft mission operations. The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method was used to model the plume expansion assuming a supersonic vent source. The structure of the plume was determined, including the number density, temperature, and velocity fields. The possibility of ice grain growth above the vent was considered and deemed probable for large (diameter > ∼20 m) vents at certain Mach numbers. Additionally, preexisting grains of three diameters (0.1, 1, 50 μm) were included and their trajectories examined. A preliminary study of photodissociation of H2O into OH and H was performed to demonstrate the behavior of daughter species. A set of vent parameters was evaluated including Mach number (Mach 2, 3, 5), reduced temperature as a proxy for flow energy loss to the region surrounding the vent, and mass flow rate. Plume behavior was relatively insensitive to these factors, with the notable exception of mass flow rate. With an assumed mass flow rate of ∼1000 kg/s, a canopy shock occurred and a maximum integrated line of sight column density of ∼1020 H2O molecules/m2 was calculated, comparing favorably with observation (Roth et al., 2014a).

  18. Processes Controlling Water Vapor in the Winter Arctic Stratospheric Middleworld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry; Jensen, Eric; Sachse, Glenn; Podolske, James; Schoeberl, Mark; Browell, Edward; Ismail, Syed; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Water vapor in the winter arctic stratospheric middleworld is import-an: for two reasons: (1) the arctic middleworld is a source of air for the upper Troposphere because of the generally downward motion, and thus its water vapor content helps determine upper tropospheric water, a critical part of the earth's radiation budget; and (2) under appropriate conditions, relative humidities will be large, even to the point of stratospheric cirrus cloud formation, leading to the production of active chlorine species that could destroy ozone. On a number of occasions during SOLVE, clouds were observed in the stratospheric middleworld by the DC-8 aircraft. These tended to coincide with regions of low temperatures, though some cases suggest water vapor enhancements due to troposphere-to-stratosphere transport. The goal of this work is to understand the importance of processes in and at the edge of the arctic stratospheric middleworld in determining water vapor at these levels. Specifically, is water vapor at these levels determined largely by the descent of air from above, or are clouds both within and at the edge of the stratospheric middleworld potentially important? How important is troposphere-to-stratosphere transport of air in determining stratospheric middleworld water vapor content? To this end, we will first examine the minimum saturation mixing ratios along theta/EPV tubes during the SOLVE winter and compare these with DC-8 water vapor observations. This will be a rough indicator of how high relative humidities can get, and the likelihood of cirrus cloud formation in various parts of the stratospheric middleworld. We will then examine saturation mixing ratios along both diabatic and adiabatic trajectories, comparing these values with actual aircraft water vapor observations, both in situ and remote. Finally, we will attempt to actually predict water vapor using minimum saturation mixing ratios along trajectories, cloud injection (derived from satellite imagery) along

  19. Climate and Ozone Response to Increased Stratospheric Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, Drew T.

    2001-01-01

    Stratospheric water vapor abundance affects ozone, surface climate, and stratospheric temperatures. From 30-50 km altitude, temperatures show global decreases of 3-6 K over recent decades. These may be a proxy for water vapor increases, as the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate model reproduces these trends only when stratospheric water vapor is allowed to increase. Observations suggest that stratospheric water vapor is indeed increasing, however, measurements are extremely limited in either spatial coverage or duration. The model results suggest that the observed changes may be part of a global, long-term trend. Furthermore, the required water vapor change is too large to be accounted for by increased production within the stratosphere, suggesting that ongoing climate change may be altering tropospheric input. The calculated stratospheric water vapor increase contributes an additional approximately equals 24% (approximately equals 0.2 W/m(exp 2)) to the global warming from well-mixed greenhouse gases over the past two decades. Observed ozone depletion is also better reproduced when destruction due to increased water vapor is included. If the trend continues, it could increase future global warming and impede stratospheric ozone recovery.

  20. Oil palm biomass-based adsorbents for the removal of water pollutants--a review.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Tanweer; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ghazali, Arniza; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah

    2011-07-01

    This article presents a review on the role of oil palm biomass (trunks, fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches, shells, etc.) as adsorbents in the removal of water pollutants such as acid and basic dyes, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, various gaseous pollutants, and so on. Numerous studies on adsorption properties of various low-cost adsorbents, such as agricultural wastes and its based activated carbons, have been reported in recent years. Studies have shown that oil palm-based adsorbent, among the low-cost adsorbents mentioned, is the most promising adsorbent for removing water pollutants. Further, these bioadsorbents can be chemically modified for better efficiency and can undergo multiple reuses to enhance their applicability at an industrial scale. It is evident from a literature survey of more than 100 recent papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants. The conclusion is been drawn from the reviewed literature, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  1. Selection and evaluation of adsorbents for the removal of anionic surfactants from laundry rinsing water.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Natasja; van der Ham, Louis G J; Euverink, Gert-Jan W; de Haan, André B

    2007-10-01

    Low-cost adsorbents were tested to remove anionic surfactants from laundry rinsing water to allow re-use of water. Adsorbents were selected corresponding to the different surfactant adsorption mechanisms. Equilibrium adsorption studies of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) show that ionic interaction results in a high maximum adsorption capacity on positively charged adsorbents of 0.6-1.7 gLAS/g. Non-ionic interactions, such as hydrophobic interactions of LAS with non-ionic resins or activated carbons, result in a lower adsorption capacity of 0.02-0.6 gLAS/g. Negatively charged materials, such as cation exchange resins or bentonite clay, have negligible adsorption capacities for LAS. Similar results are obtained for alpha olefin sulfonate (AOS). Cost comparison of different adsorbents shows that an inorganic anion exchange material (layered double hydroxide) and activated carbons are the most cost-effective materials in terms of the amount of surfactant adsorbed per dollar worth of adsorbent.

  2. CHMWTR: A Plasma Chemistry Code for Water Vapor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    required to drive the discharge at the velocity v. II. OVERVIEW OF WATER PLASMA CHEMISTRY Upon photo-ionization by a mJ class ultra-short pulse laser...is unlimited. Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified UU 21 Daniel F. Gordon (202) 767-5036 Electrical discharge Water vapor The CHMWTR code tracks the...electrical discharges in water vapor, and describes a computer code designed to model such discharges . The code is called CHMWTR, in analogy with the NRL

  3. Adsorption of N-hexane, methanol and water vapor and binary mixtures of N-hexane/water vapor on super activated carbon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, Jesus Antonio

    Recent times have seen a large rise in the utilization of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) within a wide variety of industries due to their unique properties. Consequently, the fabrication, application and disposal of ENMs will inevitably lead to their release to the environment. Once ENMs are in the environment, they may undergo atmospheric transformations, such the sorption of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) or water vapor. These transformed ENMs may then affect the general public through inhalation -- or other pathways of exposure -- and those employed by the ever-growing nanotechnology sector are of particular vulnerability. As a result, it is important to evaluate the adsorption characteristics of a common carbon-based ENM under the presence of HAPs or water vapor which may adsorb onto them. This study investigated the unary and binary gas-phase adsorption of n-hexane, methanol and water vapor on super activated carbon nanoparticles (SACNPs) with a bench-scale adsorption system. Removal efficiencies, breakthrough tests, throughput ratios, adsorption capacities and kinetics modeling were completed to assess the adsorption behavior of the SACNPs.

  4. Electron deposition in water vapor, with atmospheric applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olivero, J. J.; Stagat, R. W.; Green, A. E. S.

    1972-01-01

    Examination of the consequences of electron impact on water vapor in terms of the microscopic details of excitation, dissociation, ionization, and combinations of these processes. Basic electron-impact cross-section data are assembled in many forms and are incorporated into semianalytic functions suitable for analysis with digital computers. Energy deposition in water vapor is discussed, and the energy loss function is presented, along with the 'electron volts per ion pair' and the efficiencies of energy loss in various processes. Several applications of electron and water-vapor interactions in the atmospheric sciences are considered, in particular, H2O comets, aurora and airglow, and lightning.

  5. Water vapor absorption in the atmospheric window at 239 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, A.; Godon, M.; Carlier, J.; Ma, Q.

    1995-01-01

    Absolute absorption rates of pure water vapor and mixtures of water vapor and nitrogen have been measured in the atmospheric window at 239 GHz. The dependence on pressure as well as temperature has been obtained. The experimental data are compared with several theoretical or empirical models, and satisfactory agreement is obtained with the models involving a continuum; in the case of pure water vapor, the continuum contribution based upon recent theoretical developments gives good results. The temperature dependence is stronger than that proposed in a commonly used atmospheric transmission model.

  6. Mars: Water Vapor Observations from the Viking Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, C. B.; Davies, D. W.; Holland, A. L.; Laporte, D. D.; Doms, P. E.

    1977-01-01

    The global distribution of the water vapor has been mapped at low resolution throughout the period from the northern summer solstice to the following equinox. During this seasonal period the water vapor underwent a gradual redistribution, the latitude of maximum column abundance moving from the northern polar area to the equatorial latitudes. The total global vapor content remained approximately constant at the equivalent of about 1.3 cu km of ice. The various data obtained indicate that the residual polar caps are composed of water ice.

  7. Chemical reaction between water vapor and stressed glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soga, N.; Okamoto, T.; Hanada, T.; Kunugi, M.

    1979-01-01

    The crack velocity in soda-lime silicate glass was determined at room temperature at water-vapor pressures of 10 to 0.04 torr using the double torsion technique. A precracked glass specimen (70 x 16 x 1.6 mm) was placed in a vacuum chamber containing a four-point bending test apparatus. The plotted experimental results show that the crack propagation curve in water agrees fairly well with that of Wiederhorn (1967). Attention is given to the effect of water vapor pressure on crack velocity at K(I) = 550,000 N/m to the 3/2 power, with (Wiederhorn's data) or without N2 present. The plotted results reveal that the present crack velocity is about two orders of magnitude higher than that of Wiederhorn at high water-vapor conditions, but the difference decreases as the water-vapor concentration diminishes or the crack velocity slows down.

  8. Application of 1H NMR spectroscopy method for determination of characteristics of thin layers of water adsorbed on the surface of dispersed and porous adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Turov, V V; Leboda, R

    1999-02-01

    The paper presents 1H NMR spectroscopy as a perspective method of the studies of the characteristics of water boundary layers in the hydrated powders and aqueous dispergated suspensions of the adsorbents. The method involves measurements of temperature dependence proton signals intensity in the adsorbed water at temperatures lower than 273 K. Free energy of water molecules at the adsorbent/water interface is diminished due to the adsorption interactions causing the water dosed to the adsorbent surface freezes at T < 273 K. Thickness of a non-freezing layer of water can be determined from the intensity of the water signal of 1H NMR during the freezing-thawing process. Due to a disturbing action of the adsorbent surface, water occurs in the quasi-liquid state. As a result, it is observed in the 1H NMR spectra as a relatively narrow signal. The signal of ice is not registered due to great differences in the transverse relaxation times of the adsorbed water and ice. The method of measuring the free surface energy of the adsorbents from the temperature dependence of the signal intensity of non-freezing water is based on the fact that the temperature of water freezing decreases by the quantity which depends on the surface energy and the distance of the adsorbed molecules from the solid surface. The water at the interface freezes when the free energies of the adsorbed water and ice are equal. To illustrate the applicability of the method under consideration the series of adsorption systems in which the absorbents used differed in the surface chemistry and porous structure. In particular, the behaviour of water on the surface of the following adsorbents is discussed: non-porous and porous silica (aerosils, silica gels); chemically and physically modified non-porous and porous silica (silanization, carbonization, biopolymer deposition); and pyrogeneous Al2O3 and aluminasilicas. The effect of preliminary treatment of the adsorbent (thermal, high pressure, wetting with polar

  9. Active Raman sounding of the earth's water vapor field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tratt, David M.; Whiteman, David N.; Demoz, Belay B.; Farley, Robert W.; Wessel, John E.

    2005-01-01

    The typically weak cross-sections characteristic of Raman processes has historically limited their use in atmospheric remote sensing to nighttime application. However, with advances in instrumentation and techniques, it is now possible to apply Raman lidar to the monitoring of atmospheric water vapor, aerosols and clouds throughout the diurnal cycle. Upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric measurements of water vapor using Raman lidar are also possible but are limited to nighttime and require long integration times. However, boundary layer studies of water vapor variability can now be performed with high temporal and spatial resolution. This paper will review the current state-of-the-art of Raman lidar for high-resolution measurements of the atmospheric water vapor, aerosol and cloud fields. In particular, we describe the use of Raman lidar for mapping the vertical distribution and variability of atmospheric water vapor, aerosols and clouds throughout the evolution of dynamic meteorological events. The ability of Raman lidar to detect and characterize water in the region of the tropopause and the importance of high-altitude water vapor for climate-related studies and meteorological satellite performance are discussed.

  10. Condensation of water vapor in the gravitational field

    SciTech Connect

    Gorshkov, V. G.; Makarieva, A. M.; Nefiodov, A. V.

    2012-10-15

    Physical peculiarities of water vapor condensation under conditions of hydrostatic equilibrium are considered. The power of stationary dynamic air fluxes and the vertical temperature distribution caused by condensation on large horizontal scales are estimated.

  11. Comparison of the water vapor and aerosol profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penner, I. E.; Arshinov, M. Yu.; Balin, Yu. S.; Belan, B. D.; Voronin, B. A.; Kokhanenko, G. P.

    2014-11-01

    Analysis of the contents of water vapor and aerosol in the atmosphere measured by means of different instruments was performed based on the results of the comprehensive aerosol experiment carried out at the Institute of Atmospheric optics in May 2012. The data obtained using remote (lidar) and contact (balloon) methods were used. They are capable of obtaining the vertical profiles of the measured parameters with high spatial resolution. Lidar measurements of the water vapor content in the boundary layer of the atmosphere by Raman method have shown very good agreement with the data of measurements by balloon. Simultaneous lidar measurements of backscattering and mixing ratio of water vapor in the atmosphere give significant positive correlation of the contents of water vapor and aerosol in the layers.

  12. Performance Modeling of an Airborne Raman Water Vapor Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Schwemmer, G.; Berkoff, T.; Plotkin, H.; Ramos-Izquierdo, L.; Pappalardo, G.

    2000-01-01

    A sophisticated Raman lidar numerical model had been developed. The model has been used to simulate the performance of two ground-based Raman water vapor lidar systems. After tuning the model using these ground-based measurements, the model is used to simulate the water vapor measurement capability of an airborne Raman lidar under both day-and night-time conditions for a wide range of water vapor conditions. The results indicate that, under many circumstances, the daytime measurements possess comparable resolution to an existing airborne differential absorption water vapor lidar while the nighttime measurement have higher resolution. In addition, a Raman lidar is capable of measurements not possible using a differential absorption system.

  13. University of Oregon: GPS-based Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vignola, F.; Andreas, A.

    2013-08-22

    A partnership with the University of Oregon and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) data to compliment existing resource assessment data collection by the university.

  14. CRISM Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared spectra returned by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM, [1]) on-board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) contain the clear spectral signature of several atmospheric gases including carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), and carbon monoxide (CO). Here we describe the seasonal and spatial mapping of water vapor and carbon dioxide for one full Martian year using CRISM spectra.

  15. Gold nanoparticle-aluminum oxide adsorbent for efficient removal of mercury species from natural waters.

    PubMed

    Lo, Sut-I; Chen, Po-Cheng; Huang, Chih-Ching; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2012-03-06

    We report a new adsorbent for removal of mercury species. By mixing Au nanoparticles (NPs) 13 nm in diameter with aluminum oxide (Al(2)O(3)) particles 50-200 μm in diameter, Au NP-Al(2)O(3) adsorbents are easily prepared. Three adsorbents, Al(2)O(3), Au NPs, and Au NP-Al(2)O(3), were tested for removal of mercury species [Hg(2+), methylmercury (MeHg(+)), ethylmercury (EtHg(+)), and phenylmercury (PhHg(+))]. The Au NP adsorbent has a higher binding affinity (dissociation constant; K(d) = 0.3 nM) for Hg(2+) ions than the Al(2)O(3) adsorbent (K(d) = 52.9 nM). The Au NP-Al(2)O(3) adsorbent has a higher affinity for mercury species and other tested metal ions than the Al(2)O(3) and Au NP adsorbents. The Au NP-Al(2)O(3) adsorbent provides a synergic effect and, thus, is effective for removal of most tested metal ions and organic mercury species. After preconcentration of mercury ions by an Au NP-Al(2)O(3) adsorbent, analysis of mercury ions down to the subppq level in aqueous solution was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The Au NP-Al(2)O(3) adsorbent allows effective removal of mercury species spiked in lake water, groundwater, and seawater with efficiencies greater than 97%. We also used Al(2)O(3) and Au NP-Al(2)O(3) adsorbents sequentially for selectively removing Hg(2+) and MeHg(+) ions from water. The low-cost, effective, and stable Au NP-Al(2)O(3) adsorbent shows great potential for economical removal of various mercury species.

  16. Water-vapor pressure control in a volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The variation with time of the partial pressure of water in a volume that has openings to the outside environment and includes vapor sources was evaluated as a function of the purging flow and its vapor content. Experimental tests to estimate the diffusion of ambient humidity through openings and to validate calculated results were included. The purging flows required to produce and maintain a certain humidity in shipping containers, storage rooms, and clean rooms can be estimated with the relationship developed here. These purging flows are necessary to prevent the contamination, degradation, and other effects of water vapor on the systems inside these volumes.

  17. Profiling of Atmospheric Water Vapor with MIR and LASE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Racette, P.; Triesly, M. E.; Browell, E. V.; Ismail, S.; Chang, L. A.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the first and the only simultaneous measurements of water vapor by MIR (Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer) and LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sounding Experiment) on board the same ER-2 aircraft. Water vapor is one of the most important constituents in the Earth's atmosphere, as its spatial and temporal variations affect a wide spectrum of meteorological phenomena ranging from the formation of clouds to the development of severe storms. Its concentration, as measured in terms of relative humidity, determines the extinction coefficient of atmospheric aerosol particles and therefore visibility. These considerations point to the need for effective and frequent measurements of the atmospheric water vapor. The MIR and LASE instruments provide measurements of water vapor profiles with two markedly different techniques. LASE can give water vapor profiles with excellent vertical resolution under clear condition, while MIR can retrieve water vapor profiles with a crude vertical resolution even under a moderate cloud cover. Additionally, millimeter-wave measurements are relatively simple and provide better spatial coverage.

  18. GROUND WATER SAMPLING OF VOCS IN THE WATER/CAPILLARY FRINGE AREA FOR VAPOR INTRUSION ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vapor intrusion has recently been considered a major pathway for increased indoor air contamination from certain volatile organic contaminants (VOCs). The recent Draft EPA Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Guidance Document states that ground water samples should be obtained from the u...

  19. The effect of mineral bond strength and adsorbed water on fault gouge frictional strength

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, C.A.; Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the tendency of many fault gouge minerals to take on adsorbed or interlayer water may strongly influence their frictional strength. To test this hypothesis, triaxial sliding experiments were conducted on 15 different single-mineral gouges with various water-adsorbing affinities. Vacuum dried samples were sheared at 100 MPa, then saturated with water and sheared farther to compare dry and wet strengths. The coefficients of friction, μ, for the dry sheet-structure minerals (0.2-0.8), were related to mineral bond strength, and dropped 20-60% with the addition of water. For non-adsorbing minerals (μ = 0.6-0.8), the strength remained unchanged after saturation. These results confirm that the ability of minerals to adsorb various amounts of water is related to their relative frictional strengths, and may explain the anomalously low strength of certain natural fault gouges.

  20. Water Vapor-Mediated Volatilization of High-Temperature Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschter, Peter J.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2013-07-01

    Volatilization in water vapor-containing atmospheres is an important and often unexpected mechanism of degradation of high-temperature materials during processing and in service. Thermodynamic properties data sets for key (oxy)hydroxide vapor product species that are responsible for material transport and damage are often uncertain or unavailable. Estimation, quantum chemistry calculation, and measurement methods for thermodynamic properties of these species are reviewed, and data judged to be reliable are tabulated and referenced. Applications of water vapor-mediated volatilization include component and coating recession in turbine engines, oxidation/volatilization of ferritic steels in steam boilers, chromium poisoning in solid-oxide fuel cells, vanadium transport in hot corrosion and degradation of hydrocracking catalysts, Na loss from Na β"-Al2O3 tubes, and environmental release of radioactive isotopes in a nuclear reactor accident or waste incineration. The significance of water vapor-mediated volatilization in these applications is described.

  1. Interpretation of MSL REMS data using 1D coupled heat and water vapor transport model of Mars subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloesener, Elodie; Karatekin, Özgür; Dehant, Véronique

    2016-04-01

    MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) performed high-resolution measurements of temperature and relative humidity during more than one Martian year. In this work, a 1D subsurface model is used to study water vapor exchange between the atmosphere and the subsurface at Gale crater using REMS data. The thermal model used includes several layers of varying thickness with depth and properties that can be changed to correspond to those of Martian rocks at locations studied. It also includes the transport of water vapor through porous Martian regolith and the different phases considered are vapor, ice and adsorbed H2O. The total mass flux is given by the sum of diffusive and advective transport. The role of an adsorbing regolith on water transfer as well as the range of parameters with significant effect on water transport in Martian conditions are investigated. In addition, kinetics of the adsorption process is considered to examine its influence on the water vapor exchange between the subsurface and the atmosphere.

  2. Vapor compression distiller and membrane technology for water revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashida, A.; Mitani, K.; Ebara, K.; Kurokawa, H.; Sawada, I.; Kashiwagi, H.; Tsuji, T.; Hayashi, S.; Otsubo, K.; Nitta, K.

    1987-01-01

    Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied: one is absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation, able to easily produce condensed water under zero gravity, was investigated experimentally and through simulated calculation. The vapor compression distiller was studied experimentally and it offers significant energy savings for evaporation of water.

  3. Retention of radium from thermal waters on sand filters and adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Elejalde, C; Herranz, M; Idoeta, R; Legarda, F; Romero, F; Baeza, A

    2007-06-18

    This study was focussed on laboratory experiences of retention of radium from one thermal water on sand filters and adsorbents, trying to find an easy method for the elimination in drinkable waters polluted with this natural radio-nuclide. A thermal water from Cantabria (Spain) was selected for this work. Retention experiences were made with columns of 35 mm of diameter containing 15 cm layers of washed river sand or 4 cm layers of zeolite A3, passing known volumes of thermal water at flows between 4 and 40 ml/min with control of the retained radium by determining the amount in the water after the treatment. The statistical analysis of data suggests that retention depends on the flow and the volume passed through the columns. As additional adsorbents were used kaolin and a clay rich in illite. Jar-test experiences were made agitating known weights of adsorbents with the selected thermal water, with addition of flocculants and determination of radium in filtrated water after the treatment. Data suggest that retention is related to the weight of adsorbent used, but important quantities of radium seem remain in solution for higher amounts of adsorbents, according to the statistical treatment of data. The elution of retained radium from columns or adsorbents, previously used in experiences, should be the aim of a future research.

  4. Removal of arsenic from water using nano adsorbents and challenges: A review.

    PubMed

    Lata, Sneh; Samadder, S R

    2016-01-15

    Many researchers have used nanoparticles as adsorbents to remove water pollutants including arsenic after modifying the properties of nanoparticles by improving reactivity, biocompatibility, stability, charge density, multi-functionalities, and dispersibility. For arsenic removal, nano adsorbents emerged as the potential alternatives to existing conventional technologies. The present study critically reviewed the past and current available information on the potential of nano adsorbents for arsenic removal from contaminated water and the challenges involved in that. The study discussed the separation and regeneration techniques of nano adsorbents and the performance thereof. The study evaluated the adsorption efficiency of the various nanoparticles based on size of nanoparticles, types of nano adsorbents, method of synthesis, separation and regeneration of the nano adsorbents. The study found that more studies are required on suitable holding materials for the nano adsorbents to improve the permeability and to make the technology applicable at the field condition. The study will help the readers to choose suitable nanomaterials and to take up further research required for arsenic removal using nano adsorbents.

  5. Thermodynamic properties of adsorbed water on silica gel - Exergy losses in adiabatic sorption processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worek, W. M.; Zengh, W.; San, J.-Y.

    1991-09-01

    In order to perform exergy analyses to optimize the transient heat and mass transfer processes involving sorption by solid adsorbents, the thermodynamic properties of adsorbed water must be determined. In this paper, the integral enthalpy and entropy are determined directly from isotherm data of water adsorbed on silica gel particles and silica gel manufactured in the form of a felt with 25 percent cotton as a support and Teflon as a binder. These results are then used to evaluate the exergy losses, due to the sorption and the convective heat and mass transfer processes, that occur in each portion of an adiabatic desiccant dehumidificaton cycle.

  6. Sorption and modeling of mass transfer of toxic chemical vapors in activated-carbon fiber-cloth adsorbers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lordgooei, M.; Sagen, J.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    1998-01-01

    A new activated-carbon fiber-cloth (ACFC) adsorber coupled with an electrothermal regenerator and a cryogenic condenser was designed and developed to efficiently capture and recover toxic chemical vapors (TCVs) from simulated industrial gas streams. The system was characterized for adsorption by ACFC, electrothermal desorption, and cryogenic condensation to separate acetone and methyl ethyl ketone from gas streams. Adsorption dynamics are numerically modeled to predict system characteristics during scale-up and optimization of the process in the future. The model requires diffusivities of TCVs into an activated-carbon fiber (ACF) as an input. Effective diffusivities of TCVs into ACFs were modeled as a function of temperature, concentration, and pore size distribution. Effective diffusivities for acetone at 65 ??C and 30-60 ppmv were measured using a chromatography method. The energy factor for surface diffusion was determined from comparison between the experimental and modeled effective diffusivities. The modeled effective diffusivities were used in a dispersive computational model to predict mass transfer zones of TCVs in fixed beds of ACFC under realistic conditions for industrial applications.

  7. Numerical simulation of water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    1995-01-01

    Water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs is a means of condensate disposal, as well as a reservoir management tool for enhancing energy recovery and reservoir life. We review different approaches to modeling the complex fluid and heat flow processes during injection into vapor-dominated systems. Vapor pressure lowering, grid orientation effects, and physical dispersion of injection plumes from reservoir heterogeneity are important considerations for a realistic modeling of injection effects. An example of detailed three-dimensional modeling of injection experiments at The Geysers is given.

  8. Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

  9. Sevoflurane Contamination: Water Accumulation in Sevoflurane Vaporizers Can Allow Bacterial Growth in the Vaporizer.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Arthur W

    2016-06-15

    Sevoflurane vaporizers (GE Tec 7) were difficult to fill with "slow flow" and a need to "burp." Evaluation of the bottle of sevoflurane (AbbVie Ultane) demonstrated a contaminant. Four of the facilities' 13 sevoflurane vaporizers had the contaminant. Unopened sevoflurane bottles did not have evidence of contamination. The contaminant was found to be water at pH 6.0 growing Staphylococcus epidermidis. Gas chromatography revealed the production of multiple metabolites of sevoflurane, including primarily urea and 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (83% and 9.6% of volatiles) in addition to multiple other organic molecules. Sevoflurane contains water that can accumulate in vaporizers allowing bacterial growth.

  10. Vaporization behavior of lithium oxide: Effect of water vapor in helium carrier gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetenbaum, M.; Johnson, C. E.

    1984-04-01

    The effect of water vapor in a helium carrier gas on the vaporization behavior of lithium oxide has been investigated in the temperature range 1023 to 1273 K. Based on the reaction Li 2O(s)+H 2O(g) → 2LiOH(g), the results of this study yield second and third law heats of reaction of 79.0 ± 3 and 82.1 ± 1 kcal/mol. Moisture significantly enhances the volatility of lithium oxide. The pronounced effect of water vapor on the volatilization of Li 2O (as LiOH) is important in understanding the behavior of a Li 2O solid breeding blanket in anticipated fusion reactor environments.

  11. Submerged membrane adsorption hybrid system using four adsorbents to remove nitrate from water.

    PubMed

    Kalaruban, Mahatheva; Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Kandasamy, Jaya; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2017-04-05

    Nitrate contamination of ground and surface waters causes environmental pollution and human health problems in many parts of the world. This study tests the nitrate removal efficiencies of two ion exchange resins (Dowex 21K XLT and iron-modified Dowex 21K XLT (Dowex-Fe)) and two chemically modified bio-adsorbents (amine-grafted corn cob (AG corn cob) and amine-grafted coconut copra (AG coconut copra)) using a dynamic adsorption treatment system. A submerged membrane (microfiltration) adsorption hybrid system (SMAHS) was used for the continuous removal of nitrate with a minimal amount of adsorbents. The efficiency of membrane filtration flux and replacement rate of adsorbent were studied to determine suitable operating conditions to maintain the effluent nitrate concentration below the WHO drinking standard limit of 11.3 mg N/L. The volume of water treated and the amount of nitrate adsorbed per gramme of adsorbent for all four flux tested were in the order Dowex-Fe > Dowex > AG coconut copra > AG corn cob. The volumes of water treated (L/g adsorbent) were 0.91 and 1.85, and the amount of nitrate removed (mg N/g adsorbent) were 9.8 and 22.2 for AG corn cob and Dowex-Fe, respectively, at a flux of 15 L/(m(2)/h).

  12. Effect of the adsorbate kinetic diameter on the accuracy of the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation for modeling adsorption of organic vapors on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Jahandar Lashaki, Masoud; Fayaz, Mohammadreza; Niknaddaf, Saeid; Hashisho, Zaher

    2012-11-30

    This paper investigates the effect of the kinetic diameter (KD) of the reference adsorbate on the accuracy of the Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equation for predicting the adsorption isotherms of organic vapors on microporous activated carbon. Adsorption isotherms for 13 organic compounds on microporous beaded activated carbon were experimentally measured, and predicted using the D-R model and affinity coefficients. The affinity coefficients calculated based on molar volumes, molecular polarizabilities, and molecular parachors were used to predict the isotherms based on four reference compounds (4.3≤KD≤6.8 Å). The results show that the affinity coefficients are independent of the calculation method if the reference and test adsorbates are from the same organic group. Choosing a reference adsorbate with a KD similar to that of the test adsorbate results in better prediction of the adsorption isotherm. The relative error between the predicted and the measured adsorption isotherms increases as the absolute difference in the kinetic diameters of the reference and test adsorbates increases. Finally, the proposed hypothesis was used to explain reports of inconsistent findings among published articles. The results from this study are important because they allow a more accurate prediction of adsorption capacities of adsorbents which allow for better design of adsorption systems.

  13. Evaluating of arsenic(V) removal from water by weak-base anion exchange adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Awual, M Rabiul; Hossain, M Amran; Shenashen, M A; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Jyo, Akinori

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater has been called the largest mass poisoning calamity in human history and creates severe health problems. The effective adsorbents are imperative in response to the widespread removal of toxic arsenic exposure through drinking water. Evaluation of arsenic(V) removal from water by weak-base anion exchange adsorbents was studied in this paper, aiming at the determination of the effects of pH, competing anions, and feed flow rates to improvement on remediation. Two types of weak-base adsorbents were used to evaluate arsenic(V) removal efficiency both in batch and column approaches. Anion selectivity was determined by both adsorbents in batch method as equilibrium As(V) adsorption capacities. Column studies were performed in fixed-bed experiments using both adsorbent packed columns, and kinetic performance was dependent on the feed flow rate and competing anions. The weak-base adsorbents clarified that these are selective to arsenic(V) over competition of chloride, nitrate, and sulfate anions. The solution pH played an important role in arsenic(V) removal, and a higher pH can cause lower adsorption capacities. A low concentration level of arsenic(V) was also removed by these adsorbents even at a high flow rate of 250-350 h(-1). Adsorbed arsenic(V) was quantitatively eluted with 1 M HCl acid and regenerated into hydrochloride form simultaneously for the next adsorption operation after rinsing with water. The weak-base anion exchange adsorbents are to be an effective means to remove arsenic(V) from drinking water. The fast adsorption rate and the excellent adsorption capacity in the neutral pH range will render this removal technique attractive in practical use in chemical industry.

  14. Removal of Sarin Aerosol and Vapor by Water Sprays

    SciTech Connect

    Brockmann, John E.

    1998-09-01

    Falling water drops can collect particles and soluble or reactive vapor from the gas through which they fall. Rain is known to remove particles and vapors by the process of rainout. Water sprays can be used to remove radioactive aerosol from the atmosphere of a nuclear reactor containment building. There is a potential for water sprays to be used as a mitigation technique to remove chemical or bio- logical agents from the air. This paper is a quick-look at water spray removal. It is not definitive but rather provides a reasonable basic model for particle and gas removal and presents an example calcu- lation of sarin removal from a BART station. This work ~ a starting point and the results indicate that further modeling and exploration of additional mechanisms for particle and vapor removal may prove beneficial.

  15. Scalable Production Method for Graphene Oxide Water Vapor Separation Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Fifield, Leonard S.; Shin, Yongsoon; Liu, Wei; Gotthold, David W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT

    Membranes for selective water vapor separation were assembled from graphene oxide suspension using techniques compatible with high volume industrial production. The large-diameter graphene oxide flake suspensions were synthesized from graphite materials via relatively efficient chemical oxidation steps with attention paid to maintaining flake size and achieving high graphene oxide concentrations. Graphene oxide membranes produced using scalable casting methods exhibited water vapor flux and water/nitrogen selectivity performance meeting or exceeding that of membranes produced using vacuum-assisted laboratory techniques. (PNNL-SA-117497)

  16. Shape Evolution of Metal Nanoparticles in Water Vapor Environment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Beien; Xu, Zhen; Wang, Chunlei; Gao, Yi

    2016-04-13

    The structures of the metal nanoparticles are crucial for their catalytic activities. How to understand and even control the shape evolution of nanoparticles under reaction condition is a big challenge in heterogeneous catalysis. It has been proved that many reactive gases hold the capability of changing the structures and properties of metal nanoparticles. One interesting question is whether water vapor, such a ubiquitous environment, could induce the shape evolution of metal nanoparticles. So far this question has not received enough attention yet. In this work, we developed a model based on the density functional theory, the Wulff construction, and the Langmuir adsorption isotherm to explore the shape of metal nanoparticle at given temperature and water vapor pressure. By this model, we show clearly that water vapor could notably increase the fraction of (110) facets and decrease that of (111) facets for 3-8 nm Cu nanoparticles, which is perfectly consistent with the experimental observations. Further investigations indicate the water vapor has different effects on the different metal species (Cu, Au, Pt, and Pd). This work not only helps to understand the water vapor effect on the structures of metal nanoparticles but also proposes a simple but effective model to predict the shape of nanoparticles in certain environment.

  17. Adsorption of radon and water vapor on commercial activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, N.M.; Ghosh, T.K.; Hines, A.L.; Loyalka, S.K.

    1995-02-01

    Equilibrium adsorption isotherms are reported for radon and water vapor on two commercial activated carbons: coconut shell Type PCB and hardwood Type BD. The isotherms of the water vapor were measured gravimetrically at 298 K. The isotherms of radon from dry nitrogen were obtained at 293, 298, and 308 K while the data for the mixture of radon and water vapor were measured at 298 K. The concentrations of radon in the gas and solid phases were measured simultaneously, once the adsorption equilibrium and the radioactive equilibrium between the radon and its daughter products were established. The shape of the isotherms was of Type III for the radon and Type V for the water vapor, according to Brunauer`s classification. The adsorption mechanism was similar for both the radon and the water vapor, being physical adsorption on the macropore surface area in the low pressure region and micropore filling near saturation pressure. The uptake capacity of radon decreased both with increasing temperature and relative humidity. The heat of adsorption data indicated that the PCB- and the BD-activated carbons provided a heterogeneous surface for radon adsorption. The equilibrium data for radon were correlated with a modified Freundlich equation.

  18. Proposed reference model for middle atmosphere water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, E. W.; Remsberg, E. E.; Rodgers, C. D.; Munro, R.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; McCormick, M. P.; Russell, J. M.

    Several new and significant satellite data sets on middle atmosphere water vapor have been produced recently. They include data from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) and the Nimbus-7 Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (SAMS) experiment. The SAGE II data provide an estimate of interannual variability of water vapor in the stratosphere. The SAMS data are appropriate for the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere. We combine these two data sets with those from the Nimbus-7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) experiment to update the COSPAR interim reference model for water vapor. Water vapor profiles from the Spacelab 3 Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment, ground-based microwave, and in situ balloon and aircraft measurements have been used to check the quality of the satellite data sets. The updated reference model is given as a function of latitude and pressure altitude and now covers all four seasons. Tabulations are included for these seasonal water vapor mixing ratios (in ppmv) and their estimated errors (in percent).

  19. Carbon and water vapor fluxes of different ecosystems in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on exchange of energy, carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) for major terrestrial ecosystems is vital to quantify carbon and water balances on a large-scale. It is also necessary to develop, test, and improve crop models and satellite-based production efficiency and evapotranspira...

  20. Computer simulation of the NASA water vapor electrolysis reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    The water vapor electrolysis (WVE) reactor is a spacecraft waste reclamation system for extended-mission manned spacecraft. The WVE reactor's raw material is water, its product oxygen. A computer simulation of the WVE operational processes provided the data required for an optimal design of the WVE unit. The simulation process was implemented with the aid of a FORTRAN IV routine.

  1. Electrolysis cell functions as water vapor dehumidifier and oxygen generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    Water vapor is absorbed in hygroscopic electrolyte, and oxygen generated by absorbed water electrolysis at anode is added simultaneously to air stream. Cell applications include on-board aircraft oxygen systems, portable oxygen generators, oxygen concentration requirements, and commercial air conditioning and dehumidifying systems.

  2. Accurate predictions for the production of vaporized water

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, E.; Montel, F.

    1995-12-31

    The production of water vaporized in the gas phase is controlled by the local conditions around the wellbore. The pressure gradient applied to the formation creates a sharp increase of the molar water content in the hydrocarbon phase approaching the well; this leads to a drop in the pore water saturation around the wellbore. The extent of the dehydrated zone which is formed is the key controlling the bottom-hole content of vaporized water. The maximum water content in the hydrocarbon phase at a given pressure, temperature and salinity is corrected by capillarity or adsorption phenomena depending on the actual water saturation. Describing the mass transfer of the water between the hydrocarbon phases and the aqueous phase into the tubing gives a clear idea of vaporization effects on the formation of scales. Field example are presented for gas fields with temperatures ranging between 140{degrees}C and 180{degrees}C, where water vaporization effects are significant. Conditions for salt plugging in the tubing are predicted.

  3. SWAS observations of water vapor in the Venus mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurwell, Mark A.; Melnick, Gary J.; Tolls, Volker; Bergin, Edwin A.; Patten, Brian M.

    2007-06-01

    We present the first detections of the ground-state H 216O ( 1-1) rotational transition (at 556.9 GHz) and the 13CO (5-4) rotational transition from the atmosphere of Venus, measured with the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS). The observed spectral features of these submillimeter transitions originate primarily from the 70-100 km altitude range, within the Venus mesosphere. Observations were obtained in December 2002, and January, March, and July 2004, coarsely sampling one Venus diurnal period as seen from Earth. The measured water vapor absorption line depth shows large variability among the four observing periods, with strong detections of the line in December 2002 and July 2004, and no detections in January and March 2004. Retrieval of atmospheric parameters was performed using a multi-transition inversion algorithm, combining simultaneous retrievals of temperature, carbon monoxide, and water profiles under imposed constraints. Analysis of the SWAS spectra resulted in measurements or upper limits for the globally averaged mesospheric water vapor abundance for each of the four observation periods, finding variability over at least two orders of magnitude. The results are consistent with both temporal and diurnal variability, but with short-term fluctuations clearly dominating. These results are fully consistent with the long-term study of mesospheric water vapor from millimeter and submillimeter observations of HDO [Sandor, B.J., Clancy, R.T., 2005. Icarus 177, 129-143]. The December 2002 observations detected very rapid change in the mesospheric water abundance. Over five days, a deep water absorption feature consistent with a water vapor abundance of 4.5±1.5 parts per million suddenly gave way to a significantly shallower absorption, implying a decrease in the water vapor abundance by a factor of nearly 50 in less that 48 h. In 2004, similar changes in the water vapor abundance were measured between the March and July SWAS observing periods, but

  4. Numerical and Experimental Quantification of coupled water and water vapor fluxes in very dry soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madi, Raneem; de Rooij, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions with deep groundwater and very dry soils, vapor movement in the vadose zone may be a major component in the total water flux. Therefore, the coupled movement of liquid water, water vapor and heat transport in the unsaturated zone should be explicitly considered to quantify subsurface water fluxes in such regions. Only few studies focused on the importance of vapor water diffusion in dry soils and in many water flow studies in soil it was neglected. We are interested in the importance of water vapor diffusion and condensation in very dry sand. A version of Hydrus-1D capable of solving the coupled water vapor and heat transport equations will be used to do the numerical modeling. The soil hydraulic properties will be experimentally determined. A soil column experiment was developed with negligible liquid flow in order to isolate vapor flux for testing. We have used different values of initial water contents trying to generate different scenarios to assess the role of the water vapor transport in arid and semi-arid soils and how it changes the soil water content using different soil hydraulic parametrization functions. In the session a preliminary experimental and modelling results of vapor and water fluxes will be presented.

  5. Analysis of the global ISCCP TOVS water vapor climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittmeyer, Ian L.; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.

    1994-01-01

    A climatological examination of the global water vapor field based on a multiyear period of successfull satellite-based observations is presented. Results from the multiyear global ISCCP TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) water vapor dataset as operationally produced by NESDIS and ISCCP are shown. The methods employed for the retrieval of precipitable water content (PWC) utilize infrared measurements collected by the TOVS instrument package flown aboard the NOAA series of operational polar-orbiting satellites. Strengths of this dataset include the nearly global daily coverage, availability for a multiyear period, operational internal quality checks, and its description of important features in the mean state of the atmosphere. Weaknesses of this PWC dataset include that the infrared sensors are unable to collect data in cloudy regions, the retrievals are strongly biased toward a land-based radiosonde first-guess dataset, and the description of high spatial and temporal variability is inadequate. Primary consequences of these factors are seen in the underestimation of ITCZ water vapor maxima, and underestimation of midlatitude water vapor mean and standard deviation values where transient atmospheric phenomena contribute significantly toward time means. A comparison of TOVS analyses to SSM/I data over ocean for the month of July 1988 shows fair agreement in the magnitude and distribution of the monthly mean values, but the TOVS fields exhibit much less temporal and spatial variability on a daily basis in comparison to the SSM/I analyses. The emphasis of this paper is on the presentation and documentation of an early satellite-based water vapor climatology, and description of factors that prevent a more accurate representation of the global water vapor field.

  6. Low-cost magnetic adsorbent for As(III) removal from water: adsorption kinetics and isotherms.

    PubMed

    Kango, Sarita; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles as adsorbent for arsenic (As) were coated on sand particles. The coated sand was used for the removal of highly toxic element 'As(III)' from drinking water. Here, batch experiments were performed with the variation of solution pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial arsenic concentration. The adsorbent showed significant removal efficiency around 99.6 % for As(III). Analysis of adsorption kinetics revealed that the adsorbent follows pseudo-second-order kinetics model showing R (2) = 0.999, whereas for pseudo-first-order kinetics model, the value of R (2) was 0.978. In the case of adsorption equilibrium, the data is well fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm model (R (2) > 0.99), indicating monolayer adsorption of As(III) on the surface of adsorbent. The existence of commonly present ions in water influences the removal efficiency of As(III) minutely in the following order PO4 (3-) > HCO3 (-) > Cl(-) > SO4 (2-). The obtained adsorbent can be used to overcome the problem of water filtration in rural areas. Moreover, as the nano-magnetite is coated on the sand, it avoids the problem of extraction of nanoparticles from treated water and can easily be removed by a simple filtration process.

  7. Validation of Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's OMI Water Vapor Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.

    2015-12-01

    We perform a comprehensive validation of SAO's OMI water vapor product. The SAO OMI water vapor slant column is retrieved using the 430 - 480 nm wavelength range. In addition to water vapor, the retrieval considers O3, NO2, liquid water, O4, C2H2O2, the Ring effect, water ring, 3rd order polynomial, common mode and under-sampling. The slant column is converted to vertical column using AMF. AMF is calculated using GEOS-Chem water vapor profile shape, OMCLDO2 cloud information and OMLER surface albedo information. We validate our product using NCAR's GPS network data over the world and RSS's gridded microwave data over the ocean. We also compare our product with the total precipitable water derived from the AERONET ground-based sun photometer data, the GlobVapour gridded product, and other datasets. We investigate the influence of sub-grid scale variability and filtering criteria on the comparison. We study the influence of clouds, aerosols and a priori profiles on the retrieval. We also assess the long-term performance and stability of our product and seek ways to improve it.

  8. Tracing Water Vapor and Ice During Dust Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krijt, Sebastiaan; Ciesla, Fred J.; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2016-12-01

    The processes that govern the evolution of dust and water (in the form of vapor or ice) in protoplanetary disks are intimately connected. We have developed a model that simulates dust coagulation, dust dynamics (settling, turbulent mixing), vapor diffusion, and condensation/sublimation of volatiles onto grains in a vertical column of a protoplanetary disk. We employ the model to study how dust growth and dynamics influence the vertical distribution of water vapor and water ice in the region just outside the radial snowline. Our main finding is that coagulation (boosted by the enhanced stickiness of icy grains) and the ensuing vertical settling of solids results in water vapor being depleted, but not totally removed, from the region above the snowline on a timescale commensurate with the vertical turbulent mixing timescale. Depending on the strength of the turbulence and the temperature, the depletion can reach factors of up to ∼50 in the disk atmosphere. In our isothermal column, this vapor depletion results in the vertical snowline moving closer to the midplane (by up to 2 gas scale heights) and the gas-phase {{C}}/{{O}} ratio above the vertical snowline increasing. Our findings illustrate the importance of dynamical effects and the need for understanding coevolutionary dynamics of gas and solids in planet-forming environments.

  9. The response of stratospheric water vapor to a changing climate: Insights from in situ water vapor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Maryann Racine

    Stratospheric water vapor plays an important role in the Earth system, both through its role in stratospheric ozone destruction and as a greenhouse gas contributing to radiative forcing of the climate. Highly accurate water vapor measurements are critical to understanding how stratospheric water vapor concentrations will respond to a changing climate. However, the past disagreement among water vapor instruments on the order of 1-2 ppmv hinders understanding of the mechanisms which control stratospheric humidity, and the reliable detection of water vapor trends. In response to these issues, we present a new dual axis water vapor instrument that combines the heritage Harvard Lyman-alpha hygrometer with the newly developed Harvard Herriott Hygrometer (HHH). The Lyman-alpha instrument utilizes ultraviolet photo-fragment fluorescence detection, and its accuracy has been demonstrated though rigorous laboratory calibrations and in situ diagnostic procedures. HHH employs a tunable diode near-IR laser to measure water vapor via direct absorption in a Herriott cell; it demonstrated in-flight precision of 0.1 ppmv (1-sec) with accuracy of 5%±0.5 ppmv. We describe these two measurement techniques in detail along with our methodology for calibration and details of the measurement uncertainties. We also examine the recent flight comparison of the two instruments with several other in situ hygrometers during the 2011 MACPEX campaign, in which five independent instruments agreed to within 0.7 ppmv, a significant improvement over past comparisons. Water vapor measurements in combination with simultaneous in situ measurements of O3, CO, CO2, HDO, and HCl are also used to investigate transport in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). Data from the winter 2006 CR-AVE campaign and the summer 2007 TC4 campaign are analyzed in a one-dimensional mixing model to explore the seasonal importance of transport within the TTL via slow upward ascent, convective injection, and isentropic

  10. An opacity-sampled treatment of water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, David R.; Augason, Gordon C.; Johnson, Hollis R.

    1989-01-01

    Although the bands of H2O are strong in the spectra of cool stars and calculations have repeatedly demonstrated their significance as opacity sources, only approximate opacities are currently available, due both to the difficulty of accounting for the millions of lines involved and to the inadequacy of laboratory and theoretical data. To overcome these obstacles, a new treatment is presented, based upon a statistical representation of the water vapor spectrum derived from available laboratory data. This statistical spectrum of water vapor employs an exponential distribution of line strengths and random positions of lines whose overall properties are forced to reproduce the mean opacities observed in the laboratory. The resultant data set is then treated by the opacity-sampling method exactly as are all other lines, both molecular and atomic. Significant differences are found between the results of this improved treatment and the results obtained with previous treatments of water-vapor opacity.

  11. Water vapor-nitrogen absorption at CO2 laser frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, J. C.; Thomas, M. E.; Nordstrom, R. J.; Damon, E. K.; Long, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reports the results of a series of pressure-broadened water vapor absorption measurements at 27 CO2 laser frequencies between 935 and 1082 kaysers. Both multiple traversal cell and optoacoustic (spectrophone) techniques were utilized together with an electronically stabilized CW CO2 laser. Comparison of the results obtained by these two methods shows remarkable agreement, indicating a precision which has not been previously achieved in pressure-broadened studies of water vapor. The data of 10.59 microns substantiate the existence of the large (greater than 200) self-broadening coefficients determined in an earlier study by McCoy. In this work, the case of water vapor in N2 at a total pressure of 1 atm has been treated.

  12. Water vapor - The wet blanket of microwave interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The various techniques that utilize microwave interferometry could be employed to determine distances of several thousand kilometers with an accuracy of 1 cm or 2 cm. Such measurements would be useful to obtain new knowledge of earth dynamics, greater insight into fundamental astronomical constants, and the ability to accurately navigate a spacecraft in interplanetary flight. There is, however, a basic problem, related to the presence of tropospheric water vapor, which has to be overcome before such measurements can be realized. Differing amounts of water vapor over the interferometer stations cause errors in the differential time of arrival which is the principal observable quantity. Approaches for overcoming this problem are considered, taking into account requirements for water vapor calibration to support interferometric techniques.

  13. Forced convection heat transfer to air/water vapor mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, D. R.; Florschuetz, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficients were measured using both dry air and air/water vapor mixtures in the same forced convection cooling test rig (jet array impingement configurations) with mass ratios of water vapor to air up to 0.23. The primary objective was to verify by direct experiment that selected existing methods for evaluation of viscosity and thermal conductivity of air/water vapor mixtures could be used with confidence to predict heat transfer coefficients for such mixtures using as a basis heat transfer data for dry air only. The property evaluation methods deemed most appropriate require as a basis a measured property value at one mixture composition in addition to the property values for the pure components.

  14. Water vapor in the lower stratosphere measured from aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, E.; Guenther, B.; Dunn, P.

    1976-01-01

    Water vapor in the lower stratosphere was measured in situ by two aluminum oxide hygrometers mounted on the nose of an RB57 aircraft. Data were taken nearly continuously from January to May 1974 from an altitude of approximately 11 km to 19 km as the aircraft flew between 70 deg N and 50 deg S over the land areas in the Western Hemisphere. Pseudomeridional cross sections of water vapor and temperature are derived from the flight data and show mixing ratios predominantly between 2 and 4 micron gm/gm with an extreme range of 1 to 8 micron gm/gm. Measurement precision is estimated by comparing the simultaneously measured values from the two flight hygrometer systems. Accuracy is estimated to be about + or - 40 percent at 19 km. A height-averaged latitudinal cross section of water vapor shows symmetry of wet and dry zones.

  15. Adsorption and Desorption of Carbon Dioxide and Water Mixtures on Synthetic Hydrophobic Carbonaceous Adsorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, John E.; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Several synthetic carbonaceous adsorbents produced through pyrolysis of polymeric materials are available commercially. Some appear to have advantages over activated carbon for certain adsorption applications. In particular, they can have tailored hydrophobicities that are significantly greater than that of activated carbon, while moderately high surfaces areas are retained. These sorbents are being investigated for possible use in removing trace contaminants and excess carbon dioxide from air in closed habitats, plant growth chambers, and other applications involving purification of humid gas streams. We have analyzed the characteristics of a few of these adsorbents through adsorption and desorption experiments and standard characterization techniques. This paper presents pure and multicomponent adsorption data collected for carbon dioxide and water on two synthetic carbonaceous adsorbents having different hydrophobicities and capillary condensation characteristics. The observations are interpreted through consideration of the pore structure and surface chemistry of the solids and interactions between adsorbed carbon dioxide, water, and the solvent gas.

  16. Water vapor measurements in- and outside cirrus with the novel water vapor mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Stefan; Schlage, Romy; Voigt, Christiane; Jurkat, Tina; Krämer, Martina; Rolf, Christian; Zöger, Martin; Schäfler, Andreas; Dörnbrack, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Water vapor plays a crucial role for the earth's climate both directly via its radiative properties and indirectly due to its ability to form clouds. However, accurate measurements of especially low water vapor concentrations prevalent in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are difficult and exhibit large discrepancies between different instruments and methods. In order to address this issue and to provide a comprehensive water vapor data set necessary to gather a complete picture of cloud formation processes, four state-of-the-art hygrometers including the novel water vapor mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O were deployed on the DLR research aircraft HALO during the ML-Cirrus campaign in March/April 2014 over Europe. Here, we present first water vapor measurements of AIMS-H2O on HALO. The instrument performance is validated by intercomparison with the fluorescence hygrometer FISH and the laser hygrometer SHARC, both also mounted in the aircraft. This intercomparison shows good agreement between the instruments from low stratospheric mixing ratios up to higher H2O concentrations at upper tropospheric conditions. Gathering data from over 24 flight hours, no significant offsets between the instruments were found (mean of relative deviation

  17. Investigation of water vapor motion winds from geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velden, Christopher S.; Nieman, Steven J.; Wanzong, Steven

    1994-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from geostationary satellites has been available for over a decade. These data are used extensively by operational analysts and forecasters, mainly in a qualitative mode (Weldon and Holmes 1991). In addition to qualitative applications, motions deduced in animated water vapor imagery can be used to infer wind fields in cloudless regimes, thereby augmenting the information provided by cloud-drift wind vectors. Early attempts at quantifying the data by tracking features in water vapor imagery met with modest success (Stewart et al. 1985; Hayden and Stewart 1987). More recently, automated techniques have been developed and refined, and have resulted in upper-level wind observations comparable in quality to current operational cloud-tracked winds (Laurent 1993). In a recent study by Velden et al. (1993) it was demonstrated that wind sets derived from Meteosat-3 (M-3) water vapor imagery can provide important environmental wind information in data void areas surrounding tropical cyclones, and can positively impact objective track forecasts. M-3 was repositioned to 75W by the European Space Agency in 1992 in order to provide complete coverage of the Atlantic Ocean. Data from this satellite are being transmitted to the U.S. for operational use. Compared with the current GOES-7 (G-7) satellite (positioned near 112W), the M-3 water vapor channel contains a superior horizontal resolution (5 km vs. 16 km ). In this paper, we examine wind sets derived using automated procedures from both GOES-7 and Meteosat-3 full disk water vapor imagery in order to assess this data as a potentially important source of large-scale wind information. As part of a product demonstration wind sets were produced twice a day at CIMSS during a six-week period in March and April (1994). These data sets are assessed in terms of geographic coverage, statistical accuracy, and meteorological impact through preliminary results of numerical model forecast studies.

  18. Detection and Measurement of Charge in Water Vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Positive charge is found in newly formed water vapor. Two detection and two measurement experiments are presented. The detection experiments are simple; their purpose is only to show the existence of charge in water vapor. The first of these experiments places one exposed end of an insulated wire in the vapor space of a flask, which holds boiling water. The other end of this wire is connected to the input high of an electrometer. The input low, in all of the presented experiments, is grounded. The second experiment detects charge by capacitive induction. It uses a beaker with gold leaves gilded on its outside surface. When water boils inside the beaker, the vapor charge is detected by the gold layer without contacting the water or vapor. The two measurement experiments have sensors made of conducting fabric. The fabric is used to cover the opening of a flask, which holds boiling water, to collect the charge in the escaping vapor. These two experiments differ by the number of fabric layers --- four in one and six in the other. The results obtained from these two experiments are essentially the same, within the margin of error, 0.734 & 0.733 nC per gram of vapor. Since the added two layers of the six-layer sensor do not collect more charge than the four-layer sensor, the four-layer sensor must have collected all available charge. The escaping vapor exits into a chamber, which has only a small area opening connecting to the atmosphere. This chamber prevents direct contact between the sensor and the ambient air, which is necessary because air is found to affect the readings from the sensor. Readings taken in the surrounding area in all four experiments show no accumulation of negative charge. These experiments identify a source for the atmospheric electricity in a laboratory environment other than that has been discussed in the literature. However, they also raise the question about the missing negative charge that would be predicted by charge balance or the

  19. Profiling atmospheric water vapor using a fiber laser lidar system.

    PubMed

    De Young, Russell J; Barnes, Norman P

    2010-02-01

    A compact, lightweight, and efficient fiber laser lidar system has been developed to measure water vapor profiles in the lower atmosphere of Earth or Mars. The line narrowed laser consist of a Tm:germanate fiber pumped by two 792 nm diode arrays. The fiber laser transmits approximately 0.5 mJ Q- switched pulses at 5 Hz and can be tuned to water vapor lines near 1.94 microm with linewidth of approximately 20 pm. A lightweight lidar receiver telescope was constructed of carbon epoxy fiber with a 30 cm Fresnel lens and an advanced HgCdTe APD detector. This system has made preliminary atmospheric measurements.

  20. Spectroscopy underlying microwave remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretyakov, M. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents a spectroscopist's view on the problem of recovery of the atmosphere humidity profile using modern microwave radiometers. Fundamental equations, including the description of their limitations, related to modeling of atmospheric water vapor absorption are given. A review of all reported to date experimental studies aimed at obtaining corresponding numerical parameters is presented. Best estimates of these parameters related to the Voigt (Lorentz, Gross, Van Vleck - Weisskopf and other equivalent) profile based modeling of the 22- and 183-GHz water vapor diagnostic lines and to non-resonance absorption as well as corresponding uncertainties are made on the basis of their comparative analysis.

  1. Water vapor absorption of carbon dioxide laser radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumate, M. S.; Menzies, R. T.; Margolis, J. S.; Rosengren, L.-G.

    1976-01-01

    An optoacoustic detector or spectrophone has been used to perform detailed measurements of the absorptivity of mixtures of water vapor in air. A (C-12) (O-16)2 laser was used as the source, and measurements were made at forty-nine different wavelengths from 9.2 to 10.7 microns. The details of the optoacoustic detector and its calibration are presented, along with a discussion of its performance characteristics. The results of the measurements of water vapor absorption show that the continuum absorption in the wavelength range covered is 5-10% lower than previous measurements.

  2. Stability of Materials in High Temperature Water Vapor: SOFC Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, E. J.; Jacobson, N. S.

    2010-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell material systems require long term stability in environments containing high-temperature water vapor. Many materials in fuel cell systems react with high-temperature water vapor to form volatile hydroxides which can degrade cell performance. In this paper, experimental methods to characterize these volatility reactions including the transpiration technique, thermogravimetric analysis, and high pressure mass spectrometry are reviewed. Experimentally determined data for chromia, silica, and alumina volatility are presented. In addition, data from the literature for the stability of other materials important in fuel cell systems are reviewed. Finally, methods for predicting material recession due to volatilization reactions are described.

  3. Heterogeneous Nucleation of Naphthalene Vapor on Water Surface

    PubMed

    Smolík; Schwarz

    1997-01-15

    The evaporation of a water drop into a ternary gaseous mixture of air, steam, and naphthalene vapor was investigated. The experimental results were compared with a theoretical prediction based on a numerical solution of coupled boundary layer equations for heat and mass transfer from a drop moving in ternary gas. In the experiments the naphthalene vapor condensed on the water drop as a supercooled liquid even at temperatures far below the melting point of naphthalene. The condensation on drop surface is discussed in terms of classical theory of heterogeneous nucleation on smooth surfaces.

  4. Relaxation dynamics of surface-adsorbed water molecules in nanoporous silica probed by terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu-Ru; Liu, Kao-Hsiang; Mou, Chung-Yuan; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2015-08-01

    Relaxation dynamics of an exclusively adsorbed water molecule in mesoporous silica MCM-41-S was studied by using terahertz spectroscopy. With the temperature controlled from 0 to 50 °C, we observed strongly frequency- and temperature-dependent dielectric relaxation responses, implying that, unlike ice, surface-adsorbed water molecules retained flourishing picosecond dynamics. Based on the Debye relaxation model, a relaxation time constant was found to increase from 1.77 to 4.83 ps when the water molecule was cooled from 50 to 0 °C. An activation energy of ˜15 kJ/mol, which was in close agreement with a hydrogen-bonding energy, was further extracted from the Arrhenius analysis. Combined with previous molecular dynamics simulations, our results indicate that the reorientation relaxation originated from the "flip-flop" rotation of a three hydrogen-bonded surface-adsorbed water molecule.

  5. Effect of higher water vapor content on TBC performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A; Haynes, James A

    2012-01-01

    Coal gasification, or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle), is one pathway toward cleaner use of coal for power generation with lower emissions. However, when coal-derived synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) is burned in turbines designed for natural gas, turbine manufacturers recommend 'derating,' or lowering the maximum temperature, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, making electricity from IGCC more expensive. One possible reason for the derating is the higher water vapor contents in the exhaust gas. Water vapor has a detrimental effect on many oxidation-resistant high-temperature materials. In a turbine hot section, Ni-base superalloys are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) allowing the gas temperature to be higher than the superalloy solidus temperature. TBCs have a low thermal conductivity ceramic top coating (typically Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, or YSZ) and an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating. For land-based gas turbines, the industry standard is air plasma sprayed (APS) YSZ and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coatings. To investigate the role of higher water vapor content on TBC performance and possible mitigation strategies, furnace cycling experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} and air with 10% (typical with natural gas or jet fuel) or 50 vol% water vapor. Cycle frequency and temperature were accelerated to one hour at 1100 C (with 10 minute cooling to {approx}30 C between each thermal cycle) to induce early failures in coatings that are expected to operate for several years with a metal temperature of {approx}900 C. Coupons (16 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) of commercial second-generation single crystal superalloy CMSX4 were HVOF coated on both sides with {approx}125 {micro}m of Ni-22wt%Co-17Cr-12Al either with 0.7Y or 0.7Y-0.3Hf-0.4Si. One side was then coated with 190-240 {micro}m of APS YSZ. Coatings were cycled until the YSZ top coating spalled. Figure 2 shows the results of the

  6. Processes Controlling Water Vapor in the Winter Arctic Tropopause Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.; Jensen, Eric J.; Podolske, James; Sachse, Glen; Avery, Melody; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Hipskino, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This work describes transport and thermodynamic processes that control water vapor near the tropopause during the SAGE Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE), held during the Arctic 1999-2000 winter season. Aircraft based water vapor, carbon monoxide, and ozone measurements are analyzed so as to establish how deeply tropospheric air mixes into the arctic lower-most stratosphere, and what the implications are for cloud formation and water vapor removal in this region of the atmosphere. There are three major findings. First, troposphere-to- stratosphere exchange extends into the arctic stratosphere to about 13 km. Penetration is to similar levels throughout the winter, however, because ozone increases idly in the early spring, tropospheric air mixes with the highest values of ozone in that season. The effect of this upward mixing is to elevate water vapor mixing ratios significantly above their prevailing stratospheric values of about 5 ppmv. Second, the potential for cloud formation in the stratosphere is highest during early spring, with about 20\\% of the parcels which have ozone values of 300-350ppbv experiencing ice saturation in a given 10 day period. Third, during early Spring temperatures at the tropopause are cold enough so that 5-10\\% of parcels experience relative humidities above 100\\%, even if the water content is as low as 5 ppmv. The implication is that during, this period the arctic tropopause can play an important role in maintaining a very dry upper troposphere during early Spring.

  7. Processes Controlling Water Vapor in the Winter Arctic Tropopause Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.; Jensen, Eric J.; Padolske, James; Sachse, Glen; Avery, Melody; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Mahoney, Michael J.; Richard, Erik

    2002-01-01

    This work describes transport and thermodynamic processes that control water vapor near the tropopause during the SAGE III-Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE), held during the Arctic 1999/2000 winter season. Aircraft-based water vapor, carbon monoxide, and ozone measurements were analyzed so as to establish how deeply tropospheric air mixes into the Arctic lowermost stratosphere and what the implications are for cloud formation and water vapor removal in this region of the atmosphere. There are three major findings. First, troposphere-to-stratosphere exchange extends into the Arctic stratosphere to about 13 km. Penetration is to similar levels throughout the winter, however, because ozone increases with altitude most rapidly in the early spring, tropospheric air mixes with the highest values of ozone in that season. The effect of this upward mixing is to elevate water vapor mixing ratios significantly above their prevailing stratospheric values of above 5ppmv. Second, the potential for cloud formation in the stratosphere is highest during early spring, with about 20% of the parcels which have ozone values of 300-350 ppbv experiencing ice saturation in a given 10 day period. Third, during early spring, temperatures at the troposphere are cold enough so that 5-10% of parcels experience relative humidities above 100%, even if the water content is as low as 5 ppmv. The implication is that during this period, dynamical processes near the Arctic tropopause can dehydrate air and keep the Arctic tropopause region very dry during early spring.

  8. Oxidation and Volatilization of Silica-Formers in Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, E. J.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    At high temperatures SiC and Si3N4 react with water vapor to form a silica scale. Silica scales also react with water vapor to form a volatile Si(OH)4 species. These simultaneous reactions, one forming silica and the other removing silica, are described by paralinear kinetics. A steady state, in which these reactions occur at the same rate, is eventually achieved, After steady state is achieved, the oxide found on the surface is a constant thickness and recession of the underlying material occurs at a linear rate. The steady state oxide thickness, the time to achieve steady state, and the steady state recession rate can all be described in terms of the rate constants for the oxidation and volatilization reactions. In addition, the oxide thickness, the time to achieve steady state, and the recession rate can also be determined from parameters that describe a water vapor-containing environment. Accordingly, maps have been developed to show these steady state conditions as a function of reaction rate constants, pressure, and gas velocity. These maps can be used to predict the behavior of silica formers in water-vapor containing environments such as combustion environments. Finally, these maps are used to explore the limits of the paralinear oxidation model for SiC and Si3N4

  9. Water-Vapor Raman Lidar System Reaches Higher Altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, I. Stewart

    2010-01-01

    A Raman lidar system for measuring the vertical distribution of water vapor in the atmosphere is located at the Table Mountain Facility (TMF) in California. Raman lidar systems for obtaining vertical water-vapor profiles in the troposphere have been in use for some time. The TMF system incorporates a number of improvements over prior such systems that enable extension of the altitude range of measurements through the tropopause into the lower stratosphere. One major obstacle to extension of the altitude range is the fact that the mixing ratio of water vapor in the tropopause and the lower stratosphere is so low that Raman lidar measurements in this region are limited by noise. Therefore, the design of the TMF system incorporates several features intended to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. These features include (1) the use of 355-nm-wavelength laser pulses having an energy (0.9 J per pulse) that is high relative to the laser-pulse energy levels of prior such systems, (2) a telescope having a large aperture (91 cm in diameter) and a narrow field of view (angular width .0.6 mrad), and (3) narrow-bandpass (wavelength bandwidth 0.6 nm) filters for the water-vapor Raman spectral channels. In addition to the large-aperture telescope, three telescopes having apertures 7.5 cm in diameter are used to collect returns from low altitudes.

  10. Advanced Detector and Waveform Digitizer for Water Vapor DIAL Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Luck, William S., Jr.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement of atmospheric water vapor has become a major requirement for understanding moist-air processes. Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) is a technique best suited for the measurement of atmospheric water vapor. NASA Langley Research Center is continually developing improved DIAL systems. One aspect of current development is focused on the enhancement of a DIAL receiver by applying state-of-the-art technology in building a new compact detection system that will be placed directly on the DIAL receiver telescope. The newly developed detection system has the capability of being digitally interfaced with a simple personal computer, using a discrete input/output interface. This has the potential of transmitting digital data over relatively long distances instead of analog signals, which greatly reduces measurement noise. In this paper, we discuss some results from the new compact water vapor DIAL detection system which includes a silicon based avalanche photodiode (APD) detector, a 14-bit, 10-MHz waveform digitizer, a microcontroller and other auxiliary electronics. All of which are contained on a small printed-circuit-board. This will significantly reduce the weight and volume over the current CAMAC system and eventually will be used in a water vapor DIAL system on an unpiloted atmospheric vehicle (UAV) aircraft, or alternatively on an orbiting spacecraft.

  11. DETERMINING HOW VAPOR PHASE MTBE REACHES GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Region 2 and ORD have funded a RARE project for FY 2005/2006 to evaluate the prospects that MTBE (and other fuel components) in vapors that escape from an underground storage tank (UST) can find its way to ground water produced by monitoring wells at a gasoline filling statio...

  12. Characterization of Advanced Avalanche Photodiodes for Water Vapor Lidar Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Halama, Gary E.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2000-01-01

    Development of advanced differential absorption lidar (DIAL) receivers is very important to increase the accuracy of atmospheric water vapor measurements. A major component of such receivers is the optical detector. In the near-infrared wavelength range avalanche photodiodes (APD's) are the best choice for higher signal-to-noise ratio, where there are many water vapor absorption lines. In this study, characterization experiments were performed to evaluate a group of silicon-based APD's. The APD's have different structures representative of different manufacturers. The experiments include setups to calibrate these devices, as well as characterization of the effects of voltage bias and temperature on the responsivity, surface scans, noise measurements, and frequency response measurements. For each experiment, the setup, procedure, data analysis, and results are given and discussed. This research was done to choose a suitable APD detector for the development of an advanced atmospheric water vapor differential absorption lidar detection system operating either at 720, 820, or 940 nm. The results point out the benefits of using the super low ionization ratio (SLIK) structure APD for its lower noise-equivalent power, which was found to be on the order of 2 to 4 fW/Hz(sup (1/2)), with an appropriate optical system and electronics. The water vapor detection systems signal-to-noise ratio will increase by a factor of 10.

  13. Visualization of Atmospheric Water Vapor Data for SAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kung, Mou-Liang; Chu, W. P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop visualization tools to study the water vapor dynamics using the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 11 (SAGE 11) water vapor data. During the past years, we completed the development of a visualization tool called EZSAGE, and various Gridded Water Vapor plots, tools deployed on the web to provide users with new insight into the water vapor dynamics. Results and experiences from this project, including papers, tutorials and reviews were published on the main Web page. Additional publishing effort has been initiated to package EZSAGE software for CD production and distribution. There have been some major personnel changes since Fall, 1998. Dr. Mou-Liang Kung, a Professor of Computer Science assumed the PI position vacated by Dr. Waldo Rodriguez who was on leave. However, former PI, Dr. Rodriguez continued to serve as a research adviser to this project to assure smooth transition and project completion. Typically in each semester, five student research assistants were hired and trained. Weekly group meetings were held to discuss problems, progress, new research direction, and activity planning. Other small group meetings were also held regularly for different objectives of this project. All student research assistants were required to submit reports for conference submission.

  14. Cassini/CIRS Observations of Water Vapor in Saturn's Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjoraker, G. L.; Achterberg, R. K.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Carlson, R. C.; Jennings, D. E.

    2008-01-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on the Cassini spacecraft has obtained numerous spectra of Saturn at varying spectral and spatial resolutions since Saturn Orbit Insertion in 2004. Emission lines due to water vapor in Saturn's stratosphere were first detected using whole-disk observations from the Infrared Space Observatory (Feuchtgruber et al 1997) and subsequently confirmed by the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (Rergin et al 2000). CIRS has detected water and the data permit the retrieval of the latitudinal variation of water on Saturn. Emission lines of H2O on Saturn are very weak in the CIRS data. Thus. large spectral averages as well as improvements in calibration are necessary to detect water vapor. Zonally averaged nadir spectra were produced every 10 degrees of latitude. Stratospheric temperatures in the 0.5 - 5.0 mbar range were obtained by inverting spectra of CH4 in the v4 band centered at 1304 cm(exp -1). The origin of water vapor is believed to be from the ablation of micrometeorites containing water ice, followed by photochemistry. This external source of oxygen originates either from the Saturn system (from the rings or perhaps from Enceladus) or from the interplanetary medium. Connerney (1986) proposed a mechanism to transport water from the inner edge of the B-ring along magnetic field lines to specific latitudes (50N and 44S) on Saturn. Prange et al (2006) interpreted a minimum in the abundance of acetylene from ultraviolet spectra near 41S on Saturn as possibly due to an enhanced influx of water. Existing CIRS far-IR spectra are at relatively low spatial resolution, but observations at closer range planned for the extended mission will be able to test the "ring rain" mechanism by searching for localized water vapor enhancement at midlatitudes.

  15. Adsorption and removal kinetics of phosphonate from water using natural adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R Anil; Velayudhan, K T; Ramachandran, V; Bhai, R Susheela; Unnikrishnan, G; Vasu, K

    2010-01-01

    The removal of phosphonate from water was studied using some natural adsorbents. Potassium phosphonate is a fungicide used for the control of Phytophthora capsici, which is prevalent in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.). Batch adsorption kinetic experiments were conducted on the adsorption of phosphonate onto the adsorbents. The concentration of phosphonate was measured on a high-performance liquid chromatograph fitted with a conductivity detector. The percentage removal of phosphonate by powdered laterite stone (PLS) from water was 40.4%, within a residence time of 15 minutes. The mechanisms of the rate of adsorption were analyzed and compared using the pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion models. The experimental data was found to correlate well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating adsorption as a chemisorption process. A possible reaction in the phosphonate-PLS system also has been proposed. The PLS can be used as a low-cost natural adsorbent for phosphonate removal from water.

  16. Preliminary results on the immobilisation of radionuclides from waters with specific adsorbers based on phosphate salts.

    PubMed

    Valentini Ganzerli, Maria Teresa; Maggi, Luigino; Crespi Caramella, Vera; Berzero, Antonella

    2004-11-01

    The present paper is focused on the ability of aluminium phosphate (ALPC), magnesium ammonium phosphate (MGPC), magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MGHPC), and calcium hydrogenphosphate (CAHPC), adsorbed onto charcoal, to immobilise actinides by adsorption from natural waters. The objective of this process is to evaluate the environmental pollution due to the actinides. Europium, thorium, protactinium, neptunyl, and uranyl ions were chosen to simulate actinides in the +3, +4, +5 and +6 oxidation state. The adsorbers were tested using natural waters samples. The adsorption trends and capacities were analysed. ALPC and MGPC exhibited a similar behaviour and adsorbed demonstrating that the +5, +4 and +3 actinide ions can be easily immobilised from natural waters and may be successfully used at pH 7-8. MGHPC may be used at a higher pH, whereas CAHPC is effective in the whole pH range. In all cases, thorium, protactinium and europium were strongly

  17. Structure of water adsorbed on a mica surface

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sung-Ho; Sposito, Garrison

    2002-01-29

    Monte Carlo simulations of hydration water on the mica (001) surface under ambient conditions revealed water molecules bound closely to the ditrigonal cavities in the surface, with a lateral distribution of approximately one per cavity, and water molecules interposed between K{sup +} counter ions in a layer situated about 2.5 {angstrom} from a surface O along a direction normal to the (001) plane. The calculated water O density profile was in quantitative agreement with recent X-ray reflectivity measurements indicating strong lateral ordering of the hydration water but liquid-like disorder otherwise.

  18. Water Vapor Tracers as Diagnostics of the Regional Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Numerous studies suggest that local feedback of evaporation on precipitation, or recycling, is a significant source of water for precipitation. Quantitative results on the exact amount of recycling have been difficult to obtain in view of the inherent limitations of diagnostic recycling calculations. The current study describes a calculation of the amount of local and remote sources of water for precipitation, based on the implementation of passive constituent tracers of water vapor (termed water vapor tracers, WVT) in a general circulation model. In this case, the major limitation on the accuracy of the recycling estimates is the veracity of the numerically simulated hydrological cycle, though we note that this approach can also be implemented within the context of a data assimilation system. In this approach, each WVT is associated with an evaporative source region, and tracks the water until it precipitates from the atmosphere. By assuming that the regional water is well mixed with water from other sources, the physical processes that act on the WVT are determined in proportion to those that act on the model's prognostic water vapor. In this way, the local and remote sources of water for precipitation can be computed within the model simulation, and can be validated against the model's prognostic water vapor. Furthermore, estimates of precipitation recycling can be compared with bulk diagnostic approaches. As a demonstration of the method, the regional hydrologic cycles for North America and India are evaluated for six summers (June, July and August) of model simulation. More than 50% of the precipitation in the Midwestern United States came from continental regional tracers, and the local source was the largest of the regional tracers (14%). The Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic 2 regions contributed 18% of the water for Midwestern precipitation, but further analysis suggests that the greater region of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean may also contribute significantly. In

  19. a Study of Gnss Water Vapor Reconstruction Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sá, A. G.; Bento, F.; Crocker, P.; Fernandes, R. M.; Adams, D. K.; Miranda, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) observations are nowadays a well-established tool to measure the water vapor content in the atmosphere. This gas plays a major role in many processes concerning physics, thermodynamics and dynamics of the atmosphere. The knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of water vapor in the lower atmosphere (troposphere) is crucial for accurate quantitative prediction of precipitation and better understanding of many atmospheric processes like deep convective events. Major advantages of the use of GNSS observations are all-weather system, continuous unattended operation, high temporal resolution and an ever-increasing number of stations. The present work focuses on the study of the geometry and dynamics of moist convection, shallow and deep, through the use of 4D images of the atmosphere water vapor field, obtained from high-density GPS networks (i.e. tomographic inversion). For this, the SWART (SEGAL GNSS WAter Vapor ReconsTruction Image Software), a software package for GNSS water vapor reconstruction, has been developed. This package currently consists of four C++ programs. The C++ programs gather the necessary information to calculate the slant delays and to generate a file with the reconstructed image. The output consists in 2D slices of the 3D water vapor image in latitude, longitude or altitude. SWART is based on LOFTT_K (LOgiciel Français de Tomographie Troposphérique version Kalman) (Champollion 2005). We present the results of the comparison with LOFTT_K to validate SWART together with several tests covering diverse grid sizes and different number of receivers for the same water vapor image reconstruction. It is also analyzed the importance of the initial values for the image reconstruction. All these tests were realized with synthetic data, except for the grid area, which is from Marseilles, France. Finally, we present the current status of the analysis being carrying out for a dense network in Belem, Brazil

  20. Diurnal variations in water vapor over Central and South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, Amalia; Mendoza, Luciano; Bianchi, Clara

    2016-07-01

    Diurnal variations in atmospheric integrated water vapor (IWV) are studied employing IWV estimates, with a 30 minutes sampling rate, derived from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) observations during the period 2007-2013. The analysis was performed in 73 GNSS tracking sites (GPS + GLONASS) which have more than 5 years of data. The selected area involves different climate types, from polar to tropical, with different diurnal variations of the integrated total humidity content. There are many processes that could induce diurnal variations in atmospheric water vapor (Dai et al, 1999 a,b), the most relevant causes are: surface evapotranspiration, atmospheric large-scale vertical motion, atmospheric low-level moisture convergence and precipitation and vertical mixing (which affects the vertical distribution of water vapor but does not affect the IWV). The numerical tools, Singular Value Decomposition and classical Multidimensional Scaling methods, are used to study these variations, considering the measurements made at each stations, as sample in the analysis. The aim of this investigation is to identify the IWV variability with respect to the local time associated to the different climate regions. In order to improve our analysis, all available weather information, such as radiosondes measurements (which are few), measurements of pressure and temperature and Numerical Weather Models reanalysis data, are used. Reference: Dai, A., K. E. Trenberth, and T. R. Karl, 1999 a: Effects of clouds, soil moisture, precipitation and water vapor on diurnal temperature range. J. Climate, 12, 2451-2473. Dai, A., F. Giorgi, and K. E. Trenberth, 1999 b: Observed and model simulated precipitation diurnal cycle over the contiguous United States.J. Geophys. Res., 104, 6377-6402. KEYWORDS: water vapor, diurnal cycle, GNSS

  1. Alexandrite laser transmitter development for airborne water vapor DIAL measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chyba, Thomas H.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Higdon, Noah S.; DeYoung, Russell J.; Browell, Edward V.

    1995-01-01

    In the DIAL technique, the water vapor concentration profile is determined by analyzing the lidar backscatter signals for laser wavelengths tuned 'on' and 'off' a water vapor absorption line. Desired characteristics of the on-line transmitted laser beam include: pulse energy greater than or equal to 100 mJ, high-resolution tuning capability (uncertainty less than 0.25 pm), good spectral stability (jitter less than 0.5 pm about the mean), and high spectral purity (greater than 99 percent). The off-line laser is generally detuned less than 100 pm away from the water vapor line. Its spectral requirements are much less stringent. In our past research, we developed and demonstrated the airborne DIAL technique for water vapor measurements in the 720-nm spectral region using a system based on an alexandrite laser as the transmitter for the on-line wavelength and a Nd:YAG laser-pumped dye laser for the off-line wavelength. This off-line laser has been replaced by a second alexandrite laser. Diode lasers are used to injection seed both lasers for frequency and linewidth control. This eliminates the need for the two intracavity etalons utilized in our previous alexandrite laser and thereby greatly reduces the risk of optical damage. Consequently, the transmitted pulse energy can be substantially increased, resulting in greater measurement range, higher data density, and increased measurement precision. In this paper, we describe the diode injection seed source, the two alexandrite lasers, and the device used to line lock the on-line seed source to the water vapor absorption feature.

  2. Columnar water vapor retrievals from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer data

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, Mikhail; Schmid, Beat; Turner, David D.; Cairns, Brian; Oinas, Valdar; Lacis, Andrew A.; Gutman, S.; Westwater, Ed R.; Smirnov, A.; Eilers, J.

    2009-01-26

    The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) measures direct and diffuse irradiances in the visible and near IR spectral range. In addition to characteristics of atmospheric aerosols, MFRSR data also allow retrieval of precipitable water vapor (PWV) column amounts, which are determined from the direct normal irradiances in the 940 nm spectral channel. The HITRAN 2004 spectral database was used in our retrievals to model the water vapor absorption. We present a detailed error analysis describing the influence of uncertainties in instrument calibration and spectral response, as well as those in available spectral databases, on the retrieval results. The results of our PWV retrievals from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site operated by the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program were compared with correlative standard measurements by Microwave Radiometers (MWRs) and a Global Positioning System (GPS) water vapor sensor, as well as with retrievals from other solar radiometers (AERONET’s CIMEL, AATS-6). Some of these data are routinely available at the SGP’s Central Facility, however, we also used measurements from a wider array of instrumentation deployed at this site during the Water Vapor Intensive Observation Period (WVIOP2000) in September – October 2000. The WVIOP data show better agreement between different solar radiometers or between different microwave radiometers (both groups showing relative biases within 4%) than between these two groups of instruments, with MWRs values being consistently higher (up to 14%) than those from solar instruments. We also demonstrate the feasibility of using MFRSR network data for creation of 2D datasets comparable with the MODIS satellite water vapor product.

  3. Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + ethanol + water, methanol + water, and ethanol + water

    SciTech Connect

    Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Takeda, Kouichi; Kojima, Kazuo; Minoura, Tsuyoshi

    1995-05-01

    Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria were measured for the ternary system methanol + ethanol + water and its constituent binary systems of methanol + water and ethanol + water at 323.15, 328.15, and 333.15 K. The apparatus that was used made it possible to control the measured temperature and total pressure by computer. The experimental binary data were correlated by the NRTL equation. The ternary system was predicted using the binary NRTL parameters with good accuracy.

  4. Fixation of nitrogen in the presence of water vapor

    DOEpatents

    Harteck, Paul

    1984-01-01

    A process for the fixation of nitrogen is disclosed which comprises combining a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, metal oxide and water vapor, initially heating the combination to initiate a reaction which forms nitrate, but at a temperature and pressure range below the dissociation pressure of the nitrate. With or without the water component, the yield of fixed nitrogen is increased by the use of a Linde Molecular Sieve Catalyst.

  5. Cassini/CIRS Observations of Water Vapor in Saturn's Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjoraker, Gordon; Achterberg, R. K.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Jennings, D. E.

    2010-01-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on the Cassini spacecraft has obtained numerous spectra of Saturn at varying spectral and spatial resolutions since Saturn Orbit Insertion in 2001. Emission lines due to water vapor in Saturn's stratosphere were first detected using whole-disk observations from the Infrared Space Observatory [1] and subsequently confirmed by the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite [2], CIRS has detected water and the data permit the retrieval of the latitudinal variation of water on Saturn. Emission lines of H2O on Saturn are very weak in the CIRS data. Thus, large spectral averages as well as improvements in calibration are necessary to detect water vapor. long integrations at the full 0.5/cm spectral resolution were performed at targeted latitudes on Saturn. High emission angles were chosen to enhance stratospheric emission. Over the course of the prime and extended mission a set of observations has been built up spaced roughly every 10 degrees of latitude. Stratospheric temperatures in the 0.5 - 5.0 mbar range were obtained by inverting spectra of CH4 in the v'4 band centered at 1501/cm. The origin of water vapor is believed to be from the ablation of micrometeorites containing eater ice, followed by photochemistry. This external source of oxygen originates either from the Saturn system (from the rings or perhaps from Enceladus) or from the interplanetary medium. Connerney [3] proposed a mechanism to transport water from the inner edge of the B-ring along magnetic field lines to specific latitudes (50N and 44S) on Saturn. Prange et al [4] interpreted a minimum in the abundance of acetylene from ultraviolet spectra gear 41S on Saturn as possibly due to an enhanced influx of water. We will be able to test the "ring rain" mechanism by searching, for localized water vapor enhancement at mid-latitudes. Our results may be used to constrain photochemical models of Saturn's stratosphere [5].

  6. Enhanced removal of nitrate from water using surface modification of adsorbents--a review.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kandasamy, Jaya

    2013-12-15

    Elevated concentration of nitrate results in eutrophication of natural water bodies affecting the aquatic environment and reduces the quality of drinking water. This in turn causes harm to people's health, especially that of infants and livestock. Adsorbents with the high capacity to selectively adsorb nitrate are required to effectively remove nitrate from water. Surface modifications of adsorbents have been reported to enhance their adsorption of nitrate. The major techniques of surface modification are: protonation, impregnation of metals and metal oxides, grafting of amine groups, organic compounds including surfactant coating of aluminosilicate minerals, and heat treatment. This paper reviews current information on these techniques, compares the enhanced nitrate adsorption capacities achieved by the modifications, and the mechanisms of adsorption, and presents advantages and drawbacks of the techniques. Most studies on this subject have been conducted in batch experiments. These studies need to include continuous mode column trials which have more relevance to real operating systems and pilot-plant trials. Reusability of adsorbents is important for economic reasons and practical treatment applications. However, only limited information is available on the regeneration of surface modified adsorbents.

  7. Adsorption of methylene blue using modified adsorbents from drinking water treatment sludge.

    PubMed

    Nageeb Rashed, M; El-Daim El Taher, M A; Fadlalla, Somaya M M

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to explore the preparation and application of alum sludge (AS) and mud sludge (MS) from a drinking water treatment plant to remove methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solution. The sludge (MS and AS) was treated by chemical and physical activation to obtain new adsorbents. The adsorption experiments were carried out under different conditions of initial dye concentration (50-100 mg/L) adsorbent dosage (0.05-0.25 g), solution pH (3-9), temperature (20-60 °C) and contact time (20-90 min). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction instruments were used for characterization of the developed adsorbents. The results show that sludge activated by nitric acid (0.25 M HNO3) and pyrolysis at 700 °C were the best chemically and physically activated adsorbents. The optimum adsorption conditions for the adsorption of MB are 100 ppm initial dye concentration, 1 hour contact time, 250 °C solution temperature, pH 7 and 0.25 g adsorbent dosage. Application of the Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherm models showed that adsorbents fitted the Langmuir model well. SEM studies indicated the porous structural aspects of sludge suitable for removing MB dye.

  8. Water vapor and cloud water measurements over Darwin during the STEP 1987 tropical mission

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, K.K.; Proffitt, M.H. ); Chan, K.R.; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J.R. ); Strahan, S.E. ); Wilson, J.C. ); Kley, D. )

    1993-05-20

    The authors report results of total water, and water vapor measurements made in the upper troposphere and stratosphere during the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP) Tropical mission over Darwin, Australia. Measurements were made from an ER-2 aircraft by lyman-[alpha] hygrometers. The average lower stratosphere water vapor was 2.4 parts per million by volume (ppmv), at a potential temperature of 375 K. This level is lower than the 3 to 4 ppmv water vapor level typical of the stratosphere.

  9. Preliminary endurance tests of water vaporizers for resistojet applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morren, W. Earl; Macrae, Gregory S.

    1993-01-01

    Three water vaporizers designed for resistojet applications were built and tested for periods up to 500 h and 250 thermal cycles. Two of the vaporizers were not sensitive to orientation with respect to gravity, an indication of likely compatibility with low-gravity environments. Some temperatures and pressures in the third were impacted by orientation, although operation was always stable. The pressure drop across the sand-filled version increased by 147 percent in 38 h and 19 thermal cycles. Bonding of the sand granules in the downstream end of the heat exchanger was the suspected cause of failure of this vaporizer. Pressure drops across the two sintered stainless steel-filled versions were more gradual. One, with a pore size of 60 microns, showed an 80 percent increase in 500 h and 250 thermal cycles and another, with a 10 microns poresize, showed a 29 percent increase in 350 h and 175 thermal cycles. Testing of the latter metal-filled vaporizer was ongoing as of this writing. Oxidation of the porous metal packing materials in these vaporizers, with subsequent deposition of oxide particles within the pores, was believed to have caused the observed increases in pressure drops.

  10. Absorptivity of water vapor for 10.6 micron radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugh, E. R.; Krech, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Attention is called to recent measurements of the absorptivity of water vapor to 10.6-micron laser radiation made using shock-heated H2O/H2 and H2O/Ar mixtures and a probe CO2 laser. It is noted that these measurements give values about a factor of 2 lower than Ludwig's (1971) low resolution values. It is also argued that Fowler's (1981) high values are not likely to be caused by excited water molecules. It is shown that very intense laser radiation would be required to obtain any appreciable vibrational nonequilibrium. Within the narrow spectral range of 944-948/cm, no significant variation in absorption coefficient (suitably normalized) is observed as a function of laser line, water vapor concentration, total pressure, or diluent gas.

  11. CRISM Limb Observations of Aerosols and Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, M.J.; Clancy, R.T.; Seelos, F.; Murchie, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Near-infrared spectra taken in a limb-viewing geometry by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on-board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) provide a useful tool for probing atmospheric structure. Here we describe preliminary work on the retrieval of vertical profiles of aerosols and water vapor from the CRISM limb observations. The first full set of CRISM limb observations was taken in July 2009, with subsequent limb observations planned once every two months. Each set of limb observations contains about four dozen scans across the limb giving pole-to-pole coverage for two orbits at roughly 100 and 290 W longitude. Radiative transfer modeling taking account of aerosol scattering in the limb-viewing geometry is used to model the observations. The retrievals show the height to which dust and water vapor extend and the location and height of water ice clouds. Results from the First set of CRISM limb observations (July 2009, Ls=300) show dust aerosol well-mixed to about three scale heights above the surface with thin water ice clouds above the dust near the equator and at mid-northern latitudes. Water vapor is concentrated at high southern latitudes.

  12. Rapid Variability of Water Vapor Abundance in the Venus Mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurwell, Mark A.; Melnick, G. J.; Tolls, V.; Bergin, E. A.; Patten, B. M.

    2006-09-01

    We present the first detections of the water vapor ground-state rotational transition (at 556.9 GHz) and the 13CO(5-4) rotational transition (at 550.9 GHz) from the atmosphere of Venus, obtained with the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS). These submillimeter transitions originate primarily from the 70-100 km altitude range, within the Venus mesosphere. Observations were obtained in December 2002, and January, March, and July 2004, coarsely sampling one Venus diurnal period as seen from Earth. Complementary observations of the 12CO(2-1) rotational transition (at 230.5 GHz) were obtained concurrently with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) to help constrain global atmospheric parameters. The water vapor absorption line depth shows large variability among the four observing periods, with strong detections of the water line in December 2002 and July 2004, and no detections in January and March of 2004. Using a multi-transition inversion algorithm (combining temperature, carbon monoxide, and water profile retrieval under some constraints), we retrieved or found upper limits for the globally averaged mesospheric water vapor abundance for each period, finding variability over at least two orders of magnitude. The results are consistent with both temporal and diurnal variability, but with short-term fluctuations clearly dominating. The observations from December 2002 detected very rapid changes in water vapor abundance. Over five days, a deep ground-state water absorption feature consistent with a water abundance of 4.5±1.5 ppm suddenly gave way to a significantly shallower absorption, implying a decrease in the water abundance by a factor of nearly 50 in less than 48 hours. In 2004 similar changes in water vapor abundance are seen between the March and July SWAS observing periods, but variability on timescales of less than a week was not detected. M.A.G. gratefully acknowledges support from NASA contract NAG5-7946. G.J.M., V.T., E.A.B, and B.M.P. were supported by

  13. Water Vapor Tracers as Diagnostics of the Regional Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Numerous studies suggest that local feedback of surface evaporation on precipitation, or recycling, is a significant source of water for precipitation. Quantitative results on the exact amount of recycling have been difficult to obtain in view of the inherent limitations of diagnostic recycling calculations. The current study describes a calculation of the amount of local and remote geographic sources of surface evaporation for precipitation, based on the implementation of three-dimensional constituent tracers of regional water vapor sources (termed water vapor tracers, WVT) in a general circulation model. The major limitation on the accuracy of the recycling estimates is the veracity of the numerically simulated hydrological cycle, though we note that this approach can also be implemented within the context of a data assimilation system. In the WVT approach, each tracer is associated with an evaporative source region for a prognostic three-dimensional variable that represents a partial amount of the total atmospheric water vapor. The physical processes that act on a WVT are determined in proportion to those that act on the model's prognostic water vapor. In this way, the local and remote sources of water for precipitation can be predicted within the model simulation, and can be validated against the model's prognostic water vapor. As a demonstration of the method, the regional hydrologic cycles for North America and India are evaluated for six summers (June, July and August) of model simulation. More than 50% of the precipitation in the Midwestern United States came from continental regional sources, and the local source was the largest of the regional tracers (14%). The Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic regions contributed 18% of the water for Midwestern precipitation, but further analysis suggests that the greater region of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean may also contribute significantly. In most North American continental regions, the local source of precipitation is

  14. Tm:germanate Fiber Laser for Planetary Water Vapor Atmospheric Profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; De Young, Russell

    2009-01-01

    The atmospheric profiling of water vapor is necessary for finding life on Mars and weather on Earth. The design and performance of a water vapor lidar based on a Tm:germanate fiber laser is presented.

  15. Stable Calibration of Raman Lidar Water-Vapor Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, Iain S.

    2008-01-01

    A method has been devised to ensure stable, long-term calibration of Raman lidar measurements that are used to determine the altitude-dependent mixing ratio of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Because the lidar measurements yield a quantity proportional to the mixing ratio, rather than the mixing ratio itself, calibration is necessary to obtain the factor of proportionality. The present method involves the use of calibration data from two sources: (1) absolute calibration data from in situ radiosonde measurements made during occasional campaigns and (2) partial calibration data obtained by use, on a regular schedule, of a lamp that emits in a known spectrum determined in laboratory calibration measurements. In this method, data from the first radiosonde campaign are used to calculate a campaign-averaged absolute lidar calibration factor (t(sub 1)) and the corresponding campaign-averaged ration (L(sub 1)) between lamp irradiances at the water-vapor and nitrogen wavelengths. Depending on the scenario considered, this ratio can be assumed to be either constant over a long time (L=L(sub 1)) or drifting slowly with time. The absolutely calibrated water-vapor mixing ratio (q) obtained from the ith routine off-campaign lidar measurement is given by q(sub 1)=P(sub 1)/t(sub 1)=LP(sub 1)/P(sup prime)(sub 1) where P(sub 1) is water-vapor/nitrogen measurement signal ration, t(sub 1) is the unknown and unneeded overall efficiency ratio of the lidar receiver during the ith routine off-campaign measurement run, and P(sup prime)(sub 1) is the water-vapor/nitrogen signal ratio obtained during the lamp run associated with the ith routine off-campaign measurement run. If L is assumed constant, then the lidar calibration is routinely obtained without the need for new radiosonde data. In this case, one uses L=L(sub 1) = P(sup prime)(sub 1)/t(sub 1), where P(sub 1)(sup prime) is the water-vapor/nitrogen signal ratio obtained during the lamp run associated

  16. Water vapor permeability of the rigid-shelled gecko egg.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Robin M

    2012-07-01

    The vast majority of squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) produce parchment-shelled eggs that absorb water during incubation, and thus increase in mass, volume, and surface area. In contrast, females from a single monophyletic lineage of gekkotan lizards produce rigid-shelled eggs. These eggs are functionally comparable to those of birds, that is, at oviposition, eggs contain all the water needed for development, and their mass decreases during incubation via the diffusion of water vapor through the shell. I determined patterns of water loss and shell permeability to water vapor from oviposition to hatching for the rigid-shelled eggs of the gekkonid Chrondrodactylus turneri and compared permeability of C. turneri eggs to those of birds and other squamates. Chrondrodactylus turneri eggs incubated at 28.5°C and 40% relative humidity (RH) decreased in mass by 14% over the course of a 68-day incubation period. The rate of water loss varied during incubation; egg mass decreased rapidly during the first 8 days of incubation, declined at a low constant rate during the next 35 days, and then decreased rapidly during the final 25 days of incubation. Overall permeability was 0.17 mg/day/kPa/cm(2) . Percent water loss of rigid-shelled gecko eggs during incubation is similar to that exhibited by birds, but water vapor permeability is about one-third that of bird eggs and several orders of magnitude lower than that of parchment-shelled squamate eggs. In general, the water economy of their eggs may be associated with the adaptive radiation of the rigid-shelled sphaerodactylid, phyllodactylid, and gekkonid geckos.

  17. THz remote sensing for water vapor and cloud observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Yasuko; Ochiai, Satoshi; Mendrok, Jana; Baron, Philippe; Seta, Takamasa; Irimajiri, Yoshihisa

    Terahertz (THz) region (0.1-20 THz; 3.3-650 cm-1 ) plays important role for the Earth's radiation budget, for example, 1) Up to 75% of atmospheric OLR is beyond 650 cm-1 (19.5 THz). 2) Up to 50% of basic greenhouse effect, mainly due to the water vapor, is in THz/Far-IR. 3) Clear-sky cooling of free troposphere occurs in THz/far-IR. 4) Upper tropospheric H2O radiative feedback occurs THz/far-IR. Atmospheric radiation in THz-wave region is characterised by the emission from water vapour. In other word, THz radiation is favorable frequency for the remote sensing observation of water vapor. Furthermore, THz-wave might be powerful method to observe ice cloud because of the sensitivity of ice cloud in this frequency, example, the average size of the ice cloud -100micron is consistent to 3THz. Despite the importance for water vapor and ice cloud observation, there are not many observation so far, and still poor knowledge in the atmosphere. Main reason was the lack of the THz technology for the remote sensing observation in this frequency region. We are developing an NICT THz-wave remote sensing system to observe planetary atmosphere. Three researches are currently in progress: 1) Development of the THz-wave radiative transfer model both for clear and cloudy sky including laboratory experiment. 2) Feasibility study for satellite system 3) Development of the ground-based observation system for the demonstration in the city air. We will present the recent status of the THz remote sensing project in NICT, particularly the feasibility study for the water vapor and cloud observation system in THz-wave region from ground-based, air-borne, and satellite born system.

  18. Water Vapor Isotopic Fractionation and Strat/trop Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jucks, K. W.; Johnson, D. G.; Traub, W. A.; Chance, K. V.

    We will present atmospheric observations of the isotopic fractionation for water vapor as observed by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory far-infrared spectrometer (FIRS-2). The stratospheric observations are corrected with a photochemical model to account for methane oxidation to determine the "entry level" isotopic fractionation of water in the stratosphere. These values are then compared to a simple Rayleigh frac- tionation model that includes estimations of convection, radiative heating, and mixing to infer relative contributions to stratosphere/troposphere exchange. The observations of water vapor fractionation are most consistent with a model that mixes air uplifted from roughly 11 km with significantly more air that has been dehydrated by convec- tion to an effective temperature that is much cooler than the tropopause temperature. The water vapor mixing ratio in the stratosphere results from a combination of radia- tive heating, recirculation of stratospheric air, and deep convection that supplies the air to the upper tropical troposphere. We believe that these types of observations could be a powerful tool for constraining circulation models.

  19. Role(s) of adsorbed water in the surface chemistry of environmental interfaces.

    PubMed

    Rubasinghege, Gayan; Grassian, Vicki H

    2013-04-18

    The chemistry of environmental interfaces such as oxide and carbonate surfaces under ambient conditions of temperature and relative humidity is of great interest from many perspectives including heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis, photocatalysis, sensor technology, corrosion science, and cultural heritage science. As discussed here, adsorbed water plays important roles in the reaction chemistry of oxide and carbonate surfaces with indoor and outdoor pollutant molecules including nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, ozone and organic acids. Mechanisms of these reactions are just beginning to be unraveled and found to depend on the details of the reaction mechanism as well as the coverage of water on the surface. As discussed here, adsorbed water can: (i) alter reaction pathways and surface speciation relative to the dry surface; (ii) hydrolyze reactants, intermediates and products; (iii) enhance surface reactivity by providing a medium for ionic dissociation; (iv) inhibit surface reactivity by blocking sites; (v) solvate ions; (vi) enhance ion mobility on surfaces and (vii) alter the stability of surface adsorbed species. In this feature article, drawing on research that has been going on for over a decade on the reaction chemistry of oxide and carbonate surfaces under ambient conditions of temperature and relative humidity, a number of specific examples showing the multi-faceted roles of adsorbed water are presented.

  20. Development of a preprototype vapor compression distillation water recovery subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    The activities involved in the design, development, and test of a preprototype vapor compression distillation water recovery subsystem are described. This subsystem, part of a larger regenerative life support evaluation system, is designed to recover usable water from urine, urinal rinse water, and concentrated shower and laundry brine collected from three space vehicle crewmen for a period of 180 days without resupply. Details of preliminary design and testing as well as component developments are included. Trade studies, considerations leading to concept selections, problems encountered, and test data are also presented. The rework of existing hardware, subsystem development including computer programs, assembly verification, and comprehensive baseline test results are discussed.

  1. Monitoring the water vapor isotopic composition in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sveinbjornsdottir, A. E.; Steen-Larsen, H.; Jonsson, T.; Johnsen, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Water stable isotopes have during many decades been used as climate proxies and indicators for variations in the hydrological cycle. However we are to a great extent still using simple empirical relationships without any deeper theoretical understanding. In order to properly relate changes in the climate and hydrological cycle to changes in the observed stable water isotopic signal we must understand the underlying physical processes. Furthermore it is a challenge for General Climate Models to adequately represent the isotopes in the hydrological cycle because of lack of in-situ measurements of the atmospheric water-vapor composition in the source regions. During the fall of 2010 we installed an autonomous water vapor spectroscopy laser (from Los Gatos Research) in a lighthouse on the South Coast of Iceland (63.83 N 21.47W) with the plan to be operational for several years. The purpose of this installation was through monitoring of the water vapor isotopic composition to understand the physical processes governing the isotopic composition of the water vapor evaporated from the ocean as well as the processes of mixing between the free troposphere and marine boundary layer. Because of the remoteness of the monitoring site and simple topography we are able to isolate the 'fingerprint' on the isotopic signal in the water vapor from respectively the ocean and the interior highland leading to a near perfect case-study area. Using back-trajectories we find a strong influence of the origin of the air masses on the measured isotopic composition. The mixing of the marine-boundary layer is found to strongly influence the measured isotopic composition. The second order isotopic parameter, d-excess, is found to depend on both the isotopic composition as well as the relative humidity as prescribed by theories for evaporation from an ocean. The site likely represents a major source region for the moisture that later falls as snow on parts of the Greenland Ice Sheet. This leads to

  2. Temperature/pressure and water vapor sounding with microwave spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhleman, D. O.; Janssen, M. A.; Clancy, R. T.; Gulkis, S.; Mccleese, D. J.; Zurek, R.; Haberle, R. M.; Frerking, M.

    1992-01-01

    Two intense microwave spectra lines exist in the martian atmosphere that allow unique sounding capabilities: water vapor at 183 GHz and the (2-1) rotational line of CO at 230 GHz. Microwave spectra line sounding is a well-developed technique for the Earth's atmosphere for sounding from above from spacecraft and airplanes, and from below from fixed surface sites. Two simple instruments for temperature sounding on Mars (the CO line) and water vapor measurements are described. The surface sounder proposed for the MESUR sites is designed to study the boundary layer water vapor distribution and the temperature/pressure profiles with vertical resolution of 0.25 km up to 1 km with reduced resolution above approaching a scale height. The water channel will be sensitive to a few tenths of a micrometer of water and the temperature profile will be retrieved to an accuracy between 1 and 2 K. The latter is routinely done on the Earth using oxygen lines near 60 GHz. The measurements are done with a single-channel heterodyne receiver looking into a 10-cm mirror that is canned through a range of elevation angles plus a target load. The frequency of the receiver is sweep across the water and CO lines generating the two spectra at about 1-hr intervals throughout the mission. The mass and power for the proposed instrument are 2 kg and 5-8 W continuously. The measurements are completely immune to the atmospheric dust and ice particle loads. It was felt that these measurements are the ultimate ones to properly study the martian boundary layer from the surface to a few kilometers. Sounding from above requires an orbiting spacecraft with multichannel microwave spectrometers such as the instrument proposed for MO by a subset of the authors, a putative MESUR orbiter, and a proposed Discovery mission called MOES. Such an instrument can be built with less than 10 kg and use less than 15 W. The obvious advantage of this approach is that the entire atmosphere can be sounded for temperature and

  3. Hurricane Isabel, Amount of Atmospheric Water Vapor Observed By AIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    These false-color images show the amount of atmospheric water vapor observed by AIRS two weeks prior to the passage of Hurricane Isabel, and then when it was a Category 5 storm. The region shown includes parts of South America and the West Indies. Puerto Rico is the large island below the upper left corner.

    Total water vapor represents the depth of a layer if all the water vapor in the atmosphere were to condense and fall to the surface. The color bar on the right sides of the plots give the thickness of this layer in millimeters (mm). The first image, from August 28, shows typical tropical water vapor amounts over the ocean: between roughly 25 and 50 mm, or 1 to 2 inches. The highest values of roughly 80 mm, seen as a red blob over South America, corresponds to intense thunderstorms. Thunderstorms pull in water vapor from surrounding regions and concentrate it, with much of it then falling as rain.

    Figure 1 shows total water during the passage of Hurricane Isabel on September 13. The storm is apparent: the ring of moderate values surrounding a very strong maximum of 100 mm. Total water of more than 80 mm is unusual, and these values correspond to the intense thunderstorms contained within Isabel. The thunderstorms--and the large values of total water--are fed by evaporation from the ocean in the hurricane's high winds. The water vapor near the center of the storm does not remain there long, since hurricane rain rates as high 50 mm (2 inches) per hour imply rapid cycling of the water we observe. Away from the storm the amount of total water vapor is rather low, associated with fair weather where air that ascended near the storm's eye returns to earth, having dropped its moisture as rain. Also seen in the second images are two small regions of about 70 mm of total water over south America. These are yet more thunderstorms, though likely much more benign than those in Isabel.

    The

  4. A summary of meteorological requirements for water vapor data and possible space shuttle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The accuracy of water vapor measurement required by modelers and forecasters at a number of scales of motion is discussed. Direct and indirect methods for operational use in obtaining atmospheric water vapor data are reviewed along with meteorological applications of water vapor data obtained by a space shuttle laboratory lidar system.

  5. Effects of Satellite Spectral Resolution and Atmospheric Water Vapor on Retrieval of Near-Ground Temperatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-28

    alternate low-level water vapor profile was considered. This " dry " water vapor profile (dashed in Fig. I) was specified to be equal to the "basic...the dry water vapor profile for the night situation. As expected, the unresolvable perturbations of surface temperature were smaller for the dry

  6. Water vapor d2H dynamics over China derived from SCIAMACHY satellite measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigates water vapor isotopic patterns and controls over China using high-quality water vapor delta2H data retrieved from Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) observations. The results show that water vapor delta2H values on both annual and...

  7. Water vapor analysis with use of sunphotometry and radiosoundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakszys, Paulina; Zielinski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomek; Makuch, Przemyslaw; Strzalkowska, Agata; Markuszewski, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Jakub

    2014-05-01

    Information about vertically integrated content of water vapor in the atmosphere and type, composition and concentration of aerosols is relevant in many types of atmospheric studies. Such information is required to understand mechanisms of global climate and its further modeling (Smirnov et al., 2000). This work is devoted to the description of a basic technique of analysis and comparing the derivation of Columnar Water Vapor (CWV) from different instruments, such as a radiosonde and a sunphotometer. The measurements were carried out using Microtops II Ozone Monitor & Sunphotometer during the cruises onboard the R/V Oceania (13 cruises) and from one cruise onboard of the SY TASK in the southern Baltic Sea. Measurements were collected for the NASA program Maritime Aerosol Network. Data collected with the DiGICORA III Radiosonde (RS92) come from the webpage of the University of Wyoming, Department of Atmospheric Science. The first instrument, sunphotometer, allows us to collect data on days that are cloud-free. The Microtops II is capable of measuring the total ozone column, total precipitable water vapor and aerosol optical depth at 1020 nm (Morys et al. 2001; Ichoku et al., 2002). Each of these parameters is automatically derived. Data collected by Microtops have been processed with the pre- and post-field calibration and automatic cloud clearing. Precipitable water vapor in the column was derived from the 936nm channel. Detailed data description is available on the AERONET webpage. In radiousoundings the total precipitable water is the water that occurs in a vertical column of a unit cross-sectional area between any two specified levels, commonly expressed as from the earth's surface to the 'top' of the atmosphere. The Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPWV) is the height of liquid water that would result from the condensation of all water vapor in a column. The study of one cruise (29 March - 20 April) shows that 241 Microtops measurements were made, each of

  8. IR spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous silica aerogel.

    PubMed

    Ponomarev, Yu N; Petrova, T M; Solodov, A M; Solodov, A A

    2010-12-06

    The absorption spectrum of the water vapor, confined in the nanoporous silica aerogel, was measured within 5000-5600 cm(-1) with the IFS 125 HR Fourier spectrometer. It has been shown, that tight confinement of the molecules by the nanoporous size leads to the strong lines broadening and shift. For water vapor lines, the HWHM of confined molecules are on the average 23 times larger than those for free molecules. The shift values are in the range from -0.03 cm(-1) to 0.09 cm(-1). Some spectral lines have negative shift. The data on the half-widths and center shifts for some strongest H(2)O lines have been presented.

  9. An automated dynamic water vapor permeation test method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Phillip; Kendrick, Cyrus; Rivin, Donald; Charmchii, Majid; Sicuranza, Linda

    1995-05-01

    This report describes an automated apparatus developed to measure the transport of water vapor through materials under a variety of conditions. The apparatus is more convenient to use than the traditional test methods for textiles and clothing materials, and allows one to use a wider variety of test conditions to investigate the concentration-dependent and nonlinear transport behavior of many of the semipermeable membrane laminates which are now available. The dynamic moisture permeation cell (DMPC) has been automated to permit multiple setpoint testing under computer control, and to facilitate investigation of transient phenomena. Results generated with the DMPC are in agreement with and of comparable accuracy to those from the ISO 11092 (sweating guarded hot plate) method of measuring water vapor permeability.

  10. Diode laser based water vapor DIAL using modulated pulse technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Phong Le Hoai; Abo, Makoto

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a diode laser based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for measuring lower-tropospheric water vapor profile using the modulated pulse technique. The transmitter is based on single-mode diode laser and tapered semiconductor optical amplifier with a peak power of 10W around 800nm absorption band, and the receiver telescope diameter is 35cm. The selected wavelengths are compared to referenced wavelengths in terms of random error and systematic errors. The key component of modulated pulse technique, a macropulse, is generated with a repetition rate of 10 kHz, and the modulation within the macropulse is coded according to a pseudorandom sequence with 100ns chip width. As a result, we evaluate both single pulse modulation and pseudorandom coded pulse modulation technique. The water vapor profiles conducted from these modulation techniques are compared to the real observation data in summer in Japan.

  11. Phoenix Water Vapor Measurements using the SSI Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamppari, Leslie; Lemmon, Mark T.

    2016-10-01

    The Phoenix and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft participated together in an observation campaign that was a coordinated effort to study the Martian atmosphere. These coordinated observations were designed to provide near-simultaneous observations of the same column of atmosphere over the Phoenix lander. Seasonal coverage was obtained at Ls=5-10° resolution and diurnal coverage was obtained as often as possible and with as many times of day as possible. One key aspect of this observation set was the means to compare the amount of water measured in the whole column (via the MRO Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM; Murchie et al., 2007) and the Phoenix Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) with that measured at the surface (via the Phoenix Thermal and Electrical Conductivity probe (TECP; Zent et al., 2008) which contained a humidity sensor). This comparison, along with the Phoenix LIDAR observations of the depth to which aerosols are mixed (Whiteway et al., 2008, 2009), provides clues to the water vapor mixing ratio profile. Tamppari et al. (2009) showed that examination of a subset of these coordinated observations indicate that the water vapor is not well mixed in the atmosphere up to a cloud condensation height at the Phoenix location during northern summer, and results indicated that a large amount of water must be confined to the lowest 0.5-1 km. This is contrary to the typical assumption that water vapor is "well-mixed."Following a similar approach to Titov et al. (2000), we use the Phoenix SSI camera [Lemmon et al., 2008] filters to detect water vapor: LA = 930.7 nm (broad), R4 = 935.5 nm (narrow), and R5 = 935.7 nm (narrow). We developed a hybrid DISORT-spherical model (DISORT model, Stamnes et al. 1988) to model the expected absorption due to a prescribed water vapor content and profile, to search for matches to the observations. Improvements to the model have been made and recent analysis using this model and comparisons to

  12. Observation system simulation experiments using water vapor isotope information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Kei; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Kanamitsu, Masao

    2014-07-01

    Measurements of water vapor isotopes (δ18O and δD) have dramatically increased in recent years with the availability of new spectroscopic technology. To utilize these data more efficiently, this study first developed a new data assimilation system using a local transform ensemble Kalman filter (LETKF) and the Isotope-incorporated Global Spectral Model (IsoGSM). An observation system simulation experiment (OSSE) was then conducted. The OSSE used a synthetic data set of vapor isotope measurements, mimicking Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES)-retrieved δD from the mid-troposphere, SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY)-retrieved δD from the water vapor column, and the virtual Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP)-like surface vapor isotope (both δD and δ18O) monitoring network. For TES and SCIAMACHY, we assumed a similar spatiotemporal coverage as that of the real data sets. For the virtual GNIP-like network, we assumed ~200 sites worldwide and 6-hourly measurements. An OSSE with 20 ensemble members was then conducted for January 2006. The results showed a significant improvement in not only the vapor isotopic field but also meteorological fields, such as wind speed, temperature, surface pressure, and humidity, when compared with a test with no observations. For surface air temperature, the global root mean square error has dropped by 10%, with 40-60% of the decrease occurring in the east-southeast Asia where the concentration of observations is relatively higher. When there is a conventional radiosonde network, the improvement gained by adding isotopic measurements was small but positive for all variables.

  13. Estimation of precipitable water vapor at GPS sites in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulali Idrissi, A.; Ouazar, D.; Bock, O.; Fadil, A.

    2009-12-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of water vapor in both time and space is essential for understanding weather and global climate change. This study presents the results of precipitable water vapor (PWV) estimates from GPS data for three continuously operating GPS stations in Morocco (Rabat, Tetouan, and Ifrane) for the period 2001 to 2007. The conversion of atmospheric delays to integrated water vapor was carried out using interpolated surface meteorological parameters derived from the global numerical weather model analysis from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The surface pressure extracted from the NCEP model was compared with observations provided from the synoptic network of the Moroccan Meteorological Agency (DMN). Good agreement was found between the two data sets with a bias of less than 1hPa. We compared the GPS derived PWV with the nearest radiosondes at the Rabat and Tetouan stations. The results show overall good agreement between the two data sets (mean difference < 2.5Kg/m2). The NCEP PWV compared well with GPS observations with a mean difference of less than 2.5 Kg/m2 and a standard deviation of less than 3.5 Kg/m2, confirming the potential of ground based GPS to provide an accurate and continuous description of water vapor field variations. The study showed by means of GPS, radiosondes and both NCEP model, a clear seasonal cycle of PWV with the highest values recorded during June, July, August, and September, peaking at 29 Kg/m2. The highest seasonal modulations seen at the 3 GPS stations were linked to large-scale atmospheric circulation.

  14. Extratropical influence of upper tropospheric water vapor on Greenhouse warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Hu, Hua

    1997-01-01

    Despite its small quantity, the importance of upper tropospheric water vapor is its ability to trap the longwave radiation emitted from the Earth's surface, namely the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is defined quantitatively as the difference between the longwave flux emitted by the Earth's surface and the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) flux emitted from the top of the atmosphere (TOA) (Raval and Ramanathan 1989).

  15. Interpolating atmospheric water vapor delay by incorporating terrain elevation information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W. B.; Li, Z. W.; Ding, X. L.; Zhu, J. J.

    2011-09-01

    In radio signal-based observing systems, such as Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), the water vapor in the atmosphere will cause delays during the signal transmission. Such delays vary significantly with terrain elevation. In the case when atmospheric delays are to be eliminated from the measured raw signals, spatial interpolators may be needed. By taking advantage of available terrain elevation information during spatial interpolation process, the accuracy of the atmospheric delay mapping can be considerably improved. This paper first reviews three elevation-dependent water vapor interpolation models, i.e., the Best Linear Unbiased Estimator in combination with the water vapor Height Scaling Model (BLUE + HSM), the Best Linear Unbiased Estimator coupled with the Elevation-dependent Covariance Model (BLUE + ECM), and the Simple Kriging with varying local means based on the Baby semi-empirical model (SKlm + Baby for short). A revision to the SKlm + Baby model is then presented, where the Onn water vapor delay model is adopted to substitute the inaccurate Baby semi-empirical model (SKlm + Onn for short). Experiments with the zenith wet delays obtained through the GPS observations from the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) demonstrate that the SKlm + Onn model outperforms the other three. The RMS of SKlm + Onn is only 0.55 cm, while those of BLUE + HSM, BLUE + ECM and SKlm + Baby amount to 1.11, 1.49 and 0.77 cm, respectively. The proposed SKlm + Onn model therefore represents an improvement of 29-63% over the other known models.

  16. Water vapor variance measurements using a Raman lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, K.; Melfi, S. H.; Ferrare, R.; Whiteman, D.

    1992-01-01

    Because of the importance of atmospheric water vapor variance, we have analyzed data from the NASA/Goddard Raman lidar to obtain temporal scales of water vapor mixing ratio as a function of altitude over observation periods extending to 12 hours. The ground-based lidar measures water vapor mixing ration from near the earth's surface to an altitude of 9-10 km. Moisture profiles are acquired once every minute with 75 m vertical resolution. Data at each 75 meter altitude level can be displayed as a function of time from the beginning to the end of an observation period. These time sequences have been spectrally analyzed using a fast Fourier transform technique. An example of such a temporal spectrum obtained between 00:22 and 10:29 UT on December 6, 1991 is shown in the figure. The curve shown on the figure represents the spectral average of data from 11 height levels centered on an altitude of 1 km (1 plus or minus .375 km). The spectra shows a decrease in energy density with frequency which generally follows a -5/3 power law over the spectral interval 3x10 (exp -5) to 4x10 (exp -3) Hz. The flattening of the spectrum for frequencies greater than 6x10 (exp -3) Hz is most likely a measure of instrumental noise. Spectra like that shown in the figure are calculated for other altitudes and show changes in spectral features with height. Spectral analysis versus height have been performed for several observation periods which demonstrate changes in water vapor mixing ratio spectral character from one observation period to the next. The combination of these temporal spectra with independent measurements of winds aloft provide an opportunity to infer spatial scales of moisture variance.

  17. Turning things downside up: Adsorbate induced water flipping on Pt(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmel, Greg A. E-mail: bruce.kay@pnnl.gov; Zubkov, Tykhon; Smith, R. Scott; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kay, Bruce D. E-mail: bruce.kay@pnnl.gov

    2014-11-14

    We have examined the adsorption of the weakly bound species N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO, and Kr on the (√(37)×√(37))R25.3{sup ∘} water monolayer on Pt(111) using a combination of molecular beam dosing, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption. In contrast to multilayer crystalline ice, the adsorbate-free water monolayer is characterized by a lack of dangling OH bonds protruding into the vacuum (H-up). Instead, the non-hydrogen-bonded OH groups are oriented downward (H-down) to maximize their interaction with the underlying Pt(111) substrate. Adsorption of Kr and O{sub 2} have little effect on the structure and vibrational spectrum of the “√(37)” water monolayer while adsorption of both N{sub 2}, and CO are effective in “flipping” H-down water molecules into an H-up configuration. This “flipping” occurs readily upon adsorption at temperatures as low as 20 K and the water monolayer transforms back to the H-down, “√(37)” structure upon adsorbate desorption above 35 K, indicating small energy differences and barriers between the H-down and H-up configurations. The results suggest that converting water in the first layer from H-down to H-up is mediated by the electrostatic interactions between the water and the adsorbates.

  18. Turning things downside up: Adsorbate induced water flipping on Pt(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmel, Gregory A.; Zubkov, Tykhon; Smith, R. Scott; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kay, Bruce D.

    2014-11-14

    We have examined the adsorption of the weakly bound species N2, O2, CO and Kr on the water monolayer on Pt(111) using a combination of molecular beam dosing, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). In contrast to multilayer crystalline ice, the adsorbate-free water monolayer is characterized by a lack of dangling OH bonds protruding into the vacuum (H-up). Instead, the non-hydrogen-bonded OH groups are oriented downward (H-down) to maximize their interaction with the underlying Pt(111) substrate. Adsorption of Kr and O2 have little effect on the structure and vibrational spectrum of the “ ” water monolayer while adsorption of both N2, and CO are effective in “flipping” H-down water molecules into an H-up configuration. This “flipping” occurs readily upon adsorption at temperatures as low as 20 K and the water monolayer transforms back to the H-down, “ ” structure upon adsorbate desorption above 35 K, indicating small energy differences and barriers between the H-down and H-up configurations. The results suggest that converting water in the first layer from H-down to H-up is mediated by the electrostatic interactions between the water and the adsorbates.

  19. Formation of 1D adsorbed water structures on CaO(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xunhua; Bhattacharya, Saswata; Ghiringhelli, Luca M.; Levchenko, Sergey V.; Scheffler, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the interaction of water with oxide surfaces is of fundamental importance for basic and engineering sciences. Recently, a spontaneous formation of one-dimensional (1D) adsorbed water structures have been observed on CaO(001). Interestingly, at other alkaline earth metal oxides, in particular MgO(001) and SrO(001), such structures have not been found experimentally. We calculate the relative stability of adsorbed water structures on the three oxides using density-functional theory combined with the ab initio atomistic thermodynamics. Low-energy structures at different coverages are obtained with a first-principles genetic algorithm. Finite-temperature vibrational spectra are calculated using ab initio molecular dynamics. We find a range of (T, p) conditions where 1D structures are thermodynamically stable on CaO(001). The orientation and vibrational spectra of the 1D structures are in agreement with the experiments. The formation of the 1D structures is found to be actuated by a symmetry breaking in the adsorbed water tetramer, as well as by a balance between water-water and water-substrate interactions, determined by the lattice constant of the oxide.

  20. Effects of water-vapor on friction and deformation of polymeric magnetic media in contact with a ceramic oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of humidity (water-vapor) in nitrogen on the friction and deformation behavior of magnetic tape in contact with a Ni-Zn ferrite spherical pin were studied. The coefficient of friction is markedly dependent on the ambient relative humidity. In elastic contacts the coefficient of friction increased linearly with increasing humidity; it decreased linearly when humidity was lowered. This effect is the result of changes in the chemistry and interaction of tape materials such as degradation of the lubricant. In plastic contacts there was no effect of humidity on friction below 40 percent relative humidity. There is no effect on friction associated with the breakthrough of the adsorbed water-vapor film at the interface of the tape and Ni-Zn ferrite. The coefficient of friction, however, increased rapidly with increasing relative humidity above 40 percent in plastic contacts.

  1. Water vapor, water-ice clouds, and dust in the North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, Leslie K.; Smith, Michael D.; Bass, Deborah S.; Hale, Amy S.

    2006-01-01

    The behavior of water vapor, water-ice and dust in the Martian atmosphere is important for understanding the overall Martian climate system, which is characterized by three main cycles: water, including water-ice, dust, and CO2. Understanding these cycles will lend insight into the behavior of the atmospheric dynamics, the atmosphere's ability to transport dust, water-ice, and vapor to different parts of the planet, and how that ability changes as a function of dust and water-ice loading.

  2. Mars atmospheric water vapor abundance: 1996-1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, A. L.; Hunten, D. M.; Doose, L. R.; Hill, R. E.

    2003-05-01

    Measurements of martian atmospheric water vapor made throughout Ls = 18.0°-146.4° (October 3, 1996-July 12, 1997) show changes in Mars humidity on hourly, daily, and seasonal time scales. Because our observing program during the 1996-1997 Mars apparition did not include concomitant measurement of nearby CO 2 bands, high northern latitude data were corrected for dust and aerosol extinction assuming an optical depth of 0.8, consistent with ground-based and HST imaging of northern dust storms. All other measurements with airmass greater than 3.5 were corrected using a total optical depth of 0.5. Three dominant results from this data set are as follows: (1) pre- and post-opposition measurements made with the slit crossing many hours of local time on Mars' Earth-facing disk show a distinct diurnal pattern with highest abundances around and slightly after noon with low abundances in the late afternoon, (2) measurements of water vapor over the Mars Pathfinder landing site (Carl Sagan Memorial Station) on July 12, 1997, found 21 ppt μm in the spatial sector centered near 19° latitude, 36° longitude while abundances around the site varied from as low as 6 to as high as 28 ppt μm, and (3) water vapor abundance is patchy on hourly and daily time scales but follows the usual seasonal trends.

  3. Combustion of a single magnesium particle in water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li-Ya; Xia, Zhi-Xun; Zhang, Wei-Hua; Huang, Xu; Hu, Jian-Xin

    2015-09-01

    The combustion of magnesium particles in water vapor is of interest for underwater propulsion and hydrogen production. In this work, the combustion process of a single magnesium particle in water vapor is studied both experimentally and theoretically. Combustion experiments are conducted in a combustor filled with motionless water vapor. Condensation of gas-phase magnesia on the particle surface is confirmed and gas-phase combustion flame characteristics are observed. With the help of an optical filter and a neutral optical attenuator, flame structures are captured and determined. Flame temperature profiles are measured by an infrared thermometer. Combustion residue is a porous oxide shell of disordered magnesia crystal, which may impose a certain influence on the diffusivity of gas phases. A simplified one-dimensional, spherically symmetric, quasi-steady combustion model is then developed. In this model, the condensation of gas-phase magnesia on the particle surface and its influence on the combustion process are included, and the Stefan problem on the particle surface is also taken into consideration. With the combustion model, the parameters of flame temperature, flame diameter, and the burning time of the particle are solved analytically under the experimental conditions. A reasonable agreement between the experimental and modeling results is demonstrated, and several features to improve the model are identified. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51406231).

  4. LASE measurements of aerosols and water vapor during TARFOX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, Richard A.; Ismail, Syed; Browell, Edward V.; Brackett, Vincent G.; Kooi, Susan A.; Clayton, Marian B.; Melfi, Harvey; Whiteman, David N.; Schwenner, Geary; Evans, Keith D.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Veefkind, J. Pepijn; Russell, Philip B.; Livingston, John M.; Hignett, Philip; Holben, Brent N.; Remer, Lorraine A.

    1998-01-01

    The TARFOX (Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment) intensive field campaign was designed to reduce uncertainties in estimates of the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on climate by measuring direct radiative effects and the optical, physical, and chemical properties of aerosols [1]. TARFOX was conducted off the East Coast of the United States between July 10-31, 1996. Ground, aircraft, and satellite-based sensors measured the sensitivity of radiative fields at various atmospheric levels to aerosol optical properties (i.e., optical thickness, phase function, single-scattering albedo) and to the vertical profile of aerosols. The LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment) instrument, which was flown on the NASA ER-2 aircraft, measured vertical profiles of total scattering ratio and water vapor during a series of 9 flights. These profiles were used in real-time to help direct the other aircraft to the appropriate altitudes for intensive sampling of aerosol layers. We have subsequently used the LASE aerosol data to derive aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles. Using these aerosol extinction profiles, we derived estimates of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and compared these with measurements of AOT from both ground and airborne sun photometers and derived from the ATSR-2 (Along Track and Scanning Radiometer 2) sensor on ERS-2 (European Remote Sensing Satellite-2). We also used the water vapor mixing ratio profiles measured simultaneously by LASE to derive precipitable water vapor and compare these to ground based measurements.

  5. Water vapor intrusions into the High Arctic during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, J. G.; Lesins, G.; Thackray, C. P.; Perro, C.; Nott, G. J.; Duck, T. J.; Damoah, R.; Drummond, J. R.

    2011-06-01

    The meridional transport of water vapor into the High Arctic, accompanied by dry enthalpy and clouds, impacts the surface radiative forcing. The evolution of one such moist intrusion over 9-11 February 2010 is presented. The event is analyzed using a unique blend of measurements including a new pan-Arctic retrieval of column water vapor from the Microwave Humidity Sounders, water vapor profiles from a Raman lidar and a ground-based microwave radiometer at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL), in Eureka (80°N, 86°W), on Ellesmere Island in the Canadian High Arctic. A radiation model reveals the intrusion is associated with a 17 W m-2 average increase in downwelling longwave irradiance. Optically thin clouds, as observed by the lidar, contribute a further 20 W m-2 to the downwelling longwave irradiance at their peak. Intrusion events are shown to be a regular occurrence in the Arctic winter with implications for the understanding of the mechanisms driving Arctic Amplification.

  6. Calibration of Atmospherically Induced Delay Fluctuations Due to Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, George; Jacobs, Christopher; Keihm, Steve; Lanyi, Gabor; Naudet, Charles; Riley, Abraham; Rosenberger, Hans; Tanner, Alan

    2000-01-01

    We have completed a new generation of water vapor radiometers (WVR), the A- series, in order to support radio science experiments with the Cassini spacecraft. These new instruments sense three frequencies in the vicinity of the 22 GHz emission line of atmospheric water vapor within a 1 degree beamwidth from a clear aperture antenna that is co-pointed with the radio telescope down to 10 degree elevation. The radiometer electronics features almost an order of magnitude improvement in temperature stability compared with earlier WVR designs. For many radio science experiments, the error budget is likely to be dominated by path delay fluctuations due to variable atmospheric water vapor along the line-of-sight to the spacecraft. In order to demonstrate the performance of these new WVRs we are attempting to calibrate the delay fluctuations as seen by a radio interferometer operating over a 21 km baseline with a WVR near each antenna. The characteristics of these new WVRs will be described and the results of our preliminary analysis will be presented indicating an accuracy of 0.2 to 0.5 mm in tracking path delay fluctuations over time scales of 10 to 10,000 seconds.

  7. Using GPS radio occultations to infer the water vapor feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergados, Panagiotis; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Ao, Chi O.; Fetzer, Eric J.

    2016-11-01

    The air refractive index at L-band frequencies depends on the air's water vapor content and density. Exploiting this relationship, we derive for the first time a theoretical model to infer the specific humidity response to surface temperature variations, dq/dTs, given knowledge of how the air refractive index and temperature vary with surface temperature. We validate this model by using 1.2-1.6 GHz Global Positioning System Radio Occultation (GPS RO) observations from 2007 to 2010 at 250 hPa, where the water vapor feedback on surface warming is strongest. The dq/dTs estimation from GPS RO observations shows excellent agreement with previously published results and the responses estimated by using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder and the NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications data sets. Because of their high sensitivity to fractional changes in water vapor, current and future GPS RO observations show great promise in monitoring climate feedback and their trends.

  8. Solar radiation and water vapor pressure to forecast chickenpox epidemics.

    PubMed

    Hervás, D; Hervás-Masip, J; Nicolau, A; Reina, J; Hervás, J A

    2015-03-01

    The clear seasonality of varicella infections in temperate regions suggests the influence of meteorologic conditions. However, there are very few data on this association. The aim of this study was to determine the seasonal pattern of varicella infections on the Mediterranean island of Mallorca (Spain), and its association with meteorologic conditions and schooling. Data on the number of cases of varicella were obtained from the Network of Epidemiologic Surveillance, which is composed of primary care physicians who notify varicella cases on a compulsory basis. From 1995 to 2012, varicella cases were correlated to temperature, humidity, rainfall, water vapor pressure, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, and solar radiation using regression and time-series models. The influence of schooling was also analyzed. A total of 68,379 cases of varicella were notified during the study period. Cases occurred all year round, with a peak incidence in June. Varicella cases increased with the decrease in water vapor pressure and/or the increase of solar radiation, 3 and 4 weeks prior to reporting, respectively. An inverse association was also observed between varicella cases and school holidays. Using these variables, the best fitting autoregressive moving average with exogenous variables (ARMAX) model could predict 95 % of varicella cases. In conclusion, varicella in our region had a clear seasonality, which was mainly determined by solar radiation and water vapor pressure.

  9. Evaluation of water vapor Raman lidar signals from clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuchi, Tetsuo; Fujii, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Raman lidar is commonly used for measurement of water vapor profiles in the lower atmosphere. However, the treatment of the Raman lidar signals from clouds is not well established. A simplified model taking multiple scattering into account is proposed. The model results in a difference of two exponential functions, one which represents the extinction of laser light inside the cloud, and another which represents the effect of multiple scattering. The model was applied to measurement results using a Raman lidar system consisting of a laser wavelength of 280 nm and detection channels for Raman scattering from water vapor and atmospheric nitrogen. When a cloud was present in the field of view of the lidar, the water vapor Raman scattering signal increased from almost zero at the cloud base to a maximum at a penetration distance of about 50 m, whereas the nitrogen Raman scattering signal decreased monotonously beyond the cloud base. This behavior could be explained by the model, and the measured signals could be adequately reproduced by setting the decay constant of one exponential function equal to the attenuation coefficient of the nitrogen Raman scattering signal, and optimizing the decay constant of the other exponential function. Comparison of measurement results and calculation results based on the model showed that the model is mainly applicable to optically thick clouds, for which the attenuation coefficient is larger than 0.02 m-1.

  10. Removal of lead and zinc ions from water by low cost adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Mishra, P C; Patel, R K

    2009-08-30

    In this study, activated carbon, kaolin, bentonite, blast furnace slag and fly ash were used as adsorbent with a particle size between 100 mesh and 200 mesh to remove the lead and zinc ions from water. The concentration of the solutions prepared was in the range of 50-100 mg/L for lead and zinc for single and binary systems which are diluted as required for batch experiments. The effect of contact time, pH and adsorbent dosage on removal of lead and zinc by adsorption was investigated. The equilibrium time was found to be 30 min for activated carbon and 3h for kaolin, bentonite, blast furnace slag and fly ash. The most effective pH value for lead and zinc removal was 6 for activated carbon. pH value did not effect lead and zinc removal significantly for other adsorbents. Adsorbent doses were varied from 5 g/L to 20 g/L for both lead and zinc solutions. An increase in adsorbent doses increases the percent removal of lead and zinc. A series of isotherm studies was undertaken and the data evaluated for compliance was found to match with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. To investigate the adsorption mechanism, the kinetic models were tested, and it follows second order kinetics. Kinetic studies reveals that blast furnace slag was not effective for lead and zinc removal. The bentonite and fly ash were effective for lead and zinc removal.

  11. Binary adsorption equilibrium of carbon dioxide and water vapor on activated alumina.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Xiao, Penny; Webley, Paul

    2009-09-15

    Adsorption equilibria of a CO2/H2O binary mixture on activated alumina F-200 were measured at several temperatures and over a wide range of concentrations from 4% to around 90% of the saturated water vapor pressure. In comparison with the single-component data, the loading of CO2 was not reduced in the presence of H2O, whereas at low relative humidity the adsorption of H2O was depressed. The binary system was described by a competitive/cooperative adsorption model where the readily adsorbed water layers acted as secondary sites for further CO2 adsorption via hydrogen bonding or hydration reaction. The combination of kinetic models, namely, a Langmuir isotherm for characterizing pure CO2 adsorption and a BET isotherm for H2O, was extended to derive a binary adsorption equilibrium model for the CO2/H2O mixture. Models based on the ideal adsorbed solution theory of Myers and Prausnitz failed to characterize the data over the whole composition range, and a large deviation of binary CO2/H2O equilibrium from ideal solution behavior was observed. The extended Langmuir-BET (LBET) isotherm, analogous to the extended Langmuir equation, drastically underestimated the CO2 loading. By incorporating the interactions between CO2 and H2O molecules on the adsorbent surface and taking into account the effect of nonideality, the realistic interactive LBET (R-LBET) model was found to be in very good agreement with the experimental data. The derived binary isosteric heat of adsorption showed that the heat was reduced by competitive adsorption but promoted by cooperative adsorption.

  12. In search of water vapor on Jupiter: Laboratory measurements of the microwave properties of water vapor under simulated jovian conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpowicz, Bryan M.; Steffes, Paul G.

    2011-03-01

    Detection and measurement of atmospheric water vapor in the deep jovian atmosphere using microwave radiometry has been discussed extensively by Janssen et al. (Janssen, M.A., Hofstadter, M.D., Gulkis, S., Ingersoll, A.P., Allison, M., Bolton, S.J., Levin, S.M., Kamp, L.W. [2005]. Icarus 173 (2), 447-453.) and de Pater et al. (de Pater, I., Deboer, D., Marley, M., Freedman, R., Young, R. [2005]. Icarus 173 (2), 425-447). The NASA Juno mission will include a six-channel microwave radiometer system (MWR) operating in the 1.3-50 cm wavelength range in order to retrieve water vapor abundances from the microwave signature of Jupiter (see, e.g., Matousek, S. [2005]. The Juno new frontiers mission. Tech. Rep. IAC-05-A3.2.A.04, California Institute of Technology). In order to accurately interpret data from such observations, nearly 2000 laboratory measurements of the microwave opacity of H2O vapor in a H2/He atmosphere have been conducted in the 5-21 cm wavelength range (1.4-6 GHz) at pressures from 30 mbars to 101 bars and at temperatures from 330 to 525 K. The mole fraction of H2O (at maximum pressure) ranged from 0.19% to 3.6% with some additional measurements of pure H2O. These results have enabled development of the first model for the opacity of gaseous H2O in a H2/He atmosphere under jovian conditions developed from actual laboratory data. The new model is based on a terrestrial model of Rosenkranz et al. (Rosenkranz, P.W. [1998]. Radio Science 33, 919-928), with substantial modifications to reflect the effects of jovian conditions. The new model for water vapor opacity dramatically outperforms previous models and will provide reliable results for temperatures from 300 to 525 K, at pressures up to 100 bars and at frequencies up to 6 GHz. These results will significantly reduce the uncertainties in the retrieval of jovian atmospheric water vapor abundances from the microwave radiometric measurements from the upcoming NASA Juno mission, as well as provide a clearer

  13. Molecular dynamics of the water liquid-vapor interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, M. A.; Pohorille, A.; Pratt, L. R.; MacElroy, R. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    The results of molecular dynamics calculations on the equilibrium interface between liquid water and its vapor at 325 K are presented. For the TIP4P model of water intermolecular pair potentials, the average surface dipole density points from the vapor to the liquid. The most common orientations of water molecules have the C2 nu molecular axis roughly parallel to the interface. The distributions are quite broad and therefore compatible with the intermolecular correlations characteristic of bulk liquid water. All near-neighbor pairs in the outermost interfacial layers are hydrogen bonded according to the common definition adopted here. The orientational preferences of water molecules near a free surface differ from those near rigidly planar walls which can be interpreted in terms of patterns found in hexagonal ice 1. The mean electric field in the interfacial region is parallel to the mean polarization which indicates that attention cannot be limited to dipolar charge distributions in macroscopic descriptions of the electrical properties of this interface. The value of the surface tension obtained is 132 +/- 46 dyn/cm, significantly different from the value for experimental water of 68 dyn/cm at 325 K.

  14. Water-assisted chemical vapor deposition synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes and their photoluminescence property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juan; Li, Jianbao; Yin, Yanchun; Chen, Yongjun; Bi, Xiaofan

    2013-09-01

    A novel water-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for the efficient synthesis of boron nitride (BN) nanotubes is demonstrated. The replacement of metal oxide by water vapor could continuously generate intermediate boron oxide vapor and enhance the production of BN nanotubes. The nanotubes synthesized when an appropriate amount of water vapor was introduced had an average diameter of about 80 nm and lengths of several hundred μm. The diameter and yield of nanotubes could be controlled by tuning the amount of water vapor. This simple water-assisted CVD approach paves a new path to the fabrication of BN nanotubes in large quantities.

  15. Water-assisted chemical vapor deposition synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes and their photoluminescence property.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Li, Jianbao; Yin, Yanchun; Chen, Yongjun; Bi, Xiaofan

    2013-09-13

    A novel water-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for the efficient synthesis of boron nitride (BN) nanotubes is demonstrated. The replacement of metal oxide by water vapor could continuously generate intermediate boron oxide vapor and enhance the production of BN nanotubes. The nanotubes synthesized when an appropriate amount of water vapor was introduced had an average diameter of about 80 nm and lengths of several hundred μm. The diameter and yield of nanotubes could be controlled by tuning the amount of water vapor. This simple water-assisted CVD approach paves a new path to the fabrication of BN nanotubes in large quantities.

  16. The Impact of Adsorbed Triethylene Glycol on Water Wettability of the {1014} Calcium Carbonate Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, R.

    2015-12-01

    Water flooding is increasingly being used as a method of enhanced oil recovery and frequently involves calcium carbonate reservoirs. Very often, thermodynamic conditions in the upper few hundred meters allow for hydrate formation. One possible method of preventing hydrates is to inject hydrate inhibitors such as triethylene glycol (TEG) into the reservoir. Thus, it is of importance to know how such glycols affect water wettability, which is an important factor defining the oil behavior in such reservoirs. Wettability of a surface is defined by the contact angle of a liquid drop on the surface. The stronger the liquid is attracted to the surface, the smaller the wetting angle becomes, implying an increased degree of wetting. Therefore, it is possible to gain qualitative knowledge of the change in wetting properties with respect to external influences by studying corresponding changes in free energy of adsorption of the liquid. In our work [1], we used molecular dynamics (MD) and Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) to study how adsorbed TEG on the {1014} calcium carbonate surface affected adsorbed water. We used the changes in density profiles of water to estimate changes in adsorption free energy of water. The adaptive biasing force (ABF) method was applied to TEG to calculate the adsorption free energy of TEG on the calcium carbonate surface. We found that water wetting of the calcium carbonate surface decreased in the presence of adsorbed TEG. [1] - Olsen, R.; Leirvik, K.; Kvamme, B.; Kuznetsova, T. Adsorption Properties of Triethylene Glycol on a Hydrated {1014} Calcite Surface and Its Effect on Adsorbed Water, Langmuir 2015, DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b02228

  17. First UV Satellite Observations of Mesospheric Water Vapor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-21

    Figure 4. We then use a nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm that includes the Rayleigh scattered back- Table 4. OH(1,1) g Factors at 200 Ka N0 P11...microwave limb sounder middle atmosphere water vapor and nitrous oxide measurements, J. Geo- phys. Res., 112, D24S36, doi:10.1029/2007JD008724. Lee, L...nitric acid and water in the vacuum ultraviolet: Vibrational and rotational distributions of OH2S+, J. Chem. Phys., 72, 6642–6650. Papagiannakopoulos, P

  18. Far-Infrared Dielectric Properties Of Adsorbed Water In A Cellulose-Air Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Pierre; Belanger, Pierre-Andre; Boulay, Russel; Drouin, Bernard; Gagnon, Richard

    1986-09-01

    A standard three components mixture model for the dielectric constant is compared to the measured transmittance and reflectance of FIR radiation through a wet cellulose matrix. This model reproduces, at least qualitatively, the peculiar behaviour of the reflectance versus water content curve. However, the absorption coefficient for water content above 5% can only be reproduced if we postulate that the water adsorbed between 5% and 10% in volume possesses an anomalously high absorption coefficient. This is interpreted in terms of the flickering clusters model for water and the structure breaking role of the cellulose surface.

  19. First-principles study of the dielectric functions of carbon nanotubes with adsorbed water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yasumitsu; Watanabe, Kazuyuki

    2017-04-01

    A recent study demonstrated adsorption of water molecules on the surfaces of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Importantly, it was reported that the peak positions in the absorption and photoluminescence spectra of the CNTs were shifted to lower energy as the number of adsorbed water molecules increased. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which this redshift occurs by calculating the dielectric functions of CNTs following water adsorption using density functional theory. Our calculations reproduced the redshifts and demonstrated that they can be attributed to decreases in the band gaps, which result from electronic coupling between the CNTs and the water molecules.

  20. Triple isotope composition of oxygen in atmospheric water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Ryu; Barkan, Eugeni; Abe, Osamu; Luz, Boaz

    2010-02-01

    Recently, an excess of 17O (17O-excess) has been demonstrated in meteoric water and ice cores. Based on theory and experiments, it has been suggested that this excess originates from evaporation of ocean water into under-saturated air. However, there has never been direct demonstration of this excess in marine vapor. Here, we present results of the first measurements of δ17O and δ18O in vapor samples collected over the South Indian and the Southern Oceans. Our data show the existence of 17O-excess in marine vapor and also clear negative correlation between 17O-excess and relative humidity. Thus, 17O-excess is useful for constraining oceanic humidity in hydrological and climatic models. Using the obtained values of 17O-excess, we estimated the fractionation factor between H218O and H216O for diffusion in air above the ocean (18αdiff). The new estimation of 18αdiff (1.008) is larger than the widely accepted value in hydrological studies.

  1. Arsenic removal from water using a novel amorphous adsorbent developed from coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaihua; Zhang, Dongxue; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    A novel effective adsorbent of alumina/silica oxide hydrate (ASOH) for arsenic removal was developed through simple chemical reactions using coal fly ash. The iron-modified ASOH with enhancing adsorption activity was further developed from raw fly ash based on the in situ technique. The adsorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, scanning electron micrograph, laser particle size and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller surface area. The results show that the adsorbents are in amorphous and porous structure, the surface areas of which are 8-12 times that of the raw ash. The acidic hydrothermal treatment acts an important role in the formation of the amorphous structure of ASOH rather than zeolite crystal. A series of adsorption experiments for arsenic on them were studied. ASOH can achieve a high removal efficiency for arsenic of 96.4% from water, which is more than 2.5 times that of the raw ash. Iron-modified ASOH can enhance the removal efficiency to reach 99.8% due to the in situ loading of iron (Fe). The condition of synthesis pH = 2-4 is better for iron-modified ASOH to adsorb arsenic from water.

  2. Adsorption of prototypical amino acids on silica: Influence of the pre-adsorbed water multilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remesal, Elena R.; Amaya, Javier; Graciani, Jesús; Márquez, Antonio M.; Sanz, Javier Fdez.

    2016-04-01

    We explore the interaction between acetic acid, some typical α-amino acids (α-AAs), and a fully hydroxylated (0001) surface of α-quartz by means of theoretical calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT) under periodic boundary conditions. The influence of microsolvation, represented by a water multilayer, and dispersion forces is analyzed. All the considered molecules strongly adsorb on the hydroxylated surface and prefer to adsorb molecularly. The inclusion of dispersion forces increases the interaction energies by 15-30 kJ/mol, without significant changes in structure and mode of adsorption except for histidine where the interaction is improved through protonation of the α-amine group. When the water multilayer is included a decrease in the surface-adsorbate interaction energies is observed. Also, some α-AAs, glycine and alanine, change their adsorption mode and, now, the more stable structure is the zwitterion. Adsorption as zwitterions is always favored with respect to molecular interaction when dispersion forces are taken into account. Comparing the energies of adsorbed and solvated α-AA zwitterions, it turns out that inclusion of dispersion forces predicts that solvated zwitterions are the lower energy configurations.

  3. Water Vapor Profiling From CoSSIR Radiometric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Chang, L. A.; Monosmith, B.; Zhang, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Previous millimeter-wave radiometry for water vapor profiling, by either airborne or satellite sensors, has been limited to frequencies less than or equal to 183 GHz. The retrievals are generally limited to an altitude range of 0-10 km. The additional measurements at the frequencies of 380.2 plus or minus 0.8, 380.2 plus or minus 1.8, 380.2 plus or minus 3.3, and 380.2 plus or minus 6.2 GHz provided by the new airborne Compact Scanning Submillimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSSIR) can extend this profiling capability up to an altitude of about 15 km. Furthermore, the retrievals can be performed over both land and water surfaces in the tropics without much difficulty. These properties are demonstrated by recent CoSSIR measurements on board the NASA WB-57 aircraft during CR-AVE in January 2006. Retrievals of water vapor mixing ratio were performed at eight altitude levels of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 km from CoSSIR data sets acquired at observational angles of 0 and 53.4 degrees, and the results were compared with other available measurements from the same aircraft and near-concurrent satellites. A comparison of the variations of mixing ratios retrieved from CoSSIR and those derived from the Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) in the aircraft vicinity, along the path of the transit flight on January 14, 2006, appears to show some connection, although the measurements were referring to different altitudes. A very good agreement was found between the collocated values of total precipitable water derived from the CoSSIR-retrieved water vapor profiles and those estimated from TMI (TRMM Microwave Imager)

  4. Characterization of upper troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, R. A.; Browell, E. V.; Ismail, I.; Kooi, S.; Brasseur, L. H.; Brackett, V. G.; Clayton, M.; Barrick, J.; Bosenberg, J.; Diskin, G.; Goldsmith, J.; Lesht, B.; Podolske, J.; Sachse, G.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Turner, D.; Whitemann, D.

    2002-07-15

    Water vapor profiles from NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system acquired during the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) are used to characterize upper troposphere (UT) water vapor measured by ground-based Raman lidars, radiosondes, and in situ aircraft sensors. Initial comparisons showed the average Vaisala radiosonde measurements to be 5-15% drier than the average LASE, Raman lidar, and DC-8 in situ diode laser hygrometer measurements. They show that corrections to the Raman lidar and Vaisala measurements significantly reduce these differences. Precipitable water vapor (PWV) derived from the LASE water vapor profiles agrees within 3% on average with PWV derived from the ARM ground-based microwave radiometer (MWR). The agreement among the LASE, Raman lidar, and MWR measurements demonstrates how the LASE measurements can be used to characterize both profile and column water vapor measurements and that ARM Raman lidar, when calibrated using the MWR PWV, can provide accurate UT water vapor measurements.

  5. Effect of Salt Additives to Water on the Severity of Vapor Explosions and on the Collapse of Vapor Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Takahiro; Furuya, Masahiro

    We proposed ultra rapid solidification and atomization technique, CANOPUS (Cooling and Atomizing based on NOble Process Utilizing Steam explosion), using small-scale vapor explosions to make an amorphous metal. The CANOPUS method is suitable for rapid cooling and atomization process, which utilizing sustainable small-scale vapor explosions. In order to apply the CANOPUS method to a high melting point metal, it is necessary to make a small-scale vapor explosion occur at a high temperature of the molten metal. Small-scale experiment is conducted to develop the vapor explosion promotor in which spontaneous vapor explosion can occur at a high temperature of a molten metal. Spontaneous vapor explosion do not occur when water at 80°C is used as a coolant. However, spontaneous vapor explosion occurs when water at 80°C with salt additives is used as a coolant. Specifically, lithium chloride solution generates spontaneous vapor explosions at the highest temperature of the molten tin in the experiment. In order to clarify the triggering mechanism of the spontaneous vapor explosion when the promotor is used as a coolant, a high-temperature solid stainless steel sphere is immersed into a coolant. The interfacial temperature of the stainless steel sphere is measured, and the behavior of a vapor film around the stainless steel sphere is observed with a digital video camera. As a result, salt additives resulted in an increase of quench temperature in all salt solutions. The quenching curves of each coolant indicate that the salt additives improve the film boiling heat transfer. The improvement of the film boiling heat transfer causes an unstable formation of the vapor film and a rise of the quench temperature. It is clarified that the salt additives to water promotes a vapor film collapse. Comparing two experiments, the quench temperature of each solution is in close agreement with the upper limit of the molten tin temperature that causes spontaneous vapor explosion. This

  6. Adsorption of water vapor by poly(styrenesulfonic acid), sodium salt: isothermal and isobaric adsorption equilibria.

    PubMed

    Toribio, F; Bellat, J P; Nguyen, P H; Dupont, M

    2004-12-15

    Air conditioning and dehumidifying systems based on sorption on solids are of great interest, especially in humid climates, because they allow reduction of thermal loads and use of chlorofluorocarbons. Previous studies have shown that hydrophilic polymers such as sulfonic polymers can have very high performance in water adsorption from air. The aim of this study was to characterize the water vapor adsorption properties of fully sulfonated and monosulfonated poly(styrenesulfonic acid), sodium salt, and to elucidate the mechanism of adsorption on these materials. Adsorption isotherms have been determined by TGA between 298 and 317 K for pressures ranging from 0.1 to 45 hPa. They have type II of the IUPAC classification and a small hysteresis loop between adsorption and desorption processes was observed only for the monosulfonated sample. Water content is up to 80% weight at 80% relative humidity. Adsorption isotherms have been well fitted with the FHH model. Adsorption-desorption isobars have been determined by TGA under 37 hPa in the temperature range 298-373 K. They show that these polymers can be completely regenerated by heating at 313 K under humidified air. No degradation of the adsorption properties has been observed after several regenerations. Adsorption enthalpies and entropies have been deduced from the Clapeyron equation and from DSC measurements. A good agreement was found. A mechanism of adsorption is proposed considering two kinds of adsorbate: bounded water in electrostatic interaction with functional groups and free water resulting from condensation.

  7. Inferring water vapor amounts with solar spectral irradiance: Measurements, modeling, and comparisons with in situ water vapor profiles in the upper troposphere lower stratosphere from ATTREX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindel, B. C.; Pilewskie, P.; Schmidt, S.; Thornberry, T. D.; Rollins, D. W.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Bui, T. V.

    2013-12-01

    The Airborne Tropical TRopopause Experiment (ATTREX) flew six science missions on the NASA Global Hawk aircraft from NASA Dryden, California to the Pacific tropics to sample the upper troposphere, lower stratosphere (UTLS) during February and March of 2013. After transit to the tropics, the aircraft performed a series of vertical profiles from the cruising altitude of about 18 km down to 14 km sampling the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). A science focus of ATTREX is to examine water vapor and its transport through the TTL. The extremely cold temperatures found in the TTL act to limit the transport of water vapor from the troposphere to stratosphere, making this region critical to the water vapor budget of the stratosphere. Here we investigate the use of the strong water bands centered at 1400 and 1900 nm in the telluric solar spectrum to infer the small water vapor amounts through the TTL. Measurements of spectral irradiance from the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) at the top and bottom of the aircraft profiles are used to produce transmission spectra. These are compared with atmospheric radiative transfer calculations of transmission through the layer. The measured water vapor profile from the NOAA water vapor instrument, as well as temperature and pressure, were used in the modeling, providing a rare opportunity to compare water vapor amount inferred from solar transmittance to in situ measurements. Prospects for the use of these bands for determining the total column water vapor amount from the UTLS to the top of the atmosphere from aircraft are also discussed.

  8. Water vapor and cloud water measurements over Darwin during the STEP 1987 tropical mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, K. K.; Proffitt, M. H.; Chan, K. R.; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J. R.; Strahan, E.; Wilson, J. C.; Kley, D.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of stratospheric and upper tropospheric cloud water plus water vapor (total water) and water vapor were made with two Lyman alpha hygrometers as part of the STEP tropical experiment. The in situ measurements were made in the Darwin, Australia, area in January and February of 1987 on an ER-2 aircraft. Average stratospheric water vapor at a potential temperature of 375 K (the average value of Theta at the tropopause) was 2.4 parts per million by volume (ppmv). This water mixing ratio is below the 3.0 to 4.0 ppmv necessary to be consistent with the observed upper stratospheric dryness. Saturation with respect to ice and the potential for dehydration was observed up to Theta = 402 K.

  9. Column atmospheric water vapor and vegetation liquid water retrievals from Airborne Imaging Spectrometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bo-Cai; Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1990-03-01

    High spatial resolution column atmospheric water vapor amounts were derived from spectral data collected by the airborne visible-infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS), which covers the spectral region from 0.4 to 2.5 μm in 10-nm bands and has a ground instantaneous field of view of 20×20 m from an altitude of 20 km. The quantitative derivation is made by curve fitting observed spectra with calculated spectra in the 1.14-μm and 0.94-μm water vapor band absorption regions using an atmospheric model, a narrowband spectral model, and a nonlinear least squares fitting technique. The derivation makes use of the facts that (1) the reflectances of many ground targets vary approximately linearly with wavelength in the 0.94- and 1.14-μm water vapor band absorption regions, (2) the scattered radiation near 1 μm is small compared with the directly reflected radiation when the atmospheric aerosol concentrations are low, and (3) the scattered radiation in the lower part of the atmosphere is subjected to the water vapor absorption. The technique is directly applicable for retrieving column water vapor amounts from AVIRIS spectra measured on clear days with visibilities 20 km or greater. The precision of the retrieved column water vapor amounts from several data sets is 5% or better. Based on the analyses of an AVIRIS data set that was acquired within an hour of radiosonde launch, it appears that the accuracy approaches the precision. The derived column water vapor amounts are independent of the absolute surface reflectances. It now appears feasible to derive high spatial resolution column water vapor amounts over land areas from satellite altitude with the proposed high resolution imaging spectrometer (HIRIS). Curve fitting of spectra near 1 μm from areas covered with vegetation, using an atmospheric model and a simplified vegetation reflectance model, indicates that both the amount of atmospheric water vapor and the moisture content of vegetation can be retrieved

  10. Fiber-Optic Gratings for Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Leila B.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2006-01-01

    Narrow-band filters in the form of phase-shifted Fabry-Perot Bragg gratings incorporated into optical fibers are being developed for differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) instruments used to measure concentrations of atmospheric water vapor. The basic idea is to measure the relative amounts of pulsed laser light scattered from the atmosphere at two nearly equal wavelengths, one of which coincides with an absorption spectral peak of water molecules and the other corresponding to no water vapor absorption. As part of the DIAL measurement process, the scattered light is made to pass through a filter on the way to a photodetector. Omitting other details of DIAL for the sake of brevity, what is required of the filter is to provide a stop band that: Surrounds the water-vapor spectral absorption peaks at a wavelength of 946 nm, Has a spectral width of at least a couple of nanometers, Contains a pass band preferably no wider than necessary to accommodate the 946.0003-nm-wavelength water vapor absorption peak [which has 8.47 pm full width at half maximum (FWHM)], and Contains another pass band at the slightly shorter wavelength of 945.9 nm, where there is scattering of light from aerosol particles but no absorption by water molecules. Whereas filters used heretofore in DIAL have had bandwidths of =300 pm, recent progress in the art of fiber-optic Bragg-grating filters has made it feasible to reduce bandwidths to less than or equal to 20 pm and thereby to reduce background noise. Another benefit of substituting fiber-optic Bragg-grating filters for those now in use would be significant reductions in the weights of DIAL instruments. Yet another advantage of fiber-optic Bragg-grating filters is that their transmission spectra can be shifted to longer wavelengths by heating or stretching: hence, it is envisioned that future DIAL instruments would contain devices for fine adjustment of transmission wavelengths through stretching or heating of fiber-optic Bragg-grating filters

  11. Vapor Transport Modeling of Continental Water Isotope Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritch, A. J.; Caves, J. K.; Ibarra, D. E.; Winnick, M. J.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Stable isotopes have been widely used to reconstruct past climatic conditions and topographic histories of mountain belts. However, many studies do not account for the influences of evapotranspiration and vapor recycling on downstream meteoric water isotopic compositions. Here we present a case study of the modern Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range to illustrate the value of using process-based models across larger spatial scales to reconstruct the conditions driving local- to regional-scale water isotopic compositions. We use a one-dimensional reactive vapor transport model, driven by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) high-resolution North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) dataset, to simulate the isotopic composition of modern meteoric waters (δ18O and δD) along storm tracks across the Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range. Storm track pathways are generated using NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory's Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. In addition, we couple the vapor transport model with a soil moisture model to simulate depth profiles of the oxygen isotopic composition of authigenic carbonate along our storm tracks. We show that, given reasonable estimates of the modern partitioning between evaporation and transpiration, our model output is in agreement with modern isotopic data both from compilations of published meteoric water samples and from newly collected soil carbonate samples along a transect across the northern Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range (~38-42° N). These results demonstrate that our modeling approach can be used to analyze the relative contributions of climate and topography to observed isotopic gradients. Future studies can apply this modeling framework to isotopes preserved in the geologic record to provide a quantitative means of understanding the paleoclimatic influences on spatial isotopic distributions.

  12. Projections of Horizontal Water Vapor Transport across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavers, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    With a warming Earth's atmosphere, the global water cycle is expected to intensify, a process that is likely to yield changes in the frequency and intensity of hydrological extremes. To quantify such changes over Europe, most previous research has been based upon precipitation scenarios. However, seldom has the horizontal water vapor transport (integrated vapor transport IVT) been investigated, a key variable responsible for heavy precipitation events and one that links water source and sink regions. It is hence the aim of this study to assess the projections of IVT across Europe. The Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) is the source of the climate model projections. The historical simulations (1979-2005) and two emissions scenarios (2073-2099), or representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) from 22 global circulation models were retrieved and evaluated. In particular, at model grid points across Europe the mean, standard deviation, and the 95th percentile of IVT were calculated for December, January, and February (Boreal winter); and for June, July, and August (Austral winter). The CMIP5 historical multi-model mean closely resembles the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis. In the future under the two emissions scenarios, the IVT increases in magnitude, with the highest percentage changes occurring in the extreme emissions (RCP8.5) scenario; for example, multi-model mean IVT increases of 30% are found in the domain. An evaluation of the low-altitude moisture and winds indicates that higher atmospheric water vapor content is the primary cause of these projected changes.

  13. WATER VAPOR IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK OF DG Tau

    SciTech Connect

    Podio, L.; Dougados, C.; Thi, W.-F.; Menard, F.; Pinte, C.; Codella, C.; Cabrit, S.; Nisini, B.; Sandell, G.; Williams, J. P.; Testi, L.; Woitke, P.

    2013-03-20

    Water is key in the evolution of protoplanetary disks and the formation of comets and icy/water planets. While high-excitation water lines originating in the hot inner disk have been detected in several T Tauri stars (TTSs), water vapor from the outer disk, where most water ice reservoirs are stored, was only reported in the nearby TTS TW Hya. We present spectrally resolved Herschel/HIFI observations of the young TTS DG Tau in the ortho- and para-water ground-state transitions at 557 and 1113 GHz. The lines show a narrow double-peaked profile, consistent with an origin in the outer disk, and are {approx}19-26 times brighter than in TW Hya. In contrast, CO and [C II] lines are dominated by emission from the envelope/outflow, which makes H{sub 2}O lines a unique tracer of the disk of DG Tau. Disk modeling with the thermo-chemical code ProDiMo indicates that the strong UV field, due to the young age and strong accretion of DG Tau, irradiates a disk upper layer at 10-90 AU from the star, heating it up to temperatures of 600 K and producing the observed bright water lines. The models suggest a disk mass of 0.015-0.1 M{sub Sun }, consistent with the estimated minimum mass of the solar nebula before planet formation, and a water reservoir of {approx}10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} Earth oceans in vapor and {approx}100 times larger in the form of ice. Hence, this detection supports the scenario of ocean delivery on terrestrial planets by the impact of icy bodies forming in the outer disk.

  14. Cassini/CIRS Observations of Water Vapor in Titan's Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Achterberg, R. K.; Anderson, C. M.; Samuelson, R. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Jennings, D. E.

    2008-01-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on the Cassini spacecraft has obtained spectra of Titan during most of the 44 flybys of the Cassini prime mission. Water vapor on Titan was first detected using whole-disk observations from the Infrared Space Observatory (Coustenis et al 1998, Astron. Astrophys. 336, L85-L89). CIRS data permlt the retrieval of the latitudinal variation of water on Titan and some limited information on its vertical profile. Emission lines of H2O on Titan are very weak in the CIRS data. Thus, large spectral averages as well as improvements in calibration are necessary to detect water vapor. Water abundances were retrieved in nadir spectra at 55 South, the Equator, and at 19 North. Limb spectra of the Equator were also modeled to constrain the vertical distribution of water. Stratospheric temperatures in the 0.5 - 4.0 mbar range were obtained by inverting spectra of CH4 in the v4 band centered at 1304/cm. The temperature in the lower stratosphere (4 - 20 mbar) was derived from fitting pure rotation lines of CH4 between 80 and 160/cm. The origin of H2O and CO2 is believed to be from the ablation of micrometeorites containing water ice, followed by photochemistry. This external source of water originates either within the Saturn system or from the interplanetary medium. Recently, Horst et al (J. Geophys. Res. 2008, in press) developed a photochemical model of Titan in which there are two external sources of oxygen. Oxygen ions (probably from Enceladus) precipitate into Titan's atmosphere to form CO at very high altitudes (1100 km). Water ice ablation at lower altitudes (700 km) forms H2O and subsequent chemistry produces CO2. CIRS measurements of CO, CO2, and now of H2O will provide valuable constraints to these photochemical models and - improve our understanding of oxygen chemistry on Titan.

  15. Role of Adsorbed Water on Charge Carrier Dynamics in Photoexcited TiO2

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Overall photocatalytic water splitting is one of the most sought after processes for sustainable solar-to-chemical energy conversion. The efficiency of this process strongly depends on charge carrier recombination and interaction with surface adsorbates at different time scales. Here, we investigated how hydration of TiO2 P25 affects dynamics of photogenerated electrons at the millisecond to minute time scale characteristic for chemical reactions. We used rapid scan diffuse-reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The decay of photogenerated electron absorption was substantially slower in the presence of associated water. For hydrated samples, the charge carrier recombination rates followed an Arrhenius-type behavior in the temperature range of 273–423 K; these became temperature-independent when the material was dehydrated at temperatures above 423 K or cooled below 273 K. A DFT+U analysis revealed that hydrogen bonding with adsorbed water stabilizes surface-trapped holes at anatase TiO2(101) facet and lowers the barriers for hole migration. Hence, hole mobility should be higher in the hydrated material than in the dehydrated system. This demonstrates that adsorbed associated water can efficiently stabilize photogenerated charge carriers in nanocrystalline TiO2 and suppress their recombination at the time scale up to minutes.

  16. Trapping of water vapor from an atmosphere by condensed silicate matter formed by high-temperature pulse vaporization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerasimov, M. V.; Dikov, Yu. P.; Yakovlev, O. I.; Wlotzka, F.

    1993-01-01

    The origin of planetary atmospheres is thought to be the result of bombardment of a growing planet by massive planetesimals. According to some models, the accumulation of released water vapor and/or carbon dioxide can result in the formation of a dense and hot primordial atmosphere. Among source and sink processes of atmospheric water vapor the formation of hydroxides was considered mainly as rehydration of dehydrated minerals (foresterite and enstatite). From our point of view, the formation of hydroxides is not limited to rehydration. Condensation of small silicate particles in a spreading vapor cloud and their interaction with a wet atmosphere can also result in the origin of hydrated phases which have no genetic connections with initial water bearing minerals. We present results of two experiments of a simulated interaction of condensed silicate matter which originated during vaporization of dry clinopyroxene in a wet helium atmosphere.

  17. Removal of arsenate from water by adsorbents: a comparative case study.

    PubMed

    Bang, Sunbaek; Pena, Maria E; Patel, Manish; Lippincott, Lee; Meng, Xiaoguang; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory and field filtration experiments were conducted to study the effectiveness of As(V) removal for five types of adsorbent media. The media included activated alumina (AA), modified activated alumina (MAA), granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), granular ferric oxide (GFO), and granular titanium dioxide (TiO₂). In laboratory batch and column experiments, the synthetic challenge water was used to evaluate the effectiveness for five adsorbents. The results of the batch experiments showed that the As(V) adsorption decreased as follows at pH 6.5: TiO₂ > GFO > GFH > MAA > AA. At pH 8.5, however, As(V) removal decreased in the following order: GFO = TiO₂ > GFH > MAA > AA. In column experiments, at pH 6.5, the adsorbed As(V) for adsorbents followed the order: TiO₂ > GFO > GFH, whereas at pH 8.5 the order became: GFO = TiO₂ > GFH when the challenge water containing 50 μg/L of As(V) was used. Field filtration experiments were carried out in parallel at a wellhead in New Jersey. Before the effluent arsenic concentration increased to 10 μg/L, approximately 58,000 and 41,500 bed volumes of groundwater containing an average of 47 μg/L of As(V) were treated by the filter system packed with GFO and TiO₂, respectively. The As(V) adsorption decreased in the following sequence: GFO > TiO₂ > GFH > MAA > AA. Filtration results demonstrated that GFO and TiO₂ adsorbents could be used as media in small community filtration systems for As(V) removal.

  18. Observation System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) using water vapor isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, K.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of water vapor isotopes (δ18O and δD) have been drastically increased these years with new technology, i.e., spectroscopic instruments both satellite-onboard and ground-based (in-situ) to improve our understanding of the hydrologic cycle in the atmosphere and land surface. To more efficiently utilize these data, this study first developed a new data assimilation system with Local Transform Ensemble Kalman Filter (LETKF) and Isotope-incorporated Global Spectral Model (IsoGSM). Then an observation system simulation experiment (OSSE) was conducted. This OSSE uses a mock dataset of vapor isotope measurements, namely TES/Aura retrieved δD at mid-troposphere, SCIAMACHY/Envisat retrieved δD at vapor column, and virtual GNIP-like vapor isotope (both δD and δ18O) monitoring network. We used historical retrieval numbers for TES and SCIAMACHY measurements, which are 15,000 and 10,000 data in January 2006. For virtual GNIP-like network, we assumed about 200 sites over the world, and 6-hourly measurement at 2m from surface. The accuracy of the measurements are 10‰ and 100‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively, including the uncertainty associated with representativeness of the data in space and time. Then the OSSE with 20 ensemble member was conducted for January 2006. The results are indeed remarkable. It showed significant improvement in not only vapor isotopic field but also meteorological fields, such as wind speed, temperature, surface pressure and humidity, comparing with a test without any observation. For surface air temperature, the global RMSE has dropped 10%, in which as large as 40-60% decrease is observed in east-southeast Asia area where the observation concentration is relatively higher. Most of the variables showed consistently similar feature. These results clearly show that the vapor isotope measurement definitely help to improve our understanding of hydrologic cycle through constraining with the data assimilation. RMSE of 6-hourly data for 2

  19. A multifunctional azobenzene-based polymeric adsorbent for effective water remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Decheng; Chen, Feng; Geng, Qingrui; Lu, Hang; Willcock, Helen; Liu, Qiuming; Wang, Fangyingkai; Zou, Kaidian; Jin, Ming; Pu, Hongting; Du, Jianzhong

    2014-12-01

    The efficient removal of trace carcinogenic organic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and ionic dyes, from water is an important technical challenge. We report a highly effective recyclable multifunctional azobenzene (AZ)-based silica-supported polymeric adsorbent which can simultaneously remove both PAHs and anionic dyes from water to below parts per billion (ppb) level based on multiple interactions such as the hydrophobic effect, π-π stacking and electrostatic interactions, thus providing a new strategy for designer water remediation materials.

  20. A multifunctional azobenzene-based polymeric adsorbent for effective water remediation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Decheng; Chen, Feng; Geng, Qingrui; Lu, Hang; Willcock, Helen; Liu, Qiuming; Wang, Fangyingkai; Zou, Kaidian; Jin, Ming; Pu, Hongting; Du, Jianzhong

    2014-12-03

    The efficient removal of trace carcinogenic organic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and ionic dyes, from water is an important technical challenge. We report a highly effective recyclable multifunctional azobenzene (AZ)-based silica-supported polymeric adsorbent which can simultaneously remove both PAHs and anionic dyes from water to below parts per billion (ppb) level based on multiple interactions such as the hydrophobic effect, π-π stacking and electrostatic interactions, thus providing a new strategy for designer water remediation materials.

  1. Removal of antibiotics from water using sewage sludge- and waste oil sludge-derived adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Ding, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Seredych, Mykola; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2012-09-01

    Sewage sludge- and waste oil sludge-derived materials were tested as adsorbents of pharmaceuticals from diluted water solutions. Simultaneous retention of eleven antibiotics plus two anticonvulsants was examined via batch adsorption experiments. Virgin and exhausted adsorbents were examined via thermal and FTIR analyses to elucidate adsorption mechanisms. Maximum adsorption capacities for the 6 materials tested ranged from 80 to 300 mg/g, comparable to the adsorption capacities of antibiotics on various activated carbons (200-400 mg/g) reported in the literature. The performance was linked to surface reactivity, polarity and porosity. A large volume of pores similar in size to the adsorbate molecules with hydrophobic carbon-based origin of pore walls was indicated as an important factor promoting the separation process. Moreover, the polar surface of an inorganic phase in the adsorbents attracted the functional groups of target molecules. The presence of reactive alkali metals promoted reaction with acidic groups, formation of salts and their precipitation in the pore system.

  2. Application of Glycyrrhiza glabra root as a novel adsorbent in the removal of toluene vapors: equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic study.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi-Moghadam, Fazel; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Khiadani Hajian, Mehdi; Momenbeik, Fariborz; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah; Hatamipour, Mohammad Sadegh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the removal of toluene from gaseous solution through Glycyrrhiza glabra root (GGR) as a waste material. The batch adsorption experiments were conducted at various conditions including contact time, adsorbate concentration, humidity, and temperature. The adsorption capacity was increased by raising the sorbent humidity up to 50 percent. The adsorption of toluene was also increased over contact time by 12 h when the sorbent was saturated. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich model fitted the adsorption data better than other kinetic and isotherm models, respectively. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm also showed that the sorption by GGR was physical in nature. The results of the thermodynamic analysis illustrated that the adsorption process is exothermic. GGR as a novel adsorbent has not previously been used for the adsorption of pollutants.

  3. Oxidation of Ultra High Temperature Ceramics in Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, QuynhGiao N.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Robinson, Raymond C.

    2004-01-01

    Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) including HfB2 + 20v/0 SiC (HS), ZrB2 + 20v/0 SiC (ZS), and ZrB2 + 30v/0 C + 14v/0 SiC (ZCS) have been investigated for use as potential aeropropulsion engine materials. These materials were oxidized in water vapor (90 percent) using a cyclic vertical furnace at 1 atm. The total exposure time was 10 h at temperatures of 1200, 1300, and 1400 C. CVD SiC was also evaluated as a baseline for comparison. Weight change, X-ray diffraction analyses, surface and cross-sectional SEM and EDS were performed. These results are compared with tests ran in a stagnant air furnace at temperatures of 1327 C for 100 min, and with high pressure burner rig (HPBR) results at 1100 and 1300 C at 6 atm for 50 h. Low velocity water vapor does not make a significant contribution to the oxidation rates of UHTCs when compared to stagnant air. The parabolic rate constants at 1300 C, range from 0.29 to 16.0 mg(sup 2)cm(sup 4)/h for HS and ZCS, respectively, with ZS results between these two values. Comparison of results for UHTCs tested in the furnace in 90 percent water vapor with HPBR results was difficult due to significant sample loss caused by spallation in the increased velocity of the HPBR. Total recession measurements are also reported for the two test environments.

  4. An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy A. Berkoff; Paul L. Kebabian; Robert A. McClatchy; Charles E. Kolb; Andrew Freedman

    1998-12-01

    The water vapor sensor developed by Aerodyne Research, based on the optical absorption of light at {approximately}935 nm, has been successfully demonstrated on board the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Gulfstream-1 research aircraft during the Department of Energy's ARM Intensive Operations Period in August 1998. Data taken during this field campaign show excellent agreement with a chilled mirror and Lyman-alpha hygrometers and measurements confirm the ability to measure rapid, absolute water vapor fluctuations with a high degree of instrument stability and accuracy, with a noise level as low 10 ppmv (1 Hz measurement bandwidth). The construction of this small, lightweight sensor contains several unique elements which result in several significant advantages when compared to other techniques. First, the low power consumption Argon discharge lamp provides an optical beam at a fixed wavelength without a need for temperature or precision current control. The multi-pass absorption cell developed for this instrument provides a compact, low cost method that can survive deployment in the field. Fiber-optic cables, which are used to convey to light between the absorption cell, light source, and detection modules enable remote placement of the absorption cell from the opto-electronics module. Finally, the sensor does not use any moving parts which removes a significant source of potential malfunction. The result is an instrument which maintained its calibration throughout the field measurement campaign, and was not affected by high vibration and large uncontrolled temperature excursions. We believe that the development of an accurate, fast response water vapor monitor described in this report will open up new avenues of aerial-vehicle-based atmospheric research which have been relatively unexplored due to the lack of suitable low-cost, light-weight instrumentation.

  5. Oxidation of Carbon Fibers in Water Vapor Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.

    2003-01-01

    T-300 carbon fibers (BP Amoco Chemicals, Greenville, SC) are a common reinforcement for silicon carbide composite materials, and carbon-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composites (C/SiC) are proposed for use in space propulsion applications. It has been shown that the time to failure for C/SiC in stressed oxidation tests is directly correlated with the fiber oxidation rate (ref. 1). To date, most of the testing of these fibers and composites has been conducted in oxygen or air environments; however, many components for space propulsion, such as turbopumps, combustors, and thrusters, are expected to operate in hydrogen and water vapor (H2/H2O) environments with very low oxygen contents. The oxidation rate of carbon fibers in conditions representative of space propulsion environments is, therefore, critical for predicting component lifetimes for real applications. This report describes experimental results that demonstrate that, under some conditions, lower oxidation rates of carbon fibers are observed in water vapor and H2/H2O environments than are found in oxygen or air. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, the weight loss of the fibers was studied as a function of water pressure, temperature, and gas velocity. The rate of carbon fiber oxidation was determined, and the reaction mechanism was identified.

  6. Nd:Glass-Raman laser for water vapor dial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kagann, R. H.; Petheram, J. C.; Rosenberg, A.

    1986-01-01

    A tunable solid-state Raman shifted laser which was used in a water vapor Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system at 9400 A is described. The DIAL transmitter is based on a tunable glass laser operating at 1.06 microns, a hydrogen Raman cell to shift the radiation to 1.88 microns, and a frequency doubling crystal. The results of measurements which characterize the output of the laser with respect to optimization of optical configuration and of Raman parameters were reported. The DIAL system was also described and preliminary atmospheric returns shown.

  7. Atmospheric Water Vapor: A Nemesis for Millimeter Wave Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Sulphur dioxide, for example, nucleates with water vapor to form sulfuric acid primary particles in large numbers (as high as 1015 m- 3 ), which are...electro- polished stainless steel (SS 304) cavity (3440 cm3 and 1265 cm2 , S/V = 0.37 cm-1 ) evacuated for > 24 hours to 10-4 torr and subjected to... electropolished -1.50 30 150 400 HMDSa silanizing -1.35 27 190 750 Parylene C (Union Carbine) -1.60 32 140 580 Silicone SR240 (GE) -2.10 42 200 550 Teflon REPI20

  8. Raman-shifted dye laser for water vapor DIAL measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossmann, B. E.; Singh, U. N.; Cotnoir, L. J.; Wilkerson, T. D.; Higdon, N. S.; Browell, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    For improved DIAL measurements of water vapor in the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere, narrowband (about 0.03/cm) laser radiation at 720- and 940-nm wavelengths was generated by stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), using the narrow linewidth (about 0.02/cm) output of a Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser. For a hydrogen pressure of 350 psi, the first Stokes conversion efficiencies to 940 nm were 20 percent and 35 percent, when using a conventional and waveguide Raman cell, respectively. The linewidth of the first Stokes line at high cell pressures, and the inferred collisional broadening coefficients, agree well with those previously measured in spontaneous Raman scattering.

  9. Water vapor measurement system in global atmospheric sampling program, appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englund, D. R.; Dudzinski, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    The water vapor measurement system used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The system used a modified version of a commercially available dew/frostpoint hygrometer with a thermoelectrically cooled mirror sensor. The modifications extended the range of the hygrometer to enable air sample measurements with frostpoint temperatures down to -80 C at altitudes of 6 to 13 km. Other modifications were made to permit automatic, unattended operation in an aircraft environment. This report described the hygrometer, its integration with the GASP system, its calibration, and operational aspects including measurement errors. The estimated uncertainty of the dew/frostpoint measurements was + or - 1.7 Celsius.

  10. Observations of atmospheric water vapor with the SAGE 2 instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Jack C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Chu, W. P.

    1988-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2 (SAGE 2) is discussed. The SAGE 2 instrument was a multichannel spectrometer that inferred the vertical distribution of water vapor, aerosols, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone by measuring the extinction of solar radiation at spacecraft sunrise/sunset. At altitudes above 20 km, the SAGE 2 and LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) data are in close agreement. The discrepancies below this altitude may be attributed to differences in the instruments' field of view and time of data acquisition.

  11. Interactions of Water Vapor with Oxides at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan; Opila, Elizabeth; Copland, Evan; Myers, Dwight

    2003-01-01

    Many volatile metal hydroxides form by reaction of the corresponding metal oxide with water vapor. These reactions are important in a number of high temperature corrosion processes. Experimental methods for studying the thermodynamics of metal hydroxides include: gas leak Knudsen cell mass spectrometry, free jet sampling mass spectrometry, transpiration and hydrogen-oxygen flame studies. The available experimental information is reviewed and the most stable metal hydroxide species are correlated with position in the periodic table. Current studies in our laboratory on the Si-O-H system are discussed.

  12. Investigation of the CARS spectrum of water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirley, J. A.; Hall, R. J.; Eckbreth, A. C.

    1981-01-01

    The dependence of the coherent anti-Stokes Raman (CARS) spectrum of water vapor on temperature has been measured and compared with CARS spectral model calculations to permit diagnostics of this important combustion product. Measurements have been made in a methane-air flame at 1700 K and in a heated cell, maintained at atmospheric pressure and temperatures between 310 K and 710 K. The agreement between measured and calculated spectra is very good. The importance of assumed Raman linewidth is shown to be critical to the calculation of spectral features near the band head of measured spectra.

  13. Airborne water vapor DIAL research: System development and field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higdon, Noah S.; Browell, Edward V.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Chyba, Thomas H.; Grossmann, Benoist E.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Fenn, Marta A.; Mayor, Shane D.; Ismail, Syed; Grant, William B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurement of water vapor (H2O) and aerosols in the lower atmosphere. The airborne H2O DIAL system was flight tested aboard the NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) Electra aircraft in three separate field deployments between 1989 and 1991. Atmospheric measurements were made under a variety of atmospheric conditions during the flight tests, and several modifications were implemented during this development period to improve system operation. A brief description of the system and major modifications will be presented, and the most significant atmospheric observations will be described.

  14. Paralinear Oxidation of CVD SiC in Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Hann, Raiford E., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The oxidation kinetics of CVD SiC were monitored by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in a 50% H2O/50% O2 gas mixture flowing at 4.4 cm/s for temperatures between 1200 and 1400 C. Paralinear weight change kinetics were observed as the water vapor oxidized the SiC and simultaneously volatilized the silica scale. The long-term degradation rate of SiC is determined by the volatility of the silica scale. Rapid SiC surface recession rates were estimated from these data for actual aircraft engine combustor conditions.

  15. An alexandrite regenerative amplifier for water vapor and temperature measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thro, P.-Y.; Boesenberg, J.; Wulfmeyer, V.

    1992-01-01

    The Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique is a powerful method for determining meteorological parameters, but it requires high quality of the laser source: high energy, very narrow bandwidth, high wavelength stability, and spectral purity. Although many efforts have been made to improve the lasers in view of these aspects, a satisfactory solution has not been demonstrated up to now. We describe a regenerative amplifier, using a Ti:sapphire laser as master oscillator and an alexandrite laser as slave amplifier, which is expected to meet the requirements for water vapor concentration and temperature measurements.

  16. Observations of atmospheric water vapor with the SAGE 2 instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Jack C.; McCormick, M. P.; McMaster, L. R.; Chu, W. P.

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2 (SAGE 2) is discussed. The SAGE 2 instrument was a multichannel spectrometer that inferred the vertical distribution of water vapor, aerosols, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone by measuring the extinction of solar radiation at spacecraft sunrise/sunset. At altitudes above 20 km, the SAGE 2 and LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) data are in close agreement. The discrepancies below this altitude may be attributed to differences in the instruments' field of view and time of data acquisition.

  17. Titanium Dioxide Volatility in High Temperature Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, QynhGiao N.

    2008-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) containing materials are of high interest to the aerospace industry due to its high temperature capability, strength, and light weight. As with most metals an exterior oxide layer naturally exists in environments that contain oxygen (i.e. air). At high temperatures, water vapor plays a key role in the volatility of materials including oxide surfaces. This study will evaluate cold pressed titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder pellets at a temperature range of 1400 C - 1200 C in water containing environments to determine the volatile hydroxyl species using the transpiration method. The water content ranged from 0-76 mole% and the oxygen content range was 0-100 mole % during the 20-250 hour exposure times. Preliminary results indicate that oxygen is not a key contributor at these temperatures and the following reaction is the primary volatile equation for all three temperatures: TiO2 (s) + H2O (g) = TiO(OH)2 (g).

  18. Final Report for ARM Project Measuring 4-D Water Vapor Fields with GPS

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, John

    2006-02-06

    Water vapor is a primary element in the Earth’s climate system. Atmospheric water vapor is central to cloud processes, radiation transfer, and the hydrological cycle. Using funding from Department of Energy (DOE) grant DE-FG03-02ER63327, the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) developed new observational techniques to measure atmospheric water vapor and applied these techniques to measure four dimensional water vapor fields throughout the United States Southern Great Plains region. This report summarizes the development of a new observation from ground based Global Positioning System (GPS) stations called Slant Water Vapor (SW) and it’s utilization in retrieving four dimensional water vapor fields. The SW observation represents the integrated amount of water vapor between a GPS station and a transmitting satellite. SW observations provide improved temporal and spatial sampling of the atmosphere when compared to column-integrated quantities such as preciptitable water vapor (PW). Under funding from the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, GPS networks in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) region were deployed to retrieve SW to improve the characterization of water vapor throughout the region. These observations were used to estimate four dimensional water vapor fields using tomographic approaches and through assimilation into the MM5 numerical weather model.

  19. Chemical characterization of organic carbon dissolved in natural waters using inorganic adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Y; Kumagai, T

    2001-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in water samples from Lake Biwa was chemically characterized by two inorganic adsorbents with completely different surface characteristics. The two adsorbents were HIO (hydrous iron oxide) and SG (silica gel). Solutions of reference standard materials were analyzed concerning their adsorption behavior to HIO and SG for bovine serum albumin (BSA), fulvic acid extracted from the bottom sediments of Lake Biwa, phthalic acid, and starch. The adsorption of DOC to HIO was mainly controlled by ligand exchange and electrostatic interaction; that of SG was by electrostatic interaction. It was found that in a weak acid solution of around pH 5, BSA adsorbs to both HIO and SG, but that fulvic acid, phthalic acid and starch only show adsorption to HIO. Using these characteristics, DOC samples in natural water samples were characterized into pro-DOC, which adsorbs to both HIO and SG at pH 5, and car-DOC, which only adsorbs to HIO at pH 5. The DOC samples in Lake Biwa on October 7, 1997, at sampling sites Nb-2 and Nb-5 (south basin of Lake Biwa, the depths were about 2 and 4 m), and Ie-1 (north basin of Lake Biwa, the depth was about 75 m) were characterized. The pro-DOC has different values, depending on their sampling sites and depths, and had the maximum value of 0.42 mg C l(-1) at the surface water of Ie-1, and had the lowest values at middle to deeper water depths (0.18-0.27 mg C l(-1)). The car-DOC showed a relatively stable value at Ie-1 regardless of the depth (0.63-0.83 mg C l(-1)), and the maximum value was observed in Nb-2 and Nb-5 (1.2 and 1.3 mg C l(-1)). The ratios between car-DOC and pro-DOC concentrations were 0.2-0.5, and had different values for different sampling sites and depths. The ratios were significantly different for surface water samples where the biological activities are high and for bottom water samples where decomposition predominates.

  20. The Reaction Kinetics of LiD with Water Vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Balooch, M; Dinh, L N; Calef, D F

    2003-04-01

    The interaction of LiD with water vapor in the partial pressure range of 10{sup -7} Torr to 20 Torr has been investigated. The reaction probability of water with pure LiD cleaved in an ultra high vacuum environment was obtained using the modulated molecular beam technique. This probability was 0.11 and independent of LiD surface temperature suggesting a negligible activation energy for the reaction in agreement with quantum chemical calculations. The value gradually reduced, however, to .007 as the surface concentration of oxygen containing product (LiOH), which was monitored in-situ by Auger electron spectroscopy on the reaction zone, approached full coverage. As the hydroxide film grew beyond a monolayer, the phase lag of hydrogen product increased from zero to 20 degrees and the reaction probability reduced further until it approached our detection limit ({approx} 10{sup -4}). This phase lag was attributed to a diffusion limited process in this regime. In separate experiments, the film growth has been studied in nitrogen atmosphere with 100% relative humidity using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and in air with 50% relative humidity utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For exposures to environment with high water concentrations and for micrometer thick films, the reaction probability reduced to 4 x 10{sup -7} and was independent of exposure time, The lattice diffusion through the film was no longer controlling the transport of water to the LiD/LiOH interface. Microcracks generated in the film to release stress provided easier pathways to the interface. A modified microscope, capable of both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanoindentation, was employed to investigate the surface morphology of LiOH.H{sub 2}O grown on LiOH at high water vapor partial pressures and the kinetics of this growth.

  1. On the relationship between water vapor over the oceans and sea surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    1990-01-01

    Monthly mean precipitable water data obtained from passive microwave radiometry were correlated with the National Meteorological Center (NMC) blended sea surface temperature data. It is shown that the monthly mean water vapor content of the atmosphere above the oceans can generally be prescribed from the sea surface temperature with a standard deviation of 0.36 g/sq cm. The form of the relationship between precipitable water and sea surface temperature in the range T (sub s) greater than 18 C also resembles that predicted from simple arguments based on the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. The annual cycle of the globally integrated mass of Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) water vapor is shown to differ from analyses of other water vapor data in both phase and amplitude and these differences point to a significant influence of the continents on water vapor. Regional scale analyses of water vapor demonstrate that monthly averaged water vapor data, when contrasted with the bulk sea surface temperature relationship developed in this study, reflect various known characteristics of the time mean large-scale circulation over the oceans. A water vapor parameter is introduced to highlight the effects of large-scale motion on atmospheric water vapor. Based on the magnitude of this parameter, it is shown that the effects of large-scale flow on precipitable water vapor are regionally dependent, but for the most part, the influence of circulation is generally less than about + or - 20 percent of the seasonal mean.

  2. On the relationship between water vapor over the oceans and sea surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    1989-01-01

    Monthly mean precipitable water data obtained from passive microwave radiometry were correlated with the National Meteorological Center (NMC) blended sea surface temperature data. It is shown that the monthly mean water vapor content of the atmosphere above the oceans can generally be prescribed from the sea surface temperature with a standard deviation of 0.36 g/sq cm. The form of the relationship between precipitable water and sea surface temperature in the range T(sub s) greater than 18 C also resembles that predicted from simple arguments based on the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. The annual cycle of the globally integrated mass of Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) water vapor is shown to differ from analyses of other water vapor data in both phase and amplitude and these differences point to a significant influence of the continents on water vapor. Regional scale analyses of water vapor demonstrate that monthly averaged water vapor data, when contrasted with the bulk sea surface temperature relationship developed in this study, reflect various known characteristics of the time mean large-scale circulation over the oceans. A water vapor parameter is introduced to highlight the effects of large-scale motion on atmospheric water vapor. Based on the magnitude of this parameter, it is shown that the effects of large-scale flow on precipitable water vapor are regionally dependent, but for the most part, the influence of circulation is generally less than about + or - 20 percent of the seasonal mean.

  3. Micropulse water vapor differential absorption lidar: transmitter design and performance.

    PubMed

    Nehrir, Amin R; Repasky, Kevin S; Carlsten, John L

    2012-10-22

    An all diode-laser-based micropulse differential absorption lidar (DIAL) laser transmitter for tropospheric water vapor and aerosol profiling is presented. The micropulse DIAL (MPD) transmitter utilizes two continuous wave (cw) external cavity diode lasers (ECDL) to seed an actively pulsed, overdriven tapered semiconductor optical amplifier (TSOA). The MPD laser produces up to 7 watts of peak power over a 1 µs pulse duration (7 µJ) and a 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency. Spectral switching between the online and offline seed lasers is achieved on a 1Hz basis using a fiber optic switch to allow for more accurate sampling of the atmospheric volume between the online and offline laser shots. The high laser spectral purity of greater than 0.9996 coupled with the broad tunability of the laser transmitter will allow for accurate measurements of tropospheric water vapor in a wide range of geographic locations under varying atmospheric conditions. This paper describes the design and performance characteristics of a third generation MPD laser transmitter with enhanced laser performance over the previous generation DIAL system.

  4. The evolution of water vapor in the atmosphere of Venus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. L.; Gross, S. H.

    1972-01-01

    Examination of the feasibility of loss of water vapor from the Venus atmosphere, assuming H2O as the sole initial constituent. A steady-state model is constructed, and the photochemistry establishes the distribution of important products in the upper atmosphere. Calculations of exospheric temperatures yield values as high as 100,000 K. Such large temperatures result from the large abundance of atomic hydrogen in the exosphere, and imply a dynamic outflow of all constituents from the upper region of the atmosphere. Such an outflow would cause the escape of all hydrogen and some of the oxygen resulting from dissociation of H2O. Little loss of CO2 would result, due to its low abundance in the upper region, permitting its accumulation to the present observed value. It is concluded that if Venus formed from the same mix of materials as the earth, much tectonic activity and fairly rapid outgassing must have occurred during the early phase of its history to account for the loss of water vapor.

  5. Energy and water vapor transport in a turbulent stratified environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallana, Luca; de Santi, Francesca; Iovieno, Michele; Richiardone, Renzo; Tordella, Daniela

    2015-11-01

    We present direct numerical simulations about the transport of kinetic energy and unsaturated water vapor across a thin layer which separates two decaying turbulent flows with different energy. This interface lies in a shearless stratified environment modeled by means of Boussinesq's approximation. Water vapor is treated as a passive scalar (Kumar et al. 2014). Initial conditions have Fr2 between 0.64 and 64 (stable case) and between -3.2 and -19 (unstable case) and Reλ = 250 . Dry air is in the lower half of the domain and has a higher turbulent energy, seven times higher than the energy of moist air in the upper half. In the early stage of evolution, as long as | F r2 | > 1 , stratification plays a minor role and the flows follows closely neutral stratification mixing. As the buoyancy terms grows, Fr2 ~ O (1) , the mixing process deeply changes. A stable stratification generates a separation layer which blocks the entrainment of dry air into the moist one, characterized by a relative increment of the turbulent dissipation rate compared to the local turbulent energy. On the contrary, an unstable stratification sligthy enhances the entrainment. Growth-decay of energy and mixing layer thichness are discussed and compared with laboratory and numerical experiments.

  6. Water Vapor and the Dynamics of Climate Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Tapio; O'Gorman, Paul A.; Levine, Xavier J.

    2010-07-01

    Water vapor is not only Earth's dominant greenhouse gas. Through the release of latent heat when it condenses, it also plays an active role in dynamic processes that shape the global circulation of the atmosphere and thus climate. Here we present an overview of how latent heat release affects atmosphere dynamics in a broad range of climates, ranging from extremely cold to extremely warm. Contrary to widely held beliefs, atmospheric circulation statistics can change nonmonotonically with global-mean surface temperature, in part because of dynamic effects of water vapor. For example, the strengths of the tropical Hadley circulation and of zonally asymmetric tropical circulations, as well as the kinetic energy of extratropical baroclinic eddies, can be lower than they presently are both in much warmer climates and in much colder climates. We discuss how latent heat release is implicated in such circulation changes, particularly through its effect on the atmospheric static stability, and we illustrate the circulation changes through simulations with an idealized general circulation model. This allows us to explore a continuum of climates, to constrain macroscopic laws governing this climatic continuum, and to place past and possible future climate changes in a broader context.

  7. Arsenic removal from water/wastewater using adsorbents--A critical review.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dinesh; Pittman, Charles U

    2007-04-02

    Arsenic's history in science, medicine and technology has been overshadowed by its notoriety as a poison in homicides. Arsenic is viewed as being synonymous with toxicity. Dangerous arsenic concentrations in natural waters is now a worldwide problem and often referred to as a 20th-21st century calamity. High arsenic concentrations have been reported recently from the USA, China, Chile, Bangladesh, Taiwan, Mexico, Argentina, Poland, Canada, Hungary, Japan and India. Among 21 countries in different parts of the world affected by groundwater arsenic contamination, the largest population at risk is in Bangladesh followed by West Bengal in India. Existing overviews of arsenic removal include technologies that have traditionally been used (oxidation, precipitation/coagulation/membrane separation) with far less attention paid to adsorption. No previous review is available where readers can get an overview of the sorption capacities of both available and developed sorbents used for arsenic remediation together with the traditional remediation methods. We have incorporated most of the valuable available literature on arsenic remediation by adsorption ( approximately 600 references). Existing purification methods for drinking water; wastewater; industrial effluents, and technological solutions for arsenic have been listed. Arsenic sorption by commercially available carbons and other low-cost adsorbents are surveyed and critically reviewed and their sorption efficiencies are compared. Arsenic adsorption behavior in presence of other impurities has been discussed. Some commercially available adsorbents are also surveyed. An extensive table summarizes the sorption capacities of various adsorbents. Some low-cost adsorbents are superior including treated slags, carbons developed from agricultural waste (char carbons and coconut husk carbons), biosorbents (immobilized biomass, orange juice residue), goethite and some commercial adsorbents, which include resins, gels, silica

  8. Comparison of Adsorbed Mercury Screening Method With Cold-Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry for Determination of Mercury in Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterling, Donald F.; Hovanitz, Edward S.; Street, Kenneth W.

    2000-01-01

    A field screening method for the determination of elemental mercury in environmental soil samples involves the thermal desorption of the mercury from the sample onto gold and then the thermal desorption from the gold to a gold-film mercury vapor analyzer. This field screening method contains a large number of conditions that could be optimized for the various types of soils encountered. In this study, the conditions were optimized for the determination of mercury in silty clay materials, and the results were comparable to the cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometric method of determination. This paper discusses the benefits and disadvantages of employing the field screening method and provides the sequence of conditions that must be optimized to employ this method of determination on other soil types.

  9. Adsorption and solvation of ethanol at the water liquid-vapor interface: a molecular dynamics study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, M. A.; Pohorille, A.

    1997-01-01

    The free energy profiles of methanol and ethanol at the water liquid-vapor interface at 310K were calculated using molecular dynamics computer simulations. Both alcohols exhibit a pronounced free energy minimum at the interface and, therefore, have positive adsorption at this interface. The surface excess was computed from the Gibbs adsorption isotherm and was found to be in good agreement with experimental results. Neither compound exhibits a free energy barrier between the bulk and the surface adsorbed state. Scattering calculations of ethanol molecules from a gas phase thermal distribution indicate that the mass accommodation coefficient is 0.98, and the molecules become thermalized within 10 ps of striking the interface. It was determined that the formation of the solvation structure around the ethanol molecule at the interface is not the rate-determining step in its uptake into water droplets. The motion of an ethanol molecule in a water lamella was followed for 30 ns. The time evolution of the probability distribution of finding an ethanol molecule that was initially located at the interface is very well described by the diffusion equation on the free energy surface.

  10. Continuous on-line water vapor isotope measurements in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsberg, Janek; Romanini, Daniele; Holmen, Kim; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Meijer, Harro; Kerstel, Erik

    2010-05-01

    In the context of a globally warming climate it is crucial to study the climate variability in the past and to understand the underlying mechanisms (1). Precipitation deposited on the polar ice caps provides a means to retrieve information on temperature changes (through the paleo-temperature dependence of the isotopic composition of the ice) and atmospheric composition (of gas stored in bubbles in the ice) on time scales from one to almost one million years, with sub-annual resolution in the most recent centuries. However, it is now widely recognized that the calibration of the paleo-thermometer is highly problematic. For this reason attempts to model the global water cycle, including the isotope signals, are ongoing with the aim of providing a more physical basis of the isotope - temperature relation. Currently, there is a large divergence in the results obtained by different modeling strategies. The missing link in these model studies is their forcing by experimental data on the pre-deposition isotopic composition of the vapor phase compartment of the hydrological cycle. We propose to measure the isotopic composition of moisture carried towards and deposited on Antarctica, in order to constrain the numerical models. In this context we are developing a modified, more sensitive and precise, version of a laser water vapor isotope spectrometer, originally designed for stratospheric studies (2, 3). This instrument, which will first be operated at the Norwegian station of Troll in Queen Maud Land, will enable the continuous, online measurement of all three stable isotope ratios of atmospheric water vapor. So far, such data is non-existent. Our data should improve the validity of the models and improve the understanding of the physical mechanisms at the basis of the isotope thermometer. This in turn will lead to an increased confidence in the predictions of (general circulation) models concerning climate variability. (1) International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 4

  11. Back-trajectory Analyses of Water Vapor in Northern Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Y.; Asanuma, J.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of precipitation sources is indispensable for prediction of extreme events as droughts and flood [Dirmeyer and Brubaker, 1999]. In this paper, the transport pathways of water vapor that precipitates in northern Mongolia were identified using back-trajectory analyses in order to find out factors causing such events in arid/semi-arid area. First, a back-trajectory model of atmospheric water vapor was developed. An air parcel is placed on an isentropic plane over the target site at each time of precipitation. Then, back trajectories was calculated with a kinematic method following the implicit technique [Merrill et al., 1986; Merrill, 1989]. Each of the air parcels was tagged with the precipitation time and the altitude, and then tracked back in time for 5 days on the isentropic surface. Japanese 25-year Reanalysis/JMA Climate Data Assimilation System (JRA-25/JCDAS) of Japan Meteorological Agency [Onogi et al., 2007] was used for 3D field of meteorological variables for the calculation. As a validation, the model was compared with two others, namely, Meteorological Data Explorer of the Center for Global Environmental Reserch (METEX/CGER) [Zeng et al., 2003], and the trajectory model of the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) [Tomikawa and Sato, 2005]. The comparison found that model results are fairly robust within 5 days from the computational start, i.e., the end of the trajectory, regardless of different datasets and different schemes employed in these models. Then, the back-trajectory model was applied to the observed precipitation at the target site, a surface station in northern Mongolia called Kherlenbayan-Ulaan(KBU), where highly accurate and temporarily dense precipitation measurements are available. Back trajectory lines were calculated for each of the observed precipitation during the warm season of the years 2003 to 2009, on the isentropic surfaces of 300K, 310K and 320K where the highest value of water vapor is observed. The results show

  12. Preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem. [recovering potable water from wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, G. S.; Wynveen, R. A.; Schubert, F. H.

    1979-01-01

    A three-person capacity preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem for recovering potable water from wastewater aboard spacecraft was designed, assembled, and tested. The major components of the subsystem are: (1) a distillation unit which includes a compressor, centrifuge, central shaft, and outer shell; (2) a purge pump; (3) a liquids pump; (4) a post-treat cartridge; (5) a recycle/filter tank; (6) an evaporator high liquid level sensor; and (7) the product water conductivity monitor. A computer based control monitor instrumentation carries out operating mode change sequences, monitors and displays subsystem parameters, maintains intramode controls, and stores and displays fault detection information. The mechanical hardware occupies 0.467 m3, requires 171 W of electrical power, and has a dry weight of 143 kg. The subsystem recovers potable water at a rate of 1.59 kg/hr, which is equivalent to a duty cycle of approximately 30% for a crew of three. The product water has no foul taste or odor. Continued development of the subsystem is recommended for reclaiming water for human consumption as well as for flash evaporator heat rejection, urinal flushing, washing, and other on-board water requirements.

  13. Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominatedgeothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-11-06

    Water injection has been recognized as a powerful techniquefor enhancing energy recovery from vapor-dominated geothermal systemssuch as The Geysers. In addition to increasing reservoir pressures,production well flow rates, and long-term sustainability of steamproduction, injection has also been shown to reduce concentrations ofnon-condensible gases (NCGs) in produced steam. The latter effectimproves energy conversion efficiency and reduces corrosion problems inwellbores and surface lines.This report reviews thermodynamic andhydrogeologic conditions and mechanisms that play an important role inreservoir response to water injection. An existing general-purposereservoir simulator has been enhanced to allow modeling of injectioneffects in heterogeneous fractured reservoirs in three dimensions,including effects of non-condensible gases of different solubility.Illustrative applications demonstrate fluid flow and heat transfermechanisms that are considered crucial for developing approaches to insitu abatement of NCGs.

  14. Characterization of Upper Troposphere Water Vapor Measurements during AFWEX using LASE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Browell, E. V.; Ismail, S.; Kooi, S.; Brasseur, L. H.; Brackett, V. G.; Clayton, M.; Barrick, J.; Linne, H.; Lammert, A.

    2002-01-01

    Water vapor profiles from NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system acquired during the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) are used to characterize upper troposphere water vapor (UTWV) measured by ground-based Raman lidars, radiosondes, and in situ aircraft sensors. Initial comparisons showed the average Vaisala radiosonde measurements to be 5-15% drier than the average LASE, Raman lidar, and DC-8 in situ diode laser hygrometer measurements. We show that corrections to the Raman lidar and Vaisala measurements significantly reduce these differences. Precipitable water vapor (PWV) derived from the LASE water vapor profiles agrees within 3% on average with PWV derived from the ARM ground-based microwave radiometer (MWR). The agreement among the LASE, Raman lidar, and MWR measurements demonstrates how the LASE measurements can be used to characterize both profile and column water vapor measurements and that ARM Raman lidar, when calibrated using the MWR PWV, can provide accurate UTWV measurements.

  15. Alumina Volatility in Water Vapor at Elevated Temperatures: Application to Combustion Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Myers, Dwight L.

    2003-01-01

    The volatility of alumina in high temperature water vapor was determined by measuring weight loss of sapphire coupons at temperatures between 1250 and 1500 C, water vapor partial pressures between 0.15 and 0.68 atm in oxygen, at one atmosphere total pressure, and a gas velocity of 4.4 centimeters per second. The variation of the volatility with water vapor partial pressure was consistent with Al(OH)3(g) formation. The enthalpy of reaction to form Al(OH)3(g) from alumina and water vapor was found to be 210 plus or minus 20 kJ/mol. Surface rearrangement of ground sapphire surfaces increased with water vapor partial pressure, temperature and volatility rate. Recession rates of alumina due to volatility were determined as a function of water vapor partial pressure and temperature to evaluate limits for use of alumina in long term applications in combustion environments.

  16. Raman lidar profiling of atmospheric water vapor: Simultaneous measurements with two collocated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, J. E. M.; Bisson, Scott E.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Evans, Keith D.; Whiteman, David N.; Melfi, S. H.

    1994-01-01

    Raman lidar is a leading candidate for providing the detailed space- and time-resolved measurements of water vapor needed by a variety of atmospheric studies. Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric water vapor are described using two collocated Raman lidar systems. These lidar systems, developed at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and Sandia National Laboratories, acquired approximately 12 hours of simultaneous water vapor data during three nights in November 1992 while the systems were collocated at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Although these lidar systems differ substantially in their design, measured water vapor profiles agreeed within 0.15 g/kg between altitudes of 1 and 5 km. Comparisons with coincident radiosondes showed all instruments agreed within 0.2 g/kg in this same altitude range. Both lidars also clearly showed the advection of water vapor in the middle troposphere and the pronounced increase in water vapor in the nocturnal boundary layer that occurred during one night.

  17. UV Dosage Levels in Summer: Increased Risk of Ozone Loss from Convectively Injected Water Vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmouth, D. M.; Smith, J. B.; Sayres, D. S.; Anderson, J.

    2012-12-01

    Elevated water vapor concentrations from convective injection have now been observed repeatedly in the lower stratosphere over the United States during the summer. Because both temperature and water vapor concentration set the threshold conditions for initiating the heterogeneous reactions that activate inorganic chlorine, the observed presence of high water vapor can fundamentally change the chemistry of the lower stratosphere by shifting inorganic chlorine into the catalytically active free-radical form, ClO. As a result, significant ozone losses may follow convective injection of water vapor into the stratosphere. The chemical system is highly sensitive to temperature, pressure, aerosol surface area, available inorganic chlorine, and concentration and duration of elevated water vapor. Were the intensity and frequency of convective injection of water vapor to increase as a result of climate forcing by the continued addition of carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere, increased risk of ozone loss and associated increases in ultraviolet dosage would follow.

  18. Processes Controlling Water Vapor in the Winter Arctic Stratospheric Middleworld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.; Jensen, Eric J.; Podolske, James; Sachse, Glen; Avery, Melody; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Abstract: Water vapor in the winter arctic stratospheric middleworld (that part of the stratosphere with potential temperatures lower than the tropical tropopause) is important for two reasons: (1) the arctic middleworld is a source of air for the upper troposphere because of the generally downward motion, and thus its water vapor content helps determine upper tropospheric water, a critical part of the earth's radiation budget; and (2) under appropriate conditions, relative humidities will be large even to the point of stratospheric cirrus cloud formation, leading to the production of active chlorine species that could destroy ozone. On a number of occasions during SOLVE, clouds were observed in the stratospheric middleworld by the DC-8 aircraft. The relationship between ozone and CO from aircraft measurements taken during the early, middle and late part of the winter of 1999-2000 show that recent mixing with tropospheric air extends up to ozone values of about 350-450 ppbv. Above that level, the relationship suggests stratospheric air with minimal tropospheric influence. The transition is quite abrupt, particularly in early spring. Trajectory analyses are consistent with these relationships, with a significant drop-off in the percentage of trajectories with tropospheric PV values in their 10-day history as in-situ ozone increases above 400 ppbv. The water distribution is affected by these mixing characteristics, and by cloud formation. Significant cloud formation along trajectories occurs up to ozone values of about 400 ppbv during the early spring, with small, but nonzero probabilities extending to 550 ppbv. Cloud formation in the stratospheric middleworld is minimal during early and midwinter. Also important is the fact that, during early spring 30% of the trajectories near the tropopause (ozone values less than 200 ppbv) have minimum saturation mixing ratios less than 5 ppmv. Such parcels can mix out into the troposphere and could lead to very dry conditions in

  19. Zinc peroxide nanomaterial as an adsorbent for removal of Congo red dye from waste water.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Sneha; Uppal, Himani; Yadav, Mohit; Bahadur, Nupur; Singh, Nahar

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade, various natural byproducts, advanced metal oxide composites and photocatalysts have been reported for removal of dyes from water. Although these materials are useful for select applications, they have some limitations such as use at fixed temperature, ultra violet (UV) light and the need for sophisticated experimental set up. These materials can remove dyes up to a certain extent but require long time. To overcome these limitations, a promising adsorbent zinc peroxide (ZnO2) nanomaterial has been developed for the removal of Congo red (CR) dye from contaminated water. ZnO2 is highly efficient even in the absence of sunlight to remove CR from contaminated water upto the permissible limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States- Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA). The adsorbent has a specific property to adjust the pH of the test solution within 6.5-7.5 range irrespective of acidic or basic nature of water. The adsorption capacity of the material for CR dye was 208mgg(-1) within 10min at 2-10pH range. The proposed material could be useful for the industries involved in water purification. The removal of CR has been confirmed by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The adsorption data followed a second order kinetics and Freundlich isotherm.

  20. Feasibility of tropospheric water vapor profiling using infrared heterodyne differential absorption lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Grund, C.J.; Hardesty, R.M.; Rye, B.J.

    1996-04-01

    The development and verification of realistic climate model parameterizations for clouds and net radiation balance and the correction of other site sensor observations for interferences due to the presence of water vapor are critically dependent on water vapor profile measurements. In this study, we develop system performance models and examine the potential of infrared differential absoroption lidar (DIAL) to determine the concentration of water vapor.

  1. Water Vapor Radiometer for ALMA: Optical Design and Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherednichenko, S.; Emrich, A.; Peacocke, T.

    2010-03-01

    Atacama Large Millimeter wave Array (ALMA) is being built at a high altitude Atacama Desert in Chile. It will consist of 50 12m telescopes with heterodyne instruments to cover a large frequency range from about 30GHz to nearly 1THz. In order to facilitate the interferometer mode of operation all receivers have to be phase synchronized. It will be accomplished by phase locking of all local oscillators from a single reference source. However, a noticeable part of the phase error is caused as the signal propagates through the Earth atmosphere. Since this effect originates from the fluctuations of water vapors, it can be accounted for by carefully measuring the spectral width of one of water vapor resonance absorption lines. This will be done with a submillimeter heterodyne radiometer, Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR). WVR will measure the sky brightness temperature in the beam path of every telescope across the 183GHz water line with a spectral resolution of about 1GHz. Accuracy of the calculated optical delay is determined by the combination of the radiometric accuracy of the WVR and of the errors originated in the WVR illumination of the telescope. We will describe major challenges in the design of the WVR to comply with the stringent requirements set to the WVR. Several approaches to simulate the quasioptical waveguide which brings the signal from the telescope's subreflector to the mixer horn, were used: fundamental mode Gaussian beam propagation, combined ray tracing with diffraction effects (using package ZEMAX), and a full vector electromagnetic simulations (using GRASP). The computational time increases rapidly from the first method to the last one. We have found that ZEMAX results are quite close to the one from GRASP, however obtained with nearly instant computation, which allows multiple iterations during system optimization. The beam pattern of the WVR and of WVR with the optical Relay (used to bring the signal from the telescope's main axis to the WVR input

  2. Theoretical Calculation and Validation of the Water Vapor Continuum Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Qiancheng; Tipping, Richard H.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is the development of an improved parameterization of the water vapor continuum absorption through the refinement and validation of our existing theoretical formalism. The chief advantage of our approach is the self-consistent, first principles, basis of the formalism which allows us to predict the frequency, temperature and pressure dependence of the continuum absorption as well as provide insights into the physical mechanisms responsible for the continuum absorption. Moreover, our approach is such that the calculated continuum absorption can be easily incorporated into satellite retrieval algorithms and climate models. Accurate determination of the water vapor continuum is essential for the next generation of retrieval algorithms which propose to use the combined constraints of multispectral measurements such as those under development for EOS data analysis (e.g., retrieval algorithms based on MODIS and AIRS measurements); current Pathfinder activities which seek to use the combined constraints of infrared and microwave (e.g., HIRS and MSU) measurements to improve temperature and water profile retrievals, and field campaigns which seek to reconcile spectrally-resolved and broad-band measurements such as those obtained as part of FIRE. Current widely used continuum treatments have been shown to produce spectrally dependent errors, with the magnitude of the error dependent on temperature and abundance which produces errors with a seasonal and latitude dependence. Translated into flux, current water vapor continuum parameterizations produce flux errors of order 10 W/sq m, which compared to the 4 W/sq m magnitude of the greenhouse gas forcing and the 1-2 W/sq m estimated aerosol forcing is certainly climatologically significant and unacceptably large. While it is possible to tune the empirical formalisms, the paucity of laboratory measurements, especially at temperatures of interest for atmospheric applications, preclude

  3. Theoretical Calculation and Validation of the Water Vapor Continuum Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Qiancheng; Tipping, Richard H.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is the development of an improved parameterization of the water vapor continuum absorption through the refinement and validation of our existing theoretical formalism. The chief advantage of our approach is the self-consistent, first principles, basis of the formalism which allows us to predict the frequency, temperature and pressure dependence of the continuum absorption as well as provide insights into the physical mechanisms responsible for the continuum absorption. Moreover, our approach is such that the calculated continuum absorption can be easily incorporated into satellite retrieval algorithms and climate models. Accurate determination of the water vapor continuum is essential for the next generation of retrieval algorithms which propose to use the combined constraints of multi-spectral measurements such as those under development for EOS data analysis (e.g., retrieval algorithms based on MODIS and AIRS measurements); current Pathfinder activities which seek to use the combined constraints of infrared and microwave (e.g., HIRS and MSU) measurements to improve temperature and water profile retrievals, and field campaigns which seek to reconcile spectrally-resolved and broad-band measurements such as those obtained as part of FIRE. Current widely used continuum treatments have been shown to produce spectrally dependent errors, with the magnitude of the error dependent on temperature and abundance which produces errors with a seasonal and latitude dependence. Translated into flux, current water vapor continuum parameterizations produce flux errors of order 10 W/ml, which compared to the 4 W/m' magnitude of the greenhouse gas forcing and the 1-2 W/m' estimated aerosol forcing is certainly climatologically significant and unacceptably large. While it is possible to tune the empirical formalisms, the paucity of laboratory measurements, especially at temperatures of interest for atmospheric applications, preclude tuning

  4. COLD WATER VAPOR IN THE BARNARD 5 MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Wirström, E. S.; Persson, C. M.; Charnley, S. B.; Cordiner, M. A.; Buckle, J. V.; Takakuwa, S.

    2014-06-20

    After more than 30 yr of investigations, the nature of gas-grain interactions at low temperatures remains an unresolved issue in astrochemistry. Water ice is the dominant ice found in cold molecular clouds; however, there is only one region where cold (∼10 K) water vapor has been detected—L1544. This study aims to shed light on ice desorption mechanisms under cold cloud conditions by expanding the sample. The clumpy distribution of methanol in dark clouds testifies to transient desorption processes at work—likely to also disrupt water ice mantles. Therefore, the Herschel HIFI instrument was used to search for cold water in a small sample of prominent methanol emission peaks. We report detections of the ground-state transition of o-H{sub 2}O (J = 1{sub 10}-1{sub 01}) at 556.9360 GHz toward two positions in the cold molecular cloud, Barnard 5. The relative abundances of methanol and water gas support a desorption mechanism which disrupts the outer ice mantle layers, rather than causing complete mantle removal.

  5. Cold Water Vapor in the Barnard 5 Molecular Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirstrom, E. S.; Charnley, S. B.; Persson, C. M.; Buckle, J. V.; Cordiner, M. A.; Takakuwa, S.

    2014-01-01

    After more than 30 yr of investigations, the nature of gas-grain interactions at low temperatures remains an unresolved issue in astrochemistry. Water ice is the dominant ice found in cold molecular clouds; however, there is only one region where cold ((is) approximately 10 K) water vapor has been detected-L1544. This study aims to shed light on ice desorption mechanisms under cold cloud conditions by expanding the sample. The clumpy distribution of methanol in dark clouds testifies to transient desorption processes at work-likely to also disrupt water ice mantles. Therefore, the Herschel HIFI instrument was used to search for cold water in a small sample of prominent methanol emission peaks. We report detections of the ground-state transition of o-H2O (J = 110-101) at 556.9360 GHz toward two positions in the cold molecular cloud, Barnard 5. The relative abundances of methanol and water gas support a desorption mechanism which disrupts the outer ice mantle layers, rather than causing complete mantle removal.

  6. TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OL)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-25

    TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OL) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor Spatial Coverage:  27 x 23 km Limb ... Access: OPeNDAP Parameters:  H2O Water Volume Mixing Radio Precision Vertical Resolution Order ...

  7. Prediction of water vapor transport rates across polyvinylchloride packaging systems using a novel radiotracer method

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.W.; Mulski, M.J.; Kuu, W.Y. )

    1990-09-01

    A radiotracer method is used to study the transport properties of water vapor in polyvinylchloride (PVC), a plastic commonly used in the packaging of parenteral solutions. Water vapor transport across a PVC film appears to be Fickian in nature. Using the steady-state solution of Fick's second law and the permeability coefficient of water vapor across the PVC film obtained using the described method, the predicted water vapor transport rate (WVTR) for a parenteral solution packaged in PVC is in reasonable agreement with actual WVTR as determined by weight loss under precisely controlled conditions.

  8. Comparison of lidar water vapor measurements using Raman scatter at 266 nm and 532 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Balsiger, F.; Philbrick, C.R.

    1996-12-31

    The performance of the Lidar Atmospheric Profile Sensor (LAPS) instrument for measurements of water vapor in the lower troposphere has been investigated. LAPS is an automated lidar system that measures water vapor from the vibrational Raman backscatter in the visible and in the ultraviolet wavelength range. The authors present a comparison of water vapor profiles measured with the lidar and balloon sondes as well as measured with the two lidar channels. With the UV channels it is possible to infer ozone profiles in the boundary layer. Data are presented that reveal the high variability of the water vapor in the boundary layer.

  9. The annual cycle of stratospheric water vapor in a general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mote, Philip W.

    1995-01-01

    The application of general circulation models (GCM's) to stratospheric chemistry and transport both permits and requires a thorough investigation of stratospheric water vapor. The National Center for Atmospheric Research has redesigned its GCM, the Community Climate Model (CCM2), to enable studies of the chemistry and transport of tracers including water vapor; the importance of water vapor to the climate and chemistry of the stratosphere requires that it be better understood in the atmosphere and well represented in the model. In this study, methane is carried as a tracer and converted to water; this simple chemistry provides an adequate representation of the upper stratospheric water vapor source. The cold temperature bias in the winter polar stratosphere, which the CCM2 shares with other GCM's, produces excessive dehydration in the southern hemisphere, but this dry bias can be ameliorated by setting a minimum vapor pressure. The CCM2's water vapor distribution and seasonality compare favorably with observations in many respects, though seasonal variations including the upper stratospheric semiannual oscillation are generally too small. Southern polar dehydration affects midlatitude water vapor mixing ratios by a few tenths of a part per million, mostly after the demise of the vortex. The annual cycle of water vapor in the tropical and northern midlatitude lower stratosphere is dominated by drying at the tropical tropopause. Water vapor has a longer adjustment time than methane and had not reached equilibrium at the end of the 9 years simulated here.

  10. Water vapor toward starless cores: The Herschel view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caselli, P.; Keto, E.; Pagani, L.; Aikawa, Y.; Yıldız, U. A.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Tafalla, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Nisini, B.; Codella, C.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Bachiller, R.; Baudry, A.; Benedettini, M.; Benz, A. O.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G. A.; Bontemps, S.; Braine, J.; Bruderer, S.; Cernicharo, J.; Daniel, F.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Dominik, C.; Doty, S. D.; Encrenaz, P.; Fich, M.; Fuente, A.; Gaier, T.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; de Graauw, Th.; Helmich, F.; Herczeg, G. J.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Jackson, B.; Jacq, T.; Javadi, H.; Johnstone, D.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Kester, D.; Kristensen, L. E.; Laauwen, W.; Larsson, B.; Lis, D.; Liseau, R.; Luinge, W.; Marseille, M.; McCoey, C.; Megej, A.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Olberg, M.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J. C.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Santiago-García, J.; Saraceno, P.; Shipman, R.; Siegel, P.; van Kempen, T. A.; Visser, R.; Wampfler, S. F.; Wyrowski, F.

    2010-10-01

    Aims: Previous studies by the satellites SWAS and Odin provided stringent upper limits on the gas phase water abundance of dark clouds (x(H2O) < 7 × 10-9). We investigate the chemistry of water vapor in starless cores beyond the previous upper limits using the highly improved angular resolution and sensitivity of Herschel and measure the abundance of water vapor during evolutionary stages just preceding star formation. Methods: High spectral resolution observations of the fundamental ortho water (o-H2O) transition (557 GHz) were carried out with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared onboard Herschel toward two starless cores: Barnard 68 (hereafter B68), a Bok globule, and LDN 1544 (L1544), a prestellar core embedded in the Taurus molecular cloud complex. Detailed radiative transfer and chemical codes were used to analyze the data. Results: The RMS in the brightness temperature measured for the B68 and L1544 spectra is 2.0 and 2.2 mK, respectively, in a velocity bin of 0.59 km s-1. The continuum level is 3.5 ± 0.2 mK in B68 and 11.4 ± 0.4 mK in L1544. No significant feature is detected in B68 and the 3σ upper limit is consistent with a column density of o-H2O N(o-H2O) < 2.5 × 1013 cm-2, or a fractional abundance x(o-H2O) < 1.3 × 10-9, more than an order of magnitude lower than the SWAS upper limit on this source. The L1544 spectrum shows an absorption feature at a 5σ level from which we obtain the first value of the o-H2O column density ever measured in dark clouds: N(o-H2O) = (8 ± 4) × 1012 cm-2. The corresponding fractional abundance is x(o-H2O) ≃ 5 × 10-9 at radii >7000 AU and ≃2 × 10-10 toward the center. The radiative transfer analysis shows that this is consistent with a x(o-H2O) profile peaking at ≃10-8, 0.1 pc away from the core center, where both freeze-out and photodissociation are negligible. Conclusions: Herschel has provided the first measurement of water vapor in dark regions. Column densities of o-H2O are low, but prestellar

  11. Compact Water Vapor Exchanger for Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Anderson, Molly; Hodgson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and environmental control systems for future exploration spacecraft must meet challenging requirements for efficient operation and conservation of resources. Regenerative CO2 removal systems are attractive for these missions because they do not use consumable CO2 absorbers. However, these systems also absorb and vent water to space along with carbon dioxide. This paper describes an innovative device designed to minimize water lost from regenerative CO2 control systems. Design studies and proof-of-concept testing have shown the feasibility of a compact, efficient membrane water vapor exchanger (WVX) that will conserve water while meeting challenging requirements for operation on future spacecraft. Compared to conventional WVX designs, the innovative membrane WVX described here has the potential for high water recovery efficiency, compact size, and very low pressure losses. The key innovation is a method for maintaining highly uniform flow channels in a WVX core built from water-permeable membranes. The proof-of-concept WVX incorporates all the key design features of a prototypical unit, except that it is relatively small scale (1/23 relative to a unit sized for a crew of six) and some components were fabricated using non-prototypical methods. The proof-of-concept WVX achieved over 90% water recovery efficiency in a compact core in good agreement with analysis models. Furthermore the overall pressure drop is very small (less than 0.5 in. H2O, total for both flow streams) and meets requirements for service in environmental control and life support systems on future spacecraft. These results show that the WVX provides very uniform flow through flow channels for both the humid and dry streams. Measurements also show that CO2 diffusion through the water-permeable membranes will have negligible effect on the CO2 partial pressure in the spacecraft atmosphere.

  12. Selective capture of water using microporous adsorbents to increase the lifetime of lubricants.

    PubMed

    Ng, Eng-Poh; Delmotte, Luc; Mintova, Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Long live lubricants: The selective capture of water from lubricants using nanosized microporous aluminophosphate (AEI) and aluminosilicate materials was studied. Nearly 98 % of the moisture was removed from the lubricating oil under ambient conditions, resulting in a significant improvement in the lubricating service lifetime. Moreover, both the lubricant and the microporous sorbents can be recovered and reused.The selective capture of water from lubricants using nanosized microporous aluminophosphate and aluminosilicate materials was studied with an aim to increase the lifetime of the lubricating mineral oil. The amount of water present in oxidized lubricating oil before and after treatment with microporous materials was studied by FTIR spectroscopy and determined quantitatively using the Karl Fischer titration method. Nanosized aluminophosphate revealed a high selectivity for water without adsorbing other additives, in contrast to nanosized aluminosilicates which also adsorb polar oxidation products and ionic additives. About 98 % of the initial moisture could be removed from the lubricating oil under ambient conditions, resulting in a significant improvement in the lubricating service lifetime. Moreover, no by-products are formed during the process and both the lubricant and the sorbents can be recovered and reused, thus the method is environmentally friendly.

  13. The diel cycle of water vapor in west Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopec, B. G.; Lauder, A. M.; Posmentier, E. S.; Feng, X.

    2014-08-01

    We present a study of the dynamics of small-scale (~100 km) atmospheric circulation in west Greenland which is dominated by interactions of marine and continental air masses. Water vapor concentration and isotopic ratios measured continuously over a 25 day period in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland were used to monitor the convergence of easterly katabatic winds and westerly sea breezes that form a front between the dry, isotopically depleted, glacial air mass and the moist, isotopically enriched, marine air mass. During the latter 16 days of the measurement period, an interval with no large-scale synoptic interference, the inland penetration of the sea breeze controlled the largest day-to-day humidity and vapor isotopic variations. Kangerlussuaq experienced sea breezes in the afternoon on 9 days, consistent with the long-term average of such occurrences on 56% of days in July and August. The inland position of the sea breeze front is controlled by the katabatic wind strength, which is stronger during times of reduced cloud coverage and/or higher-pressure gradient between the coast and the Greenland ice sheet. The position and movement of the front will likely respond to changes in the general atmospheric circulation and regional radiation balance resulting from global warming, which will, in turn, impact the local hydrological cycle and ecosystem processes.

  14. Feasibility of using drinking water treatment residuals as a novel chlorpyrifos adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Changhui; Wendling, Laura A; Pei, Yuansheng

    2013-08-07

    Recent efforts have increasingly focused on the development of low-cost adsorbents for pesticide retention. In this work, the novel reuse of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs), a nonhazardous ubiquitous byproduct, as an adsorbent for chlorpyrifos was investigated. Results showed that the kinetics and isothermal processes of chlorpyrifos sorption to WTRs were better described by a pseudo-second-order model and by the Freundlich equation, respectively. Moreover, compared with paddy soil and other documented absorbents, the WTRs exhibited a greater affinity for chlorpyrifos (log Koc = 4.76-4.90) and a higher chlorpyrifos sorption capacity (KF = 5967 mg(1-n)·L·kg(-1)) owing to the character and high content of organic matter. Further investigation demonstrated that the pH had a slight but statistically insignificant effect on chlorpyrifos sorption to WTRs; solution ionic strength and the presence of low molecular weight organic acids both resulted in concentration-dependent inhibition effects. Overall, these results confirmed the feasibility of using WTRs as a novel chlorpyrifos adsorbent.

  15. A review of the use of red mud as adsorbent for the removal of toxic pollutants from water and wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2011-01-01

    Red mud (an aluminium industry waste) has received wide attention as an effective adsorbent for water pollution control, showing significant adsorption potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. In this review, an extensive list of red-mud-based adsorbents has been compiled and their adsorption capacities (maximum uptake value of the adsorbent for the pollutant or adsorbate being removed) for various aquatic pollutants (metal ions, dyes, phenolic compounds, inorganic anions) are presented. The review provides a summary of recent information obtained using batch studies and deals with the adsorption mechanisms involved. It is evident from the literature survey that red mud has been found to be efficient for the removal of various aquatic pollutants, especially arsenic and phosphate. However, there is still a need to investigate the practical utility of these adsorbents on a commercial scale.

  16. Dependence of Tritium Release from Stainless Steel on Temperature and Water Vapor

    DOE PAGES

    Shmayda, W. T.; Sharpe, M.; Boyce, A. M.; ...

    2015-09-15

    The impact of water vapor and temperature on the release of tritium from stainless steel was studied. Degreased stainless steel samples loaded with tritium at room temperature following a 24-h degassing in vacuum at room temperature were subjected to increasing temperatures or humidity. In general, increasing either the sample temperature or the humidity causes an increased quantity of tritium to be removed. Increasing the temperature to 300°C in a dry gas stream results in a significant release of tritium and is therefore an effective means for reducing the tritium inventory in steel. For humid purges at 30°C, a sixfold increasemore » in humidity results in a tenfold increase in the peak outgassing rate. Increasing the humidity from 4 parts per million (ppm) to 1000 ppm when the sample temperature is 100°C causes a significant increase in the tritium outgassing rate. Finally, a simple calculation shows that only 15% of the activity present in the sample was removed in these experiments, suggesting that the surface layer of adsorbed water participates in regulating tritium desorption from the surface.« less

  17. Dependence of Tritium Release from Stainless Steel on Temperature and Water Vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Shmayda, W. T.; Sharpe, M.; Boyce, A. M.; Shea, R.; Petroski, B.; Schroeder, W. U.

    2015-09-15

    The impact of water vapor and temperature on the release of tritium from stainless steel was studied. Degreased stainless steel samples loaded with tritium at room temperature following a 24-h degassing in vacuum at room temperature were subjected to increasing temperatures or humidity. In general, increasing either the sample temperature or the humidity causes an increased quantity of tritium to be removed. Increasing the temperature to 300°C in a dry gas stream results in a significant release of tritium and is therefore an effective means for reducing the tritium inventory in steel. For humid purges at 30°C, a sixfold increase in humidity results in a tenfold increase in the peak outgassing rate. Increasing the humidity from 4 parts per million (ppm) to 1000 ppm when the sample temperature is 100°C causes a significant increase in the tritium outgassing rate. Finally, a simple calculation shows that only 15% of the activity present in the sample was removed in these experiments, suggesting that the surface layer of adsorbed water participates in regulating tritium desorption from the surface.

  18. Europa's Water Vapor Plumes: Systematically Constraining their Abundance and Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Lorenz

    2014-10-01

    The discovery of transient water vapor plumes near Europa's south pole (Roth et al. 2014) has important implications for the search for life in our Solar System. Europa's subsurface water ocean is thought to provide all the ingredients needed for a habitable environment. The plumes might enable direct sampling of Europa's subsurface constituents and provide insights into the chemistry, mobility, and extent of the liquid water environments. In STIS spectral images obtained in Dec. 2012, the intensity ratios of atomic H and O auroral emissions uniquely identify the source as electron impact excitation of water molecules. However, a confirmation of the initial detection has not yet been achieved, and non-detections from four out of five previous such visits suggest a complex and possibly episodic variation in plume activity. We have identified five potential variability sources for plume activity and detectability and propose a focused program to systematically constrain Europa's plumes and their variability pattern. Our constraints for the plume activity on Europa are vital inputs for key programmatic decisions regarding NASA's next large mission to Europa.

  19. Sampling Impacts on the NVAP-M Global Water Vapor Climate Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonder Haar, T. H.; Forsythe, J. M.; Cronk, H. Q.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric water vapor is a fundamental ingredient both for regulating climate as a greenhouse gas and as a necessary precursor for high impact weather events such as heavy precipitation. Water vapor concentration varies geographically because of its close linkage with surface temperature and as a component of synoptic and mesoscale weather systems. Satellite observations provide the only means to quantify the global occurrence and variability of water vapor. In common with other long-term climate data records such as clouds and precipitation, intercalibrating and blending diverse measurements of water vapor to create a consistent record through time is a challenge. The NASA Making Earth Science Data Records for Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program supported the development of the NASA Water Vapor Project (NVAP-M) dataset. The dataset was released to the science community in 2013 via the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center. The dataset is a global (land and ocean) water vapor dataset created by merging multiple satellite infrared and microwave sources of atmospheric water vapor along with surface data to form global gridded fields of total and layered precipitable water vapor. NVAP-M spans 22 years (1988-2009) of data. The challenges in creating this multisensor, multidecadal satellite-driven climate data record are illustrative of challenges for all satellite climate data records. While advances in sensor intercalibration and retrieval algorithms have improved the quality of the global water vapor climate data record, uncertainties arise due to sampling biases of the input sensors. These biases are particularly evident on a regional scale, in cloudy regions or over desert surfaces. The changing mixture of sensors with varying sensitivity to clear/cloudy, land/ocean and even day/night conditions can lead to different results on trends and variability of water vapor. We explore this variability via the NVAP-M data set. Connections and collaborations

  20. A Simple Experiment for Determining Vapor Pressure and Enthalpy of Vaporization of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Gerald S.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory procedures, calculations, and sample results are described for a freshman chemistry experiment in which the Clausius-Clapeyron equation is introduced as a means of describing the variation of vapor pressure with temperature and for determining enthalpy of vaporization. (Author/SK)

  1. Water-Vapor-Barrier Coatings for Polyurethane Foams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    Water-Vapor Transmission-Rate Determination The ASTM C355 -64 desiccant method was followed, except for the design of the test dishes. For the...0.06 4 12.0 0.06 Av 14.4 + 2.9 0.07 ± 0.01 1 22.9 0.11 2 22.3 0.10 3 27.7 0.13 Av 24.3 + 3.0 0.11 ± 0.02 49 4H 20 62 3 7 *By ASTM C355 -64... C355 -64 desiccant method; nominal thickness of plain foam specimen, 0.810 in. these coatings applied to the foam. All the coatings made

  2. Solar Mesosphere Explorer observations of stratospheric and mesospheric water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Thomas, Gary E.; Rusch, David W.; Barth, Charles A.; Lawrence, George M.; Olivero, John J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Sanders, Ryan W.; Knapp, Barry G.

    It is noted that while the SME (Solar Mesosphere Explorer) data is consistent with the earlier LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) results, its interpretation is complicated by aerosol contamination, particularly at altitudes below 35 km. This contamination arose from several volcanic eruptions, including that of El Chichon. Analyses are reported of a subset of data from the SME satellite, concentrating primarily on the period January through March 1982 so as to avoid contamination from the El Chichon volcanic aerosol. The SME observations of water vapor between 20 and 60 km were inverted for the first three months of 1982 as well as for selected additional periods. Reasonable results are obtained at locations where no contamination by aerosol is suspected.

  3. A solution to water vapor in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloss, Blair B.; Bruce, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    As cryogenic wind tunnels are utilized, problems associated with the low temperature environment are being discovered and solved. Recently, water vapor contamination was discovered in the National Transonic Facility, and the source was shown to be the internal insulation which is a closed-cell polyisocyanurate foam. After an extensive study of the absorptivity characteristics of the NTF thermal insulation, the most practical solution to the problem was shown to be the maintaining of a dry environment in the circuit at all times. Utilizing a high aspect ratio transport model, it was shown that the moisture contamination effects on the supercritical wing pressure distributions were within the accuracy of setting test conditions and as such were considered negligible for this model.

  4. Projected Regime Shift in Arctic Cloud and Water Vapor Feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yonghua; Miller, James R.; Francis, Jennifer; Russel, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic climate is changing faster than any other large-scale region on Earth. A variety of positive feedback mechanisms are responsible for the amplification, most of which are linked with changes in snow and ice cover, surface temperature (T(sub s)), atmospheric water vapor (WV), and cloud properties. As greenhouse gases continue to accumulate in the atmosphere, air temperature and water vapor content also increase, leading to a warmer surface and ice loss, which further enhance evaporation and WV. Many details of these interrelated feedbacks are poorly understood, yet are essential for understanding the pace and regional variations in future Arctic change. We use a global climate model (Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Atmosphere-Ocean Model) to examine several components of these feedbacks, how they vary by season, and how they are projected to change through the 21st century. One positive feedback begins with an increase in T(sub s) that produces an increase in WV, which in turn increases the downward longwave flux (DLF) and T(sub s), leading to further evaporation. Another associates the expected increases in cloud cover and optical thickness with increasing DLF and T(sub s). We examine the sensitivities between DLF and other climate variables in these feedbacks and find that they are strongest in the non-summer seasons, leading to the largest amplification in Ts during these months. Later in the 21st century, however, DLF becomes less sensitive to changes in WV and cloud optical thickness, as they cause the atmosphere to emit longwave radiation more nearly as a black body. This regime shift in sensitivity implies that the amplified pace of Arctic change relative to the northern hemisphere could relax in the future.

  5. Analysis of satellite-derived ozone and water vapor measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Research under this grant has involved analyses of satellite-derived measurements of water vapor and total ozone. Upper tropospheric water vapor data from the Nimbus 7 temperature-humidity infrared radiometer (THIR) 6.7 micron channel were analyzed by Fourier transformation to provide wavenumber spectra for a case of an upper level system over Europe. The power law spectrum for horizontal scales from 60 to several hundred km suggests that when convective cloud energy sources are not present, the enstrophy-cascading process (with variance proportional to the minus three power of wavenumber) may hold to much smaller scales than previously thought. Several investigations of the middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) were also conducted. Slow atmospheric oscillations with periods of 1-2 months were investigated in total ozone measurements and in ionospheric data. Using one-point correlation maps and total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) data, strong statistical evidence was found for the planetary-scale oscillations at these periods. A dipole-like pattern in the tropical equatorial Indian ocean-western Pacific region was documented, along with wavetrain-like patterns emanating into the extratropics. While attempting to follow the oscillations upward above stratosphere, oscillations were studied in ionospheric data (D-region radio wave absorption, in the upper mesosphere, around 80-90 km altitude). Cross-spectral analyses with solar flux data revealed that much of the observed 1-2 month variance in the ionospheric D-region was well correlated to solar variations. Further research has involved investigations of the photochemical lifetime of greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide. Using Nimbus 7 satellite data, a new analysis technique was employed to determine the lifetime of these gases in situ in the upper stratosphere. The lifetimes are found to be in good agreement with theoretical estimates.

  6. Forsterite Carbonation in Wet-scCO2: Dependence on Adsorbed Water Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loring, J.; Benezeth, P.; Qafoku, O.; Thompson, C.; Schaef, T.; Bonneville, A.; McGrail, P.; Felmy, A.; Rosso, K.

    2013-12-01

    Capturing and storing CO2 in basaltic formations is one of the most promising options for mitigating atmospheric CO2 emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. These geologic reservoirs have high reactive potential for CO2-mineral trapping due to an abundance of divalent-cation containing silicates, such as forsterite (Mg2SiO4). Recent studies have shown that carbonation of these silicates under wet scCO2 conditions, e. g. encountered near a CO2 injection well, proceeds along a different pathway and is more effective than in CO2-saturated aqueous fluids. The presence of an adsorbed water film on the forsterite surface seems to be key to reactivity towards carbonation. In this study, we employed in situ high pressure IR spectroscopy to investigate the dependence of adsorbed water film thickness on forsterite carbonation chemistry. Post reaction ex situ SEM, TEM, TGA, XRD, and NMR measurements will also be discussed. Several IR titrations were performed of forsterite with water at 50 °C and 90 bar scCO2. Aliquots of water were titrated at 4-hour reaction-time increments. Once a desired total water concentration was reached, data were collected for about another 30 hours. One titration involved 10 additions, which corresponds to 6.8 monolayers of adsorbed water. Clearly, a carbonate was precipitating, and its spectral signature matched magnesite. Another titration involved 8 aliquots, or up to 4.4 monolayers of water. The integrated absorbance under the CO stretching bands of carbonate as a function of time after reaching 4.4 monolayers showed an increase and then a plateau. We are currently unsure of the identity of the carbonate that precipitated, but it could be an amorphous anhydrous phase or magnesite crystals with dimensions of only several nanometers. A third titration only involved 3 additions, or up to 1.6 monolayers of water. The integrated absorbance under the CO stretching bands of carbonate as a function of time after reaching 1.6 monolayers

  7. Fossil Fuel Combustion Fingerprint in High-Resolution Urban Water Vapor Isotope Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorski, G.; Good, S. P.; Bowen, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing energy consumption and rapid urbanization have many important and poorly understood consequences for the hydrologic cycle in urban and suburban areas. Wide use of fossil fuels for transportation and heating releases isotopically distinctive water vapor that contributes to the overall water vapor budget in varying, usually unknown, concentrations. The use of long term, high resolution isotopic measurements can help determine different sources and proportions of water vapor at various time scales. We present two months of high-resolution water vapor isotope measurements coupled with CO2 concentrations and co-located meteorological observations from December 2013 - January 2014 in Salt Lake City, UT. Periods of atmospheric stagnation (cold-air inversions) show a buildup of CO2 from baseline values of 420 ppm to as high as 600 ppm and an associated decrease in water vapor deuterium-excess values from a baseline of approx. 10‰ to values as low as -10‰ (where d = δ2H - 8*δ18O, in per mil units). We suggest that the strong relationship between CO2and d during inversion periods is driven by the build-up of fossil fuel combustion-derived water vapor with very low d values (≤ -150‰). Based on our measurements of its isotopic composition, combustion-derived water vapor could contribute as much as 15% to the total water vapor budget during inversion periods. We present evidence of this effect at both the multi-day scale and the diurnal scale, where periods of increased automobile use and home heating can be identified. This study provides the first isotopic evidence that accumulation of water of combustion can be identified in boundary layer water vapor, suggests that an appreciable fraction of boundary layer vapor can be derived from combustion under certain atmospheric conditions, and indicates that the distinctive d values of combustion-derived vapor may be a useful tracer for this component of the atmospheric water budget in other urban regions.

  8. Fluoride removal in water by a hybrid adsorbent lanthanum-carbon.

    PubMed

    Vences-Alvarez, Esmeralda; Velazquez-Jimenez, Litza Halla; Chazaro-Ruiz, Luis Felipe; Diaz-Flores, Paola E; Rangel-Mendez, Jose Rene

    2015-10-01

    Various health problems associated with drinking water containing high fluoride levels, have motivated researchers to develop more efficient adsorbents to remove fluoride from water for beneficial concentrations to human health. The objective of this research was to anchor lanthanum oxyhydroxides on a commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) to remove fluoride from water considering the effect of the solution pH, and the presence of co-existing anions and organic matter. The activated carbon was modified with lanthanum oxyhydroxides by impregnation. SEM and XRD were performed in order to determine the crystal structure and morphology of the La(III) particles anchored on the GAC surface. FT-IR and pK(a)'s distribution were determined in order to elucidate both the possible mechanism of the lanthanum anchorage on the activated carbon surface and the fluoride adsorption mechanism on the modified material. The results showed that lanthanum ions prefer binding to carboxyl and phenolic groups on the activated carbon surface. Potentiometric titrations revealed that the modified carbon (GAC-La) possesses positive charge at a pH lower than 9. The adsorption capacity of the modified GAC increased five times in contrast to an unmodified GAC adsorption capacity at an initial F(-) concentration of 20 mg L(-1). Moreover, the presence of co-existing anions had no effect on the fluoride adsorption capacity at concentrations below 30 mg L(-1), that indicated high F(-) affinity by the modified adsorbent material (GAG-La).

  9. Development and Validation of Water Vapor Tracers as Diagnostics for the Atmospheric Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Understanding of the local and remote sources of water vapor can be a valuable diagnostic in understanding the regional atmospheric hydrologic cycle. In the present study, we have implemented passive tracers as prognostic variables to follow water vapor evaporated in predetermined regions until the water tracer precipitates. The formulation of the sources and sinks of tracer water is generally proportional to the prognostic water vapor variable. Because all water has been accounted for in tracers, the water vapor variable provides the validation of the tracer water and the formulation of the sources and sinks. The tracers have been implemented in a GEOS General Circulation Model (GCM) simulation consisting of several summer periods to determine the source regions of precipitation for the United States and India. The recycling of water and interannual variability of the sources of water will be examined. Potential uses in GCM sensitivity studies, predictability studies and data assimilation will be discussed.

  10. Interferometric millimeter observations of water vapor on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouchet, T.; Moreno, R.; Lellouch, E.; Montmessin, F.; Giuranna, M.; Formisano, V.

    2011-10-01

    We present interferometric mapping of the 225.9-GHz HDO and 203.4-GHz H2 18O lines on Mars obtained with the IRAM Plateau de Bure facility (PdBI). The observations were performed during martian year 28 (MY28), at Ls = 320.3° for the HDO line, and at Ls = 324.3° for the H2 18O line. The HDO line is detected at the eastern (morning) and western (evening) limbs of the northern hemisphere, corresponding to a water column density in the range 3-6 pr.-μm(Fig. 1). The H2 18O line is not detected, which is compatible with the column densities derived from the HDO line (Fig. 2). Quasi-simultaneous far infrared measurements obtained by the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) onboard the Mars Express spacecraft confirm our PdBI results, yielding a 5±1 pr.-μm meridionally constant water column abundance (Fig 3). Such a low water abundance during the southern mid-autumn of MY28 does not correspond to the standard martian climatology as observed during the previous years. It was however already retrieved from near-infrared observations performed by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft [Smith, M. D., Wolff, M. J., Clancy, R. T., Murchie, S. L. 2009. CRISM observations of water vapor and carbon monoxide. J. Geophys. Res. 114, doi:10.1029/2008JE003288]. Our observations thus confirm that the planet-encircling dust storm that occured during MY28 significantly affected the martian water cycle. Our observations also demonstrate the usefulness of interferometric submillimeter observations to survey the martian water cycle from groundbased facilities.

  11. Formation and survival of water vapor in the terrestrial planet-forming region.

    PubMed

    Bethell, Thomas; Bergin, Edwin

    2009-12-18

    Recent astronomical observations have revealed what may prove to be the ubiquity of water vapor during the early stages of planet formation. We present here a simple mechanism showing how water vapor forms in situ and is capable of shielding itself from molecule-destroying stellar radiation. The absorption of this radiation by water can control the thermodynamics of the terrestrial planet-forming zone. Similar to Earth's ozone layer, which shelters the chemistry of life, the water layer protects other water molecules and allows for a rich organic chemistry. The total abundance of water vapor in the natal habitable zone is equal to that of several thousand oceans.

  12. Performance characteristics of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser without a water vapor trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Toshio; Tsuruyama, Toru; Uchiyama, Taro

    1988-09-01

    The effect of water vapor on the operation of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser without a water vapor trap is described. The maximum CW laser power of 87 W was obtained without the water vapor trap at a Cl2 flow rate of 740 mmol/min. An alkaline H2O2 solution (90 wt pct H2O2, 50 wt pct KOH) was cooled down to about -30 C in order to control the saturated H2O2-H2O vapor pressure to less than 100 mTorr. Two porous pipes made of carbon were utilized as a singlet oxygen generator.

  13. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) waste as an adsorbent for phosphorus removal from swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Xiuxia; Wan, Xianwei; Weng, Boqi; Huang, Qin

    2010-12-01

    Both live plants and dried straw of water hyacinth were applied to a sequential treatment of swine wastewater for nitrogen and phosphorus reduction. In the facultative tank, the straw behaved as a kind of adsorbent toward phosphorus. Its phosphorus removal rate varied considerably with contact time between the straw and the influent. In the laboratory, the straw displayed a rapid total phosphorus reduction on a KH(2)PO(4) solution. The adsorption efficiency was about 36% upon saturation. At the same time, the water hyacinth straw in the facultative tank enhanced NH(3)-N removal efficiency as well. However, no adsorption was evident. This study demonstrated an economically feasible means to apply water hyacinth phosphorus straw for the swine wastewater treatment. The sequential system employed significantly reduced the land use, as compared to the wastewater stabilization pond treatment, for pollution amelioration of swine waste.

  14. Enhanced Positive Water Vapor Feedback Associated with Tropical Deep Convection: New Evidence from Aura MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Hui; Read, William G.; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Waters, Joe W.; Wu, Dong L.; Fetzer, Eric J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent simultaneous observations of upper tropospheric (UT) water vapor and cloud ice from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aura satellite provide new evidence for tropical convective influence on UT water vapor and its associated greenhouse effect. The observations show that UT water vapor increases as cloud ice water content increases. They also show that, when sea surface temperature (SST) exceeds approx.300 K, UT cloud ice associated with tropical deep convection increases sharply with increasing SST. The moistening of the upper troposphere by deep convection leads to an enhanced positive water vapor feedback, about 3 times that implied solely by thermodynamics. Over tropical oceans when SST greater than approx.300 K, the 'convective UT water vapor feedback' inferred from the MLS observations contributes approximately 65% of the sensitivity of the clear-sky greenhouse parameter to SST.

  15. Adsorbent materials from paper industry waste materials and their use in Cu(II) removal from water.

    PubMed

    Méndez, A; Barriga, S; Fidalgo, J M; Gascó, G

    2009-06-15

    This paper deals with the removal of Cu(2+) from water using adsorbent materials prepared from paper industry waste materials (one de-inking paper sludge and other sludge from virgin pulp mill). Experimental results showed that de-inking paper sludge leads to mesoporous materials (V(mic)/V(T)=0.13 and 0.14), whereas the sludge from virgin pulp mill produces high microporous adsorbents (V(mic)/V(T)=0.39 and 0.41). Adsorbent materials were then used for Cu(2+) removal from water at acid pH. During water treatment, heavy metals lixiviation from adsorbent materials was not produced. However, important Ca and Mg leaching was observed. Final pH significantly increases after treatment of water with adsorbent materials probably due to their elevated CaCO(3) content. In general, highest Cu(2+) removal was obtained using adsorbent materials from de-inking paper sludge. This result could be due to their higher content in oxygenated surface groups, high average pore diameter, elevated superficial charge density, high CaCO(3) amount and high Ca and Mg exchange content.

  16. A study of the alumina-silica gel adsorbent for the removal of silicic acid from geothermal water: increase in adsorption capacity of the adsorbent due to formation of amorphous aluminosilicate by adsorption of silicic acid.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Takushi; Ueda, Akira; Kato, Koichi; Mogi, Katsumi; Matsuo, Shorin

    2002-08-01

    Two kinds of adsorbents (Si adsorbent and Al adsorbent) for the removal of silicic acid from geothermal water to retard the formation of silica scales were prepared using silicic acid contained in geothermal water. The Si adsorbent was prepared by evaporating geothermal water, and the Al adsorbent was prepared by evaporating geothermal water after the addition of aluminum chloride. The specific surface area of the Si adsorbent was small and it's adsorption capacity of silicic acid was low. Although the specific surface area of the Al adsorbent was also small, it was significantly increased by the adsorption of silicic acid and it's adsorption capacity was high. Based on the change in the local structure of aluminum ion by the adsorption of silicic acid, the Al adsorbent was considered to be silica particles covered with crystalline aluminum hydroxide. Moreover, it was concluded that the increase in the specific surface area of the Al adsorbent and the decrease in the zeta potential were due to the formation of an amorphous aluminosilicate with a large surface area and a negative charge (one 4-coordinated Al) by the reaction between aluminum ions and silicic acids.

  17. Mechanical properties of hexadecane-water interfaces with adsorbed hydrophobic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhewen

    Certain strains of hydrophobic bacteria are known to play critical roles in petroleum-related applications. The aim of this study was to investigate how hydrophobic bacteria in their stationary phase could adsorb onto the hexadecane-water interface and alter its mechanical properties. The two strains of bacteria used in forming the interfacial films were Acinetobacter venetianus RAG-1 (a Gram-negative bacterium) and Rhodococcus erythropolis 20S-E1-c (Gram-positive). Experiments at two different length scales (millimetre and micrometre) were conducted and the results were compared. In addition, a simple flow experiment was designed in a constricted channel and the results were related to the intrinsic mechanical properties of bacteria-adsorbed films. On the millimetre scale, using the pendant drop technique, the film interfacial tension was monitored as the surface area was made to undergo changes. Under static conditions, both types of bacteria showed no significant effect on the interfacial tension. When subjected to transient excitations, the two bacterial films exhibited qualitatively similar, yet quantitative distinct rheological properties (including film elasticities and relaxation times). Under continuous reduction of surface area, the RAG-1 system showed a "paper-like" interface, while the interface of the 20S-E1-c system was "soap film-like." These macroscopic observations could be explained by the surface ultrastructures of the two cell strains. On the micrometre scale, using the micropipette technique, colloidal stability of the bacteria-coated oil droplets was examined through direct-contact experiments. Both types of bacteria were seen to function as effective stabilizers. In addition, the adsorbed bacteria also interacted with one another at the interface, giving rise to higher order 2-D rheological properties. A technique of directly probing the mechanical properties of the emulsion drop surfaces revealed that (a) the films behaved as purely elastic

  18. The role of water vapor in climate. A strategic research plan for the proposed GEWEX water vapor project (GVaP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, D. OC. (Editor); Melfi, S. Harvey (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The proposed GEWEX Water Vapor Project (GVaP) addresses fundamental deficiencies in the present understanding of moist atmospheric processes and the role of water vapor in the global hydrologic cycle and climate. Inadequate knowledge of the distribution of atmospheric water vapor and its transport is a major impediment to progress in achieving a fuller understanding of various hydrologic processes and a capability for reliable assessment of potential climatic change on global and regional scales. GVap will promote significant improvements in knowledge of atmospheric water vapor and moist processes as well as in present capabilities to model these processes on global and regional scales. GVaP complements a number of ongoing and planned programs focused on various aspects of the hydrologic cycle. The goal of GVaP is to improve understanding of the role of water vapor in meteorological, hydrological, and climatological processes through improved knowledge of water vapor and its variability on all scales. A detailed description of the GVaP is presented.

  19. Ceria modified activated carbon: an efficient arsenic removal adsorbent for drinking water purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawana, Radha; Somasundar, Yogesh; Iyer, Venkatesh Shankar; Baruwati, Babita

    2016-03-01

    Ceria (CeO2) coated powdered activated carbon was synthesized by a single step chemical process and demonstrated to be a highly efficient adsorbent for the removal of both As(III) and As(V) from water without any pre-oxidation process. The formation of CeO2 on the surface of powdered activated carbon was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The percentage of Ce in the adsorbent was confirmed to be 3.5 % by ICP-OES. The maximum removal capacity for As(III) and As(V) was found to be 10.3 and 12.2 mg/g, respectively. These values are comparable to most of the commercially available adsorbents. 80 % of the removal process was completed within 15 min of contact time in a batch process. More than 95 % removal of both As(III) and As(V) was achieved within an hour. The efficiency of removal was not affected by change in pH (5-9), salinity, hardness, organic (1-4 ppm of humic acid) and inorganic anions (sulphate, nitrate, chloride, bicarbonate and fluoride) excluding phosphate. Presence of 100 ppm phosphate reduced the removal significantly from 90 to 18 %. The equilibrium adsorption pattern of both As(III) and As(V) fitted well with the Freundlich model with R 2 values 0.99 and 0.97, respectively. The material shows reusability greater than three times in a batch process (arsenic concentration reduced below 10 ppb from 330 ppb) and a life of at least 100 L in a column study with 80 g material when tested under natural hard water (TDS 1000 ppm, pH 7.8, hardness 600 ppm as CaCO3) spiked with 330 ppb of arsenic.

  20. Water Vapor Storage Change in the Canopy-Air Space of a Tall Deciduous Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, C.; Dragoni, D.; Schmid, H.

    2005-05-01

    The ability of weather and climate models to predict humidity, cloud formation and precipitation critically depends on the exchange of water vapor between vegetation and the atmosphere. The canopy air-space in tall forests is deep enough to act as a buffer volume that is depleted at times of well developed turbulent mixing, and gets recharged in conditions of poor mixing. Recent studies have attributed biases in modeled vapor exchange to the misrepresentation or neglect of this mechanism. At the Morgan-Monroe State Forest AmeriFlux site (Indiana, USA), water vapor exchange and the vapor storage change in the canopy air-space has been observed for the last six years. The objective of this work is to calculate vapor storage change fluxes in the canopy air-space from time increments of concentration profiles from data collected in 2003. We relate vapor storage change fluxes to measured environmental forcing quanitites, such as net radiation, ambient vapor pressure deficit, dew-point temperature depression, stability, and friction velocity to interpret the observed seasonal and daily patterns. Also, changes in water vapor storage rates are compared with measured latent heat fluxes to determine how the total forest-atmosphere vapor exchange is affected by the recharging and depletion of water vapor throughout the canopy air-space.

  1. Impacts of surface adsorbed catechol on tropospheric aerosol surrogates: heterogeneous ozonolysis and its effects on water uptake.

    PubMed

    Woodill, Laurie A; O'Neill, Erinn M; Hinrichs, Ryan Z

    2013-07-11

    Surface adsorbed organics are ubiquitous components of inorganic tropospheric aerosols and have the potential to alter aerosol chemical and physical properties. To assess the impact of adsorbed organics on water uptake by inorganic substrates, we used diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy to compared water adsorption isotherms for uncoated NaCl and α-Al2O3 samples, samples containing a monolayer of adsorbed catechol, and adsorbed catechol samples following ozonolysis. Adsorption of gaseous catechol on to the inorganic substrates produced vibrational features indicating physisorption on NaCl and displacement of surface hydroxyl groups forming binuclear bidentate catecholate on α-Al2O3, with surface concentrations of 2-3 × 10(18) molecules m(-2). Subsequent heterogeneous ozonolysis produced muconic acid at a rate 4-5 times faster on NaCl compared to α-Al2O3, with predicted atmospheric lifetimes of 4.3 and 18 h, respectively, assuming a tropospheric ozone concentration of 40 ppb. Water adsorption isotherms for all NaCl samples were indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty, indicating that these organic monolayers had negligible impact on coadsorbed water surface concentrations for these systems. α-Al2O3-catechol samples exhibited dramatically less water uptake compared to uncoated α-Al2O3, while oxidation of surface adsorbed catechol had no effect on the extent of water uptake. For both substrates, adsorbed organics increased the relative abundance of "ice-like" versus "liquid-like" water, with the effect larger for catechol than oxidized ozonolysis products. These results highlight the importance of aerosol substrate in understanding the heterogeneous ozonolysis of adsorbed polyphenols and suggest such coatings may impair ice nucleation by aluminosilicate mineral aerosol.

  2. Stable isotopes in atmospheric water vapor and applications to the hydrologic cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galewsky, Joseph; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Field, Robert D.; Worden, John; Risi, Camille; Schneider, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    The measurement and simulation of water vapor isotopic composition has matured rapidly over the last decade, with long-term data sets and comprehensive modeling capabilities now available. Theories for water vapor isotopic composition have been developed by extending the theories that have been used for the isotopic composition of precipitation to include a more nuanced understanding of evaporation, large-scale mixing, deep convection, and kinetic fractionation. The technologies for in situ and remote sensing measurements of water vapor isotopic composition have developed especially rapidly over the last decade, with discrete water vapor sampling methods, based on mass spectroscopy, giving way to laser spectroscopic methods and satellite- and ground-based infrared absorption techniques. The simulation of water vapor isotopic composition has evolved from General Circulation Model (GCM) methods for simulating precipitation isotopic composition to sophisticated isotope-enabled microphysics schemes using higher-order moments for water and ice size distributions. The incorporation of isotopes into GCMs has enabled more detailed diagnostics of the water cycle and has led to improvements in its simulation. The combination of improved measurement and modeling of water vapor isotopic composition opens the door to new advances in our understanding of the atmospheric water cycle, in processes ranging from the marine boundary layer, through deep convection and tropospheric mixing, and into the water cycle of the stratosphere. Finally, studies of the processes governing modern water vapor isotopic composition provide an improved framework for the interpretation of paleoclimate proxy records of the hydrological cycle.

  3. Alexandrite laser characterization and airborne lidar developments for water vapor DIAL measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponsardin, P.; Higdon, N. S.; Grossmann, B. E.; Browell, E. V.

    1991-01-01

    The spectral characteristics of an Alexandrite laser used for making water vapor DIAL measurements have been evaluated. The optical servo-system used to lock the laser wavelength on a water vapor absorption line is described. A brief description of the DIAL system is given and the data obtained with this lidar during flight tests in March 1990 are also presented.

  4. High Temperature Corrosion of Silicon Carbide and Silicon Nitride in Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, E. J.; Robinson, Raymond C.; Cuy, Michael D.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) are proposed for applications in high temperature combustion environments containing water vapor. Both SiC and Si3N4 react with water vapor to form a silica (SiO2) scale. It is therefore important to understand the durability of SiC, Si3N4 and SiO2 in water vapor. Thermogravimetric analyses, furnace exposures and burner rig results were obtained for these materials in water vapor at temperatures between 1100 and 1450 C and water vapor partial pressures ranging from 0.1 to 3.1 atm. First, the oxidation of SiC and Si3N4 in water vapor is considered. The parabolic kinetic rate law, rate dependence on water vapor partial pressure, and oxidation mechanism are discussed. Second, the volatilization of silica to form Si(OH)4(g) is examined. Mass spectrometric results, the linear kinetic rate law and a volatilization model based on diffusion through a gas boundary layer are discussed. Finally, the combined oxidation and volatilization reactions, which occur when SiC or Si3N4 are exposed in a water vapor-containing environment, are presented. Both experimental evidence and a model for the paralinear kinetic rate law are shown for these simultaneous oxidation and volatilization reactions.

  5. A Two-Line Absorption Instrument for Scramjet Temperature and Water Vapor Concentration Measurement in HYPULSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, C. Y.

    1998-01-01

    A three beam water vapor sensor system has been modified to provide for near simultaneous temperature measurement. The system employs a tunable diode laser to scan spectral line of water vapor. The application to measurements in a scramjet combustor environment of a shock tunnel facility is discussed. This report presents and discusses die initial calibration of the measurement system.

  6. Infrared spectroscopy of water clusters co-adsorbed with hydrogen molecules on a sodium chloride film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakawa, Koichiro; Fukutani, Katsuyuki

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen gas containing a trace of water vapor was dosed on a vacuum-evaporated sodium chloride film at 13 K, and water clusters formed on the substrate were investigated by infrared absorption spectroscopy. Absorption bands due to (H2O)n clusters with n = 3-6 and an induced absorption band due to hydrogen were clearly observed. With increasing gas dosage, the intensities of the cluster bands increased linearly while the intensity of the hydrogen band was constant. This suggests that the water clusters were formed in two-dimensional matrices of hydrogen. We found that the water clusters did exist on the surface upon heating even after the hydrogen molecules had desorbed. A further rise of the substrate temperature up to 27 K yielded the formation of larger clusters, (H2O)n with n > 6 . We also discuss the origins of the two bands of the trimer in terms of pseudorotation and a metastable isomer.

  7. Removal of cadmium and lead ions from water by sulfonated magnetic nanoparticle adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; He, Junyong; Li, Yulian; Cai, Xingguo; Zhang, Kaisheng; Liu, Tao; Hu, Yi; Lin, Dongyue; Kong, Lingtao; Liu, Jinhuai

    2017-05-15

    A new adsorbent, Fe3O4 sulfonated magnetic nanoparticle (Fe3O4-SO3H MNP), was developed for heavy metal ions removal from water, which could be effectively separated from the solution owing to the superparamagnetic property. The nanoparticles can be used to remove heavy metal ions due to the additional active site, "sulfo-group", introduced by the AMPS branches grafted onto the iron oxide. The as-synthesized materials were characterized by SEM, TEM, FT-IR and BET. The FTIR, XPS and Zeta potential were used to describe the adsorption mechanism. The Fe3O4-SO3H MNPs showed rapid removal for Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) with maximum of adsorption capacity of 108. 93 and 80.9mg/g at 25°C, respectively. The adsorption isotherms for Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) fitted better with Langmuir than Freundlich models, indicated that the processes of the removal of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) could follow a kind of similar adsorption manner. The adsorption kinetic was consistent with pseudo-second-order model. Furthermore, the reuse experiments results showed the adsorbent might have potential in treating heavy metal ions pollution in water.

  8. Water and ion transport in ultra-adsorbing porous magnesium carbonate studied by dielectric spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochard, Isabelle; Frykstrand, Sara; Ahlström, Olle; Forsgren, Johan; Strømme, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Porous materials are used in application areas ranging from drug and vaccine delivery, medical implants, molecular sieves and cosmetics to catalysis and humidity control. In the present work, we employed an alternative approach to gain in-depth understanding about water interaction properties in such materials by the use of dielectric spectroscopy and thereby show that it is possible to obtain information that is not accessible from the more commonly employed water interaction analysis techniques. Specifically, the complex dielectric response of Upsalite, a novel, super-hydroscopic, high-surface area, porous magnesium carbonate material was measured in isothermal frequency scans between 10-3 and 106 Hz at controlled relative humidity (RH). We found the dielectric constant of the dry material to be 1.82. The ratio of bound to free water present in Upsalite after adsorption at room temperature was found to be high irrespective of the surrounding humidity with values ranging from ˜67% to ˜90%. We further found that OH- ions are the charge carriers responsible for the electrode polarization observed in the dielectric response and that the amount of these ions that are free to move in the material corresponds to a concentration of the order of 1-10 μmol l-1 independent of RH. Finally, the OH- diffusion coefficient displayed a drastic decrease with decreasing RH, typical of transport in unsaturated conditions. The presented results provide detailed insight about water interactions in the novel water adsorbing material under study and it is foreseen that the employed analysis methods can be used to evaluate other types of moisture adsorbing materials as well as the movement of functional species in the pores of inorganic drug delivery materials and materials tailored for adsorption of harmful charged species.

  9. Adsorption Characteristics of Different Adsorbents and Iron(III) Salt for Removing As(V) from Water

    PubMed Central

    Ćurko, Josip; Matošić, Marin; Crnek, Vlado; Stulić, Višnja

    2016-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study is to determine the adsorption performance of three types of adsorbents for removal of As(V) from water: Bayoxide® E33 (granular iron(III) oxide), Titansorb® (granular titanium oxide) and a suspension of precipitated iron(III) hydroxide. Results of As(V) adsorption stoichiometry of two commercial adsorbents and precipitated iron(III) hydroxide in tap and demineralized water were fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm equations, from which adsorption constants and adsorption capacity were calculated. The separation factor RL for the three adsorbents ranged from 0.04 to 0.61, indicating effective adsorption. Precipitated iron(III) hydroxide had the greatest, while Titansorb had the lowest capacity to adsorb As(V). Comparison of adsorption from tap or demineralized water showed that Bayoxide and precipitated iron(III) hydroxide had higher adsorption capacity in demineralized water, whereas Titansorb showed a slightly higher capacity in tap water. These results provide mechanistic insights into how commonly used adsorbents remove As(V) from water. PMID:27904416

  10. Evaluation of the Water Vapor Transport over the Yellow River Basin in CMIP5 Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jiawei; Feng, Jinming

    2014-05-01

    Temperature, precipitation and water vapor transport in China, particularly in the Yellow River Basin simulated by the 16 models participating in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) were evaluated for the period 1979-2005. Results suggest that most CMIP5 models are able to capture the climatological distribution patterns and inter-annual variations of surface air temperature, but with cold bias. Most models reproduce the spatial distribution pattern of warming trends identical with observations. Models tend to overestimate precipitation with relative biases ranging from 4.59 % to 61.46 %. Compared with observations, most models simulate more precipitation over the east of Tibetan Plateau and less in southeastern coastal regions. The spatial distribution of precipitation trends displayed in the observations cannot be well simulated by most models. The underestimation of temperature and the overestimation of precipitation simulated by some models over the east of Tibetan Plateau may be related to the anomalously strong western Pacific subtropical high and sufficient water vapor transport from Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean. In terms of the Yellow River Basin, modeled water vapor mainly flows in from eastern boundary and out from the western boundary. Water vapor also flows in through the southern boundary, but with smaller intensity. Owing to the overestimation of water vapor convergence, some models tend to exaggerate the climatological precipitation. Additionally, we found that the summer water vapor budget and precipitation keep pace with each other, which is well reflected by the FIO-ESM model. Models can also reproduce this relation in the lower reaches, with the total water vapor budget correlated strongly with water vapor transport from eastern, western and southern boundaries, indicating that water vapor budget and even the precipitation are strongly influenced by the water vapor transport from Indian Ocean and western

  11. The annual cycle of water vapor on Mars as observed by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. D.

    2001-12-01

    We report here on the latitude, longitude, and seasonal dependence of water vapor abundance for over one full Martian year as observed by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). A maximum in water vapor abundance is observed at high latitudes during mid-summer in both hemispheres, reaching a maximum value of ~100 pr-μ m in the north and ~50 pr-μ m in the south. Low water vapor abundance (<5 pr-μ m) is observed at middle and high latitudes in the fall and winter of both hemispheres. There are large differences in the hemispheric (north versus south) and seasonal (perihelion versus aphelion) behavior of water vapor. The latitudinal and seasonal dependence of the decay of the northern summer water vapor maximum implies cross-equatorial transport of water to the southern hemisphere, while there is little or no corresponding transport during the decay of the southern hemisphere summer maximum. A very steep latitudinal gradient in water vapor abundance (high in the north) forms during early northern summer (Ls= 90o--150o), while water vapor is distributed more uniformly in latitude during early southern summer (Ls= 270o--330o). The annually-averaged amount of water vapor in the Martian atmosphere is 17 pr-μ m in the northern hemisphere and 9.5 pr-μ m in the southern hemisphere. However, when referenced to a 6.1 mbar pressure surface to remove the effect of topography, the annually-averaged amount of water vapor becomes 17 pr-μ m in the latitude band from 10oS--40oN, and 12 pr-μ m everywhere else. The latitude-longitude dependence of annually-averaged water vapor (corrected for topography) has a significant positive correlation with albedo and significant negative correlations with thermal inertia and surface pressure.

  12. Experimental Study of Water Droplet Vaporization on Nanostructured Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Jorge, Jr.

    This dissertation summarizes results of an experimental exploration of heat transfer during vaporization of a water droplet deposited on a nanostructured surface at a temperature approaching and exceeding the Leidenfrost point for the surface and at lower surface temperatures 10-40 degrees C above the saturated temperature of the water droplet at approximately 101 kPa. The results of these experiments were compared to those performed on bare smooth copper and aluminum surfaces in this and other studies. The nanostructured surfaces were composed of a vast array of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals grown by hydrothermal synthesis on a smooth copper substrate having an average surface roughness of approximately 0.06 micrometer. Various nanostructured surface array geometries were produced on the copper substrate by performing the hydrothermal synthesis for 4, 10 and 24 hours. The individual nanostructures were randomly-oriented and, depending on hydrothermal synthesis time, had a mean diameter of about 500-700 nm, a mean length of 1.7-3.3 micrometers,and porosities of approximately 0.04-0.58. Surface wetting was characterized by macroscopic measurements of contact angle based on the droplet profile and calculations based on measurements of liquid film spread area. Scanning electron microscope imaging was used to document the nanoscale features of the surface before and after the experiments. The nanostructured surfaces grown by hydrothermal synthesis for 4 and 24 hours exhibited contact angles of approximately 10, whereas the surfaces grown for 10 hours were superhydrophilic, exhibiting contact angles typically less than 3 degrees. In single droplet deposition experiments at 101 kPa, a high-speed video camera was used to document the droplet-surface interaction. Distilled and degassed water droplets ranging in size from 2.5-4.0 mm were deposited onto the surface from heights ranging from approximately 0.2-8.1 cm, such that Weber numbers spanned a range of approximately 0

  13. Influence of liquid water and water vapor on antimisting kerosene (AMK)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yavrouian, A. H.; Sarolouki, M.; Sarohia, V.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to evaluate the compatibility of liquid water and water vapor with antimisting kerosenes (AMK) containing polymer additive FM-9 developed by Imperial Chemical Industries. This effort consists of the determination of water solubility in AMK, influence of water on restoration (degradation) of AMK, and effect of water on standard AMK quality control methods. The principal conclusions of this investigation are: (1) the uptake of water in AMK critically depends upon the degree of agitation and can be as high as 1300 ppm at 20 C, (2) more than 250 to 300 ppm of water in AMK causes an insoluble second phase to form. The amount of this second phase depends on fuel temperature, agitation, degree of restoration (degradation) and the water content of the fuel, (3) laboratory scale experiments indicate precipitate formation when water vapor comes in contact with cold fuel surfaces at a much lower level of water (125 to 150 ppm), (4) precipitate formation is very pronounced in these experiments where humid air is percolated through a cold fuel (-20 C), (5) laboratory tests further indicate that water droplet settling time is markedly reduced in AMK as compared to jet A, (6) limited low temperature testing down to -30 C under laboratory conditions indicates the formation of stable, transparent gels.

  14. A New Raman Water Vapor Lidar Calibration Technique and Measurements in the Vicinity of Hurricane Bonnie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Keith D.; Demoz, Belay B.; Cadirola, Martin P.; Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, David N.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Starr, David OC.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Feltz, Wayne

    2000-01-01

    The NAcA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar has made measurements of water vapor and aerosols for almost ten years. Calibration of the water vapor data has typically been performed by comparison with another water vapor sensor such as radiosondes. We present a new method for water vapor calibration that only requires low clouds, and surface pressure and temperature measurements. A sensitivity study was performed and the cloud base algorithm agrees with the radiosonde calibration to within 10- 15%. Knowledge of the true atmospheric lapse rate is required to obtain more accurate cloud base temperatures. Analysis of water vapor and aerosol measurements made in the vicinity of Hurricane Bonnie are discussed.

  15. Application of an automatic cloud tracking technique to Meteosat water vapor and infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endlich, R. M.; Wolf, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    The automatic cloud tracking system was applied to METEOSAT 6.7 micrometers water vapor measurements to learn whether the system can track the motions of water vapor patterns. Data for the midlatitudes, subtropics, and tropics were selected from a sequence of METEOSAT pictures for 25 April 1978. Trackable features in the water vapor patterns were identified using a clustering technique and the features were tracked by two different methods. In flat (low contrast) water vapor fields, the automatic motion computations were not reliable, but in areas where the water vapor fields contained small scale structure (such as in the vicinity of active weather phenomena) the computations were successful. Cloud motions were computed using METEOSAT infrared observations (including tropical convective systems and midlatitude jet stream cirrus).

  16. Global cooling after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: a test of climate feedback by water vapor.

    PubMed

    Soden, Brian J; Wetherald, Richard T; Stenchikov, Georgiy L; Robock, Alan

    2002-04-26

    The sensitivity of Earth's climate to an external radiative forcing depends critically on the response of water vapor. We use the global cooling and drying of the atmosphere that was observed after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo to test model predictions of the climate feedback from water vapor. Here, we first highlight the success of the model in reproducing the observed drying after the volcanic eruption. Then, by comparing model simulations with and without water vapor feedback, we demonstrate the importance of the atmospheric drying in amplifying the temperature change and show that, without the strong positive feedback from water vapor, the model is unable to reproduce the observed cooling. These results provide quantitative evidence of the reliability of water vapor feedback in current climate models, which is crucial to their use for global warming projections.

  17. An interim reference model for the variability of the middle atmosphere water vapor distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, E. E.; Russell, J. M., III; Wu, C.-Y.

    1990-01-01

    A reference model for the middle atmosphere water vapor distribution for some latitudes and seasons was developed using two data sets. One is the seven months of Nimbus LIMS data obtained during November 1978 to May 1979 over the range 64 deg S - 84 deg N latitude and from about 100-mb to 1-mb altitude, and the other is represented by water vapor profiles from 0.2 mb to 0.01 mb in the mid-mesosphere, measured on ground at several fixed mid-latitude sites in the Northern Hemisphere, using microwave-emission techniques. This model provides an interim water vapor profile for the entire vertical range of the middle atmosphere, with accuracies of better than 25 percent. The daily variability of stratospheric water vapor profiles about the monthly mean is demonstrated, and information is provided on the longitudinal variability of LIMS water vapor profiles about the daily, weekly, and monthly zonal means.

  18. First lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosols from a high-altitude aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed

    1995-01-01

    Water vapor plays an important role in many atmospheric processes related to radiation, climate change, atmospheric dynamics, meteorology, the global hydrologic cycle, and atmospheric chemistry, and yet our knowledge of the global distribution of water vapor is very limited. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique has the potential of providing needed high resolution water vapor measurements from aircraft and from space, and the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) is a key step in the development of this capability. The LASE instrument is the first fully engineered, autonomous DIAL system, and it is designed to operate from a high-altitude aircraft (ER-2) and to make water vapor and aerosol profile measurements across the troposphere. The LASE system was flown from the NASA Wallops Flight Facility in a series of engineering flights during September 1994. This paper discusses the characteristics of the LASE system and presents the first LASE measurements of water vapor and aerosol profiles.

  19. An interim reference model for the variability of the middle atmosphere water vapor distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remsberg, E. E.; Russell, J. M., III; Wu, C.-Y.

    A reference model for the middle atmosphere water vapor distribution for some latitudes and seasons was developed using two data sets. One is the seven months of Nimbus LIMS data obtained during November 1978 to May 1979 over the range 64 deg S - 84 deg N latitude and from about 100-mb to 1-mb altitude, and the other is represented by water vapor profiles from 0.2 mb to 0.01 mb in the mid-mesosphere, measured on ground at several fixed mid-latitude sites in the Northern Hemisphere, using microwave-emission techniques. This model provides an interim water vapor profile for the entire vertical range of the middle atmosphere, with accuracies of better than 25 percent. The daily variability of stratospheric water vapor profiles about the monthly mean is demonstrated, and information is provided on the longitudinal variability of LIMS water vapor profiles about the daily, weekly, and monthly zonal means.

  20. Novel Anionic Clay Adsorbents for Boiler-Blow-Down Waters Reclaim and Reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Muhammad Sahimi; Theodore Tsotsis

    2010-01-08

    Arsenic (As) and Selenium (Se) are found in water in the form of oxyanions. Relatively high concentrations of As and Se have been reported both in power plant discharges, as well as, in fresh water supplies. The International Agency for Research on Cancer currently classifies As as a group 1 chemical, that is considered to be carcinogenic to humans. In Phase I of this project we studied the adsorption of As and Se by uncalcined and calcined layered double hydroxide (LDH). The focus of the present work is a systematic study of the adsorption of As and Se by conditioned LDH adsorbents. Conditioning the adsorbent significantly reduced the Mg and Al dissolution observed with uncalcined and calcined LDH. The adsorption rates and isotherms have been investigated in batch experiments using particles of four different particle size ranges. As(V) adsorption is shown to follow a Sips-type adsorption isotherm. The As(V) adsorption rate on conditioned LDH increases with decreasing adsorbent particle size; the adsorption capacity, on the other hand, is independent of the particle size. A homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM) and a bi-disperse pore model (BPM) - the latter viewing the LDH particles as assemblages of microparticles and taking into account bulk diffusion in the intraparticle pore space, and surface diffusion within the microparticles themselves - were used to fit the experimental kinetic data. The HSDM estimated diffusivity values dependent on the particle size, whereas the BPM predicted an intracrystalline diffusivity, which is fairly invariant with particle size. The removal of As(V) on conditioned LDH adsorbents was also investigated in flow columns, where the impact of important solution and operational parameters such as influent As concentration, pH, sorbent particle size and flow rate were studied. An early breakthrough and saturation was observed at higher flow rates and at higher influent concentrations, whereas a decrease in the sorbent particle

  1. Removal of atrazine from water by low cost adsorbents derived from agricultural and industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajendra Kumar; Kumar, Anoop; Joseph, P E

    2008-05-01

    In the present study six adsorbents viz. wood charcoal, fly ash, coconut charcoal, saw dust, coconut fiber and baggasse charcoal were studied for their capacity to remove atrazine from water. The removal efficiency of different adsorbents varied from 76.5% to 97.7% at 0.05 ppm concentration and 78.5% to 95.5% at 0.1 ppm concentration of atrazine solution, which was less than removal efficiency of activated charcoal reported as 98% for atrazine (Adams and Watson, J Environ Eng ASCE 39:327-330, 1996). Wood charcoal was a cheap (Rs 15 kg(-1)) and easily available material in house holds. Since wood charcoal was granular in nature, it could be used for the removal of atrazine from water to the extent of 95.5%-97.7%. Fly ash is a waste product of thermal plant containing 40%-50% silica, 20%-35% alumina, 12%-30% carbon and unburnt minerals having a high pH of 9-10. It is very cheap and abundant material and has comparatively good adsorption capacity. It was found that fly ash effectively removed about 84.1%-88.5% atrazine from water at 0.05 and 0.1 ppm levels. Coconut shell is also waste product. Therefore, both are inexpensive. The removal efficiency of atrazine from water was 92.4%-95.2% by coconut shell charcoal and 85.9%-86.3% by coconut fiber. Sawdust is generally used as domestic fuel and found everywhere. It is also very cheap (Re. 1 kg(-1)). Baggasse charcoal is a waste product of sugar mill and abundant material. Its cost is due to transport expense, which depends upon distance from the sugar mill. The removal efficiency of sawdust and baggasse charcoal was found 78.5-80.5 and 76.5-84.6, respectively. The efficacy of chemically treated adsorbents for the removal of atrazine from water is in the order: wood charcoal > coconut shell charcoal > fly ash > coconut fiber charcoal > baggasse charcoal > sawdust.

  2. Internal Consistency of the NVAP Water Vapor Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Ronnie J.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NVAP (NASA Water Vapor Project) dataset is a global dataset at 1 x 1 degree spatial resolution consisting of daily, pentad, and monthly atmospheric precipitable water (PW) products. The analysis blends measurements from the Television and Infrared Operational Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), and radiosonde observations into a daily collage of PW. The original dataset consisted of five years of data from 1988 to 1992. Recent updates have added three additional years (1993-1995) and incorporated procedural and algorithm changes from the original methodology. Since each of the PW sources (TOVS, SSM/I, and radiosonde) do not provide global coverage, each of these sources compliment one another by providing spatial coverage over regions and during times where the other is not available. For this type of spatial and temporal blending to be successful, each of the source components should have similar or compatible accuracies. If this is not the case, regional and time varying biases may be manifested in the NVAP dataset. This study examines the consistency of the NVAP source data by comparing daily collocated TOVS and SSM/I PW retrievals with collocated radiosonde PW observations. The daily PW intercomparisons are performed over the time period of the dataset and for various regions.

  3. High-rate solar photocatalytic conversion of CO2 and water vapor to hydrocarbon fuels.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Oomman K; Paulose, Maggie; Latempa, Thomas J; Grimes, Craig A

    2009-02-01

    Efficient solar conversion of carbon dioxide and water vapor to methane and other hydrocarbons is achieved using nitrogen-doped titania nanotube arrays, with a wall thickness low enough to facilitate effective carrier transfer to the adsorbing species, surface-loaded with nanodimensional islands of cocatalysts platinum and/or copper. All experiments are conducted in outdoor sunlight at University Park, PA. Intermediate reaction products, hydrogen and carbon monoxide, are also detected with their relative concentrations underlying hydrocarbon production rates and dependent upon the nature of the cocatalysts on the nanotube array surface. Using outdoor global AM 1.5 sunlight, 100 mW/cm(2), a hydrocarbon production rate of 111 ppm cm(-2) h(-1), or approximately 160 microL/(g h), is obtained when the nanotube array samples are loaded with both Cu and Pt nanoparticles. This rate of CO(2) to hydrocarbon production obtained under outdoor sunlight is at least 20 times higher than previous published reports, which were conducted under laboratory conditions using UV illumination.

  4. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + ethanol + water and the three constituent binary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Nakamichi, Mikiyoshi; Kojima, Kazuo . Dept. of Industrial Chemistry)

    1993-07-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methanol + ethanol + water and its three constituent binary systems methanol + ethanol, ethanol + water, and methanol + water were measured at 101.3 kPa using a liquid-vapor ebullition-type equilibrium still. The experimental binary data were correlated by the NRTL equation. The ternary system methanol + ethanol + water was predicted by means of the binary NRTL parameters with good accuracy.

  5. A method for preparing ferric activated carbon composites adsorbents to remove arsenic from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiao Li; Lin, Y C; Chen, X; Gao, Nai Yun

    2007-09-30

    Iron oxide/activated carbon (FeO/AC) composite adsorbent material, which was used to modify the coal-based activated carbon (AC) 12 x 40, was prepared by the special ferric oxide microcrystal in this study. This composite can be used as the adsorbent to remove arsenic from drinking water, and Langmuir isotherm adsorption equation well describes the experimental adsorption isotherms. Then, the arsenic desorption can subsequently be separated from the medium by using a 1% aqueous NaOH solution. The apparent characters and physical chemistry performances of FeO/AC composite were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Batch and column adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate and compare the arsenic removal capability of the prepared FeO/AC composite material and virgin activated carbon. It can be concluded that: (1) the main phase present in this composite are magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)), maghemite (gamma-Fe(2)O(3)), hematite (alpha-Fe(2)O(3)) and goethite (alpha-FeO(OH)); (2) the presence of iron oxides did not significantly affect the surface area or the pore structure of the activated carbon; (3) the comparisons between the adsorption isotherms of arsenic from aqueous solution onto the composite and virgin activated carbon showed that the FeO/AC composite behave an excellent capacity of adsorption arsenic than the virgin activated carbon; (4) column adsorption experiments with FeO/AC composite adsorbent showed that the arsenic could be removed to below 0.01 mg/L within 1250 mL empty bed volume when influent concentration was 0.5mg/L.

  6. The Annual Cycle of Water Vapor on Mars as Observed by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Spectra taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) have been used to monitor the latitude, longitude, and seasonal dependence of water vapor for over one full Martian year (March 1999-March 2001). A maximum in water vapor abundance is observed at high latitudes during mid-summer in both hemispheres, reaching a maximum value of approximately 100 pr-micrometer in the north and approximately 50 pr-micrometer in the south. Low water vapor abundance (<5 pr-micrometer) is observed at middle and high latitudes in the fall and winter of both hemispheres. There are large differences in the hemispheric (north versus south) and seasonal (perihelion versus aphelion) behavior of water vapor. The latitudinal and seasonal dependence of the decay of the northern summer water vapor maximum implies cross-equatorial transport of water to the southern hemisphere, while there is little or no corresponding transport during the decay of the southern hemisphere summer maximum. The latitude-longitude dependence of annually-averaged water vapor (corrected for topography) has a significant positive correlation with albedo and significant negative correlations with thermal inertia and surface pressure. Comparison of TES results with those retrieved from the Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detectors (MAWD) experiments shows some similar features, but also many significant differences. The southern hemisphere maximum observed by TES was not observed by MAWD and the large latitudinal gradient in annually-averaged water vapor observed by MAWD does not appear in the TES results.

  7. Comparative FTIR spectroscopy of HX adsorbed on solid water: Ragout-jet water clusters vs ice nanocrystal arrays.

    PubMed

    Devlin, J P; Farník, M; Suhm, M A; Buch, V

    2005-02-17

    In addition to revealing the stretch-mode bands of the smallest mixed clusters of HCl and HBr (HX) with water, the ragout-jet FTIR spectra of dense mixed water-acid supersonic jets include bands that result from the interaction of HX with larger water clusters. It is argued here that low jet temperatures prevent the water-cluster-bound HX molecules from becoming sufficiently solvated to induce ionic dissociation. The molecular nature of the HX can be deduced directly from the observed influence of changing from HCl to HBr and from replacing H2O with D2O. Furthermore, the band positions of HX are roughly coincidental with bands assigned to molecular HCl and HBr adsorbed on ice nanocrystal surfaces at temperatures below 100 K. It is also interesting that the HX band positions and widths approximate those of HX bound to the surface of amorphous ice films at <60 K. Though computational results suggest the adsorbed HX molecules observed in the jet expansions are weakly distorted by single coordination with surface dangling-oxygen atoms, on-the-fly trajectories indicate that the cluster skeletons undergo large-amplitude low-frequency vibrations. Local HX solvation, the extent of proton sharing, and the HX vibrational spectra undergo serious modulation on a picosecond time scale.

  8. [Monitoring and Analysis of Stable Isotopes of the Near Surface Water Vapor in Changsha].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yu-long; Zhang, Xin-ping; Yao, Tian-ci; Huang, Huang

    2016-02-15

    Based on the monitored atmospheric water vapor stable isotopes and observed meteorological elements at Changsha during the period from November 12, 2014 to April 13, 2015, the variations of water vapor stable isotopes and the relationships between isotope ratios and temperature, absolute humidity, precipitation amount were analyzed in this paper. The results indicated that: (1) Seasonal variations of delta18O and 82H in atmospheric water vapor at Changsha were remarkable, with high values in winter. delta18O and delta2H in atmospheric water vapor were positively correlated with absolute humidity in winter. There were some fluctuations of the delta18O and delta2H in atmospheric water vapor, especially when the precipitation events occurred. Precipitation events had a significant effect on the variations of delta18O and delta2H in atmospheric water vapor, and low values were often accompanied with precipitation events; (2) Diurnal Variations of delta18O and delta2H in atmospheric water vapor had a close correlation with the atmospheric water vapor content, whereas the absolute humidity was mainly controlled by the strength of the local evapotranspiration and atmospheric turbulence. The "precipitation amount effect" was observed during the process of a single precipitation event; (3) Values of delta18O and delta2H in atmospheric water vapor were always lower than those of precipitation in Changsha, but he variation trends were completely consistent, the average difference values were 8.6% per hundred and 66.82% per hundred, respectively; (4) The meteoric vapor line (MVL) in cold months was delta2H =7.18 delta18O + 10.58, the slope and intercept of MVL were always lower than those of MWL, and the slope and intercept of MVL in spring were significantly higher than those of winter.

  9. An Assessment of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor in the MERRA-2 Reanalysis: Comparisons with MLS and In Situ Water Vapor Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selkirk, H. B.; Molod, A.; Pawson, S.; Douglass, A. R.; Voemel, H.; Hurst, D. F.; Jiang, J. H.; Read, W. G.; Schwartz, M. J.; Manyin, M.

    2015-12-01

    The recently released MERRA-2 reanalysis represents a significant evolution of the GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model and data assimilation system since the original MERRA project, and it is expected that MERRA-2 will be widely used in climate change studies as has its predecessor. A number of studies have demonstrated critical sensitivities of the climate system to the water vapor content of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) and it is therefore important to assess how well the MERRA-2 reanalysis represents the mean structure and variability of water vapor in this part of the atmosphere. Recent comparisons with MLS water vapor indicate that the ECMWF and original MERRA reanalyses overestimate water vapor throughout the global upper troposphere by 50-80%. These overestimates are particularly acute at 147 hPa and 215 hPa and occur in all seasons. In this presentation, we analyze differences between the MLS v.4.2 water vapor data and the new MERRA-2 reanalysis to assess improvements in the treatment of water vapor in the GEOS-5 system since MERRA. We also include in our analysis a comparison of MERRA-2 profiles with water vapor and relative humidity profiles from frostpoint hygrometers at five sites with long-term records and a sixth with an intensive campaign of one month. Three of the long-term sites, Boulder, Colorado, Lindenburg, Germany and Lauder, New Zealand, lie in middle latitudes, and two sites, San José, Costa Rica and Hilo, Hawaii, are in the tropics and subtropics, respectively. The campaign-only database is from the NASA SEAC4RS mission at Ellington Field, Houston, TX in 2013.

  10. Millimeter-wave Radiometer for High Sensitivity Water Vapor Profiling in Arid Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Pazmany, Andrew

    2006-11-09

    Abstract - ProSensing Inc. has developed a G-band (183 GHz) water Vapor Radiometer (GVR) for long-term, unattended measurements of low concentrations of atmospheric water vapor and liquid water. Precipitable water vapor and liquid water path are estimated from zenith brightness temperatures measured from four double-sideband receiver channels, centered at 183.31 1, 3 and 7, and 14 GHz. A prototype ground-based version of the instrument was deployed at the DOE ARM program?s North Slope of Alaska site near Barrow AK in April 2005, where it collected data continuously for one year. A compact, airborne version of this instrument, packaged to operate from a standard 2-D PMS probe canister, has been tested on the ground and is scheduled for test flights in the summer of 2006. This paper presents design details, laboratory test results and examples of retrieved precipitable water vapor and liquid water path from measured brightness temperature data.

  11. The Effect of Plasma Treatment on Adsorbed Iodine as a Catalyst in Chemical Vapor Deposition of Copper and Application to Filling of Deep Trenches with High Aspect Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Do-Seon; Lee, Won-Jong

    2009-07-01

    Plasma treatment was introduced in order to control the catalytic properties of iodine in catalyst-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CECVD) of copper (Cu). The iodine adatoms are deactivated (i.e., lose their catalytic effect) by forming Cu-I bonds through reaction with Cu atoms by the bombardment of ions during the plasma treatment. The surface concentration of effective iodine adatoms that can act as catalysts decreases exponentially with an increasing of ion exposure which is the product of ion flux and plasma treatment time. The deactivated iodine can be reactivated by annealing above 200 °C. The enhancement factor, defined as the ratio of the enhanced deposition rate of Cu film by the adsorbed iodine to the deposition rate without the catalytic effect of iodine, is proportional to the surface concentration of effective iodine adatoms. The distribution of the surface concentration of effective iodine adatoms inside the trench can be controlled by the plasma treatment. CECVD coupled with plasma treatment enables void-free filling of deep trenches with an aspect ratio of 14.

  12. The Discrepancy Between Measured and Modeled Downwelling Solar Irradiance at the Ground: Dependence on Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilewski, P.; Rabbette, M.; Bergstrom, R.; Marquez, J.; Schmid, B.; Russell, P. B.

    2000-01-01

    Moderate resolution spectra of the downwelling solar irradiance at the ground in north central Oklahoma were measured during the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Intensive Observation Period in the fall of 1997. Spectra obtained under-cloud-free conditions were compared with calculations using a coarse resolution radiative transfer model to examine the dependency of model-measurement bias on water vapor. It was found that the bias was highly correlated with water vapor and increased at a rate of 9 Wm per cm of water. The source of the discrepancy remains undetermined because of the complex dependencies of other variables, most notably aerosol optical depth, on water vapor.

  13. Tropical stratospheric water vapor measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, E. S.; Harwood, R. S.; Mote, P. W.; Peckham, G. E.; Suttie, R. A.; Lahoz, W. A.; O'Neill, A.; Froidevaux, L.; Jarnot, R. F.; Read, W. G.; Waters, J. W.; Swinbank, R.

    1995-03-01

    The lower stratospheric variability of equatorial water vapor, measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), follows an annual cycle modulated by the quasi-biennial oscillation. At levels higher in the stratosphere, water vapor measurements exhibit a semiannual oscillatory signal with the largest amplitudes at 2.2 and 1hPa. Zonal-mean cross sections of MLS water vapour are consistent with previous satellite measurements from the LIMS and SAGE II instruments in that they show water vapor increasing upwards and polewards from a well defined minimum in the tropics. The minimum values vary in height between the retrieved 46 and 22hPa pressure levels.

  14. Development of long-life-cycle tablet ceramic adsorbent for geosmin removal from water solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rongzhi; Xue, Qiang; Zhang, Zhenya; Sugiura, Norio; Yang, Yingnan; Li, Miao; Chen, Nan; Ying, Zhao; Lei, Zhongfang

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the tablet ceramic adsorbent (TCA), a silica/iron(III) oxide composite material, has been developed for geosmin (GSM) removal from the water solution. The physicochemical characteristics of TCA were examined with XRD, SEM, EDX and BET analyses. The sorption characteristics of GSM on TCA were investigated in a batch system. Attempts have been made to understand the adsorption kinetics, the effect of initial GSM concentration, solution pH, and reaction time. The batch experiments equilibrium data were well fitted to the Lagergren kinetic equation, which indicate the first-order nature adsorption. Over 82% of the GSM was removed by the TCA within 600 min at an initial concentration of 200 ng/L with 20 g/L of TCA dose. The batch and regeneration study indicated that the TCA is a cost-effective GSM adsorbent with sufficient mechanical strength to retain its physical integrity after long-time adsorption, and high regeneration performance for long-life-cycle application. Almost no second contamination (toxic sludge or leached iron) was observed after adsorption, and the gas resultant of thermal regeneration is harmless to atmospheric environment.

  15. Activated carbons and low cost adsorbents for remediation of tri- and hexavalent chromium from water.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dinesh; Pittman, Charles U

    2006-09-21

    Hexavalent chromium is a well-known highly toxic metal, considered a priority pollutant. Industrial sources of Cr(VI) include leather tanning, cooling tower blowdown, plating, electroplating, anodizing baths, rinse waters, etc. The most common method applied for chromate control is reduction of Cr(VI) to its trivalent form in acid (pH approximately 2.0) and subsequent hydroxide precipitation of Cr(III) by increasing the pH to approximately 9.0-10.0 using lime. Existing overviews of chromium removal only cover selected technologies that have traditionally been used in chromium removal. Far less attention has been paid to adsorption. Herein, we provide the first review article that provides readers an overview of the sorption capacities of commercial developed carbons and other low cost sorbents for chromium remediation. After an overview of chromium contamination is provided, more than 300 papers on chromium remediation using adsorption are discussed to provide recent information about the most widely used adsorbents applied for chromium remediation. Efforts to establish the adsorption mechanisms of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on various adsorbents are reviewed. Chromium's impact environmental quality, sources of chromium pollution and toxicological/health effects is also briefly introduced. Interpretations of the surface interactions are offered. Particular attention is paid to comparing the sorption efficiency and capacities of commercially available activated carbons to other low cost alternatives, including an extensive table.

  16. Forced convection heat transfer to air/water vapor mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, D. R.; Florschuetz, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficients were measured using both dry and humid air in the same forced convection cooling scheme and were compared using appropriate nondimensional parameters (Nusselt, Prandtl and Reynolds numbers). A forced convection scheme with a complex flow field, two dimensional arrays of circular jets with crossflow, was utilized with humidity ratios (mass ratio of water vapor to air) up to 0.23. The dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat of air, steam and air/steam mixtures are examined. Methods for determining gaseous mixture properties from the properties of their pure components are reviewed as well as methods for determining these properties with good confidence. The need for more experimentally determined property data for humid air is discussed. It is concluded that dimensionless forms of forced convection heat transfer data and empirical correlations based on measurements with dry air may be applied to conditions involving humid air with the same confidence as for the dry air case itself, provided that the thermophysical properties of the humid air mixtures are known with the same confidence as their dry air counterparts.

  17. Electrode kinetics of a water vapor electrolysis cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, G.

    1974-01-01

    The anodic electrochemical behavior of the water vapor electrolysis cell was investigated. A theoretical review of various aspects of cell overvoltage is presented with special emphasis on concentration overvoltage and activation overvoltage. Other sources of overvoltage are described. The experimental apparatus controlled and measured anode potential and cell current. Potentials between 1.10 and 2.60 V (vs NHE) and currents between 0.1 and 3000 mA were investigated. Different behavior was observed between the standard cell and the free electrolyte cell. The free electrolyte cell followed typical Tafel behavior (i.e. activation overvoltage) with Tafel slopes of about 0.15, and the exchange current densities of 10 to the minus 9th power A/sq cm, both in good agreement with literature values. The standard cell exhibitied this same Tafel behavior at lower current densities but deviated toward lower than expected current densities at higher potentials. This behavior and other results were examined to determine their origin.

  18. Vapor-deposited water and nitric acid ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun; Keyser, Leon F.

    Ices formed by vapor deposition have been the subject of numerous laboratory investigations in connection with snow and glaciers on the ground, ice clouds in the terrestrial atmosphere, surfaces of other planets and their satellites, and the interstellar medium. In this review we will focus on these specific subjects: (1) heterogeneous chemistry on the surfaces of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) and (2) surfaces of satellites of the outer planets in our solar system. Stratospheric ozone provides a protective shield for mankind and the global biosphere from harmful ultraviolet solar radiation. In past decades, theoretical atmospheric models for the calculation of ozone balance frequently used only homogeneous gas-phase reactions in their studies. Since the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1985, however, it has been demonstrated that knowledge of heterogeneous reactions on the surface of PSCs is definitely needed to understand this significant natural event due to the anthropogenic emission of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). We will briefly discuss the experimental techniques for the investigation of heterogeneous chemistry on ice surfaces carried out in our laboratories. The experimental apparatus used include: several flow-tube reactors, an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer, a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, a BET adsorption apparatus, and a scanning environmental electron microscope. The adsorption experiments and electron microscopic work have demonstrated that the vapor-deposited ices are highly porous. Therefore, it is necessary to develop theoretical models for the elucidation of the uptake and reactivity of trace gases in porous ice substrates. Several measurements of uptake and reaction probabilities of these trace gases on water ices and nitric acid ices have been performed under ambient conditions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, mainly in the temperature range 180-220 K. The trace gases of atmospheric importance

  19. Simulation of the effect of water-vapor increase on temperature in the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Yun; Chen, Yuejuan; Zhou, Renjun; Yi, Mingjian; Deng, Shumei

    2011-07-01

    To analyze the mechanism by which water vapor increase leads to cooling in the stratosphere, the effects of water-vapor increases on temperature in the stratosphere were simulated using the two-dimensional, interactive chemical dynamical radiative model (SOCRATES) of NCAR. The results indicate that increases in stratospheric water vapor lead to stratospheric cooling, with the extent of cooling increasing with height, and that cooling in the middle stratosphere is stronger in Arctic regions. Analysis of the radiation process showed that infrared radiative cooling by water vapor is a pivotal factor in middle-lower stratospheric cooling. However, in the upper stratosphere (above 45 km), infrared radiation is not a factor in cooling; there, cooling is caused by the decreased solar radiative heating rate resulting from ozone decrease due to increased stratospheric water vapor. Dynamical cooling is important in the middle-upper stratosphere, and dynamical feedback to temperature change is more distinct in the Northern Hemisphere middle-high latitudes than in other regions and significantly affects temperature and ozone in winter over Arctic regions. Increasing stratospheric water vapor will strengthen ozone depletion through the chemical process. However, ozone will increase in the middle stratosphere. The change in ozone due to increasing water vapor has an important effect on the stratospheric temperature change.

  20. Trends in Stratospheric Water Vapor over Boulder, Colorado: Revelations of the 30-year Boulder Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, D. F.; Oltmans, S. J.; Voemel, H.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Davis, S. M.; Ray, E. A.; Hall, E.; Jordan, A.

    2010-12-01

    The NOAA frost point hygrometer (FPH) has made in situ, balloon-borne measurements of stratospheric water vapor over Boulder, Colorado, since 1980. The 30-year data record is divided into four periods of multiple-year water vapor trends, including two that span the well-examined but unattributed 1980-2000 period of stratospheric water vapor growth. Trends are determined for five 2-km stratospheric layers (16-26 km) utilizing weighted, piecewise regression analyses. Over the entire 30-year span stratospheric water vapor increased by an average of 1.0 ± 0.2 ppmv (27 ± 6%) with significant shorter-term variations along the way, including an abrupt decrease starting in mid-2000 followed by a significant increase starting in mid-2005. Water vapor growth during some of the trend periods strengthens with altitude, revealing contributions from at least one mechanism that strengthens with altitude, such as methane oxidation. However, though atmospheric methane abundance increased considerably during 1980-2010, additional methane oxidation in the NH midlatitude stratosphere below 26 km can account for at most 25% of the net stratospheric water vapor increase over the last three decades. Moving averages of water vapor mixing ratios over Boulder, Colorado, averaged in 2-km altitude layers. The averaging window was ±1 yr and the averaging threshold was a minimum of 12 data points. Black markers with colored vertical bars define the four trend periods for each altitude layer.

  1. Space-Time Variations in Water Vapor as Observed by the UARS Microwave Limb Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elson, Lee S.; Read, William G.; Waters, Joe W.; Mote, Philip W.; Kinnersley, Jonathan S.; Harwood, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor in the upper troposphere has a significant impact on the climate system. Difficulties in making accurate global measurements have led to uncertainty in understanding water vapor's coupling to the hydrologic cycle in the lower troposphere and its role in radiative energy balance. The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite is able to retrieve water vapor concentration in the upper troposphere with good sensitivity and nearly global coverage. An analysis of these preliminary retrievals based on 3 years of observations shows the water vapor distribution to be similar to that measured by other techniques and to model results. The primary MLS water vapor measurements were made in the stratosphere, where this species acts as a conserved tracer under certain conditions. As is the case for the upper troposphere, most of the stratospheric discussion focuses on the time evolution of the zonal mean and zonally varying water vapor. Stratospheric results span a 19-month period and tropospheric results a 36-month period, both beginning in October of 1991. Comparisons with stratospheric model calculations show general agreement, with some differences in the amplitude and phase of long-term variations. At certain times and places, the evolution of water vapor distributions in the lower stratosphere suggests the presence of meridional transport.

  2. Seasonal Trends in Stratospheric Water Vapor as Derived from SAGE II Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roell, Marilee M.; Fu, Rong

    2008-01-01

    Published analysis of HALOE and Boulder balloon measurements of water vapor have shown conflicting trends in stratospheric water vapor for the periods of 1981 through 2005. Analysis of the SAGE II monthly mean water vapor data filtered for large aerosol events for time periods from 1985-1991, 1995-1999, and 2000-2005 have shown a globally decreasing water vapor trend at 17.5km. Seasonal analysis for these three time periods show a decreasing trend in water vapor at 17.5km for the winter and spring seasons. The summer and autumn seasonal analysis show a decreasing trend from 1985-2005, however, there is a increasing trend in water vapor at 17.5km for these seasons during 1995-2005. Latitude vs height seasonal analysis show a decreasing trend in the lower stratosphere between 20S - 20N for the autumn season, while at the latitudes of 30-50S and 30-50N there is an increasing trend in water vapor at heights up to 15km for that season. Comparison with regions of monsoon activity (Asian and North American) show that the Asian monsoon region had some effect on the lower stratospheric moistening in 1995-1999, however, for the time period of 2000-2005, there was no change in the global trend analysis due to either monsoon region. This may be due to the limitations of the SAGE II data from 2000-2005.

  3. Water Vapor Permeability of the Advanced Crew Escape Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant; Kuzneth, Larry; Gillis, David; Jones, Jeffery; Daniel, Brian; Gernhardt, Michael; Hamilton, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) crewmembers are expected to return to earth wearing a suit similar to the current Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES). To ensure optimum cognitive performance, suited crewmembers must maintain their core body temperature within acceptable limits. There are currently several options for thermal maintenance in the post-landing phase. These include the current baseline, which uses an ammonia boiler, purge flow using oxygen in the suit, accessing sea water for liquid cooling garment (LCG) cooling and/or relying on the evaporative cooling capacity of the suit. These options vary significantly in mass, power, engineering and safety factors, with relying on the evaporative cooling capacity of the suit being the least difficult to implement. Data from previous studies indicates that the evaporative cooling capacity of the ACES was much higher than previously expected, but subsequent tests were performed for longer duration and higher metabolic rates to better define the water vapor permeability of the ACES. In these tests five subjects completed a series of tests performing low to moderate level exercise in order to control for a target metabolic rate while wearing the ACES in an environmentally controlled thermal chamber. Four different metabolic profiles at a constant temperature of 95 F and relative humidity of 50% were evaluated. These tests showed subjects were able to reject about twice as much heat in the permeable ACES as they were in an impermeable suit that had less thermal insulation. All of the heat rejection differential is attributed to the increased evaporation capability through the Gortex bladder of the suit.

  4. Nanoporous composites prepared by a combination of SBA-15 with Mg–Al mixed oxides. Water vapor sorption properties

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Verdejo, Amaury; Pfeiffer, Heriberto; Ruiz-Reyes, Mayra; Santamaría, Juana-Deisy; Fetter, Geolar

    2014-01-01

    Summary This work presents two easy ways for preparing nanostructured mesoporous composites by interconnecting and combining SBA-15 with mixed oxides derived from a calcined Mg–Al hydrotalcite. Two different Mg–Al hydrotalcite addition procedures were implemented, either after or during the SBA-15 synthesis (in situ method). The first procedure, i.e., the post-synthesis method, produces a composite material with Mg–Al mixed oxides homogeneously dispersed on the SBA-15 nanoporous surface. The resulting composites present textural properties similar to the SBA-15. On the other hand, with the second procedure (in situ method), Mg and Al mixed oxides occur on the porous composite, which displays a cauliflower morphology. This is an important microporosity contribution and micro and mesoporous surfaces coexist in almost the same proportion. Furthermore, the nanostructured mesoporous composites present an extraordinary water vapor sorption capacity. Such composites might be utilized as as acid-base catalysts, adsorbents, sensors or storage nanomaterials. PMID:25161858

  5. Nanoporous composites prepared by a combination of SBA-15 with Mg-Al mixed oxides. Water vapor sorption properties.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Verdejo, Amaury; Sampieri, Alvaro; Pfeiffer, Heriberto; Ruiz-Reyes, Mayra; Santamaría, Juana-Deisy; Fetter, Geolar

    2014-01-01

    This work presents two easy ways for preparing nanostructured mesoporous composites by interconnecting and combining SBA-15 with mixed oxides derived from a calcined Mg-Al hydrotalcite. Two different Mg-Al hydrotalcite addition procedures were implemented, either after or during the SBA-15 synthesis (in situ method). The first procedure, i.e., the post-synthesis method, produces a composite material with Mg-Al mixed oxides homogeneously dispersed on the SBA-15 nanoporous surface. The resulting composites present textural properties similar to the SBA-15. On the other hand, with the second procedure (in situ method), Mg and Al mixed oxides occur on the porous composite, which displays a cauliflower morphology. This is an important microporosity contribution and micro and mesoporous surfaces coexist in almost the same proportion. Furthermore, the nanostructured mesoporous composites present an extraordinary water vapor sorption capacity. Such composites might be utilized as as acid-base catalysts, adsorbents, sensors or storage nanomaterials.

  6. Rapid removal of aniline from contaminated water by a novel polymeric adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yunhong; Xu, Yang; He, Qinghua; Cao, Yusheng; Du, Bibai

    2014-01-01

    Dummy molecularly imprinted polymers (DMIPs) for aniline were synthesized by a thermal polymerization method using acrylamide as a functional monomer, ethylene dimethacrylate as a crosslinker, 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile as a free radical initiator, acetonitrile as a porogenic solvent, and analogues of aniline, namely sulfadiazine, as the template. The DMIPs that were obtained showed a high affinity to aniline compared to non-imprinted polymers. It was proven that the DMIPs obtained using sulfadiazine as the template were much better than the molecularly imprinted polymers using aniline as the template. The results indicated that the Freundlich model was fit for the adsorption model of DMIP for aniline and the adsorption model of the DMIP for aniline was multilayer adsorption. Furthermore, the results showed that the DMIP synthesized by bulk polymerization could be used as a novel adsorbent for removal of aniline from contaminated water.

  7. Arsenic adsorption and speciation in drinking water by GAC-based iron-containing adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gim, Yewon; Terry, Jeff; Gu, Zhimang; Hua, B.; Deng, Baolin

    2008-04-01

    Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) with Iron adsorbents were developed for effective removal of arsenic from drinking water. The structure and proposed mechanism for As removal was studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The oxidation state of As(III)GAC sample was calculated using XANES spectra and verified to be predominantly As(V). The structure was determined using EXAFS spectra of As(V) and Fe. The Fe spectra suggested thin layer of Fe oxide formation on GAC surface. As data showed As oxide formed bond on the Fe oxide surface. The spectra were calculated using multiple geometrically optimized models calculated using density functional theory. Further calculations were done to verify the structure, and further examine the structure.

  8. Study for Reduction of Outgassing Property of Adsorbed Water Gas for Improved Surface Finished Titanium Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Masatoshi; Kurisu, Hiroki; Uchida, Takashi; Yamamoto, Setsuo; Ishizawa, Katsunobu; Nomura, Takeru; Eda, Takahiro; Murashige, Nobuyuki

    This paper addresses the development of the surface finishing for a titanium material and the study for the reduction of outgassing property of adsorbed water (H2O) molecules. Developed surface finishing is composed of the buffing for the reduction of the surface roughness and improved chemical polishing for the thick surface oxide layer compared with the chemical polishing so far. The surface roughness of the surface finished titanium material is reduced 35% and the thickness of the surface oxide layer increases by 30%. The total amount of thermal desorbed H2O gas for the new surface finished titanium is reduced 30%. It is considered that the origin for the decrease of the amount of desorption H2O gas is the reduction of the adsorption sites due to the decrease of the surface roughness and the reduction of adsorption energy of H2O gas due to the strong surface oxidation for a titanium material.

  9. TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OLS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-25

    TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OLS) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor Spatial Coverage:  27 x 23 km Limb ... Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  H2O Water Volume Mixing Radio Precision Vertical Resolution Order ...

  10. A study of broadband parameterizations of the solar radiative interactions with water vapor and water drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Freidenreich, S. M.

    1992-07-01

    Reference radiative transfer solutions in the near-infrared spectrum, which account for the spectral absorption characteristics of the water vapor molecule and the absorbing-scattering features of water drops, are employed to investigate and develop broadband treatments of solar water vapor absorption and cloud radiative effects. The conceptually simple and widely used Lacis-Hansen parameterization for solar water vapor absorption is modified so as to yield excellent agreement in the clear sky heating rates. The problem of single cloud decks over a nonreflecting surface is used to highlight the factors involved in the development of broadband overcast sky parameterizations. Three factors warrant considerable attention: (1) the manner in which the spectrally dependent drop single-scattering values are used to obtain the broadband cloud radiative properties, (2) the effect of the spectral attenuation by the vapor above the cloud on the determination of the broadband drop reflection and transmission, and (3) the broadband treatment of the spectrally dependent absorption due to drops and vapor inside the cloud. The solar flux convergence in clouds is very sensitive to all these considerations. Ignoring effect 2 tends to overestimate the cloud heating, particularly for low clouds, while a poor treatment of effect 3 leads to an underestimate. A new parameterization that accounts for the aforementioned considerations is accurate to within ˜30% over a wide range of overcast sky conditions, including solar zenith angles and cloud characteristics (altitudes, drop models, optical depths, and geometrical thicknesses), with the largest inaccuracies occurring for geometrically thick, extended cloud systems containing large amounts of vapor. Broadband methods that treat improperly one or more of the above considerations can yield substantially higher errors (>35%) for some overcast sky conditions while having better agreements over limited portions of the parameter range. For

  11. A novel membrane device for the removal of water vapor and water droplets from air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Rod; Newbold, David D.; Mccray, Scott B.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Kliss, Mark

    1992-01-01

    One of the key challenges facing NASA engineers is the development of systems for separating liquids and gases in microgravity environments. In this paper, a novel membrane-based phase separator is described. This device, known as a water recovery heat exchanger (WRHEX), overcomes the inherent deficiencies of current phase-separation technology. Specifically, the WRHEX cools and removes water vapor or water droplets from feed-air streams without the use of a vacuum or centrifugal force. As is shown in this paper, only a low-power air blower and a small stream of recirculated cool water is required for WRHEX operation. This paper presents the results of tests using this novel membrane device over a wide range of operating conditions. The data show that the WRHEX produces a dry air stream containing no entrained or liquid water - even when the feed air contains water droplets or mist. An analysis of the operation of the WRHEX is presented.

  12. Diurnal variation of atmospheric water vapor at Gale crater: Analysis from ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, German; McConnochie, Timothy; Renno, Nilton; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Fischer, Erik; Vicente-Retortillo, Alvaro; Borlina, Caue; Kemppinen, Osku; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; de la Torre-Juárez, Manuel; Zorzano, Mari-Paz; Martin-Torres, Javier; Bridges, Nathan; Maurice, Sylvestre; Gasnault, Olivier; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Wiens, Roger

    2016-04-01

    We analyze measurements obtained by Curiosity's Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) and ChemCam (CCAM) instruments to shed light on the hydrological cycle at Gale crater. In particular, we use nighttime REMS measurements taken when the atmospheric volume mixing ratio (VMR) and its uncertainty are the lowest (between 05:00 and 06:00 LTST) [1], and daytime CCAM passive sky measurements taken when the VMR is expected to be the highest (between 10:00 and 14:00 LTST) [2]. VMR is calculated from simultaneous REMS measurements of pressure (P), temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) at 1.6 m (VMR is defined as RH×es(T)/P , where es is the saturation water vapor pressure over ice). The REMS relative humidity sensor has recently been recalibrated (June 2015), providing RH values slightly lower than those in the previous calibration (Dec 2014). The full diurnal cycle of VMR cannot be analyzed using only REMS data because the uncertainty in daytime VMR derived from REMS measurements is extremely high. Daytime VMR is inferred by fitting the output of a multiple-scattering discrete-ordinates radiative transfer model to CCAM passive sky observations [3]. CCAM makes these observations predominately in the vicinity of 11:00 - 12:00 LTST, but occasionally in the early morning near 08:00 LTST. We find that throughout the Martian year, the daytime VMR is higher than at night, with a maximum day-to-night ratio of about 6 during winter. Various processes might explain the differences between nighttime REMS and daytime CCAM VMR values. Potential explanations include: (i) surface nighttime frost formation followed by daytime sublimation [1], (ii) surface nighttime adsorption of water vapor by the regolith followed by daytime desorption and (iii) large scale circulations changing vertical H2O profiles at different times of the year. Potential formation of surface frost can only occur in late fall and winter [1], coinciding with the time when the diurnal amplitude of the near

  13. Characterization of Upper-Troposphere Water Vapor Measurements during AFWEX Using LASE

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, Richard; Browell, E. V.; Ismail, S.; Barrick, J. D. W.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Kooi, S. A.; Brasseur, L. H.; Brackett, V. G.; Clayton, M. B.; Goldsmith, John E M.; Lesht, B. M.; Podolske, J. R.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Turner, David D.; Whiteman, D. N.; Demoz, B. B.; Tobin, D. C.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Miloshevich, Larry M.; di Girolamo, P.

    2004-12-01

    Water vapor profiles from NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system acquired during the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) are used to characterize upper troposphere water vapor (UTWV) measured by ground-based Raman lidars, radiosondes, and in situ aircraft sensors over the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in northern Oklahoma. LASE was deployed from the NASA DC-8 aircraft and measured water vapor over the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) site during seven flights between November 27 and December 10, 2000. Initially, the DOE ARM SGP Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman lidar (CARL) UTWV profiles were about 5-7% wetter than LASE in the upper troposphere, and the Vaisala RS80-H radiosonde profiles were about 10% drier than LASE between 8-12 km. Scaling the Vaisala water vapor profiles to match the precipitable water vapor (PWV) measured by the ARM SGP microwave radiometer (MWR) did not change these results significantly. By accounting for an overlap correction of the CARL water vapor profiles and by employing schemes designed to correct the Vaisala RS80-H calibration method and account for the time response of the Vaisala RS80H water vapor sensor, the average differences between the CARL and Vaisala radiosonde upper troposphere water vapor profiles are reduced to about 5%, which is within the ARM goal of mean differences of less than 10%. The LASE and DC-8 in situ Diode Laser Hygrometer (DLH) UTWV measurements generally agreed to within about 3 to 4%. The DC-8 in situ frost point cryogenic hygrometer and Snow White chilled mirror measurements were drier than the LASE, Raman lidars, and corrected Vaisala RS80H measurements by about 10-25% and 10-15%, respectively. Sippican (formerly VIZ manufacturing) carbon hygristor radiosondes exhibited large variabilities and poor agreement with the other measurements. PWV derived from the LASE profiles agreed to within about 3% on average with PWV

  14. Upper tropospheric water vapor: A field campaign of two Raman lidars, Airborne hygrometers, and Radiosondes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melfi, S. Harvey; Turner, Dave; Evans, Keith; Whiteman, Dave; Schwemmer, Geary; Ferrare, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Water vapor in the atmosphere plays an important role in radiative transfer and the process of radiative balance so critical for understanding global change. It is the principal ingredient in cloud formation, one of the most difficult atmospheric processes to model, and the most variable component of the Earth-atmosphere albedo. And as a free molecule, it is the most active infrared absorber and emitter, thus, the most important greenhouse gas. The radiative impact of water vapor is important at all levels of the atmosphere. Even though moisture decreases by several orders-of-magnitude from the Earth's surface to the tropopause, recent research has shown that, from a radiative standpoint, a small percentage change in water vapor at any level is nearly equivalent. Therefore accurate and precise measurements of this important atmospheric constituent are needed at all levels to evaluate the full radiative impact. The need for improved measurements in the upper troposphere is particularly important because of the generally hostile (very dry and cold) conditions encountered. Because of the importance of water vapor to the understanding of radiative transfer, the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program initiated a series of measurement campaigns at the Cloud And Radiation Testbed (CART) site in Oklahoma, especially focused on atmospheric water vapor. Three water vapor intensive observation period (water vapor IOP) campaigns were planned. Two of the water vapor IOP campaigns have been completed: the first IOP was held during the fall of 1996 with a focus on boundary layer water vapor measurements, and the second was conducted during the fall of 1997 with a focus on both boundary layer moisture e and moisture in the upper troposphere. This paper presents a review of the intercomparisons of water vapor measurements in the upper troposphere aquired during the second water vapor IOP. Data to be presented include water vapor measurements ements

  15. Latitudinal survey of middle atmospheric water vapor revealed by shipboard microwave spectroscopy. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Schrader, M.L.

    1994-05-01

    Water vapor is one of the most important greenhouse gases and is an important tracer of atmospheric motions in the middle atmosphere. It also plays an important role in the chemistry of the middle atmosphere and through its photodissociation by solar radiation, it is the major source of hydrogen escaping to space. Ground-based microwave measurements conducted in the 1980s have provided a fair understanding of the seasonal variation of mesospheric water vapor in the northern hemisphere mid-latitudes, but the global distribution of water vapor in the middle atmosphere is only beginning to be revealed by space-based measurements.

  16. Development of Field-deployable Diode-laser-based Water Vapor Dial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham Le Hoai, Phong; Abo, Makoto; Sakai, Tetsu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a field-deployable diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) has been developed for lower-tropospheric water vapor observation in Tokyo, Japan. A photoacoustic cell is used for spectroscopy experiment around absorption peaks of 829.022 nm and 829.054 nm. The water vapor density extracted from the observational data agrees with the referenced radiosonde data. Furthermore, we applied modulated pulse technique for DIAL transmitter. It enables DIAL to measure water vapor profile for both low and high altitude regions.

  17. Advances in Diode-Laser-Based Water Vapor Differential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spuler, Scott; Repasky, Kevin; Morley, Bruce; Moen, Drew; Weckwerth, Tammy; Hayman, Matt; Nehrir, Amin

    2016-06-01

    An advanced diode-laser-based water vapor differential absorption lidar (WV-DIAL) has been developed. The next generation design was built on the success of previous diode-laser-based prototypes and enables accurate measurement of water vapor closer to the ground surface, in rapidly changing atmospheric conditions, and in daytime cloudy conditions up to cloud base. The lidar provides up to 1 min resolution, 150 m range resolved measurements of water vapor in a broad range of atmospheric conditions. A description of the instrument and results from its initial field test in 2014 are discussed.

  18. Diffusion barriers in the kinetics of water vapor adsorption/desorption on activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, A.W.; Foley, N.J.; Thomas, K.M.; Norman, P.R.; Francis, D.C.

    1998-07-07

    The adsorption of water vapor on a highly microporous coconut-shell-derived carbon and a mesoporous wood-derived carbon was studied. These carbons were chosen as they had markedly different porous structures. The adsorption and desorption characteristics of water vapor on the activated carbons were investigated over the relative pressure range p/p{degree} = 0--0.9 for temperatures in the range 285--313 K in a static water vapor system. The adsorption isotherms were analyzed using the Dubinin-Serpinski equation, and this provided an assessment of the polarity of the carbons. The kinetics of water vapor adsorption and desorption were studied with different amounts of preadsorbed water for set changes in pressure relative to the saturated vapor pressure (p/p{degree}). The adsorption kinetics for each relative pressure step were compared and used to calculate the activation energies for the vapor pressure increments. The kinetic results are discussed in relation to their relative position on the equilibrium isotherm and the adsorption mechanism of water vapor on activated carbons.

  19. Latitudinal change in precipitation and water vapor isotopes over Southern ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahul, P.

    2015-12-01

    The evaporation process over ocean is primary source of water vapor in the hydrological cycle. The Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) dataset of rainwater and water vapor isotopes are predominantly based on continental observations, with very limited observation available from the oceanic area. Stable isotope ratios in precipitation provide valuable means to understand the process of evaporation and transport of water vapor. This is further extended in the study of past changes in climate from the isotopic composition of ice core. In this study we present latitudinal variability of water vapor and rainwater isotopic composition and compared it with factors like physical condition of sea surface water from near equator (1°S) to the polar front (56°S) during the summer time expedition of the year 2013. The water vapor and rainwater isotopes showed a sharp depletion in isotopes while progressively move southward from the tropical regions (i.e. >30°S), which follows the pattern recorded in the surface ocean water isotopic composition. From the tropics to the southern latitudes, the water vapor d18O varied between -11.8‰ to -14.7‰ while dD variation ranges between -77.7‰ to -122.2‰. Using the data we estimated the expected water vapor isotopic composition under kinetic as well as equilibrium process. Our observation suggests that the water vapor isotopic compositions are in equilibrium with the sea water in majority of cases. At one point of observation, where trajectory of air parcel originated from the continental region, we observed a large deviation from the existing trend of latitudinal variability. The deduced rainwater composition adopting equilibrium model showed a consistent pattern with observed values at the tropical region, while role of kinetic process become dominant on progressive shift towards the southern latitudes. We will draw comparison of our observation with other data available in the literature together with isotope

  20. On the vertical distribution of water vapor in the Martian tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Although measurements of the column abundance of atmospheric water vapor on Mars have been made, measurements of its vertical distribution have not. How water is distributed in the vertical is fundamental to atmosphere-surface exchange processes, and especially to transport within the atmosphere. Several lines of evidence suggest that in the lowest several scale heights of the atmosphere, water vapor is nearly uniformly distributed. However, most of these arguments are suggestive rather than conclusive since they only demonstrate that the altitude to saturation is very high if the observed amount of water vapor is distributed uniformly. A simple argument is presented, independent of the saturation constraint, which suggests that in tropical regions, water vapor on Mars should be very nearly uniformly mixed on an annual and zonally averaged basis.

  1. Case Studies of Water Vapor and Surface Liquid Water from AVIRIS Data Measured Over Denver, CO and Death Valley, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, B.-C.; Kierein-Young, K. S.; Goetz, A. F. H.; Westwater, E. R.; Stankov, B. B.; Birkenheuer, D.

    1991-01-01

    High spatial resolution column atmospheric water vapor amounts and equivalent liquid water thicknesses of surface targets are retrieved from spectral data collected by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). The retrievals are made using a nonlinear least squares curve fitting technique. Two case studies from AVIRIS data acquired over Denver-Platteville area, Colorado and over Death Valley, California are presented. The column water vapor values derived from AVIRIS data over the Denver-Platteville area are compared with those obtained from radiosondes, ground level upward-looking microwave radiometers, and geostationary satellite measurements. The column water vapor image shows spatial variation patterns related to the passage of a weather front system. The column water vapor amounts derived from AVIRIS data over Death Valley decrease with increasing surface elevation. The derived liquid water image clearly shows surface drainage patterns.

  2. Validation and update of OMI Total Column Water Vapor product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huiqun; Gonzalez Abad, Gonzalo; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly

    2016-09-01

    The collection 3 Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Total Column Water Vapor (TCWV) data generated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's (SAO) algorithm version 1.0 and archived at the Aura Validation Data Center (AVDC) are compared with NCAR's ground-based GPS data, AERONET's sun-photometer data, and Remote Sensing System's (RSS) SSMIS data. Results show that the OMI data track the seasonal and interannual variability of TCWV for a wide range of climate regimes. During the period from 2005 to 2009, the mean OMI-GPS over land is -0.3 mm and the mean OMI-AERONET over land is 0 mm. For July 2005, the mean OMI-SSMIS over the ocean is -4.3 mm. The better agreement over land than over the ocean is corroborated by the smaller fitting residuals over land and suggests that liquid water is a key factor for the fitting quality over the ocean in the version 1.0 retrieval algorithm. We find that the influence of liquid water is reduced using a shorter optimized retrieval window of 427.7-465 nm. As a result, the TCWV retrieved with the new algorithm increases significantly over the ocean and only slightly over land. We have also made several updates to the air mass factor (AMF) calculation. The updated version 2.1 retrieval algorithm improves the land/ocean consistency and the overall quality of the OMI TCWV data set. The version 2.1 OMI data largely eliminate the low bias of the version 1.0 OMI data over the ocean and are 1.5 mm higher than RSS's "clear" sky SSMIS data in July 2005. Over the ocean, the mean of version 2.1 OMI-GlobVapour is 1 mm for July 2005 and 0 mm for January 2005. Over land, the version 2.1 OMI data are about 1 mm higher than GlobVapour when TCWV < 15 mm and about 1 mm lower when TCWV > 15 mm.

  3. Twenty-Four-Hour Raman Lidar Water Vapor Measurements During the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's 1996 and 1997 Water Vapor Intensive Observation Periods

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, David D.; Goldsmith, JE M.

    1999-08-01

    Prior to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's first water vapor intensive observation period (WVIOP) at the Cloud and Radiation Testbed site near Lamont, Oklahoma, an automated 24-h Raman lidar was delivered to the site. This instrument, which makes high-resolution measurements of water vapor both spatially and temporally, is capable of making these measurements with no operator interaction (other than initial startup) for days at a time. Water vapor measurements collected during the 1996 and 1997 WVIOPs are discussed here, illustrating both the nighttime and daytime capabilities of this system. System characteristics, calibration issues, and techniques are presented. Finally, detailed intercomparisons of the lidar's data with those from a microwave radiometer, radiosondes, an instrumented tower, a chilled mirror flown on both a tethersonde and a kite, and measurements from aircraft are shown and discussed, highlighting the accuracy and stability of this system for both nighttime and daytime measurements.

  4. Temporal changes in endmember abundances, liquid water and water vapor over vegetation at Jasper Ridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Dar A.; Green, Robert O.; Sabol, Donald E.; Adams, John B.

    1993-01-01

    Imaging spectrometry offers a new way of deriving ecological information about vegetation communities from remote sensing. Applications include derivation of canopy chemistry, measurement of column atmospheric water vapor and liquid water, improved detectability of materials, more accurate estimation of green vegetation cover and discrimination of spectrally distinct green leaf, non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV: litter, wood, bark, etc.) and shade spectra associated with different vegetation communities. Much of our emphasis has been on interpreting Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometry (AVIRIS) data spectral mixtures. Two approaches have been used, simple models, where the data are treated as a mixture of 3 to 4 laboratory/field measured spectra, known as reference endmembers (EM's), applied uniformly to the whole image, to more complex models where both the number of EM's and the types of EM's vary on a per-pixel basis. Where simple models are applied, materials, such as NPV, which are spectrally similar to soils, can be discriminated on the basis of residual spectra. One key aspect is that the data are calibrated to reflectance and modeled as mixtures of reference EM's, permitting temporal comparison of EM fractions, independent of scene location or data type. In previous studies the calibration was performed using a modified-empirical line calibration, assuming a uniform atmosphere across the scene. In this study, a Modtran-based calibration approach was used to map liquid water and atmospheric water vapor and retrieve surface reflectance from three AVIRIS scenes acquired in 1992 over the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve. The data were acquired on June 2nd, September 4th and October 6th. Reflectance images were analyzed as spectral mixtures of reference EM's using a simple 4 EM model. Atmospheric water vapor derived from Modtran was compared to elevation, and community type. Liquid water was compare to the abundance of NPV, Shade and Green Vegetation

  5. Removal efficiency of water purifier and adsorbent for iodine, cesium, strontium, barium and zirconium in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sato, Itaru; Kudo, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    The severe incident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station has caused radioactive contamination of environment including drinking water. Radioactive iodine, cesium, strontium, barium and zirconium are hazardous fission products because of the high yield and/or relatively long half-life. In the present study, 4 pot-type water purifiers and several adsorbents were examined for the removal effects on these elements from drinking water. Iodide, iodate, cesium and barium were removed by all water purifiers with efficiencies about 85%, 40%, 75-90% and higher than 85%, respectively. These efficiencies lasted for 200 l, which is near the recommended limits for use of filter cartridges, without decay. Strontium was removed with initial efficiencies from 70% to 100%, but the efficiencies were slightly decreased by use. Zirconium was removed by two models, but hardly removed by the other models. Synthetic zeolite A4 efficiently removed cesium, strontium and barium, but had no effect on iodine and zirconium. Natural zeolite, mordenite, removed cesium with an efficiency as high as zeolite A4, but the removal efficiencies for strontium and barium were far less than those of zeolite A4. Activated carbon had little removal effects on these elements. In case of radioactive contamination of tap water, water purifiers may be available for convenient decontamination of drinking water in the home.

  6. Distribution of binding energies of a water molecule in the water liquid-vapor interface

    SciTech Connect

    Chempath, Shaji; Pratt, Lawrence R

    2008-01-01

    Distributions of binding energies of a water molecule in the water liquid-vapor interface are obtained on the basis of molecular simulation with the SPC/E model of water. These binding energies together with the observed interfacial density profile are used to test a minimally conditioned Gaussian quasi-chemical statistical thermodynamic theory. Binding energy distributions for water molecules in that interfacial region clearly exhibit a composite structure. A minimally conditioned Gaussian quasi-chemical model that is accurate for the free energy of bulk liquid water breaks down for water molecules in the liquid-vapor interfacial region. This breakdown is associated with the fact that this minimally conditioned Gaussian model would be inaccurate for the statistical thermodynamics of a dilute gas. Aggressive conditioning greatly improves the performance of that Gaussian quasi-chemical model. The analogy between the Gaussian quasi-chemical model and dielectric models of hydration free energies suggests that naive dielectric models without the conditioning features of quasi-chemical theory will be unreliable for these interfacial problems. Multi-Gaussian models that address the composite nature of the binding energy distributions observed in the interfacial region might provide a mechanism for correcting dielectric models for practical applications.

  7. Water clusters adsorbed on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Energetics and conformational dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Aude; Spiegelman, Fernand

    2013-05-01

    In this work, we present some classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and finite temperature infrared (IR) spectra of water clusters adsorbed on coronene (C24H12), a compact polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). The potential energy surface is obtained within the self-consistent-charge density-functional based tight-binding approach with modifications insuring the correct description of water-water and water-PAH interactions. This scheme is benchmarked for the minimal energy structures of (C24H12)(H2O)n (n = 3-10) against density-functional theory (DFT) calculations and for the low-energy isomers of (H2O)6 and (C6H6)(H2O)3 against correlated wavefunction and DFT calculations. A detailed study of the low energy isomers of (C24H12)(H2O)3, 6 complexes is then provided. On-the-fly Born-Oppenheimer MD simulations are performed in the temperature T range 10-350 K for (C24H12)(H2O)n (n = 3-7) complexes. The description of the evolution of the systems with T is provided with emphasis on (C24H12)(H2O)n (n = 3,6). For T in the range 50-150 K, isomerisation processes are observed and when T increases, a solid-to-liquid phase-change like behavior is shown. The desorption of one water molecule is frequently observed at 300 K. The isomerisation processes are evidenced on the finite temperature IR spectra and the results are presented for (C24H12)(H2O)n (n = 3,6). A signature for the edge-coordination of the water cluster on the PAH is also proposed.

  8. Trends of total water vapor column above the Arctic from satellites observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alraddawi, Dunya; Sarkissian, Alain; Keckhut, Philippe; Bock, Olivier; Claud, Chantal; Irbah, Abdenour

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric water vapor (H2O) is the most important natural (as opposed to man-made) greenhouse gas, accounting for about two-thirds of the natural greenhouse effect. Despite this importance, its role in climate and its reaction to climate change are still difficult to assess. Many details of the hydrological cycle are poorly understood, such as the process of cloud formation and the transport and release of latent heat contained in the water vapor. In contrast to other important greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane, water vapor has a much higher temporal and spatial variability. Total precipitable water (TPW) or the total column of water vapor (TCWV) is the amount of liquid water that would result if all the water vapor in the atmospheric column of unit area were condensed. TCWV distribution contains valuable information on the vigor of the hydrological processes and moisture transport in the atmosphere. Measurement of TPW can be obtained based on atmospheric water vapor absorption or emission of radiation in the spectral range from UV to MW. TRENDS were found over the terrestrial Arctic by means of TCWV retrievals (using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) near-infrared (2001-2015) records). More detailed approach was made for comparisons with ground based instruments over Sodankyla - Finland (TCWV from: SCIAMACHY 2003-2011, GOME-2A 2007-2011, SAOZ 2003-2011, GPS 2003-2011, MODIS 2003-2011)

  9. Isotopic Controls of Rainwater and Water Vapor on Mangrove Leaf Water and Lipid Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, N.; Wolfshorndl, M.; Sachs, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios (2H/1H or δ2H) of sedimentary mangrove lipid biomarkers can be used as a proxy of past salinity and water isotopes. This approach is based on the observation that apparent 2H/1H fractionation between surface water and mangrove lipids increases with surface water salinity in six species of mangroves with different salt management strategies growing at sites spanning a range of relative humidities throughout Australia and Micronesia. In order to more robustly apply mangrove lipid δ2H as a paleoclimate proxy, we investigated the cause of the correlation between apparent 2H fractionation and salinity. We present results from two related experiments that assessed controls on isotopes of mangrove leaf water, the direct source of hydrogen in lipids: (1) Measurements of natural δ2H in precipitation, surface water, and mangrove tissue water from a series of lakes with varying salinity and water isotope composition in Palau, and (2) measurements of mangrove tissue water and treatment water from a controlled simulation in which mangroves were treated with artificial rain of varying isotopic composition. Rainwater 2H/1H fluctuations of 30‰ over a one-month period explain up to 65% of the variance in leaf water δ2H for Bruguiera gymnorhiza mangroves from Palau despite lake water isotope differences among sites of up to 35‰. This indicates that in humid tropical settings, leaf water isotopes are more closely related to those of precipitation and water vapor than to those of lake surface water, explaining the observed change in apparent fractionation in B. gymnorhiza lipids with salinity. The relationship between leaf water and rainwater isotopes may be due to either equilibration of leaf water with water vapor in the nearly saturated air or direct foliar uptake of rain and/or dew. Foliar uptake is an important water source for many plants, but has not been documented in mangroves. We tested the capacity for mangroves to perform this function by

  10. Anisotropic orientational motion of molecular adsorbates at the air-water interface

    SciTech Connect

    Zimdars, D.; Dadap, J.I.; Eisenthal, K.B.; Heinz, T.F.

    1999-04-29

    The ultrafast orientational motions of coumarin 314 (C314) adsorbed at the air/water interface were investigated by time-resolved surface second harmonic generation (TRSHG). The theory and method of using TRSHG to detect both out-of-plane and in-plane orientational motions are discussed. The interfacial solute motions were found to be anisotropic, with differing out-of-plane and in-plane reorientation time constants. This report presents the first direct observation of in-plane orientational motion of a molecule (C314) at the air/water interface using TRSHG. The in-plane reorientation time constant is 600 {+-} 40 ps. The out-of-plane reorientation time constant is 350 {+-} 20 ps. The out-of-plane orientational motion of C314 is similar to the previous results on rhodamine 6G at the air/water interface which indicated increased interfacial friction compared with bulk aqueous solution. The surface reorientation times are 2--3 times slower than the bulk isotropic orientational diffusion time.

  11. Sulfonated graphene nanosheets as a superb adsorbent for various environmental pollutants in water.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Chen, Baoliang

    2015-06-16

    Graphene nanosheets, as a novel nanoadsorbent, can be further modified to optimize the adsorption capability for various pollutants. To overcome the structural limits of graphene (aggregation) and graphene oxide (hydrophilic surface) in water, sulfonated graphene (GS) was prepared by diazotization reaction using sulfanilic acid. It was demonstrated that GS not only recovered a relatively complete sp(2)-hybridized plane with high affinity for aromatic pollutants but also had sulfonic acid groups and partial original oxygen-containing groups that powerfully attracted positively charged pollutants. The saturated adsorption capacities of GS were 400 mg/g for phenanthrene, 906 mg/g for methylene blue and 58 mg/g for Cd(2+), which were much higher than the corresponding values for reduced graphene oxide and graphene oxide. GS as a graphene-based adsorbent exhibits fast adsorption kinetic rate and superior adsorption capacity toward various pollutants, which mainly thanks to the multiple adsorption sites in GS including the conjugate π region sites and the functional group sites. Moreover, the sulfonic acid groups endow GS with the good dispersibility and single or few nanosheets which guarantee the adsorption processes. It is great potential to expose the adsorption sites of graphene nanosheets for pollutants in water by regulating their microstructures, surface properties and water dispersion.

  12. Water Vapor Turbulence Profiles in Stationary Continental Convective Mixed Layers

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D. D.; Wulfmeyer, Volker; Berg, Larry K.; Schween, Jan

    2014-10-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s Raman lidar at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in north-central Oklahoma has collected water vapor mixing ratio (q) profile data more than 90% of the time since October 2004. Three hundred (300) cases were identified where the convective boundary layer was quasi-stationary and well-mixed for a 2-hour period, and q mean, variance, third order moment, and skewness profiles were derived from the 10-s, 75-m resolution data. These cases span the entire calendar year, and demonstrate that the q variance profiles at the mixed layer (ML) top changes seasonally, but is more related to the gradient of q across the interfacial layer. The q variance at the top of the ML shows only weak correlations (r < 0.3) with sensible heat flux, Deardorff convective velocity scale, and turbulence kinetic energy measured at the surface. The median q skewness profile is most negative at 0.85 zi, zero at approximately zi, and positive above zi, where zi is the depth of the convective ML. The spread in the q skewness profiles is smallest between 0.95 zi and zi. The q skewness at altitudes between 0.6 zi and 1.2 zi is correlated with the magnitude of the q variance at zi, with increasingly negative values of skewness observed lower down in the ML as the variance at zi increases, suggesting that in cases with larger variance at zi there is deeper penetration of the warm, dry free tropospheric air into the ML.

  13. DIURNAL CYCLE OF PRECIPITABLE WATER VAPOR OVER SPAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz de Galisteo, J. P.; Cachorro, V. E.; Toledano, C.; Torres, B.; Laulainen, Nels S.; Bennouna, Yasmine; de Frutos, A. M.

    2011-05-20

    Despite the importance of the diurnal cycle of precipitable water vapor (PWV), its knowledge is very limited due to the lack of data with sufficient temporal resolution. Currently, from GPS receivers, PWV can be obtained with high temporal resolution in all weather conditions for all hours of the day. In this study we have calculated the diurnal cycle of PWV for ten GPS stations over Spain. The minimum value is reached approximately at the same time at all the stations, ~0400-0500 UTC, whereas the maximum is reached in the second half of the day, but with a larger dispersion of its occurrence between stations. The amplitude of the cycle ranges between 0.72 mm and 1.78 mm. The highest values are recorded at the stations on the Mediterranean coast, with a doubling of the values of the stations on the Atlantic coast or inland. The amplitude of the PWV cycle, relative to the annual mean value, ranges between 8.8 % on the Mediterranean coast and 3.6 % on the Atlantic coast. Two distinctly different seasonal diurnal cycles have been identified, one in winter and other in summer, with spring and autumn being only transition states. The winter cycle is quite similar at all locations, whereas in summer, local effects are felt strongly, making the diurnal cycle quite different between stations. The amplitude of the summer cycle is 1.69 mm, it is almost double the winter one (0.93 mm). Analogous to the annual cycles, the seasonal cycles of the different stations are more similar during the night and early morning hours than during the afternoon. The observed features of the PWV diurnal cycle are explained in a qualitative way on the basis of the air temperature, the transport of moisture by local winds, and the turbulent vertical mixing.

  14. Computer simulation of water vapor nucleation on charged nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevkunov, S. V.

    2009-08-01

    The Monte Carlo method is applied to the study of the formation of condensed-phase nuclei from water vapor on electrically charged silver iodide nanocrystals. This study is a continuation of the investigations carried out earlier in [1] with electrically neutral nucleation centers. Nanoparticles with a size of up to 4 nm and flat nanoparticles with a size of up to 10 nm are investigated. The free energy, entropy, and the work of formation of nuclei with a size of up to 6729 molecules are calculated at the atomic level by the bicanonical statistical ensemble (BSE) method at a temperature of 260 K. Thermodynamic stability of nuclei is investigated depending on the size, shape, and charge of nanocrystal nucleation centers, as well as depending on the presence of crystal defects and the degree of spatial localization of charge on the surface of nanoparticles. The excess charge has a crucial effect on the work of formation of a nucleus only in the case of strong spatial localization of the latter near a point crystal defect; however, this effect is restricted to a relatively small size of the nuclei and therefore cannot substantially enhance the ice-forming activity of nanoparticles. A nucleus that grows on the surface of a nanoparticle evolves through three stages that differ in molecule retention mechanism and thermodynamic stability. The charge of a nanoparticle has a small effect on these factors. The leading factor that determines the ice-forming activity of ion nanocrystals is their intrinsic electric field due to the nonuniform distribution of charge within a unit cell of the crystal lattice.

  15. Study on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide adsorbed at nano-boehmite/water and nano-corundum/water interfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Xie, Yanfang; Wang, Yanping; Yang, Xiaodi; Chen, Rong Fu; Shen, Ren Fang

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the adsorption behaviors of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) on nano-boehmite (γ-AlOOH) and nano-corundum (γ-Al(2)O(3)) surfaces were investigated. The results showed that NAD(+) was predominantly adsorbed at the boehmite/water and corundum/water interfaces in outer-sphere fashions by electrostatic interaction between NAD(+) phosphate and surface hydroxyl groups. However, the features of ATR-FTIR spectra suggested that some minor inner-sphere complex should be considered at low pH conditions on corundum surface, which was consistent with the effect of NAD(+) on dissolution rate of corundum. In addition, the adsorption data well fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms on the boehmite and corundum surfaces, respectively. Also, the Gibbs adsorption energy was negative on the boehmite surface, which indicated that the adsorption behavior was spontaneous.

  16. Interannual variation of water isotopologues at Vostok indicates a contribution from stratospheric water vapor

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Renato; Landais, Amaelle; Risi, Camille; Baroni, Melanie; Ekaykin, Alexey; Jouzel, Jean; Petit, Jean Robert; Prie, Frederic; Minster, Benedicte; Falourd, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Combined measurements of water isotopologues of a snow pit at Vostok over the past 60 y reveal a unique signature that cannot be explained only by climatic features as usually done. Comparisons of the data using a general circulation model and a simpler isotopic distillation model reveal a stratospheric signature in the 17O-excess record at Vostok. Our data and theoretical considerations indicate that mass-independent fractionation imprints the isotopic signature of stratospheric water vapor, which may allow for a distinction between stratospheric and tropospheric influences at remote East Antarctic sites. PMID:23798406

  17. Electrification in Hurricanes over the Tropical Americas: Implication for Stratospheric Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittman, Jasna V.; Chronis, Themis G.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Miller, Timothy L.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the relation between lightning activity and water vapor in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) over hurricane systems in the Tropical Americas. The hypothesis herein is that hurricanes that exhibit enhanced lightning activity are associated with stronger updrafts that can transport more moisture directly into the TTL (and subsequently into the tropical stratosphere) or even directly into the tropical stratosphere over this region. The TTL over the Tropical Americas, which includes the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico, is of particular interest, because summertime cold point tropopause is the lowest in height and thus the warmest in temperature over the tropics. The latter condition implies higher saturation values and thus potential for more water vapor to enter the stratosphere. Climate forecast is very sensitive to stratospheric water vapor abundance, because of the key role that water vapor plays in regulating the chemical and radiative properties of the stratosphere. Given the potential for increases in hurricane intensity and frequency under predicted warmer conditions, it becomes essential to understand the effect of hurricanes on stratospheric water vapor. In this study, we use a combination of ground and space-borne observations as well as trajectory calculations. The observations include: cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning data from the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), geostationary infrared observations from the National Climatic Data Center Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) data set, cloud properties from Aqua-MODIS, and water vapor from Aura-MLS. We analyze hurricanes from the 2005 season when Aura-MLS data are available, namely: Dennis, Emily, Katrina, Rita, and Wilma. Our analysis consists of examining CG lightning, cloud-top properties, and TTL water vapor (i.e., 100 and 147 mb) over the hurricane while it remains over water in the Tropical Americas region. We investigate daily as well as diurnal statistical properties. The

  18. Adsorption of apolar molecules at the water liquid-vapor interface: A Monte Carlo simulations study of the water-n-octane system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedlovszky, Pál; Varga, Imre; Gilányi, Tibor

    2003-07-01

    The adsorption of n-octane at the water liquid-vapor interface has been investigated by Monte Carlo computer simulation. For this purpose, simulation of five different water-apolar interfacial systems have been performed, in which the number of n-octane molecules has been varied. The results clearly show that the apolar n-octane molecules are adsorbed from the vapor phase at the interface. The adsorption is driven by the weak attraction due to the dispersion forces acting between the water molecules and the methyl and methylene groups of the octanes. This weak attraction is, however, amplified by the fact that it is added up for the CH2 and CH3 groups belonging to the same molecule. Consistently, the n-octane molecules located closest to the aqueous phase are found to prefer all-trans conformation and parallel alignment with the plane of the interface. On the other hand, entropic effects become more important among the molecules of the outer part of the adsorption layer. Hence, the preferred orientation of these molecules is perpendicular to the interface, as they can be extended toward the less dense region of the apolar phase; and gauche dihedrals appear more frequently here than among the molecules located next to the aqueous phase.

  19. In-Flight Performance of the Water Vapor Monitor Onboard the Sofia Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas L.; Yuen, Lunming; Sisson, David; Hang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) airborne observatory flies in a modified B747-SP aircraft in the lower stratosphere above more than 99.9% of the Earth's water vapor. As low as this residual water vapor is, it will still affect SOFIA's infrared and sub-millimeter astronomical observations. As a result, a heterodyne instrument has been developed to observe the strength and shape of the 1830Hz rotational line of water, allowing measurements of the integrated water vapor overburden in flight. In order to be useful in correcting the astronomical signals, the required measured precipitable water vapor accuracy must be 2 microns or better, 3 sigma, and measured at least once a minute. The Water Vapor Monitor has flown 22 times during the SOFIA Early Science shared-risk period. The instrument water vapor overburden data obtained were then compared with concurrent data from GOES-V satellites to perform a preliminary calibration of the measurements. This presentation will cover the.results of these flights. The final flight calibration necessary to reach the required accuracy will await subsequent flights following the SOFIA observatory upgrade that is taking place during the spring and summer of 2012.

  20. Inter- annual variability of water vapor over an equatorial coastal station using Microwave Radiometer observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renju, Ramachandran Pillai; Uma, K. N.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Mathew, Nizy; Raju C, Suresh

    The south-western region of the Indian peninsula is the gateway of Indian summer monsoon. This region experiences continuous monsoon rain for a longer period of about six months from June to November. The amount of water vapor variability is one of the important parameters to study the onset, active and break phases of the monsoon. Keeping this in view, a multi-frequency Microwave Radiometer Profiler (MRP) has been made operational for continuous measurements of water vapor over an equatorial coastal station Thiruvananthapuram (8.5(°) N, 76.9(°) E) since April 2010. The MRP estimated precipitable water vapor (PWV) for different seasons including monsoon periods have been evaluated by comparing with the collocated GPS derived water vapor and radiosonde measurements. The diurnal, seasonal and inter annual variation of water vapor has been studied for the last four years (2010-2013) over this station. The significant diurnal variability of water vapor is found only during the winter and pre-monsoon periods (Dec -April). The vertical distribution of water vapour is studied in order to understand its variability especially during the onset of monsoon. During the building up of south-west monsoon, the specific humidity increases to ˜ 10g/kg in the altitude range of 4-6 km and consistently maintained it throughout the active spells and reduces to below 2g/kg during break spells of monsoon. The instrument details and the results will be presented.

  1. Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Couds over Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Hui; Jiang, Jonathan; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, J.; Read, William G.; Massie, Steven T.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Colarco, Peter; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Santee, Michelle L.

    2011-06-01

    Aerosols can affect cloud particle size and lifetime, which impacts precipitation, radiation and climate. Previous studies1-4 suggested that reduced ice cloud particle size and fall speed due to the influence of aerosols may increase evaporation of ice crystals and/or cloud radiative heating in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), leading to higher water vapor abundance in air entering the stratosphere. Observational substantiation of such processes is still lacking. Here, we analyze new observations from multiple NASA satellites to show the imprint of pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. We focus our analysis on the highly-polluted South and East Asia region during boreal summer. We find that "polluted" ice clouds have smaller ice effective radius than "clean" clouds. In the TTL, the polluted clouds are associated with warmer temperature and higher specific humidity than the clean clouds. The water vapor difference between the polluted and clean clouds cannot be explained by other meteorological factors, such as updraft and detrainment strength. Therefore, the observed higher water vapor entry value into the stratosphere in the polluted clouds than in the clean clouds is likely a manifestation of aerosol pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. Given the radiative and chemical importance of stratospheric water vapor, the increasing emission of aerosols over Asia may have profound impacts on stratospheric chemistry and global energy balance and water cycle.

  2. Performance modeling of ultraviolet Raman lidar systems for daytime profiling of atmospheric water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Whiteman, D. N.; Melfi, S. H.; Goldsmith, J. E. M.; Bisson, S. E.; Lapp, M.

    1991-01-01

    We describe preliminary results from a comprehensive computer model developed to guide optimization of a Raman lidar system for measuring daytime profiles of atmospheric water vapor, emphasizing an ultraviolet, solar-blind approach.

  3. Comparison of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor from AIRS and Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric J.; Vomel, Holger

    2004-01-01

    Upper tropospheric water vapor (UTWV) from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) experiment on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has the potential of addressing several important climate questions. The specified AIRS system measurement uncertainty for water vapor is 20 percent absolute averaged over 2 km layers. Cryogenic frostpoint hygrometers (CFH) are balloon-borne water vapor sensors responsive from the surface into the lower stratosphere. Several dozen coincident, collocated CFH profiles have been obtained for AlRS validation. The combination of CFH sensitivity and sample size offers a statistically compelling picture of AIRS UTWV measurement capability. We present a comparison between CFH observations and AlRS retrievals. We focus on the altitude range from the middle troposphere up to heights at the limits of AlRS sensitivity to water vapor, believed to be around 100-1 50 hPa.

  4. Liquid-phase and vapor-phase dehydration of organic/water solutions

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Yu; Ly, Jennifer; Aldajani, Tiem; Baker, Richard W.

    2011-08-23

    Processes for dehydrating an organic/water solution by pervaporation or vapor separation using fluorinated membranes. The processes are particularly useful for treating mixtures containing light organic components, such as ethanol, isopropanol or acetic acid.

  5. EPA Method 245.1: Determination of Mercury in Water by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAM lists this method for preparation and analysis of aqueous liquid and drinking water samples. This method will determine mercuric chloride and methoxyethylmercuric acetate as total mercury using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

  6. Permeability of Molecular Hydrogen and Water Vapor Through Butyl Rubber at Ambient Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Zeigler, K.

    1992-04-09

    The preparation of the Safety Analysis Report for the 233-H Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) requires permeation constants of hydrogen isotopes through butyl rubber, to estimate possible worker exposure given a certain level of tritium in the confinement gloveboxes. Literature values of the permeability constants for hydrogen isotopes and water vapor through butyl rubber at ambient temperature (22-25 C) have been converted to common units and are tabulated (Tables I and II). Permeation rates of tritiated species are the same as that of protium species, within experimental error. Thus, molecular protium and normal water vapor data serve to estimate tritium permeation rates. Because of vendor to vendor variability of permeability, especially of water vapor, vendor measurements of water vapor permeability should continue to be used to estimate permeation in SRS processes.

  7. Permeability of Molecular Hydrogen and Water Vapor Through Butyl Rubber at Ambient Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Elliot A.

    1992-04-09

    The preparation of the Safety Analysis Report for the 233-H Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) requires permeation constants of hydrogen isotopes through butyl rubber, to estimate possible worker exposure given a certain level of tritium in the confinement gloveboxes. Literature values of the permeability constants for hydrogen isotopes and water vapor through butyl rubber at ambient temperature (22-25 C) have been converted to common units and are tabulated (Tables I and II). Permeation rates of tritiated species are the same as that of protium species, within experimental error. Thus, molecular protium and normal water vapor data serve to estimate tritium permeation rates. Because of vendor-to-vendor variability of permeability, especially of water vapor, vendor measurements of water vapor permeability should continue to be used to estimate permeation in SRS processes.

  8. Remote Sensing of Water Vapor and Thin Cirrus Clouds using MODIS Near-IR Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Bo-Cai; Kaufman, Yoram J.

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), a major facility instrument on board the Terra Spacecraft, was successfully launched into space in December of 1999. MODIS has several near-IR channels within and around the 0.94 micrometer water vapor bands for remote sensing of integrated atmospheric water vapor over land and above clouds. MODIS also has a special near-IR channel centered at 1.375-micron with a width of 30 nm for remote sensing of cirrus clouds. In this paper, we describe briefly the physical principles on remote sensing of water vapor and cirrus clouds using these channels. We also present sample water vapor images and cirrus cloud images obtained from MODIS data.

  9. The Oxidation Rate of SiC in High Pressure Water Vapor Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Robinson, R. Craig

    1999-01-01

    CVD SiC and sintered alpha-SiC samples were exposed at 1316 C in a high pressure burner rig at total pressures of 5.7, 15, and 25 atm for times up to 100h. Variations in sample emittance for the first nine hours of exposure were used to determine the thickness of the silica scale as a function of time. After accounting for volatility of silica in water vapor, the parabolic rate constants for Sic in water vapor pressures of 0.7, 1.8 and 3.1 atm were determined. The dependence of the parabolic rate constant on the water vapor pressure yielded a power law exponent of one. Silica growth on Sic is therefore limited by transport of molecular water vapor through the silica scale.

  10. A differential absorption technique to estimate atmospheric total water vapor amounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, Robert; Middleton, Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    Vertically integrated water-vapor amounts can be remotely determined by measuring the solar radiance reflected by the earth's surface with satellites or aircraft-based instruments. The technique is based on the method by Fowle (1912, 1913) and utilizes the 0.940-micron water-vapor band to retrieve total-water-vapor data that is independent of surface reflectance properties and other atmospheric constituents. A channel combination is proposed to provide more accurate results, the SE-590 spectrometer is used to verify the data, and the effects of atmospheric photon backscattering is examined. The spectrometer and radiosonde data confirm the accuracy of using a narrow and a wide channel centered on the same wavelength to determine water vapor amounts. The technique is suitable for cloudless conditions and can contribute to atmospheric corrections of land-surface parameters.

  11. Cloud area determination from AVIRIS data using water vapor channels near 1 micron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Bo-Gai; Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1991-01-01

    Fractional cloud area is derived from spectral images collected by the Airborne Visible-IR Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). The derivation is made by ratioing radiances near the 0.94- and the 1.14-microns water vapor band centers against those in the intermediate atmospheric window regions. The derivation makes use of the facts that (1) the reflectances of most ground targets vary approximately linearly with wavelength in the 0.94- and the 1.14-micron water vapor band absorption regions, and (2) the peak absorptions of the water vapor band over cloudy areas are smaller than those over nearby clear surface areas because of the rapidly decreasing atmospheric water vapor concentration with height. The band ratioing technique effectively discriminates among clouds and surface areas having similar reflectance values.

  12. Polymer functionalized nanostructured porous silicon for selective water vapor sensing at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Priyanka; Das, Samaresh; Dhanekar, Saakshi

    2017-04-01

    This paper highlights the surface treatment of porous silicon (PSi) for enhancing the sensitivity of water vapors at room temperature. A simple and low cost technique was used for fabrication and functionalization of PSi. Spin coated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was used for functionalizing PSi surface. Morphological and structural studies were conducted to analyze samples using SEM and XRD/Raman spectroscopy respectively. Contact angle measurements were performed for assessing the wettability of the surfaces. PSi and functionalized PSi samples were tested as sensors in presence of different analytes like ethanol, acetone, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and water vapors in the range of 50-500 ppm. Electrical measurements were taken from parallel aluminium electrodes fabricated on the functionalized surface, using metal mask and thermal evaporation. Functionalized PSi sensors in comparison to non-functionalized sensors depicted selective and enhanced response to water vapor at room temperature. The results portray an efficient and selective water vapor detection at room temperature.

  13. Contrasting Effects of Central Pacific and Eastern Pacific El Nino on Stratospheric Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Oman, Luke D.; Waugh, Darryn W.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted experiments with a comprehensive chemistry-climate model are used to demonstrate that seasonality and the location of the peak warming of sea surface temperatures dictate the response of stratospheric water vapor to El Nino. In spring, El Nino events in which sea surface temperature anomalies peak in the eastern Pacific lead to a warming at the tropopause above the warm pool region, and subsequently to more stratospheric water vapor (consistent with previous work). However, in fall and in early winter, and also during El Nino events in which the sea surface temperature anomaly is found mainly in the central Pacific, the response is qualitatively different: temperature changes in the warm pool region are nonuniform and less water vapor enters the stratosphere. The difference in water vapor in the lower stratosphere between the two variants of El Nino approaches 0.3 ppmv, while the difference between the winter and spring responses exceeds 0.5 ppmv.

  14. Physical Mechanisms Controlling Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor as Revealed by MLS Data from UARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, Reginald E.; Douglass, Anne (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The third year and final report on the physical mechanisms controlling upper tropospheric water vapor revealed by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) is presented.

  15. Optoacoustic measurements of water vapor absorption at selected CO laser wavelengths in the 5-micron region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, R. T.; Shumate, M. S.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of water vapor absorption were taken with a resonant optoacoustical detector (cylindrical pyrex detector, two BaF2 windows fitted into end plates at slight tilt to suppress Fabry-Perot resonances), for lack of confidence in existing spectral tabular data for the 5-7 micron region, as line shapes in the wing regions of water vapor lines are difficult to characterize. The measurements are required for air pollution studies using a CO laser, to find the differential absorption at the wavelengths in question due to atmospheric constituents other than water vapor. The design and performance of the optoacoustical detector are presented. Effects of absorption by ambient NO are considered, and the fixed-frequency discretely tunable CO laser is found suitable for monitoring urban NO concentrations in a fairly dry climate, using the water vapor absorption data obtained in the study.

  16. Temperature and water vapor pressure effects on the friction coefficient of hydrogenated diamondlike carbon films.

    SciTech Connect

    Dickrell, P. L.; Sawyer, W. G.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Erdemir, A.; Energy Technology; Univ. of Florida

    2009-07-01

    Microtribological measurements of a hydrogenated diamondlike carbon film in controlled gaseous environments show that water vapor plays a significant role in the friction coefficient. These experiments reveal an initial high friction transient behavior that does not reoccur even after extended periods of exposure to low partial pressures of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}. Experiments varying both water vapor pressure and sample temperature show trends of a decreasing friction coefficient as a function of both the decreasing water vapor pressure and the increasing substrate temperature. Theses trends are examined with regard to first order gas-surface interactions. Model fits give activation energies on the order of 40 kJ/mol, which is consistent with water vapor desorption.

  17. Ground-based Infrared Observations of Water Vapor and Hydrogen Peroxide in the Atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, T.; Greathouse, T. K.; Bitner, M.; Kruger, A.; Richter, M. J.; Lacy, J. H.; Bézard, B.; Fouchet, T.; Lefevre, F.; Forget, F.; Atreya, S. K.

    2008-11-01

    Ground-based observations of water vapor and hydrogen peroxide have been obtained in the thermal infrared range, using the TEXES instrument at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, for different times of the seasonal cycle.

  18. Interception of Vapor Flow near Soil Surface for Water Conservation and Drought Alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Wang, Y.; Gao, Z.; Hishida, K.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Liquid and vapor flow of water in soil and the eventual vaporization of all waters near the soil surface are mechanisms controlling the near-surface evaporation. Interception and prevention of the vapor form of flow is critical for soil water conservation and drought alleviation in the arid and semiarid regions. Researches are conducted to quantify the amount of near-surface vapor flow in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China and the central California of USA. Quantitative leaf water absorption and desorption functions were derived and tested based on laboratory experiments. Results show that plant leaves absorb and release water at different speeds depending on species and varieties. The "ideal" native plants in the dry climates can quickly absorb water and slowly release it. This water-holding capacity of a plant is characterized by the plant's water retention curves. Field studies are conducted to measure the dynamic water movements from the soil surface to ten meters below the surface in an attempt to quantify the maximum depths of water extraction due to different vegetation types and mulching measures at the surface. Results show that condensation is usually formed on soil surface membranes during the daily hours when the temperature gradients are inverted toward the soil surface. The soil temperature becomes stable at 13 Degree Celsius below the 4-meter depth in the Loess Plateau of China thus vapor flow is not likely deriving from deeper layers. However, the liquid flow may move in and out depending on water potential gradients and hydraulic conductivity of the layers. The near-surface vapor flow can be effectively intercepted by various mulching measures including gravel-and-sand cover, plant residue and plastic membranes. New studies are attempted to quantify the role of vapor flow for the survival of giant sequoias in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California.

  19. The Potential of Water Vapor & Precipitation Estimation with a Differential-frequency Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, Robert; Liao, Liang; Tian, Lin

    2006-01-01

    In the presence of rain, the radar return powers from a three-frequency radar, with center frequency at 22.235 GHz and upper and lower frequencies chosen with equal water vapor absorption coefficients, can be used to estimate water vapor density and parameters of the precipitation. A linear combination of differential measurements between the center and lower frequencies on one hand and the upper and lower frequencies on the other provide an estimate of differential water vapor absorption. Conversely, the difference in radar reflectivity factors (in dB) between the upper and lower frequencies is independent of water vapor absorption and can be used to estimate the median mass diameter of the hydrometeors. For a down-looking radar, path-integrated estimates of water vapor absorption may be possible under rain-free as well as raining conditions by using the surface returns at the three frequencies. Cross-talk or interference between the precipitation and water vapor estimates depends on the frequency separation of the channels as well as on the phase state and the median mass diameter of the hydrometeors. Simulations of the retrieval of water vapor absorption show that the largest source of variability arises from the variance in the measured radar return powers while the largest biases occur in the mixed-phase region. Use of high pulse repetition frequencies and signal whitening methods may be needed to obtain the large number of independent samples required. Measurements over a fractional bandwidth, defined as the ratio of the difference between the upper and lower frequencies to the center frequency, up to about 0.2 should be passible in a differential frequency mode, where a single transceiver and antenna are used. Difficulties in frequency allocation may require alternative choices of frequency where the water vapor absorptions at the low and high frequencies are unequal. We consider the degradation in the retrieval accuracy when the frequencies are not optimum.

  20. Determining Permissible Oxygen and Water Vapor Transmission Rate for Non-Retort Military Ration Packaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    oxygen transmission rate ( OTR ) and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), for the non-retort pouch found in the Meal, Ready to EatTM (MRETM) individual...water vapor ingress is 0.004 g/pouch/d. Cracker samples used to determine permissible OTR did not fall below the overall quality requirement for...sensory attributes during the 32-week study. Thus, an allowable OTR for the non-retort pouch cannot be calculated from the results obtained. 15

  1. Is There Evidence of Convectively Injected Water Vapor in the Lowermost Stratosphere Over Boulder, Colorado?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, D. F.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Davis, S. M.; Hall, E. G.; Jordan, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    Anderson et al. (2012) reported the frequent presence of convectively injected water vapor in the lowermost stratosphere over North America during summertime, based on aircraft measurements. They asserted that enhanced catalytic ozone destruction within these wet stratospheric air parcels presents a concern for UV dosages in populated areas, especially if the frequency of deep convective events increases. Schwartz et al.(2013) analyzed 8 years of more widespread Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of lower stratospheric water vapor over North America and concluded that anomalously wet (>8 ppm) air parcels were present only 2.5% of the time during July and August. However, given the 3-km vertical resolution of MLS water vapor retrievals in the lowermost stratosphere, thin wet layers deposited by overshooting convection may be present but not readily detectable by MLS. Since 1980 the balloon-borne NOAA frost point hygrometer (FPH) has produced nearly 400 high quality water vapor profiles over Boulder, Colorado, at 5-m vertical resolution from the surface to the middle stratosphere. The 34-year record of high-resolution FPH profiles obtained over Boulder during summer months is evaluated for evidence of convectively injected water vapor in the lowermost stratosphere. A number of approaches are used to assess the contributions of deep convection to the Boulder stratospheric water vapor record. The results are compared to those based on MLS profiles over Boulder and the differences are discussed. Anderson, J. G., D. M. Wilmouth, J. B. Smith, and D. S. Sayres (2012), UV dosage levels in summer: Increased risk of ozone loss from convectively injected water vapor, Science, 337(6096), 835-839, doi:10.1126/science.1222978. Schwartz, M. J., W. G. Read, M. L. Santee, N. J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, and G. L. Manney (2013), Convectively injected water vapor in the North American summer lowermost stratosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2316-2321, doi:10

  2. The vitiation effects of water vapor and carbon dioxide on the autoignition characteristics of kerosene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jin-Hu; Wang, Su; Zhang, Sheng-Tao; Yue, Lian-Jie; Fan, Bing-Cheng; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Cui, Ji-Ping

    2014-08-01

    In ground tests of hypersonic scramjet, the high-enthalpy airstream produced by burning hydrocarbon fuels often contains contaminants of water vapor and carbon dioxide. The contaminants may change the ignition characteristics of fuels between ground tests and real flights. In order to properly assess the influence of the contaminants on ignition characteristics of hydrocarbon fuels, the effect of water vapor and carbon dioxide on the ignition delay times of China RP-3 kerosene was studied behind reflected shock waves in a preheated shock tube. Experiments were conducted over a wider temperature range of 800-1 500K, at a pressure of 0.3 MPa, equivalence ratios of 0.5 and 1, and oxygen concentration of 20%. Ignition delay times were determined from the onset of the excited radical OH emission together with the pressure profile. Ignition delay times were measured for four cases: (1) clean gas, (2) gas vitiated with 10% and 20% water vapor in mole, (3) gas vitiated with 10% carbon dioxide in mole, and (4) gas vitiated with 10% water vapor and 10% carbon dioxide, 20% water vapor and 10% carbon dioxide in mole. The results show that carbon dioxide produces an inhibiting effect at temperatures below 1 300 K when ϕ = 0.5, whereas water vapor appears to accelerate the ignition process below a critical temperature of about 1 000 K when ϕ = 0.5. When both water vapor and carbon dioxide exist together, a minor inhibiting effect is observed at ϕ = 0.5, while no effect is found at ϕ = 1.0. The results are also discussed preliminary by considering both the combustion reaction mechanism and the thermophysics properties of the fuel mixtures. The current measurements demonstrate vitiation effects of water vapor and carbon dioxide on the autoignition characteristics of China RP-3 kerosene at air-like O2 concentration. It is important to account for such effects when data are extrapolated from ground testing to real flight conditions.

  3. Optimization of GPS water vapor tomography technique with radiosonde and COSMIC historical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Shirong; Xia, Pengfei; Cai, Changsheng

    2016-09-01

    The near-real-time high spatial resolution of atmospheric water vapor distribution is vital in numerical weather prediction. GPS tomography technique has been proved effectively for three-dimensional water vapor reconstruction. In this study, the tomography processing is optimized in a few aspects by the aid of radiosonde and COSMIC historical data. Firstly, regional tropospheric zenith hydrostatic delay (ZHD) models are improved and thus the zenith wet delay (ZWD) can be obtained at a higher accuracy. Secondly, the regional conversion factor of converting the ZWD to the precipitable water vapor (PWV) is refined. Next, we develop a new method for dividing the tomography grid with an uneven voxel height and a varied water vapor layer top. Finally, we propose a Gaussian exponential vertical interpolation method which can better reflect the vertical variation characteristic of water vapor. GPS datasets collected in Hong Kong in February 2014 are employed to evaluate the optimized tomographic method by contrast with the conventional method. The radiosonde-derived and COSMIC-derived water vapor densities are utilized as references to evaluate the tomographic results. Using radiosonde products as references, the test results obtained from our optimized method indicate that the water vapor density accuracy is improved by 15 and 12 % compared to those derived from the conventional method below the height of 3.75 km and above the height of 3.75 km, respectively. Using the COSMIC products as references, the results indicate that the water vapor density accuracy is improved by 15 and 19 % below 3.75 km and above 3.75 km, respectively.

  4. Polymer composite adsorbents using particles of molecularly imprinted polymers or aluminium oxide nanoparticles for treatment of arsenic contaminated waters.

    PubMed

    Önnby, L; Pakade, V; Mattiasson, B; Kirsebom, H

    2012-09-01

    Removal of As(V) by adsorption from water solutions was studied using three different synthetic adsorbents. The adsorbents, (a) aluminium nanoparticles (Alu-NPs, <50 nm) incorporated in amine rich cryogels (Alu-cryo), (b) molecular imprinted polymers (<38 μm) in polyacrylamide cryogels (MIP-cryo) and (c) thiol functionalised cryogels (SH-cryo) were evaluated regarding material characteristics and arsenic removal in batch test and continuous mode. Results revealed that a composite design with particles incorporated in cryogels was a successful means for applying small particles (nano- and micro- scale) in water solutions with maintained adsorption capacity and kinetics. Low capacity was obtained from SH-cryo and this adsorbent was hence excluded from the study. The adsorption capacities for the composites were 20.3 ± 0.8 mg/g adsorbent (Alu-cryo) and 7.9 ± 0.7 mg/g adsorbent (MIP-cryo) respectively. From SEM images it was seen that particles were homogeneously distributed in Alu-cryo and heterogeneously distributed in MIP-cryo. The particle incorporation increased the mechanical stability and the polymer backbones of pure polyacrylamide (MIP-cryo) were of better stability than the amine containing polymer backbone (Alu-cryo). Both composites worked well in the studied pH range of pH 2-8. Adsorption tested in real wastewater spiked with arsenic showed that co-ions (nitrate, sulphate and phosphate) affected arsenic removal for Alu-cryo more than for MIP-cryo. Both composites still adsorbed well in the presence of counter-ions (copper and zinc) present at low concentrations (μg/l). The unchanged and selective adsorption in realistic water observed for MIP-cryo was concluded to be due to a successful imprinting, here controlled using a non-imprinted polymer (NIP). A development of MIP-cryo is needed, considering its low adsorption capacity.

  5. The threshold of vapor channel formation in water induced by pulsed CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wenqing; Zhang, Xianzeng; Zhan, Zhenlin; Xie, Shusen

    2012-12-01

    Water plays an important role in laser ablation. There are two main interpretations of laser-water interaction: hydrokinetic effect and vapor phenomenon. The two explanations are reasonable in some way, but they can't explain the mechanism of laser-water interaction completely. In this study, the dynamic process of vapor channel formation induced by pulsed CO2 laser in static water layer was monitored by high-speed camera. The wavelength of pulsed CO2 laser is 10.64 um, and pulse repetition rate is 60 Hz. The laser power ranged from 1 to 7 W with a step of 0.5 W. The frame rate of high-speed camera used in the experiment was 80025 fps. Based on high-speed camera pictures, the dynamic process of vapor channel formation was examined, and the threshold of vapor channel formation, pulsation period, the volume, the maximum depth and corresponding width of vapor channel were determined. The results showed that the threshold of vapor channel formation was about 2.5 W. Moreover, pulsation period, the maximum depth and corresponding width of vapor channel increased with the increasing of the laser power.

  6. An Experimental Study of Liquid and Vapor Water Flux in Layered Slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gran, M.; Carrera, J.; Saaltink, M.

    2015-12-01

    Mechanisms governing water flow and evaporation in unsaturated layered soils are relevant to study hillslope dynamics and to design landfill covers. The latter are often based on capillary barrier effects to reduce vertical flow and enhance lateral flow. Vapor fluxes can become especially relevant for water redistribution in arid regions where liquid water fluxes are small. This work presents the results of a study of liquid and vapor fluxes in layered slopes. Two pilot covers were built including a capillary barrier. We analyzed their performance for two years by means of a thorough monitoring system. Lateral water flow confirmed the capillary barrier effectiveness in reducing vertical flow depending on the granulometry of the underlying layer and highlighted the importance of the slope to enhance lateral drainage. The detailed study of the daily and annual variations of vapor fluxes shows that there is a relevant vapor flux and contrary to intuition: downwards during the summer and upwards during the winter, with a downward net annual vapor flux. Finally, how rainfall events can be the cause of the vapor fluxes reversing is discussed and an analytical solution to calculate diffusive vapor fluxes at any depth is presented and compared with field data.

  7. Natural attenuation of pesticide water contamination by using ecological adsorbents: Application for chlorinated pesticides included in European Water Framework Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bakouri, Hicham; Morillo, José; Usero, José; Ouassini, Abdelhamid

    2009-01-01

    SummaryIn this work, a series of experiments were performed to demonstrate the potential use of natural organic substances (NOS) as an ecological technique to prevent pesticide contamination of ground water resources. A preliminary test has been carried out for determining the potentialities of ten NOS in the elimination of alachlor, aldrin, atrazine, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinphos, dieldrin, alpha-endosulfan, endrin, hexachlorobenzene, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH (lindane), simazine and trifluralin. The best adsorbents that present higher removal efficiency were date and olives stones, and in minor measurement Raphanus raphanistrum and Cistus ladaniferus. Experimental results showed that the pH and temperature of pesticide solutions negatively affect the adsorption process. According to adsorption kinetic data, 8 h were considered as the equilibrium time for realizing adsorption isotherms. Adsorption data were fit with Freundlich isotherm model which describes better the adsorption process. The K f values depended mainly on the nature of each adsorbent and ranged from 4.53 for Eucalyptus gomphocephala to 13.54 for date stones.

  8. Investigating the source, transport, and isotope composition of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffis, Timothy J.; Wood, Jeffrey D.; Baker, John M.; Lee, Xuhui; Xiao, Ke; Chen, Zichong; Welp, Lisa R.; Schultz, Natalie M.; Gorski, Galen; Chen, Ming; Nieber, John

    2016-04-01

    Increasing atmospheric humidity and convective precipitation over land provide evidence of intensification of the hydrologic cycle - an expected response to surface warming. The extent to which terrestrial ecosystems modulate these hydrologic factors is important to understand feedbacks in the climate system. We measured the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of water vapor at a very tall tower (185 m) in the upper Midwest, United States, to diagnose the sources, transport, and fractionation of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over a 3-year period (2010 to 2012). These measurements represent the first set of annual water vapor isotope observations for this region. Several simple isotope models and cross-wavelet analyses were used to assess the importance of the Rayleigh distillation process, evaporation, and PBL entrainment processes on the isotope composition of water vapor. The vapor isotope composition at this tall tower site showed a large seasonal amplitude (mean monthly δ18Ov ranged from -40.2 to -15.9 ‰ and δ2Hv ranged from -278.7 to -113.0 ‰) and followed the familiar Rayleigh distillation relation with water vapor mixing ratio when considering the entire hourly data set. However, this relation was strongly modulated by evaporation and PBL entrainment processes at timescales ranging from hours to several days. The wavelet coherence spectra indicate that the oxygen isotope ratio and the deuterium excess (dv) of water vapor are sensitive to synoptic and PBL processes. According to the phase of the coherence analyses, we show that evaporation often leads changes in dv, confirming that it is a potential tracer of regional evaporation. Isotope mixing models indicate that on average about 31 % of the growing season PBL water vapor is derived from regional evaporation. However, isoforcing calculations and mixing model analyses for high PBL water vapor mixing ratio events ( > 25 mmol mol-1) indicate that regional evaporation can account

  9. Investigating the source, transport, and isotope composition of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer

    DOE PAGES

    Griffis, Timothy J.; Wood, Jeffrey D.; Baker, John M.; ...

    2016-04-25

    Increasing atmospheric humidity and convective precipitation over land provide evidence of intensification of the hydrologic cycle – an expected response to surface warming. The extent to which terrestrial ecosystems modulate these hydrologic factors is important to understand feedbacks in the climate system. We measured the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of water vapor at a very tall tower (185 m) in the upper Midwest, United States, to diagnose the sources, transport, and fractionation of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over a 3-year period (2010 to 2012). These measurements represent the first set of annual water vapor isotopemore » observations for this region. Several simple isotope models and cross-wavelet analyses were used to assess the importance of the Rayleigh distillation process, evaporation, and PBL entrainment processes on the isotope composition of water vapor. The vapor isotope composition at this tall tower site showed a large seasonal amplitude (mean monthly δ18Ov ranged from –40.2 to –15.9 ‰ and δ2Hv ranged from –278.7 to –113.0 ‰) and followed the familiar Rayleigh distillation relation with water vapor mixing ratio when considering the entire hourly data set. However, this relation was strongly modulated by evaporation and PBL entrainment processes at timescales ranging from hours to several days. The wavelet coherence spectra indicate that the oxygen isotope ratio and the deuterium excess (dv) of water vapor are sensitive to synoptic and PBL processes. According to the phase of the coherence analyses, we show that evaporation often leads changes in dv, confirming that it is a potential tracer of regional evaporation. Isotope mixing models indicate that on average about 31 % of the growing season PBL water vapor is derived from regional evaporation. However, isoforcing calculations and mixing model analyses for high PBL water vapor mixing ratio events ( > 25 mmol mol–1) indicate that regional

  10. Investigating the source, transport, and isotope composition of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Griffis, Timothy J.; Wood, Jeffrey D.; Baker, John M.; Lee, Xuhui; Xiao, Ke; Chen, Zichong; Welp, Lisa R.; Schultz, Natalie M.; Gorski, Galen; Chen, Ming; Nieber, John

    2016-04-25

    Increasing atmospheric humidity and convective precipitation over land provide evidence of intensification of the hydrologic cycle – an expected response to surface warming. The extent to which terrestrial ecosystems modulate these hydrologic factors is important to understand feedbacks in the climate system. We measured the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of water vapor at a very tall tower (185 m) in the upper Midwest, United States, to diagnose the sources, transport, and fractionation of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over a 3-year period (2010 to 2012). These measurements represent the first set of annual water vapor isotope observations for this region. Several simple isotope models and cross-wavelet analyses were used to assess the importance of the Rayleigh distillation process, evaporation, and PBL entrainment processes on the isotope composition of water vapor. The vapor isotope composition at this tall tower site showed a large seasonal amplitude (mean monthly δ18Ov ranged from –40.2 to –15.9 ‰ and δ2Hv ranged from –278.7 to –113.0 ‰) and followed the familiar Rayleigh distillation relation with water vapor mixing ratio when considering the entire hourly data set. However, this relation was strongly modulated by evaporation and PBL entrainment processes at timescales ranging from hours to several days. The wavelet coherence spectra indicate that the oxygen isotope ratio and the deuterium excess (dv) of water vapor are sensitive to synoptic and PBL processes. According to the phase of the coherence analyses, we show that evaporation often leads changes in dv, confirming that it is a potential tracer of regional evaporation. Isotope mixing models indicate that on average about 31 % of the growing season PBL water vapor is derived from regional evaporation. However, isoforcing calculations and mixing model analyses for

  11. Upper-Tropospheric Winds Derived from Geostationary Satellite Water Vapor Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velden, Christopher S.; Hayden, Christopher M.; Nieman, Steven J.; Menzel, W. Paul; Wanzong, Steven; Goerss, James S.

    1997-01-01

    The coverage and quality of remotely sensed upper-tropospheric moisture parameters have improved considerably with the deployment of a new generation of operational geostationary meteorological satellites: GOES-8/9 and GMS-5. The GOES-8/9 water vapor imaging capabilities have increased as a result of improved radiometric sensitivity and higher spatial resolution. The addition of a water vapor sensing channel on the latest GMS permits nearly global viewing of upper-tropospheric water vapor (when joined with GOES and Meteosat) and enhances the commonality of geostationary meteorological satellite observing capabilities. Upper-tropospheric motions derived from sequential water vapor imagery provided by these satellites can be objectively extracted by automated techniques. Wind fields can be deduced in both cloudy and cloud-free environments. In addition to the spatially coherent nature of these vector fields, the GOES-8/9 multispectral water vapor sensing capabilities allow for determination of wind fields over multiple tropospheric layers in cloud-free environments. This article provides an update on the latest efforts to extract water vapor motion displacements over meteorological scales ranging from subsynoptic to global. The potential applications of these data to impact operations, numerical assimilation and prediction, and research studies are discussed.

  12. Effect of Water Vapor Absorption on Measurements of Atmospheric Nitrate Radical by LP-DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Su-wen; Liu, Wen-qing; Xie, Pin-hua; Yang, Yi-jun; Chen, De-bao; Li, Zheng

    2008-10-01

    During the measurement of atmospheric nitrate radical by long-path differential optical absorption spec-troscopy, water vapor strong absorption could affect the measurement of nitrate radical and detection limits of system. Under the tropospheric condition, the optical density of water vapor absorption is non-linearly dependent on column density. An effective method was developed to eliminate the effect of water vapor absorption. Reference spectra of water vapor based on the daytime atmospheric absorption spectra, when fitted together with change of cross section with water vapor column densities, gave a more accurate fitting of water vapor absorptions, thus its effect on the measurements of nitrate radical could be restricted to a minimum and detection limits of system reached 3.6 ppt. The modified method was applied during an intensive field campaign in the Pearl River Delta, China. The NO3 concentration in polluted air masses varied from 3.6 ppt to 82.5 ppt with an average level of 23.6±1.8 ppt.

  13. Determination of surface properties of iron hydroxide-coated alumina adsorbent prepared for removal of arsenic from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hlavay, József; Polyák, Klára

    2005-04-01

    A novel type adsorbent was prepared by in situ precipitation of Fe(OH)3 on the surface of activated Al2O3 as a support material. The iron content of the adsorbent was 0.31+/-0.003% m/m (56.1 mmol/g); its mechanical and chemical stability proved to be appropriate in solutions. The total capacity of the adsorbent was 0.12 mmol/g, and the pH of zero point of charge, pH(zpc) = 6.9+/-0.3. Depending on the pH of solutions, the adsorbent can be used for binding of both anions and cations, if pH(eq) < pH(zpc) anions are sorbed on the surface of adsorbent (S) through [SOH2+] and [SOH] groups. A graphical method was used for the determination of pH(iep) (isoelectric points) of the adsorbent and values of pH(iep) = 6.1+/-0.3 for As(III) and pH(iep) = 8.0+/-0.3 for As(V) ions were found. The amount of surface charged groups (Q) was about zero within the a pH range of 6.5-8.6, due to the practically neutral surface formed on the adsorption of As(V) ions. At acidic pH (pH 4.7), Q = 0.19 mol/kg was obtained. The adsorption of arsenate and arsenite ions from solutions of 0.1-0.4 mmol/L was represented by Langmuir-type isotherms. A great advantage of the adsorbent is that it can be used in adsorption columns, and low waste technology for removal of arsenic from drinking water can be developed.

  14. Soluble hydrocarbons uptake by porous carbonaceous adsorbents at different water ionic strength and temperature: something to consider in oil spills.

    PubMed

    Flores-Chaparro, Carlos E; Ruiz, Luis Felipe Chazaro; Alfaro-De la Torre, Ma Catalina; Rangel-Mendez, Jose Rene

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, petrochemical operations involve risks to the environment and one of the biggest is oil spills. Low molecular aromatics like benzene, toluene, and naphthalene dissolve in water, and because of their toxicological characteristics, these produce severe consequences to the environment. The oil spill cleanup strategies are mainly designed to deal with the heavy fractions accumulated on the water surface. Unfortunately, very limited information is available regarding the treatment of dissolved fractions.A commercial (Filtrasorb 400) and modified activated carbons were evaluated to remove benzene, toluene, and naphthalene from water, which are the most soluble aromatic hydrocarbons, at different ionic strengths (I) and temperatures (0-0.76 M and 4-25 °C, respectively). This allowed simulating the conditions of fresh and saline waters when assessing the performance of these adsorbents. It was found that the hydrocarbons adsorption affinity increased 12 % at a I of 0.5 M, due to the less negative charge of the adsorbent, while at a high I (≃0.76 M) in a synthetic seawater, the adsorption capacity decreased 21 % that was attributed to the adsorbent's pores occlusion by water clusters. Approximately, 40 h were needed to reach equilibrium; however, the maximum adsorption rate occurred within the first hour in all the cases. Moreover, the hydrocarbons adsorption and desorption capacities increased when the temperature augmented from 4 to 25 °C. On the other hand, thermally and chemically modified materials showed that the interactions between adsorbent-contaminant increased with the basification degree of the adsorbent surface.

  15. Solid phase extraction of mercury on sulfur loaded with N-(2-chloro benzoyl)-N'-phenylthiourea as a new adsorbent and determination by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pourreza, N; Parham, H; Kiasat, A R; Ghanemi, K; Abdollahi, N

    2009-06-15

    This paper reports sulfur powder loaded with N-(2-chloro benzoyl)-N'-phenylthiourea as a new solid phase extractor for determination of ultra trace amounts of mercury. The mercury ions were retained on a mini-column filled with the solid phase at a flow rate of 16 mL min(-1). The retained Hg(II) ions were eluted with 3 mol L(-1) solution of HCl and measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). The mercury vapors were generated by a homemade Reaction Cell-Gas Liquid Separator (RC-GLS). The effect of different variables such as pH, sample flow rate, amounts of ligand loaded on sulfur and SnCl2 concentration was investigated. Calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.02-1.20 microg L(-1) with r=0.9991 (n=8). The limit of detection (LOD) based on three times the standard deviation of the blank was 0.012 and 0.003 microg L(-1) when 250 and 1000 mL sample volumes were used, respectively. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for determination of 0.04 and 1.00 microg L(-1) of Hg(II) was 3.9 and 1.2% (n=8), respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine Hg(II) in water and marine samples.

  16. Control of the electrostatic effect on DAM-adsorbent for the water-soluble compounds by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Kamichatani, Waka; Inoue, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the mobile phase pH on the control of the electrostatic interaction was evaluated on a column packed with water-holding adsorbent on which diallylamine-maleic acid copolymers were immobilizing. The adsorbent showed extraordinary retention behaviors of water-soluble solutes under acidic conditions, however, their behavior became stable along with increasing pH. Hydrating water contents tended to level off at pH above 8. Thus, the electrostatic interaction with the stationary phase can be controlled by adjusting the mobile phase pH above 8. In this region, the retention of water-soluble solutes appears to be mainly governed by the hydrophilic partition interaction.

  17. Oxidation of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics in Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, QuynhGiao N.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Robinson, Raymond C.

    2003-01-01

    Ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTCs) including HfB2 + SiC (20% by volume), ZrB2 + SiC (20% by volume) and ZrB2 + SiC (14% by volume) + C (30% by volume) have historically been evaluated as reusable thermal protection systems for hypersonic vehicles. This study investigates UHTCs for use as potential combustion and aeropropulsion engine materials. These materials were oxidized in water vapor (90%) using a cyclic vertical furnace at 1 atm. The total exposure time was 10 hours at temperatures of 1200, 1300, and 1400 C. CVD SiC was also evaluated as a baseline comparison. Weight change measurements, X-ray diffraction analyses, surface and cross-sectional SEM and EDS were performed. These results will be compared with tests ran in static air at temperatures of 1327, 1627, and 1927 C. Oxidation comparisons will also be made to the study by Tripp. A small number of high pressure burner rig (HPBR) results at 1100 and 1300 C will also be discussed. Specific weight changes at all three temperatures along with the SIC results are shown. SiC weight change is negligible at such short duration times. HB2 + SiC (HS) performed the best out of all the tested UHTCS for all exposure temperatures. ZrB2 + Sic (ZS) results indicate a slightly lower oxidation rate than that of ZrBl + SiC + C (ZCS) at 1200 and 1400 C, but a clear distinction can not be made based on the limited number of tested samples. Scanning electron micrographs of the cross-sections of all the UHTCs were evaluated. A representative area for HS is presented at 1400 C for 26 hours which was the composition with the least amount of oxidation. A continuous SiO2 scale is present in the outer most edge of the surface. An image of ZCS is presented at 1400 C for 10 hours, which shows the most degradation of all the compositions studied. Here, the oxide surface is a mixture of ZrSiO4, ZrO2 and SO2.

  18. Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control--a review.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia; Paraskeva, Christakis A; Papadakis, Vagelis G; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-01-01

    The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5% of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78% between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  19. Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

    2005-03-11

    This report summarizes work performed on this project from October 2004 through March 2005. In previous work, a surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) was shown to be an effective system for removing BTEX contaminants from produced water. Additional work on this project demonstrated that a compost-based biofilter could biodegrade the BTEX contaminants found in the SMZ regeneration waste gas stream. However, it was also determined that the BTEX concentrations in the waste gas stream varied significantly during the regeneration period and the initial BTEX concentrations were too high for the biofilter to handle effectively. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using a passive adsorption column placed upstream of the biofilter to attenuate the peak gas-phase VOC concentrations delivered to the biofilter during the SMZ regeneration process. In preparation for the field test of the SMZ/VPB treatment system in New Mexico, a pilot-scale SMZ system was also designed and constructed during this reporting period. Finally, a cost and feasibility analysis was also completed. To investigate the merits of the passive buffering system during SMZ regeneration, two adsorbents, SMZ and granular activated carbon (GAC) were investigated in flow-through laboratory-scale columns to determine their capacity to handle steady and unsteady VOC feed conditions. When subjected to a toluene-contaminated air stream, the column containing SMZ reduced the peak inlet 1000 ppmv toluene concentration to 630 ppmv at a 10 second contact time. This level of buffering was insufficient to ensure complete removal in the downstream biofilter and the contact time was longer than desired. For this reason, using SMZ as a passive buffering system for the gas phase contaminants was not pursued further. In contrast to the SMZ results, GAC was found to be an effective adsorbent to handle the peak contaminant concentrations that occur early during the SMZ regeneration process. At a one

  20. Gas storage using fullerene based adsorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loutfy, Raouf O. (Inventor); Lu, Xiao-Chun (Inventor); Li, Weijiong (Inventor); Mikhael, Michael G. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    This invention is directed to the synthesis of high bulk density high gas absorption capacity adsorbents for gas storage applications. Specifically, this invention is concerned with novel gas absorbents with high gravimetric and volumetric gas adsorption capacities which are made from fullerene-based materials. By pressing fullerene powder into pellet form using a conventional press, then polymerizing it by subjecting the fullerene to high temperature and high inert gas pressure, the resulting fullerene-based materials have high bulk densities and high gas adsorption capacities. By pre-chemical modification or post-polymerization activation processes, the gas adsorption capacities of the fullerene-based adsorbents can be further enhanced. These materials are suitable for low pressure gas storage applications, such as oxygen storage for home oxygen therapy uses or on-board vehicle natural gas storage. They are also suitable for storing gases and vapors such as hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor.

  1. The Use of Sage Water Vapor Data for Investigating Climate Change Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.

    2003-01-01

    SAGE water vapor data has proven valuable for addressing several of the important issues in climate change research. It has been used to investigate how the upper troposphere water vapor responds to warming and convection, a key question in understanding the water vapor feedback to anthropogenic global warming. In the case of summer versus winter differences, SAGE results showed that the upper tropospheric relative humidity remained approximately constant; this result was in general agreement with how a GCM handled the seasonal difference, and gave credence to the argument that the GCM was not overestimating the water vapor feedback associated with convection. In addition, the convection-water vapor relationship was investigated further using SAGE water vapor and ISCCP cloud data. The results showed that upper tropospheric drying did appear to occur simultaneously with deep convective events in the tropics, only to be replaced by moistening a few hours later, associated (most likely) with the reevaporation of moisture from anvil clouds. The total effect was, again, a moistening of the upper troposphere associated with convection. Calculation of the actual trends in upper tropospheric moisture is a potential goal for SAGE data usage; trends calculated with radiosonde data, or instruments calibrated with radiosonde data have the problem of the effect of changing radiosonde instruments. SAGE data have in effect been used to compare different radiosondes through comparisons, and could continue to do so. SAGE 3 should also help clarify the absolute accuracy of SAGE retrievals in the troposphere. and its consequences. Model results show that water vapor increases can help explain the observations of stratospheric cooling, along with increasing C02 and ozone reduction. SAGE has been shown to provide trends similar to those of some other satellite and in situ retrievals, with increasing water vapor over time. However, SAGE is impacted by aerosol contamination which must be

  2. The Atmospheric Water Vapor Cycle in South America and theTropospheric Circulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labraga, J. C.; Frumento, O.; López, M.

    2000-06-01

    The main characteristics of the atmospheric water vapor cycle over the South American continent and the adjacent oceans are investigated using the 22-yr period, from 1976 to 1997, of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) 40-Year Reanalysis Project database. Precipitation rate and water vapor content fields obtained from this dataset are compared over the region with newly available observed datasets, which combine ground-based and satellite-derived observations. The temporal variation and spatial distribution of the atmospheric water vapor balance equation terms (precipitation rate, evaporation rate, and water vapor flux convergence) are examined with regard to their consistency and relative importance. The net effect of the atmospheric water vapor transport, represented in the last term of the balance equation, is decomposed into the horizontal and vertical convergence terms. The analysis of the latter highlights those regions where the topographic uplift makes a substantial contribution to the total precipitation rate. The former term is further decomposed into the stationary and transient water vapor flux contributions. The comparison of these terms with relevant characteristics of the large-scale tropospheric circulation provides a better understanding of the different precipitation regimes in South America. The mean annual balance satisfactorily closes over most of the oceanic regions. However, important imbalances found in the vicinity of high topographic features, such as in the central Andes, are attributed to large errors in the local computation of the atmospheric water vapor flux. The current results corroborate previous findings on the role of the stationary water vapor flux convergence in the spatial distribution and seasonal variation of the rainfall rate in tropical and subtropical latitudes and extend over the less-investigated continental midlatitudes. The magnitude of the transient

  3. Adsorbent synthesis of polypyrrole/TiO2 for effective fluoride removal from aqueous solution for drinking water purification: Adsorbent characterization and adsorption mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Shu, Chiajung; Wang, Ning; Feng, Jiangtao; Ma, Hongyu; Yan, Wei

    2017-06-01

    More than 20 countries are still suffering problems of excessive fluoride containing water, and greater than 8mg/L fluoride groundwater has been reported in some villages in China. In order to meet the challenge in the drinking water defluoridation engineering, a high efficiency and affinity defluoridation adsorbent PPy/TiO2 composite was designed and synthetized by in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction Investigator (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Thermogravimetric analysis (TG), N2 isotherm analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Zeta potential analysis were conducted to characterize surface and textural properties of the as-prepared PPy/TiO2, and the possibility of fluoride adsorption was carefully estimated by adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies. Characterization investigations demonstrate the uniqueness of surface and textural properties, such as suitable specific surface area and abundant positively charged nitrogen atoms (N(+)), which indicate the composite is a suitable material for the fluoride adsorption. Adsorption isotherms and kinetics follow better with Langmuir and pseudo-second-order model, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity reaches 33.178mg/g at 25°C according to Langmuir model, and particular interest was the ability to reduce the concentration of fluoride from 11.678mg/L to 1.5mg/L for drinking water at pH of 7 within 30min. Moreover, the adsorbent can be easily recycled without the loss of adsorption capacity after six cycles, greatly highlighting its outstanding affinity to fluoride, low-cost and novel to be used in the purification of fluoride containing water for drinking. Furthermore, the