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Sample records for adsorption cartridge system

  1. Centrifugal Adsorption Cartridge System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Tsao, Yow-Min D.; Lee, Wenshan

    2004-01-01

    The centrifugal adsorption cartridge system (CACS) is an apparatus that recovers one or more bioproduct(s) from a dilute aqueous solution or suspension flowing from a bioreactor. The CACS can be used both on Earth in unit gravity and in space in low gravity. The CACS can be connected downstream from the bioreactor; alternatively, it can be connected into a flow loop that includes the bioreactor so that the liquid can be recycled. A centrifugal adsorption cartridge in the CACS (see figure) includes two concentric cylinders with a spiral ramp between them. The volume between the inner and outer cylinders, and between the turns of the spiral ramp is packed with an adsorbent material. The inner cylinder is a sieve tube covered with a gas-permeable, hydrophobic membrane. During operation, the liquid effluent from the bioreactor is introduced at one end of the spiral ramp, which then constrains the liquid to flow along the spiral path through the adsorbent material. The spiral ramp also makes the flow more nearly uniform than it would otherwise be, and it minimizes any channeling other than that of the spiral flow itself. The adsorbent material is formulated to selectively capture the bioproduct(s) of interest. The bioproduct(s) can then be stored in bound form in the cartridge or else eluted from the cartridge. The centrifugal effect of the spiral flow is utilized to remove gas bubbles from the liquid. The centrifugal effect forces the bubbles radially inward, toward and through the membrane of the inner cylinder. The gas-permeable, hydrophobic membrane allows the bubbles to enter the inner cylinder while keeping the liquid out. The bubbles that thus enter the cylinder are vented to the atmosphere. The spacing between the ramps determines rate of flow along the spiral, and thereby affects the air-bubble-removal efficiency. The spacing between the ramps also determines the length of the fluid path through the cartridge adsorbent, and thus affects the bioproduct

  2. EVALUATING A COMPOSITE CARTRIDGE FOR SMALL SYSTEM DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multi-layer, cartridge-based system that combines physical filtration with carbon adsorption and ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection has been developed to perform as a water treatment security device to protect homes against accidental or intentional contaminant events. A seri...

  3. Adsorption efficiency of respirator filter cartridges for isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Marcus; Meiby, Elinor; Gylestam, Daniel; Dahlin, Jakob; Spanne, Mårten; Karlsson, Daniel; Dalene, Marianne; Skarping, Gunnar; Tveterås, Björn Oscar; Pedersen, Age Engen

    2010-06-01

    In some industries, the temperature and the humidity will vary greatly between different work places, such as outdoor work in arctic or tropical climates. There is therefore a need to test respirator filters at conditions that simulate conditions that are relevant for the industries that they are used in. Filter cartridges were exposed to controlled atmospheres of varying isocyanate concentration, air humidity, and temperature in an exposure chamber. For isocyanic acid (ICA) and methyl isocyanate (MIC), the exposure concentrations were between 100 and 200 p.p.b., monitored using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer. ICA and MIC were generated by continuous thermal degradation of urea and dimethylurea. The breakthrough was studied by collecting air samples at the outlet of the filter cartridges using impinger flasks or dry samplers with di-n-butylamine as derivatization reagent for isocyanates followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. For hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), the exposure concentrations were between 4 and 20 p.p.b. and were generated by wet membrane permeation. To reveal the profile of adsorption in different layers of the respirator filters, representative samples from each of the layers were hydrolyzed. The hydrolysis products hexamethylene diamine and isophorone diamine were determined after derivatization with pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA) followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. The two filter types studied efficiently absorbed both ICA and MIC. There was no trend of impaired performance throughout 48-h exposure tests. Even when the filters were exposed to high concentrations (approximately 200 p.p.b.) of ICA and MIC for 96 h, the isocyanates were efficiently absorbed with only a limited breakthrough. The majority of the HDI and IPDI (>90%) were absorbed in the top layers of the absorbant, but HDI and IPDI penetrated farther down into the respirator filters during 120 h

  4. Evaluating a composite cartridge for small system drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Nur; Sinha, Rajib; Krishnan, Radha; Patterson, Craig L; Haught, Roy C; Harms, Harold H; Seville, Rick

    2010-06-01

    A pilot-scale evaluation was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Test & Evaluation (T&E) Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio, on a multi-layer, cartridge-based system that combines physical filtration with carbon adsorption and ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection to serve as a home-base water treatment security device against accidental or intentional contaminant events. The system was challenged with different levels of turbidity, a number of biological contaminants including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, MS2 bacteriophage and Polystyrene Latex (PSL) beads as a surrogate for Cryptosporidium and a number of chemical contaminants including super-chlorination, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), water chlorination disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and diazinon. The results demonstrated that the performance of the system varies as a function of the specific contaminant or surrogate. The overall performance indicated the potential of the system to improve the quality and safety of household water and to serve as an additional treatment barrier in circumstances where there is little or no treatment or where the quality of treated water may have deteriorated during distribution. The results also demonstrated that B. subtilis spore can serve as a more conservative surrogate for Cryptosporidium than PSL beads.

  5. A Modified Electrostatic Adsorption Apparatus for Latent Fingerprint Development on Unfired Cartridge Cases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingyang; Zhang, Ziyuan; Zheng, Xiaochun; Bond, John W

    2016-12-13

    Visualization of latent fingerprints on metallic surfaces by the method of applying electrostatic charging and adsorption is considered as a promising chemical-free method, which has the merit of nondestruction, and is considered to be effective for some difficult situations such as aged fingerprint deposits or those exposed to environmental extremes. In fact, a portable electrostatic generator can be easily accessible in a local forensic technology laboratory, which is already widely used in the visualization of footwear impressions. In this study, a modified version of this electrostatic apparatus is proposed for latent fingerprint development and has shown great potential in visualizing fingerprints on metallic surfaces such as cartridge cases. Results indicate that this experimental arrangement can successfully develop aged latent fingerprints on metal surfaces, and we demonstrate its effectiveness compared with existing conventional fingerprint recovery methods.

  6. High performance quarter-inch cartridge tape systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, Ted

    1993-01-01

    Within the established low cost structure of Data Cartridge drive technology, it is possible to achieve nearly 1 terrabyte (10(exp 12)) of data capacity and more than 1 Gbit/sec (greater than 100 Mbytes/sec) transfer rates. The desirability to place this capability within a single cartridge will be determined by the market. The 3.5 in. or smaller form factor may suffice to serve both the current Data Cartridge market and a high performance segment. In any case, Data Cartridge Technology provides a strong sustainable technology growth path in the 21st century.

  7. Disposable and removable nucleic acid extraction and purification cartridges for automated flow-through systems

    DOEpatents

    Regan, John Frederick

    2014-09-09

    Removable cartridges are used on automated flow-through systems for the purpose of extracting and purifying genetic material from complex matrices. Different types of cartridges are paired with specific automated protocols to concentrate, extract, and purifying pathogenic or human genetic material. Their flow-through nature allows large quantities sample to be processed. Matrices may be filtered using size exclusion and/or affinity filters to concentrate the pathogen of interest. Lysed material is ultimately passed through a filter to remove the insoluble material before the soluble genetic material is delivered past a silica-like membrane that binds the genetic material, where it is washed, dried, and eluted. Cartridges are inserted into the housing areas of flow-through automated instruments, which are equipped with sensors to ensure proper placement and usage of the cartridges. Properly inserted cartridges create fluid- and air-tight seals with the flow lines of an automated instrument.

  8. Variable thrust cartridge

    DOEpatents

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    2000-11-07

    The present invention is a variable thrust cartridge comprising a water-molten aluminum reaction chamber from which a slug is propelled. The cartridge comprises a firing system that initiates a controlled explosion from the reaction chamber. The explosive force provides a thrust to a slug, preferably contained within the cartridge.

  9. Adsorption Refrigeration System

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kai; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption refrigeration is an environmentally friendly cooling technology which could be driven by recovered waste heat or low-grade heat such as solar energy. In comparison with absorption system, an adsorption system has no problems such as corrosion at high temperature and salt crystallization. In comparison with vapor compression refrigeration system, it has the advantages of simple control, no moving parts and less noise. This paper introduces the basic theory of adsorption cycle as well as the advanced adsorption cycles such as heat and mass recovery cycle, thermal wave cycle and convection thermal wave cycle. The types, characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of different adsorbents used in adsorption refrigeration systems are also summarized. This article will increase the awareness of this emerging cooling technology among the HVAC engineers and help them select appropriate adsorption systems in energy-efficient building design.

  10. Hollow-Fiber Cartridges: Model Systems for Virus Removal from Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobitz, Frank; Menon, Jeevan

    2005-11-01

    Aethlon Medical is developing a hollow-fiber hemodialysis device designed to remove viruses and toxins from blood. Possible target viruses include HIV and pox-viruses. The filter could reduce virus and viral toxin concentration in the patient's blood, delaying illness so the patient's immune system can fight off the virus. In order to optimize the design of such a filter, the fluid mechanics of the device is both modeled analytically and investigated experimentally. The flow configuration of the proposed device is that of Starling flow. Polysulfone hollow-fiber dialysis cartridges were used. The cartridges are charged with water as a model fluid for blood and fluorescent latex beads are used in the experiments as a model for viruses. In the experiments, properties of the flow through the cartridge are determined through pressure and volume flow rate measurements of water. The removal of latex beads, which are captured in the porous walls of the fibers, was measured spectrophotometrically. Experimentally derived coefficients derived from these experiments are used in the analytical model of the flow and removal predictions from the model are compared to those obtained from the experiments.

  11. Modular microfluidic cartridge-based universal diagnostic system for global health applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Holger; Klemm, Richard; Dietze, William; White, Wallace; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Freyberg, Susanne; Moche, Christian; Dailey, Peter; Gärtner, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Current microfluidics-enabled point-of-care diagnostic systems are typically designed specifically for one assay type, e.g. a molecular diagnostic assay for a single disease of a class of diseases. This approach often leads to high development cost and a significant training requirement for users of different instruments. We have developed an open platform diagnostic system which allows to run molecular, immunological and clinical assays on a single instrument platform with a standardized microfluidic cartridge architecture in an automated sample-in answer-out fashion. As examples, a molecular diagnostic assay for tuberculosis, an immunoassay for HIV p24 and a clinical chemistry assay for ALT liver function have been developed and results of their pre-clinical validation are presented.

  12. Can the RUVIS reflected UV imaging system visualize fingerprint corrosion on brass cartridge casings postfiring?

    PubMed

    Leintz, Rachel; Bond, John W

    2013-05-01

    Comparisons are made between the visualization of fingerprint corrosion ridge detail on fired brass cartridge casings, where fingerprint sweat was deposited prefiring, using both ultraviolet (UV) and visible (natural daylight) light sources. A reflected ultraviolet imaging system (RUVIS), normally used for visualizing latent fingerprint sweat deposits, is compared with optical interference and digital color mapping of visible light, the latter using apparatus constructed to easily enable selection of the optimum viewing angle. Results show that reflected UV, with a monochromatic UV source of 254 nm, was unable to visualize fingerprint ridge detail on any of 12 casings analyzed, whereas optical interference and digital color mapping using natural daylight yielded ridge detail on three casings. Reasons for the lack of success with RUVIS are discussed in terms of the variation in thickness of the thin film of metal oxide corrosion and absorption wavelengths for the corrosion products of brass.

  13. Regenerable adsorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roychoudhury, Subir (Inventor); Perry, Jay (Inventor); Walsh, Dennis (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method for regenerable adsorption includes providing a substrate that defines at least one layer of ultra short channel length mesh capable of conducting an electrical current therethrough, coating at least a portion of the substrate with a desired sorbent for trace contaminant control or CO.sub.2 sorption, resistively heating the substrate, and passing a flowstream through the substrate and in contact with the sorbent.

  14. Combustible Cartridge Case Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    University (NYU) has resulted in the selection of two cross-linked melamine / formaldehyde acrylic styrene resin systems that can be used in the beater additive... melamine resin Akaradit II stabilizer 20. ABSTRACT (con) Test coupons of combustible cartridge case material were fabricated using these recommended...and agitated for 30 min before the pH was slowly lowered to 3 with p-toluene sulfonic acid. In order to maintain this pH in the felting tank, it was

  15. A longitudinal evaluation of performance of automated BCR-ABL1 quantitation using cartridge-based detection system

    PubMed Central

    Enjeti, Anoop; Granter, Neil; Ashraf, Asma; Fletcher, Linda; Branford, Susan; Rowlings, Philip; Dooley, Susan

    2015-01-01

    SummaryAn automated cartridge-based detection system (GeneXpert; Cepheid) is being widely adopted in low throughput laboratories for monitoring BCR-ABL1 transcript in chronic myelogenous leukaemia. This Australian study evaluated the longitudinal performance specific characteristics of the automated system. The automated cartridge-based system was compared prospectively with the manual qRT-PCR-based reference method at SA Pathology, Adelaide, over a period of 2.5 years. A conversion factor determination was followed by four re-validations. Peripheral blood samples (n = 129) with international scale (IS) values within detectable range were selected for assessment. The mean bias, proportion of results within specified fold difference (2-, 3- and 5-fold), the concordance rate of major molecular remission (MMR) and concordance across a range of IS values on paired samples were evaluated. The initial conversion factor for the automated system was determined as 0.43. Except for the second re-validation, where a negative bias of 1.9-fold was detected, all other biases fell within desirable limits. A cartridge-specific conversion factor and efficiency value was introduced and the conversion factor was confirmed to be stable in subsequent re-validation cycles. Concordance with the reference method/laboratory at >0.1–≤10 IS was 78.2% and at ≤0.001 was 80%, compared to 86.8% in the >0.01–≤0.1 IS range. The overall and MMR concordance were 85.7% and 94% respectively, for samples that fell within ± 5-fold of the reference laboratory value over the entire period of study. Conversion factor and performance specific characteristics for the automated system were longitudinally stable in the clinically relevant range, following introduction by the manufacturer of lot specific efficiency values. PMID:26166664

  16. Studies on Vapor Adsorption Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamsundar, N.; Ramotowski, M.

    1998-01-01

    The project consisted of performing experiments on single and dual bed vapor adsorption systems, thermodynamic cycle optimization, and thermal modeling. The work was described in a technical paper that appeared in conference proceedings and a Master's thesis, which were previously submitted to NASA. The present report describes some additional thermal modeling work done subsequently, and includes listings of computer codes developed during the project. Recommendations for future work are provided.

  17. A disposable bacterial lysis cartridge (BLC) suitable for an in situ water-borne pathogen detection system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Hee; Lim, Hyun Jeong; Son, Ahjeong; Chua, Beelee

    2015-11-21

    We constructed a disposable bacterial lysis cartridge (BLC) suitable for an in situ pathogen detection system. It had an in-built micro corona discharge based ozone generator that provided ozone for cell lysis. Using a custom sample handling platform, its performance was evaluated with a Gram-positive bacterium of Bacillus subtilis. It was capable of achieving a similar degree of lysis as a commercial ultrasonic dismembrator with a P-1 microprobe in 10 min at an air pump flow rate of 29.4 ml min(-1) and an ozone generator operating voltage of 1600 V. The lysing duration could be significantly reduced to 5 min by increasing the air pump flow rate and the ozone generator operating voltage as well as by the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS).

  18. Quick-change filter cartridge

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.; McFarland, Andrew R.; Ortiz, Carlos A.

    1995-01-01

    A quick-change filter cartridge. In sampling systems for measurement of airborne materials, a filter element is introduced into the sampled airstream such that the aerosol constituents are removed and deposited on the filter. Fragile sampling media often require support in order to prevent rupture during sampling, and careful mounting and sealing to prevent misalignment, tearing, or creasing which would allow the sampled air to bypass the filter. Additionally, handling of filter elements may introduce cross-contamination or exposure of operators to toxic materials. Moreover, it is desirable to enable the preloading of filter media into quick-change cartridges in clean laboratory environments, thereby simplifying and expediting the filter-changing process in the field. The quick-change filter cartridge of the present invention permits the application of a variety of filter media in many types of instruments and may also be used in automated systems. The cartridge includes a base through which a vacuum can be applied to draw air through the filter medium which is located on a porous filter support and held there by means of a cap which forms an airtight seal with the base. The base is also adapted for receiving absorbing media so that both particulates and gas-phase samples may be trapped for investigation, the latter downstream of the aerosol filter.

  19. The Effect of Examiner Variation in Cartridge Case Acquisition on IBISreg Correlation Scores and the Ability of the System to Return a True Positive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scicchitano, Kristine M.

    When entering cartridge case exhibits into the Integrated Ballistics Identification System (IBISRTM), examiners have the ability to manually manipulate three parameters: lighting intensity, ring selection and exhibit orientation. User guidelines for these settings are subjective, and the effect of examiner variation is largely unknown. If examiner variation negatively affects the returned correlation scores, the ability of the system to return true positives will be compromised. By entering cartridge cases into IBISRTM 88 separate times, using 88 different combinations of parameter settings, the effect of these variables was determined. Analysis of variance testing revealed that no variable has a statistically significant effect on average true positive combined correlation scores or results list position. This did not change when the parameters were tested individually or in combination. Results indicate that examiner variability of cartridge case image acquisition has no effect on the outcome of IBIS RTM. The system's matching algorithm is robust enough to handle exhibit entry and data collection without the intervention of human input. For this reason, acquisition could be completely automated, allowing examiners to focus on the decision making stage of cartridge case comparison.

  20. Pulse joining cartridges

    DOEpatents

    Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich; Bonnen, John Joseph Francis

    2016-08-23

    A pulsed joining tool includes a tool body that defines a cavity that receives an inner tubular member and an outer tubular member and a pulse joining cartridge. The tubular members are nested together with the cartridge being disposed around the outer tubular member. The cartridge includes a conductor, such as a wire or foil, that extends around the outer tubular member and is insulated to separate a supply segment from a return segment. A source of stored electrical energy is discharged through the conductor to join the tubular members with an electromagnetic force pulse.

  1. Automated Sample Preparation (ASP): Development of a Rapid Method to Sequentially Isolate Nucleic Acids and Protein from Any Sample Type by a Cartridge-Based System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-27

    goals. Specifically, CUBRC will design and manufacture a prototype cartridge(s) and test the prototype cartridge for its ability to isolate each...analyte individually and in succession. Testing will be performed on both laboratory derived samples 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...CUBRC will design and manufacture a prototype cartridge(s) and test the prototype cartridge for its ability to isolate each analyte individually and in

  2. CGF cartridge development, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, Carl A.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a summary of SRI's efforts in Crystal Growth Furnace cartridge developments. It includes: evaluation of molybdenum, TZM, and WC-103 as cartridge materials; a survey of oxidation resistant coatings; chemical compatibility studies of cadmium-zinc-telluride and gallium-arsenide with TZM and WC-103; a survey of future cartridge materials; and suggested improvements in ampoule design.

  3. Determination of pressure drop across activated carbon fiber respirator cartridges.

    PubMed

    Balanay, Jo Anne G; Lungu, Claudiu T

    2016-01-01

    Activated carbon fiber (ACF) is considered as an alternative adsorbent to granular activated carbon (GAC) for the development of thinner, lighter, and efficient respirators because of their larger surface area and adsorption capacities, thinner critical bed depth, lighter weight, and fabric form. This study aims to measure the pressure drop across different types of commercially available ACFs in respirator cartridges to determine the ACF composition and density that will result in acceptably breathable respirators. Seven ACF types in cloth (ACFC) and felt (ACFF) forms were tested. ACFs in cartridges were challenged with pre-conditioned constant air flow (43 LPM, 23°C, 50% RH) at different compositions (single- or combination-ACF type) in a test chamber. Pressure drop across ACF cartridges were obtained using a micromanometer, and compared among different cartridge configurations, to those of the GAC cartridge, and to the NIOSH breathing resistance requirements for respirator cartridges. Single-ACF type cartridges filled with any ACFF had pressure drop measurements (23.71-39.93 mmH2O) within the NIOSH inhalation resistance requirement of 40 mmH2O, while those of the ACFC cartridges (85.47±3.67 mmH2O) exceeded twice the limit due possibly to the denser weaving of ACFC fibers. All single ACFF-type cartridges had higher pressure drop compared to the GAC cartridge (23.13±1.14 mmH2O). Certain ACF combinations (2 ACFF or ACFC/ACFF types) resulted to pressure drop (26.39-32.81 mmH2O) below the NIOSH limit. All single-ACFF type and all combination-ACF type cartridges with acceptable pressure drop had much lower adsorbent weights than GAC (≤15.2% of GAC weight), showing potential for light-weight respirator cartridges. 100% ACFC in cartridges may result to respirators with high breathing resistance and, thus, is not recommended. The more dense ACFF and ACFC types may still be possibly used in respirators by combining them with less dense ACFF materials and/or by

  4. Integrated quality control: implementation and validation of instrument function checks and procedural controls for a cartridge-based point-of-care system for critical care analysis.

    PubMed

    D'Orazio, Paul; Mansouri, Sohrab

    2013-03-01

    In this article, the process used to develop and validate an integrated quality-control system for a cartridge-based, point-of-care system for critical care analysis is outlined. Application of risk management principles has resulted in a quality control system using a combination of statistical quality control with onboard reference solutions and failure pattern recognition used to flag common failure modes during the analytical phase of the testing process. A combination of traditional external quality control, integrated quality control to monitor ongoing instrument functionality, operator training, and other laboratory-implemented monitors is most effective in controlling known failure modes during the testing process.

  5. Chemical compatibility of cartridge materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Bryan; Wilcox, R. C.; Zee, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives were to determine the chemical compatibility of titanium-zirconium-molybdenum (TZM) with GaAs and CdZnTe, and Inconel with HgCdTe and HgZnTe. At the present time, no other studies regarding the compatibility of these crystal components and their respective cartridge materials have been performed. This study was to identify any possible problems between these materials to insure proper containment of possibly hazardous fumes during crystal growth experiments. In this study, the reaction zone between the materials was studied and the amount of degradation to the system was measured. Detailed results are presented.

  6. Droplet actuator analyzer with cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Gregory F. (Inventor); Sturmer, Ryan A. (Inventor); Paik, Philip Y. (Inventor); Srinivasan, Vijay (Inventor); Pollack, Michael G. (Inventor); Pamula, Vamsee K. (Inventor); Brafford, Keith R. (Inventor); West, Richard M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A droplet actuator with cartridge is provided. According to one embodiment, a sample analyzer is provided and includes an analyzer unit comprising electronic or optical receiving means, a cartridge comprising self-contained droplet handling capabilities, and a wherein the cartridge is coupled to the analyzer unit by a means which aligns electronic and/or optical outputs from the cartridge with electronic or optical receiving means on the analyzer unit. According to another embodiment, a sample analyzer is provided and includes a sample analyzer comprising a cartridge coupled thereto and a means of electrical interface and/or optical interface between the cartridge and the analyzer, whereby electrical signals and/or optical signals may be transmitted from the cartridge to the analyzer.

  7. Catalytic cartridge SO3 decomposer

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, T.R.

    1982-05-25

    A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO3 decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a crossflow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO3 gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axialflow cartridge, so3 gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.

  8. Shotgun cartridge rock breaker

    DOEpatents

    Ruzzi, Peter L.; Morrell, Roger J.

    1995-01-01

    A rock breaker uses shotgun cartridges or other firearm ammunition as the explosive charge at the bottom of a drilled borehole. The breaker includes a heavy steel rod or bar, a gun with a firing chamber for the ammunition which screws onto the rod, a long firing pin running through a central passage in the rod, and a firing trigger mechanism at the external end of the bar which strikes the firing pin to fire the cartridge within the borehole. A tubular sleeve surround the main body of the rod and includes slits the end to allow it to expand. The rod has a conical taper at the internal end against which the end of the sleeve expands when the sleeve is forced along the rod toward the taper by a nut threaded onto the external end of the rod. As the sleeve end expands, it pushes against the borehole and holds the explosive gasses within, and also prevents the breaker from flying out of the borehole. The trigger mechanism includes a hammer with a slot and a hole for accepting a drawbar or drawpin which, when pulled by a long cord, allows the cartridge to be fired from a remote location.

  9. Cartridge Valves: A New Technology for Fluid Power Transmission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruen, Clem; Garrett, Jim

    1985-01-01

    Describes a new technology--the cartridge or logic valve, which streamlines hydraulic systems by decreasing the number of individual components and increasing system efficiency. The author describes and illustrates the principles and components of the valve, explains the types of cartridge inserts, and discusses applications of the system. (CT)

  10. Use of C18 silica cartridges to purify and characterize pterins

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, K.B.; Ferre, J.

    1986-01-01

    The C18 silica cartridge is shown to be useful to prepare samples for quantitative analysis. The concentration of the compound to be analyzed and the removal of some interfering substances can be accomplished simultaneously. The purpose of this report is to describe the basic principles that govern adsorption of pteridines to C18 silica cartridges. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Carbon adsorption system protects LPG storage sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Gothenquist, C.A.; Rooker, K.M.

    1996-07-01

    Chevron U.S.A. Products Co. installed a carbon adsorption system to protect an LPG storage sphere at its refinery in Richmond, Calif. Vessel damage can result when amine contamination leads to emulsion formation and consequent amine carry-over, thus promoting wet-H{sub 2}S cracking. In Chevron`s No. 5 H{sub 2}S recovery plant, a mixture of butane and propane containing H{sub 2}S is contacted with diethanolamine (DEA) in a liquid-liquid absorber. The absorber is a countercurrent contactor with three packed beds. Because the sweetening system did not include a carbon adsorption unit for amine purification, contaminants were building up in the DEA. The contaminants comprised: treatment chemicals, hydrocarbons, foam inhibitors, and amine degradation products. The paper describes the solution to this problem.

  12. Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, Roddie R.; Burchell, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided.

  13. Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

    1999-06-15

    Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided. 5 figs.

  14. Catalyst cartridge for carbon dioxide reduction unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A catalyst cartridge, for use in a carbon dioxide reducing apparatus in a life support system for space vehicles, is described. The catalyst cartridge includes an inner perforated metal wall, an outer perforated wall space outwardly from the inner wall, a base plate closing one end of the cartridge, and a cover plate closing the other end of the cartridge. The cover plate has a central aperture through which a supply line with a heater feeds a gaseous reaction mixture comprising hydrogen and carbon dioxide at a temperature from about 1000 to about 1400 F. The outer surfaces of the internal wall and the inner surfaces of the outer wall are lined with a ceramic fiber batting material of sufficient thickness to prevent carbon formed in the reaction from passing through it. The portion of the surfaces of the base and cover plates defined within the inner and outer walls are also lined with ceramic batting. The heated reaction mixture passes outwardly through the inner perforated wall and ceramic batting and over the catalyst. The solid carbon product formes is retained within the enclosure containing the catalyst. The solid carbon product formed is retained within the enclosure containing the catalyst. The water vapor and unreacted carbon dioxide and any intermediate products pass through the perforations of the outer wall.

  15. Spiral wound extraction cartridge

    DOEpatents

    Wisted, Eric E.; Lundquist, Susan H.

    1999-01-01

    A cartridge device for removing an analyte from a fluid comprises a hollow core, a sheet composite comprising a particulate-loaded porous membrane and optionally at least one reinforcing spacer sheet, the particulate being capable of binding the analyte, the sheet composite being formed into a spiral configuration about the core, wherein the sheet composite is wound around itself and wherein the windings of sheet composite are of sufficient tightness so that adjacent layers are essentially free of spaces therebetween, two end caps which are disposed over the core and the lateral ends of the spirally wound sheet composite, and means for securing the end caps to the core, the end caps also being secured to the lateral ends of the spirally wound sheet composite. A method for removing an analyte from a fluid comprises the steps of providing a spirally wound element of the invention and passing the fluid containing the analyte through the element essentially normal to a surface of the sheet composite so as to bind the analyte to the particulate of the particulate-loaded porous membrane, the method optionally including the step of eluting the bound analyte from the sheet composite.

  16. Spiral wound extraction cartridge

    DOEpatents

    Wisted, E.E.; Lundquist, S.H.

    1999-04-27

    A cartridge device for removing an analyte from a fluid comprises a hollow core, a sheet composite comprising a particulate-loaded porous membrane and optionally at least one reinforcing spacer sheet, the particulate being capable of binding the analyte, the sheet composite being formed into a spiral configuration about the core, wherein the sheet composite is wound around itself and wherein the windings of sheet composite are of sufficient tightness so that adjacent layers are essentially free of spaces therebetween, two end caps which are disposed over the core and the lateral ends of the spirally wound sheet composite, and means for securing the end caps to the core, the end caps also being secured to the lateral ends of the spirally wound sheet composite. A method for removing an analyte from a fluid comprises the steps of providing a spirally wound element of the invention and passing the fluid containing the analyte through the element essentially normal to a surface of the sheet composite so as to bind the analyte to the particulate of the particulate-loaded porous membrane, the method optionally including the step of eluting the bound analyte from the sheet composite. 4 figs.

  17. Light-emitting diode induced fluorescence (LED-IF) detection design for a pen-shaped cartridge based single capillary electrophoresis system.

    PubMed

    Kerékgyártó, Márta; Kerekes, Tamás; Tsai, Eric; Amirkhanian, Varoujan D; Guttman, András

    2012-09-01

    CGE is a well-established separation technique for the analysis of biologically important molecules such as nucleic acids. The inherent high resolving power, rapid analysis times, excellent detection sensitivity, and quantification capabilities makes this method favorable compared to conventional manual polyacrylamide and agarose slab gel electrophoresis techniques. In this paper we introduce a novel single-channel capillary gel electrophoresis system with LED-induced fluorescence detection also utilizing a compact pen-shaped capillary cartridge design for automatic analysis of samples from a 96-well plate. To evaluate the suitability of the system, 1000 genomic DNA(gDNA) samples were analyzed in gel filled capillaries and detected by the microball ended excitation and emission optical fiber based LED-induced fluorescence detection system. Excellent migration time reproducibility of RSD <0.75% was obtained over the course of 1000 runs. The system rapidly distinguished between intact and degraded gDNA samples, therefore provided important information if they could be used for downstream quantitative PCR processing where high-quality intact gDNA was key. We envision that this novel system design will rapidly find new applications in both research and clinical diagnostic laboratories as a highly sensitive and easy to use bio-analytical approach.

  18. Development of a novel filter cartridge system with electropositive granule media to concentrate viruses from large volumes of natural surface water.

    PubMed

    Jin, Min; Guo, Xuan; Wang, Xin-Wei; Yang, Dong; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Qiu, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Zhao-Li; Li, Jun-Wen

    2014-06-17

    Exposure to various infectious viruses in environmental drinking water can constitute a public health risk. However, it is difficult to detect viruses in water due to their low concentration. In this study, we have developed a novel filter cartridge system containing electropositive granule media (EGM). Viruses present in large volumes of environmental samples were adsorbed onto the EGM, and then recovered by elution and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) concentration. To evaluate the system's efficiency in viral recovery, poliovirus (PV-1), a surrogate for enteric viruses, was used to artificially contaminate river water samples which were then assayed by quantitative real-time PCR. To optimize the concentration procedure, the eluent type, water flow rate and properties (e.g., pH, bacterial, and viral loads), were evaluated. The highest virus recovery was obtained by pumping river water at a flow rate of 300 mL/min and then pushing 3 L of an eluent containing 3× broth [1.5% (w/v) NaCl, 3% (w/v) tryptone, 1.5% (w/v) beef powder] with 0.05 mol/L glycine through the filter. Using this procedure, the recovery efficiencies of PV-1 from 10 to 100 L of spiked river water were up to 99%. In addition, this method is virus load and pH dependent. Virus recovery was maximal at a load of between 10(3.5) and 10(5.5) TCID50 and a pH ranging from 5 to 7. The bacterial load in the water has no effect on virus recovery. Different types of viruses and surface water were tested to validate the system's applicability. Results revealed that the EGM filter cartridge was able to concentrate PV-1, human adenoviruses (HAdVs) and noroviruses (HuNoVs) with high efficiency from river, lake, and reservoir water. Furthermore, it showed more efficient recovery than glass wool and 1MDS filters. These data suggest that this system provides rapid and efficient virus recovery from a large volume of natural surface water and, as such, could be a useful tool in revealing the presence of viruses in surface

  19. Automatic firearm class identification from cartridge cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalakannan, Sridharan; Mann, Christopher J.; Bingham, Philip R.; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Gleason, Shaun S.

    2011-03-01

    We present a machine vision system for automatic identification of the class of firearms by extracting and analyzing two significant properties from spent cartridge cases, namely the Firing Pin Impression (FPI) and the Firing Pin Aperture Outline (FPAO). Within the framework of the proposed machine vision system, a white light interferometer is employed to image the head of the spent cartridge cases. As a first step of the algorithmic procedure, the Primer Surface Area (PSA) is detected using a circular Hough transform. Once the PSA is detected, a customized statistical region-based parametric active contour model is initialized around the center of the PSA and evolved to segment the FPI. Subsequently, the scaled version of the segmented FPI is used to initialize a customized Mumford-Shah based level set model in order to segment the FPAO. Once the shapes of FPI and FPAO are extracted, a shape-based level set method is used in order to compare these extracted shapes to an annotated dataset of FPIs and FPAOs from varied firearm types. A total of 74 cartridge case images non-uniformly distributed over five different firearms are processed using the aforementioned scheme and the promising nature of the results (95% classification accuracy) demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  20. Topography measurements for correlations of standard cartridge cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorburger, T. V.; Song, J.; Chu, W.; Renegar, T. B.; Zheng, A.; Yen, J.; Thompson, R. M.; Silver, R.; Bachrach, B.; Ols, M.

    2010-06-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Materials (SRM) 2460 Standard Bullets and 2461 Standard Cartridge Cases are intended for use as check standards for crime laboratories to help verify that their computerized optical imaging equipment for ballistics image acquisitions and correlations is operating properly. Using topography measurements and cross-correlation methods, our earlier results for the SRM bullets and recent results for the SRM cartridge cases both demonstrate that the individual units of the SRMs are highly reproducible. Currently, we are developing procedures for topographic imaging of the firing pin impressions, breech face impressions, and ejector marks of the standard cartridge cases. The initial results lead us to conclude that all three areas can be measured accurately and routinely using confocal techniques. We are also nearing conclusion of a project with crime lab experts to test sets of both SRM cartridge cases and SRM bullets using the automated commercial systems of the National Integrated Ballistics Information Network.

  1. Bearing-Cartridge Damping Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goggins, David G.; Scharrer, Joseph K.; Chen, Wei C.

    1991-01-01

    In proposed design for improved ball-bearing cartridge, damping seal in form of thin-layer fluid journal bearing incorporated into cartridge. Damping seal acts as auxiliary bearing, relieving bearing balls of significant portions of both static and dynamic bearing loads. Damping from seal reduces dynamic loads even further by reducing amplitude of vibrations in second vibrational mode of rotor, which mode occurs when rotor turning at nearly full operating speed. Intended for use in high-pressure-oxygen turbopump of Space Shuttle main engine, also applicable to other turbomachinery bearings.

  2. Investigation of Microgranular Adsorptive Filtration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhenxiao

    Over the past few decades, enormous advances have been made in the application of low-pressure membrane filtration to both drinking water and wastewater treatment. Nevertheless, the full potential of this technology has not been reached, due primarily to limitations imposed by membrane fouling. In drinking water treatment, much of the fouling is caused by soluble and particulate natural organic matter (NOM). Efforts to overcome the problem have focused on removal of NOM from the feed solution, usually by addition of conventional coagulants like alum and ferric chloride (FeCl3) or adsorbents like powdered activated carbon (PAC). While coagulants and adsorbents can remove a portion of the NOM, their performance with respect to fouling control has been inconsistent, often reducing fouling but sometimes having no effect or even exacerbating fouling. This research investigated microgranular adsorptive filtration (muGAF), a process that combines three existing technologies---granular media filtration, packed bed adsorption, and membrane filtration---in a novel way to reduce membrane fouling while simultaneously removing NOM from water. In this technology, a thin layer of micron-sized adsorbent particles is deposited on the membrane prior to delivering the feed to the system. The research reported here represents the first systematic study of muGAF, and the results demonstrate the promising potential of this process. A new, aluminum-oxide-based adsorbent---heated aluminum oxide particles (HAOPs)---was synthesized and shown to be very effective for NOM removal as well as fouling reduction in muGAF systems. muGAF has also been demonstrated to work well with powdered activated carbon (PAC) as the adsorbent, but not as well as when HAOPs are used; the process has also been successful when used with several different membrane types and configurations. Experiments using a wide range of operational parameters and several analytical tools lead to the conclusion that the fouling

  3. Analysis of the use of adsorption processes in trigeneration systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzebielec, Andrzej; Rusowicz, Artur

    2013-12-01

    The trigeneration systems for production of cold use sorption refrigeration machines: absorption and adsorption types. Absorption systems are characterized namely by better cooling coefficient of performance, while the adsorptive systems are characterized by the ability to operate at lower temperatures. The driving heat source temperature can be as low as 60-70 °C. Such temperature of the driving heat source allows to use them in district heating systems. The article focuses on the presentation of the research results on the adsorption devices designed to work in trigeneration systems.

  4. 30 CFR 75.1317 - Primer cartridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Primer cartridges. 75.1317 Section 75.1317... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1317 Primer cartridges. (a) Primer cartridges shall be primed and loaded only by a qualified person or a person working in...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1317 - Primer cartridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Primer cartridges. 75.1317 Section 75.1317... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1317 Primer cartridges. (a) Primer cartridges shall be primed and loaded only by a qualified person or a person working in...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1317 - Primer cartridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Primer cartridges. 75.1317 Section 75.1317... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1317 Primer cartridges. (a) Primer cartridges shall be primed and loaded only by a qualified person or a person working in...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1317 - Primer cartridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primer cartridges. 75.1317 Section 75.1317... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1317 Primer cartridges. (a) Primer cartridges shall be primed and loaded only by a qualified person or a person working in...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1317 - Primer cartridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Primer cartridges. 75.1317 Section 75.1317... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1317 Primer cartridges. (a) Primer cartridges shall be primed and loaded only by a qualified person or a person working in...

  9. Effect of cropping systems on adsorption of metals by soils: I. Single-metal adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Basta, N.T.; Tabatabai, M.A. )

    1992-02-01

    The effect of long-term cropping systems on adsorption of metals was studied for soils obtained from two sites, Clarion-Webster Research Center (CWRC site) at Kanawha and Galva-Primghar Research Center (GPRC site) at Sutherland, under long-term rotation experiments in Iowa. Each experiment consisted of three cropping systems: continuous corn (CCCC), corn-soybean-corn-soybean (CSCS), and corn-oats-meadow-meadow (COMM), and treated with (+N) and without (0 N) ammoniacal fertilizer. In general, CSCS and COMM cropping systems did not significantly affect the metal adsorption maxima of soils obtained from both sites. Cadmium, Cu, and Pb adsorption were significantly correlated with pH and percentage base saturation for soils from both sites.

  10. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Rosen, Robert S.

    2005-04-19

    A cartridge primer which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML's would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers.

  11. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Rosen, R.S.

    1998-06-30

    A cartridge primer is described which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML`s would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers. 10 figs.

  12. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Rosen, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    A cartridge primer which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML's would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers.

  13. Video Cartridges and Cassettes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kletter, Richard C.; Hudson, Heather

    The economic and social significance of video cassettes (viewer-controlled playback system) is explored in this report. The potential effect of video cassettes on industrial training, education, libraries, and television is analyzed in conjunction with the anticipated hardware developments. The entire video cassette industry is reviewed firm by…

  14. Silver migration from silver-modified activated carbon applied as a water filtration medium in classic cartridges of jug filter systems.

    PubMed

    Garboś, S; Swięcicka, D

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive study was undertaken in order to examine the possible adverse effect of jug filter systems (JFSs) on the quality of filtered water taking into account the released amounts of silver (Ag) into the filtered test water. Nine brands of JFSs (A-I) were investigated according to BS 8427:2004 using a validated ICP/MS method. Essential modification of BS 8427:2004 within the domain of the composite sample preparation was proposed and applied during the tests. The established grand mean concentrations of released Ag from A-H classic cartridges (containing Ag-modified activated carbon and ion exchange resins) and I classic cartridge (containing non-modified activated carbon and ion exchange resin) installed in corresponding JFSs were in the range of 2.6-13.1 µg l⁻¹ and lower than 0.014 µg l⁻¹, respectively. These values were applied for the estimation of the daily intakes of Ag connected with the consumption of water filtered using JFSs (ranging from < 0.0004 to 0.374 µg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹). After taking into account the grand mean concentrations of Ag established during the whole cycle of exploitation for nine JFSs and on the basis of available toxicological data for this element, no long-term risk for human health with respect to appearance of argyria (a condition caused by improper exposure to the Ag or Ag compounds) could be expected (the Hazard Quotient indices estimated as ratios of the daily intakes to the reference dose of Ag were equal or lower than 0.075). Ag-modified activated carbon is not included in the positive list of the authorised substances of the European Commission Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011. Additionally, this material has not been approved by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). A part of water filtered by JFSs can be directly consumed as drinking water and additionally the remaining water can be applied for the preparation of food products (drinks, soups, etc.). In both cases the quality of water has to fulfil

  15. Catalytic cartridge SO.sub.3 decomposer

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R.

    1982-01-01

    A catalytic cartridge internally heated is utilized as a SO.sub.3 decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube being internally heated. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and being internally heated. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.

  16. Catalytic cartridge SO.sub.3 decomposer

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R.

    1982-01-01

    A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO.sub.3 decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.

  17. Catalytic cartridge SO/sub 3/ decomposer

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-11-18

    A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO/sub 3/ decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety. A fusion reactor may be used as the heat source.

  18. Catalytic cartridge SO/sub 3/ decomposer

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, T.R.

    1982-09-28

    A catalytic cartridge internally heated is utilized as a SO/sub 3/ decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube being internally heated. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and being internally heated. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.

  19. Chemical compatibility of cartridge materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Roy C.; Zee, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    This twelve month progress report deals with the chemical compatibility of semiconductor crystals grown in zero gravity. Specifically, it studies the chemical compatibility between TZM, a molybdenum alloy containing titanium and zirconium, and WC 103, a titanium alloy containing Niobium and Hafnium, and Gallium arsenide (GaAs) and Cadmium Zinc Tellurite (CdZnTe). Due to the health hazards involved, three approaches were used to study the chemical compatibility between the semiconductor and cartridge materials: reaction retort, thermogravimetric analysis, and bulk cylindrical cartridge containers. A scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer was used to examine all samples after testing. The first conclusion drawn is that reaction rates with TZM were not nearly as great as they were with WC 103. Second, the total reaction between GaAs and WC 103 was almost twice that with TZM. Therefore, even though WC 103 is easier to fabricate, at least half of the cartridge thickness will be degraded if contact is made with one of the semiconductor materials leading to a loss of strength properties.

  20. Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-04

    HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

  1. Bell & Howell Introduces an 8mm Cartridge Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educ Screen Audiovisual Guide, 1970

    1970-01-01

    "Bell & Howell has developed a highly versatile cartidge projector system for cine and super 8mm formats. Because Bell & Howell believes that standardization is an important factor in the development of a cartridge system, it has built in a flexibility which will allow this standardization. (Author)

  2. Fungus Resistant XM205 Nonmetallic Cartridge Case,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CARTRIDGE CASES, *FUNGICIDES, FUNGUS PROOFING, FUNGUS DETERIORATION, RESISTANCE, NITROCELLULOSE, POLYMERS, FIBERS, SYNTHETIC FIBERS, MATERIALS, ZINC COMPOUNDS, ORGANIC COMPOUNDS, ORGANIC SULFUR COMPOUNDS.

  3. CONCENTRATION AND PROCESSING OF WATERBORNE VIRUSES BY POSITIVE CHARGE 1MDS CARTRIDGE FILTERS AND ORGANIC FLOCCULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes the most widely used virus adsorption-elution (VIRADEL) method for recovering human enteric viruses from water matrices (Fout et al., 1996). The method takes advantage of postively charged cartridge filters to concentrate viruses from water. The major adv...

  4. Replaceable Microfluidic Cartridges for a PCR Biosensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Kevin; Sullivan, Ron

    2005-01-01

    The figure depicts a replaceable microfluidic cartridge that is a component of a miniature biosensor that detects target deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences. The biosensor utilizes (1) polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) to multiply the amount of DNA to be detected, (2) fluorogenic polynucleotide probe chemicals for labeling the target DNA sequences, and (3) a high-sensitivity epifluorescence-detection optoelectronic subsystem. Microfluidics is a relatively new field of device development in which one applies techniques for fabricating microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) to miniature systems for containing and/or moving fluids. Typically, microfluidic devices are microfabricated, variously, from silicon or polymers. The development of microfluidic devices for applications that involve PCR and fluorescence-based detection of PCR products poses special challenges

  5. Design theory and performance of cryogenic molecular adsorption refrigeration systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, W. H.; Woltman, A. W.; Masson, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    Closed-cycle operation of molecular adsorption refrigeration systems (MARS) has been demonstrated by using thermally cycled zeolites to adsorb and desorb various gases under pressures of 20-60 atm. This paper develops three aspects of the design theory: the physical theory of molecular adsorption of small molecules such as A, N2, N2O and NH3, the design relations for closed-cycle flow for three or more compressors, and the coefficient of performance. This work is intended to demonstrate nonmechanical gas compression for various cryogenic gases than can compete with mechanical systems with a different mix of advantages and disadvantages.

  6. Adsorption Processes in Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, Liese Dall; Finn, John E.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft must maintain a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work. The system's functions include supplying the crew with oxygen and water as well as removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used in the past, logistics and safety factors of current and future missions in space make near-complete recycling of the cabin's air and water imperative. The recycling process may include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and other processes. Several of these operations can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. These processes are frequently good candidates to perform separations and purifications in space due to their gravity independence, high reliability, relatively high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerability. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. This article focuses on three current spacecraft life support applications that often use adsorption technology: gas-phase trace contaminant control, carbon dioxide removal from cabin air, and potable water recovery from waste streams. In each application, adsorption technology has been selected for use on the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for each of these applications are discussed. Eventually, human space exploration may lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may provide additional opportunities for use of adsorption processes, such as control of greenhouse gas composition, and may have different requirements and resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Adsorption separation and

  7. Adsorption processes in spacecraft environmental control and life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DallBauman, L. A.; Finn, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft maintains a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work by supplying oxygen and water and by removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used successfully in the past for short-duration missions, the economics of current and future long-duration missions in space will make nearly complete recycling of air and water imperative. A variety of operations will be necessary to achieve the goal of nearly complete recycling. These include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and others. Several of these can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. These processes are good candidates to perform separations and purifications in space due to their gravity independence, high reliability, relative high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerative nature. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. Among the life support applications that can be achieved through use of adsorption technology are removal of trace contaminants and carbon dioxide from cabin air and recovery of potable water from waste streams. In each of these cases adsorption technology has been selected for use onboard the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for these applications are discussed. Human space exploration may eventually lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may provide additional opportunities for use of adsorption processes, such as control of greenhouse gas composition, and may have different resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Separation and purification processes based on

  8. Adsorption processes in spacecraft environmental control and life support systems.

    PubMed

    DallBauman, L A; Finn, J E

    1999-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft maintains a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work by supplying oxygen and water and by removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used successfully in the past for short-duration missions, the economics of current and future long-duration missions in space will make nearly complete recycling of air and water imperative. A variety of operations will be necessary to achieve the goal of nearly complete recycling. These include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and others. Several of these can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. These processes are good candidates to perform separations and purifications in space due to their gravity independence, high reliability, relative high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerative nature. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. Among the life support applications that can be achieved through use of adsorption technology are removal of trace contaminants and carbon dioxide from cabin air and recovery of potable water from waste streams. In each of these cases adsorption technology has been selected for use onboard the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for these applications are discussed. Human space exploration may eventually lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may provide additional opportunities for use of adsorption processes, such as control of greenhouse gas composition, and may have different resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Separation and purification processes based on

  9. High-Performance Water-Iodinating Cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard; Gibbons, Randall E.; Flanagan, David T.

    1993-01-01

    High-performance cartridge contains bed of crystalline iodine iodinates water to near saturation in single pass. Cartridge includes stainless-steel housing equipped with inlet and outlet for water. Bed of iodine crystals divided into layers by polytetrafluoroethylene baffles. Holes made in baffles and positioned to maximize length of flow path through layers of iodine crystals. Resulting concentration of iodine biocidal; suppresses growth of microbes in stored water or disinfects contaminated equipment. Cartridge resists corrosion and can be stored wet. Reused several times before necessary to refill with fresh iodine crystals.

  10. ALMA band 3 cartridge maintenance plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Keith; Seifried, Kerry; Randolph, William

    2012-09-01

    Under the "Memorandum of Understanding between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)/Associated Universities Incorporated (AUI), Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics (HIA) and the University of Calgary related to Canadian ALMA Construction Phase Work Packages", HIA is committed to deliver a suite of seventy-three Band 3 100 GHz receiver cartridges to the ALMA Project. After the acceptance of each cartridge at the Front End Integration Centers, HIA is responsible to perform any post-delivery maintenance, repair or rework of the cartridges for a warranty period of up to one year. This paper defines a framework for the maintenance and repair services for the Band 3 cartridges after the post-delivery warranty period has expired.

  11. 21 CFR 872.6770 - Cartridge syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... syringe is a device intended to inject anesthetic agents subcutaneously or intramuscularly. The device... cartridge) containing anesthetic is placed. After attaching a needle to the syringe body and activating...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6770 - Cartridge syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... syringe is a device intended to inject anesthetic agents subcutaneously or intramuscularly. The device... cartridge) containing anesthetic is placed. After attaching a needle to the syringe body and activating...

  13. 21 CFR 872.6770 - Cartridge syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... syringe is a device intended to inject anesthetic agents subcutaneously or intramuscularly. The device... cartridge) containing anesthetic is placed. After attaching a needle to the syringe body and activating...

  14. 21 CFR 872.6770 - Cartridge syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... syringe is a device intended to inject anesthetic agents subcutaneously or intramuscularly. The device... cartridge) containing anesthetic is placed. After attaching a needle to the syringe body and activating...

  15. 21 CFR 872.6770 - Cartridge syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... syringe is a device intended to inject anesthetic agents subcutaneously or intramuscularly. The device... cartridge) containing anesthetic is placed. After attaching a needle to the syringe body and activating...

  16. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  17. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  18. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  19. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  20. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  1. 42 CFR 84.192 - Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.192 Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be essentially equal....

  2. 42 CFR 84.192 - Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.192 Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be essentially equal....

  3. 42 CFR 84.192 - Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.192 Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be essentially equal....

  4. 42 CFR 84.192 - Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.192 Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be essentially equal....

  5. 42 CFR 84.192 - Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.192 Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be essentially equal....

  6. Dynamic Correlation Functions of Adsorption Stochastic Systems with Diffusional Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grynberg, Marcelo D.; Stinchcombe, Robin B.

    1995-02-01

    We investigate the nonequilibrium behavior of dynamic correlation functions of random sequential adsorption processes with diffusional relaxation. Depending on the relative values of the transition probability rates, in one dimension these systems reduce to a soluble problem of many fermions. In contrast to the standard diffusive relaxation of the macroscopic density, the correlation functions exhibit a faster decay. Our results are supported and compared with Monte Carlo simulations.

  7. Predicting Adsorption in Natural Systems: Are We There Yet? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koretsky, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    Anthropogenic release of potentially toxic contaminants into near surface environmental systems has led to a pressing need for quantitative models that can accurately predict contaminant speciation under a variety of chemical conditions. Adsorption of solutes can play an important role in determining contaminant speciation, mobility and bioavailability. Thermodynamically-based surface complexation models (SCMs) offer an attractive, theoretically-sound option for describing such reactions. Unlike many empirical models used to describe adsorption, SCMs explicitly include reaction stoichiometries and typically also account for the presence of electrical double layers on sorbent surfaces. In theory, SCMs should be able to correctly describe changes in solute adsorption as a result of variations in pH, electrolyte composition, ionic strength, sorbate/sorbent ratios and in the presence of competing sorbates and sorbents or other chemical reactions (e.g. aqueous complexation, precipitation, dissolution). In spite of these advantageous features of the SCM approach, significant challenges remain in applying such models to natural sediments and soils. These include a lack of: (1) consistent thermodynamic data for a large suite of geologically-relevant sorbates and sorbents, (2) robust thermodynamic data derived using a broad range of solution conditions, (3) data describing solid-solid interactions, and (4) information regarding the role of natural organic matter in promoting or inhibiting adsorption. Difficulties also remain with respect to characterization of complex natural sediments and soils, including straightforward and accurate methods to assess constituent composition, surface areas of solids, solute flow paths and solute residence times. In spite of such challenges, recent work suggests that developing accurate predictive models of adsorption in natural systems is a reasonable and achievable goal. To do so, more thorough, internally-consistent thermodynamic

  8. A polypropylene cartridge filter with hematite nanoparticles for solid particles retention and arsenic removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaszewska, Justyna; Jakubiak, Szymon; Michalski, Jakub; Pronk, Wouter; Hug, Stephan J.; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J.

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we report a processing route for deposition of hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles into a cartridge filter composed of polypropylene (PP) non-woven fabric by a dip-coating method. During the process, a plasma activated non-woven fabric was immersed in an electrostatically stabilized aqueous hematite suspension under low vacuum conditions. Oxygen groups introduced onto the surface of the polymer provide a strong attachment of hematite nanoparticles to the polypropylene surface, confirmed under conditions of ultrasound. Preliminary tests demonstrated the efficiency of the cartridge in treating spring water with moderate arsenic concentrations, with kinetics and extent of adsorption showing a good correlation to a Langmuir adsorption model.

  9. Behavior of human immunoglobulin G adsorption onto immobilized Cu(II) affinity hollow-fiber membranes.

    PubMed

    Borsoi-Ribeiro, Mariana; Bresolin, Igor Tadeu Lazzarotto; Vijayalakshmi, Mookambeswaran; Bueno, Sônia Maria Alves

    2013-10-01

    Iminodiacetic acid (IDA) and tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TREN) chelating ligands were immobilized on poly(ethylene vinyl alcohol) (PEVA) hollow-fiber membranes after activation with epichlorohydrin or butanediol diglycidyl ether (bisoxirane). The affinity membranes complexed with Cu(II) were evaluated for adsorption of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). The effects of matrix activation and buffer system on adsorption of IgG were studied. Isotherms of batch IgG adsorption onto finely cut membranes showed that neither of the chelates, IDA-Cu(II) or TREN-Cu(II), had a Langmuirean behavior with negative cooperativity for IgG binding. A comparison of equilibrium and dynamic maximum capacities showed that the dynamic capacity for a mini-cartridge in a cross-flow filtration mode (52.5 and 298.4 mg g(-1) dry weight for PEVA-TREN-Cu(II) and PEVA-IDA-Cu(II), respectively) was somewhat higher than the equilibrium capacity (9.2 and 73.3 mg g(-1) dry weight for PEVA-TREN-Cu(II) and PEVA-IDA-Cu(II), respectively). When mini-cartridges were used, the dynamic adsorption capacity of IDA-Cu(II) was the same for both mini-cartridge and agarose gel.

  10. A self-contained polymeric cartridge for automated biological sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guolin; Lee, Daniel Yoke San; Xie, Hong; Chiew, Deon; Hsieh, Tseng-Ming; Ali, Emril Mohamed; Lun Looi, Xing; Li, Mo-Huang; Ying, Jackie Y

    2011-09-01

    Sample preparation is one of the most crucial processes for nucleic acids based disease diagnosis. Several steps are required for nucleic acids extraction, impurity washes, and DNA/RNA elution. Careful sample preparation is vital to the obtaining of reliable diagnosis, especially with low copies of pathogens and cells. This paper describes a low-cost, disposable lab cartridge for automatic sample preparation, which is capable of handling flexible sample volumes of 10 μl to 1 ml. This plastic cartridge contains all the necessary reagents for pathogen and cell lysis, DNA/RNA extraction, impurity washes, DNA/RNA elution and waste processing in a completely sealed cartridge. The entire sample preparation processes are automatically conducted within the cartridge on a desktop unit using a pneumatic fluid manipulation approach. Reagents transportation is achieved with a combination of push and pull forces (with compressed air and vacuum, respectively), which are connected to the pneumatic inlets at the bottom of the cartridge. These pneumatic forces are regulated by pinch valve manifold and two pneumatic syringe pumps within the desktop unit. The performance of this pneumatic reagent delivery method was examined. We have demonstrated the capability of the on-cartridge RNA extraction and cancer-specific gene amplification from 10 copies of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The on-cartridge DNA recovery efficiency was 54-63%, which was comparable to or better than the conventional manual approach using silica spin column. The lab cartridge would be suitable for integration with lab-chip real-time polymerase chain reaction devices in providing a portable system for decentralized disease diagnosis.

  11. 42 CFR 84.193 - Cartridges; color and markings; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cartridges; color and markings; requirements. 84.193 Section 84.193 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.193 Cartridges; color and markings; requirements. The color...

  12. 42 CFR 84.193 - Cartridges; color and markings; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cartridges; color and markings; requirements. 84.193 Section 84.193 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.193 Cartridges; color and markings; requirements. The color...

  13. 42 CFR 84.193 - Cartridges; color and markings; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cartridges; color and markings; requirements. 84.193 Section 84.193 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.193 Cartridges; color and markings; requirements. The color...

  14. 42 CFR 84.193 - Cartridges; color and markings; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cartridges; color and markings; requirements. 84.193 Section 84.193 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.193 Cartridges; color and markings; requirements. The color...

  15. 42 CFR 84.193 - Cartridges; color and markings; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cartridges; color and markings; requirements. 84.193 Section 84.193 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.193 Cartridges; color and markings; requirements. The color...

  16. 42 CFR 84.190 - Chemical cartridge respirators: description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators: description. 84.190... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.190 Chemical cartridge respirators: description. (a) Chemical...

  17. 42 CFR 84.190 - Chemical cartridge respirators: description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators: description. 84.190... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.190 Chemical cartridge respirators: description. (a) Chemical...

  18. 42 CFR 84.190 - Chemical cartridge respirators: description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators: description. 84.190... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.190 Chemical cartridge respirators: description. (a) Chemical...

  19. 42 CFR 84.190 - Chemical cartridge respirators: description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators: description. 84.190... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.190 Chemical cartridge respirators: description. (a) Chemical...

  20. 42 CFR 84.190 - Chemical cartridge respirators: description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators: description. 84.190... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.190 Chemical cartridge respirators: description. (a) Chemical...

  1. Gradient Heating Facility. Experiment cartridges. Description and general specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breton, J.

    1982-01-01

    Specifications that define experiment cartridges that are compatible with the furnace of the gradient heating facility on board the Spacelab are presented. They establish a standard cartridge design independent of the type of experiment to be conducted. By using them, experimenters can design, construct, and test the hot section of the cartridge, known as the high temperature nacelle.

  2. An integratable microfluidic cartridge for forensic swab samples lysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianing; Brooks, Carla; Estes, Matthew D; Hurth, Cedric M; Zenhausern, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Fully automated rapid forensic DNA analysis requires integrating several multistep processes onto a single microfluidic platform, including substrate lysis, extraction of DNA from the released lysate solution, multiplexed PCR amplification of STR loci, separation of PCR products by capillary electrophoresis, and analysis for allelic peak calling. Over the past several years, most of the rapid DNA analysis systems developed started with the reference swab sample lysate and involved an off-chip lysis of collected substrates. As a result of advancement in technology and chemistry, addition of a microfluidic module for swab sample lysis has been achieved in a few of the rapid DNA analysis systems. However, recent reports on integrated rapid DNA analysis systems with swab-in and answer-out capability lack any quantitative and qualitative characterization of the swab-in sample lysis module, which is important for downstream forensic sample processing. Maximal collection and subsequent recovery of the biological material from the crime scene is one of the first and critical steps in forensic DNA technology. Herein we present the design, fabrication and characterization of an integratable swab lysis cartridge module and the test results obtained from different types of commonly used forensic swab samples, including buccal, saliva, and blood swab samples, demonstrating the compatibility with different downstream DNA extraction chemistries. This swab lysis cartridge module is easy to operate, compatible with both forensic and microfluidic requirements, and ready to be integrated with our existing automated rapid forensic DNA analysis system. Following the characterization of the swab lysis module, an integrated run from buccal swab sample-in to the microchip CE electropherogram-out was demonstrated on the integrated prototype instrument. Therefore, in this study, we demonstrate that this swab lysis cartridge module is: (1) functionally, comparable with routine benchtop lysis

  3. Absorption and adsorption chillers applied to air conditioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuczyńska, Agnieszka; Szaflik, Władysław

    2010-07-01

    This work presents an application possibility of sorption refrigerators driven by low temperature fluid for air conditioning of buildings. Thermodynamic models were formulated and absorption LiBr-water chiller with 10 kW cooling power as well as adsorption chiller with silica gel bed were investigated. Both of them are using water for desorption process with temperature Tdes = 80 °C. Coefficient of performance (COP) for both cooling cycles was analyzed in the same conditions of the driving heat source, cooling water Tc = 25 °C and temperature in evaporator Tevap = 5 °C. In this study, the computer software EES was used to investigate the performance of absorption heat pump system and its behaviour in configuration with geothermal heat source.

  4. Strontium Adsorption and Desorption Reactions in Model Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-04

    RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 11-04-2014 Journal Article Strontium adsorption and desorption reactions in model... strontium (Sr2+) adsorption to and desorption from iron corrosion products were examined in two model drinking water distribution systems (DWDS...used to control Sr2; desorption. calcium carbonate; drinking water distribution system; α-FeOOH; iron; strontium ; XANES Unclassified

  5. Application of the Finite Compartment Model of Carbon Adsorption to Binary Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    particle pore structure. . . . 5 2. Schematic drawing of activated carbon systems. . ..... 8 3. The adsorption wave ....... .................... ... 13 4...chemical and food industries have continued to use activated carbon adsorption for the removal of color, odor and other impurities. Since 1970 there has...Assuming a first order irreversible reaction for the adsorption of the solute onto the activated carbon a material balance for the solute

  6. Catalytic-cartridge SO/sub 3/ decomposer

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, T.R.

    1981-05-22

    A catalytic cartridge internally heated is utilized as a SO/sub 3/ decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube being internally heated. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and being internally heated. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.

  7. Predicting Boron, Molybdenum, Selenium, and Arsenic Adsorption in Soil Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A chemical surface complexation model was applied to boron, molybdenum, selenium, and arsenic adsorption on up to 49 soils selected for variation in soil properties. The surface complexation model was able to fit boron, molybdenum, selenite, and arsenate adsorption on the soils. General regression...

  8. Preparation of imprinted cryogel cartridge for chiral separation of l-phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Akgönüllü, Semra; Yavuz, Handan; Denizli, Adil

    2017-06-01

    l-Phe-imprinted cryogel cartridge was prepared for the chiral separation of l-Phe. N-Methacryloyl l-phenylalanine (MAPA) was used as a functional monomer for complexing with l-Phe. The selectivity of the membranes was investigated by using d-Phe, l-Trp, and d-Trp as competitor molecules. The PHEMAPA-l-Trp membranes were 6.4, 4.3, and 5.5 times more selective for l-Phe than d-Phe, l-Trp, and d-Trp, respectively. The PHEMAPA-l-Phe cryogel cartridge was incorporated into the fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) equipment and was able to separate D,l-Phe racemic mixture efficiently. The PHEMAPA-l-Phe membranes were shown to be reusable many times without significant loss of the adsorption capacity.

  9. Cost and Performance Report 3M Selective Separation Cartridges

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.

    2000-12-19

    In the summer of 1998, the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM-50) initiated a water treatment project through its Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program at the Savannah River Site (DOE-SR, 1999). The purpose of the ASTD project was to deploy new and innovative water treatment technologies - that offer significant improvements over existing baseline technologies - in the removal of cesium and strontium from contaminated water. One of the technologies selected by EM-50 was the Selective Separation Cartridge, based on an innovative membrane technology developed the 3M Co., St. Paul, MN (OST-2000).The Savannah River Site is committed to deploy this Selective Separation Cartridge technology at other appropriate locations. It may be appropriate for other Reactor Disassembly Basins, or in-situ groundwater remediation. The deployment of this technology will be considered strongly as opportunities present themselves. The primary lesson learned is to anticipate and plan to reduce the radiation dose from a Cs-137 removal system to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) concept. 3M did not include any mitigating actions in their original design and fabrication, primarily because the system was completely constructed before WSRC became deeply involved with the 3M/EM-50 project.

  10. The two-fire, one-cartridge stapling method using a modified Endo-GIA.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, A; Tsuchida, M

    1996-08-01

    The endoscopic stapler (Endo-GIA) was designed to divide tissue between two triple-stapled lines. The endoscopic surgeon frequently encounters situations where only stapling is required. Kirby described a staple closure method that uses a knifeless Endo-GIA cartridge. This method, although useful, has the problem of the modified Endo-GIA unit locking. Therefore, we devised a new technique for endoscopic stapling that involves two consecutive staplings using one cartridge without cutting. This method requires modification of the Endo-GIA system by removing the safety-lock system. In addition to enabling endoscopic stapling techniques without the risk of locking, the method can effect a significant cost savings.

  11. Microfluidic cartridges for DNA purification and genotyping processed in standard laboratory instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focke, Maximilian; Mark, Daniel; Stumpf, Fabian; Müller, Martina; Roth, Günter; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix

    2011-06-01

    Two microfluidic cartridges intended for upgrading standard laboratory instruments with automated liquid handling capability by use of centrifugal forces are presented. The first microfluidic cartridge enables purification of DNA from human whole blood and is operated in a standard laboratory centrifuge. The second microfluidic catridge enables genotyping of pathogens by geometrically multiplexed real-time PCR. It is operated in a slightly modified off-the-shelf thermal cycler. Both solutions aim at smart and cost-efficient ways to automate work flows in laboratories. The DNA purification cartridge automates all liquid handling steps starting from a lysed blood sample to PCR ready DNA. The cartridge contains two manually crushable glass ampoules with liquid reagents. The DNA yield extracted from a 32 μl blood sample is 192 +/- 30 ng which corresponds to 53 +/- 8% of a reference extraction. The genotyping cartridge is applied to analyse isolates of the multi-resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA) by real-time PCR. The wells contain pre-stored dry reagents such as primers and probes. Evaluation of the system with 44 genotyping assays showed a 100% specificity and agreement with the reference assays in standard tubes. The lower limit of detection was well below 10 copies of DNA per reaction.

  12. An environmental friendly recovery production line of waste toner cartridges.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Jujun; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2011-01-30

    Quantity of waste toner cartridges has been generated following the increasing demand for printer and duplicator. Waste toner cartridge contains abundant valuable metals, plastics as well as toxic residual toner. Therefore, the recovery of waste toner cartridges is a meaningful subject, not only from waste treatment but also from environment protection. This study proposed a mechanical production line for recovering waste toner cartridges. The recovery process involved shearing process, magnetic separation, and eddy current separation. The recovery rates of steel (magnet), toner, aluminum, and plastic were 98.4%, 95%, 97.5%, and 98.8%, respectively. The results of the comparison between the production line and full manual dismantling indicated that the production line succeed in recovering waste toner cartridges. In addition, the proposed production line is an efficient and environmental friendly way for recovering waste toner cartridges.

  13. Electric cartridge-type heater for producing a given non-uniform axial power distribution

    DOEpatents

    Clark, D.L.; Kress, T.S.

    1975-10-14

    An electric cartridge heater is provided to simulate a reactor fuel element for use in safety and thermal-hydraulic tests of model nuclear reactor systems. The electric heat-generating element of the cartridge heater consists of a specifically shaped strip of metal cut with variable width from a flat sheet of the element material. When spirally wrapped around a mandrel, the strip produces a coiled element of the desired length and diameter. The coiled element is particularly characterized by an electrical resistance that varies along its length due to variations in strip width. Thus, the cartridge heater is constructed such that it will produce a more realistic simulation of the actual nonuniform (approximately ''chopped'' cosine) power distribution of a reactor fuel element.

  14. Intelligent image capture of cartridge cases for firearms examiners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brett C.; Guerci, Joseph R.

    1997-02-01

    The FBI's DRUGFIRETM system is a nationwide computerized networked image database of ballistic forensic evidence. This evidence includes images of cartridge cases and bullets obtained from both crime scenes and controlled test firings of seized weapons. Currently, the system is installed in over 80 forensic labs across the country and has enjoyed a high degree of success. In this paper, we discuss some of the issues and methods associated with providing a front-end semi-automated image capture system that simultaneously satisfies the often conflicting criteria of the many human examiners visual perception versus the criteria associated with optimizing autonomous digital image correlation. Specifically, we detail the proposed processing chain of an intelligent image capture system (IICS), involving a real- time capture 'assistant,' which assesses the quality of the image under test utilizing a custom designed neural network.

  15. Cartridge output testing - Methods to overcome closed-bomb shortcomings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1991-01-01

    Although the closed-bomb test has achieved virtually universal acceptance for measuring the output performance of pyrotechnic cartridges, there are serious shortcomings in its ability to quantify the performance of cartridges used as energy sources for pyrotechnic-activated mechanical devices. This paper presents several examples of cartridges (including the NASA Standard Initiator NSI) that successfully met closed-bomb performance requirements, but resulted in functional failures in mechanisms. To resolve these failures, test methods were developed to demonstrate a functional margin, based on comparing energy required to accomplish the function to energy deliverable by the cartridge.

  16. From aggregative adsorption to surface depletion: Aqueous systems of CnEm amphiphiles at hydrophilic surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Rother, Gernot; Müter, Dirk; Bock, Henry; ...

    2017-03-27

    Adsorption of a short-chain nonionic amphiphile (C6E3) at the surface of mesoporous silica glass (CPG-10) was studied by a combination of adsorption measurements and mesoscale simulations. Adsorption measurements covering a wide composition range of the C6E3 + water system show that no adsorption occurs up to the critical micelle concentration (cmc), at which a sharp increase of adsorption is observed that is attributed to ad-micelle formation at the pore walls. Intriguingly, as the concentration is increased further, the surface excess of the amphiphile begins to decrease and eventually becomes negative, which corresponds to preferential adsorption of water rather than amphiphilemore » at high amphiphile concentrations. The existence of such a surface-azeotropic point has not previously been reported in the surfactant adsorption field. Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations were performed to reveal the structural origin of this transition from aggregative adsorption to surface depletion. Finally, the simulations indicate that this transition can be attributed to the repulsive interaction between head groups, causing amphiphilic depletion in the region around the corona of the surface micelles.« less

  17. ADSORPTION STUDIES IN A SYNTHETIC RUBBER LATEX-OVALBUMIN SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Williams, H. B.; Choppin, A. R.

    1950-01-01

    1. Adsorption of ovalbumin on the latex surface was in excess of the quantity required to produce coverage of the surface over most of the protein concentrations range which was investigated. 2. "S" shaped isothermals which probably indicated multilayer adsorption were obtained. 3. The quantity of ovalbumin required to produce a constant surface charge density on the latex particle surface was a function of the pH, and a theory of active centers on the latex particles has been suggested. 4. A shift in the isoelectric point from that of native ovalbumin has been observed for the protein when adsorbed on a synthetic latex. PMID:14824490

  18. A solvable model for localized adsorption in a Coulomb system

    SciTech Connect

    Rosinberg, M.L.; Blum, L.; Lebowitz, J.L.

    1986-07-01

    A model for an interface with localized adsorption is presented, in which the surface has a distribution of sticky adhesive sites in contact with a Coulomb fluid. Contrary to the current literature on the electrical double layer the surface charge is in dynamic equilibrium with the bulk fluid. The sum rules obeyed by the one- and two-body correlation functions are investigated. Explicit results are obtained for a solvable model, the two-dimensional one-component plasma at reduced temperature 2. The effect of the granularity of the adsorbed charge on the adsorption isotherm is discussed.

  19. 42 CFR 84.253 - Chemical-cartridge respirators; requirements and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-cartridge and single-use vinyl chloride chemical-cartridge respirators. (b) The following bench tests are... vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life: (1) Where two cartridges are used... cartridges or pairs of cartridges continuously at a concentration of 10 ppm vinyl chloride monomer at a...

  20. 77 FR 11586 - Certain Toner Cartridges and Components Thereof

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... COMMISSION Certain Toner Cartridges and Components Thereof AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission... the sale within the United States after importation of certain toner cartridges and components thereof... Office Items, 302 Industrial Drive, Columbus, WI 53925. Do It Wiser LLC, d/b/a Image Toner,...

  1. How can liver toxins be removed? Filtration and adsorption with the Prometheus system.

    PubMed

    Vienken, Joerg; Christmann, Horst

    2006-04-01

    The application of extracorporeal blood circuits in liver failure therapy has its roots in the two functions of the liver, first as a detoxifying and second as a synthetizing organ. In contrast to hydrophilic uremic toxins, most liver toxins are hydrophobic and bind preferentially to blood proteins. Consequently, the majority of these compounds cannot be removed by hemodialysis or similar dialytic procedures. Current systems use albumin as a transport vehicle for hydrophobic compounds across high flux membranes (e.g. albumin-dialysis, molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS)). In contrast to these devices, the Prometheus system (Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, Germany) applies filtration across highly permeable membranes with a molecular weight cut-off of >300.000. These membranes facilitate a direct filtration of most of the toxin-bearing proteins. In a secondary circuit these toxins are then removed by adsorber beads assembled in specially designed cartridges. The protein-containing toxin-free solution returns to the primary circuit. Clinical testing of the Prometheus system's safety and efficacy parameters showed that cell counts and coagulation factors were not significantly affected. Total bilirubin-, bile acid- and plasma ammonia-levels were reduced in vivo by -21%, -43% and -40%, respectively. First successful therapeutic results have been obtained for patients treated for drug abuse and for patients waiting for transplantation. Thus, a combination of plasma fractionation with highly permeable membranes followed by a secondary circuit with adsorber cartridges proves to be the most effective method of removing toxic waste in liver failure. Further investigations will follow in order to extend the application of the Prometheus system to larger cohorts of patients.

  2. A method for reducing and evaluating blanks in Tenax air sampling cartridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Sarah A.; Russwurm, George M.; Walburn, Stephen G.

    Clean sorbent cartridges are essential in ambient air sampling to avoid false analytical results. This paper describes a procedure for the construction and cleaning of a Tenax cartridge. A definition is formulated to describe a clean cartridge quantitatively.

  3. Xinetics low-cost deformable mirrors with actuator replacement cartridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ealey, Mark A.; Wellman, John A.

    1994-05-01

    The cost of good, reliable deformable mirrors has made them inaccessible to the astronomical community and other would-be commercial users. Historically, the deformable mirror has cost nearly $DOL2500. per channel and comprised about 25% of the cost of an adaptive optics system. Xinetics has created a deformable mirror technology which costs less than $DOL1000. per channel including the electronic driver. In addition, the mirrors feature novel actuator cartridges which contain a simple thermal mechanism to allow simple replacement of damaged actuators. The current mirrors use piezoelectric actuators for broad temperature response and operate at 100 volts. They feature 7-mm interactuator spacing, 4- micrometers displacement, and interactuator coupling tailorable between 5 to 15%. Complete NASTRAN and Weibull analyses has been conducted to insure sufficient safety margin. The results of the 37, 97, and 349 channel mirror manufacturing efforts are reported in this paper.

  4. Adsorption of neutral red and malachite green onto grapefruit peel in single and binary systems.

    PubMed

    Zou, Weihua; Gao, Shuaipeng; Zou, Xiuli; Bai, Hongjuan

    2013-05-01

    This study characterized the properties of NaOH-modified grapefruit peel (MGP) and investigated its adsorption properties, specifically the adsorption of the synthetic dyes neutral red (NR) and malachite green (MG) onto MGP, in single and binary systems by means of batch techniques. The adsorption equilibrium data of NR onto MGP fit well with both the Langmuir and Koble-Corrigan models, while the Koble-Corrigan and Dubinin-Radushkevich models seemed to agree better with MG adsorption. The maximum equilibrium quantities of NR and MG from the Langmuir model were 640.3 and 314.9 mg/g at 298 K, respectively. The Elovich model was a better fit with the kinetic process, which suggested that ion exchange was one of the main mechanisms at work. The thermodynamic parameters of adsorption systems indicated spontaneous and endothermic processes. In the binary system experiments, NR and MG exhibited competitive adsorption. The quantity of MG adsorbed was more strongly influenced by NR, due to the higher affinity of MGP for the latter.

  5. Stimulatory effect and adsorption behavior of rhamnolipids on lignocelluloses degradation system.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jinju; Zhang, Shudong; Qiu, Zhen; Han, Hui; Zhang, Qiuzhuo

    2017-01-01

    Di-rhamnolipid and mixed rhamnolipid were added to rice straw degrading system to investigate their mechanism of stimulatory effect. By batch adsorption experiments, it was shown that the equilibrium adsorption time of rhamnolipids on rice straw single system was the shortest (50min). The adsorption capacity of Trichoderma reesei single system was the strongest, whose Qe,exp for di-rhamnolipid and mixed rhamnolipid was 10.57×10(-2)mg·g(-1) and 8.13×10(-2)mg·g(-1), respectively. The adsorption of rhamnolipids on consortia system was not the simple adduct of the two single systems. The adsorption of rhamnolipids on the three different systems might belong to chemisorptions. SEM and FTIR analyses were used to observe the morphology and to analyze the chemical functions in lignocellulosic biomass degradation with rhamnolipid. It was shown that after addition of rhamnolipids, the basic tissue in rice straw was severely destroyed and hydrogen bond was formed between biosurfactant and bacteria in lignocellulose degrading system.

  6. Filter quality of pleated filter cartridges.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Wan; Huang, Sheng-Hsiu; Chiang, Che-Ming; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2008-04-01

    The performance of dust cartridge filters commonly used in dust masks and in room ventilation depends both on the collection efficiency of the filter material and the pressure drop across the filter. Currently, the optimization of filter design is based only on minimizing the pressure drop at a set velocity chosen by the manufacturer. The collection efficiency, an equally important factor, is rarely considered in the optimization process. In this work, a filter quality factor, which combines the collection efficiency and the pressure drop, is used as the optimization criterion for filter evaluation. Most respirator manufacturers pleat the filter to various extents to increase the filtration area in the limit space within the dust cartridge. Six sizes of filter holders were fabricated to hold just one pleat of filter, simulating six different pleat counts, ranging from 0.5 to 3.33 pleats cm(-1). The possible electrostatic charges on the filter were removed by dipping in isopropyl alcohol, and the air velocity is fixed at 100 cm s(-1). Liquid dicotylphthalate particles generated by a constant output atomizer were used as challenge aerosols to minimize particle loading effects. A scanning mobility particle sizer was used to measure the challenge aerosol number concentrations and size distributions upstream and downstream of the pleated filter. The pressure drop across the filter was monitored by using a calibrated pressure transducer. The results showed that the performance of pleated filters depend not only on the size of the particle but also on the pleat count of the pleated filter. Based on filter quality factor, the optimal pleat count (OPC) is always higher than that based on pressure drop by about 0.3-0.5 pleats cm(-1). For example, the OPC is 2.15 pleats cm(-1) from the standpoint of pressure drop, but for the highest filter quality factor, the pleated filter needed to have a pleat count of 2.65 pleats cm(-1) at particle diameter of 122 nm. From the aspect of

  7. Research and Development of a Small-Scale Adsorption Cooling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Yeshpal

    The world is grappling with two serious issues related to energy and climate change. The use of solar energy is receiving much attention due to its potential as one of the solutions. Air conditioning is particularly attractive as a solar energy application because of the near coincidence of peak cooling loads with the available solar power. Recently, researchers have started serious discussions of using adsorptive processes for refrigeration and heat pumps. There is some success for the >100 ton adsorption systems but none exists in the <10 ton size range required for residential air conditioning. There are myriad reasons for the lack of small-scale systems such as low Coefficient of Performance (COP), high capital cost, scalability, and limited performance data. A numerical model to simulate an adsorption system was developed and its performance was compared with similar thermal-powered systems. Results showed that both the adsorption and absorption systems provide equal cooling capacity for a driving temperature range of 70--120 ºC, but the adsorption system is the only system to deliver cooling at temperatures below 65 ºC. Additionally, the absorption and desiccant systems provide better COP at low temperatures, but the COP's of the three systems converge at higher regeneration temperatures. To further investigate the viability of solar-powered heat pump systems, an hourly building load simulation was developed for a single-family house in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Thermal as well as economic performance comparison was conducted for adsorption, absorption, and solar photovoltaic (PV) powered vapor compression systems for a range of solar collector area and storage capacity. The results showed that for a small collector area, solar PV is more cost-effective whereas adsorption is better than absorption for larger collector area. The optimum solar collector area and the storage size were determined for each type of solar system. As part of this dissertation

  8. Characterization of adsorption of aqueous arsenite and arsenate onto charred dolomite in microcolumn systems.

    PubMed

    Salameh, Yousef; Al-Muhtaseb, Ala'a H; Mousa, Hasan; Walker, Gavin M; Ahmad, Mohammad N M

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the removal of arsenite, As(III), and arsenate, As(V), from aqueous solutions onto thermally processed dolomite (charred dolomite) via microcolumn was evaluated. The effects of mass of adsorbent (0.5-2 g), initial arsenic concentration (50-2000 ppb) and particle size (<0.355-2 mm) on the adsorption capacity of charred dolomite in a microcolumn were investigated. It was found that the adsorption of As(V) and As(III) onto charred dolomite exhibited a characteristic 'S' shape. The adsorption capacity increased as the initial arsenic concentration increased. A slow decrease in the column adsorption capacity was noted as the particle size increased from>0.335 to 0.710-2.00 mm. For the binary system, the experimental data show that the adsorption of As(V) and As(III) was independent of both ions in solution. The experimental data obtained from the adsorption process were successfully correlated with the Thomas Model and Bed Depth Service Time Model.

  9. Preparation of a new adsorbent from activated carbon and carbon nanofiber (AC/CNF) for manufacturing organic-vacbpour respirator cartridge

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this study a composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofiber (AC/CNF) was prepared to improve the performance of activated carbon (AC) for adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and its utilization for respirator cartridges. Activated carbon was impregnated with a nickel nitrate catalyst precursor and carbon nanofibers (CNF) were deposited directly on the AC surface using catalytic chemical vapor deposition. Deposited CNFs on catalyst particles in AC micropores, were activated by CO2 to recover the surface area and micropores. Surface and textural characterizations of the prepared composites were investigated using Brunauer, Emmett and Teller’s (BET) technique and electron microscopy respectively. Prepared composite adsorbent was tested for benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) adsorption and then employed in an organic respirator cartridge in granular form. Adsorption studies were conducted by passing air samples through the adsorbents in a glass column at an adjustable flow rate. Finally, any adsorbed species not retained by the adsorbents in the column were trapped in a charcoal sorbent tube and analyzed by gas chromatography. CNFs with a very thin diameter of about 10-20 nm were formed uniformly on the AC/CNF. The breakthrough time for cartridges prepared with CO2 activated AC/CNF was 117 minutes which are significantly longer than for those cartridges prepared with walnut shell- based activated carbon with the same weight of adsorbents. This study showed that a granular form CO2 activated AC/CNF composite could be a very effective alternate adsorbent for respirator cartridges due to its larger adsorption capacities and lower weight. PMID:23369424

  10. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm of anionic dyes onto organo-bentonite from single and multisolute systems.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dazhong; Fan, Jianxin; Zhou, Weizhi; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Kang, Qi

    2009-12-15

    The performances of polydiallydimethylammonium modified bentonite (PDADMA-bentonite) as an adsorbent to remove anionic dyes, namely Acid Scarlet GR (AS-GR), Acid Turquoise Blue 2G (ATB-2G) and Indigo Carmine (IC), were investigated in single, binary and ternary dye systems. In adsorption from single dye solutions with initial concentration of 100 micromol/L, the dosage of PDADMA-bentonite needed to remove 95% dye was 0.42, 0.68 and 0.75 g/L for AS-GR, ATB-2G and IC, respectively. The adsorption isotherms of the three dyes obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model with the equilibrium constants of 0.372, 0.629 and 4.31 L/micromol, the saturation adsorption amount of 176.3, 149.2 and 228.7 micromol/g for ATB-2G, IC and AS-GR, respectively. In adsorption from mixed dye solutions, the isotherm of each individual dye followed an expanded Langmuir isotherm model and the relationship between the total amount of dyes adsorbed and the total equilibrium dye concentration was interpreted well by Langmuir isotherm model. In the region of insufficient dosage of PDADMA-bentonite, the dye with a larger affinity was preferentially removed by adsorption. Desorption was observed in the kinetic curve of the dye with lower affinity on PDADMA-bentonite surface by the competitive adsorption. The kinetics in single dye solution and the total adsorption of dyes in binary and ternary dye systems nicely followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  11. Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery: Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery Climate Control System

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-31

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing a low-cost, compact, high-capacity, advanced thermoadsorptive battery (ATB) for effective climate control of EVs. The ATB provides both heating and cooling by taking advantage of the materials’ ability to adsorb a significant amount of water. This efficient battery system design could offer up as much as a 30% increase in driving range compared to current EV climate control technology. The ATB provides high-capacity thermal storage with little-to-no electrical power consumption. The ATB is also looking to explore the possibility of shifting peak electricity loads for cooling and heating in a variety of other applications, including commercial and residential buildings, data centers, and telecom facilities.

  12. Predicting the lifetime of organic vapor cartridges exposed to volatile organic compound mixtures using a partial differential equations model.

    PubMed

    Vuong, François; Chauveau, Romain; Grevillot, Georges; Marsteau, Stéphanie; Silvente, Eric; Vallieres, Cécile

    2016-09-01

    In this study, equilibria, breakthrough curves, and breakthrough times were predicted for three binary mixtures of four volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a model based on partial differential equations of dynamic adsorption coupling a mass balance, a simple Linear Driving Force (LDF) hypothesis to describe the kinetics, and the well-known Extended-Langmuir (EL) equilibrium model. The model aims to predict with a limited complexity, the BTCs of respirator cartridges exposed to binary vapor mixtures from equilibria and kinetics data obtained from single component. In the model, multicomponent mass transfer was simplified to use only single dynamic adsorption data. The EL expression used in this study predicted equilibria with relatively good accuracy for acetone/ethanol and ethanol/cyclohexane mixtures, but the prediction of cyclohexane uptake when mixed with heptane is less satisfactory. The BTCs given by the model were compared to experimental BTCs to determine the accuracy of the model and the impact of the approximation on mass transfer coefficients. From BTCs, breakthrough times at 10% of the exposure concentration t10% were determined. All t10% were predicted within 20% of the experimental values, and 63% of the breakthrough times were predicted within a 10% error. This study demonstrated that a simple mass balance combined with kinetic approximations is sufficient to predict lifetime for respirator cartridges exposed to VOC mixtures. It also showed that a commonly adopted approach to describe multicomponent adsorption based on volatility of VOC rather than adsorption equilibrium greatly overestimated the breakthrough times.

  13. Confinement effect on the adsorption from a binary liquid system near liquid/liquid phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rother, Gernot; Woywod, Dirk; Schoen, Martin; Findenegg, Gerhard H.

    2004-06-01

    The preferential adsorption of one component of a binary system at the inner surfaces of mesoporous silica glasses was studied in a wide composition range at temperatures close to liquid/liquid phase separation. Confinement effects on the adsorption were investigated by using three controlled-pore glass (CPG-10) materials of different mean pore size (10 to 50 nm). For the experimental system (2-butoxyethanol+water), which exhibits an upper miscibility gap, strong preferential adsorption of water occurs, as the coexistence curve is approached at bulk compositions, at which water is the minority component. In this strong adsorption regime the area-related surface excess amount of adsorbed water decreases with decreasing pore width, while the shift in the volume-related mean composition of the pore liquid shows an opposite trend, i.e., greatest deviation from bulk composition occurring in the most narrow pores. A simple mean-field lattice model of a liquid mixture confined by parallel walls is adopted to rationalize these experimental findings. This model reproduces the main findings of the confinement effect on the adsorption near liquid/liquid phase separation.

  14. Direct coupling between stress, strain and adsorption reactions - A study on coal-CO2 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hol, S.; Peach, C. J.; Spiers, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Though it is well-known that adsorption reactions frequently assist deformation of porous rocks, very little understanding exists on the direct coupling with stress state and strain. One of the materials in which adsorption plays a large role is coal, as is observed in the particular case of Enhanced Coalbed Methane Production (ECBM), which involves the geological storage of CO2 and the recovery of CH4. In this case, adsorption and the associated swelling cause significant injectivity problems, which is experienced in almost all pilot field projects to date. This suggests that indeed a strong fundamental coupling exists between CO2 sorption, changes in the mechanical state of the coal matrix and changes in the transport properties of the system, and illustrates the need to understand coupled stress-strain-sorption behaviour. In this contribution, we describe several important observations made on coal-CO2 systems that can learn us about many other natural, stressed adsorbate-adsorbent systems. In our experiments, first of all, the adsorption of CO2 in the coal matrix gave rise to swelling. Although this is well-known, we found that the total volumetric strain occurring under unconfined conditions can be realistically modelled (up to at least 100 MPa) as the sum of an adsorption-related expansion term and an elastic compression term. Second, effective in situ stresses will directly reduce the sorption capacity, and associated swelling of the coal matrix significantly. Our general thermodynamic model for the effect of a 3D stress state on adsorbed CO2 concentration supports this observation, and also shows that "self-stressing", as a result of CO2 adsorption occurring under conditions of restricted or zero strain (i.e. fully constrained conditions), will more than double the expected in situ stresses. A constitutive equation was developed to describe the full coupling between stress state, total strain (i.e. combined strain of adsorption processes and poroelasticity

  15. 76 FR 16639 - Certain Ink Cartridges and Components Thereof; Institution of Consolidated Advisory Opinion and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... COMMISSION Certain Ink Cartridges and Components Thereof; Institution of Consolidated Advisory Opinion and... importation of certain ink cartridges and components thereof by reason of infringement of claim 7 of U.S... during the Presidential review period would be $13.60 per cartridge for covered ink cartridges....

  16. 49 CFR 173.230 - Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.230 Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material. (a) Requirements for Fuel Cell Cartridges. Fuel cell cartridges, including when contained in or packed with...

  17. 49 CFR 173.230 - Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.230 Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material. (a) Requirements for Fuel Cell Cartridges. Fuel cell cartridges, including when contained in or packed with...

  18. 49 CFR 173.230 - Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.230 Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material. (a) Requirements for Fuel Cell Cartridges. Fuel cell cartridges, including when contained in or packed with...

  19. 42 CFR 84.194 - Filters used with chemical cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Filters used with chemical cartridges; location... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.194 Filters used with chemical cartridges; location; replacement. (a) Particulate matter filters used in conjunction with a chemical cartridge shall be located...

  20. 49 CFR 173.230 - Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.230 Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material. (a) Requirements for Fuel Cell Cartridges. Fuel cell cartridges, including when contained in or packed with...

  1. 49 CFR 173.230 - Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.230 Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material. (a) Requirements for Fuel Cell Cartridges. Fuel cell cartridges, including when contained in or packed with...

  2. Adsorption and Processes in Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dall-Bauman, Liese; Finn, John E.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft must maintain a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work. The system's functions include supplying the crew with oxygen and water, as well as removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used in the past, logistics and safety factors of current and future missions in space make near-complete recycling of the cabin's air and water desirable. The recycling process may include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and other processes. Several of these operations can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. Adsorption processes are frequently good candidates for separation and purification in space by virtue of such characteristics as gravity independence, high reliability, relatively high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerability. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. This article focuses on three current spacecraft life support applications that often use adsorption technology: carbon dioxide separation from cabin air, gas-phase trace contaminant control, and potable water recovery from waste streams. In each application, adsorption technology has been selected for use on the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for each application are discussed. Eventually, human space exploration may lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may have additional applications, such as control of greenhouse gas composition and purification of hydroponic solutions, and may have different requirements and resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Adsorption

  3. Mesoscopic simulation of adsorption of peptides in a hydrophobic chromatography system.

    PubMed

    Makrodimitris, Kosta; Fernandez, Erik J; Woolf, Thomas B; O'Connell, John P

    2005-03-01

    Mesoscopic simulations using Langevin dipoles on a lattice for the solvent and calculated partial charges for the solute have been used to estimate free energies of adsorption from data on reversed-phase chromatography on nine protected peptides covering a wide range of structures. There is a single parameter, the effective solvent dipole moment, that is fit to data for one peptide and used to predict properties of the other eight peptides. Good agreement of adsorption chemical potentials, including order of chromatographic retention times, is found for calculations that are Boltzmann-averaged over a set of orientations. In addition, the results suggest that there are preferential orientations for each peptide at the model hydrophobic chromatographic surface. Estimation methods for adsorption based on molecular descriptors and hydrophobicity scales are shown to be unreliable for these systems. With refinements and extensions, this simulation method should be applicable to solvents containing salt, such as in hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and to larger solutes including proteins.

  4. Regeneration of Exhausted Arsenic Adsorptive media of a Full Scale Treatment System

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will describe the method and results of laboratory tests showing the feasibility of regenerating exhausted, iron-based, adsorptive media and the results of a follow up regeneration test at a full scale system in Twentynine Palms CA. The laboratory studies on se...

  5. Analysis of combined heat and mass transfer in closed-cycle adsorption cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hajji, A.

    1987-01-01

    A relationship for the solid-vapor adsorption equilibrium is proposed and proved to represent accurately the experimental data and to be convenient for numerical calculations. Formulas describing the process involved in closed-cycle cooling and heating systems are also derived. These formulas are first applied in a dynamic analysis of a closed-cycle solar adsorption refrigerator. A computer program was written to study the effect of the design parameters and operating conditions on the system performance. A second application concerns the simulation of the regenerative adsorption cooling systems which were recently introduced to increase the performance of adsorption machines. A computer program was developed to analyze the dynamic behavior of such systems. An analytical investigation of the vapor-liquid absorption is presented. Closed-form solution were obtained where the depth of the absorbing solution is taken into account. The effect of interfacial instability on heat and mass transfer is also modeled by introducing constant heat and mass transfer coefficients. An analysis of the fully developed natural convection heat and mass transfer between two inclined parallel plates is presented. Solvability conditions are determined and closed-form expressions for the temperature and concentration obtained.

  6. Adaptation of a speciation sampling cartridge for measuring ammonia flux from cattle feedlots using relaxed eddy accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, K. A.; Ham, J. M.

    Improved measurements of ammonia losses from cattle feedlots are needed to quantify the national NH 3 emissions inventory and evaluate management techniques for reducing emissions. Speciation cartridges composed of glass honeycomb denuders and filter packs were adapted to measure gaseous NH 3 and aerosol NH 4+ fluxes using relaxed eddy accumulation (REA). Laboratory testing showed that a cartridge equipped with four honeycomb denuders had a total capture capacity of 1800 μg of NH 3. In the field, a pair of cartridges was deployed adjacent to a sonic anemometer and an open-path gas analyzer on a mobile tower. High-speed valves were attached to the inlets of the cartridges and controlled by a datalogger so that up- and down-moving eddies were independently sampled based on direction of the vertical wind speed and a user-defined deadband. Air flowed continuously through the cartridges even when not sampling by means of a recirculating air handling system. Eddy covariance measurement of CO 2 and H 2O, as measured by the sonic and open-path gas analyzer, were used to determine the relaxation factor needed to compute REA-based fluxes. The REA system was field tested at the Beef Research Unit at Kansas State University in the summer and fall of 2007. Daytime NH 3 emissions ranged between 68 and 127 μg m -2 s -1; fluxes tended to follow a diurnal pattern correlated with latent heat flux. Daily fluxes of NH 3 were between 2.5 and 4.7 g m -2 d -1 and on average represented 38% of fed nitrogen. Aerosol NH 4+ fluxes were negligible compared with NH 3 emissions. An REA system designed around the high-capacity speciation cartridges can be used to measure NH 3 fluxes from cattle feedlots and other strong sources. The system could be adapted to measure fluxes of other gases and aerosols.

  7. Phosphate adsorption from wastewater using zirconium (IV) hydroxide: Kinetics, thermodynamics and membrane filtration adsorption hybrid system studies.

    PubMed

    Johir, M A H; Pradhan, M; Loganathan, P; Kandasamy, J; Vigneswaran, S

    2016-02-01

    Excessive phosphate in wastewater should be removed to control eutrophication of water bodies. The potential of employing amorphous zirconium (Zr) hydroxide to remove phosphate from synthetic wastewater was studied in batch adsorption experiments and in a submerged membrane filtration adsorption hybrid (MFAH) reactor. The adsorption data satisfactorily fitted to Langmuir, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Langmuir adsorption maxima at 22 °C and pHs of 4.0, 7.1, and 10.0 were 30.40, 18.50, and 19.60 mg P/g, respectively. At pH 7.1 and temperatures of 40 °C and 60 °C, they were 43.80 and 54.60 mg P/g, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters, ΔG° and ΔS° were negative and ΔH° was positive. FTIR, zeta potential and competitive phosphate, sulphate and nitrate adsorption data showed that the mechanism of phosphate adsorption was inner-sphere complexation. In the submerged MFAH reactor experiment, when Zr hydroxide was added at doses of 1-5 g/L once only at the start of the experiment, the removal of phosphate from 3 L of wastewater containing 10 mg P/L declined after 5 h of operation. However, when Zr hydroxide was repeatedly added at 5 g/L dose every 24 h, satisfactory removal of phosphate was maintained for 3 days.

  8. Better VPS Fabrication of Crucibles and Furnace Cartridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Zimmerman, Frank R.; O'Dell, J. Scott; McKechnie, Timothy N.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental investigation has shown that by (1) vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) of suitable refractory metal alloys on graphite mandrels, and then (2) heat-treating the VPS alloy deposits under suitable conditions, it is possible to fabricate improved crucibles and furnace cartridges that could be used at maximum temperatures between 1,400 and 1,600 C and that could withstand chemical attack by the materials to be heated in the crucibles and cartridges. Taken by itself, the basic concept of fabricating furnace cartridges by VPS of refractory materials onto graphite mandrels is not new; taken by itself, the basic concept of heat treatment of VPS deposits for use as other than furnace cartridges is also not new; however, prior to this investigation, experimental crucibles and furnace cartridges fabricated by VPS had not been heat treated and had been found to be relatively weak and brittle. Accordingly, the investigation was directed toward determining whether certain combinations of (1) refractory alloy compositions, (2) VPS parameters, and (3) heat-treatment parameters could result in VPS-fabricated components with increased ductility.

  9. Using the PL/SQL Cartridge of the Oracle Application Server to Deploy Web Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, C.L.

    1999-06-14

    Deploying business applications on the internal Web is a priority at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Lockheed Martin Energy Research) and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. as with most corporations. Three separate applications chose the Oracle Application Server (OAS), using the PL/SQL cartridge as a Web deployment method. This method was chosen primarily because the data was already stored in Oracle tables and developers knew HJSQL or at least SQL. The Database Support group had the responsibility of installing, testing, and determining standard methods for interfacing with the PL/SQL cartridge of the OAS. Note that the term Web Application Server was used for version 3, but in this discussion, OAS will be used for both version 3 and version 4.

  10. Scattering, Adsorption, and Langmuir-Hinshelwood Desorption Models for Physisorptive and Chemisorptive Gas-Surface Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Brook I.

    Surface effects limit the performance of hypersonic vehicles, micro-electro-mechanical devices, and directed energy systems. This research develops methods to predict adsorption, scattering, and thermal desorption of molecules on a surface. These methods apply to physisorptive (adsorption and scattering) and chemisorptive (thermal desorption) gas-surface systems. Engineering and design applications will benefit from these methods, hence they are developed under the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo construct. The novel adsorption and scattering contribution, the Modified Kisliuk with Scattering method, predicts angular and energy distributions, and adsorption probabilities. These results agree more closely with experiment than the state-of-the-art Cercignani-Lampis-Lord scattering kernel. Super-elastic scattering is predicted. Gas-adlayer interactions are included for the first time. Accommodation coefficents can be determined by fitting simulations to experimental data. The new thermal desorption model accurately calculates angular, translational, rotational, and vibrational distributions, and the rotational alignment parameter. The model is validated by comparing with experiments. Multiple transition states are considered in a set of non-dimensionalized equations of motion, linked with temporally-accurate event timing. Initial conditions are chosen from a new truncated Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Run times are improved by eliminating the Gaussian Weighting of desorbing products. The absorption energy barrier is shown to significantly contribute only to the translational energy of desorbing molecules by contributing energy to each adatom in a similar manner.

  11. Environment-modulated Kondo phenomena in FePc/Au(111) adsorption systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Zheng, Xiao; Yang, Jinlong

    2016-03-01

    Recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiments on electron transport through iron(II) phthalocyanine (FePc) molecules adsorbed on the Au(111) surface have revealed that the measured Kondo conductance signature depends strongly on the specific adsorption site. To understand the physical origin of experimental observations, particularly the variation of Kondo features with the molecular adsorption site, we employ a combined density functional theory (DFT) and hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) approach to investigate the electronic structure and Kondo correlation in FePc/Au(111) composite systems. The calculation results indicate that, for the on-top adsorption configuration, the two degenerate spin-unpaired dπ orbitals on the Fe center are coupled indirectly through substrate band states, leading to the Fano-like antiresonance line shape in the d I /d V spectra, while for the bridge adsorption configuration, the environment-induced couplings are largely suppressed because of the two different spin-unpaired d orbitals. Therefore, our work suggests that the environment-induced coupling as an essential physical factor could greatly influence the Fano-Kondo features in magnetic molecule/metal composites, and the crucial role of local orbital degeneracy and symmetry is discovered. These findings provide important insights into the electron correlation effects in complex solid-state systems. The usefulness and practicality of the combined DFT+HEOM method is also highlighted.

  12. Effects of temperature and inorganic salts on the adsorption of phenol from multicomponent systems onto a decolorizing carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Halhouli, K.A.; Darwish, N.A.; Al-Jahmany, Y.Y.

    1997-12-01

    Experimental investigation of the effect of temperature and two inorganic salts (KCl and NaCl) on the adsorption of phenol from dilute (10-200 mg/dm{sup 3}) multi-component systems onto activated carbon was studied. Focusing on the adsorption of phenol, all combinations of phenol with two other aromatic organic components, (1,4-dihydroxybenzene and 4-amino,1-naphthalene sulfonic acid-sodium salt) in aqueous solutions were considered. Equilibrium isotherms at three different temperatures (30, 40, and 55{degrees}C) were generated. The adsorption of phenol from binary and ternary as well as from single aqueous systems increases with decreasing temperature, as expected of physical adsorption. Effects of KCl and NaCl salts as a concentration of 0.05 M at 30{degrees}C were also investigated. The adsorption of phenol from bisolute and trisolute systems slightly decreases by adding either of the salts.

  13. Chemical Safety Alert: Fire Hazard from Carbon Adsorption Deodorizing Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Activated carbon systems used to adsorb vapors for odor control may pose a fire hazard when used for certain types of substances, such as crude sulfate turpentine. Facilities should take precautions and proper procedures to avoid or mitigate these hazards.

  14. Regeneration of Full Scale Adsorptive Media Systems - Update

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation provides an update of the regeneration studies conducted at Twentynine Palms, CA. Following a short introduction, the presentation summarizes the results of the three regeneration tests conducted on the exhausted media of the arsenic removal system at Twentynine Pal...

  15. Photosensitive cartridge for weapons zeroing and marksmanship training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, F. N.; Schjelderup, J. R.

    1985-05-01

    The invention provides a light sensitive dummy cartridge for insertion into the chamber of a magazine-type weapon. A muzzle collimator is inserted into the barrel in alignment with the cartridge photosensor and the longitudinal axis of the bore. The power supply, audible scoring apparatus, and electrical circuit for the photosensor, moreover, are mounted in a dummy magazine. This combination provides an easy-to-install apparatus for temporarily converting a conventional firearm into a photoresponsive training device. This is a patent application.

  16. Disposal of Regenerate Wastewater from Adsorptive Media Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation summarizes the result of the processing of the wastewater produced by the onsite regeneration of the exhausted media from two full scale arsenic removal systems at Twentynine Palms, CA and Goffstown, NH. Presentation describes the use and results of ferric chloride...

  17. Adsorption and bioaccessibility of phenanthrene on carbon nanotubes in the in vitro gastrointestinal system.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Qing; Zheng, Hao; Du, Peng; Tao, Shu; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-10-01

    Adsorption and bioaccessibility of phenanthrene on graphite and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated in simulated gastrointestinal fluid using a passive dosing system. The saturated adsorption capacity of phenanthrene on different adsorbents follows an order of hydroxylated CNTs (H-CNTs)>carboxylated CNTs (C-CNTs)>graphitized CNTs (G-CNTs)>graphite, consistent with the order of their surface area and micropore volume. The change of phenanthrene adsorption on the adsorbents is different with the presence of pepsin (800mg/L) and bile salts (500mg/L and 5000mg/L, abbreviated as BS500 and BS5000). Both solubilization of phenanthrene by pepsin and bile salts and their competition with phenanthrene for the adsorption sites play a role. In addition, the large increase of the maximum adsorption capacity in BS5000 solution indicates an enhanced dispersion of CNTs or an exfoliation of graphite by bile salts, which consequently increases the exposed surface area. The bioaccessibility increases in pepsin and BS500 solution with a growing free phenanthrene concentration. Although the bioaccessibility of phenanthrene stalls or slightly decreases in the middle range of free phenanthrene concentration in BS5000 solution, the bioaccessibility overall is much higher than that in pepsin and BS500 solution at the same phenanthrene level. It is impossible to separate the effect of competition from dispersion (or exfoliation) at this stage, but the relative contribution of solubilization to phenanthrene desorption in pepsin and BS500 solutions was quantified, which improves our understanding of the mechanisms on bioaccessibility of adsorbed pollutants on CNTs.

  18. Biodegradation of persistent organics can overcome adsorption-desorption hysteresis in biological activated carbon systems.

    PubMed

    Abromaitis, V; Racys, V; van der Marel, P; Meulepas, R J W

    2016-04-01

    In Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) systems, persistent organic pollutants can be removed through a combination of adsorption, desorption and biodegradation. These processes might be affected by the presence of other organics, especially by the more abundant easily-biodegradable organics, like acetate. In this research these relations are quantified for the removal of the persistent pharmaceutical metoprolol. Acetate did not affect the adsorption and desorption of metoprolol, but it did greatly enhance the metoprolol biodegradation. At least part of the BAC biomass growing on acetate was also able to metabolise metoprolol, although metoprolol was only converted after the acetate was depleted. The presence of easily-degradable organics like acetate in the feeding water is therefore beneficial for the removal of metoprolol in BAC systems. The isotherms obtained from metoprolol adsorption and desorption experiments showed that BAC systems are subject to hysteresis; for AC bioregeneration to take place the microbial biomass has to reduce the concentration at the AC-biomass interface 2.7 times compared to the concentration at which the carbon was being loaded. However, given the threshold concentration of the MET degrading microorganisms (<0.08 μg/L) versus the average influent concentration (1.3 μg/L), bioregeneration is feasible.

  19. Ballistics of the 30-06 Rifle Cartridge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-30

    Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturer’s Institute ( SAAMI ) specifications is 60,000 psi or 50,000 cup. With modern powders, many commercial loads...2850 fps is also notable, but this load exceeds the SAAMI peak pressure (62,000 psi) for this cartridge at 68,100 psi. (14) Figure 3: A comparison

  20. 42 CFR 84.1154 - Canister and cartridge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canister and cartridge requirements. 84.1154 Section 84.1154 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust,...

  1. From SCORM to Common Cartridge: A Step Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Barbone, Victor; Anido-Rifon, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) was proposed as a standard for sharable learning object packaging, delivering and sequencing. Several years later, Common Cartridge (CC) is proposed as an enhancement of SCORM offering more flexibility and addressing needs not originally envisioned, namely assessment and web 2.0 standards, content…

  2. Development of novel delivery system for warfarin based on mesoporous silica: adsorption characteristics of silica materials for the anticoagulant.

    PubMed

    Dolinina, Ekaterina S; Vorobyeva, Evgeniya V; Parfenyuk, Elena V

    2016-08-01

    The adsorption of the anticoagulant warfarin onto unmodified (UMS) and modified (phenyl (PhMS), methyl (MMS), mercaptopropyl (MPMS)) mesoporous silica materials was studied at pH 1.6 and 7.4 and in the temperature range of 293-325 K. The silica materials were prepared by sol-gel method for further characterization by FTIR spectroscopy, N2 adsorption/desorption method, transmission electron microscopy and zeta potential measurements. The effects of medium pH, temperature and surface modification of mesoporous silica material on their adsorption characteristics (adsorption capacity, thermodynamic parameters of adsorption) relative to anticoagulant warfarin were investigated. It was found that medium acid-base properties strongly affect the adsorption of warfarin due to the pH-dependent structural diversity of the drug and ionization state of the silica surfaces. The adsorption capacity of the silica materials at pH 1.6 decreases in the order: MMS > MPMS > UMS > PhMS. The influence of various non-covalent interactions on the adsorption capacity of the silica materials and energy of the drug-silica interactions is discussed. These results may be useful for the development of a novel delivery system of warfarin.

  3. Adsorption of xenobiotics to plastic tubing incorporated into dynamic in vitro systems used in pharmacological research--limits and progress.

    PubMed

    Unger, J K; Kuehlein, G; Schroers, A; Gerlach, J C; Rossaint, R

    2001-07-01

    Commonly used materials incorporated into dynamic culture systems typically show the feature of adsorption of lipophilic xenobiotics. Yet, this phenomenon is strongly limiting the use of dynamic culture models and ex vivo organ perfusions in pharmacological and toxicological research. The aim of the study was to characterize different materials with respect to their capacity for drug adsorption and to find methods or materials to reduce the loss of substrate by adsorption in order to improve the use of dynamic in vitro systems. The adsorption of different xenobiotics (lidocaine, midazolam, lormetazepam, phenobarbital, testosterone, ethoxyresoroufine) to tubes used in dynamic in vitro systems (polyvinyl-chloride, silicone) were investigated and compared to a new material (silicone-caoutchouc-mixture). In addition, the role of protein deposition onto the tubing was studied and it was investigated whether it was possible to reach saturation of the inner tube surface by pre-loading it with the test compound. We found that silicone tubes provided the highest comfort with respect to handling and reusability, but they also demonstrated the highest capacity for substrate adsorption. Polyvinyl-chloride was the second best in handling but also demonstrated a high complexity in its adsorption behavior. The silicone-caoutchouc-mixture reached acceptable experimental results with respect to its handling and demonstrated a very low capacity for substrate adsorption.

  4. Removal of humic and tannic acids by adsorption-coagulation combined systems with activated biochar.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chanil; Phal, Narong; Oh, Jeill; Chu, Kyoung Hoon; Jang, Min; Yoon, Yeomin

    2015-12-30

    Despite recent interest in transforming biomass into bio-oil and syngas, there is inadequate information on the compatibility of byproducts (e.g., biochar) with agriculture and water purification infrastructures. A pyrolysis at 300°C yields efficient production of biochar, and its physicochemical properties can be improved by chemical activation, resulting in a suitable adsorbent for the removal of natural organic matter (NOM), including hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances, such as humic acids (HA) and tannic acids (TA), respectively. In this study, the adsorption affinities of different HA and TA combinations in NOM solutions were evaluated, and higher adsorption affinity of TA onto activated biochar (AB) produced in the laboratory was observed due to its superior chemisorption tendencies and size-exclusion effects compared with that of HA, whereas hydrophobic interactions between adsorbent and adsorbate were deficient. Assessment of the AB role in an adsorption-coagulation hybrid system as nuclei for coagulation in the presence of aluminum sulfate (alum) showed a synergistic effect in a HA-dominated NOM solution. An AB-alum hybrid system with a high proportion of HA in the NOM solution may be applicable as an end-of-pipe solution.

  5. Proteomic analysis of proteins bound to adsorption units of extracorporeal liver support system under clinical conditions.

    PubMed

    Mares, Jan; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Tuma, Zdenek; Moravec, Jiri; Karvunidis, Thomas; Matejovic, Martin

    2009-04-01

    Fractionated Plasma Separation, Adsorption and Dialysis (Prometheus) has a well-documented capacity to remove protein-bound organic toxins in patients with liver failure. However, the compositions of adsorbed proteins remain unknown. Elution of both adsorbers constituting Prometheus system was performed following a 6-h session in a patient with acute on chronic liver failure. Sodium dodecylsulphate was employed to elute proteins from the neutral adsorber (P1), while acetic acid was applied to the cationic one (P2). Eluted proteins were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Totally, 4113 and 8280 mg of proteins were obtained from P1 and P2 eluates, 2-DE yielded 148 and 163 protein fractions in P1 and P2, respectively. MS identified 18 unique proteins in P1, and 30 unique proteins in P2 sample. Proteins with the highest selective adsorption (as determined by eluate to plasma ratio) included transthyretin (37), trypsin-2 (29), prothrombin (23), hyaluronan-binding protein 2 (13) and plasma retinol-binding protein (8.7), all of which adsorbed to P2. We identified a large number of proteins removed by extracorporeal liver support system. A selective adsorption was demonstrated in a subset of proteins depending on the type of adsorber and proteins' characteristics.

  6. 77 FR 12325 - Certain Toner Cartridges and Components Thereof Corrected Notice of Institution of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... COMMISSION Certain Toner Cartridges and Components Thereof Corrected Notice of Institution of Investigation... certain toner cartridges and components thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent... importation of certain toner cartridges and components thereof that infringe one or more of claims...

  7. 77 FR 4362 - Certain Toner Cartridges and Components Thereof; Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... COMMISSION Certain Toner Cartridges and Components Thereof; Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments... Re Certain Toner Cartridges and Components Thereof, DN 2872; the Commission is soliciting comments on... States after importation of certain toner cartridges and components thereof. The complaint names...

  8. 42 CFR 84.253 - Chemical-cartridge respirators; requirements and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical-cartridge respirators; requirements and... DEVICES Special Use Respirators § 84.253 Chemical-cartridge respirators; requirements and tests. (a... for chemical-cartridge respirators prescribed in Subpart L of this part are applicable to...

  9. 42 CFR 84.112 - Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance... DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.112 Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more canisters or cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be...

  10. 42 CFR 84.112 - Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance... DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.112 Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more canisters or cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be...

  11. 42 CFR 84.112 - Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance... DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.112 Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more canisters or cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be...

  12. 42 CFR 84.112 - Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance... DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.112 Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more canisters or cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be...

  13. 42 CFR 84.112 - Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance... DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.112 Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more canisters or cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be...

  14. 76 FR 66964 - Certain Inkjet Ink Cartridges With Printheads and Components Thereof; Notice of the Commission's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... COMMISSION Certain Inkjet Ink Cartridges With Printheads and Components Thereof; Notice of the Commission's... inkjet ink cartridges with printheads and components thereof. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Panyin A... within the United States after importation of certain inkjet ink cartridges with printheads...

  15. Crude clove bud oil (CBO) quality improvement by bentonite adsorption process in flow system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiyanto, Dwiarso; Diaty, Dita; Allwar

    2017-03-01

    Improvement of the quality of crude clove bud oil (crude CBO) by bentonite adsorption process in flow system had been done. This research aimed to improve the quality of crude CBO based on SNI 06-4267-1996 and SNI 06-2387-2006. The parameters were colours, densities, refractives index, eugenol and trans-caryophillene contents and also the additional analysis parameter which were the analysis of Fe using bentonite and measurement of pH using universal paper. Adsorption was carried out in the optimation of bentonite. The weight variations of bentonite was 5, 10, 15 and 20 grams. From the surface area analysis, it showed that bentonite had surface area about 30,512 m2/g which was activated chemically using 0,5 M HCl and calcinated using furnace in temperature of 400 0C. The results showed that the analysis of colours, densities, recfractives index and test of pH were not different significantly. Meanwhile the adsorption of Fe metal using 20 gram bentonite be able to adsorp until 94,20%. The highest percentage of eugenol found in the variation of 5 gram which was about 13,52% and decreased trans-caryophillene in 9,64% of 15 gram bentonite.

  16. Experimental study on activated carbon-nitrogen pair in a prototype pressure swing adsorption refrigeration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anupam, Kumar; Palodkar, Avinash V.; Halder, G. N.

    2016-04-01

    Pressure swing adsorption of nitrogen onto granular activated carbon in the single-bed adsorber-desorber chamber has been studied at six different pressures 6-18 kgf/cm2 to evaluate their performance as an alternative refrigeration technique. Refrigerating effect showed a linear rise with an increase in the operating pressure. However, the heat of adsorption and COP exhibited initial rise with the increasing operating pressure but decreased later after reaching a maximum value. The COP initially increases with operating pressures however, with the further rise of operating pressure it steadily decreased. The highest average refrigeration, maximum heat of adsorption and optimum coefficient of performance was evaluated to be 415.38 W at 18 kgf/cm2, 92756.35 J at 15 kgf/cm2 and 1.32 at 12 kgf/cm2, respectively. The system successfully produced chilled water at 1.7 °C from ambient water at 28.2 °C.

  17. Analysis of the adsorption process and of desiccant cooling systems: a pseudo- steady-state model for coupled heat and mass transfer. [DESSIM, DESSIM2, DESSIM4

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, R.S.

    1982-12-01

    A computer model to simulate the adiabatic adsorption/desorption process is documented. Developed to predict the performance of desiccant cooling systems, the model has been validated through comparison with experimental data for single-blow adsorption and desorption. A literature review on adsorption analysis, detailed discussions of the adsorption process, and an initial assessment of the potential for performance improvement through advanced component development are included.

  18. Refilling of carbon nanotube cartridges for 3D nanomanufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekarevich, Raman; Toyoda, Masami; Baba, Shuichi; Nakata, Toshihiko; Hirahara, Kaori

    2016-03-01

    Metal-filled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known to be used as pen-tip injectors for 3D manufacturing on the nanoscale. However, the CNT interior cannot accumulate enough material to fabricate complex metallic nanostructures. Therefore a method for refilling the CNT cartridge needs to be developed. The strategy for refilling of CNT cartridges is suggested in this study. Controlled growth of gold nanowires in the interior of isolated CNTs using a real-time manipulator installed in a transmission electron microscope is reported herein. The encapsulation process of discrete gold nanoparticles in the hollow spaces of open-ended multi-wall CNTs was evaluated in detail. The experimental results reveal that the serial loading of isolated gold nanoparticles allows the control of the length of the loaded nanowires with nanometer accuracy. Thermophoresis and the coalescence of gold nanoparticles are assumed to be the primary mechanisms responsible for gold loading into a CNT cartridge.Metal-filled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known to be used as pen-tip injectors for 3D manufacturing on the nanoscale. However, the CNT interior cannot accumulate enough material to fabricate complex metallic nanostructures. Therefore a method for refilling the CNT cartridge needs to be developed. The strategy for refilling of CNT cartridges is suggested in this study. Controlled growth of gold nanowires in the interior of isolated CNTs using a real-time manipulator installed in a transmission electron microscope is reported herein. The encapsulation process of discrete gold nanoparticles in the hollow spaces of open-ended multi-wall CNTs was evaluated in detail. The experimental results reveal that the serial loading of isolated gold nanoparticles allows the control of the length of the loaded nanowires with nanometer accuracy. Thermophoresis and the coalescence of gold nanoparticles are assumed to be the primary mechanisms responsible for gold loading into a CNT cartridge. Electronic

  19. Highly porous activated carbon based adsorption cooling system employing difluoromethane and a mixture of pentafluoroethane and difluoromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askalany, Ahmed A.; Saha, Bidyut B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation for a low-grade thermally powered two-beds adsorption cooling system employing HFC-32 and a mixture of HFC-32 and HFC-125 (HFC-410a) with activated carbon of type Maxsorb III. The present simulation model adopts experimentally measured adsorption isotherms, adsorption kinetics and isosteric heat of adsorption data. Effect of operating conditions (mass flow rate of hot water, driving heat source temperature and evaporator temperature) on the system performance has been studied in detail. The simulation results showed that the system could be powered by low-grade heat source temperature (below 85 °C). AC/HFC-32 and AC/HFC-410a adsorption cooling cycles achieved close specific cooling power and coefficient of performance values of 0.15 kW/kg and 0.3, respectively at a regeneration temperature of 90 °C along with evaporator temperature of 10 °C. The investigated semi continuous adsorption cooling system could produce a cooling power of 9 kW.

  20. Performance of an electrothermal swing adsorption system with postdesorption liquefaction for organic gas capture and recovery.

    PubMed

    Mallouk, Kaitlin E; Rood, Mark J

    2013-07-02

    The use of adsorption on activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC) followed by electrothermal swing adsorption (ESA) and postdesorption pressure and temperature control allows organic gases with boiling points below 0 °C to be captured from air streams and recovered as liquids. This technology has the potential to be a more sustainable abatement technique when compared to thermal oxidation. In this paper, we determine the process performance and energy requirements of a gas recovery system (GRS) using ACFC-ESA for three adsorbates with relative pressures between 8.3 × 10(-5) and 3.4 × 10(-3) and boiling points as low as -26.3 °C. The GRS is able to capture > 99% of the organic gas from the feed air stream, which is comparable to destruction efficiencies for thermal oxidizers. The energy used per liquid mole recovered ranges from 920 to 52,000 kJ/mol and is a function of relative pressure of the adsorbate in the feed gas. Quantifying the performance of the bench-scale gas recovery system in terms of its ability to remove organic gases from the adsorption stream and the energy required to liquefy the recovered organic gases is a critical step in developing new technologies to allow manufacturing to occur in a more sustainable manner. To our knowledge, this is the first time an ACFC-ESA system has been used to capture, recover, and liquefy organic compounds with vapor pressures as low as 8.3 × 10(-5) and the first time such a system has been analyzed for process performance and energy consumption.

  1. Analysis of diffusion-adsorption equivalency of landfill liner systems for organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haijian; Chen, Yunmin; Ke, Han; Tang, Xiaowu; Chen, Renpeng

    2009-01-01

    The equivalence between multilayered barriers regarding diffusion and adsorption was studied. The bottom boundary of the liner system is defined by assuming concentration continuous and flux continuous conditions of the contaminant between the bottom liner layer and the underlying soil. Five different liner systems were compared in terms of solute breakthrough time. The results of the analysis showed that breakthrough time of the hydrophobic organic compounds for a 2-meter-thick compacted clay liner (CCL) could be 3-4 orders of magnitude is greater than the breakthrough time for a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) composite liner. The GM/GCL and GM/CCL composite liner systems provide a better diffusion barrier for the hydrophilic organic compounds than that for the hydrophobic compounds due to their different Henry's coefficient. The calculated breakthrough times of the organic contaminants for the Chinese standard liner systems were found to be generally greater than those for the GCL alternatives, for the specific conditions examined. If the distribution coefficient increases to 2.8 for the hydrophobic compounds or 1.0 for the hydrophilic compounds, the thickness of the attenuation layer needed to achieve the same breakthrough time as the standard liner systems can be reduced by a factor of about 1.9-2.4. As far as diffusive and adsorption contaminant transport are concerned, GM or GCL is less effective than CCL.

  2. A Case Study of a Low Power Vapour Adsorption Refrigeration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinesh, Banala; Sai Manikanta, M.; Dishal Kumar, T.; Sahu, Debjyoti

    2016-09-01

    Industrial refrigeration is one of the most energy consuming sector. In conventional Vapor Compression refrigeration system, compressor is the major power consuming element. Vapor Adsorption refrigeration system is one of the best replacement for the Vapor Compression refrigeration system. Our main objective is to analyze, design and develop a Vapor Adsorption refrigeration system which is cost effective and environmental friendly. A prototype model that is capable of producing a temperature drop in closed evaporator chamber was designed, fabricated and tested. Activated carbon/Methanol pair is chosen as Adsorbent/Refrigerant pair. The system is analyzed in ANSYS 14.5 using the inlet conditions obtained from the experimental setup. The performances and effectiveness of the unit was studied by determining Refrigeration Effect (RE), Coefficient of Performance (COP) and explaining operational issues of the unit. The results obtained from the analysis and experiments have marginal difference in COP i.e. with an error percentage of 5.94%. The overall COP obtained is 0.34 through experiments and from analysis the COP obtained is approximately 0.32.

  3. Simulation of hydrogen adsorption systems adopting the flow through cooling concept

    SciTech Connect

    Corgnale, Claudio; Hardy, Bruce; Chahine, Richard; Cossement, Daniel; Tamburello, David; Anton, Donald

    2014-10-13

    Hydrogen storage systems based on adsorbent materials have the potential of achieving the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) targets, especially in terms of gravimetric capacity. This paper deals with analysis of adsorption storage systems adopting the flow through cooling concept. By this approach the feeding hydrogen provides the needed cold to maintain the tank at low temperatures. Two adsorption systems have been examined and modeled adopting the Dubinin-Astakhov model, to see their performance under selected operating conditions. A first case has been analyzed, modeling a storage tank filled with carbon based material (namely MaxSorb®) and comparing the numerical outcomes with the available experimental results for a 2.5 L tank. Under selected operating conditions (minimum inlet hydrogen temperature of approximately 100 K and maximum pressure on the order of 8.5 MPa) and adopting the flow through cooling concept the material shows a gravimetric capacity of about 5.7 %. A second case has been modeled, examining the same tank filled with metal organic framework material (MOF5®) under approximately the same conditions. The model shows that the latter material can achieve a (material) gravimetric capacity on the order of 11%, making the system potentially able to achieve the DOE 2017 target.

  4. Simulation of hydrogen adsorption systems adopting the flow through cooling concept

    DOE PAGES

    Corgnale, Claudio; Hardy, Bruce; Chahine, Richard; ...

    2014-10-13

    Hydrogen storage systems based on adsorbent materials have the potential of achieving the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) targets, especially in terms of gravimetric capacity. This paper deals with analysis of adsorption storage systems adopting the flow through cooling concept. By this approach the feeding hydrogen provides the needed cold to maintain the tank at low temperatures. Two adsorption systems have been examined and modeled adopting the Dubinin-Astakhov model, to see their performance under selected operating conditions. A first case has been analyzed, modeling a storage tank filled with carbon based material (namely MaxSorb®) and comparing the numerical outcomes withmore » the available experimental results for a 2.5 L tank. Under selected operating conditions (minimum inlet hydrogen temperature of approximately 100 K and maximum pressure on the order of 8.5 MPa) and adopting the flow through cooling concept the material shows a gravimetric capacity of about 5.7 %. A second case has been modeled, examining the same tank filled with metal organic framework material (MOF5®) under approximately the same conditions. The model shows that the latter material can achieve a (material) gravimetric capacity on the order of 11%, making the system potentially able to achieve the DOE 2017 target.« less

  5. Preparation and use of maize tassels' activated carbon for the adsorption of phenolic compounds in environmental waste water samples.

    PubMed

    Olorundare, O F; Msagati, T A M; Krause, R W M; Okonkwo, J O; Mamba, B B

    2015-04-01

    The determination and remediation of three phenolic compounds bisphenol A (BPA), ortho-nitrophenol (o-NTP), parachlorophenol (PCP) in wastewater is reported. The analysis of these molecules in wastewater was done using gas chromatography (GC) × GC time-of-flight mass spectrometry while activated carbon derived from maize tassel was used as an adsorbent. During the experimental procedures, the effect of various parameters such as initial concentration, pH of sample solution, eluent volume, and sample volume on the removal efficiency with respect to the three phenolic compounds was studied. The results showed that maize tassel produced activated carbon (MTAC) cartridge packed solid-phase extraction (SPE) system was able to remove the phenolic compounds effectively (90.84-98.49%, 80.75-97.11%, and 78.27-97.08% for BPA, o-NTP, and PCP, respectively). The MTAC cartridge packed SPE sorbent performance was compared to commercially produced C18 SPE cartridges and found to be comparable. All the parameters investigated were found to have a notable influence on the adsorption efficiency of the phenolic compounds from wastewaters at different magnitudes.

  6. Market Investigation and Material Evaluation of Cartridge Filters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-30

    it was found that pleated, porous filters are best suited to perform the pretreatment filtering function for the Reverse Osmosis Water Purification...onrVrw-- iifentifytbyb1&Ei -hb6ner) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP 4WP J, Reverse Osmosis , Cartridge Filter, Pre-Treatment, Water Purification 19. ABST CT (Continue...GPH Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Units (ROWPUs). The fielded ROWPUs use string-wound, depth filters. It is possible that different designs may

  7. Study of structural irregularities of smectite clay systems by small-angle neutron scattering and adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Stefanis, A.; Tomlinson, A. A. G.; Steriotis, Th. A.; Charalambopoulou, G. Ch.; Keiderling, U.

    2007-04-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and its contrast-matching variant are employed in order to determine structural properties (inter-pillar distances and mass/surface fractal dimensions of the clay layers and pillars) of a series of smectite natural clays (montmorillonite, beidellite, and bentonite) and their pillared and pillared/ion-exchanged analogues. Moreover, a comparative analysis with the adsorption data is carried out on the basis of a systematic study of the structural changes induced by a particular treatment or modification (e.g. pillaring) of the clay systems.

  8. [Some issues concerning the use of firearms with Flobert cartridges].

    PubMed

    Vaitkevicius, Eduardas; Kurapka, Egidijus; Malewski, Hendryk

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the work is to analyze and evaluate legal, criminalistic and criminological problematic issues appearing in Lithuania due to circulation of firearms designed for the Flobert cartridge. The purpose of guns with the Flobert cartridge is shooting training in closed areas. Provided the kinetic energy of Flobert cartridge is not bigger that 7.5 J. the guns meant for those bullets have been classified to unlimited circulation of guns since 1999 in Lithuania. Now these firearms can be purchased by anyone over 18. Due to this reason the demand for these firearms has increased. The sale of these firearms amounts to several thousands (the population of Lithuania is more than 3.5 million). The analyses of the authors show that these firearms are not used in accordance with their purpose. Experimental practice and experimental research proved that these firearms can cause serious bodily injuries. The latter fact allowed the authors to formulate propositions regarding legal regulation of circulation of these firearms.

  9. Construction of a high efficiency copper adsorption bacterial system via peptide display and its application on copper dye polluted wastewater.

    PubMed

    Maruthamuthu, Murali Kannan; Nadarajan, Saravanan Prabhu; Ganesh, Irisappan; Ravikumar, Sambandam; Yun, Hyungdon; Yoo, Ik-Keun; Hong, Soon Ho

    2015-11-01

    For the construction of an efficient copper waste treatment system, a cell surface display strategy was employed. The copper adsorption ability of recombinant bacterial strains displaying three different copper binding peptides were evaluated in LB Luria-Bertani medium (LB), artificial wastewater, and copper phthalocyanine containing textile dye industry wastewater samples. Structural characteristics of the three peptides were also analyzed by similarity-based structure modeling. The best binding peptide was chosen for the construction of a dimeric peptide display and the adsorption ability of the monomeric and dimeric peptide displayed strains were compared. The dimeric peptide displayed strain showed superior copper adsorption in all three tested conditions (LB, artificial wastewater, and textile dye industry wastewater). When the strains were exposed to copper phthalocyanine dye polluted wastewater, the dimeric peptide display [543.27 µmol/g DCW dry cell weight (DCW)] showed higher adsorption of copper when compared with the monomeric strains (243.53 µmol/g DCW).

  10. Next Generation LOCAD-PTS Cartridge Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, H.; Nutter, D.; Weite, E.; Wells, M.; Maule, J.; Damon, M.; Monaco, L.; Steele, A.; Wainwright, N.

    2008-01-01

    Future astrobiology exploration missions will require rapid, point-of-use techniques for surface science experiments and contamination monitoring. The Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development (LOCAD) team is developing operational instruments that advance spaceflight technologies to molecular-based methods. Currently, LOCAD-Portable Test System (PTS) is quantifying levels of the bacterial molecule endotoxin onboard the Internatioal Space Station. Future research and development will focus on more sensitive molecular techniques that expand the number of compounds detected to include beta-glucan from fungal cell walls.

  11. Analytical study of a gas-fired adsorptive air-conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Poyelle, F.; Guilleminot, J.J.; Meunier, F.

    1996-11-01

    Adsorptive air conditioning represents a potential alternative to chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) systems. But to compete with other systems, adsorption systems must exhibit sufficient figures of merit and energetic densities. An analytical study to predict the overall heat transfer coefficient in an adsorber has been conducted and is presented here. This study, based on a method-of-moment analysis, shows the influence of three parameters limiting the heat transfer in adsorbent beds. Heat transfer in adsorbent beds has been intensified. Using new consolidated materials, the machine utilizes two uniform temperature adsorbent beds in a cycle that incorporates both heat and mass recovery. It uses a zeolite-water pair. It is designed to produce 3 kW of cooling. Expected cooling performances are 300 W/kg of adsorbent with a coefficient of performance (COP) close to 0.8 and a cycle time of 20 minutes. The thermal conditions used to test the cycle are: the heater, 220 C; the cooler, 40 C; and the evaporation temperature, 3 C.

  12. Development of STR profiles from firearms and fired cartridge cases.

    PubMed

    Horsman-Hall, Katie M; Orihuela, Yvette; Karczynski, Stephanie L; Davis, Ann L; Ban, Jeffrey D; Greenspoon, Susan A

    2009-09-01

    Fired cartridge cases are a common type of evidence found at crime scenes. However, due to the high chamber temperatures and touch nature of this evidence, DNA testing is not commonly sought because it is believed DNA is only present in low levels, whether it is due to initial low levels of DNA and/or DNA degradation from the heat or inhibition of the PCR reaction. Moreover, very few laboratories report STR typing success with fired cases. This study focused on obtaining STR profiles from fired cartridge cases using the AmpFlSTR MiniFiler kit, which is designed to amplify DNA from low level, inhibited, and degraded samples. Comparisons to other STR amplification kits were also conducted. In attempt to simulate casework, random individuals loaded cartridges into a firearm. DNA was recovered from the fired cartridge cases using the double swab technique and extracted using an automated large volume DNA IQ method. Initially, testing focused on known shedders handling cartridges for 30s prior to firing. A significantly greater number of alleles was obtained following amplification with the MiniFiler kit versus the PowerPlex 16 BIO kit. No alleles were observed using the Identifiler kit. In an attempt to better simulate casework, a random selection of laboratory personnel handled shotshells for as long as needed to load and fire the weapon. In this mock sample study, the MiniFiler kit successfully amplified an average of 22% of expected alleles from DNA recovered from shotshell cases versus the PowerPlex 16 BIO kit where an average of 7% of alleles were observed. However, the total number of alleles obtained from the two kits was not significantly different. The quality of the DNA obtained from fired cases was studied with evidence of inhibition in at least 11% of shotshell case samples. After swabbing the head and the hull of three shotshell cases separately, a significantly greater number of alleles was obtained from the hull as opposed to the head of the fired

  13. DURIP: Electrokinetic Injection and Separation System for Analysis of Protein and Peptide Transport, Adsorption and Kinetics Instrumentation Proposal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-18

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We requested equipment necessary to build an electrokinetic injection and separation system for the analysis of protein...Jul-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: DURIP: Electrokinetic Injection and Separation System for Analysis of...Injection and Separation System for Analysis of Protein and Peptide Transport, Adsorption and Kinetics Instrumentation Proposal Report Title We requested

  14. Selecting the column configuration with lowest media replacement cost for small adsorption systems.

    PubMed

    Bausk, Artem S; Dvorak, Bruce I

    2016-04-15

    A framework was developed for preliminary evaluation of the relative media replacement costs of three alternative column configurations used for adsorption systems with two vessels, such as those serving small systems. The media replacement cost is the cost of fresh media and the replacement service cost (including transportation, labor, and other non-material costs). Cost normalization methods were developed in part based on the data from US EPA Arsenic Treatment Technology Demonstration Program. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics were modeled using the PSDM model and breakthrough curves were normalized using the target effluent to influent concentration ratio (C/Co) and the mass transfer zone fraction (%MTZBT). Two factors were found to be important for the relative replacement cost of each configuration - the frequency which at least one column needed replacement of media, and the cycle replacement cost (CRCost) which is a combination of the fresh media cost and the replacement service cost. The lead-lag configuration has the lowest annual replacement cost at low target C/Co, high %MTZBT, and high CRCost ratios. The parallel configuration performs better at high target C/Co, high %MTZBT, and high CRCost ratios. Although the single configuration (two columns operated in tandem and replaced simultaneously) has higher media consumption compared to lead-lag and parallel, it can result in the lowest replacement cost at short %MTZBT and very low CRCost ratios due to savings in the replacement service cost.

  15. Submerged membrane adsorption hybrid system using four adsorbents to remove nitrate from water.

    PubMed

    Kalaruban, Mahatheva; Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Kandasamy, Jaya; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2017-04-05

    Nitrate contamination of ground and surface waters causes environmental pollution and human health problems in many parts of the world. This study tests the nitrate removal efficiencies of two ion exchange resins (Dowex 21K XLT and iron-modified Dowex 21K XLT (Dowex-Fe)) and two chemically modified bio-adsorbents (amine-grafted corn cob (AG corn cob) and amine-grafted coconut copra (AG coconut copra)) using a dynamic adsorption treatment system. A submerged membrane (microfiltration) adsorption hybrid system (SMAHS) was used for the continuous removal of nitrate with a minimal amount of adsorbents. The efficiency of membrane filtration flux and replacement rate of adsorbent were studied to determine suitable operating conditions to maintain the effluent nitrate concentration below the WHO drinking standard limit of 11.3 mg N/L. The volume of water treated and the amount of nitrate adsorbed per gramme of adsorbent for all four flux tested were in the order Dowex-Fe > Dowex > AG coconut copra > AG corn cob. The volumes of water treated (L/g adsorbent) were 0.91 and 1.85, and the amount of nitrate removed (mg N/g adsorbent) were 9.8 and 22.2 for AG corn cob and Dowex-Fe, respectively, at a flux of 15 L/(m(2)/h).

  16. Testing, Modeling and System Impact of Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacomini, Christine S.; Powers, Aaron; Lewis, Matthew; Linrud, Christopher; Waguespack, Glenn; Conger, Bruce; Paul, Heather L.

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic heat regenerated temperature swing adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for removal and rejection of carbon dioxide (CO2) and heat from a portable life support system (PLSS) to the Martian environment. Previously, hardware was built and tested to demonstrate using heat from simulated, dry ventilation loop gas to affect the temperature swing required to regenerate an adsorbent used for CO2 removal. New testing has been performed using a moist, simulated ventilation loop gas to demonstrate the effects of water condensing and freezing in the heat exchanger during adsorbent regeneration. In addition, thermal models of the adsorbent during regeneration were modified and calibrated with test data to capture the effect of the CO2 heat of desorption. Finally, MTSA impact on PLSS design was evaluated by performing thermal balances assuming a specific PLSS architecture. Results using NASA s Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT), a PLSS system evaluation tool, are presented.

  17. Construction and measurements of an improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    SciTech Connect

    Street, J. Bunker, R.; Dunagan, C.; Loose, X.; Schnee, R. W.; Stark, M.; Sundarnath, K.; Tronstad, D.

    2015-08-17

    In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto detector surfaces, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. An improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system and cleanroom build upon a previous design implemented at Syracuse University that achieved radon levels of ∼0.2 Bq m{sup −3}. This improved system will employ a better pump and larger carbon beds feeding a redesigned cleanroom with an internal HVAC unit and aged water for humidification. With the rebuilt (original) radon mitigation system, the new low-radon cleanroom has already achieved a > 300× reduction from an input activity of 58.6 ± 0.7 Bq m{sup −3} to a cleanroom activity of 0.13 ± 0.06 Bq m{sup −3}.

  18. Performance study of unglazed cylindrical solar collector for adsorption refrigeration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesh, A.; Kaushik, S. C.; Kumaraguru, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    In the present communication, the unglazed cylindrical solar adsorber module is suggested for refrigeration and theoretical models for the heat and mass transfer in the cylindrical adsorber with heat balance equations in the collector components have been developed. It has been found that, both the SCP and COPsolar raises with increasing the evaporation temperature and drop off with the increase of the condensation temperature. The COPsolar increased from 0.15 to 0.52 with the increase of the total solar energy absorbed by the collector while the COPcycle varied in the range of 0.57-0.73. The efficiency of unglazed solar collector varied from 36 to 44 %. The cost of current unglazed adsorption refrigeration system is compared with the glazed system, and it is 33 to 50 % less than the cost of glazed system.

  19. Energy transfer during freeze-drying in dual-chamber cartridges.

    PubMed

    Korpus, Christoph; Haase, Thomas; Sönnichsen, Caren; Friess, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    Freeze-drying essentially requires knowledge about the heat and mass transfer characteristics to assure product quality. Whereas this understanding has been created for freeze-drying in vials, only limited information is available for state-of-the-art multiple compartment container systems such as dual-chamber cartridges (DCCs). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of this novel container format. Sublimation tests were carried out using pure water at 60, 100, 150, and 200 mTorr chamber pressure at a shelf temperature of 0°C. Custom-made aluminum blocks were used as holder systems. Two heat transfer coefficients could be identified: the coefficient characterizing heat transfer between shelf and block, KAl , and between block and cartridge, KDCC . KAl was dependent on all three modes of heat transfer: contact conduction, gas conduction, and radiation. For KDCC , contact conduction was negligible. Radiation strongly influenced the overall energy transfer as it is the major mode of heat transfer for KDCC and contributes up to 44% to KAl . A third coefficient, Ktot , was defined as an overall heat transfer coefficient. This knowledge about heat transfer enables a purposeful development and control of optimized lyophilization processes for this novel container system.

  20. The molecular adsorption-type endotoxin detection system using immobilized ɛ-polylysine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooe, Katsutoshi; Tsuji, Akihito; Nishishita, Naoki; Hirano, Yoshiaki

    2007-12-01

    mass incrementation is occurred, and the existence of endtoxin can be detected immediately, by using of Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM). In this report, the immobilization of ɛ-polylysine onto the Au and Si substrate and its adsorptive activity are described. We use X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to confirm the ɛ-polylysine immobilization, and the adsorptive activity of immobilized ɛ-polylysine is measured by AFM and QCM. This molecular adsorption type endotoxin sensor aims to the realization of "real-time endotoxin detection system".

  1. A Calibration-Free, Noncontact, Disposable Liquid Dispensing Cartridge Featuring an Online Process Control.

    PubMed

    Bammesberger, Stefan Borja; Malki, Imad; Ernst, Andreas; Zengerle, Roland; Koltay, Peter

    2014-08-01

    We present a noncontact liquid dispenser that uses a disposable cartridge for the calibration-free dosage of diverse biochemical reagents from the nanoliter to the microliter range. The dispensing system combines the advantages of a positive displacement syringe pump (responsible for defining the aliquot's volume with high accuracy) with a highly dynamic noncontact dispenser (providing kinetic energy to detach the liquid from the tip). The disposable, noncontact dispensing cartridge system renders elaborate washing procedures of tips obsolete. A noncontact sensor monitors the dispensing process to enable an online process control. To further increase confidence and reliability for particularly critical biomedical applications, an optional closed-loop control prevents malfunctions. The dispensing performance was characterized experimentally in the range of 0.25 to 10.0 µL using liquids of different rheological properties (viscosity 1.03-16.98 mPas, surface tension 30.49-70.83 mN/m) without adjusting or calibrating the actuation parameters. The precision ranged between a coefficient of variation of 0.5% and 5.3%, and the accuracy was below ±10%. The presented technology has the potential to contribute significantly to the improvement of biochemical liquid handling for laboratory automation in terms of usability, miniaturization, cost reduction, and safety.

  2. Building a working understanding of protein adsorption with model systems and serendipity.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    Here we will consider a working understanding of protein adsorption to be one that is adequate for practical use. Serendipity will be considered as a resource that can be used along with model systems in order to build such a working understanding. In particular, the term refers to a preparedness on the part of the researcher to make connections between a variety of everyday inputs from sources in and outside of the main concerns of the research, and a willingness to apply those connections toward the broader utility and impact of the work. In this paper we summarize the highlights and major conclusions of our work with proteins at interfaces - gained by use of comparatively very simple experimental systems while harnessing luck as effectively as we could along the way - and its relevance to meeting challenges in biopharma and biomedical technology.

  3. Automotive hydrogen storage system using cryo-adsorption on activated carbon.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Peng, J. K.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-07-01

    An integrated model of a sorbent-based cryogenic compressed hydrogen system is used to assess the prospect of meeting the near-term targets of 36 kg-H{sub 2}/m{sup 3} volumetric and 4.5 wt% gravimetric capacity for hydrogen-fueled vehicles. The model includes the thermodynamics of H{sub 2} sorption, heat transfer during adsorption and desorption, sorption dynamics, energetics of cryogenic tank cooling, and containment of H{sub 2} in geodesically wound carbon fiber tanks. The results from the model show that recoverable hydrogen, rather than excess or absolute adsorption, is a determining measure of whether a sorbent is a good candidate material for on-board storage of H{sub 2}. A temperature swing is needed to recover >80% of the sorption capacity of the superactivated carbon sorbent at 100 K and 100 bar as the tank is depressurized to 3-8 bar. The storage pressure at which the system needs to operate in order to approach the system capacity targets has been determined and compared with the breakeven pressure above which the storage tank is more compact if H{sub 2} is stored only as a cryo-compressed gas. The amount of liquid N{sub 2} needed to cool the hydrogen dispensed to the vehicle to 100 K and to remove the heat of adsorption during refueling has been estimated. The electrical energy needed to produce the requisite liquid N{sub 2} by air liquefaction is compared with the electrical energy needed to liquefy the same amount of H{sub 2} at a central plant. The alternate option of adiabatically refueling the sorbent tank with liquid H{sub 2} has been evaluated to determine the relationship between the storage temperature and the sustainable temperature swing. Finally, simulations have been run to estimate the increase in specific surface area and bulk density of medium needed to satisfy the system capacity targets with H{sub 2} storage at 100 bar.

  4. Comparison of adsorption and photo-Fenton processes for phenol and paracetamol removing from aqueous solutions: single and binary systems.

    PubMed

    Rad, Leila Roshanfekr; Haririan, Ismaeil; Divsar, Faten

    2015-02-05

    In the present study, adsorption and photo-Fenton processes have been compared for the removal of phenol and paracetamol from aqueous solutions in a single and binary systems. NaX nanozeolites and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were used during adsorption and photo-Fenton processes, respectively. Both nanoparticles were synthesized using microwave heating method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis. Based on results, more than 99% removing percentages of phenol and paracetamol were obtained during photo-Fenton process at initial concentrations of 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 mg/L of phenol and paracetamol. Moreover, the complete removing of phenol and paracetamol was only achieved at lower initial concentrations than 10 mg/L for phenol and paracetamol during adsorption process. The results showed a significant dependence of the phenol and paracetamol removing on the initial concentrations of phenol and paracetamol for selection of process. The photo-Fenton process could be considered an alternative method in higher initial concentrations of phenol and paracetamol. However, the adsorption process due to economical issue was preferred for phenol and paracetamol removing at lower initial concentrations. The kinetic data of photo-Fenton and adsorption processes were well described using first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results of phenol and paracetamol removing in a binary system confirmed the obtained results of single removing of phenol and paracetamol in selection of process.

  5. Comparison of adsorption and photo-Fenton processes for phenol and paracetamol removing from aqueous solutions: Single and binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rad, Leila Roshanfekr; Haririan, Ismaeil; Divsar, Faten

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, adsorption and photo-Fenton processes have been compared for the removal of phenol and paracetamol from aqueous solutions in a single and binary systems. NaX nanozeolites and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were used during adsorption and photo-Fenton processes, respectively. Both nanoparticles were synthesized using microwave heating method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis. Based on results, more than 99% removing percentages of phenol and paracetamol were obtained during photo-Fenton process at initial concentrations of 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 mg/L of phenol and paracetamol. Moreover, the complete removing of phenol and paracetamol was only achieved at lower initial concentrations than 10 mg/L for phenol and paracetamol during adsorption process. The results showed a significant dependence of the phenol and paracetamol removing on the initial concentrations of phenol and paracetamol for selection of process. The photo-Fenton process could be considered an alternative method in higher initial concentrations of phenol and paracetamol. However, the adsorption process due to economical issue was preferred for phenol and paracetamol removing at lower initial concentrations. The kinetic data of photo-Fenton and adsorption processes were well described using first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results of phenol and paracetamol removing in a binary system confirmed the obtained results of single removing of phenol and paracetamol in selection of process.

  6. Ling's Adsorption Theory as a Mechanism of Membrane Potential Generation Observed in Both Living and Nonliving Systems.

    PubMed

    Tamagawa, Hirohisa; Funatani, Makoto; Ikeda, Kota

    2016-01-26

    The potential between two electrolytic solutions separated by a membrane impermeable to ions was measured and the generation mechanism of potential measured was investigated. From the physiological point of view, a nonzero membrane potential or action potential cannot be observed across the impermeable membrane. However, a nonzero membrane potential including action potential-like potential was clearly observed. Those observations gave rise to a doubt concerning the validity of currently accepted generation mechanism of membrane potential and action potential of cell. As an alternative theory, we found that the long-forgotten Ling's adsorption theory was the most plausible theory. Ling's adsorption theory suggests that the membrane potential and action potential of a living cell is due to the adsorption of mobile ions onto the adsorption site of cell, and this theory is applicable even to nonliving (or non-biological) system as well as living system. Through this paper, the authors emphasize that it is necessary to reconsider the validity of current membrane theory and also would like to urge the readers to pay keen attention to the Ling's adsorption theory which has for long years been forgotten in the history of physiology.

  7. Morphogene adsorption as a Turing instability regulator: Theoretical analysis and possible applications in multicellular embryonic systems

    PubMed Central

    Nesterenko, Alexey M.; Kuznetsov, Maxim B.; Korotkova, Daria D.; Zaraisky, Andrey G.

    2017-01-01

    The Turing instability in the reaction-diffusion system is a widely recognized mechanism of the morphogen gradient self-organization during the embryonic development. One of the essential conditions for such self-organization is sharp difference in the diffusion rates of the reacting substances (morphogens). In classical models this condition is satisfied only for significantly different values of diffusion coefficients which cannot hold for morphogens of similar molecular size. One of the most realistic explanations of the difference in diffusion rate is the difference between adsorption of morphogens to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Basing on this assumption we develop a novel mathematical model and demonstrate its effectiveness in describing several well-known examples of biological patterning. Our model consisting of three reaction-diffusion equations has the Turing-type instability and includes two elements with equal diffusivity and immobile binding sites as the third reaction substance. The model is an extension of the classical Gierer-Meinhardt two-components model and can be reduced to it under certain conditions. Incorporation of ECM in the model system allows us to validate the model for available experimental parameters. According to our model introduction of binding sites gradient, which is frequently observed in embryonic tissues, allows one to generate more types of different spatial patterns than can be obtained with two-components models. Thus, besides providing an essential condition for the Turing instability for the system of morphogen with close values of the diffusion coefficients, the morphogen adsorption on ECM may be important as a factor that increases the variability of self-organizing structures. PMID:28170437

  8. Improvements of the recovery line of waste toner cartridges on environmental and safety performances.

    PubMed

    Jujun, Ruan; Jia, Li; Zhenming, Xu

    2013-06-18

    A physical recovery line had been constructed in plant for the increasing waste toner cartridges in previous work. However, with the production, severe lacks of the line emerged: (1) there was little proper technology of treating the collected toner; (2) strong noise was produced from the line and influenced the health of worker. For disposing toner properly, a new collected system of toner was developed. An air current separator (ACS) was designed to separate organic materials from inorganic materials of toner. Then, the separated organic materials can be incinerated and the inorganic materials can be dumped. Movement behaviors of toner particles in the ACS were analyzed, and the optimized operation parameter (13.5 m/s) of air current speed was obtained by theory analysis and experiments. For controlling the noise, noise levels emitted from the different process of the line were measured. The results indicated noise levels emitted from crusher (95.2 dB(A)) and agitator/magnetic separator (AMS, 91.9 dB(A)) were greater than the permissible noise exposure level of the Occupational Safety and Health Standards (90 dB(A)). The noise levels of other processes of the line were relatively safe. An acoustic hood was developed to reduce the noise levels of the crusher and the AMS. Then, the noise levels were both decreased to 67.6 dB(A). This paper provided important data for the environment on the industrialization of waste toner cartridges recovery.

  9. A procedure for fractionation of sphingolipid classes by solid-phase extraction on aminopropyl cartridges.

    PubMed

    Bodennec, J; Koul, O; Aguado, I; Brichon, G; Zwingelstein, G; Portoukalian, J

    2000-09-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods are easy, rapid, and reliable. Their growing popularity is in part due to their operational simplicity and cost reduction in solvents, and partly because they are easier to automate. Sphingolipids are implicated in various cellular events such as growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, their separation by small SPE cartridges has attracted limited attention. Here we describe an SPE procedure on aminopropyl cartridges that by sequential elution allows the separation of a lipid mixture into free ceramides, neutral glycosphingolipids, neutral phospholipids (sphingomyelin), and a fraction containing the acidic phospholipids and phosphorylated sphingoid bases, phosphoceramides and sulfatides. Individual components are obtained in high yield and purity. We applied the procedure to obtain data on separation of [(3)H]myristic acid-labeled sphingolipids from fish gills, and from human melanoma tumor tissue. Individual lipids in the SPE fractions were identified by chromatography on several high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) systems. The chromatographic behavior of free sphingoid bases is also reported.

  10. Solid cartridge for a pulse weld forming electrode and method of joining tubular members

    DOEpatents

    Bonnen, John Joseph Francis; Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich; Mamutov, Alexander; Maison, Lloyd Douglas; Dawson, Scott Alwyn; deVries, James

    2016-02-23

    A cartridge assembly is disclosed for a pulse welding a first tube supported on a mandrel to a second tube. An outer tool is assembled over the second tube and a stored charge is discharged in the cartridge assembly. The cartridge comprises an annular conductor and a solid casing enveloping the conductor. The stored charge is electrically connected to the conductor and discharged through the conductor to compress the second tube and pulse weld the second tube to the first tube.

  11. Spit-Hole Effects on the Ballistics of a 7.62-mm Cartridge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    study to examine the effects of a small caliber (7.62-mm) cartridge’s spit-hole on the interior ballistic performance of the cartridge. The performance...Spit-Hole Effects on the Ballistics of a 7.62-mm Cartridge by John Ritter ARL-TR-6785 February 2014... Ballistics of a 7.62-mm Cartridge John Ritter Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL

  12. The effects of laser welding on heterogeneous immunoassay performance in a microfluidic cartridge

    PubMed Central

    Mäntymaa, Anne; Halme, Jussi; Välimaa, Lasse; Kallio, Pasi

    2011-01-01

    Sealing of a microfluidic cartridge is a challenge, because the cartridge commonly contains heat-sensitive biomolecules that must also be protected from contamination. In addition, the objective is usually to obtain a sealing method suitable for mass production. Laser welding is a rapid technique that can be accomplished with low unit costs. Even though the technique has been widely adopted in industry, the literature on its use in microfluidic applications is not large. This paper is the first to report the effects of laser welding on the performance of the heterogeneous immunoassay in a polystyrene microfluidic cartridge in which biomolecules are immobilized into the reaction surface of the cartridge before sealing. The paper compares the immunoassay performance of microfluidic cartridges that are sealed either with an adhesive tape or by use of laser transmission welding. The model analyte used is thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). The results show that the concentration curves in the laser-welded cartridges are very close to the curves in the taped cartridges. This indicates, first, that laser welding does not cause any significant reduction in immunoassay performance, and second, that the polystyrene cover does not have significant effect on the signal levels. Interestingly, the coefficients of variance between parallel samples were lower in the laser-welded cartridges than in the taped cartridges. PMID:22685505

  13. High-Temperature Crystal-Growth Cartridge Tubes Made by VPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard; O'Dell, Scott; McKechnie, Timothy; Power, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Cartridge tubes for use in a crystal growth furnace at temperatures as high as 1,600 deg. C have been fabricated by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS). These cartridges consist mainly of an alloy of 60 weight percent molybdenum with 40 weight percent rhenium, made from molybdenum powder coated with rhenium. This alloy was selected because of its high melting temperature (approximately equal.2,550 C) and because of its excellent ductility at room temperature. These cartridges are intended to supplant tungsten/nickel-alloy cartridges, which cannot be used at temperatures above approximately equal 1,300 C.

  14. Construction and measurements of a vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    SciTech Connect

    Schnee, R. W.; Bunker, R.; Ghulam, G.; Jardin, D.; Kos, M.; Tenney, A. S.

    2013-08-08

    Long-lived alpha and beta emitters in the {sup 222}Rn decay chain on (and near) detector surfaces may be the limiting background in many experiments attempting to detect dark matter or neutrinoless double beta decay, and in screening detectors. In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto the wires of the Beta Cage during its assembly, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at Syracuse University using a vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system. The radon filter shows ∼20× reduction at its output, from 7.47±0.56 to 0.37±0.12 Bq/m{sup 3}, and the cleanroom radon activity meets project requirements, with a lowest achieved value consistent with that of the filter, and levels consistently < 2 Bq/m{sup 3}.

  15. Capacitive Deionization: a coupled 2D electro-adsorption/convective-diffusive simulation for various system configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidrovo, Carlos; Salamat, Yasamin

    2016-11-01

    Capacitive Deionization (CDI) is a relatively new electrically based desalination method that uses porous media to adsorb ions in solution from water, with the potential to recover part of the energy used during the desalination process. Previous studies have investigated the physics underlying the electro-adsorption process in the electrical double layers in the CDI porous electrodes. In order to improve CDI performance in terms of minimum average concentration, total amount of water treated, and duration of the desalination process, herein we propose and evaluate different CDI architectures. Two previously validated 2D and 1D models are used alongside each other to study different CDI system configurations based on various convective-diffusive layer regimes. Moreover, the effects of micro pore and macro pore capacities on the total number of ions adsorbed in the porous media is investigated. This will open new opportunities for further researches toward engineered CDI units for better desalination.

  16. Water treatment cartridge filter pilot test at Pond C-2

    SciTech Connect

    Moritz, E.J.; Hoffman, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    This study determined the performance of a pilot scale cartridge filter tank utilized to treat raw water at Rocky Flats Plant terminal Pond C-2. No chemical treatment was used during this study. The filter tank was fitted with eight polypropylene 3M{reg_sign} Model 723 cartridges vendor rated at 99% removal efficiency for particles of 2 microns and larger. The duration of the test was 30 minutes at a flowrate of 200 gallons per minutes. Performance was determined by measuring total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), gross alpha activity, gross beta activity, plutonium ({sup 239}Pu) levels, total particle counts (TPC), and differential particle counts (DPC) before and after treatment at specific time intervals throughout the test. Performance testing shows this treatment method produced a high quality effluent. Compared to raw water levels, TSS, NTU, gross alpha, and Pu{sup 239} were significantly reduced in the treated water samples. TPC and DPC data showed an average filtration efficiency of 97% for particles in the 1--50 micron range. This treatment method had no statistically significant affect on TDS and gross beta activity levels.

  17. Aerosol penetration through filtering facepieces and respirator cartridges.

    PubMed

    Chen, C C; Lehtimäki, M; Willeke, K

    1992-09-01

    Air-purifying respirators must be certified following the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) filter test criteria (30 CFR 11). The criteria specify a range for the mean particle size and the measure of spread permissible for the test aerosol. The authors' experiments have shown that aerosol penetration as a function of particle size differs considerably among certified respirators of the same type. Filtering facepieces (disposable respirators) and cartridges of the dust-mist, dust-mist-fume, and high-efficiency particulate air type were tested. The respirators were sealed to mannequins in a test chamber. The aerosol concentrations inside and outside the respirator were measured by an aerodynamic particle sizer and a laser aerosol spectrometer over a particle size range of 0.1 to 15 microns. Five flow rates ranging from 5 to 100 L/min were used to study flow dependency. The aerosol penetration through the filters is presented as a function of particle size. Aerosol penetration and pressure drop are combined to express the performance of each filter in terms of "quality factor." Under the same test conditions, the quality factor of one respirator may be as much as 6.6 times more than that of another respirator of the same type. The filter quality factor has a greater aerosol size dependency as airflow and aerosol size increase. In general, cartridges have a larger surface area than filtering facepieces but not necessarily lower filter penetration or higher filter quality.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Development and analysis of micro-polygeneration systems and adsorption chillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle

    About a fifth of all primary energy in the US is consumed by residential buildings, mostly for cooling, heating and to provide electricity. Furthermore, retrofits are essential to reducing this consumption, since the buildings that exist today will comprise over half of those in use in 2050. Residential combined heat and power (or micro CHP, defined by <5 kW electrical generation capacity) has been identified as a retrofit technology which can reduce energy consumption in existing homes during the heating season by 5-30%. This thesis investigates the addition of a thermally-driven chiller/heat pump to a CHP system (to form a trigeneration system) to additionally provide savings during the cooling season, and enhance heating season savings. Scenarios are identified in which adding thermally-driven equipment to a micro CHP system reduces primary energy consumption, through analytical and experimental investigations. The experimental focus is on adsorption heat pump systems, which are capable of being used with the CHP engines (prime movers) that are already widely deployed. The analytical analysis identifies energy saving potential off-grid for today's prime movers, with potential on-grid for various fuel cell technologies. A novel dynamic test facility was developed to measure real-world residential trigeneration system performance using a prototype adsorption chiller. The chiller was designed and constructed for this thesis and was driven by waste heat from a commercially available natural gas-fueled 4 kW (electric) CHP engine. A control strategy for the chiller was developed, enabling a 5-day experiment to be run using a thermal load profile based on moderate Maryland summer air conditioning loads and typical single-family domestic hot water demand, with experimental results in agreement with models. In this summer mode, depending on electrical loads, the trigeneration system used up to 36% less fuel than off-grid separate generation and up to 29% less fuel than

  19. Competitive adsorption of As(III), As(V), Sb(III) and Sb(V) onto ferrihydrite in multi-component systems: Implications for mobility and distribution.

    PubMed

    Qi, Pengfei; Pichler, Thomas

    2017-05-15

    The simultaneous adsorption behavior and competitive interactions between As(III), As(V), Sb(III) and Sb(V) by ferrihydrite were evaluated in multi-component (binary, ternary, quaternary) systems. In binary systems, Sb(III) had a stronger inhibitory influence on As(III) adsorption than Sb(V) did, and As(V) had a stronger inhibitory effect on Sb(V) adsorption than As(III) did. In ternary systems, NO3(-), PO4(3-) and SO4(2-) did not compete with the adsorption of As(III) and Sb(III). NO3(-) and SO4(2-) also had no distinct effect on the adsorption of As(V) and Sb(V), while PO4(3-) competed with As(V) and Sb(V) for surface sites. In quaternary systems, the simultaneous adsorption behavior of the four redox species was pH dependent. Sb(III) always showed the strongest adsorption affinity regardless of pH. At pH 3.5 As(III) showed the lowest affinity could be due to the presence and negative effect of Sb(III) and As(V). The Freundlich model provided a good fit for the simultaneous adsorption data under quaternary conditions. The study of competitive/simultaneous adsorption of the four possible redox species onto ferrihydrite contributed to a better understanding of their distribution, mobility and fate in the environment.

  20. Martian Liquid CO2 and Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption for Portable Life Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacomini, Christine; MacCallum, Taber; Morin, Tom; Straub-Lopez, Kathrine; Paul, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Two of the fundamental problems facing the development of a Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for use on Mars, are (i) heat rejection (because traditional technologies use sublimation of water, which wastes a scarce resource and contaminates the premises), and (ii) rejection of CO2 in an environment with a ppCO2 of 0.4-0.9 kPa. This paper presents a conceptual system for CO2 collection, compression, and cooling to produce sub-critical (liquid) CO2. A first order estimate of the system mass and energy to condense and store liquid CO2 outside at Mars ambient temperature at 600 kPa is discussed. No serious technical hurdles were identified and it is likely that better overall performance would be achieved if the system were part of an integrated ISRU strategy rather than a standalone system. Patent-pending Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology for CO2 removal from a PLSS vent loop, where the Martian liquid CO2 is used as the heat sink is developed to utilize the readily available liquid CO2. This paper will describe the technology and present data in support of its design.

  1. Adsorption of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate and wettability in polytetrafluoroethylene solution air system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkot, Joanna; Jańczuk, Bronisław

    2007-06-01

    The role of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) adsorption at water-air and polytetrafluoroethylene-water (PTFE) interfaces in wetting of low energy PTFE was established from measurements of the contact angle of aqueous AOT solutions in PTFE-solution drop-air systems and the aqueous AOT solution surface tension measurements. For calculations of the adsorption at these interfaces the relationship between adhesion tension ( γLV cos θ) and surface tension ( γLV), and the Gibbs and Young equations were taken into account. On the basis of the measurements and calculations the slope of the γLV cos θ- γLV curve was found to be constant and equal -1 over the whole range of surfactant concentration in solution. It means that the amount of surfactant adsorbed at the PTFE-water interface, ΓSL, is essentially equal to its amount adsorbed at water-air interface, ΓLV. By extrapolating the linear dependence between γLV cos θ and γLV to cos θ = 1 the determined value of critical surface tension of PTFE surface wetting, γC, was obtained (23.6 mN/m), and it was higher than the surface tension of PTFE (20.24 mN/m). Using the value of PTFE surface tension and the measured surface tension of aqueous AOT solution in Young equation, the PTFE-solution interface tension, γSL, was also determined. The shape of the γSL-log C curve occurred to be similar to the isotherm of AOT adsorption at water-air interface, and a linear dependence existed between the PTFE-solution interfacial tension and polar component of aqueous AOT solution. The dependence was found to be established by the fact that the work of adhesion of AOT solution to the PTFE surface was practically constant amounting 46.31 mJ/m 2 which was close to the work of water adhesion to PTFE surface.

  2. Phosphorous adsorption and precipitation in a permeable reactive wall: Applications for wastewater disposal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.J.; Blowes, D.W. |; Placek, C.J. |

    1997-12-31

    A permeable reactive mixture has been developed using low cost, readily available materials that is capable of providing effective, long-term phosphorous treatment in areas impacted by on-land wastewater disposal. The reactive mixture creates a geochemical environment suitable for P-attenuation by both adsorption and precipitation reactions. Potential benefits include significant reductions in phosphorous loading to receiving groundwater and surface water systems, and the accumulation of P-mass in a finite and accessible volume of material. The mixture may be applied as a component within surface treatment systems or in subsurface applications such as horizontal or vertical permeable reactive walls. The mixture averaged > 90% treatment efficiency over 3.6 years of continuous-flow laboratory column experiments. The mixture was further evaluated at the pilot-scale to treat municipal wastewater, and the field-scale to treat a well-characterized septic system plume using an in situ funnel and gate system. Average PO{sub 4}-P concentrations in effluent exiting the reactive mixture range between 0 - 0.3 mg/L. Mineralogical analyses have isolated the phases responsible for phosphorous uptake, and discrete phosphate precipitates have been identified.

  3. Relative importance of column and adsorption parameters on the productivity in preparative liquid chromatography II: Investigation of separation systems with competitive Langmuir adsorption isotherms.

    PubMed

    Forssén, Patrik; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2014-06-20

    In this study we investigated how the maximum productivity for commonly used, realistic separation system with a competitive Langmuir adsorption isotherm is affected by changes in column length, packing particle size, mobile phase viscosity, maximum allowed column pressure, column efficiency, sample concentration/solubility, selectivity, monolayer saturation capacity and retention factor of the first eluting compound. The study was performed by generating 1000 random separation systems whose optimal injection volume was determined, i.e., the injection volume that gives the largest achievable productivity. The relative changes in largest achievable productivity when one of the parameters above changes was then studied for each system and the productivity changes for all systems were presented as distributions. We found that it is almost always beneficial to use shorter columns with high pressure drops over the column and that the selectivity should be greater than 2. However, the sample concentration and column efficiency have very limited effect on the maximum productivity. The effect of packing particle size depends on the flow rate limiting factor. If the pumps maximum flow rate is the limiting factor use smaller packing, but if the pressure of the system is the limiting factor use larger packing up to about 40μm.

  4. 77 FR 23753 - Certain Ink Cartridges and Components Thereof; Modification of Remedial Orders and Termination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... COMMISSION Certain Ink Cartridges and Components Thereof; Modification of Remedial Orders and Termination of... general exclusion order and a cease and desist order to cover components of ink cartridges and terminated... States, the sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain...

  5. 78 FR 23955 - Certain Toner Cartridges and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... COMMISSION Certain Toner Cartridges and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial... in the United States after importation of certain toner cartridges and components thereof that....; Acecome, Inc.--San Antonio d/b/a InkSell.com ; Do It Wiser LLC d/ b/a Image Toner; E-Max Group, Inc....

  6. Cartridge firing device designed for attachment, release and ejection of a satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierron, L.

    1977-01-01

    Design considerations of a cartridge firing device are described. Emphasis is placed on performances regarding satellite attachment and accuracies of the path and velocity during separation and ejection. Tests conducted to demonstrate the device efficiency are discussed. Test set-up for velocity measurement, parameters affecting the ejection velocity, and gas pressure of cartridge fired generators are among the factors covered.

  7. Performance oriented packaging report for cutter, cartridge, actuated, reefing line, M21. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sniezek, F.

    1992-11-02

    This POP report is for the Cutter, Cartridge, Actuated, Reefing Line, M21 which is packaged 80 cutters/Mil-B-2427 wood box. This report describes the results of testing conducted.... Performance oriented packaging, POP, Cutter, Cartridge, Actuated, Reefing Line, M21.

  8. 42 CFR 84.113 - Canisters and cartridges; color and markings; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Canisters and cartridges; color and markings; requirements. 84.113 Section 84.113 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.113 Canisters and cartridges; color and markings; requirements. The color...

  9. Immobilization of ɛ-polylysine onto the probe surface for molecular adsorption type endotoxin detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooe, Katsutoshi; Tsuji, Akihito; Nishishita, Naoki; Hirano, Yoshiaki

    2007-04-01

    adsorption reaction between ɛ-polylysine and endotoxin. ɛ-polylysine has the structure of straight chain molecule composed by 25-30 residues made by lysine, and it is used as an antimicrobial agent, moreover, cellulose beads with immobilized ɛ-polylysine is used as the barrier filter for endotoxin removal. Therefore, it is expected that the endotoxin be adsorbed to the immobilized ɛ-polylysine onto the probe. As the result of this reaction, the mass of the probe is increased, and endotoxin can be detected by using of Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM). In our previous research, we have already acquired the proteins immobilization technique onto Au and Si surface. In this report, the proposal of molecular adsorption type endotoxin detection system, and the immobilization of ɛ-polylysine onto the probe are described. We use X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to confirm the ɛ-polylysine immobilization, and the adsorptive activity of immobilized ɛ-polylysine is measured by XPS and AFM. The purpose of this study is to bring about the realization of "Real-time endotoxin detection system".

  10. Adsorption dynamics for the system hydrogen/palladium and its relation to the surface electronic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resch, Ch.; Berger, H. F.; Rendulic, K. D.; Bertel, E.

    1994-09-01

    We have determined differential sticking coefficients for a monoenergetic nozzle beam of hydrogen on Pd(111) and Pd(110). In particular the energy dependence and the angular variation of the initial sticking coefficient were measured. The results indicate that adsorption of hydrogen on palladium occurs in parallel processes through a direct path with an activation barrier of perhaps 50 meV or less and a precursor path. There is relatively little difference in the adsorption properties of the (111) and the (110) plane. The appearance of a molecular precursor on the (111) plane can be related to the electronic structure of palladium, in particular to the absence of occupied Shockley surface states, as compared to Ni (111) and Pt (111). Pre-adsorbed potassium on a (110) plane acts as an inhibitor to adsorption. Different inhibiting mechanisms are observed for the direct adsorption path and the precursor path. At high potassium coverage the precursor path is completely suppressed.

  11. Microwave-swing adsorption to capture and recover vapors from air streams with activated carbon fiber cloth.

    PubMed

    Hashisho, Zaher; Rood, Mark; Botich, Leon

    2005-09-01

    Adsorption with regeneration is a desirable means to control the emissions of organic vapors such as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from air streams as it allows for capture, recovery, and reuse of those VOCs/HAPS. Integration of activated-carbon fiber-cloth (ACFC) adsorbent with microwave regeneration provides promise as a new adsorption/ regeneration technology. This research investigates the feasibility of using microwaves to regenerate ACFC as part of a process for capture and recovery of organic vapors from gas streams. A bench-scale fixed-bed microwave-swing adsorption (MSA) system was built and tested for adsorption of water vapor, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), and tetrachloroethylene (PERC) from an airstream and then recovery of those vapors with microwave regeneration. The electromagnetic heating behavior of dry and vapor-saturated ACFC was also characterized. The MSA system successfully adsorbed organic vapors from the airstreams, allowed for rapid regeneration of the ACFC cartridge, and recovered the water and organic vapors as liquids.

  12. 75 FR 17435 - In the Matter of Certain Inkjet Ink Cartridges With Printheads and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Inkjet Ink Cartridges With Printheads and Components Thereof; Notice of... importation of certain inkjet ink cartridges with printheads and components thereof by reason of infringement... after importation of certain inkjet cartridges with printheads or components thereof that infringe...

  13. Regulation of the diurnal variation of the cold productivity of an adsorption-type solar refrigeration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyshchaeva, O.; Kakabaev, A.; Redzhepov, G.

    The paper examines various modes of operation of an adsorption-type solar refrigeration system, which make it possible to extend the operation of the system, which make it possible to extend the operation of the system to periods when there is no sunlight. It is shown that the diurnal variation of cold productivity can be determined through the establishment of the time variation of the water content of the solution. Cold-productivity plots are presented for characteristic modes of operation of the system. Consideration is given to the mode of operation where the period of operation of the refrigeration part coincides with the period of sunlight.

  14. A cost-effective system for in-situ geological arsenic adsorption from groundwater.

    PubMed

    Shan, Huimei; Ma, Teng; Wang, Yanxin; Zhao, Jie; Han, Hongyin; Deng, Yamin; He, Xin; Dong, Yihui

    2013-11-01

    An effective and low-cost in-situ geological filtration system was developed to treat arsenic-contaminated groundwater in remote rural areas. Hangjinhouqi in western Hetao Plain of Inner Mongolia, China, where groundwater contains a high arsenic concentration, was selected as the study area. Fe-mineral and limestone widely distributed in the study area were used as filter materials. Batch and column experiments as well as field tests were performed to determine optimal filtration parameters and to evaluate the effectiveness of the technology for arsenic removal under different hydrogeochemical conditions. A mixture containing natural Fe-mineral (hematite and goethite) and limestone at a mass ratio of 2:1 was found to be the most effective for arsenic removal. The results indicated that Fe-mineral in the mixture played a major role for arsenic removal. Meanwhile, limestone buffered groundwater pH to be conducive for the optimal arsenic removal. As(III) adsorption and oxidation by iron mineral, and the formation of Ca-As(V) precipitation with Ca contributed from limestone dissolution were likely mechanisms leading to the As removal. Field demonstrations revealed that a geological filter bed filled with the proposed mineral mixture reduced groundwater arsenic concentration from 400 μg/L to below 10 μg/L. The filtration system was continuously operated for a total volume of 365,000L, which is sufficient for drinking water supplying a rural household of 5 persons for 5 years at a rate of 40 L per person per day.

  15. Design and development of low pressure evaporator/condenser unit for water-based adsorption type climate control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataramanan, Arjun; Rios Perez, Carlos A.; Hidrovo, Carlos H.

    2016-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are the future of clean transportation and driving range is one of the important parameters which dictates its marketability. In order to increase driving range, electrical battery energy consumption should be minimized. Vapor-compression refrigeration systems currently employed in EVs for climate control consume a significant fraction of the battery charge. Thus, by replacing this traditional heating ventilation and air-conditioning system with an adsorption based climate control system one can have the capability of increasing the drive range of EVs.The Advanced Thermo-adsorptive Battery (ATB) for climate control is a water-based adsorption type refrigeration cycle. An essential component of the ATB is a low pressure evaporator/condenser unit (ECU) which facilitates both the evaporation and condensation processes. The thermal design of the ECU relies predominantly on the accurate prediction of evaporation/boiling heat transfer coefficients since the standard correlations for predicting boiling heat transfer coefficients have large uncertainty at the low operating pressures of the ATB. This work describes the design and development of a low pressure ECU as well as the thermal performance of the actual ECU prototype.

  16. Ballistics firearms identification based on images of a cartridge case and projectile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong-guang; Watson, Anthony

    1998-12-01

    A spent cartridge case exhibits characteristic markings (firearm fingerprint) that can be used to identify the type, and possibly make, of weapon in which the cartridge was fired. This paper details research into the use of discriminant analysis for the purpose of matching spent cartridge cases to specific make and model of firearms. A fired projectile can also be analyzed by measuring the class characteristics such as land mark, groove, mar, and twist ratio. A personal computer (PC) based prototype software application called FireBall will also be described in detail.

  17. Adsorption of doxorubicin on poly(methyl methacrylate)-chitosan-heparin-coated activated carbon beads.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jianjun; Zhang, Fuming; Takieddin, Majde; Mousa, Shaker; Linhardt, Robert J

    2012-03-06

    Extracorporeal filter cartridges, filled with an activated carbon bead (ACB) adsorbent, have been used for removal of overdosed cancer drugs from the blood. Coatings on adsorbent matrices, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/activated carbon bead and PMMA/chitosan/heparin/ACB composites, were tested to improve their biocompatibility and blood compatibility. PMMA coating on ACBs was accomplished in a straightforward manner using a PMMA solution in ethyl acetate. A one-step hybrid coating of ACBs with PMMA-anticoagulant heparin required the use of acetone and water co-solvents. Multilayer coatings with three components, PMMA, chitosan, and heparin, involved three steps: PMMA was first coated on ACBs; chitosan was then coated on the PMMA-coated surface; and finally, heparin was covalently attached to the chitosan coating. Surface morphologies were studied by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the -SO(3)(-) group. Adsorption, of a chemotherapy drug (doxorubicin) from both water and phosphate-buffered saline, by the coated ACBs was examined. The adsorption isotherm curves were fitted using the Freundlich model. The current adsorption system might find potential applications in the removal of high-dose regional chemotherapy drugs while maintaining high efficiency, biocompatibility, and blood compatibility.

  18. Effect of Adsorption on the Contact Angle: Water-Glass System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz, Ali; Ward, Charles A.

    2002-03-01

    The contact angle at the line formed by the intersection of solid, liquid and vapor phases is usually assumed to be only a function of temperature. This amounts to neglecting the effects of vapor adsorption. However recent experimental observations made during a Space Shuttle flight raised questions about this view. To explain the observations, it was hypothesized that in the limit of the pressure approaching the saturation vapour pressure, adsorption effects can gave rise to an approximately 20° increase in the contact angle. In a ground-based laboratory, this hypothesis examined. Nine cylinders, each with a different diameters has been partially filled with water, sealed and the miniscule height measured under isothermal conditions. By determining the interface shape from the Laplace equation that has the measured meniscus height, the value of the contact angle and pressure at the three-phase line can be inferred. An equilibrium adsorption isotherm relation is derived using a model of the adsorbate that was previously introduced by Hill. The adsorption isotherm relation this obtained contains three temperature-dependent parameters, and when used with the Gibbs adsorption equation, an expression for the contact angle in terms of these parameters is obtained. Their values at each of 5 different temperatures were determined by fitting theoretical relation to the measured contact angles. This permits the amount adsorbed in the limit of the pressure approaching the saturation vapour pressure to be calculated—a parameter range not previously explored. It also permits one to show that the contact angles measured on the Space Shuttle are completely consistent with those measured in a ground-based larboratory provided one takes adsorption into account. The results suggest the contact angle depends strongly on the pressure and that its pressure-dependence can not be neglected when the pressure at the three phase line is near the saturation vapor pressure.

  19. An experimental study of adsorption in vapor-dominated geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Satik, Cengiz; Horne, Roland N.

    1995-01-26

    We report results of steam adsorption experiments conducted for rock samples from vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs. We examine the effect of the temperature on the adsorption/desorption isotherms. We find that the temperature effect is only important on the desorption such that the hysteresis becomes more pronounced as the temperature increases. The scanning behavior within the steam sorption hysteresis loop is also studied to investigate the behavior during repressurization. Collection of sets of data on the sorption behavior of The Geysers geothermal field in California is presented.

  20. System Modeling of Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) Subassembly for Prototype Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, Chad; Padilla, Sebastian; Iacomini, Christie; Paul, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes modeling methods for the three core components of a Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) subassembly: the sorbent bed, a sublimation (cooling) heat exchanger (SHX), and a condensing icing (warming) heat exchanger (CIHX). The primary function of the MTSA, removing carbon dioxide from a ventilation loop, is performed via the sorbent bed. The CIHX is used to heat the sorbent bed for desorption and to remove moisture from the ventilation loop while the SHX is alternately employed to cool the sorbent bed via sublimation of a spray of water at low pressure to prepare the reconditioned bed for the next cycle. This paper describes a system level model of the MTSA as developed in Thermal Desktop and SINDA/FLUINT including assumptions on geometry and physical phenomena, modeling methodology and relevant pa ra mete rizatio ns. Several areas of particular modeling interest are discussed. In the sorbent bed, capture of the translating CO2 saturation front and associated local energy and mass balance in both adsorbing and desorbing modes is covered. The CIHX poses particular challenges for modeling in SINDA/FLUINT as accounting for solids states in fluid submodels are not a native capability. Methods for capturing phase change and latent heat of ice as well as the transport properties across a layer of low density accreted frost are developed. This extended modeling capacity is applicable to temperatures greater than 258 K. To extend applicability to the minimum device temperature of 235 K, a method for a mapped transformation of temperatures from below the limit temperatures to some value above is given along with descriptions for associated material property transformations and the resulting impacts to total heat and mass transfer. Similar considerations are shown for the SHX along with assumptions for flow mechanics and resulting model methods for sublimation in a flow.

  1. Generalized random sequential adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarjus, G.; Schaaf, P.; Talbot, J.

    1990-12-01

    Adsorption of hard spherical particles onto a flat uniform surface is analyzed by using generalized random sequential adsorption (RSA) models. These models are defined by releasing the condition of immobility present in the usual RSA rules to allow for desorption or surface diffusion. Contrary to the simple RSA case, generalized RSA processes are no longer irreversible and the system formed by the adsorbed particles on the surface may reach an equilibrium state. We show by using a distribution function approach that the kinetics of such processes can be described by means of an exact infinite hierarchy of equations reminiscent of the Kirkwood-Salsburg hierarchy for systems at equilibrium. We illustrate the way in which the systems produced by adsorption/desorption and by adsorption/diffusion evolve between the two limits represented by ``simple RSA'' and ``equilibrium'' by considering approximate solutions in terms of truncated density expansions.

  2. Chemiluminescence lateral flow immunoassay cartridge with integrated amorphous silicon photosensors array for human serum albumin detection in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Zangheri, Martina; Di Nardo, Fabio; Mirasoli, Mara; Anfossi, Laura; Nascetti, Augusto; Caputo, Domenico; De Cesare, Giampiero; Guardigli, Massimo; Baggiani, Claudio; Roda, Aldo

    2016-12-01

    A novel and disposable cartridge for chemiluminescent (CL)-lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) with integrated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) photosensors array was developed and applied to quantitatively detect human serum albumin (HSA) in urine samples. The presented analytical method is based on an indirect competitive immunoassay using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a tracer, which is detected by adding the luminol/enhancer/hydrogen peroxide CL cocktail. The system comprises an array of a-Si:H photosensors deposited on a glass substrate, on which a PDMS cartridge that houses the LFIA strip and the reagents necessary for the CL immunoassay was optically coupled to obtain an integrated analytical device controlled by a portable read-out electronics. The method is simple and fast with a detection limit of 2.5 mg L(-1) for HSA in urine and a dynamic range up to 850 mg L(-1), which is suitable for measuring physiological levels of HSA in urine samples and their variation in different diseases (micro- and macroalbuminuria). The use of CL detection allowed accurate and objective analyte quantification in a dynamic range that extends from femtomoles to picomoles. The analytical performances of this integrated device were found to be comparable with those obtained using a charge-coupled device (CCD) as a reference off-chip detector. These results demonstrate that integrating the a-Si:H photosensors array with CL-LFIA technique provides compact, sensitive and low-cost systems for CL-based bioassays with a wide range of applications for in-field and point-of-care bioanalyses. Graphical Abstract A novel integrated portable device was developed for direct quantitative detection of human serum albumin (HSA) in urine samples, exploiting a chemiluminescence lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). The device comprises a cartridge that holds the LFIA strip and all the reagents necessary for the analysis, an array of amorphous silicon photosensors, and a custom read-out electronics.

  3. Nanoparticle separation with a miniaturized asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation cartridge

    PubMed Central

    Müller, David; Cattaneo, Stefano; Meier, Florian; Welz, Roland; de Mello, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) is a separation technique applicable to particles over a wide size range. Despite the many advantages of AF4, its adoption in routine particle analysis is somewhat limited by the large footprint of currently available separation cartridges, extended analysis times and significant solvent consumption. To address these issues, we describe the fabrication and characterization of miniaturized AF4 cartridges. Key features of the down-scaled platform include simplified cartridge and reagent handling, reduced analysis costs and higher throughput capacities. The separation performance of the miniaturized cartridge is assessed using certified gold and silver nanoparticle standards. Analysis of gold nanoparticle populations indicates shorter analysis times and increased sensitivity compared to conventional AF4 separation schemes. Moreover, nanoparticulate titanium dioxide populations exhibiting broad size distributions are analyzed in a rapid and efficient manner. Finally, the repeatability and reproducibility of the miniaturized platform are investigated with respect to analysis time and separation efficiency. PMID:26258119

  4. Multiphysics Modeling of Electric-Swing Adsorption System with In-Vessel Condensation (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    emphases on removal of hazardous volatile organic com- pounds (Baudu et al. 1992; Azou et al. 1993; Sullivan et al. 2001, 2003; Subrenat and Le Cloirec...also taken from literature (given in brackets) and correspond to some average conditions. 372 Adsorption (2007) 13: 357–372 References Azou , A

  5. CO(2) adsorption on supported molecular amidine systems on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Alesi, W Richard; Gray, McMahan; Kitchin, John R

    2010-08-23

    The CO(2) capture capacities for typical flue gas capture and regeneration conditions of two tertiary amidine N-methyltetrahydropyrimidine (MTHP) derivatives supported on activated carbon were determined through temperature-controlled packed-bed reactor experiments. Adsorption-desorption experiments were conducted at initial adsorption temperatures ranging from 29 degrees C to 50 degrees C with temperature-programmed regeneration under an inert purge stream. In addition to the capture capacity of each amine, the efficiencies at which the amidines interact with CO(2) were determined. Capture capacities were obtained for 1,5-diazo-bicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene (DBN) and 1,8-diazobicyclo[5.4.0]-undec-7-ene (DBU) supported on activated carbon at a loading of approximately 2.7 mol amidine per kg of sorbent. Moisture was found to be essential for CO(2) capture on the amidines, but parasitic moisture sorption on the activated carbon ultimately limited the capture capacities. DBN was shown to have a higher capture capacity of 0.8 mol CO(2) per kg of sorbent and an efficiency of 0.30 mol CO(2) per mol of amidine at an adsorption temperature of 29 degrees C compared to DBU. The results of these experiments were then used in conjunction with a single-site adsorption model to derive the Gibbs free energy for the capture reaction, which can provide information about the suitability of the sorbent under different operating conditions.

  6. Design of a hybrid advective-diffusive microfluidic system with ellipsometric detection for studying adsorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Cunlu; Wijnperlé, Daniel; Duits, Michel H G; Mugele, Frieder

    2016-05-01

    Establishing and maintaining concentration gradients that are stable in space and time is critical for applications that require screening the adsorption behavior of organic or inorganic species onto solid surfaces for wide ranges of fluid compositions. In this work, we present a design of a simple and compact microfluidic device based on steady-state diffusion of the analyte, between two control channels where liquid is pumped through. The device generates a near-linear distribution of concentrations. We demonstrate this via experiments with dye solutions and comparison to finite-element numerical simulations. In a subsequent step, the device is combined with total internal reflection ellipsometry to study the adsorption of (cat)ions on silica surfaces from CsCl solutions at variable pH. Such a combined setup permits a fast determination of an adsorption isotherm. The measured optical thickness is compared to calculations from a triple layer model for the ion distribution, where surface complexation reactions of the silica are taken into account. Our results show a clear enhancement of the ion adsorption with increasing pH, which can be well described with reasonable values for the equilibrium constants of the surface reactions.

  7. Competitive adsorption of Cd(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) from their binary and ternary acidic systems using tourmaline.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haibin; Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Jingting; Wang, Baolin; Sun, Hongwen

    2013-10-15

    The adsorption of Cd(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) from aqueous solutions in binary and ternary component systems by tourmaline was investigated. Kinetic data were accurately fitted to pseudo-second order and internal diffusion models, which indicated that the adsorption of heavy metals occurred on the interior surface of the sorbent and internal diffusion was the controlling mechanism during heavy metal ion adsorption but was not the only rate-controlling step. Additionally, tourmaline had a very good adsorption capacity for Cd(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) in multi-component aqueous solutions at strongly acidic pH values (in contrast to industrial wastewater pH values). This good adsorption capacity is attributed to the fact that tourmaline can automatically adjust the pH values of acidic (except pH 2.0 and 3.0), neutral or alkaline aqueous solutions to 6.0. Adsorption isotherms and separation factors showed that tourmaline displays a high selectivity toward one metal in a two-component or a three-component system with an affinity order of Cd(II) > Zn(II) > Ni(II). Thermodynamic parameters indicated that heavy metal adsorption was feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic. Therefore, tourmaline should be explored as a material for removing pollutants from the strongly acidic wastewater.

  8. Disposable pen-shaped capillary gel electrophoresis cartridge for fluorescence detection of bio-molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirkhanian, Varoujan; Tsai, Shou-Kuan

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel and cost-effective capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) system utilizing disposable pen-shaped gelcartridges for highly efficient, high speed, high throughput fluorescence detection of bio-molecules. The CGE system has been integrated with dual excitation and emission optical-fibers with micro-ball end design for fluorescence detection of bio-molecules separated and detected in a disposable pen-shaped capillary gel electrophoresis cartridge. The high-performance capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) analyzer has been optimized for glycoprotein analysis type applications. Using commercially available labeling agent such as ANTS (8-aminonapthalene-1,3,6- trisulfonate) as an indicator, the capillary gel electrophoresis-based glycan analyzer provides high detection sensitivity and high resolving power in 2-5 minutes of separations. The system can hold total of 96 samples, which can be automatically analyzed within 4-5 hours. This affordable fiber optic based fluorescence detection system provides fast run times (4 minutes vs. 20 minutes with other CE systems), provides improved peak resolution, good linear dynamic range and reproducible migration times, that can be used in laboratories for high speed glycan (N-glycan) profiling applications. The CGE-based glycan analyzer will significantly increase the pace at which glycoprotein research is performed in the labs, saving hours of preparation time and assuring accurate, consistent and economical results.

  9. Evaluation of Different Holder Devices for Freeze-Drying in Dual-Chamber Cartridges With a Focus on Energy Transfer.

    PubMed

    Korpus, Christoph; Friess, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    For freeze-drying in dual-chamber cartridges, a holder device to enable handling and safe positioning in the freeze-dryer is necessary. The aim of this study was to analyze 4 different types of holder devices and to define the best system based on energy transfer. The main criteria were drying homogeneity, ability to minimize the influence of atypical radiation on product temperatures, and heat transfer effectiveness. The shell holder reduced the influence of atypical radiation by almost 60% compared to a block system and yielded the most homogenous sublimation rates. Besides the most efficient heat transfer with values of 1.58E-4 ± 2.06E-6 cal/(s*cm(2)*K) at 60 mTorr to 3.63E-4 ± 1.85E-5 cal/(s*cm(2)*K) at 200 mTorr for Ktot, reaction times to shelf temperature changes were up to 4 times shorter compared to the other holder systems and even faster than for vials. The flexible holder provided a comparable shielding against atypical radiation as the shell but introduced a third barrier against energy transfer. Block and guardrail holder were the least efficient system tested. Hence, the shell holder provided the best radiation shielding, enhanced the transferability of the results to a larger scale, and improved the homogeneity between the dual-chamber cartridges.

  10. Adsorption of La(III) in aqueous systems by N-(2-hydroxyethyl) salicylaldimine-functionalized mesoporous silica

    SciTech Connect

    Tadjarodi, Azadeh Jalalat, Vahideh; Zare-Dorabei, Rouholah

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • HESI-SBA-15 as a new adsorbent was synthesized for the first time. • This adsorbent was selective for lanthanum ion removal in presence of other ions. • The factors that affected adsorption of La(III) in aqueous solution were studied. • La{sup 3+} uptake process was according to pseudo-second-order kinetic model. - Abstract: In this work, a novel modified SBA-15 with covalently bonded N-(2-hydroxyethyl) salicylaldimine Schiff base as a ligand (HESI-SBA-15) was successfully synthesized, characterized and used as a selective absorbent for lanthanum ions removal from water systems. The structure and physicochemical properties were identified by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption–desorption, thermogravimetric analysis and FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, BET surface area and BJH pore size. These techniques have confirmed that the Schiff base ligand was successfully grafted on the SBA-15 surface and ordered arrangement of the silica support was preserved under functionalization. The effect of pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, ionic strength and initial metal ions concentration were studied by using a batch method. This new adsorbent showed high adsorption capacity and selectivity for lanthanum in the presence of other ions. The adsorption process was exactly according to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorbent showed a good reusability after four cycles recovery.

  11. An IR study of the Σ-CO CO-adsorption state in the system CO/H/Ni(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, B. E.; Klauser, R.; Bradshaw, A. M.

    The weakly bound Σ-CO co-adsorption state in the system CO/H/Ni(100) has been investigated by IR reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). Its CO stretching frequency changes from 2095 to 2115 cm -1 as a function of increasing coverage. Experiments with 12CO and 13CO mixtures show that this shift is composed of an increase in frequency of 48 cm -1 due to dipole-dipole coupling and a decrease of 24 cm -1 due to "static" or chemical effects. The negative chemical shift can be correlated with the appearance of satellites in the photoelectron spectrum as in other weak chemisorption systems.

  12. An IR-study of the -CO CO-adsorption state in the system CO/H/Ni(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, B. E.; Klauser, R.; Bradshaw, A. M.

    1987-04-01

    The weakly bound ω-CO co-adsorption state in the system CO/H/Ni(100) has been investigated by IR reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). Its C-O stretching frequency changes from 2095 to 2115 cm -1 as a function of increasing coverage. Experiments with 12CO and 13CO mixtures show that this shift is composed of an increase in frequency of 48 cm -1 due to dipole-dipole coupling and a decrease of 24 cm -1 due to "static" or chemical effects. The negative chemical shift can be correlated with the appearance of satellites in the photoelectron spectrum as in other weak chemisorption systems.

  13. Transient Modeling and Analysis of a Metabolic Heat-Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) System for a PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iacomini, Christie; Powers, Aaron; Speight, Garland; Padilla, Sebastian; Paul, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    A Metabolic heat-regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) system is being developed for carbon dioxide, water and thermal control in a lunar and martian portable life support system (PLSS). A previous system analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of MTSA on PLSS design. That effort was Mars specific and assumed liquid carbon dioxide (LCO2) coolant made from martian resources. Transient effects were not considered but rather average conditions were used throughout the analysis. This effort takes into further consideration the transient effects inherent in the cycling MTSA system as well as assesses the use of water as coolant. Standard heat transfer, thermodynamic, and heat exchanger methods are presented to conduct the analysis. Assumptions and model verification are discussed. The tool was used to perform various system studies. Coolant selection was explored and takes into account different operational scenarios as the minimum bed temperature is driven by the sublimation temperature of the coolant (water being significantly higher than LCO2). From this, coolant mass is sized coupled with sorbent bed mass because MTSA adsorption performance decreases with increasing sublimation temperature. Reduction in heat exchanger performance and even removal of certain heat exchangers, like a recuperative one between the two sorbent beds, is also investigated. Finally, the coolant flow rate is varied over the cycle to determine if there is a more optimal means of cooling the bed from a mass perspective. Results of these studies and subsequent recommendations for system design are presented.

  14. Effect of biological and adsorption interactions on removal of organic material from synthetic-fuel waste water in batch and column systems

    SciTech Connect

    Elgezawi, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of temperature on total organic carbon removal from synthetic fuel waste water by activated carbon was evaluated, at temperatures of 5, 15, 25, and 40/sup 0/C. Both batch and continuous studies were performed using granular Darco H90 activated carbon, Calgon Filtrasorb 400, carbon black 2000, and glass beads as adsorbents for organics in Run-19, Run-20, Omega-9, oil shale retort water and Hanna 1VB-02W-02U coal gasification condensate. Experimental adsorption isotherms were compared with results predicted by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. Breakthrough curves were compared with curves predicted by the Thomas model. The rate controlling mechanisms in continuous flow adsorption system including second order reversible surface kinetics, external film resistance and internal particle resistance were also evaluated. Granular activated carbons coated with a bacterial film combining physical adsorption and biological removal of organics into one unit called adsorption/biodegradation unit were also investigated. This study included determination of bacterial numbers in batch and continuous flow systems at different heights in the column ad at different temperatures. In developing a modified Thomas model, which included the bacterial activity occurring inside the fixed-packed bed system, mass transfer coefficients were evaluated to establish the relative importance of various individual mechanisms that contributed to the overall adsorption process. Biological film thickness was found to be a significant parameter in modeling the adsorption systems studied.

  15. Effect of Nanoparticle Surface Chemistry on Adsorption and Fluid Phase Partitioning in Aqueous/Toluene and Cellular Systems.

    PubMed

    Gambinossi, Filippo; Lapides, Dana; Anderson, Chris; Chanana, Munish; Ferri, James K

    2015-05-01

    Copolymers of di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (x = MeO2MA) and oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (y = OEGMA) display lower critical solution phenomena in aqueous systems that are tunable by the copolymer ratio (x:y), ionic strength, and temperature. These properties enable tuning the hydrophobicity of macromolecular systems by variation of (x:y). For nanoparticles stabilized with these macromolecules, this provides a systematic approach to understanding the impact of surface chemistry, specifically hydrophobicity, on the equilibrium and transport properties of nanomaterials in biphasic systems. We synthesized a homologous series of gold nanoparticles capped by these copolymers, Au@(MeO2MA(x)-co-OEGMA(y)). By varying the copolymer 95:5 < (x:y) < 80:20 ratio, we studied the effect of surface hydrophobicity on the nanoparticle equilibrium adsorption isotherm and phase transfer at the aqueous-toluene interface. The increase in hydrophobicity from (x:y) = 80:20 to (x:y) = 95:5 is accompanied by an increase in the fractional coverage of the aqueous-toluene interface from f = 0.3 to f > 1, or multilayer adsorption and an increase in the characteristic adsorption timescale from τ(D) = 31 to τ(D) = 450 seconds. The equilibrium partition coefficient for the aqueous/toluene systems, K(T/W) is also a strong function of (x:y), increasing from K(T/W) (80:20) = 0.7 to K(T/W) (95:5) = 9.8. We also observed an increase in cellular uptake for increasing (x:y) suggesting that surface chemistry alone plays a significant role in intercellular transport processes.

  16. Piezoelectric-driven droplet impact printing with an interchangeable microfluidic cartridge

    PubMed Central

    Li, Baoqing; Fan, Jinzhen; Li, Jiannan; Chu, Jiaru; Pan, Tingrui

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic impact printing has been recently introduced, utilizing its nature of simple device architecture, low cost, non-contamination, and scalable multiplexability and high throughput. In this paper, we have introduced an impact-based droplet printing platform utilizing a simple plug-and-play microfluidic cartridge driven by piezoelectric actuators. Such a customizable printing system allows for ultrafine control of droplet volume from picoliters (∼23 pl) to nanoliters (∼10 nl), a 500 fold variation. The high flexibility of droplet generation can be simply achieved by controlling the magnitude of actuation (e.g., driving voltage) and the waveform shape of actuation pulses, in addition to nozzle size restrictions. Detailed printing characterizations on these parameters have been conducted consecutively. A multiplexed impact printing system has been prototyped and demonstrated to provide the functions of single-droplet jetting and droplet multiplexing as well as concentration gradient generation. Moreover, a generic biological assay has also been tested and validated on this printing platform. Therefore, the microfluidic droplet printing system could be of potential value to establish multiplexed micro reactors for high-throughput life science applications. PMID:26392833

  17. Solid source MOCVD system

    DOEpatents

    Hubert, Brian N.; Wu, Xin Di

    1998-01-01

    A system for MOCVD fabrication of superconducting and non-superconducting oxide films provides a delivery system for the feeding of metalorganic precursors for multi-component chemical vapor deposition. The delivery system can include multiple cartridges containing tightly packed precursor materials. The contents of each cartridge can be ground at a desired rate and fed together with precursor materials from other cartridges to a vaporization zone and then to a reaction zone within a deposition chamber for thin film deposition.

  18. Solid source MOCVD system

    DOEpatents

    Hubert, B.N.; Wu, X.D.

    1998-10-13

    A system for MOCVD fabrication of superconducting and non-superconducting oxide films provides a delivery system for the feeding of metallorganic precursors for multi-component chemical vapor deposition. The delivery system can include multiple cartridges containing tightly packed precursor materials. The contents of each cartridge can be ground at a desired rate and fed together with precursor materials from other cartridges to a vaporization zone and then to a reaction zone within a deposition chamber for thin film deposition. 13 figs.

  19. Air-Cooled Design of a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulloth, Lila M.; Affleck, Dave L.; Rosen, Micha; LeVan, M. Douglas; Wang, Yuan; Cavalcante, Celio L.

    2004-01-01

    The air revitalization system of the International Space Station (ISS) operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby closing the air-loop. We have a developed a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) for performing these tasks that is energy efficient, quiet, and has no rapidly moving parts. This paper discusses the mechanical design and the results of thermal model validation tests of a TSAC that uses air as the cooling medium.

  20. Effect of organic matter properties, clay mineral type and thermal maturity on gas adsorption in organic-rich shale systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Ruppel, Stephen C.; Milliken, Kitty; Lewan, Mike; Sun, Xun; Baez, Luis; Beeney, Ken; Sonnenberg, Steve

    2013-01-01

    A series of CH4 adsorption experiments on natural organic-rich shales, isolated kerogen, clay-rich rocks, and artificially matured Woodford Shale samples were conducted under dry conditions. Our results indicate that physisorption is a dominant process for CH4 sorption, both on organic-rich shales and clay minerals. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of the investigated samples is linearly correlated with the CH4 sorption capacity in both organic-rich shales and clay-rich rocks. The presence of organic matter is a primary control on gas adsorption in shale-gas systems, and the gas-sorption capacity is determined by total organic carbon (TOC) content, organic-matter type, and thermal maturity. A large number of nanopores, in the 2–50 nm size range, were created during organic-matter thermal decomposition, and they significantly contributed to the surface area. Consequently, methane-sorption capacity increases with increasing thermal maturity due to the presence of nanopores produced during organic-matter decomposition. Furthermore, CH4 sorption on clay minerals is mainly controlled by the type of clay mineral present. In terms of relative CH4 sorption capacity: montmorillonite ≫ illite – smectite mixed layer > kaolinite > chlorite > illite. The effect of rock properties (organic matter content, type, maturity, and clay minerals) on CH4 adsorption can be quantified with the heat of adsorption and the standard entropy, which are determined from adsorption isotherms at different temperatures. For clay-mineral rich rocks, the heat of adsorption (q) ranges from 9.4 to 16.6 kJ/mol. These values are considerably smaller than those for CH4 adsorption on kerogen (21.9–28 kJ/mol) and organic-rich shales (15.1–18.4 kJ/mol). The standard entropy (Δs°) ranges from -64.8 to -79.5 J/mol/K for clay minerals, -68.1 to -111.3 J/mol/K for kerogen, and -76.0 to -84.6 J/mol/K for organic-rich shales. The affinity of CH4 molecules for sorption on organic matter

  1. Combined adsorption and degradation of the off-flavor compound 2-methylisoborneol in sludge derived from a recirculating aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Azaria, Snir; Nir, Shlomo; van Rijn, Jaap

    2017-02-01

    Off-flavor in fish poses a serious threat for the aquaculture industry. In the present study, removal of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), an off-flavor causing compound, was found to be mediated by adsorption and bacterial degradation in sludge derived from an aquaculture system. A numerical model was developed which augmented Langmuir equations of kinetics of adsorption/desorption of MIB with first order degradation kinetics. When laboratory-scale reactors, containing sludge from the aquaculture system, were operated in a recirculating mode, MIB in solution was depleted to undetectable levels within 6 days in reactors with untreated sludge, while its depletion was incomplete in reactors with sterilized sludge. When operated in an open flow mode, removal of MIB was significantly faster in reactors with untreated sludge. Efficient MIB removal was evident under various conditions, including ambient MIB levels, flow velocities and sludge loads. When operated in an open flow mode, the model successfully predicted steady MIB removal rates with time. During steady state conditions, most of the MIB removal was found to be due to microbial degradation of the adsorbed MIB. Findings obtained in this study can be used in the design of reactors for removal of off-flavor compounds from recirculating aquaculture systems.

  2. An adsorption-release-biodegradation system for simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and ammonium in phenol-rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Hu; Liu, Yu-Xiang; Ren, Rui-Peng; Lv, Yong-Kang

    2016-07-01

    The feasibility of simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and ammonium in phenol-rich wastewater was evaluated in a reusable system, which contained macroporous adsorption resin and Alcaligenes faecalis strain WY-01. In the system, up to 6000mg/L phenol could be completely degraded by WY-01; meanwhile, 99.03±3.95% of ammonium was removed from the initial concentration of 384mg/L. This is the first study to show the capability of single strain in simultaneous removal of ammonium and phenol in wastewater containing such high concentrations of phenol. Moreover, the resin was regenerated during the biodegradation process without any additional manipulations, indicating the system was reusable. Furthermore, enzyme assay, gene expression patterns, HPLC-MS and gas chromatography analysis confirmed that phenol biodegradation accompanied with aerobic nitrifier denitrification process. Results imply that the reusable system provides a novel strategy for more efficient biodegradation of phenol and ammonium contained in some particular industrial wastewater.

  3. Facile purification and click labeling with 2-[18F]fluoroethyl azide using solid phase extraction cartridges

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Dong; Chu, Wenhua; Peng, Xin; McConathy, Jonathan; Mach, Robert H.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.

    2014-11-04

    In this paper, a facile method was developed to purify 2-[18F]fluoroethyl azide ([18F]FEA) using a C18 cartridge and an Oasis® HLB cartridge in series, in which [18F]FEA was exclusively trapped on the HLB cartridge. [18F]FEA can be eluted for reactions in solution; alternatively click labeling can be carried out on the HLB cartridge itself by loading an alkyne substrate and copper (I) catalyst dissolved in DMF onto the cartridge. Finally, this solid phase extraction methodology for purification and click labeling with [18F]FEA, either in solution or on the cartridge, is safe, simple, reproducible in high yield, and compatible with automated synthesis of 18F-labeled PET tracers.

  4. Facile purification and click labeling with 2-[18F]fluoroethyl azide using solid phase extraction cartridges

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Dong; Chu, Wenhua; Peng, Xin; ...

    2014-11-04

    In this paper, a facile method was developed to purify 2-[18F]fluoroethyl azide ([18F]FEA) using a C18 cartridge and an Oasis® HLB cartridge in series, in which [18F]FEA was exclusively trapped on the HLB cartridge. [18F]FEA can be eluted for reactions in solution; alternatively click labeling can be carried out on the HLB cartridge itself by loading an alkyne substrate and copper (I) catalyst dissolved in DMF onto the cartridge. Finally, this solid phase extraction methodology for purification and click labeling with [18F]FEA, either in solution or on the cartridge, is safe, simple, reproducible in high yield, and compatible with automatedmore » synthesis of 18F-labeled PET tracers.« less

  5. Paper-based enzyme immobilization for flow injection electrochemical biosensor integrated with reagent-loaded cartridge toward portable modular device.

    PubMed

    Tan, Swee Ngin; Ge, Liya; Tan, Hsih Yin; Loke, Weng Keong; Gao, Jinrong; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-20

    Paper-based enzyme immobilization for a flow injection electrochemical biosensor integrated with a reagent-loaded cartridge toward a portable device was developed. A paper disk was immobilized with enzyme, then it was integrated in a flow cell as an electrochemical biosensor. A silicon tube reagent-loaded cartridge was integrated into the system, a complicated procedure was simplified as a one-click operation toward development for point-of-care applications. In this research, glucose oxidase (GOx) was employed as a model enzyme, silver ion as an inhibition reagent for GOx, and EDTA as a regeneration reagent. When GOx was inhibited by silver ions, glucose was introduced for electrochemical measurements before and after inhibited enzyme regeneration and the difference was caused by silver inhibition. The modular device has great potential for other applications, e.g., detection of enzyme activity and substrate. The platform based on double-test mode provided accurate results due to elimination of an average or control value in comparison with classical routine approaches.

  6. Influence of Berdan and Boxer Primer Spit-Hole Diameter on 7.62-mm Cartridge Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Influence of Berdan and Boxer Primer Spit-Hole Diameter on 7.62-mm Cartridge Performance by John J. Ritter ARL-TR-6968 June 2014...Influence of Berdan and Boxer Primer Spit-Hole Diameter on 7.62-mm Cartridge Performance John J. Ritter Weapons and Materials Research Directorate...2013–January 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Influence of Berdan and Boxer Primer Spit-Hole Diameter on 7.62-mm Cartridge Performance 5a. CONTRACT

  7. Investigation of effective forensic cleaning methods for bullet and cartridge case samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuherk, Cassie Marie

    Bullet and cartridge case evidence may potentially link weapons and crimes through the comparison of toolmark patterns. This analysis relies on the clarity of the toolmarks and the ability of the examiner to identify patterns on the evidence. These patterns may be distorted by debris such as soil, blood, cyanoacrylate, and construction materials. Despite the potential importance of bullet and cartridge case evidence, few investigations of proper cleaning methods have been conducted. The present study was designed to examine the effects of various cleaning solutions and application methods on copper and brass bullets and cartridge cases. Additionally, this research investigated the efficacy of these cleaning protocols on the common evidence contaminants blood and cyanoacrylate. No cleaning method was found to be universally effective on both contaminant types and nondestructive to the metal surface. Ultrasonication was the most efficient application method employed when used in conjunction with an appropriate cleaning solution. Acetone proved to be safe and successful at removing heavy cyanoacrylate deposits from brass cartridge cases without damaging the metal. Although sulfuric acid removed most of the cyanoacrylate from the brass cartridge case, ultrasonication of the fumed cartridge cases in sulfuric acid caused the nickel-plated primer caps to turn black. Additionally, etching occurred when sulfuric acid was allowed to dry on the cartridge case surface. Citric acid, salt-flour-vinegar paste, TergazymeRTM, and water did not effectively remove the cyanoacrylate from the cartridge cases, but the solutions were safe to use on the brass and sometimes resulted in a shinier surface. Regardless of the cleaning method employed, the bloodstained bullets retained most or all of the underlying brown tarnish. Ultrasonication with sulfuric acid was successful at removing some blood-initiated tarnishing; however, the removal of residues was not complete, making it difficult

  8. Application of an automation system and a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for the optimal operation of a membrane adsorption hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Smith, P J; Vigneswaran, S; Ngo, H H; Nguyen, H T; Ben-Aim, R

    2006-01-01

    The application of automation and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems to municipal water and wastewater treatment plants is rapidly increasing. However, the application of these systems is less frequent in the research and development phases of emerging treatment technologies used in these industries. This study involved the implementation of automation and a SCADA system to the submerged membrane adsorption hybrid system for use in a semi-pilot scale research project. An incremental approach was used in the development of the automation and SCADA systems, leading to the development of two new control systems. The first system developed involved closed loop control of the backwash initiation, based upon a pressure increase, leading to productivity improvements as the backwash is only activated when required, not at a fixed time. This system resulted in a 40% reduction in the number of backwashes required and also enabled optimised operations under unsteady concentrations of wastewater. The second system developed involved closed loop control of the backwash duration, whereby the backwash was terminated when the pressure reached a steady state. This system resulted in a reduction of the duration of the backwash of up to 25% and enabled optimised operations as the foulant build-up within the reactor increased.

  9. pH profile of the adsorption of nucleotides onto montmorillonite. II - Adsorption and desorption of 5-prime-AMP in iron-calcium montmorillonite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.; Lawless, J. G.; Mazzurco, J.; Church, F. M.; Margulies, L.; Orenberg, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of 5-prime-AMP with montmorillonite saturated with various ratios of two metals found ubiquitously on the surface of earth, that is, iron and calcium, is investigated. Adsorption and desorption of the nucleotide were studied in the pH range of 2-12 at three levels of addition: 0.080, 0.268 and 0.803 mmole 5-prime-AMP per gram of clay. Two desorption stages were employed - H2O wash and NaOH extraction (pH = 12.0). 5-prime-AMP was preferentially adsorbed on the Fe-containing clays relative to the Ca clay. The nucleotide was fully recovered by the two desorption stages, mostly by the NaOH extraction. The evidence at hand indicates that 5-prime-AMP reaction with clay is affected by electrostatic interactions involving both attraction and repulsion forces. Some specific adsorption, possibly the result of covalent bonding and complex formation with the adsorbed ion, cannot be ruled out for iron but does not appear to operate for calcium. Changes in pH cause varying degrees of attaction and repulsion of 5-prime-AMP and may have been operating on the primitive earth, leading to sequences of adsorption and release of this biomolecule.

  10. Hazard classification test of the cartridge, 120-mm, APFSDS-T, XM829

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, C.D.; Hadlock, D.E.; Mishima, J.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-11-01

    Research was conducted to determine the behavior of the ammunition XM829 when subjected to detonation of an adjacent XM829 cartridge, and a sustained hot fire. It was concluded that the functioning of an XM829 cartridge, in one shipping container, will not cause immediate functioning of XM829 cartridges in adjacent containers. However, if a fire results and is sustained, adjacent cartridges may ignite, resulting in some scattering of debris within a maximum radius of 40 feet. Further, the XM829 cartridge can be expected to remain in a kinetic controlled regime with vigorous oxidation occurring early in such a fire but dropping off as the temperature cools toward ambient. Mass balance analyses data indicated a recovery of at least 80% in the 1982 external heat; in the 1983 test, the recovery percentage was improved to approximately 100% of the original depleted uranium weight volume. Therefore, it may be concluded that a significant airborne release of the depleted uranium material did not occur.

  11. 3D-printed paper spray ionization cartridge with fast wetting and continuous solvent supply features.

    PubMed

    Salentijn, Gert I J; Permentier, Hjalmar P; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2014-12-02

    We report the development of a 3D-printed cartridge for paper spray ionization (PSI) that can be used almost immediately after solvent introduction in a dedicated reservoir and allows prolonged spray generation from a paper tip. The fast wetting feature described in this work is based on capillary action through paper and movement of fluid between paper and the cartridge material (polylactic acid, PLA). The influence of solvent composition, PLA conditioning of the cartridge with isopropanol, and solvent volume introduced into the reservoir have been investigated with relation to wetting time and the amount of solvent consumed for wetting. Spray has been demonstrated with this cartridge for tens of minutes, without any external pumping. It is shown that fast wetting and spray generation can easily be achieved using a number of solvent mixtures commonly used for PSI. The PSI cartridge was applied to the analysis of lidocaine from a paper tip using different solvent mixtures, and to the analysis of lidocaine from a serum sample. Finally, a demonstration of online paper chromatography-mass spectrometry is given.

  12. Removal of bisphenol derivatives through quinone oxidation by polyphenol oxidase and subsequent quinone adsorption on chitosan in the heterogeneous system.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuji; Takahashi, Ayumi; Kashiwada, Ayumi; Yamada, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the combined use of a biopolymer chitosan and an oxidoreductase polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was systematically investigated for the removal of bisphenol derivatives from aqueous medium. The process parameters, such as the pH value, temperature, and PPO concentration, were estimated to conduct the enzymatic quinone oxidation of bisphenol derivatives by as little enzyme as possible. Bisphenol derivatives effectively underwent PPO-catalysed quinone oxidation without H2O2 unlike other oxidoreductases, such as peroxidase and tyrosinase, and the optimum conditions were determined to be pH 7.0 and 40°C for bisphenol B, bisphenol E, bisphenol O, and bisphenol Z; pH 7.0 and 30°C for bisphenol C and bisphenol F; and pH 8.0 and 40°C for bisphenol T. They were completely removed through adsorption of enzymatically generated quinone derivatives on chitosan beads or chitosan powders. Quinone adsorption on chitosan beads or chitosan powders in the heterogeneous system was found to be a more effective procedure than generation of aggregates in the homogeneous system with chitosan solution. The removal time was shortened by increasing the amount of chitosan beads or decreasing the size of the chitosan powders.

  13. Adsorption of Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions in batch system by using the Eichhornia crassipes.

    PubMed

    Módenes, A N; Espinoza-Quiñones, F R; Borba, C E; Trigueros, D E G; Lavarda, F L; Abugderah, M M; Kroumov, A D

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the displacement effects on the sorption capacities of zinc and cadmium ions of the Eichornia crassipes-type biosorbent in batch binary system has been studied. Preliminary single metal sorption experiments were carried out. An improvement on the Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions removal was achieved by working at 30 °C temperature and with non-uniform biosorbent grain sizes. A 60 min equilibrium time was achieved for both Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions. Furthermore, it was found that the overall kinetic data were best described by the pseudo second-order kinetic model. Classical multi-component adsorption isotherms have been tested as well as a modified extended Langmuir isotherm model, showing good agreement with the equilibrium binary data. Around 0.65 mequiv./g maximum metal uptake associated with the E. crassipes biosorbent was attained and the E. crassipes biosorbent has shown higher adsorption affinity for the zinc ions than for the cadmium ones in the binary system.

  14. [Rapid isolation of 4-hydroxyphenylethanol from the bovine brain using Water Sep-Pak Plus cartridges with lipophilic sorbent (Florisil)].

    PubMed

    Panova, N G; Veselovskaia, N V; Medvedev, A E

    1996-01-01

    4-Hydroxypherlylethanol, MAO-A Inhibitory component of endogenous MAO Inhibitory activity, tribulin, was isolated from a small quantity of bovine brain using Maters Sep-Pak Florisil cartridges. Procedure included isolation of crude tribulin fraction, which was passed through the cartridge. Preliminary data revealed that this substance is not absorbed on Florisil. The employment of this type of cartridges essentially accelerates isolation of 4-hydroxyphenyethanol from brain samples for quantitative determination. Pilot experiments also revealed that Sep-Pak Folrisil cartridges could be used for the rapid isolation of isatin, another endogenous MAO (B) inhibitor, from brain tissue.

  15. Removal of traces of toluene and p-xylene in indoor air using biofiltration and a hybrid system (biofiltration + adsorption).

    PubMed

    Luengas, Angela Tatiana; Hort, Cécile; Platel, Vincent; Elias, Ana; Barona, Astrid; Moynault, Laurent

    2017-03-11

    Biofiltration technology and the hybrid system combining biofiltration and adsorption (onto activated carbon) were compared as possible methods to toluene and p-xylene at parts per million concentration levels (2-45 and 1-33 ppb, respectively). An organic material was used as packing material for the biofiltration process. Even at low empty bed residence times (EBRTs) and concentrations, toluene removal efficiency reached 100% and p-xylene showed an increasing trend on their removal efficiency over the time using biofiltration. The assessment of by-products and particle generation by the biofilter and the hybrid system were taken into account. Acetone and acetic acid were identified as by-products of the biofilter. Particle emissions in the range of 0.03 to 10 μm were recorded for both systems.

  16. Dynamic interactions of dissolution, surface adsorption, and precipitation in an aging cobalt(II)-clay-water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Hillary A.; Parks, George A.; Brown, Gordon E.

    1999-06-01

    We have studied the dynamic interactions of mineral dissolution, cation surface adsorption, and precipitation in aqueous slurries initially containing kaolinite and millimolar quantities of cobalt(II) in 0.1 molar NaNO 3 solution. Batch slurries spent an initial 24 hours at pH 4.2, then NaOH was added to increase pH to 7.8, where pH was maintained for several months. Dissolved Co, Al, and Si concentrations were monitored by ICP-MS; solid-phase products were characterized using EXAFS and TEM. At low pH, kaolinite dissolved, releasing Al and Si to solution. Aluminum hydroxide and aluminosilicate phases precipitated rapidly as pH increased. Cobalt uptake from solution began as pH increased and continued throughout the remainder of the experiment. Rapid surface adsorption and precipitation accounted for early Co uptake; much slower precipitation caused continued Co uptake. Cobalt adsorbed on kaolinite in the form of hydroxy-bridged polymers or multimers and precipitated as a hydrotalcite-like solid that contained aluminum ions derived from kaolinite and aluminum hydroxide dissolution. The cobalt hydrotalcite precipitate had the approximate stoichiometry [Co 6Al 2(OH) 16(A n-) 2/n], with nitrate or silicate anions occupying A sites. Precipitate particles were several nanometers in diameter and some probably precipitated homogeneously. Some of the Co originally adsorbed was later incorporated into precipitate. Slow kaolinite dissolution near neutral pH limited the rate of Co uptake by precipitation, thereby accounting for the slow second stage of Co uptake. Continued changes in solution composition indicate that even this relatively simple system did not reach equilibrium under fixed solution conditions after several months. For this set of conditions, cobalt hydrotalcite appears to be the stable Co-containing phase, and its precipitation can reduce dissolved metal ion concentrations below levels achievable by simple adsorption on kaolinite.

  17. Dynamic interactions of dissolution, surface adsorption, and precipitation in an aging cobalt(II)-clay-water system

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, H.A.; Parks, G.A.; Brown, G.E. Jr. |

    1999-06-01

    The authors have studied the dynamic interactions of mineral dissolution, cation surface adsorption, and precipitation in aqueous slurries initially containing kaolinite and millimolar quantities of cobalt(II) in 0.1 molar NaNO{sub 3} solution. Batch slurries spent an initial 24 hours at pH 4.2, then NaOH was added to increase pH to 7.8, where pH was maintained for several months. Dissolved Co, Al, and Si concentrations were monitored by ICP-MS; solid-phase products were characterized using EXAFS and TEM. At low pH, kaolinite dissolved, releasing Al and Si to solution. Aluminum hydroxide and aluminosilicate phases precipitated rapidly as pH increased. Cobalt uptake from solution began as pH increased and continued throughout the remainder of the experiment. Rapid surface adsorption and precipitation accounted for early Co uptake; much slower precipitation caused continued Co uptake. Cobalt adsorbed on kaolinite in the form of hydroxy-bridged polymers or multimers and precipitated as a hydrotalcite-like solid that contained aluminum ions derived from kaolinite and aluminum hydroxide dissolution. The cobalt hydrotalcite precipitate had the approximate stoichiometry [Co{sub 6}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 16}(N{sup n{minus}}){sub 2/n}], with nitrate or silicate anions occupying A sites. Precipitate particles were several nanometers in diameter and some probably precipitated homogeneously. Some of the Co originally adsorbed was later incorporated into precipitate. Slow kaolinite dissolution near neutral pH limited the rate of Co uptake by precipitation, thereby accounting for the slow second stage of Co uptake. Continued changes in solution composition indicate that even this relatively simple system did not reach equilibrium under fixed solution conditions after several months. For this set of conditions, cobalt hydrotalcite appears to be the stable Co-containing phase, and its precipitation can reduce dissolved metal ion concentrations below levels achievable by simple

  18. Microfluidic impact printer with interchangeable cartridges for versatile non-contact multiplexed micropatterning

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yuzhe; Huang, Eric; Lam, Kit S.; Pan, Tingrui

    2015-01-01

    Biopatterning has been increasingly used for well-defined cellular microenvironment, patterned surface topology, and guided biological cues; however, it meets additional challenges on biocompatibility, temperature and chemical sensitivity and limited reagent volume. In this paper, we target at combining the desired features from the non-contact inkjet printing and the dot-matrix impact printing to establish a versatile multiplexed micropatterning platform, referred to as Microfluidic Impact Printer (MI-Printer), for emerging biomedical applications. Using this platform, we can achieve the distinct features of no cross-contamination, minute volume manipulation with minimal dead volume, high-throughput and biocompatible printing process, multiplexed patterning with automatic alignment, printing availability for complex medium (cell suspension or colloidal solutions), interchangeable/disposable microfluidic cartridge design with out-of-cleanroom microfabrication, simple printing system assembly and configuration, all highly desirable towards biological applications. Specifically, the printing resolution of the MI-printer platform has been experimentally characterized and theoretically analyzed. Printed droplets with 80µm in diameter have been repeatedly obtained. Furthermore, two unique features of MI-printer platform, multiplexed printing and self-alignment printing, have been successfully experimentally demonstrated (less than 10µm misalignment). In addition, combinatorial patterning and biological patterning, which utilizes the multiplexed and self-alignment printing nature of the MI-printer, have been devised to demonstrate the applicability of this robust printing technique for emerging biomedical applications. PMID:23525299

  19. The Cartridge Theory: a description of the functioning of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment, based on modelling results.

    PubMed

    Samsó, Roger; García, Joan

    2014-03-01

    Despite the fact that horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands have been in operation for several decades now, there is still no clear understanding of some of their most basic internal functioning patterns. To fill this knowledge gap, on this paper we present what we call "The Cartridge Theory". This theory was derived from simulation results obtained with the BIO_PORE model and explains the functioning of urban wastewater treatment wetlands based on the interaction between bacterial communities and the accumulated solids leading to clogging. In this paper we start by discussing some changes applied to the biokinetic model implemented in BIO_PORE (CWM1) so that the growth of bacterial communities is consistent with a well-known population dynamics models. This discussion, combined with simulation results for a pilot wetland system, led to the introduction of "The Cartridge Theory", which states that the granular media of horizontal subsurface flow wetlands can be assimilated to a generic cartridge which is progressively consumed (clogged) with inert solids from inlet to outlet. Simulations also revealed that bacterial communities are poorly distributed within the system and that their location is not static but changes over time, moving towards the outlet as a consequence of the progressive clogging of the granular media. According to these findings, the life-span of constructed wetlands corresponds to the time when bacterial communities are pushed as much towards the outlet that their biomass is not anymore sufficient to remove the desirable proportion of the influent pollutants.

  20. Quasi-flow injection analysis for rapid determination of caffeine in tea using the sample pre-treatment method with a cartridge column filled with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Yuji; Nakamura, Akiko; Kohno, Iho; Hatanaka, Kirara; Kitai, Miki; Tanimoto, Tsuyoshi

    2008-01-04

    The sample pre-treatment method using a polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) cartridge column combined with a quasi-flow injection analysis (quasi-FIA) system realized the rapid determination of caffeine in three types of tea, green, oolong and black tea. The measurement time for each tea sample pre-treated using a PVPP cartridge column was shortened to 20s. In the present system, the limits of detection and quantification were 0.3 microM (1.5 pmol injected) and 0.7 microM (3.5 pmol injected), respectively, and a linear calibration curve was afforded up to 800 microM (4 nmol injected). Within-run precision of analysis of standard solutions of 10 and 100 microM caffeine was 0.11 and 0.16% (n=6), respectively. Between-run precision of analysis of the same solutions over 6 days was 0.78 and 0.74% (n=6), respectively. Comparison with the conventional HPLC method indicated that the present quasi-FIA method using sample pre-treatment with a PVPP cartridge column was useful for the simple and precise determination of caffeine in green, oolong and black tea samples.

  1. Determination of Adsorption Capacity and Kinetics of Amidoxime-Based Uranium Adsorbent Braided Material in Unfiltered Seawater Using a Flume Exposure System

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, Gary A.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Strivens, Jonathan E.; Park, Jiyeon; Bonheyo, George T.; Jeters, Robert T.; Schlafer, Nicholas J.; Wood, Jordana R.

    2015-08-31

    PNNL has developed a recirculating flume system for exposing braided adsorbent material to natural seawater under realistic temperature and flow-rate exposure conditions. The flumes are constructed of transparent acrylic material they allow external light to pass into the flumes and permit photosynthetic growth of naturally present marine organisms (biofouling). Because the system consists of two flumes, replicate experiments can be conducted in which one of the flumes can be manipulated relative to the other. For example, one flume can be darkened to eliminate light exposure by placing a black tarp over the flume such that dark/light experiments can be conducted. Alternatively, two different braided adsorbents can be exposed simultaneously with no potential cross contamination issues. This report describes the first use of the PNNL flume system to study the impact of biofouling on adsorbent capacity. Experiments were conducted with the ORNL AI8 braided adsorbent material in light exposed and darkened flumes for a 42 day exposure experiment. The major objective of this effort is to develop a system for the exposure of braided adsorbent material to unfiltered seawater and to demonstrate the system by evaluating the performance of adsorption material when it is exposed to natural marine biofouling as it would be when the technology is used in the marine environment. Exposures of amidoxime-based polymeric braid adsorbents prepared by Oak Ridge Natural Laboratory (ORNL) were exposed to ambient seawater at 20°C in a flume system. Adsorption kinetics and adsorption capacity were assessed using time series determinations of uranium adsorption and one-site ligand saturation modeling. Biofouling in sunlight surface seawater has the potential to significantly add substantial biogenic mass to adsorption material when it is exposed for periods greater than 21 days. The observed biomass increase in the light flume was approximately 80 % of the adsorbent mass after 42 days. The

  2. New Adsorption Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankat, Phillip C.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses a simple method for following the movement of a solute in an adsorption or ion exchange system. This movement is used to study a variety of operational methods, including continuous flow and pulsed flow counter-current operations and simulated counter-current systems. Effect of changing thermodynamic variables is also considered. (JM)

  3. Immunomodulation in sepsis: the role of endotoxin removal by polymyxin B-immobilized cartridge.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Elisabeth; Ferrer, Ricard; Alsina, Laia; Artigas, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Severe sepsis results in high morbidity and mortality. Immunomodulation strategies could be an adjunctive therapy to treat sepsis. Endotoxin is a component of gram-negative bacteria and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of septic shock when it is recognized by immune cells. Removal of endotoxin could be an effective adjunctive approach to the management of sepsis. Devices to adsorb endotoxin or inflammatory cytokines have been designed as a strategy to treat severe sepsis, especially sepsis caused by gram-negative bacteria. Polymyxin B-immobilized cartridge has been successfully used to treat patients with sepsis of abdominal origin. Although this cartridge was conceived to adsorb endotoxin, several other immunological mechanisms have been elucidated, and this device has also yielded promising results in patients with nonseptic respiratory failure. In this paper, we summarize the immune modulation actions of Polymyxin B-immobilized cartridge to explore its potential usefulness beyond endotoxin elimination.

  4. Fatalities caused by spherical bullets fired from blank cartridge guns in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Uzün, Ibrahim; Büyük, Yalçin; Erkol, Zerrin; Ağritmiş, Hasan; Kir, Ziya

    2009-09-01

    Blank cartridge guns are generally regarded as being harmless and are not considered to be firearms in the legal sense in most countries. To show the danger of these guns upon simple modifications, we report 59 fatalities resulting from these simply modified blank cartridge guns in Istanbul, Turkey. The great majority of the victims were males and the age of those ranged from 11 to 61 years. In 55.9% of these cases, homicide was the origin followed by suicide (39%). The right temporal region was detected to be the preferred region in suicidal shots by blank cartridge guns with a frequency of 56.5%. In trial shots, all these guns were detected to discharge steel or lead spherical objects, generally 4 or 5 mm in diameter, successfully. Our findings strongly suggest that these guns should also be considered as handguns in the legal sense.

  5. Malfunction and failure analysis investigations of C26000 (Cu-30% Zn) brass cartridge cases

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, C.; Clark, S. . Metallic Materials Branch of the Armaments Technology Div.)

    1994-01-01

    The C26000 alloy, containing 70% Cu and 30% Zn, is predominantly used for cartridge case production and has an outstanding record of service. A multiple-step manufacturing process is employed to produce different microstructure in different sections of the cartridge case. The constant demands to increase performance have resulted in frequent revisions to the manufacturing process, and more stringent controls have been implemented in an attempt to produce a better product. Not surprisingly, however, failures and malfunctions are encountered in the tryout'' experiments. Studies indicate that failures in the head section can usually be traced to factors associated with gun design and propellant materials. Failures in the wall section are primarily stress-induced. Descriptions are given of the distinctive modes of failure in various sections of the cartridge case. The causes of failure and the remedies to prevent their recurrence are discussed.

  6. Performance and Uniformity of Mass-Produced SIS Mixers for ALMA Band 8 Receiver Cartridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomura, Tomonuri; Noguchi, Takashi; Sekimoto, Yutaro; Shan, Wenlei; Sato, Naohisa; Iizuka, Yoshizo; Kumagai, Kazuyoshi; Niizeki, Yasuaki; Iwakuni, Mikio; Ito, Tetsuya

    2015-05-01

    The Atacama large millimeter/submillimeter array (ALMA), which was jointly built in Chile by Europe, North America and East Asia, has an observational band from 30 to 950 GHz [1], [2]. We developed receiver cartridges for ALMA Band 8 (385-500 GHz) [3]-[5] which is one of ALMA 10 frequency bands. The Band 8 receiver cartridges were produced as 73 cartridges, and 292 SIS mixers were installed in their cartridges. Also, their all cartridges were required to meet following ALMA specifications: 1. The noise temperature is less than 196 K over 80% of the frequency range and less than 292 K at any frequency from 385 to 500 GHz. 2. The image rejection ratio is larger than 10 dB over 90% of the frequency range. 3. The IF output power variation is less than 7.0 dB peak-to-peak in the 4-8 GHz band. 4. The gain compression to RF load temperatures between 77 and 373 K is less than 5%. 5. The Allan variance of the IF output power is less than 4.0×10-7 in the time scale of 0.05 s≤T≤100 s and 3.0×10-6 at 300 s. To meet these specifications, the performance and uniformity of the SIS mixers are crucial. The SIS mixers with Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junctions were fabricated in a clean room of National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and over 1000 mixer chips were mass-produced. After screening these mixers, 73 Band 8 receivers were assembled and tested. We report the test results of the mass-produced mixers and the receiver cartridges in detail from a statistical point of view.

  7. Modeling Pb (II) adsorption from aqueous solution by ostrich bone ash using adaptive neural-based fuzzy inference system.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mohammad J; Abedi-Koupai, Jahangir; Eslamian, Sayed S; Mousavi, Sayed F; Hasheminejad, Hasti

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of Adaptive Neural-Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model in estimating the efficiency of Pb (II) ions removal from aqueous solution by ostrich bone ash, a batch experiment was conducted. Five operational parameters including adsorbent dosage (C(s)), initial concentration of Pb (II) ions (C(o)), initial pH, temperature (T) and contact time (t) were taken as the input data and the adsorption efficiency (AE) of bone ash as the output. Based on the 31 different structures, 5 ANFIS models were tested against the measured adsorption efficiency to assess the accuracy of each model. The results showed that ANFIS5, which used all input parameters, was the most accurate (RMSE = 2.65 and R(2) = 0.95) and ANFIS1, which used only the contact time input, was the worst (RMSE = 14.56 and R(2) = 0.46). In ranking the models, ANFIS4, ANFIS3 and ANFIS2 ranked second, third and fourth, respectively. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the estimated AE is more sensitive to the contact time, followed by pH, initial concentration of Pb (II) ions, adsorbent dosage, and temperature. The results showed that all ANFIS models overestimated the AE. In general, this study confirmed the capabilities of ANFIS model as an effective tool for estimation of AE.

  8. Investigation of the dynamics of the O 2/Si(001) adsorption system by small-angle ion-surface scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechtien, J. H.; Imke, U.; Snowdon, K. J.; Reijnen, P. H. F.; van den Hoek, P. J.; Kleyn, A. W.; Namiki, A.

    1990-03-01

    The small non-adiabaticity associated with the slow collision of a 450 eV to 3 keV O2+ beam incident at 5° to a carefully flattened Si(001) surface was used to probe the adiabatic potential energy surface for the O2/Si(001) adsorption/reaction system in the limit of low coverage. The scattering products include O2- and O-. From the observation of efficient O2- formation and th dependence of the negative-ion yields on beam energy, we infer that O23- is an intermediate or precursor in the dissociative chemisorption of O2 on Si(001). The total yield of negative ions (O2- and O-) is high in comparison with similar experiments on th O2/Ag(111) system. This may be explained by a reduced reneutralisation probability on the exit trajectory due to the band gap of Si.

  9. Classical dynamics of dissociative adsorption for a nonactivated system: The role of zero point energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busnengo, H. F.; Crespos, C.; Dong, W.; Rayez, J. C.; Salin, A.

    2002-05-01

    We present dissociative adsorption probabilities of H2 on Pd(111) computed with the classical trajectory method. We perform both classical (C) and quasiclassical (QC) calculations, the latter including, by contrast with the former, the initial zero point energy (ZPE) of H2. We analyze in detail the role played by the ZPE and demonstrate the strong and weak points of both C and QC calculations. We show that ZPE is crucial in accelerating the molecules toward the surface through vibrational softening. However, at low energies, dynamic trapping is quenched in QC calculations by processes of vibration to rotation energy transfer that would be associated with closed channels in a quantum approach. In this study we use a new representation of the H2/Pd(111) potential energy surface (obtained by interpolation of ab initio data) with a significantly better accuracy in the entrance channel region which plays a decisive role in the dissociation dynamics.

  10. Synthesis of porous molecularly imprinted polymers for selective adsorption of glutathione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Renyuan; Hu, Xiaoling; Guan, Ping; Li, Ji; Qian, Liwei; Wang, Chaoli; Wang, Qiaoli

    2015-03-01

    An effective approach overcome the classical deficiencies of biomolecules molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), that is, low binding capacity and slow mass transfer rate, is proposed. With glutathione (GSH) as target molecule, porous imprinted layers were fabricated according to our newly developed method the introduction of a mixture of acetontrile and dimethylsulfoxide as porogen in surface-initiated polymerization systems. The resultant MIPs particles exhibited a large surface area could remarkably improve the imprinting effect in relation to a significantly increased imprinting factor and mass transfer rate, compared to the MIPs prepared by using aqueous solution as solvent. The batch static binding tests were carried out to evaluate the adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms and selective recognition of the MIPs particles. The binding behavior followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model, revealing that the process was chemically carried out. Two binding isotherm models were applied to analyze equilibrium data, obtaining the best description by Langmuir isotherm model. In addition, the selective of separation and extraction of GSH from a mixture of GSH and its structural analogs could be achieved on the MIPs solid-phase extraction cartridge, indicating that the possibility for the separation and enrichment of the template from complicated matrices.

  11. System-dependent dispersion coefficients for the DFT-D3 treatment of adsorption processes on ionic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Stephan; Moellmann, Jonas; Reckien, Werner; Bredow, Thomas; Grimme, Stefan

    2011-12-09

    Dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations (DFT-D3) were performed for the adsorption of CO on MgO and C(2) H(2) on NaCl surfaces. An extension of our non-empirical scheme for the computation of atom-in-molecules dispersion coefficients is proposed. It is based on electrostatically embedded M(4)X(4) (M=Na, Mg) clusters that are used in TDDFT calculations of dynamic dipole polarizabilities. We find that the C(MM)(6) dispersion coefficients for bulk NaCl and MgO are reduced by factors of about 100 and 35 for Na and Mg, respectively, compared to the values of the free atoms. These are used in periodic DFT calculations with the revPBE semi-local density functional. As demonstrated by calculations of adsorption potential energy curves, the new C(6) coefficients lead to much more accurate energies (E(ads)) and molecule-surface distances than with previous DFT-D schemes. For NaCl/C(2) H(2) we obtained at the revPBE-D3(BJ) level a value of E(ads) =-7.4 kcal mol(-1) in good agreement with experimental data (-5.7 to -7.1 kcal mol(-1)). Dispersion-uncorrected DFT yields an unbound surface state. For the MgO/CO system, the computed revPBE-D3(BJ) value of E(ads) =-4.1 kcal mol(-1) is also in reasonable agreement with experimental results (-3.0 kcal mol(-1)) when thermal corrections are taken into account. Our new dispersion correction also improves computed lattice constants of the bulk systems significantly compared to plain DFT or previous DFT-D results. The extended DFT-D3 scheme also provides accurate non-covalent interactions for ionic systems without empirical adjustments and is suggested as a general tool in surface science.

  12. Investigating Premature Ignition of Thruster Pressure Cartridges by Vibration-Induced Electrostatic Discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Stephen S.; Saulsberry, Regor

    2010-01-01

    Pyrotechnic thruster pressure cartridges (TPCs) are used for aeroshell separation on a new NASA crew launch vehicle. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) during TPC acceptance testing indicated that internal assemblies moved during shock and vibration testing due to an internal bond anomaly. This caused concerns that the launch environment might produce the same movement and release propellant grains that might be prematurely ignited through impact or through electrostatic discharge (ESD) as grains vibrated against internal surfaces. Since a new lot could not be fabricated in time, a determination had to be made as to whether the lot was acceptable to fly. This paper discusses the ESD evaluation and a separate paper addresses the impact problem. A challenge to straight forward assessment existed due to the unavailability of triboelectric data characterizing the static charging characteristics of the propellants within the TPC. The approach examined the physical limitations for charge buildup within the TPC system geometry and evaluated it for discharge under simulated vibrations used to qualify components for launch. A facsimile TPC was fabricated using SS 301 for the case and surrogate worst case materials for the propellants based on triboelectric data. System discharge behavior was evaluated by applying high voltage to the point of discharge in air and by placing worst case charge accumulations within the facsimile TPC and forcing discharge. The facsimile TPC contained simulated propellant grains and lycopodium, a well characterized indicator for static discharge in dust explosions, and was subjected to accelerations equivalent to the maximum accelerations possible during launch. The magnitude of charge generated within the facsimile TPC system was demonstrated to lie in a range of 100 to 10,000 times smaller than the spark energies measured to ignite propellant grains in industry standard discharge tests. The test apparatus, methodology, and results are described in

  13. Evaluation of a passive optical based end of service life indicator (ESLI) for organic vapor respirator cartridges

    PubMed Central

    Checky, Melissa; Frankel, Kevin; Goddard, Denise; Johnson, Erik; Thomas, J. Christopher; Zelinsky, Maria; Javner, Cassidy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A passive visual end of service life indicator (ESLI) for certain organic vapors has been attached to the inside wall of an organic vapor respirator cartridge. The opposite side of the ESLI touches activated carbon inside the cartridge. During use, organic vapors moving through the cartridge adsorb into both the carbon and the ESLI. The cartridge body is clear so that when vapor concentrations meet a certain threshold, the user may observe the progressive development of an indicator bar down the side of the ESLI. The cartridge is deemed ready to change when any part of the indicator bar touches a marked end line. The performance of the ESLI was observed when the cartridge was tested against a variety of organic vapors, exposure concentrations above the minimum indication level, humidities, temperatures, flow rates, and mixtures. In all cases, the ESLI indicated end of service life with more than 10% cartridge service life remaining (which is a NIOSH test criteria). The results were also compared to mathematical predictions of cartridge service life. PMID:26418577

  14. 75 FR 36677 - In the Matter of Certain Inkjet Ink Cartridges With Printheads and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Inkjet Ink Cartridges With Printheads and Components Thereof; Notice of a... the United States after importation of certain inkjet ink cartridges with printheads and...

  15. Effects of pH and inorganic salts on the adsorption of phenol from aqueous systems on activated decolorizing charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Halhouli, K.A.; Darwish, N.A.; Al-Dhoon, N.M.

    1995-10-01

    An experimental investigation of the effects of pH and three inorganic salts (KCl, KI, and NaCl) on the adsorption isotherms of phenol (from a dilute aqueous solution) on activated charcoal was conducted. Each salt was studied at three different concentrations, i.e., 0.1, 0.01, and 0.005 M. The effect of pH (in the pH range 3 to 11) in the presence of KI, KCl, and NaCl was also investigated. The concentration of phenol in the aqueous systems studied ranged from 10 to 200 ppm. The temperature effect was also studied, and the resulting experimental equilibrium isotherms at 30, 40, and 55{degrees}C are well represented by Freundlich, Langmuir, and Redlich-Paterson isotherms. The relevant parameters for these isotherms are presented.

  16. Electronic states of the C6H6/Cu{111} system: Energetics, femtosecond dynamics, and adsorption morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velic, D.; Hotzel, A.; Wolf, M.; Ertl, G.

    1998-11-01

    Two-photon-photoemission (2PPE) spectroscopy is employed to characterize electronic states of a bilayer C6H6/Cu{111} system at 85 K. The unoccupied benzene π* e2u state is observed with a binding energy of 4.6 eV above the Fermi level. This result agrees with inverse-photoemission (IPE) data and provides a case where the determination of the binding energy is identical for 2PPE and IPE. The π* e2u state is assigned in the 2PPE scheme as a final state which is the first observed final state in 2PPE of adsorbate-surface systems. The dependence of the electron dynamics on the morphology of an incomplete adsorption layer is also investigated. Two (n=1)-like image potential states A and B are observed which presumably originate from two different C6H6 adsorption geometries in the bilayer regime. The two image states A and B are characterized by electron effective masses of 1.1 and 1.9 me, binding energies of 3.30 and 3.45 eV above the Fermi level, and lifetimes of 40 and 20 fs, respectively. The dielectric continuum model and the Kronig-Penney model are employed to simulate the origin of (n=1)-like image states. The work function decreases from 4.9 eV at clean Cu{111} to 4.0 eV at bilayer coverage. The change of the work function and the observation of two image states suggest the redefining of the ratio of the numbers of benzene molecules in the first and the second layers of the bilayer regime to approximately 1:1 instead of 1:2, as previously reported. 2PPE is shown to be sensitive to the changes of morphologies, local work functions, and adsorbate-surface potentials during the layer formation.

  17. Integrated heaters for temperature control in disposable bioassay cartridges for use with portable, battery-operated instruments.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Luis Ortiz; Negussie, Haile; Mazzola, Laura T; Laser, Daniel J; Droitcour, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Two methods for heating fluids in microliter- to milliliter-scale reaction chambers in disposable bioassay cartridges are analyzed and compared. Inductive heating requires no electrical contact between the energy source and the cartridge and uses a very inexpensive component in the cartridge. Resistive heating with a surface mount component requires electrical interconnection, but is generally conducive to low-cost off-the-shelf components. Typical power consumption for both inductive heating and resistive heating is consistent with battery-powered operation. A finite element model for heating an injection-molded plastic cartridge with a surface-mount resistor has been developed and validated through experiments on a 40 mm × 10 mm × 7.5 mm injection molded polystyrene cartridge with embedded 1 kΩ surface-mount resistors. A model of frequency-dependent heat generation in a novel inductive heating device is also presented.

  18. 42 CFR 84.1157 - Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate filters; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and mists of paints, lacquers, and enamels 50 70 20 1 Measured at end of service life specified in... specified in § 84.205. (c) Lacquer and enamel mist tests; general. (1) Three respirators with cartridges containing or having attached to them, filters for protection against mists of paints, lacquers, and...

  19. 42 CFR 84.1157 - Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate filters; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air... respirator mounted on a test fixture with air flowing at a continuous rate of 85 liters per minute, both... rates (expressed in liters per minute (l.p.m.)) for 6 hours: Type of cartridge Airflow...

  20. 42 CFR 84.114 - Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement. 84.114 Section 84.114 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF...

  1. 42 CFR 84.113 - Canisters and cartridges; color and markings; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canisters and cartridges; color and markings; requirements. 84.113 Section 84.113 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY...

  2. 42 CFR 84.1155 - Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement. 84.1155 Section 84.1155 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL...

  3. Cartridge firing device designed for attachment, release and ejection of a satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierron, L.

    1977-01-01

    The device functions were performed by a one-piece unit with resulting performances which were of interest regarding the satellite attachment and the accuracies of the path and velocity during separation and ejection. A gain in weight may be obtained relative to the conventional device used, i.e. maintenance belt, belt unlocking device, pusher spring, and cartridge fired pusher.

  4. 42 CFR 84.113 - Canisters and cartridges; color and markings; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Canisters and cartridges; color and markings; requirements. 84.113 Section 84.113 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY...

  5. 42 CFR 84.113 - Canisters and cartridges; color and markings; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Canisters and cartridges; color and markings; requirements. 84.113 Section 84.113 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY...

  6. 42 CFR 84.113 - Canisters and cartridges; color and markings; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Canisters and cartridges; color and markings; requirements. 84.113 Section 84.113 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY...

  7. 42 CFR 84.114 - Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement. 84.114 Section 84.114 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF...

  8. 42 CFR 84.114 - Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement. 84.114 Section 84.114 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF...

  9. 42 CFR 84.114 - Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement. 84.114 Section 84.114 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF...

  10. 42 CFR 84.114 - Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement. 84.114 Section 84.114 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF...

  11. Artificial neural network (ANN) modeling of adsorption of methylene blue by NaOH-modified rice husk in a fixed-bed column system.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shamik; Saha, Papita Das

    2013-02-01

    In this study, rice husk was modified with NaOH and used as adsorbent for dynamic adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. Continuous removal of MB from aqueous solutions was studied in a laboratory scale fixed-bed column packed with NaOH-modified rice husk (NMRH). Effect of different flow rates and bed heights on the column breakthrough performance was investigated. In order to determine the most suitable model for describing the adsorption kinetics of MB in the fixed-bed column system, the bed depth service time (BDST) model as well as the Thomas model was fitted to the experimental data. An artificial neural network (ANN)-based model was also developed for describing the dynamic dye adsorption process. An extensive error analysis was carried out between experimental data and data predicted by the models by using the following error functions: correlation coefficient (R(2)), average relative error, sum of the absolute error and Chi-square statistic test (χ(2)). Results show that with increasing bed height and decreasing flow rate, the breakthrough time was delayed. All the error functions yielded minimum values for the ANN model than the traditional models (BDST and Thomas), suggesting that the ANN model is the most suitable model to describe the fixed-bed adsorption of MB by NMRH. It is also more rational and reliable to interpret dynamic dye adsorption data through a process of ANN architecture.

  12. Band-1 receiver front-end cartridges for Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA): design and development toward production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Chiong, Chau-Ching; Huang, Yau-De; Huang, Chi-Den; Liu, Ching-Tang; Kuo, Yue-Fang; Weng, Shou-Hsien; Ho, Chin-Ting; Chiang, Po-Han; Wu, Hsiao-Ling; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Jian, Shou-Ting; Lee, Chien-Feng; Lee, Yi-Wei; Pospieszalski, Marian; Henke, Doug; Finger, Ricardo; Tapia, Valeria; Gonzalez, Alvaro

    2016-07-01

    The ALMA Band-1 receiver front-end prototype cold and warm cartridge assemblies, including the system and key components for ALMA Band-1 receivers have been developed and two sets of prototype cartridge were fully tested. The measured aperture efficiency for the cold receiver is above the 80% specification except for a few frequency points. Based on the cryogenically cooled broadband low-noise amplifiers provided by NRAO, the receiver noise temperature can be as low as 15 - 32K for pol-0 and 17 - 30K for pol-1. Other key testing items are also measured. The receiver beam pattern is measured, the results is well fit to the simulation and design. The pointing error extracted from the measured beam pattern indicates the error is 0.1 degree along azimuth and 0.15 degree along elevation, which is well fit to the specification (smaller than 0.4 degree). The equivalent hot load temperature for 5% gain compression is 492 - 4583K, which well fit to the specification of 5% with 373K input thermal load. The image band suppression is higher than 30 dB typically and the worst case is higher than 20 dB for 34GHz RF signal and 38GHz LO signal, which is all higher than 7 dB required specification. The cross talk between orthogonal polarization is smaller than -85 dB based on present prototype LO. The amplitude stability is below 2.0 x 10-7 , which is fit to the specification of 4.0 x 10-7 for timescales in the range of 0.05 s ≤ T ≤ 100 s. The signal path phase stability measured is smaller than 5 fs, which is smaller than 22 fs for Long term (delay drift) 20 s ≤ T < 300 sec. The IF output phase variation is smaller than 3.5° rms typically, and the specification is less than 4.5° rms. The measured IF output power level is -28 to -30.5 dBm with 300K input load. The measured IF output power flatness is less than 5.6 dB for 2GHz window, and 1.3dB for 31MHz window. The first batch of prototype cartridges will be installed on site for further commissioning on July of 2017.

  13. Development of a Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry Cartridge with Integrated Solid Phase Extraction for Bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengsen; Manicke, Nicholas E

    2015-06-16

    A novel paper spray cartridge with an integrated solid phase extraction (SPE) column is described. The cartridge performs extraction and pre-concentration, as well as sample ionization by paper spray, from complex samples such as plasma. The cartridge allows for selective enrichment of target molecules from larger sample volumes and removal of the matrix, which significantly improved the signal intensity of target compounds in plasma samples by paper spray ionization. Detection limits, quantitative performance, recovery, ionization suppression, and the effects of sample volume were evaluated for five drugs: carbamazepine, atenolol, sulfamethazine, diazepam, and alprazolam. Compared with direct paper spray analysis of dried plasma spots, paper spray analysis using the integrated solid phase extraction improved the detection limits significantly by a factor of 14-70, depending on the drug. The improvement in detection limits was, in large part, due to the capability of analyzing larger sample volumes. In addition, ionization suppression was found to be lower and recovery was higher for paper spray with integrated SPE, as compared to direct paper spray analysis. By spiking an isotopically labeled internal standard into the plasma sample, a linear calibration curve for the drugs was obtained from the limit of detection (LOD) to 1 μg/mL, indicating that this method can be used for quantitative analysis. The paper spray cartridge with integrated SPE could prove valuable for analytes that ionize poorly, in applications where lower detection limits are required, or on portable mass spectrometers. The improved performance comes at the cost of requiring a more complex paper spray cartridge and requiring larger sample volumes than those used in typical direct paper spray ionization.

  14. Co-Adsorption of Ammonia and Formaldehyde on Regenerable Carbon Sorbents for the Primary Life Support System (PLSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Serio, Michael A.; Wilburn, Monique S.

    2016-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of a reversible carbon sorbent for trace-contaminant (TC) removal for use in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), and more specifically in the Primary Life Support System (PLSS). The current TC-control technology involves the use of a packed bed of acid-impregnated granular charcoal, which is deemed non-regenerable, while the carbon-based sorbent under development in this project can be regenerated by exposure to vacuum at room temperature. Data on concurrent sorption and desorption of ammonia and formaldehyde, which are major TCs of concern, are presented in this paper. A carbon sorbent was fabricated by dry impregnation of a reticulated carbon-foam support with polyvinylidene chloride, followed by carbonization and thermal oxidation in air. Sorbent performance was tested for ammonia and formaldehyde sorption and vacuum regeneration, with and without water present in the gas stream. It was found that humidity in the gas phase enhanced ammonia-sorption capacity by a factor larger than two. Co-adsorption of ammonia and formaldehyde in the presence of water resulted in strong formaldehyde sorption (to the point that it was difficult to saturate the sorbent on the time scales used in this study). In the absence of humidity, adsorption of formaldehyde on the carbon surface was found to impair ammonia sorption in subsequent runs; in the presence of water, however, both ammonia and formaldehyde could be efficiently removed from the gas phase by the sorbent. The efficiency of vacuum regeneration could be enhanced by gentle heating to temperatures below 60 deg.

  15. SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2011-05-26

    This report describes experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions using monosodium titanate (MST) and crystalline silicotitanate (CST)-laden filter cartridges. Four types of ion exchange cartridge media (CST and MST designed by both 3M and POROX{reg_sign}) were evaluated. In these proof-of-principle tests effective uptake of both Sr-85 and Cs-137 was observed. However, the experiments were not performed long enough to determine the saturation levels or breakthrough curve for each filter cartridge. POREX{reg_sign} MST cartridges, which by design were based on co-sintering of the active titanates with polyethylene particles, seem to perform as well as the 3M-designed MST cartridges (impregnated filter membrane design) in the uptake of strontium. At low salt simulant conditions (0.29 M Na{sup +}), the instantaneous decontamination factor (D{sub F}) for Sr-85 with the 3M-design MST cartridge measured 26, representing the removal of 96% of the Sr-85. On the other hand, the Sr-85 instantaneous D{sub F} with the POREX{reg_sign} design MST cartridge measured 40 or 98% removal of the Sr-85. Strontium removal with the 3M-design MST and CST cartridges placed in series filter arrangement produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 or 97.6% removal compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 or 99.7% removal of the strontium with the POREX{reg_sign} MST and CST cartridge design placed in series. At high salt simulant conditions (5.6 M Na{sup +}), strontium removal with 3M-designed MST cartridge only and with 3M-designed MST and CST cartridges operated in a series configuration were identical. The instantaneous decontamination factor and the strontium removal efficiency, under the above configuration, averaged 8.6 and 88%, respectively. There were no POREX{reg_sign} cartridge experiments using the higher ionic strength simulant solution. At low salt simulant conditions, the uptake of Cs-137 with

  16. Syringe-cartridge solid-phase extraction method for patulin in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Eisele, Thomas A; Gibson, Midori Z

    2003-01-01

    A syringe-cartridge solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed for determination of patulin in apple juice. A 2.5 mL portion of test sample was passed through a conditioned macroporous SPE cartridge and washed with 2 mL 1% sodium bicarbonate followed by 2 mL 1% acetic acid. Patulin was eluted with 1 mL 10% ethyl acetate in ethyl ether and determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using a mobile phase consisting of 81% acetonitrile, 9% water, and 10% 0.05M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 2.4. Recoveries averaged 92% and the relative standard deviation was 8.0% in test samples spiked with 50 ng/mL patulin. The method appears to be applicable for monitoring apple juice samples to meet the U.S. Food and Drug Administration compliance action level of 50 microg/kg in an industrial quality assurance laboratory environment.

  17. Combustible Cartridge Cases, an Account of the Current Technology and Proposals for Future Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    basically adopted from slurry preform and pressing techniques. Earlier investigat~ ions (ref. 3) were focussed towards developing techniquzes which...any mechanical treatment need to be carried out in an -5- WSRL-047 1-TR environment that facilitates swelling of the fibres and imbibit ion of the...SRL-0-1-TR Figure HEAD BOX PAPER MCH INE FELTING ANDMOD 1,D ING Figure 3. Schematic diagram for the preparat ion of cartridge cases using the post

  18. Characterization of cartridge filters from the IEA-R1 Nuclear Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    The management of radioactive waste ensures safety to human health and the environment nowadays and for the future, without overwhelming the upcoming generations. The primary characterization of radioactive waste is one of the main steps in the management of radioactive waste. This step permits to choose the best treatment for the radioactive waste before forwarding it to its final disposal. The aim of the present work is the primary characterization of cartridge filters from the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor utilizing gamma-ray spectrometry, and the method of Monte Carlo for calibration. The IEA-R1 is located in the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN - CNEN) in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Cartridge filters are used for purification of the cooling water that is pumped through the core of the pool type nuclear research reactors. Once worn out, these filters are replaced and then become radioactive waste. Determination of the radioactive inventory is of paramount importance in the management of such radioactive waste, and one of the main methods for doing so is the gamma-ray spectrometry, which can identify and quantify high energy photon emitters. The technique chosen for the characterization of radioactive waste in the present work is the gamma-ray spectrometry with High purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. From the energy identified in the experimental spectrum, three radioisotopes were identified in the cartridge filter: {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 60}Co. For the estimated activity of the filter, the calibration in efficiency was made utilizing the MCNP4C code of the Monte Carlo method. Such method was chosen because there is no standard source available in the same geometry of the cartridge filter, therefore a simulation had to be developed in order to reach a calibration equation, necessary to estimate the activity of the radioactive waste. The results presented an activity value in the order of MBq for all radioisotopes. (authors)

  19. End of Service Life Indicator (ESLI) for Respirator Cartridges. Part 1: Literature Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    cartridge types suitable for organic vapours, acidic (i.e. HCl, HF, SO2, H2S), basic (i.e. ammonia) and/or mercury /chlorine environments are being sold...Ammonia Mercury , chlorine One of the major drawbacks to the North Safety ESLI design is its limitation to detect only a few...determining the time of protective action from mercury vapours. The inventor claimed an increased efficiency and simplified construction design for

  20. Analysis of Proposed Solutions to the 5.56mm Blank Cartridge (M200) Malfunction Rate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    TO THE 5 . 56MM BLANK CARTRIDGE (M200 ) MALFUNCTION RATE. — 8 - TITLE CLASSIFICATION: UNCLASSIFIED — 9 - DESCRIPTIVE NOTE: FINAL NOTE, —10...REGION DOES NOT ALWAYS STACK AS SHOWN by Rock Island in Sept 1975. The tested items consisted of 3 weapons (produced by Colt), 300 rounds of M200 blank...round (stubs were not recorded). Therefore, the testing of the 20-round magazine with that weapon was discontinued. Three 30- round magazines were

  1. Method development study for APR cartridge evaluation in fire overhaul exposures.

    PubMed

    Anthony, T Renée; Joggerst, Philip; James, Leonard; Burgess, Jefferey L; Leonard, Stephen S; Shogren, Elizabeth S

    2007-11-01

    In the US, firefighters do not typically wear respiratory protection during overhaul activities, although fitting multi-gas or chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear cartridges to supplied air respirator facepieces has been proposed to reduce exposures. This work developed a method to evaluate the effectiveness of respirator cartridges in smoke that represents overhaul exposures to residential fires. Chamber and penetration concentrations were measured for 91 contaminants, including aldehydes, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, hydrocarbons and methyl isothiocyanate, along with total and respirable particulates. These laboratory tests generated concentrations in the range of field-reported exposures from overhaul activities. With limited tests, no styrene, benzene, acrolein or particulates were detected in air filtered by the respirator cartridge, yet other compounds were detected penetrating the respirator. Because of the complexity of smoke, an exposure index was determined for challenge and filtered air to determine the relative risk of the aggregate exposure to respiratory irritants. The primary contributors to the irritant exposure index in air filtered by the respirator were formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, with total hydrocarbons contributing only 1% to the irritant index. Respirator cartridges were adequate to minimize firefighter exposures to aggregate respiratory irritants if the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists ceiling limit for formaldehyde is used (0.3 ppm) but not if National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Recommended Exposure Limit (NIOSH REL) (0.1 ppm) is used, where three of five concentrations in filtered air exceeded the NIOSH REL. Respirator certification allows 1 ppm of formaldehyde to pass through it when challenged at 100 ppm, which may not adequately protect workers to current short-term exposure/ceiling limits. The method developed here recommends specific contaminants to measure in future work

  2. Small-Caliber Ammunition Identification Guide. Volume 1. Small-Arms Cartridges Up to 15 mm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    the semirinmnnrd cartridge is also used in Type 89 fixed ard flexible aircraft machineguns. The practical L range of the 7.7x58 and 7.7x58 SiR...Nowe 2. •-L•J A267 A It, A273 SPAIN WEST GERMANY 4? Made by Manufactura • Madc by Manusar.-- Metalicas Madrilnas. 1957-1963. 1959-1964. Note 4. CAMBODIA

  3. Development of sustainable dye adsorption system using Nutraceutical Industrial Fennel Seed Spent - Studies with Congo Red dye.

    PubMed

    Taqui, Syed Noeman; Yahya, Rosiyah; Hassan, Aziz; Nayak, Nayan; Syed, Akheel Ahmed

    2017-01-25

    Fennel seed spent (FSS) - an inexpensive nutraceutical industrial spent has been used as an efficient biosorbent for the removal of Congo Red (CR) from aqueous media. Results show that pH of 2 - 4 and temperature of 30°C was ideal for maximum adsorption. Based on regression fitting of the data it was determined that the SIPS isotherm (R(2) = 0.994, χ(2) = 0.5) adequately described the mechanism of adsorption, suggesting that the adsorption occurs in a homogeneous layer by layer with favourable interaction between layers. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the adsorption is favourable (negative values for ΔG°) and endothermic (ΔH° = 12-20 kJ mol(-1)) for an initial dye concentration of 25, 50 and 100 ppm. The low ΔH° value indicates that the adsorption is a physical process involving weak chemical interactions like hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions. The kinetics revealed that the adsorption process showed pseudo second order tendencies with the equal influence of intra-particle as well as film diffusion. The SEM images of FSS show a highly fibrous matrix with a hierarchical porous structure. The FTIR analysis of the spent confirmed the presence of cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic matter giving it both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties. The investigations indicate that FSS is a cost-effective and efficient biosorbent for the remediation of toxic Congo Red dye.

  4. Removal of Cryptosporidium and polystyrene microspheres from swimming pool water with sand, cartridge, and precoat filters.

    PubMed

    Amburgey, James E; Walsh, Kimberly J; Fielding, Roy R; Arrowood, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    Cryptosporidium has caused the majority of waterborne disease outbreaks in treated recreational water venues in the USA for many years running. This research project evaluated some common US swimming pool filters for removing Cryptosporidium oocysts, 5-µm diameter polystyrene microspheres, and 1-µm diameter polystyrene microspheres. A 946 L hot tub with interchangeable sand, cartridge, and precoat filters was used at room temperature for this research. Simulated pool water for each experiment was created from Charlotte, NC (USA) tap water supplemented with alkalinity, hardness, chlorine, and a mixture of artificial sweat and urine. Precoat (i.e., diatomaceous earth and perlite) filters demonstrated pathogen removal efficiencies of 2.3 to 4.4 log (or 99.4-99.996%). However, sand and cartridge filters had average Cryptosporidium removals of 0.19 log (36%) or less. The combined low filter removal efficiencies of sand and cartridge filters along with the chlorine-resistant properties of Cryptosporidium oocysts could indicate a regulatory gap warranting further attention and having significant implications on the protection of public health in recreational water facilities. The 5-µm microspheres were a good surrogate for Cryptosporidium oocysts in this study and hold promise for use in future research projects, field trials, and/or product testing on swimming pool filters.

  5. Development and Testing of a Temperature-swing Adsorption Compressor for Carbon Dioxide in Closed-loop Air Revitalization Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulloth, Lila M.; Rosen, Micha; Affleck, David; LeVan, M. Douglas; Wang, Yuan

    2005-01-01

    The air revitalization system of the International Space Station (ISS) operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby dosing the air-loop. We have developed a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) that is energy efficient, quiet, and has no rapidly moving parts for performing these tasks. The TSAC is a solid-state compressor that has the capability to remove CO2 from a low- pressure source, and subsequently store, compress, and deliver at a higher pressure as required by a processor. The TSAC is an ideal interface device for CO2 removal and reduction units in the air revitalization loop of a spacecraft for oxygen recovery. This paper discusses the design and testing of a TSAC for carbon dioxide that has application in the ISS and future spacecraft for closing the air revitalization loop.

  6. Competitive adsorption of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ ions onto Eichhornia crassipes in binary and ternary systems.

    PubMed

    Mahamadi, Courtie; Nharingo, Tichaona

    2010-02-01

    A batch sorption technique was used to study the biosorption of Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) ions onto the vastly abundant water hyacinth weed, Eichhornia crassipes biomass in binary and ternary systems at a temperature of 30 degrees C and pH 4.84. Mutual interference effects were probed using equilibrium adsorption capacity ratios, q(e)(')/q(e), where the prime indicates the presence of one or two other metal ions. The combined action of the metals was found to be antagonistic, and the metal sorption followed the order Pb(2+)>Cd(2+)>Zn(2+). The behaviour of competitive biosorption for Pb-Cd and Pb-Zn combinations were successfully described by the Langmuir Competitive Model (CLM), whilst the model showed poor fitting to the Cd-Zn data. In conclusion, Pb(2+) ions could still be effectively removed from aqueous solution in the presence of both Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) ions, but removal of the Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) ions would be suppressed in the presence of Pb(2+).

  7. [Dynamics of soil phosphorus adsorption-desorption in maize/soybean relay intercropping system in purple hilly area].

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Song, Chun; Dai, Wei; Xiao, Xia; Mao, Lu; Wang, Xiao-chun; Yang, Wen-yu

    2015-07-01

    Field plot experiment was carried out to study the effect of phosphorus application on soil phosphorus adsorption-desorption characteristics under three cropping patterns including maize/soybean relay intercropping (M/S), maize monoculture (M), and soybean monoculture (S). Results showed that without phosphorus fertilization, the system crop yield under M/S was increased by 9.8% and 79. 1% compared with that of M and S, respectively, and the land equivalent ratio (LER) was 1.58. With phosphate fertilizer application, the system crop yield under M/S was increased by 10.4% and 80.3% compared with that of M and S, respectively, and the LER was 1.62. The system crop yields under M/S, M and S with phosphate fertilizer application were increased by 12.7%, 12. 2% and 17. 6%, respectively, compared with that without phosphorus fertilization. Among three cropping patterns, the soil buffer capacity (SBC) values were in the order of M/S>M >S regardless of phosphate fertilizer applied or not. The SBC values of M/S, M and S without phosphate fertilizer application were reduced by 19.6%, 30.3% and 12.0% compared with phosphate fertilizer application treatments, respectively. The soil desorption per absorption (b) values of the three cropping patterns with phosphate fertilizer application were in the order of M/S>M>S, and the b values increased by 10.9%, 39.1% and -9.6%, respectively, compared with non phosphate fertilizer application. The soil phosphorus maximum absorption (Qm) and soil phosphorus desorption rate also showed the same trend.

  8. RAMGEN ROTOR CARTRIDGE FOR THE PRE-PROTOTYPE RAMGEN ENGINE

    SciTech Connect

    Aaron Koopman

    2003-09-01

    The research and development of a unique combustion engine is presented. The engine converts the thrust from ramjet modules located on the rim of a disk into shaft torque, which in turn can be used for electrical power generation or mechanical drive applications. A test program was undertaken that included evaluation of the pre-prototype engine and incorporation of improvements to the thrust modules and supporting systems. Fuel mixing studies with vortex generators and bluff body flame holders demonstrated the importance of increasing the shear-layer area and spreading angle to augment flame volume. Evaluation of flame-holding configurations (with variable fuel injection methods) concluded that the heat release zone, and therefore combustion efficiency, could be manipulated by judicious selection of bluff body geometry, and is less influenced by fuel injection distribution. Finally, successful operation of novel fuel and cooling air delivery systems have resolved issues of gas (fuel and air) delivery to the individual rotor segments. The lessons learned from the pre-prototype engine are currently being applied to the development of a 2.8MW engine.

  9. The Adsorption of Arsenic on Iron Pipes in Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to remain compliant with the U.S. EPA’s Lead and Copper rule, it is pivotal to understand the relationship between factors affecting lead release in drinking water distribution systems. Lead solids were synthesized in cell experiments using a pH range of 6-11 with both 1...

  10. INVESTIGATION OF AMMONIA ADSORPTION ON FLY ASH DUE TO INSTALLATION OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    G.F. Brendel; J.E. Bonetti; R.F. Rathbone; R.N. Frey Jr.

    2000-11-01

    This report summarizes an investigation of the potential impacts associated with the utilization of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems at coal-fired power plants. The study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Emission Control By-Products Consortium, Dominion Generation, the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and GAI Consultants, Inc. SCR systems are effective in reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions as required by the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. However, there may be potential consequences associated with ammonia contamination of stack emissions and combustion by-products from these systems. Costs for air quality, landfill and pond environmental compliance may increase significantly and the marketability of ash may be seriously reduced, which, in turn, may also lead to increased disposal costs. The potential impacts to air, surface water, groundwater, ash disposal, ash utilization, health and safety, and environmental compliance can not be easily quantified based on the information presently available. The investigation included: (1) a review of information and data available from published and unpublished sources; (2) baseline ash characterization testing of ash samples produced from several central Appalachian high-volatile bituminous coals from plants that do not currently employ SCR systems in order to characterize the ash prior to ammonia exposure; (3) an investigation of ammonia release from fly ash, including leaching and thermal studies; and (4) an evaluation of the potential impacts on plant equipment, air quality, water quality, ash disposal operations, and ash marketing.

  11. Capital and Operating Costs of Small Arsenic Removal Adsorptive Media Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted 50 full-scale demonstration projects on treatment systems removing arsenic from drinking water in 26 states throughout the U.S. The projects were conducted to evaluate the performance, reliability, and cost of arsenic remo...

  12. Should the U.S. Army Adopt New 5.56mm Ammunition Cartridge Designs to Reduce Overall Ammunition Weight?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    It is a fairly comprehensive handbook, if lacking the latest in ammunition development data. James Bevan’s and Stephanie Pezard’s Basic...cartridge case. Figure 2. Cartridge Case Design Source: James Bevan and Stephanie Pezard, ―Basic Characteristics of Ammunition: From...renamed the Remington .223.17 After further testing and modifications, the final 5.56x45mm design was finally perfected by Robert Hutton and Eugene Stoner

  13. Short-Cycle Adsorption Refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, C. K.

    1988-01-01

    Modular adsorption/Joule-Thomson-effect refrigerator offers fast regeneration; adsorption/desorption cycle time expected to be 1 minute. Pressurized hydrogen generated by bank of compressor modules during heating phase passes through system of check valves and expands in Joule-Thomson junction as it enters refrigeration chamber. Hydrogen absorbs heat from load before it is sucked out by another bank of compressor modules in cooling phase.

  14. Comparative study on ultrasonic assisted adsorption of dyes from single system onto Fe3O4 magnetite nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon: Experimental design methodology.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Ahmad Reza; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Asfaram, Arash; Bazrafshan, Ali Akbar; Jannesar, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    The present study the ultrasound assisted adsorption of dyes in single system onto Fe3O4 magnetite nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (Fe3O4-MNPs-AC) was described following characterization and identification of this adsorbent by conventional techniques likes field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, particle-size distribution, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A central composite design in conjunction with a response surface methodology according to f-test and t-test for recognition and judgment about significant term led to construction of quadratic model which represent relation among responses and effective terms. This model has unique ability to predict adsorption data behavior over a large space around central and optimum point. Accordingly Optimum conditions for well and quantitative removal of present dyes was obtained best operation and conditions: initial SY, MB and EB dyes concentration of 15, 15 and 25mgL(-1), 4.0, 6.0 and 5.0 of pH, 360, 360 and 240s sonication time and 0.04, 0.03 and 0.032g of Fe3O4-MNPs-AC. Replication of similar experiment (N=5) guide that average removal percentage of SY, MB and EB were found to be 96.63±2.86%, 98.12±1.67% and 99.65±1.21% respectively. Good agreement and closeness of Predicted and experimental result and high adsorption capacity of dyes in short time strongly confirm high suitability of present method for waste water treatment, while easy separation of present nanoparticle and its good regeneration all support good applicability of Fe3O4-MNPs-AC for waste water treatment. The kinetic study can be represented by combination of pseudo second-order and intraparticle diffusion. The obtained maximum adsorption capacities correspond to Langmuir as best model for representation of experimental data correspond to dyes adsorption onto Fe3O4-MNPs-AC were 76.37, 78.76 and 102.00mgg(-1) for SY, MB and EB, respectively. In addition, the performance

  15. Development Study of Cartridge/Crucible Tube Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKechnie, Timothy N.; ODell, Scott J.

    1998-01-01

    The limitations of traditional alloys and the desire for improved performance for components is driving the increased utilization of refractory metals in tile space industry. From advanced propulsion systems to high temperature furnace components for microgravity processing, refractory metals are being used for their high melting temperatures and inherent chemical stability. Techniques have been developed to produce near net shape refractory metal components utilizing vacuum plasma spraying. Material utilization is very high, and laborious machining can be avoided. As-spray formed components have been tested and found to perform adequately. However, increased mechanical and thermal properties are needed. To improve these properties, post processing thermal treatments such as hydrogen sintering and vacuum annealing have been performed. Components formed from alloys of tungsten, rhenium, tantalum, niobium, and molybdenum are discussed and a metallurgical analyses detailing the results are presented. A qualitative comparison of mechanical properties is also included.

  16. Facile heterogenization of a cobalt catalyst via graphene adsorption: robust and versatile dihydrogen production systems.

    PubMed

    Eady, Shawn C; Peczonczyk, Sabrina L; Maldonado, Stephen; Lehnert, Nicolai

    2014-07-28

    A heterogeneous dihydrogen (H2) production system has been attained by simply soaking electrodes made from electro-deposited graphene on FTO plated glass in solutions of a cobalt bis(dithiolate) compound. The resulting electrodes are active in weakly acidic aqueous solutions (pH > 3), have relatively low overpotentials (0.37 V versus platinum), show high catalytic rates (TOF > 1000 s(-1)), and are resistant to degradation by dioxygen.

  17. Adsorption of organic chemicals in soils.

    PubMed Central

    Calvet, R

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a review on adsorption of organic chemicals on soils sediments and their constituents. The first part of this review deals with adsorption from gas and liquid phases and gives a discussion on the physical meaning of the shape of adsorption isotherms. Results show that no general rules can be proposed to describe univocally the relation between the shape of isotherms and the nature of adsorbate-adsorbent system. Kinetics of adsorption is discussed through the description of various models. Theoretical developments exist both for the thermodynamics and the kinetics of adsorption, but there is a strong need for experimental results. Possible adsorption mechanisms are ion exchange, interaction with metallic cations, hydrogen bonds, charge transfers, and London-van der Waals dispersion forces/hydrophobic effect. However, direct proofs of a given mechanism are rare. Several factors influence adsorption behavior. Electronic structure of adsorbed molecules, properties of adsorbents, and characteristics of the liquid phase are discussed in relation to adsorption. Such properties as water solubility, organic carbon content of adsorbing materials, and the composition of the liquid phase are particularly important. Evaluation of adsorption can be obtained through either laboratory measurements or use of several correlations. Adsorption measurements must be interpreted, taking into account treatment of adsorbent materials, experimental conditions, and secondary phenomena such as degradations. Correlations between adsorption coefficients and water-octanol partition coefficient or water solubility are numerous. They may be useful tools for prediction purposes. Relations with transport, bioavailability, and degradation are described. PMID:2695323

  18. Adsorptive removal of naphthalene induced by structurally different Gemini surfactants in a soil-water system.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jia; Li, Jun; Huang, Guohe; Wang, Xiujie; Chen, Guanghui; Zhao, Baihang

    2016-09-01

    A new generation of surfactant, Gemini surfactants, have been synthesized and have attracted the attention of various industrial and academic research groups. This study focused on the use of symmetric and dissymmetric quaternary ammonium Gemini surfactants to immobilize naphthalene onto soil particles, and is used as an example of an innovative application to remove HOC in situ using the surfactant-enhanced sorption zone. The sorption capacity of modified soils by Gemini surfactant and natural soils was compared and the naphthalene sorption efficiency, in the absence and presence of Gemini surfactants with different alkyl chain lengths, was investigated in the soil-water system. The results have shown that the increased added Gemini surfactant formed admicelles at the interface of soil/water having superior capability to retard contaminant. Symmetric and dissymmetric Gemini surfactants have opposite effect on the aspect of removing of PAH attributing to their solubilization and sorption behavior in soil-water system. Compared with the natural soil, sorption of naphthalene by Gemini-modified soil is noticeably enhanced following the order of C12-2-16 < C12-2-12 < C12-2-8. However, the symmetric Gemini surfactant C12-2-12 is the optimized one for in situ barrier remediation, which is not only has relative high retention ability but also low dosage.

  19. Functionalized Nanoporous Silica for Removal of Heavy Metals from Biological Systems; Adsorption and Application

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Rutledge, Ryan D.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Sukwarotwat, Vichaya; Orr, Galya; Warner, Cynthia L.; Warner, Marvin G.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Wiacek, Robert J.; Timchalk, Charles; Addleman, Raymond S.

    2010-10-01

    Functionalized nanoporous silica, often referred to as self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports (SAMMS) have previously demonstrated the ability to serve as very effective heavy metal sorbents in a range of aquatic and environmental systems suggesting they may be advantageously utilized for biomedical applications such as chelation therapy. Herein we evaluate surface chemistries for heavy metal capture from biological fluids, various facets of the materials biocompatibility and the suitability of these materials as potential therapeutics. Of the materials tested, thiol-functionalized SAMMS proved most capable of removing selected heavy metals from biological solutions (i.e. blood, urine, etc.) As a result, thiol SAMMS was further analyzed to assess the material’s performance under a number of different biologically relevant conditions (i.e. variable pH and ionic strength) as well to gauge any potentially negative cellular effects resulting from interaction with the sorbent, such as cellular toxicity or possible chelation of essential minerals. Additionally, cellular uptake studies demonstrated no cell membrane permeation by the silica-based materials generally highlighting their ability to remain cellularly inert and thus non-toxic. As a result, it has been determined that organic ligand-functionalized nanoporous silica materials could be a valuable material for detoxification therapeutics and potentially other biomedical applications as needed.

  20. Time evolution analysis of a 2D solid gas equilibrium: a model system for molecular adsorption and diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, S.; Brunner, M.; Ramoino, L.; Suzuki, H.; Güntherodt, H.-J.; Jung, T. A.

    2001-11-01

    The adsorption of sub-phthalocyanine molecules on Ag(1 1 1) has been studied by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The molecules are observed in different two-dimensional (2D) phases of adsorption which coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. In the condensed phase the molecules form well-ordered islands with a honeycomb pattern. In the gas phase single molecules can be discriminated in single scan lines by characteristic tip excursions which occur randomly. The energy barrier for surface diffusion as well as the condensation energy to form 2D islands is estimated and discussed.

  1. Flight prototype CO2 and humidity control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudy, K. M.

    1977-01-01

    A regenerable CO2 and humidity control system is presently being developed for potential use on the space shuttle as an alternative to the baseline lithium hydroxide system. The system utilizes a sorbent material (designated HS-C) to adsorb CO2 and water vapor from the cabin atmosphere and desorb the CO2 and water vapor overboard when exposed to a space vacuum. Continuous operation is achieved by utilizing two beds which are alternately cycled between adsorption and desorption. A shuttle vehicle integration study showed that the HS-C system offers substantial weight advantages compared to the baseline shuttle orbiter expendable lithium hydroxide CO2 removal system for extended missions beyond the nominal design of four men for seven days. This study defined a system packaging envelope in the area presently occupied by the LiOH cartridges.

  2. Exploration of mXRF analysis of gunshot residue from cartridge cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Martin; Stamouli, Amalia; Knijnenberg, Alwin

    2015-10-01

    During the reconstruction of a shooting incident, several analytical techniques are at the disposal of forensic scientists. The Netherlands Forensic Institute is exploring the opportunities in which mXRF can be used to obtain information in these reconstructions. In this paper the possibilities of using the 2D-mXRF instrument as a screening tool are explored. Primarily the focus is on using mXRF to obtain information regarding the elemental composition of gunshot residue from cartridge cases. Secondly, the possibilities of using the 2D-mXRF instrument to, quickly and easily, set up databases for gunshot residue analysis are investigated.

  3. Optimal stapler cartridge selection according to the thickness of the pancreas in distal pancreatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hongbeom; Jang, Jin-Young; Son, Donghee; Lee, Seungyeoun; Han, Youngmin; Shin, Yong Chan; Kim, Jae Ri; Kwon, Wooil; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stapling is a popular method for stump closure in distal pancreatectomy (DP). However, research on which cartridges are suitable for different pancreatic thickness is lacking. To identify the optimal stapler cartridge choice in DP according to pancreatic thickness. From November 2011 to April 2015, data were prospectively collected from 217 consecutive patients who underwent DP with 3-layer endoscopic staple closure in Seoul National University Hospital, Korea. Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) was graded according to International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula definitions. Staplers were grouped based on closed length (CL) (Group I: CL ≤ 1.5 mm, II: 1.5 mm < CL < 2 mm, III: CL ≥ 2 mm). Compression ratio (CR) was defined as pancreas thickness/CL. Distribution of pancreatic thickness was used to find the cut-off point of thickness which predicts POPF according to stapler groups. POPF developed in 130 (59.9%) patients (Grade A; n = 86 [66.1%], B; n = 44 [33.8%]). The numbers in each stapler group were 46, 101, and 70, respectively. Mean thickness was higher in POPF cases (15.2 mm vs 13.5 mm, P = 0.002). High body mass index (P = 0.003), thick pancreas (P = 0.011), and high CR (P = 0.024) were independent risk factors for POPF in multivariate analysis. Pancreatic thickness was grouped into <12 mm, 12 to 17 mm, and >17 mm. With pancreatic thickness <12 mm, the POPF rate was lowest with Group II (I: 50%, II: 27.6%, III: 69.2%, P = 0.035). The optimal stapler cartridges with pancreatic thickness <12 mm were those in Group II (Gold, CL: 1.8 mm). There was no suitable cartridge for thicker pancreases. Further studies are necessary to reduce POPF in thick pancreases. PMID:27583852

  4. Centrifugal adsorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Tsao, Yow-Min D. (Inventor); Lee, Wenshan (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A gas-liquid separator uses a helical passageway to impart a spiral motion to a fluid passing therethrough. The centrifugal force generated by the spiraling motion urges the liquid component of the fluid radially outward which forces the gas component radially inward. The gas component is then separated through a gas-permeable, liquid-impervious membrane and discharged through a central passageway. A filter material captures target substances contained in the fluid.

  5. Adsorption of Gemini surfactants onto clathrate hydrates.

    PubMed

    Salako, O; Lo, C; Couzis, A; Somasundaran, P; Lee, J W

    2013-12-15

    This work addresses the adsorption of two Gemini surfactants at the cyclopentane (CP) hydrate-water interface. The Gemini surfactants investigated here are Dowfax C6L and Dowfax 2A1 that have two anionic head groups and one hydrophobic tail group. The adsorption of these surfactants was quantified using adsorption isotherms and the adsorption isotherms were determined using liquid-liquid titrations. Even if the Gemini surfactant adsorption isotherms show multi-layer adsorption, they possess the first Langmuir layer with the second adsorption layer only evident in the 2A1 adsorption isotherm. Zeta potentials of CP hydrate particles in the surfactant solution of various concentrations of Dowfax C6L and Dowfax 2A1 were measured to further explain their adsorption behavior at the CP hydrate-water interface. Zeta potentials of alumina particles as a model particle system in different concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Dowfax C6L and Dowfax 2A1 were also measured to confirm the configuration of all the surfactants at the interface. The determination of the isotherms and zeta-potentials provides an understanding framework for the adsorption behavior of the two Gemini surfactants at the hydrate-water interface.

  6. Adsorption of apolar molecules at the water liquid-vapor interface: A Monte Carlo simulations study of the water-n-octane system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedlovszky, Pál; Varga, Imre; Gilányi, Tibor

    2003-07-01

    The adsorption of n-octane at the water liquid-vapor interface has been investigated by Monte Carlo computer simulation. For this purpose, simulation of five different water-apolar interfacial systems have been performed, in which the number of n-octane molecules has been varied. The results clearly show that the apolar n-octane molecules are adsorbed from the vapor phase at the interface. The adsorption is driven by the weak attraction due to the dispersion forces acting between the water molecules and the methyl and methylene groups of the octanes. This weak attraction is, however, amplified by the fact that it is added up for the CH2 and CH3 groups belonging to the same molecule. Consistently, the n-octane molecules located closest to the aqueous phase are found to prefer all-trans conformation and parallel alignment with the plane of the interface. On the other hand, entropic effects become more important among the molecules of the outer part of the adsorption layer. Hence, the preferred orientation of these molecules is perpendicular to the interface, as they can be extended toward the less dense region of the apolar phase; and gauche dihedrals appear more frequently here than among the molecules located next to the aqueous phase.

  7. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference system analysis on adsorption studies of Reactive Red 198 from aqueous solution by SBA-15/CTAB composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghajani, Khadijeh; Tayebi, Habib-Allah

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the Mesoporous material SBA-15 were synthesized and then, the surface was modified by the surfactant Cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide (CTAB). Finally, the obtained adsorbent was used in order to remove Reactive Red 198 (RR 198) from aqueous solution. Transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and BET were utilized for the purpose of examining the structural characteristics of obtained adsorbent. Parameters affecting the removal of RR 198 such as pH, the amount of adsorbent, and contact time were investigated at various temperatures and were also optimized. The obtained optimized condition is as follows: pH = 2, time = 60 min and adsorbent dose = 1 g/l. Moreover, a predictive model based on ANFIS for predicting the adsorption amount according to the input variables is presented. The presented model can be used for predicting the adsorption rate based on the input variables include temperature, pH, time, dosage, concentration. The error between actual and approximated output confirm the high accuracy of the proposed model in the prediction process. This fact results in cost reduction because prediction can be done without resorting to costly experimental efforts. SBA-15, CTAB, Reactive Red 198, adsorption study, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference systems (ANFIS).

  8. SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION-EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATIONS-12092

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2011-11-10

    Experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions with monosodium titanate (MST) and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) laden filter cartridges are presented. In these proof-of-principle tests, effective uptake of both Sr-85 and Cs-137 were observed using ion-exchangers in this filter cartridge configuration. At low salt simulant conditions, the instantaneous decontamination factor (D{sub F}) for Sr-85 with MST impregnated filter membrane cartridges measured 26, representing 96% Sr-85 removal efficiency. On the other hand, the Sr-85 instantaneous D{sub F} with co-sintered active MST cartridges measured 40 or 98% Sr-85 removal efficiency. Strontium-85 removal with the MST impregnated membrane cartridges and CST impregnated membrane cartridges, placed in series arrangement, produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 for strontium-85 with co-sintered active MST cartridges and co-sintered active CST cartridges placed in series. Overall, polyethylene co-sintered active titanates cartridges performed as well as titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges in the uptake of strontium. At low ionic strength conditions, there was a significant uptake of Cs-137 with co-sintered CST cartridges. Tests results with CST impregnated membrane cartridges for Cs-137 decontamination are currently being re-evaluated. Based on these preliminary findings we conclude that incorporating MST and CST sorbents into membranes represent a promising method for the semi-continuous removal of radioisotopes of strontium and cesium from nuclear waste solutions.

  9. SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION-EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATIONS-12092

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-01-03

    Experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions with monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate laden filter cartridges are presented. In these proof-of-principle tests, effective uptake of both strontium-85 and cesium-137 were observed using ion-exchangers in this filter cartridge configuration. At low salt simulant conditions, the instantaneous decontamination factor for strontium-85 with monosodium titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges measured 26, representing 96% strontium-85 removal efficiency. On the other hand, the strontium-85 instantaneous decontamination factor with co-sintered active monosodium titanate cartridges measured 40 or 98% Sr-85 removal efficiency. Strontium-85 removal with the monosodium titanate impregnated membrane cartridges and crystalline silicotitanate impregnated membrane cartridges, placed in series arrangement, produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 for strontium-85 with co-sintered active monosodium titanate cartridges and co-sintered active crystalline silicotitanate cartridges placed in series. Overall, polyethylene co-sintered active titanates cartridges performed as well as titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges in the uptake of strontium. At low ionic strength conditions, there was a significant uptake of cesium-137 with co-sintered crystalline silicotitanate cartridges. Tests results with crystalline silicotitanate impregnated membrane cartridges for cesium-137 decontamination are currently being re-evaluated. Based on these preliminary findings we conclude that incorporating monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate sorbents into membranes represent a promising method for the semicontinuous removal of radioisotopes of strontium and cesium from nuclear waste solutions.

  10. An Assessment of the Axial and Radial Dilation of a DPIMS Tantalum Cartridge for Space Shuttle Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S.V.; Ghosn, L. J.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-based heat treatment tests are planned on an argon gas-filled tantalum cartridge developed as pan of a Diffusion Processes in Molten Semiconductors (DPIMS) experiment conducted on NASA's Space Shuttle. The possibility that the cartridge may creep during testing and touch the furnace walls is of real concern in this program. The present paper discusses the results of calculations performed to evaluate this possibility. Deformation mechanism maps were constructed using literature data in order to identify the creep mechanism dominant under the appropriate stresses and temperatures corresponding to the test conditions. These results showed that power-law creep was dominant when the grain size of the material exceeded 55 gm but Coble creep was the important mechanism below this value of grain size. Finite element analysis was used to analyze the heat treatment tWs assuming a furnace run away condition (which is a worst case scenario) using the appropriate creep parameters corresponding to grain sizes of 1 and 100 gm. Calculations were also conducted to simulate the effect of an initial 3 tilt of the cartridge assembly, the maximum possible tilt angle. The von Mises stress and su-ain distributions were calculated assuming that the cartridge was fixed at one end as it was heated from ambient temperature to 1823 K in 1.42 h, maintained at 1823 K for 9.5 h and then further heated to an over temperature condition of 2028 K in 0.3 h. The inelastic axial and radial displacements of the cartridge walls were evaluated by resolving the von Mises strain along the corresponding directions. These calculations reveal that the maximum axial and radial displacements are expected to be about 2.9 and 0.25 mm, respectively, for both fine and coarse-grained materials at 2028 K. It was determined that these displacements occur during heat-up to temperature and creep of the cartridge is likely to be relatively insignificant irrespective of grain size. Furthermore, with a 3' tilt of

  11. Evaluation of polyurethane foam cartridges for measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in air. Final report, 1 August-31 December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, C.C.; Bresler, W.E.; Hannan, S.W.

    1985-08-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate polyurethane foam (PUF) cartridges as collection media for quantification of vapor-phase polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air. Two cleanup methods for PUF cartridges--compression rinsing and combined compression rinsing and Soxhlet extraction--were evaluated. Both methods successfully remove interfering material and background PAHs from the PUF. The compression rinsing method is recommended because it is easier, faster, and cheaper. Two procedures for extraction of PAHs from the PUF matrix, Soxhlet extraction and compression rinsing, were compared. These sample extracts were analyzed by on-column injection, electron impact gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (EI GC/MS) to determine PAHs. The results showed that compression rinsing is comparable to conventional Soxhlet extraction, and that both methods successfully remove PAHs from the PUF cartridges. The compression rinsing method was then used in the stability study. The stability study was carried out to determine the stability of PAHs adsorbed on PUF cartridges as a function of storage time between collection and extraction. The results indicated that the levels of the spiked perdeuterated benzo(a)pyrene decreased significantly during storage. The rate of decrease was much faster when the PUF cartridges were stored in light. Other PAH levels were not adversely influenced by the storage time.

  12. Determination of phenol pollutants in water at trace levels: Extraction by a reversible graphitized carbon black cartridge

    SciTech Connect

    Di Corcia, A.; Marchese, S.; Samperi, R.

    1994-03-01

    A method for determining the 11 phenols designated as priority pollutants by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as the parts-per-trillion level in water sampled from the environment is described. Drinking (2 L), ground (1.5 L), and river (0.5 L) water samples are preconstructed by passing them through a 1 g graphitized carbon black (GCB) reversible cartridge at a flow rate of approximately 70 mL/min. After the GCB cartridge is washed with 1.5 mL methanol to eliminate water, the cartridge is reversed and then back-flushed with an acidic CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}-CH{sub 3}OH mixture for eluting phenols. After partial solvent removal, the sample is subjected to reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV detection by either a conventional or a diode-array detector. Recoveries of phenols added to 2 L of drinking water at levels between 0.05 and 4 {mu}g/L were higher than 90%. Compared with an octadecyl bonded silica (C{sub 18}) cartridge, the GCB cartridge had a far better extraction efficiency for the more highly water-soluble phenols. The extent to which the presence of fulvic acids in water affected the recovery of the phenols considered was investigated. 36 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. THERMAL ENHANCEMENT CARTRIDGE HEATER MODIFIED TECH MOD TRITIUM HYDRIDE BED DEVELOPMENT PART I DESIGN AND FABRICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.; Estochen, E.

    2014-03-06

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used 1{sup st} generation (Gen1) LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA0.75) metal hydride storage beds for tritium absorption, storage, and desorption. The Gen1 design utilizes hot and cold nitrogen supplies to thermally cycle these beds. Second and 3{sup rd} generation (Gen2 and Gen3) storage bed designs include heat conducting foam and divider plates to spatially fix the hydride within the bed. For thermal cycling, the Gen2 and Gen 3 beds utilize internal electric heaters and glovebox atmosphere flow over the bed inside the bed external jacket for cooling. The currently installed Gen1 beds require replacement due to tritium aging effects on the LANA0.75 material, and cannot be replaced with Gen2 or Gen3 beds due to different designs of these beds. At the end of service life, Gen1 bed desorption efficiencies are limited by the upper temperature of hot nitrogen supply. To increase end-of-life desorption efficiency, the Gen1 bed design was modified, and a Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) bed was developed. Internal electric cartridge heaters in the new design to improve end-of-life desorption, and also permit in-bed tritium accountability (IBA) calibration measurements to be made without the use of process tritium. Additional enhancements implemented into the TECH Mod design are also discussed.

  14. Thermal enhancement cartridge heater modified (TECH Mod) tritium hydride bed development, Part 1 - Design and fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Estochen, E.G.

    2015-03-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used first generation (Gen1) LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA0.75) metal hydride storage beds for tritium absorption, storage, and desorption. The Gen1 design utilizes hot and cold nitrogen supplies to thermally cycle these beds. Second and third generation (Gen2 and Gen3) storage bed designs include heat conducting foam and divider plates to spatially fix the hydride within the bed. For thermal cycling, the Gen2 and Gen3 beds utilize internal electric heaters and glovebox atmosphere flow over the bed inside the bed external jacket for cooling. The currently installed Gen1 beds require replacement due to tritium aging effects on the LANA0.75 material, and cannot be replaced with Gen2 or Gen3 beds due to different designs of these beds. At the end of service life, Gen1 bed desorption efficiencies are limited by the upper temperature of hot nitrogen supply. To increase end-of-life desorption efficiency, the Gen1 bed design was modified, and a Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) bed was developed. Internal electric cartridge heaters in the new design to improve end-of-life desorption, and also permit in-bed tritium accountability (IBA) calibration measurements to be made without the use of process tritium. Additional enhancements implemented into the TECH Mod design are also discussed. (authors)

  15. Carbon dioxide separation using adsorption with steam regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Jeannine Elizabeth; Copeland, Robert James; Leta, Daniel P.; McCall, Patrick P.; Bai, Chuansheng; DeRites, Bruce A.

    2016-11-29

    A process for separating a carbon dioxide from a gas stream is disclosed. The process can include passing the gas stream over a sorbent that adsorbs the carbon dioxide by concentration swing adsorption and adsorptive displacement. The sorbent can be regenerated and the carbon dioxide recaptured by desorbing the carbon dioxide from the sorbent using concentration swing adsorption and desorptive displacement. A carbon dioxide separation system is also disclosed. Neither the system nor the process rely on temperature swing or pressure swing adsorption.

  16. Freundlich adsorption isotherms of agricultural by-product-based powdered activated carbons in a geosmin-water system.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chilton; Losso, Jack N; Marshall, Wayne E; Rao, Ramu M

    2002-11-01

    The present study was designed to model the adsorption of geosmin from water under laboratory conditions using the Freundlich isotherm model. This model was used to compare the efficiency of sugarcane bagasse and pecan shell-based powdered activated carbon to the efficiency of a coal-based commercial activated carbon (Calgon Filtrasorb 400). When data were generated from Freundlich isotherms, Calgon Filtrasorb 400 had greater geosmin adsorption at all geosmin concentrations studied than the laboratory produced steam-activated pecan shell carbon, steam-activated bagasse carbon, and the CO2-activated pecan shell carbon. At geosmin concentrations < 0.07 microg/l for the phosphoric acid-activated pecan shell carbon and below 0.08 microg/l for a commercially produced steam-activated pecan shell carbon obtained from Scientific Carbons, these two carbons had a higher calculated geosmin adsorption than Filtrasorb 400. While the commercial carbon was more efficient than some laboratory prepared carbons at most geosmin concentrations, the results indicate that when the amount of geosmin was below the threshold level of human taste (about 0.10 microg/l), the phosphoric acid-activated pecan shell carbon and the Scientific Carbons sample were more efficient than Filtrasorb 400 at geosmin removal.

  17. Soluble minerals in chemical evolution. I - Adsorption of 5-prime-AMP on CaSO4 - A model system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orenberg, J. B.; Chan, S.; Calderon, J.; Lahav, N.

    1985-01-01

    The adsorption of 5-prime-AMP onto solid CaSO4-2H2O was studied in a saturated suspension as a function of pH and electrolyte concentration. The adsorption is pH-dependent and is directly correlated with the charge on the 5-prime-AMP molecule which is determined by the state of protonation of the N-1 nitrogen of the purine ring and the phosphate oxygens. It is proposed that the binding that occurs between the nucleotide and the salt is electrostatic in nature. The adsorption decreases with increasing ionic strength of the solution which means that in a fluctuating environment of wetting and drying cycles, a biomolecule similar to 5-prime-AMP could be expected to desorb during the drying phase. The results indicate that CaSO4-2H2O can serve as a concentrating surface for biomolecules. The significance of this is discussed with regard to the possible role of soluble minerals and their surfaces in a geochemical model consistent with the evolution of the earth and the origin of life.

  18. Metal pins fired from unmodified blank cartridge guns and very small calibre weapons--technical and wound ballistic aspects.

    PubMed

    Rabl, W; Riepert, T; Steinlechner, M

    1998-01-01

    Blank cartridge guns are generally regarded as being harmless and are not considered to be firearms in most countries. A comparison of the legal situations in Germany and Austria concerning weapons is given. There have been several reports of serious injuries and even fatalities due to these weapons. Ballistic experiments show that even unmodified blank cartridge guns and very small calibre weapons can fire wire nails and can inflict potentially fatal injuries even at distances of 50 cm. Two serious injuries inflicted by metal pins fired from a blank cartridge gun and a very small calibre weapon are reported. These cases suggest that such weapons should also be considered handguns in the legal sense.

  19. System for injecting fuel in a gas turbine combustor

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    2016-10-25

    A combustion system uses a fuel nozzle with an inner wall having a fuel inlet in fluid communication with a fuel outlet in a fuel cartridge. The inner wall defines a mounting location for inserting the fuel cartridge. A pair of annular lip seals around the cartridge outer wall on both sides of the fuel outlet seals the fuel passage between the fuel inlet and the fuel outlet.

  20. Development of an isothermal titration microcalorimetric system with digital control and dynamic power peltier compensation. II. Characterization and operation mode. Myoglobin adsorption onto polymeric latex particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velázquez-Campoy, A.; López-Mayorga, O.; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M. A.

    2000-04-01

    In a previous article a comprehensive description of an isothermal titration microcalorimeter with Peltier compensation was reported. This work deals with the characterization procedure and the operation mode. The transfer function parameters (time constants, calibration constants, and thermal properties of the system components) have been determined using a rigorous physical model for the microcalorimeter. To check the good performance of the instrument, titration experiments of cytidine and adenosine protonation have been carried out. Finally, as an example of the instrument applicability, differential heat measurements of myoglobin adsorption onto polymeric (polystyrene) latex particles are presented.

  1. Effect of organic-matter type and thermal maturity on methane adsorption in shale-gas systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Ruppel, Stephen C.; Milliken, Kitty; Yang, Rongsheng

    2012-01-01

    A series of methane (CH4) adsorption experiments on bulk organic rich shales and their isolated kerogens were conducted at 35 °C, 50 °C and 65 °C and CH4 pressure of up to 15 MPa under dry conditions. Samples from the Eocene Green River Formation, Devonian–Mississippian Woodford Shale and Upper Cretaceous Cameo coal were studied to examine how differences in organic matter type affect natural gas adsorption. Vitrinite reflectance values of these samples ranged from 0.56–0.58 %Ro. In addition, thermal maturity effects were determined on three Mississippian Barnett Shale samples with measured vitrinite reflectance values of 0.58, 0.81 and 2.01 %Ro. For all bulk and isolated kerogen samples, the total amount of methane adsorbed was directly proportional to the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the sample and the average maximum amount of gas sorption was 1.36 mmol of methane per gram of TOC. These results indicate that sorption on organic matter plays a critical role in shale-gas storage. Under the experimental conditions, differences in thermal maturity showed no significant effect on the total amount of gas sorbed. Experimental sorption isotherms could be fitted with good accuracy by the Langmuir function by adjusting the Langmuir pressure (PL) and maximum sorption capacity (Γmax). The lowest maturity sample (%Ro = 0.56) displayed a Langmuir pressure (PL) of 5.15 MPa, significantly larger than the 2.33 MPa observed for the highest maturity (%Ro > 2.01) sample at 50 °C. The value of the Langmuir pressure (PL) changes with kerogen type in the following sequence: type I > type II > type III. The thermodynamic parameters of CH4 adsorption on organic rich shales were determined based on the experimental CH4 isotherms. For the adsorption of CH4 on organic rich shales and their isolated kerogen, the heat of adsorption (q) and the standard entropy (Δs0) range from 7.3–28.0 kJ/mol and from −36.2 to −92.2 J/mol/K, respectively.

  2. A biodegradable polymeric system for peptide–protein delivery assembled with porous microspheres and nanoparticles, using an adsorption/infiltration process

    PubMed Central

    Alcalá-Alcalá, Sergio; Urbán-Morlán, Zaida; Aguilar-Rosas, Irene; Quintanar-Guerrero, David

    2013-01-01

    A biodegradable polymeric system is proposed for formulating peptides and proteins. The systems were assembled through the adsorption of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles onto porous, biodegradable microspheres by an adsorption/infiltration process with the use of an immersion method. The peptide drug is not involved in the manufacturing of the nanoparticles or in obtaining the microspheres; thus, contact with the organic solvent, interfaces, and shear forces required for the process are prevented during drug loading. Leuprolide acetate was used as the model peptide, and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was used as the biodegradable polymer. Leuprolide was adsorbed onto different amounts of PLGA nanoparticles (25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL, 75 mg/mL, and 100 mg/mL) in a first stage; then, these were infiltrated into porous PLGA microspheres (100 mg) by dipping the structures into a microsphere suspension. In this way, the leuprolide was adsorbed onto both surfaces (ie, nanoparticles and microspheres). Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed the formation of a nanoparticle film on the porous microsphere surface that becomes more continuous as the amount of infiltrated nanoparticles increases. The adsorption efficiency and release rate are dependent on the amount of adsorbed nanoparticles. As expected, a greater adsorption efficiency (~95%) and a slower release rate were seen (~20% of released leuprolide in 12 hours) when a larger amount of nanoparticles was adsorbed (100 mg/mL of nanoparticles). Leuprolide acetate begins to be released immediately when there are no infiltrated nanoparticles, and 90% of the peptide is released in the first 12 hours. In contrast, the systems assembled in this study released less than 44% of the loaded drug during the same period of time. The observed release profiles denoted a Fickian diffusion that fit Higuchi’s model (t1/2). The manufacturing process presented here may be useful as a potential alternative for formulating

  3. A comparison of surface topography characterization technologies for use in comparing spent bullet and cartridge case signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Batishko, C.R.; Hickman, B.J.; Cuta, F.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked by the US Department of Energy to provide technical assistance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in evaluating and ranking technologies potentially useful in high-speed comparison of unique spent bullet and cartridge case surface signatures. Information sources included vendor input, current relevant literature, vendor phone contacts, other FBI resources, relevant PNL reports, and personal contact with numerous PNL technical staff. A comprehensive list of technologies was reduced to a list of 38 by grouping very similar methodologies, and further reduced to a short list of six by applying a set of five minimum functional requirements. A total of 14 primary criteria, many having secondary criteria, were subsequently used to evaluate each technology. The ranked short list results are reported and supported in this document, and their scores normalized to a hypothetical ideal system are as follows: (1) confocal microscopy 82.13; (2) laser dynamic focusing 72.04; (3)moire interferometry V70.94; (4)fringe field capacitance;(5)laser triangulation 66.18; (6)structured/sectioned light 65.55. Information available within the time/budget constraints which was used for the evaluation and ranking was not sufficiently detailed to evaluate specific implementations of the technologies. Each of the technologies in the short list was judged potentially capable of meeting the minimum requirements. Clever, novel engineering solutions resulting in a more cost-effective system, or a closer fit to the ideal system,'' could result in a reordering of the short list when actual technical proposals are evaluated. Therefore, it is recommended that a Request for Proposal not be limited to only the highest ranked technology, but include all six technologies in the short list.

  4. A comparison of surface topography characterization technologies for use in comparing spent bullet and cartridge case signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Batishko, C.R.; Hickman, B.J.; Cuta, F.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked by the US Department of Energy to provide technical assistance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in evaluating and ranking technologies potentially useful in high-speed comparison of unique spent bullet and cartridge case surface signatures. Information sources included vendor input, current relevant literature, vendor phone contacts, other FBI resources, relevant PNL reports, and personal contact with numerous PNL technical staff. A comprehensive list of technologies was reduced to a list of 38 by grouping very similar methodologies, and further reduced to a short list of six by applying a set of five minimum functional requirements. A total of 14 primary criteria, many having secondary criteria, were subsequently used to evaluate each technology. The ranked short list results are reported and supported in this document, and their scores normalized to a hypothetical ideal system are as follows: (1) confocal microscopy 82.13; (2) laser dynamic focusing 72.04; (3)moire interferometry V70.94; (4)fringe field capacitance;(5)laser triangulation 66.18; (6)structured/sectioned light 65.55. Information available within the time/budget constraints which was used for the evaluation and ranking was not sufficiently detailed to evaluate specific implementations of the technologies. Each of the technologies in the short list was judged potentially capable of meeting the minimum requirements. Clever, novel engineering solutions resulting in a more cost-effective system, or a closer fit to the ``ideal system,`` could result in a reordering of the short list when actual technical proposals are evaluated. Therefore, it is recommended that a Request for Proposal not be limited to only the highest ranked technology, but include all six technologies in the short list.

  5. Radiological assessment of cartridge 120-mm, APFSDS-T, XM829 ammunition

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, C.D.; Hadlock, D.E.; Soldat, K.L.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The components of the XM829 round effectively shield out nonpenetrating beta radiation emitted by the depleted uranium; however, photons cna penetrate the components of the round and are therefore the predominant emission. The radiation levels associated with the XM829 ammunition are low. The maximum emissions measured from a cartridge are not likely to result in exposure to military personnel above the maximum permissible nonoccupational dose limits listed in Army Regulation (AR) 40-14. Based upon the specifications contained in 49 CFR 173.424 and the radiation measurement data, the XM829 shipping package may be excepted from the specification packaging, marking and labeling requirements of subpart 49 CFR 173 as long as the outer surface of the uranium is enclosed in an inactive sheath and the conditions specified in 49 CFR 421 (b), (c), and (d) are met.

  6. Adsorption of water vapor by poly(styrenesulfonic acid), sodium salt: isothermal and isobaric adsorption equilibria.

    PubMed

    Toribio, F; Bellat, J P; Nguyen, P H; Dupont, M

    2004-12-15

    Air conditioning and dehumidifying systems based on sorption on solids are of great interest, especially in humid climates, because they allow reduction of thermal loads and use of chlorofluorocarbons. Previous studies have shown that hydrophilic polymers such as sulfonic polymers can have very high performance in water adsorption from air. The aim of this study was to characterize the water vapor adsorption properties of fully sulfonated and monosulfonated poly(styrenesulfonic acid), sodium salt, and to elucidate the mechanism of adsorption on these materials. Adsorption isotherms have been determined by TGA between 298 and 317 K for pressures ranging from 0.1 to 45 hPa. They have type II of the IUPAC classification and a small hysteresis loop between adsorption and desorption processes was observed only for the monosulfonated sample. Water content is up to 80% weight at 80% relative humidity. Adsorption isotherms have been well fitted with the FHH model. Adsorption-desorption isobars have been determined by TGA under 37 hPa in the temperature range 298-373 K. They show that these polymers can be completely regenerated by heating at 313 K under humidified air. No degradation of the adsorption properties has been observed after several regenerations. Adsorption enthalpies and entropies have been deduced from the Clapeyron equation and from DSC measurements. A good agreement was found. A mechanism of adsorption is proposed considering two kinds of adsorbate: bounded water in electrostatic interaction with functional groups and free water resulting from condensation.

  7. Japanese Science Films; a Descriptive and Evaluative Catalog of: 16mm Motion Pictures, 8mm Cartridges, and Video Tapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newren, Edward F., Ed.

    One hundred and eighty Japanese 16mm motion pictures, 8mm cartridges, and video tapes produced and judged appropriate for a variety of audience levels are listed in alphabetical order by title with descriptive and evaluative information. A subject heading list and a subject index to the film titles are included, as well as a sample of the…

  8. Comparison of gel column, card, and cartridge techniques for dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 blood typing

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Mayank; Jackson, Karen V.; Winzelberg, Sarah; Giger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare accuracy and ease of use of a card agglutination assay, an immunochromatographic cartridge method, and a gel-based method for canine blood typing. Sample Blood samples from 52 healthy blood donor dogs, 10 dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), and 29 dogs with other diseases. Procedures Blood samples were tested in accordance with manufacturer guidelines. Samples with low PCVs were created by the addition of autologous plasma to separately assess the effects of anemia on test results. Results Compared with a composite reference standard of agreement between 2 methods, the gel-based method was found to be 100% accurate. The card agglutination assay was 89% to 91% accurate, depending on test interpretation, and the immunochromatographic cartridge method was 93% accurate but 100% specific. Errors were observed more frequently in samples from diseased dogs, particularly those with IMHA. In the presence of persistent autoagglutination, dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1 typing was not possible, except with the immunochromatographic cartridge method. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance The card agglutination assay and immunochromatographic cartridge method, performed by trained personnel, were suitable for in-clinic emergency DEA 1.1 blood typing. There may be errors, particularly for samples from dogs with IMHA, and the immunochromatographic cartridge method may have an advantage of allowing typing of samples with persistent autoagglutination. The laboratory gel-based method would be preferred for routine DEA 1.1 typing of donors and patients if it is available and time permits. Current DEA 1.1 typing techniques appear to be appropriately standardized and easy to use. PMID:22280380

  9. Studies of adsorption characteristics of activated carbons down to 4.5 K for the development of cryosorption pumps for fusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasthurirengan, S.; Behera, U.; Vivek, G. A.; Krishnamoorthy, V.; Gangradey, R.; Udgata, S. S.; Tripati, V. S.

    2014-01-01

    Cryosorption pump is the only possible device to pump helium, hydrogen and its isotopes in fusion environment, such as high magnetic field and high plasma temperatures. Activated carbons are known to be the most suitable adsorbent in the development of cryosorption pumps. For this purpose, the data of adsorption characteristics of activated carbons in the temperature range 4.5 K to 77 K are needed, but are not available in the literature. For obtaining the above data, a commercial micro pore analyzer operating at 77 K has been integrated with a two stage GM cryocooler, which enables the cooling of the sample temperature down to 4.5 K. A heat switch mounted between the second stage cold head and the sample chamber helps to raise the sample chamber temperature to 77 K without affecting the performance of the cryocooler. The detailed description of this system is presented elsewhere. This paper presents the results of experimental studies of adsorption isotherms measured on different types of activated carbons in the form of granules, globules, flake knitted and non-woven types in the temperature range 4.5 K to 10 K using Helium gas as the adsorbate. The above results are analyzed to obtain the pore size distributions and surface areas of the activated carbons. The effect of adhesive used for bonding the activated carbons to the panels is also studied. These results will be useful to arrive at the right choice of activated carbon to be used for the development of cryosorption pumps.

  10. Preparation of a biocatalyst via physical adsorption of lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus on hydrophobic support to catalyze biolubricant synthesis by esterification reaction in a solvent-free system.

    PubMed

    Lage, Flávia A P; Bassi, Jaquelinne J; Corradini, Maria C C; Todero, Larissa M; Luiz, Jaine H H; Mendes, Adriano A

    2016-03-01

    Lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL) was immobilized on mesoporous hydrophobic poly-methacrylate (PMA) particles via physical adsorption (interfacial activation of the enzyme on the support). The influence of initial protein loading (5-200mg/g of support) on the catalytic properties of the biocatalysts was determined in the hydrolysis of olive oil emulsion and synthesis of isoamyl oleate (biolubricant) by esterification reaction. Maximum adsorbed protein loading and hydrolytic activity were respectively ≈100mg/g and ≈650 IU/g using protein loading of 150mg/g of support. The adsorption process followed the Langmuir isotherm model (R(2)=0.9743). Maximum ester conversion around 85% was reached after 30min of reaction under continuous agitation (200rpm) using 2500mM of each reactant in a solvent-free system, 45°C, 20%m/v of the biocatalyst prepared using 100mg of protein/g of support. Apparent thermodynamic parameters of the esterification reaction were also determined. Under optimal experimental conditions, reusability tests of the biocatalyst (TLL-PMA) after thirty successive cycles of reaction were performed. TLL-PMA fully retained its initial activity up to twenty two cycles of reaction, followed by a slight decrease around 8.6%. The nature of the product (isoamyl oleate) was confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), proton ((1)H NMR) and carbon ((13)C NMR) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analyses.

  11. Studies of adsorption characteristics of activated carbons down to 4.5 K for the development of cryosorption pumps for fusion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kasthurirengan, S.; Behera, U.; Vivek, G. A.; Krishnamoorthy, V.; Gangradey, R.; Udgata, S. S.; Tripati, V. S.

    2014-01-29

    Cryosorption pump is the only possible device to pump helium, hydrogen and its isotopes in fusion environment, such as high magnetic field and high plasma temperatures. Activated carbons are known to be the most suitable adsorbent in the development of cryosorption pumps. For this purpose, the data of adsorption characteristics of activated carbons in the temperature range 4.5 K to 77 K are needed, but are not available in the literature. For obtaining the above data, a commercial micro pore analyzer operating at 77 K has been integrated with a two stage GM cryocooler, which enables the cooling of the sample temperature down to 4.5 K. A heat switch mounted between the second stage cold head and the sample chamber helps to raise the sample chamber temperature to 77 K without affecting the performance of the cryocooler. The detailed description of this system is presented elsewhere. This paper presents the results of experimental studies of adsorption isotherms measured on different types of activated carbons in the form of granules, globules, flake knitted and non-woven types in the temperature range 4.5 K to 10 K using Helium gas as the adsorbate. The above results are analyzed to obtain the pore size distributions and surface areas of the activated carbons. The effect of adhesive used for bonding the activated carbons to the panels is also studied. These results will be useful to arrive at the right choice of activated carbon to be used for the development of cryosorption pumps.

  12. Comparative study of the dynamic gravimetric and pulse chromatographic methods for the determination of Henry constants of adsorption for VOC zeolite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nokerman, J.; Canet, X.; Mougin, P.; Limborg-Noetinger, S.; Frère, M.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a comparative study between a gravimetric apparatus operating under dynamic conditions and a pulse chromatographic device developed for the determination of Henry constants of adsorption for VOC-zeolite systems. In both cases, we provide a description of the experimental set-up and procedure, as well as a complete report on the treatment of the rough experimental data. The experimental errors are also discussed. The comparison work is based on the study of the adsorption of toluene on a NaY zeolite (Si/Al 2.43) for temperatures ranging from 503 to 623 K. The maximal discrepancy found between the experimental Henry constants was 15.0%. The pulse chromatographic method is only dedicated to high-temperature measurements. For low-temperature experiments, the rough data cannot be treated in an efficient way, and it is not possible to obtain reliable Henry constant values. The dynamic gravimetric method is not temperature limited. It is however time-consuming, especially when low-temperature measurements (not presented in this paper) are concerned. Both methods are complementary if the determination of Henry constants is required in a wide temperature range.

  13. Development of a Next-Generation Membrane-Integrated Adsorption Processor for CO2 Removal and Compression for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulloth, Lila; LeVan, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    The current CO2 removal technology of NASA is very energy intensive and contains many non-optimized subsystems. This paper discusses the concept of a next-generation, membrane integrated, adsorption processor for CO2 removal nd compression in closed-loop air revitalization systems. This processor will use many times less power than NASA's current CO2 removal technology and will be capable of maintaining a lower CO2 concentration in the cabin than that can be achieved by the existing CO2 removal systems. The compact, consolidated, configuration of gas dryer, CO2 separator, and CO2 compressor will allow continuous recycling of humid air in the cabin and supply of compressed CO2 to the reduction unit for oxygen recovery. The device has potential application to the International Space Station and future, long duration, transit, and planetary missions.

  14. Correlation between wetting, adhesion and adsorption in the polymer-aqueous solutions of ternary surfactant mixtures-air systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymczyk, Katarzyna; Zdziennicka, Anna; Krawczyk, Joanna; Jańczuk, Bronisław

    2014-01-01

    The correlation between the wettability of polymers and adsorption of ternary mixtures including CTAB, TX-100 and TX-114 at the polymer-aqueous solution interface as well as the adhesion of aqueous solution of these mixtures to apolar polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), monopolar polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and nylon 6 was considered on the basis of the contact angle measurements and the literature data of the solutions surface tension. From these considerations it appeared that the efficiency and effectiveness of the adsorption at the PTFE-water interface are comparable to those at the water-air one, but for the PMMA-water and nylon 6-water interfaces they are lower than those for the water-air one for a given series of solutions. The efficiency and effectiveness are reflected in the composition of the mixed monolayer at the polymer-solution interface which even for the PTFE-solution interface is somewhat different from the water-air interface. The properties of the mixed monolayer at these interfaces influence the critical surface tension of polymer wetting which for PTFE is somewhat higher but for PMMA and nylon 6 considerably lower than their surface tension. From these considerations it also appeared that the work of adhesion of aqueous solutions of ternary mixtures of surfactants to the PTFE surface does not depend on the composition and concentration of solution contrary to PMMA and nylon 6. The adhesion work of these solutions to the PMMA and nylon 6 surface can be determined on the basis of van Oss et al. and Neumann et al. equations.

  15. Evaluation of radon adsorption characteristics of a coconut shell-based activated charcoal system for radon and thoron removal applications.

    PubMed

    Karunakara, N; Sudeep Kumara, K; Yashodhara, I; Sahoo, B K; Gaware, J J; Sapra, B K; Mayya, Y S

    2015-04-01

    Radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn), and their decay products contribute a major fraction (more than 50%) of doses received from ionisation radiation in public domain indoor environments and occupation environments such as uranium mines, thorium plants, and underground facilities, and are recognised as important radiological hazardous materials, which need to be controlled. This paper presents studies on the removal of (222)Rn and (220)Rn from air using coconut shell-based granular activated charcoal cylindrical adsorber beds. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the (222)Rn and (220)Rn adsorption characteristics, and the mitigation efficiency of coconut-based activated charcoal available in India. The performance parameters evaluated include breakthrough time (τ) and adsorption coefficient (K), and degassing characteristics of the charcoal bed of varying dimensions at different flow rates. While the breakthrough for (222)Rn occurred depending on the dimension of the adsorber bed and flow rates, for (220)Rn, the breakthrough did not occur. The breakthrough curve exhibited a stretched S-shape response, instead of the theoretically predicted sharp step function. The experiments confirm that the breakthrough time individually satisfies the quadratic relationship with respect to the diameter of the bed, and the linear relationship with respect to the length, as predicted in the theory. The K value varied in the range of 2.3-4.12 m(3) kg(-1) with a mean value of 2.99 m(3) kg(-1). The K value was found to increase with the increase in flow rate. Heating the charcoal to ∼ 100 °C resulted in degassing of the adsorbed (222)Rn, and the K of the degassed charcoal and virgin charcoal were found to be similar with no deterioration in performance indicating the re-usability of the charcoal.

  16. Performance evaluation of a hybrid system for efficient palm oil mill effluent treatment via an air-cathode, tubular upflow microbial fuel cell coupled with a granular activated carbon adsorption.

    PubMed

    Tee, Pei-Fang; Abdullah, Mohammad Omar; Tan, Ivy Ai Wei; Mohamed Amin, Mohamed Afizal; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Bujang, Kopli

    2016-09-01

    An air-cathode MFC-adsorption hybrid system, made from earthen pot was designed and tested for simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy recovery. Such design had demonstrated superior characteristics of low internal resistance (29.3Ω) and favor to low-cost, efficient wastewater treatment and power generation (55mW/m(3)) with average current of 2.13±0.4mA. The performance between MFC-adsorption hybrid system was compared to the standalone adsorption system and results had demonstrated great pollutants removals of the integrated system especially for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD3), total organic carbon (TOC), total volatile solids (TVS), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) and total nitrogen (TN) because such system combines the advantages of each individual unit. Besides the typical biological and electrochemical processes that happened in an MFC system, an additional physicochemical process from the activated carbon took place simultaneously in the MFC-adsorption hybrid system which would further improved on the wastewater quality.

  17. Apparatus for thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Rassat, Scot D.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Matson, Dean W.; Drost, M. Kevin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2005-12-13

    The present invention provides compact adsorption systems that are capable of rapid temperature swings and rapid cycling. Novel methods of thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption are also described. In some aspects of the invention, a gas is passed through the adsorbent thus allowing heat exchangers to be very close to all portions of the adsorbent and utilize less space. In another aspect, the adsorption media is selectively heated, thus reducing energy costs. Methods and systems for gas adsorption/desorption having improved energy efficiency with capability of short cycle times are also described. Advantages of the invention include the ability to use (typically) 30-100 times less adsorbent compared to conventional systems.

  18. Method for thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Rassat, Scot D.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Matson, Dean W.; Drost, M. Kevin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2003-10-07

    The present invention provides compact adsorption systems that are capable of rapid temperature swings and rapid cycling. Novel methods of thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption are also described. In some aspects of the invention, a gas is passed through the adsorbent thus allowing heat exchangers to be very close to all portions of the adsorbent and utilize less space. In another aspect, the adsorption media is selectively heated, thus reducing energy costs. Methods and systems for gas adsorption/desorption having improved energy efficiency with capability of short cycle times are also described. Advantages of the invention include the ability to use (typically) 30-100 times less adsorbent compared to conventional systems.

  19. Method and apparatus for thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Rassat, Scot D.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Drost, Kevin; Vishwanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2004-06-08

    The present invention provides compact adsorption systems that are capable of rapid temperature swings and rapid cycling. Novel methods of thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption are also described. In some aspects of the invention, a gas is passed through the adsorbent thus allowing heat exchangers to be very close to all portions of the adsorbent and utilize less space. In another aspect, the adsorption media is selectively heated, thus reducing energy costs. Methods and systems for gas adsorption/desorption having improved energy efficiency with capability of short cycle times are also described. In another aspect, the apparatus or methods utilize heat exchange channels of varying lengths that have volumes controlled to provide equal heat fluxes. Methods of fuel cell startup are also described. Advantages of the invention include the ability to use (typically) 30-100 times less adsorbent compared to conventional systems.

  20. Spectrophotometric investigation of the interactions between cationic (C.I. Basic Blue 9) and anionic (C.I. Acid Blue 25) dyes in adsorption onto extracted cellulose from Posidonia oceanic in single and binary system.

    PubMed

    Ben Douissa, Najoua; Dridi-Dhaouadi, Sonia; Mhenni, Mohamed Farouk

    2016-01-01

    Extracted cellulose from Posidonia oceanica was used as an adsorbent for removal of a cationic (Basic blue 9, BB) and anionic textile dye (Acid blue 25, AB) from aqueous solution in single dye system. Characterization of the extracted cellulose and extracted cellulose-dye systems were performed using several techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, zeta potential and Boehm acid-base titration method. Adsorption tests showed that the extracted cellulose presented higher adsorption of BB than AB in single dye system, revealing that electrostatic interactions are responsible, in the first instance, for the dye-adsorbent interaction. In single dye systems, the extracted cellulose presented the maximum adsorption capacities of BB and AB at 0.955 mmol.g(-1) and 0.370 mmol.g(-1), respectively. Adsorption experiments of AB dye on extracted cellulose saturated by BB dye exhibited the release of the latter dye from the sorbent which lead to dye-dye interaction in aqueous solution due to electrostatic attraction between both species. Interaction of BB and AB dyes were investigated using spectrophotometric analysis and results demonstrated the formation of a molecular complex detected at wavelengths 510 and 705 nm when anionic (AB) and cationic (BB) dye were taken in equimolar proportions. The adsorption isotherm of AB, taking into account the dye-dye interaction was investigated and showed that BB dye was released proportionately by AB equilibrium concentration. It was also observed that AB adsorption is widely enhanced when the formation of the molecular complex is disadvantaged.

  1. Experimental Determination of P-V-T-X Properties and Adsorption Kinetics in the CO2-CH4 System under Shale Gas Reservoir Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Y.; Wang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Shale gas production via hydrofracturing has profoundly changed the energy portfolio in the USA and other parts of the world. Under the shale gas reservior conditions, CO2 and H2O, either in residence or being injected during hydrofracturing or both, co-exist with CH4. One important feature characteristic of shale is the presence of nanometer-scale (1-100 nm) pores in shale or mudstone. The interactions among CH4, CO2 and H2O in those nano-sized pores directly impact shale gas storage and gas release from the shale matrix. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of interactions among CH4, CO2 and H2O in nanopore confinement would provide guidance in addressing a number of problems such as rapid decline in production after a few years and low recovery rates. We are systematically investigating the P-V-T-X properties and adsorption kinetics in the CH4-CO2-H2O system under the reservior conditions. We have designed and constructed a unique high temperature and pressure experimental system that can measure both of the P-V-T-X properties and adsorption kinetics sequentially. We measure the P-V-T-X properties of CH4-CO2 mixtures with CH4 up to 95 vol. %, and adsorption kinetics of various materials, under the conditions relevant to shale gas reservoir. We use three types of materials: (I) model materials, (II) single solid phases separated from shale samples, and (III) crushed shale samples from both the known shale gas producing formations and the shale gas barren formations. The model materials are well characterized in terms of pore sizes. Therefore, the results associated with the model material serve as benchmarks for our model development. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This research is supported by a Geoscience Foundation LDRD.

  2. Optimization of the bake-on siliconization of cartridges. Part I: Optimization of the spray-on parameters.

    PubMed

    Funke, Stefanie; Matilainen, Julia; Nalenz, Heiko; Bechtold-Peters, Karoline; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Friess, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Biopharmaceutical products are increasingly commercialized as drug/device combinations to enable self-administration. Siliconization of the inner syringe/cartridge glass barrel for adequate functionality is either performed at the supplier or drug product manufacturing site. Yet, siliconization processes are often insufficiently investigated. In this study, an optimized bake-on siliconization process for cartridges using a pilot-scale siliconization unit was developed. The following process parameters were investigated: spray quantity, nozzle position, spray pressure, time for pump dosing and the silicone emulsion concentration. A spray quantity of 4mg emulsion showed best, immediate atomization into a fine spray. 16 and 29mg of emulsion, hence 4-7-times the spray volume, first generated an emulsion jet before atomization was achieved. Poor atomization of higher quantities correlated with an increased spray loss and inhomogeneous silicone distribution, e.g., due to runlets forming build-ups at the cartridge lower edge and depositing on the star wheel. A prolonged time for pump dosing of 175ms led to a more intensive, long-lasting spray compared to 60ms as anticipated from a higher air-to-liquid ratio. A higher spray pressure of 2.5bar did not improve atomization but led to an increased spray loss. At a 20mm nozzle-to-flange distance the spray cone exactly reached the cartridge flange, which was optimal for thicker silicone layers at the flange to ease piston break-loose. Initially, 10μg silicone was sufficient for adequate extrusion in filled cartridges. However, both maximum break-loose and gliding forces in filled cartridges gradually increased from 5-8N to 21-22N upon 80weeks storage at room temperature. The increase for a 30μg silicone level from 3-6N to 10-12N was moderate. Overall, the study provides a comprehensive insight into critical process parameters during the initial spray-on process and the impact of these parameters on the characteristics of the

  3. Fabrication and properties of an immobilized P25TiO{sub 2}-montmorillonite bilayer system for the synergistic photocatalytic–adsorption removal of methylene blue

    SciTech Connect

    Ngoh, Y.S.; Nawi, M.A.

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • P25TiO{sub 2} and montmorillonite was integrated via an immobilized bilayer approach. • Synergistic dual photocatalytic–adsorptive removal of MB was observed. • Removal rate of MB was 4 times better than P25TiO{sub 2} alone. • Excellent reusability with sustainable rate of removal of MB. • Treated water can be discharged directly without the need of a filtration system. - Abstract: A bilayer immobilized system consisting of a mesoporous montmorillonite (MT) as the sublayer and a porous P25TiO{sub 2} toplayer was successfully fabricated on a glass plate. The MT sublayer was immobilized onto the glass plate by means of a glutaraldehyde (GLA) cross-linked poly (vinyl) alcohol (PVA) as the binder (MT-PVAB) while the top layer constituted of nano-sized TiO{sub 2} bound by the ENR-PVC polymer blends (P-25TiO{sub 2}). The incorporation of MT-PVAB to P-25TiO{sub 2} caused a reduction in the band gap energy while PLS emission spectra suggested higher separation rate for the photo-generated electron–hole pairs in the P-25TiO{sub 2}/MT-PVAB/GP. The photocatalytic–adsorption removal experiments showed that the P-25TiO{sub 2}/MT-PVAB/GP enhanced removal rate of MB by an average of 4 times as compared with the immobilized monolayer P-25TiO{sub 2} on a glass plate (P-25TiO{sub 2}/GP).

  4. Adsorption of thorium(IV) from simulated radioactive solutions using a novel electrospun PVA/TiO2/ZnO nanofiber adsorbent functionalized with mercapto groups: Study in single and multi-component systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour, Dariush; Keshtkar, Ali Reza; Moosavian, Mohammad Ali

    2016-03-01

    The novel polyvinyl alcohol/titanium oxide/zinc oxide (PVA/TiO2/ZnO) nanofiber adsorbent functionalized with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (TMPTMS) was prepared by electrospinning method and its potential was investigated for the adsorption of thorium from single and multi-metal aqueous solutions. The prepared adsorbent was characterized by FTIR, SEM and BET analysis. The influences of different operational parameters such as pH, ionic strength, equilibrium time, initial concentration and temperature were studied in batch mode. Investigation of ionic strength effect showed that the addition of NaNO3 to metal solution has a slight effect on the thorium adsorption, whereas pH value has a serious effect on the thorium adsorption at pH values lower than 4. The double-exponential model described the adsorption of Th(IV) ions much better than other kinetic models within both the single and multi-component systems. Among various isotherm models used, the equilibrium data of Th(IV) conformed the Langmuir isotherm in the single system, while those were best fitted by Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm in multi-component system. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔH°, ΔS°, and ΔG° indicated that the nature of adsorption process was spontaneous, endothermic and thermodynamically favored. The inhibitory effect of other metal ions on the adsorption capacity of Th(IV) was in order of Al(III) > Cu(II) > Cd(II) > Ni(II) > U(VI) > Fe(II).

  5. Modeling of the Dissociative Adsorption Probability of the H2-Pt(111) System Based on Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koido, Tetsuya; Tomarikawa, Ko; Yonemura, Shigeru; Tokumasu, Takashi

    2011-05-01

    Molecular Dynamics (MD) was used to simulate dissociative adsorption of a hydrogen molecule on the Pt(111) surface considering the movement of the surface atoms and gas molecules. The Embedded Atom Method (EAM) was applied to represent the interaction potential. The parameters of the EAM potential were determined such that the values of the dissociation barrier at different sites estimated by the EAM potential agreed with that of DFT calculation results. A number of MD simulations of gas molecules impinging on a Pt(111) surface were carried out randomly changing initial orientations, incident azimuth angles, and impinging positions on the surface with fixed initial translational energy, initial rotational energy, and incident polar angle. The number of collisions in which the gas molecule was dissociated were counted to compute the dissociation probability. The dissociation probability was analyzed and expressed by a mathematical function involving the initial conditions of the impinging molecule, namely the translational energy, rotational energy, and incident polar angle. Furthermore, the utility of the model was verified by comparing its results with raw MD simulation results of molecular beam experiments.

  6. A Simple Adsorption Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guirado, Gonzalo; Ayllon, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    The study of adsorption phenomenon is one of the most relevant and traditional physical chemistry experiments performed by chemistry undergraduate students in laboratory courses. In this article, we describe an easy, inexpensive, and straightforward way to experimentally determine adsorption isotherms using pieces of filter paper as the adsorbent…

  7. Fired Cartridge Case Identification Using Optical Images and the Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) Method

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Mingsi; Song, John; Chu, Wei; Thompson, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    The Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) method for ballistics identification was invented at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The CMC method is based on the correlation of pairs of small correlation cells instead of the correlation of entire images. Four identification parameters – TCCF, Tθ, Tx and Ty are proposed for identifying correlated cell pairs originating from the same firearm. The correlation conclusion (matching or non-matching) is determined by whether the number of CMC is ≥ 6. This method has been previously validated using a set of 780 pair-wise 3D topography images. However, most ballistic images stored in current local and national databases are in an optical intensity (grayscale) format. As a result, the reliability of applying the CMC method on optical intensity images is an important issue. In this paper, optical intensity images of breech face impressions captured on the same set of 40 cartridge cases are correlated and analyzed for the validation test of CMC method using optical images. This includes correlations of 63 pairs of matching images and 717 pairs of non-matching images under top ring lighting. Tests of the method do not produce any false identification (false positive) or false exclusion (false negative) results, which support the CMC method and the proposed identification criterion, C = 6, for firearm breech face identifications using optical intensity images. PMID:26601045

  8. Approaches to improve separation efficiency of eddy current separation for recovering aluminum from waste toner cartridges.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Jujun; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-06-05

    Separation efficiency of eddy current separation (ECS) is low (about 85%) in industrial application for recovering aluminum from crushed waste toner cartridges. Influencing factors of ECS were studied to improve the separation efficiency. Operation factors were researched by orthogonal experiment of ECS on investigating the separation distance between aluminum and plastic flakes. The results indicated the difference (ωR-v) between feeding speed (v) and rotation speed (ω) of magnetic drum (radius: R) was critical factor of influencing the separation efficiency, feeding speed (v) was general factor, and collecting position (H) was subordinate factor. Separation efficiency decreased as the increasing of v, and increased as the increasing of (ωR-v). 0.9 m was the optimal value of H in the orthogonal experiment. Influencing factors of particle characteristics and machine structure were studied by newly established models for computing the separation distance between aluminum and plastic flake in ECS. The results indicated changing of particle size would influence the separation efficiency greater than ω and particle shape. Separation efficiency will increase as the increasing of particle size and ω. Shape of circle is beneficial to improve separation efficiency. Finally, approaches to improve separation efficiency of ECS were presented.

  9. Development of NASA's Sample Cartridge Assembly: Design, Thermal Analysis, and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Connor, Brian; Hernandez, Deborah; Duffy, James

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Sample Cartridge Assembly (SCA) project is responsible for designing and validating a payload that contains a materials research sample in a sealed environment. The SCA will be heated in the European Space Agency's (ESA) Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) that is housed inside the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) located in the International Space Station (ISS). Sintered metals and crystal growth experiments in microgravity are examples of some of the types of materials research that may be performed with a SCA. The project's approach has been to use thermal models to guide the SCA through several design iterations. Various layouts of the SCA components were explored to meet the science and engineering requirements, and testing has been done to help prove the design. This paper will give an overview of the SCA design. It will show how thermal analysis is used to support the project. Also some testing that has been completed will also be discussed, including changes that were made to the thermal profile used during brazing.

  10. Investigating Premature Ignition of Thruster Pressure Cartridges by Mechanical Impact of Internal Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Stephen S.; Saulsberry, Regor

    2010-01-01

    Pyrotechnic thruster pressure cartridges (TPCs) are used for aeroshell separation on a new NASA crew launch vehicle. The premature ignition concern was hypothesized based on the potential range of motion of the subassemblies, projected worst case accelerations, and the internal geometry that could subject propellant grains to mechanical impact sufficiently high for ignition. This possibility was investigated by fabricating a high-fidelity model of the suspected contact geometry, placing a representative amount of propellant in it, and impacting the propellant with a range of forces equivalent to and greater than the maximum possible during launch. Testing demonstrated that the likelihood of ignition is less than 1 in 1,000,000. The test apparatus, methodology, and results are described in this paper. Nondestructive evaluation ( NDE) during TPC acceptance testing indicated that internal assemblies moved during shock and vibration testing due to an internal bond anomaly. This caused concerns that the launch environment might produce the same movement and release propellant grains that might be prematurely ignited through impact or through electrostatic discharge (ESD) as grains vibrated against internal surfaces. Since a new lot could not be fabricated in time, a determination had to be made as to whether the lot was acceptable to fly. This paper discusses the analysis and impact testing used to address the potential impact issue and a separate paper addresses the ESD issue.

  11. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system model for adsorption of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiol onto gold nanoparticales-activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, M; Hosaininia, R; Ghaedi, A M; Vafaei, A; Taghizadeh, F

    2014-10-15

    In this research, a novel adsorbent gold nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (Au-NP-AC) was synthesized by ultrasound energy as a low cost routing protocol. Subsequently, this novel material characterization and identification followed by different techniques such as scanning electron microscope(SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller(BET) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Unique properties such as high BET surface area (>1229.55m(2)/g) and low pore size (<22.46Å) and average particle size lower than 48.8Å in addition to high reactive atoms and the presence of various functional groups make it possible for efficient removal of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiol (TDDT). Generally, the influence of variables, including the amount of adsorbent, initial pollutant concentration, contact time on pollutants removal percentage has great effect on the removal percentage that their influence was optimized. The optimum parameters for adsorption of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2, 5-dithiol onto gold nanoparticales-activated carbon were 0.02g adsorbent mass, 10mgL(-1) initial 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiol concentration, 30min contact time and pH 7. The Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and multiple linear regression (MLR) models, have been applied for prediction of removal of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiol using gold nanoparticales-activated carbon (Au-NP-AC) in a batch study. The input data are included adsorbent dosage (g), contact time (min) and pollutant concentration (mg/l). The coefficient of determination (R(2)) and mean squared error (MSE) for the training data set of optimal ANFIS model were achieved to be 0.9951 and 0.00017, respectively. These results show that ANFIS model is capable of predicting adsorption of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiol using Au-NP-AC with high accuracy in an easy, rapid and cost effective way.

  12. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system model for adsorption of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiol onto gold nanoparticales-activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaedi, M.; Hosaininia, R.; Ghaedi, A. M.; Vafaei, A.; Taghizadeh, F.

    2014-10-01

    In this research, a novel adsorbent gold nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (Au-NP-AC) was synthesized by ultrasound energy as a low cost routing protocol. Subsequently, this novel material characterization and identification followed by different techniques such as scanning electron microscope (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Unique properties such as high BET surface area (>1229.55 m2/g) and low pore size (<22.46 Å) and average particle size lower than 48.8 Å in addition to high reactive atoms and the presence of various functional groups make it possible for efficient removal of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiol (TDDT). Generally, the influence of variables, including the amount of adsorbent, initial pollutant concentration, contact time on pollutants removal percentage has great effect on the removal percentage that their influence was optimized. The optimum parameters for adsorption of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2, 5-dithiol onto gold nanoparticales-activated carbon were 0.02 g adsorbent mass, 10 mg L-1 initial 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiol concentration, 30 min contact time and pH 7. The Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and multiple linear regression (MLR) models, have been applied for prediction of removal of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiol using gold nanoparticales-activated carbon (Au-NP-AC) in a batch study. The input data are included adsorbent dosage (g), contact time (min) and pollutant concentration (mg/l). The coefficient of determination (R2) and mean squared error (MSE) for the training data set of optimal ANFIS model were achieved to be 0.9951 and 0.00017, respectively. These results show that ANFIS model is capable of predicting adsorption of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiol using Au-NP-AC with high accuracy in an easy, rapid and cost effective way.

  13. Determination of propofol glucuronide from hair sample by using mixed mode anion exchange cartridge and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Hye Kyung; Choe, Sanggil; In, Sangwhan; Pyo, Jae Sung

    2016-03-15

    The main objective of this study was to develop and validate a simpler and less time consuming analytical method for determination of propofol glucuronide from hair sample, by using mixed mode anion exchange cartridge and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The study uses propofol glucuronide, a major metabolite of propofol, as a marker for propofol abuse. The hair sample was digested in sodium hydroxide solution and loaded in mixed-mode anion cartridge for solid phase extraction. Water and ethyl acetate were used as washing solvents to remove interfering substances from the hair sample. Consequently, 2% formic acid in ethyl acetate was employed to elute propofol glucuronide from the sorbent of mixed-mode anion cartridge, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The method validation parameters such as selectivity, specificity, LOD, LLOQ, accuracy, precision, recovery, and matrix effect were also tested. The linearity of calibration curves showed good correlation, with correlation coefficient 0.998. The LOD and LLOQ of the propofol glucuronide were 0.2 pg/mg and 0.5 pg/mg, respectively. The intra and inter-day precision and accuracy were acceptable within 15%. The mean values of recovery and matrix effect were in the range of 91.7-98.7% and 87.5-90.3%, respectively, signifying that the sample preparation, washing and extraction procedure were efficient, and there was low significant hair matrix effect for the extraction of propofol glucuronide from hair sample on the mixed mode anion cartridge. To evaluate the suitability of method, the hair of propofol administered rat was successfully analyzed with this method.

  14. Goddard Space Flight Center specification for Helical-Scan 8-millimeter (mm) magnetic digital data tape cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jimmy L.

    1992-01-01

    The same kind of standard and controls are established that are currently in use for the procurement of new analog, digital, and IBM/IBM compatible 3480 tape cartridges, and 1 in wide channel video magnetic tapes. The Magnetic Tape Certification Facility (MTCF) maintains a Qualified Products List (QPL) for the procurement of new magnetic media and uses the following specifications for the QPL and Acceptance Tests: (1) NASA TM-79724 is used for the QPL and Acceptance Testing of new analog magnetic tapes; (2) NASA TM-80599 is used for the QPL and Acceptance Testing of new digital magnetic tapes; (3) NASA TM-100702 is used for the QPL and Acceptance Testing of new IBM/IBM compatible 3840 magnetic tape cartridges; and (4) NASA TM-100712 is used for the QPL and Acceptance Testing of new 1 in wide channel video magnetic tapes. This document will be used for the QPL and Acceptance Testing of new Helical Scan 8 mm digital data tape cartridges.

  15. Characterization of Plasma Gun with TiH2/C60 Cartridge for Disruption Mitigation in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogatu, I. N.; Thompson, J. R.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.; HyperV Technologies Corp. Team

    2011-10-01

    Impurity injection for disruption mitigation in tokamaks must be faster than growth time of plasma instabilities, requires sufficient mass to get critical electron density, high penetrability, and large assimilation fraction in the core plasma, with rapid impurity redistribution over the whole plasma. FAR-TECH, Inc. proposed the innovative idea to use hyper-velocity (>30 km/s), high-density (>1023 m-3) C60/C plasma jets with high ram pressure to deliver the impurity mass in <1 ms. For this purpose C60 powder explosively sublimated into molecular gas, from a solid state, pulsed power driven TiH2/C60 injector cartridge is ionized and accelerated in a plasma accelerator. We report the complete characterization of the TiH2/C60 cartridge with 5 kJ capacitive driver which demonstrated the capability of producing >30 mg of C60 gas in <0.5 ms. In addition we present the construction and testing status of a 100 kJ coaxial plasma gun (~35 cm length) prototype with TiH2/C60 cartridge for a small scale, proof-of-principle experiment on a tokamak. Work supported by the US DOE DE-FG02-08ER85196 grant.

  16. Study of the Behaviors of Gunshot Residues from Spent Cartridges by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatographic Techniques.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kah Haw; Yew, Chong Hooi; Abdullah, Ahmad Fahmi Lim

    2015-07-01

    Gunshot residues, produced after shooting activity, have acquired their importance in analysis due to the notoriety of firearms-related crimes. In this study, solid-phase microextraction was performed to extract the headspace composition of spent cartridges using 85-μm polyacrylate fiber at 66°C for 21 min. Organic compounds, that is, naphthalene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, diphenylamine, and dibutyl phthalate were detected and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection technique. Evaluation of chromatograms for diphenylamine, dibutyl phthalate, and naphthalene indicates the period after a gunshot was discharged, whether it was 1 days, 2-4 days, <5 days, 10 days, 20 days, or more than 30 days ago. This study revealed the potential effects of environmental factors such as occasional wind blow and direct sunlight on the estimation of time after spent cartridges were discharged. In conclusion, we proposed reliable alternative in analyzing the headspace composition of spent cartridges in a simulated crime scene.

  17. Adsorption of cellulase on cellulose: effect of physicochemical properties of cellulose on adsorption and rate of hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.B.; Shin, H.S.; Ryu, D.D.Y.

    1982-11-01

    In the cellulase-cellulose reaction system, the adsorption of cellulase on the solid cellulose substrate was found to be one of the important parameters that govern the enzymatic hydrolysis rate of cellulose. The adsorption of cellulase usually parallels the rate of hydrolysis of cellulose. The affinity for cellulase varies depending on the structural properties of cellulose. Adsorption parameters such as the half-saturation constant, the maximum adsorption constant, and the distribution coefficient for both the cellulase and cellulose have been experimentally determined for several substrates. These adsorption parameters vary with the source of cellulose and the pretreatment methods and are correlated with the crystallinity and the specific surface area of cellulose substrates. The changing pattern of adsorption profile of cellulase during the hydrolysis reaction has also been elucidated. For practical utilization of cellulosic materials, the cellulose structural properties and their effects on cellulase adsorption, and the rate of hydrolysis must be taken into consideration. (Refs. 24).

  18. Integration of Sensor Technologies into Respirator Vapor Cartridges as End-of-Service-Life Indicators: Literature and Manufacturer’s Review and Research Roadmap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-06

    Mercury Vapor CBRN Chemical/Biological/Radiological/Nuclear First Responders Respiratory protection using respirators equipped with respirator cartridges...colorimetric method for monitoring the permeation of chemical agents through protective clothing materials. The new method for monitoring dibutyl sulphide , a...with mercury vapor. MSA has a cartridge life expectancy calculator on their website and respirators that have an ESLI suitable for mercury vapor. The

  19. Evaluation of organic-vapor respirator cartridge efficiency for toluene diisocyanate vapor in the presence of methylenechloride or acetone solvent.

    PubMed

    Dharmarajan, Venkatram; Cummings, Barbara; Lingg, Robert D

    2003-08-01

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is a widely used raw material in the manufacture of flexible polyurethane foams. Acetone (ACE) and/or methylenechloride (MECL) solvents are the most commonly used solvent-based blowing agents for TDI foams. ACGIH has recommended a TWA exposure limit of 5 ppb for TDI and 500 ppm for ACE. For MECL, OSHA mandates a TWA-exposure limit of 25 ppm. This study evaluated the ability of the organic-vapor respirator cartridges (OVC) to block TDI, as well as the effect of airborne MECL or ACE on the OVCs' efficiency to capture TDI. An aluminum/stainless steel exposure chamber was constructed for simultaneously challenging OVCs in triplicate with a dynamic atmosphere of TDI and ACE or MECL vapor. The challenge atmosphere was generated by combining a TDI-laden nitrogen stream from the headspace of a heated impinger with a humidified stream of the indicated solvent in air. The average challenge concentration for TDI was 275 ppb. The average MECL or ACE concentrations were 547 and 581 ppm, respectively. The challenge atmosphere at room temperature (approximately 24 degrees C) and at 25 or 80 percent relative humidity was drawn through each cartridge at 32 L/min for 40+ hours. During the last 8 hours of the challenge, the atmosphere had only TDI vapor. The pre- and post-cartridge atmospheres were periodically sampled for TDI and solvent. Five tests were conducted--two with MSA and three with North OVCs. Under these extreme test conditions no TDI breakthrough was detected from any OVC. The average-calculated efficiency of the OVCs for TDI was >99.9+ percent. Within the first 6 hours of the challenge the cartridges were saturated with ACE or MECL; nevertheless, continued challenging with TDI and solvents did not cause any TDI breakthrough. The study demonstrates that with an OSHA-compliant respiratory protection program, an OVC can safely be used for 40 hours in most polyurethane foam operations. In typical occupational environments using TDI and solvents

  20. Adsorption of nisin and pediocin on nanoclays.

    PubMed

    Meira, Stela Maris Meister; Jardim, Arthur Izé; Brandelli, Adriano

    2015-12-01

    Three different nanoclays (bentonite, octadecylamine-modified montmorillonite and halloysite) were studied as potential carriers for the antimicrobial peptides nisin and pediocin. Adsorption occurred from peptide solutions in contact with nanoclays at room temperature. Higher adsorption of nisin and pediocin was obtained on bentonite. The antimicrobial activity of the resultant bacteriocin-nanoclay systems was analyzed using skimmed milk agar as food simulant and the largest inhibition zones were observed against Gram-positive bacteria for halloysite samples. Bacteriocins were intercalated into the interlayer space of montmorillonites as deduced from the increase of the basal spacing measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) assay. Infrared spectroscopy suggested non-electrostatic interactions, such as hydrogen bonding between siloxane groups from clays and peptide molecules. Transmission electron microscopy did not show any alteration in morphologies after adsorption of antimicrobial peptides on bentonite and halloysite. These results indicate that nanoclays, especially halloysite, are suitable nanocarriers for nisin and pediocin adsorption.

  1. [Characteristic of ammonia nitrogen adsorption on karst underground river sediments].

    PubMed

    Guo, Fang; Chen, Kun-Kun; Jiang, Guang-Hui

    2011-02-01

    Karst aquifers are one of the most important aquifers in Southwestern China. One of the characteristics of karst aquifers is the enhanced permeability permits high flow velocities are capable of transporting suspended and bedload sediments. Mobile sediment in karst may act as a vector for the transport of contaminates. 14 sediment samples were collected from two underground rivers in two typical karst areas in Liuzhou city, Guangxi Autonomous Region, China. According to simulated experiment methods, characteristic of adsorption of ammonia nitrogen on sediment was studied. The results of ammonia nitrogen adsorption dynamics on sediments showed that the maximum adsorption velocity was less than 2 h. The adsorption balance quantity in 5 h accounted for 71% - 98% of the maximum adsorption quantity. The maximum adsorption quantity of ammonia nitrogen was 385.5 mg/kg, which was sediment from a cave in the middle areas of Guancun underground river system. The study of isotherm adsorption indicated adsorption quantity of NH4+ increase followed by incremental balance concentration of NH4+ in the aquatic phase. Adsorption quantity of ammonia nitrogen in sediments has a relative linear relationship with adsorption balance concentrations. Adsorption-desorption balance concentrations were all low, indicating sediments from underground rivers have great adsorption potential. Under the condition of low and high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen in overlying water, Langmuir and Tempkin couldn't simulate or simulate results couldn't reach remarkable level, whilst Linear and Freundlich models could simulate well. Research on different type sediments, sampling times and depths from two underground rivers shows characteristic of ammonia nitrogen adsorption on karst underground river sediments doesn't have good correspondence with the type of sediments. One of the reasons is there is no big difference between sediments in the development of climate, geology, hydrological conditions

  2. Studies with an immobilized metal affinity chromatography cassette system involving binuclear triazacyclononane-derived ligands: automation of batch adsorption measurements with tagged recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Martin; Coghlan, Campbell J; Hearn, Milton T W

    2014-07-18

    This study describes the determination of the adsorption isotherms and binding kinetics of tagged recombinant proteins using a recently developed IMAC cassette system and employing automated robotic liquid handling procedures for IMAC resin screening. These results confirm that these new IMAC resins, generated from a variety of different metal-charged binuclear 1,4,7-triaza-cyclononane (tacn) ligands, interact with recombinant proteins containing a novel N-terminal metal binding tag, NT1A, with static binding capacities similar to those obtained with conventional hexa-His tagged proteins, but with significantly increased association constants. In addition, higher kinetic binding rates were observed with these new IMAC systems, an attribute that can be positively exploited to increase process productivity. The results from this investigation demonstrate that enhancements in binding capacities and affinities were achieved with these new IMAC resins and chosen NT1A tagged protein. Further, differences in the binding performances of the bis(tacn) xylenyl-bridged ligands were consistent with the distance between the metal binding centres of the two tacn moieties, the flexibility of the ligand and the potential contribution from the aromatic ring of the xylenyl group to undergo π/π stacking interactions with the tagged proteins.

  3. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  4. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: DELTA INDUSTRIAL SERVICES, INC., CAMPWATER PORTA-5 SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CampWater system uses ozonation followed by cartridge filtration to remove arsenic via co-precipitation. The system utilizes ozone to oxidize iron and arsenic (III) to arsenic (V). The arsenic bound to the iron precipitates is then removed by cartridge filtration. No additi...

  6. CRYOGENIC ADSORPTION OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES OVER NANO-STRUCTURED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, S.; Heung, L.

    2010-10-07

    Porous materials such as zeolites, activated carbon, silica gels, alumina and a number of industrial catalysts are compared and ranked for hydrogen and deuterium adsorption at liquid nitrogen temperature. All samples show higher D{sub 2} adsorption than that of H{sub 2}, in which a HY sample has the greatest isotopic effect while 13X has the highest hydrogen uptake capacity. Material's moisture content has significant impact to its hydrogen uptake. A material without adequate drying could result in complete loss of its adsorption capacity. Even though some materials present higher H{sub 2} adsorption capacity at full pressure, their adsorption at low vapor pressure may not be as good as others. Adsorption capacity in a dynamic system is much less than in a static system. A sharp desorption is also expected in case of temperature upset.

  7. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  8. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  9. Laboratory study on the adsorption of Mn(2+) on suspended and deposited amorphous Al(OH)(3) in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wendong; Zhang, Xiaoni; Wang, Hongping; Wang, Xiaochang; Zhou, Lichuan; Liu, Rui; Liang, Yuting

    2012-09-01

    Manganese (II) is commonly present in drinking water. This paper mainly focuses on the adsorption of manganese on suspended and deposited amorphous Al(OH)(3) solids. The effects of water flow rate and water quality parameters, including solution pH and the concentrations of Mn(2+), humic acid, and co-existing cations on adsorption were investigated. It was found that chemical adsorption mainly took place in drinking water with pHs above 7.5; suspended Al(OH)(3) showed strong adsorption capacity for Mn(2+). When the total Mn(2+) input was 3 mg/L, 1.0 g solid could accumulate approximately 24.0 mg of Mn(2+) at 15 °C. In drinking water with pHs below 7.5, because of H(+) inhibition, active reaction sites on amorphous Al(OH)(3) surface were much less. The adsorption of Mn(2+) on Al(OH)(3) changed gradually from chemical coordination to physical adsorption. In drinking water with high concentrations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(3+), and HA, the removal of Mn(2+) was enhanced due to the effects of co-precipitation and adsorption. In solution with 1.0 mg/L HA, the residual concentration of Mn(2+) was below 0.005 mg/L, much lower than the limit value required by the Chinese Standard for Drinking Water Quality. Unlike suspended Al(OH)(3), deposited Al(OH)(3) had a much lower adsorption capacity of 0.85 mg/g, and the variation in flow rate and major water quality parameters had little effect on it. Improved managements of water age, pipe flushing and mechanical cleaning were suggested to control residual Mn(2+).

  10. Demonstration of a Solar Thermal Combined Heating, Cooling and Hot Water System Utilizing an Adsorption Chiller for DoD Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    possible DoD applications. 2.1.1 Adsorption Chiller Vanir Energy (formerly Appalachian Energy) selected the Eco-Max adsorption chiller manufactured...by Power Partners, Inc. of Athens GA for the demonstration. Vanir Energy purchased Appalachian Energy shortly after the demonstration began, but...Distribution Systems”, US Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory, September 1995. [7] ASHRAE Service Life Query Dataset, http

  11. Differential Heat of Adsorption and Isosteres.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yun; Wu, Jianzhong

    2017-01-31

    Heat of adsorption is a basic thermodynamic property extensively used not only for understanding thermal effects and heat management in industrial gas storage and separation processes but also for development and validation of adsorption models and materials force fields. Despite a long history of theoretical studies and a vast experimental literature, controversies often arise in the thermodynamic analysis of heat effects due to various assumptions used to describe gas adsorption and inconsistencies between direct calorimetric measurements and isosteric heat obtained from various adsorption isotherms. Here we present a rigorous theoretical procedure for predicting isosteric heat without any assumption about the geometry of porous adsorbents or operating conditions. Quantitative relations between the differential heat and various isosteres have been established with the grand-canonical Monte Carlo simulation for gas adsorption in amorphous as well as crystalline porous materials. The inconsistencies and practical issues with conventional methods for the analysis of the heat effect have been clarified in the context of the exact results for model systems. Via the resolution of a number of controversies about heat analysis, we hope that the new theoretical procedure will be adopted for both fundamental research and industrial applications of gas adsorption processes.

  12. Carbon dioxide adsorption in graphene sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ashish Kumar; Ramaprabhu, Sundara

    2011-09-01

    Control over the CO2 emission via automobiles and industrial exhaust in atmosphere, is one of the major concerns to render environmental friendly milieu. Adsorption can be considered to be one of the more promising methods, offering potential energy savings compared to absorbent systems. Different carbon nanostructures (activated carbon and carbon nanotubes) have attracted attention as CO2 adsorbents due to their unique surface morphology. In the present work, we have demonstrated the CO2 adsorption capacity of graphene, prepared via hydrogen induced exfoliation of graphitic oxide at moderate temperatures. The CO2 adsorption study was performed using high pressure Sieverts apparatus and capacity was calculated by gas equation using van der Waals corrections. Physical adsorption of CO2 molecules in graphene was confirmed by FTIR study. Synthesis of graphene sheets via hydrogen exfoliation is possible at large scale and lower cost and higher adsorption capacity of as prepared graphene compared to other carbon nanostructures suggests its possible use as CO2 adsorbent for industrial application. Maximum adsorption capacity of 21.6 mmole/g was observed at 11 bar pressure and room temperature (25 °C).

  13. Long-Duration Testing of a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Carbon Dioxide for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Micha; Mulloth, Lila; Varghese, Mini

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the results of long-duration testing of a temperature-swing adsorption compressor that has application in the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft for closing the air revitalization loop. The air revitalization system of the ISS operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from Earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby closing the air-loop. The TSAC is a solid-state compressor that has the capability to remove CO2 from a low-pressure source, and subsequently store, compress, and deliver at a higher pressure as required by a processor. The TSAC is an ideal interface device for CO2 removal and reduction units in the air revitalization loop of a spacecraft for oxygen recovery. The TSAC was developed and its operation was successfully verified in integration tests with the flight-like Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) at Marshall Space Flight Center prior to the long-duration tests. Long-duration tests reveal the impacts of repeated thermal cycling on the compressor components and the adsorbent material.

  14. Constraints on the utility of MnO2 cartridge method for the extraction of radionuclides: A case study using 234Th

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baskaran, M.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Biddanda, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    [1] Large volume (102-103 L) seawater samples are routinely processed to investigate the partitioning of particle reactive radionuclides and Ra between solution and size-fractionated suspended particulate matter. One of the most frequently used methods to preconcentrate these nuclides from such large volumes involves extraction onto three filter cartridges (a prefilter for particulate species and two MnO2-coated filters for dissolved species) connected in series. This method assumes that the extraction efficiency is uniform for both MnO2-coated cartridges, that no dissolved species are removed by the prefilter, and that any adsorbed radionuclides are not desorbed from the MnO2-coated cartridges during filtration. In this study, we utilized 234Th-spiked coastal seawater and deionized water to address the removal of dissolved Th onto prefilters and MnO2-coated filter cartridges. Experimental results provide the first data that indicate (1) a small fraction of dissolved Th (<6%) can be removed by the prefilter cartridge; (2) a small fraction of dissolved Th (<5%) retained by the MnO2 surface can also be desorbed, which undermines the assumption of uniform extraction efficiency for Th; and (3) the absolute and relative extraction efficiencies can vary widely. These experiments provide insight on the variability of the extraction efficiency of MnO 2-coated filter cartridges by comparing the relative and absolute efficiencies and recommend the use of a constant efficiency on the combined activity from two filter cartridges connected in series for future studies of dissolved 234Th and other radionuclides in natural waters using sequential filtration/extraction methods. ?? 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Study on the adsorption feature of rutin aqueous solution on macroporous adsorption resins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenbin; Zhang, Anjie; Li, Jie; Dong, Fang; Di, Duolong; Wu, Youzhi

    2010-04-15

    The adsorption feature of different kinds of polystyrene-based macroporous adsorption resins (MARs) was investigated systemically at constant temperature employing Rutin as the adsorbate. Different from traditional adsorption patterns, Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption, and the results showed interesting aspects: (1) With the increase of the volume of the initial solution, the adsorption capacity increased to the maximum, and then decreased gradually. (2) Experimental results clearly verified the opinion that the adsorption process of MARs could be divided into three stages-macropores, mesopores, and micropores-by the capillary effects occurring at the two intersections, and the adsorption feature for every stage could be described well by the fourth type of Brunauer model. (3) The model that the inductive effect transmitted to the first layer could not interpret our experimental results reasonably. Thus, the model that the inductive effect passed on to a higher layer was proposed by investigating regression of the experimental results and the conclusion that the inductive effect transmitted to the third layer was drawn.

  16. Adsorption of star polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halperin, A.; Joanny, J. F.

    1991-06-01

    The adsorption of star polymers on a flat solid surface is analyzed by means of scalling arguments based on the Daoud-Cotton blob model. For the adsorption of a single star, consisting of f arms comprising each N monomers, we distinguish three regimes determined by the adsorption energy of a monomer at the surface, δ kT. 1) Strong adsorption characterized by the full adsorption of all arms occurs for δ > (f/N)^{3/5}. 2) A “Sombrero” like structure comprising f_ads fully adsorbed arms and f{-}f_ads free arms is obtained for (f/N)^{3/5}> δ > f^{9/20}/N^{3/5}. 3) Weakly adsorbed stars retain, essentially, the structure of a free star. This regime occurs for δ < f^{9/20}/N^{3/5}. The weakly adsorbed structure may also exist as a metastable state if δ > f^{9/5}/N^{3/5}. Nous étudions l'adsorption de polymères en étoile sur une surface solide en utilisant une approche de lois d'échelles basée sur le modèle de blobs de Daoud et Cotton. Pour une étoile formée de f bras contenant chacun N monomères, nous distinguons trois régimes suivant la valeur de l'énergie d'adsorption d'un monomère sur la surface δ kT. 1) L'adsorption forte caractérisée par une adsorption complète de tous les bras se produit lorsque δ > (f/N)^{3/5}. 2) Une structure en “sombrero” avec f_ads bras adsorbés et f{-}f_ads bras libres est obtenue si f^{9/20}/N^{3/5}δ < (f/N)^{3/5}. 3) Les étoiles faiblement adsorbées gardent une structure très similaire à celle des étoiles libres en solution. Ce régime existe si δ < f^{9/20}/N^{3/5}. La structure correspondant aux étoiles faiblement adsorbées peut aussi exister comme un état métastable si δ > f^{9/5}/N^{3/5}.

  17. CSER 95-014: Criticality storage category for K Basin spent cartridge filters in ECOROK casks at central waste complex

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.M.

    1996-01-03

    This CSER justifies storing K Basin spent cartridge filters in ECOROK 25-11 casks with liners under the limits in an existing criticality prevention specification, CPS-SW-149-00002, Rev./Mod. B-1, because the worst case fissionable material inventory is less then 1/2 the CPS limit and the cask is larger than allowed containers, the cask and liner have adequate iron content to meet the CPS requirements, and the cask concrete walls are thick enough to isolate the fissionable contents of each cask from neutron interaction with fissionable material external to each cask.

  18. Adsorption of carbon black using carboxymethyl chitosan in deinking process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muryeti, Budimulyani, Estuti; Sinurat, Ellya

    2017-03-01

    The study about synthesis, characterization, and application carboxymethyl chitosan as adsorbent in deinking process was conducted. Adsorption of carbon black onto carboxymethyl chitosan has been investigated in a batch system. This research was conducted to obtain the adsorption capacity of carboxymethyl chitosan. The experiments were carried out to study the effect of carbon black concentration, contact time and dosage of carboxymethyl chitosan to the adsorption capacity of carboxymethyl chitosan. The optimum condition of carbon black adsorption was achieved at contact time of 60 min and weight doses of 1.0 g. The adsorption capacity of carboxymethyl chitosan was 14.34 mg/g and the adsorption effectivity was 70.54%. The result indicates that carboxymethyl chitosan could be used as adsorbent of carbon black in deinking process.

  19. Toward Accurate Adsorption Energetics on Clay Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Clay minerals are ubiquitous in nature, and the manner in which they interact with their surroundings has important industrial and environmental implications. Consequently, a molecular-level understanding of the adsorption of molecules on clay surfaces is crucial. In this regard computer simulations play an important role, yet the accuracy of widely used empirical force fields (FF) and density functional theory (DFT) exchange-correlation functionals is often unclear in adsorption systems dominated by weak interactions. Herein we present results from quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) for water and methanol adsorption on the prototypical clay kaolinite. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time QMC has been used to investigate adsorption at a complex, natural surface such as a clay. As well as being valuable in their own right, the QMC benchmarks obtained provide reference data against which the performance of cheaper DFT methods can be tested. Indeed using various DFT exchange-correlation functionals yields a very broad range of adsorption energies, and it is unclear a priori which evaluation is better. QMC reveals that in the systems considered here it is essential to account for van der Waals (vdW) dispersion forces since this alters both the absolute and relative adsorption energies of water and methanol. We show, via FF simulations, that incorrect relative energies can lead to significant changes in the interfacial densities of water and methanol solutions at the kaolinite interface. Despite the clear improvements offered by the vdW-corrected and the vdW-inclusive functionals, absolute adsorption energies are often overestimated, suggesting that the treatment of vdW forces in DFT is not yet a solved problem. PMID:27917256

  20. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry study of the retention behavior of arsenic species on various solid phase extraction cartridges and its application in arsenic speciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chunhai; Cai, Qiantao; Guo, Zhong-Xian; Yang, Zhaoguang; Khoo, Soo Beng

    2003-07-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to investigate the retention behavior of arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), arsenobetaine (AsB), arsenocholine (AsC), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) and tetramethylarsonium ion (TMAI) on various silica-based solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. A method for arsenic speciation is then developed on the basis of selective SPE separation of arsenic species and highly sensitive ICP-MS detection. Factors affecting the retention and elution of arsenic species were examined. Results showed that the retention of arsenic species depended on the chemical characteristics of arsenic species and the types of sorbent materials. Change of pH in the range of 2.0-9.0 did not show significant effects on the retention of DMA, AsB, AsC, TMAI and TMAO on an ethylbenzene sulfonic acid-based strong cation exchange (SCX-3) cartridge. pH also did not influence the retention of AsB, AsC, TMAI and TMAO on a mixed-mode (M-M) cartridge containing non-polar, strong cation exchange and strong anion exchange (SAX) functional groups. However, the retentions of As(V) and MMA on the SAX and the M-M cartridge changed with pH. As(V) and MMA were completely retained on the SAX cartridge and sequentially selectively eluted with 1.0 mol l -1 acetic acid (for MMA). DMA, AsB, AsC, TMAI and TMAO were completely retained on the SCX-3 cartridge and sequentially selectively eluted with 1.0 mol l -1 HNO 3 (for DMA). As(V), MMA, AsB, AsC, TMAI and TMAO were completely retained on the M-M cartridge. As(III) was not retained on either cartridge and remained in solution. Arsenic species in solution and those eluted from the cartridges were subsequently determined by ICP-MS. A detection limit of 8 ng l -1 arsenic in water sample was obtained. This method was successfully applied to arsenic speciation in various sources of water samples (drinking water, waste water, raw water, etc.) and US National Institute of

  1. Adsorption of deamidated antibody variants on macroporous and dextran-grafted cation exchangers: II. Adsorption kinetics.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yinying; Carta, Giorgio; Ferreira, Gisela; Robbins, David

    2011-03-18

    Single and multicomponent batch adsorption kinetics were obtained for deamidated mAb variants on two commercial cation exchangers, one with an open macroporous structure--UNOsphere S--and the other with charged dextran grafts--Capto S. The adsorption kinetics for the macroporous matrix was found to be controlled largely by pore diffusion. The effective diffusivity estimated from single component data was a fraction of the mAb free solution diffusivity, and its value could be used to accurately predict the adsorption kinetics for two- and three-component systems. In this case, when two or more variants were adsorbed simultaneously, both experimental and predicted results showed a temporary overshoot of the amount adsorbed above the equilibrium value for the more deamidated variant followed by a gradual approach to equilibrium. Adsorption rates on the dextran grafted material were much faster than those observed for the macroporous matrix for both single component and simultaneous adsorption cases. In this case, no significant overshoot was observed for the more deamidated forms. The Capto S adsorption kinetics could be described well by a diffusion model with an adsorbed phase driving force for single component adsorption and for the simultaneous adsorption of multiple variants. However, this model failed to predict the adsorption kinetics when more deamidated forms pre-adsorbed on the resin were displaced by less deamidated ones. In this case, the kinetics of the displacement process was much slower indicating that the pre-adsorbed components severely hindered transport of the more strongly bound variants. Overall, the results indicate that despite the lower capacity, the macroporous resin may be more efficient in process applications where displacement of one variant by another takes place as a result of the faster and more predictable kinetics.

  2. Comparison of different solid-phase-extraction cartridges for a fatty acid cleanup of the ethyl acetate/cyclohexane based multi-pesticide residue method EN 12393.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Philipp; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-01-03

    SPE cartridges of different anion exchange materials and florisil were compared regarding their efficiency to remove free fatty acids from ethylacetate/cyclohexane (1:1) extracts, their elution profiles and recovery rates for 38 representative pesticides, their contribution to an elevated background during gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and on possible matrix effects caused by the cartridge material itself. From the seven tested cartridges, only Varian PSA (PSA) and Silicycle SiliaPrep Diamine (SPD) were very well able to retain fatty acids from ethylacetate/cyclohexane solutions and provided satisfying recoveries and elution profiles for the tested pesticides. Thus, with both cartridges a fast and simple cleanup was developed and tested with 86 pesticides as well as with EN 12393 GPC extracts of oat flour. The SPE cleanup clearly improved the identification of pesticides and reduced false negative findings due to retention time shifts and superimpositions of quantifier and/or qualifier ions. As compared with dispersive SPE it was shown, that depending on the amount of sorbent the cleanup efficiency was comparable, but recoveries were generally better for cartridge SPE procedures.

  3. Temperature and magnetism bi-responsive molecularly imprinted polymers: Preparation, adsorption mechanism and properties as drug delivery system for sustained release of 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Li, Longfei; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Huan; Yang, Yongzhen; Liu, Xuguang; Chen, Yongkang

    2016-04-01

    Temperature and magnetism bi-responsive molecularly imprinted polymers (TMMIPs) based on Fe3O4-encapsulating carbon nanospheres were prepared by free radical polymerization, and applied to selective adsorption and controlled release of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) from an aqueous solution. Characterization results show that the as-synthesized TMMIPs have an average diameter of about 150 nm with a typical core-shell structure, and the thickness of the coating layer is approximately 50 nm. TMMIPs also displayed obvious magnetic properties and thermo-sensitivity. The adsorption results show that the prepared TMMIPs exhibit good adsorption capacity (up to 96.53 mg/g at 25 °C) and recognition towards 5-FU. The studies on 5-FU loading and release in vitro suggest that the release rate increases with increasing temperature. Meanwhile, adsorption mechanisms were explored by using a computational analysis to simulate the imprinted site towards 5-FU. The interaction energy between the imprinted site and 5-FU is -112.24 kJ/mol, originating from a hydrogen bond, Van der Waals forces and a hydrophobic interaction between functional groups located on 5-FU and a NIPAM monomer. The electrostatic potential charges and population analysis results suggest that the imprinted site of 5-FU can be introduced on the surface of TMMIPs, confirming their selective adsorption behavior for 5-FU.

  4. Principal component analysis- adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system modeling and genetic algorithm optimization of adsorption of methylene blue by activated carbon derived from Pistacia khinjuk.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, M; Ghaedi, A M; Abdi, F; Roosta, M; Vafaei, A; Asghari, A

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, activated carbon (AC) simply derived from Pistacia khinjuk and characterized using different techniques such as SEM and BET analysis. This new adsorbent was used for methylene blue (MB) adsorption. Fitting the experimental equilibrium data to various isotherm models shows the suitability and applicability of the Langmuir model. The adsorption mechanism and rate of processes was investigated by analyzing time dependency data to conventional kinetic models and it was found that adsorption follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Principle component analysis (PCA) has been used for preprocessing of input data and genetic algorithm optimization have been used for prediction of adsorption of methylene blue using activated carbon derived from P. khinjuk. In our laboratory various activated carbon as sole adsorbent or loaded with various nanoparticles was used for removal of many pollutants (Ghaedi et al., 2012). These results indicate that the small amount of proposed adsorbent (1.0g) is applicable for successful removal of MB (RE>98%) in short time (45min) with high adsorption capacity (48-185mgg(-1)).

  5. Comparison of adsorption behavior of PCDD/Fs on carbon nanotubes and activated carbons in a bench-scale dioxin generating system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xujian; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Shuaixi; Zhao, Xiyuan; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2015-07-01

    Porous carbon-based materials are commonly used to remove various organic and inorganic pollutants from gaseous and liquid effluents and products. In this study, the adsorption of dioxins on both activated carbons and multi-walled carbon nanotube was internally compared, via series of bench scale experiments. A laboratory-scale dioxin generator was applied to generate PCDD/Fs with constant concentration (8.3 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3)). The results confirm that high-chlorinated congeners are more easily adsorbed on both activated carbons and carbon nanotubes than low-chlorinated congeners. Carbon nanotubes also achieved higher adsorption efficiency than activated carbons even though they have smaller BET-surface. Carbon nanotubes reached the total removal efficiency over 86.8 % to be compared with removal efficiencies of only 70.0 and 54.2 % for the two other activated carbons tested. In addition, because of different adsorption mechanisms, the removal efficiencies of carbon nanotubes dropped more slowly with time than was the case for activated carbons. It could be attributed to the abundant mesopores distributed in the surface of carbon nanotubes. They enhanced the pore filled process of dioxin molecules during adsorption. In addition, strong interactions between the two benzene rings of dioxin molecules and the hexagonal arrays of carbon atoms in the surface make carbon nanotubes have bigger adsorption capacity.

  6. Application of a bacterial extracellular polymeric substance in heavy metal adsorption in a co-contaminated aqueous system

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Martins, Paula Salles; de Almeida, Narcisa Furtado; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    The application of a bacterial extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) in the bioremediation of heavy metals (Cd, Zn and Cu) by a microbial consortium in a hydrocarbon co-contaminated aqueous system was studied. At the low concentrations used in this work (1.00 ppm of each metal), it was not observed an inhibitory effect on the cellular growing. In the other hand, the application of the EPS lead to a lower concentration of the free heavy metals in solution, once a great part of them is adsorbed in the polymeric matrix (87.12% of Cd; 19.82% of Zn; and 37.64% of Cu), when compared to what is adsorbed or internalized by biomass (5.35% of Cd; 47.35% of Zn; and 24.93% of Cu). It was noted an increase of 24% in the consumption of ethylbenzene, among the gasoline components that were quantified, in the small interval of time evaluated (30 hours). Our results suggest that, if the experiments were conducted in a larger interval of time, it would possibly be noted a higher effect in the degradation of gasoline compounds. Still, considering the low concentrations that were evaluated, it is possible that a real system could be bioremediated by natural attenuation process, demonstrated by the low effect of those levels of contaminants and co-contaminants over the naturally present microbial consortium. PMID:24031307

  7. Moisture adsorption in optical coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macleod, H. Angus

    1988-01-01

    The thin film filter is a very large aperture component which is exceedingly useful because of its small size, flexibility and ease of mounting. Thin film components, however, do have defects of performance and especially of stability which can cause problems in systems, particularly where long-term measurements are being made. Of all of the problems, those associated with moisture absorption are the most serious. Moisture absorption occurs in the pore-shaped voids inherent in the columnar structure of the layers. Ion-assisted deposition is a promising technique for substantially reducing moisture adsorption effects in thin film structures.

  8. A compact low-temperature single crystal adsorption calorimetry setup for measuring coverage dependent heats of adsorption at cryogenic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Hörtz, Peter; Schäfer, Rolf

    2014-07-01

    Here we present the modification of an already existing Single Crystal Adsorption Calorimetry (SCAC) apparatus which has been extended by a compact cooling system to measure the coverage dependent heats of adsorption of gaseous compounds on thin metal substrates in a temperature range from 80 K to 430 K. The setup is characterized and its performance is tested by studying the adsorption of CO on Pt(111) at 150 K and 300 K. Coverage dependent sticking probabilities and heat of adsorption measurements are compared to previous experimental and theoretical studies proving the reliability of our compact low-temperature-SCAC setup.

  9. Ozone reaction with n-aldehydes (n=4-10), benzaldehyde, ethanol, isopropanol, and n-propanol adsorbed on a dual-bed graphitized carbon-carbon molecular sieve adsorbent cartridge.

    PubMed

    McClenny, W A; Colón, M; Oliver, K D

    2001-09-21

    Ozone reacts with n-aldehydes (n=4-10), benzaldehyde, ethanol, isopropanol and n-propanol adsorbed on a dual-bed graphitized carbon-carbon molecular sieve adsorbent cartridge. Destruction of n-aldehydes increases with n number and with ozone concentration. In some sampling experiments both generation and destruction of n-aldehydes by ozone are observed. In field experiments the results of sample analysis for n-aldehydes and benzaldehyde are frequently not proportional to sample volume whereas results for toluene and isoprene, and sometimes for total carbon, are. A simple theory is developed to simulate the net result of three processes: the adsorption of compounds from an air stream onto a solid adsorbent, the generation of compounds by reaction of ozone with materials upstream of or on the adsorbent, and the destruction by ozone of pre-existing compounds and compounds adsorbed from the sample stream. The use of distributed volume pairs is recommended as a way to identify loss of sample integrity during air monitoring experiments.

  10. Thermal enhancement cartridge heater modified tritium hydride bed development, Part 2 - Experimental validation of key conceptual design features

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, K.J.; Morgan, G.A.

    2015-03-15

    The Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) tritium hydride bed is an interim replacement for the first generation (Gen1) process hydride beds currently in service in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facilities. 3 new features are implemented in the TECH Mod hydride bed prototype: internal electric cartridge heaters, porous divider plates, and copper foam discs. These modifications will enhance bed performance and reduce costs by improving bed activation and installation processes, in-bed accountability measurements, end-of-life bed removal, and He-3 recovery. A full-scale hydride bed test station was constructed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in order to evaluate the performance of the prototype TECH Mod hydride bed. Controlled hydrogen (H{sub 2}) absorption/ desorption experiments were conducted to validate that the conceptual design changes have no adverse effects on the gas transfer kinetics or H{sub 2} storage/release properties compared to those of the Gen1 bed. Inert gas expansions before, during, and after H{sub 2} flow tests were used to monitor changes in gas transfer rates with repeated hydriding/de-hydriding of the hydride material. The gas flow rates significantly decreased after initial hydriding of the material; however, minimal changes were observed after repeated cycling. The data presented herein confirm that the TECH Mod hydride bed would be a suitable replacement for the Gen1 bed with the added enhancements expected from the advanced design features. (authors)

  11. Preferential adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate from associated binary-solute aqueous systems by Mg/Al-NO3 layered double hydroxides with different nitrate orientations.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yia-Feng; Lee, Jey-Jau; Wang, Shan-Li

    2009-06-15

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are potential scavengers for anionic contaminants. To apply these materials to water treatment, it is essential to understand how the structural properties of LDHs control their preferential binding affinity toward a specific target contaminant in the presence of other anions. In this study, Mg/Al-NO(3) LDHs with different nitrate orientations were investigated for their preferential adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D). LDH samples containing nitrate ions with parallel (LDH5) and perpendicular (LDH3) orientations exhibited different 2,4-D adsorption characteristics under competition with co-existing anions for surface binding sites. Because 2,4-D is inaccessible to the interlayer region of LDH5, the 2,4-D adsorption occurred mainly on the external surface of LDH5 and was easily subjected to negative effects from increasing concentrations of competing anions, including SO(4)(2-), HCO(3)(-), Cl(-), NO(3)(-) and Br(-). On the contrary, the interlayer nitrate in LDH3 is readily exchanged by 2,4-D. Thus, in conjunction with adsorption on the external surface, 2,4-D can also be adsorbed on the internal surface in the interlayer of LDH3. LDH3 exhibited a much higher 2,4-D adsorption capacity than LDH5, and the 2,4-D adsorption on LDH3 was less affected by the increasing concentration of competing anions. In summary, the selective removal of 2,4-D in solutions with a complex chemical composition may be maximized using Mg/Al-NO(3) LDHs containing perpendicularly oriented interlayer nitrate.

  12. Modeling adsorption: Investigating adsorbate and adsorbent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Charles Edwin

    1999-12-01

    Surface catalyzed reactions play a major role in current chemical production technology. Currently, 90% of all chemicals are produced by heterogeneously catalyzed reactions. Most of these catalyzed reactions involve adsorption, concentrating the substrate(s) (the adsorbate) on the surface of the solid (the adsorbent). Pore volumes, accessible surface areas, and the thermodynamics of adsorption are essential in the understanding of solid surface characteristics fundamental to catalyst and adsorbent screening and selection. Molecular properties such as molecular volumes and projected molecular areas are needed in order to convert moles adsorbed to surface volumes and areas. Generally, these molecular properties have been estimated from bulk properties, but many assumptions are required. As a result, different literature values are employed for these essential molecular properties. Calculated molar volumes and excluded molecular areas are determined and tabulated for a variety of molecules. Molecular dimensions of molecules are important in the understanding of molecular exclusion as well as size and shape selectivity, diffusion, and adsorbent selection. Molecular dimensions can also be used in the determination of the effective catalytic pore size of a catalyst. Adsorption isotherms, on zeolites, (crystalline mineral oxides) and amorphous solids, can be analyzed with the Multiple Equilibrium Analysis (MEA) description of adsorption. The MEA produces equilibrium constants (Ki), capacities (ni), and thermodynamic parameters (enthalpies, ΔHi, and entropies, ΔSi) of adsorption for each process. Pore volumes and accessible surface areas are calculated from the process capacities. Adsorption isotherms can also be predicted for existing and new adsorbate-adsorbent systems with the MEA. The results show that MEA has the potential of becoming a standard characterization method for microporous solids that will lead to an increased understanding of their behavior in gas

  13. Poliovirus Adsorption by 34 Minerals and Soils

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Rebecca S.; Taylor, Dene H.; Sturman, Lawrence S.; Reddy, Michael M.; Fuhs, G. Wolfgang

    1981-01-01

    The adsorption of radiolabeled infectious poliovirus type 2 by 34 well-defined soils and mineral substrates was analyzed in a synthetic freshwater medium containing 1 mM CaCl2 and 1.25 mM NaHCO3 at pH 7. In a model system, adsorption of poliovirus by Ottawa sand was rapid and reached equilibrium within 1 h at 4°C. Near saturation, the adsorption could be described by the Langmuir equation; the apparent surface saturation was 2.5 × 106 plaque-forming units of poliovirus per mg of Ottawa sand. At low surface coverage, adsorption was described by the Freundlich equation. The soils and minerals used ranged from acidic to basic and from high in organic content to organic free. The available negative surface charge on each substrate was measured by the adsorption of a cationic polyelectrolyte, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride. Most of the substrates adsorbed more than 95% of the virus. In general, soils, in comparison with minerals, were weak adsorbents. Among the soils, muck and Genesee silt loam were the poorest adsorbents; among the minerals, montmorillonite, glauconite, and bituminous shale were the least effective. The most effective adsorbents were magnetite sand and hematite, which are predominantly oxides of iron. Correlation coefficients for substrate properties and virus adsorption revealed that the elemental composition of the adsorbents had little effect on poliovirus uptake. Substrate surface area and pH, by themselves, were not significantly correlated with poliovirus uptake. A strong negative correlation was found between poliovirus adsorption and both the contents of organic matter and the available negative surface charge on the substrates as determined by their capacities for adsorbing the cationic polyelectrolyte, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride. PMID:6274259

  14. Influence of adsorption versus coprecipitation on the retention of rice straw-derived dissolved organic carbon and subsequent reducibility of Fe-DOC systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodano, Marcella; Lerda, Cristina; Martin, Maria; Celi, Luisella; Said-Pullicino, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    adsorption or coprecipitation, DOC was obtained by incubating a suspension of rice straw in water (straw-solution ratio of 1:30) under oxic conditions at 25° C for 30 days to simulate the decomposition of rice straw in the field. Increasing amounts of DOC were equilibrated (pH = 6) with a known mass of ferrihydrite (initial molar C:Fe ratios of 1, 5 and 10) to obtain surface coated Fe-DOC systems with increasing C loading. On the other hand, coprecipitates with similar initial C:Fe ratios were obtained by oxidation of a Fe(II) solution in the presence of increasing amounts of DOC at pH = 6. A natural Fe-DOC coprecipitate was also obtained by in situ sampling of a paddy soil solution from the topsoil during a cropping season, and subsequent oxidation in the laboratory. The surface and chemical properties of all substrates were subsequently evaluated and compared. We hereby present the first results of the influence of adsorption vs coprecipitation on the selective retention of DOC, structure and surface charge, as well as their susceptibility to chemical reduction with ascorbic acid.

  15. Adsorption of glucose, cellobiose, and cellotetraose onto cellulose model surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hoja, Johannes; Maurer, Reinhard J; Sax, Alexander F

    2014-07-31

    Reliable simulation of molecular adsorption onto cellulose surfaces is essential for the design of new cellulose nanocomposite materials. However, the applicability of classical force field methods to such systems remains relatively unexplored. In this study, we present the adsorption of glucose, cellobiose, and cellotetraose on model surfaces of crystalline cellulose Iα and Iβ. The adsorption of the two large carbohydrates was simulated with the GLYCAM06 force field. To validate this approach, quantum theoretical calculations for the adsorption of glucose were performed: Equilibrium geometries were studied with density functional theory (DFT) and dispersion-corrected DFT, whereas the adsorption energies were calculated with two standard density functional approximations and five dispersion-containing DFT approaches. We find that GLYCAM06 gives a good account of geometries and, in most cases, accurate adsorption energies when compared to dispersion-corrected DFT energies. Adsorption onto the (100) surface of cellulose Iα is, in general, stronger than onto the (100) surface of cellulose Iβ. Contrary to intuition, the adsorption energy is not directly correlated with the number of hydrogen bonds; rather, it is dominated by dispersion interactions. Especially for bigger adsorbates, a neglect of these interactions leads to a dramatic underestimation of adsorption energies.

  16. [Effects of dissolved organic matter on phenanthrene adsorption by soil].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei; Ling, Wan-ting; Gao, Yan-zheng; Li, Qiu-ling; Dai, Jing-yu

    2007-02-01

    This paper studied the effects of exotic and native dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the phenanthrene adsorption by three soils differed in soil organic carbon content (foc). The exotic DOM came from decayed rice straw, while the native DOM was extracted from the test soils. In all cases, the adsorption of phenanthrene by treated soils could be well described with linear-type model, and there was a positive correlation between adsorption coefficient (Kd) and foc Compared with the control, the Kd value of test soils after native DOM removed was increased by 7. 08% -21. 4% , and the increment (deltaKd) was positively correlated with fo,, indicating that the presence of soil native DOM impeded the phenanthrene adsorption by soil. The effects of exotic DOM on phenanthrene adsorption had a close relation with its added concentration in soil-water system. Within the range of 0-106 mg DOC x L(-1) , the K, value increased first, and then decreased with the increase of added exotic DOM concentration. Lower concentrations of added exotic DOM promoted the phenanthrene adsorption by soil, while higher concentrations ( I> or =52 mg DOC x L(-1)) of it obviously impeded this adsorption. These effects of exotic and native DOM on soil phenanthrene adsorption were considered to be related to the association of phenanthrene with DOM in solution, and the ' cumulative adsorption effect' between soil solid and aqueous phases.

  17. SEPARATION BY ADSORPTION

    DOEpatents

    Lowe, C.S.

    1959-06-16

    Separation of Pu from fission products by adsorption on hydrous aluminum silicate is described. The Pu in a HNO/sub 3/ solution is oxidized to the hexavalent state and contacted with the silicate which adsorbs fission products. (T.R.H.)

  18. Time since discharge of 9mm cartridges by headspace analysis, part 2: Ageing study and estimation of the time since discharge using multivariate regression.

    PubMed

    Gallidabino, M; Romolo, F S; Weyermann, C

    2017-03-01

    Estimating the time since discharge of spent cartridges can be a valuable tool in the forensic investigation of firearm-related crimes. To reach this aim, it was previously proposed that the decrease of volatile organic compounds released during discharge is monitored over time using non-destructive headspace extraction techniques. While promising results were obtained for large-calibre cartridges (e.g., shotgun shells), handgun calibres yielded unsatisfying results. In addition to the natural complexity of the specimen itself, these can also be attributed to some selective choices in the methods development. Thus, the present series of papers aimed to systematically evaluate the potential of headspace analysis to estimate the time since discharge of cartridges through the use of more comprehensive analytical and interpretative techniques. Following the comprehensive optimisation and validation of an exhaustive headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE) method in the first part of this work, the present paper addresses the application of chemometric tools in order to systematically evaluate the potential of applying headspace analysis to estimate the time since discharge of 9mm Geco cartridges. Several multivariate regression and pre-treatment methods were tested and compared to univariate models based on non-linear regression. Random forests (RF) and partial least squares (PLS) proceeded by pairwise log-ratios normalisation (PLR) showed the best results, and allowed to estimate time since discharge up to 48h of ageing and to differentiate recently fired from older cartridges (e.g., less than 5h compared to more than 1-2 days). The proposed multivariate approaches showed significant improvement compared to univariate models. The effects of storage conditions were also tested and results demonstrated that temperature, humidity and cartridge position should be taken into account when estimating the time since discharge.

  19. Phosphorus recovery using pelletized adsorptive materials ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Phosphorous (P) is one of the essential nutrients for growth and is generally the most limiting nutrient since, it cannot be fixed from the atmosphere. Methods for recovering phosphorous from water systems already exist, but advances are being made to find a more economic, efficient, effective and easy to use method that can allow for reuse of the recovered P. One area of study is in adsorption, which involves finding the best material for adsorption of phosphorous from water and for releasing it back into the environment through desorption or leaching. The goal of this research was to first optimize the capacity for a pelletized adsorptive material that was synthesized with varying amounts of a binder material from 0-20 % and then to study recovering the phosphate for reuse. The pelletized materials were studied through kinetics experiments as well as isotherm experiments to gain insight into the adsorption capacity and mechanism. Following successful adsorption, a simple leaching study was conducted to see how much phosphate would be released back into water without any added desorption aid. Desorption was then studied by changing the pH of solution. Presenting my thesis work with a poster at ACS.

  20. Adsorption of phenanthrene on natural snow.

    PubMed

    Domine, Florent; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Bonnaud, Elodie; Martellini, Tania; Picaud, Sylvain

    2007-09-01

    The snowpack is a reservoir for semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and, in particular, for persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which are sequestered in winter and released to the atmosphere or hydrosphere in the spring. Modeling these processes usually assumes that SVOCs are incorporated into the snowpack by adsorption to snow surfaces, but this has never been proven because the specific surface area (SSA) of snow has never been measured together with snow composition. Here we expose natural snow to phenanthrene vapors (one of the more volatile POPs) and measure for the first time both the SSA and the chemical composition of the snow. The results are consistent with an adsorption equilibrium. The measured Henry's law constant is H(Phen)(T) = 2.88 x 10(22) exp(-10660/7) Pa m2 mol(-1), with Tin Kelvin. The adsorption enthalpy is delta H(ads) = -89 +/- 18 kJ mol(-1). We also perform molecular dynamics calculations of phenanthrene adsorption to ice and obtain AHads = -85 +/- 8 kJ mol(-1), close to the experimental value. Results are applied to the adsorption of phenanthrene to the Arctic and subarctic snowpacks. The subarctic snowpack, with a low snow area index (SAI = 1000), is a negligible reservoir of phenanthrene, butthe colder Arctic snowpack, with SAI = 2500, sequesters most of the phenanthrene present in the (snow + boundary layer) system.

  1. Adsorption of gases on carbon molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, S.N.; Patwardhan, S.R.; Vijayalakshmi, S. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Ganesh, K.S. )

    1994-12-01

    Adsorption on carbon molecular sieves (CMS) prepared by coke deposition has become an interesting area of adsorption due to its microporous nature and favorable separation factor on size and shape selectivity basis for many gaseous systems. In the present work CMS was synthesized from coconut shell through three major steps, namely, carbonization, activation, and coke deposition by hydrocarbon cracking. The crushed, washed, and sieved granules of coconut shell (particle size 2--3 mm) were pretreated with sodium silicate solution and oven-dried at 150 C to create the inorganic sites necessary for coke deposition. Carbonization and activation of the dried granules were carried out at 800 C, for 30 min each. The activated char thus produced was subjected to hydrocarbon cracking at 600 C for periods varying from 30 to 180 min. The product samples were characterized in terms of adsorption isotherm, kinetic adsorption curve, surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and characteristic energy for adsorption by using O[sub 2], N[sub 2], C[sub 2]H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], C[sub 3]H[sub 6], and CH[sub 4].

  2. Equilibrium and kinetic adsorption study of the adsorptive removal of Cr(VI) using modified wheat residue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Suhong; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Xu, Xing

    2010-09-01

    A new adsorbent modified from wheat residue was synthesized after reaction with epichlorohydrin and triethylamine by using the modifying agents of diethylenetriamine in the presence of organic medium of N,N-dimethylformamide. The performance of the modified wheat straw (MWS) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and point of zero charge analysis. The adsorption was investigated in a batch adsorption system, including both equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics. Results showed that MWR had great anion-adsorbing capacity, due to the existence of a large number of introduced amino groups, and the value of pH(PZC) was around 5.0. Equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models and were found to be best represented by the Freundlich isotherm model. Evaluation of the adsorption process identified its endothermic nature. The maximum adsorption capacity of MWS for the removal of Cr(VI) was 322.58mg/g at 328K, indicating that MWS has high chromium removal efficiency, compared to other adsorbents reported. The kinetics of adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation. The mechanism of adsorption was investigated using the intraparticle diffusion model. Thermodynamic parameters (free energy change, enthalpy change, and entropy change) revealed that the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto MWS was endothermic and spontaneous; additionally, the adsorption can be characterized as an ion-exchange process. The results suggest that MWS is an inexpensive and efficient adsorbent for removing Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution.

  3. Performance Oriented Packaging Testing of Tank, Cartridge, 3 in/50, Mk 5 Mods 0, 1, 2 for Packing Group II Solid Hazardous Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Mods 0 , 1, 2 for Packing Group II Solid Hazardous Materials 6. AUTHORIS) Karen McDonnell 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8...design, size, and weight, this test is considered representative of qualifica- tion testing for the Mk 5 Mods 0 , 2 3"/50 Cartridge Tanks as per the...PERFORMANCE ORIENTED PACKAGING TESTING OF TANK, CARTRIDGE, 3"/50, MK 5 MODS 0 , 1, 2 FOR PACKING GROUP II SOLID HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Author: Karen

  4. Performance Oriented Packaging Testing of Tank, Cartridge, 3 IN/50, Mk 5 Mods 0, 1, 2 for Packing Group II Solid Hazardous Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    NUMBERS Performance Oriented Packaging Testing of Tank, D I k T Cartridge, 3*/50, Mk 5 Mods 0 , 1, 2 for Packing Group 11t~~c Solid Hazardous Materials r...due to their similarities in design, size, and weight, this test is considered representative of qualifica- tion testing for the Mk 5 Mods 0 , 2 3"/50...TANK, CARTRIDGE, 3"/50, MK 5 MODS 0 , 1, 2 FOR PACKING GROUP II SOLID HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Author: Karcn McDonnell Mechanical Engineer Performing

  5. Temperature Swing Adsorption Compressor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, John E.; Mulloth, Lila M.; Affleck, Dave L.

    2001-01-01

    Closing the oxygen loop in an air revitalization system based on four-bed molecular sieve and Sabatier reactor technology requires a vacuum pump-compressor that can take the low-pressure CO, from the 4BMS and compress and store for use by a Sabatier reactor. NASA Ames Research Center proposed a solid-state temperature-swing adsorption (TSA) compressor that appears to meet performance requirements, be quiet and reliable, and consume less power than a comparable mechanical compressor/accumulator combination. Under this task, TSA compressor technology is being advanced through development of a complete prototype system. A liquid-cooled TSA compressor has been partially tested, and the rest of the system is being fabricated. An air-cooled TSA compressor is also being designed.

  6. Final Report - Development of New Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) Technology to Recover High Valued Products from Chemical Plant and Refinery Waste Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Ludwig

    2004-06-14

    Project Objective was to extend pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technology into previously under-exploited applications such as polyolefin production vent gas recovery and H2 recovery from refinery waste gases containing significant amounts of heavy hydrocarbons, aromatics, or H2S.

  7. 77 FR 38857 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... COMMISSION Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal..., Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal Atmosphere Cleanup Systems..., entitled, ``Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of...

  8. Anion adsorption induced surface reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lei

    2005-11-01

    Surface stress plays an important role in the behavior of solid surfaces. Potential-controlled anion adsorption in electrolytes alters the surface stress of the electrode and results in morphology changes to the surfaces. With a combination of potential-induced surface stress measurement and in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), it is demonstrated that anion adsorption induces changes in structure of thin films and modifies the growth morphology and stress evolution in epitaxially grown films. Surface structural transitions in the heteroepitaxial system consisting of one to two gold monolayers on platinum substrates were observed. By increasing the potential, structural transitions, from (1 x 1), to a striped phase, to a hexagonal structure, occurred in the gold bilayer. This hexagonal structure was related to the formation of an ordered sulfate adlayer with a ( 3x7 ) structure. Such transitions were repeatable by cycling the potential. Furthermore, the transitions between various dislocation structures were affected by anion adsorption. The surface composition of the gold bilayer on Pt was measured by underpotential deposition of copper. By subtracting the contribution of a pure Pt surface from the gold bi-layer on Pt, a stress change of -2.4 N/m was observed, which agrees with the stress change of -2.46 N/m predicted to accompany formation of 1.5 MLs of coherent Au on Pt(111) from epitaxy theory. The Cu monolayer deposited on Au(111) from an acid sulfate electrolyte was found to be pseudomorphic while the Cu monolayer formed on Au(111) in vacuum was incoherent. The stress-thickness change associated with the coherent monolayer of copper on Au(111) in electrolyte was -0.6 N/m, while conventional epitaxy theories predict a value of +7.76 N/m. STM results elucidated the sulfate adsorption on the copper monolayer caused an expansion of the layer as evidenced by a Moire Structure. For the Cu monolayer on Au(111), the sulfate-induced expansion

  9. Fluid delivery manifolds and microfluidic systems

    DOEpatents

    Renzi, Ronald F.; Sommer, Gregory J.; Singh, Anup K.; Hatch, Anson V.; Claudnic, Mark R.; Wang, Ying-Chih; Van de Vreugde, James L.

    2017-02-28

    Embodiments of fluid distribution manifolds, cartridges, and microfluidic systems are described herein. Fluid distribution manifolds may include an insert member and a manifold base and may define a substantially closed channel within the manifold when the insert member is press-fit into the base. Cartridges described herein may allow for simultaneous electrical and fluidic interconnection with an electrical multiplex board and may be held in place using magnetic attraction.

  10. Linear adsorption of nonionic organic compounds from water onto hydrophilic minerals: Silica and alumina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Su, Y.-H.; Zhu, Y.-G.; Sheng, G.; Chiou, C.T.

    2006-01-01

    To characterize the linear adsorption phenomena in aqueous nonionic organic solute-mineral systems, the adsorption isotherms of some low-molecular- weightnonpolar nonionic solutes (1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, lindane, phenanthrene, and pyrene) and polar nonionic solutes (1,3-dinitrobenzene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene) from single-and binary-solute solutions on hydrophilic silica and alumina were established. Toward this objective, the influences of temperature, ionic strength, and pH on adsorption were also determined. It is found that linear adsorption exhibits low exothermic heats and practically no adsorptive competition. The solute-solid configuration and the adsorptive force consistent with these effects were hypothesized. For nonpolar solutes, the adsorption occurs presumably by London (dispersion) forces onto a water film above the mineral surface. For polar solutes, the adsorption is also assisted by polar-group interactions. The reduced adsorptive forces of solutes with hydrophilic minerals due to physical separation by the water film and the low fractions of the water-film surface covered by solutes offer a theoretical basis for linear solute adsorption, low exothermic heats, and no adsorptive competition. The postulated adsorptive forces are supported by observations that ionic strength or pH poses no effect on the adsorption of nonpolar solutes while it exhibits a significant effect on the uptake of polar solutes. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  11. Construction of a mutagenesis cartridge for poliovirus genome-linked viral protein: isolation and characterization of viable and nonviable mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, R.J.; Tada, H.; Ypma-Wong, M.F.; Dunn, J.J.; Semler, B.L.; Wimmer, E.

    1988-01-01

    By following a strategy of genetic analysis of poliovirus, the authors have constructed a synthetic mutagenesis cartridge spanning the genome-linked viral protein coding region and flanking cleavage sites in an infectious cDNA clone of the type I (Mahoney) genome. The insertion of new restriction sites within the infectious clone has allowed them to replace the wild-type sequences with short complementary pairs of synthetic oligonucleotides containing various mutations. A set of mutations have been made that create methionine codons within the genome-linked viral protein region. The resulting viruses have growth characteristics similar to wild type. Experiments that led to an alteration of the tyrosine residue responsible for the linkage to RNA have resulted in nonviable virus. In one mutant, proteolytic processing assayed in vitro appeared unimpaired by the mutation. They suggest that the position of the tyrosine residue is important for genome-linked viral protein function(s).

  12. Diffusion Influenced Adsorption Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Miura, Toshiaki; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-27

    When the kinetics of adsorption is influenced by the diffusive flow of solutes, the solute concentration at the surface is influenced by the surface coverage of solutes, which is given by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood adsorption equation. The diffusion equation with the boundary condition given by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood adsorption equation leads to the nonlinear integro-differential equation for the surface coverage. In this paper, we solved the nonlinear integro-differential equation using the Grünwald-Letnikov formula developed to solve fractional kinetics. Guided by the numerical results, analytical expressions for the upper and lower bounds of the exact numerical results were obtained. The upper and lower bounds were close to the exact numerical results in the diffusion- and reaction-controlled limits, respectively. We examined the validity of the two simple analytical expressions obtained in the diffusion-controlled limit. The results were generalized to include the effect of dispersive diffusion. We also investigated the effect of molecular rearrangement of anisotropic molecules on surface coverage.

  13. Effects of Humidity Swings on Adsorption Columns for Air Revitalization: Modeling and Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVan, M. Douglas; Finn, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Air purification systems are necessary to provide clean air in the closed environments aboard spacecraft. Trace contaminants are removed using adsorption. One major factor concerning the removal of trace contaminants is relative humidity. Water can reduce adsorption capacity and, due to constant fluctuations, its presence is difficult to incorporate into adsorption column designs. The purpose of the research was to allow for better design techniques in trace contaminant adsorption systems, especially for feeds with water present. Experiments and mathematical modeling research on effects of humidity swings on adsorption columns for air revitalization were carried out.

  14. Adsorption of Gases on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbaye, Mamadou Thiao

    2014-01-01

    This research focus in studying the interaction between various classical and quantum gases with novel carbon nanostructures, mainly carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Since their discovery by the Japanese physicist Sumio Iijima [1] carbon nanotubes have, experimentally and theoretically, been subjected to many scientific investigation. Studies of adsorption on CNTs are particularly directed toward their better usage in gas storage, gas separation, catalyst, drug delivery, and water purification. We explore the adsorption of different gases entrapped in a single, double, or multi-bundles of CNTs using computer simulations. The first system we investigate consists of Ar and Kr films adsorbed on zigzag or armchair nanotubes. Our simulations revealed that Kr atoms on intermediate size zigzag NTs undergo two phase transitions: A liquid-vapor (L→V), and liquid-commensurate (L→CS) with a fractional coverage of one Kr atoms adsorbed for every four carbon atoms. For Ar on zigzag and armchair NTs, the only transition observed is a L→V. In the second problem, we explore the adsorption of CO2 molecules in a nanotube bundle and calculate the isosteric heat of adsorption of the entrapped molecules within the groove. We observed that the lower the temperature, the higher the isosteric of adsorption. Last, we investigate the adsorption of hydrogen, Helium, and Neon gases on the groove site of two parallel nanotubes. At low temperature, the transverse motion on the plane perpendicular to the tubes' axis is frozen out and as a consequence, the heat capacity is reduced to 1/2. At high temperature, the atoms gain more degree of freedom and as a consequence the heat capacity is 5/2.

  15. Porous cellulose spheres: Preparation, modification and adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaofei; Liu, Congzhi; Anderson, Debbie P; Chang, Peter R

    2016-12-01

    Porous cellulose spheres (PCS) were fabricated by precipitating the spheres from a cellulose ionic liquid solution, followed by freezing, solvent exchange, and drying. PCS had low crystallinity and a large surface area that facilitated modification with trisodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) to introduce phosphate ester groups into the porous structure of the heterogeneous system. The STMP-modified PCS (SPCS) were used to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. With increasing STMP dosage, the adsorption capacity of SPCS obviously improved due to chelation between Pb(2+) and phosphate ester groups. The kinetic adsorption and isotherm data matched the pseudo-second order model and the Langmuir model well. The maximum adsorption capacity reached 150.6 mg g(-1) for SPCS. SPCS were competitive with other absorbents because the phosphate ester groups and porous structure contributed to Pb(2+) adsorption. Moreover, SPCS can be regenerated with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA) solution for repetitious adsorption of Pb(2+).

  16. Adsorption of humic acids and trace metals in natural waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    Studies concerning the interactions between suspended hydrous iron oxide and dissolved humic acids and trace metals are reported. As a major component of dissolved organic matters and its readiness for adsorption at the solid/water interface, humic acids may play a very important role in the organometallic geochemistry of suspended sediments and in determining the fate and distribution of trace metals, pesticides and anions in natural water systems. Most of the solid phases in natural waters contain oxides and hydroxides. The most simple promising theory to describe the interactions of hydrous iron oxide interface is the surface complex formation model. In this model, the adsorptions of humic acids on hydrous iron oxide may be interpreted as complex formation of the organic bases (humic acid oxyanions) with surface Fe ions. Measurements on adsorptions were made in both fresh water and seawater. Attempts have been made to fit our data to Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Adsorption equilibrium constants were determined.

  17. Methane Adsorption on Graphitic Nanostructures: Every Molecule Counts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Bundles of single-walled nanotubes are promising candidates for storage of hydrogen, methane, and other hydrogen-rich molecules, but experiments are hindered by nonuniformity of the tubes. We overcome the problem by investigating methane adsorption on aggregates of fullerenes containing up to six C60; the systems feature adsorption sites similar to those of nanotube bundles. Four different types of adsorption sites are distinguished, namely, registered sites above the carbon hexagons and pentagons, groove sites between adjacent fullerenes, dimple sites between three adjacent fullerenes, and exterior sites. The nature and adsorption energies of the sites in C60 aggregates are determined by density functional theory and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory is obtained for the adsorption capacity in these sites. PMID:23378887

  18. Integrated immobilized cell reactor-adsorption system for beta-cyclodextrin production: a model study using PVA-cryogel entrapped Bacillus agaradhaerens cells.

    PubMed

    Martins, Rita F; Plieva, Fatima M; Santos, Ana; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2003-09-01

    Production of cyclodextrins (CDs) by immobilized cells of the alkaliphilic Bacillus agaradhaerens LS-3C with integrated product recovery was studied. The microorganism was entrapped in polyvinyl alcohol-cryogel beads and used as a convenient source of immobilized cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase). On activation by incubation in the cultivation medium containing 1% (w/v) starch, the entrapped cells multiplied and secreted CGTase with an activity of 2-3 mg beta-cyclodextrin h(-1) g(-1) beads. The immobilized biocatalyst exhibited maximum activity at pH 9 and 50 degrees C, and formed cyclodextrins comprising 92-94% beta-CD and remaining alpha-CD. The cyclodextrin product from the immobilized cell bioreactor was continuously recovered by adsorption to Amberlite XAD-4 in a recycle batch mode. The product adsorption was facilitated at low temperature while hot water was used for elution.

  19. Low-Cost Disposable Cartridge for Performing a White Blood Cell Count and Partial Differential at the Point-of-Care.

    PubMed

    Majors, Catherine E; Pawlowski, Michal E; Tkaczyk, Tomasz; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R

    2014-10-01

    Being able to perform a white blood cell (WBC) count and differential is a crucial laboratory test for basic diagnostic practices. In this paper, we demonstrate proof of concept results for a disposable cartridge that could be used to perform a WBC count and 3-part differential at the point-of-care. The cartridge is composed of a glass slide, a layer of transfer tape, and a glass cover slip and incorporates acridine orange for cell staining and sub-type differentiation; the stained blood is then imaged, and image analysis techniques return a WBC count and 3-part differential. The cartridge was tested on a laboratory microscope with 3 normal samples, and had promising results with 85.7% of images resulting in a WBC count with ±15% of the true value. Further, the 3-part differential concentrations determined using the disposable cartridge had strong correlations with the true concentrations (R(2) values of 0.9986, 0.9421, and 0.6942 for granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes, respectively). Preliminary designs for a low-cost, portable microscope have been created and are currently being prototyped.

  20. Low-Cost Disposable Cartridge for Performing a White Blood Cell Count and Partial Differential at the Point-of-Care*

    PubMed Central

    Majors, Catherine E.; Pawlowski, Michal E.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.

    2015-01-01

    Being able to perform a white blood cell (WBC) count and differential is a crucial laboratory test for basic diagnostic practices. In this paper, we demonstrate proof of concept results for a disposable cartridge that could be used to perform a WBC count and 3-part differential at the point-of-care. The cartridge is composed of a glass slide, a layer of transfer tape, and a glass cover slip and incorporates acridine orange for cell staining and sub-type differentiation; the stained blood is then imaged, and image analysis techniques return a WBC count and 3-part differential. The cartridge was tested on a laboratory microscope with 3 normal samples, and had promising results with 85.7% of images resulting in a WBC count with ±15% of the true value. Further, the 3-part differential concentrations determined using the disposable cartridge had strong correlations with the true concentrations (R2 values of 0.9986, 0.9421, and 0.6942 for granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes, respectively). Preliminary designs for a low-cost, portable microscope have been created and are currently being prototyped. PMID:25918749

  1. Adsorption and diffusion of water on graphene from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jie; Michaelides, Angelos; Alfè, Dario; Schimka, Laurids; Kresse, Georg; Wang, Enge

    2011-07-01

    Water monomer adsorption on graphene is examined with state-of-the-art electronic structure approaches. The adsorption energy determinations on this system from quantum Monte Carlo and the random-phase approximation yield small values of <100 meV. These benchmarks provide a deeper understanding of the reactivity of graphene that may underpin the development of improved more approximate methods enabling the accurate treatment of more complex processes at wet-carbon interfaces. As an example, we show how dispersion-corrected density functional theory, which we show gives a satisfactory description of this adsorption system, predicts that water undergoes ultra-fast diffusion on graphene at low temperatures.

  2. Competitive adsorption of organic compounds by microbial biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Selvakumar, A.; Hsieh, H.N. )

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of competitive adsorption of liquid organic compounds on inactive microbial biomass in bisolute solution systems. Phenol-nitrophenol, phenol-chlorophenol, nitrophenol-chlorophenol, and chlorobenzene-ethylbenzene systems were selected for the analysis. The experimental results suggest that although the amount of each solute adsorbed on the biomass can be reduced significantly by the presence of a second solute, the combined adsorptive capacity was greater than that for either of the individual substances from its pure solution. The octanol/water partition coefficient(K{sub ow}) indicates the relative extent of adsorption better than the aqueous solubility(S).

  3. Adsorption dynamics of molecular nitrogen at an Fe(111) surface.

    PubMed

    Nosir, M A; Martin-Gondre, L; Bocan, G A; Díez Muiño, R

    2017-03-08

    We present an extensive theoretical study of N2 adsorption mechanisms on an Fe(111) surface. We combine the static analysis of a six-dimensional potential energy surface (6D-PES), based on ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations for the system, with quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations to simulate the adsorption dynamics. There are four molecular adsorption states, usually called γ, δ, α, and ε, arising from our DFT calculations. We find that N2 adsorption in the γ-state is non-activated, while the threshold energy is associated with the entrance channel for the other three adsorption states. Our QCT calculations confirm that there are activated and nonactivated paths for the adsorption of N2 on the Fe(111) surface, which is in agreement with previous experimental investigations. Molecular dynamics at a surface temperature Ts = 300 K and impact energies Ei in the 0-5 eV range show the relative occupancy of the γ, δ, α, and ε states. The δ-state, however, is only marginally populated despite its adsorption energy being very similar to that of the γ-state. Our QCT calculations trace the dependence of molecular trapping on the surface temperature Ts and initial impact energy Ei and quantify the rates of the different competitive channels that eventually lead to molecular adsorption.

  4. Mechanism of amitriptyline adsorption on Ca-montmorillonite (SAz-2).

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Hsiang; Jiang, Wei-Teh; Li, Zhaohui; Kuo, Chung-Yih; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Chen, Wan-Ru; Lv, Guocheng

    2014-07-30

    The uptake of amitriptyline (AMI) from aqueous environment by Ca-montmorillonite (SAz-2) was studied in a batch system under different physicochemical conditions. The adsorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses. The AMI adsorption on SAz-2 obeyed the Langmuir isotherm with a capacity of 330mg/g (1.05mmol/g) at pH 6-7. The adsorption kinetics was fast, almost reaching equilibrium in 2h, and followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Desorption of exchangeable cations correlated with the AMI adsorption well, indicating that cation exchange was the major mechanism. X-ray diffraction patterns showing significant expansions of the d001 spacing and characteristic FTIR band shifts toward higher frequencies after AMI adsorption onto SAz-2 indicated that the adsorbed AMI molecules were intercalated into the interlayers of the mineral. Thermodynamic parameters based on partitioning coefficients suggested that the AMI adsorption was an endothermic physisorption at high adsorption levels. At low and higher AMI adsorption levels, the intercalated AMI molecules take a horizontal monolayer and bilayer conformation, respectively. The higher adsorption capacity suggested that SAz-2 could be a good candidate to remove AMI from wastewater and would be an important environmental sink for the fate and transport of AMI in soils and groundwater.

  5. Adsorption and desorption characteristics of arsenic onto ceria nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qinzhong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ma, Yuhui; He, Xiao; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2012-01-01

    The rapid increase in the use of engineered nanoparticles [ENPs] has resulted in an increasing concern over the potential impacts of ENPs on the environmental and human health. ENPs tend to adsorb a large variety of toxic chemicals when they are emitted into the environment, which may enhance the toxicity of ENPs and/or adsorbed chemicals. The study was aimed to investigate the adsorption and desorption behaviors of arsenic on ceria NPs in aqueous solution using batch technique. Results show that the adsorption behavior of arsenic on ceria NPs was strongly dependent on pH and independent of ionic strength, indicating that the electrostatic effect on the adsorption of these elements was relatively not important compared to surface chemical reactions. The adsorption isotherms fitted very well to both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The thermodynamic parameters (Δ H 0 , Δ S 0 , and Δ G 0 ) for the adsorption of arsenic were determined at three different temperatures of 283, 303, and 323 K. The adsorption reaction was endothermic, and the process of adsorption was favored at high temperature. The desorption data showed that desorption hysteresis occurred at the initial concentration studied. High adsorption capacity of arsenic on ceria NPs suggests that the synergistic effects of ceria NPs and arsenic on the environmental systems may exist when they are released into the environment.

  6. A pressure-amplifying framework material with negative gas adsorption transitions.

    PubMed

    Krause, Simon; Bon, Volodymyr; Senkovska, Irena; Stoeck, Ulrich; Wallacher, Dirk; Többens, Daniel M; Zander, Stefan; Pillai, Renjith S; Maurin, Guillaume; Coudert, François-Xavier; Kaskel, Stefan

    2016-04-21

    Adsorption-based phenomena are important in gas separations, such as the treatment of greenhouse-gas and toxic-gas pollutants, and in water-adsorption-based heat pumps for solar cooling systems. The ability to tune the pore size, shape and functionality of crystalline porous coordination polymers--or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)--has made them attractive materials for such adsorption-based applications. The flexibility and guest-molecule-dependent response of MOFs give rise to unexpected and often desirable adsorption phenomena. Common to all isothermal gas adsorption phenomena, however, is increased gas uptake with increased pressure. Here we report adsorption transitions in the isotherms of a MOF (DUT-49) that exhibits a negative gas adsorption; that is, spontaneous desorption of gas (methane and n-butane) occurs during pressure increase in a defined temperature and pressure range. A combination of in situ powder X-ray diffraction, gas adsorption experiments and simulations shows that this adsorption behaviour is controlled by a sudden hysteretic structural deformation and pore contraction of the MOF, which releases guest molecules. These findings may enable technologies using frameworks capable of negative gas adsorption for pressure amplification in micro- and macroscopic system engineering. Negative gas adsorption extends the series of counterintuitive phenomena such as negative thermal expansion and negative refractive indices and may be interpreted as an adsorptive analogue of force-amplifying negative compressibility transitions proposed for metamaterials.

  7. A pressure-amplifying framework material with negative gas adsorption transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Simon; Bon, Volodymyr; Senkovska, Irena; Stoeck, Ulrich; Wallacher, Dirk; Többens, Daniel M.; Zander, Stefan; Pillai, Renjith S.; Maurin, Guillaume; Coudert, François-Xavier; Kaskel, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Adsorption-based phenomena are important in gas separations, such as the treatment of greenhouse-gas and toxic-gas pollutants, and in water-adsorption-based heat pumps for solar cooling systems. The ability to tune the pore size, shape and functionality of crystalline porous coordination polymers—or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)—has made them attractive materials for such adsorption-based applications. The flexibility and guest-molecule-dependent response of MOFs give rise to unexpected and often desirable adsorption phenomena. Common to all isothermal gas adsorption phenomena, however, is increased gas uptake with increased pressure. Here we report adsorption transitions in the isotherms of a MOF (DUT-49) that exhibits a negative gas adsorption; that is, spontaneous desorption of gas (methane and n-butane) occurs during pressure increase in a defined temperature and pressure range. A combination of in situ powder X-ray diffraction, gas adsorption experiments and simulations shows that this adsorption behaviour is controlled by a sudden hysteretic structural deformation and pore contraction of the MOF, which releases guest molecules. These findings may enable technologies using frameworks capable of negative gas adsorption for pressure amplification in micro- and macroscopic system engineering. Negative gas adsorption extends the series of counterintuitive phenomena such as negative thermal expansion and negative refractive indices and may be interpreted as an adsorptive analogue of force-amplifying negative compressibility transitions proposed for metamaterials.

  8. Phase 2 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Nick; Watson, Tony

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear fission produces fission products (FPs) and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the second phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during the second half of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014. Test results continue to show that methyl iodide adsorption using AgZ can achieve total iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) above 1,000, until breakthrough occurred. However, mass transfer zone depths are deeper for methyl iodide adsorption compared to diatomic iodine (I2) adsorption. Methyl iodide DFs for the Ag Aerogel test adsorption efficiencies were less than 1,000, and the methyl iodide mass transfer zone depth exceeded 8 inches. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption under various conditions specified in the methyl iodide test plan, and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  9. Treatment of arsenic-contaminated water using akaganeite adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Cadena C., Fernando; Johnson, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention comprises a method and composition using akaganeite, an iron oxide, as an ion adsorption medium for the removal of arsenic from water and affixing it onto carrier media so that it can be used in filtration systems.

  10. Adsorption of rotavirus and bacteriophage MS2 using glass fiber coated with hematite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Leonardo; Li, Xuan; Wang, Jinwen; Nangmenyi, Gordon; Economy, James; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S; Nguyen, Thanh H

    2009-12-01

    Batch and flow-through experiments were conducted to investigate the removal and inactivation of rotavirus (RV) and bacteriophage MS2 using glass fiber coated with hematite nanoparticles. Batch tests showed a high removal of MS2 (2.49x10(11) plaque forming unit/g) and RV (8.9x10(6) focal forming unit/g) at a low concentration of hematite nanoparticles in solution (0.043g/L and 0.26g/L, respectively). Virus adsorption was, however, decreased in the presence of bicarbonate ions and natural organic matter (NOM) in solution, suggesting a great affinity of iron oxide nanoparticles for these competitors. Adsorption on hematite nanoparticles by MS2 and RV was also tested with aquifer groundwater under saturated flow conditions to mimic environmental conditions with promising results (8x10(8) plaque forming unit/g and 3x10(4) focal forming unit/g, respectively). Desorption of up to 63% of infectious MS2 and only 2% of infectious RV from hematite nanoparticles were achieved when an eluant solution containing beef extract and glycine was used. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed evidence of electrostatic adsorption of apparently intact MS2 and structurally damaged RV particles to hematite nanoparticles. Results from this research suggest that a cartridge made of glass fiber coated with hematite nanoparticles could be used as a point-of-use device for virus removal for drinking water treatment.

  11. Adsorption edge study about cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc adsorption by variable charge soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Mouta, E. R.; Soares, M. R.

    2009-04-01

    The improper discharge of industrial and urban residues and the inadvertent use of fertilizers and pesticides can result in soil and water pollution and improve the potential of trace metals to enter in the human food chain. Adsorption reactions occur at the solid/liquid interface and are the most important mechanisms for controlling the activity of metal ions in soil solution. In a complex system with amphoteric behavior, the comprehension of the mobility, availability and fate of pollutants in the soil system is crucial for the prediction of the environmental consequences and for development of prevention/remediation strategies. A comparative study of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) adsorption by highly weathered soils was carried out. Surface (0-0.2m) and subsoil (B horizon) samples were taken from a Rhodic Kandiudalf (RH), an Anionic "Xanthic" Acrudox (XA) and an Anionic "Rhodic" Acrudox (RA), located in brazilian humid tropical area. As the pH and the ionic strength are important environmental factors influencing the solution chemistry of heavy metals in variable charge systems, adsorption envelopes, in a batch adsorption experiment, were elaborated by reacting, for 24 h, soil samples with individual 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 aqueous solutions containing nitrate salts of the adsorptive heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) at the initial concentration of 5 mg L-1, with an increasing pH value from 3.0 to 8.0. pH50-100%, the difference between the pH of 100 and 50 percent metal adsorption was determined. A sharp increase of adsorption density (adsorption edge) was observed within a very narrow pH range, usually less than two pH units. Commonly, the relative affinity of a soil for a metal cation increases with the tendency of the cation to form inner-sphere surface complexes. This may be caused by differences in extent of hydrolysis of Cu ions and in affinity of adsorption sites for Cu. In general, subsurface samples showed low pH50

  12. Operating Room Environment Control. Part A: a Valve Cannister System for Anesthetic Gas Adsorption. Part B: a State-of-the-art Survey of Laminar Flow Operating Rooms. Part C: Three Laminar Flow Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. S.; Kosovich, J.

    1973-01-01

    An anesthetic gas flow pop-off valve canister is described that is airtight and permits the patient to breath freely. Once its release mechanism is activated, the exhaust gases are collected at a hose adapter and passed through activated coal for adsorption. A survey of laminar air flow clean rooms is presented and the installation of laminar cross flow air systems in operating rooms is recommended. Laminar flow ventilation experiments determine drying period evaporation rates for chicken intestines, sponges, and sections of pig stomach.

  13. Time since discharge of 9mm cartridges by headspace analysis, part 1: Comprehensive optimisation and validation of a headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE) method.

    PubMed

    Gallidabino, M; Romolo, F S; Weyermann, C

    2017-03-01

    Estimating the time since discharge of spent cartridges can be a valuable tool in the forensic investigation of firearm-related crimes. To reach this aim, it was previously proposed that the decrease of volatile organic compounds released during discharge is monitored over time using non-destructive headspace extraction techniques. While promising results were obtained for large-calibre cartridges (e.g., shotgun shells), handgun calibres yielded unsatisfying results. In addition to the natural complexity of the specimen itself, these can also be attributed to some selective choices in the methods development. Thus, the present series of paper aimed to more systematically evaluate the potential of headspace analysis to estimate the time since discharge of cartridges through the use of more comprehensive analytical and interpretative techniques. Specifically, in this first part, a method based on headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE) was comprehensively optimised and validated, as the latter recently proved to be a more efficient alternative than previous approaches. For this purpose, 29 volatile organic compounds were preliminary selected on the basis of previous works. A multivariate statistical approach based on design of experiments (DOE) was used to optimise variables potentially involved in interaction effects. Introduction of deuterated analogues in sampling vials was also investigated as strategy to account for analytical variations. Analysis was carried out by selected ion mode, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results showed good chromatographic resolution as well as detection limits and peak area repeatability. Application to 9mm spent cartridges confirmed that the use of co-extracted internal standards allowed for improved reproducibility of the measured signals. The validated method will be applied in the second part of this work to estimate the time since discharge of 9mm spent cartridges using multivariate models.

  14. Generalized statistical model for multicomponent adsorption equilibria on zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Rota, R.; Gamba, G.; Paludetto, R.; Carra, S.; Morbidelli, M. )

    1988-05-01

    The statistical thermodynamic approach to multicomponent adsorption equilibria on zeolites has been extended to nonideal systems, through the correction of cross coefficients characterizing the interaction between unlike molecules. Estimation of the model parameters requires experimental binary equilibrium data. Comparisons with the classical model based on adsorbed solution theory are reported for three nonideal ternary systems. The two approaches provide comparable results in the simulation of binary and ternary adsorption equilibrium data at constant temperature and pressure.

  15. 77 FR 60481 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Post-Accident...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... design, inspection, and testing of air filtration and iodine adsorption units of engineered-safety..., inspection, and testing of air filtration and iodine adsorption units of ESF atmosphere cleanup systems...

  16. Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness

    DOEpatents

    Prince, James M.; Dodson, Michael G.; Lechelt, Wayne M.

    1989-01-01

    A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis.

  17. Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness

    DOEpatents

    Prince, J.M.; Dodson, M.G.; Lechelt, W.M.

    1989-07-18

    A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis. 14 figs.

  18. Adsorption of Compounds that Mimic Urban Stormwater Dissolved Organic Nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Mehrdad; James, Bruce R; Davis, Allen P

    2017-02-01

      Stormwater runoff carrying nitrogen can accelerate eutrophication. Bioretention facilities are among low impact development systems which are commonly used to manage urban stormwater quality and quantity. They are, however, not designed to remove dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and may become a net DON exporter. Adsorption of seven organic nitrogenous compounds onto several adsorbents was examined. Batch adsorption study revealed that coal activated carbon (AC) exhibited the best performance in adsorption of the selected organic nitrogenous compounds. The highest adsorption capacity of coal AC was 0.4 mg N/g for pyrrole at an equilibrium concentration of 0.02 mg N/L, while adsorption was not detectable for urea at the same equilibrium concentration. The fastest compound to reach equilibrium adsorption capacity onto the coal AC was pyrrole (1 hour). The adsorption capacity of the coal AC for pyrrole and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and 1-hour contact time is recommended for designing bioretention systems targeting organic nitrogenous compounds.

  19. Isotherms for Water Adsorption on Molecular Sieve 3A: Influence of Cation Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ronghong; Ladshaw, Austin; Nan, Yue; Liu, Jiuxu; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; DePaoli, David W.; Tavlarides, Lawrence L.

    2015-06-16

    This study is part of our continuing efforts to address engineering issues related to the removal of tritiated water from off-gases produced in used nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. In the current study, adsorption equilibrium of water on molecular sieve 3A beads was investigated. Adsorption isotherms for water on the UOP molecular sieve 3A were measured by a continuous-flow adsorption system at 298, 313, 333, and 353 K. Experimental data collected were analyzed by the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm model. The K+/Na+ molar ratio of this particular type of molecular sieve 3A was ~4:6. Our results showed that the GSTA isotherm model worked very well to describe the equilibrium behavior of water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A. The optimum number of parameters for the current experimental data was determined to be a set of four equilibrium parameters. This result suggests that the adsorbent crystals contain four energetically distinct adsorption sites. In addition, it was found that water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A follows a three-stage adsorption process. This three-stage adsorption process confirmed different water adsorption sites in molecular sieve crystals. In addition, the second adsorption stage is significantly affected by the K+/Na+ molar ratio. In this stage, the equilibrium adsorption capacity at a given water vapor pressure increases as the K+/Na+ molar ratio increases.

  20. Isotherms for Water Adsorption on Molecular Sieve 3A: Influence of Cation Composition

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Ronghong; Ladshaw, Austin; Nan, Yue; ...

    2015-06-16

    This study is part of our continuing efforts to address engineering issues related to the removal of tritiated water from off-gases produced in used nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. In the current study, adsorption equilibrium of water on molecular sieve 3A beads was investigated. Adsorption isotherms for water on the UOP molecular sieve 3A were measured by a continuous-flow adsorption system at 298, 313, 333, and 353 K. Experimental data collected were analyzed by the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm model. The K+/Na+ molar ratio of this particular type of molecular sieve 3A was ~4:6. Our results showed that themore » GSTA isotherm model worked very well to describe the equilibrium behavior of water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A. The optimum number of parameters for the current experimental data was determined to be a set of four equilibrium parameters. This result suggests that the adsorbent crystals contain four energetically distinct adsorption sites. In addition, it was found that water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A follows a three-stage adsorption process. This three-stage adsorption process confirmed different water adsorption sites in molecular sieve crystals. In addition, the second adsorption stage is significantly affected by the K+/Na+ molar ratio. In this stage, the equilibrium adsorption capacity at a given water vapor pressure increases as the K+/Na+ molar ratio increases.« less

  1. Competitive adsorption of malachite green and Pb ions on natural zeolite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaobin; Ariyanto, Eko

    2007-10-01

    A natural zeolite was employed as adsorbent for removal of malachite green and Pb(2+) ions from aqueous solution. A batch system was applied to study the adsorption behaviour of the dye and heavy metal in single and binary systems on the natural zeolite. Kinetic studies indicate that malachite green and Pb(2+) adsorption on the natural zeolite in a single component system follows the first-order kinetics and the adsorption is diffusion process with single-stage for Pb(2+) and two-stage for malachite green. For the single system, malachite green adsorption isotherm follows the Langmuir model while Pb adsorption follows the Freundlich isotherm. The adsorption capacities of malachite green and Pb at 30 degrees C, pH 6 are 5x10(-5) and 10x10(-5)mol/g, respectively. In the binary system, malachite green and Pb(2+) exhibit competitive adsorption on the natural zeolite. The adsorption is reduced to 90 and 80% of single component of Pb(2+) and malachite green, respectively. However, the total adsorption is higher. In the binary system, Pb(2+) exhibits relative higher affinity and selectivity to be adsorbed on zeolite. The dynamic adsorption of malachite green and Pb(2+) still follows the first-order kinetics.

  2. Adsorptive removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) from single-metal, binary-metal, and industrial wastewater systems by surfactant-modified alumina.

    PubMed

    Khobragade, Moni U; Pal, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Batch adsorption was carried out to investigate the possibility of utilizing surfactant-modified alumina (SMA) as an adsorbent for the removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) from single-metal and binary-metal solutions. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images of SMA before and after metal removal from single-metal matrix, showed no significant changes, whereas energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) studies confirmed the incorporation of Cu(II) (∼ 0.74 atomic%) and Ni(II) (∼ 0.64 atomic%) on the adsorbent surface. The removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II), using SMA depends on contact time, adsorbent dose and medium pH. The sorption kinetics followed pseudo-second-order model for Cu(II). However, for Ni(II), either pseudo-first-order or pseudo-second-order model is applicable. The batch experimental data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm, and based on the correlation coefficient value (R(2)), the adsorption could be described more precisely by the Freundlich isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity from Langmuir isotherm of Cu(II) was 9.34 mg g(-1) and for Ni(II) 6.87 mg g(-1). In a synthetic binary mixture of Cu(II) and Ni(II), having a concentration of 10 mg L(-1) each, removal of Cu(II) was better. The treatment method was further applied to real wastewater from an electroplating industry. The batch experiment results showed that SMA was effective in the simultaneous removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) to a significant extent, with additional improvement of water quality of the industrial effluent considered.

  3. The application of solid-state NMR spectroscopy to electrochemical systems: CO adsorption on Pt electrocatalysts at the aqueous-electrode interface

    SciTech Connect

    Yahnke, Mark S.

    1996-12-01

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device, the continuous-flow analogue of the popular electrochemical storage device known as the battery. While the potential of fuel cells as power sources was recognized well over a century ago, they have since found limited application; a myriad of chemical, engineering and materials issues can be cited for this disappointing showing. Recent growing concern over the fate of the environment, however, has helped to renew interest in fuel cell research. This paper describes the methanol fuel cell and catalytic problems associated with the anode. On this task, the adsorption of carbon monoxide on platinum has been investigated.

  4. Adsorption of Small Cationic Nanoparticles onto Large Anionic Particles from Aqueous Solution: A Model System for Understanding Pigment Dispersion and the Problem of Effective Particle Density

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The present study focuses on the use of copolymer nanoparticles as a dispersant for a model pigment (silica). Reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) alcoholic dispersion polymerization was used to synthesize sterically stabilized diblock copolymer nanoparticles. The steric stabilizer block was poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMA) and the core-forming block was poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBzMA). The mean degrees of polymerization for the PDMA and PBzMA blocks were 71 and 100, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies confirmed a near-monodisperse spherical morphology, while dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies indicated an intensity-average diameter of 30 nm. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) reported a volume-average diameter of 29 ± 0.5 nm and a mean aggregation number of 154. Aqueous electrophoresis measurements confirmed that these PDMA71–PBzMA100 nanoparticles acquired cationic character when transferred from ethanol to water as a result of protonation of the weakly basic PDMA chains. Electrostatic adsorption of these nanoparticles from aqueous solution onto 470 nm silica particles led to either flocculation at submonolayer coverage or steric stabilization at or above monolayer coverage, as judged by DLS. This technique indicated that saturation coverage was achieved on addition of approximately 465 copolymer nanoparticles per silica particle, which corresponds to a fractional surface coverage of around 0.42. These adsorption data were corroborated using thermogravimetry, UV spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. TEM studies indicated that the cationic nanoparticles remained intact on the silica surface after electrostatic adsorption, while aqueous electrophoresis confirmed that surface charge reversal occurred below pH 7. The relatively thick layer of adsorbed nanoparticles led to a significant reduction in the effective particle density of the silica particles from 1.99 g cm–3 to

  5. Water vapor adsorption on activated carbon preadsorbed with naphtalene.

    PubMed

    Zimny, T; Finqueneisel, G; Cossarutto, L; Weber, J V

    2005-05-01

    The adsorption of water vapor on a microporous activated carbon derived from the carbonization of coconut shell has been studied. Preadsorption of naphthalene was used as a tool to determine the location and the influence of the primary adsorbing centers within the porous structure of active carbon. The adsorption was studied in the pressure range p/p0=0-0.95 in a static water vapor system, allowing the investigation of both kinetic and equilibrium experimental data. Modeling of the isotherms using the modified equation of Do and Do was applied to determine the effect of preadsorption on the mechanism of adsorption.

  6. Experimental adsorption isotherms based on inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kalogirou, E; Bassiotis, I; Artemiadi, Th; Margariti, S; Siokos, V; Roubani-Kalantzopoulou, F

    2002-09-06

    A new chromatographic perturbation method is used for studying the adsorption-desorption equilibrium in various gas-solid heterogeneous systems. It is the reversed-flow method giving accurate and precise values of many physicochemical constants including the basic and necessary adsorption isotherm values. For four inorganic oxides, namely, Cr2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and PbO, and two aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene) these adsorption isotherms have been determined through a non-linear model.

  7. Predicting protein dynamic binding capacity from batch adsorption tests.

    PubMed

    Carta, Giorgio

    2012-10-01

    The dynamic binding capacity (DBC) and its dependence on residence time influence the design and productivity of adsorption columns used in protein capture applications. This paper offers a very simple approach to predict the DBC of an adsorption column based on a measurement of the equilibrium binding capacity (EBC) and of the time needed to achieve one-half of the EBC in a batch adsorption test. The approach is based on a mass transfer kinetics model that assumes pore diffusion with a rectangular isotherm; however, the same approach is also shown to work for other systems where solute transport inside the particle occurs through other transport mechanisms.

  8. Preparative chromatography of xylanase using expanded bed adsorption.

    PubMed

    Silvino, DosSantosEveraldo; Guirardello, Reginaldo; Teixeira, Franco Telma

    2002-01-25

    Expanded bed adsorption was used to purify a marketable xylanase often used in the kraft pulp bleaching process. Experiments in packed and expanded beds were carried out mainly to study the adsorption of xylanase on to a cationic adsorbent (Streamline SP) in the presence of cells. In order to study the presence of cells, a Bacillus pumilus mass (5% wet mass) was mixed with the enzyme extract and submitted to an expanded bed adsorption system. One xylanase was purified to homogeneity in the packed bed. However, the 5% cell content hampered purification.

  9. Effect of pore blockage on adsorption isotherms and dynamics: Anomalous adsorption of iodine on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, S.K.; Liu, F.; Arvind, G.

    2000-04-18

    Isotherm hysteresis and pore-clocking effects of trapped molecules on adsorption dynamics is studied here, using the iodine-carbon system in the 300--343 K temperature range. It is found that a portion of the iodine is strongly adsorbed, and does not desorb, even over very long time scales, while the remainder adsorbs reversibly as a homogeneous monolayer with a Langmuirian isotherm in mesopores. The strongly adsorbed iodine appears to adsorb in micropores and at the mesopore mouths, hindering uptake of the reversible iodine. The uptake data for the adsorption and desorption dynamics of the reversible part is found to be best explained by means of a pore mouth resistance control mechanism. it is concluded that the dynamics of the adsorption and desorption at the pore mouth is important at early stages of the process.

  10. Co-adsorption of phosphate and zinc(II) on the surface of ferrihydrite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Zhu, Runliang; Xu, Tianyuan; Xu, Yin; Ge, Fei; Xi, Yunfei; Zhu, Jianxi; He, Hongping

    2016-02-01

    Ferrihydrite (Fh) is of great importance in affecting the migration and transformation of heavy-metal cations and oxyanions. To advance the understanding of co-adsorption reactions on Fh surface, the co-adsorption of phosphate and Zn(II) from aqueous solution to a synthesized Fh was determined. The batch experiments demonstrated a synergistic adsorption of phosphate and Zn(II) on Fh. In the pH range of 3.5-6, the adsorption of the two contaminants showed strong pH dependence in the single solute adsorption systems, but the dependence alleviated in the simultaneous adsorption system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the chemical shifts of Zn 2p1/2 and Zn 2p3/2 binding energies were more significant than that of P 2p in the single and simultaneous adsorption systems. On the other side, in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) observed increased formation of outer- and inner-sphere complexes of phosphate in the simultaneous system. Thus, the synergistic adsorption of the two contaminants could be attributed to the formation of ternary complexes as well as electrostatic interactions, while surface precipitation could not be completely ruled out. On the basis of the results from both the batch adsorption experiments and structural characterization, these two contaminants were likely to form phosphate-bridged ternary complexes (≡Fe-P-Zn) in the simultaneous adsorption system.

  11. Adsorption of Selected Pharmaceutical Compounds onto Activated Carbon in Dilute Aqueous Solutions Exemplified by Acetaminophen, Diclofenac, and Sulfamethoxazole

    PubMed Central

    Chang, E.-E.; Wan, Jan-Chi; Liang, Chung-Huei; Dai, Yung-Dun; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of three pharmaceuticals, namely, acetaminophen, diclofenac, and sulfamethoxazole onto granular activated carbon (GAC), was investigated. To study competitive adsorption, both dynamic and steady-state adsorption experiments were conducted by careful selection of pharmaceuticals with various affinities and molecular size. The effective diffusion coefficient of the adsorbate was increased with decease in particle size of GAC. The adsorption affinity represented as Langmuir was consistent with the ranking of the octanol-water partition coefficient, Kow. The adsorption behavior in binary or tertiary systems could be described by competition adsorption. In the binary system adsorption replacement occurred, under which the adsorbate with the smaller Kow was replaced by the one with larger Kow. Results also indicated that portion of the micropores could be occupied only by the small target compound, but not the larger adsorbates. In multiple-component systems the competition adsorption might significantly be affected by the macropores and less by the meso- or micropores. PMID:26078989

  12. Randomized Comparison of Two Vaginal Self-Sampling Methods for Human Papillomavirus Detection: Dry Swab versus FTA Cartridge

    PubMed Central

    Catarino, Rosa; Vassilakos, Pierre; Bilancioni, Aline; Vanden Eynde, Mathieu; Meyer-Hamme, Ulrike; Menoud, Pierre-Alain; Guerry, Frédéric; Petignat, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (self-HPV) is valuable in cervical cancer screening. HPV testing is usually performed on physician-collected cervical smears stored in liquid-based medium. Dry filters and swabs are an alternative. We evaluated the adequacy of self-HPV using two dry storage and transport devices, the FTA cartridge and swab. Methods A total of 130 women performed two consecutive self-HPV samples. Randomization determined which of the two tests was performed first: self-HPV using dry swabs (s-DRY) or vaginal specimen collection using a cytobrush applied to an FTA cartridge (s-FTA). After self-HPV, a physician collected a cervical sample using liquid-based medium (Dr-WET). HPV types were identified by real-time PCR. Agreement between collection methods was measured using the kappa statistic. Results HPV prevalence for high-risk types was 62.3% (95%CI: 53.7–70.2) detected by s-DRY, 56.2% (95%CI: 47.6–64.4) by Dr-WET, and 54.6% (95%CI: 46.1–62.9) by s-FTA. There was overall agreement of 70.8% between s-FTA and s-DRY samples (kappa = 0.34), and of 82.3% between self-HPV and Dr-WET samples (kappa = 0.56). Detection sensitivities for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse (LSIL+) were: 64.0% (95%CI: 44.5–79.8) for s-FTA, 84.6% (95%CI: 66.5–93.9) for s-DRY, and 76.9% (95%CI: 58.0–89.0) for Dr-WET. The preferred self-collection method among patients was s-DRY (40.8% vs. 15.4%). Regarding costs, FTA card was five times more expensive than the swab (~5 US dollars (USD)/per card vs. ~1 USD/per swab). Conclusion Self-HPV using dry swabs is sensitive for detecting LSIL+ and less expensive than s-FTA. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 43310942 PMID:26630353

  13. Liquid-Phase Adsorption Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, David O.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an experiment developed and used in the unit operations laboratory course at the University of Wyoming. Involves the liquid-phase adsorption of an organic compound from aqueous solution on activated carbon, and is relevant to adsorption processes in general. (TW)

  14. A portable lab-on-a-chip instrument based on MCE with dual top-bottom capacitive coupled contactless conductivity detector in replaceable cell cartridge.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Kambiz; Ying, Jasmine Yuen Shu; Hauser, Peter C; de Rooij, Nico F; Rodriguez, Isabel

    2013-05-01

    A new design for a compact portable lab-on-a-chip instrument based on MCE and dual capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (dC(4) D) is described. The instrument is battery powered with total dimension of 14 × 25 × 8 cm(3) (w × l × h), and weighs 1.2 kg. The device consists of a front electrophoresis compartment which has the chip holder and the chip, the associated high-voltage electrodes for electrophoresis injection and separation and the detector. The detection cell is integrated into the device housing with an exchangeable plug-and-play cartridge format. The design of the dC(4) D cell has been optimized for maximum performance. The cartridge includes the top-bottom excitation and pick up electrodes incorporated into the cell and connected to push-pull self-latching pins that are insulated with plastic. The metal frame of the cartridge is grounded completely to eliminate electronic interferences. The cartridge is designed to clamp a thin fluidic chip at the detection point. The cartridges are replaceable whereby different cartridges have different detection electrode configurations to employ according to the sensitivity or resolution needed in the specific analytical application. The second compartment consists of all the electronics, data acquisition card, high-voltage modules of up to ±5 kV both polarity, and batteries for 10 h of operation. The improved detector performance is illustrated by the electrophoresis analysis of six cations (NH4 (+) , K(+) , Ca(2+) , Na(+) , Mg(2+) , Li(+) ) with a detection limit of approximately 5 μM and the analysis of the anions (Br(-) , Cl(-) , NO2 (-) , NO3 (-) , SO4 (2-) , F(-) ) with a detection limit of about 3 μM. Analytical capabilities of the instrument for food and medical applications were evaluated by simultaneous detection of organic and inorganic acids in fruit juice and inorganic cations and anions in rabbit blood samples and human urine samples are also demonstrated.

  15. Preparation of Microvolume Anion-Exchange Cartridge for Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry-Based Determination of (237)Np Content in Spent Nuclear Fuel.

    PubMed

    Asai, Shiho; Hanzawa, Yukiko; Konda, Miki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Magara, Masaaki; Kimura, Takaumi; Ishihara, Ryo; Saito, Kyoichi; Yamada, Shinsuke; Hirota, Hideyuki

    2016-03-15

    Microvolume anion-exchange porous polymer disk-packed cartridges were prepared for Am/Np separation, which is required prior to the measurement of Neptunium-237 ((237)Np) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Disks with a volume of 0.08 cm(3) were cut out from porous sheets having anion-exchange-group-containing polymer chains densely attached on the pore surface. Four different amine-based groups, N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, trimethylammonium, diethylamine, and triethylenediamine (TEDA), were selected as the anion-exchange groups to be introduced into the porous sheets. The separation performances of Am/Np were evaluated using a standard solution of (243)Am, which had the same activity as its daughter nuclide (239)Np in secular equilibrium. (239)Np recovery of close to 100% with practically no contamination of (243)Am was achieved using the TEDA-introduced disk-packed cartridge. The time to elute (239)Np from the cartridge was approximately 40 s. The TEDA-introduced disk-packed cartridge was applied to the separation of Np from a spent nuclear fuel sample to confirm its separation performance. A known amount of (243)Am ((239)Np) was added to the spent nuclear fuel sample solution to monitor the chemical yield of Np. The chemical yield of Np calculated from a measured concentration of (239)Np was 90.4%. Am leakage in the Np-eluted solution was less than 1 ppt, corresponding to 0.001% of the original Am concentration in the sample. This indicates that no additional (239)Np was produced by the decay of the (243)Am remaining in the Np-eluted solution, thus providing a reliable chemical yield. U, which can cause a serious spectral interference involving the peak tail from the mass spectrum of (238)U, was thoroughly removed with the TEDA cartridge, providing interference-free measurement of (237)Np. The concentration of (237)Np obtained by ICPMS was 718 ± 12 ng/mg-U, which agrees well with the theoretically calculated value. Compared with

  16. Removal of water and iodine by solid sorbents: adsorption isotherms and kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, R.; Tavlarides, L.L.

    2013-07-01

    Tritium and iodine-129 are two major radioactive elements that are present in off-gases from spent fuel reprocessing plants. Adsorption by solid sorbents is the state-of-the-art technique for removal of these species from off-gases. Modeling and simulating adsorption processes require accurate adsorption equilibrium and kinetic data to permit reasonable estimates of process parameters. We have developed a continuous flow single-pellet adsorption system to gather accurate adsorption equilibrium and kinetic data for adsorption of water by molecular sieve 3A and for adsorption of iodine by silver exchanged mordenite. In this paper, the design of the water and iodine adsorption experimental systems are briefly described and results of water adsorption experiments are presented and discussed. Water uptake curves are fitted with the linear-driving force (LDF) model and the shrinking-core model to determine kinetic parameters. It is shown that the kinetics of water adsorption on zeolite 3A under current experimental conditions is controlled by both the external film resistance and the macro-pore diffusion and can be predicted by both the LDF model and the shrinking-core model with the former one performing slightly better. Preliminary results from iodine adsorption experiments will be presented in the conference.

  17. Adsorption Model for Off-Gas Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Veronica J. Rutledge

    2011-03-01

    The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include gas stream constituents, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. It models dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions for a multiple component gas stream. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which the breakthrough data is obtained. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data will be input into the adsorption model to develop a model specific for iodine adsorption on silver mordenite as well as model(s) specific for krypton and xenon adsorption. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Another future off-gas modeling goal is to develop a model for the unit operation absorption. The off-gas models will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.

  18. Enhanced adsorption of cesium on PVA-alginate encapsulated Prussian blue-graphene oxide hydrogel beads in a fixed-bed column system.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jiseon; Lee, Dae Sung

    2016-10-01

    A continuous fixed-bed column study was performed using PVA-alginate encapsulated Prussian blue-graphene oxide (PB-GO) hydrogel beads as a novel adsorbent for the removal of cesium from aqueous solutions. The effects of different operating parameters, such as initial cesium concentration, pH, bed height, flow rate, and bead size, were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of the PB-GO hydrogel beads was 164.5mg/g at an initial cesium concentration of 5mM, bed height of 20cm, and flow rate of 0.83mL/min at pH 7. The Thomas, Adams-Bohart, and Yoon-Nelson models were applied to the experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves using non-linear regression. Although both the Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models showed good agreement with the experimental data, the Yoon-Nelson model was found to provide the best representation for cesium adsorption on the adsorbent, based on the χ(2) analysis.

  19. Carbon adsorption onsite for remedial actions

    SciTech Connect

    Githens, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    Environmental remediation options range from various offsite disposal methods to onsite concentration, treatment or storage. Onsite treatment using mobile carbon adsorption treatment systems has long been a favored option for remedial actions because of its proven performance in the clean-up of transportation spills, waste sites, runoff from chemical warehouse fires and many types of groundwater pollution. Carbon adsorption is fundamentally a concentration technology. It will, for example, preferentially concentrate organics. Following its use, the carbon is usually transported offsite for thermal regeneration (mobile regeneration is not generally available) or landfilled if certain contaminants such as PCBs are on the carbon. Most remediation projects are temporary in nature and involve removing contamination from finite areas to attain specific pollutant limits. The best way to approach these circumstances is to utilize mobile, rapidly deployed, modular units. With mobile pretreatment equipment, the field engineer can solve problems with control over cost and system performance.

  20. Competitive adsorption of metal cations onto two gram positive bacteria: testing the chemical equilibrium model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowle, David A.; Fein, Jeremy B.

    1999-10-01

    In order to test the ability of a surface complexation approach to account for metal-bacteria interactions in near surface fluid-rock systems, we have conducted experiments that measure the extent of adsorption in mixed metal, mixed bacteria systems. This study tests the surface complexation approach by comparing estimated extents of adsorption based on surface complexation modeling to those we observed in the experimental systems. The batch adsorption experiments involved Ca, Cd, Cu, and Pb adsorption onto the surfaces of 2 g positive bacteria: Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis. Three types of experiments were performed: 1. Single metal (Ca, Cu, Pb) adsorption onto a mixture of B. licheniformis and B. subtilis; 2. mixed metal (Cd, Cu, and Pb; Ca and Cd) adsorption onto either B. subtilis or B. licheniformis; and 3. mixed or single metal adsorption onto B. subtilis and B. licheniformis. %Independent of the experimental results, and based on the site specific stability constants for Ca, Cd, Cu, and Pb interactions with the carboxyl and phosphate sites on B. licheniformis and B. subtilis determined by Fein et al. (1997), by Daughney et al. (1998) and in this study, we estimate the extent of adsorption that is expected in the above experimental systems. Competitive cation adsorption experiments in both single and double bacteria systems exhibit little adsorption at pH values less than 4. With increasing pH above 4.0, the extent of Ca, Cu, Pb and Cd adsorption also increases due to the increased deprotonation of bacterial surface functional groups. In all cases studied, the estimated adsorption behavior is in excellent agreement with the observations, with only slight differences that were within the uncertainties of the estimation and experimental procedures. Therefore, the results indicate that the use of chemical equilibrium modeling of aqueous metal adsorption onto bacterial surfaces yields accurate predictions of the distribution of metals in complex