Science.gov

Sample records for adsorption cartridge system

  1. Centrifugal Adsorption Cartridge System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Tsao, Yow-Min D.; Lee, Wenshan

    2004-01-01

    The centrifugal adsorption cartridge system (CACS) is an apparatus that recovers one or more bioproduct(s) from a dilute aqueous solution or suspension flowing from a bioreactor. The CACS can be used both on Earth in unit gravity and in space in low gravity. The CACS can be connected downstream from the bioreactor; alternatively, it can be connected into a flow loop that includes the bioreactor so that the liquid can be recycled. A centrifugal adsorption cartridge in the CACS (see figure) includes two concentric cylinders with a spiral ramp between them. The volume between the inner and outer cylinders, and between the turns of the spiral ramp is packed with an adsorbent material. The inner cylinder is a sieve tube covered with a gas-permeable, hydrophobic membrane. During operation, the liquid effluent from the bioreactor is introduced at one end of the spiral ramp, which then constrains the liquid to flow along the spiral path through the adsorbent material. The spiral ramp also makes the flow more nearly uniform than it would otherwise be, and it minimizes any channeling other than that of the spiral flow itself. The adsorbent material is formulated to selectively capture the bioproduct(s) of interest. The bioproduct(s) can then be stored in bound form in the cartridge or else eluted from the cartridge. The centrifugal effect of the spiral flow is utilized to remove gas bubbles from the liquid. The centrifugal effect forces the bubbles radially inward, toward and through the membrane of the inner cylinder. The gas-permeable, hydrophobic membrane allows the bubbles to enter the inner cylinder while keeping the liquid out. The bubbles that thus enter the cylinder are vented to the atmosphere. The spacing between the ramps determines rate of flow along the spiral, and thereby affects the air-bubble-removal efficiency. The spacing between the ramps also determines the length of the fluid path through the cartridge adsorbent, and thus affects the bioproduct

  2. EVALUATING A COMPOSITE CARTRIDGE FOR SMALL SYSTEM DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multi-layer, cartridge-based system that combines physical filtration with carbon adsorption and ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection has been developed to perform as a water treatment security device to protect homes against accidental or intentional contaminant events. A seri...

  3. Economics of the coal cartridge system

    SciTech Connect

    Kujime, Yasuhiko

    1994-12-31

    In 1992, our Coal Cartridge System (CCS) pulverized coal and sludge-fired boiler started operation, and it continues to operate well. We think that the CCS is a very cost-effective fuel, and it is extremely easy to use. If the CCS production base were to be situated in a coal producing country, the cost of manufacturing CCSs would be greatly reduced.

  4. High performance quarter-inch cartridge tape systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, Ted

    1993-01-01

    Within the established low cost structure of Data Cartridge drive technology, it is possible to achieve nearly 1 terrabyte (10(exp 12)) of data capacity and more than 1 Gbit/sec (greater than 100 Mbytes/sec) transfer rates. The desirability to place this capability within a single cartridge will be determined by the market. The 3.5 in. or smaller form factor may suffice to serve both the current Data Cartridge market and a high performance segment. In any case, Data Cartridge Technology provides a strong sustainable technology growth path in the 21st century.

  5. Disposable and removable nucleic acid extraction and purification cartridges for automated flow-through systems

    DOEpatents

    Regan, John Frederick

    2014-09-09

    Removable cartridges are used on automated flow-through systems for the purpose of extracting and purifying genetic material from complex matrices. Different types of cartridges are paired with specific automated protocols to concentrate, extract, and purifying pathogenic or human genetic material. Their flow-through nature allows large quantities sample to be processed. Matrices may be filtered using size exclusion and/or affinity filters to concentrate the pathogen of interest. Lysed material is ultimately passed through a filter to remove the insoluble material before the soluble genetic material is delivered past a silica-like membrane that binds the genetic material, where it is washed, dried, and eluted. Cartridges are inserted into the housing areas of flow-through automated instruments, which are equipped with sensors to ensure proper placement and usage of the cartridges. Properly inserted cartridges create fluid- and air-tight seals with the flow lines of an automated instrument.

  6. Variable thrust cartridge

    DOEpatents

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    2000-11-07

    The present invention is a variable thrust cartridge comprising a water-molten aluminum reaction chamber from which a slug is propelled. The cartridge comprises a firing system that initiates a controlled explosion from the reaction chamber. The explosive force provides a thrust to a slug, preferably contained within the cartridge.

  7. Adsorption Refrigeration System

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kai; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption refrigeration is an environmentally friendly cooling technology which could be driven by recovered waste heat or low-grade heat such as solar energy. In comparison with absorption system, an adsorption system has no problems such as corrosion at high temperature and salt crystallization. In comparison with vapor compression refrigeration system, it has the advantages of simple control, no moving parts and less noise. This paper introduces the basic theory of adsorption cycle as well as the advanced adsorption cycles such as heat and mass recovery cycle, thermal wave cycle and convection thermal wave cycle. The types, characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of different adsorbents used in adsorption refrigeration systems are also summarized. This article will increase the awareness of this emerging cooling technology among the HVAC engineers and help them select appropriate adsorption systems in energy-efficient building design.

  8. A spin cartridge system for DNA extraction from paraffin wax embedded tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, A P; Villa, L L

    1998-01-01

    A simple and efficient method of DNA extraction from paraffin wax embedded tissues using a spin cartridge system is described. Such DNAs were shown to be suitable for amplification by the polymerase chain reaction, which targeted two human papillomavirus genes and one globin fragment giving rise to products of 450, 150, and 110 base pairs, respectively. Different human tissues, stored for up to 20 years, were successfully amplified, demonstrating the usefulness of this very simple procedure for retrospective studies. PMID:9624421

  9. Modular microfluidic cartridge-based universal diagnostic system for global health applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Holger; Klemm, Richard; Dietze, William; White, Wallace; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Freyberg, Susanne; Moche, Christian; Dailey, Peter; Gärtner, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Current microfluidics-enabled point-of-care diagnostic systems are typically designed specifically for one assay type, e.g. a molecular diagnostic assay for a single disease of a class of diseases. This approach often leads to high development cost and a significant training requirement for users of different instruments. We have developed an open platform diagnostic system which allows to run molecular, immunological and clinical assays on a single instrument platform with a standardized microfluidic cartridge architecture in an automated sample-in answer-out fashion. As examples, a molecular diagnostic assay for tuberculosis, an immunoassay for HIV p24 and a clinical chemistry assay for ALT liver function have been developed and results of their pre-clinical validation are presented.

  10. Can the RUVIS reflected UV imaging system visualize fingerprint corrosion on brass cartridge casings postfiring?

    PubMed

    Leintz, Rachel; Bond, John W

    2013-05-01

    Comparisons are made between the visualization of fingerprint corrosion ridge detail on fired brass cartridge casings, where fingerprint sweat was deposited prefiring, using both ultraviolet (UV) and visible (natural daylight) light sources. A reflected ultraviolet imaging system (RUVIS), normally used for visualizing latent fingerprint sweat deposits, is compared with optical interference and digital color mapping of visible light, the latter using apparatus constructed to easily enable selection of the optimum viewing angle. Results show that reflected UV, with a monochromatic UV source of 254 nm, was unable to visualize fingerprint ridge detail on any of 12 casings analyzed, whereas optical interference and digital color mapping using natural daylight yielded ridge detail on three casings. Reasons for the lack of success with RUVIS are discussed in terms of the variation in thickness of the thin film of metal oxide corrosion and absorption wavelengths for the corrosion products of brass. PMID:23488591

  11. Regenerable adsorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roychoudhury, Subir (Inventor); Perry, Jay (Inventor); Walsh, Dennis (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method for regenerable adsorption includes providing a substrate that defines at least one layer of ultra short channel length mesh capable of conducting an electrical current therethrough, coating at least a portion of the substrate with a desired sorbent for trace contaminant control or CO.sub.2 sorption, resistively heating the substrate, and passing a flowstream through the substrate and in contact with the sorbent.

  12. Studies on Vapor Adsorption Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamsundar, N.; Ramotowski, M.

    1998-01-01

    The project consisted of performing experiments on single and dual bed vapor adsorption systems, thermodynamic cycle optimization, and thermal modeling. The work was described in a technical paper that appeared in conference proceedings and a Master's thesis, which were previously submitted to NASA. The present report describes some additional thermal modeling work done subsequently, and includes listings of computer codes developed during the project. Recommendations for future work are provided.

  13. A disposable bacterial lysis cartridge (BLC) suitable for an in situ water-borne pathogen detection system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Hee; Lim, Hyun Jeong; Son, Ahjeong; Chua, Beelee

    2015-11-21

    We constructed a disposable bacterial lysis cartridge (BLC) suitable for an in situ pathogen detection system. It had an in-built micro corona discharge based ozone generator that provided ozone for cell lysis. Using a custom sample handling platform, its performance was evaluated with a Gram-positive bacterium of Bacillus subtilis. It was capable of achieving a similar degree of lysis as a commercial ultrasonic dismembrator with a P-1 microprobe in 10 min at an air pump flow rate of 29.4 ml min(-1) and an ozone generator operating voltage of 1600 V. The lysing duration could be significantly reduced to 5 min by increasing the air pump flow rate and the ozone generator operating voltage as well as by the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). PMID:26460197

  14. Catalytic reactor with disposable cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccullough, C. M.

    1973-01-01

    Catalytic reactor, disposable cartridge enclosing iron catalyst, acts as container for solid carbon formed by decomposition of carbon monoxide. Deposition of carbon in other parts of oxygen recovery system does not occur because of lack of catalytic activity; filters trap carbon particles and prevent their being transported outside reaction zone.

  15. Cartridge syringe vs computer controlled local anesthetic delivery system: Pain related behaviour over two sequential visits – a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Thoppe-Dhamodhara, Yogesh-Kumar; Asokan, Sharath; John, Baby-John; Pollachi-Ramakrishnan, GeethaPriya; Ramachandran, Punithavathy; Vilvanathan, Praburajan

    2015-01-01

    Background Local anesthetic injection is one of the most anxiety provoking procedure in dentistry. Knowledge about change in pain related behaviour during consecutive visits helps in and scheduling of treatment procedures and management of children in dental clinic. Aim To compare the pain perception, behavioural response and the associated change in physiological parameters while receiving local anesthesia injection with cartridge syringe and computer controlled local anesthetic delivery system (CCLAD) over two consecutive visits. Material and Methods In this randomized controlled cross over trial, 120 children aged 7 – 11 years were randomly divided into group A: receiving injections with CCLAD during first visit; group B: receiving injections with cartridge syringe during first visit. The physiological parameters (heart rate and blood pressure) were recorded before and during injection procedure. Objective evaluation of disruptive behaviour and subjective evaluation of pain perceived were done using Face Legs Activity Cry Consolability (FLACC) scale and modified facial image scale (FIS) respectively. Results No statistical difference in pain response (p= 0.164) and disruptive behaviour (p = 0.120) between cartridge syringe and CCLAD injections were seen during the first visit although the latter showed lesser scores. However, during the second visit there were significant increase in pain response (p = 0.004) and disruptive behaviour (p = 0.006) in cartridge syringe group with an associated increase in heart rate. Conclusions Injections with CCLAD produced lesser pain ratings and disruptive behaviour than cartridge syringe in children irrespective of order of visit. Key words:Behaviour, cartridge syringe, CCLAD, local anesthesia. PMID:26535099

  16. Quick-change filter cartridge

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.; McFarland, Andrew R.; Ortiz, Carlos A.

    1995-01-01

    A quick-change filter cartridge. In sampling systems for measurement of airborne materials, a filter element is introduced into the sampled airstream such that the aerosol constituents are removed and deposited on the filter. Fragile sampling media often require support in order to prevent rupture during sampling, and careful mounting and sealing to prevent misalignment, tearing, or creasing which would allow the sampled air to bypass the filter. Additionally, handling of filter elements may introduce cross-contamination or exposure of operators to toxic materials. Moreover, it is desirable to enable the preloading of filter media into quick-change cartridges in clean laboratory environments, thereby simplifying and expediting the filter-changing process in the field. The quick-change filter cartridge of the present invention permits the application of a variety of filter media in many types of instruments and may also be used in automated systems. The cartridge includes a base through which a vacuum can be applied to draw air through the filter medium which is located on a porous filter support and held there by means of a cap which forms an airtight seal with the base. The base is also adapted for receiving absorbing media so that both particulates and gas-phase samples may be trapped for investigation, the latter downstream of the aerosol filter.

  17. Evidence That p-Cresol and IL-6 Are Adsorbed by the HFR Cartridge: Towards a New Strategy to Decrease Systemic Inflammation in Dialyzed Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Riccio, Eleonora; Cataldi, Mauro; Minco, Maristella; Argentino, Gennaro; Russo, Roberta; Brancaccio, Stefania; Memoli, Andrea; Grumetto, Lucia; Postiglione, Loredana; Guida, Bruna; Memoli, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hemodialysis (HD) and hemodiafiltration clear only with a low efficiency the plasma from interleukin-6 and p-cresol, two protein-bound uremic toxins associated with high cardiovascular risk in end stage renal disease. HFR Supra is a double-chamber hemodiafiltration system in which the ultrafiltrate returns to the patient after its regeneration through a resin cartridge that binds hydrophobic and protein-bound solutes. In the present study, we evaluated whether the HFR cartridge can also bind total p-cresol and IL-6 and remove them from the ultrafiltrate. Methods We compared the levels of IL-6 and p-cresol in ultrafiltrate samples collected at the inlet (UFin) and at the outlet (UFout) of the cartridge at the start or at the end of a 240 min HFR session in 12 inflamed chronic HD patients. The pro-inflammatory activity of the ultrafiltrate samples was also determined by evaluating the changes that they induced in IL-6 mRNA expression and protein release in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 12 healthy volunteers. IL-6 and p-cresol circulating levels were also assessed in peripheral plasma blood samples collected before and after HFR and, for comparison, a control HD. Results p-Cresol and IL-6 were lower in UFout than in UFin both at the start and at the end of the HFR session, suggesting that they were retained by the cartridge. IL-6 mRNA expression and release were lower in PBMC incubated with UFout collected at the end than with UFin collected at the start of HFR, suggesting that passage through the cartridge reduced UF pro-inflammatory activity. Plasma total p-cresol decreased by about 53% after HFR, and 37% after HD. IL-6 circulating values were unmodified by either these dialysis procedures. Conclusions This study shows that the HFR-Supra cartridge retains total p-cresol and IL-6 in the ultrafiltrate and lowers plasma total p cresol but not IL-6 levels. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01865773 PMID:24755610

  18. Improvement of chemical analysis of antibiotics. IX. A simple method for residual tetracyclines analysis in honey using a tandem cartridge clean-up system.

    PubMed

    Oka, H; Ikai, Y; Kawamura, N; Uno, K; Yamada, M; Harada, K; Uchiyama, M; Asukabe, H; Mori, Y; Suzuki, M

    1987-03-13

    A simple, rapid and precise analytical method for the residual tetracyclines in honey has been established using a tandem cartridge clean-up system (prepacked reversed-phase and ion-exchange cartridges) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The recoveries of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC) and doxycycline (DC) from honey spiked at a level of 1.0 ppm are 87.1, 85.3, 98.0 and 99.0%, respectively, with coefficients of variation of 1.1-3.9%. The detection limits in honey are 0.02 ppm for OTC and TC, and 0.05 ppm for CTC and DC, respectively. The time required for the analysis of four samples is only 1 h. PMID:3106387

  19. CGF cartridge development, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, Carl A.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a summary of SRI's efforts in Crystal Growth Furnace cartridge developments. It includes: evaluation of molybdenum, TZM, and WC-103 as cartridge materials; a survey of oxidation resistant coatings; chemical compatibility studies of cadmium-zinc-telluride and gallium-arsenide with TZM and WC-103; a survey of future cartridge materials; and suggested improvements in ampoule design.

  20. Integrated quality control: implementation and validation of instrument function checks and procedural controls for a cartridge-based point-of-care system for critical care analysis.

    PubMed

    D'Orazio, Paul; Mansouri, Sohrab

    2013-03-01

    In this article, the process used to develop and validate an integrated quality-control system for a cartridge-based, point-of-care system for critical care analysis is outlined. Application of risk management principles has resulted in a quality control system using a combination of statistical quality control with onboard reference solutions and failure pattern recognition used to flag common failure modes during the analytical phase of the testing process. A combination of traditional external quality control, integrated quality control to monitor ongoing instrument functionality, operator training, and other laboratory-implemented monitors is most effective in controlling known failure modes during the testing process. PMID:23331731

  1. Shotgun cartridge rock breaker

    DOEpatents

    Ruzzi, Peter L.; Morrell, Roger J.

    1995-01-01

    A rock breaker uses shotgun cartridges or other firearm ammunition as the explosive charge at the bottom of a drilled borehole. The breaker includes a heavy steel rod or bar, a gun with a firing chamber for the ammunition which screws onto the rod, a long firing pin running through a central passage in the rod, and a firing trigger mechanism at the external end of the bar which strikes the firing pin to fire the cartridge within the borehole. A tubular sleeve surround the main body of the rod and includes slits the end to allow it to expand. The rod has a conical taper at the internal end against which the end of the sleeve expands when the sleeve is forced along the rod toward the taper by a nut threaded onto the external end of the rod. As the sleeve end expands, it pushes against the borehole and holds the explosive gasses within, and also prevents the breaker from flying out of the borehole. The trigger mechanism includes a hammer with a slot and a hole for accepting a drawbar or drawpin which, when pulled by a long cord, allows the cartridge to be fired from a remote location.

  2. Droplet actuator analyzer with cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Gregory F. (Inventor); Sturmer, Ryan A. (Inventor); Paik, Philip Y. (Inventor); Srinivasan, Vijay (Inventor); Pollack, Michael G. (Inventor); Pamula, Vamsee K. (Inventor); Brafford, Keith R. (Inventor); West, Richard M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A droplet actuator with cartridge is provided. According to one embodiment, a sample analyzer is provided and includes an analyzer unit comprising electronic or optical receiving means, a cartridge comprising self-contained droplet handling capabilities, and a wherein the cartridge is coupled to the analyzer unit by a means which aligns electronic and/or optical outputs from the cartridge with electronic or optical receiving means on the analyzer unit. According to another embodiment, a sample analyzer is provided and includes a sample analyzer comprising a cartridge coupled thereto and a means of electrical interface and/or optical interface between the cartridge and the analyzer, whereby electrical signals and/or optical signals may be transmitted from the cartridge to the analyzer.

  3. Chemical compatibility of cartridge materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Bryan; Wilcox, R. C.; Zee, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives were to determine the chemical compatibility of titanium-zirconium-molybdenum (TZM) with GaAs and CdZnTe, and Inconel with HgCdTe and HgZnTe. At the present time, no other studies regarding the compatibility of these crystal components and their respective cartridge materials have been performed. This study was to identify any possible problems between these materials to insure proper containment of possibly hazardous fumes during crystal growth experiments. In this study, the reaction zone between the materials was studied and the amount of degradation to the system was measured. Detailed results are presented.

  4. Cartridge Valves: A New Technology for Fluid Power Transmission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruen, Clem; Garrett, Jim

    1985-01-01

    Describes a new technology--the cartridge or logic valve, which streamlines hydraulic systems by decreasing the number of individual components and increasing system efficiency. The author describes and illustrates the principles and components of the valve, explains the types of cartridge inserts, and discusses applications of the system. (CT)

  5. Plumbing Fixture for a Microfluidic Cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    A fixture has been devised for making the plumbing connections between a microfluidic device in a replaceable cartridge and an external fluidic system. The fixture includes a 0.25-in. (6.35-mm) thick steel plate, to which the cartridge is fastened by two 10-32 thumb screws. The plate holds one plumbing fitting for the inlet and one for the outlet of the microfluidic device. Each fitting includes a fused-silica tube of 0.006-in. (approx.0.15-mm) inside diameter within a fluorinated ethylene-propylene (FEP) tube of 0.0155-in. (approx.0.39-mm) inside diameter and 0.062- in. (approx.1.57-mm) outside diameter. The FEP tube is press-fit through the steel plate so that its exposed end is flush with the surface of the plate, and the silica tube protrudes 0.03 in. (approx.0.76 mm) from the plate/FEP-tube-end surface. The cartridge includes a glass cover plate that contains 0.06-mm-wide access ports. When the cartridge is fastened to the steel plate, the silica tubes become inserted through the access ports and into the body of the cartridge, while the ends of the FEP tubes become butted against the glass cover plate. An extremely tight seal is thereby made.

  6. Use of C18 silica cartridges to purify and characterize pterins

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, K.B.; Ferre, J.

    1986-01-01

    The C18 silica cartridge is shown to be useful to prepare samples for quantitative analysis. The concentration of the compound to be analyzed and the removal of some interfering substances can be accomplished simultaneously. The purpose of this report is to describe the basic principles that govern adsorption of pteridines to C18 silica cartridges. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, Roddie R.; Burchell, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided.

  8. Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

    1999-06-15

    Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided. 5 figs.

  9. Criticality safety evaluation report for K Basin filter cartridges

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-28

    A criticality safety evaluation of the K Basin filter cartridge assemblies was completed to support operations without criticality alarm system. The results show that for normal operation, the cartridge assembly is far below the safety limit of K eff = 0.95.

  10. Catalyst cartridge for carbon dioxide reduction unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A catalyst cartridge, for use in a carbon dioxide reducing apparatus in a life support system for space vehicles, is described. The catalyst cartridge includes an inner perforated metal wall, an outer perforated wall space outwardly from the inner wall, a base plate closing one end of the cartridge, and a cover plate closing the other end of the cartridge. The cover plate has a central aperture through which a supply line with a heater feeds a gaseous reaction mixture comprising hydrogen and carbon dioxide at a temperature from about 1000 to about 1400 F. The outer surfaces of the internal wall and the inner surfaces of the outer wall are lined with a ceramic fiber batting material of sufficient thickness to prevent carbon formed in the reaction from passing through it. The portion of the surfaces of the base and cover plates defined within the inner and outer walls are also lined with ceramic batting. The heated reaction mixture passes outwardly through the inner perforated wall and ceramic batting and over the catalyst. The solid carbon product formes is retained within the enclosure containing the catalyst. The solid carbon product formed is retained within the enclosure containing the catalyst. The water vapor and unreacted carbon dioxide and any intermediate products pass through the perforations of the outer wall.

  11. Spiral wound extraction cartridge

    DOEpatents

    Wisted, Eric E.; Lundquist, Susan H.

    1999-01-01

    A cartridge device for removing an analyte from a fluid comprises a hollow core, a sheet composite comprising a particulate-loaded porous membrane and optionally at least one reinforcing spacer sheet, the particulate being capable of binding the analyte, the sheet composite being formed into a spiral configuration about the core, wherein the sheet composite is wound around itself and wherein the windings of sheet composite are of sufficient tightness so that adjacent layers are essentially free of spaces therebetween, two end caps which are disposed over the core and the lateral ends of the spirally wound sheet composite, and means for securing the end caps to the core, the end caps also being secured to the lateral ends of the spirally wound sheet composite. A method for removing an analyte from a fluid comprises the steps of providing a spirally wound element of the invention and passing the fluid containing the analyte through the element essentially normal to a surface of the sheet composite so as to bind the analyte to the particulate of the particulate-loaded porous membrane, the method optionally including the step of eluting the bound analyte from the sheet composite.

  12. Spiral wound extraction cartridge

    DOEpatents

    Wisted, E.E.; Lundquist, S.H.

    1999-04-27

    A cartridge device for removing an analyte from a fluid comprises a hollow core, a sheet composite comprising a particulate-loaded porous membrane and optionally at least one reinforcing spacer sheet, the particulate being capable of binding the analyte, the sheet composite being formed into a spiral configuration about the core, wherein the sheet composite is wound around itself and wherein the windings of sheet composite are of sufficient tightness so that adjacent layers are essentially free of spaces therebetween, two end caps which are disposed over the core and the lateral ends of the spirally wound sheet composite, and means for securing the end caps to the core, the end caps also being secured to the lateral ends of the spirally wound sheet composite. A method for removing an analyte from a fluid comprises the steps of providing a spirally wound element of the invention and passing the fluid containing the analyte through the element essentially normal to a surface of the sheet composite so as to bind the analyte to the particulate of the particulate-loaded porous membrane, the method optionally including the step of eluting the bound analyte from the sheet composite. 4 figs.

  13. Investigation of Microgranular Adsorptive Filtration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhenxiao

    Over the past few decades, enormous advances have been made in the application of low-pressure membrane filtration to both drinking water and wastewater treatment. Nevertheless, the full potential of this technology has not been reached, due primarily to limitations imposed by membrane fouling. In drinking water treatment, much of the fouling is caused by soluble and particulate natural organic matter (NOM). Efforts to overcome the problem have focused on removal of NOM from the feed solution, usually by addition of conventional coagulants like alum and ferric chloride (FeCl3) or adsorbents like powdered activated carbon (PAC). While coagulants and adsorbents can remove a portion of the NOM, their performance with respect to fouling control has been inconsistent, often reducing fouling but sometimes having no effect or even exacerbating fouling. This research investigated microgranular adsorptive filtration (muGAF), a process that combines three existing technologies---granular media filtration, packed bed adsorption, and membrane filtration---in a novel way to reduce membrane fouling while simultaneously removing NOM from water. In this technology, a thin layer of micron-sized adsorbent particles is deposited on the membrane prior to delivering the feed to the system. The research reported here represents the first systematic study of muGAF, and the results demonstrate the promising potential of this process. A new, aluminum-oxide-based adsorbent---heated aluminum oxide particles (HAOPs)---was synthesized and shown to be very effective for NOM removal as well as fouling reduction in muGAF systems. muGAF has also been demonstrated to work well with powdered activated carbon (PAC) as the adsorbent, but not as well as when HAOPs are used; the process has also been successful when used with several different membrane types and configurations. Experiments using a wide range of operational parameters and several analytical tools lead to the conclusion that the fouling

  14. Mapping the Surface Adsorption Forces of Nanomaterials in Biological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xin R.; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Mathur, Sanjay; Song, Xuefeng; Xiao, Lisong; Oldenberg, Steven J.; Fadeel, Bengt; Riviere, Jim E.

    2011-01-01

    The biological surface adsorption index (BSAI) is a novel approach to characterize surface adsorption energy of nanomaterials that is the primary force behind nanoparticle aggregation, protein corona formation, and other complex interactions of nanomaterials within biological systems. Five quantitative nanodescriptors were obtained to represent the surface adsorption forces (hydrophobicity, hydrogen bond, polarity/polarizability, and lone-pair electrons) of the nanomaterial interaction with biological components. We have mapped the surface adsorption forces over 16 different nanomaterials. When the five-dimensional information of the nanodescriptors was reduced to two dimensions, the 16 nanomaterials were classified into distinct clusters according their surface adsorption properties. BSAI nanodescriptors are intrinsic properties of nanomaterials useful for quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) model development. This is the first success in quantitative characterization of the surface adsorption forces of nanomaterials in biological conditions, which could open a quantitative avenue in predictive nanomedicine development, risk assessment, and safety evaluation of nanomaterials. PMID:21999618

  15. Analysis of the use of adsorption processes in trigeneration systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzebielec, Andrzej; Rusowicz, Artur

    2013-12-01

    The trigeneration systems for production of cold use sorption refrigeration machines: absorption and adsorption types. Absorption systems are characterized namely by better cooling coefficient of performance, while the adsorptive systems are characterized by the ability to operate at lower temperatures. The driving heat source temperature can be as low as 60-70 °C. Such temperature of the driving heat source allows to use them in district heating systems. The article focuses on the presentation of the research results on the adsorption devices designed to work in trigeneration systems.

  16. Automatic firearm class identification from cartridge cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalakannan, Sridharan; Mann, Christopher J.; Bingham, Philip R.; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Gleason, Shaun S.

    2011-03-01

    We present a machine vision system for automatic identification of the class of firearms by extracting and analyzing two significant properties from spent cartridge cases, namely the Firing Pin Impression (FPI) and the Firing Pin Aperture Outline (FPAO). Within the framework of the proposed machine vision system, a white light interferometer is employed to image the head of the spent cartridge cases. As a first step of the algorithmic procedure, the Primer Surface Area (PSA) is detected using a circular Hough transform. Once the PSA is detected, a customized statistical region-based parametric active contour model is initialized around the center of the PSA and evolved to segment the FPI. Subsequently, the scaled version of the segmented FPI is used to initialize a customized Mumford-Shah based level set model in order to segment the FPAO. Once the shapes of FPI and FPAO are extracted, a shape-based level set method is used in order to compare these extracted shapes to an annotated dataset of FPIs and FPAOs from varied firearm types. A total of 74 cartridge case images non-uniformly distributed over five different firearms are processed using the aforementioned scheme and the promising nature of the results (95% classification accuracy) demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  17. Computed tomographic inspection of sample ampoule cartridge assemblies (SACA)

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, D.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper will describe and analyze the steps taken to provide Computed Tomographic (CT) inspection of Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) Sample Ampoule Cartridge Assemblies (SACA). These cartridges were aboard STS-73 during its micro gravity laboratory (USML-2) flight in September 1995. Available radiation sources included a Seifert 420 kilovoltage constant potential dual focal spot X-Ray system and a Gamma Industries Cobalt{sup 60} radioactive isotope camera currently containing 35 curies of source strength.

  18. Effect of cropping systems on adsorption of metals by soils: I. Single-metal adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Basta, N.T.; Tabatabai, M.A. )

    1992-02-01

    The effect of long-term cropping systems on adsorption of metals was studied for soils obtained from two sites, Clarion-Webster Research Center (CWRC site) at Kanawha and Galva-Primghar Research Center (GPRC site) at Sutherland, under long-term rotation experiments in Iowa. Each experiment consisted of three cropping systems: continuous corn (CCCC), corn-soybean-corn-soybean (CSCS), and corn-oats-meadow-meadow (COMM), and treated with (+N) and without (0 N) ammoniacal fertilizer. In general, CSCS and COMM cropping systems did not significantly affect the metal adsorption maxima of soils obtained from both sites. Cadmium, Cu, and Pb adsorption were significantly correlated with pH and percentage base saturation for soils from both sites.

  19. Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-04

    HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

  20. 30 CFR 75.1317 - Primer cartridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primer cartridges. 75.1317 Section 75.1317... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1317 Primer cartridges. (a) Primer cartridges shall be primed and loaded only by a qualified person or a person working in...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1317 - Primer cartridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Primer cartridges. 75.1317 Section 75.1317... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1317 Primer cartridges. (a) Primer cartridges shall be primed and loaded only by a qualified person or a person working in...

  2. Video Cartridges and Cassettes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kletter, Richard C.; Hudson, Heather

    The economic and social significance of video cassettes (viewer-controlled playback system) is explored in this report. The potential effect of video cassettes on industrial training, education, libraries, and television is analyzed in conjunction with the anticipated hardware developments. The entire video cassette industry is reviewed firm by…

  3. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Rosen, R.S.

    1998-06-30

    A cartridge primer is described which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML`s would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers. 10 figs.

  4. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Rosen, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    A cartridge primer which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML's would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers.

  5. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Rosen, Robert S.

    2005-04-19

    A cartridge primer which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML's would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers.

  6. Chemical compatibility of cartridge materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Roy C.; Zee, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    This twelve month progress report deals with the chemical compatibility of semiconductor crystals grown in zero gravity. Specifically, it studies the chemical compatibility between TZM, a molybdenum alloy containing titanium and zirconium, and WC 103, a titanium alloy containing Niobium and Hafnium, and Gallium arsenide (GaAs) and Cadmium Zinc Tellurite (CdZnTe). Due to the health hazards involved, three approaches were used to study the chemical compatibility between the semiconductor and cartridge materials: reaction retort, thermogravimetric analysis, and bulk cylindrical cartridge containers. A scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer was used to examine all samples after testing. The first conclusion drawn is that reaction rates with TZM were not nearly as great as they were with WC 103. Second, the total reaction between GaAs and WC 103 was almost twice that with TZM. Therefore, even though WC 103 is easier to fabricate, at least half of the cartridge thickness will be degraded if contact is made with one of the semiconductor materials leading to a loss of strength properties.

  7. Catalytic cartridge SO.sub.3 decomposer

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R.

    1982-01-01

    A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO.sub.3 decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.

  8. Catalytic cartridge SO.sub.3 decomposer

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R.

    1982-01-01

    A catalytic cartridge internally heated is utilized as a SO.sub.3 decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube being internally heated. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and being internally heated. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.

  9. Catalytic cartridge SO/sub 3/ decomposer

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-11-18

    A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO/sub 3/ decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety. A fusion reactor may be used as the heat source.

  10. Criticality safety evaluation report for K Basin filter cartridges

    SciTech Connect

    Schwinkendorf, K.N.

    1995-01-01

    A criticality safety evaluation of the K Basin filter cartridge assemblies has been completed to support operations without a criticality alarm system. The results show that for normal operation, the filter cartridge assembly is far below the safety limit of k{sub eff} = 0.95, which is applied to plutonium systems at the Hanford Site. During normal operating conditions, uranium, plutonium, and fission and corrosion products in solution are continually accumulating in the available void spaces inside the filter cartridge medium. Currently, filter cartridge assemblies are scheduled to be replaced at six month intervals in KE Basin, and at one year intervals in KW Basin. According to available plutonium concentration data for KE Basin and data for the U/Pu ratio, it will take many times the six-month replacement time for sufficient fissionable material accumulation to take place to exceed the safety limit of k{sub eff} = 0.95, especially given the conservative assumption that the presence of fission and corrosion products is ignored. Accumulation of sludge with a composition typical of that measured in the sand filter backwash pit will not lead to a k{sub eff} = 0.95 value. For off-normal scenarios, it would require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent events to take place before the k{sub eff} = 0.95 limit was exceeded. Contingencies considered include failure to replace the filter cartridge assemblies at the scheduled time resulting in additional buildup of fissionable material, the loss of geometry control from the filter cartridge assembly breaking apart and releasing the individual filter cartridges into an optimal configuration, and concentrations of plutonium at U/Pu ratios less than measured data for KE Basin, typically close to 400 according to extensive measurements in the sand filter backwash pit and plutonium production information.

  11. ALMA Band 5 Cartridge Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billade, Bhushan; Lapkin, I.; Nystrom, O.; Sundin, E.; Fredrixon, M.; Finger, R.; Rashid, H.; Desmaris, V.; Meledin, D.; Pavolotsky, A.; Belitsky, Victor

    2010-03-01

    Work presented here concerns the design and performance of the ALMA Band 5 cold cartridge, one of the 10 frequency channels of ALMA project, a radio interferometer under construction at Atacama Desert in Chile. The Band 5 cartridge is a dual polarization receiver with the polarization separation performed by orthomode transducer (OMT). For each polarization, Band 5 receiver employs sideband rejection (2SB) scheme based on quadrature layout, with SIS mixers covering 163-211 GHz with 4-8 GHz IF. The LO injection circuitry is integrated with mixer chip and is implemented on the same substrate, resulting in a compact 2SB assembly. Amongst the other ALMA bands, the ALMA Band 5 being the lowest frequency band that uses all cold optics, has the largest mirror. Consequently, ALMA Band 5 mirror along with its support structure leaves very little room for placing OMT, mixers and IF subsystems. The constraints put by the size of cold optics and limited cartridge space, required of us to revise the original 2SB design and adopt a design where all the components like OMT, mixer, IF hybrid, isolators and IF amplifier are directly connected to each other without using any co-ax cables in-between. The IF subsystem uses the space between 4 K and 15 K stage of the cartridge and is thermally connected to 4 K stage. Avoiding co-ax cabling required use of custom designed IF hybrid, furthermore, due to limited cooling capacity at 4 K stage, resistive bias circuitry for the mixers is moved to 15 K stage and the IF hybrid along with an integrated bias-T is implemented using superconducting micro-strip lines. The E-probes for both LO and RF waveguide-to-microstrip transitions are placed perpendicular to the wave direction (back-piece configuration). The RF choke at the end of the probes provides a virtual ground for the RF/LO signal, and the choke is DC grounded to the chassis. The on-chip LO injection is done using a microstrip line directional coupler with slot-line branches in the

  12. Nucleation and interfacial adsorption in ternary systems.

    PubMed

    Philippe, T

    2015-03-01

    Nucleation is studied in incompressible ternary fluids by examining the topology of the overall landscape of the energy surface. Minimum free energy paths for nucleation (MFEPs) of a single nucleus in an infinite matrix are computed with the string method in the framework of the continuum theory of nucleation for the regular solution. Properties of the critical nucleus are compared with the predictions of the classical nucleation theory. MFEPs are found to exhibit complex nucleation pathways with non-monotonic variations of compositions in the interfacial region, specifically adsorption of a component. In the symmetric regular solution, the minority component is found to segregate at the interface during nucleation with a concomitant depletion of the nucleus core, resulting in unpredicted partition of the non-selective component. Despite increasing the gradient energy, such inhomogeneity in composition is shown to lower the nucleation barrier. PMID:25747088

  13. Design theory and performance of cryogenic molecular adsorption refrigeration systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, W. H.; Woltman, A. W.; Masson, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    Closed-cycle operation of molecular adsorption refrigeration systems (MARS) has been demonstrated by using thermally cycled zeolites to adsorb and desorb various gases under pressures of 20-60 atm. This paper develops three aspects of the design theory: the physical theory of molecular adsorption of small molecules such as A, N2, N2O and NH3, the design relations for closed-cycle flow for three or more compressors, and the coefficient of performance. This work is intended to demonstrate nonmechanical gas compression for various cryogenic gases than can compete with mechanical systems with a different mix of advantages and disadvantages.

  14. Adsorption Processes in Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, Liese Dall; Finn, John E.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft must maintain a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work. The system's functions include supplying the crew with oxygen and water as well as removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used in the past, logistics and safety factors of current and future missions in space make near-complete recycling of the cabin's air and water imperative. The recycling process may include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and other processes. Several of these operations can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. These processes are frequently good candidates to perform separations and purifications in space due to their gravity independence, high reliability, relatively high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerability. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. This article focuses on three current spacecraft life support applications that often use adsorption technology: gas-phase trace contaminant control, carbon dioxide removal from cabin air, and potable water recovery from waste streams. In each application, adsorption technology has been selected for use on the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for each of these applications are discussed. Eventually, human space exploration may lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may provide additional opportunities for use of adsorption processes, such as control of greenhouse gas composition, and may have different requirements and resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Adsorption separation and

  15. Adsorption processes in spacecraft environmental control and life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DallBauman, L. A.; Finn, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft maintains a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work by supplying oxygen and water and by removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used successfully in the past for short-duration missions, the economics of current and future long-duration missions in space will make nearly complete recycling of air and water imperative. A variety of operations will be necessary to achieve the goal of nearly complete recycling. These include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and others. Several of these can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. These processes are good candidates to perform separations and purifications in space due to their gravity independence, high reliability, relative high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerative nature. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. Among the life support applications that can be achieved through use of adsorption technology are removal of trace contaminants and carbon dioxide from cabin air and recovery of potable water from waste streams. In each of these cases adsorption technology has been selected for use onboard the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for these applications are discussed. Human space exploration may eventually lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may provide additional opportunities for use of adsorption processes, such as control of greenhouse gas composition, and may have different resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Separation and purification processes based on

  16. Adsorption processes in spacecraft environmental control and life support systems.

    PubMed

    DallBauman, L A; Finn, J E

    1999-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft maintains a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work by supplying oxygen and water and by removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used successfully in the past for short-duration missions, the economics of current and future long-duration missions in space will make nearly complete recycling of air and water imperative. A variety of operations will be necessary to achieve the goal of nearly complete recycling. These include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and others. Several of these can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. These processes are good candidates to perform separations and purifications in space due to their gravity independence, high reliability, relative high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerative nature. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. Among the life support applications that can be achieved through use of adsorption technology are removal of trace contaminants and carbon dioxide from cabin air and recovery of potable water from waste streams. In each of these cases adsorption technology has been selected for use onboard the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for these applications are discussed. Human space exploration may eventually lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may provide additional opportunities for use of adsorption processes, such as control of greenhouse gas composition, and may have different resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Separation and purification processes based on

  17. CONCENTRATION AND PROCESSING OF WATERBORNE VIRUSES BY POSITIVE CHARGE 1MDS CARTRIDGE FILTERS AND ORGANIC FLOCCULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes the most widely used virus adsorption-elution (VIRADEL) method for recovering human enteric viruses from water matrices (Fout et al., 1996). The method takes advantage of postively charged cartridge filters to concentrate viruses from water. The major adv...

  18. Replaceable Microfluidic Cartridges for a PCR Biosensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Kevin; Sullivan, Ron

    2005-01-01

    The figure depicts a replaceable microfluidic cartridge that is a component of a miniature biosensor that detects target deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences. The biosensor utilizes (1) polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) to multiply the amount of DNA to be detected, (2) fluorogenic polynucleotide probe chemicals for labeling the target DNA sequences, and (3) a high-sensitivity epifluorescence-detection optoelectronic subsystem. Microfluidics is a relatively new field of device development in which one applies techniques for fabricating microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) to miniature systems for containing and/or moving fluids. Typically, microfluidic devices are microfabricated, variously, from silicon or polymers. The development of microfluidic devices for applications that involve PCR and fluorescence-based detection of PCR products poses special challenges

  19. High-Performance Water-Iodinating Cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard; Gibbons, Randall E.; Flanagan, David T.

    1993-01-01

    High-performance cartridge contains bed of crystalline iodine iodinates water to near saturation in single pass. Cartridge includes stainless-steel housing equipped with inlet and outlet for water. Bed of iodine crystals divided into layers by polytetrafluoroethylene baffles. Holes made in baffles and positioned to maximize length of flow path through layers of iodine crystals. Resulting concentration of iodine biocidal; suppresses growth of microbes in stored water or disinfects contaminated equipment. Cartridge resists corrosion and can be stored wet. Reused several times before necessary to refill with fresh iodine crystals.

  20. Solar Assisted Adsorptive Desiccant Cooling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkura, Masashi; Kodama, Akio

    Desiccant cooling processes can supply dry air by using lower temperature heat energy such as waste heat or solar heat. Especially, solar heat is useful heat source for the desiccant cooling since solar heat in summer tends to be surplus. This paper discusses the hourly cooling performance of the solar assisted desiccant cooling system, which consists of a desiccant wheel, a thermal wheel, two evaporative coolers, a cooling coil and flat plate solar water heater, assuming that the cooling system is applied to an office room of 250m3 in volume. The estimation indicated that the surface area needed to satisfy the dehumidifying performance in a sunny day was at least 30m2. Furthermore, surface area of 40m2 or larger provided a surplus dehumidifying performance causing a sensible cooling effect in evaporative cooler. Surface area of 30 m2 did not satisfy the dehumidifying performance required for high humidity condition, over 18.0g/kg(DA). The cooling demand of the cooling coil increased in such humidity condition due to the decrease in the sensible cooling effect of evaporative cooler. Auxiliary heater was required in a cloudy day since the temperature of water supplied from solar water heater of 40m2 did not reach sufficient level.

  1. Solar Assisted Adsorptive Desiccant Cooling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkura, Masashi; Kodama, Akio

    Solar assisted desiccant coo1ing process is an effective means to reduce a latent heat load of the ventilation air. This paper describes the influences of ambient humidity and sensible heat factor (SHF) of the indoor room on the performance and scale of the desiccant cooling system. Two process configurations termed “ambient air mode” and “mixed air mode” were assumed. At “ambient air mode”, only ambient air is dehumidified and cooled in the desiccant process. The dehumidified air stream is mixed with return air and further cooled in the cooling coil. At “mixed air mode”, ambient air is mixed with return air and this mixed air stream is dehumidified in the desiccant process and cooled at the cooling coil. At “ambient air mode”, ambient air humidity had a significant impact on required amount of dehumidification since humid ambient air entered the desiccant process directly. In this case, higher temperature level and quantity, which is impossible to be supplied from commonly commercialized flat panel solar collectors, was required. At “mixed air mode”, the influence of increase of ambient humidity was not significant since humidity of the air entering the desiccant process became low by mixing with return air. At this mode, it was expected that 70°C of the circulating water and 37m2 of surface area of solar collector could produce a sufficient dehumidifying performance even in high latent heat condition. The contributing ratio of the desiccant wheel was also estimated. The ratio increased in higher latent heat condition due to increase of required amount of dehumidification. The contributing ratio of the thermal wheel became lower due to increase of saturated air temperature in the evaporative cooler.

  2. Van der Waals density functional applied to adsorption systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Ikutaro

    2013-03-01

    The van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) is a promising density functional to describe the van der Waals forces within density functional theory. However, despite the recent efforts, there is still room for further improvement, especially for describing molecular adsorption on metal surfaces. I will show that by choosing appropriate exchange and nonlocal correlation functionals, it is possible to calculate geometries and electronic structures for adsorption systems accurately within the framework of vdW-DF. Applicability of the present approach will be illustrated with its applications to graphene/metal, fullerene/metal, and water/graphene interfaces. This work is partly supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Area (No. 23104501). AIMR was established by the World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI), MEXT, Japan.

  3. ALMA band 3 cartridge maintenance plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Keith; Seifried, Kerry; Randolph, William

    2012-09-01

    Under the "Memorandum of Understanding between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)/Associated Universities Incorporated (AUI), Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics (HIA) and the University of Calgary related to Canadian ALMA Construction Phase Work Packages", HIA is committed to deliver a suite of seventy-three Band 3 100 GHz receiver cartridges to the ALMA Project. After the acceptance of each cartridge at the Front End Integration Centers, HIA is responsible to perform any post-delivery maintenance, repair or rework of the cartridges for a warranty period of up to one year. This paper defines a framework for the maintenance and repair services for the Band 3 cartridges after the post-delivery warranty period has expired.

  4. 21 CFR 872.6770 - Cartridge syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... syringe is a device intended to inject anesthetic agents subcutaneously or intramuscularly. The device... cartridge) containing anesthetic is placed. After attaching a needle to the syringe body and activating...

  5. 21 CFR 872.6770 - Cartridge syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... syringe is a device intended to inject anesthetic agents subcutaneously or intramuscularly. The device... cartridge) containing anesthetic is placed. After attaching a needle to the syringe body and activating...

  6. 21 CFR 872.6770 - Cartridge syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... syringe is a device intended to inject anesthetic agents subcutaneously or intramuscularly. The device... cartridge) containing anesthetic is placed. After attaching a needle to the syringe body and activating...

  7. 21 CFR 872.6770 - Cartridge syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... syringe is a device intended to inject anesthetic agents subcutaneously or intramuscularly. The device... cartridge) containing anesthetic is placed. After attaching a needle to the syringe body and activating...

  8. 21 CFR 872.6770 - Cartridge syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... syringe is a device intended to inject anesthetic agents subcutaneously or intramuscularly. The device... cartridge) containing anesthetic is placed. After attaching a needle to the syringe body and activating...

  9. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  10. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  11. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  12. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  13. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  14. 42 CFR 84.192 - Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.192 Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be essentially equal....

  15. 42 CFR 84.192 - Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.192 Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be essentially equal....

  16. 42 CFR 84.192 - Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.192 Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be essentially equal....

  17. 42 CFR 84.192 - Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.192 Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be essentially equal....

  18. 42 CFR 84.192 - Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.192 Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be essentially equal....

  19. Synthesis of Ordered Mesoporous Silica for Energy-efficient Adsorption Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Akira; Komori, Kou; Inagi, Yuki; Fujisaki, Satoko; Yamamoto, Takuji

    Energy-efficient adsorption systems, such as adsorption heat pump, desiccant cooling, humidity control system, and so on, are expected as a energy exchange process because they are able to utilize low temperature exhaust heat. As an adsorbent for such systems, materials with large adsorption capacity in the pressure range of practical operation are preferable. To enable the design and synthesis of materials with large heat storage capacity, the pore structure of adsorbents should be optimized for each systems. In this paper, we synthesized ordered mesoporous silica (MPS) with an arrow pore size distribution of around 2nm by a solvent evaporation method and evaluated their water adsorption properties. The adsorption isotherms for MPSs showed steep increase at a relative humidity corresponding to their pore size. Since MPSs have a large adsorption capacity than conventional materials in the relative humidity region of practical operation, they are expected for new adsorbents for energy-efficient adsorption systems.

  20. Adsorption bed models used in simulation of atmospheric control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    Two separate techniques were used to obtain important basic data for the adsorption of seven liquid and eight gaseous trace contaminants. A columetric system used in previous HSC studies was modified to determine the HSC capacity of all the contaminants. A second study of six of the liquids was performed in a gas chromatorgraph. The results of these two studies are reported in two parts. First, a brief summary of the chromatographic results are given. Second, a thesis is given which reports in some detail the results of the volumetric studies. Comparison of the data that are common to both studies are also included.

  1. [Application of classical isothermal adsorption models in heavy metal ions/ diatomite system and related problems].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian; Wu, Qing-Ding; Wang, Ping; Li, Ke-Lin; Lei, Ming-Jing; Zhang, Wei-Li

    2013-11-01

    In order to fully understand adsorption nature of Cu2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Mn2+, Fe3+ onto natural diatomite, and to find problems of classical isothermal adsorption models' application in liquid/solid system, a series of isothermal adsorption tests were conducted. As results indicate, the most suitable isotherm models for describing adsorption of Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Fe3+ onto natural diatomite are Tenkin, Tenkin, Langmuir, Tenkin, Freundlich and Freundlich, respectively, the adsorption of each ion onto natural diatomite is mainly a physical process, and the adsorption reaction is favorable. It also can be found that, when using classical isothermal adsorption models to fit the experimental data in liquid/solid system, the equilibrium adsorption amount q(e) is not a single function of ion equilibrium concentration c(e), while is a function of two variables, namely c(e) and the adsorbent concentration W0, q(e) only depends on c(e)/W(0). Results also show that the classical isothermal adsorption models have a significant adsorbent effect, and their parameter values are unstable, the simulation values of parameter differ greatly from the measured values, which is unhelpful for practical use. The tests prove that four-adsorption-components model can be used for describing adsorption behavior of single ion in nature diatomite-liquid system, its parameters k and q(m) have constant values, which is favorable for practical quantitative calculation in a given system. PMID:24455943

  2. A polypropylene cartridge filter with hematite nanoparticles for solid particles retention and arsenic removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaszewska, Justyna; Jakubiak, Szymon; Michalski, Jakub; Pronk, Wouter; Hug, Stephan J.; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J.

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we report a processing route for deposition of hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles into a cartridge filter composed of polypropylene (PP) non-woven fabric by a dip-coating method. During the process, a plasma activated non-woven fabric was immersed in an electrostatically stabilized aqueous hematite suspension under low vacuum conditions. Oxygen groups introduced onto the surface of the polymer provide a strong attachment of hematite nanoparticles to the polypropylene surface, confirmed under conditions of ultrasound. Preliminary tests demonstrated the efficiency of the cartridge in treating spring water with moderate arsenic concentrations, with kinetics and extent of adsorption showing a good correlation to a Langmuir adsorption model.

  3. Penetrating ocular trauma associated with blank cartridge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blank cartridge guns are generally regarded as being harmless and relative safe. However recent published articles demonstrated that the gas pressure from the exploding propellant of blank cartridge is powerful enough to penetrate the thoracic wall, abdominal muscle, small intestine and the skull. And there has been a limited number of case reports of ocular trauma associated with blank cartridge injury. In addition, no report on case with split extraocular muscle injury with traumatic cataract and penetrating corneoscleral wound associated with blank cartridge has been previously documented. This report describes the case of patient who sustained penetrating ocular injury with extraocular muscle injury by a close-distance blank cartridge that required surgical intervention. Case presentation A 20-year-old man sustained a penetrating globe injury in the right eye while cleaning a blank cartridge pistol. His uncorrected visual acuity at presentation was hand motion and he had a flame burn of his right upper and lower lid with multiple missile wounds. On slit-lamp examination, there was a 12-mm laceration of conjunctiva along the 9 o'clock position with two pinhole-like penetrating injuries of cornea and sclera. There was also a 3-mm corneal laceration between 9 o'clock and 12 o'clock and the exposed lateral rectus muscle was split. Severe Descemet's membrane folding with stromal edema was observed, and numerous yellow, powder-like foreign bodies were impacted in the cornea. Layered anterior chamber bleeding with traumatic cataract was also noted. Transverse view of ultrasonography showed hyperechoic foreign bodies with mild reduplication echoes and shadowing. However, a computed tomographic scan using thin section did not reveal a radiopaque foreign body within the right globe. Conclusion To our best knowledge, this is the first case report of split extraocular muscle injury with traumatic cataract and penetrating ocular injury caused by blank cartridge

  4. Absorption and adsorption chillers applied to air conditioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuczyńska, Agnieszka; Szaflik, Władysław

    2010-07-01

    This work presents an application possibility of sorption refrigerators driven by low temperature fluid for air conditioning of buildings. Thermodynamic models were formulated and absorption LiBr-water chiller with 10 kW cooling power as well as adsorption chiller with silica gel bed were investigated. Both of them are using water for desorption process with temperature Tdes = 80 °C. Coefficient of performance (COP) for both cooling cycles was analyzed in the same conditions of the driving heat source, cooling water Tc = 25 °C and temperature in evaporator Tevap = 5 °C. In this study, the computer software EES was used to investigate the performance of absorption heat pump system and its behaviour in configuration with geothermal heat source.

  5. A self-contained polymeric cartridge for automated biological sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guolin; Lee, Daniel Yoke San; Xie, Hong; Chiew, Deon; Hsieh, Tseng-Ming; Ali, Emril Mohamed; Lun Looi, Xing; Li, Mo-Huang; Ying, Jackie Y

    2011-09-01

    Sample preparation is one of the most crucial processes for nucleic acids based disease diagnosis. Several steps are required for nucleic acids extraction, impurity washes, and DNA/RNA elution. Careful sample preparation is vital to the obtaining of reliable diagnosis, especially with low copies of pathogens and cells. This paper describes a low-cost, disposable lab cartridge for automatic sample preparation, which is capable of handling flexible sample volumes of 10 μl to 1 ml. This plastic cartridge contains all the necessary reagents for pathogen and cell lysis, DNA/RNA extraction, impurity washes, DNA/RNA elution and waste processing in a completely sealed cartridge. The entire sample preparation processes are automatically conducted within the cartridge on a desktop unit using a pneumatic fluid manipulation approach. Reagents transportation is achieved with a combination of push and pull forces (with compressed air and vacuum, respectively), which are connected to the pneumatic inlets at the bottom of the cartridge. These pneumatic forces are regulated by pinch valve manifold and two pneumatic syringe pumps within the desktop unit. The performance of this pneumatic reagent delivery method was examined. We have demonstrated the capability of the on-cartridge RNA extraction and cancer-specific gene amplification from 10 copies of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The on-cartridge DNA recovery efficiency was 54-63%, which was comparable to or better than the conventional manual approach using silica spin column. The lab cartridge would be suitable for integration with lab-chip real-time polymerase chain reaction devices in providing a portable system for decentralized disease diagnosis. PMID:22662036

  6. Predicting Boron, Molybdenum, Selenium, and Arsenic Adsorption in Soil Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A chemical surface complexation model was applied to boron, molybdenum, selenium, and arsenic adsorption on up to 49 soils selected for variation in soil properties. The surface complexation model was able to fit boron, molybdenum, selenite, and arsenate adsorption on the soils. General regression...

  7. Educational Uses of Cartridge Tapes. Dissemination Document No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, S. Joseph

    Tape cartridges for use by special education teachers are analyzed according to design, effective use, and availability. Basic operating principles of cassette and continuous loop tape cartridges are described and illustrated. Advantages of tape cartridges are indicated, such as the following: the position is saved on tape during student timeouts,…

  8. 42 CFR 84.193 - Cartridges; color and markings; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cartridges; color and markings; requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.193 Cartridges; color and markings; requirements. The color...

  9. 42 CFR 84.193 - Cartridges; color and markings; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cartridges; color and markings; requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.193 Cartridges; color and markings; requirements. The color...

  10. 42 CFR 84.193 - Cartridges; color and markings; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cartridges; color and markings; requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.193 Cartridges; color and markings; requirements. The color...

  11. 42 CFR 84.193 - Cartridges; color and markings; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cartridges; color and markings; requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.193 Cartridges; color and markings; requirements. The color...

  12. 42 CFR 84.193 - Cartridges; color and markings; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cartridges; color and markings; requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.193 Cartridges; color and markings; requirements. The color...

  13. Gradient Heating Facility. Experiment cartridges. Description and general specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breton, J.

    1982-01-01

    Specifications that define experiment cartridges that are compatible with the furnace of the gradient heating facility on board the Spacelab are presented. They establish a standard cartridge design independent of the type of experiment to be conducted. By using them, experimenters can design, construct, and test the hot section of the cartridge, known as the high temperature nacelle.

  14. 42 CFR 84.190 - Chemical cartridge respirators: description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators: description. 84.190... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.190 Chemical cartridge respirators: description. (a) Chemical...

  15. 42 CFR 84.190 - Chemical cartridge respirators: description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators: description. 84.190... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.190 Chemical cartridge respirators: description. (a) Chemical...

  16. 42 CFR 84.190 - Chemical cartridge respirators: description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators: description. 84.190... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.190 Chemical cartridge respirators: description. (a) Chemical...

  17. 42 CFR 84.190 - Chemical cartridge respirators: description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators: description. 84.190... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.190 Chemical cartridge respirators: description. (a) Chemical...

  18. 42 CFR 84.190 - Chemical cartridge respirators: description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators: description. 84.190... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.190 Chemical cartridge respirators: description. (a) Chemical...

  19. A cartridge based sensor array platform for multiple coagulation measurements from plasma.

    PubMed

    Cakmak, O; Ermek, E; Kilinc, N; Bulut, S; Baris, I; Kavakli, I H; Yaralioglu, G G; Urey, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a MEMS-based sensor array enabling multiple clot-time tests for plasma in one disposable microfluidic cartridge. The versatile LoC (Lab-on-Chip) platform technology is demonstrated here for real-time coagulation tests (activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) and Prothrombin Time (PT)). The system has a reader unit and a disposable cartridge. The reader has no electrical connections to the cartridge. This enables simple and low-cost cartridge designs and avoids reliability problems associated with electrical connections. The cartridge consists of microfluidic channels and MEMS microcantilevers placed in each channel. The microcantilevers are made of electroplated nickel. They are actuated remotely using an external electro-coil and the read-out is also conducted remotely using a laser. The phase difference between the cantilever oscillation and the coil drive is monitored in real time. During coagulation, the viscosity of the blood plasma increases resulting in a change in the phase read-out. The proposed assay was tested on human and control plasma samples for PT and aPTT measurements. PT and aPTT measurements from control plasma samples are comparable with the manufacturer's datasheet and the commercial reference device. The measurement system has an overall 7.28% and 6.33% CV for PT and aPTT, respectively. For further implementation, the microfluidic channels of the cartridge were functionalized for PT and aPTT tests by drying specific reagents in each channel. Since simultaneous PT and aPTT measurements are needed in order to properly evaluate the coagulation system, one of the most prominent features of the proposed assay is enabling parallel measurement of different coagulation parameters. Additionally, the design of the cartridge and the read-out system as well as the obtained reproducible results with 10 μl of the plasma samples suggest an opportunity for a possible point-of-care application. PMID:25353144

  20. Microfluidic cartridges for DNA purification and genotyping processed in standard laboratory instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focke, Maximilian; Mark, Daniel; Stumpf, Fabian; Müller, Martina; Roth, Günter; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix

    2011-06-01

    Two microfluidic cartridges intended for upgrading standard laboratory instruments with automated liquid handling capability by use of centrifugal forces are presented. The first microfluidic cartridge enables purification of DNA from human whole blood and is operated in a standard laboratory centrifuge. The second microfluidic catridge enables genotyping of pathogens by geometrically multiplexed real-time PCR. It is operated in a slightly modified off-the-shelf thermal cycler. Both solutions aim at smart and cost-efficient ways to automate work flows in laboratories. The DNA purification cartridge automates all liquid handling steps starting from a lysed blood sample to PCR ready DNA. The cartridge contains two manually crushable glass ampoules with liquid reagents. The DNA yield extracted from a 32 μl blood sample is 192 +/- 30 ng which corresponds to 53 +/- 8% of a reference extraction. The genotyping cartridge is applied to analyse isolates of the multi-resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA) by real-time PCR. The wells contain pre-stored dry reagents such as primers and probes. Evaluation of the system with 44 genotyping assays showed a 100% specificity and agreement with the reference assays in standard tubes. The lower limit of detection was well below 10 copies of DNA per reaction.

  1. Specification for IBM/IBM compatible 3480 tape cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jimmy L.

    1988-01-01

    This document establishes the same kinds of standards and controls that are currently in use for the procurement on new analog and digital magnetic tapes. The Magnetic Tape Certification Facility (MTCF) currently maintains a Quality Products List (QPL) for all new analog and digital magnetic tapes purchased by NASA-GSFC. Extensive tests are conducted in the MTCF on an annual basis to determine the manufacturer's tape types to be added to or deleted from the current QPL. The MTCF currently maintains two specifications for magnetic tapes: NASA TM-79724 is used for the QPL and acceptance testing of new analog tapes; and NASA TM-80599 is used for the QPL and acceptance testing of new digital tapes. This specification will be used for the QPL and acceptance testing of new 3480 cartridges. The magnetic tapes used by GSFC, LaRC, ARC/Dryden, WFF, and the Network Tracking Stations are covered by the NASA-GSFC specifications. The 3480 cartridge was introduced approximately 3.5 years ago and is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to digital magnetic tapes. Many users have already converted to the 3480 system and have more tape drives on order.

  2. Intelligent image capture of cartridge cases for firearms examiners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brett C.; Guerci, Joseph R.

    1997-02-01

    The FBI's DRUGFIRETM system is a nationwide computerized networked image database of ballistic forensic evidence. This evidence includes images of cartridge cases and bullets obtained from both crime scenes and controlled test firings of seized weapons. Currently, the system is installed in over 80 forensic labs across the country and has enjoyed a high degree of success. In this paper, we discuss some of the issues and methods associated with providing a front-end semi-automated image capture system that simultaneously satisfies the often conflicting criteria of the many human examiners visual perception versus the criteria associated with optimizing autonomous digital image correlation. Specifically, we detail the proposed processing chain of an intelligent image capture system (IICS), involving a real- time capture 'assistant,' which assesses the quality of the image under test utilizing a custom designed neural network.

  3. Cartridge output testing - Methods to overcome closed-bomb shortcomings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1991-01-01

    Although the closed-bomb test has achieved virtually universal acceptance for measuring the output performance of pyrotechnic cartridges, there are serious shortcomings in its ability to quantify the performance of cartridges used as energy sources for pyrotechnic-activated mechanical devices. This paper presents several examples of cartridges (including the NASA Standard Initiator NSI) that successfully met closed-bomb performance requirements, but resulted in functional failures in mechanisms. To resolve these failures, test methods were developed to demonstrate a functional margin, based on comparing energy required to accomplish the function to energy deliverable by the cartridge.

  4. Electric cartridge-type heater for producing a given non-uniform axial power distribution

    DOEpatents

    Clark, D.L.; Kress, T.S.

    1975-10-14

    An electric cartridge heater is provided to simulate a reactor fuel element for use in safety and thermal-hydraulic tests of model nuclear reactor systems. The electric heat-generating element of the cartridge heater consists of a specifically shaped strip of metal cut with variable width from a flat sheet of the element material. When spirally wrapped around a mandrel, the strip produces a coiled element of the desired length and diameter. The coiled element is particularly characterized by an electrical resistance that varies along its length due to variations in strip width. Thus, the cartridge heater is constructed such that it will produce a more realistic simulation of the actual nonuniform (approximately ''chopped'' cosine) power distribution of a reactor fuel element.

  5. Index to 8mm Motion Cartridges. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. National Information Center for Educational Media.

    Research at the National Information Center for Educational Media has shown that the 8mm motion cartridge with optical and magnetic sound seems to meet the basic tenets of a prime educational criterion for an educational medium--that it be available to the learner at his convenience. This is a bibliographical source for 8mm motion cartridges, and…

  6. 21 CFR 520.1450b - Morantel tartrate cartridge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Morantel tartrate cartridge. 520.1450b Section 520.1450b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1450b Morantel tartrate cartridge. (a) Specifications. The...

  7. Adsorption/desorption in a system consisting of humic acid, heavy metals, and clay minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, A.; Gonzalez, R.D.

    1999-10-01

    Metal adsorption/desorption in a system consisting of humic acid, metal ions, and clay minerals is described. Montmorillonite and purified humic acid were selected as prototype materials for this study. At a constant ionic strength, the amount of humic acid adsorbed on montmorillonite decreases when pH is increased. A slight increase in humic acid adsorption on montmorillonite is observed when there are bivalent metals present in the system. The metal adsorption on montmorillonite does not correlate to the amount of humic acid adsorbed on montmorillonite. Montmorillonite with preadsorbed humic acid does not show a significant change in the capacity of adsorbed metal ions. An increase in the ionic strength at a pH of 6.5 results in an increase in the adsorption of lead on montmorillonite in the presence of humic acid, while at a lower pH, the increase in ionic strength results in a decrease in metal adsorption. The bridging of bivalent metal ions between montmorillonite and humic acid is proposed as the dominant adsorption mechanism.

  8. EVALUATION OF CARTRIDGE FILTERS FOR REMOVAL OF SMALL FIBERS FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to completion of new water treatment facilities in Duluth, Minnesota, contamination of the community's water supply by amphibole fibers led to widespread use of individual filtration systems in homes and public buildings. Laboratory tests of several types of cartridge filte...

  9. Research and Development of a Small-Scale Adsorption Cooling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Yeshpal

    The world is grappling with two serious issues related to energy and climate change. The use of solar energy is receiving much attention due to its potential as one of the solutions. Air conditioning is particularly attractive as a solar energy application because of the near coincidence of peak cooling loads with the available solar power. Recently, researchers have started serious discussions of using adsorptive processes for refrigeration and heat pumps. There is some success for the >100 ton adsorption systems but none exists in the <10 ton size range required for residential air conditioning. There are myriad reasons for the lack of small-scale systems such as low Coefficient of Performance (COP), high capital cost, scalability, and limited performance data. A numerical model to simulate an adsorption system was developed and its performance was compared with similar thermal-powered systems. Results showed that both the adsorption and absorption systems provide equal cooling capacity for a driving temperature range of 70--120 ºC, but the adsorption system is the only system to deliver cooling at temperatures below 65 ºC. Additionally, the absorption and desiccant systems provide better COP at low temperatures, but the COP's of the three systems converge at higher regeneration temperatures. To further investigate the viability of solar-powered heat pump systems, an hourly building load simulation was developed for a single-family house in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Thermal as well as economic performance comparison was conducted for adsorption, absorption, and solar photovoltaic (PV) powered vapor compression systems for a range of solar collector area and storage capacity. The results showed that for a small collector area, solar PV is more cost-effective whereas adsorption is better than absorption for larger collector area. The optimum solar collector area and the storage size were determined for each type of solar system. As part of this dissertation

  10. Pattern recognition in a database of cartridge cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geradts, Zeno J.; Bijhold, Jurrien; Hermsen, Rob

    1999-02-01

    Several systems exist for collecting spent ammunition for forensic investigation. These databases store images of cartridge cases and the marks on them. The research in this paper is focused on the different methods of feature selection and pattern recognition that can be used for comparison. For automatic comparison of these images it is necessary to extract firstly the useful parts of the images. On databases of 3800 images several processing steps have been tested and compared. The results and methods, which have been implemented, are presented. The usual correlation methods based on gray values of all relevant image data have been tested. They were useful in the database. Further invariant image descriptors and the a trous wavelet transform have been implemented. These methods are promising, however more investigation is needed for the use of these methods.

  11. Characterization of adsorption of aqueous arsenite and arsenate onto charred dolomite in microcolumn systems.

    PubMed

    Salameh, Yousef; Al-Muhtaseb, Ala'a H; Mousa, Hasan; Walker, Gavin M; Ahmad, Mohammad N M

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the removal of arsenite, As(III), and arsenate, As(V), from aqueous solutions onto thermally processed dolomite (charred dolomite) via microcolumn was evaluated. The effects of mass of adsorbent (0.5-2 g), initial arsenic concentration (50-2000 ppb) and particle size (<0.355-2 mm) on the adsorption capacity of charred dolomite in a microcolumn were investigated. It was found that the adsorption of As(V) and As(III) onto charred dolomite exhibited a characteristic 'S' shape. The adsorption capacity increased as the initial arsenic concentration increased. A slow decrease in the column adsorption capacity was noted as the particle size increased from>0.335 to 0.710-2.00 mm. For the binary system, the experimental data show that the adsorption of As(V) and As(III) was independent of both ions in solution. The experimental data obtained from the adsorption process were successfully correlated with the Thomas Model and Bed Depth Service Time Model. PMID:25244130

  12. Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery: Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery Climate Control System

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-31

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing a low-cost, compact, high-capacity, advanced thermoadsorptive battery (ATB) for effective climate control of EVs. The ATB provides both heating and cooling by taking advantage of the materials’ ability to adsorb a significant amount of water. This efficient battery system design could offer up as much as a 30% increase in driving range compared to current EV climate control technology. The ATB provides high-capacity thermal storage with little-to-no electrical power consumption. The ATB is also looking to explore the possibility of shifting peak electricity loads for cooling and heating in a variety of other applications, including commercial and residential buildings, data centers, and telecom facilities.

  13. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm of anionic dyes onto organo-bentonite from single and multisolute systems.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dazhong; Fan, Jianxin; Zhou, Weizhi; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Kang, Qi

    2009-12-15

    The performances of polydiallydimethylammonium modified bentonite (PDADMA-bentonite) as an adsorbent to remove anionic dyes, namely Acid Scarlet GR (AS-GR), Acid Turquoise Blue 2G (ATB-2G) and Indigo Carmine (IC), were investigated in single, binary and ternary dye systems. In adsorption from single dye solutions with initial concentration of 100 micromol/L, the dosage of PDADMA-bentonite needed to remove 95% dye was 0.42, 0.68 and 0.75 g/L for AS-GR, ATB-2G and IC, respectively. The adsorption isotherms of the three dyes obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model with the equilibrium constants of 0.372, 0.629 and 4.31 L/micromol, the saturation adsorption amount of 176.3, 149.2 and 228.7 micromol/g for ATB-2G, IC and AS-GR, respectively. In adsorption from mixed dye solutions, the isotherm of each individual dye followed an expanded Langmuir isotherm model and the relationship between the total amount of dyes adsorbed and the total equilibrium dye concentration was interpreted well by Langmuir isotherm model. In the region of insufficient dosage of PDADMA-bentonite, the dye with a larger affinity was preferentially removed by adsorption. Desorption was observed in the kinetic curve of the dye with lower affinity on PDADMA-bentonite surface by the competitive adsorption. The kinetics in single dye solution and the total adsorption of dyes in binary and ternary dye systems nicely followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. PMID:19631461

  14. A compact point-of-use water purification cartridge for household use in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajshree A; Ahmad, Dilshad; Kausley, Shankar B; Balkunde, Pradeep L; Malhotra, Chetan P

    2015-03-01

    Simple, low-cost household interventions are known to be effective in lowering the incidence of waterborne diseases in developing countries. However, high costs along with operational and maintenance issues have prevented the successful adoption of these interventions among the affected communities. To address these limitations, a cost-effective, gravity-driven water purification cartridge has been developed by employing the synergistic disinfection action of low concentrations of silver and chlorine on bacteria and viruses. The silver and chlorine treatment components within the cartridge have been developed using inexpensive materials and integrated with a life indicator and auto-shut-off-mechanism within a compact form factor. The antibacterial as well as antiviral performance of the cartridge was tested by using ground water spiked with Escherichia coli and MS2 bacteriophage. The results show that, although individually, the silver and chlorine treatment systems were unable to inactivate the test strains, the integrated cartridge inactivates both bacteria as well as viruses up to the log reduction requirement of the USEPA guide standard for microbiological water purifiers over its designated life of 2,000 liters. PMID:25719469

  15. Direct coupling between stress, strain and adsorption reactions - A study on coal-CO2 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hol, S.; Peach, C. J.; Spiers, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Though it is well-known that adsorption reactions frequently assist deformation of porous rocks, very little understanding exists on the direct coupling with stress state and strain. One of the materials in which adsorption plays a large role is coal, as is observed in the particular case of Enhanced Coalbed Methane Production (ECBM), which involves the geological storage of CO2 and the recovery of CH4. In this case, adsorption and the associated swelling cause significant injectivity problems, which is experienced in almost all pilot field projects to date. This suggests that indeed a strong fundamental coupling exists between CO2 sorption, changes in the mechanical state of the coal matrix and changes in the transport properties of the system, and illustrates the need to understand coupled stress-strain-sorption behaviour. In this contribution, we describe several important observations made on coal-CO2 systems that can learn us about many other natural, stressed adsorbate-adsorbent systems. In our experiments, first of all, the adsorption of CO2 in the coal matrix gave rise to swelling. Although this is well-known, we found that the total volumetric strain occurring under unconfined conditions can be realistically modelled (up to at least 100 MPa) as the sum of an adsorption-related expansion term and an elastic compression term. Second, effective in situ stresses will directly reduce the sorption capacity, and associated swelling of the coal matrix significantly. Our general thermodynamic model for the effect of a 3D stress state on adsorbed CO2 concentration supports this observation, and also shows that "self-stressing", as a result of CO2 adsorption occurring under conditions of restricted or zero strain (i.e. fully constrained conditions), will more than double the expected in situ stresses. A constitutive equation was developed to describe the full coupling between stress state, total strain (i.e. combined strain of adsorption processes and poroelasticity

  16. Adsorption and Processes in Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dall-Bauman, Liese; Finn, John E.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft must maintain a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work. The system's functions include supplying the crew with oxygen and water, as well as removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used in the past, logistics and safety factors of current and future missions in space make near-complete recycling of the cabin's air and water desirable. The recycling process may include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and other processes. Several of these operations can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. Adsorption processes are frequently good candidates for separation and purification in space by virtue of such characteristics as gravity independence, high reliability, relatively high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerability. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. This article focuses on three current spacecraft life support applications that often use adsorption technology: carbon dioxide separation from cabin air, gas-phase trace contaminant control, and potable water recovery from waste streams. In each application, adsorption technology has been selected for use on the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for each application are discussed. Eventually, human space exploration may lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may have additional applications, such as control of greenhouse gas composition and purification of hydroponic solutions, and may have different requirements and resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Adsorption

  17. Preparation of a new adsorbent from activated carbon and carbon nanofiber (AC/CNF) for manufacturing organic-vacbpour respirator cartridge

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this study a composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofiber (AC/CNF) was prepared to improve the performance of activated carbon (AC) for adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and its utilization for respirator cartridges. Activated carbon was impregnated with a nickel nitrate catalyst precursor and carbon nanofibers (CNF) were deposited directly on the AC surface using catalytic chemical vapor deposition. Deposited CNFs on catalyst particles in AC micropores, were activated by CO2 to recover the surface area and micropores. Surface and textural characterizations of the prepared composites were investigated using Brunauer, Emmett and Teller’s (BET) technique and electron microscopy respectively. Prepared composite adsorbent was tested for benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) adsorption and then employed in an organic respirator cartridge in granular form. Adsorption studies were conducted by passing air samples through the adsorbents in a glass column at an adjustable flow rate. Finally, any adsorbed species not retained by the adsorbents in the column were trapped in a charcoal sorbent tube and analyzed by gas chromatography. CNFs with a very thin diameter of about 10-20 nm were formed uniformly on the AC/CNF. The breakthrough time for cartridges prepared with CO2 activated AC/CNF was 117 minutes which are significantly longer than for those cartridges prepared with walnut shell- based activated carbon with the same weight of adsorbents. This study showed that a granular form CO2 activated AC/CNF composite could be a very effective alternate adsorbent for respirator cartridges due to its larger adsorption capacities and lower weight. PMID:23369424

  18. 42 CFR 84.1154 - Canister and cartridge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may... Gas Masks § 84.1154 Canister and cartridge requirements. (a) Where two or more canisters or...

  19. 42 CFR 84.1154 - Canister and cartridge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may... Gas Masks § 84.1154 Canister and cartridge requirements. (a) Where two or more canisters or...

  20. 42 CFR 84.1154 - Canister and cartridge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may... Gas Masks § 84.1154 Canister and cartridge requirements. (a) Where two or more canisters or...

  1. Regeneration of Exhausted Arsenic Adsorptive media of a Full Scale Treatment System

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will describe the method and results of laboratory tests showing the feasibility of regenerating exhausted, iron-based, adsorptive media and the results of a follow up regeneration test at a full scale system in Twentynine Palms CA. The laboratory studies on se...

  2. Predicting the lifetime of organic vapor cartridges exposed to volatile organic compound mixtures using a partial differential equations model.

    PubMed

    Vuong, François; Chauveau, Romain; Grevillot, Georges; Marsteau, Stéphanie; Silvente, Eric; Vallieres, Cécile

    2016-09-01

    In this study, equilibria, breakthrough curves, and breakthrough times were predicted for three binary mixtures of four volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a model based on partial differential equations of dynamic adsorption coupling a mass balance, a simple Linear Driving Force (LDF) hypothesis to describe the kinetics, and the well-known Extended-Langmuir (EL) equilibrium model. The model aims to predict with a limited complexity, the BTCs of respirator cartridges exposed to binary vapor mixtures from equilibria and kinetics data obtained from single component. In the model, multicomponent mass transfer was simplified to use only single dynamic adsorption data. The EL expression used in this study predicted equilibria with relatively good accuracy for acetone/ethanol and ethanol/cyclohexane mixtures, but the prediction of cyclohexane uptake when mixed with heptane is less satisfactory. The BTCs given by the model were compared to experimental BTCs to determine the accuracy of the model and the impact of the approximation on mass transfer coefficients. From BTCs, breakthrough times at 10% of the exposure concentration t10% were determined. All t10% were predicted within 20% of the experimental values, and 63% of the breakthrough times were predicted within a 10% error. This study demonstrated that a simple mass balance combined with kinetic approximations is sufficient to predict lifetime for respirator cartridges exposed to VOC mixtures. It also showed that a commonly adopted approach to describe multicomponent adsorption based on volatility of VOC rather than adsorption equilibrium greatly overestimated the breakthrough times. PMID:27028086

  3. Adsorption Behaviors of 17α-Ethinylestradiol in Sediment-Water System in Northern Taihu Lake, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonghua; Hu, Liangfeng; Wang, Qiuying; Lu, Guanghua; Li, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Adsorption behavior of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in northern Taihu Lake sediment was analyzed by using batch equilibrium experiment. Freundlich isotherm could describe the adsorption thermodynamic behavior of EE2 in sediment. Sediment organic matter (SOM) contents had important impacts on the adsorption capacity for EE2. The pH values also influenced the adsorption capacity for EE2. Increase of pH value could decrease the EE2 adsorption, which might be due to the electrostatic repulsion between the anionic form of EE2 and sediments with negative charge under high pH values. Competitive effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on EE2 adsorption were further analyzed. The results showed that low concentration BPA did not have significant influences on EE2 adsorption. However, high concentration BPA could reduce EE2 adsorption, which might be due to the similar molecular diameter of BPA with adsorption sites and one more benzene ring with a hydroxyl group in BPA. These results provide primary information of EE2 adsorption in sediment-water system in Taihu Lake, which is useful for the environmental risk assessment and management of EE2 in studied area. PMID:25152910

  4. Carbon cartridge standards for 125I and suggested applications.

    PubMed

    Tries, M A; Ring, J P; Chabot, G E

    1997-09-01

    Carbon cartridge standards were prepared to assess the activity of 125I incident on, and adsorbed in, cartridge samples during air sampling. Each cartridge standard consisted of an 125I-spiked filter paper at a known depth, ranging from 0 to 19 mm, embedded in approximately 34 g of 20-30 mesh activated carbon contained within a 6.35 cm diameter by 2.22 cm deep metal cartridge with screened openings. The total counting efficiency values range from 17.8 to 20.8% for cartridges counted at 3.2 mm from a thin-crystal NaI(Tl) detector. The standards were analyzed using a front/back counting technique, and fitting functions were developed relating the front/back net counts ratio and counting efficiency to the 125I depth of burial. A method for determining sample activity that accounts for exponential radioiodine loading in cartridge samples is compared to a less complicated technique that assumes all the radioiodine is located at an equivalent depth of burial that is based on the sample front/back net counts ratio. In addition, methods are presented for determining airborne 125I activity for constant and variable concentrations. Variable concentrations are assumed to occur in a fume hood duct by one or more bulk releases as a result of iodinations that are performed during a given sampling interval. The two methods are shown to have maximum relative deviations ranging from -16 to +16%. PMID:9287093

  5. One-step polymer surface modification for minimizing drug, protein, and DNA adsorption in microanalytical systems.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack; Larsen, Niels B

    2013-02-21

    The non-specific adsorption of dissolved analytes strongly reduces the sensitivity and reliability in polymer microanalytical systems. Here, a one-step aqueous phase procedure modifies polymer material surfaces to strongly reduce their non-specific adsorption of a broad range of organic analytes including hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs (0.23 < ClogP < 8.95), small and large proteins (insulin, albumin, IgG), and DNA. The coating is shown to limit the adsorption of even highly hydrophobic drugs (ClogP > 8) in their pharmaceutically relevant concentration range ≤100 nM. The low adsorption is mediated by photochemical conjugation, where polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers in aqueous solution are covalently bound to the surface by UV illumination of dissolved benzophenone and a functionalized PEG. The method can coat the interior of polymer systems made from a range of materials commonly used in microanalytical systems, including polystyrene (PS), cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), liquid crystalline polymer (LCP), and polyimide (PI). PMID:23254780

  6. Integration of a bioMEMS device into a disposable microfluidic cartridge for medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Pedro; Keegan, Neil; Spoors, Julia; Hedley, John; Harris, Alun; Burdess, Jim; Burnett, Richard; Velten, Thomas; Biehl, Margit; Knoll, Thorsten; Haberer, Werner; Solomon, Matthew; Campitelli, Andrew; McNeil, Calum

    2009-02-01

    A microfluidic system for cancer diagnostics based around a core MEMS biosensor technology is presented in this paper. The principle of the MEMS biosensor is introduced and the functionalisation strategy for cancer marker recognition is described. In addition, the successful packaging and integration of functional MEMS biosensor devices are reported herein. This ongoing work represents one of the first hybrid systems to integrate a PCB packaged silicon MEMS device into a disposable microfluidic cartridge.

  7. 42 CFR 84.194 - Filters used with chemical cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Filters used with chemical cartridges; location... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.194 Filters used with chemical cartridges; location; replacement. (a) Particulate matter filters used in conjunction with a chemical cartridge shall be located...

  8. 42 CFR 84.194 - Filters used with chemical cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Filters used with chemical cartridges; location... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.194 Filters used with chemical cartridges; location; replacement. (a) Particulate matter filters used in conjunction with a chemical cartridge shall be located...

  9. 42 CFR 84.194 - Filters used with chemical cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filters used with chemical cartridges; location... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.194 Filters used with chemical cartridges; location; replacement. (a) Particulate matter filters used in conjunction with a chemical cartridge shall be located...

  10. 42 CFR 84.194 - Filters used with chemical cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Filters used with chemical cartridges; location... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.194 Filters used with chemical cartridges; location; replacement. (a) Particulate matter filters used in conjunction with a chemical cartridge shall be located...

  11. 42 CFR 84.194 - Filters used with chemical cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Filters used with chemical cartridges; location... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.194 Filters used with chemical cartridges; location; replacement. (a) Particulate matter filters used in conjunction with a chemical cartridge shall be located...

  12. 49 CFR 173.230 - Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.230 Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material. (a) Requirements for Fuel Cell Cartridges. Fuel cell cartridges, including when contained in or packed with...

  13. 49 CFR 173.230 - Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.230 Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material. (a) Requirements for Fuel Cell Cartridges. Fuel cell cartridges, including when contained in or packed with...

  14. 49 CFR 173.230 - Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.230 Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material. (a) Requirements for Fuel Cell Cartridges. Fuel cell cartridges, including when contained in or packed with...

  15. 49 CFR 173.230 - Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.230 Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material. (a) Requirements for Fuel Cell Cartridges. Fuel cell cartridges, including when contained in or packed with...

  16. Adsorption of lysozyme on hyaluronic acid functionalized SBA-15 mesoporous silica: a possible bioadhesive depot system.

    PubMed

    Medda, Luca; Casula, Maria F; Monduzzi, Maura; Salis, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Silica-based ordered mesoporous materials are very attractive matrices to prepare smart depot systems for several kinds of therapeutic agents. This work focuses on the well-known SBA-15 mesoporous silica and lysozyme, an antimicrobial protein. In order to improve the bioadhesion properties of SBA-15 particles, the effect of hyaluronic acid (HA) functionalization on lysozyme adsorption was investigated. SBA-15 samples having high (H-SBA) and low (L-SBA) levels of functionalization were analyzed during the three steps of the preparations: (1) introduction of the -NH2 groups to obtain the SBA-NH2 samples; (2) functionalization with HA to obtain the SBA-HA matrices; (3) adsorption of lysozyme. All silica matrices were characterized through N2-adsorption/desorption isotherms, small-angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The whole of the experimental data suggests that a high level of functionalization of the silica surface allows for a negligible lysozyme adsorption mainly due to unfavorable electrostatic interactions (H-SBA-NH2) or steric hindrance (H-SBA-HA). A low degree of functionalization of the silica surface brings about a very good performance toward lysozyme adsorption, being 71% (L-SBA-NH2) and 63% (L-SBA-HA) respectively, compared to that observed for original SBA-15. Finally, two different kinetic models--a "pseudo-second order" and a "intraparticle diffusion"--were compared to fit lysozyme adsorption data, the latter being more reliable than the former. PMID:25295387

  17. Environment-modulated Kondo phenomena in FePc/Au(111) adsorption systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Zheng, Xiao; Yang, Jinlong

    2016-03-01

    Recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiments on electron transport through iron(II) phthalocyanine (FePc) molecules adsorbed on the Au(111) surface have revealed that the measured Kondo conductance signature depends strongly on the specific adsorption site. To understand the physical origin of experimental observations, particularly the variation of Kondo features with the molecular adsorption site, we employ a combined density functional theory (DFT) and hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) approach to investigate the electronic structure and Kondo correlation in FePc/Au(111) composite systems. The calculation results indicate that, for the on-top adsorption configuration, the two degenerate spin-unpaired dπ orbitals on the Fe center are coupled indirectly through substrate band states, leading to the Fano-like antiresonance line shape in the d I /d V spectra, while for the bridge adsorption configuration, the environment-induced couplings are largely suppressed because of the two different spin-unpaired d orbitals. Therefore, our work suggests that the environment-induced coupling as an essential physical factor could greatly influence the Fano-Kondo features in magnetic molecule/metal composites, and the crucial role of local orbital degeneracy and symmetry is discovered. These findings provide important insights into the electron correlation effects in complex solid-state systems. The usefulness and practicality of the combined DFT+HEOM method is also highlighted.

  18. Interfacial tension and surface adsorption in i-heptanol/water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chavepeyer, G.; Platten, J.K.; Smet, P.; Salajan, M.

    1995-09-01

    Two-phase i-heptanol/water systems are studied for the isomers i = 1 to 4. Interfacial tension data, measured mainly by the spinning-drop method, are reported as a function of the temperature together with density differences between the two mutually saturated phases. The solubilities are measured for each system at 20 C, a temperature at which the Gibbs adsorptions are also determined. It is shown that the three sets of data are consistent with each other.

  19. Arsenic removal from water employing a combined system: photooxidation and adsorption.

    PubMed

    Lescano, Maia; Zalazar, Cristina; Brandi, Rodolfo

    2015-03-01

    A combined system employing photochemical oxidation (UV/H2O2) and adsorption for arsenic removal from water was designed and evaluated. In this work, a bench-scale photochemical annular reactor was developed being connected alternately to a pair of adsorption columns filled with titanium dioxide (TiO2) and granular ferric hydroxide (GFH). The experiences were performed by varying the relation of As concentration (As (III)/As (V) weight ratio) at constant hydrogen peroxide concentration and incident radiation. Experimental oxidation results were compared with theoretical predictions using an intrinsic kinetic model previously obtained. In addition, the effectiveness of the process was evaluated using a groundwater sample. The mathematical model of the entire system was developed. It could be used as an effective tool for the design and prediction of the behaviour of these types of systems. The combined technology is efficient and promising for arsenic removal to small and medium scale. PMID:25273516

  20. Adaptation of a speciation sampling cartridge for measuring ammonia flux from cattle feedlots using relaxed eddy accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, K. A.; Ham, J. M.

    Improved measurements of ammonia losses from cattle feedlots are needed to quantify the national NH 3 emissions inventory and evaluate management techniques for reducing emissions. Speciation cartridges composed of glass honeycomb denuders and filter packs were adapted to measure gaseous NH 3 and aerosol NH 4+ fluxes using relaxed eddy accumulation (REA). Laboratory testing showed that a cartridge equipped with four honeycomb denuders had a total capture capacity of 1800 μg of NH 3. In the field, a pair of cartridges was deployed adjacent to a sonic anemometer and an open-path gas analyzer on a mobile tower. High-speed valves were attached to the inlets of the cartridges and controlled by a datalogger so that up- and down-moving eddies were independently sampled based on direction of the vertical wind speed and a user-defined deadband. Air flowed continuously through the cartridges even when not sampling by means of a recirculating air handling system. Eddy covariance measurement of CO 2 and H 2O, as measured by the sonic and open-path gas analyzer, were used to determine the relaxation factor needed to compute REA-based fluxes. The REA system was field tested at the Beef Research Unit at Kansas State University in the summer and fall of 2007. Daytime NH 3 emissions ranged between 68 and 127 μg m -2 s -1; fluxes tended to follow a diurnal pattern correlated with latent heat flux. Daily fluxes of NH 3 were between 2.5 and 4.7 g m -2 d -1 and on average represented 38% of fed nitrogen. Aerosol NH 4+ fluxes were negligible compared with NH 3 emissions. An REA system designed around the high-capacity speciation cartridges can be used to measure NH 3 fluxes from cattle feedlots and other strong sources. The system could be adapted to measure fluxes of other gases and aerosols.

  1. CO[sub 2] recovery in molten carbonate fuel cell system by pressure swing adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, A.; Matsumoto, S.; Fujitsuka, M.; Shinoki, T.; Tanaka, T. ); Ohtsuki, J. )

    1993-03-01

    The carbon dioxide recycle configuration by pressure swing adsorption (PSA) is examined in the indirect internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell (IIR-MCFC) system, theoretically and experimentally. It is the result of system studies that the CO[sub 2] PSA makes the system efficiency higher than ordinary combustion process. A test plant is fabricated in order to evaluate the PSA performance in the IIR-MCFC system operation. The experimental results with respect to CO[sub 2] recovery ratio, purity and pressure fluctuations in both electrode chambers are acceptable. The system integration is necessary in order to decrease the auxiliary power still more and to give the control logic robust.

  2. Disposal of Regenerate Wastewater from Adsorptive Media Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation summarizes the result of the processing of the wastewater produced by the onsite regeneration of the exhausted media from two full scale arsenic removal systems at Twentynine Palms, CA and Goffstown, NH. Presentation describes the use and results of ferric chloride...

  3. Better VPS Fabrication of Crucibles and Furnace Cartridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Zimmerman, Frank R.; O'Dell, J. Scott; McKechnie, Timothy N.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental investigation has shown that by (1) vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) of suitable refractory metal alloys on graphite mandrels, and then (2) heat-treating the VPS alloy deposits under suitable conditions, it is possible to fabricate improved crucibles and furnace cartridges that could be used at maximum temperatures between 1,400 and 1,600 C and that could withstand chemical attack by the materials to be heated in the crucibles and cartridges. Taken by itself, the basic concept of fabricating furnace cartridges by VPS of refractory materials onto graphite mandrels is not new; taken by itself, the basic concept of heat treatment of VPS deposits for use as other than furnace cartridges is also not new; however, prior to this investigation, experimental crucibles and furnace cartridges fabricated by VPS had not been heat treated and had been found to be relatively weak and brittle. Accordingly, the investigation was directed toward determining whether certain combinations of (1) refractory alloy compositions, (2) VPS parameters, and (3) heat-treatment parameters could result in VPS-fabricated components with increased ductility.

  4. Adsorption of doxorubicin on citrate-capped gold nanoparticles: insights into engineering potent chemotherapeutic delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Dennis; Cameron, Amanda; MacDonald, Bruce; Nganou, Collins; Scheller, Hope; Marsh, James; Beale, Stefanie; Lu, Mingsheng; Shan, Zhi; Kaliaperumal, Rajendran; Xu, Heping; Servos, Mark; Bennett, Craig; Macquarrie, Stephanie; Oakes, Ken D.; Mkandawire, Martin; Zhang, Xu

    2015-11-01

    Gold nanomaterials have received great interest for their use in cancer theranostic applications over the past two decades. Many gold nanoparticle-based drug delivery system designs rely on adsorbed ligands such as DNA or cleavable linkers to load therapeutic cargo. The heightened research interest was recently demonstrated in the simple design of nanoparticle-drug conjugates wherein drug molecules are directly adsorbed onto the as-synthesized nanoparticle surface. The potent chemotherapeutic, doxorubicin often serves as a model drug for gold nanoparticle-based delivery platforms; however, the specific interaction facilitating adsorption in this system remains understudied. Here, for the first time, we propose empirical and theoretical evidence suggestive of the main adsorption process where (1) hydrophobic forces drive doxorubicin towards the gold nanoparticle surface before (2) cation-π interactions and gold-carbonyl coordination between the drug molecule and the cations on AuNP surface facilitate DOX adsorption. In addition, biologically relevant compounds, such as serum albumin and glutathione, were shown to enhance desorption of loaded drug molecules from AuNP at physiologically relevant concentrations, providing insight into the drug release and in vivo stability of such drug conjugates.Gold nanomaterials have received great interest for their use in cancer theranostic applications over the past two decades. Many gold nanoparticle-based drug delivery system designs rely on adsorbed ligands such as DNA or cleavable linkers to load therapeutic cargo. The heightened research interest was recently demonstrated in the simple design of nanoparticle-drug conjugates wherein drug molecules are directly adsorbed onto the as-synthesized nanoparticle surface. The potent chemotherapeutic, doxorubicin often serves as a model drug for gold nanoparticle-based delivery platforms; however, the specific interaction facilitating adsorption in this system remains understudied

  5. Adsorption and bioaccessibility of phenanthrene on carbon nanotubes in the in vitro gastrointestinal system.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Qing; Zheng, Hao; Du, Peng; Tao, Shu; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-10-01

    Adsorption and bioaccessibility of phenanthrene on graphite and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated in simulated gastrointestinal fluid using a passive dosing system. The saturated adsorption capacity of phenanthrene on different adsorbents follows an order of hydroxylated CNTs (H-CNTs)>carboxylated CNTs (C-CNTs)>graphitized CNTs (G-CNTs)>graphite, consistent with the order of their surface area and micropore volume. The change of phenanthrene adsorption on the adsorbents is different with the presence of pepsin (800mg/L) and bile salts (500mg/L and 5000mg/L, abbreviated as BS500 and BS5000). Both solubilization of phenanthrene by pepsin and bile salts and their competition with phenanthrene for the adsorption sites play a role. In addition, the large increase of the maximum adsorption capacity in BS5000 solution indicates an enhanced dispersion of CNTs or an exfoliation of graphite by bile salts, which consequently increases the exposed surface area. The bioaccessibility increases in pepsin and BS500 solution with a growing free phenanthrene concentration. Although the bioaccessibility of phenanthrene stalls or slightly decreases in the middle range of free phenanthrene concentration in BS5000 solution, the bioaccessibility overall is much higher than that in pepsin and BS500 solution at the same phenanthrene level. It is impossible to separate the effect of competition from dispersion (or exfoliation) at this stage, but the relative contribution of solubilization to phenanthrene desorption in pepsin and BS500 solutions was quantified, which improves our understanding of the mechanisms on bioaccessibility of adsorbed pollutants on CNTs. PMID:27213670

  6. Using the PL/SQL Cartridge of the Oracle Application Server to Deploy Web Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, C.L.

    1999-06-14

    Deploying business applications on the internal Web is a priority at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Lockheed Martin Energy Research) and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. as with most corporations. Three separate applications chose the Oracle Application Server (OAS), using the PL/SQL cartridge as a Web deployment method. This method was chosen primarily because the data was already stored in Oracle tables and developers knew HJSQL or at least SQL. The Database Support group had the responsibility of installing, testing, and determining standard methods for interfacing with the PL/SQL cartridge of the OAS. Note that the term Web Application Server was used for version 3, but in this discussion, OAS will be used for both version 3 and version 4.

  7. Three cases of death caused by shots from blank cartridge.

    PubMed

    Zdravkovic, Miodrag; Milic, Miroslav; Stojanovic, Miroslav; Kostov, Milos

    2009-12-01

    The authors describe 3 cases of lethal injuries caused by 7.62 mm blank cartridge shots from military automatic rifle of domestic origin (AK 47, 7.62 mm). In 1 case, the cartridge was fired from a weapon that had been leaned on the head, with subsequent destruction of brain, and in other 2 cases, the weapon had been leaned on the chests, which led to destruction of heart parts. The injuries were caused by the action of striking wave of gunpowder explosion, the air blast type. The cases demonstrate that the gas pressure from the exploding propellant of blank cartridge is powerful enough to penetrate the thoracic wall and the skull. PMID:19901805

  8. Refilling of carbon nanotube cartridges for 3D nanomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Bekarevich, Raman; Toyoda, Masami; Baba, Shuichi; Nakata, Toshihiko; Hirahara, Kaori

    2016-04-01

    Metal-filled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known to be used as pen-tip injectors for 3D manufacturing on the nanoscale. However, the CNT interior cannot accumulate enough material to fabricate complex metallic nanostructures. Therefore a method for refilling the CNT cartridge needs to be developed. The strategy for refilling of CNT cartridges is suggested in this study. Controlled growth of gold nanowires in the interior of isolated CNTs using a real-time manipulator installed in a transmission electron microscope is reported herein. The encapsulation process of discrete gold nanoparticles in the hollow spaces of open-ended multi-wall CNTs was evaluated in detail. The experimental results reveal that the serial loading of isolated gold nanoparticles allows the control of the length of the loaded nanowires with nanometer accuracy. Thermophoresis and the coalescence of gold nanoparticles are assumed to be the primary mechanisms responsible for gold loading into a CNT cartridge. PMID:26973081

  9. Biodegradation of persistent organics can overcome adsorption-desorption hysteresis in biological activated carbon systems.

    PubMed

    Abromaitis, V; Racys, V; van der Marel, P; Meulepas, R J W

    2016-04-01

    In Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) systems, persistent organic pollutants can be removed through a combination of adsorption, desorption and biodegradation. These processes might be affected by the presence of other organics, especially by the more abundant easily-biodegradable organics, like acetate. In this research these relations are quantified for the removal of the persistent pharmaceutical metoprolol. Acetate did not affect the adsorption and desorption of metoprolol, but it did greatly enhance the metoprolol biodegradation. At least part of the BAC biomass growing on acetate was also able to metabolise metoprolol, although metoprolol was only converted after the acetate was depleted. The presence of easily-degradable organics like acetate in the feeding water is therefore beneficial for the removal of metoprolol in BAC systems. The isotherms obtained from metoprolol adsorption and desorption experiments showed that BAC systems are subject to hysteresis; for AC bioregeneration to take place the microbial biomass has to reduce the concentration at the AC-biomass interface 2.7 times compared to the concentration at which the carbon was being loaded. However, given the threshold concentration of the MET degrading microorganisms (<0.08 μg/L) versus the average influent concentration (1.3 μg/L), bioregeneration is feasible. PMID:26855223

  10. Development of novel delivery system for warfarin based on mesoporous silica: adsorption characteristics of silica materials for the anticoagulant.

    PubMed

    Dolinina, Ekaterina S; Vorobyeva, Evgeniya V; Parfenyuk, Elena V

    2016-08-01

    The adsorption of the anticoagulant warfarin onto unmodified (UMS) and modified (phenyl (PhMS), methyl (MMS), mercaptopropyl (MPMS)) mesoporous silica materials was studied at pH 1.6 and 7.4 and in the temperature range of 293-325 K. The silica materials were prepared by sol-gel method for further characterization by FTIR spectroscopy, N2 adsorption/desorption method, transmission electron microscopy and zeta potential measurements. The effects of medium pH, temperature and surface modification of mesoporous silica material on their adsorption characteristics (adsorption capacity, thermodynamic parameters of adsorption) relative to anticoagulant warfarin were investigated. It was found that medium acid-base properties strongly affect the adsorption of warfarin due to the pH-dependent structural diversity of the drug and ionization state of the silica surfaces. The adsorption capacity of the silica materials at pH 1.6 decreases in the order: MMS > MPMS > UMS > PhMS. The influence of various non-covalent interactions on the adsorption capacity of the silica materials and energy of the drug-silica interactions is discussed. These results may be useful for the development of a novel delivery system of warfarin. PMID:26465269

  11. Photosensitive cartridge for weapons zeroing and marksmanship training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, F. N.; Schjelderup, J. R.

    1985-05-01

    The invention provides a light sensitive dummy cartridge for insertion into the chamber of a magazine-type weapon. A muzzle collimator is inserted into the barrel in alignment with the cartridge photosensor and the longitudinal axis of the bore. The power supply, audible scoring apparatus, and electrical circuit for the photosensor, moreover, are mounted in a dummy magazine. This combination provides an easy-to-install apparatus for temporarily converting a conventional firearm into a photoresponsive training device. This is a patent application.

  12. Removal of humic and tannic acids by adsorption-coagulation combined systems with activated biochar.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chanil; Phal, Narong; Oh, Jeill; Chu, Kyoung Hoon; Jang, Min; Yoon, Yeomin

    2015-12-30

    Despite recent interest in transforming biomass into bio-oil and syngas, there is inadequate information on the compatibility of byproducts (e.g., biochar) with agriculture and water purification infrastructures. A pyrolysis at 300°C yields efficient production of biochar, and its physicochemical properties can be improved by chemical activation, resulting in a suitable adsorbent for the removal of natural organic matter (NOM), including hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances, such as humic acids (HA) and tannic acids (TA), respectively. In this study, the adsorption affinities of different HA and TA combinations in NOM solutions were evaluated, and higher adsorption affinity of TA onto activated biochar (AB) produced in the laboratory was observed due to its superior chemisorption tendencies and size-exclusion effects compared with that of HA, whereas hydrophobic interactions between adsorbent and adsorbate were deficient. Assessment of the AB role in an adsorption-coagulation hybrid system as nuclei for coagulation in the presence of aluminum sulfate (alum) showed a synergistic effect in a HA-dominated NOM solution. An AB-alum hybrid system with a high proportion of HA in the NOM solution may be applicable as an end-of-pipe solution. PMID:26340547

  13. Experimental study on activated carbon-nitrogen pair in a prototype pressure swing adsorption refrigeration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anupam, Kumar; Palodkar, Avinash V.; Halder, G. N.

    2016-04-01

    Pressure swing adsorption of nitrogen onto granular activated carbon in the single-bed adsorber-desorber chamber has been studied at six different pressures 6-18 kgf/cm2 to evaluate their performance as an alternative refrigeration technique. Refrigerating effect showed a linear rise with an increase in the operating pressure. However, the heat of adsorption and COP exhibited initial rise with the increasing operating pressure but decreased later after reaching a maximum value. The COP initially increases with operating pressures however, with the further rise of operating pressure it steadily decreased. The highest average refrigeration, maximum heat of adsorption and optimum coefficient of performance was evaluated to be 415.38 W at 18 kgf/cm2, 92756.35 J at 15 kgf/cm2 and 1.32 at 12 kgf/cm2, respectively. The system successfully produced chilled water at 1.7 °C from ambient water at 28.2 °C.

  14. Mass spectrometric imaging of in vivo protein and lipid adsorption on biodegradable vascular replacement systems.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Sophie M; Eilenberg, Magdalena; Svirkova, Anastasiya; Grasl, Christian; Liska, Robert; Bergmeister, Helga; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases present amongst the highest mortality risks in Western civilization and are frequently caused by arteriosclerotic vessel failure. Coronary artery and peripheral vessel reconstruction necessitates the use of small diameter systems that are mechanically stress-resistant and biocompatible. Expanded polytetrafluorethylene (ePTFE) is amongst the materials used most frequently for non-degradable and bio-degradable vessel reconstruction procedures, with thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) representing a promising substitute. The present study describes and compares the biological adsorption and diffusion occurring with both materials following implantation in rat models. Gel electrophoresis and thin-layer chromatography, combined with mass spectrometry and mass spectrometry imaging, were utilized to identify the adsorbed lipids and proteins. The results were compared with the analytes present in native aorta tissue. It was revealed that both polymers were severely affected by biological adsorption after 10 min in vivo. Proteins associated with cell growth and migration were identified, especially on the luminal graft surface, while lipids were found to be located on both the luminal and abluminal surfaces. Lipid adsorption and cholesterol diffusion were found to be correlated with the polymer modifications identified on degradable thermoplastic urethane graft samples, with the latter revealing extensive cholesterol adsorption. The present study demonstrates an interaction between biological matter and both graft materials, and provides insights into polymer changes, in particular, those observed with thermoplastic urethanes already after 10 min in vivo exposure. ePTFE demonstrated minor polymer modifications, whereas several different polymer signals were observed for TPU, all were co-localized with biological signals. PMID:26198453

  15. Index to 8mm Motion Cartridges. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. National Information Center for Educational Media.

    Research at the National Information Center for Educational Media (NICEM) has shown that the 8mm motion cartridge with optical and magnetic sound seems to meet the basic tenets of a prime educational criterion for an educational medium--that it be available to the learner at his convenience. This is a bibliographical source for 8mm motion…

  16. From SCORM to Common Cartridge: A Step Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Barbone, Victor; Anido-Rifon, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) was proposed as a standard for sharable learning object packaging, delivering and sequencing. Several years later, Common Cartridge (CC) is proposed as an enhancement of SCORM offering more flexibility and addressing needs not originally envisioned, namely assessment and web 2.0 standards, content…

  17. Explosive-train initiated through solid bulkhead by pressure cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkowski, J. C.

    1968-01-01

    Explosive-train initiated pressure cartridge transmits a shock wave igniting a main charge of explosive through a solid bulkhead without destroying or damaging the seal or the bulkhead. The main charge could be an explosive, a pyrotechnic, or a propellant.

  18. Index to 8mm Motion Cartridges. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. National Information Center for Educational Media.

    This index to 8mm motion cartridges contains almost 10,000 entries, arranged alphabetically both by individual title and by series title in the main section of the book. Individual title entries include title with subtitle, size and physical description, length of film, stock or color code, description of contents, series title reference when…

  19. Analysis of the adsorption process and of desiccant cooling systems: a pseudo- steady-state model for coupled heat and mass transfer. [DESSIM, DESSIM2, DESSIM4

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, R.S.

    1982-12-01

    A computer model to simulate the adiabatic adsorption/desorption process is documented. Developed to predict the performance of desiccant cooling systems, the model has been validated through comparison with experimental data for single-blow adsorption and desorption. A literature review on adsorption analysis, detailed discussions of the adsorption process, and an initial assessment of the potential for performance improvement through advanced component development are included.

  20. Analysis of the adsorption process and of desiccant cooling systems: A pseudo- steady-state model for coupled heat and mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, R. S.

    1982-12-01

    A computer model to simulate the adiabatic adsorption/desorption process is documented. Developed to predict the performance of desiccant cooling systems, the model has been validated through comparison with experimental data for single-blow adsorption and desorption. A literature review on adsorption analysis, detailed discussions of the adsorption process, and an initial assessment of the potential for performance improvement through advanced component development are included.

  1. Segmentation of cartridge cases based on illumination and focus series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brein, Christoph

    2005-03-01

    Cartridge cases are important forensic specimen for the identification of weapons. The illumination conditions in the area of the firing pin marks and the breech face marks are very different and have to be treated separately to achieve an appropriate image quality for a visual inspection. Furthermore, not only the comparison but also the detection of the different and independent forensic marks should be automated. Both problems lead to the task of segmenting the different parts of the cartridge case bottom. In this paper, two automated approaches for the segmentation of cartridge cases are investigated and compared. The aim of the segmentation is the detection of the cartridge case border, the primer, the firing pin mark and additionally the letters around the primer. The first approach uses images obtained under systematically varied illumination conditions. After a preprocessing step a circle detection is applied to find the circular structures. The analysis of illumination series combined with a the connected components labeling method detect the letters. In a second approach, the depth-from-focus method is used to obtain 2½ D-data. This data is segmented applying a plane estimation technique. This results directly in the detection of the letters. Afterwards a circle detection algorithm identifies the parameters of the circular structures. With the introduced methods it is possible to optimize the illumination in order to realize a higher contrast of both the striation marks on the cartridge case surface and of the indentation of the firing pin independently. The improved image quality helps the examiner in identifying weapons and will help to improve the automated comparison strategies.

  2. Highly porous activated carbon based adsorption cooling system employing difluoromethane and a mixture of pentafluoroethane and difluoromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askalany, Ahmed A.; Saha, Bidyut B.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a simulation for a low-grade thermally powered two-beds adsorption cooling system employing HFC-32 and a mixture of HFC-32 and HFC-125 (HFC-410a) with activated carbon of type Maxsorb III. The present simulation model adopts experimentally measured adsorption isotherms, adsorption kinetics and isosteric heat of adsorption data. Effect of operating conditions (mass flow rate of hot water, driving heat source temperature and evaporator temperature) on the system performance has been studied in detail. The simulation results showed that the system could be powered by low-grade heat source temperature (below 85 °C). AC/HFC-32 and AC/HFC-410a adsorption cooling cycles achieved close specific cooling power and coefficient of performance values of 0.15 kW/kg and 0.3, respectively at a regeneration temperature of 90 °C along with evaporator temperature of 10 °C. The investigated semi continuous adsorption cooling system could produce a cooling power of 9 kW.

  3. Charge adjustments upon adsorption of a weak polyelectrolyte to a mineral oxide: The hematite-humic acid system

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeer, A.W.P.; Koopal, L.K.

    1999-04-01

    The proton adsorption to a mixture of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) and hematite is investigated. Basic insight into the charge adjustment process is obtained by using a self-consistent-field lattice theory for polyelectrolyte adsorption. The calculations indicate that upon adsorption the component with the highest initial charge density tends to induce charges on the other component. The number of induced charges can show a maximum when the surface charge and the charge of the segments in direct contact with the surface roughly balance each other. Experimentally, the humic acid-hematite system is investigated by proton titrations. The alterations in charge density caused by adsorption of PAHA to hematite are investigated by comparing the proton adsorption on the individual samples with that on their mixtures. Upon adsorption a part of the functional groups of humic acid forms complexes with some of the surface sites of hematite. This interaction reduces the proton binding to the humic acid at relatively low pH and it promotes the proton adsorption on the oxide surface at relatively high pH.

  4. Understanding the Kondo resonance in the d-CoPc/Au(111) adsorption system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Zheng, Xiao; Li, Bin; Yang, Jinlong

    2014-08-28

    By combining the density functional theory (DFT) and a hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) approach, we investigate the Kondo phenomena in a composite system consisting of a dehydrogenated cobalt phthalocyanine molecule (d-CoPc) adsorbed on an Au(111) surface. DFT calculations are performed to determine the ground-state geometric and electronic structures of the adsorption system. It is found that the singly occupied dz(2) orbital of Co forms a localized spin, which could be screened by the substrate conduction electrons. This screening leads to the prominent Kondo features as observed in the scanning tunneling microscopy experiments. We then employ the HEOM approach to characterize the Kondo correlations of the adsorption system. The calculated temperature-dependent differential conductance spectra and the predicted Kondo temperature agree well with the experiments, and the universal Kondo scaling behavior is correctly reproduced. This work thus provides important insights into the relevant experiments, and it also highlights the applicability of the combined DFT+HEOM approach to the studies of strongly correlated condensed matter systems. PMID:25173036

  5. Understanding the Kondo resonance in the d-CoPc/Au(111) adsorption system

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yu; Zheng, Xiao Li, Bin; Yang, Jinlong

    2014-08-28

    By combining the density functional theory (DFT) and a hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) approach, we investigate the Kondo phenomena in a composite system consisting of a dehydrogenated cobalt phthalocyanine molecule (d-CoPc) adsorbed on an Au(111) surface. DFT calculations are performed to determine the ground-state geometric and electronic structures of the adsorption system. It is found that the singly occupied d{sub z{sup 2}} orbital of Co forms a localized spin, which could be screened by the substrate conduction electrons. This screening leads to the prominent Kondo features as observed in the scanning tunneling microscopy experiments. We then employ the HEOM approach to characterize the Kondo correlations of the adsorption system. The calculated temperature-dependent differential conductance spectra and the predicted Kondo temperature agree well with the experiments, and the universal Kondo scaling behavior is correctly reproduced. This work thus provides important insights into the relevant experiments, and it also highlights the applicability of the combined DFT+HEOM approach to the studies of strongly correlated condensed matter systems.

  6. Simulation of hydrogen adsorption systems adopting the flow through cooling concept

    SciTech Connect

    Corgnale, Claudio; Hardy, Bruce; Chahine, Richard; Cossement, Daniel; Tamburello, David; Anton, Donald

    2014-10-13

    Hydrogen storage systems based on adsorbent materials have the potential of achieving the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) targets, especially in terms of gravimetric capacity. This paper deals with analysis of adsorption storage systems adopting the flow through cooling concept. By this approach the feeding hydrogen provides the needed cold to maintain the tank at low temperatures. Two adsorption systems have been examined and modeled adopting the Dubinin-Astakhov model, to see their performance under selected operating conditions. A first case has been analyzed, modeling a storage tank filled with carbon based material (namely MaxSorb®) and comparing the numerical outcomes with the available experimental results for a 2.5 L tank. Under selected operating conditions (minimum inlet hydrogen temperature of approximately 100 K and maximum pressure on the order of 8.5 MPa) and adopting the flow through cooling concept the material shows a gravimetric capacity of about 5.7 %. A second case has been modeled, examining the same tank filled with metal organic framework material (MOF5®) under approximately the same conditions. The model shows that the latter material can achieve a (material) gravimetric capacity on the order of 11%, making the system potentially able to achieve the DOE 2017 target.

  7. Simulation of hydrogen adsorption systems adopting the flow through cooling concept

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Corgnale, Claudio; Hardy, Bruce; Chahine, Richard; Cossement, Daniel; Tamburello, David; Anton, Donald

    2014-10-13

    Hydrogen storage systems based on adsorbent materials have the potential of achieving the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) targets, especially in terms of gravimetric capacity. This paper deals with analysis of adsorption storage systems adopting the flow through cooling concept. By this approach the feeding hydrogen provides the needed cold to maintain the tank at low temperatures. Two adsorption systems have been examined and modeled adopting the Dubinin-Astakhov model, to see their performance under selected operating conditions. A first case has been analyzed, modeling a storage tank filled with carbon based material (namely MaxSorb®) and comparing the numerical outcomes withmore » the available experimental results for a 2.5 L tank. Under selected operating conditions (minimum inlet hydrogen temperature of approximately 100 K and maximum pressure on the order of 8.5 MPa) and adopting the flow through cooling concept the material shows a gravimetric capacity of about 5.7 %. A second case has been modeled, examining the same tank filled with metal organic framework material (MOF5®) under approximately the same conditions. The model shows that the latter material can achieve a (material) gravimetric capacity on the order of 11%, making the system potentially able to achieve the DOE 2017 target.« less

  8. Understanding the Kondo resonance in the d-CoPc/Au(111) adsorption system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Zheng, Xiao; Li, Bin; Yang, Jinlong

    2014-08-01

    By combining the density functional theory (DFT) and a hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) approach, we investigate the Kondo phenomena in a composite system consisting of a dehydrogenated cobalt phthalocyanine molecule (d-CoPc) adsorbed on an Au(111) surface. DFT calculations are performed to determine the ground-state geometric and electronic structures of the adsorption system. It is found that the singly occupied d_{z^2} orbital of Co forms a localized spin, which could be screened by the substrate conduction electrons. This screening leads to the prominent Kondo features as observed in the scanning tunneling microscopy experiments. We then employ the HEOM approach to characterize the Kondo correlations of the adsorption system. The calculated temperature-dependent differential conductance spectra and the predicted Kondo temperature agree well with the experiments, and the universal Kondo scaling behavior is correctly reproduced. This work thus provides important insights into the relevant experiments, and it also highlights the applicability of the combined DFT+HEOM approach to the studies of strongly correlated condensed matter systems.

  9. 42 CFR 84.114 - Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filters used with canisters and cartridges... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.114 Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement. (a) Particulate matter filters used in conjunction with a canister or cartridge shall be located on the inlet...

  10. 42 CFR 84.114 - Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Filters used with canisters and cartridges... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.114 Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement. (a) Particulate matter filters used in conjunction with a canister or cartridge shall be located on the inlet...

  11. 42 CFR 84.114 - Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Filters used with canisters and cartridges... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.114 Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement. (a) Particulate matter filters used in conjunction with a canister or cartridge shall be located on the inlet...

  12. 42 CFR 84.114 - Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Filters used with canisters and cartridges... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.114 Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement. (a) Particulate matter filters used in conjunction with a canister or cartridge shall be located on the inlet...

  13. 42 CFR 84.114 - Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Filters used with canisters and cartridges... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.114 Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement. (a) Particulate matter filters used in conjunction with a canister or cartridge shall be located on the inlet...

  14. 42 CFR 84.1157 - Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate filters; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate...-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1157 Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate filters; performance requirements; general. Chemical cartridge respirators...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1157 - Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate filters; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate...-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1157 Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate filters; performance requirements; general. Chemical cartridge respirators...

  16. 42 CFR 84.1157 - Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate filters; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate...-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1157 Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate filters; performance requirements; general. Chemical cartridge respirators...

  17. 42 CFR 84.112 - Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance... DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.112 Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more canisters or cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be...

  18. 42 CFR 84.112 - Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance... DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.112 Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more canisters or cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be...

  19. 42 CFR 84.112 - Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance... DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.112 Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more canisters or cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be...

  20. 42 CFR 84.112 - Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance... DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.112 Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more canisters or cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be...

  1. 42 CFR 84.112 - Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance... DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.112 Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more canisters or cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be...

  2. Analytical study of a gas-fired adsorptive air-conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Poyelle, F.; Guilleminot, J.J.; Meunier, F.

    1996-11-01

    Adsorptive air conditioning represents a potential alternative to chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) systems. But to compete with other systems, adsorption systems must exhibit sufficient figures of merit and energetic densities. An analytical study to predict the overall heat transfer coefficient in an adsorber has been conducted and is presented here. This study, based on a method-of-moment analysis, shows the influence of three parameters limiting the heat transfer in adsorbent beds. Heat transfer in adsorbent beds has been intensified. Using new consolidated materials, the machine utilizes two uniform temperature adsorbent beds in a cycle that incorporates both heat and mass recovery. It uses a zeolite-water pair. It is designed to produce 3 kW of cooling. Expected cooling performances are 300 W/kg of adsorbent with a coefficient of performance (COP) close to 0.8 and a cycle time of 20 minutes. The thermal conditions used to test the cycle are: the heater, 220 C; the cooler, 40 C; and the evaporation temperature, 3 C.

  3. Refilling of carbon nanotube cartridges for 3D nanomanufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekarevich, Raman; Toyoda, Masami; Baba, Shuichi; Nakata, Toshihiko; Hirahara, Kaori

    2016-03-01

    Metal-filled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known to be used as pen-tip injectors for 3D manufacturing on the nanoscale. However, the CNT interior cannot accumulate enough material to fabricate complex metallic nanostructures. Therefore a method for refilling the CNT cartridge needs to be developed. The strategy for refilling of CNT cartridges is suggested in this study. Controlled growth of gold nanowires in the interior of isolated CNTs using a real-time manipulator installed in a transmission electron microscope is reported herein. The encapsulation process of discrete gold nanoparticles in the hollow spaces of open-ended multi-wall CNTs was evaluated in detail. The experimental results reveal that the serial loading of isolated gold nanoparticles allows the control of the length of the loaded nanowires with nanometer accuracy. Thermophoresis and the coalescence of gold nanoparticles are assumed to be the primary mechanisms responsible for gold loading into a CNT cartridge.Metal-filled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known to be used as pen-tip injectors for 3D manufacturing on the nanoscale. However, the CNT interior cannot accumulate enough material to fabricate complex metallic nanostructures. Therefore a method for refilling the CNT cartridge needs to be developed. The strategy for refilling of CNT cartridges is suggested in this study. Controlled growth of gold nanowires in the interior of isolated CNTs using a real-time manipulator installed in a transmission electron microscope is reported herein. The encapsulation process of discrete gold nanoparticles in the hollow spaces of open-ended multi-wall CNTs was evaluated in detail. The experimental results reveal that the serial loading of isolated gold nanoparticles allows the control of the length of the loaded nanowires with nanometer accuracy. Thermophoresis and the coalescence of gold nanoparticles are assumed to be the primary mechanisms responsible for gold loading into a CNT cartridge. Electronic

  4. Selecting the column configuration with lowest media replacement cost for small adsorption systems.

    PubMed

    Bausk, Artem S; Dvorak, Bruce I

    2016-04-15

    A framework was developed for preliminary evaluation of the relative media replacement costs of three alternative column configurations used for adsorption systems with two vessels, such as those serving small systems. The media replacement cost is the cost of fresh media and the replacement service cost (including transportation, labor, and other non-material costs). Cost normalization methods were developed in part based on the data from US EPA Arsenic Treatment Technology Demonstration Program. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics were modeled using the PSDM model and breakthrough curves were normalized using the target effluent to influent concentration ratio (C/Co) and the mass transfer zone fraction (%MTZBT). Two factors were found to be important for the relative replacement cost of each configuration - the frequency which at least one column needed replacement of media, and the cycle replacement cost (CRCost) which is a combination of the fresh media cost and the replacement service cost. The lead-lag configuration has the lowest annual replacement cost at low target C/Co, high %MTZBT, and high CRCost ratios. The parallel configuration performs better at high target C/Co, high %MTZBT, and high CRCost ratios. Although the single configuration (two columns operated in tandem and replaced simultaneously) has higher media consumption compared to lead-lag and parallel, it can result in the lowest replacement cost at short %MTZBT and very low CRCost ratios due to savings in the replacement service cost. PMID:26894474

  5. VOC emission control using a Polyad{trademark} fluidized bed adsorption system

    SciTech Connect

    Niezgodski, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    Polyad{trademark} is a patented adsorption process based on fluidized bed technology using macroporous polymer particles as adsorbent. The process and adsorbent were developed during the early 1980`s jointly between Chematur engineering AB (parent company of Weatherly Inc.) and Nobel Chemicals in Sweden. The goals for the development of the Polyad{trademark} process were continuous adsorption/desorption, low energy consumption, ability to handle reactive solvents such as monomers and low sensitivity to high humidity air streams. A major step forward in VOC control occurred when fluidized bed technology was combined with polymeric adsorbents. Fluidized means to blow a gas, for example, air, up through a bed of solid particles which converts the media to a suspended mass that has many properties similar to a liquid. The simplicity, reliability, and low energy consumption of the fluidized bed process results in low operating costs. The low energy requirements come from the low pressure drop achieved in a fluidized bed system, typically 8--10 inches of water for an operating system.

  6. Testing, Modeling and System Impact of Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacomini, Christine S.; Powers, Aaron; Lewis, Matthew; Linrud, Christopher; Waguespack, Glenn; Conger, Bruce; Paul, Heather L.

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic heat regenerated temperature swing adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for removal and rejection of carbon dioxide (CO2) and heat from a portable life support system (PLSS) to the Martian environment. Previously, hardware was built and tested to demonstrate using heat from simulated, dry ventilation loop gas to affect the temperature swing required to regenerate an adsorbent used for CO2 removal. New testing has been performed using a moist, simulated ventilation loop gas to demonstrate the effects of water condensing and freezing in the heat exchanger during adsorbent regeneration. In addition, thermal models of the adsorbent during regeneration were modified and calibrated with test data to capture the effect of the CO2 heat of desorption. Finally, MTSA impact on PLSS design was evaluated by performing thermal balances assuming a specific PLSS architecture. Results using NASA s Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT), a PLSS system evaluation tool, are presented.

  7. Construction and measurements of an improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    SciTech Connect

    Street, J. Bunker, R.; Dunagan, C.; Loose, X.; Schnee, R. W.; Stark, M.; Sundarnath, K.; Tronstad, D.

    2015-08-17

    In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto detector surfaces, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. An improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system and cleanroom build upon a previous design implemented at Syracuse University that achieved radon levels of ∼0.2 Bq m{sup −3}. This improved system will employ a better pump and larger carbon beds feeding a redesigned cleanroom with an internal HVAC unit and aged water for humidification. With the rebuilt (original) radon mitigation system, the new low-radon cleanroom has already achieved a > 300× reduction from an input activity of 58.6 ± 0.7 Bq m{sup −3} to a cleanroom activity of 0.13 ± 0.06 Bq m{sup −3}.

  8. Performance study of unglazed cylindrical solar collector for adsorption refrigeration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesh, A.; Kaushik, S. C.; Kumaraguru, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    In the present communication, the unglazed cylindrical solar adsorber module is suggested for refrigeration and theoretical models for the heat and mass transfer in the cylindrical adsorber with heat balance equations in the collector components have been developed. It has been found that, both the SCP and COPsolar raises with increasing the evaporation temperature and drop off with the increase of the condensation temperature. The COPsolar increased from 0.15 to 0.52 with the increase of the total solar energy absorbed by the collector while the COPcycle varied in the range of 0.57-0.73. The efficiency of unglazed solar collector varied from 36 to 44 %. The cost of current unglazed adsorption refrigeration system is compared with the glazed system, and it is 33 to 50 % less than the cost of glazed system.

  9. Construction and measurements of an improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, J.; Bunker, R.; Dunagan, C.; Loose, X.; Schnee, R. W.; Stark, M.; Sundarnath, K.; Tronstad, D.

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto detector surfaces, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. An improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system and cleanroom build upon a previous design implemented at Syracuse University that achieved radon levels of ˜0.2 Bq m-3. This improved system will employ a better pump and larger carbon beds feeding a redesigned cleanroom with an internal HVAC unit and aged water for humidification. With the rebuilt (original) radon mitigation system, the new low-radon cleanroom has already achieved a > 300× reduction from an input activity of 58.6 ± 0.7 Bq m-3 to a cleanroom activity of 0.13 ± 0.06 Bq m-3.

  10. Preparation and use of maize tassels' activated carbon for the adsorption of phenolic compounds in environmental waste water samples.

    PubMed

    Olorundare, O F; Msagati, T A M; Krause, R W M; Okonkwo, J O; Mamba, B B

    2015-04-01

    The determination and remediation of three phenolic compounds bisphenol A (BPA), ortho-nitrophenol (o-NTP), parachlorophenol (PCP) in wastewater is reported. The analysis of these molecules in wastewater was done using gas chromatography (GC) × GC time-of-flight mass spectrometry while activated carbon derived from maize tassel was used as an adsorbent. During the experimental procedures, the effect of various parameters such as initial concentration, pH of sample solution, eluent volume, and sample volume on the removal efficiency with respect to the three phenolic compounds was studied. The results showed that maize tassel produced activated carbon (MTAC) cartridge packed solid-phase extraction (SPE) system was able to remove the phenolic compounds effectively (90.84-98.49%, 80.75-97.11%, and 78.27-97.08% for BPA, o-NTP, and PCP, respectively). The MTAC cartridge packed SPE sorbent performance was compared to commercially produced C18 SPE cartridges and found to be comparable. All the parameters investigated were found to have a notable influence on the adsorption efficiency of the phenolic compounds from wastewaters at different magnitudes. PMID:25354435

  11. [Some issues concerning the use of firearms with Flobert cartridges].

    PubMed

    Vaitkevicius, Eduardas; Kurapka, Egidijus; Malewski, Hendryk

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the work is to analyze and evaluate legal, criminalistic and criminological problematic issues appearing in Lithuania due to circulation of firearms designed for the Flobert cartridge. The purpose of guns with the Flobert cartridge is shooting training in closed areas. Provided the kinetic energy of Flobert cartridge is not bigger that 7.5 J. the guns meant for those bullets have been classified to unlimited circulation of guns since 1999 in Lithuania. Now these firearms can be purchased by anyone over 18. Due to this reason the demand for these firearms has increased. The sale of these firearms amounts to several thousands (the population of Lithuania is more than 3.5 million). The analyses of the authors show that these firearms are not used in accordance with their purpose. Experimental practice and experimental research proved that these firearms can cause serious bodily injuries. The latter fact allowed the authors to formulate propositions regarding legal regulation of circulation of these firearms. PMID:14971299

  12. Dynamic properties of elastomer cartridge specimens under a rotating load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darlow, M. S.; Smalley, A. J.; Cunningham, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a program of analysis and test to determine the dynamic properties of elastomer cartridges operating under a rotating load. These measured properties were compared to predictions based on results of unidirectional tests with the same elastomer material. The test method for the dynamic stiffness and damping measurements was essentially the same as the Base Excitation Resonant Mass Method. The primary difference is that the exciting force used for these most recent tests was exerted by rotating unbalance in a rotational test rig rather than a shake table. The specimens tested were: two rectangular cross-section, continuous ring cartridges of different cross-section and three cylindrical button cartridges of different button thickness. Tests were performed for strains from about 0.0001 to about 0.01 (double amplitude). Material properties and prediction equations determined from reciprocating tests were used to make numerical predictions of stiffness, damping, and loss coefficient for the test elements, with encouraging results. Strain was shown to be an important parameter in determining these dynamic properties, particularly damping and loss coefficient.

  13. [Morphologic detection of Bacillus cereus in blank cartridges].

    PubMed

    Rothschild, M A; Mülling, C

    1998-01-01

    Wound infections after gunshot wounds from live ammunition can produce serious complications. It is well known that projectiles per se are neither sterile nor does their firing cause sterilization. The germs on the surface of a projectile enter the body together with the projectile and are thus introduced into the wound together with skin bacteria. However it is less known that wound infections can occur in wounds caused by the gas jet from blank ammunition (mainly from shots at very close range). In such ammunition without a projectile, the propellant particles are usually contaminated with bacteria which find their way into the wound together with skin germs. In previous investigations, we have microbiologically detected the species Bacillus cereus in the propellant of blank cartridges. In the present study, we have applied scanning electron microscopic methods to find out which areas of the blank cartridges are colonized by these bacteria. For this purpose 20 blank cartridges, each from 4 different manufacturers, were electronmicroscopically examined. B. cereus only found on the surface of intact nitrocellulose particles but not in the interior of broken prepared propellant particles. Bacterial structures were not morphologically identified on black powder particles. PMID:9701752

  14. The molecular adsorption-type endotoxin detection system using immobilized ɛ-polylysine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooe, Katsutoshi; Tsuji, Akihito; Nishishita, Naoki; Hirano, Yoshiaki

    2007-12-01

    mass incrementation is occurred, and the existence of endtoxin can be detected immediately, by using of Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM). In this report, the immobilization of ɛ-polylysine onto the Au and Si substrate and its adsorptive activity are described. We use X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to confirm the ɛ-polylysine immobilization, and the adsorptive activity of immobilized ɛ-polylysine is measured by AFM and QCM. This molecular adsorption type endotoxin sensor aims to the realization of "real-time endotoxin detection system".

  15. Building a working understanding of protein adsorption with model systems and serendipity.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    Here we will consider a working understanding of protein adsorption to be one that is adequate for practical use. Serendipity will be considered as a resource that can be used along with model systems in order to build such a working understanding. In particular, the term refers to a preparedness on the part of the researcher to make connections between a variety of everyday inputs from sources in and outside of the main concerns of the research, and a willingness to apply those connections toward the broader utility and impact of the work. In this paper we summarize the highlights and major conclusions of our work with proteins at interfaces - gained by use of comparatively very simple experimental systems while harnessing luck as effectively as we could along the way - and its relevance to meeting challenges in biopharma and biomedical technology. PMID:25200205

  16. Development of STR profiles from firearms and fired cartridge cases.

    PubMed

    Horsman-Hall, Katie M; Orihuela, Yvette; Karczynski, Stephanie L; Davis, Ann L; Ban, Jeffrey D; Greenspoon, Susan A

    2009-09-01

    Fired cartridge cases are a common type of evidence found at crime scenes. However, due to the high chamber temperatures and touch nature of this evidence, DNA testing is not commonly sought because it is believed DNA is only present in low levels, whether it is due to initial low levels of DNA and/or DNA degradation from the heat or inhibition of the PCR reaction. Moreover, very few laboratories report STR typing success with fired cases. This study focused on obtaining STR profiles from fired cartridge cases using the AmpFlSTR MiniFiler kit, which is designed to amplify DNA from low level, inhibited, and degraded samples. Comparisons to other STR amplification kits were also conducted. In attempt to simulate casework, random individuals loaded cartridges into a firearm. DNA was recovered from the fired cartridge cases using the double swab technique and extracted using an automated large volume DNA IQ method. Initially, testing focused on known shedders handling cartridges for 30s prior to firing. A significantly greater number of alleles was obtained following amplification with the MiniFiler kit versus the PowerPlex 16 BIO kit. No alleles were observed using the Identifiler kit. In an attempt to better simulate casework, a random selection of laboratory personnel handled shotshells for as long as needed to load and fire the weapon. In this mock sample study, the MiniFiler kit successfully amplified an average of 22% of expected alleles from DNA recovered from shotshell cases versus the PowerPlex 16 BIO kit where an average of 7% of alleles were observed. However, the total number of alleles obtained from the two kits was not significantly different. The quality of the DNA obtained from fired cases was studied with evidence of inhibition in at least 11% of shotshell case samples. After swabbing the head and the hull of three shotshell cases separately, a significantly greater number of alleles was obtained from the hull as opposed to the head of the fired

  17. Three-component competitive adsorption model for flow-through PAC systems. 1. Model development and verification with a PAC/membrane system.

    PubMed

    Li, Qilin; Mariñas, Benito J; Snoeyink, Vernon L; Campos, Carlos

    2003-07-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) interferes with the adsorption of trace organic compounds on porous adsorbents such as powdered activated carbon (PAC) by pore blockage and direct competition for adsorption sites. The competitive effect of NOM in flow-through systems in which the retention time of the PAC is greater than the hydraulic retention time of the system can be magnified because NOM from the influent water can continue to adsorb on the PAC retained in the system. As a result, the adsorption capacity and the diffusion coefficient of trace compounds can decrease as NOM from the influent water accumulates. In this study, a dynamic three-component adsorption model was developed to quantitatively describe the removal of a trace compound from water in flow-through PAC processes. The system was simplified by using p-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB) to represent the NOM fraction that competes directly with the target trace organic atrazine for adsorption sites and by using poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS-1.8k) to represent large, pore-blocking NOM. The model was based on the homogeneous surface diffusion assumption with the adsorption capacity of atrazine being gradually adjusted using a simplified version of the ideal adsorbed solution theory model developed in this study. The surface diffusion coefficients of atrazine and p-DCB were modeled as a function of the surface concentration of the pore-blocking compound, PSS-1.8k. The model was verified experimentally with a PAC/microfiltration (MF) system. The use of single-solute adsorption parameters obtained from batch isotherm and kinetic tests resulted in good model predictions for the adsorption of atrazine and the two model compounds under operating conditions typical of PAC/MF systems. The model will be applied to study various operating conditions and other system parameters of PAC/membrane systems in part 2 of this study. PMID:12875406

  18. Three-dimensional surface reconstruction for cartridge cases using photometric stereo.

    PubMed

    Sakarya, Ufuk; Leloğlu, Uğur Murat; Tunali, Erol

    2008-03-01

    In forensic science, automated firearms identification is an important and yet unsolved problem. On the way to the solution, one of the most important phases is data acquisition. To be able to identify firearms in a reliable way, all the striated and impressed marks on metallic surfaces of cartridge cases should be visible. But two-dimensional images of cartridge cases are very sensitive to the type and direction of the light source(s). Depending on illumination conditions, the images of marks change drastically and sometimes they simply disappear. But, if the three-dimensional (3D) topography of the surface is obtained, the geometry of the marks, which is independent of the illumination, is available. Thus, by providing illumination independent features that can be used for automated matching, 3D data have the potential to make automated matching much reliable. In the literature on data acquisition for automated firearms identification, a few different ways of three-dimensional surface extraction are described, like laser interferometry or laser profilometry. This study presents a real life application of another method, photometric stereo, for the acquisition of 3D topographic data for cartridge cases, which is the one used in BALISTIKA Ballistics Image Analysis and Recognition System. In order to construct 3D topographic data, first of all, two-dimensional images were acquired using a specially designed set-up. After the images were calibrated radiometrically, photometric stereo method was applied. In order to minimize the low-frequency errors in the final surface, a surface-fitting algorithm was used. The method uses low-cost equipment and image acquisition is not time-consuming. Results were compared to interferometric measurement values for error assessment. PMID:17703904

  19. Ling’s Adsorption Theory as a Mechanism of Membrane Potential Generation Observed in Both Living and Nonliving Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tamagawa, Hirohisa; Funatani, Makoto; Ikeda, Kota

    2016-01-01

    The potential between two electrolytic solutions separated by a membrane impermeable to ions was measured and the generation mechanism of potential measured was investigated. From the physiological point of view, a nonzero membrane potential or action potential cannot be observed across the impermeable membrane. However, a nonzero membrane potential including action potential-like potential was clearly observed. Those observations gave rise to a doubt concerning the validity of currently accepted generation mechanism of membrane potential and action potential of cell. As an alternative theory, we found that the long-forgotten Ling’s adsorption theory was the most plausible theory. Ling’s adsorption theory suggests that the membrane potential and action potential of a living cell is due to the adsorption of mobile ions onto the adsorption site of cell, and this theory is applicable even to nonliving (or non-biological) system as well as living system. Through this paper, the authors emphasize that it is necessary to reconsider the validity of current membrane theory and also would like to urge the readers to pay keen attention to the Ling’s adsorption theory which has for long years been forgotten in the history of physiology. PMID:26821050

  20. Comparison of adsorption and photo-Fenton processes for phenol and paracetamol removing from aqueous solutions: single and binary systems.

    PubMed

    Rad, Leila Roshanfekr; Haririan, Ismaeil; Divsar, Faten

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, adsorption and photo-Fenton processes have been compared for the removal of phenol and paracetamol from aqueous solutions in a single and binary systems. NaX nanozeolites and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were used during adsorption and photo-Fenton processes, respectively. Both nanoparticles were synthesized using microwave heating method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis. Based on results, more than 99% removing percentages of phenol and paracetamol were obtained during photo-Fenton process at initial concentrations of 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 mg/L of phenol and paracetamol. Moreover, the complete removing of phenol and paracetamol was only achieved at lower initial concentrations than 10 mg/L for phenol and paracetamol during adsorption process. The results showed a significant dependence of the phenol and paracetamol removing on the initial concentrations of phenol and paracetamol for selection of process. The photo-Fenton process could be considered an alternative method in higher initial concentrations of phenol and paracetamol. However, the adsorption process due to economical issue was preferred for phenol and paracetamol removing at lower initial concentrations. The kinetic data of photo-Fenton and adsorption processes were well described using first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results of phenol and paracetamol removing in a binary system confirmed the obtained results of single removing of phenol and paracetamol in selection of process. PMID:25448945

  1. Comparison of adsorption and photo-Fenton processes for phenol and paracetamol removing from aqueous solutions: Single and binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rad, Leila Roshanfekr; Haririan, Ismaeil; Divsar, Faten

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, adsorption and photo-Fenton processes have been compared for the removal of phenol and paracetamol from aqueous solutions in a single and binary systems. NaX nanozeolites and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were used during adsorption and photo-Fenton processes, respectively. Both nanoparticles were synthesized using microwave heating method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis. Based on results, more than 99% removing percentages of phenol and paracetamol were obtained during photo-Fenton process at initial concentrations of 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 mg/L of phenol and paracetamol. Moreover, the complete removing of phenol and paracetamol was only achieved at lower initial concentrations than 10 mg/L for phenol and paracetamol during adsorption process. The results showed a significant dependence of the phenol and paracetamol removing on the initial concentrations of phenol and paracetamol for selection of process. The photo-Fenton process could be considered an alternative method in higher initial concentrations of phenol and paracetamol. However, the adsorption process due to economical issue was preferred for phenol and paracetamol removing at lower initial concentrations. The kinetic data of photo-Fenton and adsorption processes were well described using first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results of phenol and paracetamol removing in a binary system confirmed the obtained results of single removing of phenol and paracetamol in selection of process.

  2. Energy transfer during freeze-drying in dual-chamber cartridges.

    PubMed

    Korpus, Christoph; Haase, Thomas; Sönnichsen, Caren; Friess, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    Freeze-drying essentially requires knowledge about the heat and mass transfer characteristics to assure product quality. Whereas this understanding has been created for freeze-drying in vials, only limited information is available for state-of-the-art multiple compartment container systems such as dual-chamber cartridges (DCCs). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of this novel container format. Sublimation tests were carried out using pure water at 60, 100, 150, and 200 mTorr chamber pressure at a shelf temperature of 0°C. Custom-made aluminum blocks were used as holder systems. Two heat transfer coefficients could be identified: the coefficient characterizing heat transfer between shelf and block, KAl , and between block and cartridge, KDCC . KAl was dependent on all three modes of heat transfer: contact conduction, gas conduction, and radiation. For KDCC , contact conduction was negligible. Radiation strongly influenced the overall energy transfer as it is the major mode of heat transfer for KDCC and contributes up to 44% to KAl . A third coefficient, Ktot , was defined as an overall heat transfer coefficient. This knowledge about heat transfer enables a purposeful development and control of optimized lyophilization processes for this novel container system. PMID:25712903

  3. Studies of adsorption equilibria and kinetics in the systems: Aqueous solution of dyes-mesoporous carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derylo-Marczewska, A.; Marczewski, A. W.; Winter, Sz.; Sternik, D.

    2010-06-01

    Two carbonaceous materials were synthesized by using the method of impregnation of mesoporous silicas obtained by applying the Pluronic copolymers as pore-creating agents. The isotherms of adsorption of methylene blue and methyl orange from aqueous solutions were measured by the static method. The profiles of adsorbate concentration change in time were obtained from the UV-vis spectra. The adsorption isotherms and kinetic dependence were discussed in the terms of theory of adsorption on heterogeneous surfaces.

  4. Construction and measurements of a vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    SciTech Connect

    Schnee, R. W.; Bunker, R.; Ghulam, G.; Jardin, D.; Kos, M.; Tenney, A. S.

    2013-08-08

    Long-lived alpha and beta emitters in the {sup 222}Rn decay chain on (and near) detector surfaces may be the limiting background in many experiments attempting to detect dark matter or neutrinoless double beta decay, and in screening detectors. In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto the wires of the Beta Cage during its assembly, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at Syracuse University using a vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system. The radon filter shows ∼20× reduction at its output, from 7.47±0.56 to 0.37±0.12 Bq/m{sup 3}, and the cleanroom radon activity meets project requirements, with a lowest achieved value consistent with that of the filter, and levels consistently < 2 Bq/m{sup 3}.

  5. Development and analysis of micro-polygeneration systems and adsorption chillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle

    About a fifth of all primary energy in the US is consumed by residential buildings, mostly for cooling, heating and to provide electricity. Furthermore, retrofits are essential to reducing this consumption, since the buildings that exist today will comprise over half of those in use in 2050. Residential combined heat and power (or micro CHP, defined by <5 kW electrical generation capacity) has been identified as a retrofit technology which can reduce energy consumption in existing homes during the heating season by 5-30%. This thesis investigates the addition of a thermally-driven chiller/heat pump to a CHP system (to form a trigeneration system) to additionally provide savings during the cooling season, and enhance heating season savings. Scenarios are identified in which adding thermally-driven equipment to a micro CHP system reduces primary energy consumption, through analytical and experimental investigations. The experimental focus is on adsorption heat pump systems, which are capable of being used with the CHP engines (prime movers) that are already widely deployed. The analytical analysis identifies energy saving potential off-grid for today's prime movers, with potential on-grid for various fuel cell technologies. A novel dynamic test facility was developed to measure real-world residential trigeneration system performance using a prototype adsorption chiller. The chiller was designed and constructed for this thesis and was driven by waste heat from a commercially available natural gas-fueled 4 kW (electric) CHP engine. A control strategy for the chiller was developed, enabling a 5-day experiment to be run using a thermal load profile based on moderate Maryland summer air conditioning loads and typical single-family domestic hot water demand, with experimental results in agreement with models. In this summer mode, depending on electrical loads, the trigeneration system used up to 36% less fuel than off-grid separate generation and up to 29% less fuel than

  6. Adsorption of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate and wettability in polytetrafluoroethylene solution air system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkot, Joanna; Jańczuk, Bronisław

    2007-06-01

    The role of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) adsorption at water-air and polytetrafluoroethylene-water (PTFE) interfaces in wetting of low energy PTFE was established from measurements of the contact angle of aqueous AOT solutions in PTFE-solution drop-air systems and the aqueous AOT solution surface tension measurements. For calculations of the adsorption at these interfaces the relationship between adhesion tension ( γLV cos θ) and surface tension ( γLV), and the Gibbs and Young equations were taken into account. On the basis of the measurements and calculations the slope of the γLV cos θ- γLV curve was found to be constant and equal -1 over the whole range of surfactant concentration in solution. It means that the amount of surfactant adsorbed at the PTFE-water interface, ΓSL, is essentially equal to its amount adsorbed at water-air interface, ΓLV. By extrapolating the linear dependence between γLV cos θ and γLV to cos θ = 1 the determined value of critical surface tension of PTFE surface wetting, γC, was obtained (23.6 mN/m), and it was higher than the surface tension of PTFE (20.24 mN/m). Using the value of PTFE surface tension and the measured surface tension of aqueous AOT solution in Young equation, the PTFE-solution interface tension, γSL, was also determined. The shape of the γSL-log C curve occurred to be similar to the isotherm of AOT adsorption at water-air interface, and a linear dependence existed between the PTFE-solution interfacial tension and polar component of aqueous AOT solution. The dependence was found to be established by the fact that the work of adhesion of AOT solution to the PTFE surface was practically constant amounting 46.31 mJ/m 2 which was close to the work of water adhesion to PTFE surface.

  7. A Humidity Control System with an Adsorption Material and Indoor Air Quality Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Yoshifumi; Ishii, Noriaki

    The present study introduces a humidity control apparatus which can hygienically and automatically maintain the appropriate humidity level of indoor air without either a water supply or drainage system. In humidification, the desiccant takes up water vapor from the outdoor air in the adsorption process, and release it indoors by desorption. Therefore, no water supply is required to humidify. An apparatus having no water supply is more hygienic, because it does not propagate bacteria and does not scatter the calcium and magnesium salts found in the water. In dehumidification, water vapor is removed from the indoor air by the desiccant and is released outdoors by desorption, eliminating the need for a drainage system. The absence of a drainage system also eliminates problems such as water leakage and installation. The performance of a system based on this new method was compared with that of conventional products, whereby the modes of dehumidification, humidification and humidification with ventilation were evaluated. In addition, the new system was tested to reveal the time-dependent charaeteristics of the concentration of indoor odor and the dust collection efficiency.

  8. Quantum phase transitions in interfacing two gapped systems of ordinary fermions driven by external strain and atomic adsorption.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Chang, Kai; Zheng, X G; Ji, S H; Wang, D C; Zhao, D P

    2015-07-21

    We study how the electronic structure of a single bilayer Bi on a single quintuple layer Bi2Se3 (Bi2Te3) changes with interface polarization, strain and H adsorption using first-principles calculations. We find that for strained systems the Dirac cone state does not show in the band gap. Coupled with strain and H adsorption, the six spin-polarized Dirac cones in the band gap are created by the interfacing two gapped films. The internal electrical field can result in variations in the work function relative to Bi and Bi2Se3 surfaces. Our findings confirm that the interface polarization, strain and atomic adsorption are the effective means to manipulate electronic structures and topological states on non-metallic surfaces, which could be helpful for realizing atomically thin spintronic devices. PMID:26103059

  9. [Traumatic potential of colour marking cartridges (FX ammunition)].

    PubMed

    Peschel, Oliver; Manthei, Axel; Kühl, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Colour marking cartridges as the FX ammunition (Simunition Europe, Brussels) are increasingly used by the police for realistic close range combat training. Conversion kits for service weapons of different manufacturers are available. The ballistic data of this ammunition is reported and experimentally verified. The risk of injury seems to be very low, if the recommended protective equipment is used. Small hematomas up to superficial lacerations are to be expected only in areas over a bony support. Shots to the unprotected eye will result in severe injuries. PMID:15384458

  10. Image matching algorithms for breech face marks and firing pins in a database of spent cartridge cases of firearms.

    PubMed

    Geradts, Z J; Bijhold, J; Hermsen, R; Murtagh, F

    2001-06-01

    On the market several systems exist for collecting spent ammunition data for forensic investigation. These databases store images of cartridge cases and the marks on them. Image matching is used to create hit lists that show which marks on a cartridge case are most similar to another cartridge case. The research in this paper is focused on the different methods of feature selection and pattern recognition that can be used for optimizing the results of image matching. The images are acquired by side light images for the breech face marks and by ring light for the firing pin impression. For these images a standard way of digitizing the images used. For the side light images and ring light images this means that the user has to position the cartridge case in the same position according to a protocol. The positioning is important for the sidelight, since the image that is obtained of a striation mark depends heavily on the angle of incidence of the light. In practice, it appears that the user positions the cartridge case with +/-10 degrees accuracy. We tested our algorithms using 49 cartridge cases of 19 different firearms, where the examiner determined that they were shot with the same firearm. For testing, these images were mixed with a database consisting of approximately 4900 images that were available from the Drugfire database of different calibers.In cases where the registration and the light conditions among those matching pairs was good, a simple computation of the standard deviation of the subtracted gray levels, delivered the best-matched images. For images that were rotated and shifted, we have implemented a "brute force" way of registration. The images are translated and rotated until the minimum of the standard deviation of the difference is found. This method did not result in all relevant matches in the top position. This is caused by the effect that shadows and highlights are compared in intensity. Since the angle of incidence of the light will give a

  11. Air monitoring of aromatic hydrocarbons during automobile spray painting for developing change schedule of respirator cartridges

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of End of Service Life Indicator (ESLI), a cartridge change schedule should be established for ensuring that cartridges are changed before their end of service life. Factors effecting service life of cartridges were evaluated, including the amount of atmospheric contamination with aromatic hydrocarbon vapors in the workplace, temperature, and relative humidity of the air. A new change schedule was established based on comparing the results of air monitoring and workplace conditions, laboratory experiment, and the NIOSH MultiVapor software. Spray painters were being exposed to aromatic hydrocarbons in a range exceeding occupational exposure limits. The cartridge change schedule was not effective and could no longer provide adequate protection against organic contaminants for sprayers. Change schedules for respirator cartridges should be reduced from 16–24 hours to 4 hours. NIOSH’s service life software program could be applied to developing cartridge change schedules. PMID:24468234

  12. Phosphorous adsorption and precipitation in a permeable reactive wall: Applications for wastewater disposal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.J.; Blowes, D.W. |; Placek, C.J. |

    1997-12-31

    A permeable reactive mixture has been developed using low cost, readily available materials that is capable of providing effective, long-term phosphorous treatment in areas impacted by on-land wastewater disposal. The reactive mixture creates a geochemical environment suitable for P-attenuation by both adsorption and precipitation reactions. Potential benefits include significant reductions in phosphorous loading to receiving groundwater and surface water systems, and the accumulation of P-mass in a finite and accessible volume of material. The mixture may be applied as a component within surface treatment systems or in subsurface applications such as horizontal or vertical permeable reactive walls. The mixture averaged > 90% treatment efficiency over 3.6 years of continuous-flow laboratory column experiments. The mixture was further evaluated at the pilot-scale to treat municipal wastewater, and the field-scale to treat a well-characterized septic system plume using an in situ funnel and gate system. Average PO{sub 4}-P concentrations in effluent exiting the reactive mixture range between 0 - 0.3 mg/L. Mineralogical analyses have isolated the phases responsible for phosphorous uptake, and discrete phosphate precipitates have been identified.

  13. Solid cartridge for a pulse weld forming electrode and method of joining tubular members

    DOEpatents

    Bonnen, John Joseph Francis; Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich; Mamutov, Alexander; Maison, Lloyd Douglas; Dawson, Scott Alwyn; deVries, James

    2016-02-23

    A cartridge assembly is disclosed for a pulse welding a first tube supported on a mandrel to a second tube. An outer tool is assembled over the second tube and a stored charge is discharged in the cartridge assembly. The cartridge comprises an annular conductor and a solid casing enveloping the conductor. The stored charge is electrically connected to the conductor and discharged through the conductor to compress the second tube and pulse weld the second tube to the first tube.

  14. Modeling of ETC plasma cartridges and their effect on propellant combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakthivel, N.; Sarkar, P.; Chaturvedi, S.

    2002-12-01

    A one-dimensional, time-dependent fluid code has been developed for modeling an electro-thermal chemical (ETC) plasma cartridge. The power flow out of the cartridge is coupled to the interior ballistics code IBHVG2. For given pulse-forming network and gun parameters, the projectile velocity is maximized with respect to cartridge dimensions. In this paper, we report details of the computational model and results of optimization.

  15. United States all-in-one cartridge market: 1994 including end-user research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shane, John

    1995-04-01

    Cartridge remanufacturing is reaching a turning point. Although more cartridges are being remanufactured today than las year, profitability is not as many would like. Margins for SX-type cartridges are slim. In addition, penetrating the LBP-NX and LBP-EX business has been slower than was expected. Although BIS expects that remanufacturing will rebound, the state of the industry today exhibits the signs of being in a slump.

  16. Local chemical potentials and pressures in heterogeneous systems: Adsorptive, absorptive, interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovbin, Yu. K.

    2016-07-01

    Equations self-consistently describing chemical and mechanical equilibria in heterogeneous systems are derived. The equations are based on the lattice gas model using discrete distributions of molecules in space (on a scale comparable to molecular size) and continuum distributions of molecules (at short distances inside the cells) during their translational and vibrational motions. It is shown that the theory provides a unified description of the equilibrium distributions of molecules in three aggregate states and at their interfaces. Potential functions of intermolecular interactions (such as Mie pair potentials) in several coordination spheres that determine the compressibility of the lattice structure are considered. For simplicity, it is assumed that differences between the sizes of mixture components are small. Expressions for the local components of the pressure tensor inside multicomponent solid phases and heterogeneous systems (adsorptive, absorptive, and interfaces) are obtained. It is established that they can be used to calculate the lattice parameters of deforming phases and the thermodynamic characteristics of interfaces, including surface tension. The tensor nature of the chemical potential in heterogeneous systems is discussed.

  17. High-Temperature Crystal-Growth Cartridge Tubes Made by VPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard; O'Dell, Scott; McKechnie, Timothy; Power, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Cartridge tubes for use in a crystal growth furnace at temperatures as high as 1,600 deg. C have been fabricated by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS). These cartridges consist mainly of an alloy of 60 weight percent molybdenum with 40 weight percent rhenium, made from molybdenum powder coated with rhenium. This alloy was selected because of its high melting temperature (approximately equal.2,550 C) and because of its excellent ductility at room temperature. These cartridges are intended to supplant tungsten/nickel-alloy cartridges, which cannot be used at temperatures above approximately equal 1,300 C.

  18. The effects of laser welding on heterogeneous immunoassay performance in a microfluidic cartridge

    PubMed Central

    Mäntymaa, Anne; Halme, Jussi; Välimaa, Lasse; Kallio, Pasi

    2011-01-01

    Sealing of a microfluidic cartridge is a challenge, because the cartridge commonly contains heat-sensitive biomolecules that must also be protected from contamination. In addition, the objective is usually to obtain a sealing method suitable for mass production. Laser welding is a rapid technique that can be accomplished with low unit costs. Even though the technique has been widely adopted in industry, the literature on its use in microfluidic applications is not large. This paper is the first to report the effects of laser welding on the performance of the heterogeneous immunoassay in a polystyrene microfluidic cartridge in which biomolecules are immobilized into the reaction surface of the cartridge before sealing. The paper compares the immunoassay performance of microfluidic cartridges that are sealed either with an adhesive tape or by use of laser transmission welding. The model analyte used is thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). The results show that the concentration curves in the laser-welded cartridges are very close to the curves in the taped cartridges. This indicates, first, that laser welding does not cause any significant reduction in immunoassay performance, and second, that the polystyrene cover does not have significant effect on the signal levels. Interestingly, the coefficients of variance between parallel samples were lower in the laser-welded cartridges than in the taped cartridges. PMID:22685505

  19. The effects of laser welding on heterogeneous immunoassay performance in a microfluidic cartridge.

    PubMed

    Mäntymaa, Anne; Halme, Jussi; Välimaa, Lasse; Kallio, Pasi

    2011-12-01

    Sealing of a microfluidic cartridge is a challenge, because the cartridge commonly contains heat-sensitive biomolecules that must also be protected from contamination. In addition, the objective is usually to obtain a sealing method suitable for mass production. Laser welding is a rapid technique that can be accomplished with low unit costs. Even though the technique has been widely adopted in industry, the literature on its use in microfluidic applications is not large. This paper is the first to report the effects of laser welding on the performance of the heterogeneous immunoassay in a polystyrene microfluidic cartridge in which biomolecules are immobilized into the reaction surface of the cartridge before sealing. The paper compares the immunoassay performance of microfluidic cartridges that are sealed either with an adhesive tape or by use of laser transmission welding. The model analyte used is thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). The results show that the concentration curves in the laser-welded cartridges are very close to the curves in the taped cartridges. This indicates, first, that laser welding does not cause any significant reduction in immunoassay performance, and second, that the polystyrene cover does not have significant effect on the signal levels. Interestingly, the coefficients of variance between parallel samples were lower in the laser-welded cartridges than in the taped cartridges. PMID:22685505

  20. Water treatment cartridge filter pilot test at Pond C-2

    SciTech Connect

    Moritz, E.J.; Hoffman, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    This study determined the performance of a pilot scale cartridge filter tank utilized to treat raw water at Rocky Flats Plant terminal Pond C-2. No chemical treatment was used during this study. The filter tank was fitted with eight polypropylene 3M{reg_sign} Model 723 cartridges vendor rated at 99% removal efficiency for particles of 2 microns and larger. The duration of the test was 30 minutes at a flowrate of 200 gallons per minutes. Performance was determined by measuring total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), gross alpha activity, gross beta activity, plutonium ({sup 239}Pu) levels, total particle counts (TPC), and differential particle counts (DPC) before and after treatment at specific time intervals throughout the test. Performance testing shows this treatment method produced a high quality effluent. Compared to raw water levels, TSS, NTU, gross alpha, and Pu{sup 239} were significantly reduced in the treated water samples. TPC and DPC data showed an average filtration efficiency of 97% for particles in the 1--50 micron range. This treatment method had no statistically significant affect on TDS and gross beta activity levels.

  1. Fatal cranial shot by blank cartridge gun: two suicide cases.

    PubMed

    Buyuk, Yalcin; Cagdir, Sadi; Avsar, Abdullah; Duman, Gokce U; Melez, D Oguzhan; Sahin, Feyzi

    2009-08-01

    Blank firing pistols are generally considered to be harmless and these guns are not accepted as being firearms in most countries. Due to lack of legal regulations these guns are easily purchased by anyone aged over 18 years. Reports of serious injuries and even fatalities due to these guns are increasing in the literature. These guns when modified or even unmodified can cause serious and potentially fatal injuries. Without doing any changes to the barrel, using blank or tear gas cartridges, firing at contact range can cause penetration of gas into the body including bone originated from gun powder. We report two suicide cases shooting themselves at temporal region with a blank cartridge gun at contact range. There was no foreign body on radiological examination and there was no trajectory of a bullet inside the brain. In both cases the wound was at the right temporal region and there was defect at temporal bone. There was circular soot around this bone defect. The injury of the brain tissue was localized at the level of the defect but there was widespread subarachnoidal bleeding. We discussed the potential danger of these guns and stressed the need of legal regulations concerning these guns. PMID:19573850

  2. Bubble Jet agent release cartridge for chemical single cell stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wangler, N; Welsche, M; Blazek, M; Blessing, M; Vervliet-Scheebaum, M; Reski, R; Müller, C; Reinecke, H; Steigert, J; Roth, G; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2013-02-01

    We present a new method for the distinct specific chemical stimulation of single cells and small cell clusters within their natural environment. By single-drop release of chemical agents with droplets in size of typical cell diameters (d <30 μm) on-demand micro gradients can be generated for the specific manipulation of single cells. A single channel and a double channel agent release cartridge with integrated fluidic structures and integrated agent reservoirs are shown, tested, and compared in this publication. The single channel setup features a fluidic structure fabricated by anisotropic etching of silicon. To allow for simultaneous release of different agents even though maintaining the same device size, the second type comprises a double channel fluidic structure, fabricated by photolithographic patterning of TMMF. Dispensed droplet volumes are V = 15 pl and V = 10 pl for the silicon and the TMMF based setups, respectively. Utilizing the agent release cartridges, the application in biological assays was demonstrated by hormone-stimulated premature bud formation in Physcomitrella patens and the individual staining of one single L 929 cell within a confluent grown cell culture. PMID:22833153

  3. Immobilization of ɛ-polylysine onto the probe surface for molecular adsorption type endotoxin detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooe, Katsutoshi; Tsuji, Akihito; Nishishita, Naoki; Hirano, Yoshiaki

    2007-04-01

    adsorption reaction between ɛ-polylysine and endotoxin. ɛ-polylysine has the structure of straight chain molecule composed by 25-30 residues made by lysine, and it is used as an antimicrobial agent, moreover, cellulose beads with immobilized ɛ-polylysine is used as the barrier filter for endotoxin removal. Therefore, it is expected that the endotoxin be adsorbed to the immobilized ɛ-polylysine onto the probe. As the result of this reaction, the mass of the probe is increased, and endotoxin can be detected by using of Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM). In our previous research, we have already acquired the proteins immobilization technique onto Au and Si surface. In this report, the proposal of molecular adsorption type endotoxin detection system, and the immobilization of ɛ-polylysine onto the probe are described. We use X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to confirm the ɛ-polylysine immobilization, and the adsorptive activity of immobilized ɛ-polylysine is measured by XPS and AFM. The purpose of this study is to bring about the realization of "Real-time endotoxin detection system".

  4. Adsorption mechanism of mixed cationic/anionic collectors in feldspar-quartz flotation system.

    PubMed

    Vidyadhar, A; Hanumantha Rao, K

    2007-02-15

    The adsorption mechanism of mixed cationic alkyl diamine and anionic sulfonate/oleate collectors at acidic pH values was investigated on microcline and quartz minerals through Hallimond flotation, electrokinetic and diffuse reflectance FTIR studies. In the presence of anionic collectors, neither of the minerals responded to flotation but the diamine flotation of the minerals was observed to be pH and concentration dependent. The presence of sulfonate enhanced the diamine flotation of the minerals by its co-adsorption. The difference in surface charge between the minerals at pH 2 was found to be the basis for preferential feldspar flotation from quartz in mixed diamine/sulfonate collectors. The infrared spectra revealed no adsorption of sulfonate collector when used alone but displayed its co-adsorption as diamine-sulfonate complex when used with diamine. The presence of sulfonate increased the diamine adsorption due to a decrease in the electrostatic head-head repulsion between the adjacent surface ammonium ions and thereby increasing the lateral tail-tail hydrophobic bonds. The mole ratio of diamine/sulfonate was found to be an important factor in the orientation of alkyl chains and thus the flotation response of minerals. The increase in sulfonate concentration beyond diamine concentration leads to the formation of soluble 1:2 diamine-sulfonate complex or precipitate and the adsorption of these species decreased the flotation since the alkyl chains are in chaotical orientation with a conceivable number of head groups directing towards the solution phase. PMID:17098246

  5. Image matching algorithms for breech face marks and firing pins in a database of spent cartridge cases of firearms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geradts, Zeno J.; Bijhold, Jurrien; Hermsen, Rob; Murtagh, Fionn D.

    2001-02-01

    On the market several systems exist for collecting spent ammunition data for forensic investigations. These databases store images of cartridge cases and the marks on them. Image matching is used to create hit lists that show those cartridges in the database which have marks that are most similar to the marks of the cartridge case under investigation. The research in this paper focuses on the different methods of feature selection and pattern recognition that can be used for optimizing the results of image matching. A fast pre-selection method based on signatures is applied that is based on the Kanade Lucas Tomasi equation. The positions of the points compared with this method are compared. In this way 11 of the 49 images were in the top position in combination with the third scale of the a trous wavelet. Light conditions and the prominence of the marks determines to a large extent whether correct matches are found in the top ranked position. All images were retrieved in the top give percent of the complete database. This method takes only a few minutes, which can be structured for comparisons to be carried out in seconds.

  6. Construction of a high efficiency copper adsorption bacterial system via peptide display and its application on copper dye polluted wastewater.

    PubMed

    Maruthamuthu, Murali Kannan; Nadarajan, Saravanan Prabhu; Ganesh, Irisappan; Ravikumar, Sambandam; Yun, Hyungdon; Yoo, Ik-Keun; Hong, Soon Ho

    2015-11-01

    For the construction of an efficient copper waste treatment system, a cell surface display strategy was employed. The copper adsorption ability of recombinant bacterial strains displaying three different copper binding peptides were evaluated in LB Luria-Bertani medium (LB), artificial wastewater, and copper phthalocyanine containing textile dye industry wastewater samples. Structural characteristics of the three peptides were also analyzed by similarity-based structure modeling. The best binding peptide was chosen for the construction of a dimeric peptide display and the adsorption ability of the monomeric and dimeric peptide displayed strains were compared. The dimeric peptide displayed strain showed superior copper adsorption in all three tested conditions (LB, artificial wastewater, and textile dye industry wastewater). When the strains were exposed to copper phthalocyanine dye polluted wastewater, the dimeric peptide display [543.27 µmol/g DCW dry cell weight (DCW)] showed higher adsorption of copper when compared with the monomeric strains (243.53 µmol/g DCW). PMID:26219270

  7. A self-contained all-in-one cartridge for sample preparation and real-time PCR in rapid influenza diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guolin; Hsieh, Tseng-Ming; Lee, Daniel Y S; Ali, Emril Mohamed; Xie, Hong; Looi, Xing Lun; Koay, Evelyn S-C; Li, Mo-Huang; Ying, Jackie Y

    2010-11-21

    Herein we present a fully automated system with pseudo-multiplexing capability for rapid infectious disease diagnosis. The all-in-one system was comprised of a polymer cartridge, a miniaturized thermal cycler, 1-color, 3-chamber fluorescence detectors for real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR), and a pneumatic fluidic delivery unit consisting of two pinch-valve manifolds and two pneumatic pumps. The disposable, self-contained cartridge held all the necessary reagents for viral RNA purification and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection, which took place all within the completely sealed cartridge. The operator only needed to pipette the patient's sample with lysis buffer into the cartridge, and the system would automatically perform the entire sample preparation and diagnosis within 2.5 h. We have successfully employed this system for seasonal influenza A H1N1 typing and sub-typing, obtaining comparable sensitivity as the experiments conducted using manual RNA extraction and commercial thermal cycler. A minimum detectable virus loading of 100 copies per μl has been determined by serial dilution experiments. This all-in-one desktop system would be suitable for decentralized disease diagnosis at immigration check points and outpatient clinics, and would not require highly skilled operators. PMID:20865195

  8. Ion adsorption-induced wetting transition in oil-water-mineral systems

    PubMed Central

    Mugele, Frieder; Bera, Bijoyendra; Cavalli, Andrea; Siretanu, Igor; Maestro, Armando; Duits, Michel; Cohen-Stuart, Martien; van den Ende, Dirk; Stocker, Isabella; Collins, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The relative wettability of oil and water on solid surfaces is generally governed by a complex competition of molecular interaction forces acting in such three-phase systems. Herein, we experimentally demonstrate how the adsorption of in nature abundant divalent Ca2+ cations to solid-liquid interfaces induces a macroscopic wetting transition from finite contact angles (≈10°) with to near-zero contact angles without divalent cations. We developed a quantitative model based on DLVO theory to demonstrate that this transition, which is observed on model clay surfaces, mica, but not on silica surfaces nor for monovalent K+ and Na+ cations is driven by charge reversal of the solid-liquid interface. Small amounts of a polar hydrocarbon, stearic acid, added to the ambient decane synergistically enhance the effect and lead to water contact angles up to 70° in the presence of Ca2+. Our results imply that it is the removal of divalent cations that makes reservoir rocks more hydrophilic, suggesting a generalizable strategy to control wettability and an explanation for the success of so-called low salinity water flooding, a recent enhanced oil recovery technology. PMID:26013156

  9. Ion adsorption-induced wetting transition in oil-water-mineral systems.

    PubMed

    Mugele, Frieder; Bera, Bijoyendra; Cavalli, Andrea; Siretanu, Igor; Maestro, Armando; Duits, Michel; Cohen-Stuart, Martien; van den Ende, Dirk; Stocker, Isabella; Collins, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The relative wettability of oil and water on solid surfaces is generally governed by a complex competition of molecular interaction forces acting in such three-phase systems. Herein, we experimentally demonstrate how the adsorption of in nature abundant divalent Ca(2+) cations to solid-liquid interfaces induces a macroscopic wetting transition from finite contact angles (≈ 10°) with to near-zero contact angles without divalent cations. We developed a quantitative model based on DLVO theory to demonstrate that this transition, which is observed on model clay surfaces, mica, but not on silica surfaces nor for monovalent K(+) and Na(+) cations is driven by charge reversal of the solid-liquid interface. Small amounts of a polar hydrocarbon, stearic acid, added to the ambient decane synergistically enhance the effect and lead to water contact angles up to 70° in the presence of Ca(2+). Our results imply that it is the removal of divalent cations that makes reservoir rocks more hydrophilic, suggesting a generalizable strategy to control wettability and an explanation for the success of so-called low salinity water flooding, a recent enhanced oil recovery technology. PMID:26013156

  10. 42 CFR 84.253 - Chemical-cartridge respirators; requirements and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical-cartridge respirators; requirements and tests. 84.253 Section 84.253 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... DEVICES Special Use Respirators § 84.253 Chemical-cartridge respirators; requirements and tests....

  11. 42 CFR 84.1155 - Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Filters used with canisters and cartridges... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1155 Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement. (a) Particulate matter filters used in conjunction with a canister or...

  12. 42 CFR 84.1155 - Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Filters used with canisters and cartridges... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1155 Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement. (a) Particulate matter filters used in conjunction with a canister or...

  13. 42 CFR 84.1155 - Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filters used with canisters and cartridges... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1155 Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement. (a) Particulate matter filters used in conjunction with a canister or...

  14. 42 CFR 84.1155 - Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Filters used with canisters and cartridges... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1155 Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement. (a) Particulate matter filters used in conjunction with a canister or...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1155 - Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Filters used with canisters and cartridges... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1155 Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement. (a) Particulate matter filters used in conjunction with a canister or...

  16. Cartridge firing device designed for attachment, release and ejection of a satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierron, L.

    1977-01-01

    Design considerations of a cartridge firing device are described. Emphasis is placed on performances regarding satellite attachment and accuracies of the path and velocity during separation and ejection. Tests conducted to demonstrate the device efficiency are discussed. Test set-up for velocity measurement, parameters affecting the ejection velocity, and gas pressure of cartridge fired generators are among the factors covered.

  17. 42 CFR 84.113 - Canisters and cartridges; color and markings; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Canisters and cartridges; color and markings... DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.113 Canisters and cartridges; color and markings; requirements. The color...

  18. Modelling Cu(II) adsorption to ferrihydrite and ferrihydrite-bacteria composites: Deviation from additive adsorption in the composite sorption system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Ellen M.; Peacock, Caroline L.

    2013-03-01

    Bacterially associated iron (hydr)oxides are widespread in natural environments and are potent scavengers of dissolved metal ions. However, it is unclear whether metal sorption on these composites adheres to the additivity principle, and thus whether metal concentrations in environments where these composites comprise a significant proportion of the reactive iron phases can be modelled assuming component additivity. Here we address this issue for Cu adsorption on ferrihydrite-Bacillus subtilis composites. We precipitated pure ferrihydrite and ferrihydrite composites with different ferrihydrite:bacteria mass ratios, and measured Cu adsorption as a function of pH, Cu adsorbed concentration and composite mass ratio. We develop a molecular-level surface complexation model for Cu adsorption on pure ferrihydrite. We then combine our end-member models for Cu adsorption on B. subtilis (Moon and Peacock, 2011) and ferrihydrite to model the observed Cu adsorption on the composites, adopting a component linear additivity approach. By comparing observed Cu adsorption to that predicted by our composite model, constrained to the exact best fitting end-member stability constants, we find that Cu adsorption behaviour on ferrihydrite-B. subtilis composites deviates from additivity. Specifically, Cu adsorption on composites composed mainly of ferrihydrite is enhanced across the adsorption pH edge (pH ˜3-6), while on our composite composed mainly of bacteria adsorption is enhanced at mid-high pH (pH ˜5-6) but diminished at mid-low pH (pH ˜5-3), compared to additivity. In current surface complexation modelling constructs, Cu adsorption on composites composed mainly of ferrihydrite can be modelled in a component additivity approach, by optimising the stability constants for Cu adsorption on the ferrihydrite and bacteria fractions to values that are within the uncertainty on the end-member stability constant values. The deviation from additivity of these composites, apparent when

  19. A filtration and column-adsorption system for onsite concentration and fractionation of organic substances from large volumes of water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Noyes, T.I.

    1984-01-01

    A portable filtration and column-adsorption system which can concentrate suspended sediment and dissolved-aqueous organic substances onsite was developed. Organic solutes also are fractionated into hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-acid, base, and neutral fractions. Subsequent isolation of organic solutes from fraction concentrates and extraction of organic constituents in suspended sediment entrained on filter tubes is performed by a variety of procedures in the laboratory. Three surface-water samples and one ground-water sample ranging in volume from 300 to 1,100 liters were processed through the filtration and column-adsorption system, yielding from about 0.8 to 3.0 grams of recovered organic carbon per sample.

  20. A cost-effective system for in-situ geological arsenic adsorption from groundwater.

    PubMed

    Shan, Huimei; Ma, Teng; Wang, Yanxin; Zhao, Jie; Han, Hongyin; Deng, Yamin; He, Xin; Dong, Yihui

    2013-11-01

    An effective and low-cost in-situ geological filtration system was developed to treat arsenic-contaminated groundwater in remote rural areas. Hangjinhouqi in western Hetao Plain of Inner Mongolia, China, where groundwater contains a high arsenic concentration, was selected as the study area. Fe-mineral and limestone widely distributed in the study area were used as filter materials. Batch and column experiments as well as field tests were performed to determine optimal filtration parameters and to evaluate the effectiveness of the technology for arsenic removal under different hydrogeochemical conditions. A mixture containing natural Fe-mineral (hematite and goethite) and limestone at a mass ratio of 2:1 was found to be the most effective for arsenic removal. The results indicated that Fe-mineral in the mixture played a major role for arsenic removal. Meanwhile, limestone buffered groundwater pH to be conducive for the optimal arsenic removal. As(III) adsorption and oxidation by iron mineral, and the formation of Ca-As(V) precipitation with Ca contributed from limestone dissolution were likely mechanisms leading to the As removal. Field demonstrations revealed that a geological filter bed filled with the proposed mineral mixture reduced groundwater arsenic concentration from 400 μg/L to below 10 μg/L. The filtration system was continuously operated for a total volume of 365,000L, which is sufficient for drinking water supplying a rural household of 5 persons for 5 years at a rate of 40 L per person per day. PMID:24035830

  1. A cost-effective system for in-situ geological arsenic adsorption from groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Huimei; Ma, Teng; Wang, Yanxin; Zhao, Jie; Han, Hongyin; Deng, Yamin; He, Xin; Dong, Yihui

    2013-11-01

    An effective and low-cost in-situ geological filtration system was developed to treat arsenic-contaminated groundwater in remote rural areas. Hangjinhouqi in western Hetao Plain of Inner Mongolia, China, where groundwater contains a high arsenic concentration, was selected as the study area. Fe-mineral and limestone widely distributed in the study area were used as filter materials. Batch and column experiments as well as field tests were performed to determine optimal filtration parameters and to evaluate the effectiveness of the technology for arsenic removal under different hydrogeochemical conditions. A mixture containing natural Fe-mineral (hematite and goethite) and limestone at a mass ratio of 2:1 was found to be the most effective for arsenic removal. The results indicated that Fe-mineral in the mixture played a major role for arsenic removal. Meanwhile, limestone buffered groundwater pH to be conducive for the optimal arsenic removal. As(III) adsorption and oxidation by iron mineral, and the formation of Ca-As(V) precipitation with Ca contributed from limestone dissolution were likely mechanisms leading to the As removal. Field demonstrations revealed that a geological filter bed filled with the proposed mineral mixture reduced groundwater arsenic concentration from 400 μg/L to below 10 μg/L. The filtration system was continuously operated for a total volume of 365,000 L, which is sufficient for drinking water supplying a rural household of 5 persons for 5 years at a rate of 40 L per person per day.

  2. Adsorption interaction in the molecular hydrogen-aluminophosphate AlPO-5 zeolite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenev, I. V.; Gavrilov, V. Yu.

    2015-03-01

    The adsorption interaction between molecular hydrogen and atoms forming the lattice of AlPO-5 zeolite is studied. The potential of intramolecular interaction is calculated by summing the potentials of individual pairwise H2-O(Al, P) interactions in a fragment of the zeolite structure with a volume of ˜32 nm3. Isopotential surfaces are constructed that allow determination of the shape of zeolite microchannels and the places of the preferential localization of sorbate molecules in the porous space. The calculated and experimental values of the Henry constant of H2 adsorption on AlPO-5 at 77 K are compared.

  3. System Modeling of Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) Subassembly for Prototype Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, Chad; Padilla, Sebastian; Iacomini, Christie; Paul, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes modeling methods for the three core components of a Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) subassembly: the sorbent bed, a sublimation (cooling) heat exchanger (SHX), and a condensing icing (warming) heat exchanger (CIHX). The primary function of the MTSA, removing carbon dioxide from a ventilation loop, is performed via the sorbent bed. The CIHX is used to heat the sorbent bed for desorption and to remove moisture from the ventilation loop while the SHX is alternately employed to cool the sorbent bed via sublimation of a spray of water at low pressure to prepare the reconditioned bed for the next cycle. This paper describes a system level model of the MTSA as developed in Thermal Desktop and SINDA/FLUINT including assumptions on geometry and physical phenomena, modeling methodology and relevant pa ra mete rizatio ns. Several areas of particular modeling interest are discussed. In the sorbent bed, capture of the translating CO2 saturation front and associated local energy and mass balance in both adsorbing and desorbing modes is covered. The CIHX poses particular challenges for modeling in SINDA/FLUINT as accounting for solids states in fluid submodels are not a native capability. Methods for capturing phase change and latent heat of ice as well as the transport properties across a layer of low density accreted frost are developed. This extended modeling capacity is applicable to temperatures greater than 258 K. To extend applicability to the minimum device temperature of 235 K, a method for a mapped transformation of temperatures from below the limit temperatures to some value above is given along with descriptions for associated material property transformations and the resulting impacts to total heat and mass transfer. Similar considerations are shown for the SHX along with assumptions for flow mechanics and resulting model methods for sublimation in a flow.

  4. Design of a hybrid advective-diffusive microfluidic system with ellipsometric detection for studying adsorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Cunlu; Wijnperlé, Daniel; Duits, Michel H G; Mugele, Frieder

    2016-05-01

    Establishing and maintaining concentration gradients that are stable in space and time is critical for applications that require screening the adsorption behavior of organic or inorganic species onto solid surfaces for wide ranges of fluid compositions. In this work, we present a design of a simple and compact microfluidic device based on steady-state diffusion of the analyte, between two control channels where liquid is pumped through. The device generates a near-linear distribution of concentrations. We demonstrate this via experiments with dye solutions and comparison to finite-element numerical simulations. In a subsequent step, the device is combined with total internal reflection ellipsometry to study the adsorption of (cat)ions on silica surfaces from CsCl solutions at variable pH. Such a combined setup permits a fast determination of an adsorption isotherm. The measured optical thickness is compared to calculations from a triple layer model for the ion distribution, where surface complexation reactions of the silica are taken into account. Our results show a clear enhancement of the ion adsorption with increasing pH, which can be well described with reasonable values for the equilibrium constants of the surface reactions. PMID:27375818

  5. Melanoidin Removal Mechanism in An Aqueous Adsorption System: An Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Diego L; Oliveira, Leandro S; Franca, Adriana S

    2015-01-01

    Melanoidins are colored products that can be found in food and drinks, formed by Maillard reactions. Sometimes these compounds are considered undesirable in certain food products, because they impart a brownish color and must be removed. An overview of recent patents related to melanoidin removal indicates that it can be performed by chemical/biological degradation or by adsorption processes. Therefore, in the present study, the adsorption mechanism for synthetic melanoidin removal from aqueous solutions was studied using different Raphanus sativus press-cake sorbents, with the precursor material being carbonized in a microwave oven, either with direct heating or after a chemical activation process with phosphoric acid, nitric acid or potassium hydroxide. Physical and chemical modifications were evaluated by FTIR, pHPZC, thermogravimetry and BET. The adsorption kinetics was better described by a pseudo-second order model for all activated carbons (ACs). Evaluation of the diffusion process showed dependence on the initial melanoidin concentration due to the wide range of sizes of the adsorbed molecules. The equilibrium data were best fitted by the Langmuir model for the acid-treated AC and by the Freundlich model for the base-treated and non-chemically treated ACs. Melanoidin adsorption was characterized as a spontaneous, favorable and endothermic process involving hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions between the adsorbents surfaces and the adsorbed molecules. PMID:26013772

  6. Adsorption of doxorubicin on poly(methyl methacrylate)-chitosan-heparin-coated activated carbon beads.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jianjun; Zhang, Fuming; Takieddin, Majde; Mousa, Shaker; Linhardt, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    Extracorporeal filter cartridges, filled with an activated carbon bead (ACB) adsorbent, have been used for removal of overdosed cancer drugs from the blood. Coatings on adsorbent matrices, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/activated carbon bead and PMMA/chitosan/heparin/ACB composites, were tested to improve their biocompatibility and blood compatibility. PMMA coating on ACBs was accomplished in a straightforward manner using a PMMA solution in ethyl acetate. A one-step hybrid coating of ACBs with PMMA-anticoagulant heparin required the use of acetone and water co-solvents. Multilayer coatings with three components, PMMA, chitosan, and heparin, involved three steps: PMMA was first coated on ACBs; chitosan was then coated on the PMMA-coated surface; and finally, heparin was covalently attached to the chitosan coating. Surface morphologies were studied by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the -SO(3)(-) group. Adsorption, of a chemotherapy drug (doxorubicin) from both water and phosphate-buffered saline, by the coated ACBs was examined. The adsorption isotherm curves were fitted using the Freundlich model. The current adsorption system might find potential applications in the removal of high-dose regional chemotherapy drugs while maintaining high efficiency, biocompatibility, and blood compatibility. PMID:22313019

  7. Competitive adsorption of Cd(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) from their binary and ternary acidic systems using tourmaline.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haibin; Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Jingting; Wang, Baolin; Sun, Hongwen

    2013-10-15

    The adsorption of Cd(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) from aqueous solutions in binary and ternary component systems by tourmaline was investigated. Kinetic data were accurately fitted to pseudo-second order and internal diffusion models, which indicated that the adsorption of heavy metals occurred on the interior surface of the sorbent and internal diffusion was the controlling mechanism during heavy metal ion adsorption but was not the only rate-controlling step. Additionally, tourmaline had a very good adsorption capacity for Cd(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) in multi-component aqueous solutions at strongly acidic pH values (in contrast to industrial wastewater pH values). This good adsorption capacity is attributed to the fact that tourmaline can automatically adjust the pH values of acidic (except pH 2.0 and 3.0), neutral or alkaline aqueous solutions to 6.0. Adsorption isotherms and separation factors showed that tourmaline displays a high selectivity toward one metal in a two-component or a three-component system with an affinity order of Cd(II) > Zn(II) > Ni(II). Thermodynamic parameters indicated that heavy metal adsorption was feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic. Therefore, tourmaline should be explored as a material for removing pollutants from the strongly acidic wastewater. PMID:23851318

  8. Adsorption of La(III) in aqueous systems by N-(2-hydroxyethyl) salicylaldimine-functionalized mesoporous silica

    SciTech Connect

    Tadjarodi, Azadeh Jalalat, Vahideh; Zare-Dorabei, Rouholah

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • HESI-SBA-15 as a new adsorbent was synthesized for the first time. • This adsorbent was selective for lanthanum ion removal in presence of other ions. • The factors that affected adsorption of La(III) in aqueous solution were studied. • La{sup 3+} uptake process was according to pseudo-second-order kinetic model. - Abstract: In this work, a novel modified SBA-15 with covalently bonded N-(2-hydroxyethyl) salicylaldimine Schiff base as a ligand (HESI-SBA-15) was successfully synthesized, characterized and used as a selective absorbent for lanthanum ions removal from water systems. The structure and physicochemical properties were identified by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption–desorption, thermogravimetric analysis and FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, BET surface area and BJH pore size. These techniques have confirmed that the Schiff base ligand was successfully grafted on the SBA-15 surface and ordered arrangement of the silica support was preserved under functionalization. The effect of pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, ionic strength and initial metal ions concentration were studied by using a batch method. This new adsorbent showed high adsorption capacity and selectivity for lanthanum in the presence of other ions. The adsorption process was exactly according to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorbent showed a good reusability after four cycles recovery.

  9. Ballistics firearms identification based on images of a cartridge case and projectile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong-guang; Watson, Anthony

    1998-12-01

    A spent cartridge case exhibits characteristic markings (firearm fingerprint) that can be used to identify the type, and possibly make, of weapon in which the cartridge was fired. This paper details research into the use of discriminant analysis for the purpose of matching spent cartridge cases to specific make and model of firearms. A fired projectile can also be analyzed by measuring the class characteristics such as land mark, groove, mar, and twist ratio. A personal computer (PC) based prototype software application called FireBall will also be described in detail.

  10. Transient Modeling and Analysis of a Metabolic Heat-Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) System for a PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iacomini, Christie; Powers, Aaron; Speight, Garland; Padilla, Sebastian; Paul, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    A Metabolic heat-regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) system is being developed for carbon dioxide, water and thermal control in a lunar and martian portable life support system (PLSS). A previous system analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of MTSA on PLSS design. That effort was Mars specific and assumed liquid carbon dioxide (LCO2) coolant made from martian resources. Transient effects were not considered but rather average conditions were used throughout the analysis. This effort takes into further consideration the transient effects inherent in the cycling MTSA system as well as assesses the use of water as coolant. Standard heat transfer, thermodynamic, and heat exchanger methods are presented to conduct the analysis. Assumptions and model verification are discussed. The tool was used to perform various system studies. Coolant selection was explored and takes into account different operational scenarios as the minimum bed temperature is driven by the sublimation temperature of the coolant (water being significantly higher than LCO2). From this, coolant mass is sized coupled with sorbent bed mass because MTSA adsorption performance decreases with increasing sublimation temperature. Reduction in heat exchanger performance and even removal of certain heat exchangers, like a recuperative one between the two sorbent beds, is also investigated. Finally, the coolant flow rate is varied over the cycle to determine if there is a more optimal means of cooling the bed from a mass perspective. Results of these studies and subsequent recommendations for system design are presented.

  11. Adsorption and desorption phenomena of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer systems on model surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandani, Pietro

    This thesis reports on the kinetic and equilibrium behavior for the adsorption from solution of a family of copoly(ethyleneoxide-propyleneoxide-ethyleneoxide), PEO-PPO-PEO, triblock copolymers on gold surfaces modified by a methyl terminated self-assembled monolayer of a long chain alkanethiol (CH3(CH 2)10SH) and by a long chain mercaptoalkanoic acid (HOOC(CH 2)10SH). Events at the surface were monitored with a surface plasmon resonance technique with a high time resolution (0.1 s). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the liquid environment was conducted on a selected number of cases to discern the morphology of the copolymer coated surfaces. The data were analyzed in the context a mass transfer corrected Langmuir kinetics model. The model is only able to reproduce the observations for very dilute solutions, or for the initial stages of the process, but it allows to better discriminate the onset of the different mechanisms of adsorption. For the hydrophobic surface, the adsorbed amounts go through a maximum near the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and thus the process is not consistent with a Langmuir isotherm; in addition we the process is partially irreversible. The kinetics show that, for a series of compounds with the same length of the PPO block, the character of the adsorption process is affected by the relative balance of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic content within the copolymer: higher hydrophobic content leads to enhanced adsorption rates past the CMC. AFM observations confirm that globular micelle-like aggregates are present at the surface for the more hydrophobic species. In contrast, a uniform monolayer-like morphology is observed for the more hydrophilic species. For the hydrophilic surface, it is again found that the adsorbed amounts go through a maximum near the critical micelle concentration (CMC), however, in this case, the process is reversible. Enhanced adsorption rates past the CMC are observed irrespective of the relative balance of the

  12. Determination of molybdenum in steel by adsorptive stripping voltammetry in a homogeneous ternary solvent system.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, J C; de Almeida, A M; Coscione, A R; Aleixo, L M

    2001-06-01

    A new alternative approach for the determination of molybdenum in steel is proposed, using adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV). The determinations are performed in a homogeneous ternary solvent system (HTSS) composed of N,N-dimethylformamide, ethanol and water, with alpha-benzoinoxime (alpha BO) as the complexing agent and a sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer as the support electrolyte. The HTSS composition was optimized by mixture design modelling. The AdSV measurements were performed in the differential pulse mode using an accumulation potential of -1050 mV. Under these optimized experimental conditions, the Mo(VI)-alpha BO reduction current peak potential is observed at potentials near -1250 mV, much lower than those usually reported, and the calibration plot follows the polynomial equation I = 0.359 + 0.265 [CMo(VI)] - 0.015 [CMo(IV)]2 (r2 = 0.997), for Mo concentrations up to 10.0 micrograms L-1. There is a linear range in this calibration plot for Mo(VI) concentrations up to 0.20 microgram L-1, defined by the equation I = 0.353 + 0.385 [CMo(VI)] (r2 = 0.980). In both cases, I is the absolute value for the current in microA and CMo(VI) is the concentration of Mo in microgram L-1. The detection limit for this linear concentration range was estimated as 20 pg L-1. A RSD of 0.43% is associated with the signals at a Mo(VI) level of 0.72 microgram L-1. From the common method-interfering species tested, only iron at Fe/Mo(VI) ratios above 500 and vanadium and tungsten at M/Mo(VI) ratios above 100 appear to affect the analytical response significantly. Phosphorous may also reduce the analytical signal at P/Mo(VI) ratios above 100, due to the formation of the competitive P-Mo complex. The suggested routine procedure was tested by analyzing four stainless steel samples and the results compared well with the ICP-AES measurements. The higher sensitivity of this method permits direct determination of Mo(VI) in steels, eliminating the need of analyte concentration or

  13. Feasibility of a tandem photocatalytic oxidation-adsorption system for removal of monoaromatic compounds at concentrations in the sub-ppm-range.

    PubMed

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Yang, Chang-Hee

    2009-09-01

    Unlike previous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) studies incorporated with adsorption, this study investigates the feasibility of applying a tandem PCO-adsorption hybrid technique regarding low-level monoaromatic compound removal. The PCO efficiencies decreased as the hydraulic diameter (HD) increased. A PCO reactor of a medium HD size was selected for further experiments. Under conditions relevant to the use of the PCO system, the CO level measured during the PCO process was minimal in comparison to indoor CO levels. Trace level formations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were observed during the photocatalytic process, but these compounds were undetectable at the activated carbon unit outlet. The degradation efficiencies, obtained from the PCO unit, exhibited a dependence on both the inlet concentration (IC) and relative humidity (RH), whereas those from the PCO-adsorption hybrid system did not. Under specific conditions, the PCO unit presented a high degradation efficiency of close to, or exceeding 90%, in regards to ethyl benzene, o-xylene, and m,p-xylene. However, the benzene air concentrations, after being treated by the PCO unit, substantially exceeded the USEPA inhalation reference concentration guideline of 30microgm(-3) (corresponding to 0.01ppm). In contrast, the PCO-adsorption hybrid system presented a high removal efficiency of close to 100% regarding all compounds, regardless of the IC or RH range. Consequently, it is suggested that the PCO-adsorption hybrid system has a synergistic advantage of photocatalysis and adsorption in regards to the BTEX elimination process. PMID:19666187

  14. CLEANUP OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLE EXTRACTS USING FLORISIL SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION CARTRIDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disposable cartridges containing 1 g of Florisil are investigated for cleanup of extracts obtained from various environmental natrices. lution patterns and recoveries are determined for 22 chlorinated hydrocarbons and 16 phthalate esters in the presence of interferents such as co...

  15. Nanoparticle separation with a miniaturized asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation cartridge

    PubMed Central

    Müller, David; Cattaneo, Stefano; Meier, Florian; Welz, Roland; de Mello, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) is a separation technique applicable to particles over a wide size range. Despite the many advantages of AF4, its adoption in routine particle analysis is somewhat limited by the large footprint of currently available separation cartridges, extended analysis times and significant solvent consumption. To address these issues, we describe the fabrication and characterization of miniaturized AF4 cartridges. Key features of the down-scaled platform include simplified cartridge and reagent handling, reduced analysis costs and higher throughput capacities. The separation performance of the miniaturized cartridge is assessed using certified gold and silver nanoparticle standards. Analysis of gold nanoparticle populations indicates shorter analysis times and increased sensitivity compared to conventional AF4 separation schemes. Moreover, nanoparticulate titanium dioxide populations exhibiting broad size distributions are analyzed in a rapid and efficient manner. Finally, the repeatability and reproducibility of the miniaturized platform are investigated with respect to analysis time and separation efficiency. PMID:26258119

  16. Nanoparticle separation with a miniaturized asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation cartridge.

    PubMed

    Müller, David; Cattaneo, Stefano; Meier, Florian; Welz, Roland; de Mello, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) is a separation technique applicable to particles over a wide size range. Despite the many advantages of AF4, its adoption in routine particle analysis is somewhat limited by the large footprint of currently available separation cartridges, extended analysis times and significant solvent consumption. To address these issues, we describe the fabrication and characterization of miniaturized AF4 cartridges. Key features of the down-scaled platform include simplified cartridge and reagent handling, reduced analysis costs and higher throughput capacities. The separation performance of the miniaturized cartridge is assessed using certified gold and silver nanoparticle standards. Analysis of gold nanoparticle populations indicates shorter analysis times and increased sensitivity compared to conventional AF4 separation schemes. Moreover, nanoparticulate titanium dioxide populations exhibiting broad size distributions are analyzed in a rapid and efficient manner. Finally, the repeatability and reproducibility of the miniaturized platform are investigated with respect to analysis time and separation efficiency. PMID:26258119

  17. 49 CFR 173.230 - Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) For water-reactive substances (Division 4.3 Dangerous when wet material), in fuel cell cartridges... substance, hazardous waste, marine pollutant, and are eligible for the exceptions provided in § 173.156....

  18. Nanoparticle separation with a miniaturized asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation cartridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, David; Cattaneo, Stefano; Meier, Florian; Welz, Roland; deMello, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) is a separation technique applicable to particles over a wide size range. Despite the many advantages of AF4, its adoption in routine particle analysis is somewhat limited by the large footprint of currently available separation cartridges, extended analysis times and significant solvent consumption. To address these issues, we describe the fabrication and characterization of miniaturized AF4 cartridges. Key features of the scale-down platform include simplified cartridge and reagent handling, reduced analysis costs and higher throughput capacities. The separation performance of the miniaturized cartridge is assessed using certified gold and silver nanoparticle standards. Analysis of gold nanoparticle populations indicates shorter analysis times and increased sensitivity compared to conventional AF4 separation schemes. Moreover, nanoparticulate titanium dioxide populations exhibiting broad size distributions are analyzed in a rapid and efficient manner. Finally, the repeatability and reproducibility of the miniaturized platform are investigated with respect to analysis time and separation efficiency.

  19. Integrating mercury injection and nitrogen adsorption data to characterize marine sediment pore systems: An example from the Nankai Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, H.; Thomas, B.

    2013-12-01

    Fine-grained, clay-rich marine sediments typically exhibit complex pore geometries due to the presence of high-aspect-ratio clay particles, nannofossils, and diagenetically altered grain fragments. The pore systems in these sediments have a wide range of shapes and may contain significant pore volume in mesopores (1-25 nm radius) and micropores (< 1 nm radius). This renders pore size measurements difficult, even in samples with high porosity. Porosity values from mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) measurements performed on samples from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Sites C0011, C0012, and C0018 in the Nankai Trough offshore Japan were compared to porosity determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in the laboratory. The MICP porosities were systematically lower than the NMR porosities by up to 26% of the NMR porosity value. This porosity mismatch is due to the presence of pores with radii smaller than the effective lower limit of MICP measurements, which is 10-40 nm for this data set. Nitrogen gas adsorption offers a means to characterize pores between ~0.87 nm and ~100 nm radius, thus measuring the portion of the pore size distribution not investigated by MICP measurements. Combining MICP and nitrogen gas adsorption data yields a more complete characterization of the pore system of marine sediments. Merged MICP and nitrogen gas adsorption data obtained for the Nankai Trough samples yield porosity values that more accurately match the NMR porosity values, indicating that the entire pore space of the samples can be measured by a combination of the two techniques. These samples possess significant quantities of porosity below the resolution of MICP (>10% of pore volume), even in samples with porosity exceeding 65%. This work illustrates the complexity of marine sediment pore systems even at shallow depths of burial, and provides a new method for assessing pore sizes in scientific ocean drilling studies.

  20. Air-Cooled Design of a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulloth, Lila M.; Affleck, Dave L.; Rosen, Micha; LeVan, M. Douglas; Wang, Yuan; Cavalcante, Celio L.

    2004-01-01

    The air revitalization system of the International Space Station (ISS) operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby closing the air-loop. We have a developed a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) for performing these tasks that is energy efficient, quiet, and has no rapidly moving parts. This paper discusses the mechanical design and the results of thermal model validation tests of a TSAC that uses air as the cooling medium.

  1. Disposable pen-shaped capillary gel electrophoresis cartridge for fluorescence detection of bio-molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirkhanian, Varoujan; Tsai, Shou-Kuan

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel and cost-effective capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) system utilizing disposable pen-shaped gelcartridges for highly efficient, high speed, high throughput fluorescence detection of bio-molecules. The CGE system has been integrated with dual excitation and emission optical-fibers with micro-ball end design for fluorescence detection of bio-molecules separated and detected in a disposable pen-shaped capillary gel electrophoresis cartridge. The high-performance capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) analyzer has been optimized for glycoprotein analysis type applications. Using commercially available labeling agent such as ANTS (8-aminonapthalene-1,3,6- trisulfonate) as an indicator, the capillary gel electrophoresis-based glycan analyzer provides high detection sensitivity and high resolving power in 2-5 minutes of separations. The system can hold total of 96 samples, which can be automatically analyzed within 4-5 hours. This affordable fiber optic based fluorescence detection system provides fast run times (4 minutes vs. 20 minutes with other CE systems), provides improved peak resolution, good linear dynamic range and reproducible migration times, that can be used in laboratories for high speed glycan (N-glycan) profiling applications. The CGE-based glycan analyzer will significantly increase the pace at which glycoprotein research is performed in the labs, saving hours of preparation time and assuring accurate, consistent and economical results.

  2. Comparison of practical techniques to develop latent fingermarks on fired and unfired cartridge cases.

    PubMed

    Girelli, Carlos M A; Lobo, Bernardo J M; Cunha, Alfredo G; Freitas, Jair C C; Emmerich, Francisco G

    2015-05-01

    We have tested some widely used and practical fingermark enhancement techniques such as powdering (regular powder dusting and magnetic powder application), cyanoacrylate fuming, fluorescent dying (basic yellow 40), gun blueing solutions and acidified hydrogen peroxide solutions. The results were evaluated and compared in order to establish best procedures on processing cartridge cases. The tests were performed on brass discs subjected to three different temperatures (room temperature, 63 and 200°C), and on fired and unfired cartridge cases. All the samples were processed after three different periods of time (24h, 7 days and 14 days) after deposition. The best results for both fired and unfired cartridge cases were obtained by the sequential application of cyanoacrylate, gun blueing solution and basic yellow 40. Some stages of the firing process were isolated in order to identify their effects over the final amount and quality of the remaining latent fingermarks on cartridge cases. Good state fingermarks were developed on unfired cartridge cases cycled through the gun, showing that friction inside the gun without firing does not cause significant damage to the fingermarks. On the other hand, fired cartridge cases are significantly affected by the firing effects, exhibiting low quality ridge details which are mainly located next to base. An unexpected phenomenon was observed on most of the brass discs heated to 200°C and developed with gun blueing solutions; they presented a reverse development compared to the expected one, with darkening of the ridges instead of the background. PMID:25769130

  3. Effect of organic matter properties, clay mineral type and thermal maturity on gas adsorption in organic-rich shale systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Ruppel, Stephen C.; Milliken, Kitty; Lewan, Mike; Sun, Xun

    2013-01-01

    A series of CH4 adsorption experiments on natural organic-rich shales, isolated kerogen, clay-rich rocks, and artificially matured Woodford Shale samples were conducted under dry conditions. Our results indicate that physisorption is a dominant process for CH4 sorption, both on organic-rich shales and clay minerals. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of the investigated samples is linearly correlated with the CH4 sorption capacity in both organic-rich shales and clay-rich rocks. The presence of organic matter is a primary control on gas adsorption in shale-gas systems, and the gas-sorption capacity is determined by total organic carbon (TOC) content, organic-matter type, and thermal maturity. A large number of nanopores, in the 2–50 nm size range, were created during organic-matter thermal decomposition, and they significantly contributed to the surface area. Consequently, methane-sorption capacity increases with increasing thermal maturity due to the presence of nanopores produced during organic-matter decomposition. Furthermore, CH4 sorption on clay minerals is mainly controlled by the type of clay mineral present. In terms of relative CH4 sorption capacity: montmorillonite ≫ illite – smectite mixed layer > kaolinite > chlorite > illite. The effect of rock properties (organic matter content, type, maturity, and clay minerals) on CH4 adsorption can be quantified with the heat of adsorption and the standard entropy, which are determined from adsorption isotherms at different temperatures. For clay-mineral rich rocks, the heat of adsorption (q) ranges from 9.4 to 16.6 kJ/mol. These values are considerably smaller than those for CH4 adsorption on kerogen (21.9–28 kJ/mol) and organic-rich shales (15.1–18.4 kJ/mol). The standard entropy (Δs°) ranges from -64.8 to -79.5 J/mol/K for clay minerals, -68.1 to -111.3 J/mol/K for kerogen, and -76.0 to -84.6 J/mol/K for organic-rich shales. The affinity of CH4 molecules for sorption on organic matter

  4. An adsorption-release-biodegradation system for simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and ammonium in phenol-rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Hu; Liu, Yu-Xiang; Ren, Rui-Peng; Lv, Yong-Kang

    2016-07-01

    The feasibility of simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and ammonium in phenol-rich wastewater was evaluated in a reusable system, which contained macroporous adsorption resin and Alcaligenes faecalis strain WY-01. In the system, up to 6000mg/L phenol could be completely degraded by WY-01; meanwhile, 99.03±3.95% of ammonium was removed from the initial concentration of 384mg/L. This is the first study to show the capability of single strain in simultaneous removal of ammonium and phenol in wastewater containing such high concentrations of phenol. Moreover, the resin was regenerated during the biodegradation process without any additional manipulations, indicating the system was reusable. Furthermore, enzyme assay, gene expression patterns, HPLC-MS and gas chromatography analysis confirmed that phenol biodegradation accompanied with aerobic nitrifier denitrification process. Results imply that the reusable system provides a novel strategy for more efficient biodegradation of phenol and ammonium contained in some particular industrial wastewater. PMID:27060247

  5. pH profile of the adsorption of nucleotides onto montmorillonite. II - Adsorption and desorption of 5-prime-AMP in iron-calcium montmorillonite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.; Lawless, J. G.; Mazzurco, J.; Church, F. M.; Margulies, L.; Orenberg, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of 5-prime-AMP with montmorillonite saturated with various ratios of two metals found ubiquitously on the surface of earth, that is, iron and calcium, is investigated. Adsorption and desorption of the nucleotide were studied in the pH range of 2-12 at three levels of addition: 0.080, 0.268 and 0.803 mmole 5-prime-AMP per gram of clay. Two desorption stages were employed - H2O wash and NaOH extraction (pH = 12.0). 5-prime-AMP was preferentially adsorbed on the Fe-containing clays relative to the Ca clay. The nucleotide was fully recovered by the two desorption stages, mostly by the NaOH extraction. The evidence at hand indicates that 5-prime-AMP reaction with clay is affected by electrostatic interactions involving both attraction and repulsion forces. Some specific adsorption, possibly the result of covalent bonding and complex formation with the adsorbed ion, cannot be ruled out for iron but does not appear to operate for calcium. Changes in pH cause varying degrees of attaction and repulsion of 5-prime-AMP and may have been operating on the primitive earth, leading to sequences of adsorption and release of this biomolecule.

  6. Polymer-grafted silica: A screening system for polymeric adsorption resin development

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, T.E.; Cohen, Y. )

    1993-04-01

    A screening-level methodology was developed for the evaluation of solute affinity for polymers that are candidate sorption resins. In this approach novel grafted polymer-silica resins were synthesized to produce poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-silica (PVP-Si) and poly(vinyl acetate)-silica (PVAc-Si) resins. The polymer-silica resins along with a number of commercially available polymer resins were used to evaluate the aqueous-phase adsorption of phenol, tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and chloroform. The polymer-grafted silicas were able to selectively remove pollutants from water with a covalently bonded polymer layer that has a high affinity for the target pollutant. The PVAc-silica resin had a sorption capacity for TCE and CHCl[sub 3] as high as commercial poly(styrene) resin XAD-4; the PVP-Si resin had a sorption capacity for phenol higher than a commercial poly-(vinylpyridine) resin (Reillex 425). PCE adsorption onto the PVAc-silica was comparable to the commercial poly(methacrylate) and poly(vinylpyridine) resins but less than the poly(styrene) resin. The results show that the Hildebrand solubility parameter along with the dipole moment of the polymer functional groups can be used for an initial screening-level assessment of polymer-solute affinity.

  7. [Effects of dissolved organic matter on napropamide adsorption and transport in soil system].

    PubMed

    Ma, Ai-jun; Zhou, Li-xiang; He, Ren-hong

    2006-02-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can affect the environmental behaviors of herbicides in soil. Batch adsorption and column experiments were conducted to measure the sorption and leaching of napropamide in soils in the presence of DOM derived from green manure (GM) and sewage sludge (SS). DOM reduced sorption of napropamide significantly onto the tested soils, consequently which facilitated the transport of napropamide exhibited by soil column experiment. The sorption inhibition and the increased mobility of napropamide caused by DOM of GM origin were more significant than that of SS origin for the same soil. Within the selected concentration range of the napropamide and DOM in this study napropamide sorption isotherm could be described well by the Freundlich equation. In comparison with the control, DOM of GM and SS origins could reduce napropamide adsorption by 22.9% and 11.3% in the yellow-brown soil and 9.5% and 6.5% in the calcareous soil, respectively. Correspondingly, in the presence of DOM the leaching losses of napropamide in soil column increased by 73.42% and 26.87% in the yellow-brown soil and 43.54% and 28.29% in the calcareous soil, respectively. PMID:16686205

  8. Development status of a pressure swing adsorption system for carbon dioxide and moisture removal for the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalette, Tim; Papale, Bill; Smith, Fred

    Under a NASA-sponsored technology development project, a multi-disciplinary team consisting of industry, academia, and government organizations led by Hamilton Sundstrand is developing an amine based humidity and carbon dioxide (CO2) removal process and prototype equipment for Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) applications. This system employs thermally linked amine sorbent beds operating as a pressure swing adsorption system, using the vacuum of space for regeneration. The prototype hardware was designed based on a two fault tolerant requirement, resulting in a single system that could handle the metabolic water and carbon dioxide load for a crew size of six. Two, full scale prototype hardware sets, consisting of a linear spool valve, actuator and amine sorbent canister, have been manufactured, tested, and subsequently delivered to NASA JSC. This paper presents a summary of the hardware configuration, operation, and performance in addition to current follow-on activity including a new valve design and trace contaminant removal evaluation.

  9. Application of an automation system and a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for the optimal operation of a membrane adsorption hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Smith, P J; Vigneswaran, S; Ngo, H H; Nguyen, H T; Ben-Aim, R

    2006-01-01

    The application of automation and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems to municipal water and wastewater treatment plants is rapidly increasing. However, the application of these systems is less frequent in the research and development phases of emerging treatment technologies used in these industries. This study involved the implementation of automation and a SCADA system to the submerged membrane adsorption hybrid system for use in a semi-pilot scale research project. An incremental approach was used in the development of the automation and SCADA systems, leading to the development of two new control systems. The first system developed involved closed loop control of the backwash initiation, based upon a pressure increase, leading to productivity improvements as the backwash is only activated when required, not at a fixed time. This system resulted in a 40% reduction in the number of backwashes required and also enabled optimised operations under unsteady concentrations of wastewater. The second system developed involved closed loop control of the backwash duration, whereby the backwash was terminated when the pressure reached a steady state. This system resulted in a reduction of the duration of the backwash of up to 25% and enabled optimised operations as the foulant build-up within the reactor increased. PMID:16722068

  10. New Adsorption Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankat, Phillip C.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses a simple method for following the movement of a solute in an adsorption or ion exchange system. This movement is used to study a variety of operational methods, including continuous flow and pulsed flow counter-current operations and simulated counter-current systems. Effect of changing thermodynamic variables is also considered. (JM)

  11. Modeling Pb (II) adsorption from aqueous solution by ostrich bone ash using adaptive neural-based fuzzy inference system.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mohammad J; Abedi-Koupai, Jahangir; Eslamian, Sayed S; Mousavi, Sayed F; Hasheminejad, Hasti

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of Adaptive Neural-Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model in estimating the efficiency of Pb (II) ions removal from aqueous solution by ostrich bone ash, a batch experiment was conducted. Five operational parameters including adsorbent dosage (C(s)), initial concentration of Pb (II) ions (C(o)), initial pH, temperature (T) and contact time (t) were taken as the input data and the adsorption efficiency (AE) of bone ash as the output. Based on the 31 different structures, 5 ANFIS models were tested against the measured adsorption efficiency to assess the accuracy of each model. The results showed that ANFIS5, which used all input parameters, was the most accurate (RMSE = 2.65 and R(2) = 0.95) and ANFIS1, which used only the contact time input, was the worst (RMSE = 14.56 and R(2) = 0.46). In ranking the models, ANFIS4, ANFIS3 and ANFIS2 ranked second, third and fourth, respectively. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the estimated AE is more sensitive to the contact time, followed by pH, initial concentration of Pb (II) ions, adsorbent dosage, and temperature. The results showed that all ANFIS models overestimated the AE. In general, this study confirmed the capabilities of ANFIS model as an effective tool for estimation of AE. PMID:23383640

  12. ORC-GAC-Fe0 system for the remediation of trichloroethylene and monochlorobenzene contaminated aquifer: 1. Adsorption and degradation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qi; Chen, Ying-xu; Plagentz, V; Schäfer, D; Dahmke, A

    2004-01-01

    Activities at a former Chemistry Triangle in Bitterfeld, Germany, resulted in contamination of groundwater with a mixture of trichloroethylene(TCE) and monochlorobenzene(MCB). The objective of this study was to develop a barrier system, which includes an ORC(oxygen release compounds) and GAC(granular activated carbon) layer for adsorption of MCB and bioregeneration of GAC, a Fe0 layer for chemical reductive dechlorination of TCE and other chlorinated hydrocarbon in situ. A laboratory-scale column experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of this proposed system. This experiment was performed using a series of continuous flow Teflon columns including an ORC column, a GAC column, and a Fe0 column. Simulated MCB and TCE contaminated groundwater was pumped upflow into this system at a flow rate of 1.1 ml/min. Results showed that 17%-50% of TCE and 28%-50% of MCB were dissipated in ORC column. Chloride ion, however, was not released, which suggest the dechlorination do not happen in ORC column. In GAC column, the adsorption of contaminants on activated carbon and their induced degradation by adapted microorganisms attached to the carbon surface were observed. Due to competitive exchange processes, TCE can be desorbed by MCB in GAC column and further degraded in iron column. The completely dechlorination rate of TCE was 0.16-0.18 cm(-1), 1-4 magnitudes more than the formation rate of three dichloroethene isomers. Cis-DCE is the main chlorinated product, which can be cumulated in the system, not only depending on the formation rate and its decaying rate, but also the initial concentration of TCE. PMID:14971463

  13. Investigation of effective forensic cleaning methods for bullet and cartridge case samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuherk, Cassie Marie

    Bullet and cartridge case evidence may potentially link weapons and crimes through the comparison of toolmark patterns. This analysis relies on the clarity of the toolmarks and the ability of the examiner to identify patterns on the evidence. These patterns may be distorted by debris such as soil, blood, cyanoacrylate, and construction materials. Despite the potential importance of bullet and cartridge case evidence, few investigations of proper cleaning methods have been conducted. The present study was designed to examine the effects of various cleaning solutions and application methods on copper and brass bullets and cartridge cases. Additionally, this research investigated the efficacy of these cleaning protocols on the common evidence contaminants blood and cyanoacrylate. No cleaning method was found to be universally effective on both contaminant types and nondestructive to the metal surface. Ultrasonication was the most efficient application method employed when used in conjunction with an appropriate cleaning solution. Acetone proved to be safe and successful at removing heavy cyanoacrylate deposits from brass cartridge cases without damaging the metal. Although sulfuric acid removed most of the cyanoacrylate from the brass cartridge case, ultrasonication of the fumed cartridge cases in sulfuric acid caused the nickel-plated primer caps to turn black. Additionally, etching occurred when sulfuric acid was allowed to dry on the cartridge case surface. Citric acid, salt-flour-vinegar paste, TergazymeRTM, and water did not effectively remove the cyanoacrylate from the cartridge cases, but the solutions were safe to use on the brass and sometimes resulted in a shinier surface. Regardless of the cleaning method employed, the bloodstained bullets retained most or all of the underlying brown tarnish. Ultrasonication with sulfuric acid was successful at removing some blood-initiated tarnishing; however, the removal of residues was not complete, making it difficult

  14. Solid source MOCVD system

    DOEpatents

    Hubert, Brian N.; Wu, Xin Di

    1998-01-01

    A system for MOCVD fabrication of superconducting and non-superconducting oxide films provides a delivery system for the feeding of metalorganic precursors for multi-component chemical vapor deposition. The delivery system can include multiple cartridges containing tightly packed precursor materials. The contents of each cartridge can be ground at a desired rate and fed together with precursor materials from other cartridges to a vaporization zone and then to a reaction zone within a deposition chamber for thin film deposition.

  15. Solid source MOCVD system

    DOEpatents

    Hubert, B.N.; Wu, X.D.

    1998-10-13

    A system for MOCVD fabrication of superconducting and non-superconducting oxide films provides a delivery system for the feeding of metallorganic precursors for multi-component chemical vapor deposition. The delivery system can include multiple cartridges containing tightly packed precursor materials. The contents of each cartridge can be ground at a desired rate and fed together with precursor materials from other cartridges to a vaporization zone and then to a reaction zone within a deposition chamber for thin film deposition. 13 figs.

  16. Paper-based enzyme immobilization for flow injection electrochemical biosensor integrated with reagent-loaded cartridge toward portable modular device.

    PubMed

    Tan, Swee Ngin; Ge, Liya; Tan, Hsih Yin; Loke, Weng Keong; Gao, Jinrong; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-20

    Paper-based enzyme immobilization for a flow injection electrochemical biosensor integrated with a reagent-loaded cartridge toward a portable device was developed. A paper disk was immobilized with enzyme, then it was integrated in a flow cell as an electrochemical biosensor. A silicon tube reagent-loaded cartridge was integrated into the system, a complicated procedure was simplified as a one-click operation toward development for point-of-care applications. In this research, glucose oxidase (GOx) was employed as a model enzyme, silver ion as an inhibition reagent for GOx, and EDTA as a regeneration reagent. When GOx was inhibited by silver ions, glucose was introduced for electrochemical measurements before and after inhibited enzyme regeneration and the difference was caused by silver inhibition. The modular device has great potential for other applications, e.g., detection of enzyme activity and substrate. The platform based on double-test mode provided accurate results due to elimination of an average or control value in comparison with classical routine approaches. PMID:23116304

  17. Direct analysis of nine pharmaceuticals in culture media by use of cartridge separation with electrospray mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing-Fang; Ma, Mingsheng; Tam, Yun K

    2002-09-01

    A 2-cm cartridge has been used for separation before electrospray mass spectrometric analysis of pharmaceutical compounds in cell culture media, alleviating the need for sample extraction and desalting procedures. Nine representative pharmaceuticals listed in the biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) were chosen as the candidate compounds and Hank's balanced salt solution with Hepes buffer (HBSS-Hepes buffer) was used as the cell-culture medium in an effort to study permeability of chemicals through cell monolayers. Effects of several conditions, e.g. pH and buffer concentration in the mobile phase, flow rate, and temperature on separation efficiency were examined. The nine pharmaceuticals were separated within 2 min by use of a 2-cm C(8) cartridge. Relative standard deviations (RSD) from repeated analysis within the same day or over five days were 0.03-0.2% for retention times and 0.6-5.3% for peak areas; antipyrine was used as internal standard. Calibration curves based on peak-area measurements were linear over the range 0.1-20 micro mol L(-1). The HBSS-Hepes buffer did not interfere with separation and detection; identical separation and peak intensity were obtained when the samples were separately prepared in distilled water or in the culture medium. PMID:12207243

  18. Hazard classification test of the cartridge, 120-mm, APFSDS-T, XM829

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, C.D.; Hadlock, D.E.; Mishima, J.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-11-01

    Research was conducted to determine the behavior of the ammunition XM829 when subjected to detonation of an adjacent XM829 cartridge, and a sustained hot fire. It was concluded that the functioning of an XM829 cartridge, in one shipping container, will not cause immediate functioning of XM829 cartridges in adjacent containers. However, if a fire results and is sustained, adjacent cartridges may ignite, resulting in some scattering of debris within a maximum radius of 40 feet. Further, the XM829 cartridge can be expected to remain in a kinetic controlled regime with vigorous oxidation occurring early in such a fire but dropping off as the temperature cools toward ambient. Mass balance analyses data indicated a recovery of at least 80% in the 1982 external heat; in the 1983 test, the recovery percentage was improved to approximately 100% of the original depleted uranium weight volume. Therefore, it may be concluded that a significant airborne release of the depleted uranium material did not occur.

  19. Purification of urokinase by combined cation exchanger and affinity chromatographic cartridges.

    PubMed

    Hou, K C; Zaniewski, R

    1990-02-23

    Crude urokinase from human urine processed through foam flotation and ammonium sulfate precipitation containing 720 National Health Institute Committee on Thrombolytic Agents U/mg activity was purified by an SP cation exchanger followed by a zinc-chelated affinity chromatographic cartridge. The cartridges were of a radial-flow type formed by using acrylic and cellulose composite matrices. The high rigidity of the matrix structure permits fast flow of protein solutions (liters per minute) and thus allows processing of a large volume of crude urokinase under low operating pressures. A greater than six-fold increase in specific enzyme activity of urokinase was achieved by adsorbing and eluting 1 l of a 3 mg/ml crude urokinase solution on an SP cartridge. The eluent was further purified by passing through a zinc-chelated affinity cartridge to achieve greater than a eighteen-fold increase in urokinase specific activity. This report demonstrates the combined use of a cation exchanger with zinc-chelated chromatographic cartridges in purifying urokinase on a relatively large scale. The relationship between the amount of zinc chelated in the matrix to its effect on urokinase purification is also discussed. PMID:2329161

  20. Influence of the state of the surface of steel St3 on the adsorption of inhibitor EMFTs and the corrosion retardation produced by it in water recirculation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, E.S.; Nikitina, R.A.

    1985-07-01

    Adsorption of the inhibitor on metal surfaces prepared in various ways, is studied in this paper. The investigations of the kinetics of adsorption and desorption of the inhibitor EMFTs on St3 with various surface states have revealed that EMFTs is best adsorbed on a clean polished surface of metal which has not been in contact with a corrosion medium, giving the maximal protective effect. The corrosion inhibitor EMFTs can be recommended for new water recycling systems and also for old systems after preparation by pickling with inhibited acids.

  1. Efficient substructure searching of large chemical libraries: the ABCD chemical cartridge.

    PubMed

    Agrafiotis, Dimitris K; Lobanov, Victor S; Shemanarev, Maxim; Rassokhin, Dmitrii N; Izrailev, Sergei; Jaeger, Edward P; Alex, Simson; Farnum, Michael

    2011-12-27

    Efficient substructure searching is a key requirement for any chemical information management system. In this paper, we describe the substructure search capabilities of ABCD, an integrated drug discovery informatics platform developed at Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, L.L.C. The solution consists of several algorithmic components: 1) a pattern mapping algorithm for solving the subgraph isomorphism problem, 2) an indexing scheme that enables very fast substructure searches on large structure files, 3) the incorporation of that indexing scheme into an Oracle cartridge to enable querying large relational databases through SQL, and 4) a cost estimation scheme that allows the Oracle cost-based optimizer to generate a good execution plan when a substructure search is combined with additional constraints in a single SQL query. The algorithm was tested on a public database comprising nearly 1 million molecules using 4,629 substructure queries, the vast majority of which were submitted by discovery scientists over the last 2.5 years of user acceptance testing of ABCD. 80.7% of these queries were completed in less than a second and 96.8% in less than ten seconds on a single CPU, while on eight processing cores these numbers increased to 93.2% and 99.7%, respectively. The slower queries involved extremely generic patterns that returned the entire database as screening hits and required extensive atom-by-atom verification. PMID:22035187

  2. Microfluidic impact printer with interchangeable cartridges for versatile non-contact multiplexed micropatterning

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yuzhe; Huang, Eric; Lam, Kit S.; Pan, Tingrui

    2015-01-01

    Biopatterning has been increasingly used for well-defined cellular microenvironment, patterned surface topology, and guided biological cues; however, it meets additional challenges on biocompatibility, temperature and chemical sensitivity and limited reagent volume. In this paper, we target at combining the desired features from the non-contact inkjet printing and the dot-matrix impact printing to establish a versatile multiplexed micropatterning platform, referred to as Microfluidic Impact Printer (MI-Printer), for emerging biomedical applications. Using this platform, we can achieve the distinct features of no cross-contamination, minute volume manipulation with minimal dead volume, high-throughput and biocompatible printing process, multiplexed patterning with automatic alignment, printing availability for complex medium (cell suspension or colloidal solutions), interchangeable/disposable microfluidic cartridge design with out-of-cleanroom microfabrication, simple printing system assembly and configuration, all highly desirable towards biological applications. Specifically, the printing resolution of the MI-printer platform has been experimentally characterized and theoretically analyzed. Printed droplets with 80µm in diameter have been repeatedly obtained. Furthermore, two unique features of MI-printer platform, multiplexed printing and self-alignment printing, have been successfully experimentally demonstrated (less than 10µm misalignment). In addition, combinatorial patterning and biological patterning, which utilizes the multiplexed and self-alignment printing nature of the MI-printer, have been devised to demonstrate the applicability of this robust printing technique for emerging biomedical applications. PMID:23525299

  3. A paper microfluidic cartridge for automated staining of malaria parasites with an optically transparent microscopy window.

    PubMed

    Horning, Matthew P; Delahunt, Charles B; Singh, S Ryan; Garing, Spencer H; Nichols, Kevin P

    2014-06-21

    A paper microfluidic cartridge for the automated staining of malaria parasites (Plasmodium) with acridine orange prior to microscopy is presented. The cartridge enables simultaneous, sub-minute generation of both thin and thick smears of acridine orange stained parasites. Parasites are stained in a cellulose matrix, after which the parasites are ejected via capillary forces into an optically transparent chamber. The unique slanted design of the chamber ensures that a high percentage of the stained blood will be of the required thickness for a thin smear, without resorting to spacers or other methods that can increase production cost or require tight quality controls. A hydrophobic snorkel facilitates the removal of air bubbles during filling. The cartridge contains both a thin smear region, where a single layer of cells is presented unobstructed, for ease of species identification, and a thick smear region, containing multiple cell layers, for enhanced limit of detection. PMID:24781199

  4. Malfunction and failure analysis investigations of C26000 (Cu-30% Zn) brass cartridge cases

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, C.; Clark, S. . Metallic Materials Branch of the Armaments Technology Div.)

    1994-01-01

    The C26000 alloy, containing 70% Cu and 30% Zn, is predominantly used for cartridge case production and has an outstanding record of service. A multiple-step manufacturing process is employed to produce different microstructure in different sections of the cartridge case. The constant demands to increase performance have resulted in frequent revisions to the manufacturing process, and more stringent controls have been implemented in an attempt to produce a better product. Not surprisingly, however, failures and malfunctions are encountered in the tryout'' experiments. Studies indicate that failures in the head section can usually be traced to factors associated with gun design and propellant materials. Failures in the wall section are primarily stress-induced. Descriptions are given of the distinctive modes of failure in various sections of the cartridge case. The causes of failure and the remedies to prevent their recurrence are discussed.

  5. Synthesis of porous molecularly imprinted polymers for selective adsorption of glutathione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Renyuan; Hu, Xiaoling; Guan, Ping; Li, Ji; Qian, Liwei; Wang, Chaoli; Wang, Qiaoli

    2015-03-01

    An effective approach overcome the classical deficiencies of biomolecules molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), that is, low binding capacity and slow mass transfer rate, is proposed. With glutathione (GSH) as target molecule, porous imprinted layers were fabricated according to our newly developed method the introduction of a mixture of acetontrile and dimethylsulfoxide as porogen in surface-initiated polymerization systems. The resultant MIPs particles exhibited a large surface area could remarkably improve the imprinting effect in relation to a significantly increased imprinting factor and mass transfer rate, compared to the MIPs prepared by using aqueous solution as solvent. The batch static binding tests were carried out to evaluate the adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms and selective recognition of the MIPs particles. The binding behavior followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model, revealing that the process was chemically carried out. Two binding isotherm models were applied to analyze equilibrium data, obtaining the best description by Langmuir isotherm model. In addition, the selective of separation and extraction of GSH from a mixture of GSH and its structural analogs could be achieved on the MIPs solid-phase extraction cartridge, indicating that the possibility for the separation and enrichment of the template from complicated matrices.

  6. A Field-Test of Solar Assisted Adsorptive Desiccant Cooling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkura, Masashi; Kodama, Akio; Hirose, Tsutomu

    A field-test of solar assisted desiccant evaporative cooling process has been carried out, which is a quite attractive cooling / dehumidification process considering various environmental problems caused by conventional electricity driven air conditioners. The process performance has been examined by means of temperature drop between outside air and supply air and COPs (COP value based on solar irradiation). This cooling performance was strongly influenced by solar irradiation and ambient air condition. Stable irradiation produced a higher regeneration temperature resulting higher dehumidifying performance. At one day with as table solar irradiation, the cooling process could produce cool supply air of 18.7°C against the ambient air of 30.1°C and averaged COP, was 0.41. On the other hand, unstable irradiation due to some clouds made the dehumidifying performance lower. However, decrease in the cooling performance was small compared to that obtained at the stable irradiation condition. This is due to buffering by thermal storage of the water circulating in solar collectors. Influence of ambient humidity on the cooling performance was rather serious. At higher humidity condition, the amount of dehumidified water became larger due to increase of effective adsorption capacity of the desiccant rotor. However, the temperature drop was decreased to 6.9°C. This behavior was mainly due to simultaneous increase of humidity and temperature in the dehumidified air. In this situation, an effective evaporation in the following water spray evaporative cooler did not occur.

  7. Operating characteristics of a cartridge collector utilizing medium-pressure purge air

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, J. )

    1993-11-01

    For over 20 years, dust collectors equipped with cleanable paper cartridge pulse-jet cleaning mechanisms. Applications have been limited primarily to light inlet dust loads of 2 grains/dscf (4.6g/m[sup 3] or less). One manufacturer has successfully tested and operated a dust collector utilizing a full-scale, medium-pressure (6 to 8 psig, 4.0 to 5.5 MPa), utilizing 6-in. (150-mm) diameter by 50-in. (1,270-mm) cellulose cartridge filter elements, under high inlet dust load conditions.

  8. Artificial neural network (ANN) modeling of adsorption of methylene blue by NaOH-modified rice husk in a fixed-bed column system.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shamik; Saha, Papita Das

    2013-02-01

    In this study, rice husk was modified with NaOH and used as adsorbent for dynamic adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. Continuous removal of MB from aqueous solutions was studied in a laboratory scale fixed-bed column packed with NaOH-modified rice husk (NMRH). Effect of different flow rates and bed heights on the column breakthrough performance was investigated. In order to determine the most suitable model for describing the adsorption kinetics of MB in the fixed-bed column system, the bed depth service time (BDST) model as well as the Thomas model was fitted to the experimental data. An artificial neural network (ANN)-based model was also developed for describing the dynamic dye adsorption process. An extensive error analysis was carried out between experimental data and data predicted by the models by using the following error functions: correlation coefficient (R(2)), average relative error, sum of the absolute error and Chi-square statistic test (χ(2)). Results show that with increasing bed height and decreasing flow rate, the breakthrough time was delayed. All the error functions yielded minimum values for the ANN model than the traditional models (BDST and Thomas), suggesting that the ANN model is the most suitable model to describe the fixed-bed adsorption of MB by NMRH. It is also more rational and reliable to interpret dynamic dye adsorption data through a process of ANN architecture. PMID:22562342

  9. Screening of Peptide Libraries against Protective Antigen of Bacillus anthracis in a Disposable Microfluidic Cartridge

    PubMed Central

    Kogot, Joshua M.; Zhang, Yanting; Moore, Stephen J.; Pagano, Paul; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.; Chang-Yen, David; Turewicz, Marek; Pellegrino, Paul M.; de Fusco, Andre; Soh, H. Tom; Stagliano, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial surface peptide display has gained popularity as a method of affinity reagent generation for a wide variety of applications ranging from drug discovery to pathogen detection. In order to isolate the bacterial clones that express peptides with high affinities to the target molecule, multiple rounds of manual magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) followed by multiple rounds of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) are conventionally used. Although such manual methods are effective, alternative means of library screening which improve the reproducibility, reduce the cost, reduce cross contamination, and minimize exposure to hazardous target materials are highly desired for practical application. Toward this end, we report the first semi-automated system demonstrating the potential for screening bacterially displayed peptides using disposable microfluidic cartridges. The Micro-Magnetic Separation platform (MMS) is capable of screening a bacterial library containing 3×1010 members in 15 minutes and requires minimal operator training. Using this system, we report the isolation of twenty-four distinct peptide ligands that bind to the protective antigen (PA) of Bacilus anthracis in three rounds of selection. A consensus motif WXCFTC was found using the MMS and was also found in one of the PA binders isolated by the conventional MACS/FACS approach. We compared MMS and MACS rare cell recovery over cell populations ranging from 0.1% to 0.0000001% and found that both magnetic sorting methods could recover cells down to 0.0000001% initial cell population, with the MMS having overall lower standard deviation of cell recovery. We believe the MMS system offers a compelling approach towards highly efficient, semi-automated screening of molecular libraries that is at least equal to manual magnetic sorting methods and produced, for the first time, 15-mer peptide binders to PA protein that exhibit better affinity and specificity than peptides isolated using

  10. Investigating Premature Ignition of Thruster Pressure Cartridges by Vibration-Induced Electrostatic Discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Stephen S.; Saulsberry, Regor

    2010-01-01

    Pyrotechnic thruster pressure cartridges (TPCs) are used for aeroshell separation on a new NASA crew launch vehicle. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) during TPC acceptance testing indicated that internal assemblies moved during shock and vibration testing due to an internal bond anomaly. This caused concerns that the launch environment might produce the same movement and release propellant grains that might be prematurely ignited through impact or through electrostatic discharge (ESD) as grains vibrated against internal surfaces. Since a new lot could not be fabricated in time, a determination had to be made as to whether the lot was acceptable to fly. This paper discusses the ESD evaluation and a separate paper addresses the impact problem. A challenge to straight forward assessment existed due to the unavailability of triboelectric data characterizing the static charging characteristics of the propellants within the TPC. The approach examined the physical limitations for charge buildup within the TPC system geometry and evaluated it for discharge under simulated vibrations used to qualify components for launch. A facsimile TPC was fabricated using SS 301 for the case and surrogate worst case materials for the propellants based on triboelectric data. System discharge behavior was evaluated by applying high voltage to the point of discharge in air and by placing worst case charge accumulations within the facsimile TPC and forcing discharge. The facsimile TPC contained simulated propellant grains and lycopodium, a well characterized indicator for static discharge in dust explosions, and was subjected to accelerations equivalent to the maximum accelerations possible during launch. The magnitude of charge generated within the facsimile TPC system was demonstrated to lie in a range of 100 to 10,000 times smaller than the spark energies measured to ignite propellant grains in industry standard discharge tests. The test apparatus, methodology, and results are described in

  11. Evaluation of a passive optical based end of service life indicator (ESLI) for organic vapor respirator cartridges

    PubMed Central

    Checky, Melissa; Frankel, Kevin; Goddard, Denise; Johnson, Erik; Thomas, J. Christopher; Zelinsky, Maria; Javner, Cassidy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A passive visual end of service life indicator (ESLI) for certain organic vapors has been attached to the inside wall of an organic vapor respirator cartridge. The opposite side of the ESLI touches activated carbon inside the cartridge. During use, organic vapors moving through the cartridge adsorb into both the carbon and the ESLI. The cartridge body is clear so that when vapor concentrations meet a certain threshold, the user may observe the progressive development of an indicator bar down the side of the ESLI. The cartridge is deemed ready to change when any part of the indicator bar touches a marked end line. The performance of the ESLI was observed when the cartridge was tested against a variety of organic vapors, exposure concentrations above the minimum indication level, humidities, temperatures, flow rates, and mixtures. In all cases, the ESLI indicated end of service life with more than 10% cartridge service life remaining (which is a NIOSH test criteria). The results were also compared to mathematical predictions of cartridge service life. PMID:26418577

  12. Heavy metal adsorptivity of calcium-alginate-modified diethylenetriamine-silica gel and its application to a flow analytical system using flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masanobu; Suzuki, Toshinobu; Sugita, Tsuyoshi; Nagai, Daisuke; Hirayama, Kazuo; Onozato, Makoto; Itabashi, Hideyuki

    2014-08-20

    This study aimed to evaluate the heavy metal adsorptivity of calcium-alginate-modified diethylenetriamine-silica gel (CaAD) and incorporate this biosorbent into a flow analytical system for heavy metal ions using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The biosorbent was synthesized by electrostatically coating calcium alginate onto diethylenetriamine (dien)-silica gel. Copper ion adsorption tests by a batch method showed that CaAD exhibited a higher adsorption rate compared with other biosorbents despite its low maximum adsorption capacity. Next, CaAD was packed into a 1mL microcolumn, which was connected to a flow analytical system equipped with an FAAS instrument. The flow system quantitatively adsorbed heavy metals and enriched their concentrations. This quantitative adsorption was achieved for pH 3-4 solutions containing 1.0×10(-6) M of heavy metal ions at a flow rate of 5.0 mL min(-1). Furthermore, the metal ions were successfully desorbed from CaAD at low nitric acid concentrations (0.05-0.15 M) than from the polyaminecarboxylic acid chelating resin (Chelex 100). Therefore, CaAD may be considered as a biosorbent that quickly adsorbs and easily desorbs analyte metal ions. In addition, the flow system enhanced the concentrations of heavy metals such as Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Pb(2+) by 50-fold. This new enrichment system successfully performed the separation and determination of Cu(2+) (5.0×10(-8)M) and Zn(2+) (5.7×10(-8) M) in a river water sample and Pb(2+) (3.8×10(-9) M) in a ground water sample. PMID:25086892

  13. 76 FR 66964 - Certain Inkjet Ink Cartridges With Printheads and Components Thereof; Notice of the Commission's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ...''). 75 FR 36442 (June 25, 2010). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of the Tariff Act of..., the public interest and bonding. 76 FR 51055 (Aug. 17, 2011). Specifically, the Commission determined... COMMISSION Certain Inkjet Ink Cartridges With Printheads and Components Thereof; Notice of the...

  14. Cartridge firing device designed for attachment, release and ejection of a satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierron, L.

    1977-01-01

    The device functions were performed by a one-piece unit with resulting performances which were of interest regarding the satellite attachment and the accuracies of the path and velocity during separation and ejection. A gain in weight may be obtained relative to the conventional device used, i.e. maintenance belt, belt unlocking device, pusher spring, and cartridge fired pusher.

  15. 42 CFR 84.253 - Chemical-cartridge respirators; requirements and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical-cartridge respirators; requirements and tests. 84.253 Section 84.253 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Special Use Respirators §...

  16. PARTICULATE CONTROL WITH CLEANABLE CARTRIDGE FILTERS USING DOUBLE-LAYER MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a detailed assessment of the feasibility of a new concept in fine particle filtration, nonwoven, double-mat, cartridge filters. The filter consists of a fine fiber filtration layer supported by a porous substrate providing physical strength to the resu...

  17. 76 FR 16639 - Certain Ink Cartridges and Components Thereof; Institution of Consolidated Advisory Opinion and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ...; and Seiko Epson Corporation of Japan (collectively ``Epson''). 71 FR 14720 (March 23, 2006). The... COMMISSION Certain Ink Cartridges and Components Thereof; Institution of Consolidated Advisory Opinion and... given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has instituted consolidated advisory opinion...

  18. Development of a Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry Cartridge with Integrated Solid Phase Extraction for Bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengsen; Manicke, Nicholas E

    2015-06-16

    A novel paper spray cartridge with an integrated solid phase extraction (SPE) column is described. The cartridge performs extraction and pre-concentration, as well as sample ionization by paper spray, from complex samples such as plasma. The cartridge allows for selective enrichment of target molecules from larger sample volumes and removal of the matrix, which significantly improved the signal intensity of target compounds in plasma samples by paper spray ionization. Detection limits, quantitative performance, recovery, ionization suppression, and the effects of sample volume were evaluated for five drugs: carbamazepine, atenolol, sulfamethazine, diazepam, and alprazolam. Compared with direct paper spray analysis of dried plasma spots, paper spray analysis using the integrated solid phase extraction improved the detection limits significantly by a factor of 14-70, depending on the drug. The improvement in detection limits was, in large part, due to the capability of analyzing larger sample volumes. In addition, ionization suppression was found to be lower and recovery was higher for paper spray with integrated SPE, as compared to direct paper spray analysis. By spiking an isotopically labeled internal standard into the plasma sample, a linear calibration curve for the drugs was obtained from the limit of detection (LOD) to 1 μg/mL, indicating that this method can be used for quantitative analysis. The paper spray cartridge with integrated SPE could prove valuable for analytes that ionize poorly, in applications where lower detection limits are required, or on portable mass spectrometers. The improved performance comes at the cost of requiring a more complex paper spray cartridge and requiring larger sample volumes than those used in typical direct paper spray ionization. PMID:26000893

  19. Development and Testing of a Temperature-swing Adsorption Compressor for Carbon Dioxide in Closed-loop Air Revitalization Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulloth, Lila M.; Rosen, Micha; Affleck, David; LeVan, M. Douglas; Wang, Yuan

    2005-01-01

    The air revitalization system of the International Space Station (ISS) operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby dosing the air-loop. We have developed a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) that is energy efficient, quiet, and has no rapidly moving parts for performing these tasks. The TSAC is a solid-state compressor that has the capability to remove CO2 from a low- pressure source, and subsequently store, compress, and deliver at a higher pressure as required by a processor. The TSAC is an ideal interface device for CO2 removal and reduction units in the air revitalization loop of a spacecraft for oxygen recovery. This paper discusses the design and testing of a TSAC for carbon dioxide that has application in the ISS and future spacecraft for closing the air revitalization loop.

  20. Development of an in Vitro System to Simulate the Adsorption of Self-Emulsifying Tea (Camellia oleifera) Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Sramala, Issara; Pinket, Wichchunee; Pongwan, Pawinee; Jarussophon, Suwatchai; Kasemwong, Kittiwut

    2016-01-01

    In this study, tea (Camellia oleifera) seed oil was formulated into self-emulsifying oil formulations (SEOF) to enhance the aqueous dispersibility and intestinal retention to achieve higher bioavailability. Self-emulsifying tea seed oils were developed by using different concentrations of lecithin in combination with surfactant blends (Span(®)80 and Tween(®)80). The lecithin/surfactant systems were able to provide clear and stable liquid formulations. The SEOF were investigated for physicochemical properties including appearance, emulsion droplets size, PDI and zeta potential. The chemical compositions of tea seed oil and SEOF were compared using GC-MS techniques. In addition, the oil adsorption measurement on artificial membranes was performed using a Franz cell apparatus and colorimetric analysis. The microscopic structure of membranes was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After aqueous dilution with fed-state simulated gastric fluid (FeSSGF), the droplet size of all SEOF was close to 200 nm with low PDI values and the zeta potential was negative. GC-MS chromatograms revealed that the chemical compositions of SEOF were not significantly different from that of the original tea seed oil. The morphological study showed that only the SEOF could form film layers. The oil droplets were extracted both from membrane treated with tea seed oil and the SEOF in order to evaluate the chemical compositions by GC-MS. PMID:27136528

  1. Charge/discharge characteristics of high-capacity methane adsorption storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, C.F.; Jasionowski, W.J.; Tiller, A.J. ); Gauthier, S.W. )

    1990-01-01

    The physical and economic barriers restricting a broad acceptance of natural gas as an alternative fuel in the transportation market have proven to be formidable. In order to succeed in the marketplace, systems for storing, dispensing, and utilizing natural gas which are low-cost, lightweight, compact, and efficient must be developed and evaluated. Experiments and numerical modeling indicate that methane storage and delivery are enhanced by low flow rates, high pressures, and designs with low adsorbent-to-cylinder mass ratios. When the adsorbent-to-cylinder mass ratio is greater than 0.3, systems behavior changes from near isothermal to adiabatic. Incorporation and utilization of in-situ thermal energy storage (TES) aids heat management, maintains near isothermal conditions and improves overall performance. TES thermally buffers the charging and discharging of an adsorbent system at or near the phase change temperature of the TES media thereby, enhancing storage and delivery of methane. 1 ref., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2011-05-26

    This report describes experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions using monosodium titanate (MST) and crystalline silicotitanate (CST)-laden filter cartridges. Four types of ion exchange cartridge media (CST and MST designed by both 3M and POROX{reg_sign}) were evaluated. In these proof-of-principle tests effective uptake of both Sr-85 and Cs-137 was observed. However, the experiments were not performed long enough to determine the saturation levels or breakthrough curve for each filter cartridge. POREX{reg_sign} MST cartridges, which by design were based on co-sintering of the active titanates with polyethylene particles, seem to perform as well as the 3M-designed MST cartridges (impregnated filter membrane design) in the uptake of strontium. At low salt simulant conditions (0.29 M Na{sup +}), the instantaneous decontamination factor (D{sub F}) for Sr-85 with the 3M-design MST cartridge measured 26, representing the removal of 96% of the Sr-85. On the other hand, the Sr-85 instantaneous D{sub F} with the POREX{reg_sign} design MST cartridge measured 40 or 98% removal of the Sr-85. Strontium removal with the 3M-design MST and CST cartridges placed in series filter arrangement produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 or 97.6% removal compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 or 99.7% removal of the strontium with the POREX{reg_sign} MST and CST cartridge design placed in series. At high salt simulant conditions (5.6 M Na{sup +}), strontium removal with 3M-designed MST cartridge only and with 3M-designed MST and CST cartridges operated in a series configuration were identical. The instantaneous decontamination factor and the strontium removal efficiency, under the above configuration, averaged 8.6 and 88%, respectively. There were no POREX{reg_sign} cartridge experiments using the higher ionic strength simulant solution. At low salt simulant conditions, the uptake of Cs-137 with

  3. Short-Cycle Adsorption Refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, C. K.

    1988-01-01

    Modular adsorption/Joule-Thomson-effect refrigerator offers fast regeneration; adsorption/desorption cycle time expected to be 1 minute. Pressurized hydrogen generated by bank of compressor modules during heating phase passes through system of check valves and expands in Joule-Thomson junction as it enters refrigeration chamber. Hydrogen absorbs heat from load before it is sucked out by another bank of compressor modules in cooling phase.

  4. Capital and Operating Costs of Small Arsenic Removal Adsorptive Media Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted 50 full-scale demonstration projects on treatment systems removing arsenic from drinking water in 26 states throughout the U.S. The projects were conducted to evaluate the performance, reliability, and cost of arsenic remo...

  5. The Adsorption of Arsenic on Iron Pipes in Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to remain compliant with the U.S. EPA’s Lead and Copper rule, it is pivotal to understand the relationship between factors affecting lead release in drinking water distribution systems. Lead solids were synthesized in cell experiments using a pH range of 6-11 with both 1...

  6. INVESTIGATION OF AMMONIA ADSORPTION ON FLY ASH DUE TO INSTALLATION OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    G.F. Brendel; J.E. Bonetti; R.F. Rathbone; R.N. Frey Jr.

    2000-11-01

    This report summarizes an investigation of the potential impacts associated with the utilization of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems at coal-fired power plants. The study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Emission Control By-Products Consortium, Dominion Generation, the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and GAI Consultants, Inc. SCR systems are effective in reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions as required by the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. However, there may be potential consequences associated with ammonia contamination of stack emissions and combustion by-products from these systems. Costs for air quality, landfill and pond environmental compliance may increase significantly and the marketability of ash may be seriously reduced, which, in turn, may also lead to increased disposal costs. The potential impacts to air, surface water, groundwater, ash disposal, ash utilization, health and safety, and environmental compliance can not be easily quantified based on the information presently available. The investigation included: (1) a review of information and data available from published and unpublished sources; (2) baseline ash characterization testing of ash samples produced from several central Appalachian high-volatile bituminous coals from plants that do not currently employ SCR systems in order to characterize the ash prior to ammonia exposure; (3) an investigation of ammonia release from fly ash, including leaching and thermal studies; and (4) an evaluation of the potential impacts on plant equipment, air quality, water quality, ash disposal operations, and ash marketing.

  7. Nitrogen rejection with pressure swing adsorption. Principles, design and remote control using an expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Buras, R.J.; Chan, A.; Mitariten, M.J.

    1995-11-01

    The rejection of nitrogen from low-quality natural gas has historically been accomplished through low-temperature cryogenic systems and generally applied to large volumes of gas. Until recently, the treatment of small gas volumes has presented difficulty in meeting economic targets. The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has indicated that in 1988, total nonassociated raw gas reserves in the lower 48 states was 144 TCF. Of these reserves, an estimated 19.2 TCF (13.3%) contain nitrogen greater than or equal to 4% and that only 1.7 TCF of this high nitrogen gas is in production. Nitrogen rejection from associated gas is also an expanding market and includes the applications of coal seam gas and GOB gas processing. UOP has developed and commercialized its NITREX process for these markets. This process separates nitrogen from methane through the cycling of multiple fixed beds of adsorbent. The NITREX system requires little pretreatment and is a shop-fabricated system with maximized skid mounting of components. The economic attractiveness of upgrading low-quality natural gas has been extended to low gas volumes through the use of this technology. POLYBED{reg_sign}PSA systems were first commercialized for the separation of light gases in 1966. This technology operates by using a fixed bed of adsorbent to adsorb gases of higher boiling points and molecular weights from lighter gases. Commercially attractive separations include the purification of hydrogen from light gases, the upgrading of raw helium for liquefaction and the manufacture of ultra pure methane for chemical plant feedstock.

  8. Adsorption of organic chemicals in soils.

    PubMed Central

    Calvet, R

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a review on adsorption of organic chemicals on soils sediments and their constituents. The first part of this review deals with adsorption from gas and liquid phases and gives a discussion on the physical meaning of the shape of adsorption isotherms. Results show that no general rules can be proposed to describe univocally the relation between the shape of isotherms and the nature of adsorbate-adsorbent system. Kinetics of adsorption is discussed through the description of various models. Theoretical developments exist both for the thermodynamics and the kinetics of adsorption, but there is a strong need for experimental results. Possible adsorption mechanisms are ion exchange, interaction with metallic cations, hydrogen bonds, charge transfers, and London-van der Waals dispersion forces/hydrophobic effect. However, direct proofs of a given mechanism are rare. Several factors influence adsorption behavior. Electronic structure of adsorbed molecules, properties of adsorbents, and characteristics of the liquid phase are discussed in relation to adsorption. Such properties as water solubility, organic carbon content of adsorbing materials, and the composition of the liquid phase are particularly important. Evaluation of adsorption can be obtained through either laboratory measurements or use of several correlations. Adsorption measurements must be interpreted, taking into account treatment of adsorbent materials, experimental conditions, and secondary phenomena such as degradations. Correlations between adsorption coefficients and water-octanol partition coefficient or water solubility are numerous. They may be useful tools for prediction purposes. Relations with transport, bioavailability, and degradation are described. PMID:2695323

  9. Extracorporeal adsorption of endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Staubach, K H; Rosenfeldt, J A; Veit, O; Bruch, H P

    1997-02-01

    In a porcine endotoxin shock model using a continuous intravenous endotoxin infusion of 250 ng/kg body weight per hour, the cardiorespiratory and hematologic parameters were studied while applying a new on-line polymyxin B immobilized adsorption system. This preliminary report shows that the new adsorbent can remove endotoxin selectively from the circulation and confers a good amount of protection from endotoxin-induced cardiopulmonary decompensation as well as hematologic alterations. Survival time could be extended from 216 min to 313 min. Whereas cardiac output and mean arterial pressure declined critically after 3 h in the controls, the treated group remained stable for another 3 h. These data show that endotoxin adsorption by polymyxin B coupled covalently to acrylic spheres as an adjunctive on-line measure in the septic syndrome seems feasible. PMID:10225785

  10. A computational investigation of adsorption of organics on mineral surfaces: Implications for organics delivery in the early solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaduzzaman, A. M.; Zega, T. J.; Laref, Slimane; Runge, K.; Deymier, P. A.; Muralidharan, Krishna

    2014-12-01

    The adsorption of simple organic compounds onto minerals that are known to occur in the early solar nebula such as olivine, spinel and water-ice, is examined using first-principles density functional theory. The calculations show that electron-rich organics and organics containing cyanide, amine and carboxylic functional groups can strongly bind to low-index surfaces of olivine and spinel. Based on the surface coverage as obtained from these calculations, it can be inferred that an estimated amount of 1013 kg of organics could have been delivered to early Earth via direct adsorption mechanisms, thereby providing an endogenous source of planetary organics. In addition, adsorption of organic compounds on magnesite, a carbonate phase believed to have formed via aqueous processes on asteroidal bodies, is also studied. The adsorption behavior of the organics is observed to be similar in both cases, i.e., for minerals that formed during the earliest stages of nebular evolution through condensation (spinel and olivine) or other processes and for those that formed via hydration processes on asteroidal bodies (magnesite). These results suggest that direct incorporation via adsorption is an important delivery mechanism of organics to both asteroidal bodies and terrestrial planets.

  11. A photoelectric technique for the study of adsorption: the aluminum-oxygen and aluminum-water systems.

    PubMed

    Batt, R J; Mee, C H

    1970-01-01

    Gas adsorption on clean metal surfaces may be studied by observing the change in work function of the surface as adsorption proceeds. A photoelectric technique for following these changes by measuring the photocurrent excited by two spectral lines is developed, and a graphical method of analysis of the results is given. This method has the advantage of being much quicker than other photoelectric techniques such as the determination of the retarding-potential characteristic, and may thus be applied to the study of more rapid adsorption processes. As examples of its use, the method has been applied to a study of the adsorption of oxygen and water vapor on films of aluminum evaporated under conditions of ultrahigh vacuum. The work function of the clean aluminum films was 4.27 eV. For small oxygen exposures (up to about 10(18) molecules cm(-2)) the work function of the contaminated aluminum decreased by about 0.05 eV; for larger exposures (up to about 10(20) molecules cm(-2)) the work function increased by about 0.05 eV. Water vapor adsorption causes a reduction in the work function by more than 1 eV for an exposure of about 10(19) molecules cm(-2). PMID:20076140

  12. Estimating the time since discharge of spent cartridges: a logical approach for interpreting the evidence.

    PubMed

    Gallidabino, Matteo; Weyermann, Céline; Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Taroni, Franco

    2013-03-01

    Estimating the time since discharge of a spent cartridge or a firearm can be useful in criminal situations involving firearms. The analysis of volatile gunshot residue remaining after shooting using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography (GC) was proposed to meet this objective. However, current interpretative models suffer from several conceptual drawbacks which render them inadequate to assess the evidential value of a given measurement. This paper aims to fill this gap by proposing a logical approach based on the assessment of likelihood ratios. A probabilistic model was thus developed and applied to a hypothetical scenario where alternative hypotheses about the discharge time of a spent cartridge found on a crime scene were forwarded. In order to estimate the parameters required to implement this solution, a non-linear regression model was proposed and applied to real published data. The proposed approach proved to be a valuable method for interpreting aging-related data. PMID:23380061

  13. The Application of Confocal Microscopy and Particle Size Analysis to Cartridge Case Examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClorry, Shannon

    Although cross-correlation analysis is a convenient tool for image comparison, research shows that cross-correlation analysis of surface topographies is incapable of distinguishing between the large numbers of cartridge cases that would be necessary to create a national database. In this study, we manually overlay confocal images of primer face impressions and show that the size distribution of the regions of correspondence between two impressions has the potential to significantly improve the number of discernible topographies. Our results indicate that the average area of the individual regions of correspondence in an overlay provides a more abrupt distinction between matching and non-matching cartridge cases than does the overall extent of correspondence. In the 1950s, Biasotti discovered a similar trend in bullets, noting that the number of consecutive matching striae never exceed a particular number for non-matching bullets.

  14. The effect of fuel and chlorinated hydrocarbons on a vapor phase carbon adsorption system

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, W.J.; Cheney, J.L.; Taggart, D.B.

    1995-12-31

    A soil vapor extraction (SVE) system installed at the South Tacoma Well 12A Superfund Site was designed to recover 1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (1,1,2,2-TCA) from the vadose zone. The basic system consisted of twenty-two extraction wells, three centrifugal blowers, and three carbon adsorbers. The carbon adsorbers were regenerated on site by steam stripping. The mixture of steam and stripped organics was condensed and then decanted to separate the water from the organic phase. The recovered water was air stripped to remove the dissolved organics prior to discharge to the city storm sewer. The recovered organic phase was then shipped off site for thermal destruction. Previous reports described operating difficulties with the decanter, and air strippers. Sampling and analyses were performed which identified the problem as the simultaneous recovery of unexpected fuel hydrocarbons in addition to the solvents. Recovery of fuels resulted in a light phase in the decanter in addition to the water and heavy solvent phases. This required redesign of the decanter to handle the third phase. The effectiveness of desorption of the carbon beds by steam stripping gradually decreased as the remediation progressed into the second year of operation. Samples were collected from the carbon beds to evaluate the effect of the fuel and chlorinated hydrocarbons on the activated carbon. This report describes the results of these analyses. The data indicated that both 1,1,2,2-TCA and fuel hydrocarbons in the C-9 to C-24 range remained in the carbon beds after steam regeneration in sufficient quantities to require replacing the carbon.

  15. Nanoparticle filtration performance of filtering facepiece respirators and canister/cartridge filters.

    PubMed

    Rengasamy, Samy; BerryAnn, Roland; Szalajda, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory protection offered by a particulate respirator is a function of the filter efficiency and face seal leakage. A previous study in our laboratory measured the filter penetration and total inward leakage (TIL) of 20-1000 nm size particles for N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) using a breathing manikin. The results showed relatively higher filter penetration and TIL value under different leak sizes and flow rates at the most penetrating particle size (MPPS), ∼45 nm for electrostatic FFRs,and ∼150 nm for the same FFRs after charge removal. This indicates an advantage of mechanical filters over electrostatic filters rated for similar filter efficiencies in providing respiratory protection in nanoparticle workplaces. To better understand the influence of the MPPS, the filtration performance of commonly used one N95 and one N100 FFR models, and four P100 canister/cartridge models were measured with monodisperse NaCl aerosols, and polydisperse NaCl aerosols employed in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) certification test method. As expected, the polydisperse aerosol penetration was below 5% for the N95 FFR, and below 0.03% for the N100 FFR and P100 canister/cartridge filters. Monodisperse aerosol penetration results showed a MPPS of ∼40 nm for both the N95 and N100 FFRs. All four P100 canister/cartridge filters had a MPPS of ≥150 nm, similar to expectations for mechanical filters. The P100 canister/cartridge filters showed lower penetration values for different size nanoparticles than the N100 FFRs. The results indicate that a mechanical filter would offer a relatively higher filtration performance for nanoparticles than an electrostatic counterpart rated for the same filter efficiency. Overall, the results obtained in the study suggest that MPPS should be considered as a key factor in the development of respirator standards and recommendations for protection against nanoparticles. PMID:23927008

  16. Functionalized Nanoporous Silica for Removal of Heavy Metals from Biological Systems; Adsorption and Application

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Rutledge, Ryan D.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Sukwarotwat, Vichaya; Orr, Galya; Warner, Cynthia L.; Warner, Marvin G.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Wiacek, Robert J.; Timchalk, Charles; Addleman, Raymond S.

    2010-10-01

    Functionalized nanoporous silica, often referred to as self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports (SAMMS) have previously demonstrated the ability to serve as very effective heavy metal sorbents in a range of aquatic and environmental systems suggesting they may be advantageously utilized for biomedical applications such as chelation therapy. Herein we evaluate surface chemistries for heavy metal capture from biological fluids, various facets of the materials biocompatibility and the suitability of these materials as potential therapeutics. Of the materials tested, thiol-functionalized SAMMS proved most capable of removing selected heavy metals from biological solutions (i.e. blood, urine, etc.) As a result, thiol SAMMS was further analyzed to assess the material’s performance under a number of different biologically relevant conditions (i.e. variable pH and ionic strength) as well to gauge any potentially negative cellular effects resulting from interaction with the sorbent, such as cellular toxicity or possible chelation of essential minerals. Additionally, cellular uptake studies demonstrated no cell membrane permeation by the silica-based materials generally highlighting their ability to remain cellularly inert and thus non-toxic. As a result, it has been determined that organic ligand-functionalized nanoporous silica materials could be a valuable material for detoxification therapeutics and potentially other biomedical applications as needed.

  17. Functionalized Nanoporous Silica for the Removal of Heavy Metals from Biological Systems: Adsorption and Application

    PubMed Central

    Yantasee, Wassana; Rutledge, Ryan D.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Sukwarotwat, Vichaya; Orr, Galya; Warner, Cynthia L.; Warner, Marvin G.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Wiacek, Robert J.; Timchalk, Charles; Addleman, R. Shane

    2012-01-01

    Surface-functionalized nanoporous silica, often referred to as self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports (SAMMS), has previously demonstrated the ability to serve as very effective heavy metal sorbents in a range of aquatic and environmental systems, suggesting that they may be advantageously utilized for biomedical applications such as chelation therapy. Herein we evaluate surface chemistries for heavy metal capture from biological fluids, various facets of the materials’ biocompatibility, and the suitability of these materials as potential therapeutics. Of the materials tested, thiol-functionalized SAMMS proved most capable of removing selected heavy metals from biological solutions (i.e., blood, urine, etc.) Consequentially, thiol-functionalized SAMMS was further analyzed to assess the material’s performance under a number of different biologically relevant conditions (i.e., variable pH and ionic strength) to gauge any potentially negative effects resulting from interaction with the sorbent, such as cellular toxicity or the removal of essential minerals. Additionally, cellular uptake studies demonstrated no cell membrane permeation by the silica-based materials generally highlighting their ability to remain cellularly inert and thus nontoxic. The results show that organic ligand functionalized nanoporous silica could be a valuable material for a range of detoxification therapies and potentially other biomedical applications. PMID:20939537

  18. Stability of benzalkonium surfactants on hemimicelle-based solid-phase extraction cartridges.

    PubMed

    Luque, Noelia; Merino, Francisco; Rubio, Soledad; Pérez-Bendito, Dolores

    2005-11-11

    The capability of hemimicelle-based solid-phase extraction cartridges for the preservation of organic compounds after their concentration from water samples was investigated for the first time. The approach is illustrated by studying the stability of benzalkonium homologue (C12, C14 and C16) surfactants (BAS) on monolayers of dodecyl sulphate (SDS) hemimicelles formed on alumina. The stability study included storage of cartridges at room temperature, at 4 and -20 degrees C, during a period of up to 3 months. The influence of water matrix components was also investigated from parallel experiments using spiked distilled, river and wastewater samples. Complete recovery of BAS was obtained for all storage conditions tested. Recoveries were independent on the alkyl chain length of BAS homologues and water matrix. The SPE of BAS on the SDS hemimicelles had a strong stabilizing effect for the target compounds and their analysis can be accomplished after at least 3 months without the necessity of special storage conditions for cartridges. Because of the lack of data, an additional stability study was carried out for BAS in an aqueous matrix using traditional preservation methods such as acidification (pH 2)/refrigeration, addition of formaldehyde (5%)/refrigeration, and freezing (-20 degrees C). Only combination of chemical addition (e.g. nitric acid or formaldehyde)/refrigeration was found effective to preserve BAS in the short term (e.g. for a week), then losses up to 40% were observed for these target compounds after a month. PMID:16257284

  19. Removal of Cryptosporidium and polystyrene microspheres from swimming pool water with sand, cartridge, and precoat filters.

    PubMed

    Amburgey, James E; Walsh, Kimberly J; Fielding, Roy R; Arrowood, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    Cryptosporidium has caused the majority of waterborne disease outbreaks in treated recreational water venues in the USA for many years running. This research project evaluated some common US swimming pool filters for removing Cryptosporidium oocysts, 5-µm diameter polystyrene microspheres, and 1-µm diameter polystyrene microspheres. A 946 L hot tub with interchangeable sand, cartridge, and precoat filters was used at room temperature for this research. Simulated pool water for each experiment was created from Charlotte, NC (USA) tap water supplemented with alkalinity, hardness, chlorine, and a mixture of artificial sweat and urine. Precoat (i.e., diatomaceous earth and perlite) filters demonstrated pathogen removal efficiencies of 2.3 to 4.4 log (or 99.4-99.996%). However, sand and cartridge filters had average Cryptosporidium removals of 0.19 log (36%) or less. The combined low filter removal efficiencies of sand and cartridge filters along with the chlorine-resistant properties of Cryptosporidium oocysts could indicate a regulatory gap warranting further attention and having significant implications on the protection of public health in recreational water facilities. The 5-µm microspheres were a good surrogate for Cryptosporidium oocysts in this study and hold promise for use in future research projects, field trials, and/or product testing on swimming pool filters. PMID:22361700

  20. Characterization of volatile organic gunshot residues in fired handgun cartridges by headspace sorptive extraction.

    PubMed

    Gallidabino, Matteo; Romolo, Francesco S; Weyermann, Celine

    2015-09-01

    In forensic investigation of firearm-related cases, determination of the residual amount of volatile compounds remaining inside a cartridge could be useful in estimating the time since its discharge. Published approaches are based on following the decrease of selected target compounds as a function of time by using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME). Naphthalene as well as an unidentified decomposition product of nitrocellulose (referred to as "TEA2") are usually employed for this purpose. However, reliability can be brought into question given their high volatility and low reproducibility of the extracted procedure. In order to identify alternatives and therefore develop improved dating methods, an extensive study on the composition and variability of volatile residues in nine different types of cartridges was carried out. Analysis was performed using headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE), which is a more exhaustive technique compared to SPME. One hundred sixty six compounds were identified (several of which for the first time), and it was observed that the final compositional characteristics of each residue were strongly dependent on its source. Variability of single identified compounds within and between different types of cartridge as well as their evolution over time were also studied. Many explosion products containing up to four aromatic rings were found to be globally present in high proportions. Twenty-seven of them (excluding naphthalene) also presented detectable decreases during the first 24 h. Therefore, they could be used as complementary target analytes in future dating methods. PMID:26168966

  1. A modified reaction cartridge for direct protein sequencing on polymeric membranes.

    PubMed

    Sheer, D G; Yuen, S; Wong, J; Wasson, J; Yuan, P M

    1991-10-01

    A newly designed reaction vessel implements a vertical cross-flow type reactor with the Applied Biosystems multi-mode reaction cartridge design. This cartridge is designed for sequencing samples on polyvinylidine difluoride-type membranes. The benefits of this design include a reduced reaction chamber volume that results in lower rates of chemical consumption and less risk of sample loss or contamination during sequencing. Visualization of the membrane in the reaction chamber during sequencing facilitates optimization of drying, washing, extraction and transfer times. The cycle modifications described in this report are designed to optimize post-coupling extraction, cleavage and post-cleavage extraction steps during "flow across" conditions for polymeric membranes. Also, efficient washing and drying of membranes allows for a fast cycle time of 30 minutes when using Pulsed Liquid chemistry. Examples of Blott cartridge utility for sequencing polyvinylidine difluoride-bound proteins in the low picomole range are shown by analyzing samples prepared by a two-dimensional purification scheme using the 230A HPEC and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:1793588

  2. RAMGEN ROTOR CARTRIDGE FOR THE PRE-PROTOTYPE RAMGEN ENGINE

    SciTech Connect

    Aaron Koopman

    2003-09-01

    The research and development of a unique combustion engine is presented. The engine converts the thrust from ramjet modules located on the rim of a disk into shaft torque, which in turn can be used for electrical power generation or mechanical drive applications. A test program was undertaken that included evaluation of the pre-prototype engine and incorporation of improvements to the thrust modules and supporting systems. Fuel mixing studies with vortex generators and bluff body flame holders demonstrated the importance of increasing the shear-layer area and spreading angle to augment flame volume. Evaluation of flame-holding configurations (with variable fuel injection methods) concluded that the heat release zone, and therefore combustion efficiency, could be manipulated by judicious selection of bluff body geometry, and is less influenced by fuel injection distribution. Finally, successful operation of novel fuel and cooling air delivery systems have resolved issues of gas (fuel and air) delivery to the individual rotor segments. The lessons learned from the pre-prototype engine are currently being applied to the development of a 2.8MW engine.

  3. Centrifugal adsorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Tsao, Yow-Min D. (Inventor); Lee, Wenshan (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A gas-liquid separator uses a helical passageway to impart a spiral motion to a fluid passing therethrough. The centrifugal force generated by the spiraling motion urges the liquid component of the fluid radially outward which forces the gas component radially inward. The gas component is then separated through a gas-permeable, liquid-impervious membrane and discharged through a central passageway. A filter material captures target substances contained in the fluid.

  4. Adsorption of apolar molecules at the water liquid-vapor interface: A Monte Carlo simulations study of the water-n-octane system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedlovszky, Pál; Varga, Imre; Gilányi, Tibor

    2003-07-01

    The adsorption of n-octane at the water liquid-vapor interface has been investigated by Monte Carlo computer simulation. For this purpose, simulation of five different water-apolar interfacial systems have been performed, in which the number of n-octane molecules has been varied. The results clearly show that the apolar n-octane molecules are adsorbed from the vapor phase at the interface. The adsorption is driven by the weak attraction due to the dispersion forces acting between the water molecules and the methyl and methylene groups of the octanes. This weak attraction is, however, amplified by the fact that it is added up for the CH2 and CH3 groups belonging to the same molecule. Consistently, the n-octane molecules located closest to the aqueous phase are found to prefer all-trans conformation and parallel alignment with the plane of the interface. On the other hand, entropic effects become more important among the molecules of the outer part of the adsorption layer. Hence, the preferred orientation of these molecules is perpendicular to the interface, as they can be extended toward the less dense region of the apolar phase; and gauche dihedrals appear more frequently here than among the molecules located next to the aqueous phase.

  5. Adsorption of carbon oxide and nitrogen oxide molecules on the surface of the Ni/MgO(111) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magkoev, T. T.; Turiev, A. M.; Tsidaeva, N. I.; Pantileev, D. G.

    2009-10-01

    The coadsorption of carbon oxide (CO) and nitrogen oxide (NO) molecules on the surface of nickel nanoclusters formed on a thin magnesium oxide MgO(111) film grown on the Mo(110) face in an ultrahigh vacuum is studied by reflective infrared spectroscopy and thermodesorption spectroscopy (TDS). The adsorption of NO molecules is found to substantially change the state of the initially adsorbed CO molecules. The TDS and IR spectra suggest that the adsorption of NO molecules stimulates the surface migration of CO molecules from the surface of metallic clusters to the cluster-oxide interface, which is accompanied by a decrease in the angle of inclination of the molecular axis to the surface.

  6. Modeling and Analysis of the Electrokinetic Mass Transport and Adsorption Mechanisms of a Charged Adsorbate in Capillary Electrochromatography Systems Employing Charged Nonporous Adsorbent Particles.

    PubMed

    Grimes, B. A.; Liapis, A. I.

    2001-02-01

    Mass-transfer systems based on electrokinetic phenomena (i.e., capillary electrochromatography (CEC)) have shown practical potential for becoming powerful separation methods for the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. A dynamic mathematical model, consisting of the momentum balance and the Poisson equations, as well as the unsteady-state continuity expressions for the cation and anion of the background electrolyte and of a positively charged analyte (adsorbate), is constructed and solved to determine quantitatively the electroosmotic velocity, the electrostatic potential, the concentration profiles of the charged species in the double layer and in the electroneutral core region of the fluid in the interstitial channels for bulk flow in the packed chromatographic column, and the axial current density profiles as the adsorbate adsorbs onto the negatively charged fixed sites on the surface of the nonporous particles packed in the chromatographic column. The frontal analysis mode of operation is simulated in this work. The results obtained from model simulations provide significant physical insight into and understanding of the development and propagation of the dynamic profile of the concentration of the adsorbate (analyte) and indicate that sharp, highly resolved adsorption fronts and large amounts of adsorbate in the adsorbed phase for a given column length can be obtained under the following conditions: (i) The ratio, gamma(2, 0), of the electroosmotic velocity of the mobile liquid phase at the column entrance after the adsorption front has passed the column entrance to the electrophoretic velocity of the anion is very close to -1. The structure of the equations of the model and model simulations indicate that a stable adsorption front cannot develop when gamma(2, 0) is less than -1 unless the value of the mobility of the cation is less than the value of the mobility of the analyte, which may be a rare occurrence in practical CEC systems. (ii) The ratio of

  7. Development of facile property calculation model for adsorption chillers based on equilibrium adsorption cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Masato; Hirose, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Minoru; Thermal management technology Team

    Facile property calculation model for adsorption chillers was developed based on equilibrium adsorption cycles. Adsorption chillers are one of promising systems that can use heat energy efficiently because adsorption chillers can generate cooling energy using relatively low temperature heat energy. Properties of adsorption chillers are determined by heat source temperatures, adsorption/desorption properties of adsorbent, and kinetics such as heat transfer rate and adsorption/desorption rate etc. In our model, dependence of adsorption chiller properties on heat source temperatures was represented using approximated equilibrium adsorption cycles instead of solving conventional time-dependent differential equations for temperature changes. In addition to equilibrium cycle calculations, we calculated time constants for temperature changes as functions of heat source temperatures, which represent differences between equilibrium cycles and real cycles that stemmed from kinetic adsorption processes. We found that the present approximated equilibrium model could calculate properties of adsorption chillers (driving energies, cooling energies, and COP etc.) under various driving conditions quickly and accurately within average errors of 6% compared to experimental data.

  8. Soluble minerals in chemical evolution. I - Adsorption of 5-prime-AMP on CaSO4 - A model system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orenberg, J. B.; Chan, S.; Calderon, J.; Lahav, N.

    1985-01-01

    The adsorption of 5-prime-AMP onto solid CaSO4-2H2O was studied in a saturated suspension as a function of pH and electrolyte concentration. The adsorption is pH-dependent and is directly correlated with the charge on the 5-prime-AMP molecule which is determined by the state of protonation of the N-1 nitrogen of the purine ring and the phosphate oxygens. It is proposed that the binding that occurs between the nucleotide and the salt is electrostatic in nature. The adsorption decreases with increasing ionic strength of the solution which means that in a fluctuating environment of wetting and drying cycles, a biomolecule similar to 5-prime-AMP could be expected to desorb during the drying phase. The results indicate that CaSO4-2H2O can serve as a concentrating surface for biomolecules. The significance of this is discussed with regard to the possible role of soluble minerals and their surfaces in a geochemical model consistent with the evolution of the earth and the origin of life.

  9. Optimal stapler cartridge selection according to the thickness of the pancreas in distal pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hongbeom; Jang, Jin-Young; Son, Donghee; Lee, Seungyeoun; Han, Youngmin; Shin, Yong Chan; Kim, Jae Ri; Kwon, Wooil; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2016-08-01

    Stapling is a popular method for stump closure in distal pancreatectomy (DP). However, research on which cartridges are suitable for different pancreatic thickness is lacking. To identify the optimal stapler cartridge choice in DP according to pancreatic thickness.From November 2011 to April 2015, data were prospectively collected from 217 consecutive patients who underwent DP with 3-layer endoscopic staple closure in Seoul National University Hospital, Korea. Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) was graded according to International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula definitions. Staplers were grouped based on closed length (CL) (Group I: CL ≤ 1.5 mm, II: 1.5 mm < CL < 2 mm, III: CL ≥ 2 mm). Compression ratio (CR) was defined as pancreas thickness/CL. Distribution of pancreatic thickness was used to find the cut-off point of thickness which predicts POPF according to stapler groups.POPF developed in 130 (59.9%) patients (Grade A; n = 86 [66.1%], B; n = 44 [33.8%]). The numbers in each stapler group were 46, 101, and 70, respectively. Mean thickness was higher in POPF cases (15.2 mm vs 13.5 mm, P = 0.002). High body mass index (P = 0.003), thick pancreas (P = 0.011), and high CR (P = 0.024) were independent risk factors for POPF in multivariate analysis. Pancreatic thickness was grouped into <12 mm, 12 to 17 mm, and >17 mm. With pancreatic thickness <12 mm, the POPF rate was lowest with Group II (I: 50%, II: 27.6%, III: 69.2%, P = 0.035).The optimal stapler cartridges with pancreatic thickness <12 mm were those in Group II (Gold, CL: 1.8 mm). There was no suitable cartridge for thicker pancreases. Further studies are necessary to reduce POPF in thick pancreases. PMID:27583852

  10. Exploration of mXRF analysis of gunshot residue from cartridge cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Martin; Stamouli, Amalia; Knijnenberg, Alwin

    2015-10-01

    During the reconstruction of a shooting incident, several analytical techniques are at the disposal of forensic scientists. The Netherlands Forensic Institute is exploring the opportunities in which mXRF can be used to obtain information in these reconstructions. In this paper the possibilities of using the 2D-mXRF instrument as a screening tool are explored. Primarily the focus is on using mXRF to obtain information regarding the elemental composition of gunshot residue from cartridge cases. Secondly, the possibilities of using the 2D-mXRF instrument to, quickly and easily, set up databases for gunshot residue analysis are investigated.

  11. The Effectiveness of a Novel Cartridge-Based Bioreactor Design in Supporting Liver Cells

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Mei; Hammond, Paul

    2009-01-01

    There are a number of applications—ranging from temporary strategies for organ failure to pharmaceutical testing—that rely on effective bioreactor designs. The significance of these devices is that they provide an environment for maintaining cells in a way that allows them to perform key cellular and tissue functions. In the current study, a novel cartridge-based bioreactor was developed and evaluated. Its unique features include its capacity for cell support and the adaptable design of its cellular space. Specifically, it is able to accommodate functional and reasonably sized tissue (>2.0 × 108 cells), and can be easily modified to support a range of anchorage-dependent cells. To evaluate its efficacy, it was applied to liver support in the current study. This involved evaluating the performance of rat primary hepatocytes within the unique cartridges in culture—sans bioreactor—and after being loaded within the novel bioreactor. Compared to collagen sandwich culture functional controls, hepatocytes within the unique cartridge design demonstrated significantly higher albumin production and urea secretion rates when cultured under dynamic flow conditions—reaching peak values of 170 ± 22 μg/106 cells/day and 195 ± 18 μg/106 cells/day, respectively. The bioreactor's effectiveness in supporting live and functioning primary hepatocytes is also presented. Cell viability at the end of 15 days of culture in the new bioreactor was 84 ± 18%, suggesting that the new design is effective in maintaining primary hepatocytes for at least 2 weeks in culture. Liver-specific functions of urea secretion, albumin synthesis, and cytochrome P450 activity were also assessed. The results indicate that hepatocytes are able to achieve good functional performance when cultured within the novel bioreactor. This is especially true in the case of cytochrome P450 activity, where by day 15 of culture, hepatocytes within the bioreactor reached values that were 56

  12. Optimal stapler cartridge selection according to the thickness of the pancreas in distal pancreatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hongbeom; Jang, Jin-Young; Son, Donghee; Lee, Seungyeoun; Han, Youngmin; Shin, Yong Chan; Kim, Jae Ri; Kwon, Wooil; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stapling is a popular method for stump closure in distal pancreatectomy (DP). However, research on which cartridges are suitable for different pancreatic thickness is lacking. To identify the optimal stapler cartridge choice in DP according to pancreatic thickness. From November 2011 to April 2015, data were prospectively collected from 217 consecutive patients who underwent DP with 3-layer endoscopic staple closure in Seoul National University Hospital, Korea. Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) was graded according to International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula definitions. Staplers were grouped based on closed length (CL) (Group I: CL ≤ 1.5 mm, II: 1.5 mm < CL < 2 mm, III: CL ≥ 2 mm). Compression ratio (CR) was defined as pancreas thickness/CL. Distribution of pancreatic thickness was used to find the cut-off point of thickness which predicts POPF according to stapler groups. POPF developed in 130 (59.9%) patients (Grade A; n = 86 [66.1%], B; n = 44 [33.8%]). The numbers in each stapler group were 46, 101, and 70, respectively. Mean thickness was higher in POPF cases (15.2 mm vs 13.5 mm, P = 0.002). High body mass index (P = 0.003), thick pancreas (P = 0.011), and high CR (P = 0.024) were independent risk factors for POPF in multivariate analysis. Pancreatic thickness was grouped into <12 mm, 12 to 17 mm, and >17 mm. With pancreatic thickness <12 mm, the POPF rate was lowest with Group II (I: 50%, II: 27.6%, III: 69.2%, P = 0.035). The optimal stapler cartridges with pancreatic thickness <12 mm were those in Group II (Gold, CL: 1.8 mm). There was no suitable cartridge for thicker pancreases. Further studies are necessary to reduce POPF in thick pancreases. PMID:27583852

  13. Effect of organic-matter type and thermal maturity on methane adsorption in shale-gas systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Ruppel, Stephen C.; Milliken, Kitty; Yang, Rongsheng

    2012-01-01

    A series of methane (CH4) adsorption experiments on bulk organic rich shales and their isolated kerogens were conducted at 35 °C, 50 °C and 65 °C and CH4 pressure of up to 15 MPa under dry conditions. Samples from the Eocene Green River Formation, Devonian–Mississippian Woodford Shale and Upper Cretaceous Cameo coal were studied to examine how differences in organic matter type affect natural gas adsorption. Vitrinite reflectance values of these samples ranged from 0.56–0.58 %Ro. In addition, thermal maturity effects were determined on three Mississippian Barnett Shale samples with measured vitrinite reflectance values of 0.58, 0.81 and 2.01 %Ro. For all bulk and isolated kerogen samples, the total amount of methane adsorbed was directly proportional to the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the sample and the average maximum amount of gas sorption was 1.36 mmol of methane per gram of TOC. These results indicate that sorption on organic matter plays a critical role in shale-gas storage. Under the experimental conditions, differences in thermal maturity showed no significant effect on the total amount of gas sorbed. Experimental sorption isotherms could be fitted with good accuracy by the Langmuir function by adjusting the Langmuir pressure (PL) and maximum sorption capacity (Γmax). The lowest maturity sample (%Ro = 0.56) displayed a Langmuir pressure (PL) of 5.15 MPa, significantly larger than the 2.33 MPa observed for the highest maturity (%Ro > 2.01) sample at 50 °C. The value of the Langmuir pressure (PL) changes with kerogen type in the following sequence: type I > type II > type III. The thermodynamic parameters of CH4 adsorption on organic rich shales were determined based on the experimental CH4 isotherms. For the adsorption of CH4 on organic rich shales and their isolated kerogen, the heat of adsorption (q) and the standard entropy (Δs0) range from 7.3–28.0 kJ/mol and from −36.2 to −92.2 J/mol/K, respectively.

  14. An Assessment of the Axial and Radial Dilation of a DPIMS Tantalum Cartridge for Space Shuttle Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S.V.; Ghosn, L. J.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-based heat treatment tests are planned on an argon gas-filled tantalum cartridge developed as pan of a Diffusion Processes in Molten Semiconductors (DPIMS) experiment conducted on NASA's Space Shuttle. The possibility that the cartridge may creep during testing and touch the furnace walls is of real concern in this program. The present paper discusses the results of calculations performed to evaluate this possibility. Deformation mechanism maps were constructed using literature data in order to identify the creep mechanism dominant under the appropriate stresses and temperatures corresponding to the test conditions. These results showed that power-law creep was dominant when the grain size of the material exceeded 55 gm but Coble creep was the important mechanism below this value of grain size. Finite element analysis was used to analyze the heat treatment tWs assuming a furnace run away condition (which is a worst case scenario) using the appropriate creep parameters corresponding to grain sizes of 1 and 100 gm. Calculations were also conducted to simulate the effect of an initial 3 tilt of the cartridge assembly, the maximum possible tilt angle. The von Mises stress and su-ain distributions were calculated assuming that the cartridge was fixed at one end as it was heated from ambient temperature to 1823 K in 1.42 h, maintained at 1823 K for 9.5 h and then further heated to an over temperature condition of 2028 K in 0.3 h. The inelastic axial and radial displacements of the cartridge walls were evaluated by resolving the von Mises strain along the corresponding directions. These calculations reveal that the maximum axial and radial displacements are expected to be about 2.9 and 0.25 mm, respectively, for both fine and coarse-grained materials at 2028 K. It was determined that these displacements occur during heat-up to temperature and creep of the cartridge is likely to be relatively insignificant irrespective of grain size. Furthermore, with a 3' tilt of

  15. SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION-EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATIONS-12092

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-01-03

    Experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions with monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate laden filter cartridges are presented. In these proof-of-principle tests, effective uptake of both strontium-85 and cesium-137 were observed using ion-exchangers in this filter cartridge configuration. At low salt simulant conditions, the instantaneous decontamination factor for strontium-85 with monosodium titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges measured 26, representing 96% strontium-85 removal efficiency. On the other hand, the strontium-85 instantaneous decontamination factor with co-sintered active monosodium titanate cartridges measured 40 or 98% Sr-85 removal efficiency. Strontium-85 removal with the monosodium titanate impregnated membrane cartridges and crystalline silicotitanate impregnated membrane cartridges, placed in series arrangement, produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 for strontium-85 with co-sintered active monosodium titanate cartridges and co-sintered active crystalline silicotitanate cartridges placed in series. Overall, polyethylene co-sintered active titanates cartridges performed as well as titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges in the uptake of strontium. At low ionic strength conditions, there was a significant uptake of cesium-137 with co-sintered crystalline silicotitanate cartridges. Tests results with crystalline silicotitanate impregnated membrane cartridges for cesium-137 decontamination are currently being re-evaluated. Based on these preliminary findings we conclude that incorporating monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate sorbents into membranes represent a promising method for the semicontinuous removal of radioisotopes of strontium and cesium from nuclear waste solutions.

  16. SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION-EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATIONS-12092

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2011-11-10

    Experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions with monosodium titanate (MST) and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) laden filter cartridges are presented. In these proof-of-principle tests, effective uptake of both Sr-85 and Cs-137 were observed using ion-exchangers in this filter cartridge configuration. At low salt simulant conditions, the instantaneous decontamination factor (D{sub F}) for Sr-85 with MST impregnated filter membrane cartridges measured 26, representing 96% Sr-85 removal efficiency. On the other hand, the Sr-85 instantaneous D{sub F} with co-sintered active MST cartridges measured 40 or 98% Sr-85 removal efficiency. Strontium-85 removal with the MST impregnated membrane cartridges and CST impregnated membrane cartridges, placed in series arrangement, produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 for strontium-85 with co-sintered active MST cartridges and co-sintered active CST cartridges placed in series. Overall, polyethylene co-sintered active titanates cartridges performed as well as titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges in the uptake of strontium. At low ionic strength conditions, there was a significant uptake of Cs-137 with co-sintered CST cartridges. Tests results with CST impregnated membrane cartridges for Cs-137 decontamination are currently being re-evaluated. Based on these preliminary findings we conclude that incorporating MST and CST sorbents into membranes represent a promising method for the semi-continuous removal of radioisotopes of strontium and cesium from nuclear waste solutions.

  17. Flight prototype CO2 and humidity control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudy, K. M.

    1977-01-01

    A regenerable CO2 and humidity control system is presently being developed for potential use on the space shuttle as an alternative to the baseline lithium hydroxide system. The system utilizes a sorbent material (designated HS-C) to adsorb CO2 and water vapor from the cabin atmosphere and desorb the CO2 and water vapor overboard when exposed to a space vacuum. Continuous operation is achieved by utilizing two beds which are alternately cycled between adsorption and desorption. A shuttle vehicle integration study showed that the HS-C system offers substantial weight advantages compared to the baseline shuttle orbiter expendable lithium hydroxide CO2 removal system for extended missions beyond the nominal design of four men for seven days. This study defined a system packaging envelope in the area presently occupied by the LiOH cartridges.

  18. Penetration of methyl isocyanate through organic vapor and acid gas respirator cartridges.

    PubMed

    Moyer, E S; Berardinelli, S P

    1987-04-01

    Methyl isocyanate (MIC) is a volatile, toxic chemical [Threshold Limit Value (TLV) = 0.02 ppm] used to manufacture carbamate pesticides. The principal manufacturer of MIC is Union Carbide, and the site of production is Institute, West Virginia. In light of the December 1984 Bhopal, India disaster and possible safety problems at the Institute facility, NIOSH conducted this research as a basis upon which to recommend protective equipment that might be used in an emergency situation where extremely high MIC concentrations might be encountered. Both protective clothing and respirators were evaluated. In particular, NIOSH studied air-purifying respirators in order to assess their effectiveness against MIC vapor penetration. NIOSH does not recommend any air purifying respirator for MIC because of its high toxicity and lack of warning properties and because no effective end of service life indicator currently is available for MIC. This report addresses only MIC penetration through air-purifying cartridges at challenge concentrations designed to simulate emergency escape conditions. Another report addresses the protective clothing issue. The results presented are for two different manufacturers' organic vapor (OV) and acid gas cartridges. Penetration tests were conducted at three or four MIC challenge concentrations and at three different humidity conditions. In general, breakthrough times (1% of challenge concentration) were very short (less than 20 min). Also, high relative humidity was found to decrease the breakthrough time of MIC. PMID:3591646

  19. THERMAL ENHANCEMENT CARTRIDGE HEATER MODIFIED TECH MOD TRITIUM HYDRIDE BED DEVELOPMENT PART I DESIGN AND FABRICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.; Estochen, E.

    2014-03-06

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used 1{sup st} generation (Gen1) LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA0.75) metal hydride storage beds for tritium absorption, storage, and desorption. The Gen1 design utilizes hot and cold nitrogen supplies to thermally cycle these beds. Second and 3{sup rd} generation (Gen2 and Gen3) storage bed designs include heat conducting foam and divider plates to spatially fix the hydride within the bed. For thermal cycling, the Gen2 and Gen 3 beds utilize internal electric heaters and glovebox atmosphere flow over the bed inside the bed external jacket for cooling. The currently installed Gen1 beds require replacement due to tritium aging effects on the LANA0.75 material, and cannot be replaced with Gen2 or Gen3 beds due to different designs of these beds. At the end of service life, Gen1 bed desorption efficiencies are limited by the upper temperature of hot nitrogen supply. To increase end-of-life desorption efficiency, the Gen1 bed design was modified, and a Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) bed was developed. Internal electric cartridge heaters in the new design to improve end-of-life desorption, and also permit in-bed tritium accountability (IBA) calibration measurements to be made without the use of process tritium. Additional enhancements implemented into the TECH Mod design are also discussed.

  20. Thermal enhancement cartridge heater modified (TECH Mod) tritium hydride bed development, Part 1 - Design and fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Estochen, E.G.

    2015-03-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used first generation (Gen1) LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA0.75) metal hydride storage beds for tritium absorption, storage, and desorption. The Gen1 design utilizes hot and cold nitrogen supplies to thermally cycle these beds. Second and third generation (Gen2 and Gen3) storage bed designs include heat conducting foam and divider plates to spatially fix the hydride within the bed. For thermal cycling, the Gen2 and Gen3 beds utilize internal electric heaters and glovebox atmosphere flow over the bed inside the bed external jacket for cooling. The currently installed Gen1 beds require replacement due to tritium aging effects on the LANA0.75 material, and cannot be replaced with Gen2 or Gen3 beds due to different designs of these beds. At the end of service life, Gen1 bed desorption efficiencies are limited by the upper temperature of hot nitrogen supply. To increase end-of-life desorption efficiency, the Gen1 bed design was modified, and a Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) bed was developed. Internal electric cartridge heaters in the new design to improve end-of-life desorption, and also permit in-bed tritium accountability (IBA) calibration measurements to be made without the use of process tritium. Additional enhancements implemented into the TECH Mod design are also discussed. (authors)

  1. Syringe-cartridge solid-phase extraction method for patulin in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Eisele, Thomas A; Gibson, Midori Z

    2003-01-01

    A syringe-cartridge solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed for determination of patulin in apple juice. A 2.5 mL portion of test sample was passed through a conditioned macroporous SPE cartridge and washed with 2 mL 1% sodium bicarbonate followed by 2 mL 1% acetic acid. Patulin was eluted with 1 mL 10% ethyl acetate in ethyl ether and determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using a mobile phase consisting of 81% acetonitrile, 9% water, and 10% 0.05M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 2.4. Recoveries averaged 92% and the relative standard deviation was 8.0% in test samples spiked with 50 ng/mL patulin. The method appears to be applicable for monitoring apple juice samples to meet the U.S. Food and Drug Administration compliance action level of 50 microg/kg in an industrial quality assurance laboratory environment. PMID:14979697

  2. ARSENIC REMOVAL USING ADSORPTION TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. Many groundwaters that have arsenic in their source water will likely consider adsorption technology as a reasonable approach to remove arsenic. Adsorptio...

  3. ADSORPTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR ARSENIC REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. Many groundwaters that have arsenic in their source water will likely consider adsorption technology as a reasonable approach to remove arsenic. Adsorptio...

  4. Metal pins fired from unmodified blank cartridge guns and very small calibre weapons--technical and wound ballistic aspects.

    PubMed

    Rabl, W; Riepert, T; Steinlechner, M

    1998-01-01

    Blank cartridge guns are generally regarded as being harmless and are not considered to be firearms in most countries. A comparison of the legal situations in Germany and Austria concerning weapons is given. There have been several reports of serious injuries and even fatalities due to these weapons. Ballistic experiments show that even unmodified blank cartridge guns and very small calibre weapons can fire wire nails and can inflict potentially fatal injuries even at distances of 50 cm. Two serious injuries inflicted by metal pins fired from a blank cartridge gun and a very small calibre weapon are reported. These cases suggest that such weapons should also be considered handguns in the legal sense. PMID:9646170

  5. Surface Tension of the System NaF -AlF3-Al2O3 and Surface Adsorption of Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharík, Marián; Vasiljev, Roman

    2006-08-01

    Part of the molten system NaF-AlF3-Al2O3 was studied by surface tension measurements, which were performed at cryolite ratios (CR) between 1.5 and 3 [CR = n(NaF)/n(AlF3)]. The maximal bubble pressure method was applied. The surface adsorption of alumina (Al2O3) was also calculated. The obtained results were discussed in terms of the anionic composition of the melt. The addition of AlF3 to melt with CR= 3 decreases the surface tension, as AlF3 is surface-active in molten Na3AlF6. The concentration dependence of the surface tension and the surface adsorption of alumina in the title system are influenced by the formation of surface-active oxofluoroaluminates. An increase of the difference between the surface tension of NaF-AlF3 mixtures and the surface tension of pure alumina was observed with decreasing cryolite ratio.

  6. Recombinant protein purification using gradient-assisted simulated moving bed hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Part I: selection of chromatographic system and estimation of adsorption isotherms.

    PubMed

    Palani, Sivakumar; Gueorguieva, Ludmila; Rinas, Ursula; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas; Jayaraman, Guhan

    2011-09-16

    The design of gradient simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatographic processes requires an appropriate selection of the chromatographic system followed by the determination of adsorption isotherm parameters in the relevant range of mobile phase conditions. The determination of these parameters can be quite difficult for recombinant target proteins present in complex protein mixtures. The first part of this work includes the estimation of adsorption isotherm parameters for streptokinase and a lumped impurity fraction present in an Escherichia coli cell lysate for a hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) matrix. Perturbation experiments were carried out using a Butyl Sepharose matrix with purified recombinant protein on buffer equilibrated columns as well as with crude cell lysate saturated columns. The Henry constants estimated for streptokinase were found to exhibit in a wide range a linear dependence on the salt concentration in the mobile phase. These parameters were applied in subsequent investigations to design a simulated moving bed (SMB) process capable to purify in a continuous manner recombinant streptokinase from the E. coli cell lysate. PMID:21816402

  7. Studies of adsorption characteristics of activated carbons down to 4.5 K for the development of cryosorption pumps for fusion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kasthurirengan, S.; Behera, U.; Vivek, G. A.; Krishnamoorthy, V.; Gangradey, R.; Udgata, S. S.; Tripati, V. S.

    2014-01-29

    Cryosorption pump is the only possible device to pump helium, hydrogen and its isotopes in fusion environment, such as high magnetic field and high plasma temperatures. Activated carbons are known to be the most suitable adsorbent in the development of cryosorption pumps. For this purpose, the data of adsorption characteristics of activated carbons in the temperature range 4.5 K to 77 K are needed, but are not available in the literature. For obtaining the above data, a commercial micro pore analyzer operating at 77 K has been integrated with a two stage GM cryocooler, which enables the cooling of the sample temperature down to 4.5 K. A heat switch mounted between the second stage cold head and the sample chamber helps to raise the sample chamber temperature to 77 K without affecting the performance of the cryocooler. The detailed description of this system is presented elsewhere. This paper presents the results of experimental studies of adsorption isotherms measured on different types of activated carbons in the form of granules, globules, flake knitted and non-woven types in the temperature range 4.5 K to 10 K using Helium gas as the adsorbate. The above results are analyzed to obtain the pore size distributions and surface areas of the activated carbons. The effect of adhesive used for bonding the activated carbons to the panels is also studied. These results will be useful to arrive at the right choice of activated carbon to be used for the development of cryosorption pumps.

  8. Development of a Next-Generation Membrane-Integrated Adsorption Processor for CO2 Removal and Compression for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulloth, Lila; LeVan, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    The current CO2 removal technology of NASA is very energy intensive and contains many non-optimized subsystems. This paper discusses the concept of a next-generation, membrane integrated, adsorption processor for CO2 removal nd compression in closed-loop air revitalization systems. This processor will use many times less power than NASA's current CO2 removal technology and will be capable of maintaining a lower CO2 concentration in the cabin than that can be achieved by the existing CO2 removal systems. The compact, consolidated, configuration of gas dryer, CO2 separator, and CO2 compressor will allow continuous recycling of humid air in the cabin and supply of compressed CO2 to the reduction unit for oxygen recovery. The device has potential application to the International Space Station and future, long duration, transit, and planetary missions.

  9. Evaluation of radon adsorption characteristics of a coconut shell-based activated charcoal system for radon and thoron removal applications.

    PubMed

    Karunakara, N; Sudeep Kumara, K; Yashodhara, I; Sahoo, B K; Gaware, J J; Sapra, B K; Mayya, Y S

    2015-04-01

    Radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn), and their decay products contribute a major fraction (more than 50%) of doses received from ionisation radiation in public domain indoor environments and occupation environments such as uranium mines, thorium plants, and underground facilities, and are recognised as important radiological hazardous materials, which need to be controlled. This paper presents studies on the removal of (222)Rn and (220)Rn from air using coconut shell-based granular activated charcoal cylindrical adsorber beds. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the (222)Rn and (220)Rn adsorption characteristics, and the mitigation efficiency of coconut-based activated charcoal available in India. The performance parameters evaluated include breakthrough time (τ) and adsorption coefficient (K), and degassing characteristics of the charcoal bed of varying dimensions at different flow rates. While the breakthrough for (222)Rn occurred depending on the dimension of the adsorber bed and flow rates, for (220)Rn, the breakthrough did not occur. The breakthrough curve exhibited a stretched S-shape response, instead of the theoretically predicted sharp step function. The experiments confirm that the breakthrough time individually satisfies the quadratic relationship with respect to the diameter of the bed, and the linear relationship with respect to the length, as predicted in the theory. The K value varied in the range of 2.3-4.12 m(3) kg(-1) with a mean value of 2.99 m(3) kg(-1). The K value was found to increase with the increase in flow rate. Heating the charcoal to ∼ 100 °C resulted in degassing of the adsorbed (222)Rn, and the K of the degassed charcoal and virgin charcoal were found to be similar with no deterioration in performance indicating the re-usability of the charcoal. PMID:25658471

  10. A comparison of surface topography characterization technologies for use in comparing spent bullet and cartridge case signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Batishko, C.R.; Hickman, B.J.; Cuta, F.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked by the US Department of Energy to provide technical assistance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in evaluating and ranking technologies potentially useful in high-speed comparison of unique spent bullet and cartridge case surface signatures. Information sources included vendor input, current relevant literature, vendor phone contacts, other FBI resources, relevant PNL reports, and personal contact with numerous PNL technical staff. A comprehensive list of technologies was reduced to a list of 38 by grouping very similar methodologies, and further reduced to a short list of six by applying a set of five minimum functional requirements. A total of 14 primary criteria, many having secondary criteria, were subsequently used to evaluate each technology. The ranked short list results are reported and supported in this document, and their scores normalized to a hypothetical ideal system are as follows: (1) confocal microscopy 82.13; (2) laser dynamic focusing 72.04; (3)moire interferometry V70.94; (4)fringe field capacitance;(5)laser triangulation 66.18; (6)structured/sectioned light 65.55. Information available within the time/budget constraints which was used for the evaluation and ranking was not sufficiently detailed to evaluate specific implementations of the technologies. Each of the technologies in the short list was judged potentially capable of meeting the minimum requirements. Clever, novel engineering solutions resulting in a more cost-effective system, or a closer fit to the ideal system,'' could result in a reordering of the short list when actual technical proposals are evaluated. Therefore, it is recommended that a Request for Proposal not be limited to only the highest ranked technology, but include all six technologies in the short list.

  11. A comparison of surface topography characterization technologies for use in comparing spent bullet and cartridge case signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Batishko, C.R.; Hickman, B.J.; Cuta, F.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked by the US Department of Energy to provide technical assistance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in evaluating and ranking technologies potentially useful in high-speed comparison of unique spent bullet and cartridge case surface signatures. Information sources included vendor input, current relevant literature, vendor phone contacts, other FBI resources, relevant PNL reports, and personal contact with numerous PNL technical staff. A comprehensive list of technologies was reduced to a list of 38 by grouping very similar methodologies, and further reduced to a short list of six by applying a set of five minimum functional requirements. A total of 14 primary criteria, many having secondary criteria, were subsequently used to evaluate each technology. The ranked short list results are reported and supported in this document, and their scores normalized to a hypothetical ideal system are as follows: (1) confocal microscopy 82.13; (2) laser dynamic focusing 72.04; (3)moire interferometry V70.94; (4)fringe field capacitance;(5)laser triangulation 66.18; (6)structured/sectioned light 65.55. Information available within the time/budget constraints which was used for the evaluation and ranking was not sufficiently detailed to evaluate specific implementations of the technologies. Each of the technologies in the short list was judged potentially capable of meeting the minimum requirements. Clever, novel engineering solutions resulting in a more cost-effective system, or a closer fit to the ``ideal system,`` could result in a reordering of the short list when actual technical proposals are evaluated. Therefore, it is recommended that a Request for Proposal not be limited to only the highest ranked technology, but include all six technologies in the short list.

  12. A Validation Study of Bullet and Cartridge Case Comparisons Using Samples Representative of Actual Casework.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tasha P; Andrew Smith, G; Snipes, Jeffrey B

    2016-07-01

    The foundation of firearm and tool mark identification is that no two tools should produce the same microscopic marks on two separate objects that they would be inaccurately or wrongly identified. Studies addressing the validity of identification infrequently employ tests that mirror realistic casework scenarios. This study attempted to do so using a double-blind process, reducing test-taking bias. Test kits including bullets and cartridge cases but not the associated firearms were completed by 31 analysts from 22 agencies. Analysis of the results demonstrated an overall error rate of 0.303%, sensitivity of 85.2%, and specificity of 86.8%. Variability in performance across examiners is addressed, and the effect of examiners' years of experience on identification accuracy is explored. Finally, the article discusses the importance of studies using realistic case work scenarios when validating the field's performance and in providing courts with usable indicators of the accuracy of firearm and tool mark identification. PMID:27135174

  13. Thermal spray forming of refractory sample ampoule cartridges for single crystal growth space furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Frank; Poorman, Richard; Holmes, Richard; Mckechnie, Timothy; Krotz, Phil; Liaw, Yoon

    1993-01-01

    A thermal spray process is being used to build up refractory metals and ceramics into a containment cartridge for high temperature, single crystal semiconductor growth experiments. This process uses high energy plasma inside a low pressure (100-200 torr) inert environment to apply layers of material onto a removable mandrel. A variety of materials are being characterized and evaluated against a demanding set of requirements, including high service temperature (1700 C), oxidation resistance, and resistance to liquid metal attack. Techniques to spray form refractory metals (tungsten, molybdenum, niobium, tantalum) and ceramics (alumina, boron nitride) are being developed in the Plasma Spray Cell at Marshall Space Flight Center. These plasma spray formed materials have been evaluated for mechanical properties, density, microstructure, and resistance to liquid metal attack. Forming techniques and the resultant mechanical and metallurgical properties will be presented.

  14. Thermal spray forming of refractory sample ampoule cartridges for single crystal growth space furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Frank; Poorman, Richard; Holmes, Richard; Mckechnie, Timothy; Krotz, Phil; Liaw, Yoon

    1993-01-01

    A thermal spray process is being used to build up refractory metals and ceramics into a containment cartridge for high temperature, single crystal semiconductor growth experiments. This process uses high energy plasma inside a low pressure (100-200 torr) inert environment to apply layers of material onto a removable mandrel. A variety of materials are being characterized and evaluated against a demanding set of requirements, including high service temperature (1700 C), oxidation resistance, and resistance to liquid metal attack. Techniques to spray form refractory metals (tungsten, molybdenum, niobium, tantalum) and ceramics (alumina, boron nitride) are being developed in the Plasma Spray Cell at Marshall Space Flight Center. These plasma spray formed materials have been evaluated for mechanical properties, density, microstructure, and resistance to liquid metal attack. Forming techniques and the resultant mechanical and metallurgical properties are presented.

  15. Radiological assessment of cartridge 120-mm, APFSDS-T, XM829 ammunition

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, C.D.; Hadlock, D.E.; Soldat, K.L.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The components of the XM829 round effectively shield out nonpenetrating beta radiation emitted by the depleted uranium; however, photons cna penetrate the components of the round and are therefore the predominant emission. The radiation levels associated with the XM829 ammunition are low. The maximum emissions measured from a cartridge are not likely to result in exposure to military personnel above the maximum permissible nonoccupational dose limits listed in Army Regulation (AR) 40-14. Based upon the specifications contained in 49 CFR 173.424 and the radiation measurement data, the XM829 shipping package may be excepted from the specification packaging, marking and labeling requirements of subpart 49 CFR 173 as long as the outer surface of the uranium is enclosed in an inactive sheath and the conditions specified in 49 CFR 421 (b), (c), and (d) are met.

  16. [Suicidal shot in the mouth with an unmodified blank cartridge pistol].

    PubMed

    Bungardt, Nikola; Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Madea, Burkhard

    2005-01-01

    In the medicolegal literature reports of suicides with weapons designed for self-defence, especially gas pistols, are rare. We report on a suicide of a 54-year-old woman who fired a fatal shot in her mouth with an unmanipulated blank cartridge pistol, make Röhm RG 8, calibre 8 mm. The autopsy findings (lips and mucosa of the buccal vestibule without injuries, but extensive lesions of the tongue and the middle and rear third of the smooth palate) suggest that the shot was fired - as observed by a witness - with the barrel of the weapon inside the oral cavity. Both macroscopic inspection and histological investigations excluded the possibility that death was caused by an injury of the brain, in particular the brain stem. The immediate cause of death was deep aspiration of chyme with concurrent aspiration of blood. PMID:16134396

  17. Method and apparatus for thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Rassat, Scot D.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Drost, Kevin; Vishwanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2004-06-08

    The present invention provides compact adsorption systems that are capable of rapid temperature swings and rapid cycling. Novel methods of thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption are also described. In some aspects of the invention, a gas is passed through the adsorbent thus allowing heat exchangers to be very close to all portions of the adsorbent and utilize less space. In another aspect, the adsorption media is selectively heated, thus reducing energy costs. Methods and systems for gas adsorption/desorption having improved energy efficiency with capability of short cycle times are also described. In another aspect, the apparatus or methods utilize heat exchange channels of varying lengths that have volumes controlled to provide equal heat fluxes. Methods of fuel cell startup are also described. Advantages of the invention include the ability to use (typically) 30-100 times less adsorbent compared to conventional systems.

  18. Method for thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Rassat, Scot D.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Matson, Dean W.; Drost, M. Kevin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2003-10-07

    The present invention provides compact adsorption systems that are capable of rapid temperature swings and rapid cycling. Novel methods of thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption are also described. In some aspects of the invention, a gas is passed through the adsorbent thus allowing heat exchangers to be very close to all portions of the adsorbent and utilize less space. In another aspect, the adsorption media is selectively heated, thus reducing energy costs. Methods and systems for gas adsorption/desorption having improved energy efficiency with capability of short cycle times are also described. Advantages of the invention include the ability to use (typically) 30-100 times less adsorbent compared to conventional systems.

  19. Apparatus for thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Rassat, Scot D.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Matson, Dean W.; Drost, M. Kevin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2005-12-13

    The present invention provides compact adsorption systems that are capable of rapid temperature swings and rapid cycling. Novel methods of thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption are also described. In some aspects of the invention, a gas is passed through the adsorbent thus allowing heat exchangers to be very close to all portions of the adsorbent and utilize less space. In another aspect, the adsorption media is selectively heated, thus reducing energy costs. Methods and systems for gas adsorption/desorption having improved energy efficiency with capability of short cycle times are also described. Advantages of the invention include the ability to use (typically) 30-100 times less adsorbent compared to conventional systems.

  20. Performance evaluation of a hybrid system for efficient palm oil mill effluent treatment via an air-cathode, tubular upflow microbial fuel cell coupled with a granular activated carbon adsorption.

    PubMed

    Tee, Pei-Fang; Abdullah, Mohammad Omar; Tan, Ivy Ai Wei; Mohamed Amin, Mohamed Afizal; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Bujang, Kopli

    2016-09-01

    An air-cathode MFC-adsorption hybrid system, made from earthen pot was designed and tested for simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy recovery. Such design had demonstrated superior characteristics of low internal resistance (29.3Ω) and favor to low-cost, efficient wastewater treatment and power generation (55mW/m(3)) with average current of 2.13±0.4mA. The performance between MFC-adsorption hybrid system was compared to the standalone adsorption system and results had demonstrated great pollutants removals of the integrated system especially for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD3), total organic carbon (TOC), total volatile solids (TVS), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) and total nitrogen (TN) because such system combines the advantages of each individual unit. Besides the typical biological and electrochemical processes that happened in an MFC system, an additional physicochemical process from the activated carbon took place simultaneously in the MFC-adsorption hybrid system which would further improved on the wastewater quality. PMID:27268432

  1. Development of a novel headspace sorptive extraction method to study the aging of volatile compounds in spent handgun cartridges.

    PubMed

    Gallidabino, M; Romolo, F S; Bylenga, K; Weyermann, C

    2014-05-01

    Estimating the time since the last discharge of firearms and/or spent cartridges may be a useful piece of information in forensic firearm-related cases. The current approach consists of studying the diffusion of selected volatile organic compounds (such as naphthalene) released during the shooting using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). However, this technique works poorly on handgun cartridges because the extracted quantities quickly fall below the limit of detection. In order to find more effective solutions and further investigate the aging of organic gunshot residue after the discharge of handgun cartridges, an extensive study was carried out in this work using a novel approach based on high-capacity headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE). By adopting this technique, for the first time 51 gunshot residue (GSR) volatile organic compounds could be simultaneously detected from fired handgun cartridge cases. Application to aged specimens showed that many of those compounds presented significant and complementary aging profiles. Compound-to-compound ratios were also tested and proved to be beneficial both in reducing the variability of the aging curves and in enlarging the time window useful in a forensic casework perspective. The obtained results were thus particularly promising for the development of a new complete forensic dating methodology. PMID:24684369

  2. 75 FR 36442 - In the Matter of Certain Inkjet Ink Cartridges With Printheads and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Inkjet Ink Cartridges With Printheads and Components Thereof; Notice of... that information on this matter can be obtained by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on...

  3. Japanese Science Films; a Descriptive and Evaluative Catalog of: 16mm Motion Pictures, 8mm Cartridges, and Video Tapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newren, Edward F., Ed.

    One hundred and eighty Japanese 16mm motion pictures, 8mm cartridges, and video tapes produced and judged appropriate for a variety of audience levels are listed in alphabetical order by title with descriptive and evaluative information. A subject heading list and a subject index to the film titles are included, as well as a sample of the…

  4. Proton and Cd adsorption onto natural bacterial consortia: Testing universal adsorption behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrok, David; Fein, Jeremy B.; Kulpa, Charles F.

    2004-08-01

    Bacterial surface adsorption can control metal distributions in some natural systems, yet it is unclear whether natural bacterial consortia differ in their adsorption behaviors. In this study, we conduct potentiometric titration and metal adsorption experiments to measure proton and Cd adsorption onto a range of bacterial consortia. We model the experimental data using a surface complexation approach to determine thermodynamic stability constants. Our results indicate that these consortia adsorb similar extents of protons and Cd and that the adsorption onto all of the consortia can be modeled using a single set of stability constants. Consortia of bacteria cultured from natural environments also adsorb metals to lesser extents than individual strains of laboratory-cultivated species. This study suggests that a wide range of bacterial species exhibit similar adsorption behaviors, potentially simplifying the task of modeling the distribution and speciation of metals in bacteria-bearing natural systems. Current models for bacteria-metal adsorption that rely on pure strains of laboratory-cultivated species likely overpredict the amount of bacteria-metal adsorption in natural systems.

  5. Experimental Determination of P-V-T-X Properties and Adsorption Kinetics in the CO2-CH4 System under Shale Gas Reservoir Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Y.; Wang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Shale gas production via hydrofracturing has profoundly changed the energy portfolio in the USA and other parts of the world. Under the shale gas reservior conditions, CO2 and H2O, either in residence or being injected during hydrofracturing or both, co-exist with CH4. One important feature characteristic of shale is the presence of nanometer-scale (1-100 nm) pores in shale or mudstone. The interactions among CH4, CO2 and H2O in those nano-sized pores directly impact shale gas storage and gas release from the shale matrix. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of interactions among CH4, CO2 and H2O in nanopore confinement would provide guidance in addressing a number of problems such as rapid decline in production after a few years and low recovery rates. We are systematically investigating the P-V-T-X properties and adsorption kinetics in the CH4-CO2-H2O system under the reservior conditions. We have designed and constructed a unique high temperature and pressure experimental system that can measure both of the P-V-T-X properties and adsorption kinetics sequentially. We measure the P-V-T-X properties of CH4-CO2 mixtures with CH4 up to 95 vol. %, and adsorption kinetics of various materials, under the conditions relevant to shale gas reservoir. We use three types of materials: (I) model materials, (II) single solid phases separated from shale samples, and (III) crushed shale samples from both the known shale gas producing formations and the shale gas barren formations. The model materials are well characterized in terms of pore sizes. Therefore, the results associated with the model material serve as benchmarks for our model development. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This research is supported by a Geoscience Foundation LDRD.

  6. ARSENIC TREATMENT BY ADSORPTIVE TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will discuss the removal of arsenic from drinking water using the adsorptive media treatment process. Fundamental information is provided on the design and operation of adsorptive media technology including the selection of the adsorptive media. The information cites...

  7. A Simple Adsorption Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guirado, Gonzalo; Ayllon, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    The study of adsorption phenomenon is one of the most relevant and traditional physical chemistry experiments performed by chemistry undergraduate students in laboratory courses. In this article, we describe an easy, inexpensive, and straightforward way to experimentally determine adsorption isotherms using pieces of filter paper as the adsorbent…

  8. An Angstrom Sized Window on the Origin of Water in the Inner Solar System: Atomistic Simulation of Adsorption of Water on Olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stimpfl, M.; Walker, A. M.; Drake, M. J.; Deymier, P.

    2005-12-01

    Ther'e is no consensus on the origin of water in the inner solar system. One group of theories envisages the delivery of water to the Earth by means of comets and asteroids after the planet acquired about 85% of its mass formation. However, isotopic and geochemical fingerprints seem to indicate that comets and asteroids alone could not have been the principal source of water for the Earth (Morbidelli et al. 2000; Kleine et al. 2002). These discrepancies could be avoided if the Earth acquired its water locally. We explore the role of adsorption onto grains prior to planetary accretion as a possible new mechanism that could bring water to the Earth. Atomistic simulation can be employed to investigate the interaction between volatiles and materials found in the nebula. We have been exploring how water adsorbs on olivine with the goal of understanding the energetic involved in this process. Volatiles (including water) and fine grained dust coexisted in the nebula for millions of years, opening the possibility for these two components to interact. The importance of characterizing the interaction between water gas and the surface of olivine lies in the possibility of explaining the presence of water in the inner solar system due to adsorption of water onto the nebular dust before accretion. Monte Carlo simulation of adsorption onto a flat surface showed that this mechanism can store up to 3 times the Earth's oceans on dust grains in the pre-accretion disk (Stimpfl et al. 2004). This model, however, did not take into account the specific surface interactions between water gas and the crystalline surface, nor did it rigorously investigate the role of porosity. To fill this gap, we are currently performing energy minimization and molecular dynamics simulations of the system water and olivine using the code GULP and DLpOLY, respectively. Bulk olivine is modelled using periodic boundary conditions and a well tested parameterized potential model for the short ranged repulsion

  9. Comparison of gel column, card, and cartridge techniques for dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 blood typing

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Mayank; Jackson, Karen V.; Winzelberg, Sarah; Giger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare accuracy and ease of use of a card agglutination assay, an immunochromatographic cartridge method, and a gel-based method for canine blood typing. Sample Blood samples from 52 healthy blood donor dogs, 10 dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), and 29 dogs with other diseases. Procedures Blood samples were tested in accordance with manufacturer guidelines. Samples with low PCVs were created by the addition of autologous plasma to separately assess the effects of anemia on test results. Results Compared with a composite reference standard of agreement between 2 methods, the gel-based method was found to be 100% accurate. The card agglutination assay was 89% to 91% accurate, depending on test interpretation, and the immunochromatographic cartridge method was 93% accurate but 100% specific. Errors were observed more frequently in samples from diseased dogs, particularly those with IMHA. In the presence of persistent autoagglutination, dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1 typing was not possible, except with the immunochromatographic cartridge method. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance The card agglutination assay and immunochromatographic cartridge method, performed by trained personnel, were suitable for in-clinic emergency DEA 1.1 blood typing. There may be errors, particularly for samples from dogs with IMHA, and the immunochromatographic cartridge method may have an advantage of allowing typing of samples with persistent autoagglutination. The laboratory gel-based method would be preferred for routine DEA 1.1 typing of donors and patients if it is available and time permits. Current DEA 1.1 typing techniques appear to be appropriately standardized and easy to use. PMID:22280380

  10. Adsorption of thorium(IV) from simulated radioactive solutions using a novel electrospun PVA/TiO2/ZnO nanofiber adsorbent functionalized with mercapto groups: Study in single and multi-component systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour, Dariush; Keshtkar, Ali Reza; Moosavian, Mohammad Ali

    2016-03-01

    The novel polyvinyl alcohol/titanium oxide/zinc oxide (PVA/TiO2/ZnO) nanofiber adsorbent functionalized with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (TMPTMS) was prepared by electrospinning method and its potential was investigated for the adsorption of thorium from single and multi-metal aqueous solutions. The prepared adsorbent was characterized by FTIR, SEM and BET analysis. The influences of different operational parameters such as pH, ionic strength, equilibrium time, initial concentration and temperature were studied in batch mode. Investigation of ionic strength effect showed that the addition of NaNO3 to metal solution has a slight effect on the thorium adsorption, whereas pH value has a serious effect on the thorium adsorption at pH values lower than 4. The double-exponential model described the adsorption of Th(IV) ions much better than other kinetic models within both the single and multi-component systems. Among various isotherm models used, the equilibrium data of Th(IV) conformed the Langmuir isotherm in the single system, while those were best fitted by Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm in multi-component system. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔH°, ΔS°, and ΔG° indicated that the nature of adsorption process was spontaneous, endothermic and thermodynamically favored. The inhibitory effect of other metal ions on the adsorption capacity of Th(IV) was in order of Al(III) > Cu(II) > Cd(II) > Ni(II) > U(VI) > Fe(II).

  11. Adsorption processing - Optimization through understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Adsorption processes used in the natural gas industry for dehydration, sweetening and liquids recovery are batch systems, very similar to laboratory chromatographs. For continuous processing a plant must contain multiple adsorbers, so that while one column adsorbs, another or others can be desorbed and prepared for their next turn at adsorption. Variations in the cycle, the number of adsorbers and the way multiple towers may be sequenced; in series, in parallel, etc. are so numerous that an entire presentation could be devoted to the reasons and results of the various arrangements. For a consideration of the process fundamentals and the way they can be manipulated, this discussion concentrates on a simple two tower system typical of what is frequently used to dehydrate gas ahead of a cryogenic plant; a turboexpander unit or a peak shaving LNG facility.

  12. Selective adsorption and recovery of Au(III) from three kinds of acidic systems by persimmon residual based bio-sorbent: a method for gold recycling from e-wastes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruiyi; Xie, Feng; Guan, Xueliang; Zhang, Qinglin; Luo, Zhengrong

    2014-07-01

    A low cost bio-sorbent, named "PPF resin", was prepared by crosslinking the persimmon residual with formaldehyde. The adsorption behavior of PPF resin towards Au(III) from varied HCl and HNO3 concentration solutions was studied. PPF resin could adsorb almost complete Au(III) from high acidic systems. The influence of dilution ratio, solid-liquid ratio and time towards Au(III) from aqua regia leached PCBs liquor was censored in detail by batch and continuous adsorption methods. The PPF resin before and after adsorption was characterized by FT-IR, XRD and XPS spectra which provided evidences for the reduction of Au(III) to Au(0) with a proposed mechanism of Au(III) adsorption-reduction process. After saturated column adsorption of 0.1g PPF resin, 0.0506 g gold (purity: 99.9%) was obtained by the method of incineration. The present results provide a new approach for gold recovery from the secondary resources. PMID:24811444

  13. Adsorption of chlorophenols on granular activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, M.

    1993-12-31

    Studies were undertaken of the adsorption of chlorinated phenols from aqueous solution on granular activated carbon (Filtrasorb-400, 30 x 40 mesh). Single-component equilibrium adsorption data on the eight compounds in two concentration ranges at pH 7.0 fit the Langmuir equation better than the Freundlich equation. The adsorptive capacities at pH 7.0 increase from pentachlorophenol to trichlorophenols and are fairly constant from trichlorophenols to monochlorophenols. The adsorption process was found to be exothermic for pentachlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and endothermic for 2,4-dichlorophenol and 4-chlorophenol. Equilibrium measurements were also conducted for 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 4-chlorophenol over a wide pH range. A surface complexation model was proposed to describe the effect of pH on adsorption equilibria of chlorophenols on activated carbon. The simulations of the model are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Batch kinetics studies were conducted of the adsorption of chlorinated phenols on granular activated carbon. The results show that the surface reaction model best describes both the short-term and long-term kinetics, while the external film diffusion model describes the short-term kinetics data very well and the linear-driving-force approximation improved its performance for the long-term kinetics. Multicomponent adsorption equilibria of chlorophenols on granular activated carbon was investigated in the micromolar equilibrium concentration range. The Langmuir competitive and Ideal Adsorbed Solution (IAS) models were tested for their performance on the three binary systems of pentachlorophenol/2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol/2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol/4-chlorophenol, and the tertiary system of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol/2,4-dichlorophenol/4-chlorophenol, and found to fail to predict the two-component adsorption equilibria of the former two binary systems and the tertiary system.

  14. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system model for adsorption of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiol onto gold nanoparticales-activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaedi, M.; Hosaininia, R.; Ghaedi, A. M.; Vafaei, A.; Taghizadeh, F.

    2014-10-01

    In this research, a novel adsorbent gold nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (Au-NP-AC) was synthesized by ultrasound energy as a low cost routing protocol. Subsequently, this novel material characterization and identification followed by different techniques such as scanning electron microscope (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Unique properties such as high BET surface area (>1229.55 m2/g) and low pore size (<22.46 Å) and average particle size lower than 48.8 Å in addition to high reactive atoms and the presence of various functional groups make it possible for efficient removal of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiol (TDDT). Generally, the influence of variables, including the amount of adsorbent, initial pollutant concentration, contact time on pollutants removal percentage has great effect on the removal percentage that their influence was optimized. The optimum parameters for adsorption of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2, 5-dithiol onto gold nanoparticales-activated carbon were 0.02 g adsorbent mass, 10 mg L-1 initial 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiol concentration, 30 min contact time and pH 7. The Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and multiple linear regression (MLR) models, have been applied for prediction of removal of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiol using gold nanoparticales-activated carbon (Au-NP-AC) in a batch study. The input data are included adsorbent dosage (g), contact time (min) and pollutant concentration (mg/l). The coefficient of determination (R2) and mean squared error (MSE) for the training data set of optimal ANFIS model were achieved to be 0.9951 and 0.00017, respectively. These results show that ANFIS model is capable of predicting adsorption of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiol using Au-NP-AC with high accuracy in an easy, rapid and cost effective way.

  15. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system model for adsorption of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiol onto gold nanoparticales-activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, M; Hosaininia, R; Ghaedi, A M; Vafaei, A; Taghizadeh, F

    2014-10-15

    In this research, a novel adsorbent gold nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (Au-NP-AC) was synthesized by ultrasound energy as a low cost routing protocol. Subsequently, this novel material characterization and identification followed by different techniques such as scanning electron microscope(SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller(BET) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Unique properties such as high BET surface area (>1229.55m(2)/g) and low pore size (<22.46Å) and average particle size lower than 48.8Å in addition to high reactive atoms and the presence of various functional groups make it possible for efficient removal of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiol (TDDT). Generally, the influence of variables, including the amount of adsorbent, initial pollutant concentration, contact time on pollutants removal percentage has great effect on the removal percentage that their influence was optimized. The optimum parameters for adsorption of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2, 5-dithiol onto gold nanoparticales-activated carbon were 0.02g adsorbent mass, 10mgL(-1) initial 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiol concentration, 30min contact time and pH 7. The Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and multiple linear regression (MLR) models, have been applied for prediction of removal of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiol using gold nanoparticales-activated carbon (Au-NP-AC) in a batch study. The input data are included adsorbent dosage (g), contact time (min) and pollutant concentration (mg/l). The coefficient of determination (R(2)) and mean squared error (MSE) for the training data set of optimal ANFIS model were achieved to be 0.9951 and 0.00017, respectively. These results show that ANFIS model is capable of predicting adsorption of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiol using Au-NP-AC with high accuracy in an easy, rapid and cost effective way. PMID:24858196

  16. Optimization of the bake-on siliconization of cartridges. Part I: Optimization of the spray-on parameters.

    PubMed

    Funke, Stefanie; Matilainen, Julia; Nalenz, Heiko; Bechtold-Peters, Karoline; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Friess, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Biopharmaceutical products are increasingly commercialized as drug/device combinations to enable self-administration. Siliconization of the inner syringe/cartridge glass barrel for adequate functionality is either performed at the supplier or drug product manufacturing site. Yet, siliconization processes are often insufficiently investigated. In this study, an optimized bake-on siliconization process for cartridges using a pilot-scale siliconization unit was developed. The following process parameters were investigated: spray quantity, nozzle position, spray pressure, time for pump dosing and the silicone emulsion concentration. A spray quantity of 4mg emulsion showed best, immediate atomization into a fine spray. 16 and 29mg of emulsion, hence 4-7-times the spray volume, first generated an emulsion jet before atomization was achieved. Poor atomization of higher quantities correlated with an increased spray loss and inhomogeneous silicone distribution, e.g., due to runlets forming build-ups at the cartridge lower edge and depositing on the star wheel. A prolonged time for pump dosing of 175ms led to a more intensive, long-lasting spray compared to 60ms as anticipated from a higher air-to-liquid ratio. A higher spray pressure of 2.5bar did not improve atomization but led to an increased spray loss. At a 20mm nozzle-to-flange distance the spray cone exactly reached the cartridge flange, which was optimal for thicker silicone layers at the flange to ease piston break-loose. Initially, 10μg silicone was sufficient for adequate extrusion in filled cartridges. However, both maximum break-loose and gliding forces in filled cartridges gradually increased from 5-8N to 21-22N upon 80weeks storage at room temperature. The increase for a 30μg silicone level from 3-6N to 10-12N was moderate. Overall, the study provides a comprehensive insight into critical process parameters during the initial spray-on process and the impact of these parameters on the characteristics of the

  17. Microscopic Theory of Hysteretic Hydrogen Adsorption in Nanoporous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, J.; Wei, S. H.; Kim, Y. H.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding gas adsorption confined in nanoscale pores is a fundamental issue with broad applications in catalysis and gas storage. Recently, hysteretic H{sub 2} adsorption was observed in several nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Here, using first-principles calculations and simulated adsorption/desorption isotherms, we present a microscopic theory of the enhanced adsorption hysteresis of H{sub 2} molecules using the MOF Co(1,4-benzenedipyrazolate) [Co(BDP)] as a model system. Using activated H{sub 2} diffusion along the small-pore channels as a dominant equilibration process, we demonstrate that the system shows hysteretic H{sub 2} adsorption under changes of external pressure. For a small increase of temperature, the pressure width of the hysteresis, as well as the adsorption/desorption pressure, dramatically increases. The sensitivity of gas adsorption to temperature changes is explained by the simple thermodynamics of the gas reservoir. Detailed analysis of transient adsorption dynamics reveals that the hysteretic H{sub 2} adsorption is an intrinsic adsorption characteristic in the diffusion-controlled small-pore systems.

  18. Adsorption of nisin and pediocin on nanoclays.

    PubMed

    Meira, Stela Maris Meister; Jardim, Arthur Izé; Brandelli, Adriano

    2015-12-01

    Three different nanoclays (bentonite, octadecylamine-modified montmorillonite and halloysite) were studied as potential carriers for the antimicrobial peptides nisin and pediocin. Adsorption occurred from peptide solutions in contact with nanoclays at room temperature. Higher adsorption of nisin and pediocin was obtained on bentonite. The antimicrobial activity of the resultant bacteriocin-nanoclay systems was analyzed using skimmed milk agar as food simulant and the largest inhibition zones were observed against Gram-positive bacteria for halloysite samples. Bacteriocins were intercalated into the interlayer space of montmorillonites as deduced from the increase of the basal spacing measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) assay. Infrared spectroscopy suggested non-electrostatic interactions, such as hydrogen bonding between siloxane groups from clays and peptide molecules. Transmission electron microscopy did not show any alteration in morphologies after adsorption of antimicrobial peptides on bentonite and halloysite. These results indicate that nanoclays, especially halloysite, are suitable nanocarriers for nisin and pediocin adsorption. PMID:26041178

  19. Fired Cartridge Case Identification Using Optical Images and the Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) Method

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Mingsi; Song, John; Chu, Wei; Thompson, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    The Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) method for ballistics identification was invented at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The CMC method is based on the correlation of pairs of small correlation cells instead of the correlation of entire images. Four identification parameters – TCCF, Tθ, Tx and Ty are proposed for identifying correlated cell pairs originating from the same firearm. The correlation conclusion (matching or non-matching) is determined by whether the number of CMC is ≥ 6. This method has been previously validated using a set of 780 pair-wise 3D topography images. However, most ballistic images stored in current local and national databases are in an optical intensity (grayscale) format. As a result, the reliability of applying the CMC method on optical intensity images is an important issue. In this paper, optical intensity images of breech face impressions captured on the same set of 40 cartridge cases are correlated and analyzed for the validation test of CMC method using optical images. This includes correlations of 63 pairs of matching images and 717 pairs of non-matching images under top ring lighting. Tests of the method do not produce any false identification (false positive) or false exclusion (false negative) results, which support the CMC method and the proposed identification criterion, C = 6, for firearm breech face identifications using optical intensity images. PMID:26601045

  20. Reducing media noise of perpendicular magnetic recording tape for over-50 TB class data cartridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunuma, S.; Inoue, T.; Watanabe, T.; Doi, T.; Gomi, S.; Mashiko, Y.; Hirata, K.; Nakagawa, S.

    2011-04-01

    To reduce medium noise inherent in a perpendicular magnetic recording tape, which is deposited by facing targets sputtering, we have examined an epitaxial double-layered structure consisting of a soft magnetic underlayer (SUL), bcc-FeCoB/fcc-NiFe/Si/bcc-FeCoB, on a 4.5 μm para-aromatic polyamide (aramid) film. An epitaxial soft magnetic bilayer reduces broadband noise by 5.6 dB at 337 kilo fluxchanges per inch (kfci) compared to a single SUL medium (Tape S). This is due to the reduction in the low-frequency noise, which originates from the domain walls of the SUL. Improvement of the crystal orientation of the magnetic layer hcp-CoPtCr-SiO2 and the intermediate layer hcp-Ru by inserting a fcc-NiFe spacer in laminated SULs extends the roll-off curve toward high linear density. When each SUL layer of the bilayer was made thinner, from 25 nm (Tape D2) to 10 nm (Tape D1), the medium noise decreased, improving the signal-to-noise ratio by 8.6 dB at 337 kfci compared to Tape S. In a high resolution playback test of Tape D1, an areal density of 45.0 gigabits per square inch (Gb/in.2) was confirmed. Achieved areal density means the capability of an over-50 terabyte (TB) capacity for a typical linear-formatted data cartridge.

  1. Development of NASA's Sample Cartridge Assembly: Design, Thermal Analysis, and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Connor, Brian; Hernandez, Deborah; Duffy, James

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Sample Cartridge Assembly (SCA) project is responsible for designing and validating a payload that contains a materials research sample in a sealed environment. The SCA will be heated in the European Space Agency's (ESA) Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) that is housed inside the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) located in the International Space Station (ISS). Sintered metals and crystal growth experiments in microgravity are examples of some of the types of materials research that may be performed with a SCA. The project's approach has been to use thermal models to guide the SCA through several design iterations. Various layouts of the SCA components were explored to meet the science and engineering requirements, and testing has been done to help prove the design. This paper will give an overview of the SCA design. It will show how thermal analysis is used to support the project. Also some testing that has been completed will also be discussed, including changes that were made to the thermal profile used during brazing.

  2. [Trauma due to blank cartridges and fireworks. Early and correct treatment prevents tattooing and scarring].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, A; Wohlrab, J; Marsch, W C

    2004-01-01

    Traumata secondary to blank cartridges and fireworks are not harmless at all. They can cause cosmetic disfigurement due to permanent tattooing and scars. Often the face and hands are injured. Fourteen patients with blast injuries were treated between 1992 and 2002 in our clinic. The average age was 20.4 years (range: 13-41 years, median: 17.5 years). Eight patients were aged under 18 years. Most of the victims were males (11 of 14). According to the extent of the powder tattooing we removed the particles under local or general anesthesia within 24 h. We used sterile tooth and hand brushes. After the operation we treated the wounds with local antibiotics. We describe two cases to illustrate our procedure. Early correct treatment of tattooing caused by fireworks or gun powder explosions within 24 h up to a maximum of 72 h prevents the development of permanent cosmetic disfigurement. The technique is simple, effective, and saves the cost of later removal of traumatic tattoos by laser or dermabrasion. PMID:14749849

  3. Investigating Premature Ignition of Thruster Pressure Cartridges by Mechanical Impact of Internal Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Stephen S.; Saulsberry, Regor

    2010-01-01

    Pyrotechnic thruster pressure cartridges (TPCs) are used for aeroshell separation on a new NASA crew launch vehicle. The premature ignition concern was hypothesized based on the potential range of motion of the subassemblies, projected worst case accelerations, and the internal geometry that could subject propellant grains to mechanical impact sufficiently high for ignition. This possibility was investigated by fabricating a high-fidelity model of the suspected contact geometry, placing a representative amount of propellant in it, and impacting the propellant with a range of forces equivalent to and greater than the maximum possible during launch. Testing demonstrated that the likelihood of ignition is less than 1 in 1,000,000. The test apparatus, methodology, and results are described in this paper. Nondestructive evaluation ( NDE) during TPC acceptance testing indicated that internal assemblies moved during shock and vibration testing due to an internal bond anomaly. This caused concerns that the launch environment might produce the same movement and release propellant grains that might be prematurely ignited through impact or through electrostatic discharge (ESD) as grains vibrated against internal surfaces. Since a new lot could not be fabricated in time, a determination had to be made as to whether the lot was acceptable to fly. This paper discusses the analysis and impact testing used to address the potential impact issue and a separate paper addresses the ESD issue.

  4. A new model of repulsive force in eddy current separation for recovering waste toner cartridges.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Jujun; Xu, Zhenming

    2011-08-15

    Eddy current separation (ECS) is an efficient method for separating aluminum from plastic in crushed waste toner cartridge (TCs). However, in China, ECS quality of aluminum from plastic is rather low in production practice. Repeating separation even manual sorting is required in the production. Improving separation quality of aluminum has been the pressing problem in the recovery of waste TCs. Furthermore, improving ECS quality can reduce the secondary-pollution (furan and dioxin) brought by plastic in later smelting process for the purification of recovered aluminum. Thus, a new model of repulsive force containing impact factors (machine: B(r), k, R, S(m), B(m); material: S(p), V, γ; and operation: ω(m), v, δ) of the separation process was constructed for guiding the ECS process of waste TCs recovering in this paper. For testing whether the model of repulsive force was suitable to guide the ECS, calculation and experiment of detachment angle of aluminum flake were studied. The calculation results of the detachment angles were agreed with the testing experiment. It indicates that the model is suitable for guiding the ECS of waste TCs recovering. PMID:21632177

  5. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOEpatents

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  6. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  7. [Characteristic of ammonia nitrogen adsorption on karst underground river sediments].

    PubMed

    Guo, Fang; Chen, Kun-Kun; Jiang, Guang-Hui

    2011-02-01

    Karst aquifers are one of the most important aquifers in Southwestern China. One of the characteristics of karst aquifers is the enhanced permeability permits high flow velocities are capable of transporting suspended and bedload sediments. Mobile sediment in karst may act as a vector for the transport of contaminates. 14 sediment samples were collected from two underground rivers in two typical karst areas in Liuzhou city, Guangxi Autonomous Region, China. According to simulated experiment methods, characteristic of adsorption of ammonia nitrogen on sediment was studied. The results of ammonia nitrogen adsorption dynamics on sediments showed that the maximum adsorption velocity was less than 2 h. The adsorption balance quantity in 5 h accounted for 71% - 98% of the maximum adsorption quantity. The maximum adsorption quantity of ammonia nitrogen was 385.5 mg/kg, which was sediment from a cave in the middle areas of Guancun underground river system. The study of isotherm adsorption indicated adsorption quantity of NH4+ increase followed by incremental balance concentration of NH4+ in the aquatic phase. Adsorption quantity of ammonia nitrogen in sediments has a relative linear relationship with adsorption balance concentrations. Adsorption-desorption balance concentrations were all low, indicating sediments from underground rivers have great adsorption potential. Under the condition of low and high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen in overlying water, Langmuir and Tempkin couldn't simulate or simulate results couldn't reach remarkable level, whilst Linear and Freundlich models could simulate well. Research on different type sediments, sampling times and depths from two underground rivers shows characteristic of ammonia nitrogen adsorption on karst underground river sediments doesn't have good correspondence with the type of sediments. One of the reasons is there is no big difference between sediments in the development of climate, geology, hydrological conditions

  8. Determination of propofol glucuronide from hair sample by using mixed mode anion exchange cartridge and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Hye Kyung; Choe, Sanggil; In, Sangwhan; Pyo, Jae Sung

    2016-03-15

    The main objective of this study was to develop and validate a simpler and less time consuming analytical method for determination of propofol glucuronide from hair sample, by using mixed mode anion exchange cartridge and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The study uses propofol glucuronide, a major metabolite of propofol, as a marker for propofol abuse. The hair sample was digested in sodium hydroxide solution and loaded in mixed-mode anion cartridge for solid phase extraction. Water and ethyl acetate were used as washing solvents to remove interfering substances from the hair sample. Consequently, 2% formic acid in ethyl acetate was employed to elute propofol glucuronide from the sorbent of mixed-mode anion cartridge, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The method validation parameters such as selectivity, specificity, LOD, LLOQ, accuracy, precision, recovery, and matrix effect were also tested. The linearity of calibration curves showed good correlation, with correlation coefficient 0.998. The LOD and LLOQ of the propofol glucuronide were 0.2 pg/mg and 0.5 pg/mg, respectively. The intra and inter-day precision and accuracy were acceptable within 15%. The mean values of recovery and matrix effect were in the range of 91.7-98.7% and 87.5-90.3%, respectively, signifying that the sample preparation, washing and extraction procedure were efficient, and there was low significant hair matrix effect for the extraction of propofol glucuronide from hair sample on the mixed mode anion cartridge. To evaluate the suitability of method, the hair of propofol administered rat was successfully analyzed with this method. PMID:26946424

  9. Colloidal semiconductors in systems for the sacrificial photolysis of water: sensitization of TiO/sub 2/ by adsorption of ruthenium complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Furlong, D.N.; Wells, D.; Sasse, W.H.F.

    1986-03-13

    Adsorbed tris(2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)ruthenium(II) molecules (Ru/sup II/(acid)/sub 3/) sensitize the production of H/sub 2/ that occurs when Pt/TiO/sub 2/ dispersions are illuminated with visible light in the presence of EDTA as sacrificial electron donor. Ru/sup II/(acid)/sub 3/ adsorbs on TiO/sub 2/ at pH values below the isoelectric point of the TiO/sub 2/ (6.1) in response to electrostatic attraction between its dissociated species and positively charged TiO/sub 2/ particles. In contrast to band-gap systems, sensitized systems are not regenerated by readjustment of pH and addition of electron donor. Clearly, sensitization requires adsorption of sensitizer in the first adsorbed layer in addition to favorable redox potentials for electron injection from sensitizer into the conduction band of the TiO/sub 2/ particles. Multilayers of sensitizer do not assist electron injection but instead reduce the amount of light available to the first adsorbed layer. 50 references, 8 figures, 4 tables.

  10. A patterned abrasion caused by the impact of a cartridge case may simulate an atypical muzzle imprint mark.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Lena; Nadjem, Hadi; Glardon, Matthieu; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Pollak, Stefan; Große Perdekamp, Markus; Pircher, Rebecca

    2016-05-01

    In contact shots, the muzzle imprint is an informative finding associated with the entrance wound. It typically mirrors the constructional components being in line with the muzzle or just behind. Under special conditions, other patterned skin marks located near a gunshot entrance wound may give the impression to be part of the muzzle imprint. A potential mechanism causing a patterned pressure abrasion in close proximity to the bullet entrance site is demonstrated on the basis of a suicidal shot to the temple. The skin lesion in question appeared as a ring-shaped excoriation with a diameter corresponding to that of the cartridge case. Two hypotheses concerning the causative mechanism were investigated by test shots: - After being ejected, the cartridge case ricocheted inside a confined space (car cabin in the particular case) and secondarily hit the skin near the gunshot entrance wound. - The ejection of the cartridge case failed so that the case became stuck in the ejection port and its mouth contacted the skin when the body collapsed after being hit. PMID:26496804

  11. Goddard Space Flight Center specification for Helical-Scan 8-millimeter (mm) magnetic digital data tape cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jimmy L.

    1992-01-01

    The same kind of standard and controls are established that are currently in use for the procurement of new analog, digital, and IBM/IBM compatible 3480 tape cartridges, and 1 in wide channel video magnetic tapes. The Magnetic Tape Certification Facility (MTCF) maintains a Qualified Products List (QPL) for the procurement of new magnetic media and uses the following specifications for the QPL and Acceptance Tests: (1) NASA TM-79724 is used for the QPL and Acceptance Testing of new analog magnetic tapes; (2) NASA TM-80599 is used for the QPL and Acceptance Testing of new digital magnetic tapes; (3) NASA TM-100702 is used for the QPL and Acceptance Testing of new IBM/IBM compatible 3840 magnetic tape cartridges; and (4) NASA TM-100712 is used for the QPL and Acceptance Testing of new 1 in wide channel video magnetic tapes. This document will be used for the QPL and Acceptance Testing of new Helical Scan 8 mm digital data tape cartridges.

  12. Agreement for HPV genotyping detection between self-collected specimens on a FTA cartridge and clinician-collected specimens

    PubMed Central

    Guan, YaoYao; Gravitt, Patti E.; Howard, Roslyn; Eby, Yolanda J.; Wang, Shaoming; Li, Belinda; Feng, Changyan; Qiao, You-Lin; Castle, Philip E.

    2016-01-01

    The current method of transporting self-collected cervicovaginal specimen for HPV DNA testing relies on liquid based medium, which is challenging and expensive to transport. A novel, dry storage and transportation device, Whatman indicating FTA™ Elute Cartridge, avoids some of the pitfalls of liquid-based medium. This method has been shown to be comparable to liquid-based collection medium, but relative performance of self-collected (SC) and clinician-collected (CC) samples onto FTA cards has not been reported. The objective of this study is to compare the analytic performance of self- and clinician-collected samples onto FTA cartridges for the detection of carcinogenic HPV using Linear Array. There was a 91% agreement, 69% positive agreement, and kappa of 0.75 between the clinician-collected and self-collected specimens for detection of any carcinogenic HPV genotype. When the HPV results were categorized hierarchically according to cervical cancer risk, there was no difference in the distribution of the HPV results for the clinician- and self-collected specimens (p = 0.7). This study concludes that FTA elute cartridge is a promising method of specimen transport for cervical cancer screening programs considering using self-collected specimen and HPV testing. Larger studies with clinical endpoints are now needed to assess the clinical performance. PMID:23370404

  13. Characterization of Plasma Gun with TiH2/C60 Cartridge for Disruption Mitigation in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogatu, I. N.; Thompson, J. R.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.; HyperV Technologies Corp. Team

    2011-10-01

    Impurity injection for disruption mitigation in tokamaks must be faster than growth time of plasma instabilities, requires sufficient mass to get critical electron density, high penetrability, and large assimilation fraction in the core plasma, with rapid impurity redistribution over the whole plasma. FAR-TECH, Inc. proposed the innovative idea to use hyper-velocity (>30 km/s), high-density (>1023 m-3) C60/C plasma jets with high ram pressure to deliver the impurity mass in <1 ms. For this purpose C60 powder explosively sublimated into molecular gas, from a solid state, pulsed power driven TiH2/C60 injector cartridge is ionized and accelerated in a plasma accelerator. We report the complete characterization of the TiH2/C60 cartridge with 5 kJ capacitive driver which demonstrated the capability of producing >30 mg of C60 gas in <0.5 ms. In addition we present the construction and testing status of a 100 kJ coaxial plasma gun (~35 cm length) prototype with TiH2/C60 cartridge for a small scale, proof-of-principle experiment on a tokamak. Work supported by the US DOE DE-FG02-08ER85196 grant.

  14. Study of the Behaviors of Gunshot Residues from Spent Cartridges by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatographic Techniques.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kah Haw; Yew, Chong Hooi; Abdullah, Ahmad Fahmi Lim

    2015-07-01

    Gunshot residues, produced after shooting activity, have acquired their importance in analysis due to the notoriety of firearms-related crimes. In this study, solid-phase microextraction was performed to extract the headspace composition of spent cartridges using 85-μm polyacrylate fiber at 66°C for 21 min. Organic compounds, that is, naphthalene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, diphenylamine, and dibutyl phthalate were detected and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection technique. Evaluation of chromatograms for diphenylamine, dibutyl phthalate, and naphthalene indicates the period after a gunshot was discharged, whether it was 1 days, 2-4 days, <5 days, 10 days, 20 days, or more than 30 days ago. This study revealed the potential effects of environmental factors such as occasional wind blow and direct sunlight on the estimation of time after spent cartridges were discharged. In conclusion, we proposed reliable alternative in analyzing the headspace composition of spent cartridges in a simulated crime scene. PMID:25771708

  15. Optimum conditions for adsorptive storage.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Suresh K; Myers, Alan L

    2006-02-14

    The storage of gases in porous adsorbents, such as activated carbon and carbon nanotubes, is examined here thermodynamically from a systems viewpoint, considering the entire adsorption-desorption cycle. The results provide concrete objective criteria to guide the search for the "Holy Grail" adsorbent, for which the adsorptive delivery is maximized. It is shown that, for ambient temperature storage of hydrogen and delivery between 30 and 1.5 bar pressure, for the optimum adsorbent the adsorption enthalpy change is 15.1 kJ/mol. For carbons, for which the average enthalpy change is typically 5.8 kJ/mol, an optimum operating temperature of about 115 K is predicted. For methane, an optimum enthalpy change of 18.8 kJ/mol is found, with the optimum temperature for carbons being 254 K. It is also demonstrated that for maximum delivery of the gas the optimum adsorbent must be homogeneous, and that introduction of heterogeneity, such as by ball milling, irradiation, and other means, can only provide small increases in physisorption-related delivery for hydrogen. For methane, heterogeneity is always detrimental, at any value of average adsorption enthalpy change. These results are confirmed with the help of experimental data from the literature, as well as extensive Monte Carlo simulations conducted here using slit pore models of activated carbons as well as atomistic models of carbon nanotubes. The simulations also demonstrate that carbon nanotubes offer little or no advantage over activated carbons in terms of enhanced delivery, when used as storage media for either hydrogen or methane. PMID:16460092

  16. CRYOGENIC ADSORPTION OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES OVER NANO-STRUCTURED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, S.; Heung, L.

    2010-10-07

    Porous materials such as zeolites, activated carbon, silica gels, alumina and a number of industrial catalysts are compared and ranked for hydrogen and deuterium adsorption at liquid nitrogen temperature. All samples show higher D{sub 2} adsorption than that of H{sub 2}, in which a HY sample has the greatest isotopic effect while 13X has the highest hydrogen uptake capacity. Material's moisture content has significant impact to its hydrogen uptake. A material without adequate drying could result in complete loss of its adsorption capacity. Even though some materials present higher H{sub 2} adsorption capacity at full pressure, their adsorption at low vapor pressure may not be as good as others. Adsorption capacity in a dynamic system is much less than in a static system. A sharp desorption is also expected in case of temperature upset.

  17. Adsorption properties of the nanozirconia/anionic polyacrylamide system-Effects of surfactant presence, solution pH and polymer carboxyl groups content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiśniewska, Małgorzata; Chibowski, Stanisław; Urban, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    The adsorption mechanism of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) on the nanozirconia surface was examined. The effects of solution pH, carboxyl groups content in macromolecules and anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate-SDS) addition were determined. The more probable structure of polymer adsorption layer was characterized based on the data obtained from spectrophotometry, viscosimetry and potentiometric titration methods. The adsorbed amount of polymer, size of macromolecules in the solution and surface charge density of ZrO2 particles in the absence and presence of PAM were assessed, respectively. Analysis of these results indicated that the increase of solution pH and content of carboxyl groups in the polymeric chains lead to more expanded conformations of adsorbing macromolecules. As a result, the adsorption of anionic polyacrylamide decreased. The SDS presence caused the significant increase of PAM adsorbed amount at pH 3, whereas at pH 6 and 9 the surfactant addition resulted in reduction of polymer adsorption level.

  18. Impact of carbon nanotube morphology on phenanthrene adsorption.

    PubMed

    Apul, Onur Guven; Shao, Ting; Zhang, Shujuan; Karanfil, Tanju

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the roles of the specific surface area (SSA), diameter, and length of carbon nanotubes (CNT) on the adsorption of phenanthrene (PNT) by analyzing the adsorption isotherms obtained with several single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT). At low equilibrium concentrations (e.g., 1 ppb), MWNTs with larger outer diameters exhibited higher PNT adsorption capacity on an SSA basis than those with smaller diameters. With increasing equilibrium concentration, adsorption on an SSA basis became independent of MWNT diameter, and the total surface area controlled maximum adsorption capacity. A similar analysis for the adsorption of naphthalene, a planar molecule with one less benzene ring but 20 times higher solubility than PNT, showed no correlation with respect to MWNT outer diameter. The results indicated that the surface curvature of MWNT was more important on the adsorption of PNT than on the adsorption of naphthalene. Specific surface area normalized isotherms did not show a correlation between PNT adsorption and lengths of SWNTs and MWNTs. Characterization results indicated that the morphology of CNTs plays an important role on the SSA and pore volume. Data from the manufacturer may not always represent the characteristics of CNTs in a particular batch. Therefore, accurate characterization of CNTs is critical to systematically examine the behavior of CNTs, such as adsorption and transport, in environmental systems. PMID:22002628

  19. Long-Duration Testing of a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Carbon Dioxide for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Micha; Mulloth, Lila; Varghese, Mini

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the results of long-duration testing of a temperature-swing adsorption compressor that has application in the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft for closing the air revitalization loop. The air revitalization system of the ISS operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from Earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby closing the air-loop. The TSAC is a solid-state compressor that has the capability to remove CO2 from a low-pressure source, and subsequently store, compress, and deliver at a higher pressure as required by a processor. The TSAC is an ideal interface device for CO2 removal and reduction units in the air revitalization loop of a spacecraft for oxygen recovery. The TSAC was developed and its operation was successfully verified in integration tests with the flight-like Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) at Marshall Space Flight Center prior to the long-duration tests. Long-duration tests reveal the impacts of repeated thermal cycling on the compressor components and the adsorbent material.

  20. Adsorption of aniline and toluidines on montmorillonite

    SciTech Connect

    Essington, M.E. )

    1994-09-01

    Bentonite clay liners are commonly employed to mitigate the movement of contaminants from waste disposal sites. In order to assess the ability of clay liner material to restrict the mobility of amine compounds under a variety of chemical conditions and to further elucidate amine adsorption characteristics, the adsorption of aniline and o-, m-, and p-toluidine on Ca[sup 2+]- and K[sup +]-saturated Wyoming bentonite (SWy-1) was investigated. Adsorption experiments were performed under conditions of varied pH and ionic environment. Amine adsorption on montmorillonite is pH dependent. Maximum amine adsorption occurs when solution pH is approximately equal to the pK[sub a] of the anilinium ion deprotonation reaction (pH 4.45-5.08). An amine adsorption envelope results from the combined influence of increasing anilinium ion and anilinium-aniline complex formation (as pH decreases to the pK[sub a]) and amine competition with H[sup +] for surface sites, decreasing anilinium-aniline complex concentration, and decreasing aniline available for water bridging with exchangeable Ca[sup 2+] and K[sup +] (as solution pH decreases below the pK[sub a]). For any given amine, maximum adsorption increases with decreasing ionic strength. Maximum amine adsorption is greater in the Ca[sup 2+] systems than in the K[sup +] systems at equivalent cation charge and reflects the formation of an amine water bridge with the exchangeable Ca[sup 2+]. Amine adsorption is also greater in chloride systems compared with sulfate systems at comparable cation concentrations, possibly due to the formation of aqueous anilinium-sulfate complexes. The amine compounds are retained mainly by bentonite through a cation exchange process, the capacity of the clay to adsorb the amine compounds being a significant percentage of the exchange capacity at the pK[sub a]. However, amine retention decreases with increasing pH and is minimal at solution pH values greater than 7. 19 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Moisture adsorption in optical coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macleod, H. Angus

    1988-01-01

    The thin film filter is a very large aperture component which is exceedingly useful because of its small size, flexibility and ease of mounting. Thin film components, however, do have defects of performance and especially of stability which can cause problems in systems, particularly where long-term measurements are being made. Of all of the problems, those associated with moisture absorption are the most serious. Moisture absorption occurs in the pore-shaped voids inherent in the columnar structure of the layers. Ion-assisted deposition is a promising technique for substantially reducing moisture adsorption effects in thin film structures.

  2. Influence of Ca2+ on tetracycline adsorption on montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Parolo, M Eugenia; Avena, Marcelo J; Pettinari, Gisela R; Baschini, Miria T

    2012-02-15

    The adsorption of tetracycline (TC) on montmorillonite was studied as a function of pH and Ca(2+) concentration using a batch technique complemented with X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. In the absence of Ca(2+), TC adsorption was high at low pH and decreased as the pH increased. In the presence of Ca(2+), at least two different adsorption processes took place in the studied systems, i.e., cation exchange and Ca-bridging. Cation exchange was the prevailing process at pH<5, and thus, TC adsorption decreased by increasing total Ca(2+) concentration. On the contrary, Ca-bridging was the prevailing process at pH>5, and thus, TC adsorption increased by increasing Ca(2+) concentration. The pH 5 represents an isoadsorption pH where both adsorption processes compensate each other. TC adsorption became independent of Ca(2+) concentration at this pH. For TC adsorption on Ca(2+)-montmorillonite in 0.01 M NaCl experiments, the ratio adsorbed TC/retained Ca(2+) was close to 1 in the pH range of 5-9, indicating an important participation of Ca(2+) in the binding of TC to montmorillonite. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that TC adsorption induced intercalation between montmorillonite layers forming a multiphase system with stacking of layers with and without intercalated TC. PMID:22189389

  3. Application of a bacterial extracellular polymeric substance in heavy metal adsorption in a co-contaminated aqueous system

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Martins, Paula Salles; de Almeida, Narcisa Furtado; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    The application of a bacterial extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) in the bioremediation of heavy metals (Cd, Zn and Cu) by a microbial consortium in a hydrocarbon co-contaminated aqueous system was studied. At the low concentrations used in this work (1.00 ppm of each metal), it was not observed an inhibitory effect on the cellular growing. In the other hand, the application of the EPS lead to a lower concentration of the free heavy metals in solution, once a great part of them is adsorbed in the polymeric matrix (87.12% of Cd; 19.82% of Zn; and 37.64% of Cu), when compared to what is adsorbed or internalized by biomass (5.35% of Cd; 47.35% of Zn; and 24.93% of Cu). It was noted an increase of 24% in the consumption of ethylbenzene, among the gasoline components that were quantified, in the small interval of time evaluated (30 hours). Our results suggest that, if the experiments were conducted in a larger interval of time, it would possibly be noted a higher effect in the degradation of gasoline compounds. Still, considering the low concentrations that were evaluated, it is possible that a real system could be bioremediated by natural attenuation process, demonstrated by the low effect of those levels of contaminants and co-contaminants over the naturally present microbial consortium. PMID:24031307

  4. Comparison of adsorption behavior of PCDD/Fs on carbon nanotubes and activated carbons in a bench-scale dioxin generating system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xujian; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Shuaixi; Zhao, Xiyuan; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2015-07-01

    Porous carbon-based materials are commonly used to remove various organic and inorganic pollutants from gaseous and liquid effluents and products. In this study, the adsorption of dioxins on both activated carbons and multi-walled carbon nanotube was internally compared, via series of bench scale experiments. A laboratory-scale dioxin generator was applied to generate PCDD/Fs with constant concentration (8.3 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3)). The results confirm that high-chlorinated congeners are more easily adsorbed on both activated carbons and carbon nanotubes than low-chlorinated congeners. Carbon nanotubes also achieved higher adsorption efficiency than activated carbons even though they have smaller BET-surface. Carbon nanotubes reached the total removal efficiency over 86.8 % to be compared with removal efficiencies of only 70.0 and 54.2 % for the two other activated carbons tested. In addition, because of different adsorption mechanisms, the removal efficiencies of carbon nanotubes dropped more slowly with time than was the case for activated carbons. It could be attributed to the abundant mesopores distributed in the surface of carbon nanotubes. They enhanced the pore filled process of dioxin molecules during adsorption. In addition, strong interactions between the two benzene rings of dioxin molecules and the hexagonal arrays of carbon atoms in the surface make carbon nanotubes have bigger adsorption capacity. PMID:25728198

  5. Temperature and magnetism bi-responsive molecularly imprinted polymers: Preparation, adsorption mechanism and properties as drug delivery system for sustained release of 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Li, Longfei; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Huan; Yang, Yongzhen; Liu, Xuguang; Chen, Yongkang

    2016-04-01

    Temperature and magnetism bi-responsive molecularly imprinted polymers (TMMIPs) based on Fe3O4-encapsulating carbon nanospheres were prepared by free radical polymerization, and applied to selective adsorption and controlled release of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) from an aqueous solution. Characterization results show that the as-synthesized TMMIPs have an average diameter of about 150 nm with a typical core-shell structure, and the thickness of the coating layer is approximately 50 nm. TMMIPs also displayed obvious magnetic properties and thermo-sensitivity. The adsorption results show that the prepared TMMIPs exhibit good adsorption capacity (up to 96.53 mg/g at 25 °C) and recognition towards 5-FU. The studies on 5-FU loading and release in vitro suggest that the release rate increases with increasing temperature. Meanwhile, adsorption mechanisms were explored by using a computational analysis to simulate the imprinted site towards 5-FU. The interaction energy between the imprinted site and 5-FU is -112.24 kJ/mol, originating from a hydrogen bond, Van der Waals forces and a hydrophobic interaction between functional groups located on 5-FU and a NIPAM monomer. The electrostatic potential charges and population analysis results suggest that the imprinted site of 5-FU can be introduced on the surface of TMMIPs, confirming their selective adsorption behavior for 5-FU. PMID:26838836

  6. Poliovirus Adsorption by 34 Minerals and Soils

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Rebecca S.; Taylor, Dene H.; Sturman, Lawrence S.; Reddy, Michael M.; Fuhs, G. Wolfgang

    1981-01-01

    The adsorption of radiolabeled infectious poliovirus type 2 by 34 well-defined soils and mineral substrates was analyzed in a synthetic freshwater medium containing 1 mM CaCl2 and 1.25 mM NaHCO3 at pH 7. In a model system, adsorption of poliovirus by Ottawa sand was rapid and reached equilibrium within 1 h at 4°C. Near saturation, the adsorption could be described by the Langmuir equation; the apparent surface saturation was 2.5 × 106 plaque-forming units of poliovirus per mg of Ottawa sand. At low surface coverage, adsorption was described by the Freundlich equation. The soils and minerals used ranged from acidic to basic and from high in organic content to organic free. The available negative surface charge on each substrate was measured by the adsorption of a cationic polyelectrolyte, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride. Most of the substrates adsorbed more than 95% of the virus. In general, soils, in comparison with minerals, were weak adsorbents. Among the soils, muck and Genesee silt loam were the poorest adsorbents; among the minerals, montmorillonite, glauconite, and bituminous shale were the least effective. The most effective adsorbents were magnetite sand and hematite, which are predominantly oxides of iron. Correlation coefficients for substrate properties and virus adsorption revealed that the elemental composition of the adsorbents had little effect on poliovirus uptake. Substrate surface area and pH, by themselves, were not significantly correlated with poliovirus uptake. A strong negative correlation was found between poliovirus adsorption and both the contents of organic matter and the available negative surface charge on the substrates as determined by their capacities for adsorbing the cationic polyelectrolyte, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride. PMID:6274259

  7. Constraints on the utility of MnO2 cartridge method for the extraction of radionuclides: A case study using 234Th

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baskaran, M.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Biddanda, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    [1] Large volume (102-103 L) seawater samples are routinely processed to investigate the partitioning of particle reactive radionuclides and Ra between solution and size-fractionated suspended particulate matter. One of the most frequently used methods to preconcentrate these nuclides from such large volumes involves extraction onto three filter cartridges (a prefilter for particulate species and two MnO2-coated filters for dissolved species) connected in series. This method assumes that the extraction efficiency is uniform for both MnO2-coated cartridges, that no dissolved species are removed by the prefilter, and that any adsorbed radionuclides are not desorbed from the MnO2-coated cartridges during filtration. In this study, we utilized 234Th-spiked coastal seawater and deionized water to address the removal of dissolved Th onto prefilters and MnO2-coated filter cartridges. Experimental results provide the first data that indicate (1) a small fraction of dissolved Th (<6%) can be removed by the prefilter cartridge; (2) a small fraction of dissolved Th (<5%) retained by the MnO2 surface can also be desorbed, which undermines the assumption of uniform extraction efficiency for Th; and (3) the absolute and relative extraction efficiencies can vary widely. These experiments provide insight on the variability of the extraction efficiency of MnO 2-coated filter cartridges by comparing the relative and absolute efficiencies and recommend the use of a constant efficiency on the combined activity from two filter cartridges connected in series for future studies of dissolved 234Th and other radionuclides in natural waters using sequential filtration/extraction methods. ?? 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: DELTA INDUSTRIAL SERVICES, INC., CAMPWATER PORTA-5 SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CampWater system uses ozonation followed by cartridge filtration to remove arsenic via co-precipitation. The system utilizes ozone to oxidize iron and arsenic (III) to arsenic (V). The arsenic bound to the iron precipitates is then removed by cartridge filtration. No additi...

  9. Influence of adsorption versus coprecipitation on the retention of rice straw-derived dissolved organic carbon and subsequent reducibility of Fe-DOC systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodano, Marcella; Lerda, Cristina; Martin, Maria; Celi, Luisella; Said-Pullicino, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    adsorption or coprecipitation, DOC was obtained by incubating a suspension of rice straw in water (straw-solution ratio of 1:30) under oxic conditions at 25° C for 30 days to simulate the decomposition of rice straw in the field. Increasing amounts of DOC were equilibrated (pH = 6) with a known mass of ferrihydrite (initial molar C:Fe ratios of 1, 5 and 10) to obtain surface coated Fe-DOC systems with increasing C loading. On the other hand, coprecipitates with similar initial C:Fe ratios were obtained by oxidation of a Fe(II) solution in the presence of increasing amounts of DOC at pH = 6. A natural Fe-DOC coprecipitate was also obtained by in situ sampling of a paddy soil solution from the topsoil during a cropping season, and subsequent oxidation in the laboratory. The surface and chemical properties of all substrates were subsequently evaluated and compared. We hereby present the first results of the influence of adsorption vs coprecipitation on the selective retention of DOC, structure and surface charge, as well as their susceptibility to chemical reduction with ascorbic acid.

  10. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  11. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  12. Kinetic studies of the sucrose adsorption onto an alumina interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kaman; Mohan, Sudhanshu

    2004-01-01

    An account is given of an experimental kinetic study of adsorption of analar reagent sucrose (ARS) onto an alumina interface spectrometrically ( λmax=570 nm) at pH 8.0 and at room temperature. The adsorption isotherm is a typical Langmuirian isotherm (S-type) and adsorption parameters have been deduced according to the Langmuir's model. The adsorption coefficient evaluated from the Langmuir's equation was found to be 2.52×10 2 l mol -1. Adsorption mechanism has been interpreted on the basis of metal-saccharide interaction as found in organometallic compounds and interaction due to negatively charged ends on the disaccharide molecules and positively charge groups on the surface on alumina which depends on the pH value. The effects of variation in experimental conditions of the adsorption system have also been investigated. The adsorption exhibited a typical response to the pH effect and on going towards the PZC the net charge decreases and any reaction making dependence on charge and maximum adsorption (amount) was found near the isoelectric point of alumina (pH 9.0). The presence of ions like Cl -, SO 42- and PO 43- affect the adsorbed amount quantitatively and it seems that these anions compete with sucrose for the positively charged surface sites. The addition of similar concentration of cations was found to reduce the adsorbed amount. The temperature was found to have an inverse effect on adsorption. The additions of catonic and anionic detergents influence both the adsorbed amount and the adsorption rate. The thermodynamics of the titled adsorption model indicates the spontaneous and exothermic nature. The negative value of entropy is an indication of probability of favorable and complex nature of the adsorption.

  13. CSER 95-014: Criticality storage category for K Basin spent cartridge filters in ECOROK casks at central waste complex

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.M.

    1996-01-03

    This CSER justifies storing K Basin spent cartridge filters in ECOROK 25-11 casks with liners under the limits in an existing criticality prevention specification, CPS-SW-149-00002, Rev./Mod. B-1, because the worst case fissionable material inventory is less then 1/2 the CPS limit and the cask is larger than allowed containers, the cask and liner have adequate iron content to meet the CPS requirements, and the cask concrete walls are thick enough to isolate the fissionable contents of each cask from neutron interaction with fissionable material external to each cask.

  14. Adsorption of gases on carbon molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, S.N.; Patwardhan, S.R.; Vijayalakshmi, S. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Ganesh, K.S. )

    1994-12-01

    Adsorption on carbon molecular sieves (CMS) prepared by coke deposition has become an interesting area of adsorption due to its microporous nature and favorable separation factor on size and shape selectivity basis for many gaseous systems. In the present work CMS was synthesized from coconut shell through three major steps, namely, carbonization, activation, and coke deposition by hydrocarbon cracking. The crushed, washed, and sieved granules of coconut shell (particle size 2--3 mm) were pretreated with sodium silicate solution and oven-dried at 150 C to create the inorganic sites necessary for coke deposition. Carbonization and activation of the dried granules were carried out at 800 C, for 30 min each. The activated char thus produced was subjected to hydrocarbon cracking at 600 C for periods varying from 30 to 180 min. The product samples were characterized in terms of adsorption isotherm, kinetic adsorption curve, surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and characteristic energy for adsorption by using O[sub 2], N[sub 2], C[sub 2]H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], C[sub 3]H[sub 6], and CH[sub 4].

  15. Adsorption of phenanthrene on natural snow.

    PubMed

    Domine, Florent; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Bonnaud, Elodie; Martellini, Tania; Picaud, Sylvain

    2007-09-01

    The snowpack is a reservoir for semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and, in particular, for persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which are sequestered in winter and released to the atmosphere or hydrosphere in the spring. Modeling these processes usually assumes that SVOCs are incorporated into the snowpack by adsorption to snow surfaces, but this has never been proven because the specific surface area (SSA) of snow has never been measured together with snow composition. Here we expose natural snow to phenanthrene vapors (one of the more volatile POPs) and measure for the first time both the SSA and the chemical composition of the snow. The results are consistent with an adsorption equilibrium. The measured Henry's law constant is H(Phen)(T) = 2.88 x 10(22) exp(-10660/7) Pa m2 mol(-1), with Tin Kelvin. The adsorption enthalpy is delta H(ads) = -89 +/- 18 kJ mol(-1). We also perform molecular dynamics calculations of phenanthrene adsorption to ice and obtain AHads = -85 +/- 8 kJ mol(-1), close to the experimental value. Results are applied to the adsorption of phenanthrene to the Arctic and subarctic snowpacks. The subarctic snowpack, with a low snow area index (SAI = 1000), is a negligible reservoir of phenanthrene, butthe colder Arctic snowpack, with SAI = 2500, sequesters most of the phenanthrene present in the (snow + boundary layer) system. PMID:17937278

  16. Final Report - Development of New Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) Technology to Recover High Valued Products from Chemical Plant and Refinery Waste Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Ludwig

    2004-06-14

    Project Objective was to extend pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technology into previously under-exploited applications such as polyolefin production vent gas recovery and H2 recovery from refinery waste gases containing significant amounts of heavy hydrocarbons, aromatics, or H2S.

  17. Fundamentals of high pressure adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y.P.; Zhou, L.

    2009-12-15

    High-pressure adsorption attracts research interests following the world's attention to alternative fuels, and it exerts essential effect on the study of hydrogen/methane storage and the development of novel materials addressing to the storage. However, theoretical puzzles in high-pressure adsorption hindered the progress of application studies. Therefore, the present paper addresses the major theoretical problems that challenged researchers: i.e., how to model the isotherms with maximum observed in high-pressure adsorption; what is the adsorption mechanism at high pressures; how do we determine the quantity of absolute adsorption based on experimental data. Ideology and methods to tackle these problems are elucidated, which lead to new insights into the nature of high-pressure adsorption and progress in application studies, for example, in modeling multicomponent adsorption, hydrogen storage, natural gas storage, and coalbed methane enrichment, was achieved.

  18. Ammonia Production Using Pressure Swing Adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose overall objective is to develop and demonstrate a technically feasible and commercially viable system that integrates reaction to produce ammonia along with recovery of the products by adsorption separation methods and significantly decrease the energy requirement in ammonia production.

  19. Optimization of the bake-on siliconization of cartridges. Part II: Investigations into burn-in time and temperature.

    PubMed

    Funke, Stefanie; Matilainen, Julia; Nalenz, Heiko; Bechtold-Peters, Karoline; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Vetter, Florian; Müller, Christoph; Bracher, Franz; Friess, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    Combination products have become popular formats for the delivery of parenteral medications. Bake-on siliconization of glass syringes or cartridges allows good piston break-loose and gliding during injection at low silicone levels. Although widely implemented in industry, still little is known and published on the effect of the bake-on process on the silicone level, layer thickness and chemical composition. In this study, cartridges were bake-on siliconized in a heat-tunnel by varying both temperature from 200 to 350°C for 12min and time from 5min to 3h at 316°C. Furthermore, a heat-oven with air-exchange was established as an experimental model. Heat treatment led to a time- and temperature-dependent decrease in the silicone level and layer thickness. After 1h at 316°C lubrication was insufficient. The silicone levels substantially decreased between 250 and 316°C after 12min. After bake-on, the peak molecular weight of the silicone remained unchanged while fractions below 5000g/mol were removed at 316 and 350°C. Cyclic low molecular weight siloxanes below 500g/mol were volatilized under all conditions. Despite most of the baked-on silicone was solvent-extractable, contact angle analysis indicated a strong binding of a remaining, thin silicone film to the glass surface. PMID:27328279

  20. Thermal enhancement cartridge heater modified tritium hydride bed development, Part 2 - Experimental validation of key conceptual design features

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, K.J.; Morgan, G.A.

    2015-03-15

    The Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) tritium hydride bed is an interim replacement for the first generation (Gen1) process hydride beds currently in service in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facilities. 3 new features are implemented in the TECH Mod hydride bed prototype: internal electric cartridge heaters, porous divider plates, and copper foam discs. These modifications will enhance bed performance and reduce costs by improving bed activation and installation processes, in-bed accountability measurements, end-of-life bed removal, and He-3 recovery. A full-scale hydride bed test station was constructed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in order to evaluate the performance of the prototype TECH Mod hydride bed. Controlled hydrogen (H{sub 2}) absorption/ desorption experiments were conducted to validate that the conceptual design changes have no adverse effects on the gas transfer kinetics or H{sub 2} storage/release properties compared to those of the Gen1 bed. Inert gas expansions before, during, and after H{sub 2} flow tests were used to monitor changes in gas transfer rates with repeated hydriding/de-hydriding of the hydride material. The gas flow rates significantly decreased after initial hydriding of the material; however, minimal changes were observed after repeated cycling. The data presented herein confirm that the TECH Mod hydride bed would be a suitable replacement for the Gen1 bed with the added enhancements expected from the advanced design features. (authors)

  1. Combining selection valve and mixing chamber for nanoflow gradient generation: Toward developing a liquid chromatography cartridge coupled with mass spectrometer for protein and peptide analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Apeng; Lu, Joann J; Gu, Congying; Zhang, Min; Lynch, Kyle B; Liu, Shaorong

    2015-08-01

    Toward developing a micro HPLC cartridge, we have recently built a high-pressure electroosmotic pump (EOP). However, we do not recommend people to use this pump to deliver an organic solvent directly, because it often makes the pump rate unstable. We have experimented several approaches to address this issue, but none of them are satisfactory. Here, we develop an innovative approach to address this issue. We first create an abruption (a dead-volume) within a fluid conduit. We then utilize an EOP to withdraw, via a selection valve, a train of eluent solutions having decreasing eluting power into the fluid conduit. When these solutions are further aspirated through the dead-volume, these solutions are partially mixed, smoothening concentration transitions between two adjacent eluent solutions. As these solutions are pushed back, through the dead-volume again, a smooth gradient profile is formed. In this work, we characterize this scheme for gradient formation, and we incorporate this approach with a high-pressure EOP, a nanoliter injection valve, and a capillary column, yielding a micro HPLC system. We then couple this micro HPLC with an electrospray ionization - mass spectrometer for peptide and protein separations and identifications. PMID:26320807

  2. Adsorption of Gases on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbaye, Mamadou Thiao

    This research focus in studying the interaction between various classical and quantum gases with novel carbon nanostructures, mainly carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Since their discovery by the Japanese physicist Sumio Iijima [1] carbon nanotubes have, experimentally and theoretically, been subjected to many scientific investigation. Studies of adsorption on CNTs are particularly directed toward their better usage in gas storage, gas separation, catalyst, drug delivery, and water purification. We explore the adsorption of different gases entrapped in a single, double, or multi-bundles of CNTs using computer simulations. The first system we investigate consists of Ar and Kr films adsorbed on zigzag or armchair nanotubes. Our simulations revealed that Kr atoms on intermediate size zigzag NTs undergo two phase transitions: A liquid-vapor (L→V), and liquid-commensurate (L→CS) with a fractional coverage of one Kr atoms adsorbed for every four carbon atoms. For Ar on zigzag and armchair NTs, the only transition observed is a L→V. In the second problem, we explore the adsorption of CO2 molecules in a nanotube bundle and calculate the isosteric heat of adsorption of the entrapped molecules within the groove. We observed that the lower the temperature, the higher the isosteric of adsorption. Last, we investigate the adsorption of hydrogen, Helium, and Neon gases on the groove site of two parallel nanotubes. At low temperature, the transverse motion on the plane perpendicular to the tubes' axis is frozen out and as a consequence, the heat capacity is reduced to 1/2. At high temperature, the atoms gain more degree of freedom and as a consequence the heat capacity is 5/2.

  3. Linear adsorption of nonionic organic compounds from water onto hydrophilic minerals: Silica and alumina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Su, Y.-H.; Zhu, Y.-G.; Sheng, G.; Chiou, C.T.

    2006-01-01

    To characterize the linear adsorption phenomena in aqueous nonionic organic solute-mineral systems, the adsorption isotherms of some low-molecular- weightnonpolar nonionic solutes (1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, lindane, phenanthrene, and pyrene) and polar nonionic solutes (1,3-dinitrobenzene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene) from single-and binary-solute solutions on hydrophilic silica and alumina were established. Toward this objective, the influences of temperature, ionic strength, and pH on adsorption were also determined. It is found that linear adsorption exhibits low exothermic heats and practically no adsorptive competition. The solute-solid configuration and the adsorptive force consistent with these effects were hypothesized. For nonpolar solutes, the adsorption occurs presumably by London (dispersion) forces onto a water film above the mineral surface. For polar solutes, the adsorption is also assisted by polar-group interactions. The reduced adsorptive forces of solutes with hydrophilic minerals due to physical separation by the water film and the low fractions of the water-film surface covered by solutes offer a theoretical basis for linear solute adsorption, low exothermic heats, and no adsorptive competition. The postulated adsorptive forces are supported by observations that ionic strength or pH poses no effect on the adsorption of nonpolar solutes while it exhibits a significant effect on the uptake of polar solutes. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  4. Adsorption of humic acids and trace metals in natural waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    Studies concerning the interactions between suspended hydrous iron oxide and dissolved humic acids and trace metals are reported. As a major component of dissolved organic matters and its readiness for adsorption at the solid/water interface, humic acids may play a very important role in the organometallic geochemistry of suspended sediments and in determining the fate and distribution of trace metals, pesticides and anions in natural water systems. Most of the solid phases in natural waters contain oxides and hydroxides. The most simple promising theory to describe the interactions of hydrous iron oxide interface is the surface complex formation model. In this model, the adsorptions of humic acids on hydrous iron oxide may be interpreted as complex formation of the organic bases (humic acid oxyanions) with surface Fe ions. Measurements on adsorptions were made in both fresh water and seawater. Attempts have been made to fit our data to Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Adsorption equilibrium constants were determined.

  5. Integrated immobilized cell reactor-adsorption system for beta-cyclodextrin production: a model study using PVA-cryogel entrapped Bacillus agaradhaerens cells.

    PubMed

    Martins, Rita F; Plieva, Fatima M; Santos, Ana; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2003-09-01

    Production of cyclodextrins (CDs) by immobilized cells of the alkaliphilic Bacillus agaradhaerens LS-3C with integrated product recovery was studied. The microorganism was entrapped in polyvinyl alcohol-cryogel beads and used as a convenient source of immobilized cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase). On activation by incubation in the cultivation medium containing 1% (w/v) starch, the entrapped cells multiplied and secreted CGTase with an activity of 2-3 mg beta-cyclodextrin h(-1) g(-1) beads. The immobilized biocatalyst exhibited maximum activity at pH 9 and 50 degrees C, and formed cyclodextrins comprising 92-94% beta-CD and remaining alpha-CD. The cyclodextrin product from the immobilized cell bioreactor was continuously recovered by adsorption to Amberlite XAD-4 in a recycle batch mode. The product adsorption was facilitated at low temperature while hot water was used for elution. PMID:14571979

  6. Effects of Humidity Swings on Adsorption Columns for Air Revitalization: Modeling and Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVan, M. Douglas; Finn, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Air purification systems are necessary to provide clean air in the closed environments aboard spacecraft. Trace contaminants are removed using adsorption. One major factor concerning the removal of trace contaminants is relative humidity. Water can reduce adsorption capacity and, due to constant fluctuations, its presence is difficult to incorporate into adsorption column designs. The purpose of the research was to allow for better design techniques in trace contaminant adsorption systems, especially for feeds with water present. Experiments and mathematical modeling research on effects of humidity swings on adsorption columns for air revitalization were carried out.

  7. Adsorption and desorption characteristics of arsenic onto ceria nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qinzhong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ma, Yuhui; He, Xiao; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2012-01-01

    The rapid increase in the use of engineered nanoparticles [ENPs] has resulted in an increasing concern over the potential impacts of ENPs on the environmental and human health. ENPs tend to adsorb a large variety of toxic chemicals when they are emitted into the environment, which may enhance the toxicity of ENPs and/or adsorbed chemicals. The study was aimed to investigate the adsorption and desorption behaviors of arsenic on ceria NPs in aqueous solution using batch technique. Results show that the adsorption behavior of arsenic on ceria NPs was strongly dependent on pH and independent of ionic strength, indicating that the electrostatic effect on the adsorption of these elements was relatively not important compared to surface chemical reactions. The adsorption isotherms fitted very well to both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The thermodynamic parameters (Δ H 0 , Δ S 0 , and Δ G 0 ) for the adsorption of arsenic were determined at three different temperatures of 283, 303, and 323 K. The adsorption reaction was endothermic, and the process of adsorption was favored at high temperature. The desorption data showed that desorption hysteresis occurred at the initial concentration studied. High adsorption capacity of arsenic on ceria NPs suggests that the synergistic effects of ceria NPs and arsenic on the environmental systems may exist when they are released into the environment.

  8. Mechanism of amitriptyline adsorption on Ca-montmorillonite (SAz-2).

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Hsiang; Jiang, Wei-Teh; Li, Zhaohui; Kuo, Chung-Yih; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Chen, Wan-Ru; Lv, Guocheng

    2014-07-30

    The uptake of amitriptyline (AMI) from aqueous environment by Ca-montmorillonite (SAz-2) was studied in a batch system under different physicochemical conditions. The adsorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses. The AMI adsorption on SAz-2 obeyed the Langmuir isotherm with a capacity of 330mg/g (1.05mmol/g) at pH 6-7. The adsorption kinetics was fast, almost reaching equilibrium in 2h, and followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Desorption of exchangeable cations correlated with the AMI adsorption well, indicating that cation exchange was the major mechanism. X-ray diffraction patterns showing significant expansions of the d001 spacing and characteristic FTIR band shifts toward higher frequencies after AMI adsorption onto SAz-2 indicated that the adsorbed AMI molecules were intercalated into the interlayers of the mineral. Thermodynamic parameters based on partitioning coefficients suggested that the AMI adsorption was an endothermic physisorption at high adsorption levels. At low and higher AMI adsorption levels, the intercalated AMI molecules take a horizontal monolayer and bilayer conformation, respectively. The higher adsorption capacity suggested that SAz-2 could be a good candidate to remove AMI from wastewater and would be an important environmental sink for the fate and transport of AMI in soils and groundwater. PMID:24373983

  9. Adsorption of oleic acid at sillimanite/water interface.

    PubMed

    Kumar, T V Vijaya; Prabhakar, S; Raju, G Bhaskar

    2002-03-15

    The interaction of oleic acid at sillimanite-water interface was studied by adsorption, FT-IR, and zeta potential measurements. The isoelectric point (IEP) of sillimanite obtained at pH 8.0 was found to shift in the presence of oleic acid. This shift in IEP was attributed to chemisorption of oleic acid on sillimanite. Adsorption experiments were conducted at pH 8.0, where the sillimanite surface is neutral. The adsorption isotherm exhibited a plateau around 5 micromol/m2 that correspond to a monolayer formation. Adsorption of oleic acid on sillimanite, alumina, and aluminum hydroxide was studied by FT-IR. Chemisorption of oleic acid on the above substrates was confirmed by FT-IR studies. Hydroxylation of mineral surface was found to be essential for the adsorption of oleic acid molecules. These surface hydroxyl sites were observed to facilitate deprotonation of oleic acid and its subsequent adsorption. Thus protons from oleic acid react with surface hydroxyl groups and form water molecules. Based on the experimental results, the mechanism of oleic acid adsorption on mineral substrate was proposed. Free energy of adsorption was estimated using the Stern-Graham equation for a sillimanite-oleate system. PMID:16290466

  10. Phase 2 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Nick; Watson, Tony

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear fission produces fission products (FPs) and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the second phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during the second half of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014. Test results continue to show that methyl iodide adsorption using AgZ can achieve total iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) above 1,000, until breakthrough occurred. However, mass transfer zone depths are deeper for methyl iodide adsorption compared to diatomic iodine (I2) adsorption. Methyl iodide DFs for the Ag Aerogel test adsorption efficiencies were less than 1,000, and the methyl iodide mass transfer zone depth exceeded 8 inches. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption under various conditions specified in the methyl iodide test plan, and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  11. A pressure-amplifying framework material with negative gas adsorption transitions.

    PubMed

    Krause, Simon; Bon, Volodymyr; Senkovska, Irena; Stoeck, Ulrich; Wallacher, Dirk; Többens, Daniel M; Zander, Stefan; Pillai, Renjith S; Maurin, Guillaume; Coudert, François-Xavier; Kaskel, Stefan

    2016-04-21

    Adsorption-based phenomena are important in gas separations, such as the treatment of greenhouse-gas and toxic-gas pollutants, and in water-adsorption-based heat pumps for solar cooling systems. The ability to tune the pore size, shape and functionality of crystalline porous coordination polymers--or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)--has made them attractive materials for such adsorption-based applications. The flexibility and guest-molecule-dependent response of MOFs give rise to unexpected and often desirable adsorption phenomena. Common to all isothermal gas adsorption phenomena, however, is increased gas uptake with increased pressure. Here we report adsorption transitions in the isotherms of a MOF (DUT-49) that exhibits a negative gas adsorption; that is, spontaneous desorption of gas (methane and n-butane) occurs during pressure increase in a defined temperature and pressure range. A combination of in situ powder X-ray diffraction, gas adsorption experiments and simulations shows that this adsorption behaviour is controlled by a sudden hysteretic structural deformation and pore contraction of the MOF, which releases guest molecules. These findings may enable technologies using frameworks capable of negative gas adsorption for pressure amplification in micro- and macroscopic system engineering. Negative gas adsorption extends the series of counterintuitive phenomena such as negative thermal expansion and negative refractive indices and may be interpreted as an adsorptive analogue of force-amplifying negative compressibility transitions proposed for metamaterials. PMID:27049950

  12. A pressure-amplifying framework material with negative gas adsorption transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Simon; Bon, Volodymyr; Senkovska, Irena; Stoeck, Ulrich; Wallacher, Dirk; Többens, Daniel M.; Zander, Stefan; Pillai, Renjith S.; Maurin, Guillaume; Coudert, François-Xavier; Kaskel, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Adsorption-based phenomena are important in gas separations, such as the treatment of greenhouse-gas and toxic-gas pollutants, and in water-adsorption-based heat pumps for solar cooling systems. The ability to tune the pore size, shape and functionality of crystalline porous coordination polymers—or metal–organic frameworks (MOFs)—has made them attractive materials for such adsorption-based applications. The flexibility and guest-molecule-dependent response of MOFs give rise to unexpected and often desirable adsorption phenomena. Common to all isothermal gas adsorption phenomena, however, is increased gas uptake with increased pressure. Here we report adsorption transitions in the isotherms of a MOF (DUT-49) that exhibits a negative gas adsorption; that is, spontaneous desorption of gas (methane and n-butane) occurs during pressure increase in a defined temperature and pressure range. A combination of in situ powder X-ray diffraction, gas adsorption experiments and simulations shows that this adsorption behaviour is controlled by a sudden hysteretic structural deformation and pore contraction of the MOF, which releases guest molecules. These findings may enable technologies using frameworks capable of negative gas adsorption for pressure amplification in micro- and macroscopic system engineering. Negative gas adsorption extends the series of counterintuitive phenomena such as negative thermal expansion and negative refractive indices and may be interpreted as an adsorptive analogue of force-amplifying negative compressibility transitions proposed for metamaterials.

  13. Adsorption edge study about cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc adsorption by variable charge soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Mouta, E. R.; Soares, M. R.

    2009-04-01

    The improper discharge of industrial and urban residues and the inadvertent use of fertilizers and pesticides can result in soil and water pollution and improve the potential of trace metals to enter in the human food chain. Adsorption reactions occur at the solid/liquid interface and are the most important mechanisms for controlling the activity of metal ions in soil solution. In a complex system with amphoteric behavior, the comprehension of the mobility, availability and fate of pollutants in the soil system is crucial for the prediction of the environmental consequences and for development of prevention/remediation strategies. A comparative study of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) adsorption by highly weathered soils was carried out. Surface (0-0.2m) and subsoil (B horizon) samples were taken from a Rhodic Kandiudalf (RH), an Anionic "Xanthic" Acrudox (XA) and an Anionic "Rhodic" Acrudox (RA), located in brazilian humid tropical area. As the pH and the ionic strength are important environmental factors influencing the solution chemistry of heavy metals in variable charge systems, adsorption envelopes, in a batch adsorption experiment, were elaborated by reacting, for 24 h, soil samples with individual 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 aqueous solutions containing nitrate salts of the adsorptive heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) at the initial concentration of 5 mg L-1, with an increasing pH value from 3.0 to 8.0. pH50-100%, the difference between the pH of 100 and 50 percent metal adsorption was determined. A sharp increase of adsorption density (adsorption edge) was observed within a very narrow pH range, usually less than two pH units. Commonly, the relative affinity of a soil for a metal cation increases with the tendency of the cation to form inner-sphere surface complexes. This may be caused by differences in extent of hydrolysis of Cu ions and in affinity of adsorption sites for Cu. In general, subsurface samples showed low pH50

  14. Treatment of arsenic-contaminated water using akaganeite adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Cadena C., Fernando; Johnson, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention comprises a method and composition using akaganeite, an iron oxide, as an ion adsorption medium for the removal of arsenic from water and affixing it onto carrier media so that it can be used in filtration systems.

  15. Random sequential adsorption of tetramers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieśla, Michał

    2013-07-01

    Adsorption of a tetramer built of four identical spheres was studied numerically using the random sequential adsorption (RSA) algorithm. Tetramers were adsorbed on a two-dimensional, flat and homogeneous surface. Two different models of the adsorbate were investigated: a rhomboid and a square one; monomer centres were put on vertices of rhomboids and squares, respectively. Numerical simulations allow us to establish the maximal random coverage ratio as well as the available surface function (ASF), which is crucial for determining kinetics of the adsorption process. These results were compared with data obtained experimentally for KfrA plasmid adsorption. Additionally, the density autocorrelation function was measured.

  16. Isosteric heat of hydrogen adsorption on MOFs: comparison between adsorption calorimetry, sorption isosteric method, and analytical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloutse, A. F.; Zacharia, R.; Cossement, D.; Chahine, R.; Balderas-Xicohténcatl, R.; Oh, H.; Streppel, B.; Schlichtenmayer, M.; Hirscher, M.

    2015-12-01

    Isosteric heat of adsorption is an important parameter required to describe the thermal performance of adsorptive storage systems. It is most frequently calculated from adsorption isotherms measured over wide ranges of pressure and temperature, using the so-called adsorption isosteric method. Direct quantitative estimation of isosteric heats on the other hand is possible using the coupled calorimetric-volumetric method, which involves simultaneous measurement of heat and adsorption. In this work, we compare the isosteric heats of hydrogen adsorption on microporous materials measured by both methods. Furthermore, the experimental data are compared with the isosteric heats obtained using the modified Dubinin-Astakhov, Tóth, and Unilan adsorption analytical models to establish the reliability and limitations of simpler methods and assumptions. To this end, we measure the hydrogen isosteric heats on five prototypical metal-organic frameworks: MOF-5, Cu-BTC, Fe-BTC, MIL-53, and MOF-177 using both experimental methods. For all MOFs, we find a very good agreement between the isosteric heats measured using the calorimetric and isosteric methods throughout the range of loading studied. Models' prediction on the other hand deviates from both experiments depending on the MOF studied and the range of loading. Under low-loadings of less than 5 mol kg-1, the isosteric heat of hydrogen adsorption decreases in the order Cu-BTC > MIL-53 > MOF-5 > Fe-BTC > MOF-177. The order of isosteric heats is coherent with the strength of hydrogen interaction revealed from previous thermal desorption spectroscopy measurements.

  17. Operating Room Environment Control. Part A: a Valve Cannister System for Anesthetic Gas Adsorption. Part B: a State-of-the-art Survey of Laminar Flow Operating Rooms. Part C: Three Laminar Flow Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. S.; Kosovich, J.

    1973-01-01

    An anesthetic gas flow pop-off valve canister is described that is airtight and permits the patient to breath freely. Once its release mechanism is activated, the exhaust gases are collected at a hose adapter and passed through activated coal for adsorption. A survey of laminar air flow clean rooms is presented and the installation of laminar cross flow air systems in operating rooms is recommended. Laminar flow ventilation experiments determine drying period evaporation rates for chicken intestines, sponges, and sections of pig stomach.

  18. Construction of a mutagenesis cartridge for poliovirus genome-linked viral protein: isolation and characterization of viable and nonviable mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, R.J.; Tada, H.; Ypma-Wong, M.F.; Dunn, J.J.; Semler, B.L.; Wimmer, E.

    1988-01-01

    By following a strategy of genetic analysis of poliovirus, the authors have constructed a synthetic mutagenesis cartridge spanning the genome-linked viral protein coding region and flanking cleavage sites in an infectious cDNA clone of the type I (Mahoney) genome. The insertion of new restriction sites within the infectious clone has allowed them to replace the wild-type sequences with short complementary pairs of synthetic oligonucleotides containing various mutations. A set of mutations have been made that create methionine codons within the genome-linked viral protein region. The resulting viruses have growth characteristics similar to wild type. Experiments that led to an alteration of the tyrosine residue responsible for the linkage to RNA have resulted in nonviable virus. In one mutant, proteolytic processing assayed in vitro appeared unimpaired by the mutation. They suggest that the position of the tyrosine residue is important for genome-linked viral protein function(s).

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of adsorption refrigeration cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, B.B.; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    1997-12-31

    High- and mid-temperature waste heat can be recovered by using existing heat pump technologies. However, heat utilization near environmental temperatures still faces technical hurdles. Silica gel-water adsorption cycles have a distinct advantage over other systems in their ability to be driven by near-ambient temperature heat. Waste heat (above 60 C) can be exploited by using conventional silica gel-water adsorption chiller. The advanced silica gel-water adsorption chiller can operate effectively by utilizing low-grade waste heat ({approximately}50 C) as the driving source with a cooling source of 30 C. In this paper, the effect of operating temperatures on cycle performance is discussed from the thermodynamic viewpoint. The temperature effectiveness and the entropy generation number on cycle time are analyzed. For a comparatively short cycle time, adsorber/desorber heat exchanger temperature effectiveness reaches up to 92% after only 200 sec. The entropy generation number N{sub s} is defined by the ratio between irreversibility generated during a cycle and availability of the heat transfer fluid. The result showed that for the advanced adsorption cycle the entropy generation number N{sub s} is smaller for hot water temperature between 45 to 55 C with a cooling source of 30 C, while for the conventional cycle N{sub s} is smaller for hot water temperature between 65 to 75 C /with the same cooling source temperature.

  20. Exhaustively sampling peptide adsorption with metadynamics.

    PubMed

    Deighan, Michael; Pfaendtner, Jim

    2013-06-25

    Simulating the adsorption of a peptide or protein and obtaining quantitative estimates of thermodynamic observables remains challenging for many reasons. One reason is the dearth of molecular scale experimental data available for validating such computational models. We also lack simulation methodologies that effectively address the dual challenges of simulating protein adsorption: overcoming strong surface binding and sampling conformational changes. Unbiased classical simulations do not address either of these challenges. Previous attempts that apply enhanced sampling generally focus on only one of the two issues, leaving the other to chance or brute force computing. To improve our ability to accurately resolve adsorbed protein orientation and conformational states, we have applied the Parallel Tempering Metadynamics in the Well-Tempered Ensemble (PTMetaD-WTE) method to several explicitly solvated protein/surface systems. We simulated the adsorption behavior of two peptides, LKα14 and LKβ15, onto two self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces with carboxyl and methyl terminal functionalities. PTMetaD-WTE proved effective at achieving rapid convergence of the simulations, whose results elucidated different aspects of peptide adsorption including: binding free energies, side chain orientations, and preferred conformations. We investigated how specific molecular features of the surface/protein interface change the shape of the multidimensional peptide binding free energy landscape. Additionally, we compared our enhanced sampling technique with umbrella sampling and also evaluated three commonly used molecular dynamics force fields. PMID:23706011

  1. Rethinking Critical Adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Carl; Peach, Sarah; Polak, Robert D.

    1996-03-01

    Recent reflectivity experiments on near-critical mixtures of carbon disulfide and nitromethane contained in glass cells footnote Niraj S. Desai, Sarah Peach, and Carl Franck, Phys. Rev. E 52, 4129 (1995) have shown that preferential adsorption of one liquid component onto the wall can be controlled by chemical modification of the glass. The glass was treated with varying amounts of hexamethyldisilazane to decrease surface polarity and therefore enhance the adsorption of carbon disulfide in a surprisingly continuous way. The effect of the glass wall on the local liquid composition can be described by two different scaling hypotheses: using a short range field on the liquid closest to the wall, or pinning the amplitude of the order parameter at the surface. We have found that only the second approach is consistent with the experimental data, although this is difficult to reconcile with observed wetting critical phenomena. We also have reexamined the issue of substrate inhomogeneity and conclude that the substrates were indeed homogeneous on relevant length scales. Supported by the NSF under DMR-9320910 and the central facilities of the Materials Science Center at Cornell University.

  2. Adsorption behaviour of bulgur.

    PubMed

    Erbaş, Mustafa; Aykın, Elif; Arslan, Sultan; Durak, Atike N

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this research was to determine the adsorption behaviour of bulgur. Three different particle sizes (2adsorption, because of %E values lower than 10%. Bulgur must be stored below 70% relative humidity and with less than 10 g water per 100 g of dry mater. PMID:26575716

  3. Studies of gas adsorption in flexible Metal-Organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sircar, Sarmishtha

    Flexible Metal-Organic frameworks that exhibit a gate-opening (GO) adsorption mechanism have potential for gas separations and gas storage. The GO phenomenon occurs when molecular gates in the structure expand/contract in response to the activation/de-activation of a system variable e.g. temperature, pressure or gas. Sharp discontinuities in the isotherm leading to S-shapes and large adsorption-desorption hysteresis are typical of this phenomenon. This study investigates the kinetics and thermodynamics of the GO behavior by combining adsorption measurements and analytical modeling of adsorption kinetics and capacity as a function of adsorbate, GO pressure, and temperature. Basic understanding of GO mechanism will help harness GO-MOF's as adsorbents for gas separations and storage. Experiments were performed on two precharacterized MOFs with verified GO behavior. These are (1) Zn2(bpdc)2(bpee), which expands from a relative amorphous to crystalline structure and (2) Cu[(dhbc) 2(4,4f-bpy)]H2O, a mutually interdigitated 2-D structure (bpdc = biphenyldicarboxylate, bpee = 1,2]bipyridylethene; DMF = N,N-dimethyl formamide, dhbc= 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, bpy=bipyridine). Both sub- and super-critical adsorption data were collected using three adsorption units: a standard low-pressure volumetric adsorption unit, a commercial high-pressure gravimetric analyzer and a custom-built high-pressure differential volumetric unit. Collected laboratory data were combined with published adsorption rate and isotherm data for analysis to broaden the range of data collection. The accuracy of the high-pressure differential unit was improved by over 300-fold by changing analytical methods of processing data to establish a reliable null correction. A pronounced effect of the allowed experimental time was found at cryogenic temperatures on (1). Tightening the stability criteria used by the adsorption equipment to determine equilibration increased the experimental time from the order of

  4. Isotherms for Water Adsorption on Molecular Sieve 3A: Influence of Cation Composition

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lin, Ronghong; Ladshaw, Austin; Nan, Yue; Liu, Jiuxu; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; DePaoli, David W.; Tavlarides, Lawrence L.

    2015-06-16

    This study is part of our continuing efforts to address engineering issues related to the removal of tritiated water from off-gases produced in used nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. In the current study, adsorption equilibrium of water on molecular sieve 3A beads was investigated. Adsorption isotherms for water on the UOP molecular sieve 3A were measured by a continuous-flow adsorption system at 298, 313, 333, and 353 K. Experimental data collected were analyzed by the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm model. The K+/Na+ molar ratio of this particular type of molecular sieve 3A was ~4:6. Our results showed that themore » GSTA isotherm model worked very well to describe the equilibrium behavior of water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A. The optimum number of parameters for the current experimental data was determined to be a set of four equilibrium parameters. This result suggests that the adsorbent crystals contain four energetically distinct adsorption sites. In addition, it was found that water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A follows a three-stage adsorption process. This three-stage adsorption process confirmed different water adsorption sites in molecular sieve crystals. In addition, the second adsorption stage is significantly affected by the K+/Na+ molar ratio. In this stage, the equilibrium adsorption capacity at a given water vapor pressure increases as the K+/Na+ molar ratio increases.« less

  5. Isotherms for Water Adsorption on Molecular Sieve 3A: Influence of Cation Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ronghong; Ladshaw, Austin; Nan, Yue; Liu, Jiuxu; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; DePaoli, David W.; Tavlarides, Lawrence L.

    2015-06-16

    This study is part of our continuing efforts to address engineering issues related to the removal of tritiated water from off-gases produced in used nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. In the current study, adsorption equilibrium of water on molecular sieve 3A beads was investigated. Adsorption isotherms for water on the UOP molecular sieve 3A were measured by a continuous-flow adsorption system at 298, 313, 333, and 353 K. Experimental data collected were analyzed by the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm model. The K+/Na+ molar ratio of this particular type of molecular sieve 3A was ~4:6. Our results showed that the GSTA isotherm model worked very well to describe the equilibrium behavior of water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A. The optimum number of parameters for the current experimental data was determined to be a set of four equilibrium parameters. This result suggests that the adsorbent crystals contain four energetically distinct adsorption sites. In addition, it was found that water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A follows a three-stage adsorption process. This three-stage adsorption process confirmed different water adsorption sites in molecular sieve crystals. In addition, the second adsorption stage is significantly affected by the K+/Na+ molar ratio. In this stage, the equilibrium adsorption capacity at a given water vapor pressure increases as the K+/Na+ molar ratio increases.

  6. Sulfate adsorption and surface precipitation on a volcanic ash soil (allophanic andisol).

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Munehide; Makino, Tomoyuki; Hattori, Yasunobu

    2006-08-15

    Sulfate strongly adsorbs on metal oxides and soils with variable charges. However, its surface precipitation has not been clearly evaluated and its adsorption mechanism has been in dispute. In the present study, an allophanic andisol, a typical volcanic ash soil having both negative and positive variable charges, was used to identify the adsorption mechanism of sulfate. Sulfate adsorption isotherms were obtained by a batch method at pH values of 4, 5, 6, and 7 in a wide range of concentrations in an Na-H-SO(4)-OH system. Theoretical isotherms were applied to the measured values for the evaluation. The surface precipitation was detected by the measured adsorption isotherms, and the BET isotherm confirmed the presence of multilayer adsorption. Stronger and weaker adsorption sites were suggested by using the Langmuir isotherm for the monolayer adsorption. The adsorption energies obtained from the Langmuir equation and recent spectroscopic analysis suggested that the stronger adsorption corresponded to an inner-sphere surface complex and that the weaker adsorption corresponded to outer-sphere surface complexation. The BET and Langmuir equations showed three types of adsorption mechanisms for the sulfate adsorption on the soil. PMID:16750540

  7. Adsorption of selenium by amorphous iron oxyhydroxide and manganese dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Chao, T.T.

    1990-01-01

    is reflected in decreasing equilibrium constants for selenite with increasing adsorption density and both experimental observations and modeling results suggest that manganese dioxide has fewer sites of higher energy for selenite adsorption than amorphous iron oxyhydroxide. Modeling and interpreting the adsorption of phosphate, molybdate, and silicate on the oxides are made difficult by the lack of constraint in choosing surface species and the fact that equally good fits can be obtained with different surface species. Finally, predictions of anion competition using the model results from single adsorbate systems are not very successful because the model does not account for surface site heterogeneity. Selenite adsorption data from a multi-adsorbate system could be fit if the equilibrium constant for selenite is decreased with increasing anion adsorption density. ?? 1990.

  8. Multiwell cartridge with integrated array of amorphous silicon photosensors for chemiluminescence detection: development, characterization and comparison with cooled-CCD luminograph.

    PubMed

    Mirasoli, Mara; Nascetti, Augusto; Caputo, Domenico; Zangheri, Martina; Scipinotti, Riccardo; Cevenini, Luca; de Cesare, Giampiero; Roda, Aldo

    2014-09-01

    We propose a disposable multiwell microcartridge with integrated amorphous silicon photosensors array for bio- and chemiluminescence-based bioassays, where the enzymatic reactions and the detection unit are coupled on the same glass substrate. Each well, made in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) unit, hosts an enzymatic reaction that is monitored by one photosensor of the array. Photosensors were characterized in terms of their dark current background noise and response to different wavelengths of visible light in order to determine their suitability as detection devices for chemical luminescent phenomena. Calibration curves of the photosensors' response to different luminescent systems were then evaluated by using the chemiluminescent reactions catalyzed by alkaline phosphatase and horseradish peroxidase and the bioluminescent reaction catalyzed by firefly luciferase. Limits of detection in the order of attomoles for chemiluminescence enzymes and femtomoles for luciferase and sensitivities in the range between 0.007 and 0.1 pA pmol(-1) L were reached. We found that, without the need of cooling systems, the analytical performances of the proposed cartridge are comparable with those achievable with state-of-the-art thermoelectrically cooled charge-coupled device-based laboratory instrumentation. In addition, thanks to the small amount of generated output data, the proposed device allows the monitoring of long-lasting reactions with significant advantages in terms of data-storage needs, transmission bandwidth, ease of real-time signal processing and limited power consumption. Based on these results, the operation in model bioanalytical assays exploiting luminescent reactions was tested demonstrating that a-Si:H photosensors arrays, when integrated with PDMS microfluidic units, provide compact, sensitive and potentially low-cost microdevices for chemiluminescence and bioluminescence-based bioassays with a wide range of possible applications for in-field and point

  9. Global versus local adsorption selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauzat, Françoise; Marloie, Gael; Markovits, Alexis; Ellinger, Yves

    2015-10-01

    The origin of the enantiomeric excess found in the amino acids present in the organic matter of carbonaceous meteorites is still unclear. Selective adsorption of one of the two enantiomers existing after a racemic formation could be part of the answer. Hereafter we report a comparative study of the adsorption of the R and S enantiomers of α-alanine and lactic acid on the hydroxylated { } chiral surface of α-quartz using numerical simulation techniques. Structurally different adsorption sites were found with opposite R versus S selectivity for the same molecule-surface couple, raising the problem of whether to consider adsorption as a local property or as a global response characteristic of the whole surface. To deal with the second term of this alternative, a statistical approach was designed, based on the occurrence of each adsorption site whose energy was calculated using first principle periodic density functional theory. It was found that R-alanine and S-lactic acid are the enantiomers preferentially adsorbed, even if the adsorption process on the quartz { } surface stays with a disappointingly poor enantio-selectivity. Nevertheless, it highlighted the important point that considering adsorption as a global property changes perspectives in the search for more efficient enantio-selective supports and more generally changes the way to apprehend adsorption processes in astro-chemistry/biology.

  10. Liquid-Phase Adsorption Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, David O.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an experiment developed and used in the unit operations laboratory course at the University of Wyoming. Involves the liquid-phase adsorption of an organic compound from aqueous solution on activated carbon, and is relevant to adsorption processes in general. (TW)

  11. ADSORPTION MEDIA FOR ARSENIC REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will discuss the use of adsorptive media for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. Presentation is a fundamental discussion on the use of adsorptive media for arsenic removal and includes information from several EPA field studies on removal of arsenic from dr...

  12. Effect of pore blockage on adsorption isotherms and dynamics: Anomalous adsorption of iodine on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, S.K.; Liu, F.; Arvind, G.

    2000-04-18

    Isotherm hysteresis and pore-clocking effects of trapped molecules on adsorption dynamics is studied here, using the iodine-carbon system in the 300--343 K temperature range. It is found that a portion of the iodine is strongly adsorbed, and does not desorb, even over very long time scales, while the remainder adsorbs reversibly as a homogeneous monolayer with a Langmuirian isotherm in mesopores. The strongly adsorbed iodine appears to adsorb in micropores and at the mesopore mouths, hindering uptake of the reversible iodine. The uptake data for the adsorption and desorption dynamics of the reversible part is found to be best explained by means of a pore mouth resistance control mechanism. it is concluded that the dynamics of the adsorption and desorption at the pore mouth is important at early stages of the process.

  13. Thermodynamic characterization of metal dissolution and inhibitor adsorption processes in the low carbon steel/mimosa tannin/sulfuric acid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Sanja; Stern, Ivica

    2002-10-01

    The corrosion rates in the presence of mimosa tannin as a low carbon steel corrosion inhibitor in sulfuric acid media, were measured by the weight loss method, in the range of temperatures from 20 to 60 °C. The Temkin, Frumkin and Freundlich isotherms were tested for their fit to the experimental data. The free energies and enthalpies for the adsorption process and the apparent activation energies, enthalpies and entropies of the dissolution process were determined. The fundamental thermodynamic functions were used to glean important information about the mimosa tannin inhibitory behavior. The results were explained in terms of chemical thermodynamics.

  14. The application of solid-state NMR spectroscopy to electrochemical systems: CO adsorption on Pt electrocatalysts at the aqueous-electrode interface

    SciTech Connect

    Yahnke, M.S.; Reimer, J.A.; Cairns, E.J.

    1996-12-01

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device, the continuous-flow analogue of the popular electrochemical storage device known as the battery. While the potential of fuel cells as power sources was recognized well over a century ago, they have since found limited application; a myriad of chemical, engineering and materials issues can be cited for this disappointing showing. Recent growing concern over the fate of the environment, however, has helped to renew interest in fuel cell research. This paper describes the methanol fuel cell and catalytic problems associated with the anode. On this task, the adsorption of carbon monoxide on platinum has been investigated.

  15. Water vapor adsorption on activated carbon preadsorbed with naphtalene.

    PubMed

    Zimny, T; Finqueneisel, G; Cossarutto, L; Weber, J V

    2005-05-01

    The adsorption of water vapor on a microporous activated carbon derived from the carbonization of coconut shell has been studied. Preadsorption of naphthalene was used as a tool to determine the location and the influence of the primary adsorbing centers within the porous structure of active carbon. The adsorption was studied in the pressure range p/p0=0-0.95 in a static water vapor system, allowing the investigation of both kinetic and equilibrium experimental data. Modeling of the isotherms using the modified equation of Do and Do was applied to determine the effect of preadsorption on the mechanism of adsorption. PMID:15797395

  16. Surface rheology of saponin adsorption layers.

    PubMed

    Stanimirova, R; Marinova, K; Tcholakova, S; Denkov, N D; Stoyanov, S; Pelan, E

    2011-10-18

    min. Molecular interpretations of the observed trends are proposed when possible. Surprisingly, in the course of our study we found experimentally that the drop shape analysis method (DSA method) shows a systematically lower surface elasticity, in comparison with the other two methods used: Langmuir trough and capillary pressure tensiometry with spherical drops. The possible reasons for the observed discrepancy are discussed, and the final conclusion is that the DSA method has specific problems and may give incorrect results when applied to study the dynamic properties of systems with high surface elasticity, such as adsorption layers of saponins, lipids, fatty acids, solid particles, and some proteins. The last conclusion is particularly important because the DSA method recently became the preferred method for the characterization of fluid interfaces because of its convenience. PMID:21894983

  17. Adsorption Model for Off-Gas Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Veronica J. Rutledge

    2011-03-01

    The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include gas stream constituents, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. It models dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions for a multiple component gas stream. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which the breakthrough data is obtained. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data will be input into the adsorption model to develop a model specific for iodine adsorption on silver mordenite as well as model(s) specific for krypton and xenon adsorption. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Another future off-gas modeling goal is to develop a model for the unit operation absorption. The off-gas models will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.

  18. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-01-24

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with superheated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200 °C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220 °C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: 1. At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. 2. There is no significant temperature effect. 3. Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. 4. Pores smaller than 15 Å do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  19. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-12-31

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with super-heated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200{degrees}C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220{degrees}C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: (1) At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. (2) There is no significant temperature effect. (3) Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. (4) Pores smaller than 15 {Angstrom} do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  20. Chromium adsorption by lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Lalvani, S.B.; Huebner, A.; Wiltowski, T.S.

    2000-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen, and its maximum contamination level in drinking water is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Chromium in the wastewaters from plating and metal finishing, tanning, and photographic industries poses environmental problems. A commercially available lignin was used for the removal of hexavalent as well as trivalent chromium from aqueous solution. It is known that hexavalent chromium is present as an anionic species in the solution. It was found that lignin can remove up to 63% hexavalent and 100% trivalent chromium from aqueous solutions. The removal of chromium ions was also investigated using a commercially available activated carbon. This absorbent facilitated very little hexavalent and almost complete trivalent chromium removal. Adsorption isotherms and kinetics data on the metal removal by lignin and activated carbon are presented and discussed.

  1. Co-adsorption of phosphate and zinc(II) on the surface of ferrihydrite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Zhu, Runliang; Xu, Tianyuan; Xu, Yin; Ge, Fei; Xi, Yunfei; Zhu, Jianxi; He, Hongping

    2016-02-01

    Ferrihydrite (Fh) is of great importance in affecting the migration and transformation of heavy-metal cations and oxyanions. To advance the understanding of co-adsorption reactions on Fh surface, the co-adsorption of phosphate and Zn(II) from aqueous solution to a synthesized Fh was determined. The batch experiments demonstrated a synergistic adsorption of phosphate and Zn(II) on Fh. In the pH range of 3.5-6, the adsorption of the two contaminants showed strong pH dependence in the single solute adsorption systems, but the dependence alleviated in the simultaneous adsorption system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the chemical shifts of Zn 2p1/2 and Zn 2p3/2 binding energies were more significant than that of P 2p in the single and simultaneous adsorption systems. On the other side, in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) observed increased formation of outer- and inner-sphere complexes of phosphate in the simultaneous system. Thus, the synergistic adsorption of the two contaminants could be attributed to the formation of ternary complexes as well as electrostatic interactions, while surface precipitation could not be completely ruled out. On the basis of the results from both the batch adsorption experiments and structural characterization, these two contaminants were likely to form phosphate-bridged ternary complexes (≡Fe-P-Zn) in the simultaneous adsorption system. PMID:26461439

  2. Enhanced adsorption of cesium on PVA-alginate encapsulated Prussian blue-graphene oxide hydrogel beads in a fixed-bed column system.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jiseon; Lee, Dae Sung

    2016-10-01

    A continuous fixed-bed column study was performed using PVA-alginate encapsulated Prussian blue-graphene oxide (PB-GO) hydrogel beads as a novel adsorbent for the removal of cesium from aqueous solutions. The effects of different operating parameters, such as initial cesium concentration, pH, bed height, flow rate, and bead size, were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of the PB-GO hydrogel beads was 164.5mg/g at an initial cesium concentration of 5mM, bed height of 20cm, and flow rate of 0.83mL/min at pH 7. The Thomas, Adams-Bohart, and Yoon-Nelson models were applied to the experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves using non-linear regression. Although both the Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models showed good agreement with the experimental data, the Yoon-Nelson model was found to provide the best representation for cesium adsorption on the adsorbent, based on the χ(2) analysis. PMID:27372009

  3. The adsorption of plutonium IV and V on goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Arthur L.; Murray, James W.; Sibley, Thomas H.

    1985-11-01

    The adsorption of Pu(IV) and Pu(V) on goethite (αFeOOH) from NaNO 3 solution shows distinct differences related to the different hydrolytic character of these two oxidation states. Under similar solution conditions, the adsorption edge of the more strongly hydrolyzable Pu(IV) occurs in the pH range 3 to 5 while that for Pu(V) is at pH 5 to 7. The adsorption edge for Pu(V) shifts with time to lower pH values and this appears to be due to the reduction of Pu(V) to Pu(IV) in the presence of the goethite surface. These results suggest that redox transformations may be an important aspect of Pu adsorption chemistry and the resulting scavenging of Pu from natural waters. Increasing ionic strength (from 0.1 M to 3 M NaCl or NaNO 3 and 0.03 M to 0.3 M Na 2SO 4) did not influence Pu(IV) or Pu(V) adsorption. In the presence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Pu(V) reduction to Pu(IV) occurred in solution. Pu(IV) adsorption on goethite decreased by 30% in the presence of 240 ppm natural DOC found in Soap Lake, Washington waters. Increasing concentrations of carbonate ligands decreased Pu(IV) and Pu(V) adsorption on goethite, with an alkalinity of 1000 meq/l totally inhibiting adsorption. The Pu-goethite adsorption system provides the data base for developing a thermodynamic model of Pu interaction with an oxide surface and with dissolved ligands, using the MINEQL computer program. From the model calculations we determined equilibrium constants for the adsorption of Pu(IV) hydrolysis species. The model was then applied to Pu adsorption in carbonate media to see how the presence of CO 3-2 could influence the mobility of Pu. The decrease in adsorption appears to be due to formation of a Pu-CO 3 complex. Model calculations were used to predict what the adsorption curves would look like if Pu-CO 3 complexes formed.

  4. Removal of water and iodine by solid sorbents: adsorption isotherms and kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, R.; Tavlarides, L.L.

    2013-07-01

    Tritium and iodine-129 are two major radioactive elements that are present in off-gases from spent fuel reprocessing plants. Adsorption by solid sorbents is the state-of-the-art technique for removal of these species from off-gases. Modeling and simulating adsorption processes require accurate adsorption equilibrium and kinetic data to permit reasonable estimates of process parameters. We have developed a continuous flow single-pellet adsorption system to gather accurate adsorption equilibrium and kinetic data for adsorption of water by molecular sieve 3A and for adsorption of iodine by silver exchanged mordenite. In this paper, the design of the water and iodine adsorption experimental systems are briefly described and results of water adsorption experiments are presented and discussed. Water uptake curves are fitted with the linear-driving force (LDF) model and the shrinking-core model to determine kinetic parameters. It is shown that the kinetics of water adsorption on zeolite 3A under current experimental conditions is controlled by both the external film resistance and the macro-pore diffusion and can be predicted by both the LDF model and the shrinking-core model with the former one performing slightly better. Preliminary results from iodine adsorption experiments will be presented in the conference.

  5. Adsorption of Selected Pharmaceutical Compounds onto Activated Carbon in Dilute Aqueous Solutions Exemplified by Acetaminophen, Diclofenac, and Sulfamethoxazole

    PubMed Central

    Chang, E.-E.; Wan, Jan-Chi; Liang, Chung-Huei; Dai, Yung-Dun; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of three pharmaceuticals, namely, acetaminophen, diclofenac, and sulfamethoxazole onto granular activated carbon (GAC), was investigated. To study competitive adsorption, both dynamic and steady-state adsorption experiments were conducted by careful selection of pharmaceuticals with various affinities and molecular size. The effective diffusion coefficient of the adsorbate was increased with decease in particle size of GAC. The adsorption affinity represented as Langmuir was consistent with the ranking of the octanol-water partition coefficient, Kow. The adsorption behavior in binary or tertiary systems could be described by competition adsorption. In the binary system adsorption replacement occurred, under which the adsorbate with the smaller Kow was replaced by the one with larger Kow. Results also indicated that portion of the micropores could be occupied only by the small target compound, but not the larger adsorbates. In multiple-component systems the competition adsorption might significantly be affected by the macropores and less by the meso- or micropores. PMID:26078989

  6. Possibility of using adsorption refrigeration unit in district heating network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzebielec, Andrzej; Rusowicz, Artur; Jaworski, Maciej; Laskowski, Rafał

    2015-09-01

    Adsorption refrigeration systems are able to work with heat sources of temperature starting with 50 °C. The aim of the article is to determine whether in terms of technical and economic issues adsorption refrigeration equipment can work as elements that produce cold using hot water from the district heating network. For this purpose, examined was the work of the adsorption air conditioning equipment cooperating with drycooler, and the opportunities offered by the district heating network in Warsaw during the summer. It turns out that the efficiency of the adsorption device from the economic perspective is not sufficient for production of cold even during the transitional period. The main problem is not the low temperature of the water supply, but the large difference between the coefficients of performance, COPs, of adsorption device and a traditional compressor air conditioning unit. When outside air temperature is 25 °C, the COP of the compressor type reaches a value of 4.49, whereas that of the adsorption device in the same conditions is 0.14. The ratio of the COPs is 32. At the same time ratio between the price of 1 kWh of electric power and 1 kWh of heat is only 2.85. Adsorption refrigeration equipment to be able to compete with compressor devices, should feature COPads efficiency to be greater than 1.52. At such a low driving temperature and even changing the drycooler into the evaporative cooler it is not currently possible to achieve.

  7. Protein adsorption onto medical alloys: Voltage effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettens, Robert T. T.

    This work examined the adsorption of an important-plasma protein, fibrinogen (Fb), onto a clinically-relevant-biomedical alloy, 316L stainless steel (SS) and electrically polarized 316L SS. Then, several key-interfacial properties important to protein adsorption were examined. The overriding role of electrochemical (EC) charge-transfer processes in the behavior of both the adsorption of Fb and interfacial properties was apparent. Adsorption of Fb onto polarized 316L SS was observed and quantified using both in situ and ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Significant differences in Fb adsorption were observed across potential. Ex situ studies showed significantly lower area coverage and height of adsorbed Fb at cathodic potentials. In situ studies showed significantly slower kinetics below -100 mV. Current density data showed large charge-transfer processes (˜1x10 -5 to 1x10-4 A/cm2) taking place at voltages below -100 mV. A parallel-plate electrocapillary method was used to measure changes in metal-electrolyte surface energy (Deltagammasl) with potential. The results showed increasingly negative Deltagamma sl values on 316L SS at more cathodic voltages (i.e., more hydrophilic) and little to no change above -100 mV. These data correlate linearly with current density. Force measurements using a colloidal-AFM probe measured interfacial forces. Increasingly repulsive forces scaled with increasingly cathodic potentials; little interaction was detected at anodic potentials. These data correlated linearly with current density. The EC impedance was also studied. Electrochemical AFM (ECAFM) simultaneously gave impedance and structural changes with potential. Several regions of oxide topography/impedance characteristic were apparent which matched closely with the impedance behavior of the system. Through Mott-Schottky analysis the presence of the flatband potential was determined to be around -150 mV. Property observations of polarized 316L SS, specifically

  8. Adsorption of polymeric brushes: Bridging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johner, Albert; Joanny, Jean-François

    1992-04-01

    We study the adsorption of grafted polymer layers on a planar surface parallel to the grafting surface. The layer consists of two types of chains: nonadsorbed chains with a free end and adsorbed chains forming bridges between the two plates. In the limit of strong adsorption a dead zone exists in the vicinity of the adsorbing plate; its size increases with the adsorption strength. Two adsorption mechanisms are possible: adsorption of the last monomer only and adsorption of all the monomers. In both cases the adsorption regimes at equilibrium (when no external force acts on the plates) are discussed within the framework of the self-consistent mean-field theory. We also give scaling laws taking into account excluded volume correlations. Finally, we consider situations where a finite external force, either tangential or normal to the plates, is applied on the adsorbing plate. Pulling and tangential forces both reduce the fraction of bridges and eventually lead to rupture, whereas compressional forces favor bridging. For normal forces, force vs distance profiles between planes and crossed cylinders are given.

  9. Adsorption and isothermal models of atrazine by zeolite prepared from Egyptian kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Tarek S.; Gad-Allah, Tarek A.; Ibrahim, Hanan S.; Saleh, Tamer S.

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of Atrazine on zeolites, prepared from Egyptian kaolin, has been studied in order to consider the application of these types of zeolites in water purification. The batch mode has been employed, using atrazine solution of concentration ranging from 2 to 10 mg /l. The adsorption capacity and distribution coefficients ( Kd) were determined for the adsorption system as a function of sorbate concentration. It was found that, under the studies concentrations, the percent of adsorbed atrazine on both zeolites match to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The constants of each model were calculated to assess the adsorption behavior of atrazine on each type of zeolite. According to the equilibrium studies, adsorption of atrazine on zeolite X at lower concentrations is much better than that on zeolite A. The application of Dublin-Kaganer-Radushkevich model revealed physisorption endothermic adsorption process for both zeolites. These results show that natural zeolites hold great potential to remove hazardous materials such as atrazine from water.

  10. A novel dual-impedance-analysis EQCM system--investigation of bovine serum albumin adsorption on gold and platinum electrode surfaces.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qingji; Xiang, Canhui; Yuan, Yu; Zhang, Youyu; Nie, Lihua; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2003-06-01

    Both quartz crystal micro-balance (QCM) impedance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods are widely used in interface studies. This paper presents details about a new strategy for simultaneous, mutual-interference-free and accurate measurements of QCM impedance and EI, through connecting a suitable capacitance in series with the piezoelectric quartz crystal (PQC) between QCM impedance and EIS measurement instruments. Combined and individual measurements of QCM impedance and EIS during silver deposition gave results comparable with each other, demonstrating the reliability of the proposed method. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption on gold and platinum electrodes in Britton-Robinson (B-R) buffers was investigated, and the Fe(CN)6(3-)/Fe(CN)6(4-) couple was used as an electrochemical probe to characterize BSA adsorption. While the reversibility of Fe(CN)6(3-)/Fe(CN)6(4-) couple on bare Au and Pt electrodes changed very slightly with decreasing solution pH from pH approximately 7 to pH approximately 2, the standard rate constant (ks) of this couple increased abruptly with solution pH below pH approximately 4.5 at a BSA-modified Au electrode, but decreased with solution pH at a BSA-modified Pt electrode. By analyzing the QCM impedance data with a modified BVD equivalent circuit and the EI data with a modified Randle's equivalent circuit, inflexion changes at pH approximately 4.5 were all found at pH-dependent responses of the resonant frequency, the double-layer capacitance, the capacitance of the adsorbed BSA layer, the peak-absorbance values of BSA solutions at 277.5 and 224.5 nm, and so on. It was also found that a BSA adsorption layer can effectively inhibit gold corrosion during ferrocyanide oxidation in a ferrocyanide-containing BR solution. Some preliminary explanations of these findings have been given. The proposed method is highly recommended for wider applications in surface science. PMID:16256587

  11. Random sequential adsorption on fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesla, Michal; Barbasz, Jakub

    2012-07-01

    Irreversible adsorption of spheres on flat collectors having dimension d < 2 is studied. Molecules are adsorbed on Sierpinski's triangle and carpet-like fractals (1 < d < 2), and on general Cantor set (d < 1). Adsorption process is modeled numerically using random sequential adsorption (RSA) algorithm. The paper concentrates on measurement of fundamental properties of coverages, i.e., maximal random coverage ratio and density autocorrelation function, as well as RSA kinetics. Obtained results allow to improve phenomenological relation between maximal random coverage ratio and collector dimension. Moreover, simulations show that, in general, most of known dimensional properties of adsorbed monolayers are valid for non-integer dimensions.

  12. Random sequential adsorption on fractals.

    PubMed

    Ciesla, Michal; Barbasz, Jakub

    2012-07-28

    Irreversible adsorption of spheres on flat collectors having dimension d < 2 is studied. Molecules are adsorbed on Sierpinski's triangle and carpet-like fractals (1 < d < 2), and on general Cantor set (d < 1). Adsorption process is modeled numerically using random sequential adsorption (RSA) algorithm. The paper concentrates on measurement of fundamental properties of coverages, i.e., maximal random coverage ratio and density autocorrelation function, as well as RSA kinetics. Obtained results allow to improve phenomenological relation between maximal random coverage ratio and collector dimension. Moreover, simulations show that, in general, most of known dimensional properties of adsorbed monolayers are valid for non-integer dimensions. PMID:22852643

  13. Adsorption of clofibric acid and ketoprofen onto powdered activated carbon: effect of natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yaohuan; Deshusses, Marc A

    2011-12-01

    The adsorption of two acidic pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), clofibric acid and ketoprofen, onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) was investigated with a particular focus on the influence of natural organic matter (NOM) on the adsorption of the PhACs. Suwannee River humic acids (SRHAs) were used as a substitute for NOM. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to obtain adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms with and without SRHAs in the system. The adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics showed that the adsorption ofclofibric acid was not significantly affected by the presence of SRHAs at a concentration of 5 mg (as carbon) L(-1). An adsorption capacity of 70 to 140 mg g(-1) was observed and equilibrium was reached within 48 h. In contrast, the adsorption of ketoprofen was markedly decreased (from about 120 mg g(-1) to 70-100 mg g(-1)) in the presence of SRHAs. Higher initial concentrations of clofibric acid than ketoprofen during testing may explain the different behaviours that were observed. Also, the more hydrophobic ketoprofen molecules may have less affinity for PAC when humic acids (which are hydrophilic) are present. The possible intermolecular forces that could account for the different behaviour of clofibric acid and ketoprofen adsorption onto PAC are discussed. In particular, the relevance of electrostatic forces, electron donor-acceptor interaction, hydrogen bonding and London dispersion forces are discussed PMID:22439557

  14. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of gas-solid adsorption processes at pore scale level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Qu, Z. G.; Chen, L.; Tao, W. Q.

    2015-11-01

    A two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann (LB) approach was established to implement kinetic concentration boundary conditions in interfacial mass-transfer processes and to simulate the adsorption process in porous media at pore scale and mesoscopic levels. A general treatment was applied to conduct three types of concentration boundary conditions effectively and accurately. Applicability for adsorption was verified by two benchmark examples, which were representative of the interparticle mass transport and intraparticle mass transport in the adsorption system, respectively. The gas-solid adsorption process in reconstructed porous media at the pore scale level was numerically investigated. Mass-transfer processes of the adsorption reaction were simulated by executing Langmuir adsorption kinetics on surfaces of adsorbent particles. Meanwhile, the homogeneous solid diffusion model (HSDM) was used for mass transport in interior particles. The transient adsorbed amount was obtained in detail, and the impact of flow condition, porosity, and adsorbent particle size on the entire dynamic adsorption performance was investigated. The time needed to approach steady state decreased with increased fluid velocity. Transient adsorption capability and time consumption to equilibrium were nearly independent of porosity, whereas increasing pore size led to a moderating adsorption rate and more time was consumed to approach the saturation adsorption. Benefiting from the advantages of the LB method, both bulk and intraparticle mass transfer performances during adsorption can be obtained using the present pore scale approach. Thus, interparticle mass transfer and intraparticle mass transfer are the two primary segments, and intraparticle diffusion has the dominant role.

  15. Randomized Comparison of Two Vaginal Self-Sampling Methods for Human Papillomavirus Detection: Dry Swab versus FTA Cartridge

    PubMed Central

    Catarino, Rosa; Vassilakos, Pierre; Bilancioni, Aline; Vanden Eynde, Mathieu; Meyer-Hamme, Ulrike; Menoud, Pierre-Alain; Guerry, Frédéric; Petignat, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (self-HPV) is valuable in cervical cancer screening. HPV testing is usually performed on physician-collected cervical smears stored in liquid-based medium. Dry filters and swabs are an alternative. We evaluated the adequacy of self-HPV using two dry storage and transport devices, the FTA cartridge and swab. Methods A total of 130 women performed two consecutive self-HPV samples. Randomization determined which of the two tests was performed first: self-HPV using dry swabs (s-DRY) or vaginal specimen collection using a cytobrush applied to an FTA cartridge (s-FTA). After self-HPV, a physician collected a cervical sample using liquid-based medium (Dr-WET). HPV types were identified by real-time PCR. Agreement between collection methods was measured using the kappa statistic. Results HPV prevalence for high-risk types was 62.3% (95%CI: 53.7–70.2) detected by s-DRY, 56.2% (95%CI: 47.6–64.4) by Dr-WET, and 54.6% (95%CI: 46.1–62.9) by s-FTA. There was overall agreement of 70.8% between s-FTA and s-DRY samples (kappa = 0.34), and of 82.3% between self-HPV and Dr-WET samples (kappa = 0.56). Detection sensitivities for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse (LSIL+) were: 64.0% (95%CI: 44.5–79.8) for s-FTA, 84.6% (95%CI: 66.5–93.9) for s-DRY, and 76.9% (95%CI: 58.0–89.0) for Dr-WET. The preferred self-collection method among patients was s-DRY (40.8% vs. 15.4%). Regarding costs, FTA card was five times more expensive than the swab (~5 US dollars (USD)/per card vs. ~1 USD/per swab). Conclusion Self-HPV using dry swabs is sensitive for detecting LSIL+ and less expensive than s-FTA. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 43310942 PMID:26630353

  16. [Water binding of adsorptive immobilized lipases].

    PubMed

    Loose, S; Meusel, D; Muschter, A; Ruthe, B

    1990-01-01

    It is supposed that not only the total water content of lipase preparations but more their state of water binding is of technological importance in enzymatic interesterification reactions in systems nearly free from water. The isotherms at 65 degrees C of two microbial lipases immobilized on various adsorbents as well as different adsorbents themselves are shown. The water binding capacity in the range of water content of technological interest decreases from the anion exchange resin Amberlyst A 21 via nonpolar adsorbent Amberlite XAD-2 to kieselguhr Celite 545. It is demonstrated that water binding by lipases is depending on temperature but is also affected by adsorptive immobilization. Adsorptive immobilized lipases show hysteresis, which is very important for preparing a definite water content of the enzyme preparations. PMID:2325750

  17. Probing adsorption sites for CO on ceria.

    PubMed

    Mudiyanselage, Kumudu; Kim, Hyun You; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Baber, Ashleigh E; Liu, Ping; Stacchiola, Dario

    2013-10-14

    Ceria based catalysts show remarkable activity for CO conversion reactions such as CO oxidation and the water-gas shift reaction. The identification of adsorption sites on the catalyst surfaces is essential to understand the reaction mechanisms of these reactions, but the complexity of heterogeneous powder catalysts and the propensity of ceria to easily change oxidation states in the presence of small concentrations of either oxidizing or reducing agents make the process difficult. In this study, the adsorption of CO on CuOx/Cu(111) and CeOx/Cu(111) systems has been studied using infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. IR peaks for the adsorbed CO on O/Cu(111) with only chemisorbed oxygen, well-ordered Cu2O/Cu(111) and disordered copper oxide [CuOx/Cu(111)] were observed at 2070-2072, 2097-2098 and 2101-2111 cm(-1), respectively. On CeOx/Cu(111) systems CO chemisorbs at 90 K only on Cu sites under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions, whereas at elevated CO pressures and low temperatures adsorption of CO on Ce(3+) is observed, with a corresponding IR peak at 2162 cm(-1). These experimental results are further supported by DFT calculations, and help to unequivocally distinguish the presence of Ce(3+) cations on catalyst samples by using CO as a probe molecule. PMID:23942870

  18. The double polymethylmethacrylate filter (DELETE system) in the removal of light chains in chronic dialysis patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Antonio; Grazia, Michele; Mancini, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is still one of the most common haematological diseases and is associated with a poor prognosis. It is frequently worsened by acute kidney failure that, in turn, aggravates the risk of death. In the past few years, the idea has made headway that the removal of free light chains (FLC) by means of extracorporeal blood purification systems may facilitate the recovery of renal function. Up to now, many different extracorporeal techniques have been put forward in FLC removal, such as plasma exchange, dialysis with super-flux filters, and adsorption by means of cartridge of resins. In this paper, we illustrate the use of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) dialysis membranes with a high adsorptive capacity (Toray BK-F; Toray Industries, Inc., Tokyo, Japan). We have evaluated light chain removal by means of an original dialysis procedure using a double-filter circuit made of PMMA working in sequential dialysis (DELETE system). The system provides satisfactory results in terms of FLC removal and, at the same time, ensures an adequate dialysis treatment (Kt/V >1.5) with significant reduction in urea, creatinine, and β2-microglobulin. The dual PMMA filter system combines an acceptable cost/efficiency ratio when compared with other methods and constitutes a concrete prospect in FLC removal. Its preferential setting of use is in patients with MM or with monoclonal gammopathies, who are on chronic dialysis and maintain high circulating levels of FLC. PMID:23676829

  19. Modeling two-rate adsorption kinetics: Two-site, two-species, bilayer and rearrangement adsorption processes.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Sumit; Tabor, Rico F

    2016-08-15

    The adsorption kinetics of many systems show apparent two-rate processes, where there appears to be resolved fast and slow adsorption steps. Such non-standard adsorption processes cannot be accounted for by conventional modeling methods, motivating new approaches. In this work, we present four different models that can account for two-rate adsorption and are based upon physically realistic processes - two adsorbing species, two surface sites having different energies, bilayer formation and molecular rearrangement modes. Each model is tested using a range of conditions, and the characteristic behavior is explored and compared. In these models, the effects of mass transport and bulk concentration are also accounted for, making them applicable in systems which are transport-limited or attachment-limited, or intermediate between the two. The applicability of these models is demonstrated by fitting exemplar experimental data for each of the four models, selecting the model on the basis of the known physical behavior of the adsorption kinetics. These models can be applied in a wide range of systems, from stagnant adsorption in large volume water treatment to highly dynamic flow conditions relevant to printing, coating and processing applications. PMID:27209397

  20. A portable lab-on-a-chip instrument based on MCE with dual top-bottom capacitive coupled contactless conductivity detector in replaceable cell cartridge.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Kambiz; Ying, Jasmine Yuen Shu; Hauser, Peter C; de Rooij, Nico F; Rodriguez, Isabel

    2013-05-01

    A new design for a compact portable lab-on-a-chip instrument based on MCE and dual capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (dC(4) D) is described. The instrument is battery powered with total dimension of 14 × 25 × 8 cm(3) (w × l × h), and weighs 1.2 kg. The device consists of a front electrophoresis compartment which has the chip holder and the chip, the associated high-voltage electrodes for electrophoresis injection and separation and the detector. The detection cell is integrated into the device housing with an exchangeable plug-and-play cartridge format. The design of the dC(4) D cell has been optimized for maximum performance. The cartridge includes the top-bottom excitation and pick up electrodes incorporated into the cell and connected to push-pull self-latching pins that are insulated with plastic. The metal frame of the cartridge is grounded completely to eliminate electronic interferences. The cartridge is designed to clamp a thin fluidic chip at the detection point. The cartridges are replaceable whereby different cartridges have different detection electrode configurations to employ according to the sensitivity or resolution needed in the specific analytical application. The second compartment consists of all the electronics, data acquisition card, high-voltage modules of up to ±5 kV both polarity, and batteries for 10 h of operation. The improved detector performance is illustrated by the electrophoresis analysis of six cations (NH4 (+) , K(+) , Ca(2+) , Na(+) , Mg(2+) , Li(+) ) with a detection limit of approximately 5 μM and the analysis of the anions (Br(-) , Cl(-) , NO2 (-) , NO3 (-) , SO4 (2-) , F(-) ) with a detection limit of about 3 μM. Analytical capabilities of the instrument for food and medical applications were evaluated by simultaneous detection of organic and inorganic acids in fruit juice and inorganic cations and anions in rabbit blood samples and human urine samples are also demonstrated. PMID:23420647

  1. Preparation of Microvolume Anion-Exchange Cartridge for Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry-Based Determination of (237)Np Content in Spent Nuclear Fuel.

    PubMed

    Asai, Shiho; Hanzawa, Yukiko; Konda, Miki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Magara, Masaaki; Kimura, Takaumi; Ishihara, Ryo; Saito, Kyoichi; Yamada, Shinsuke; Hirota, Hideyuki

    2016-03-15

    Microvolume anion-exchange porous polymer disk-packed cartridges were prepared for Am/Np separation, which is required prior to the measurement of Neptunium-237 ((237)Np) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Disks with a volume of 0.08 cm(3) were cut out from porous sheets having anion-exchange-group-containing polymer chains densely attached on the pore surface. Four different amine-based groups, N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, trimethylammonium, diethylamine, and triethylenediamine (TEDA), were selected as the anion-exchange groups to be introduced into the porous sheets. The separation performances of Am/Np were evaluated using a standard solution of (243)Am, which had the same activity as its daughter nuclide (239)Np in secular equilibrium. (239)Np recovery of close to 100% with practically no contamination of (243)Am was achieved using the TEDA-introduced disk-packed cartridge. The time to elute (239)Np from the cartridge was approximately 40 s. The TEDA-introduced disk-packed cartridge was applied to the separation of Np from a spent nuclear fuel sample to confirm its separation performance. A known amount of (243)Am ((239)Np) was added to the spent nuclear fuel sample solution to monitor the chemical yield of Np. The chemical yield of Np calculated from a measured concentration of (239)Np was 90.4%. Am leakage in the Np-eluted solution was less than 1 ppt, corresponding to 0.001% of the original Am concentration in the sample. This indicates that no additional (239)Np was produced by the decay of the (243)Am remaining in the Np-eluted solution, thus providing a reliable chemical yield. U, which can cause a serious spectral interference involving the peak tail from the mass spectrum of (238)U, was thoroughly removed with the TEDA cartridge, providing interference-free measurement of (237)Np. The concentration of (237)Np obtained by ICPMS was 718 ± 12 ng/mg-U, which agrees well with the theoretically calculated value. Compared with

  2. Adsorption hysteresis for a slit-like pore model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutarov, V. V.; Tarasevich, Yu. I.; Aksenenko, E. V.; Ivanova, Z. G.

    2011-07-01

    The Frenkel-Halsey-Hill equation is used to describe the adsorption branch of a hysteresis loop upon polylayer adsorption with an H3 loop according to IUPAC nomenclature. The equation for the desorption branch of a hysteresis loop is derived from a combined solution to the equation for the Gibbs potential change, given the adsorbent swelling and pore connectivity function, and the Laplace equation taken for the conditions of infinitely elongated meniscus. This equation is shown to connect the adsorbate relative pressure in a bulk phase for the desorption branch of a hysteresis loop with the key parameters of the adsorption system. The equation obtained was verified by a water adsorption isotherm on natural mineral schungite.

  3. Optimization of salt adsorption rate in membrane capacitive deionization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R; Satpradit, O; Rijnaarts, H H M; Biesheuvel, P M; van der Wal, A

    2013-04-01

    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is a water desalination technique based on applying a cell voltage between two oppositely placed porous electrodes sandwiching a spacer channel that transports the water to be desalinated. In MCDI, ion-exchange membranes are positioned in front of each porous electrode to prevent co-ions from leaving the electrode region during ion adsorption, thereby enhancing the salt adsorption capacity. MCDI can be operated at constant cell voltage (CV), or at a constant electrical current (CC). In this paper, we present both experimental and theoretical results for desalination capacity and rate in MCDI (both in the CV- and the CC-mode) as function of adsorption/desorption time, salt feed concentration, electrical current, and cell voltage. We demonstrate how by varying each parameter individually, it is possible to systematically optimize the parameter settings of a given system to achieve the highest average salt adsorption rate and water recovery. PMID:23395310

  4. Adsorption and decolorization kinetics of methyl orange by anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-05-01

    Adsorption and decolorization kinetics of methyl orange (MO) by anaerobic sludge in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors were investigated. The anaerobic sludge was found to have a saturated adsorption capacity of 36 ± 1 mg g MLSS(-1) to MO. UV/visible spectrophotometer and high-performance liquid chromatography analytical results indicated that the MO adsorption and decolorization occurred simultaneously in this system. This process at various substrate concentrations could be well simulated using a modified two-stage model with apparent pseudo first-order kinetics. Furthermore, a noncompetitive inhibition kinetic model was also developed to describe the MO decolorization process at high NaCl concentrations, and an inhibition constant of 3.67 g NaCl l(-1) was estimated. This study offers an insight into the adsorption and decolorization processes of azo dyes by anaerobic sludge and provides a better understanding of the anaerobic dye decolorization mechanisms. PMID:21279343

  5. Surfaces of Microparticles in Colloids: Structure and Molecular Adsorption Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hai-Lung

    2002-03-01

    Surfaces of micron and sub-micron size particles in liquid solution are probed by second harmonic generation (SHG) facilitated with femtosecond laser pulses. The particles probed include inorganic objects such as carbon black and color pigments, polymeric species like polystyrene beads, and biological systems such as blood cells and ecoli. In the experiments, dye molecules are first adsorbed onto the particle surface to allow generation of second harmonics upon light irradiation. Competition for adsorption between these surface dye molecules and the molecules of interest in the solution is then monitored by the SHG signal to reveal the molecular adsorption kinetics and surface structure. Specifically, surfactant adsorption on polymer surfaces, the structure of carbon black surface, and protein adsorption on biological surfaces, monitored by this technique, will be discussed.

  6. Microscopic Perspective on the Adsorption Isotherm of a Heterogeneous Surface

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Rogan; Comer, Jeffrey; Ginsberg, Mark D.; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption of dissolved molecules onto solid surfaces can be extremely sensitive to the atomic-scale properties of the solute and surface, causing difficulties for the design of fluidic systems in industrial, medical and technological applications. In this communication, we show that the Langmuir isotherm for adsorption of a small molecule to a realistic, heterogeneous surface can be predicted from atomic structures of the molecule and surface through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We highlight the method by studying the adsorption of dimethyl-methylphosphonate (DMMP) to amorphous silica substrates and show that subtle differences in the atomic-scale surface properties can have drastic effects on the Langmuir isotherm. The sensitivity of the method presented is sufficient to permit the optimization of fluidic devices and to determine fundamental design rules for controlling adsorption at the nanoscale. PMID:22611479

  7. Microbial desalination cell with capacitive adsorption for ion migration control.

    PubMed

    Forrestal, Casey; Xu, Pei; Jenkins, Peter E; Ren, Zhiyong

    2012-09-01

    A new microbial desalination cell with capacitive adsorption capability (cMDC) was developed to solve the ion migration problem facing current MDC systems. Traditional MDCs remove salts by transferring ions to the anode and cathode chambers, which may prohibit wastewater beneficial reuse due to increased salinity. The cMDC uses adsorptive activated carbon cloth (ACC) as the electrodes and utilizes the formed capacitive double layers for electrochemical ion adsorption. The cMDC removed an average of 69.4% of the salt from the desalination chamber through electrode adsorption during one batch cycle, and it did not add salts to the anode or cathode chamber. It was estimated that 61-82.2mg of total dissolved solids (TDS) was adsorbed to 1g of ACC electrode. The cMDC provides a new approach for salt management, organic removal, and energy production. Further studies will be conducted to optimize reactor configuration and achieve in situ electrode regeneration. PMID:22784594

  8. The adsorption and reaction of adenine nucleotides on montmorillonite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, James P.; Hagan, William J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The binding of AMP to Zn(2+)-montmorillonite is investigated in the presence of salts and Good's zwitterion buffers, PIPES and MES. The initial concentrations of nucleotide and the percent adsorbtion are used to calculate the adsorption isotherms, and the Langmuir adsorption equation is used for the analysis of data. The adsorption coefficient was found to be three times greater in the presence of 0.2 M PIPES than in its absence. In addition, basal spacings measured by X-ray diffraction were increased by the buffer. These results are interpreted in terms of a model in which the adsorption of AMP is mediated by a Zn(2+) complex of PIPES in different orientations in the interlamellar region of the montmorillonite. Mixed ligand complexes of this type are reminiscent of the complexes observed between metal ions and biological molecules in living systems.

  9. Bromide Adsorption by Reference Minerals and Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bromide, Br-, adsorption behavior was investigated on amorphous Al and Fe oxide, montmorillonite, kaolinite, and temperate and tropical soils. Bromide adsorption decreased with increasing solution pH with minimal adsorption occurring above pH 7. Bromide adsorption was higher for amorphous oxides t...

  10. Co-adsorption of Trichloroethylene and Arsenate by Iron-Impregnated Granular Activated Carbon.

    PubMed

    Deng, Baolin; Kim, Eun-Sik

    2016-05-01

    Co-adsorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) and arsenate [As(V)] was investigated using modified granular activated carbons (GAC): untreated, sodium hypochlorite-treated (NaClO-GAC), and NaClO with iron-treated GAC (NaClO/Fe-GAC). Batch experiments of single- [TCE or As(V)] and binary- [TCE and As(V)] components solutions are evaluated through Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and adsorption kinetic tests. In the single-component system, the adsorption capacity of As(V) was increased by the NaClO-GAC and the NaClO/Fe-GAC. The untreated GAC showed a low adsorption capacity for As(V). Adsorption of TCE by the NaClO/Fe-GAC was maximized, with an increased Freundlich constant. Removal of TCE in the binary-component system was decreased 15% by the untreated GAC, and NaClO- and NaClO/Fe-GAC showed similar efficiency to the single-component system because of the different chemical status of the GAC surfaces. Results of the adsorption isotherms of As(V) in the binary-component system were similar to adsorption isotherms of the single-component system. The adsorption affinities of single- and binary-component systems corresponded with electron transfer, competitive adsorption, and physicochemical properties. PMID:27131303

  11. Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness

    DOEpatents

    Prince, J.M.; Dodson, M.G.; Lechelt, W.M.

    1989-07-18

    A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis. 14 figs.

  12. Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness

    DOEpatents

    Prince, James M.; Dodson, Michael G.; Lechelt, Wayne M.

    1989-01-01

    A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis.

  13. Molecular adsorption on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingmei; Enders, Axel; Rahman, Talat S.; Dowben, Peter A.

    2014-11-01

    Current studies addressing the engineering of charge carrier concentration and the electronic band gap in epitaxial graphene using molecular adsorbates are reviewed. The focus here is on interactions between the graphene surface and the adsorbed molecules, including small gas molecules (H2O, H2, O2, CO, NO2, NO, and NH3), aromatic, and non-aromatic molecules (F4-TCNQ, PTCDA, TPA, Na-NH2, An-CH3, An-Br, Poly (ethylene imine) (PEI), and diazonium salts), and various biomolecules such as peptides, DNA fragments, and other derivatives. This is followed by a discussion on graphene-based gas sensor concepts. In reviewing the studies of the effects of molecular adsorption on graphene, it is evident that the strong manipulation of graphene’s electronic structure, including p- and n-doping, is not only possible with molecular adsorbates, but that this approach appears to be superior compared to these exploiting edge effects, local defects, or strain. However, graphene-based gas sensors, albeit feasible because huge adsorbate-induced variations in the relative conductivity are possible, generally suffer from the lack of chemical selectivity.

  14. Molecular adsorption on graphene.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingmei; Enders, Axel; Rahman, Talat S; Dowben, Peter A

    2014-11-01

    Current studies addressing the engineering of charge carrier concentration and the electronic band gap in epitaxial graphene using molecular adsorbates are reviewed. The focus here is on interactions between the graphene surface and the adsorbed molecules, including small gas molecules (H(2)O, H(2), O(2), CO, NO(2), NO, and NH(3)), aromatic, and non-aromatic molecules (F4-TCNQ, PTCDA, TPA, Na-NH(2), An-CH(3), An-Br, Poly (ethylene imine) (PEI), and diazonium salts), and various biomolecules such as peptides, DNA fragments, and other derivatives. This is followed by a discussion on graphene-based gas sensor concepts. In reviewing the studies of the effects of molecular adsorption on graphene, it is evident that the strong manipulation of graphene's electronic structure, including p- and n-doping, is not only possible with molecular adsorbates, but that this approach appears to be superior compared to these exploiting edge effects, local defects, or strain. However, graphene-based gas sensors, albeit feasible because huge adsorbate-induced variations in the relative conductivity are possible, generally suffer from the lack of chemical selectivity. PMID:25287516

  15. Effects of Cabin Upsets on Adsorption Columns for Air Revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVan, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) utilizes adsorption technology as part of contaminant removal systems designed for long term missions. A variety of trace contaminants can be effectively removed from gas streams by adsorption onto activated carbon. An activated carbon adsorption column meets NASA's requirements of a lightweight and efficient means of controlling trace contaminant levels aboard spacecraft and space stations. The activated carbon bed is part of the Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS) which is utilized to purify the cabin atmosphere. TCCS designs oversize the adsorption columns to account for irregular fluctuations in cabin atmospheric conditions. Variations in the cabin atmosphere include changes in contaminant concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity. Excessively large deviations from typical conditions can result from unusual crew activity, equipment malfunctions, or even fires. The research carried out under this award focussed in detail on the effects of cabin upsets on the performance of activated carbon adsorption columns. Both experiments and modeling were performed with an emphasis on the roll of a change in relative humidity on adsorption of trace contaminants. A flow through fixed-bed apparatus was constructed at the NASA Ames Research Center, and experiments were performed there. Modeling work was performed at the University of Virginia.

  16. Theoretical study on the adsorption of carbon dioxide on individual and alkali-metal doped MOF-5s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Nguyen Thi Thu; Lefedova, O. V.; Ha, Nguyen Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to investigate the adsorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) on metal-organic framework (MOF-5) and alkali-metal (Li, K, Na) doped MOF-5s. The adsorption energy calculation showed that metal atom adsorption is exothermic in MOF-5 system. Moreover, alkali-metal doping can significantly improve the adsorption ability of carbon dioxide on MOF-5. The best influence is observed for Li-doping.

  17. Physical Adsorption of Gases on Heterogeneous Solids and Equilibrium Studies of the Pressure Swing Adsorption Process.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaochun

    1990-01-01

    Adsorption isotherms of ethane, propane, and n -butane on two polystyrene adsorbents and two activated carbons were measured at 0, 25, and 40^ circC. A dynamic chromatographic experimental system was used to measure the transmission curves of gases through a packed bed. The transmission is defined as the ratio of the adsorbate concentration at the bed outlet to that at the bed inlet. A mass-balance equation was used to calculate the solid-phase concentration and the dimensionless adsorption capacity. The structural and energetic heterogeneities of microporous adsorbents were explored by means of Dubinin's Theory of Volume Filling of Micropores (TVFM) and by a modified TVFM. The structural heterogeneity of a microporous adsorbent refers to the non-uniformity of the pore sizes and pore shapes. In polystyrene adsorbents, these non -uniform pores were formed by different copolymerization of monomers; while in activated carbons, these non-uniform pores were formed in the processes of carbonization and activation. The energetic heterogeneities of a microporous adsorbent comes from the structural heterogeneity as well as from the various atoms and functional groups exposed at the pore surface, the impurities strongly bound to the surface, and the irregularities in the crystallographical structure of the surface. Dubinin's original TVFM applies well in structurally homogeneous or weakly-heterogeneous microporous activated carbons; however, fits of experimental isotherms to the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation reveal deviations for structurally -heterogeneous adsorbents. We extended Dubinin's TVFM to the case of structurally-heterogeneous adsorbents by using an overall integral isotherm equation. A gamma-function type micropore-size distribution was used and a three-parameter isotherm equation was obtained. The experimental isotherms on activated carbons were fitted well by this isotherm equation. We characterized eight different activated carbons with the three

  18. Detection of nitroesters and moisture in combustible cartridge case wall by indicator strips and instruments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.H.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Agouridis, D.C.; Gayle, T.M.; Hurst, G.B.; Griest, W.H.

    1992-09-30

    Nitroester migration into the case wall from the propellant and moisture accumulation within the case have been identified as important internal and external (respectively) factors which contribute to the physical deterioration of combustible cartridge case (ccc) munitions. The latter factor also may hinder proper ignition of the ccc and cause incomplete combustion in firing. Visual indicators sensitive to these factors and affixed to ccc rounds would allow quality assurance specialists or gun crews in the field to rapidly determine the potential reliability of individual rounds. Previous work in this task identified chemistries suitable for the detection of nitroesters and moisture in the ccc wall. A version of the Griess reaction was modified for a dry colorimetric indicator which in the presence of nitroglycerin (NG) or diethyleneglycol dinitrate (DEGDN) generates a brilliant red color. Inorganic salts such as cupric chloride, which changes from brown to blue-green upon hydration, were suggested as promising visual indicators of moisture. This report describes the development and preliminary testing of prototype nitroester and moisture indicator strips, and the scoping of two instrumental techniques, infrared spectroscopy and electrical capacitance, which could lead to portable instruments for rapid and nondestructive testing of ccc in the field.

  19. Application of reversed-phase liquid chromatography and prepacked C18 cartridges for the analysis of oxytetracycline and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Fedeniuk, R W; Ramamurthi, S; McCurdy, A R

    1996-03-01

    The reversed-phase (RP) chromatographic separation of oxytetracycline (OTC) 4-epioxytetracycline (4-epiOTC), alpha-apooxytetracycline (alpha-apoOTC), and beta-apooxytetracycline (beta-apoOTC) has been accomplished on an Inertsil C8 column at ambient temperature. Using the simplex method of solvent optimization, a 0.1 M ammonium acetate buffer (pH 3.0)-acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran (72.5:12.5:15, v/v/v) mobile phase was found to give excellent separation of the compounds. OTC, 4-epiOTC, alpha-apoOTC and beta-apoOTC were resolved in 35 min with calculated detection limits of 40, 20, 50 and 140 ng/ml, respectively. Solid-phase extraction (using RP C18 cartridges) of OTC and OTC degradation compounds from distilled water and porcine muscle was tested at four concentration levels ranging from 200 to 2000 ng/ml (g); overall mean recovery of OTC from distilled water and porcine tissue was greater than 90% and 70%, respectively. PMID:8704932

  20. Reduction of radioactivity in oils prior to PCB analysis: A new use for solid phase extraction cartridges

    SciTech Connect

    Monagle, M.; Hakonson, K.M.; Roberts, J.B.

    1995-03-01

    Radioactively contaminated oils represent a significant waste problem throughout the Department of Energy complex (DOE). From contaminated oils in glove box facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) through the 1200 kg of oil waste at Paducah to an estimated 46,000 kg of contaminated oily water at Lawrence Livermore, contaminated oil exists at all of the DOE facilities. Dilution is the primary mechanism for reducing the radionuclides to safe handling levels prior to analysis. However, this approach requires contamination of instrumentation as well as increased limits of quantitation. Often, the dilutions required to maintain As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) guidelines result in limits of quantitation which are above the regulatory limits for waste acceptance. In order to maintain ALARA guidelines while obtaining the lowest possible detection limits, the Organic Analysis Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has established a cleanup technique for oils suspected of being contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls. The technique uses a 0.02 {mu}m disposable filter in conjunction with Florisil SPE cartridges. Using this technique we have demonstrated radionuclide reductions ranging from 60 to 95+% for gross alpha, beta, and gamma while maintaining analyte and surrogate recoveries well within established guidelines. Further advantages of this technique include its simplicity, the generation of a minimum of secondary waste materials, and the potential for field use. Implications of this analytical technique as well as applications to other analytes of interest are currently being explored.