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Sample records for adsorption equilibrium reached

  1. Arsenic Adsorption Equilibrium Concentration and Adsorption Rate of Activated Carbon Coated with Ferric-Aluminum Hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Oguma, T.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2015-12-01

    In some areas of developing countries, ground or well water contaminated with arsenic has been reluctantly used as drinking water. It is highly desirable that effective and inexpensive arsenic removal agents should be developed and provided to reduce the potential health risk. Previous studies demonstrated that activated carbon coated with ferric-aluminum hydroxides (Fe-Al-C) has high adsorptive potential for removal of arsenic. In this study, a series of experiments using Fe-Al-C were carried to discuss adsorption equilibrium time, adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorption rate of arsenic for Fe-Al-C. Fe-Al-C used in this study was provided by Astec Co., Ltd. Powder reagent of disodium hydrogen arsenate heptahydrate was dissolved into ion-exchanged water. The solution was then further diluted with ion-exchanged water to be 1 and 10 mg/L as arsenic concentration. The pH of the solution was adjusted to be around 7 by adding HCl and/or NaOH. The solution was used as artificial arsenic contaminated water in two types of experiments (arsenic adsorption equilibrium and arsenic adsorption rate tests). The results of the arsenic equilibrium tests were showed that a time period of about 3 days to reach apparent adsorption equilibrium for arsenic. The apparent adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorbed amount of arsenic on Fe-Al-C adsorbent could be estimated by application of various adsorption isotherms, but the distribution coefficient of arsenic between solid and liquid varies with experimental conditions such as initial concentration of arsenic and addition concentration of adsorbent. An adsorption rate equation that takes into account the reduction in the number of effective adsorption sites on the adsorbent caused by the arsenic adsorption reaction was derived based on the data obtained from the arsenic adsorption rate tests.

  2. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the adsorption of phenol onto graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yanhui; Du, Qiuju; Liu, Tonghao; Sun, Jiankun; Jiao, Yuqin; Xia, Yanzhi; Xia, Linhua; Wang, Zonghua; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: The effect of temperature on phenol adsorbed by graphene shows that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of phenol increases with the increase in temperature from 285 to 333 K. Increasing adsorption capacities with temperature indicates that the adsorption of phenol is controlled by an endothermic reaction. Highlights: ► The graphene has high phenol adsorption capacity. ► The graphene has a high specific surface area of 305 m{sup 2}/g. ► The adsorption capacity is high at acidic pH range. ► The graphene has rapid phenol adsorption rate. ► Phenol adsorption is a spontaneous and endothermic process. -- Abstract: Graphene, a new member of carbon family, has been prepared, characterized and used as adsorbent to remove phenol from aqueous solution. The effect parameters including pH, dosage, contact time, and temperature on the adsorption properties of phenol onto graphene were investigated. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity can reach 28.26 mg/g at the conditions of initial phenol concentration of 50 mg/L, pH 6.3 and 285 K. Adsorption data were well described by both Freundlich and Langmuir models. The kinetic study illustrated that the adsorption of phenol onto graphene fit the pseudo second-order model. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption of phenol onto graphene was endothermic and spontaneous.

  3. Adsorption characteristics of siloxanes in landfill gas by the adsorption equilibrium test

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Sangchul; Namkoong, Wan; Kang, Jeong-Hee; Park, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Namhoon

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Equilibrium test was attempted to evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxane. • L2 had higher removal efficiency in carbon compared to noncarbon adsorbents. • Total adsorption capacity of siloxane was 300 mg/g by coal activated carbon. • Adsorption characteristics rely on size of siloxane molecule and adsorbent pore. • Conversion of siloxane was caused by adsorption of noncarbon adsorbents. - Abstract: Due to the increase in energy cost by constantly high oil prices and the obligation to reduce greenhouse effect gases, landfill gas is frequently used as an alternative energy source for producing heat and electricity. Most of landfill gas utility facilities, however, are experiencing problems controlling siloxanes from landfill gas as their catalytic oxidizers are becoming fouled by silicon dioxide dust. To evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxanes, an adsorption equilibrium test was conducted and parameters in the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were analyzed. Coconut activated carbon (CA1), coal activated carbon (CA2), impregnated activated carbon (CA3), silicagel (NCA1), and activated alumina (NCA2) were used for the adsorption of the mixed siloxane which contained hexamethyldisiloxane (L2), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5). L2 had higher removal efficiency in noncarbon adsorbents compared to carbon adsorbents. The application of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm demonstrated that coconut based CA1 and CA3 provided higher adsorption capacity on L2. And CA2 and NCA1 provided higher adsorption capacity on D4 and D5. Based on the experimental results, L2, D4, and D5 were converted by adsorption and desorption in noncarbon adsorbents. Adsorption affinity of siloxane is considered to be affect by the pore size distribution of the adsorbents and by the molecular size of each siloxane.

  4. Adsorption equilibrium and dynamics of gasoline vapors onto polymeric adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lijuan; Yu, Weihua; Long, Chao; Li, Aimin

    2014-03-01

    The emission of gasoline vapors is becoming a significant environmental problem especially for the population-dense area and also results in a significant economic loss. In this study, adsorption equilibrium and dynamics of gasoline vapors onto macroporous and hypercrosslinked polymeric resins at 308 K were investigated and compared with commercial activated carbon (NucharWV-A 1100). The results showed that the equilibrium and breakthrough adsorption capacities of virgin macroporous and hypercrosslinked polymeric resins were lower than virgin-activated carbon. Compared with origin adsorbents, however, the breakthrough adsorption capacities of the regenerated activated carbon for gasoline vapors decreased by 58.5 % and 61.3 % when the initial concentration of gasoline vapors were 700 and 1,400 mg/L, while those of macroporous and hypercrosslinked resins decreased by 17.4 % and 17.5 %, and 46.5 % and 45.5 %, respectively. Due to the specific bimodal property in the region of micropore (0.5-2.0 nm) and meso-macropore (30-70 nm), the regenerated hypercrosslinked polymeric resin exhibited the comparable breakthrough adsorption capacities with the regenerated activated carbon at the initial concentration of 700 mg/L, and even higher when the initial concentration of gasoline vapors was 1,400 mg/L. In addition, 90 % of relative humidity had ignorable effect on the adsorption of gasoline vapors on hypercrosslinked polymeric resin. Taken together, it is expected that hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbent would be a promising adsorbent for the removal of gasoline vapors from gas streams.

  5. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of monomer-dimer monoclonal antibody mixtures on a cation exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Reck, Jason M; Pabst, Timothy M; Hunter, Alan K; Wang, Xiangyang; Carta, Giorgio

    2015-07-10

    Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics are determined for a monoclonal antibody (mAb) monomer and dimer species, individually and in mixtures, on a macroporous cation exchange resin both under the dilute limit of salt gradient elution chromatography and at high protein loads and low salt based on batch adsorption equilibrium and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) experiments. In the dilute limit and weak binding conditions, the dimer/monomer selectivity in 10mM phosphate at pH 7 varies between 8.7 and 2.3 decreasing with salt concentration in the range of 170-230mM NaCl. At high protein loads and strong binding conditions (0-60mM NaCl), the selectivity in the same buffer is near unity with no NaCl added, but increases gradually with salt concentration reaching high values between 2 and 15 with 60mM added NaCl. For these conditions, the two-component adsorption kinetics is controlled by pore diffusion and is predicted approximately by a dual shrinking core model using parameters based on single component equilibrium and kinetics measurements.

  6. Adsorption of dyes using peat: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, L; Fernández, K; Contreras, E; Palma, C

    2004-09-01

    In recent years, adsorption has been accepted as one of the most appropriate processes for decolorization of wastewaters. This paper presents experimental results on application of peat for removal of structurally diverse dyes (azo, oxazine, triphenylmethane, thiazine and others) with emphasis on relevant factors such as the adsorbate-adsorbent chemical properties and chemical interaction as well as adsorption conditions. The equilibrium experimental results were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms to obtain the characteristic parameters of each model. According to the evaluation using the Langmuir equation, the maximum sorption capacity of basic dyes at 22 degrees C was 667 (mg g(-1)) for Basic Blue 24, 526 (mg g(-1)) for Basic Green 4 and 714 (mg g(-1)) for Basic Violet 4. On the other hand for Acid Black 1 it was only 25 (mg g(-1)). Batch kinetics studies were undertaken and the data evaluated in compliance with chemical sorption mechanisms. For all of the systems studied the pseudo-second order model provided the best correlation of the kinetic experimental data. A film-pore double resistance diffusion model for mass transfer has also been used in this study to determine the effective diffusivity, Deff, for the adsorption of basic dyes in to peat.

  7. Adsorption Properties of Tetracycline onto Graphene Oxide: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ghadim, Ehsan Ezzatpour; Manouchehri, Firouzeh; Soleimani, Gholamreza; Hosseini, Hadi; Kimiagar, Salimeh; Nafisi, Shohreh

    2013-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticle is a high potential effective absorbent. Tetracycline (TC) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. In the present research, a systematic study of the adsorption and release process of tetracycline on GO was performed by varying pH, sorption time and temperature. The results of our studies showed that tetracycline strongly loads on the GO surface via π–π interaction and cation–π bonding. Investigation of TC adsorption kinetics showed that the equilibrium was reached within 15 min following the pseudo-second-order model with observed rate constants of k2 = 0.2742–0.5362 g/mg min (at different temperatures). The sorption data has interpreted by the Langmuir model with the maximum adsorption of 323 mg/g (298 K). The mean energy of adsorption was determined 1.83 kJ/mol (298 K) based on the Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) adsorption isotherm. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters such as ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG° values for the adsorption were estimated which indicated the endothermic and spontaneous nature of the sorption process. The electrochemistry approved an ideal reaction for the adsorption under electrodic process. Simulation of GO and TC was done by LAMMPS. Force studies in z direction showed that tetracycline comes close to GO sheet by C8 direction. Then it goes far and turns and again comes close from amine group to the GO sheet. PMID:24302989

  8. Equilibrium and kinetics study on hexavalent chromium adsorption onto diethylene triamine grafted glycidyl methacrylate based copolymers.

    PubMed

    Maksin, Danijela D; Nastasović, Aleksandra B; Milutinović-Nikolić, Aleksandra D; Suručić, Ljiljana T; Sandić, Zvjezdana P; Hercigonja, Radmila V; Onjia, Antonije E

    2012-03-30

    Two porous and one non-porous crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) [abbreviated PGME] were prepared by suspension copolymerization and functionalized with diethylene triamine [abbreviated PGME-deta]. Samples were characterized by elemental analysis, mercury porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Kinetics of Cr(VI) sorption by PGME-deta were investigated in batch static experiments, in the temperature range 25-70°C. Sorption was rapid, with the uptake capacity higher than 80% after 30 min. Sorption behavior and rate-controlling mechanisms were analyzed using five kinetic models (pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich, intraparticle diffusion and Bangham model). Kinetic studies showed that Cr(VI) adsorption adhered to the pseudo-second-order model, with definite influence of pore diffusion. Equilibrium data was tested with Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin adsorption isotherm models. Langmuir model was the most suitable indicating homogeneous distribution of active sites on PGME-deta and monolayer sorption. The maximum adsorption capacity from the Langmuir model, Q(max), at pH 1.8 and 25°C was 143 mg g(-1) for PGME2-deta (sample with the highest amino group concentration) while at 70°C Q(max) reached the high value of 198 mg g(-1). Thermodynamic parameters revealed spontaneous and endothermic nature of Cr(VI) adsorption onto PGME-deta.

  9. On the time needed to reach an equilibrium structure of the radiation belts

    DOE PAGES

    Ripoll, J. -F.; Loran, V.; Cunningham, Gregory Scott; ...

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we complement the notion of equilibrium states of the radiation belts with a discussion on the dynamics and time needed to reach equilibrium. We solve for the equilibrium states obtained using 1D radial diffusion with recently developed hiss and chorus lifetimes at constant values of Kp = 1, 3 and 6. We find that the equilibrium states at moderately low Kp, when plotted vs L-shell (L) and energy (E), display the same interesting S-shape for the inner edge of the outer belt as recently observed by the Van Allen Probes. The S-shape is also produced as themore » radiation belts dynamically evolve toward the equilibrium state when initialized to simulate the buildup after a massive dropout or to simulate loss due to outward diffusion from a saturated state. Physically, this shape, intimately linked with the slot structure, is due to the dependence of electron loss rate (originating from wave-particle interactions) on both energy and L-shell. Equilibrium electron flux profiles are governed by the Biot number (τDiffusion/τloss), with large Biot number corresponding to low fluxes and low Biot number to large fluxes. The time it takes for the flux at a specific (L, E) to reach the value associated with the equilibrium state, starting from these different initial states, is governed by the initial state of the belts, the property of the dynamics (diffusion coefficients), and the size of the domain of computation. Its structure shows a rather complex scissor form in the (L, E) plane. The equilibrium value (phase space density or flux) is practically reachable only for selected regions in (L, E) and geomagnetic activity. Convergence to equilibrium requires hundreds of days in the inner belt for E > 300 keV and moderate Kp (≤3). It takes less time to reach equilibrium during disturbed geomagnetic conditions (Kp ≥ 3), when the system evolves faster. Restricting our interest to the slot region, below L = 4, we find that only small regions in (L, E) space

  10. On the time needed to reach an equilibrium structure of the radiation belts

    SciTech Connect

    Ripoll, J. -F.; Loran, V.; Cunningham, Gregory Scott; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Shprits, Y. Y.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we complement the notion of equilibrium states of the radiation belts with a discussion on the dynamics and time needed to reach equilibrium. We solve for the equilibrium states obtained using 1D radial diffusion with recently developed hiss and chorus lifetimes at constant values of Kp = 1, 3 and 6. We find that the equilibrium states at moderately low Kp, when plotted vs L-shell (L) and energy (E), display the same interesting S-shape for the inner edge of the outer belt as recently observed by the Van Allen Probes. The S-shape is also produced as the radiation belts dynamically evolve toward the equilibrium state when initialized to simulate the buildup after a massive dropout or to simulate loss due to outward diffusion from a saturated state. Physically, this shape, intimately linked with the slot structure, is due to the dependence of electron loss rate (originating from wave-particle interactions) on both energy and L-shell. Equilibrium electron flux profiles are governed by the Biot number (τDiffusionloss), with large Biot number corresponding to low fluxes and low Biot number to large fluxes. The time it takes for the flux at a specific (L, E) to reach the value associated with the equilibrium state, starting from these different initial states, is governed by the initial state of the belts, the property of the dynamics (diffusion coefficients), and the size of the domain of computation. Its structure shows a rather complex scissor form in the (L, E) plane. The equilibrium value (phase space density or flux) is practically reachable only for selected regions in (L, E) and geomagnetic activity. Convergence to equilibrium requires hundreds of days in the inner belt for E > 300 keV and moderate Kp (≤3). It takes less time to reach equilibrium during disturbed geomagnetic conditions (Kp ≥ 3), when the system evolves faster. Restricting our interest to the slot region, below L = 4, we find that only small regions in

  11. Kinetics and equilibrium adsorption studies of dimethylamine (DMA) onto ion-exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinhai; Meng, Yuanyuan; Sun, Tongxi; Mahmood, Qaisar; Wu, Donglei; Zhu, Jianhang; Lu, George

    2011-01-30

    The fine grained resin ZGSPC106 was used to adsorb dimethylamine (DMA) from aqueous solution in the present research. Batch experiments were performed to examine the effects of initial pH of solution and agitation time on the adsorption process. The thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption were also analyzed. The maximum adsorption was found at natural pH of DMA solution and equilibrium could be attained within 12 min. The equilibrium adsorption data were conformed satisfactorily to the Langmuir equation. The evaluation based on Langmuir isotherm gave the maximal static saturated adsorption capacity of 138.89 mg/g at 293K. Various thermodynamic parameters such as free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) showed that the adsorption was spontaneous, endothermic and feasible. DMA adsorption on ZGSPC106 fitted well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Furthermore, the adsorption mechanism was discussed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis.

  12. Equilibrium and kinetics of water adsorption in carbon molecular sieve: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, S W; Coons, J E

    2004-09-28

    Measurements of water adsorption equilibrium and kinetics in Takeda carbon molecular sieve (CMS) were undertaken in an effort to characterize fundamental mechanisms of adsorption and transport. Adsorption equilibrium revealed a type III isotherm that was characterized by cooperative multimolecular sorption theory. Water adsorption was found to be reversible and did not display hysteresis upon desorption over the conditions studied. Adsorption kinetics measurements revealed that a Fickian diffusion mechanism governed the uptake of water and that the rate of adsorption decreased with increasing relative pressure. Previous investigations have attributed the observed decreasing trend in the rate of adsorption to blocking of micropores. Here, it is proposed that the decrease is attributed to the thermodynamic correction to Fick's law which is formulated on the basis of the chemical potential as the driving force for transport. The thermodynamically corrected formulation accounted for observations of transport of water and other molecules in CMS.

  13. Equilibrium and kinetic adsorption study of the adsorptive removal of Cr(VI) using modified wheat residue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Suhong; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Xu, Xing

    2010-09-01

    A new adsorbent modified from wheat residue was synthesized after reaction with epichlorohydrin and triethylamine by using the modifying agents of diethylenetriamine in the presence of organic medium of N,N-dimethylformamide. The performance of the modified wheat straw (MWS) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and point of zero charge analysis. The adsorption was investigated in a batch adsorption system, including both equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics. Results showed that MWR had great anion-adsorbing capacity, due to the existence of a large number of introduced amino groups, and the value of pH(PZC) was around 5.0. Equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models and were found to be best represented by the Freundlich isotherm model. Evaluation of the adsorption process identified its endothermic nature. The maximum adsorption capacity of MWS for the removal of Cr(VI) was 322.58mg/g at 328K, indicating that MWS has high chromium removal efficiency, compared to other adsorbents reported. The kinetics of adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation. The mechanism of adsorption was investigated using the intraparticle diffusion model. Thermodynamic parameters (free energy change, enthalpy change, and entropy change) revealed that the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto MWS was endothermic and spontaneous; additionally, the adsorption can be characterized as an ion-exchange process. The results suggest that MWS is an inexpensive and efficient adsorbent for removing Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution.

  14. Adsorption of methylene blue onto bamboo-based activated carbon: kinetics and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Hameed, B H; Din, A T M; Ahmad, A L

    2007-03-22

    Bamboo, an abundant and inexpensive natural resource in Malaysia was used to prepare activated carbon by physiochemical activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) as the activating agents at 850 degrees C for 2h. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of methylene blue dye on such carbon were then examined at 30 degrees C. Adsorption isotherm of the methylene blue (MB) on the activated carbon was determined and correlated with common isotherm equations. The equilibrium data for methylene blue adsorption well fitted to the Langmuir equation, with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 454.2mg/g. Two simplified kinetic models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equation were selected to follow the adsorption processes. The adsorption of methylene blue could be best described by the pseudo-second-order equation. The kinetic parameters of this best-fit model were calculated and discussed.

  15. Dye adsorption onto mesoporous materials: pH influence, kinetics and equilibrium in buffered and saline media.

    PubMed

    Gómez, J M; Galán, J; Rodríguez, A; Walker, G M

    2014-12-15

    Mesoporous materials were used as adsorbents for dye removal in different media: non-ionic, buffered and saline. The mesoporous materials used were commercial (silica gel) as well as as-synthesised materials (SBA-15 and a novel mesoporous carbon). Dye adsorption onto all the materials was very fast and the equilibrium was reached before 1 h. The pH has a significant influence on the adsorption capacity for the siliceous materials since the electrostatic interactions are the driving forces. However, the influence of the pH on the adsorption capacity of the carbonaceous material was lower, since the van der Waals interactions are the driving forces. The ionic strength has a great impact on the siliceous materials adsorption capacity, being their adsorption capacity in a buffered medium six times higher than the corresponding to a non-ionic medium. Nevertheless, ionic strength does not influence on the dye adsorption on the mesoporous carbon. Overall, the as-synthesised carbon material presents a clear potential to treat dye effluents, showing high adsorption capacity (q(e) ≈ 200 mg/g) in all the pH range studied (from 3 to 11); even at low concentrations (C(e) ≈ 10 mg/L) and at short contact times (t(e) < 30 min).

  16. Development of adsorbent from Teflon waste by radiation induced grafting: equilibrium and kinetic adsorption of dyes.

    PubMed

    Goel, N K; Kumar, Virendra; Pahan, S; Bhardwaj, Y K; Sabharwal, S

    2011-10-15

    Mutual radiation grafting technique was employed to graft polyacrylic acid (PAA) onto Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) scrap using high energy gamma radiation. Polyacrylic acid-g-Teflon (PAA-g-Teflon) adsorbent was characterized by grafting extent measurement, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and wet ability & surface energy analysis. The PAA-g-Teflon adsorbent was studied for dye adsorption from aqueous solution of basic dyes, namely, Basic red 29 (BR29) and Basic yellow 11 (BY11). The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models, whereas, adsorption kinetics was analyzed using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models. Equilibrium adsorption of BR29 was better explained by Langmuir adsorption model, while that of BY11 by Freundlich adsorption model. The adsorption capacity for BY11 was more than for BR29. Separation factor (R(L)) was found to be in the range 0 < R(L) < 1, indicating favorable adsorption of dyes. Higher coefficient of determination (r(2) > 0.99) and better agreement between the q(e,cal) and q(e,exp) values suggested that pseudo-second order kinetic model better represents the kinetic adsorption data. The non-linearity obtained for intra-particle diffusion plot indicated, more than one process is involved in the adsorption of basic dyes. The desorption studies showed that ~95% of the adsorbed dye could be eluted in suitable eluent.

  17. Evaluation of a predictive model for air/surface adsorption equilibrium constants and enthalpies.

    PubMed

    Arp, Hans Peter H; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Schwarzenbach, René P

    2006-01-01

    A model used to predict equilibrium adsorption to surfaces using a poly-parameter linear free-energy relationship as well as an empirical model used to predict enthalpies of adsorption of volatile compounds were evaluated with new experimental data to cover semivolatile compounds and a larger variability of compound classes. Equilibrium adsorption constants on a quartz surface ranging over seven orders of magnitude were measured for 142 compounds, and enthalpies of adsorption on a quartz surface from -33.7 to -99.8 kJ/mol were measured for 76 compounds. Agreement between experimental and predicted data was within a factor of two (82.1%) or three (100.0%) for the equilibrium adsorption constants and within 20% for the enthalpy of adsorption values. Thus, the scatter in the validation data sets reported here were practically the same as that for the calibration data sets used to derive the models. The few outliers that we identified in the prediction of equilibrium adsorption constants likely are caused by either shortcomings of the reported sorbate parameters or the occurrence of chemical speciation in the water layer on the surface of the quartz.

  18. Do persistent organic pollutants reach a thermodynamic equilibrium in the global environment?

    PubMed

    Schenker, Sebastian; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2014-05-06

    Equilibrium partitioning between different environmental media is one of the main driving forces that govern the environmental fate of organic chemicals. In the global environment, equilibrium partitioning is in competition with long-range transport, advective phase transfer processes such as wet deposition, and degradation. Here we investigate under what conditions equilibrium partitioning is strong enough to control the global distribution of organic chemicals. We use a global multimedia mass-balance model to calculate the Globally Balanced State (GBS) of organic chemicals. The GBS is the state where equilibrium partitioning is in balance with long-range transport; it represents the maximum influence of thermodynamic driving forces on the global distribution of a chemical. Next, we compare the GBS with the Temporal Remote State, which represents the long-term distribution of a chemical in the global environment when the chemical's distribution is influenced by all transport and degradation processes in combination. This comparison allows us to identify the chemical properties required for a substance to reach the GBS as a stable global distribution. We find that thermodynamically controlled distributions are rare and do not occur for most Persistent Organic Pollutants. They are only found for highly volatile and persistent substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons. Furthermore, we find that the thermodynamic cold-trap effect (i.e., accumulation of pollutants at the poles because of reduced vapor pressure at low temperatures) is often strongly attenuated by atmospheric and oceanic long-range transport.

  19. Adsorption of leather dye onto activated carbon prepared from bottle gourd: equilibrium, kinetic and mechanism studies.

    PubMed

    Foletto, Edson Luiz; Weber, Caroline Trevisan; Paz, Diego Silva; Mazutti, Marcio Antonio; Meili, Lucas; Bassaco, Mariana Moro; Collazzo, Gabriela Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Activated carbon prepared from bottle gourd has been used as adsorbent for removal of leather dye (Direct Black 38) from aqueous solution. The activated carbon obtained showed a mesoporous texture, with surface area of 556.16 m(2) g(-1), and a surface free of organic functional groups. The initial dye concentration, contact time and pH significantly influenced the adsorption capacity. In the acid region (pH 2.5) the adsorption of dye was more favorable. The adsorption equilibrium was attained after 60 min. Equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Temkin isotherm models. The equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm, with maximum adsorption capacity of 94.9 mg g(-1). Adsorption kinetic data were fitted using the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models. The adsorption kinetic was best described by the second-order kinetic equation. The adsorption process was controlled by both external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion. Activated carbon prepared from bottle gourd was shown to be a promising material for adsorption of Direct Black 38 from aqueous solution.

  20. Adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solution onto untreated coffee grounds: equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Azouaou, N; Sadaoui, Z; Djaafri, A; Mokaddem, H

    2010-12-15

    Adsorption can be used as a cost effective and efficient technique for the removal of toxic heavy metals from wastewater. Waste materials with no further treatment such as coffee grounds from cafeterias may act as adsorbents for the removal of cadmium. Batch kinetic and equilibrium experiments were conducted to study the effects of contact time, adsorbent dose, initial pH, particle size, initial concentration of cadmium and temperature. Three adsorption isotherm models namely, Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich were used to analyse the equilibrium data. The Langmuir isotherm which provided the best correlation for Cd(2+) adsorption onto coffee grounds, shows that the adsorption was favourable and the adsorption capacity found was equal to 15.65 mg g(-1). Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and the adsorption was exothermic. The equilibrium was achieved less than 120 min. The adsorption kinetic data was fitted with first and second order kinetic models. Finally it was concluded that the cadmium adsorption kinetic onto coffee grounds was well fitted by second order kinetic model rather than first order model. The results suggest that coffee grounds have high possibility to be used as effective and economical adsorbent for Cd(2+) removal.

  1. Adsorption of Rhodamine B on two novel polar-modified post-cross-linked resins: Equilibrium and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiangfu; Huang, Jianhan

    2016-04-01

    We employed two polar monomers, triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) and butyl acrylate (BA), to copolymerize with divinylbenzene (DVB), and synthesized two starting copolymers labeled PDT and PDB. Then, the Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction was performed for the two starting copolymers, and the residual pendent vinyl groups were consumed, and hence we obtained two novel polar-modified post-cross-linked resins PDTpc and PDBpc. The surface polarity greatly improved due to introduction of the polar monomers, and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and pore volume significantly increased after the Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction. Compared with the starting copolymers, the non-polar post-cross-linked resin PDVBpc and some other adsorbents in the references, PDTpc and PDBpc possessed a much enhanced adsorption to Rhodamine B, and the equilibrium capacity reached 578.2mg/g and 328.7mg/g, respectively, at an equilibrium concentration of 100mg/L, and the Freundlich model characterized the equilibrium data very well. The adsorption was a fast process and the kinetic data obeyed the micropore diffusion model. These results confirmed that PDTpc and PDBpc had the potential superiority in adsorptive removal of Rhodamine B from aqueous solution.

  2. Thermodynamic modeling of solute adsorption equilibrium from near-critical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoning

    2004-05-15

    Modeling of adsorption equilibrium for supercritical fluid mixtures, with as few parameters as possible, is important in applications of the technology of supercritical fluid adsorption. In this paper, a correlative model has been developed to represent the adsorption equilibria of solutes from the near-critical CO(2) fluid. A two-dimensional van der Waals equation of state and the three-dimensional P - R equation of state were used to describe the adsorbed and bulk phases, respectively. This model contains five parameters for adsorption equilibrium isotherms at finite concentrations and two parameters for adsorption equilibrium constants at infinite dilution. All the parameters are independent of temperature and pressure. By applying the model to the experimental data from the literature, it was shown that this model is capable of describing the adsorption behavior of solutes from supercritical carbon dioxide over relatively wide temperature and pressure ranges. In addition, the adsorption behavior of supercritical fluid mixtures was investigated at finite and infinite dilution conditions.

  3. Equilibrium studies of copper ion adsorption onto palm kernel fibre.

    PubMed

    Ofomaja, Augustine E

    2010-07-01

    The equilibrium sorption of copper ions from aqueous solution using a new adsorbent, palm kernel fibre, has been studied. Palm kernel fibre is obtained in large amounts as a waste product of palm oil production. Batch equilibrium studies were carried out and system variables such as solution pH, sorbent dose, and sorption temperature were varied. The equilibrium sorption data was then analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) and Temkin isotherms. The fit of these isotherm models to the equilibrium sorption data was determined, using the linear coefficient of determination, r(2), and the non-linear Chi-square, chi(2) error analysis. The results revealed that sorption was pH dependent and increased with increasing solution pH above the pH(PZC) of the palm kernel fibre with an optimum dose of 10g/dm(3). The equilibrium data were found to fit the Langmuir isotherm model best, with a monolayer capacity of 3.17 x 10(-4)mol/g at 339K. The sorption equilibrium constant, K(a), increased with increasing temperature, indicating that bond strength between sorbate and sorbent increased with temperature and sorption was endothermic. This was confirmed by the increase in the values of the Temkin isotherm constant, B(1), with increasing temperature. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm parameter, free energy, E, was in the range of 15.7-16.7kJ/mol suggesting that the sorption mechanism was ion exchange. Desorption studies showed that a high percentage of the copper was desorbed from the adsorbent using acid solutions (HCl, HNO(3) and CH(3)COOH) and the desorption percentage increased with acid concentration. The thermodynamics of the copper ions/palm kernel fibre system indicate that the process is spontaneous and endothermic.

  4. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study of cesium adsorption onto nanocrystalline mordenite from high-salt solution.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun-Young; Park, Minsung; Kim, Jimin; Oh, Maengkyo; Lee, Eil-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Chung, Dong-Yong; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of cesium adsorption by nanocrystalline mordenite were investigated under cesium contamination with high-salt solution, simulating the case of an operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities or an accident during the processes. The adsorption rate constants were determined using a pseudo second-order kinetic model. The kinetic results strongly demonstrated that the cesium adsorption rate of nano mordenite is extremely fast, even in a high-salt solution, and much faster than that of micro mordenite. In the equilibrium study, the Langmuir isotherm model fit the cesium adsorption data of nano mordenite better than the Freundlich model, which suggests that cesium adsorption onto nano mordenite is a monolayer homogeneous adsorption process. The obtained thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption involved a very stable chemical reaction. In particular, the combination of rapid particle dispersion and rapid cesium adsorption of the nano mordenite in the solution resulted in a rapid and effective process for cesium removal without stirring, which may offer great advantages for low energy consumption and simple operation.

  5. Competitive adsorption of metal cations onto two gram positive bacteria: testing the chemical equilibrium model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowle, David A.; Fein, Jeremy B.

    1999-10-01

    In order to test the ability of a surface complexation approach to account for metal-bacteria interactions in near surface fluid-rock systems, we have conducted experiments that measure the extent of adsorption in mixed metal, mixed bacteria systems. This study tests the surface complexation approach by comparing estimated extents of adsorption based on surface complexation modeling to those we observed in the experimental systems. The batch adsorption experiments involved Ca, Cd, Cu, and Pb adsorption onto the surfaces of 2 g positive bacteria: Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis. Three types of experiments were performed: 1. Single metal (Ca, Cu, Pb) adsorption onto a mixture of B. licheniformis and B. subtilis; 2. mixed metal (Cd, Cu, and Pb; Ca and Cd) adsorption onto either B. subtilis or B. licheniformis; and 3. mixed or single metal adsorption onto B. subtilis and B. licheniformis. %Independent of the experimental results, and based on the site specific stability constants for Ca, Cd, Cu, and Pb interactions with the carboxyl and phosphate sites on B. licheniformis and B. subtilis determined by Fein et al. (1997), by Daughney et al. (1998) and in this study, we estimate the extent of adsorption that is expected in the above experimental systems. Competitive cation adsorption experiments in both single and double bacteria systems exhibit little adsorption at pH values less than 4. With increasing pH above 4.0, the extent of Ca, Cu, Pb and Cd adsorption also increases due to the increased deprotonation of bacterial surface functional groups. In all cases studied, the estimated adsorption behavior is in excellent agreement with the observations, with only slight differences that were within the uncertainties of the estimation and experimental procedures. Therefore, the results indicate that the use of chemical equilibrium modeling of aqueous metal adsorption onto bacterial surfaces yields accurate predictions of the distribution of metals in complex

  6. Equilibrium and kinetic adsorption study of a cationic dye by a natural adsorbent--silkworm pupa.

    PubMed

    Noroozi, B; Sorial, G A; Bahrami, H; Arami, M

    2007-01-02

    In this work the use of silkworm pupa, which is the waste of silk spinning industries has been investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of C.I. Basic Blue 41. The amino acid nature of the pupa provided a reasonable capability for dye removal. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. The adsorption equilibrium data were analyzed by using various adsorption isotherm models and the results have shown that adsorption behavior of the dye could be described reasonably well by either Langmuir or Freundlich models. The characteristic parameters for each isotherm have been determined. The monolayer adsorption capacity was determined to be 555 mg/g. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption follows pseudo-second-order kinetics with a rate constant of 0.0434 and 0.0572 g/min mg for initial dye concentration of 200 mg/l at 20 and 40 degrees C, respectively. Kinetic studies showed that film diffusion and intra-particle diffusion were simultaneously operating during the adsorption process. The rate constant for intra-particle diffusion was estimated to be 1.985 mg/g min(0.5).

  7. Adsorption laboratory experiment for undergraduate chemical engineering: Introducing kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muryanto, S.; Djatmiko Hadi, S.

    2016-11-01

    Adsorption laboratory experiment for undergraduate chemical engineering program is discussed. The experiment demonstrated adsorption of copper ions commonly found in wastewater using bio-sorbent, i.e. agricultural wastes. The adsorption was performed in a batch mode under various parameters: adsorption time (up to 120 min), initial pH (2 to 6), adsorbent dose (2.0 to 12.0 g L-1), adsorbent size (50 to 170 mesh), initial Cu2+ concentration (25 to 100 ppm) and temperatures (room temp to 40°C). The equilibrium and kinetic data of the experiments were calculated using the two commonly used isotherms: Langmuir and Lagergren pseudo-first-order kinetics. The maximum adsorption capacity for Cu2+ was found as 94.34 mg g-1. Thermodynamically, the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The calculated activation energy for the adsorption was observed as high as 127.94 kJ mol-1. Pedagogically, the experiment was assumed to be important in increasing student understanding of kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic concepts.

  8. Methylene blue adsorption onto swede rape straw (Brassica napus L.) modified by tartaric acid: equilibrium, kinetic and adsorption mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yanfang; Zhou, Hui; Liu, Guohua; Qiao, Jun; Wang, Jinhua; Lu, Haiying; Yang, Linzhang; Wu, Yonghong

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a promising and competitive bioadsorbent with the abundant of source, low price and environmentally friendly characters to remove cationic dye from wastewater. The swede rape straw (Brassica napus L.) modified by tartaric acid (SRSTA) was prepared, characterized and used to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution at varied operational conditions (including MB initial concentrations, adsorbent dose, etc.). Results demonstrated that the equilibrium data was well fitted by Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum MB adsorption capacity of SRSTA was 246.4 mg g(-1), which was comparable to the results of some previous studied activated carbons. The higher dye adsorption capacity could be attributed to the presence of more functional groups such as carboxyl group on the surface of SRSTA. The adsorption mechanism was also discussed. The results indicate that SRSTA is a promising and valuable absorbent to remove methylene blue from wastewater.

  9. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics for SO2, NO, CO2 on zeolites FAU and LTA.

    PubMed

    Yi, Honghong; Deng, Hua; Tang, Xiaolong; Yu, Qiongfen; Zhou, Xuan; Liu, Haiyan

    2012-02-15

    In order to develop a single-step process for removing SO(2), NO, CO(2) in flue gas simultaneously by co-adsorption method. Pure component adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of SO(2), NO, and CO(2) on zeolite NaY, NaX, CaA were obtained respectively. Equilibrium data were analyzed by equilibrium model and Henry's law constant. The results suggest that Adsorption affinity follows the trend SO(2)>CO(2)>NO for the same adsorbent. Zeolite with stronger polar surface is a more promising adsorbent candidate. Kinetics behavior was investigated using the breakthrough curve method. The overall mass transfer coefficient and diffusivity factor were determined by a linear driving force model. The results are indicative of micropore diffusion controlling mechanism. NaY zeolite has the minimum resistance of mass transfer duo to the wide pore distribution and large pore amount. CaA zeolite exhibits the highest spatial hindered effect. Finally, co-adsorption effect of SO(2), NO, and CO(2) were investigated by multi-components breakthrough method. SO(2) and NO may form new adsorbed species, however, CO(2) presents a fast breakthrough. Chemical adsorption causes SO(2) transforms to SO(4)(2-), however, element N and C are not detected in adsorbed zeolites.

  10. Adsorption of direct dye on palm ash: kinetic and equilibrium modeling.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, A A; Hameed, B H; Aziz, N

    2007-03-06

    Palm ash, an agriculture waste residue from palm-oil industry in Malaysia, was investigated as a replacement for the current expensive methods of removing direct blue 71 dye from an aqueous solution. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. Equilibrium data fitted well with Freundlich model in the range of 50-600mg/L. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of the palm ash was determined with the Langmuir equation and found to be 400.01mg dye per gram adsorbent at 30 degrees C. The rates of adsorption were found to conform to the pseudo-second-order kinetics with good correlation. The results indicate that the palm ash could be employed as a low-cost alternative to commercial activated carbon.

  11. Binary adsorption equilibrium of carbon dioxide and water vapor on activated alumina.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Xiao, Penny; Webley, Paul

    2009-09-15

    Adsorption equilibria of a CO2/H2O binary mixture on activated alumina F-200 were measured at several temperatures and over a wide range of concentrations from 4% to around 90% of the saturated water vapor pressure. In comparison with the single-component data, the loading of CO2 was not reduced in the presence of H2O, whereas at low relative humidity the adsorption of H2O was depressed. The binary system was described by a competitive/cooperative adsorption model where the readily adsorbed water layers acted as secondary sites for further CO2 adsorption via hydrogen bonding or hydration reaction. The combination of kinetic models, namely, a Langmuir isotherm for characterizing pure CO2 adsorption and a BET isotherm for H2O, was extended to derive a binary adsorption equilibrium model for the CO2/H2O mixture. Models based on the ideal adsorbed solution theory of Myers and Prausnitz failed to characterize the data over the whole composition range, and a large deviation of binary CO2/H2O equilibrium from ideal solution behavior was observed. The extended Langmuir-BET (LBET) isotherm, analogous to the extended Langmuir equation, drastically underestimated the CO2 loading. By incorporating the interactions between CO2 and H2O molecules on the adsorbent surface and taking into account the effect of nonideality, the realistic interactive LBET (R-LBET) model was found to be in very good agreement with the experimental data. The derived binary isosteric heat of adsorption showed that the heat was reduced by competitive adsorption but promoted by cooperative adsorption.

  12. Equilibrium and heat of adsorption for organic vapors and activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    David Ramirez; Shaoying Qi; Mark J. Rood; K. James Hay

    2005-08-01

    Determination of the adsorption properties of novel activated carbons is important to develop new air quality control technologies that can solve air quality problems in a more environmentally sustainable manner. Equilibrium adsorption capacities and heats of adsorption are important parameters for process analysis and design. Experimental adsorption isotherms were thus obtained for relevant organic vapors with activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC) and coal-derived activated carbon adsorbents (CDAC). The Dubinin-Astakhov (DA) equation was used to describe the adsorption isotherms. The DA parameters were analytically and experimentally shown to be temperature independent. The resulting DA equations were used with the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to analytically determine the isosteric heat of adsorption ({Delta}H{sub s}) of the adsorbate-adsorbent systems studied here. ACFC showed higher adsorption capacities for organic vapors than CDAC. {Delta}H{sub s} values for the adsorbates were independent of the temperature for the conditions evaluated. {Delta}H{sub s} values for acetone and benzene obtained in this study are comparable with values reported in the literature. This is the first time that {Delta}H{sub s} values for organic vapors and these adsorbents are evaluated with an expression based on the Polanyi adsorption potential and the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. 28 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs., 3 appends.

  13. Equilibrium and dynamic study on hexavalent chromium adsorption onto activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Di Natale, F; Erto, A; Lancia, A; Musmarra, D

    2015-01-08

    In this work, the results of equilibrium and dynamic adsorption tests of hexavalent chromium, Cr (VI), on activated carbon are presented. Adsorption isotherms were determined at different levels of pH and temperature. Dynamic tests were carried out in terms of breakthrough curves of lab-scale fixed bed column at different pH, inlet concentration and flow rate. Both the adsorption isotherms and the breakthrough curves showed non-linear and unconventional trends. The experimental results revealed that chromium speciation played a key role in the adsorption process, also for the occurrence of Cr(VI)-to-Cr(III) reduction reactions. Equilibrium tests were interpreted in light of a multi-component Langmuir model supported by ion speciation analysis. For the interpretation of the adsorption dynamic tests, a mass transfer model was proposed. Dynamic tests at pH 11 were well described considering the external mass transfer as the rate controlling step. Differently, for dynamic tests at pH 6 the same model provided a satisfying description of the experimental breakthrough curves only until a sorbent coverage around 1.6mgg(-1). Above this level, a marked reduction of the breakthrough curve slope was observed in response to a transition to an inter-particle adsorption mechanism.

  14. Equilibrium and kinetic aspects of sodium cromoglycate adsorption on chitosan: mass uptake and surface charging considerations.

    PubMed

    de Lima, C R M; Pereira, M R; Fonseca, J L C

    2013-09-01

    Chitosan has more and more been suggested as a material for use as adsorbent in the treatment of effluents as well as in the synthesis of drug-loaded nanoparticles for controlled release. In both cases, a good understanding of the process of adsorption, both kinetically and in terms of equilibrium, has an importance of its own. In this manuscript we study the interaction between sodium cromoglycate, a drug used in asthma treatment, and chitosan. Equilibrium experiments showed that Sips (or Freundlich-Langmuir) isotherm described well the resultant data and adsorption possibly occurred as in multilayers. A model based on ordinary reaction-rate theory, compounded of two processes, each one with a correlated velocity constant, described the kinetics of sorption. Kinetic and equilibrium data suggested the possibility of surface rearrangement, favored by the increase of temperature.

  15. Kinetics and equilibrium adsorption study of lead(II) onto activated carbon prepared from coconut shell.

    PubMed

    Sekar, M; Sakthi, V; Rengaraj, S

    2004-11-15

    Removal of lead from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto coconut-shell carbon was investigated. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to find out the effective lead removal at different metal ion concentrations. Adsorption of Pb2+ ion was strongly affected by pH. The coconut-shell carbon (CSC) exhibited the highest lead adsorption capacity at pH 4.5. Isotherms for the adsorption of lead on CSC were developed and the equilibrium data fitted well to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Tempkin isotherm models. At pH 4.5, the maximum lead adsorption capacity of CSC estimated with the Langmuir model was 26.50 mg g(-1) adsorbent. Energy of activation (Ea) and thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaG, DeltaH, and DeltaS were evaluated by applying the Arrhenius and van't Hoff equations. The thermodynamics of Pb(II) on CSC indicates the spontaneous and endothermic nature of adsorption. Quantitative desorption of Pb(II) from CSC was found to be 75% which facilitates the sorption of metal by ion exchange.

  16. Adsorption of cellulase Aspergillus niger on a commercial activated carbon: kinetics and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Fatima Boukraa-Oulad; Kaddour, Samia; Sadoun, Tahar

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption kinetics of cellulase Aspergillus niger on a commercial activated carbon has been performed using a batch-adsorption technique. The effect of various experimental parameters such as initial enzyme concentration, contact time and temperature were investigated. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic data which shows that the adsorption of the enzyme followed the pseudo-second-order rate expression and the rate constants were evaluated. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms, and the isotherm constants were determined. It was found that Langmuir model was more suitable for our data. The activation energy of adsorption was also evaluated for the adsorption of enzyme onto activated carbon. It was found 11.37 kJ mol(-1). Thermodynamic parameters Delta G(0), Delta H(0) and DeltaS(0) were calculated, indicating that this process can be spontaneous and endothermic. The adsorption enthalpy and entropy were found 11.12 kJ mol(-1) and 0.084 kJ mol(-1)K(-1), respectively. At 30 degrees C and at pH 4.8, 1g activated carbon adsorbed about 1565 mg of cellulase, with a retention of 70% of the native enzyme activity up to five cycles of repeated batch enzyme reactions.

  17. Adsorptive removal of acrylonitrile by commercial grade activated carbon: kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Prasad, B; Mishra, I M

    2008-04-01

    The potential of activated carbons--powdered (PAC) and granular (GAC), for the adsorption of acrylonitrile (AN) at different initial AN concentrations (50adsorption was studied. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin, and Redlich-Peterson (R-P) isotherm equations were used to test their fit with the experimental data, and the model parameters were determined for different temperatures. The Langmuir and R-P models were found to be the best to describe the equilibrium isotherm data of AN adsorption on PAC and GAC, respectively. Error analysis also confirmed the efficacy of the R-P isotherm to best fit the experimental data. The pseudo-second order kinetic model best represents the kinetics of the adsorption of AN onto PAC and GAC. Maximum adsorption capacity of PAC and GAC at optimum conditions of AN removal (adsorbent dose approximately 20 g/l of solution, and equilibrium time approximately 5 h) was found to be 51.72 and 46.63 mg/g, respectively.

  18. Adsorption of crystal violet onto functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes: Equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Sabna, V; Thampi, Santosh G; Chandrakaran, S

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic dyes present in effluent from textile, paper and paint industries contain crystal violet (CV), a known carcinogenic agent. This study investigates the modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes by acid reflux method and equilibrium and kinetic behaviour of adsorption of CV onto functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (fMWNTs) in batch system. High stability of the fMWNTs suspension in water indicates the hydrophilicity of fMWNTs induced due to the formation of functional groups that make hydrogen bonds with water molecules. fMWNTs were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy and the functional groups present on the fMWNTs were confirmed. Characteristic variation was observed in the FTIR spectra of fMWNTs after adsorption of crystal violet onto it. Adsorption characteristics were evaluated as a function of system variables such as contact time, dosage of fMWNTs and initial concentration and pH of the crystal violet solution. Adsorption capacity of fMWNTs and percentage removal of the dye increased with increase in contact time, adsorbent dosage and pH but declined with increase in initial concentration of the dye. fMWNTs showed higher adsorption capacity compared to that of pristine MWNTs. Data showed good fit with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and the pseudo-second order kinetic model; the maximum adsorption capacity was 90.52mg/g. Kinetic parameters such as rate constants, equilibrium adsorption capacities and regression coefficients were estimated. Results indicate that fMWNTs are an effective adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet from aqueous solution.

  19. Prediction of equilibrium parameters of adsorption of lead (II) ions onto diatomite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Taylan; Ardalı, Yüksel; Gamze Turan, N.

    2013-04-01

    Heavy metals from industrial wastewaters are one of the most important environmental issues to be solved today. Due to their toxicity and nonbiodegradable nature, heavy metals cause environmental and public health problems. Various techniques have been developed to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions. These include chemical precipitation, reverse osmosis, ion Exchange and adsorption. Among them, adsorption is considered to be a particularly competitive and effective process for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. There is growing interest in using low cost, commercially available materials for the adsorption of heavy metals. Diatomite is a siliceous sedimentary rock having an amorphous form of silica (SiO2. nH2O) containing a small amount of microcrystalline material. It has unique combination of physical and chemical properties such as high porosity, high permeability, small particle size, large surface area, and low thermal conductivity. In addition, it is available in Turkey and in various locations around the world. Therefore, diatomite has been successfully used as adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals. The aim of the study is to investigate the adsorption properties of diatomite. The equilibrium adsorption data were applied to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevic (D-R) isotherm models. Adsorption experiments were performed under batch process, using Pb (II) initial concentration, pH of solution and contact time as variables. The results demonstrated that the adsorption of Pb (II) was strongly dependent on pH of solution. The effect of pH on adsorption of Pb(II) on diatomite was conducted by varying pH from 2 to 12 at 20 oC. In the pH range of 2.0-4.0, the adsorption percentage increases slightly as the pH increasing. At pH>4, the adsorption percentage decreases with increasing pH because hydrolysis product and the precipitation begin to play an important role in the sorption of Pb (II). At pH4, the maximum adsorption

  20. IgG adsorption on a new protein A adsorbent based on macroporous hydrophilic polymers. I. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Perez-Almodovar, Ernie X; Carta, Giorgio

    2009-11-20

    Experimental determination and modeling of IgG binding on a new protein A adsorbent based on a macroporous resin were performed. The new adsorbent consists of polymeric beads based on hydrophilic acrylamido and vinyl monomers with a pore structure optimized to allow favorable interactions of IgG with recombinant protein A coupled to the resin. The particles have average diameter of 57 microm and a narrow particle size distribution. The IgG adsorption equilibrium capacity is 46 mg/cm(3) and the effective pore diffusivity determined from pulse response experiments for non-binding conditions is 8.0 x 10(-8) cm(2)/s. The IgG adsorption kinetics can be described with the same effective diffusivity by taking into account a heterogeneous binding mechanism with fast binding sites, for which adsorption is completely diffusion controlled, and slow binding sites for which adsorption is controlled by the binding kinetics. As a result of this mechanism, the breakthrough curve exhibits a tailing behavior, which appears to be associated with the slow binding sites. A detailed rate model taking into account intraparticle diffusion and binding kinetics is developed and is found capable of predicting both batch adsorption and breakthrough behavior over an ample range of experimental conditions. The corresponding effective diffusivity is independent of protein concentration in solution over the range 0.2-2 mg/cm(3) and of protein binding as a result of the large pore size of the support matrix. Overall, the small particle size and low diffusional hindrance allow capture of IgG with short residence times while attaining substantial dynamic binding capacities.

  1. Adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of dichloroacetic acid from aqueous solution using mesoporous carbon.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ying; Zhu, Jianzhong; Cao, Yang; Chen, Shenglu

    2014-08-01

    The presence of disinfection by-products, such as trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids in water, is believed to be harmful to human health. In this work, mesoporous carbon was synthesized with the evaporation-induced self-assembly method and employed to evaluate the effects of initial concentration, contact time, pH and temperature on the removal of dichloroacetic acid in batch experiments. Adsorption equilibrium was established in 480 min and the maximum adsorption (350mg/g) of dichloroacetic acid on the mesoporous carbon was observed to occur at 308 K and pH 3.0. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were used to analyse the equilibrium data at different temperatures; kinetic data were fitted to the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models and found that the adsorption capacity, mass transfer coefficient and diffusivity of dichloroacetic acid were directly affected by the physical and chemical parameters. In addition, the various thermodynamic parameters, such as Gibbs free energy (Delta G), enthalpy (Delta H = 54.35 kJmol-1) and entropy (Delta S = 258.36 Jmol-1 K-1) were calculated to analyse the adsorption process. The experimental results indicated that the mesoporous carbon was an excellent adsorbent for dichloroacetic acid removal from aqueous solutions.

  2. Equilibrium and kinetic modeling of adsorptive sulfur removal from gasoline by synthesized Ce-Y zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Rahimi, Amir; Seyedeyn-Azad, Fakhry

    2010-11-01

    In this research, the adsorption of a model sulfur compound, thiophene, from a simulated gasoline onto Ce-Y zeolite in pellet and powder forms was investigated. For this purpose, zeolite Na-Y was synthesized, and Ce-Y zeolite was prepared via solid-state ion-exchanged (SSIE) method. Adsorptive desulfurization of model gasoline was conducted in a batch reactor at ambient conditions to evaluate the equilibrium and kinetics of thiophene adsorption onto Ce-Y zeolite. The equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuire and Toth models. Pseudo-n-order and modified n-order models, LDF-base model, and intra-particle diffusion model were evaluated to fit the kinetic of the adsorption process and to determine the mechanism of it. The corresponding parameters and/or correlation coefficients of each model were reported. The LDF-base model was used also to fit the mass transfer coefficient for both powder and pellet forms of the adsorbent. The best fit estimates for the mass transfer coefficient were obtained 4 × 10-11 m/s and k = 3.1 × 10-12[exp( - t/τ) + 1/(t + 10-4)], for powder and pellet form adsorbents, respectively.

  3. Equilibrium isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics studies of phenolic compounds adsorption on palm-tree fruit stones.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Muthanna J; Theydan, Samar K

    2012-10-01

    Adsorption capacity of an agricultural waste, palm-tree fruit stones (date stones), for phenolic compounds such as phenol (Ph) and p-nitro phenol (PNPh) at different temperatures was investigated. The characteristics of such waste biomass were determined and found to have a surface area and iodine number of 495.71 m2/g and 475.88 mg/g, respectively. The effects of pH (2-12), adsorbent dose (0.6-0.8 g/L) and contact time (0-150 min) on the adsorptive removal process were studied. Maximum removal percentages of 89.95% and 92.11% were achieved for Ph and PNPh, respectively. Experimental equilibrium data for adsorption of both components were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherm models. The results show that the best fit was achieved with the Langmuir isotherm equation with maximum adsorption capacities of 132.37 and 161.44 mg/g for Ph and PNPh, respectively. The kinetic data were fitted to pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models, and was found to follow closely the pseudo-second order model for both components. The calculated thermodynamic parameters, namely ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS showed that adsorption of Ph and PNPh was spontaneous and endothermic under examined conditions.

  4. Lead removal from aqueous solution by natural and pretreated clinoptilolite: adsorption equilibrium and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Günay, Ahmet; Arslankaya, Ertan; Tosun, Ismail

    2007-07-19

    Adsorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution onto clinoptilolite has been investigated to evaluate the effects of contact time, initial concentration and pretreatment of clinoptilolite on the removal of Pb(II). Experimental data obtained from batch equilibrium tests have been analyzed by four two-parameter (Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich), four three-parameter (Redlich-Peterson, Sips, Toth and Khan) isotherm models, and kinetic models including the pseudo-first order, the pseudo-second order and Elovich equations using nonlinear regression technique. Of the two-parameter isotherms, Temkin isotherm was the best to describe the experimental data. Three-parameter isotherms have higher regression coefficients (>0.99) and lower relative errors (<5%) than two-parameter isotherms. The best fitting isotherm was the Sips followed by Toth and Redlich-Peterson isotherm equations. Maximum experimental adsorption capacity was found to be 80.933 and 122.400 mg/g for raw and pretreated clinoptilolite, respectively, for the initial concentration of 400 mg/L. Kinetic parameters; rate constants, equilibrium adsorption capacities and related coefficients for each kinetic model were evaluated according to relative errors and correlation coefficients. Results of the kinetic studies show that best fitted kinetic models are obtained to be in the order: the pseudo-first order, the pseudo-second order and Elovich equations. Using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficients, Gibbs free energy of the Pb(II)-clinoptilolite system was evaluated. The negative value of change in Gibbs free energy (DeltaG degrees ) indicates that adsorption of Pb(II) on clinoptilolite is spontaneous.

  5. Adsorption and abiotic oxidation of arsenic by aged biofilter media: equilibrium and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Sahabi, Danladi Mahuta; Takeda, Minoru; Suzuki, Ichiro; Koizumi, Jun-ichi

    2009-09-15

    Removal of arsenic from groundwater by biological adsorptive filtration depends largely on its interaction with biogenic iron and manganese oxides surfaces. In the present study we investigated the arsenic adsorption and abiotic oxidation capacities of an aged biofilter medium (BM2) collected from a long time established groundwater treatment plant for removal of iron and manganese by biological filtration. Batch oxidation/adsorption kinetic experiments indicated that BM2 can easily oxidize As(III) to As(V) with the rate of oxidation less affected by pH-variations from 4 to 8.5. The adsorption capacity of the biofilter medium for the produced or added As(V), however, depends strongly on the pH of the solution. The kinetics results have shown that As(III) sorption followed pseudo-second order kinetics, whereas the sorption of As(V) was best described by the intra-particle diffusion model, indicating that adsorptions of As(III) and As(V) onto BM2 were governed by different mechanisms. Adsorption isotherms at 25 degrees C were measured for a range of arsenite and arsenate initial concentrations of 0.67-20 micromol/L and the pH range from 4 to 9. Adsorption maxima were highest at pH 4 and decrease steadily as the pH increases. The equilibrium data for both As(III) and As(V) fitted very well to the Freundlich and Sips isotherm equations and, in most cases, the two isotherms overlapped with the same correlation coefficients, indicating sorption to be multilayer on the heterogeneous surface of BM2. The implication of the data for arsenic removal from water by biological filtration has been discussed.

  6. Kinetics and equilibrium adsorption study of p-nitrophenol onto activated carbon derived from walnut peel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Fang; Bai, Song

    2015-01-01

    An original activated carbon prepared from walnut peel, which was activated by zinc chloride, was modified with ammonium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide in order to contrast the adsorption property of the three different activated carbons. The experiment used a static adsorption test for p-nitrophenol. The effects of parameters such as initial concentration, contact time and pH value on amount adsorbed and removal are discussed in depth. The thermodynamic data of adsorption were analyzed by Freundlich and Langmuir models. The kinetic data of adsorption were measured by the pseudo-first-order kinetics and the pseudo-second-order kinetics models. The results indicated that the alkalized carbon samples derived from walnut peel had a better performance than the original activated carbon treated with zinc chloride. It was found that adsorption equilibrium time was 6 h. The maximum removal rate of activated carbon treated with zinc chloride for p-nitrophenol was 87.3% at pH 3,whereas the maximum removal rate of the two modified activated carbon materials was found to be 90.8% (alkalized with ammonium hydroxide) and 92.0% (alkalized with sodium hydroxide) at the same pH. The adsorption data of the zinc chloride activated carbon were fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model. The two alkalized activated carbon samples were fitted well to the Freundlich model. The pseudo-second-order dynamics equation provided better explanation of the adsorption dynamics data of the three activated carbons than the pseudo-first-order dynamics equation.

  7. Adsorption kinetic and equilibrium study for removal of mercuric chloride by CuCl2-impregnated activated carbon sorbent.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Liu, Zhouyang; Lee, Joo-Youp

    2013-05-15

    The intrinsic adsorption kinetics of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) was studied for raw, 4% and 10% CuCl2-impregnated activated carbon (CuCl2-AC) sorbents in a fixed-bed system. An HgCl2 adsorption kinetic model was developed for the AC sorbents by taking into account the adsorption kinetics, equilibrium, and internal and external mass transfer. The adsorption kinetic constants determined from the comparisons between the simulation and experimental results were 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5m(3)/(gs) for DARCO-HG, 4%(wt), and 10%(wt) CuCl2-AC sorbents, respectively, at 140 °C. CuCl2 loading was found to slightly increase the adsorption kinetic constant or at least not to decrease it. The HgCl2 equilibrium adsorption data based on the Langmuir isotherm show that high CuCl2 loading can result in high binding energy of the HgCl2 adsorption onto the carbon surface. The adsorption equilibrium constant was found to increase by ~10 times when CuCl2 loading varied from 0 to 10%(wt), which led to a decrease in the desorption kinetic constant (k2) by ~10 times and subsequently the desorption rate by ~50 times. Intraparticle pore diffusion considered in the model showed good accuracy, allowing for the determination of intrinsic HgCl2 adsorption kinetics.

  8. Equilibrium and kinetic modeling of adsorption of reactive dye on cross-linked chitosan beads.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Ming Shen; Li, Hsing Ya

    2002-07-22

    The adsorption of reactive dye (Reactive Red 189) from aqueous solutions on cross-linked chitosan beads was studied in a batch system. The equilibrium isotherms at different particle sizes (2.3-2.5, 2.5-2.7 and 3.5-3.8mm) and the kinetics of adsorption with respect to the initial dye concentration (4320, 5760 and 7286 g/m(3)), temperature (30, 40 and 50 degrees C), pH (1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 9.0), and cross-linking ratio (cross-linking agent/chitosan weight ratio: 0.2, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0) were investigated. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the experimental isotherms and isotherm constants. Equilibrium data fitted very well to the Langmuir model in the entire saturation concentration range (0-1800 g/m(3)). The maximum monolayer adsorption capacities obtained from the Langmuir model are very large, which are 1936, 1686 and 1642 g/kg for small, mediumand large particle sizes, respectively, at pH 3.0, 30 degrees C, and the cross-linking ratio of 0.2. The pseudo first- and second-order kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic data, and the rate constants were evaluated. The experimental data fitted well to the second-order kinetic model, which indicates that the chemical sorption is the rate-limiting step, instead of mass transfer. The initial dye concentration and the solution pH both significantly affect the adsorption capacity, but the temperature and the cross-linking ratio are relatively minor factors. An increase in initial dye concentration results in the increase of adsorption capacity, which also increases with decreasing pH. The activation energy is 43.0 kJ/mol for the adsorption of the dye on the cross-linked chitosan beads at pH 3.0 and initial dye concentration 3768 g/m(3).

  9. Equilibrium and kinetic analysis of phosphorus adsorption from aqueous solution using waste alum sludge.

    PubMed

    Babatunde, A O; Zhao, Y Q

    2010-12-15

    Excess phosphorus (P) in wastewaters promotes eutrophication in receiving waterways. A cost-effective method such as use of novel low-cost adsorbents for its adsorptive removal would significantly reduce such impacts. Using batch experiments, the intrinsic dynamics of P adsorption by waste alum sludge (an inevitable by-product of drinking water treatment plants) was examined. Different models of adsorption were used to describe equilibrium and kinetic data, calculate rate constants and determine the adsorption capacity. Results indicate that the intraparticle rate constant increased from 0.0075 mg g(-1)min(-1) at 5 mg L(-1) to 0.1795 mg g(-1)min(-1) at 60 mg L(-1) indicating that more phosphate is adsorbed per g min at higher P concentration. Further analyses indicate involvement of film and particle diffusion mechanisms as rate controlling steps at lower and higher concentrations, respectively. Mass transfer coefficient obtained ranged from 1.7 × 10(-6) to 1.8 × 10(-8) indicating a rapid transportation of phosphate molecules onto the alum sludge. These results further demonstrates that alum sludge-hitherto thought of as undesirable waste, can be used as novel adsorbent for P removal from wastewater through various applications, thus offsetting a portion of the disposal costs while at the same time improving water quality in sensitive watersheds.

  10. Dye removal from textile industrial effluents by adsorption on exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets: kinetic and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Carvallho, Marilda N; da Silva, Karolyne S; Sales, Deivson C S; Freire, Eleonora M P L; Sobrinho, Maurício A M; Ghislandi, Marcos G

    2016-01-01

    The concept of physical adsorption was applied for the removal of direct and reactive blue textile dyes from industrial effluents. Commercial graphite nanoplatelets were used as substrate, and the quality of the material was characterized by atomic force and transmission electron microscopies. Dye/graphite nanoplatelets water solutions were prepared varying their pH and initial dye concentration. Exceptionally high values (beyond 100 mg/L) for adsorptive capacity of graphite nanoplatelets could be achieved without complicated chemical modifications, and equilibrium and kinetic experiments were performed. Our findings were compared with the state of the art, and compared with theoretical models. Agreement between them was satisfactory, and allowed us to propose novel considerations describing the interactions of the dyes and the graphene planar structure. The work highlights the important role of these interactions, which can govern the mobility of the dye molecules and the amount of layers that can be stacked on the graphite nanoplatelets surface.

  11. Kinetics and equilibrium studies of malachite green adsorption on rice straw-derived char.

    PubMed

    Hameed, B H; El-Khaiary, M I

    2008-05-01

    In this work, the potential feasibility of rice straw-derived char (RSC) for removal of C.I. Basic Green 4 (malachite green (MG)), a cationic dye from aqueous solution was investigated. The isotherm parameters were estimated by non-linear regression analysis. The equilibrium process was described well by the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum RSC sorption capacity was found to be 148.74 mg/L at 30 degrees C. The kinetics of MG sorption on RSC followed the Lagergren's pseudo-first-order model and the overall rate of dye uptake was found to be controlled by external mass transfer at the beginning of adsorption, while intraparticle diffusion controlled the overall rate of adsorption at a later stage. The results indicated that RSC was an attractive adsorbent for removing basic dye from aqueous solutions.

  12. Equilibrium CO2 adsorption on zeolite 13X prepared from natural clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garshasbi, Vahid; Jahangiri, Mansour; Anbia, Mansoor

    2017-01-01

    Zeolite 13X was successfully synthesized by hydrothermal treatment using natural clays extracted from Iranian resources. The preliminary natural materials and the final zeolite 13X samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier-Transfer Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm. The effects of various factors such as NaOH addition amount and aging time on the crystalline products were studied during the synthesis process. The optimum conditions related to the synthesis of zeolite 13X were set. Accordingly, NaOH concentration was equal to 4 M. It was further crystallized at 65 °C for 72 h after its homogenization by agitation at room temperature for 120 h. In this study, the zeolite 13X prepared from natural kaolin (13X-K) showed a high BET surface area of 591 m2/g with higher micropore volume (0.250 cm3/g) than other materials. Adsorption equilibrium isotherms of CO2 were investigated using a static, volumetric method. In addition, pressures for the pure component data extended up to 20 bar. The adsorption equilibrium data of CO2 was fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Lamgmuir-Freundlich, Toth and BET isotherm models. It was found that the Langmuir-Freundlich model was more suitable than other models for CO2 description. The results showed that the synthetic zeolite has higher equilibrium selectivity for CO2. Also, the CO2 uptake by zeolite 13X-K was equal to 6.9 mmol/g.

  13. A model for predicting contaminant removal by adsorption within the International Space Station water processor: 1. Multicomponent equilibrium modeling.

    PubMed

    Bulloch, J L; Hand, D W; Crittenden, J C

    1998-01-01

    A thermodynamic model is developed to predict adsorption equilibrium in the International Space Station water processor's multifiltration beds. The model predicts multicomponent adsorption equilibrium behavior using single-component isotherm parameters and fictitious components representing the background matrix. The fictitious components are determined by fitting total organic carbon and tracer isotherms with the ideal adsorbed solution theory. Multicomponent isotherms using a wastewater with high surfactant and organic compound concentrations are used to validate the equilibrium description on a coconut-shell-based granular activated carbon (GAC), coal-based GAC, and a polymeric adsorbent.

  14. A comparative study of the adsorption equilibrium of progesterone by a carbon black and a commercial activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela-Calahorro, Cristóbal; Navarrete-Guijosa, Antonio; Stitou, Mostafa; Cuerda-Correa, Eduardo M.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper the adsorption process of a natural steroid hormone (progesterone) by a carbon black and a commercial activated carbon has been studied. The corresponding equilibrium isotherms have been analyzed according to a previously proposed model which establishes a kinetic law satisfactorily fitting the C versus t isotherms. The analysis of the experimental data points out the existence of two well-defined sections in the equilibrium isotherms. A general equation including these two processes has been proposed, the global adsorption process being fitted to such equation. From the values of the kinetic equilibrium constant so obtained, values of standard average adsorption enthalpy ( ΔH°) and entropy ( ΔS°) have been calculated. Finally, information related to variations of differential adsorption enthalpy ( ΔH) and entropy ( ΔS) with the surface coverage fraction ( θ) was obtained by using the corresponding Clausius-Clapeyron equations.

  15. Thermodynamic parameters for adsorption equilibrium of heavy metals and dyes from wastewaters: Research updated.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yingju; Lai, Juin-Yih; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-12-01

    The standard Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy change data for adsorption equilibrium reported in biosorption literature during January 2013-May2016 were listed. Since the studied biosorption systems are all near-equilibrium processes, the enthalpy and entropy change data evaluated by fitting temperature-dependent free energy data using van Hoff's equation reveal a compensation artifact. Additional confusion is introduced with arbitrarily chosen adsorbate concentration unit in bulk solution that added free energy change of mixing into the reported free energy and enthalpy change data. Different standard states may be chosen for properly describing biosorption processes; however, this makes the general comparison between data from different systems inappropriate. No conclusion should be drawn based on unjustified thermodynamic parameters reported in biosorption studies.

  16. Kinetics and equilibrium adsorption of nano-TiO 2 particles on synthetic biofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahle-Demessie, Endalkachew; Tadesse, Haregewine

    2011-07-01

    Understanding the environmental behavior of nanoparticles includes their interaction with biofilms, which is a covering on the surface of a living or nonliving substrate composed of microorganisms. This study focuses on nano-TiO2 sorption mechanism by synthetic biofilm that was prepared as superporous spherical beads from agarose, using batch stirred flasks kept at room temperature. The pH plays an important part in these phenomena, by its influence on the nanoparticles and biofilm chemistry, where the biofilm nanoTiO2 uptake at neutral pH was enhanced over acidic conditions. Hydroxylation of TiO2 nanoparticles, dependent on pH and the salinity of the solution, influences the stability of colloids, the sorption kinetics via the nature of limiting phases: diffusion through the boundary layer or intrabiofilm mass transfer and the sorption mechanism. The sorption follows pseudo first-order adsorption kinetics with estimated average rate constants of 2.2 (min- 1). Equilibrium isotherms were evaluated using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms to obtain the maximum uptake at different solution pH and the free energy of the adsorption. The adsorption is apparently irreversible because biofilm limits diffusion of particles out of the pores and the complexation active binding sites on the surface hydrated biofilm to the hydrophilic TiO2 nanoparticles.

  17. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of CO2, CH4, N2O, and NH3 on ordered mesoporous carbon.

    PubMed

    Saha, Dipendu; Deng, Shuguang

    2010-05-15

    Ordered mesoporous carbon was synthesized by a self-assembly technique and characterized with TEM, Raman spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption for its physical and pore textural properties. The high BET specific surface area (798 m(2)/g), uniform mesopore-size distribution with a median pore size of 62.6 Å, and large pore volume (0.87 cm(3)/g) make the ordered mesoporous carbon an ideal adsorbent for gas separation and purification applications. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ammonia on the ordered mesoporous carbon were measured at 298 K and gas pressures up to 800 Torr. The adsorption equilibrium capacities on the ordered mesoporous carbon at 298 K and 800 Torr for ammonia, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane were found to be 6.39, 2.39, 1.5, and 0.53 mmol/g, respectively. Higher adsorption uptakes of methane (3.26 mmol/g at 100 bar) and carbon dioxide (2.21 mmol/g at 13 bar) were also observed at 298 K and elevated pressures. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Toth adsorption equilibrium models were used to correlate all the adsorption isotherms, and a simplified gas diffusion model was applied to analyze the adsorption kinetics data collected at 298 K and four different gas pressures up to 800 Torr.

  18. Simultaneous adsorption of methyl red and methylene blue onto biochar and an equilibrium modeling at high concentration.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guanyu; Wang, Buyun; Chen, Lingyu; Zhao, Shuangjiao

    2016-11-01

    Methyl red, methylene blue and biochar were used to investigate simultaneous adsorption of dyes onto low-cost adsorbent at different concentrations combinations. Langmuir mixed model could describe the adsorption well at low concentrations. However, it could not describe the adsorption anymore when concentrations of methyl red and methylene blue were higher than 255 and 300 mg L(-1) respectively with 0.5 g L(-1) biochar loading. A new model on the interaction among adsorbed adsorbates at equilibrium was developed. It could describe the adsorption at high concentrations well. According to the experimental results, interaction among dyes molecules would replace the competition onto adsorbent to be the main factor influencing adsorption when amount of adsorbed adsorbates were higher than those required to form a monolayer on all the adsorbing sites of adsorbent. The model was further verified by adsorption with other solute such as glucose or NaCl in solution.

  19. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of adsorption of phosphate onto ZnCl2 activated coir pith carbon.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Sangeetha, D

    2004-12-15

    Phosphate removal from aqueous solution was investigated using ZnCl(2)-activated carbon developed from coir pith, an agricultural solid waste. Studies were conducted to delineate the effect of contact time, adsorbent dose, phosphate concentration, pH, and temperature. The adsorption equilibrium data followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Langmuir adsorption capacity was found to be 5.1 mg/g. Adsorption followed second-order kinetics. The removal was maximum in the pH range 3-10. pH effect and desorption studies showed that adsorption occurred by both ion exchange and chemisorption mechanisms. Adsorption was found to be spontaneous and endothermic. Effect of foreign ions on adsorption shows that perchlorate, sulfate, and selenite decreased the percent removal of phosphate.

  20. Adsorption of selected emerging contaminants onto PAC and GAC: Equilibrium isotherms, kinetics, and effect of the water matrix.

    PubMed

    Real, Francisco J; Benitez, F Javier; Acero, Juan L; Casas, Francisco

    2017-03-30

    The removal of three emerging contaminants (ECs) (amitriptyline hydrochloride (AH), methyl salicylate (MS) and 2-phenoxyethanol (PE)) dissolved in several water matrices by means of their adsorption onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) and granular activated carbon (GAC) has been investigated. When dissolved in ultrapure water, adsorption of the ECs followed the trend of AH > MS > PE, with a positive effect of the adsorbent dose. According to the analysis of the adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics, PAC showed strongly higher adsorption efficiency in both capacity and velocity of the adsorption, in agreement with its higher mesoporosity. Equilibrium isotherm data were fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich models. Pseudo-second order kinetics modeled very successfully the adsorption process. Finally, the effect of the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the water matrices (ultrapure water, surface water and two effluents from wastewater treatment plants) on the adsorption of the selected ECs onto PAC was established, as well as its performance on the removal of water quality parameters. Results show a negative effect of the DOM content on the adsorption efficiency. Over 50% of organic matter was removed with high PAC doses, revealing that adsorption onto PAC is an effective technology to remove both micro-pollutants and DOM from water matrices.

  1. Equilibrium model for biodegradation and adsorption of mixtures in GAC columns

    SciTech Connect

    Erlanson, B.C.; Dvorak, B.I.; Speitel, G.E. Jr.; Lawler, D.F.

    1997-05-01

    Microbial activity in granular activated carbon (GAC) columns has received much attention over the last 15 years because biodegradation of one or more chemicals might increase the GAC service life, thereby decreasing costs. An equilibrium model for simultaneous biodegradation and adsorption was developed and verified with existing data. For simplicity the model was restricted to only two components: one biodegradable and one not. The results from modeling over 300 hypothetical situations identified conditions where biodegradation significantly extends the service life of granular activated carbon (GAC) columns. When the nonbiodegradable chemical controls the service life, the only significant gains in service life occurred when the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable chemical had similar adsorbabilities. When the biodegradable chemical controls the service life, the service life was 1.2--7 times that with adsorption alone, depending on the relative adsorbability of the two chemicals. The increase in service life can be maximized by ensuring that biodegradation begins as soon as possible after start-up. The model provides a good screening tool for initial assessments of process feasibility, preliminary economic analyses, and planning of detailed experimental and computer modeling studies. Examples are presented using benzene and TCE to illustrate how the general trends presented apply to specific cases.

  2. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the adsorption of the toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki by clay minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qingling; Deng, Yali; Li, Huishu; Liu, Jie; Hu, Hongqing; Chen, Shouwen; Sa, Tongmin

    2009-02-01

    The persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt) toxins in soil is further enhanced through association with soil particles. Such persistence may improve the effectiveness of controlling target pests, but impose a hazard to non-target organisms in soil ecosystems. In this study, the equilibrium adsorption of the Bt toxin by four clay minerals (montmorillonite, kaolinite, goethite, and silicon dioxide) was investigated, and the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The results showed that Bt toxin could be adsorbed easily by minerals, and the adsorption was much easier at low temperature than at high temperature at the initial concentration varying from 0 to 1000 mg L -1. The adsorption fitted well to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, but the Freundlich equation was more suitable. The pseudo-second-order (PSO) was the best application model to describe the adsorption kinetic. The adsorption process appeared to be controlled by chemical process, and the intra-particle diffusion was not the only rate-controlling step. The negative standard free energy ( ΔGmθr) values of the adsorption indicated that the adsorption of the Bt toxin by the minerals was spontaneous, and the changes of the standard enthalpy ( ΔHmθr) showed that the adsorption of the Bt toxin by montmorillonite was endothermic while the adsorption by the other three minerals was exothermic.

  3. Adsorption of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions by fly ash: kinetic and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Dizge, N; Aydiner, C; Demirbas, E; Kobya, M; Kara, S

    2008-02-11

    Adsorption kinetic and equilibrium studies of three reactive dyes namely, Remazol Brillant Blue (RB), Remazol Red 133 (RR) and Rifacion Yellow HED (RY) from aqueous solutions at various initial dye concentration (100-500 mg/l), pH (2-8), particle size (45-112.5 microm) and temperature (293-323 K) on fly ash (FA) were studied in a batch mode operation. The adsorbent was characterized with using several methods such as SEM, XRD and FTIR. Adsorption of RB reactive dye was found to be pH dependent but both RR and RY reactive dyes were not. The result showed that the amount adsorbed of the reactive dyes increased with increasing initial dye concentration and contact time. Batch kinetic data from experimental investigations on the removal of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions using FA have been well described by external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion models. It was found that external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion had rate limiting affects on the removal process. This was attributed to the relatively simple macropore structure of FA particles. The adsorption data fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The optimum conditions for removal of the reactive dyes were 100mg/l initial dye concentration, 0.6g/100ml adsorbent dose, temperature of 293 K, 45 microm particle size, pH 6 and agitation speed of 250 rpm, respectively. The values of Langmuir and Freundlich constants were found to increase with increasing temperature in the range 135-180 and 15-34 mg/g for RB, 47-86 and 1.9-3.7 mg/g for RR and 37-61 and 3.0-3.6 mg/g for RY reactive dyes, respectively. Different thermodynamic parameters viz., changes in standard free energy, enthalpy and entropy were evaluated and it was found that the reaction was spontaneous and endothermic in nature.

  4. Quantifying differences in the impact of variable chemistry on equilibrium uranium(VI) adsorption properties of aquifer sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoliker, Deborah L.; Kent, Douglas B.; Zachara, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Uranium adsorption-desorption on sediment samples collected from the Hanford 300-Area, Richland, WA varied extensively over a range of field-relevant chemical conditions, complicating assessment of possible differences in equilibrium adsorption properties. Adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 500-1000 h although dissolved uranium concentrations increased over thousands of hours owing to changes in aqueous chemical composition driven by sediment-water reactions. A nonelectrostatic surface complexation reaction, >SOH + UO22+ + 2CO32- = >SOUO2(CO3HCO3)2-, provided the best fit to experimental data for each sediment sample resulting in a range of conditional equilibrium constants (logKc) from 21.49 to 21.76. Potential differences in uranium adsorption properties could be assessed in plots based on the generalized mass-action expressions yielding linear trends displaced vertically by differences in logKc values. Using this approach, logKc values for seven sediment samples were not significantly different. However, a significant difference in adsorption properties between one sediment sample and the fines (Kc uncertainty were improved by capturing all data points within experimental errors. The mass-action expression plots demonstrate that applying models outside the range of conditions used in model calibration greatly increases potential errors.

  5. A procedure to find thermodynamic equilibrium constants for CO2 and CH4 adsorption on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Trinh, T T; van Erp, T S; Bedeaux, D; Kjelstrup, S; Grande, C A

    2015-03-28

    Thermodynamic equilibrium for adsorption means that the chemical potential of gas and adsorbed phase are equal. A precise knowledge of the chemical potential is, however, often lacking, because the activity coefficient of the adsorbate is not known. Adsorption isotherms are therefore commonly fitted to ideal models such as the Langmuir, Sips or Henry models. We propose here a new procedure to find the activity coefficient and the equilibrium constant for adsorption which uses the thermodynamic factor. Instead of fitting the data to a model, we calculate the thermodynamic factor and use this to find first the activity coefficient. We show, using published molecular simulation data, how this procedure gives the thermodynamic equilibrium constant and enthalpies of adsorption for CO2(g) on graphite. We also use published experimental data to find similar thermodynamic properties of CO2(g) and of CH4(g) adsorbed on activated carbon. The procedure gives a higher accuracy in the determination of enthalpies of adsorption than ideal models do.

  6. Quantifying differences in the impact of variable chemistry on equilibrium uranium(VI) adsorption properties of aquifer sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Stoliker, Deborah L.; Kent, Douglas B.; Zachara, John M.

    2011-09-16

    Uranium adsorption-desorption on sediment samples collected from the Hanford 300-Area, Richland, WA varied extensively over a range of field-relevant chemical conditions, complicating assessment of possible differences in equilibrium adsorption properties. Adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 500-1000 hours although dissolved uranium concentrations increased over thousands of hours owing to changes in aqueous chemical composition driven by sediment-water reactions. A non-electrostatic surface complexation reaction, >SOH + UO22+ + 2CO32- = >SOUO2(CO3HCO3)2-, provided the best fit to experimental data for each sediment sample resulting in a range of conditional equilibrium constants (logKc) from 21.49 to 21.76. Potential differences in uranium adsorption properties could be assessed in plots based on the generalized mass-action expressions yielding linear trends displaced vertically by differences in logKc values. Using this approach, logKc values for seven sediment samples were not significantly different. However, a significant difference in adsorption properties between one sediment sample and the fines (<0.063 mm) of another could be demonstrated despite the fines requiring a different reaction stoichiometry. Estimates of logKc uncertainty were improved by capturing all data points within experimental errors. The mass-action expression plots demonstrate that applying models outside the range of conditions used in model calibration greatly increases potential errors.

  7. Equilibrium adsorption of caffeic, chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids on cationic cross-linked starch with quaternary ammonium groups.

    PubMed

    Simanaviciute, Deimante; Klimaviciute, Rima; Rutkaite, Ramune

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, the equilibrium adsorption of caffeic acid (CA) and its derivatives, namely, chlorogenic (CGA) and rosmarinic (RA) acids on cationic cross-linked starch (CCS) with degree of substitution of quaternary ammonium groups of 0.42 have been investigated in relation to the structure and acidity of phenolic acids. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption models have been used to describe the equilibrium adsorption of CA, CGA and RA from their initial solutions and solutions having the equimolar amount of NaOH at different temperatures. In the case of adsorption from the initial solutions of acids the values of adsorption parameters were closely related to the dissociation constants of investigated acids. According to the increasing effectiveness of adsorption, phenolic acids could be arranged in the following order: CA

  8. Adsorption and desorption of arsenate on sandy sediments from contaminated and uncontaminated saturated zones: Kinetic and equilibrium modeling.

    PubMed

    Hafeznezami, Saeedreza; Zimmer-Faust, Amity G; Dunne, Aislinn; Tran, Tiffany; Yang, Chao; Lam, Jacquelyn R; Reynolds, Matthew D; Davis, James A; Jay, Jennifer A

    2016-08-01

    Application of empirical models to adsorption of contaminants on natural heterogeneous sorbents is often challenging due to the uncertainty associated with fitting experimental data and determining adjustable parameters. Sediment samples from contaminated and uncontaminated portions of a study site in Maine, USA were collected and investigated for adsorption of arsenate [As(V)]. Two kinetic models were used to describe the results of single solute batch adsorption experiments. Piecewise linear regression of data linearized to fit pseudo-first order kinetic model resulted in two distinct rates and a cutoff time point of 14-19 h delineating the biphasic behavior of solute adsorption. During the initial rapid adsorption stage, an average of 60-80% of the total adsorption took place. Pseudo-second order kinetic models provided the best fit to the experimental data (R(2) > 0.99) and were capable of describing the adsorption over the entire range of experiments. Both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms provided reasonable fits to the adsorption data at equilibrium. Langmuir-derived maximum adsorption capacity (St) of the studied sediments ranged between 29 and 97 mg/kg increasing from contaminated to uncontaminated sites. Solid phase As content of the sediments ranged from 3.8 to 10 mg/kg and the As/Fe ratios were highest in the amorphous phase. High-pH desorption experiments resulted in a greater percentage of solid phase As released into solution from experimentally-loaded sediments than from the unaltered samples suggesting that As(V) adsorption takes place on different reversible and irreversible surface sites.

  9. Interaction of Pseudomonas putida with kaolinite and montmorillonite: a combination study by equilibrium adsorption, ITC, SEM and FTIR.

    PubMed

    Rong, Xingmin; Huang, Qiaoyun; He, Xiaomin; Chen, Hao; Cai, Peng; Liang, Wei

    2008-06-15

    Equilibrium adsorption along with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were employed to investigate the adsorption of Pseudomonas putida on kaolinite and montmorillonite. A higher affinity as well as larger amounts of adsorption of P. putida was found on kaolinite. The majority of sorbed bacterial cells (88.7%) could be released by water from montmorillonite, while only a small proportion (9.3%) of bacteria desorbed from kaolinite surface. More bacterial cells were observed to form aggregates with kaolinite, while fewer cells were within the larger bacteria-montmorillonite particles. The sorption of bacteria on kaolinite was enthalpically more favorable than that on montmorillonite. Based on our findings, it is proposed that the non-electrostatic forces other than electrostatic force play a more important role in bacterial adsorption by kaolinite and montmorillonite. Adsorption of bacteria on clay minerals resulted in obvious shifts of infrared absorption bands of water molecules, showing the importance of hydrogen bonding in bacteria-clay mineral adsorption. The enthalpies of -4.1+/-2.1 x 10(-8) and -2.5+/-1.4 x 10(-8)mJ cell(-1) for the adsorption of bacteria on kaolinite and montmorillonite, respectively, at 25 degrees C and pH 7.0 were firstly reported in this paper. The enthalpy of bacteria-mineral adsorption was higher than that reported previously for bacteria-biomolecule interaction but lower than that of bacterial coaggregation. The bacteria-mineral adsorption enthalpies increased at higher temperature, suggesting that the enthalpy-entropy compensation mechanism could be involved in the adsorption of P. putida on clay minerals. Data obtained in this study would provide valuable information for a better understanding of the mechanisms of mineral-microorganism interactions in soil and associated environments.

  10. Batch removal of malachite green from aqueous solutions by adsorption on oil palm trunk fibre: equilibrium isotherms and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Hameed, B H; El-Khaiary, M I

    2008-06-15

    Oil palm trunk fibre (OPTF)--an agricultural solid waste--was used as low-cost adsorbent to remove malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions. The operating variables studied were contact time, initial dye concentration, and solution pH. Equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by three isotherms, namely the Freundlich isotherm, the Langmuir isotherm, and the multilayer adsorption isotherm. The best fit to the data was obtained with the multilayer adsorption. The monolayer adsorption capacity of OPTF was found to be 149.35 mg/g at 30 degrees C. Adsorption kinetic data were modeled using the Lagergren pseudo-first-order, Ho's pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. It was found that the Lagergren's model could be used for the prediction of the system's kinetics. The overall rate of dye uptake was found to be controlled by external mass transfer at the beginning of adsorption, then for initial MG concentrations of 25, 50, 100, 150, and 300 mg/L the rate-control changed to intraparticle diffusion at a later stage, but for initial MG concentrations 200 and 250 mg/L no evidence was found of intraparticle diffusion at any period of adsorption. It was found that with increasing the initial concentration of MG, the pore-diffusion coefficient increased while the film-diffusion coefficient decreased.

  11. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the adsorption of 2-nitroaniline onto activated carbon prepared from cotton stalk fibre.

    PubMed

    Li, Kunquan; Zheng, Zheng; Huang, Xingfa; Zhao, Guohua; Feng, Jingwei; Zhang, Jibiao

    2009-07-15

    Activated carbon prepared from cotton stalk fibre has been utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of 2-nitroaniline from aqueous solutions. The influence of adsorbent mass, contact time and temperature on the adsorption was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. The equilibrium data at different temperatures were fitted with the Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin, Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir-Freundlich models. The Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm was found to best describe the experimental data. The adsorption amount increased with increasing temperature. The maximum adsorption capacity of 2-nitroaniline was found to be 383 mg/g for initial 2-nitroaniline concentration of 200mg/L at 45 degrees C. The kinetic rates were modeled by using the Lagergren-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. The pseudo-second-order model was found to explain the adsorption kinetics most effectively. It was also found that the pore diffusion played an important role in the adsorption, and intraparticle diffusion was the rate-limiting step at the first 30 min for the temperatures of 25, 35 and 45 degrees C. FTIR and (13)C NMR study revealed that the amino and isocyanate groups present on the surface of the adsorbent were involved in chemical interaction with 2-nitroaniline. The negative change in free energy (Delta G degrees) and positive change in enthalpy (Delta H degrees) indicated that the adsorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process.

  12. Modeling of phase equilibrium and vapor adsorption on carbon black based on a combination of a lattice theory and equation of state.

    PubMed

    Ustinov, E A; Do, D D

    2002-09-15

    A thermodynamic approach is developed in this paper to describe the behavior of a subcritical fluid in the neighborhood of vapor-liquid interface and close to a graphite surface. The fluid is modeled as a system of parallel molecular layers. The Helmholtz free energy of the fluid is expressed as the sum of the intrinsic Helmholtz free energies of separate layers and the potential energy of their mutual interactions calculated by the 10-4 potential. This Helmholtz free energy is described by an equation of state (such as the Bender or Peng-Robinson equation), which allows us a convenient means to obtain the intrinsic Helmholtz free energy of each molecular layer as a function of its two-dimensional density. All molecular layers of the bulk fluid are in mechanical equilibrium corresponding to the minimum of the total potential energy. In the case of adsorption the external potential exerted by the graphite layers is added to the free energy. The state of the interface zone between the liquid and the vapor phases or the state of the adsorbed phase is determined by the minimum of the grand potential. In the case of phase equilibrium the approach leads to the distribution of density and pressure over the transition zone. The interrelation between the collision diameter and the potential well depth was determined by the surface tension. It was shown that the distance between neighboring molecular layers substantially changes in the vapor-liquid transition zone and in the adsorbed phase with loading. The approach is considered in this paper for the case of adsorption of argon and nitrogen on carbon black. In both cases an excellent agreement with the experimental data was achieved without additional assumptions and fitting parameters, except for the fluid-solid potential well depth. The approach has far-reaching consequences and can be readily extended to the model of adsorption in slit pores of carbonaceous materials and to the analysis of multicomponent adsorption

  13. Time evolution analysis of a 2D solid gas equilibrium: a model system for molecular adsorption and diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, S.; Brunner, M.; Ramoino, L.; Suzuki, H.; Güntherodt, H.-J.; Jung, T. A.

    2001-11-01

    The adsorption of sub-phthalocyanine molecules on Ag(1 1 1) has been studied by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The molecules are observed in different two-dimensional (2D) phases of adsorption which coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. In the condensed phase the molecules form well-ordered islands with a honeycomb pattern. In the gas phase single molecules can be discriminated in single scan lines by characteristic tip excursions which occur randomly. The energy barrier for surface diffusion as well as the condensation energy to form 2D islands is estimated and discussed.

  14. Rapid adsorption of copper(II) and lead(II) by rice straw/Fe₃O₄ nanocomposite: optimization, equilibrium isotherms, and adsorption kinetics study.

    PubMed

    Khandanlou, Roshanak; Ahmad, Mansor B; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Shameli, Kamyar; Basri, Mahiran; Kalantari, Katayoon

    2015-01-01

    Rice straw/magnetic nanocomposites (RS/Fe3O4-NCs) were prepared via co-precipitation method for removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to find the optimum conditions for removal of ions. The effects of three independent variables including initial ion concentration, removal time, and adsorbent dosage were investigated on the maximum adsorption of Pb (II) and Cu (II). The optimum conditions for the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained (100 and 60 mg/L) of initial ion concentration, (41.96 and 59.35 s) of removal time and 0.13 g of adsorbent for both ions, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained 96.25% and 75.54%, respectively. In the equilibrium isotherm study, the adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics was best depicted by the pseudo-second order model. Desorption experiments showed adsorbent can be reused successfully for three adsorption-desorption cycles.

  15. Rapid Adsorption of Copper(II) and Lead(II) by Rice Straw/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite: Optimization, Equilibrium Isotherms, and Adsorption Kinetics Study

    PubMed Central

    Khandanlou, Roshanak; Ahmad, Mansor B.; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Shameli, Kamyar; Basri, Mahiran; Kalantari, Katayoon

    2015-01-01

    Rice straw/magnetic nanocomposites (RS/Fe3O4-NCs) were prepared via co-precipitation method for removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to find the optimum conditions for removal of ions. The effects of three independent variables including initial ion concentration, removal time, and adsorbent dosage were investigated on the maximum adsorption of Pb (II) and Cu (II). The optimum conditions for the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained (100 and 60 mg/L) of initial ion concentration, (41.96 and 59.35 s) of removal time and 0.13 g of adsorbent for both ions, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained 96.25% and 75.54%, respectively. In the equilibrium isotherm study, the adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics was best depicted by the pseudo-second order model. Desorption experiments showed adsorbent can be reused successfully for three adsorption-desorption cycles. PMID:25815470

  16. Removal of phenol from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto organomodified Tirebolu bentonite: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study.

    PubMed

    Senturk, Hasan Basri; Ozdes, Duygu; Gundogdu, Ali; Duran, Celal; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-12-15

    A natural bentonite modified with a cationic surfactant, cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), was used as an adsorbent for removal of phenol from aqueous solutions. The natural and modified bentonites (organobentonite) were characterized with some instrumental techniques (FTIR, XRD and SEM). Adsorption studies were performed in a batch system, and the effects of various experimental parameters such as solution pH, contact time, initial phenol concentration, organobentonite concentration, and temperature, etc. were evaluated upon the phenol adsorption onto organobentonite. Maximum phenol removal was observed at pH 9.0. Equilibrium was attained after contact of 1h only. The adsorption isotherms were described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, and both model fitted well. The monolayer adsorption capacity of organobentonite was found to be 333 mg g(-1). Desorption of phenol from the loaded adsorbent was achieved by using 20% acetone solution. The kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption process was best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics (R(2) > 0.99). Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy (DeltaG degrees), enthalpy (DeltaH degrees), and entropy (DeltaS degrees) were also calculated. These parameters indicated that adsorption of phenol onto organobentonite was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic in the temperature range of 0-40 degrees C.

  17. Adsorption of Zn2+ ions onto NaA and NaX zeolites: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Nibou, D; Mekatel, H; Amokrane, S; Barkat, M; Trari, M

    2010-01-15

    The adsorption of Zn(2+) onto NaA and NaX zeolites was investigated. The samples were synthesized according to a hydrothermal crystallization using aluminium isopropoxide (Al[OCH(CH(3))(2)](3)) as a new alumina source. The effects of pH, initial concentration, solid/liquid ratio and temperature were studied in batch experiments. The Freundlich and the Langmuir models were applied and the adsorption equilibrium followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The uptake distribution coefficient (K(d)) indicated that the Zn(2+) removal was the highest at minimum concentration. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The negative values of standard enthalpy of adsorption revealed the exothermic nature of the adsorption process whereas the negative activation entropies reflected that no significant change occurs in the internal structure of the zeolites solid matrix during the sorption of Zn(2+). The negative values of Gibbs free energy were indicative of the spontaneity of the adsorption process. Analysis of the kinetic and rate data revealed that the pseudo second-order sorption mechanism is predominant and the intra particle diffusion was the determining step for the sorption of zinc ions. The obtained optimal parameters have been applied to wastewater from the industrial zone (Algeria) in order to remove the contained zinc effluents.

  18. The effect of water temperature on the adsorption equilibrium of dissolved organic matter and atrazine on granular activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Bernd Schreiber; Viktor Schmalz; Thomas Brinkmann; Eckhard Worch

    2007-09-15

    The influence of water temperature on the adsorption of natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) on activated carbon has not been investigated intensively yet. In this study, batch experiments with granular activated carbon (GAC) F300, from bituminous coal, have been carried out at three temperatures (5, 20, 35{sup o} C) using a humic acid model water and different types of surface water (lake, river, canal). Furthermore, the adsorption of an anthropogenic contaminant, atrazine, was quantified in the absence and presence of DOM. The results indicate a significant influence of water temperature on the adsorption equilibrium of DOM and atrazine. Contrary to expectations, DOM and atrazine adsorption in surface water tends to be increased with increasing water temperature, whereas the extent of this effect is dependent on the type and concentration of DOM. Furthermore, the temperature effect on atrazine adsorption is controlled by competition of DOM and atrazine on adsorption sites. Some assumptions are proposed and discussed for explaining the temperature effects observed in the batch studies. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Adsorption of cesium from aqueous solution using agricultural residue--walnut shell: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dahu; Zhao, Yingxin; Yang, Shengjiong; Shi, Wansheng; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang; Yang, Yingnan

    2013-05-01

    A novel biosorbent derived from agricultural residue - walnut shell (WS) is reported to remove cesium from aqueous solution. Nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) was incorporated into this biosorbent, serving as a high selectivity trap agent for cesium. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) were utilized for the evaluation of the developed biosorbent. Determination of kinetic parameters for adsorption was carried out using pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order kinetic models and intra-particle diffusion models. Adsorption equilibrium was examined using Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherms. A satisfactory correlation coefficient and relatively low chi-square analysis parameter χ(2) between the experimental and predicted values of the Freundlich isotherm demonstrate that cesium adsorption by NiHCF-WS is a multilayer chemical adsorption. Thermodynamic studies were conducted under different reaction temperatures and results indicate that cesium adsorption by NiHCF-WS is an endothermic (ΔH° > 0) and spontaneous (ΔG° < 0) process.

  20. Equilibrium and column adsorption studies of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) on surface modified granular activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Boddu, V M; Abburi, K; Fredricksen, A J; Maloney, S W; Damavarapu, R

    2009-02-01

    2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN) is used as a component extensively in the development of insensitive munitions. This may result in release of DNAN into the environment. Here, the results are reported of a study on the removal characteristics of DNAN through adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC), chitosan coated granular activated carbon (CGAC), acid treated granular activated carbon (AGAC) and alkali treated granular activated carbon (BGAC) under equilibrium and column flow conditions. The effect of pH, contact time, concentration of DNAN, and presence of electrolytes on the uptake of DNAN by the adsorbents was investigated. The equilibrium data were fitted to different types of adsorption isotherms. The data were further analysed on the basis of Lagergren first-order, pseudo second-order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. Breakthrough curves were obtained based on column flow results. All the adsorbents were capable of removing about 99% of DNAN from aqueous media, except CGAC which adsorbed about 87% of DNAN.

  1. Utilization of extracellular information before ligand-receptor binding reaches equilibrium expands and shifts the input dynamic range

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Alejandra C.; Bush, Alan; Vasen, Gustavo; Goldín, Matías A.; Burkinshaw, Brianne; Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Folch, Albert; Brent, Roger; Chernomoretz, Ariel; Colman-Lerner, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Cell signaling systems sense and respond to ligands that bind cell surface receptors. These systems often respond to changes in the concentration of extracellular ligand more rapidly than the ligand equilibrates with its receptor. We demonstrate, by modeling and experiment, a general “systems level” mechanism cells use to take advantage of the information present in the early signal, before receptor binding reaches a new steady state. This mechanism, pre-equilibrium sensing and signaling (PRESS), operates in signaling systems in which the kinetics of ligand-receptor binding are slower than the downstream signaling steps, and it typically involves transient activation of a downstream step. In the systems where it operates, PRESS expands and shifts the input dynamic range, allowing cells to make different responses to ligand concentrations so high as to be otherwise indistinguishable. Specifically, we show that PRESS applies to the yeast directional polarization in response to pheromone gradients. Consideration of preexisting kinetic data for ligand-receptor interactions suggests that PRESS operates in many cell signaling systems throughout biology. The same mechanism may also operate at other levels in signaling systems in which a slow activation step couples to a faster downstream step. PMID:25172920

  2. Adsorption behaviour of direct yellow 50 onto cotton fiber: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic profile.

    PubMed

    Ismail, L F M; Sallam, H B; Abo Farha, S A; Gamal, A M; Mahmoud, G E A

    2014-10-15

    This study investigated the adsorption of direct yellow 50 onto cotton fiber from aqueous solution by using parameters, such as pH, temperature, contact time, initial dye concentration and the effect of sodium sulphate, tetrasodium edate and trisodium citrate. The extent of dye adsorption increased with increasing contact time, temperature and solution concentration. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. It was found that the Langmuir equation fit better than the Freundlich equation. The results show that the presence of SE and SC significantly enhance the dye adsorption onto cotton fiber. In addition, the adsorption data obtained at different temperatures of DY50 onto cotton fiber were applied to pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. The rates of adsorption were found to conform to pseudo second-order kinetics with good correlation. Also, free energy of adsorption (ΔG(#)), enthalpy (ΔH(#)), and entropy (ΔS(#)) changes were determined to predict the nature of adsorption. The positive value of the enthalpy change indicated that the adsorption is endothermic process. The activation energy, Ea, is ranged between 1.9 and 3.9kJmol(-1) indicated that the adsorption process is a physisorption. This low value of Ea generally indicates diffusion controlled process.

  3. Adsorption behaviour of direct yellow 50 onto cotton fiber: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, L. F. M.; Sallam, H. B.; Abo Farha, S. A.; Gamal, A. M.; Mahmoud, G. E. A.

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the adsorption of direct yellow 50 onto cotton fiber from aqueous solution by using parameters, such as pH, temperature, contact time, initial dye concentration and the effect of sodium sulphate, tetrasodium edate and trisodium citrate. The extent of dye adsorption increased with increasing contact time, temperature and solution concentration. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. It was found that the Langmuir equation fit better than the Freundlich equation. The results show that the presence of SE and SC significantly enhance the dye adsorption onto cotton fiber. In addition, the adsorption data obtained at different temperatures of DY50 onto cotton fiber were applied to pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. The rates of adsorption were found to conform to pseudo second-order kinetics with good correlation. Also, free energy of adsorption (ΔG#), enthalpy (ΔH#), and entropy (ΔS#) changes were determined to predict the nature of adsorption. The positive value of the enthalpy change indicated that the adsorption is endothermic process. The activation energy, Ea, is ranged between 1.9 and 3.9 kJ mol-1 indicated that the adsorption process is a physisorption. This low value of Ea generally indicates diffusion controlled process.

  4. Adsorption behavior of activated carbon derived from pyrolusite-modified sewage sludge: equilibrium modeling, kinetic and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Jiang, Wenju; Jiang, Li; Ji, Xiujuan

    2011-01-01

    Activated carbon was developed from sewage sludge using pyrolusite as an additive. It was demonstrated that the removal efficiency of two synthetic dyes (Tracid orange GS and Direct fast turquoise blue GL) by the produced adsorbent was up to 97.6%. The activated carbon with pyrolusite addition had 38.2% higher surface area, 43.8% larger micropore and 54.4% larger mesopore production than ordinary sludge-based activated carbons. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were also investigated based on dyes adsorption tests. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption, and the results fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm. The kinetic data have been analyzed using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion equation. The experimental data fitted very well with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Activation energies for the adsorption processes ranged between 8.7 and 19.1 kJ mol 1. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard free energy (deltaG0), standard enthalpy (deltaH0) and standard entropy (deltaS0) were evaluated. The adsorption of these two dyes on the activated carbon was found to be a spontaneous and endothermic process in nature.

  5. Equilibrium, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Studies on the Adsorption of Cadmium from Aqueous Solution by Modified Biomass Ash

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xuebo; Cui, Hongbiao; Zhu, Zhenqiu; Liang, Jiani

    2017-01-01

    Natural biomass ash of agricultural residuals was collected from a power plant and modified with hexagonal mesoporous silica and functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The physicochemical and morphological properties of the biomass ash were analyzed by ICP-OES, SEM, TEM-EDS, FTIR, and BET analysis. The adsorption behavior of the modified product for Cd2+ in aqueous solution was studied as a function of pH, initial metal concentration, equilibrium time, and temperature. Results showed that the specific surface area of the modified product was 9 times that of the natural biomass ash. The modified biomass ash exhibited high affinity for Cd2+ and its adsorption capacity increased sharply with increasing pH from 4.0 to 6.0. The maximum adsorption capacity was 23.95 mg/g in a pH 5 solution with an initial metal concentration of 50 mg/L and a contact time of 90 min. The adsorption of Cd2+ onto the modified biomass ash was well fitted to the Langmuir model and it followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Thermodynamic analysis results showed that the adsorption of Cd2+ was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The results suggest that the modified biomass ash is promising for use as an inexpensive and effective adsorbent for Cd2+ removal from aqueous solution. PMID:28348509

  6. Adsorption behavior of direct red 80 and congo red onto activated carbon/surfactant: process optimization, kinetics and equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhengjun; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Xiao; Jiang, Xiaohui; Li, Tian

    2015-02-25

    Adsorptions of congo red and direct red 80 onto activated carbon/surfactant from aqueous solution were optimized. The Box-Behnken design (BBD) has been employed to analyze the effects of concentration of surfactant, temperature, pH, and initial concentration of the dye in the adsorption capacity. Their corresponding experimental data could be evaluated excellently by second order polynomial regression models and the two models were also examined based on the analysis of variance and t test statistics, respectively. The optimum conditions were obtained as follows: Cs=34.10 μM, T=50°C, pH=3.5, and CCR=160 mg/L for the congo red system, and Cs=34.10 μM, T=50°C, pH=6.1, and CDR80=110 mg/L for the direct red 80 system. And in these conditions, the measured experimental maximum adsorption capacities for the congo red and direct red 80 removals were 769.48 mg/g and 519.90 mg/g, which were consistent with their corresponding predicted values, with small relative errors of -2.81% and -0.67%, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetics for the two dye adsorptions onto AC/DDAC were also investigated. The experimental data were fitted by four isotherm models, and Langmuir model presented the best fit. The kinetic studies indicated that the kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order model.

  7. Characterizing particle-scale equilibrium adsorption and kinetics of uranium(VI) desorption from U-contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Stoliker, Deborah L.; Liu, Chongxuan; Kent, Douglas B.; Zachara, John M.

    2013-02-12

    Rates of contaminant U(VI) release from individual size fractions of a composite sediment from the seasonally saturated lower vadose zone of the Hanford 300-Area were examined in flow-through batch reactors to maintain quasi-constant chemical conditions. Variability in equilibrium adsorption among the various size fractions was determined in static batch reactors and analyzed using the surface complexation modeling approach. The estimated stoichiometric coefficients of U(VI) surface complexation reactions with respect to pH and carbonate concentrations varied with size fractions. This source of variability significantly increased the uncertainty in U(VI) conditional equilibrium constants over that estimated from experimental errors alone. A minimum difference between conditional equilibrium constants was established in order to evaluate statistically significant differences between sediment adsorption properties. A set of equilibrium and kinetic expressions for cation exchange, calcite dissolution, aerobic respiration, and silica dissolution were incorporated in a reaction-rate model to describe the temporal evolution of solute concentrations observed during the flow-through batch experiments. Parameters in the reaction-rate model, calibrated using experimental data for select size fractions, predicted the changes in solute concentrations for the bulk, <2 mm, sediment sample. Kinetic U(VI) desorption was well described using a multi-rate surface complexation model with an assumed lognormal distribution for the rate constants. The estimated mean and standard deviation were the same for all < 2mm size fractions, but differed in the 2-8mm size fraction. Micropore volumes in the varied size fractions were also similar as assessed using t-plots to analyze N2 desorption data. These findings provide further support for the link between microporosity and particle-scale mass transfer rates controlling kinetic U(VI) adsorption/desorption and for the utility of N2 desorption

  8. Non-equilibrium Thermodynamic Dissolution Theory for Multi-Component Solid/Liquid Surfaces Involving Surface Adsorption and Radiolysis Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, R B

    2001-04-01

    A theoretical expression is developed for the dissolution rate response for multi-component radioactive materials that have surface adsorption kinetics and radiolysis kinetics when wetted by a multi-component aqueous solution. An application for this type of dissolution response is the performance evaluation of multi-component spent nuclear fuels (SNFs) for long term interim storage and for geological disposition. Typically, SNF compositions depend on initial composition, uranium oxide and metal alloys being most common, and on reactor burnup which results in a wide range of fission product and actinide concentrations that decay by alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. These compositional/burnup ranges of SNFs, whether placed in interim storage or emplaced in a geologic repository, will potentially be wetted by multi-component aqueous solutions, and these solutions may be further altered by radiolytic aqueous species due to three radiation fields. The solid states of the SNFs are not thermodynamically stable when wetted and will dissolve, with or without radiolysis. The following development of a dissolution theory is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic analysis of energy reactions and energy transport across a solid-liquid phase change discontinuity that propagates at a quasi-steady, dissolution velocity. The integral form of the energy balance equation is used for this spatial surface discontinuity analysis. The integral formulation contains internal energy functional of classical thermodynamics for both the SNFs' solid state and surface adsorption species, and the adjacent liquid state, which includes radiolytic chemical species. The steady-state concentrations of radiolytic chemical species are expressed by an approximate analysis of the decay radiation transport equation. For purposes of illustration a modified Temkin adsorption isotherm was assumed for the surface adsorption kinetics on an arbitrary, finite area of the solid-liquid dissolution interface. For

  9. Development, Construction, and Operation of a Multisample Volumetric Apparatus for the Study of Gas Adsorption Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Rui P. P. L.; Silva, Ricardo J. S.; Esteves, Isabel A. A. C.; Mota, Jose´ P. B.

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a simple volumetric adsorption apparatus is highlighted. The setup is inexpensive and provides a clear demonstration of gas phase adsorption concepts. The topic is suitable for undergraduate chemistry and chemical engineering students. Moreover, this unit can also provide quantitative data that can be used by young researchers…

  10. Equilibrium models and kinetic for the adsorption of methylene blue on Co-hectorites.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Jia, Yong-Zhong; Jing, Yan; Sun, Jin-He; Yao, Ying; Wang, Xiao-Hua

    2010-03-15

    The adsorption of methylene blue (MB) onto the surface of cobalt doping hectorite (Co-hectorite) was systematically studied. The physical properties of Co-hectorites were investigated, where characterizations were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Electron Diffraction Spectrum (EDS) techniques, and morphology was examined by nitrogen adsorption. The sample with a Co content 5% (m/m) had a higher specific surface area than other Co-hectorites. The pore diameters were distributed between 2.5 and 5.0 nm. The adsorption results revealed that Co-hectorite surfaces possessed effective interactions with MB and bases, and greatest adsorption capacity achieved with Co content 5%, where the best-fit isotherm model was the Langmuir adsorption model. Kinetic studies were fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The intraparticle diffusion was not the rate-limiting step for the whole reaction.

  11. Pb(II) adsorption by a novel activated carbon - alginate composite material. A kinetic and equilibrium study.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Salvatore; Gianguzza, Antonio; Milea, Demetrio; Muratore, Nicola; Pettignano, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    The adsorption capacity of an activated carbon - calcium alginate composite material (ACAA-Ca) has been tested with the aim of developing a new and more efficient adsorbent material to remove Pb(II) ion from aqueous solution. The study was carried out at pH=5, in NaCl medium and in the ionic strength range 0.1-0.75molL(-1). Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (DP-ASV) technique was used to check the amount of Pb(II) ion removed during kinetic and equilibrium experiments. Different kinetic (pseudo first order, pseudo second order and Vermuelen) and equilibrium (Langmuir and Freundlich) models were used to fit experimental data, and were statistically compared. Calcium alginate (AA-Ca) improves the adsorption capacity (qm) of active carbon (AC) in the ACAA-Ca adsorbent material (e.g., qm=15.7 and 10.5mgg(-1) at I=0.25molL(-1), for ACAA-Ca and AC, respectively). SEM-EDX and thermogravimetric (TGA) measurements were carried out in order to characterize the composite material. The results of the speciation study on the Pb(II) solution and of the characterization of the ACAA-Ca and of the pristine AA-Ca and AC were evaluated in order to explain the specific contribution of AC and AA-Ca to the adsorption of the metal ion.

  12. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium study of nitrogen species onto radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sawdust.

    PubMed

    Harmayani, Kadek D; Faisal Anwar, A H M

    Nitrogen species (NH3-N, NO3-N, and NO2-N) are found as one of the major dissolved constituents in wastewater or stormwater runoff. In this research, laboratory experiments were conducted to remove these pollutants from the water environment using radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sawdust. A series of batch tests was conducted by varying initial concentration, dosage, particle size, pH, and contact time to check the removal performance. Test results confirmed the effectiveness of radiata pine sawdust for removing these contaminants from the aqueous phase (100% removal of NO3-N, and NO2-N; 55% removal of NH3-N). The adsorbent dosage and initial concentration showed a significantly greater effect on the removal process over pH or particle sizes. The optimum dosage for contaminant removal on a laboratory scale was found to be 12 g. Next, the adsorption kinetics were studied using intraparticle diffusion, liquid-film diffusion, and a pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order model. The adsorption of all species followed a pseudo-second order model but NO2-N adsorption followed both models. In addition, the kinetics of NO2-N adsorption showed two-step adsorption following intraparticle diffusion and liquid-film diffusion. The isotherm study showed that NO3-N and NO2-N adsorption fitted slightly better with the Freundlich model but that NH3-N adsorption followed both Freundlich and Langmuir models.

  13. Kinetics and equilibrium of adsorption of dissolved organic matter fractions from secondary effluent by fly ash.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liangliang; Wang, Kun; Zhao, Qingliang; Xie, Chunmei; Qiu, Wei; Jia, Ting

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash was used as a low-cost adsorbent for removing dissolved organic matter (DOM) in secondary effluent. Batch experiments were conducted under various adsorbent dosages, pH, contact time, temperatures and DOM fractional characteristics. Under the optimum conditions of fly ash dosage of 15 g/L, temperature of 303 K and contact time of 180 min, a removal of 22.5% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC), 23.7% of UV-254, 25.9% of the trihalomethanes precursors in secondary effluent was obtained. The adsorption of DOM fractions onto fly ash all followed the pseudo second-order kinetic model, and the hydrophilic fraction adsorption by fly ash also fitted the intraparticle diffusion model quite well. Freundlich and Langmuir models were applicable to the fly ash adsorption and their constants were evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacities of the adsorptions revealed that fly ash was more effective in adsorbing hydrophilic fraction than the acidic fractions. Structure changes of the DOM fractions after fly ash adsorption were also characterized via spectrum analyzing. Those mechanisms presented critical step toward improved efficiencies of fly ash adsorption via further surface-modification.

  14. Adsorption of Zinc(II) on diatomite and manganese-oxide-modified diatomite: a kinetic and equilibrium study.

    PubMed

    Caliskan, Necla; Kul, Ali Riza; Alkan, Salih; Sogut, Eda Gokirmak; Alacabey, Ihsan

    2011-10-15

    The removal of Zn(II) ions from aqueous solution was studied using natural and MnO(2) modified diatomite samples at different temperatures. The linear Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption equations were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms. From the D-R model, the mean adsorption energy was calculated as >8 kJ mol(-1), indicating that the adsorption of Zn(II) onto diatomite and Mn-diatomite was physically carried out. In addition, the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were used to determine the kinetic data. The experimental data were well fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic parameters such as the enthalpy (ΔH(0)), Gibbs' free energy (ΔG(0)) and entropy (ΔS(0)) were calculated for natural and MnO(2) modified diatomite. These values showed that the adsorption of Zn(II) ions onto diatomite samples was controlled by a physical mechanism and occurred spontaneously.

  15. Equilibrium adsorption studies of some aromatic pollutants from dilute aqueous solutions on activated carbon at different temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.R.; Ataullah, R.; Al-Haddad, A.

    1997-10-01

    Aqueous solutions of phenol, p-chlorophenol, and p-nitrophenol have been used to determine the adsorption isotherm for single solute systems on activated carbon at different temperatures. The experimental program has been conducted to investigate the influence of concentration and temperature. All the reported equilibrium isotherm equations have been tried on present and published experimental data. A generalized isotherm equation which was proposed by Khan et al. and tested for bi-solute adsorption data has been modified for single-solute system. The temperature dependency has also been incorporated into a generalized equation. It has been noticed that the Radke and Prausnitz and generalized isotherm equations could represent the entire data with a minimum average percentage error. The influence of different adsorbents, sorbate concentrations, and pH of aqueous solutions has also been discussed in detail. The temperature dependency has been investigated using both the Dubinin-Astakov and the modified generalized equation. The generalized equation describes the experimental and published data adequately and provides a single value of differential molar heat of adsorption, {Delta}H{sub ads}, for a single solute adsorption system. The Dubinin-Astakov isotherm equation has shown an increasing trend of {Delta}H{sub ads} as the loading of adsorbent has increased.

  16. Adsorption equilibrium of organic vapors on single-walled carbon nanotubes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Agnihotri, S.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Gravimetric techniques were employed to determine the adsorption capacities of commercially available purified electric arc and HiPco single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for organic compounds (toluene, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), hexane and cyclohexane) at relative pressures, p/p0, ranging from 1 ?? 10-4 to 0.95 and at isothermal conditions of 25, 37 and 50 ??C. The isotherms displayed both type I and type II characteristics. Adsorption isotherm modeling showed that SWNTs are heterogeneous adsorbents, and the Freundlich equation best describes the interaction between organic molecules and SWNTs. The heats of adsorption were 1-4 times the heats of vaporization, which is typical for physical adsorption of organic vapors on porous carbons. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adsorption energies of mercury-containing species on CaO and temperature effects on equilibrium constants predicted by density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo Gyeong; Li, Xinxin; Blowers, Paul

    2009-03-03

    The adsorption of Hg, HgCl, and HgCl2 on the CaO surface was investigated theoretically so the fundamental interactions between Hg species and this potential sorbent can be explored. Surface models of a 4 x 4 x 2 cluster, a 5 x 5 x 2 cluster, and a periodic structure using density functional theory calculations with LDA/PWC and GGA/BLYP functionals, as employed in the present work, offer a useful description for the thermodynamic properties of adsorption on metal oxides. The effect of temperature on the equilibrium constant for the adsorption of mercury-containing species on the CaO (0 0 1) surface was investigated with GGA/BLYP calculations in the temperature range of 250-600 K. Results show that, at low coverage of elemental mercury, adsorption on the surface is physisorption while the two forms of oxidized mercury adsorption undergo stronger adsorption. The adsorption energies decrease with increasing coverage for elemental mercury on the surfaces. The chlorine atom enhances the adsorption capacity and adsorbs mercury to the CaO surface more strongly. The adsorption energy is changed as the oxidation state varies, and the equilibrium constant decreases as the temperature increases, in good agreement with data for exothermic adsorption systems.

  18. Kinetics and equilibrium studies of adsorption of chromium(VI) ion from industrial wastewater using Chrysophyllum albidum (Sapotaceae) seed shells.

    PubMed

    Amuda, O S; Adelowo, F E; Ologunde, M O

    2009-02-01

    A new biosorbent has been prepared by coating Chrysophyllum albidum (Sapotaceae) seed shells with chitosan and/or oxidizing agents such as sulfuric acid. This study investigated the technical feasibility of activated and modified activated C. albidum seed shells carbons for the adsorption of chromium(VI) from aqueous solution. The sorption process with respect to its equilibria and kinetics as well as the effects of pH, contact time, adsorbent mass, adsorbate concentration and particle size on adsorption was also studied. The most effective pH range was found to be between 4.5 and 5 for the sorption of the metal ion. The pseudo-first-order rate equation by Lagergren and pseudo-second-order rate equation were tested on the kinetic data, the adsorption process followed pseudo-second-order rate kinetics, also, isotherm data was analyzed for possible agreement with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms, the Freundlich and Langmuir models for dynamics of metal ion uptake proposed in this work fitted the experimental data reasonably well. However, equilibrium sorption data were better represented by Langmuir model than Freundlich. The adsorption capacity calculated from Langmuir isotherm was 84.31, 76.23 and 59.63mgCr(VI)/g at initial pH of 3.0 at 30 degrees C for the particle size of 1.00-1.25mm with the use of 12.5, 16.5 and 2.1g/L of CACASC, CCASC and ACASC adsorbent mass, respectively. This readily available adsorbent is efficient in the uptake of Cr(VI) ion in aqueous solution, thus, it could be an excellent alternative for the removal of heavy metals and organic matter from water and wastewater.

  19. Mechanism of highly efficient adsorption of 2-chlorophenol onto ultrasonic graphene materials: Comparison and equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Tayyebeh; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2016-11-01

    The deficiencies of the recently reported improved Hummers method for the synthesis of graphene oxide (GO), such as high reaction temperature (60°C) and long reaction time (10h), were successfully solved using a low-intensity ultrasonic bath for 30min at 40°C. Furthermore, compared to its conventional synthesis counterpart, a facile and fast, one-step ultrasonic method that excluded hydrazine hydrate was developed to synthesize reduced GO (rGO) from graphite (10min, 50°C) in the presence of hydrazine hydrate (rGO-C, 12h, 90°C). The adsorption characteristics of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) from an aqueous solution were investigated using rGOs and GOs prepared by ultrasonic (rGO-Us/GO-Us) and conventional (rGO-C/GO-C) methods. Whereas 2-CP was completely removed with rGO-Us after 50min, only 40% of 2-CP was eliminated with rGO-C. The maximum adsorption capacity of 2-CP calculated by the Langmuir model onto rGO-Us (208.67mg/g) was much higher than that onto GO-Us (134.49mg/g). In addition, the ultrasonic graphene adsorption capacities were much higher than the corresponding values of rGO-C (49.9mg/g) and GO-C (32.06mg/g). The enhanced adsorption for rGO-Us and GO-Us is attributed to their greater surface areas, excellent oxygenated groups for GO-Us and superior π-electron-rich matrix for rGO-Us, compared to other adsorbents. The adsorption of 2-CP on the rGO materials increased with increasing solution pH to a maximum around its pKa (pKa=8.85), while the adsorption for the GO materials increased with decreasing solution pH. The adsorption mechanism proceeded via hydrogen bonding in neutral and acidic media, but via π-π electron donor-accepter (EDA) interactions between 2-CP and graphene materials in basic medium. The FTIR spectrum of GO-Us after adsorption indicates that the position and intensity of many peaks of GO-Us were affected due to the adsorption of different 2-CP groups at different pHs.

  20. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of mercury adsorption on almond shell.

    PubMed

    Khaloo, Shokooh Sadat; Matin, Amir Hossein; Sharifi, Sahar; Fadaeinia, Masoumeh; Kazempour, Narges; Mirzadeh, Shaghayegh

    2012-01-01

    The application of almond shell as a low cost natural adsorbent to remove Hg(2+) from aqueous solution was investigated. Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the material. The chemical and physical parameters such as pH, sorbent amount, initial ion concentration, and contact time were optimized for the maximum uptake of mercury onto the solid surface. Adsorption isotherms were expressed by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models, and the experimental data were found to fit the Langmuir model rather than the Freundlich. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from the Langmuir isotherm was 135.13 mg/g. A kinetic study was carried out with pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order reaction equations and it was found that the Hg(2+) uptake process followed the pseudo-second-order rate expression. The thermodynamic values, ΔG(0), ΔH(0) and ΔS(0), indicated that adsorption was an endothermic and spontaneous process. The potential of this material for mercury elimination was demonstrated by efficient Hg(2+) removal from a synthetic effluent.

  1. Dynamic behaviour of Cd2+ adsorption in equilibrium batch studies by CaCO3(-)-rich Corbicula fluminea shell.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Farhah Amalya; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Latif, Puziah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the structural and adsorption properties of the CaCO3(-)-rich Corbicula fluminea shell as a natural and economic adsorbent to remove Cd ions from aqueous solutions under batch studies. Experiments were conducted with different contact times, various initial concentrations, initial solution pH and serial biosorbent dosage to examine the dynamic characterization of the adsorption and its influence on Cd uptake capacity. The characterization of the C. fluminea shell using SEM/EDX revealed that the adsorbent surface is mostly impregnated by small particles of potentially calcium salts. The dominant Cd adsorption mechanism is strongly pH and concentration dependent. A maximum Cd removal efficiency of 96.20% was obtained at pH 7 while the optimum adsorbent dosage was observed as 5 g/L. The Langmuir isotherm was discovered to be more suitable to represent the experimental equilibrium isotherm results with higher correlation coefficients (R(2) > 0.98) than Freundlich (R(2) < 0.97).The correlation coefficient values (p < 0.01) indicated the superiority of the Langmuir isotherm over the Freundlich isotherm.

  2. Adsorption of methylene blue onto activated carbon produced from tea (Camellia sinensis L.) seed shells: kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-Jie; Qin, Ye-Bo; Zhou, Tao; Cao, Dong-Dong; Xu, Ping; Hochstetter, Danielle; Wang, Yue-Fei

    2013-07-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) seed shells, the main byproduct of the manufacture of tea seed oil, were used as precursors for the preparation of tea activated carbon (TAC) in the present study. A high yield (44.1%) of TAC was obtained from tea seed shells via a one-step chemical method using ZnCl2 as an agent. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and the total pore volumes of the obtained TAC were found to be 1530.67 mg(2)/g and 0.7826 cm(3)/g, respectively. The equilibrium adsorption results were complied with Langmuir isotherm model and its maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was 324.7 mg/g for methylene blue. Adsorption kinetics studies indicated that the pseudo-second-order model yielded the best fit for the kinetic data. An intraparticle diffusion model suggested that the intraparticle diffusion was not the only rate-controlling step. Thermodynamics studies revealed the spontaneous and exothermic nature of the sorption process. These results indicate that tea seed shells could be utilized as a renewable resource to develop activated carbon which is a potential adsorbent for methylene blue.

  3. Adsorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by native and activated bentonite: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic study.

    PubMed

    Kul, Ali Riza; Koyuncu, Hülya

    2010-07-15

    In this study, the adsorption kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of Pb(II) ions on native (NB) and acid activated (AAB) bentonites were examined. The specific surface areas, pore size and pore-size distributions of the samples were fully characterized. The adsorption efficiency of Pb(II) onto the NB and AAB was increased with increasing temperature. The kinetics of adsorption of Pb(II) ions was discussed using three kinetic models, the pseudo-first-order, the pseudo-second-order and the intra-particle diffusion model. The experimental data fitted very well the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The initial sorption rate and the activation energy were also calculated. The activation energy of the sorption was calculated as 16.51 and 13.66 kJ mol(-1) for NB and AAB, respectively. Experimental results were also analysed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Redushkevich (D-R) isotherm equations at different temperatures. R(L) separation factor for Langmuir and the n value for Freundlich isotherm show that Pb(II) ions are favorably adsorbed by NB and AAB. Thermodynamic quantities such as Gibbs free energy (DeltaG), the enthalpy (DeltaH) and the entropy change of sorption (DeltaS) were determined as about -5.06, 10.29 and 0.017 kJ mol(-1) K(-1), respectively for AAB. It was shown that the sorption processes were an endothermic reactions, controlled by physical mechanisms and spontaneously.

  4. Adsorption of methylene blue onto activated carbon produced from tea (Camellia sinensis L.) seed shells: kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamics studies*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun-jie; Qin, Ye-bo; Zhou, Tao; Cao, Dong-dong; Xu, Ping; Hochstetter, Danielle; Wang, Yue-fei

    2013-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) seed shells, the main byproduct of the manufacture of tea seed oil, were used as precursors for the preparation of tea activated carbon (TAC) in the present study. A high yield (44.1%) of TAC was obtained from tea seed shells via a one-step chemical method using ZnCl2 as an agent. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and the total pore volumes of the obtained TAC were found to be 1 530.67 mg2/g and 0.782 6 cm3/g, respectively. The equilibrium adsorption results were complied with Langmuir isotherm model and its maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was 324.7 mg/g for methylene blue. Adsorption kinetics studies indicated that the pseudo-second-order model yielded the best fit for the kinetic data. An intraparticle diffusion model suggested that the intraparticle diffusion was not the only rate-controlling step. Thermodynamics studies revealed the spontaneous and exothermic nature of the sorption process. These results indicate that tea seed shells could be utilized as a renewable resource to develop activated carbon which is a potential adsorbent for methylene blue. PMID:23825151

  5. Liquid Phase adsorption kinetics and equilibrium of toluene by novel modified-diatomite.

    PubMed

    Sheshdeh, Reza Khalighi; Abbasizadeh, Saeed; Nikou, Mohammad Reza Khosravi; Badii, Khashayar; Sharafi, Mohammad Sadegh

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption equilibria of toluene from aqueous solutions on natural and modified diatomite were examined at different operation parameters such as pH, contact time, initial toluene concentration was evaluated and optimum experimental conditions were identified. The surface area and morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, BET, XRD, FTIR and EDX analysis. It was found that in order to obtain the highest possible removal of toluene, the experiments can be carried out at pH 6, temperature 25°C, an agitation speed of 200 rpm, an initial toluene concentration of 150 mg/L, a centrifugal rate of 4000 rpm, adsorbent dosage = 0.1 g and a process time of 90 min. The results of this work show that the maximum percentage removal of toluene from aqueous solution in the optimum conditions for NONMD was 96.91% (145.36 mg/g). Furthermore, under same conditions, the maximum adsorption of natural diatomite was 71.45% (107.18 mg/g). Both adsorption kinetic and isotherm experiments were carried out. The experimental data showed that the adsorption follows the Langmuir model and Freundlich model on natural and modified diatomite respectively. The kinetics results were found to conform well to pseudo-second order kinetics model with good correlation. Thus, this study demonstrated that the modified diatomite could be used as potential adsorbent for removal of toluene from aqueous solution.

  6. Adsorption of heavy metal cations by Na-clinoptilolite: equilibrium and selectivity studies.

    PubMed

    Mihaly-Cozmuta, L; Mihaly-Cozmuta, A; Peter, A; Nicula, C; Tutu, H; Silipas, Dan; Indrea, Emil

    2014-05-01

    This paper summarizes the conclusions of experiments conducted on the adsorption of Cd(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) onto zeolite. The focus of the experiments was to establish the influence of the initial pH of the contact solution as well as the selectivity of zeolite on the efficiency of the adsorption process. To this end, experimental adsorption isotherms were established for the pH values ranging from 1 to 4 by using the Na-form of clinoptilolite (particle size range 0.5-1 mm) as an adsorbent. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Raduschkevich isotherm models were used to validate the experimental data and the Gibbs free energy was calculated based on the distribution coefficient. From the Langmuir model, correlations between the maximum adsorption capacity and selected physical-chemical parameters of the cations studied were established. The results of the experiments suggest that the selectivity of zeolite is strongly influenced by the pH of the contact solution, dehydration energy of cations, diffusion coefficient and the pH at which the precipitation of hydroxides occurs.

  7. Removal of azo dye by a highly graphitized and heteroatom doped carbon derived from fish waste: Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhengang; Zhang, Fang; Liu, Tingting; Peng, Nana; Gai, Chao

    2016-11-01

    A highly graphitized and heteroatom doped porous carbon was prepared from fish waste in the present study. The morphology and chemical composition of the resultant porous carbon were characterized by SEM-EDS, TEM, BET, XRD and Raman measurement. The prepared porous carbon was employed as an adsorbent for acid orange 7, a typical azo dye, removal from aqueous solution. The results showed that the porous carbon had ultrahigh surface area of 2146 m(2)/g, a high degree of graphitization structure and naturally doped with nitrogen and phosphorous. The maximum adsorption capacity of acid orange 7 reached 285.71 mg/g due to unique property of the prepared porous carbon. In addition, acid orange 7 adsorption onto the porous carbon well followed pseudo-second-order kinetics model and acid orange 7 diffusion in micropores was the potential rate controlling step.

  8. Three model space experiments on chemical reactions. [Gibbs adsorption, equilibrium shift and electrodeposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodzka, P.; Facemire, B.

    1977-01-01

    Three investigations conducted aboard Skylab IV and Apollo-Soyuz involved phenomena that are of interest to the biochemistry community. The formaldehyde clock reaction and the equilibrium shift reaction experiments conducted aboard Apollo Soyuz demonstrate the effect of low-g foams or air/liquid dispersions on reaction rate and chemical equilibrium. The electrodeposition reaction experiment conducted aboard Skylab IV demonstrate the effect of a low-g environment on an electrochemical displacement reaction. The implications of the three space experiments for various applications are considered.

  9. Generalized random sequential adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarjus, G.; Schaaf, P.; Talbot, J.

    1990-12-01

    Adsorption of hard spherical particles onto a flat uniform surface is analyzed by using generalized random sequential adsorption (RSA) models. These models are defined by releasing the condition of immobility present in the usual RSA rules to allow for desorption or surface diffusion. Contrary to the simple RSA case, generalized RSA processes are no longer irreversible and the system formed by the adsorbed particles on the surface may reach an equilibrium state. We show by using a distribution function approach that the kinetics of such processes can be described by means of an exact infinite hierarchy of equations reminiscent of the Kirkwood-Salsburg hierarchy for systems at equilibrium. We illustrate the way in which the systems produced by adsorption/desorption and by adsorption/diffusion evolve between the two limits represented by ``simple RSA'' and ``equilibrium'' by considering approximate solutions in terms of truncated density expansions.

  10. Adsorption of methylene blue onto jute fiber carbon: kinetics and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumaar, S; Varadarajan, P R; Porkodi, K; Subbhuraam, C V

    2005-04-01

    Jute fiber obtained from the stem of a plant was used to prepare activated carbon using phosphoric acid. Feasibility of employing this jute fiber activated carbon (JFC) for the removal of Methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution was investigated. The adsorption of MB on JFC has found to dependent on contact time, MB concentration and pH. Experimental result follows Langmuir isotherm model and the capacity was found to be 225.64 mg/g. The optimum pH for the MB removal was found to be 5-10. The kinetic data obtained at different concentrations have been analyzed using a pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order equation, intraparticle diffusion and Elovich equation. Among the kinetic models studied, the intraparticle diffusion was the best applicable model to describe the adsorption of MB onto JFC.

  11. Adsorptive potential of cationic Basic Yellow 2 (BY2) dye onto natural untreated clay (NUC) from aqueous phase: Mass transfer analysis, kinetic and equilibrium profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztürk, A.; Malkoc, E.

    2014-04-01

    In this work, natural untreated clay (NUC) was studied for the removal of Basic Yellow 2 (BY2) from aqueous solution in batch system. The effects of initial BY2 concentration, contact time, solution temperature and solution pH on BY2 adsorption were investigated. Nitrogen sorption measurements were employed to investigate the variation in surface and pore properties after dye adsorption. The adsorbent was characterized by means of FTIR, PSD, TEM, XRD and BET analysis. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Scatchard isotherm models. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 833.33 mg/g at 25 °C (at room temperature). The pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided the best fit to the experimental datas compared with pseudo-first-order kinetic adsorption models. To explain mass transfer mechanism of BY2 adsorption, obtained experimental datas were applied Weber and Morris model, Body and Frusawa and Smith models. The results show that the adsorption process is controlled by film diffusion. The thermodynamic parameters such as, Gibbs free energy changes (ΔG°), standard enthalpy change (ΔH°) and standard entropy change (ΔS°) were determined. Adsorption of BY2 on NUC is exothermic and spontaneous in nature. The calculated activation energy of adsorption was found to be 5.24 kJ/mol for BY2. This value indicates that the adsorption process is a physisorption.

  12. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium studies for removal of acid azo dyes by aniline formaldehyde condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terangpi, Praisy; Chakraborty, Saswati

    2016-12-01

    Adsorption of two acid dyes named Acid orange 8 (AO8) and Acid violet 7 (AV7) by amine based polymer aniline formaldehyde condensate (AFC) was studied. Adsorption of both dyes was favored at acidic pH. Electrostatic attraction between protonated amine group (NH3 +) of AFC and anionic sulfonate group (SO3 -) of dye molecule along with hydrogen bond formation and interaction between aromatic group of dye and AFC were responsible mechanisms for dye uptake. Isotherm of AO8 was Type I and followed Langmuir isotherm model. AV7 isotherm on AFC was of Type III and followed Freundlich model. Kinetics study showed that external mass transfer was the rate limiting step followed by intraparticle diffusion. Maximum adsorption capacities of AO8 and AV7 were observed as 164 and 68 mg/g. AO8 dye being smaller in molecular size was adsorbed more due to higher diffusion rate and higher dye: AFC ratio, which enhanced the interaction between dye and polymer.

  13. Adsorption equilibrium and thermodynamics of CO2 and CH4 on carbon molecular sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xue; Wang, Li'ao; Ma, Xu; Zeng, Yunmin

    2017-02-01

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) are widely used in the separation of dioxide carbon and methane. In this research, three commercial CMS were utilized to analyze the pore structure and chemical properties. The adsorption isotherms of CO2 and CH4 were studied at 298 K, 308 K and 318 K over the pressure range of 0-1 MPa by an Intelligent Gravimetric analysis (IGA-100B, UK). Langmuir model was adopted to fit the experimental data. The working capacity and selectivity were employed to evaluate the adsorbents. The adsorption thermodynamics were discussed. The adsorbed amounts of both CO2 and CH4 are found to be highly related with the BET specific surface area and the volume of micropores, and also are interrelated with the total pore volume and micropore surface area. The standard enthalpy change (ΔHΘ), standard Gibbs free energy (ΔGΘ) and standard entropy change (ΔSΘ) at zero surface loading are negative, manifesting the adsorption process is exothermic and spontaneous, and the system tends to be ordered. With the increasing surface coverage, the absolute values of Gibbs free energy (ΔG) decrease whereas the absolute values of enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change(ΔS) increase. This indicates that as the adsorbed amount increases, the degree of the spontaneity reduces, the intermolecular forces among the adsorbate molecules increase, the orderliness of the system improves and the adsorbed amount approaches the maximum adsorbed capacity.

  14. Experimental studies on equilibrium adsorption isosteres and determination of the thermodynamic quantities of polar media on alumina Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonova, Albena

    2017-03-01

    The present work is a revieif of theoretical and experimental study on the adsorption performance of the adsorbent Alumina (Al2O3) used in the adsorption system. An experimental investigation on the equilibrium adsorption isosteres at low pressure (< 1 atm) of working pairs Al2O3/H2O and Al2O3/C2H6O2 is carried out. The isovolume measurement method is adopted in the test setup to directly measure the saturated vapor pressures of working pairs at vapor-liquid equilibrium (dG=0 and dμi=0). Quantity adsorbed is determined from pressure, volume and temperature using gas law. The isosteric heat of adsorption is calculated from the slope of the plot of lnP versus 1/T different amounts of adsorbate onto adsorbent as follows: 0,01 vol% Al2O3/H2O; 0,03 vol% Al2O3/H2O; 0,1 vol% Al2O3/H2O; 0,01 vol% Al2O3/C2H6O2; 0,03 vol% Al2O3/C2H6O2; 0,1 vol% Al2O3/C2H6O2. This study shows that adsorption working pair Al2O3 C2H6O2 has better adsorption performances than those of the A2O3/H2O. Surface acidity! is a most important property! far both adsorption and catalysis and therefore is examined structure of active sites of alumina surface. Thermodynamic parameters such as isosteric heat of adsorption, isosteric enthalpy and entropy of adsorption are critical design variables in estimating the performance and predicting the mechanism of an adsorption process and are also one of the basic requirements for the characterization and optimization of an adsorption process

  15. Equilibrium and Heat of Adsorption for Organic Vapors and Activated Carbons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Technol. 2005, 39, 5864-5871 5864 9 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY / VOL. 39, NO. 15, 2005 10.1021/es048144r CCC: $30.25  2005 American Chemical...0.654 VOL. 39, NO. 15, 2005 / ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 9 5865 have due to the drag force on the sample pan. In addition, the N2 flow prevented...results are provided as lines. 5866 9 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY / VOL. 39, NO. 15, 2005 Increasing the adsorption temperature from 20 to 60 °C

  16. Characterizing particle-scale equilibrium adsorption and kinetics of uranium(VI) desorption from U-contaminated sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoliker, Deborah L.; Liu, Chongxuan; Kent, Douglas B.; Zachara, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Rates of U(VI) release from individual dry-sieved size fractions of a field-aggregated, field-contaminated composite sediment from the seasonally saturated lower vadose zone of the Hanford 300-Area were examined in flow-through reactors to maintain quasi-constant chemical conditions. The principal source of variability in equilibrium U(VI) adsorption properties of the various size fractions was the impact of variable chemistry on adsorption. This source of variability was represented using surface complexation models (SCMs) with different stoichiometric coefficients with respect to hydrogen ion and carbonate concentrations for the different size fractions. A reactive transport model incorporating equilibrium expressions for cation exchange and calcite dissolution, along with rate expressions for aerobic respiration and silica dissolution, described the temporal evolution of solute concentrations observed during the flow-through reactor experiments. Kinetic U(VI) desorption was well described using a multirate SCM with an assumed lognormal distribution for the mass-transfer rate coefficients. The estimated mean and standard deviation of the rate coefficients were the same for all <2 mm size fractions but differed for the 2–8 mm size fraction. Micropore volumes, assessed using t-plots to analyze N2 desorption data, were also the same for all dry-sieved <2 mm size fractions, indicating a link between micropore volumes and mass-transfer rate properties. Pore volumes for dry-sieved size fractions exceeded values for the corresponding wet-sieved fractions. We hypothesize that repeated field wetting and drying cycles lead to the formation of aggregates and/or coatings containing (micro)pore networks which provided an additional mass-transfer resistance over that associated with individual particles. The 2–8 mm fraction exhibited a larger average and standard deviation in the distribution of mass-transfer rate coefficients, possibly caused by the abundance of

  17. Equilibrium modeling and kinetic studies on the adsorption of basic dye by a low-cost adsorbent: coconut (Cocos nucifera) bunch waste.

    PubMed

    Hameed, B H; Mahmoud, D K; Ahmad, A L

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, the ability of coconut bunch waste (CBW), an agricultural waste available in large quantity in Malaysia, to remove basic dye (methylene blue) from aqueous solution by adsorption was studied. Batch mode experiments were conducted at 30 degrees C to study the effects of pH and initial concentration of methylene blue (MB). Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models of adsorption. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted well to Langmuir isotherm and the monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 70.92 mg/g at 30 degrees C. The kinetic data obtained at different concentrations have been analyzed using a pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order equation and intraparticle diffusion equation. The experimental data fitted very well the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  18. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of C.I. Basic Blue 41 adsorption onto N, F-codoped flower-like TiO2 microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yinhua; Luo, Yingying; Zhang, Fumei; Guo, Leiqun; Ni, Liang

    2013-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) N, F-codoped flower-like TiO2 microspheres were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method combined with calcination process. The as-prepared samples were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and EDS. The adsorption abilities of prepared samples were investigated for the removal of C.I. Basic Blue 41(CB41) from aqueous solution. The FE-SEM and adsorption results showed that doping amount of NH4F affected the morphologies of samples and sample NFT-1 with the structure of 3D flower-like microsphere had the highest adsorption amount of CB41. The effects of varying parameters such as pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature on the CB41 adsorption onto NFT-1 were further examined. Equilibrium data correlated with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm showed the best fit to the equilibrium data. The kinetic experimental data were analyzed by three kinetic models including the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model and the intraparticle diffusion model to access the adsorption mechanism and the potential rate-controlling step. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model described best for the adsorption of CB41 on NFT-1 and the intraparticle diffusion was not the only rate-controlling step. The thermodynamics parameters as positive values of ΔH° and negative values of ΔG° showed that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous in nature.

  19. Characteristics of equilibrium, kinetics studies for adsorption of Hg(II), Cu(II), and Ni(II) ions by thiourea-modified magnetic chitosan microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Limin; Wang, Yiping; Liu, Zhirong; Huang, Qunwu

    2009-01-30

    Magnetic chitosan microspheres were prepared and chemically modified with thiourea (TMCS) for adsorption of metal ions. TMCS obtained were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR, magnetic properties and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The adsorption properties of TMCS toward Hg(2+), Cu(2+), and Ni(2+) ions were evaluated. Various factors affecting the uptake behavior such as contact time, temperature, pH and initial concentration of the metal ions were investigated. The kinetics was evaluated utilizing the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and the intra-particle diffusion models. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Tempkin isotherm models. The adsorption kinetics followed the mechanism of the pseudo-second-order equation for all systems studied, evidencing chemical sorption as the rate-limiting step of adsorption mechanism and not involving a mass transfer in solution. The best interpretation for the equilibrium data was given by Langmuir isotherm, and the maximum adsorption capacities were 625.2, 66.7, and 15.3mg/g for Hg(2+), Cu(2+), and Ni(2+) ions, respectively. TMCS displayed higher adsorption capacity for Hg(2+) in all pH ranges studied. The adsorption capacity of the metal ions decreased with increasing temperature. The metal ion-loaded TMCS with were regenerated with an efficiency of greater than 88% using 0.01-0.1M ethylendiamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA).

  20. Equilibrium and kinetic models on the adsorption of Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solution using Eichhornia crassipes/chitosan composite.

    PubMed

    El-Zawahry, Manal M; Abdelghaffar, Fatma; Abdelghaffar, Rehab A; Hassabo, Ahmed G

    2016-01-20

    New natural biopolymer composite was prepared using extracted cellulose from an environmentally problematic water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (EC). The extracted cellulose was functionalized by chitosan and TiO2 nanoparticles to form EC/Chitosan (EC/Cs) composite network. Surface characterization of EC/Cs natural biopolymer composite was examined by spectrum analysis FT-IR, specific surface area, micropore volume, pore width and SEM. Furthermore, the sorption experiments were carried out as a function of pH, various initial dye concentration and contact time. Experiment results showed that the EC/Cs composite have high ability to remove C.I. Reactive Black 5 from its dye-bath effluent. The equilibrium sorption evaluation of RB5 conformed and fitted well to Langmuir adsorption isotherm models and the maximum sorption capacity was 0.606 mg/g. The kinetic adsorption models followed pseudo-second order model and the dye intra-particle diffusion may suggesting a chemical reaction mechanism. Further, it was obvious from the investigation that this composite could be applied as a promising low cost adsorbent for anionic dye removal from aqueous solutions.

  1. Arsenic (III) adsorption on iron acetate coated activated alumina: thermodynamic, kinetics and equilibrium approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption potential of iron acetate coated activated alumina (IACAA) for removal of arsenic [As (III)] as arsenite by batch sorption technique is described. IACAA was characterized by XRD, FTIR, EDAX and SEM instruments. Percentage adsorption on IACAA was determined as a function of pH, contact time and adsorbent dose. The study revealed that the removal of As (III) was best achieved at pH =7.4. The initial As (III) concentration (0.45 mg/L) came down to less than 0.01 mg/L at contact time 90 min with adsorbent dose of 1 g/100 mL. The sorption was reasonably explained with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 , ΔS 0 and E a were calculated in order to understand the nature of sorption process. The sorption process was found to be controlled by pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. PMID:24359995

  2. Impact of the molecular structure and adsorption mode of D-π-A dye sensitizers with a pyridyl group in dye-sensitized solar cells on the adsorption equilibrium constant for dye-adsorption on TiO2 surface.

    PubMed

    Ooyama, Yousuke; Yamaguchi, Naoya; Ohshita, Joji; Harima, Yutaka

    2016-12-07

    D-π-A dyes NI-4 bearing a pyridyl group, YNI-1 bearing two pyridyl groups and YNI-2 bearing two thienylpyridyl groups as the anchoring group on the TiO2 surface have been developed as dye sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), where NI-4 and YNI-2 can adsorb onto the TiO2 electrode through the formation of the coordinate bond between the pyridyl group of the dye and the Lewis acid site (exposed Ti(n+) cations) on the TiO2 surface, but YNI-1 is predominantly adsorbed on the TiO2 electrode through the formation of the hydrogen bond between the pyridyl group of the dye and the Brønsted acid sites (surface-bound hydroxyl groups, Ti-OH) on the TiO2 surface. The difference in the dye-adsorption mode among the three dyes on the TiO2 surface has been investigated from the adsorption equilibrium constant (Kad) based on the Langmuir adsorption isotherms. It was found that the Kad values of YNI-1 and YNI-2 are higher than that of NI-4, and more interestingly, the Kad value of YNI-2 is higher than that of YNI-1. This work demonstrates that that for the D-π-A dye sensitizers with the pyridyl group as the anchoring group to the TiO2 surface the number of pyridyl groups and the dye-adsorption mode on the TiO2 electrode as well as the molecular structure of the dye sensitizer affect the Kad value for the adsorption of the dye to the TiO2 electrode, that is, resulting in a difference in the Kad value among the D-π-A dye sensitizers NI-4, YNI-1 and YNI-2.

  3. Adsorption of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol onto powdered activated carbon at non-equilibrium conditions: influence of NOM and process modelling.

    PubMed

    Zoschke, Kristin; Engel, Christina; Börnick, Hilmar; Worch, Eckhard

    2011-10-01

    The adsorption of the taste and odour (T&O) compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) has been studied under conditions which are typical for a drinking water treatment plant that uses reservoir water for drinking water production. The reservoir water as well as the pre-treated water (after flocculation) contains NOM that competes with the trace compounds for the adsorption sites on the carbon surface. Although the DOC concentrations in the reservoir water and in the pre-treated water were different, no differences in the competitive adsorption could be seen. By using two special characterisation methods for NOM (adsorption analysis, LC/OCD) it could be proved that flocculation removes only NOM fractions which are irrelevant for competitive adsorption. Different model approaches were applied to describe the competitive adsorption of the T&O compounds and NOM, the tracer model, the equivalent background compound model, and the simplified equivalent background compound model. All these models are equilibrium models but in practice the contact time in flow-through reactors is typically shorter than the time needed to establish the adsorption equilibrium. In this paper it is demonstrated that the established model approaches can be used to describe competitive adsorption of T&O compounds and NOM also under non-equilibrium conditions. The results of the model applications showed that in particular the simplified equivalent background compound model is a useful tool to determine the PAC dosage required to reduce the T&O compounds below the threshold concentration.

  4. Application of a micromembrane chromatography module to the examination of protein adsorption equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Káňavová, Natália; Kosior, Anna; Antošová, Monika; Faber, René; Polakovič, Milan

    2012-11-01

    A micromembrane chromatography module based on a 96-well plate design and enabling fast and simple separation of small amounts of proteins was used for the determination of binding capacities of lysozyme, bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, bovine γ-globulin, and human immunoglobulin G on a hydrophobic membrane Sartobind® Phenyl. Dependence of the binding capacity of the proteins on the ammonium sulfate concentration was examined in the salt concentration range of 0.5-2.0 mol L(-1). An exponential increase of the binding capacity was observed for all proteins. Simple Langmuir one-component isotherm was found suitable for the characterization of the effect of protein concentration in all cases. A combined effect of protein and salt concentrations was expressed via the Langmuir exponential isotherm and fitted the adsorption data for three of the investigated proteins well.

  5. On the 2D-transition, hysteresis and thermodynamic equilibrium of Kr adsorption on a graphite surface.

    PubMed

    Diao, Rui; Fan, Chunyan; Do, D D; Nicholson, D

    2015-12-15

    The adsorption and desorption of Kr on graphite at temperatures in the range 60-88K, was systematically investigated using a combination of several simulation techniques including: Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC), Canonical kinetic-Monte Carlo (C-kMC) and the Mid-Density Scheme (MDS). Particular emphasis was placed on the gas-solid, gas-liquid and liquid-solid 2D phase transitions. For temperatures below the bulk triple point, the transition from a 2D-liquid-like monolayer to a 2D-solid-like state is manifested as a sub-step in the isotherm. A further increase in the chemical potential leads to another rearrangement of the 2D-solid-like state from a disordered structure to an ordered structure that is signalled by (1) another sub-step in the monolayer region and (2) a spike in the plot of the isosteric heat versus density at loadings close to the dense monolayer coverage concentration. Whenever a 2D transition occurs in a grand canonical isotherm it is always associated with a hysteresis, a feature that is not widely recognised in the literature. We studied in details this hysteresis with the analysis of the canonical isotherm, obtained with C-kMC, which exhibits a van der Waals (vdW) type loop with a vertical segment in the middle. We complemented the hysteresis loop and the vdW curve with the analysis of the equilibrium transition obtained with the MDS, and found that the equilibrium transition coincides exactly with the vertical segment of the C-kMC isotherm, indicating the co-existence of two phases at equilibrium. We also analysed adsorption at higher layers and found that the 2D-coexistence is also observed, provided that the temperature is well below the triple point. Finally the 2D-critical temperatures were obtained for the first three layers and they are in good agreement with the experimental data in the literature.

  6. Kinetic, equilibrium isotherm and thermodynamic studies of Cr(VI) adsorption onto low-cost adsorbent developed from peanut shell activated with phosphoric acid.

    PubMed

    ALOthman, Zeid A; Naushad, Mu; Ali, Rahmat

    2013-05-01

    A particular agricultural waste, peanut shell, has been used as precursor for activated carbon production by chemical activation with H₃PO₄. Unoxidized activated carbon was prepared in nitrogen atmosphere which was then heated in air at a desired temperature to get oxidized activated carbon. The prepared carbons were characterized for surface area, surface morphology, and pore volume and utilized for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. Batch mode experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, contact time, particle size, adsorbent dose, initial concentration of adsorbate, and temperature on the adsorption of Cr(VI). Cr(VI) adsorption was significantly dependent on solution pH, and the optimum adsorption was observed at pH 2. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were used to analyze the kinetic data obtained at different initial Cr(VI) concentrations. The adsorption kinetic data were described very well by the pseudo-second-order model. Equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin models. The results showed that the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model fitted the data better in the temperature range studied. The adsorption capacity which was found to increase with temperature showed the endothermic nature of Cr(VI) adsorption. The thermodynamic parameters, such as Gibb's Free energy change (ΔG°), standard enthalpy change (ΔH°), and standard entropy change (ΔS°) were evaluated.

  7. The adsorption of basic dye (Astrazon Blue FGRL) from aqueous solutions onto sepiolite, fly ash and apricot shell activated carbon: kinetic and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Karagozoglu, B; Tasdemir, M; Demirbas, E; Kobya, M

    2007-08-17

    In this study, sepiolite, fly ash and apricot stone activated carbon (ASAC) were used as adsorbents for the investigation of the adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic parameters of the basic dye (Astrazon Blue FGRL) from aqueous solutions at various concentrations (100-300 mg/L), adsorbent doses (3-12 g/L) and temperatures (303-323 K). The result showed that the adsorption capacity of the dye increased with increasing initial dye concentration, adsorbent dose and temperature. Three kinetic models, the pseudo-first-order, second-order, intraparticle diffusion, were used to predict the adsorption rate constants. The kinetics of adsorption of the basic dye followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Equations were developed using the pseudo-second-order model which predicts the amount of the basic dye adsorbed at any contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dose within the given range accurately. The adsorption equilibrium data obeyed Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption capacities (Q0) calculated from the Langmuir isotherm were 181.5 mg/g for ASAC, 155.5 mg/g for sepiolite and 128.2 mg/g for fly ash at 303 K. Thermodynamical parameters were also evaluated for the dye-adsorbent systems and revealed that the adsorption process was endothermic in nature.

  8. Adsorptive performance of un-calcined sodium exchanged and acid modified montmorillonite for Ni2+ removal: equilibrium, kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration studies.

    PubMed

    Ijagbemi, Christianah Olakitan; Baek, Mi-Hwa; Kim, Dong-Su

    2010-02-15

    The efficacy of un-calcined sodium exchanged (Na-MMT) and acid modified montmorillonite (A-MMT) has been investigated for adsorptive removal of Ni(2+) from aqueous solution. Physico-chemical parameters such as pH, initial Ni(2+) concentration, and equilibrium contact time were studied in a series of batch adsorption experiments. The equilibrium time of contact for both adsorbents was about 230 min. The Redlich-Peterson model best described the equilibrium sorption of Ni(2+) onto Na-MMT and the Dubinin-Radushkevich model was the best model in predicting the equilibrium sorption of Ni(2+) onto A-MMT. The kinetics of Ni(2+) uptake by Na-MMT and A-MMT followed the pseudo second-order chemisorption mechanism. Sorptions of Ni(2+) onto Na-MMT and A-MMT were spontaneous and endothermic. Regeneration was tried for several cycles with a view to recover the adsorbed Ni(2+) and also to restore Na-MMT and A-MMT to their original states. The un-calcined Na-MMT and A-MMT have adsorptive potentials for removal of Ni(2+) from aqueous bodies.

  9. Enhanced adsorptive removal of Safranine T from aqueous solutions by waste sea buckthorn branch powder modified with dopamine: Kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Bai, Bo; Wang, Honglun; Suo, Yourui

    2015-12-01

    Polydopamine coated sea buckthorn branch powder (PDA@SBP) was facilely synthesized via a one-pot bio-inspired dip-coating approach. The as-synthesized PDA@SBP was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption progresses of Safranine T on the surface of PDA@SBP adsorbent were systematically investigated. More specifically, the effects of solution pH, contact time, initial concentration and temperature were evaluated, respectively. The experimental results showed the adsorption capacity of PDA@SBP at 293.15 K could reach up to 54.0 mg/g; the adsorption increased by 201.7% compared to that of native SBP (17.9 mg/g). Besides, kinetics studies showed that pseudo-second-order kinetic model adequately described the adsorption behavior. The adsorption experimental data could be fitted well a Freundlich isotherm model. Thermodynamic analyses showed that the ST adsorption was a physisorption endothermic process. Regeneration of the spent PDA@SBP adsorbent was conducted with 0.1 M HCl without significant reduction in adsorption capacity. On the basis of these investigations, it is believed that the PDA@SBP adsorbent could have potential applications in sewage disposal areas because of their considerable adsorption capacities, brilliant regeneration capability, and cost-effective and eco-friendly preparation and use.

  10. Lysozyme adsorption in pH-responsive hydrogel thin-films: the non-trivial role of acid-base equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Narambuena, Claudio F; Longo, Gabriel S; Szleifer, Igal

    2015-09-07

    We develop and apply a molecular theory to study the adsorption of lysozyme on weak polyacid hydrogel films. The theory explicitly accounts for the conformation of the network, the structure of the proteins, the size and shape of all the molecular species, their interactions as well as the chemical equilibrium of each titratable unit of both the protein and the polymer network. The driving forces for adsorption are the electrostatic attractions between the negatively charged network and the positively charged protein. The adsorption is a non-monotonic function of the solution pH, with a maximum in the region between pH 8 and 9 depending on the salt concentration of the solution. The non-monotonic adsorption is the result of increasing negative charge of the network with pH, while the positive charge of the protein decreases. At low pH the network is roughly electroneutral, while at sufficiently high pH the protein is negatively charged. Upon adsorption, the acid-base equilibrium of the different amino acids of the protein shifts in a nontrivial fashion that depends critically on the particular kind of residue and solution composition. Thus, the proteins regulate their charge and enhance adsorption under a wide range of conditions. In particular, adsorption is predicted above the protein isoelectric point where both the solution lysozyme and the polymer network are negatively charged. This behavior occurs because the pH in the interior of the gel is significantly lower than that in the bulk solution and it is also regulated by the adsorption of the protein in order to optimize protein-gel interactions. Under high pH conditions we predict that the protein changes its charge from negative in the solution to positive within the gel. The change occurs within a few nanometers at the interface of the hydrogel film. Our predictions show the non-trivial interplay between acid-base equilibrium, physical interactions and molecular organization under nanoconfined conditions

  11. Uptake of gaseous formaldehyde by soil surfaces: a combination of adsorption/desorption equilibrium and chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guo; Su, Hang; Li, Xin; Kuhn, Uwe; Meusel, Hannah; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Ammann, Markus; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shao, Min; Cheng, Yafang

    2016-08-01

    Gaseous formaldehyde (HCHO) is an important precursor of OH radicals and a key intermediate molecule in the oxidation of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Budget analyses reveal large discrepancies between modeled and observed HCHO concentrations in the atmosphere. Here, we investigate the interactions of gaseous HCHO with soil surfaces through coated-wall flow tube experiments applying atmospherically relevant HCHO concentrations of ˜ 10 to 40 ppbv. For the determination of uptake coefficients (γ), we provide a Matlab code to account for the diffusion correction under laminar flow conditions. Under dry conditions (relative humidity = 0 %), an initial γ of (1.1 ± 0.05) × 10-4 is determined, which gradually drops to (5.5 ± 0.4) × 10-5 after 8 h experiments. Experiments under wet conditions show a smaller γ that drops faster over time until reaching a plateau. The drop of γ with increasing relative humidity as well as the drop over time can be explained by the adsorption theory in which high surface coverage leads to a reduced uptake rate. The fact that γ stabilizes at a non-zero plateau suggests the involvement of irreversible chemical reactions. Further back-flushing experiments show that two-thirds of the adsorbed HCHO can be re-emitted into the gas phase while the residual is retained by the soil. This partial reversibility confirms that HCHO uptake by soil is a complex process involving both adsorption/desorption and chemical reactions which must be considered in trace gas exchange (emission or deposition) at the atmosphere-soil interface. Our results suggest that soil and soil-derived airborne particles can either act as a source or a sink for HCHO, depending on ambient conditions and HCHO concentrations.

  12. Has Chemical Education Reached Equilibrium?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1997-06-01

    The other day I got to thinking about whether something akin to Le Chatelier's principle operates in chemical education. That is, whenever someone alters the conditions under which we interact with students, there is a shift in the system that attempts to minimize or counteract the change.

  13. A novel polar-modified post-cross-linked resin and its enhanced adsorption to salicylic acid: Equilibrium, kinetics and breakthrough studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomei; Li, Guoqiang; Guo, Deping; Zhang, Yaling; Huang, Jianhan

    2016-05-15

    Improving the surface polarity is of significance for the post-cross-linked resins to enhance their adsorption to polar aromatic compounds. In the present study, we prepared a novel polar-modified post-cross-linked PDEpc_D by the Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction and the amination reaction, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and pore volume increased significantly after the Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction and the surface polarity improved greatly after the amination reaction. Batch adsorption showed that PDEpc_D possessed a much enhanced adsorption to salicylic acid as compared the precursors PDE and PDEpc as well as the non-polar post-cross-linked PDVBpc. The equilibrium data was characterized by the Freundlich model, π-π stacking, hydrogen bonding and static interaction were the possible driving forces. The adsorption was a fast process and the kinetic data obeyed the micropore diffusion model. Column adsorption-desorption experiments suggested that PDEpc_D was a potential candidate for adsorptive removal of salicylic acid from aqueous solution.

  14. Role of the solvent in the adsorption-desorption equilibrium of cinchona alkaloids between solution and a platinum surface: correlations among solvent polarity, cinchona solubility, and catalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhen; Zaera, Francisco

    2005-01-13

    The role that the nature of the solvent plays in defining the extent of cinchona alkaloid adsorption-desorption equilibrium on platinum surfaces has been studied both by testing their solubility in 54 different solvents and by probing the stability of adsorbed cinchona in the presence of those solvents. The solubilities vary by as much as 5-6 orders of magnitude, display volcano-type correlations with solvent polarity and dielectric constant, and follow a cinchonine < cinchonidine < quinine, quinidine sequence. The adsorption-desorption equilibrium shifts toward the solution with increasing dissolving power of the solvent. The relevance of these results to the behavior of cinchona as chiral modifiers in hydrogenation catalysis is discussed.

  15. Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of adsorption of 2-biphenylamine and dibenzylamine from aqueous solutions by Fe3O4/bentonite nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasheghani F., B.; Rajabi, F. H.; Omidi, M. H.; Shabanian, S.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic Fe3O4/bentonite nanocomposite is synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. Experimental data are modelled by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm model fitted the equilibrium data for the dibenzylamine (DBA) and 2-biphenylamine (BPA) respectively, compared to the other isotherm models. The calculated thermodynamic parameters, Δ G°, Δ H°, and Δ S° showed that the DBA and BPA adsorption on bentonite nanocomposite is spontaneous and endothermic under examined conditions. Experimental data were also modeled using the adsorption kinetic models. The results show that the adsorption processes of DBA and BPA followed well the pseudo-second-order kinetics. Results indicated that Fe3O4/bentonite nanocomposite could be an alternative for more costly adsorbents used for organic toxicants removal.

  16. Equilibrium and kinetics study on the adsorption of perfluorooctanoic acid from aqueous solution onto powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yan; Zhang, Chaojie; Li, Fei; Bo, Xiaowen; Liu, Guangfu; Zhou, Qi

    2009-09-30

    Powdered activated carbon (PAC) was applied to remove perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the aqueous PFOA solution in this study. Contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature were analyzed as the effect factors in the adsorption reaction. The contact time of maximum PFOA uptake was around 1h while the sorption removal efficiency increased with the PAC concentrations. And the process of adsorption increased from 303 K to 313 K and then decreased from 313 K to 323 K. Among four applied models, the experimental isotherm data were discovered to follow Langmuir isotherm model more closely. Thermodynamically, adsorption was endothermic because enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs constants were 198.5 kJ/mol, 0.709 kJ/mol/K and negative, respectively, which also indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and feasible. From kinetic analysis, the adsorption was suggested to be pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption of PFOA on the PAC was mainly controlled by particle diffusion.

  17. Adsorptive removal of 2-chlorophenol by low-cost coir pith carbon.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Kavitha, D

    2003-03-17

    Adsorption of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) by coir pith carbon was carried out by varying the parameters such as agitation time, 2-CP concentration, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature. Adsorption equilibrium reached at 40, 60, 80 and 100 min for 2-CP concentration of 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/l, respectively. Adsorption followed second-order kinetics. The adsorption equilibrium data obeyed Freundlich isotherm. Acidic pH was favorable for the adsorption of 2-CP. Desorption studies showed that chemisorption plays a major role in the adsorption process.

  18. Adsorption behavior of levulinic acid onto microporous hyper-cross-linked polymers in aqueous solution: Equilibrium, thermodynamic, kinetic simulation and fixed-bed column studies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoqing; Huang, Qianlin; Qi, Gaoxiang; Xiong, Lian; Huang, Chao; Chen, Xuefang; Li, Hailong; Chen, Xinde

    2017-03-01

    The recovery of levulinic acid (LA) from aqueous solution and actual biomass hydrolysate by a microporous hyper-cross-linked polymer, SY-01, was investigated for the first time under batch and fixed-bed column conditions. The results showed that the optimum pH should be in the acidic range (pH < 3.0) without adjusting the pH. In the single-component system equilibrium study, the Langmuir isotherm model fits the LA adsorption onto SY-01 resin better than the Freundlich isotherm model, indicating that LA adsorption onto SY-01 resin under the concentration range studied is a monolayer homogeneous adsorption process. The maximum adsorption capacity of LA onto SY-01 resin decreased with increasing temperature, ranging from 103.74 to 95.70 mg/g. The obtained thermodynamic parameters suggested that the adsorption of LA on SY-01 was spontaneous (ΔG(0)<-3.788 kJ/mol), and exothermic (ΔH(0) = -11.764 kJ/mol). For kinetic study, the adsorption of LA onto SY-01 resin at various operating conditions follows the pore diffusion model and the intraparticle diffusion is the rate-limiting step for the adsorption of LA onto SY-01 resin. The effective pore diffusivity was dependent upon temperature, but independent of initial LA concentration, and were 3.306 × 10(-10), 5.274 × 10(-10) and 7.707 × 10(-10) m(2)/s at 298, 318 and 338 K, respectively. In desorption process, the recovery efficiency of LA from SY-01 resin was 99.39%, and LA concentration in the eluent was raised 2.97-fold. In conclusion, our results show that the SY-01 resin has potential application in product recovery of LA from biomass hydrolysate.

  19. Measurement and modelling of adsorption equilibrium, adsorption kinetics and breakthrough curve of toluene at very low concentrations on to activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Réguer, Anne; Sochard, Sabine; Hort, Cécile; Platel, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution, characterized by many pollutants at very low concentrations, is nowadays known as a worrying problem for human health. Among physical treatments, adsorption is a widely used process, since porous materials offer high capacity for volatile organic chemicals. However, there are few studies in the literature that deal with adsorption as an indoor air pollution treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the adsorption of toluene on to activated carbon at characteristic indoor air concentrations. Firstly, global kinetic parameters were determined by fitting Thomas's model to experimental data obtained with batch experiments. Then, these kinetic parameters led to the determination of Henry's coefficient, which was checked with experimental data of the adsorption isotherm. Secondly, we simulated a breakthrough curve made at an inlet concentration 10 times higher than the indoor air level. Even if the kinetic parameters in this experiment are different from those in batch experiments, it can be emphasized that the Henry coefficient stays the same.

  20. Polar modified post-cross-linked resin and its adsorption toward salicylic acid from aqueous solution: Equilibrium, kinetics and breakthrough studies.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhenyu; He, Chunlian; Huang, Jianhan; Liu, You-Nian

    2015-08-01

    A novel polar modified post-cross-linked resin PDMPA was synthesized, characterized and evaluated for adsorption of salicylic acid from aqueous solution. PDMPA was prepared by a suspension polymerization of methyl acrylate (MA) and divinylbenzene (DVB), a Friedel-Crafts reaction and an amination reaction. After characterization of the chemical and pore structure of PDMPA, the adsorption behaviors of salicylic acid on PDMPA were determined in comparison with the precursor resins. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of salicylic acid on PDMPA was much larger than the precursor resins and the equilibrium data were correlated by both of the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The pseudo-second-order rate equation fitted the kinetic data better than the pseudo-first-order rate equation, and the micropore diffusion model could characterize the kinetic data very well. The dynamic experimental results showed that the breakthrough point and saturated point of salicylic acid on PDMPA were 40.3 and 92.4BV (1BV=10mL) at a feed concentration of 995.8mg/L and a flow rate of 1.4mL/min, and the resin column could be regenerated by 16.0BV of a mixture desorption solvent containing 0.01mol/L of NaOH (w/v) and 50% of ethanol (v/v).

  1. Bisphenol-A modified hyper-cross-linked polystyrene resin for salicylic acid removal from aqueous solution: adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and breakthrough studies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huanxiao; Wang, Xiaomei; Li, Shengyong; Huang, Jianhan; Deng, Shuguang

    2012-04-15

    In this study, a series of bisphenol-A modified hyper-cross-linked polystyrene resins labeled as HJ-L00, HJ-L02, HJ-L04, HJ-L06 and HJ-L08 were synthesized, characterized and evaluated for adsorptive removal of salicylic acid from aqueous solutions. The structural characterization results indicated that the resins possessed predominant micropores/mesopores, moderate specific surface area and a few bisphenol-A groups on the surface. All the bisphenol-A modified hyper-cross-linked resins were effective for removing salicylic acid from aqueous solutions, and sample HJ-L02 had the largest adsorption capacity. The adsorption equilibrium data were correlated by the Freundlich isotherm model, and a positive adsorption enthalpy was obtained. The kinetic data were analyzed with two diffusion models and indicated that the intra-particle diffusion was the sole rate-controlling step in the first stage. The dynamic experimental results showed that the breakthrough point of the HJ-L02 adsorbent was at 90.2 BV (bed volume, 1 BV=10 mL) for a feed concentration of 500.0mg/L of salicylic acid, and 14.0 BV of 1% of sodium hydroxide could completely regenerate the HJ-L02 adsorbent column.

  2. Equilibrium and kinetic studies on acid dye Acid Red 88 adsorption by magnetic ZnFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Konicki, Wojciech; Sibera, Daniel; Mijowska, Ewa; Lendzion-Bieluń, Zofia; Narkiewicz, Urszula

    2013-05-15

    A magnetic ZnFe2O4 (MNZnFe) was synthesized by microwave assisted hydrothermal method and was used as an adsorbent for the removal of acid dye Acid Red 88 (AR88) from aqueous solution. The effects of various parameters such as initial AR88 concentration (10-56 mg L(-1)), pH solution (3.2-10.7), and temperature (20-60°C) were investigated. Prepared magnetic ZnFe2O4 was characterized by XRD, SEM, HRTEM, ICP-AES, BET, FTIR, and measurements of the magnetic susceptibility. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and intraparticle diffusion model were used to examine the adsorption kinetic data. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamics parameters, ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°, indicate that the adsorption of AR88 onto MNZnFe was spontaneous and exothermic in nature.

  3. Adsorption/desorption of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) using chemically modified orange peel: Equilibrium and kinetic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasheen, Mohamed R.; Ammar, Nabila S.; Ibrahim, Hanan S.

    2012-02-01

    Waste materials from industries such as food processing may act as cost effective and efficient biosorbents to remove toxic contaminants from wastewater. This study aimed to establish an optimized condition and closed loop application of processed orange peel for metals removal. A comparative study of the adsorption capacity of the chemically modified orange peel was performed against environmentally problematic metal ions, namely, Cd 2+, Cu 2+ and Pb 2+, from aqueous solutions. Chemically modified orange peel (MOP) showed a significantly higher metal uptake capacity compared to original orange peel (OP). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectra of peel showed that the carboxylic group peak shifted from 1637 to 1644 cm -1 after Pb (II) ions binding, indicated the involvement of carboxyl groups in Pb(II) ions binding. The metals uptake by MOP was rapid and the equilibrium time was 30 min at constant temperature and pH. Sorption kinetics followed a second-order model. The mechanism of metal sorption by MOP gave good fits for Freundlich and Langmuir models. Desorption of metals and regeneration of the biosorbent was attained simultaneously by acid elution. Even after four cycles of adsorption-elution, the adsorption capacity was regained completely and adsorption efficiency of metal was maintained at around 90%.

  4. Equilibrium isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics studies for congo red adsorption using calcium alginate beads impregnated with nano-goethite.

    PubMed

    Munagapati, Venkata Subbaiah; Kim, Dong-Su

    2017-03-24

    The present study is concerned with the batch adsorption of congo red (CR) from an aqueous solution using calcium alginate beads impregnated with nano-goethite (CABI nano-goethite) as an adsorbent. The optimum conditions for CR removal were determined by studying operational variables viz. pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial dye ion concentration and temperature. The CABI nano-goethite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X- ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analysis. The CR sorption data onto CABI nano-goethite were described using Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Temkin isotherm models. The results show that the best fit was achieved with the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity (181.1mg/g) of CR was occurred at pH 3.0. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order model. Desorption experiments were carried out to explore the feasibility of regenerating the adsorbent and the adsorbed CR from CABI nano-goethite. The best desorbing agent was 0.1M NaOH with an efficiency of 94% recovery. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS° for the CR adsorption were determined by using adsorption capacities at five different temperatures (293, 303, 313, 323 and 303K). Results show that the adsorption process was endothermic and favoured at high temperature.

  5. Enhancing adsorption capacity of toxic malachite green dye through chemically modified breadnut peel: equilibrium, thermodynamics, kinetics and regeneration studies.

    PubMed

    Chieng, Hei Ing; Lim, Linda B L; Priyantha, Namal

    2015-01-01

    Breadnut skin, in both its unmodified (KS) and base-modified (BM-KS) forms, was investigated for its potential use as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of toxic dye, malachite green (MG). Characterization of the adsorbents was carried out using scanning electron microscope, X-ray fluorescence and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Batch adsorption experiments, carried out under optimized conditions, for the adsorption of MG were fitted using five isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Temkin and Sips) and six error functions to determine the best-fit model. The adsorption capacity was greatly enhanced when breadnut skin was chemically modified with NaOH, leading to an adsorption capacity of 353.0 mg g(-1), that was far superior to most reported adsorbents for the removal of MG. Thermodynamics studies indicated that the adsorption of MG was spontaneous on KS and BM-KS, and the reactions were endothermic and exothermic, respectively. Kinetics studies showed that both followed the pseudo-second order. Regeneration experiments on BM-KS indicated that its adsorption capacity was still maintained at>90% even after five cycles. It can be concluded that NaOH-modified breadfruit skin has great potential to be utilized in real-life application as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of MG in wastewater treatment.

  6. Characteristics of selective fluoride adsorption by biocarbon-Mg/Al layered double hydroxides composites from protein solutions: kinetics and equilibrium isotherms study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei; Lv, Tengfei; Song, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Zihong; Duan, Shibo; Xin, Gang; Liu, Fujun; Pan, Decong

    2014-03-15

    In the study, two novel applied biocarbon-Mg/Al layered double hydroxides composites (CPLDH and CPLDH-Ca) were successfully prepared and characterized by TEM, ICP-AES, XFS, EDS, FTIR, XRD, BET and pHpzc. The fluoride removal efficiency (RF) and protein recovery ratio (RP) of the adsorbents were studied in protein systems of lysozyme (LSZ) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results showed that the CPLDH-Ca presented remarkable performance for selective fluoride removal from protein solution. It reached the maximum RF of 92.1% and 94.8% at the CPLDH-Ca dose of 2.0g/L in LSZ and BSA system, respectively. The RP in both systems of LSZ and BSA were more than 90%. Additionally, the RP of CPLDH-Ca increased with the increase of ionic strengths, and it almost can be 100% with more than 93% RF. Fluoride adsorption by the CPLDH-Ca with different initial fluoride concentrations was found to obey the mixed surface reaction and diffusion controlled adsorption kinetic model, and the overall reaction rate is probably controlled by intra-particle diffusion, boundary layer diffusion and reaction process. The adsorption isotherms of fluoride in BSA system fit the Langmuir-Freundlich model well. The BSA has synergistic effect on fluoride adsorption and the degree increased with the increase of the initial BSA concentration.

  7. Phosphate Adsorption using Modified Iron Oxide-based Sorbents in Lake Water: Kinetics, Equilibrium, and Column Tests

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adsorption behavior of Bayoxide ® E33 (E33) and three E33-modified sorbents for the removal of phosphate from lake water was investigated in this study. E33-modified sorbents were synthesized by coating with manganese (E33/Mn) and silver (E33/AgI and E33/AgII) nanoparticles. Adso...

  8. 2,4-D adsorption to biochars: effect of preparation conditions on equilibrium adsorption capacity and comparison with commercial activated carbon literature data.

    PubMed

    Kearns, J P; Wellborn, L S; Summers, R S; Knappe, D R U

    2014-10-01

    Batch isotherm experiments were conducted with chars to study adsorption of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Chars generated from corncobs, bamboo and wood chips in a laboratory pyrolyzer at 400-700 °C were compared with traditional kiln charcoals collected from villages in S/SE Asia and with activated carbons (ACs). 2,4-D uptake by laboratory chars obtained from bamboo and wood chips after 14 h of pyrolysis at 700 °C, from wood chips after 96 h of pyrolysis at 600 °C, and one of the field-collected chars (basudha) was comparable to ACs. H:C and O:C ratios declined with pyrolysis temperature and duration while surface area increased to >500 m(2)/g. Increasing pyrolysis intensity by increasing temperature and/or duration of heating was found to positively influence adsorption capacity yield (mg(2,4-D/g(feedstock))) over the range of conditions studied. Economic analysis showed that high temperature chars can be a cost-effective alternative to ACs for water treatment applications.

  9. Adsorption equilibrium and transport kinetics for a range of probe gases in Takeda 3A carbon molecular sieve.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, S W; Coons, J E

    2005-04-15

    Measurements of adsorption equilibria and transport kinetics for argon, oxygen and nitrogen at 20, 50, and 80 degrees C on commercially derived Takeda carbon molecular sieve (CMS) employed for air separation have been undertaken in an effort to elucidate fundamental mechanisms of transport. Results indicate that micropore diffusion which is modeled by a Fickian diffusion process, governs the transport of oxygen molecules and the pore mouth barrier controls argon and nitrogen transport which is characterized by a linear driving force (LDF) model. For the three temperatures studied, the pressure dependence of the diffusivity and the LDF rate constant appear to be well characterized by a formulation based on the chemical potential as the driving force for transport. Isosteric heat of adsorption at zero loading and activation energy measurements are compared with predictions made from a previously proposed molecular model for characterizing CMS.

  10. Modeling, kinetic, and equilibrium characterization of paraquat adsorption onto polyurethane foam using the ion-pairing technique.

    PubMed

    Vinhal, Jonas O; Lage, Mateus R; Carneiro, José Walkimar M; Lima, Claudio F; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2015-06-01

    We studied the adsorption of paraquat onto polyurethane foam (PUF) when it was in a medium containing sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). The adsorption efficiency was dependent on the concentration of SDS in solution, because the formation of an ion-associate between the cationic paraquat and the dodecylsulfate anion was found to be a fundamental step in the process. A computational study was carried out to identify the possible structure of the ion-associate in aqueous medium. The obtained data demonstrated that the structure is probably formed from four units of dodecylsulfate bonded to one paraquat moiety. The results showed that 94% of the paraquat present in 45 mL of a solution containing 3.90 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) could be retained by 300 mg of PUF, resulting in the removal of 2.20 mg of paraquat. The experimental data were reasonably adjusted to the Freundlich isotherm and to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Also, the application of Morris-Weber and Reichenberg models indicated that both film-diffusion and intraparticle-diffusion processes were active during the control of the adsorption kinetics.

  11. RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ADSORPTION OF CESIUM (Cs+) FROM HANFORD WASTE SOLUTIONS-PART I: BATCH EQUILIBRIUM STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    HASSAN, NEGUIBM

    2004-03-30

    Batch equilibrium measurements were conducted with a granular Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) resin to determine the distribution coefficients (Kds) for cesium. In the tests, Hanford Site actual waste sample containing radioactive cesium and a pretreated waste sample that was spiked with non-radioactive cesium were used. Initial concentrations of non-radioactive cesium in the waste sample were varied to generate an equilibrium isotherm for cesium. Two additional tests were conducted using a liquid to solid phase ratio of 10 and a contact time of 120 hours. The measured distribution coefficient (Kd) for radioactive cesium (137Cs) was 948 mL/g; the Kd for non-radioactive cesium (133Cs) was 1039 mL/g. The Kd for non-radioactive cesium decreased from 1039 to 691 mL/g as the initial cesium concentration increased. Very little change of the Kd was observed at initial cesium concentrations above 64 mg/mL. The maximum sorption capacity for cesium on granular RF resin was 1.17 mmole/g dry resin. T his value was calculated from the fit of the equilibrium isotherm data to the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation. Previously, a total capacity of 2.84 mmole/g was calculated by Bibler and Wallace for air-dried RF resin.

  12. Adsorption of methylene blue dye onto activated carbons based on agricultural by-products: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Z; Simitzis, J

    2013-01-01

    Mixtures of novolac resin and olive stone biomass (20/80 and 40/60 w/w) were cured, pyrolyzed up to 1,000 °C and activated with CO2 under a continuous flow operation (named N20B-cCa and N40B-cCa respectively). Commercial activated charcoal was similarly re-activated with CO2 and used for comparison reasons (AC-a). The characterization of these materials was performed by Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis and their specific surface area was determined according to DIN 66132. The materials were tested for their adsorption abilities at different temperatures (298, 333 K) and initial dye concentrations (0.01-0.35 g/L) using 1 L of methylene blue (MB) solution in 10 g of activated carbon. MB adsorption kinetic was also studied. The FTIR spectra of all activated carbons show absorption peaks which correspond to -OH, -CH, -C-O-C- groups and to aromatic ring. The presence of the absorption peak at about 1,400 cm(-1) for N20B-cCa, N40B-cCa indicates more acidic groups on them compared to the commercial AC-a. The specific surface area of N20B-cCa, N40B-cCa and AC-a has values equal to 352, 342 and 760 m(2)/g respectively. From the applied kinetic models, pseudo-second-order equation could best describe MB adsorption. Consequently, such adsorbents can be used as filters to adsorb dyes from wastewaters.

  13. Removal of Bisphenol A aqueous solution using surfactant-modified natural zeolite: Taguchi's experimental design, adsorption kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic study.

    PubMed

    Genç, Nevim; Kılıçoğlu, Ödül; Narci, Ali Oğuzhan

    2017-02-01

    In this study, surfactant-modified natural zeolite was used to remove Bisphenol A (BPA) from aqueous solutions. Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of BPA adsorption on the adsorbent surfaces were investigated. The experimental data were described with the Temkin isotherm and the pseudo-second- order kinetic model. Taguchi's robust design approach was used to optimize adsorption of BPA. Experimentation was planned as per Taguchi's L27 orthogonal array. Tests were conducted with different adsorbate amount, pH, time, initial concentration of BPA, temperature and agitation speed. The optimum levels of control factors for maximum total organic carbon removal were defined (adsorbate amount at 0.25 g, pH at 7, time at 30 min, initial concentration of BPA at 50 mg/L, temperature at 30°C and agitation speed at 200 rpm). The ANOVA analysis shown that the most effective control factor is adsorbent dosage; its contribution is 56.4%. Contribution of pH and mixing rate are 7.5% and 7.6%, respectively. A confirmation experiment was conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the optimal combination. The observed value of S/N (ηobs = 39) ratio is compared with that of the predicted value (ηopt = 48). The prediction error, that is, ηopt - ηobs = 9, is within CI value.

  14. Kinetic and equilibrium studies for the adsorption process of cadmium(II) and copper(II) onto Pseudomonas aeruginosa using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry method.

    PubMed

    Kong, Bo; Tang, Biyu; Liu, Xiaoying; Zeng, Xiandong; Duan, Haiyan; Luo, Shenglian; Wei, Wanzhi

    2009-08-15

    A novel method for the simultaneous determination of cadmium(II) and copper(II) during the adsorption process onto Pseudomonas aeruginosa was developed. The concentration of the free metal ions was successfully detected by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) on the mercaptoethane sulfonate (MES) modified gold electrode, while the P. aeruginosa was efficiently avoided approaching to the electrode surface by the MES monolayer. And the anodic stripping peaks of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) appear at -0.13 and 0.34V respectively, at the concentration range of 5-50 microM, the peak currents of SWASV present linear relationships with the concentrations of cadmium and copper respectively. As the determination of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) was in real time and without pretreatment, the kinetic characteristics of the adsorption process were studied and all the corresponding regression parameters were obtained by fitting the electrochemical experimental data to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, Langmuir and Freundlich models well described the biosorption isotherms. And there were some differences in the amount of metal ion adsorbed at equilibrium (q(e)) and other kinetics parameters when the two ions coexisted were compared with the unaccompanied condition, which were also discussed in this paper. The proposed electrode system provides excellent platform for the simultaneous determination of trace metals in complex biosorption process.

  15. Removal of direct blue-106 dye from aqueous solution using new activated carbons developed from pomegranate peel: adsorption equilibrium and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Amin, Nevine Kamal

    2009-06-15

    The use of cheap, high efficiency and ecofriendly adsorbent has been studied as an alternative source of activated carbon for the removal of dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the use of activated carbons prepared from pomegranate peel for the removal of direct blue dye from aqueous solution. A series of experiments were conducted in a batch system to assess the effect of the system variables, i.e. initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration adsorbent dosage and contact time. The results showed that the adsorption of direct blue dye was maximal at pH 2, as the amount of adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly but it decreased with the increase in initial dye concentration and solution temperature. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow pseudo-second-order rate kinetic model, with a good correlation (R(2)>0.99) and intra-particle diffusion as one of the rate determining steps. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-RadushKevich (D-R) and Harkins-Jura isotherms were used to analyze the equilibrium data at different temperatures. In addition, various thermodynamic parameters, such as standard Gibbs free energy (DeltaG degrees ), standard enthalpy (DeltaH degrees ), standard entropy (DeltaS degrees ), and the activation energy (E(a)) have been calculated. The adsorption process of direct blue dye onto different activated carbons prepared from pomegranate peel was found to be spontaneous and exothermic process. The findings of this investigation suggest that the physical sorption plays a role in controlling the sorption rate.

  16. Adsorption studies of methylene blue dye on tunisian activated lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriaa, A.; Hamdi, N.; Srasra, E.

    2011-02-01

    Activated carbon prepared from natural lignin, providing from a geological deposit, was used as the adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to evaluate various experimental parameters like pH and contact time for the removal of this dye. Effective pH for MB removal was 11. Kinetic study showed that the adsorption of dye was gradual process. Quasi equilibrium reached in 4 h. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data. Pseudo-second-order rate equation was able to provide realistic description of adsorption kinetics. The experimental isotherms data were also modelled by the Langmuir and Freundlich equation of adsorption. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 147 mg/g. Activated lignin was shown to be a promising material for adsorption of MB from aqueous solutions.

  17. Equilibrium, FTIR, scanning electron microscopy and small wide angle X-ray scattering studies of chromates adsorption on modified bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majdan, Marek; Maryuk, Oksana; Pikus, Stanisław; Olszewska, Elzbieta; Kwiatkowski, Ryszard; Skrzypek, Henryk

    2005-04-01

    The study presents a discussion about the adsorption mechanism of chromate anions on bentonite modified by hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br). The formation of alkylammonium chromates: HDTMAHCrO 4, (HDTMA) 2Cr 2O 7 and to the lesser extent (HDTMA) 2CrO 4 at the water-bentonite interface is examined based on the Scanning Electron Microscopy and surface tension measurements. The histograms of HDTMA/Cr(VI) molar ratio on the bentonite surface, found from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) measurements, show that for the majority of points of bentonite surface the value of this ratio is in 1-2 range. FTIR spectra of modified bentonite samples show the change from gauche to trans conformation in the surfactant arrangement in the clay interlayer accompanying its concentration increase. In turn Small Wide Angle X-Ray Scattering (SWAXS) patterns evidently suggest incorporation of chromate anions into the interlamellar space of bentonite structure.

  18. Determination of kinetic and equilibrium parameters of the batch adsorption of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution by black carrot (Daucus carota L.) residues.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Fuat; Yakut, Hakan; Topal, Giray

    2008-05-30

    In this study, the effect of temperature on the adsorption of Mn(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution by modified carrot residues (MCR) was investigated. The equilibrium contact times of adsorption process for each heavy metals-MCR systems were determined. Kinetic data obtained for each heavy metal by MCR at different temperatures were applied to the Lagergren equation, and adsorption rate constants (kads) at these temperatures were determined. These rate constants related to the adsorption of heavy metal by MCR were applied to the Arrhenius equation, and activation energies (Ea) were determined. In addition, the isotherms for adsorption of each heavy metal by MCR at different temperatures were also determined. These isothermal data were applied to linear forms of isotherm equations that they fit the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the Langmuir constants (qm and b) were calculated. b constants determined at different temperatures were applied to thermodynamic equations, and thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (Delta H), free energy (Delta G), and entropy (Delta S) were calculated and these values show that adsorption of heavy metal on MCR was an endothermic process and process of adsorption was favoured at high temperatures.

  19. Adsorption of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane by various adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.H.; Lin, R.C.

    1999-11-01

    Experiments have been conducted to investigate gas-phase adsorption characteristics of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) by activated carbon fiber, extruded activated carbon, granular activated carbon, activated alumina, and molecular sieve. HGC-134a is currently regarded as an excellent replacement for chlorofluorocarbon-12, a refrigerating and cooling agent extensively used previously in all automobiles and many cooling systems. Performances of HFC-134a adsorption were characterized by the equilibrium adsorption capacity, time to reach equilibrium, and desorption efficiency of exhausted adsorbent. A simple thermal treatment process with proper operating temperature and treatment duration was found to be effective for the regeneration of exhausted absorbents. Adsorption isotherms of the empirical Freundlich and Hossens types were observed to adequately represent the equilibrium adsorption data. A mass transfer model based on the pseudo steady state squared driving force was adopted to describe the mass transfer process of HFC-134a adsorption.

  20. Dynamic and equilibrium performance of sensors based on short peptide ligands for affinity adsorption of human IgG using surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Islam, Nafisa; Shen, Fei; Gurgel, Patrick V; Rojas, Orlando J; Carbonell, Ruben G

    2014-08-15

    This paper characterizes the potential of novel hexameric peptide ligands for on-line IgG detection in bioprocesses. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) was used to study the binding of human IgG to the hexameric peptide ligand HWRGWV, which was covalently grafted to alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAM) on gold surfaces. Peptide coupling on SAMs was verified, followed by covalent grafting of peptides with a removable Fmoc or acetylated N-termini via their C-termini to produce active peptide SPR sensors that were tested for IgG binding. The dynamics and extent of peptide-IgG binding were compared with results from a conventional system using protein A attached on a gold surface via disulfide monolayers. IgG binding to protein A on disulfide monolayers yielded equilibrium dissociation constants of 1.4×10(-7)M. The corresponding dissociation constant value for the acetylated version of the peptide (Ac-HWRGWV) supported on alkanethiol SAM was 5.8×10(-7)M and that for HWRGWV on the alkanethiol SAM (after de-protection of Fmoc-HWRGWVA) was 1.2×10(-6)M. Maximum IgG binding capacities, Qm of 6.7, 3.8, and 4.1mgm(-2) were determined for the protein A and the two forms of HWRGWV-based biosensors, respectively. Real-time data for the kinetics of adsorption were used to determine the apparent rate constants for adsorption and desorption. The results were analyzed to understand the mechanism of IgG binding to the protein and peptide ligands. It was found that the peptide-IgG binding was reaction controlled, however the protein A-IgG binding mechanism was partially mass transfer (diffusion) controlled. The adsorption rate constants, ka, for the protein A ligand increased with decreasing concentration of analyte and the peptide ligand ka values was constant at different IgG concentrations and flow rates.

  1. Adsorptive desulfurization by activated alumina.

    PubMed

    Srivastav, Ankur; Srivastava, Vimal Chandra

    2009-10-30

    This study reports usage of commercial grade activated alumina (aluminum oxide) as adsorbent for the removal of sulfur from model oil (dibenthiophene (DBT) dissolved in n-hexane). Bulk density of alumina was found to be 1177.77 kg/m(3). The BET surface area of alumina was found to decrease from 143.6 to 66.4 m(2)/g after the loading of DBT at optimum conditions. The carbon-oxygen functional groups present on the surface of alumina were found to be effective in the adsorption of DBT onto alumina. Optimum adsorbent dose was found to be 20 g/l. The adsorption of DBT on alumina was found to be gradual process, and quasi-equilibrium reached in 24 h. Langmuir isotherm best represented the equilibrium adsorption data. The heat of adsorption and change in entropy for DBT adsorption onto alumina was found to be 19.5 kJ/mol and 139.2 kJ/mol K, respectively.

  2. Adsorption of ammonium on biochar prepared from giant reed.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jie; Huang, Lei; Yang, Zhimin; Zhao, Yaqi; Deng, Chaoren; Chen, Yucheng; Li, Xin

    2016-10-01

    Giant reed was used as precursor for making biochar in order for the adsorption of NH4 (+)-N from aqueous solution. And the adsorption of the product to NH4 (+)-N was examined. The surface features of biochar were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD patterns showed several peaks and correspond to the high amount of crystalline material. The crystals contain KCl, K2O, CaO, MgO, and SiO and possess high surface area which enhances adsorption. The influence of different parameters such as initial concentration, adsorption time, pH, and ionic strength has been carried out. The adsorption could reach equilibrium through 24 h reaction and had the best adsorption amount at the solution pH values from 7 to 9. The cation has great influence on the adsorption of NH4 (+)-N, whereas the anion exerted a weaker effect. The adsorption followed pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. And the intraparticle diffusion and desorption studies further elucidated that the mechanism of adsorption on the product was ion exchange. The product equilibrium data was well described by the Langmuir and Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacities were 1.490 mg/g. Biochar derived from giant reed at 500 °C was suggested as a promising adsorbent for the removal of NH4 (+)-N from slightly polluted wastewater.

  3. Performance, kinetics, and equilibrium of methylene blue adsorption on biochar derived from eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric, tartaric, and acetic acids.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Chen, Dongmei; Wan, Shungang; Yu, Zebin

    2015-12-01

    Biochar derived from eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric, tartaric, and acetic acids at low temperatures was utilized as adsorbent to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the carboxyl group was introduced on the biochar surface. Adsorption experiment data indicated that eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric acid showed higher MB adsorption efficiency than that modified with tartaric and acetic acids. Pseudo-second-order kinetics was the most suitable model for describing MB adsorption on biochar compared with pseudo-first-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion models. The calculated values of ΔG(0) and ΔH(0) indicated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption process. MB adsorption on biochar followed the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacities for eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric, tartaric, and acetic acids were 178.57, 99.01, and 29.94 mg g(-1), respectively, at 35°C.

  4. Adsorption studies of methylene blue and gentian violet on sugarcane bagasse modified with EDTA dianhydride (EDTAD) in aqueous solutions: kinetic and equilibrium aspects.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Karla Aparecida Guimarães; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Melo, Tânia Márcia Sacramento; Gil, Laurent Frédéric

    2013-03-30

    In this study the adsorption of cationic dyes by modified sugarcane bagasse with EDTA dianhydride (EB) was examined using methylene blue (MB) and gentian violet (GV) as model compounds in aqueous single solutions. The synthesized adsorbent (EB) was characterized by FTIR, elemental analysis, and BET. The capacity of EB to adsorb dyes was evaluated at different contact times, pH values, and initial dye concentrations. According to the obtained results, the adsorption processes could be described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption isotherms were well fitted by the Langmuir model. Maximum adsorption capacities for MB and GV on EB were found to be 202.43 and 327.83 mg/g, respectively. The free energy change during adsorption of MB and GV was found to be -22.50 and -24.21 kJ/mol, respectively, suggesting that chemisorption is the main mechanism controlling the adsorption process.

  5. Influence of cationic surfactant on adsorption of Cr(VI) onto activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun-Doc; Cho, Jung-Min; Baek, Kitae; Yang, Jung-Seok; Lee, Jae-Young

    2009-01-30

    The effect of a cationic surfactant on the adsorption of Cr(VI) on activated carbon was investigated using cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). At a concentration below the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of CPC, the adsorption of CPC and Cr(VI) reached equilibrium within 60 min, while it took 180 min at the concentration above CMC. CPC decreased the adsorption rate of Cr(VI) and increased the adsorption amount of Cr(VI) onto activated carbon. To analyze adsorption phenomena of Cr(VI), adsorption kinetic and isotherm were used and fitted well with the pseudo-second order kinetic model and Langmuir adsorption model, respectively. CPC introduced a cationic functional group on the surface of activated carbon and provided an adsorption site for Cr(VI).

  6. Process development for removal and recovery of cadmium from wastewater by a low-cost adsorbent: Adsorption rates and equilibrium studies

    SciTech Connect

    Periasamy, K.; Namasivayam, C. . Dept. of Environmental Sciences)

    1994-02-01

    Activated carbon prepared from peanut hulls (PHC), an agricultural waste by-product, has been used for the adsorption of Cd(II) from synthetic wastewater. The adsorption data fit better with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The applicability of the Lagergren kinetic model has also been investigated. An almost quantitative removal of 20 mg/L Cd(II) by 0.7 g of PHC/L of aqueous solution was observed in the pH range 3.5--9.5. A comparative study with a commercial granular activated carbon (CAC) showed that the adsorption capacity (K[sub f]) of PHC was 31 times larger than that of CAC.

  7. Temperature sensitivity of cellulase adsorption on lignin and its impact on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yingfu; Zhang, Songping; Miao, Shida; Su, Zhiguo; Wang, Ping

    2013-07-10

    Unproductive enzyme adsorption is an important factor in addition to steric hindrance of lignin that limits the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. While both are important factors, enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated biomass is most likely conducted in the presence of certain amount of lignin residues that may not necessarily present accessibility hindrance, but can competitively absorb the enzyme. This paper presents a study with purified lignin samples to elucidate the role of unproductive enzyme adsorption. It appeared that lignin adsorbed cellulase quickly at 4 °C with adsorption equilibrium reached within 1h, similar to that observed for crystalline cellulose. Increasing temperature to 50 °C (typical hydrolytic reaction condition) facilitated the rate of cellulase adsorption on cellulose with a peak of adsorption reached at 0.25 h; however, adsorption on lignin was surprisingly slower and took over 12h to reach equilibrium, which was accompanied with a 10-fold increase in adsorption capacity. Despite the high adsorption capacity of lignin (which is comparable to that of cellulose) at 50 °C, the presence of added lignin imposed only minimal impact on the enzyme apparent activity, most likely due to the slow adsorption kinetics of lignin.

  8. Adsorption of Compounds that Mimic Urban Stormwater Dissolved Organic Nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Mehrdad; James, Bruce R; Davis, Allen P

    2017-02-01

      Stormwater runoff carrying nitrogen can accelerate eutrophication. Bioretention facilities are among low impact development systems which are commonly used to manage urban stormwater quality and quantity. They are, however, not designed to remove dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and may become a net DON exporter. Adsorption of seven organic nitrogenous compounds onto several adsorbents was examined. Batch adsorption study revealed that coal activated carbon (AC) exhibited the best performance in adsorption of the selected organic nitrogenous compounds. The highest adsorption capacity of coal AC was 0.4 mg N/g for pyrrole at an equilibrium concentration of 0.02 mg N/L, while adsorption was not detectable for urea at the same equilibrium concentration. The fastest compound to reach equilibrium adsorption capacity onto the coal AC was pyrrole (1 hour). The adsorption capacity of the coal AC for pyrrole and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and 1-hour contact time is recommended for designing bioretention systems targeting organic nitrogenous compounds.

  9. Equilibrium and kinetic modeling of iron adsorption and the effect by chloride, sulfate, and hydroxyl: evaluation of PVC-U drinking pipes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia -Ying; Li, Shu-Ping; Xin, Kun-Lun; Tao, Tao

    2016-12-01

    The update of pipeline was quick over the last few years and the plastic pipes were widely used in the drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs), especially in the small-diameter pipes. In this study, the iron adsorptive characteristics and the affecting factors in unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) pipe were investigated. Results showed that the average amount of iron in the 10-year-old PVC-U pipe's interior surface was 2.80 wt% which was almost 187 times larger than that in a new one. Goethite (α-FeOOH) and magnetite (Fe3O4) were the major iron compounds in the scales which covered on the old pipes' interior surface and showed loose and porous images under a scanning electron microscope. Moreover, the influence of the iron concentration on the adsorption amount and rate was discussed. The adsorption amount was significantly influenced by iron concentration, but similar adsorption rate was discovered. Notably, iron was quantitatively adsorbed by PVC-U pipe during the experimental period in accordance with the pseudo second order kinetic model. Meanwhile, regression model and response surface methodology were used to analyze the regular of iron adsorption in different concentrations of chloride (Cl(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and hydroxyl (OH(-)). It can be concluded that Cl(-) and OH(-) showed the strong ability of iron adsorption which were larger than SO4(2-).

  10. Adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of α-amylase on poly(DVB-VIM)-Cu(+2) magnetic metal-chelate affinity sorbent.

    PubMed

    Osman, Bilgen; Kara, Ali; Demirbel, Emel; Kök, Senay; Beşirli, Necati

    2012-09-01

    Designing an immobilised metal ion affinity process on large-scale demands that a thorough understanding be developed regarding the adsorption behaviour of proteins on metal-loaded gels and the characteristic adsorption parameters to be evaluated. In view of this requirement, interaction of α-amylase as a model protein with newly synthesised magnetic-poly(divinylbenzene-1-vinylimidazole) [m-poly(DVB-VIM)] microbeads (average diameter, 53-212 μm) was investigated. The m-poly(DVB-VIM) microbeads were prepared by copolymerising of divinylbenzene (DVB) with 1-vinylimidazole (VIM). The m-poly(DVB-VIM) microbeads were characterised by N(2) adsorption/desorption isotherms, electron spin resonance, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscope and swelling studies. Cu(2+) ions were chelated on the m-poly(DVB-VIM) beads and used in adsorption of α-amylase in a batch system. The maximum α-amylase adsorption capacity of the m-poly(DVB-VIM)-Cu(2+) beads was determined as 10.84 mg/g at pH 6.0, 25 °C. The adsorption data were analyzed using three isotherm models, which are the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, modified Ritchie's-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were used to test dynamic experimental data. The study of temperature effect was quantified by calculating various thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy changes.

  11. [Adsorption of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) onto modified activated carbons].

    PubMed

    Tong, Xi-Zhen; Shi, Bao-You; Xie, Yue; Wang, Dong-Sheng

    2012-09-01

    Modified coal and coconut shell based powdered activated carbons (PACs) were prepared by FeCl3 and medium power microwave treatment, respectively. Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the characteristics of adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) onto original and modified PACs. Based on pore structure and surface functional groups characterization, the adsorption behaviors of modified and original PACs were compared. The competitive adsorption of humic acid (HA) and PFOS on original and modified coconut shell PACs were also investigated. Results showed that both Fe3+ and medium power microwave treatments changed the pore structure and surface functional groups of coal and coconut shell PACs, but the changing effects were different. The adsorption of PFOS on two modified coconut shell-based PACs was significantly improved. While the adsorption of modified coal-based activated carbons declined. The adsorption kinetics of PFOS onto original and modified coconut shell-based activated carbons were the same, and the time of reaching adsorption equilibrium was about 6 hours. In the presence of HA, the adsorption of PFOS by modified PAC was reduced but still higher than that of the original.

  12. Batch studies of adsorption of copper and lead on activated carbon from Eucalyptus camaldulensis dehn. bark.

    PubMed

    Patnukao, Phussadee; Kongsuwan, Apipreeya; Pavasant, Prasert

    2008-01-01

    Powdered activated carbon (PAC) prepared from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. bark was tested for its adsorption capacity for Cu(II) and Pb(II). The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of pH, contact time, initial metal concentration, and temperature. The best adsorption of both Cu(II) and Pb(II) occurred at pH 5, where the adsorption reached equilibrium within 45 min for the whole range of initial heavy metal concentrations (0.1-10 mmol/L). The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second order model where equilibrium adsorption capacities and adsorption rate constants increased with initial heavy metal concentrations. The adsorption isotherm followed Langmuir better than Freundlich models within the temperature range (25-60 degrees C). The maximum adsorption capacities (qm) occurred at 60 degrees C, where qm for Cu(II) and Pb(II) were 0.85 and 0.89 mmol/g, respectively. The enthalpies of Cu(II) and Pb(II) adsorption were 43.26 and 58.77 kJ/mol, respectively. The positive enthalpy of adsorption indicated an endothermic nature of the adsorption.

  13. Adsorption of trihalomethanes from water with carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chungsying; Chung, Yao-Lei; Chang, Kuan-Foo

    2005-03-01

    Commercial carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were purified by acid solution and were employed as adsorbents to study adsorption of trihalomethanes (THMs) from water. The properties of CNTs such as purity, structure and nature of the surface were greatly improved after acid treatment which made CNTs become more hydrophilic and suitable for adsorption of low molecular weight and relatively polar THM molecules. The adsorption of THMs onto CNTs fluctuates very little in the pH range 3-7, but decreases with pH value as pH exceeds 7. A comparative study between CNTs and powdered activated carbon (PAC) for adsorption of THMs from water was also conducted. The short time needed to reach equilibrium as well as the high adsorption capacity of CHCl3, which accounts for a significant portion of THMs in the chlorinated drinking water, suggests that CNTs possess highly potential applications for THMs removal from water.

  14. Equilibrium adsorption isotherm studies of Cu (II) and Co (II) in high concentration aqueous solutions on Ag-TiO2-modified kaolinite ceramic adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajenifuja, E.; Ajao, J. A.; Ajayi, E. O. B.

    2016-03-01

    Photocatalytic ceramic adsorbents were prepared from locally sourced kaolinite clay minerals for the removal of copper and cobalt ions from high concentration aqueous solutions. The minerals were treated with mild acid before modification using silver nanoparticles sources and titanium-oxide nanoparticles. Batch adsorption experiment was carried out on the targeted ions and the results were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich equation at different concentrations (100-1000 mg/l). As-received raw materials do not exhibit any adsorption capacity. However, the adsorption isotherms for modified kaolinite clay ceramic adsorbents could be fitted well by the Langmuir model for Cu2+ and Co2+ with correlation coefficient (R) of up to 0.99705. The highest and lowest monolayer coverage (q max) were 93.023 and 30.497 mg/g for Cu2+ and Co2+, respectively. The separation factor (R L ) was less than one (<1), indicating that the adsorption of metal ions on modified ceramic adsorbent is favorable. The highest adsorbent adsorption capacity (K f ) and intensity (n) constants obtained from Freundlich model are 14.401 (Cu2+ on KLN-T) and 6.057 (Co2+ on KLN-T).

  15. Equilibrium, kinetic and sorber design studies on the adsorption of Aniline blue dye by sodium tetraborate-modified Kaolinite clay adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Unuabonah, Emmanuel I; Adebowale, Kayode O; Dawodu, Folasegun A

    2008-09-15

    Raw Kaolinite clay obtained Ubulu-Ukwu, Delta State of Nigeria and its sodium tetraborate (NTB)-modified analogue was used to adsorb Aniline blue dye. Fourier transformed infrared spectra of NTB-modified Kaolinite suggests that modification was effective on the surface of the Kaolinite clay with the strong presence of inner -OH functional group. The modification of Kaolinite clay raised its adsorption capacity from 1666 to 2000 mg/kg. Modeling adsorption data obtained from both unmodified and NTB-modified Kaolinite clay reveals that the adsorption of Aniline blue dye on unmodified Kaolinite clay is on heterogeneous adsorption sites because it followed strongly the Freundlich isotherm equation model while adsorption data from NTB-modified Kaolinite clay followed strongly the Langmuir isotherm equation model which suggest that Aniline blue dye was adsorb homogeneous adsorption sites on the NTB-modified adsorbent surface. There was an observed increase in the amount of Aniline blue adsorbed as initial dye concentration was increased from 10 to 30 mg/L. It was observed that kinetic data obtained generally gave better robust fit to the second-order kinetic model (SOM). The initial sorption rate was found to increased with increasing initial dye concentration (from 10 to 20 mg/L) for data obtained from 909 to 1111 mg kg(-1)min(-1) for unmodified and 3325-5000 mg kg(-1) min(-1) for NTB-modified adsorbents. Thereafter there was a decrease in initial sorption rate with further increase in dye concentration. The linearity of the plots of the pseudo-second-order model with very high-correlation coefficients indicates that chemisorption is involved in the adsorption process. From the design of a single-batch adsorber it is predicted that the NTB-modified Kaolinite clay adsorbent will require 50% less of the adsorbent to treat certain volumes of wastewater containing 30 mg/L of Aniline blue dye when it is compared with the unmodified adsorbent. This will be cost effective in

  16. Removal of mercury(II) ions in aqueous solution using the peel biomass of Pachira aquatica Aubl: kinetics and adsorption equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Santana, Andrea J; dos Santos, Walter N L; Silva, Laiana O B; das Virgens, Cesário F

    2016-05-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic substance that is a health hazard to humans. This study aims to investigate powders obtained from the peel of the fruit of Pachira aquatica Aubl, in its in natura and/or acidified form, as an adsorbent for the removal of mercury ions in aqueous solution. The materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The infrared spectra showed bands corresponding to the axial deformation of carbonyls from carboxylic acids, the most important functional group responsible for fixing the metal species to the adsorbent material. The thermograms displayed mass losses related to the decomposition of three major components, i.e., hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. The adsorption process was evaluated using cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV AFS) and cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS). Three isotherm models were employed. The adsorption isotherm model, Langmuir-Freundlich, best represented the adsorption process, and the maximum adsorption capacity was predicted to be 0.71 and 0.58 mg g(-1) at 25 °C in nature and acidified, respectively. Adsorption efficiencies were further tested on real aqueous wastewater samples, and removal of Hg(II) was recorded as 69.6 % for biomass acidified and 76.3 % for biomass in nature. Results obtained from sorption experiments on real aqueous wastewater samples revealed that recovery of the target metal ions was very satisfactory. The pseudo-second-order model showed the best correlation to the experimental data. The current findings showed that the investigated materials are potential adsorbents for mercury(II) ion removal in aqueous solution, with acidified P. aquatica Aubl being the most efficient adsorbent.

  17. Chemical noise produced by equilibrium adsorption/desorption of surface pyridine at Au-Ag-Au bimetallic atom-scale junctions studied by fluctuation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tai-Wei; Branagan, Sean P; Bohn, Paul W

    2013-03-20

    The chemical noise contained in conductance fluctuations resulting from adsorption and desorption of pyridine at Au-Ag-Au bimetallic atom-scale junctions (ASJs) exhibiting ballistic electron transport is studied using fluctuation spectroscopy. ASJs are fabricated by electrochemical Ag deposition in a Au nanogap to produce a high-conductance Ag quantum wire, followed by electromigration-induced thinning in pyridine solution to create stable ASJs. The conductance behavior of the resulting ASJs is analyzed by sequential autocorrelation and Fourier transform of the current-time data to yield the power spectral density (PSD). In these experiments the PSDs from Ag ASJs in pyridine exhibit two main frequency regions: 1/f noise originating from resistance fluctuations of the junction itself at low frequencies, and a Lorentzian noise component arising from molecular adsorption/desorption fluctuations at higher frequencies. The characteristic cutoff frequency of the Lorentzian noise component determines the relaxation time of molecular fluctuations, which, in turn, is sensitive to the kinetics of the adsorption/desorption process. The kinetics are found to depend on concentration and on the adsorption binding energy. The junction size (<5G0), on the other hand, does not affect the kinetics, as the cutoff frequency remains unchanged. Concentration-dependent adsorption free energies are interpreted as arising from a distribution of binding energies, N(E(b)), on the Ag ASJ. Other observations, such as long lifetime ASJs and two-level fluctuations in conductance, provide additional evidence for the integral role of the adsorbate in determining ASJ reorganization dynamics.

  18. REACH Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucklee, Joanne

    In an effort to provide support for employees and their families, Red Deer College (RDC) developed the Resources, Employees, Assistance, Counselling, and Health (REACH) program. The program is administered by a committee of five people who represent the five major employee groups at the college (i.e., senior administration, middle administration,…

  19. Neon and CO2 adsorption on open carbon nanohorns.

    PubMed

    Krungleviciute, Vaiva; Ziegler, Carl A; Banjara, Shree R; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, S; Migone, Aldo D

    2013-07-30

    We present the results of a thermodynamics and kinetics study of the adsorption of neon and carbon dioxide on aggregates of chemically opened carbon nanohorns. Both the equilibrium adsorption characteristics, as well as the dependence of the kinetic behavior on sorbent loading, are different for these two adsorbates. For neon the adsorption isotherms display two steps before reaching the saturated vapor pressure, corresponding to adsorption on strong and on weak binding sites; the isosteric heat of adsorption is a decreasing function of sorbent loading (this quantity varies by about a factor of 2 on the range of loadings studied), and the speed of the adsorption kinetics increases with increasing loading. By contrast, for carbon dioxide there are no substeps in the adsorption isotherms; the isosteric heat is a nonmonotonic function of loading, the value of the isosteric heat never differs from the bulk heat of sublimation by more than 15%, and the kinetic behavior is opposite to that of neon, with equilibration times increasing for higher sorbent loadings. We explain the difference in the equilibrium properties observed for neon and carbon dioxide in terms of differences in the relative strengths of adsorbate-adsorbate to adsorbate-sorbent interaction for these species.

  20. [Adsorption of Cd2+ on biochar from aqueous solution].

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-juan; Liang, Xue-feng; Lin, Da-song; Xu, Ying-ming; Wang, Lin; Sun, Yue-bing; Qin, Xu

    2013-09-01

    Biomass-based materials such as biochar have a good performance in heavy metal adsorption. The adsorption of Cd2+ on biochar converted from cotton straw was studied. Adsorption isotherm, kinetics and effect factors such as temperature, pH and ionic strength were investigated. The adsorption of Cd2+ on biochar can be fitted by the Freundlich isotherm better than the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption amounts of Cd2+ at different temperatures were 9.738 mg x g(-1) (288.15 K), 10.14 mg x g(-1) (298.15 K), 10.40 mg x g(-1) (308.15 K) and 10.71 mg x g(-1) (318.15 K), respectively. The free energies AG(theta) were from -8.346 kJ x mol(-1) to -10.276 kJ x mol(-1) at different temperatures, indicating that the adsorption of Cd2+ onto biochar is spontaneous and is an endothermic process. The adsorption process can reach equilibrium within 40 minutes and can be fitted by the pseudo second order kinetic model. pH showed a significant effect on the adsorption of Cd2+ on biochar in the range of 2-8. The adsorption amount of Cd2+ on biochar shows a reducing trend with the increasing ionic strength.

  1. Biochars prepared from anaerobic digestion residue, palm bark, and eucalyptus for adsorption of cationic methylene blue dye: characterization, equilibrium, and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Wan, Shungang; Luo, Wensui

    2013-07-01

    Biochars prepared from anaerobic digestion residue (BC-R), palm bark (BC-PB) and eucalyptus (BC-E) were used as sorbents for removal of cationic methylene blue dye (MB). The FE-SEM images indicated that the biochars have a well-developed pore structure, and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas of BC-R, BC-PB, and BC-E were 7.60, 2.46, and 10.35 m(2)g(-1), respectively. The efficiencies of MB removal in the samples with initial concentrations of 5 mg L(-1) at pH 7.0 and 40°C by BC-R, BC-PB, and BC-E after 2h were 99.5%, 99.3%, and 86.1%, respectively. Pseudo-second-order kinetics was the most suitable model for describing the adsorption of MB onto the biochars. The experimental data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm model, with a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 9.50 mg g(-1) at 40°C for BC-R. The biochars produced from the three types of solid waste showed considerable potential for adsorption.

  2. Individual and competitive adsorption of phenol and nickel onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Ghani, Nour T.; El-Chaghaby, Ghadir A.; Helal, Farag S.

    2014-01-01

    Individual and competitive adsorption studies were carried out to investigate the removal of phenol and nickel ions by adsorption onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The carbon nanotubes were characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. The different experimental conditions affecting the adsorption process were investigated. Kinetics and equilibrium models were tested for fitting the adsorption experimental data. The characterization experimental results proved that the studied adsorbent possess different surface functional groups as well as typical morphological features. The batch experiments revealed that 300 min of contact time was enough to achieve equilibrium for the adsorption of both phenol and nickel at an initial adsorbate concentration of 25 mg/l, an adsorbent dosage of 5 g/l, and a solution pH of 7. The adsorption of phenol and nickel by MWCNTs followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model and the intraparticle diffusion model was quite good in describing the adsorption mechanism. The Langmuir equilibrium model fitted well the experimental data indicating the homogeneity of the adsorbent surface sites. The maximum Langmuir adsorption capacities were found to be 32.23 and 6.09 mg/g, for phenol and Ni ions, respectively. The removal efficiency of MWCNTs for nickel ions or phenol in real wastewater samples at the optimum conditions reached up to 60% and 70%, respectively. PMID:26257938

  3. Selective and effective adsorption of methyl blue by barium phosphate nano-flake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Zongshan; Tan, Ruiqin; Guo, Yanqun; Cao, Lujie; Chen, Liang; Li, Jia; Xu, Wei; Yang, Ye; Song, Weijie

    2012-11-15

    We report the synthesis of barium phosphate (BP) nano-flake and its adsorption behavior to methyl blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The as-obtained BP nano-flake revealed pure rhombohedral crystal structure. The adsorption capacity of MB onto BP reached 1500 mg g(-1). The adsorption equilibrium results fitted well with the Freundlich isotherm model. The adsorption process took less than 30 min to reach equilibrium. The adsorption kinetics was elucidated by the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation. It followed 2-stage and 3-stage intra-particle diffusion models for the low and high concentration of dye solutions, respectively. The adsorption of MB using the BP nano-flake was highly selective, compared with the adsorption of other dyes. The interactions between MB and BP were mainly the ionic interaction and hydrogen bonds, which were confirmed by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic results and the density functional theory calculations. The BP nano-flake revealed less than 5% decrease in adsorption amount when it was recycled and reused five times. The present work shows that the BP nano-flake is promising for practical applications in MB removal from aqueous solutions.

  4. Comparison of adsorption equilibrium models for the study of CL-, NO3- and SO4(2-) removal from aqueous solutions by an anion exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Dron, Julien; Dodi, Alain

    2011-06-15

    The removal of chloride, nitrate and sulfate ions from aqueous solutions by a macroporous resin is studied through the ion exchange systems OH(-)/Cl(-), OH(-)/NO(3)(-), OH(-)/SO(4)(2-), and HCO(3)(-)/Cl(-), Cl(-)/NO(3)(-), Cl(-)/SO(4)(2-). They are investigated by means of Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevitch (D-R) and Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A) single-component adsorption isotherms. The sorption parameters and the fitting of the models are determined by nonlinear regression and discussed. The Langmuir model provides a fair estimation of the sorption capacity whatever the system under study, on the contrary to Freundlich and D-R models. The adsorption energies deduced from Dubinin and Langmuir isotherms are in good agreement, and the surface parameter of the D-A isotherm appears consistent. All models agree on the order of affinity OH(-)adsorption isotherms. The nonlinear regression results are also compared with linear regressions. While the parameter values are not affected, the evaluation of the best fitting model is biased by linearization.

  5. Application of activated carbon derived from 'waste' bamboo culms for the adsorption of azo disperse dye: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lianggui

    2012-07-15

    The utilization of activated carbon derived from 'waste' bamboo culms (BAC) for the removal of Disperse Red 167 (DR167), an azo disperse dye, was investigated. Studies of the properties of the adsorbent, the effect of contact time, the initial pH of the solution, the initial concentration of the dye solution and temperature indicated that a low initial pH or concentration of dye solution favors the adsorption process; temperature exerts a greater effect on the removal of azo disperse red 167 dye from aqueous solution. Kinetic and isotherm data were fitted to five non-linear kinetic and nine non-linear isotherm equations. In addition, the fits were evaluated in terms of the non-linear coefficient, Chi-square test, Marquardt's percent standard deviation error function and small-sample-corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) methodology. The results showed that the AICc analysis was the best statistical tool for analyzing the data, the intra-particle diffusion and the pseudo-first-order models played important roles in the controlling rate step, and the Temkin equation best described the BAC isotherm data. Furthermore, the thermodynamic analysis indicated that the adsorption was a spontaneous, endothermic, entropy-increasing and physical process. Two types of commercial activated carbon, Filtrasorb 400 and Filtrasorb (F400 and F300), were used as contrast adsorbents. The contrast experiments revealed that BAC exhibits similar properties to F400 and F300. The utilization of bamboo wastes as carbon precursors is feasible.

  6. Investigation kinetics mechanisms of adsorption malachite green onto activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Onal, Y; Akmil-Başar, C; Sarici-Ozdemir, C

    2007-07-19

    Lignite was used to prepare activated carbon (T3K618) by chemical activation with KOH. Pore properties of the activated carbon such as BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and pore diameter were characterized by t-plot based on N2 adsorption isotherm. BET surface area of activated carbon is determined as 1000 m2/g. Adsorption capacity of malachite green (MG) onto T3K618 activated carbon was investigated in a batch system by considering the effects of various parameters like initial concentration (100, 150 and 200 mg/L) and temperature (25, 40 and 50 degrees C). The adsorption process was relatively fast and equilibrium was reached after about 20 min for 100, 150 mg/L at all adsorption temperature. Equilibrium time for 200 mg/L was determined as 20 min and 40 min at 298, 313 and 323 K, respectively. Simple mass and kinetic models were applied to the experimental data to examine the mechanisms of adsorption and potential rate controlling steps such as external mass transfer, intraparticle diffusion. Pseudo second-order model was found to explain the kinetics of MG adsorption most effectively. It was found that both mass transfer and pore diffusion are important in determining the adsorption rates. The intraparticle diffusion rate constant, external mass transfer coefficient, film and pore diffusion coefficient at various temperatures were evaluated. The activation energy (Ea) was determined as 48.56, 63.16, 67.93 kJ/mol for 100, 150, 200 mg/L, respectively. The Langmiur and Freundlich isotherm were used to describe the adsorption equilibrium studies at different temperatures. Langmiur isotherm shows better fit than Freundlich isotherm in the temperature range studied. The thermodynamic parameters, such as DeltaG degrees, DeltaS and DeltaH degrees were calculated. The thermodynamics of dyes-T3K618 system indicates endothermic process.

  7. Mechanism of amitriptyline adsorption on Ca-montmorillonite (SAz-2).

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Hsiang; Jiang, Wei-Teh; Li, Zhaohui; Kuo, Chung-Yih; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Chen, Wan-Ru; Lv, Guocheng

    2014-07-30

    The uptake of amitriptyline (AMI) from aqueous environment by Ca-montmorillonite (SAz-2) was studied in a batch system under different physicochemical conditions. The adsorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses. The AMI adsorption on SAz-2 obeyed the Langmuir isotherm with a capacity of 330mg/g (1.05mmol/g) at pH 6-7. The adsorption kinetics was fast, almost reaching equilibrium in 2h, and followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Desorption of exchangeable cations correlated with the AMI adsorption well, indicating that cation exchange was the major mechanism. X-ray diffraction patterns showing significant expansions of the d001 spacing and characteristic FTIR band shifts toward higher frequencies after AMI adsorption onto SAz-2 indicated that the adsorbed AMI molecules were intercalated into the interlayers of the mineral. Thermodynamic parameters based on partitioning coefficients suggested that the AMI adsorption was an endothermic physisorption at high adsorption levels. At low and higher AMI adsorption levels, the intercalated AMI molecules take a horizontal monolayer and bilayer conformation, respectively. The higher adsorption capacity suggested that SAz-2 could be a good candidate to remove AMI from wastewater and would be an important environmental sink for the fate and transport of AMI in soils and groundwater.

  8. Adsorption of soluble oil from water to graphene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Zhang, Yuchang; Zhu, Fuzhen; Li, Jingyi; Liu, Shuaishuai; Na, Ping

    2014-05-01

    The toxicity of soluble oil to the aquatic environment has started to attract wide attention in recent years. In the present work, we prepare graphene according to oxidation and thermal reduction methods for the removal of soluble oil from the solution. Characterization of the as-prepared graphene are performed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle analysis. The adsorption behavior of soluble oil on graphene is examined, and the obtained adsorption data are modeled using conventional theoretical models. Adsorption experiments reveal that the adsorption rate of soluble oil on graphene is notably fast, especially for the soluble diesel oil, which could reach equilibrium within 30 min, and the kinetics of adsorption is perfectly consistent with a pseudo-second-order model. Furthermore, it is determined that the adsorption isotherm of soluble diesel oil with graphene fit the Freundlich model best, and graphene has a very strong adsorption capacity for soluble diesel oil in the solution. These results demonstrate that graphene is the material that provided both good adsorptive capacity and good kinetics, implying that it could be used as a promising sorbent for soluble oil removal from wastewater.

  9. Adsorption of clofibric acid and ketoprofen onto powdered activated carbon: effect of natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yaohuan; Deshusses, Marc A

    2011-12-01

    The adsorption of two acidic pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), clofibric acid and ketoprofen, onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) was investigated with a particular focus on the influence of natural organic matter (NOM) on the adsorption of the PhACs. Suwannee River humic acids (SRHAs) were used as a substitute for NOM. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to obtain adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms with and without SRHAs in the system. The adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics showed that the adsorption ofclofibric acid was not significantly affected by the presence of SRHAs at a concentration of 5 mg (as carbon) L(-1). An adsorption capacity of 70 to 140 mg g(-1) was observed and equilibrium was reached within 48 h. In contrast, the adsorption of ketoprofen was markedly decreased (from about 120 mg g(-1) to 70-100 mg g(-1)) in the presence of SRHAs. Higher initial concentrations of clofibric acid than ketoprofen during testing may explain the different behaviours that were observed. Also, the more hydrophobic ketoprofen molecules may have less affinity for PAC when humic acids (which are hydrophilic) are present. The possible intermolecular forces that could account for the different behaviour of clofibric acid and ketoprofen adsorption onto PAC are discussed. In particular, the relevance of electrostatic forces, electron donor-acceptor interaction, hydrogen bonding and London dispersion forces are discussed

  10. Cobalt nanoparticles-embedded magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon for highly effective adsorption of rhodamine B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lin; Cai, Ye; Yang, Guide; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zeng, Guangming; Zhou, Yaoyu; Li, Sisi; Wang, Jiajia; Zhang, Sheng; Fang, Yan; He, Yibin

    2014-09-01

    Cobalt nanoparticles-embedded magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (Co/OMC), prepared through a simple method involving infusing and calcination, was used as a highly effective adsorbent for rhodamine B (Rh B) removal. Several techniques, including SEM, HRTEM, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, XRD, Raman spectra, EDX, zeta potential and VSM measurement, were applied to characterize the adsorbent. Batch tests were conducted to investigate the adsorption performance. The adsorption capacity of the resultant adsorbent was relatively high compared with raw ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) and reached an equilibrium value of 468 mg/g at 200 mg/L initial Rh B concentration. Removal efficiency even reached 96% within 25 min at 100 mg/L initial Rh B concentration. Besides, the adsorption amount increased with the increase of solution pH, adsorbent dose and initial Rh B concentration. Kinetics study showed that the adsorption agreed well with pseudo-second-order model (R2 = 0.999) and had a significant correlation with intra-particle diffusion model in the both two adsorption periods. Furthermore, thermodynamics research indicated that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous in nature. The adsorption isotherms fitted well with Langmuir model, demonstrating the formation of mono-molecular layer on the surface of Co/OMC during adsorption process. The results confirmed that Co/OMC has the potential superiority in removal of Rh B from aqueous solution.

  11. Removal of Pb(II) by adsorption onto Chinese walnut shell activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zheng-ji; Yao, Jun; Kuang, Yun-fei; Chen, Hui-lun; Wang, Fei; Yuan, Zhi-min

    2015-01-01

    The excessive discharge of Pb(II) into the environment has increasingly aroused great concern. Adsorption is considered as the most effective method for heavy metal removal. Chinese walnut shell activated carbon (CWSAC) was used as an adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were conducted by varying contact time, temperature, pH, adsorbent dose and initial Pb(II) concentration. Adsorption equilibrium was established within 150 min. Although temperature effect was insignificant, the Pb(II) adsorption was strongly pH dependent and the maximum removal was observed at pH 5.5. The Pb(II) removal efficiency increased with increasing CWSAC dosage up to 2.0 g/L and reached a maximum of 94.12%. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were employed to fit the adsorption data. The results suggested that the equilibrium data could be well described by the Langmuir isotherm model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 81.96 mg/g. Adsorption kinetics data were fitted by pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order models. The result indicated that the pseudo-first-order model best describes the adsorption kinetic data. In summary, CWSAC could be a promising material for the removal of Pb(II) from wastewater.

  12. Adsorptive property of Cu2+-ZnO/cetylpyridinium-montmorillonite complexes for pathogenic bacterium in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yu-Long; Yang, Bo; Xie, Li

    2010-09-01

    Cu(2+)-ZnO/cetylpyridinium-montmorillonite (Cu(2+)-ZnO/CP-MMT) complexes were prepared using montmorillonite (MMT), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and cetylpyridinium (CP). The goal was to assess comparatively the adsorption properties of Cu(2+)-ZnO/CP-MMT in vitro using pathogenic Escherichia coli. The results showed that Cu(2+)-ZnO/CP-MMT adsorbed significantly (P<0.05) more E. coli compared with the parent clay. The adsorption process of bacterial cells occurring on the modified MMT surface reached equilibrium after 90 min. The percentages of E. coli adsorbed onto the surfaces of Cu(2+)-ZnO/CP-MMT and MMT in adsorption equilibrium were 84.66% and 47.01%, respectively. Adsorption data from the bacteria-clay systems followed the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, but not the BET isotherm. Adsorption of E. coli in acidic medium was higher than in alkaline medium. The extent of bacteria adsorption onto the modified MMT increased with decreasing ionic strength, and with increasing temperature. The processes of E. coli adsorption onto the tested adsorbents were endothermic and spontaneous at the experimental temperature. The mechanism of adsorption of bacteria on Cu(2+)-ZnO/CP-MMT may involve enhanced hydrophobicity and the reversal of surface charge from negative to positive.

  13. A novel reusable nanocomposite: FeOOH/CBC and its adsorptive property for methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuanpei; Ma, Yongjun; He, Honglei; Pei, Chonghua; He, Ping

    2015-03-01

    Porous network-like FeOOH/ carbonized bacterial cellulose (FeOOH/CBC) nanocomposite was successfully prepared and used as adsorbent of organic dyes. The phases, morphology, structure and adsorptive properties of FeOOH/CBC nanocomposite were characterized by XRD, FI-IR, SEM, TEM, BET and UV-vis. The adsorption equilibrium of as-prepared FeOOH/CBC nanocomposite for methyl orange (MO) was achieved within one hour, with the maximum adsorption capacity for MO reaching 107.68 mg/g at pH 6.0 and 30 °C. As-prepared FeOOH/CBC nanocomposite maintains high adsorption activities after four times of adsorption and desorption, accompanying the removal rate for MO is up to 60% in 10 min.

  14. Investigating the thermodynamic stability of Bacillus subtilis spore-uranium(VI) adsorption though surface complexation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrold, Z.; Hertel, M.; Gorman-Lewis, D.

    2012-12-01

    Dissolved uranium speciation, mobility, and remediation are increasingly important topics given continued and potential uranium (U) release from mining operations and nuclear waste. Vegetative bacterial cell surfaces are known to adsorb uranium and may influence uranium speciation in the environment. Previous investigations regarding U(VI) adsorption to bacterial spores, a differentiated and dormant cell type with a tough proteinaceous coat, include U adsorption affinity and XAFS data. We investigated the thermodynamic stability of aerobic, pH dependent uranium adsorption to bacterial spore surfaces using purified Bacillus subtilis spores in solution with 5ppm uranium. Adsorption reversibility and kinetic experiments indicate that uranium does not precipitate over the duration of the experiments and equilibrium is reached within 20 minutes. Uranium-spore adsorption edges exhibited adsorption at all pH measured between 2 and 10. Maximum adsorption was achieved around pH 7 and decreased as pH increased above 7. We used surface complexation modeling (SCM) to quantify uranium adsorption based on balanced chemical equations and derive thermodynamic stability constants for discrete uranium-spore adsorption reactions. Site specific thermodynamic stability constants provide insight on interactions occurring between aqueous uranium species and spore surface ligands. The uranium adsorption data and SCM parameters described herein, also provide a basis for predicting the influence of bacterial spores on uranium speciation in natural systems and investigating their potential as biosorption agents in engineered systems.

  15. Laboratory investigation of steam adsorption in geothermal reservoir rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Luetkehans, J.

    1988-02-01

    Some vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs and low-permeability gas reservoirs exhibit anomalous behavior that may be caused by surface adsorption. For example, geothermal reservoirs in the Larderello are of Italy and reservoirs in the Geysers Geothermal Field, California produce little, if any, liquid. Yet to satisfy material balance constraints, another phase besides steam must be present. If steam adsorption occurring in significant amounts is not accounted for, the reserves will be grossly under-estimated. In addition, well tests may be misinterpreted because the pressure response is delayed owing to be adsorbed material leaving or entering the gaseous phase. In the present research the role of adsorption in geothermal reservoirs in investigated. Two sets of laboratory equipment were constructed to measure adsorption isotherms of cores from Berea sandstone, Larderello, and The Geysers. Seven experimental runs were completed using nitrogen on the low temperature apparatus at -196/sup 0/C. Eight runs were conducted using steam on the high temperature apparatus at temperatures ranging from 150 C to 207/sup 0/C. The largest specific surface area and the greatest nitrogen adsorption isotherm were measured on the Berea sandstone, followed by a core from Larderello and then The Geysers. Difficulties in determining whether a system had reached equilibrium at the end of each step lead to questions regarding the magnitude of adsorption measured by the steam runs. Nevertheless, adsorption was observed and the difficulties themselves were useful indicators of needed future research.

  16. Poliovirus Adsorption by 34 Minerals and Soils

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Rebecca S.; Taylor, Dene H.; Sturman, Lawrence S.; Reddy, Michael M.; Fuhs, G. Wolfgang

    1981-01-01

    The adsorption of radiolabeled infectious poliovirus type 2 by 34 well-defined soils and mineral substrates was analyzed in a synthetic freshwater medium containing 1 mM CaCl2 and 1.25 mM NaHCO3 at pH 7. In a model system, adsorption of poliovirus by Ottawa sand was rapid and reached equilibrium within 1 h at 4°C. Near saturation, the adsorption could be described by the Langmuir equation; the apparent surface saturation was 2.5 × 106 plaque-forming units of poliovirus per mg of Ottawa sand. At low surface coverage, adsorption was described by the Freundlich equation. The soils and minerals used ranged from acidic to basic and from high in organic content to organic free. The available negative surface charge on each substrate was measured by the adsorption of a cationic polyelectrolyte, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride. Most of the substrates adsorbed more than 95% of the virus. In general, soils, in comparison with minerals, were weak adsorbents. Among the soils, muck and Genesee silt loam were the poorest adsorbents; among the minerals, montmorillonite, glauconite, and bituminous shale were the least effective. The most effective adsorbents were magnetite sand and hematite, which are predominantly oxides of iron. Correlation coefficients for substrate properties and virus adsorption revealed that the elemental composition of the adsorbents had little effect on poliovirus uptake. Substrate surface area and pH, by themselves, were not significantly correlated with poliovirus uptake. A strong negative correlation was found between poliovirus adsorption and both the contents of organic matter and the available negative surface charge on the substrates as determined by their capacities for adsorbing the cationic polyelectrolyte, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride. PMID:6274259

  17. Synthesization, characterization and adsorption properties of sulfonic cellulose.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenjian; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Yuanzhang; Li, Liang; Yang, Qinlin

    2012-01-01

    The synthesization and characterization of a new environmental functional material-sulfonic cellulose - were studied in this paper. The preparation conditions were optimized through an orthogonal experiment. The modified cellulose was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The adsorption rules of cationic organic pollutants and heavy metal ions by this new material were discussed. Regeneration and recycling performances of the sulfonic cellulose were also investigated. At the temperature of 323 K, sulfonic cellulose was prepared by grafting 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) onto alkali-treated cellulose for 4 h with the employing of ceric ammonium nitrate as initiator. The mass ratio of AMPS to cellulose was 3:1 and the concentration of ceric ammonium nitrate was 63.8 mmol/L. The sulfur content of sulfonic cellulose was 7.32 wt%. The peaks of 1,303 and 1,159 cm⁻¹ in IR suggested the existence of the sulfonic group in sulfonic cellulose. The XRD and SEM results showed that the crystallinity decreased while the specific surface area increased after modification. Batch adsorption results showed that sulfonic cellulose had a favorable adsorption capacity for model contaminants at pH 6.0-7.0. The adsorption process was endothermic and reached equilibrium in 180 min. The adsorption rules of cationic organic pollutants and heavy metal ions indicated that sulfonic cellulose had high adsorption capacity for the cationic dyes with a coplanar macromolecule structure and organic compounds carrying the amino group. Under room temperature, 1.0 mol/L HCl can be used as a desorption solution and the equilibrium adsorption capacity had little decrease (less than 7%) after six adsorption-desorption cycles.

  18. [Modification of natural siderite and enhanced adsorption of arsenic].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kai; Guo, Hua-Ming; Li, Yuan; Ren, Yan

    2012-02-01

    Groundwater with high arsenic concentration has widely been found in China. More attention has been paid to economic and efficient arsenic removal technology. Natural siderite, which was abundant and relatively cheap, was used as the main raw material for arsenic adsorption by batch methods. Modified conditions of natural siderite, including temperature and time of calcination and adhesive addition, were carried out for arsenic removal. Results showed that the maximum removal efficiency was reached with the calcination temperature of 350 degrees C for 90 minutes and an adhesive dosage of 10 mg x g(-1). With the ratio of solid to liquid of 0.5 g: 50 mL and the initial concentration of 5 mg x L(-1) for either As(III) or As(V) at 25 degrees C, arsenic concentrations at equilibrium time were lower than 10 microg x L(-1). Characteristics of adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm on the optimal modified adsorbent were also evaluated. It was found that the arsenic adsorption kinetics fitted pseudo-second order kinetics equation, and the adsorption achieved equilibrium at about 12 h. The adsorption isotherm could be well described by Langmuir and Freundlich models. The maximum adsorption capacity was 1039 microg x g(-1) for As(III) and 1 026 microg x g(-1) for As(V). Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and BET method were used to investigate main mechanisms of arsenic removal. Results showed that modified adsorbent had higher specific surface area and contained the spherical coating of Fe(II) and Fe(III) on the surface, in comparison with pristine material, which were believed to contribute to the high adsorption capacity of the modified material. The modified natural siderite appears to be a promising adsorbent that is worthy of further studies and practical application for arsenic removal.

  19. Preparation of activated carbon from corn cob and its adsorption behavior on Cr(VI) removal.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shuxiong; Chen, Yao; Xie, Ruzhen; Jiang, Wenju; Jiang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Operation experiments were conducted to optimize the preparation of activated carbons from corn cob. The Cr(VI) adsorption capacity of the produced activated carbons was also evaluated. The impact of the adsorbent dosage, contact time, initial solution pH and temperature was studied. The results showed that the produced corn cob activated carbon had a good Cr(VI) adsorptive capacity; the theoretical maximum adsorption was 34.48 mg g(-1) at 298 K. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and iodine adsorption value of the produced activated carbon could be 924.9 m(2) g(-1) and 1,188 mg g(-1), respectively. Under the initial Cr(VI) concentration of 10 mg L(-1) and the original solution pH of 5.8, an adsorption equilibrium was reached after 4 h, and Cr(VI) removal rate was from 78.9 to 100% with an adsorbent's dosage increased from 0.5 to 0.7 g L(-1). The kinetics and equilibrium data agreed well with the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and the Langmuir isotherm model. The equilibrium adsorption capacity improved with the increment of the temperature.

  20. Partition Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Michal; Tennenholtz, Moshe

    We introduce partition equilibrium and study its existence in resource selection games (RSG). In partition equilibrium the agents are partitioned into coalitions, and only deviations by the prescribed coalitions are considered. This is in difference to the classical concept of strong equilibrium according to which any subset of the agents may deviate. In resource selection games, each agent selects a resource from a set of resources, and its payoff is an increasing (or non-decreasing) function of the number of agents selecting its resource. While it has been shown that strong equilibrium exists in resource selection games, these games do not possess super-strong equilibrium, in which a fruitful deviation benefits at least one deviator without hurting any other deviator, even in the case of two identical resources with increasing cost functions. Similarly, strong equilibrium does not exist for that restricted two identical resources setting when the game is played repeatedly. We prove that for any given partition there exists a super-strong equilibrium for resource selection games of identical resources with increasing cost functions; we also show similar existence results for a variety of other classes of resource selection games. For the case of repeated games we identify partitions that guarantee the existence of strong equilibrium. Together, our work introduces a natural concept, which turns out to lead to positive and applicable results in one of the basic domains studied in the literature.

  1. Influence of clay mineral structure and surfactant nature on the adsorption capacity of surfactants by clays.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martín, M J; Dorado, M C; del Hoyo, C; Rodríguez-Cruz, M S

    2008-01-15

    Adsorption of three surfactants of different nature, Triton X-100 (TX100) (non-ionic), sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) (anionic) and octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ODTMA) (cationic) by four layered (montmorillonite, illite, muscovite and kaolinite) and two non-layered (sepiolite and palygorskite) clay minerals was studied. The objective was to improve the understanding of surfactant behaviour in soils for the possible use of these compounds in remediation technologies of contaminated soils by toxic organic compounds. Adsorption isotherms were obtained using surfactant concentrations higher and lower than the critical micelle concentration (cmc). These isotherms showed different adsorption stages of the surfactants by the clay minerals, and were classified in different subgroups of the L-, S- or H-types. An increase in the adsorption of SDS and ODTMA by all clay minerals is observed up to the cmc of the surfactant in the equilibrium solution is reached. However, there was further TX100 adsorption when the equilibrium concentration was well above the cmc. Adsorption constants from Langmuir and Freundlich equations (TX100 and ODTMA) or Freundlich equation (SDS) were used to compare adsorption of different surfactants by clay minerals studied. These constants indicated the surfactant adsorption by clay minerals followed this order ODTMA>TX100>SDS. The adsorption of TX100 and ODTMA was higher by montmorillonite and illite, and the adsorption of SDS was found to be higher by kaolinite and sepiolite. Results obtained show the influence of clay mineral structure and surfactant nature on the adsorption capacity of surfactants by clays, and they indicate the interest to consider the soil mineralogical composition when one surfactant have to be selected in order to establish more efficient strategies for the remediation of soils and water contaminated by toxic organic pollutants.

  2. Effect of pyrolysis temperatures and times on the adsorption of cadmium onto orange peel derived biochar.

    PubMed

    Tran, Hai Nguyen; You, Sheng-Jie; Chao, Huan-Ping

    2016-02-01

    The mechanism and capacity of adsorption of cadmium (Cd) on orange peel (OP)-derived biochar at various pyrolysis temperatures (400, 500, 600, 700 and 800°C) and heating times (2 and 6 h) were investigated. Biochar was characterized using proximate analysis, point of zero charge (PZC) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Equilibrium and kinetic experiments of Cd adsorption on biochar were performed. The results indicated that the pH value at PZC of biochar approached 9.5. Equilibrium can be reached rapidly (within 1 min) in kinetic experiments and a removal rate of 80.6-96.9% can be generated. The results fitted the pseudo-second-order model closely. The adsorption capacity was estimated using the Langmuir model. The adsorption capacity of Cd on biochar was independent of the pyrolysis temperature and heating time (p>0.01). The maximum adsorption capacity of Cd was 114.69 (mg g(-1)). The adsorption of Cd on biochar was regarded as chemisorption. The primary adsorption mechanisms were regarded as Cπ-cation interactions and surface precipitation. Cadmium can react with calcite to form the precipitation of (Ca,Cd)CO3 on the surface of biochar. The OP-derived biochar can be considered a favourable alternative and a new green adsorbent for removing Cd(2+) ions from an aqueous solution.

  3. Adsorptive removal of chlorophenols from aqueous solution by low cost adsorbent--Kinetics and isotherm analysis.

    PubMed

    Radhika, M; Palanivelu, K

    2006-11-02

    Adsorptive removal of parachlorophenol (PCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) from aqueous solutions by activated carbon prepared from coconut shell was studied and compared with activated carbon of commercial grade (CAC). Various chemical agents in different concentrations were used (KOH, NaOH, CaCO(3), H(3)PO(4) and ZnCl(2)) for the preparation of coconut shell activated carbon. The coconut shell activated carbon (CSAC) prepared using KOH as chemical agent showed high surface area and best adsorption capacity and was chosen for further studies. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of various parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial PCP and TCP concentration. Adsorption equilibrium reached earlier for CSAC than CAC for both PCP and TCP concentrations. Under optimized conditions the prepared activated carbon showed 99.9% and 99.8% removal efficiency for PCP and TCP, respectively, where as the commercially activated carbon had 97.7% and 95.5% removal for PCP and TCP, respectively, for a solution concentration of 50mg/L. Adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The equilibrium adsorption data were analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Sips model using non-linear regression technique. Freundlich isotherms best fitted the data for adsorption equilibrium for both the compounds (PCP and TCP). Similarly, acidic pH was favorable for the adsorption of both PCP and TCP. Studies on pH effect and desorption revealed that chemisorption was involved in the adsorption process. The efficiency of the activated carbon prepared was also tested with real pulp and paper mill effluent. The removal efficiency using both the carbons were found highly satisfactory and was about 98.7% and 96.9% as phenol removal and 97.9% and 93.5% as AOX using CSAC and CAC, respectively.

  4. Characteristic Evaluation of Graphene Oxide for Bisphenol A Adsorption in Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Phatthanakittiphong, Thatchaphong; Seo, Gyu Tae

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of graphene oxide (GO) for Bisphenol A (BPA) adsorption in water. Batch experiments on the influence of significant parameters were performed. While an improvement of the adsorption capacity of BPA was obtained by the increment of contact time and the initial BPA concentration, the increment of pH above 8, GO dosage, and temperature showed the reverse results. The thermodynamic study suggested that BPA adsorption on GO was an exothermic and spontaneous process. The kinetics was explained by the pseudo-second-order model which covers all steps of adsorption. The fit of the results with the Langmuir isotherm indicated the monolayer adsorption. At 298 K, the adsorption reached equilibrium within 30 min with the maximum adsorption capacity of 49.26 mg/g. The low BPA adsorption capacity of GO can be interpreted by the occurrence of oxygen-containing functional groups (OCFGs) that are able to form hydrogen bonds with the surrounding OCFGs and water molecules. This effect inhibited the role of π–π interactions that are mainly responsible for the adsorption of BPA. PMID:28335257

  5. Adsorption modeling for macroscopic contaminant dispersal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Axley, J.W.

    1990-05-01

    Two families of macroscopic adsorption models are formulated, based on fundamental principles of adsorption science and technology, that may be used for macroscopic (such as whole-building) contaminant dispersal analysis. The first family of adsorption models - the Equilibrium Adsorption (EA) Models - are based upon the simple requirement of equilibrium between adsorbent and room air. The second family - the Boundary Layer Diffusion Controlled Adsorption (BLDC) Models - add to the equilibrium requirement a boundary layer model for diffusion of the adsorbate from the room air to the adsorbent surface. Two members of each of these families are explicitly discussed, one based on the linear adsorption isotherm model and the other on the Langmuir model. The linear variants of each family are applied to model the adsorption dynamics of formaldehyde in gypsum wall board and compared to measured data.

  6. Porous and Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymers via Pickering High Internal Phase Emulsions Polymerization for Selective Adsorption of λ-Cyhalothrin

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yunlong; Ma, Yue; Pan, Jianming; Gu, Runxing; Luo, Jialu

    2017-01-01

    A novel macroporous magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MMIPs) of was prepared by W/O Pickering (high internal phase emulsions) HIPEs polymerization, and then it was adopted as adsorbent for selective adsorption of λ-cyhalothrin (LC). In static conditions, adsorption capacity of LC increased rapidly in the first 60 min and reached to equilibrium in ~2.0 h. Excellent conformity of the second-order model confirmed the chemical nature of the interaction between the LC and imprinted sites. The fitting adsorption isotherm was a Langmuir type, and the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity at 298 K was 404.4 μmol g−1. Thermodynamic parameters suggested the specific adsorption at 298 K was an exothermic, spontaneous, and entropy decreased process. Competitive recognition studies of the MMIPs were performed with diethyl phthalate (DEP) and the structurally similar compound fenvalerate (FL), and the MMIPs, which displayed high selectivity for LC.

  7. Interactions of nanoparticles with proteins: determination of equilibrium constants.

    PubMed

    Treuel, Lennart; Malissek, Marcelina

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of nanoparticles towards proteins is an important aspect across wide areas of nanotoxicology and nanomedicine. In this chapter, we describe a procedure to study the adsorption of proteins onto nanoparticle surfaces. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is utilized to quantify the amount of free protein in a solution, and the experimental information is evaluated to derive equilibrium constants for the protein adsorption/desorption equilibrium. These equilibrium constants are comparable parameters in describing the interactions between proteins and nanoparticles.

  8. Adsorption of methylene blue and Congo red from aqueous solution by activated carbon and carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Szlachta, M; Wójtowicz, P

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the adsorption removal of dyes by powdered activated carbon (PAC, Norit) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, Chinese Academy of Science) from an aqueous solution. Methylene blue (MB) and Congo red (CR) were selected as model compounds. The adsorbents tested have a high surface area (PAC 835 m(2)/g, MWCNTs 358 m(2)/g) and a well-developed porous structure which enabled the effective treatment of dye-contaminated waters and wastewaters. To evaluate the capacity of PAC and MWCNTs to adsorb dyes, a series of batch adsorption experiments was performed. Both adsorbents exhibited a high adsorptive capacity for MB and CR, and equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model, with the maximum adsorption capacity up to 400 mg/g for MB and 500 mg/g for CR. The separation factor, RL, revealed the favorable nature of the adsorption process under experimental conditions. The kinetics of adsorption was studied at various initial dye concentrations and solution temperatures. The pseudo-second-order model was used for determining the adsorption kinetics of MB and CR. The data obtained show that adsorption of both dyes was rapid in the initial stage and followed by slower processing to reach the plateau. The uptake of dyes increased with contact time, irrespective of their initial concentration and solution temperature. However, changes in the solution temperature did not significantly influence dye removal.

  9. Adsorption of Ag, Cu and Hg from aqueous solutions using expanded perlite.

    PubMed

    Ghassabzadeh, Hamid; Mohadespour, Ahmad; Torab-Mostaedi, Meisam; Zaheri, Parisa; Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi; Taheri, Hossein

    2010-05-15

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the ability of expanded perlite (EP) to remove of silver, copper and mercury ions from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out and the effect of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature of solution on the removal process has been investigated. The optimum pH for the adsorption was found to be 6.5. Adsorption of these metal ions reached their equilibrium concentration in 120, 240 and 180 min for Ag (I), Cu (II) and Hg (II) ions, respectively. Experimental data were also evaluated in terms of kinetic characteristics of adsorption and it was found that adsorption process for these metal ions followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics. Using Langmuir isotherm model, maximum adsorption capacity of EP was found to be 8.46, 1.95 and 0.35 mg/g for Ag (I), Cu (II) and Hg (II) ions, respectively. Finally, the thermodynamic parameters including, the change of free energy (DeltaG degrees ), enthalpy (DeltaH degrees ) and entropy (DeltaS degrees ) of adsorption were calculated for each metal ion. The results showed that the adsorption of these metal ions on EP was feasible and exothermic at 20-50 degrees C.

  10. Thermodynamic and kinetic investigations of PO3-4 adsorption on blast furnace slag.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Ensar

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of adsorption of PO(3-)(4) by blast furnace slag were found to be fast, reaching equilibrium in 20 min and following a pseudo-second-order rate equation. The adsorption behavior of PO(3-)(4) on blast furnace slag has been studied as a function of the solution agitation speed, pH, and temperature. Results have been analyzed by Freundlich, Langmuir, BET, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption isotherms. The mean energy of adsorption, 10.31 kJ mol(-1), was calculated from the D-R adsorption isotherm. The rate constants were calculated for 293, 298, 303, and 308 K using a pseudo-second-order rate equation and the activation energy (E(a)) was derived using the Arrhenius equation. Thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaH(0), DeltaS(0), and DeltaG(0) were calculated from the slope and intercept of linear plot of lnK(D) against 1/T. The DeltaH(0) and DeltaG(0) values of PO(3-)(4) adsorption on the blast furnace slag show endothermic heat of adsorption. But there is a negative free energy value, indicating that the process of PO(3-)(4) adsorption is favored at high temperatures.

  11. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of sulforaphane adsorption on macroporous resin.

    PubMed

    Yuanfeng, Wu; Lei, Zhang; Jianwei, Mao; Shiwang, Liu; Jun, Huang; Yuru, You; Lehe, Mei

    2016-08-15

    The adsorption equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic of sulforaphane (SF) adsorption onto macroporous resin in aqueous phase were studied. The SP850 resin was screened as the appropriate resin for SF purification. From the equilibrium studies, the Redlich-Peterson model was found to be the best for description of the adsorption behavior of SF onto SP850 resin, followed by the Freundlich model and the Langmuir model. Batch equilibrium experiments demonstrated that, in the examined temperature range, the equilibrium adsorption capacity of SP850 resin decreased with increasing adsorption temperature. Thermodynamics studies indicated that the adsorption of SF was a physical, exothermic, and spontaneous process. The adsorption kinetics revealed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model was suitable to characterize the kinetics of adsorption of SF onto SP850. Finally, the intra-particle diffusion model demonstrated that SF diffused quickly into macropores, and that diffusion slowed down in the meso- and micropores.

  12. [Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution onto magnetic Fe3O4/ graphene oxide nanoparticles].

    PubMed

    Chang, Qing; Jiang, Guo-Dong; Hu, Meng-Xuan; Huang, Jia; Tang, He-Qing

    2014-05-01

    A simple ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation method was developed to prepare magnetic Fe3O4/graphene oxide (Fe3O4/ GO) nanoparticles. The characterization with transmission electron microscope (TEM) indicated that the products possessed small particle size. The hysteresis loop of the dried Fe3O4/GO nanoparticles demonstrated that the sample had typical features of superparamagnetic material. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to investigate the effects of the initial pH of the solution, the dosage of adsorbent, the contact time and temperature on the adsorption of methylene blue. The results indicated that the composites prepared could be used over a broad pH range (pH 6-9). The adsorption process was very fast within the first 25 min and the equilibrium was reached at 180 min. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetics data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption process was a spontaneous and endothermic process in nature. The composite exhibited fairly high adsorption capacity (196.5 mg.g-1) of methylene blue at 313 K. In addition, the magnetic composite could be effectively and simply separated by using an external magnetic field, and then regenerated by hydrogen peroxide and recycled for further use. The results indicated that the adsorbent had a potential in the application of the dye wastewater treatment.

  13. Cadmium-109 Radioisotope Adsorption onto Polypyrrole Coated Sawdust of Dryobalanops aromatic: Kinetics and Adsorption Isotherms Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Olatunji, Michael Adekunle; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Mahmud, Habibun Nabi Muhammad Ekramul

    2016-01-01

    A radiotracer study was conducted to investigate the removal characteristics of cadmium (109Cd) from aqueous solution by polypyrrole/ sawdust composite. Several factors such as solution pH, sorbent dosage, initial concentration, contact time, temperature and interfering metal ions were found to have influence on the adsorption process. The kinetics of adsorption was relatively fast, reaching equilibrium within 3 hours. A lowering of the solution pH reduced the removal efficiency from 99.3 to ~ 46.7% and an ambient temperature of 25°C was found to be optimum for maximum adsorption. The presence of sodium and potassium ions inhibited 109Cd removal from its aqueous solution. The experimental data for 109Cd adsorption showed a very good agreement with the Langmuir isotherm and a pseudo-first order kinetic model. The surface condition of the adsorbent before and after cadmium loading was investigated using BET, FESEM and FTIR. Considering the low cost of the precursor’s materials and the toxicity of 109Cd radioactive metal, polypyrrole synthesized on the sawdust of Dryobalanops aromatic could be used as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of 109Cd radioisotope from radionuclide-containing effluents. PMID:27706232

  14. Cadmium-109 Radioisotope Adsorption onto Polypyrrole Coated Sawdust of Dryobalanops aromatic: Kinetics and Adsorption Isotherms Modelling.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Michael Adekunle; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Mahmud, Habibun Nabi Muhammad Ekramul

    2016-01-01

    A radiotracer study was conducted to investigate the removal characteristics of cadmium (109Cd) from aqueous solution by polypyrrole/ sawdust composite. Several factors such as solution pH, sorbent dosage, initial concentration, contact time, temperature and interfering metal ions were found to have influence on the adsorption process. The kinetics of adsorption was relatively fast, reaching equilibrium within 3 hours. A lowering of the solution pH reduced the removal efficiency from 99.3 to ~ 46.7% and an ambient temperature of 25°C was found to be optimum for maximum adsorption. The presence of sodium and potassium ions inhibited 109Cd removal from its aqueous solution. The experimental data for 109Cd adsorption showed a very good agreement with the Langmuir isotherm and a pseudo-first order kinetic model. The surface condition of the adsorbent before and after cadmium loading was investigated using BET, FESEM and FTIR. Considering the low cost of the precursor's materials and the toxicity of 109Cd radioactive metal, polypyrrole synthesized on the sawdust of Dryobalanops aromatic could be used as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of 109Cd radioisotope from radionuclide-containing effluents.

  15. Phase transitions within the isolated polymer molecule: Coupling of the polymer threading a membrane transition to the helix-random coil, the collapse, the adsorption, and the equilibrium polymerization transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Marzio, Edmund A.; Kasianowicz, John J.

    2003-09-01

    The polymer threading a membrane transition (PTM), which is a first-order thermodynamic phase transition for an isolated linear polymer in the limit of infinite molecular weight, is coupled to the other four phase transitions of the isolated polymer molecule. They are (1) the helix-random coil (HR) phase transition which can be diffuse (polypeptides), second-order (DNA) or first-order (collagen) depending on the number of strands, (2) the collapse (C) transition which is usually second-order but can be first-order for polymeric solvents, (3) adsorption onto a surface (SA) which is second-order, (4) a model of equilibrium polymerization (P) which is first-order. In each case an exact expression for the partition function of the coupled pair is given as a one-dimensional summation over products of the individual partition functions corresponding to sides 1 and 2. Using a procedure analogous to evaluation of the grand canonical ensemble the summation can be performed and the character of the transition elucidated in the limit of infinite molecular weight. Given that the solutions on either side are sufficiently diverse there are 15 possible translocation pair couplings. They are PTM-PTM, HR-HR, C-C, SA-SA, P-P, PTM-HR, PTM-C, PTM-SA, PTM-P, HR-C, HR-SA, HR-P, C-SA, C-P, SA-P. The PTM-P coupling is most interesting because one can create polymer in the PTM side even though the P side is in the depolymerization regime. For HR-HR there are eight possible translocation modes. For example, as we raise the temperature we can have H1→H2→R1→R2 in obvious notation. These exact model solutions provide a thermodynamic base for the study of the kinetics of significant technological problems such as the translocation of DNA through pores imbedded in membranes. They also throw light on the nature of polymer-membrane-pore interactions in living cells and viruses.

  16. Informational Equilibrium.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    that for variouis standard types of equilibria* they hold. In particular, if one uses the teaporary equilibrium framework one can use the standard ...T, the integral converges toward f’ia(da) f fU(b~dc)6(a,b,c)T( asdm ) A B C which is fR (da) f d(lib,c) U0 T (cab) A BxC Me converse Is obvious

  17. Adsorption of fluoride, phosphate, and arsenate ions on a new type of ion exchange fiber.

    PubMed

    Ruixia, Liu; Jinlong, Guo; Hongxiao, Tang

    2002-04-15

    A new type of ion exchange fiber for the removal of fluoride, phosphate, and arsenate ions has been developed. A batch adsorption technique for investigating adsorption kinetic and equilibrium parameters and determining pH adsorption edges is applied. It is shown that the adsorption properties of the ion exchange fiber for fluoride, phosphate, and arsenate ions depend on the pH value and anion concentration. The adsorption of arsenate on the sorbent reaches a maximum of 97.9% in the pH value range of 3.5 to 7.0. The adsorption percentage of phosphate is more than 99% in the pH range of 3.0 to 5.5. The adsorption of fluoride on the ion exchange fiber is found to be 90.4% at pH 3.0. The Freundlich model can describe the adsorption equilibrium data of fluoride, arsenate, and phosphate anions. The sorption of the three anions on the ion exchange fiber is a rapid process, and the adsorption kinetic data can be simulated very well by the pseudo-second-order rate equation. The column performance is carried out to assess the applicability of the ion exchange fiber for the removal of fluoride, phosphate, and arsenate ions from synthetic wastewaters with satisfactory removal efficiency. The desorption experiment shows that fluoride ion sorbed by the fiber column can be quantitatively desorbed with 5 mL of 0.50 mol/L NaOH at elution rate of 1 mL/min, and 30 mL of NaOH is necessary for the quantitative recovery of phosphate and arsenate ions.

  18. Adsorption and isotopic fractionation of Xe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical description of the mechanisms of isotopic fractionation arising during adsorption of noble gases in a Henry's Law pressure regime is given. Experimental data on the isotopic composition of Xe adsorbed on activated charcoal in the temperature range 220 K to 350 K are presented. Both theoretical considerations and the experimental data indicate that equilibrium adsorption does not significantly alter the isotopic structure of adsorbed structure of adsorbed noble gases. Therefore, if adsorption is responsible for the elemental noble gas pattern in meteorites and the earth, the heavy noble gas isotopic fractionation between them must have been produced prior to and by a different process than equilibrium adsorption.

  19. Characterization and adsorption properties of a lanthanum-loaded magnetic cationic hydrogel composite for fluoride removal.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shuoxun; Wang, Yili

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel lanthanum-loaded magnetic cationic hydrogel (MCH-La) was synthesized for fluoride adsorption from drinking water. The adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and effects of pH and co-existing anions on fluoride uptake by MCH-La were evaluated. FTIR, Raman and XPS were used to analyze the fluoride adsorption mechanism of MCH-La. Results showed that MCH-La had positive zeta potential values of 23.6-8.0 mV at pH 3.0-11.0, with the magnitude of saturation magnetization up to 10.3 emu/g. The fluoride adsorption kinetics by MCH-La fitted well with the fractal-like-pseudo-second-order model, and the adsorption capacity reached 93% of the ultimate adsorption capacity within the first 10 min. The maximum fluoride adsorption capacity for MCH-La was 136.78 mg F(-)/g at an equilibrium fluoride concentration of 29.3 mg/L and pH 7.0. Equilibrium adsorption data showed that the Sips model was more suitable than the Langmuir and Freundlich models. MCH-La still had more than 100 mg of F(-)/g adsorption capacity at a strongly alkaline solution (pH > 10). The adsorption process was highly pH-dependent, and the optimal adsorption was attained at pH 2.8-4.0, corresponding to ligand exchange, electrostatic interactions, and Lewis acid-base interactions. With the exception of both anions of HCO3(-) and SiO4(4-), Cl(-), NO3(-), and SO4(2-) did not evidently prevent fluoride removal by MCH-La at their real concentrations in natural groundwater. The fluoride adsorption capacity of the regenerated MCH-La approached 70% of the fresh MCH-La from the second to fifth recycles. FTIR and Raman spectra revealed that C-O and CO functional groups on MCH contributed to the fluoride adsorption, this finding was also confirmed by the XPS F 1s spectra. Deconvolution of C 1s spectra before and after fluoride adsorption indicated that the carboxyl, anhydride, and phenol groups of MCH were involved in the fluoride removal.

  20. The adsorption of HCl on volcanic ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Xochilt; Schiavi, Federica; Keppler, Hans

    2016-03-01

    data provided here, the gas compositions in equilibrium with the ash surfaces can be calculated. In particular, for dacitic composition, the molar ratio of S/Cl adsorbed to the ash surface is related to the molar S/Cl ratio in the gas phase according to the equation ln ⁡(S / Cl) adsorbed = 2855T-1 + 0.28 ln ⁡(S / Cl) gas - 11.14. Our data also show that adsorption on ash will significantly reduce the fraction of HCl reaching the stratosphere, only if the initial HCl content in the volcanic gas is low (<1 mol%). For higher initial HCl concentrations, adsorption on ash has only a minor effect. While HCl scavenging by hydrometeors may remove a considerable fraction of HCl from the eruption column, recent models suggest that this process is much less efficient than previously thought. Our experimental data therefore support the idea that the HCl loading from major explosive eruptions may indeed cause severe depletions of stratospheric ozone.

  1. Preparation and copper ions adsorption properties of thiosemicarbazide chitosan from squid pens.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yue-Cheng; Wang, Hong-Peng; Gohar, Faryal; Ullah, Muhammad Haseeb; Zhang, Xiang; Xie, Dong-Fang; Fang, Hui; Huang, Jun; Yang, Jun-Xing

    2017-02-01

    Chitosan was prepared by alkaline N-deacetylation of β-chitin from squid pens. Thiosemicarbazide group was introduced to chitosan via formaldehyde-derived linkages, and thiosemicarbazide chitosan (TSFCS) with different degrees of substitution (DS) was synthesized. The DS values of TSFCS calculated by elemental analysis were 0.19, 0.36 and 0.63. The structure of the TSFCS was confirmed by elemental analysis, FTIR, XRD, TGA and SEM. The adsorption capacity of Cu(II) ions by TSFCS showed good correlation with the DS and pH (pH range 2.2-5.8). The maximum Cu(II) ions adsorption capacity of all three TSFCS samples reached 134.0mgg(-1) at pH 3.6, but chitosan showed no adsorption at this pH. The adsorption equilibrium process of Cu(II) ions onto TSFCS was better described by the Langmuir model than the Freundlich isotherm model. Cu(II) ions adsorbed by TSFCS could be released using 0.01M Na2EDTA and the adsorption capacity could retain above 80% after five adsorption-desorption cycles. TSFCS exhibited good potential for heavy metal removal because of its high adsorption capacity at the low pH.

  2. Mechanism of Adsorptive Removal of Methylene Blue Using Dried Biomass of Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Dey, Manash Deep; Shukla, Ruchi; Bordoloi, Naba K; Doley, Robin; Mukhopadhyay, Rupak

    2015-09-01

    Adsorption is an efficient way to remove synthetic dyes from industrial effluent. Here, we show mechanism of adsorptive removal of cationic dye methylene blue (MB) from its aqueous solution using dried biomass of Rhizopus oryzae as a biosorbent. The optimum pH and temperature for adsorption was found to be 7.0 and 28 °C, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the biomass suggested distinct changes in surface topology post-MB adsorption, while Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study indicated chemical interaction between the surface of the biomass and MB. Chemical modification of -OH and -C=O groups of biomass reduced the MB adsorption and corroborated with the FTIR analyses. Kinetics study revealed that the adsorption rate was fast initially and reached equilibrium at 4 h following a pseudo-second-order-kinetics. The adsorption isotherm followed Freundlich isotherm model with n value of 1.1615.The dried biomass of R. oryzae can be used as a potent biosorbent for the removal of MB.

  3. Pillar[5,6]arene-functionalized silicon dioxide: synthesis, characterization, and adsorption of herbicide.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting; Song, Nan; Yu, Hao; Yang, Ying-Wei

    2015-02-03

    A layer of synthetic supramolecular macrocycles, that is, perhydroxyl-pillar[5]arene and perhydroxyl-pillar[6]arene, has been covalently attached to hydrophilic silica supports through Si-O-Si linkages with a coverage of up to 250 μmol pillar[5,6]arenes/g to form novel absorbent hybrid materials. Their adsorption toward a typical herbicide, namely, paraquat, from its aqueous solution has been investigated. Kinetic studies disclosed that paraquat adsorption fits a first-order kinetic model. Equilibrium adsorption data could be explained very well by the Langmuir equation. The pillar[6]arene-modified materials showed more obvious adsorption as compared with pillar[5]arene-modified ones and the saturation adsorption quantity reached about 0.20 mmol of paraquat per gram of materials. The entire process of adsorption was endothermic, and significantly an elevated temperature led to an increase in the adsorption quantity. This new type of pillarene-based adsorbent materials can be considered as a potential adsorbent for harmful substances removal from wastewaters.

  4. Adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution by carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaolin; Tong, Shengrui; Ge, Maofa; Wu, Lingyan; Zuo, Junchao; Cao, Changyan; Song, Weiguo

    2013-05-01

    A novel nanoadsorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions is reported. Cotton was first hydrolyzed to obtain cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). CNCs were then chemically modified with succinic anhydride to obtain SCNCs. The sodic nanoadsorbent (NaSCNCs) was further prepared by treatment of SCNCs with saturated NaHCO3 aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out with SCNCs and NaSCNCs for the removal of Pb2+ and Cd2+. The effects of contact time, pH, initial adsorption concentration, coexisting ions and the regeneration performance were investigated. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption equilibrium time of Pb2+ and Cd2+ was reached within 150 min on SCNCs and 5 min on NaSCNCs. The adsorption capacities of Pb2+ and Cd2+ on SCNCs and NaSCNCs increased with increasing pH. The adsorption isotherm was well fitted by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities of SCNCs and NaSCNCs for Pb2+ and Cd2+ were 367.6 mg/g, 259.7 mg/g and 465.1 mg/g, 344.8 mg/g, respectively. SCNCs and NaSCNCs showed high selectivity and interference resistance from coexisting ions for the adsorption of Pb2+. NaSCNCs could be efficiently regenerated with a mild saturated NaCl solution with no loss of capacity after two recycles. The adsorption mechanisms of SCNCs and NaSCNCs were discussed.

  5. Investigation on efficient adsorption of cationic dyes on porous magnetic polyacrylamide microspheres.

    PubMed

    Yao, Tong; Guo, Song; Zeng, Changfeng; Wang, Chongqing; Zhang, Lixiong

    2015-07-15

    We report here the preparation of porous magnetic polyacrylamide microspheres for efficient removal of cationic dyes by a simple polymerization-induced phase separation method. Characterizations by various techniques indicate that the microspheres show porous structures and magnetic properties. They can adsorb methylene blue with high efficiency, with adsorption capacity increasing from 263 to 1977 mg/g as the initial concentration increases from 5 to 300 mg/L. Complete removal of methylene blue can be obtained even at very low concentrations. The equilibrium data is well described by the Langmuir isotherm models, exhibiting a maximum adsorption capacity of 1990 mg/g. The adsorption capacity increases with increasing initial pH and reaches a maximum at pH 8, revealing an electrostatic interaction between the microspheres and the methylene blue molecules. The microspheres also show high adsorption capacities for neutral red and gentian violet of 1937 and 1850 mg/g, respectively, as well as high efficiency in adsorption of mixed-dye solutions. The dye-adsorbed magnetic polyacrylamide microspheres can be easily desorbed, and can be repeatedly used for at least 6 cycles without losing the adsorption capacity. The adsorption capacity and efficiency of the microspheres are much higher than those of reported adsorbents, which exhibits potential practical application in removing cationic dyes.

  6. Dye Adsorption Behavior of Polyvinyl Alcohol/Glutaraldehyde/β-Cyclodextrin Polymer Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghemati, Dj.; Aliouche, Dj.

    2014-05-01

    Crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol/glutaraldehyde (PVA/GA) membranes were prepared, and attempts to obtain hydrophilic crosslinked PVA membranes were made by adding various amounts of β-cyclodexrin (β-CD), which is a typical cyclic oligosaccharide able to form inclusion complexes with organic host molecules (host-guest complexes). Thus, membranes of PVA/GA/β-CD were synthesized. The membranes were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and swelling measurements. The ability of cyclodextrin to include a wide variety of chemicals was also exploited for the dye adsorption to show the potentialities of the membranes in textile liquid waste processing. Adsorption of reactive methyl orange, and methylene blue dyes on PVA/GA/β-CD membranes was consequently studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy at wavelengths of 547, 463, and 660 nm. Adsorption reached equilibrium after 24 h. Results indicated that there is no covalent bond formation between PVA and β-CD; the β-CD is completely mixed into the PVA matrix polymer. The adsorption capacity increases with increasing amounts of cyclodextrin; the maximum adsorption capacity was obtained with 8% β-CD. Therefore, the change in adsorption capacities may be due to the dye structure effect, and the negative value of free energy indicated the spontaneous nature of adsorption.

  7. Adsorptive property of Cu(2+)-loaded montmorillonite clays for Escherichia coli K88 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tong; Cao, Shoujun; Su, Rui; Li, Zhiqiang; Hu, Ping; Xu, Zirong

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption properties of Cu(2+)-loaded montmorillonite clays (MMT-Cu) for Escherichia coli K88 as a function of time, bacteria concentrations, pH, ionic strength and temperature were investigated. The results showed that the bacteria adsorption onto MMT-Cu surface reached equilibrium after 90 min. The percentages of E. coli K88 adsorbed onto the surfaces of MMT-Cu and montmorillonite clays (MMT) at equilibrium were 88.9% and 56.5%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that a lot of E. coli K88 adhered to the surface of MMT-Cu. The zeta potential of MMT-Cu was relatively high as compared to that of MMT. The adsorptive ability of MMT-Cu for E. coli K88 was higher than that of MMT (P < 0.05). Moreover, pH, ionic strength and temperature produced a strong influence on the extent of E. coli K88 adsorption to surface of MMT-Cu and MMT. The mechanism of adsorption of E. coli onto MMT-Cu may involve electrostatic attraction and physiochemical properties of bacterial cell walls and minerals surfaces.

  8. Adsorption study of anionic reactive dye from aqueous solution to Mg-Fe-CO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, I. M.; Gasser, M. S.

    2012-10-01

    Mg-Fe-Cl Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been prepared using a method involving separate nucleation and aging steps with Mg/Fe = 3. The interlayer anions readily replaced by carbonate are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR. The effects of different parameters, such as pH, contact time, concentration of dye and temperature on the capacity and adsorption mechanism of Mg-Fe-CO3-LDH in removing an anionic dye (congo red, CR) from aqueous solution were separately investigated. The results show that Mg-Fe-CO3-LDH is particularly efficient in removing CR and the dye removal increases with decreasing pH. The adsorption of CR on Mg-Fe-CO3-LDH reached equilibrium after 15 min where 100 mg/L CR was removed. The equilibrium isotherm indicates that the adsorption of CR onto Mg-Fe-CO3-LDH fits to Langmuir and Freundlich equation as well. The adsorption data obtained from the Langmuir model gave good values of the determination coefficient and the saturated adsorption capacity of Mg-Fe-CO3-LDH for CR was found to be 104.6 mg/g. The regeneration study indicates that the prepared LDH could be used for several cycles. The thermodynamic parameters have been calculated, and the adsorption process was found to be spontaneous, endothermic in nature and follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  9. Multilayer adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) over Brazilian Orchid Tree (Pata-de-vaca) and its adsorptive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgetto, Alexandre de O.; da Silva, Adrielli C. P.; Wondracek, Marcos H. P.; Silva, Rafael I. V.; Velini, Edivaldo D.; Saeki, Margarida J.; Pedrosa, Valber A.; Castro, Gustavo R.

    2015-08-01

    Through very simple and inexpensive processes, pata-de-vaca leaves were turned into a powder and applied as an adsorbent for the uptake of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from water. The material was characterized through SEM, EDX, FTIR and surface area measurement. The material had its point of zero charge determined (5.24), and its adsorption capacity was evaluated as a function of time, pH and metal concentration. The material presented fast adsorption kinetics, reaching adsorption equilibrium in less than 5 min and it had a good correlation with the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Optimum pH for the adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) were found to be in the range from 4 to 5, approximately. In the experiment as a function of the analyte concentration, analogously to gas adsorption, the material presented a type II isotherm, indicating the formation of multilayers for both species. Such behavior was explained with basis in the alternation between cations and anions over the material's surface, and the maximum adsorption capacity, considering the formation of the multilayers were found to be 0.238 mmol L-1 for Cu(II) and 0.113 mmol L-1 for Cd(II).

  10. Adsorption of trihalomethanes by humin: Batch and fixed bed column studies.

    PubMed

    Cunha, G da C; Romão, L P C; Santos, M C; Araújo, B R; Navickiene, S; de Pádua, V L

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the present work was to assess the performance of batch and fixed bed column systems, using humin in natura and immobilized on sodium silicate, respectively, for the adsorption of the principal trihalomethanes (THMs) found in water supply systems. Kinetically, adsorption of THMs by humin follows a pseudo-second order reaction, with more than 50% removal in the first 5min for all compounds studied, and equilibrium described by the Freundlich model reached in 240min. The THM adsorption results were significant at p<0.05 for both batch (74.6-83.2% removal) and column (99.7% removal in optimized tests) experiments, and were significantly (p<0.05) influenced by flow rate and bed height. The work demonstrates the potential of humin for removal of THMs.

  11. Application of cellulose acetate to the selective adsorption and recovery of Au(III).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Kubota, Fukiko; Baba, Yuzo; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro

    2014-10-13

    Cellulose acetyl derivatives were examined for the selective recovery of Au(III) from acidic chloride solutions as an adsorbent, and cellulose acetate fibers (CAF) were found to be effective for the separation of Au(III) from other metal ions, including the precious metal ions Pt(IV) and Pd(II). The amount of Au(III) adsorbed by the fibers increased with an increase in the hydrochloric acid concentration, but decreased with an increase in the ionic strength of the solution. The adsorption of Au(III) onto CAF took place quickly and an adsorption equilibrium was reached within 1h. The maximum adsorption capacity of Au(III) was determined to be 110 mg/g at 2M hydrochloric acid. The loaded Au(III) was readily recovered by incineration.

  12. CBOs: Reaching the Hardest to Reach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The agents most successful in reaching and teaching those most in need of basic skills instruction are the community-based organizations (CBOs). They come into being in response to social and economic problems faced by their constituents--disadvantaged minorities, the poor, the unemployed, and the alienated. Because of their close ties to the…

  13. Ab initio prediction of adsorption isotherms for small molecules in metal-organic frameworks: the effect of lateral interactions for methane/CPO-27-Mg.

    PubMed

    Sillar, Kaido; Sauer, Joachim

    2012-11-07

    A hybrid method that combines density functional theory for periodic structures with wave function-based electron correlation methods for finite-size models of adsorption sites is employed to calculate energies for adsorption of CH(4) onto different sites in the metal-organic framework (MOF) CPO-27-Mg (Mg-MOF-74) with chemical accuracy. The adsorption energies for the Mg(2+), linker, second layer sites are -27.8, -18.3, and -15.1 kJ/mol. Adsorbate-adsorbate interactions increase the average CH(4) adsorption energy by about 10% (2.4 kJ/mol). The free rotor-harmonic oscillator-ideal gas model is applied to calculate free energies/equilibrium constants for adsorption on the individual sites. This information is used in a multisite Langmuir model, augmented with a Bragg-Williams model for lateral interactions, to calculate adsorption isotherms. This ab initio approach yields the contributions of the individual sites to the final isotherms and also of the lateral interactions that contribute about 15% to the maximum excess adsorption capacity. Isotherms are calculated for both absolute amounts, for calculation of isosteric heats of adsorption as function of coverage, and excess amounts, for comparison with measured isotherms. Agreement with observed excess isotherms is reached if the experimentally determined limited accessibility of adsorption sites (78%) is taken into account.

  14. Non-equilibrium supramolecular polymerization.

    PubMed

    Sorrenti, Alessandro; Leira-Iglesias, Jorge; Markvoort, Albert J; de Greef, Tom F A; Hermans, Thomas M

    2017-03-28

    Supramolecular polymerization has been traditionally focused on the thermodynamic equilibrium state, where one-dimensional assemblies reside at the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The pathway and rate to reach the equilibrium state are irrelevant, and the resulting assemblies remain unchanged over time. In the past decade, the focus has shifted to kinetically trapped (non-dissipative non-equilibrium) structures that heavily depend on the method of preparation (i.e., pathway complexity), and where the assembly rates are of key importance. Kinetic models have greatly improved our understanding of competing pathways, and shown how to steer supramolecular polymerization in the desired direction (i.e., pathway selection). The most recent innovation in the field relies on energy or mass input that is dissipated to keep the system away from the thermodynamic equilibrium (or from other non-dissipative states). This tutorial review aims to provide the reader with a set of tools to identify different types of self-assembled states that have been explored so far. In particular, we aim to clarify the often unclear use of the term "non-equilibrium self-assembly" by subdividing systems into dissipative, and non-dissipative non-equilibrium states. Examples are given for each of the states, with a focus on non-dissipative non-equilibrium states found in one-dimensional supramolecular polymerization.

  15. Influence of Soil Solution Salinity on Molybdenum Adsorption by Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molybdenum (Mo) adsorption on five arid-zone soils from California was investigated as a function of equilibrium solution Mo concentration (0-30 mg L-1), solution pH (4-8), and electrical conductivity (EC = 0.3 or 8 dS m-1). Molybdenum adsorption decreased with increasing pH. An adsorption maximum...

  16. Enhanced fluoride adsorption by nano crystalline γ-alumina: adsorption kinetics, isotherm modeling and thermodynamic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnakoti, Prathibha; Chunduri, Avinash L. A.; Vankayala, Ranganayakulu K.; Patnaik, Sandeep; Kamisetti, Venkataramaniah

    2016-06-01

    Nano materials in particular nano oxides with enhanced surface area and an excellent catalytic surface serve as potential adsorbents for defluoridation of water. In the present study nano γ-alumina was synthesized through a simple and low cost, surfactant assisted solution combustion method. As synthesized material was characterized by XRD and FESEM for its phase, size and morphological characteristics. Surface properties have been investigated by BET method. Nano γ-alumina was further used for a detailed adsorption study to remove fluoride from water. Batches of experiments were performed at various experimental conditions such as solution pH, adsorbent dose, initial fluoride concentration and contact time to test the defluoridation ability of γ-alumina. Fluoride Adsorption by nano sized γ-alumina was rapid and reached equilibrium within two hours. The adsorption worked well at pH 4.0, where ˜96 % of fluoride was found to be adsorbed on adsorbent. It was possible to reduce fluoride levels to as low as 0.3 mg/L (within the safe limit of WHO: ≤1.5 mg/L) from an initial fluoride levels of 10 mg/L. This could be achieved using a very small quantity, 1 g/L of γ-alumina at pH 4 within 1 h of contact time. Defluoridation capacity of nano γ-alumina was further investigated by fitting the equilibrium data to various isotherm as well as kinetic models. The present study revealed that γ-alumina could be an efficient adsorbent for treating fluoride contaminated water.

  17. [Adsorption properties of modified graphene for methylene blue removal from wastewater].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Luo, Han-Jin; Wang, Hou; Zhang, Zi-Long; Wang, Can; Wang, Yu-Wei

    2013-11-01

    In this study, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was chosen to modify graphene, which was applied to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The characteristics of graphene and modified graphene were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of factors including pH, contact time, temperature, and dosage on the adsorption properties of MB onto graphene and modified graphene were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of CTAB in preparation could obviously increase the specific surface area and improve the efficiency of removal. The adsorption processes were rapid within the first 15 min and reached equilibrium in about 120 min. The adsorption kinetics fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model. The optimal reaction temperature was 293 K, the optimal concentration of adsorbent dosage was 2 g x L(-1), and the initial pH value of the solution had little impact on the amount of adsorption. The adsorption capacity of MB on modified graphene inferred from the Langmuir model was 86.43 mg x g(-1) at 293 K, and the adsorption was an exothermic process.

  18. A facile method for improving the covalent crosslinking adsorption process of catalase immobilization.

    PubMed

    Ran, Jingyu; Jia, Shaoyi; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Songhai; Pan, Xiaolei

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we introduced a polydiol (mixture of 1,2-propanediol, 1,3-propanediol, and 2,3-butanediol) to improve the covalent crosslinking adsorption process of immobilized catalase onto chitosan beads. The adsorption behavior was investigated by means of adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm. The protein content in crosslinking agent required for approximately 45 min to reach the relative equilibrium, and the protein content in solution of the control group and the pretreated group were 6.63 microg/mL and 6.20 microg/mL, respectively. The maximum catalase adsorption capacity of the control group and the pretreated group were observed as 23.118 microg/g and 25.688 microg/g at pH 7.0, respectively. Temperature profiles showed that 40 degrees C was the ideal temperature for active domain of catalase, and the relative activity of pretreated group was 1.12 times higher than that of the control group. The K(m) value of the control group (67 mM) was higher than that of the pretreated group (54 mM). Thermal stability, operational stability, and the effect of surfactant on catalase adsorption were also explored in this study.

  19. Study on the adsorption of Cu(II) by folic acid functionalized magnetic graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cuicui; Ge, Heyi; Zhao, Yueying; Liu, Shanshan; Zou, Yu; Zhang, Wenbo

    2017-02-01

    The folic acid functionalized magnetic graphene oxide (FA-mGO) as a new adsorbent has been synthesized in this work for the elimination of Cu(II) from waste water. The as-prepared FA-mGO was tested by SEM, TEM, particle size analyzer, FTIR, XRD, Roman spectrum, TGA and magnetic properties analyzer. Some factors, such as adsorbent dose, pH, contact time, initial concentration of adsorbate and temperature were explored. The results showed that the FA-mGO had the better adsorption performance than mGO. After 40 min, the adsorption equilibrium could be reached. Furthermore, the adsorption property obeyed the pseudo-second order kinetic model and the Temkin isotherms well. The maximum adsorption capacity was 283.29 mg/g for Cu(II) from Pseudo-second-order model at pH=5 and 318 K. The chelation action between FA and Cu(II) along with electrostatic incorporation between GO and Cu(II) determined the favourable adsorption property. Besides, thermodynamic studies results ∆G0<0, ∆H0>0, ∆S0>0 suggested that the adsorption mechanism was an endothermic and spontaneous process essentially. Finally, desorption and reusability studies imply FA-mGO has an excellent reproducibility and is benefit to environmental protection and resource conservation.

  20. [Preparation of HDTMA-modified Zeolite and Its Performance in Nitro-phenol Adsorption from Wastewaters].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun-yuan; Wang, Bin

    2016-05-15

    In this study, natural zeolite was modified by HDTMA. Effects of the modified conditions, HDTMA-modified zeolite doses, solution pH values, and reaction time on nitro-phenol removal were investigated, and the adsorption kinetics and isotherms were discussed. Compared with natural zeolite, HDTMA-modified zeolite showed better performance in nitro-phenol removal. An adsorption capacity of 2.53 mg · g⁻¹ was achieved when the concentration of HDTMA solution (pH = 10) was 1.2% in preparation of modified zeolite. This adsorption capacity was higher than that obtained by natural zeolite (0.54 mg · g⁻¹). In adsorption tests, when HDTMA- modified zeolite dose was adjusted to 8 g · L⁻¹, the removal efficiency of nitro-phenol reached 93.9% after 90 min reaction, with wastewater pH of 6. Furthermore, the nitro-phenol adsorption process could be well fitted to the pseudo-first-order kinetics model (R² > 0.90), whereas the adsorption isotherm results indicated that Langmuir model provided the best fitting for the equilibrium data at different temperatures, with R² of higher than 0.90.

  1. Liquid phase adsorption behavior of inulin-type fructan onto activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Li, Kecheng; Liu, Song; Xing, Ronge; Yu, Huahua; Qin, Yukun; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-05-20

    This study describes liquid phase adsorption characteristics of inulin-type fructan onto activated charcoal. Batch mode experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, contact time, temperature and initial concentration of inulin. Nearly neutral solution (pH 6-8) was favorable to the adsorption and the equilibrium was attained after 40 min with the maximum adsorption Qmax 0.182 g/g (adsorbate/adsorbent) at 298 K. The experimental data analysis indicated that the adsorption process fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R(2) = 1) and Langmuir isotherms model (R(2) > 0.99). Thermodynamic parameters revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic with a physical nature. Inulin desorption could reach 95.9% using 50% ethanol solution and activated charcoal could be reused without significant losses in adsorption capacity. These results are of practical significance for the application of activated charcoal in the production and purification of inulin-type fructan.

  2. Adsorption characteristics of Bisphenol-A on tailored activated carbon in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liang; Lv, Di; Huang, Xinwen; Shi, Huixiang; Zhang, Geshan

    2016-10-01

    The adsorption behavior of pharmaceuticals and personal care product, Bisphenol-A (BPA), according to four coal-based and four wood-based granular activated carbons modified using outgassing treatment, acidic treatment or alkaline treatment was studied. The adsorption isotherm results indicated that carbon surface acidity played a very important role in the adsorption of BPA. It was found that increasing surface acidity would increase the hydrogen bonding effects and increase adsorption of BPA on activated carbon. The acidic modified sample (F600-A and OLC-A) represented the best adsorption capacity, and the equilibrium adsorption amounts reached 346.42 and 338.55 mg/g, respectively. Further, effects of surface charge and surface basicity were examined. It was found that the adsorbed amount of BPA decreased with the increase of surface charge. Finally, there appeared to be a significant oligomerization phenomenon with BPA molecules onto the surface of activated carbon. OLC and OLC-OG, which have higher micropore percentages, are very effective in hampering the oligomerization of BPA under oxic conditions.

  3. Adsorption behavior and mechanism of chloramphenicols, sulfonamides, and non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals on multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heng; Liu, Xue; Cao, Zhen; Zhan, Yi; Shi, Xiaodong; Yang, Yi; Zhou, Junliang; Xu, Jiang

    2016-06-05

    The adsorption behavior of different emerging contaminants (3 chloramphenicols, 7 sulfonamides, and 3 non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals) on five types of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and the underlying factors were studied. Adsorption equilibriums were reached within 12h for all compounds, and well fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. The adsorption affinity of pharmaceuticals was positively related to the specific surface area of MWCNTs. The solution pH was an important parameter of pharmaceutical adsorption on MWCNTs, due to its impacts on the chemical speciation of pharmaceuticals and the surface electrical property of MWCNTs. The adsorption of ionizable pharmaceuticals decreased in varying degrees with the increased ionic strength. MWCNT-10 was found to be the strongest adsorbent in this study, and the Freundlich constant (KF) values were 353-2814mmol(1-n)L(n)/kg, 571-618mmol(1-n)L(n)/kg, and 317-1522mmol(1-n)L(n)/kg for sulfonamides, chloramphenicols, and non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals, respectively. The different adsorption affinity of sulfonamides might contribute to the different hydrophobic of heterocyclic substituents, while chloramphenicols adsorption was affected by the charge distribution in aromatic rings via substituent effects.

  4. Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ adsorption from aqueous solutions by pyrite and synthetic iron sulphide.

    PubMed

    Ozverdi, Arzu; Erdem, Mehmet

    2006-09-01

    In this study, removal of Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto pyrite and synthetic iron sulphide (SIS) was investigated as a function of pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial metal concentration and temperature. It has been determined that the adsorption of metal ions onto both adsorbents is pH dependent and the adsorption capacities increase with the increasing temperature. The mechanisms governing the metal removal processes were determined as chemical precipitation at low pH (<3) due to H(2)S generation and adsorption at high pH (in the range of 3-6). The metal adsorption yields also increased with the increasing adsorbent dosage and contact time and reached to equilibrium for both adsorbents. The Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) adsorption capacities of both adsorbents decrease in the order of Pb(2+)>Cu(2+)>Cd(2+). Except for cadmium, little fraction of copper and lead in the solid adsorption residues was desorbed in acidic media.

  5. Hexavalent chromium removal performance of anionic functionalized monolithic polymers: column adsorption, regeneration and modelling.

    PubMed

    Barlik, Necla; Keskinler, Bülent; Kocakerim, M Muhtar

    2016-01-01

    Anionic functionalized monolithic macro-porous polymers were used for the removal of hexavalent chromium(VI) anions from aqueous solution in column experiments. At a flux of 1.0 cm min and 30 mg Cr(VI) L(-1) feed concentration, breakthrough capacity and apparent capacity were 0.066 g Cr(VI) g(-1) anionic monolith and 0.144 g Cr(VI) g(-1) anionic monolith, respectively. The degree of column utilization was found to lie in the range 41-46%. Two kinetic models, theoretical and Thomas models, were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic parameters of the column useful for process design. The simulation of the whole breakthrough curve was effective with the models. At a flux of 1.0 cm min and 30 mg Cr(VI) L(-1) feed concentration, the dispersion coefficient and adsorption equilibrium constant (K) were 3.14 × 10(-7) m s(-1) and 3,840, respectively. Also, Thomas model parameters k1 (rate constant of adsorption) and qm (equilibrium solid-phase concentration of sorbed solute) were 1.08 × 10(-3) L mg(-1) min(-1) and 0.124 g g(-1), respectively. After reaching equilibrium adsorption capacity, the monoliths were regenerated using 1 N HCl and were subsequently re-tested. It was found that the regeneration efficiency reduced from 98% after second usage to 97% after the third usage.

  6. Kinetic and steric differences in adsorption in two porous metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lask, Kathleen; Krungleviciute, Vaiva; Bulut, Murat; Migone, Aldo; Lee, J.-Y.; Li, Jing

    2008-03-01

    Kinetic and steric differences are two of the three fundamental mechanisms underlying the use of adsorption in applications to gas mixture separations. We present experimental results on kinetics and equilibrium adsorption measurements of tetrafluoromethane and argon on two metal-organic framework (MOF) materials: RPM1-Co or [Co3(bpdc)3bpy].4DMF.H2O] (bpdc = biphenyldicarboxylate, bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine, DMF = N,N- dimethylformamide) and Cu-BTC or Cu3(BTC)2(H2O)3 (BTC = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate). The adsorbates display significant differences in their kinetics on RPM1-Co (i.e., there are sizable differences in the time required for each gas to reach equilibrium after it is allowed access to the substrate). Our equilibrium measurements show that CF4 is sterically precluded from adsorbing in the small tetrahedral-shaped side pockets present in Cu-BTC. We will compare our experimental results with predictions for how adsorption kinetics depends on the size of the adsorbate and on those of the pores present in the substrate.

  7. Multilayer adsorption on fractal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Vajda, Péter; Felinger, Attila

    2014-01-10

    Multilayer adsorption is often observed in liquid chromatography. The most frequently employed model for multilayer adsorption is the BET isotherm equation. In this study we introduce an interpretation of multilayer adsorption measured on liquid chromatographic stationary phases based on the fractal theory. The fractal BET isotherm model was successfully used to determine the apparent fractal dimension of the adsorbent surface. The nonlinear fitting of the fractal BET equation gives us the estimation of the adsorption equilibrium constants and the monolayer saturation capacity of the adsorbent as well. In our experiments, aniline and proline were used as test molecules on reversed phase and normal phase columns, respectively. Our results suggest an apparent fractal dimension 2.88-2.99 in the case of reversed phase adsorbents, in the contrast with a bare silica column with a fractal dimension of 2.54.

  8. Kinetics and mechanism of adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution by nitric-acid treated water-hyacinth.

    PubMed

    El-Khaiary, Mohammad I

    2007-08-17

    Kinetics adsorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the adsorption characteristics of a cationic dye (methylene blue, MB) onto nitric-acid treated water-hyacinth (N-WH). Results showed that N-WH can remove MB effectively from aqueous solution. The loading of MB onto N-WH was found to increase significantly with increasing the initial MB concentration, but the residual concentration of MB in solution also increased. A complete removal of MB from solution was only achieved at the lower range of initial MB concentration (less than 286 mg/L). Temperature had a slight effect on the amount adsorbed at equilibrium. The adsorption rate was fast and more than half of the adsorbed-MB was removed in the first 15 min at room temperature, which makes the process practical for industrial application. The adsorption kinetics at room temperature could be expressed by the pseudo second order model, while at higher temperatures (45-80 degrees C) and low MB concentration (97 mg/L) both Lagergren's model and the pseudo second order model can be used to predict the kinetics of adsorption. The overall rate of dye uptake was found to be controlled by external mass transfer at the beginning of adsorption, then gradually changed to intraparticle diffusion control at a later stage. The initial period where external mass transfer is the rate controlling step was found to increase with increasing initial MB concentration and decrease with increasing temperature. The increase in temperature was also found to increase the rate of adsorption and reduce the time required to reach equilibrium. The initial rate of adsorption, h(o), was calculated, it was found to increase with increasing temperature, while the increase in MB concentration decreased h(o) at the lower concentration range then increased h(o) again at high concentration. The value of the activation coefficient, E, was found to be 8.207 kJ/mol, which indicates a diffusion controlled process.

  9. Adsorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solutions using titanate nanotubes prepared via hydrothermal method.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lin; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Qing; Ni, Jinren

    2011-05-30

    Titanate nanotubes (TNs) with specific surface areas of 272.31 m(2)g(-1) and pore volumes of 1.264 cm(3)g(-1) were synthesized by alkaline hydrothermal method. The TNs were investigated as adsorbents for the removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solutions. The FT-IR analysis indicated that Pb(II) and Cd(II) adsorption were mainly ascribed to the hydroxyl groups in the TNs. Batch experiments were conducted by varying contact time, pH and adsorbent dosage. It was shown that the initial uptake of each metal ion was very fast in the first 5 min, and adsorption equilibrium was reached after 180 min. The adsorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) were found to be maximum at pH in the range of 5.0-6.0. The adsorption kinetics of both metal ions followed the pseudo-second-order model. Equilibrium data were best fitted with the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacities of Pb(II) and Cd(II) were determined to be 520.83 and 238.61 mg g(-1), respectively. Moreover, more than 80% of Pb(II) and 85% of Cd(II) adsorbed onto TNs can be desorbed with 0.1M HCl after 3h. Thus, TNs were considered to be effective and promising materials for the removal of both Pb(II) and Cd(II) from wastewater.

  10. Adsorption of drinking water fluoride on a micron-sized magnetic Fe3O4@Fe-Ti composite adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chang; Li, Yingzhen; Wang, Ting-Jie; Jiang, Yanping; Wang, Haifeng

    2016-02-01

    A micron-sized magnetic adsorbent (MMA) for fluoride removal from drinking water was prepared by spray drying and subsequent calcination of a magnetic Fe3O4@Fe-Ti core-shell nanoparticle slurry. The MMA granules had high mechanical strength and stability against water scouring, can be easily separated from the water by a magnet, and had a high selectivity for fluoride versus common co-existing ions and high fluoride removal efficiency in a wide range of initial pH of 3-11. Abundant hydroxyl groups on the MMA surface acted as the active sites for fluoride adsorption, which resulted in a high affinity of the MMA for fluoride. The pH in the adsorption process affected the adsorption significantly. At neutral initial pH, the adsorption isotherm was well fitted with the Langmuir model, and the maximum adsorption capacity reached a high value of 41.8 mg/g. At a constant pH of 3, multilayer adsorption of fluoride occurred due to the abundant positive surface charges on the MMA, and the adsorption isotherm was well fitted with the Freundlich model. The MMA had a fast adsorption rate, and adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 2 min. The adsorption kinetics followed a quasi-second order model. The regeneration of the MMA was easy and fast, and can be completed within 2 min. After 10 recycles, the fluoride removal efficiency of the MMA still remained high. These properties showed that the MMA is a promising adsorbent for fluoride removal.

  11. Adsorption of Cu(II) on Oxidized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in the Presence of Hydroxylated and Carboxylated Fullerenes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Li, Zhan; Li, Shicheng; Qi, Wei; Liu, Peng; Liu, Fuqiang; Ye, Yuanlv; Wu, Liansheng; Wang, Lei; Wu, Wangsuo

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption of Cu(II) on oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (oMWCNTs) as a function of contact time, pH, ionic strength, temperature, and hydroxylated fullerene (C60(OH)n) and carboxylated fullerene (C60(C(COOH)2)n) were studied under ambient conditions using batch techniques. The results showed that the adsorption of Cu(II) had rapidly reached equilibrium and the kinetic process was well described by a pseudo-second-order rate model. Cu(II) adsorption on oMWCNTs was dependent on pH but independent of ionic strength. Compared with the Freundlich model, the Langmuir model was more suitable for analyzing the adsorption isotherms. The thermodynamic parameters calculated from temperature-dependent adsorption isotherms suggested that Cu(II) adsorption on oMWCNTs was spontaneous and endothermic. The effect of C60(OH)n on Cu(II) adsorption of oMWCNTs was not significant at low C60(OH)n concentration, whereas a negative effect was observed at higher concentration. The adsorption of Cu(II) on oMWCNTs was enhanced with increasing pH values at pH < 5, but decreased at pH ≥ 5. The presence of C60(C(COOH)2)n inhibited the adsorption of Cu(II) onto oMWCNTs at pH 4–6. The double sorption site model was applied to simulate the adsorption isotherms of Cu(II) in the presence of C60(OH)n and fitted the experimental data well. PMID:24009683

  12. Tuning universality far from equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Karl, Markus; Nowak, Boris; Gasenzer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Possible universal dynamics of a many-body system far from thermal equilibrium are explored. A focus is set on meta-stable non-thermal states exhibiting critical properties such as self-similarity and independence of the details of how the respective state has been reached. It is proposed that universal dynamics far from equilibrium can be tuned to exhibit a dynamical transition where these critical properties change qualitatively. This is demonstrated for the case of a superfluid two-component Bose gas exhibiting different types of long-lived but non-thermal critical order. Scaling exponents controlled by the ratio of experimentally tuneable coupling parameters offer themselves as natural smoking guns. The results shed light on the wealth of universal phenomena expected to exist in the far-from-equilibrium realm. PMID:23928853

  13. Quartermaster Reach Restoration Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Quartermaster Reach Restoration Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  14. Global reach and engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-09-01

    Popular culture reflects both the interests of and the issues affecting the general public. As concerns regarding climate change and its impacts grow, is it permeating into popular culture and reaching that global audience?

  15. Recovery of oil from oil-in-water emulsion using biopolymers by adsorptive method.

    PubMed

    Elanchezhiyan, S Sd; Sivasurian, N; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, it is aimed to identify, a low cost sorbent for the recovery of oil from oil-in-water emulsion using biopolymers such as chitin and chitosan. Chitin has the greater adsorption capacity than chitosan due to its hydrophobic nature. The characterizations of chitin and chitosan were done using FTIR, SEM, EDAX, XRD, TGA and DSC techniques. Under batch equilibrium mode, a systematic study was performed to optimize the various equilibrium parameters viz., contact time, pH, dosage, initial concentration of oil, and temperature. The adsorption process reached equilibrium at 40 min of contact time and the percentage removal of oil was found to be higher (90%) in the acidic medium. The Freundlich and Langmuir models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms and the isotherm constants were calculated. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were calculated to find out the nature of the sorption mechanism. The kinetic studies were investigated with reaction-based and diffusion-based models. The suitable mechanism for the removal of oil has been established.

  16. Facile Synthesis of Prussian Blue Derivate-Modified Mesoporous Material via Photoinitiated Thiol-Ene Click Reaction for Cesium Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jun; Ma, Jiaqi; He, Weiwei; Hua, Daoben

    2015-08-01

    A novel strategy to synthesize a functional mesoporous material for efficient removal of cesium is reported. Specifically, Prussian blue derivate-modified SBA-15 (SBA-15@FC) was prepared by photoinitiated thiol-ene reaction between thiol-modified SBA-15 and pentacyano(4-vinyl pyridine)ferrate complex. The effects of weight percentage of the Prussian blue derivate, pH, adsorbent dose, co-existing ions, and initial concentration were evaluated on the adsorption of cesium ions. The adsorption kinetically follows a pseudo-second-order model and reaches equilibrium within 2 h with a high adsorption capacity of about 13.90 mg Cs g(-1) , which indicates that SBA-15@FC is a promising adsorbent to effectively remove cesium from aqueous solutions.

  17. The importance of surface adsorption on the washout of semivolatile organic compounds by rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simcik, Matt F.

    The washout of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) by rain is an important removal mechanism from the atmosphere and an important loading mechanism to terrestrial and aquatic systems. In this paper, the rain washout equation is modified to include gas-phase SOC adsorption to the surface of raindrops. The relative influence of gas adsorption is a function of the air-water interface adsorption constant, Kia, Henry's law CONSTANT, H, the fraction of the SOCs associated with particles, φ, and the diameter of the raindrop, dR. Theoretical gas-phase washout ratios were calculated assuming a rainfall intensity of 10 mm/h and spherical raindrops for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs). Results for PAHs indicate that gas-phase washout including surface adsorption exceed those calculated considering only Henry's law dissolution for low volatility PAHs. This shift in gas-phase partitioning being dominated by dissolution to the bulk water of the rain drop to being dominated by adsorption to the raindrop surface occurs at sub-cooled liquid saturated vapor pressures around 10 -5 Pa, corresponding to PAHs with greater than or equal to five aromatic rings. Similar calculations for PCBs indicate similar gas-phase washout ratios (10 to ˜10 4), and a similar shift from dissolution to adsorption in the range of sub-cooled liquid saturated vapor pressures of 10 -2.7 to 10 -1.4 Pa. Calculations for polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs) indicate that adsorption dominates all gas-phase washout of PCDDs. Kinetic calculations indicate that even the least volatile SOCs reach equilibrium with the rain within hundreds of meters of the bottom of a cloud, depending on rainfall rate. Given the theoretical domination of gas-phase adsorption to the surface of raindrops, traditional rain samplers may underestimate actual washout ratios and ultimately loadings to terrestrial and aquatic surfaces because of

  18. Equilibrium fluctuations in the theory of surface processes on microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovbin, Yu. K.

    2010-11-01

    The question of the role of equilibrium fluctuations in the adsorption theory and kinetics of surface processes occurring on the particles of the nanometer size range is discussed. Differences are put forward that need to be introduced to the fluctuation theory of surface processes on microparticles and that generalize Hill's approach to describing the thermodynamic properties of small systems. We show the importance of allowing for the discrete character of adsorption centers on the surfaces and their heterogeneity when describing adsorption isotherms and the rates of adsorption processes.

  19. Methylene blue adsorption from aqueous solution by activated carbon: effect of acidic and alkaline solution treatments.

    PubMed

    Ijagbemi, Christianah O; Chun, Ji I; Han, Da H; Cho, Hye Y; O, Se J; Kim, Dong S

    2010-01-01

    The removal of Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solution using activated carbon (AC) has been investigated. Adsorption experiments were conducted and the maximum adsorption capacity was determined. The effect of experimental parameters such as pH, dye concentration and temperature were studied on the adsorption process. Equilibrium data were mathematically modeled using the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models to describe the equilibrium isotherms at different dye concentrations and temperature. Parameters of best-fit model were calculated and discussed. To understand the mechanism of adsorption, kinetic models were employed to follow the adsorption processes; the pseudo-first-order best described the adsorption of MB onto AC. It was found that pH plays a major role in the adsorption process; adsorption capacity was influenced by the physical and surface chemical properties of carbon and the pH of the solution. 99.0% MB removal was achieved at equilibrium.

  20. [Preparation, characterization and adsorption performance of mesoporous activated carbon with acidic groups].

    PubMed

    Li, Kun-Quan; Li, Ye; Zheng, Zheng; Zhang, Yu-Xuan

    2013-06-01

    Mesoporous activated carbons containing acidic groups were prepared with cotton stalk based fiber as raw materials and H3PO4 as activating agent by one step carbonization method. Effects of impregnation ratio, carbonization temperature and heat preservation time on the yield, elemental composition, oxygen-containing acid functional groups and adsorptive capacity of activated carbon were studied. The adsorption capacity of the prepared activated carbon AC-01 for p-nitroaniline and Pb(II) was studied, and the adsorption mechanism was also suggested according to the equilibrium experimental results. The maximum yield of activated carbons prepared from cotton stalk fiber reached 35.5% when the maximum mesoporous volume and BET surface area were 1.39 cm3 x g(-1) and 1 731 m2 x g(-1), respectively. The activated carbon AC-01 prepared under a H3 PO4/precursor ratio of 3:2 and activated at 900 degrees C for 90 min had a total pore volume of 1.02 cm3 x g(-1), a micoporous ratio of 31%, and a mesoporous ratio of 65%. The pore diameter of the mesoporous activated carbon was mainly distributed in the range of 2-5 nm. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of Pb(II) and p-nitroaniline on cotton stalk fiber activated carbon were 123 mg x g(-1) and 427 mg x g(-1), respectively, which were both higher than those for commercial activated carbon fiber ACF-CK. The equilibrium adsorption experimental data showed that mesopore and oxygen-containing acid functional groups played an important role in the adsorption.

  1. Ciprofloxacin adsorption on graphene and granular activated carbon: kinetics, isotherms, and effects of solution chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuan; Tsang, Daniel C W; Chen, Feng; Li, Shiyu; Yang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is a commonly used antibiotic and widely detected in wastewaters and farmlands nowadays. This study evaluated the efficacy of next-generation adsorbent (graphene) and conventional adsorbent (granular activated carbon, GAC) for CIP removal. Batch experiments and characterization tests were conducted to investigate the adsorption kinetics, equilibrium isotherms, thermodynamic properties, and the influences of solution chemistry (pH, ionic strength, natural organic matter (NOM), and water sources). Compared to GAC, graphene showed significantly faster adsorption and reached equilibrium within 3 min, confirming the rapid access of CIP into the macroporous network of high surface area of graphene as revealed by the Brunner-Emmet-Teller measurements analysis. The kinetics was better described by a pseudo-second-order model, suggesting the importance of the initial CIP concentration related to surface site availability of graphene. The adsorption isotherm on graphene followed Langmuir model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 323 mg/g, which was higher than other reported carbonaceous adsorbents. The CIP adsorption was thermodynamically favourable on graphene and primarily occurred through π - π interaction, according to the FTIR spectroscopy. While the adsorption capacity of graphene decreased with increasing solution pH due to the speciation change of CIP, the adverse effects of ionic strength (0.01-0.5 mol L(-1)), presence of NOM (5 mg L⁻¹), and different water sources (river water or drinking water) were less significant on graphene than GAC. These results indicated that graphene can serve as an alternative adsorbent for CIP removal in commonly encountered field conditions, if proper separation and recovery is available in place.

  2. Cd(II) removal from aqueous solution by adsorption on α-ketoglutaric acid-modified magnetic chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guide; Tang, Lin; Lei, Xiaoxia; Zeng, Guangming; Cai, Ye; Wei, Xue; Zhou, Yaoyu; Li, Sisi; Fang, Yan; Zhang, Yi

    2014-02-01

    The present study developed an α-ketoglutaric acid-modified magnetic chitosan (α-KA-Fe3O4/CS) for highly efficient adsorption of Cd(II) from aqueous solution. Several techniques, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), were applied to characterize the adsorbent. Batch tests were conducted to investigate the Cd(II) adsorption performance of α-KA-Fe3O4/CS. The maximum adsorption efficiency of Cd(II) appeared at pH 6.0 with the value of 93%. The adsorption amount was large and even reached 201.2 mg/g with the initial Cd(II) concentration of 1000 mg/L. The adsorption equilibrium was reached within 30 min and commendably described by pseudo-second-order model, and Langmuir model fitted the adsorption isotherm better. Furthermore, thermodynamic parameters, free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) of Cd(II) adsorption were also calculated and showed that the overall adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous in nature because of positive ΔH values and negative ΔG values, respectively. Moreover, the Cd(II)-loaded α-KA-Fe3O4/CS could be regenerated by 0.02 mol/L NaOH solution, and the cadmium removal capacity could still be kept around 89% in the sixth cycle. All the results indicated that α-KA-Fe3O4/CS was a promising adsorbent in environment pollution cleanup.

  3. The impact of particle size on the adsorption of citrate to hematite.

    PubMed

    Noerpel, Matthew R; Lenhart, John J

    2015-12-15

    We investigated the adsorption of citric acid on the surface of two different sized hematite nanoparticles using batch adsorption experiments, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, surface complexation modeling and computational molecular modeling. Citrate adsorption reached a maximum between pH approximately 2.5 and 5.5 and declined as the pH was increased or decreased from that range. At high surface loading conditions, the dominant adsorbed citrate structure was outer-sphere in nature with a protonation state that varied with pH. At low pH, there was also evidence of an inner-sphere complex consistent with a binuclear, bidentate structure where the hydroxyl group was deprotonated and played an active role in the adsorption. An inner-sphere complex was also detected at low citrate surface loading conditions. Surface-area normalized surface coverages were similar for both sizes of hematite, however, the inner sphere complex appeared to be slightly more prevalent on the smaller hematite. Based on these structures, a triple layer surface complexation model comprised of two outer-sphere complexes and one inner-sphere complex was used to describe the adsorption data for both hematite sizes across a range of solution conditions with a single set of surface area dependent equilibrium constants.

  4. Adsorptive removal of sulfonamide antibiotics in livestock urine using the high-silica zeolite HSZ-385.

    PubMed

    Fukahori, S; Fujiwara, T; Funamizu, N; Matsukawa, K; Ito, R

    2013-01-01

    The adsorptive removal of seven sulfonamide antibiotics using the high-silica zeolite HSZ-385 from distilled water, synthetic urine and real porcine urine was investigated. The pH greatly affected the adsorption efficiency, and the amounts of all sulfonamide antibiotics adsorbed on HSZ-385 decreased at alkaline conditions compared with that at neutral conditions. During storage, the pH and ammonium-ion concentration increased with urea hydrolysis for porcine urine. We clarified that the adsorption efficiency of sulfonamides in synthetic urine was equivalent to that in distilled water, suggesting that adsorption behavior was not affected by coexistent ions. HSZ-385 could adsorb sulfonamide antibiotics in real porcine urine even though the non-purgeable organic carbon concentration of porcine urine was 4-7 g/L and was two orders of magnitude higher than those of sulfonamides (10 mg/L each). Moreover, the adsorption of sulfonamides reached equilibrium within 15 min, suggesting that HSZ-385 is a promising adsorbent for removing sulfonamides from porcine urine.

  5. Adsorption of CaCO3 Particles on Cationic Cellulose Graft Copolymers

    PubMed

    Halab-Kessira; Ricard

    1996-12-25

    The behavior of small inorganic particles at the fiber/water interface has been analyzed from the kinetics and isotherms of adsorption of CaCO3 particles onto cationic fibers. The introduction of cationic moieties onto cellulosic fibers leads to a copolymer that can easily adsorb negatively charged particles. At equilibrium, the adsorption ratio of CaCO3 particles on a cationic copolymer of cellulose and poly(2-acryloxyethyltrimethylammonium chloride) is related closely to the particle size, the temperature, the agitation, and the ionic strength of the suspension. Kinetic models have shown that the weakly charged copolymers present a high-affinity-type kinetics when the CaCO3 particle average diameter is small (20 to 30 μm). For an average particle diameter equal to 72 μm, the kinetics corresponds to an adsorption with a lower affinity. The rate constants are 6.6 x 10(-12), 2.9 x 10(-12), and 1.2 x 10(-12) m3/s for particles with average diameters of 20, 30, and 72 μm, respectively. We have also noted that the adsorption increases with agitation and reaches a plateau after 5 min. The ionic strength influences the electrostatic interactions between the positive sites of the graft and the anion of the adsorbate. Indeed a decreasing adsorption is observed when the ionic strength increases.

  6. Kinetic study of brilliant green adsorption from aqueous solution onto white rice husk ash.

    PubMed

    Tavlieva, Mariana P; Genieva, Svetlana D; Georgieva, Velyana G; Vlaev, Lyubomir T

    2013-11-01

    The present research was focused on the study of adsorption kinetics of brilliant green (BG) onto white rice husk ash from aqueous solutions. The research was performed in the temperature interval 290-320 K in 10° steps and in the concentration range of 3-100 mg L(-1). Batch studies were conducted in order to determine the optimal adsorbent dose, and the time required to reach the adsorption equilibrium at each temperature. The effect of the initial concentration of brilliant green was studied (pH not adjusted), as well as the effect of temperature. The maximum adsorption capacity of the WRHA for BG at 320 K was determined to be 85.56 mg g(-1). The adsorption kinetic data were analyzed employing several kinetic models: pseudo-first-order equation, pseudo-second-order equation, Elovichequation, Banghman's equation, Diffusion-chemisorption model, and Boyd kinetic expression. It was established that the adsorption process obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Based on the rate constants obtained by this kinetic model using Arrhenius and Eyring equations, the activation parameters were determined, namely the activation energy (50.04 kJ mol(-1)), the change of entropy (-318.31 J mol(-1) K(-1)), enthalpy (-47.50 kJ mol(-1)), and Gibbs free energy (range 44.81-54.36 kJ mol(-1)) for the formation of activated complex from the reagents.

  7. Preparation and adsorption performance of MnO2/PAC composite towards aqueous glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hao; Li, Qin; Qian, Yan; Zhang, Qiu; Zhai, Jianping

    2012-09-01

    Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine (PMG)) is the organophosphate herbicide most widely used in the world, and industrial production of PMG generates large quantities of wastewater. A manganese dioxide-coated powdered activated carbon (MnO2/PAC) composite was synthesized and investigated for the adsorption of PMG from wastewater. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDAX) revealed that MnO2 was formed on the surface of the carbon during the modification process. Batch adsorption results showed that the optimal pH for glyphosate adsorption on MnO2/PAC was 3.0. In the range 0.01(-1) molL(-1), glyphosate removal by MnO2/PAC decreased with an increase in ionic strength. Among the coexistent anions, only phosphate showed significant inhibition of PMG removal due to competitive complexation. Batch studies revealed that MnO2/PAC could reach a maximum PMG adsorption capacity of 283 mg g(-1). The Langmuir equilibrium model was found to be suitable for describing PMG sorption, and kinetic studies revealed that adsorption followed second-order rate kinetics. It was also proved that the adsorbed PMG could be effectively desorbed from MnO2/PAC in 1.0 molL(-1) NaOH. All of these results implied that the MnO2/PAC composite may be used as an effective adsorbent for recycling PMG from wastewater.

  8. Adsorption and synergism of cellobiohydrolase I and II of Trichoderma reesei during hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Medve, J.; Tjerneld, F. . Dept. of Biochemistry); Staahlberg, J. . Dept. of Molecular Biology)

    1994-11-05

    Hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) by cellobiohydrolase I and II (CBH I and II) from Trichoderma reesei has been studied. Adsorption and synergism of the enzymes were investigated. Experiments were performed at different temperatures and enzyme/substrate ratios using CBH I and CBH II alone and in reconstituted equimolar mixtures. Fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) analysis was found to be an accurate and reproducible method to follow the enzyme adsorption. A linear correlation was found between the conversion and the amount of adsorbed enzyme when Avicel was hydrolyzed by increasing amounts of CBH I and/or CBH II. CBH I had lower specific activity compared to CBH II although, over a wide concentration range, more CBH I was adsorbed than CBH II. Synergism between the cellobiohydrolases during hydrolysis of the amorphous fraction of Avicel showed a maximum as a function of total enzyme concentration. Synergism measured as a function of bound enzyme showed a continuous increase, which indicates that by decreasing the distance between the two enzymes the synergism is enhanced. The adsorption process for both enzymes was slow. Depending on the enzyme/substrate ratio it took 30--90 min to reach 95% of the equilibrium binding. The amount of bound enzyme decreased with increasing temperature. The two enzymes compete for the adsorption sites but also bind to specific sites. Stronger competition for adsorption sites was shown by CBH I.

  9. Local Nash equilibrium in social networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yichao; Aziz-Alaoui, M A; Bertelle, Cyrille; Guan, Jihong

    2014-08-29

    Nash equilibrium is widely present in various social disputes. As of now, in structured static populations, such as social networks, regular, and random graphs, the discussions on Nash equilibrium are quite limited. In a relatively stable static gaming network, a rational individual has to comprehensively consider all his/her opponents' strategies before they adopt a unified strategy. In this scenario, a new strategy equilibrium emerges in the system. We define this equilibrium as a local Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we present an explicit definition of the local Nash equilibrium for the two-strategy games in structured populations. Based on the definition, we investigate the condition that a system reaches the evolutionary stable state when the individuals play the Prisoner's dilemma and snow-drift game. The local Nash equilibrium provides a way to judge whether a gaming structured population reaches the evolutionary stable state on one hand. On the other hand, it can be used to predict whether cooperators can survive in a system long before the system reaches its evolutionary stable state for the Prisoner's dilemma game. Our work therefore provides a theoretical framework for understanding the evolutionary stable state in the gaming populations with static structures.

  10. Wet oxidation of ordered mesoporous carbon FDU-15 by using (NH4)2S2O8 for fast adsorption of Sr(II): An investigation on surface chemistry and adsorption mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang; Ye, Gang; Chen, Jing; Lv, Dachao; Wang, Jianchen

    2015-12-01

    Surface modification of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) by wet oxidation provides an oxygen-enriched platform for complexation of metal ions. Here, we present a comprehensive study on the surface chemistry and textual property of OMC FDU-15 modified by wet oxidation using (NH4)2S2O8 as a benign oxidant. And, for the first time, the adsorption behavior and mechanism of wet-oxidized OMC FDU-15 toward Sr(II) in aqueous solutions were investigated. The mesostructural regularity of the OMC FDU-15 was well-reserved under wet oxidation. Compared to OMC CMK-type counterparts prepared via nanocasting, the OMC FDU-15 by soft template method showed much-enhanced structural stability. Due to the introduction of abundant oxygen-containing species, the oxidized OMC FDU-15 exhibited excellent hydrophilicity and dispersibility in aqueous solutions. The adsorption behavior toward Sr(II) was fully investigated, showing a super-fast adsorption kinetics (< 5 min to reach equilibrium) and a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Moreover, an in-depth X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis through deconvolution of high resolution C1s and O1s spectra was implemented to identify the chemical species of the surface functional groups, while probing the adsorption mechanism. The results suggested that oxygen donor atoms in Csbnd O single bonds mainly contribute to the adsorption of Sr(II) via formation of metal-ligand complexation.

  11. Strontium adsorption on tantalum-doped hexagonal tungsten oxide.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingliang; Mu, Wanjun; Xie, Xiang; Liu, Bijun; Tang, Hui; Zhou, Guanhong; Wei, Hongyuan; Jian, Yuan; Luo, Shunzhong

    2014-01-15

    Hexagonal tungsten oxide (hex-WO3) has the potential to separate (137)Cs and (90)Sr from nuclear power plant or fission (99)Mo production waste. This study aims to increase the capacity of hex-WO3 to adsorb Sr(2+). Ta-doped hex-WO3 was synthesized by the hydrothermal treatment of sodium tungstate dihydrate and tantalum chloride in concentrated HCl, in the presence of ammonium sulfate. Incorporating Ta into the WO3 framework caused the interlayer spacing to expand, and the band gap to shift to higher energy. The Sr(2+) adsorption capacity of Ta-doped hex-WO3 was significantly higher than that of hex-WO3. Sr(2+) adsorption reached equilibrium within 2h in acidic solution. Maximum Sr(2+) removal occurred at pH 4. Sr(2+) uptake by hex-WO3 was described better by the Freundlich model than by the Langmuir model. Sr(2+) adsorption on hex-WO3 was spontaneous under the studied conditions.

  12. Designed pendant chain covalently bonded to analogue of heulandite for removal of divalent toxic metals from aqueous solution: thermodynamic and equilibrium study.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Denis L; Viana, Rúbia R; Airoldi, Claudio

    2009-09-01

    An analogue of heulandite was synthesized by using inorganic salts as a source for silicon and aluminum in the hydrothermal synthesis of the material. The resulting solid was modified by organofunctionalization with 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine and subsequent reaction with methylacrylate in a heterogeneous route. The original (HEU) and modified silicate (HEU(APPMA)) samples were characterized by textural analysis, SEM, and nuclear magnetic nuclei of (29)Si and (13)C. The chemically modified silicate sample showed modification of its physical-chemical properties including specific area 459.0-978.8 m(2) g(-1). The ability of this material to remove nickel(II), cobalt(II), and copper(II) from aqueous solutions was followed by a series of adsorption isotherms adjusted to a Sips equation. The quick adsorption process reached the equilibrium before 10, 15, and 20 min for Cu(II), Ni(II), and Co(II), respectively, with maximum adsorptions at pH 4.0. Based on the capacity of adsorption of HEU(APPMA) to interact with metal ions, the following results were obtained 12.9, 9.8, and 7.5 mmol g(-1) for Cu(II), Ni(II), and Co(II), respectively, reflecting a maximum adsorption order of Cu(II)>Ni(II)>Co(II). The energetic effects caused by metal cation adsorption were determined through calorimetric titrations.

  13. Reaching for the Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Dorothy Givens

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Mae Jemison is the world's first woman astronaut of color who continues to reach for the stars. Jemison was recently successful in leading a team that has secured a $500,000 federal grant to make interstellar space travel a reality. The Dorothy Jemison Foundation for Excellence (named after Jemison's mother) was selected in June by the Defense…

  14. Reaching for the Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper-Davis, Sharon

    1999-01-01

    Describes "Reaching for the Stars," a program which develops teaming and mentoring skills in senior physics students. Phase 1 requires student pairs to design a rocket; Phase 2 pairs seniors with gifted second graders who build the rocket from written instructions; and in Phase 3, pairs of seniors create a children's storybook explaining…

  15. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  16. REACH. Major Appliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Charles; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of major appliances. The instructional units focus on installation of appliances, troubleshooting washing machines, troubleshooting electric dryers,…

  17. REACH. Heating Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, Carter; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized units in the area of heating. The instructional units focus on electric heating systems, gas heating systems, and oil burning systems. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit…

  18. REACH. Refrigeration Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Rufus; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of refrigeration. The instructional units focus on refrigeration fundamentals, tubing and pipe, refrigerants, troubleshooting, window air conditioning, and…

  19. "Brown's" Far Reaching Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the 1954 "Brown v. Board of Education" U.S. Supreme Court decision changed the face of American education forever, few individuals at that time could have fully realized its far-reaching implications. Certainly, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Legal Director Thurgood Marshall in his arguments was…

  20. Adsorption of Cu2+ ions using chitosan-modified magnetic Mn ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yuying; Chen, Deyang; Sun, Yitao; Jiao, Dongling; Zeng, Dechang; Liu, Zhongwu

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan-modified Mn ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by a one-step microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. These Mn ferrite magnetic composite nanoparticles were employed to absorb Cu2+ ions in water. XRD verified the spinel structure of the MnFe2O4 nanoparticles. Chitosan modification does not result in any phase change of MnFe2O4. FTIR and zeta potentials curves for all samples suggest that chitosan can be successfully coated on the Mn ferrites. TEM characterization showed that the modified MnFe2O4 nanoparticles have a cubic shape with a mean diameter of ∼100 nm. For adsorption behavior, the effects of experiment parameters such as solution pH value, contact time and initial Cu2+ ions concentration on the adsorption efficiency were systematically investigated. The results showed that increasing solution pH value and extending contact time are favorable for improving adsorption efficiency. Especially, adsorption efficiency can reach up to 100% and 96.7% after 500 min adsorption at pH 6.5 for the solutions with initial Cu2+ ions concentration of 50 mg/L and 100 mg/L. Adsorption data fits well with the Langmuir isotherm models with a maximum adsorption capacity (qm) and a Langmuir adsorption equilibrium constant (K) of 65.1 mg/g and 0.090 L/mg, respectively. The adsorption kinetic agrees well with pseudo second order model with the pseudo second rate constants (K2) of 0.0468 and 0.00189 g/mg/min for solutions with initial Cu2+ ions of 50 and 100 mg/L, respectively.

  1. Interfacial energetics of globular–blood protein adsorption to a hydrophobic interface from aqueous-buffer solution

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Anandi; Liu, Yi-Hsiu; Cha, Paul; Allara, David; Vogler, Erwin A

    2005-01-01

    Adsorption isotherms of nine globular proteins with molecular weight (MW) spanning 10–1000 kDa confirm that interfacial energetics of protein adsorption to a hydrophobic solid/aqueous-buffer (solid–liquid, SL) interface are not fundamentally different than adsorption to the water–air (liquid–vapour, LV) interface. Adsorption dynamics dampen to a steady-state (equilibrium) within a 1 h observation time and protein adsorption appears to be reversible, following expectations of Gibbs' adsorption isotherm. Adsorption isotherms constructed from concentration-dependent advancing contact angles θa of buffered-protein solutions on methyl-terminated, self-assembled monolayer surfaces show that maximum advancing spreading pressure, Πamax, falls within a relatively narrow 10<Πamax<20mNm−1 band characteristic of all proteins studied, mirroring results obtained at the LV surface. Furthermore, Πa isotherms exhibited a ‘Traube-rule-like’ progression in MW similar to the ordering observed at the LV surface wherein molar concentrations required to reach a specified spreading pressure Πa decreased with increasing MW. Finally, neither Gibbs' surface excess quantities [Γsl−Γsv] nor Γlv varied significantly with protein MW. The ratio {[Γsl−Γsv]/Γlv}∼1, implying both that Γsv∼0 and chemical activity of protein at SL and LV surfaces was identical. These results are collectively interpreted to mean that water controls protein adsorption to hydrophobic surfaces and that the mechanism of protein adsorption can be understood from this perspective for a diverse set of proteins with very different composition. PMID:16849238

  2. Temperature dependence of adsorption of PEGylated lysozyme and pure polyethylene glycol on a hydrophobic resin: comparison of isothermal titration calorimetry and van't Hoff data.

    PubMed

    Werner, Albert; Hackemann, Eva; Hasse, Hans

    2014-08-22

    The influence of temperature on the adsorption of PEGylated lysozyme and pure PEG on Toyopearl PPG-600M, a hydrophobic resin, is studied by batch equilibrium measurements and pulse response experiments. Differently PEGylated lysozymes are used for the studies, enabling a systematic variation of the solute properties. Either ammonium sulfate or sodium chloride are added. The enthalpy of adsorption is calculated from a van't Hoff analysis based on these data. It is also directly measured by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry. In the investigated temperature range from 5 °C to 35 °C adsorption is favored by higher temperatures and hence endothermic. The results of the van't Hoff analysis of the equilibrium and the pulse response data agree well. Discrepancies between enthalpies of adsorption obtained by calorimetry and van't Hoff analysis are found and discussed. We conclude that the most likely explanation is that thermodynamic equilibrium is not reached in the experiments even though they were carried out carefully and in the generally accepted way.

  3. Preparation of cross-linked magnetic chitosan-phenylthiourea resin for adsorption of Hg(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Monier, M; Abdel-Latif, D A

    2012-03-30

    In this study, cross-linked magnetic chitosan-phenylthiourea (CSTU) resin were prepared and characterized by means of FTIR, (1)H NMR, SEM high-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), magnetic properties and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The prepared resin were used to investigate the adsorption properties of Hg(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) metal ions in an aqueous solution. The extent of adsorption was investigated as a function of pH and the metal ion removal reached maximum at pH 5.0. Also, the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process were estimated. These data indicated that the adsorption process is exothermic and followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. Equilibrium studies showed that the data of Hg(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) adsorption followed the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities for Hg(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) were estimated to be 135 ± 3, 120 ± 1 and 52 ± 1 mg/g, which demonstrated the high adsorption efficiency of CSTU toward the studied metal ions.

  4. Adsorption of nickel on husk of Lathyrus sativus: behavior and binding mechanism.

    PubMed

    Panda, G C; Das, S K; Bandopadhyay, T S; Guha, A K

    2007-06-15

    Husk of Lathyrus sativus (HLS) has been found to be a good sorbent for the removal of nickel(II) from its aqueous solution. The adsorption process depends on pH of the solution with an optimum at 5.0, and follows Langmuir isotherm model (correlation coefficient 0.998). Initial adsorption rate is very fast and reaches equilibrium following pseudo-second order kinetics within 60 min. Amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl and phosphate groups of the biomass are involved in chemical interaction with nickel ions as revealed from SEM-EDX and FTIR studies. Chemical modifications of the functional groups of the biosorbent show that amino groups contribute largely (approximately 57%) for the binding of nickel ions and probably undergo chelation through dative bond formation. HLS biomass has been found to adsorb both nickel and cadmium equally from their mixed solution to the extent of approximately 70% indicating the importance of this sorbent in industrial effluent treatment.

  5. Arsenic(V) removal using an amine-doped acrylic ion exchange fiber: Kinetic, equilibrium, and regeneration studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Gu; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Nam, Aram; Park, Seong-Jik; Do, Taegu; Choi, Ung-Su; Lee, Sang-Hyup

    2017-03-05

    This study investigates As(V) removal from aqueous solutions using a novel amine-doped acrylic ion exchange fiber. The amine doping reaction was confirmed using FT-IR, and the surface of the fiber was characterized using FEG-SEM. The synthesis process was completed within 60min using an AlCl3·6H2O catalyst at 100°C, and the resulting in a fiber with an ion exchange capacity of 7.5meq/g. The removal efficiency of the A-60 fiber was affected by the solution pH, and the efficiency was optimum at pH 3.04. As(V) adsorption on the fiber was rapid in the first 20min and reached equilibrium in 60min. As(V) removal followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the Redlich-Peterson adsorption isotherm model provided the best fit of the equilibrium data. The fiber has an As(V) adsorption capacity (qe) of 205.32±3.57mg/g, which is considerably higher than literature values and commercial adsorbents. The removal efficiency of the fiber was above 83% of the initial value after nine regeneration cycles.

  6. Cr-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, Adsorption Property, and Recyclability.

    PubMed

    Meng, Alan; Xing, Jing; Li, Zhenjiang; Li, Qingdang

    2015-12-16

    In this paper, a mild solvothermal method has been employed to successfully synthesize a series of Cr-doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with different Cr(3+) contents, which is a kind of novel and high-efficiency absorbent for the removal of acid dye methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solution. The as-prepared products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Brunauer, Emmet, and Teller (BET), and Zeta potential measurements. In accordance with the adsorption capacity of the products, the obtained optimal Cr/Zn molar ratio is 6%. The adsorption process of MO on Cr-doped ZnO was investigated by kinetics, thermodynamics, and isotherm technologies, which, respectively, indicated that the adsorption was fast (adsorption reached equilibrium in 2 h) and followed a pseudo-second-order model, that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic, and that it agreed well with the Langmuir isotherm with a maximum adsorption capacity of 310.56 mg g(-1). Moreover, a reasonable mechanism was proposed to elucidate the reasons for their adsorption behavior. In addition, a simple and low-cost chemical method was developed to separate and recycle ZnO and MO from the used adsorbent, effectively avoiding the secondary pollution. This work can not only describe efficient experimental approaches for obtaining novel adsorbents and recycling them but also offer valuable clues for the preparation and property study of other semiconductor adsorbents.

  7. Adsorption of n-butanol from dilute aqueous solution with grafted calixarenes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Anthony B; Cope, Sydney J; Swift, T Dallas; Notestein, Justin M

    2011-10-04

    Materials were synthesized for the recovery of n-butanol from dilute aqueous solutions, as may be useful for applications in biofuel-water separations. These materials are composed of hydrophobic, cavity-containing calixarenes covalently bound directly to porous, hydrophilic silica supports through a Si linker atom rather than a flexible organic linker, as is common, at surface coverages of up to ∼0.25 calixarenes/nm(2) (∼250 μmol calix/g matl). The calixarene ring size, upper rim groups, bridging group (calixarene vs thiacalixarene), and surface density were varied. The materials were characterized by NMR, UV-vis, and TGA. The absolute butanol uptake reached ∼0.16 mmol butanol per gram of material at equilibrium concentrations below 0.12 M and increased monotonically with the calixarene surface density. The background adsorption onto the silica surface was small at high calixarene loading. At 298 K, the free energy of adsorption in the calixarene cavities became more favorable by 3 kJ/mol as the surface area of the hydrophobic calixarene upper rim groups increased from H to methyl to tert-butyl, consistent with adsorption driven by van der Waals interactions. A thiacalix[4]arene-SiO(2) material, containing polarizable sulfur bridges and a larger, more conformationally mobile calixarene structure, had slightly stronger adsorption still. All materials except this thiacalixarene exhibited fully reversible adsorption into solution. As a representative material, the adsorption of n-butanol from aqueous solution at a tert-butylcalix[4]arene site was accompanied by a negligible enthalpy change but a small, favorable entropy change of +50 ± 20 J/mol/K, indicating that adsorption is driven by desolvation. Butanol desorbed from tert-butylcalix[4]arene materials at ∼150 °C into the gas phase, well within the range of stability of calixarenes (<300 °C), indicating that these materials have promise as regenerable adsorbents.

  8. Generalized statistical model for multicomponent adsorption equilibria on zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Rota, R.; Gamba, G.; Paludetto, R.; Carra, S.; Morbidelli, M. )

    1988-05-01

    The statistical thermodynamic approach to multicomponent adsorption equilibria on zeolites has been extended to nonideal systems, through the correction of cross coefficients characterizing the interaction between unlike molecules. Estimation of the model parameters requires experimental binary equilibrium data. Comparisons with the classical model based on adsorbed solution theory are reported for three nonideal ternary systems. The two approaches provide comparable results in the simulation of binary and ternary adsorption equilibrium data at constant temperature and pressure.

  9. Adsorption and desorption kinetics of (60)Co and (137)Cs in fresh water rivers.

    PubMed

    Fiengo Pérez, Fabricio; Sweeck, Lieve; Bauwens, Willy; Van Hees, May; Elskens, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Radionuclides released in water systems--as well as heavy metals and organic toxicants--sorb to both the suspended solid particles and the bed sediments. Sorption is usually represented mathematically by the distribution coefficient. This approach implies equilibrium between phases and instantaneous fixation (release) of the pollutant onto (from) the surface of the soil particle. However, empirical evidence suggests that for some radionuclides the fixation is not achieved instantaneously and that the reversibility of the process can be slow. Here the adsorption/desorption kinetics of (60)Co and (137)Cs in fresh water environments were simulated experimentally and later on modelled mathematically, while the influence of the most relevant factors affecting the sorption were taken into account. The experimental results suggest that for adsorption and the desorption more than 24 h are needed to reach equilibrium, moreover, It was observed that the desorption rate constants for (60)Co and (137)Cs lie within ranges which are of two to three orders of magnitude lower than the adsorption rate constants.

  10. Nickel(II) adsorption onto biomass based activated carbon obtained from sugarcane bagasse pith.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, K Anoop; Sreejalekshmi, K G; Baiju, R S

    2011-11-01

    Bioavailability of Nickel in the form of hydrated Nickel(II) attributes to its toxicological effects and hence its removal from aqueous solution is of great concern. Adsorption is used as an efficient technique for the removal of Nickel(II), hereafter Ni(II), from water and wastewaters. Activated carbon obtained from sugarcane bagasse pith (SBP-AC), a waste biomass collected from juice shops in Sarkara Devi Temple, Chirayinkeezhu, Trivandrum, India during annual festival, is used as adsorbent in the study. The process of adsorption is highly dependent on solution pH, and maximum removal occurs in the pH range of 4.0-8.0. Moreover, the amount of Ni(II) adsorbed onto SBP-AC increased with the time increase and reached equilibrium at 4h. Adsorption kinetic and equilibrium data were analyzed for determining the best fit kinetic and isotherm models. The overall study reveals the potential value of steam pyrolysed SBP-AC as a possible commercial adsorbent in wastewater treatment strategies.

  11. Adsorption and desorption of reversible supramolecular polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweistra, Henk J. A.; Besseling, N. A. M.

    2006-08-01

    We report numerical mean-field results on the quasichemical level of approximation that describe adsorption of reversible supramolecular polymers at a flat interface. Emphasis is laid on the regime of strong adsorption from a dilute solution. There are two differences with respect to macromolecular polymer adsorption: (i) adsorption sets in at relatively high monomer concentrations of the surrounding solution, and (ii) the surface is filled within a much narrower concentration range. Contrary to macromolecular polymers, supramolecular polymers can therefore be desorbed by dilution of the equilibrium solution by solvent within an experimentally accessible concentration window. Based on simple thermodynamic arguments, we provide a quantitative explanation why supramolecular polymers adsorb at relatively high concentrations. Moreover, we discuss the (by comparison) narrow concentration window wherein filling of the surface occurs. This is attributed to the cooperative nature of supramolecular polymer adsorption. The degree of cooperativity is quantified by means of the Hill parameter n .

  12. Adsorption of xenon and krypton on shales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podosek, F. A.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Kramer, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    A method that uses a mass spectrometer as a manometer is employed in the measurement of Xe and Kr adsorption parameters on shales and related samples, where gas partial pressures were lower than 10 to the -11th atm, corresponding adsorption coverages are only small fractions of a monolayer, and Henry's Law behavior is expected and observed. Results show heats of adsorption in the 2-7 kcal/mol range, and Henry constants at 0-25 C of 1 cu cm STP/g per atmosphere are extrapolated. Although the adsorption properties obtained are variable by sample, the range obtained suggests that shales may be capable of an equilibrium adsorption with modern air high enough to account for a significant fraction of the atmospheric inventory of Xe, and perhaps even of Kr. This effect will nevertheless not account for the factor-of-25 defficiency of atmospheric Xe, in comparison with the planetary gas patterns observed in meteorites.

  13. Monte Carlo simulations of Protein Adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sumit; Kumar, Sanat K.; Belfort, Georges

    2008-03-01

    Amyloidogenic diseases, such as, Alzheimer's are caused by adsorption and aggregation of partially unfolded proteins. Adsorption of proteins is a concern in design of biomedical devices, such as dialysis membranes. Protein adsorption is often accompanied by conformational rearrangements in protein molecules. Such conformational rearrangements are thought to affect many properties of adsorbed protein molecules such as their adhesion strength to the surface, biological activity, and aggregation tendency. It has been experimentally shown that many naturally occurring proteins, upon adsorption to hydrophobic surfaces, undergo a helix to sheet or random coil secondary structural rearrangement. However, to better understand the equilibrium structural complexities of this phenomenon, we have performed Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of adsorption of a four helix bundle, modeled as a lattice protein, and studied the adsorption behavior and equilibrium protein conformations at different temperatures and degrees of surface hydrophobicity. To study the free energy and entropic effects on adsorption, Canonical ensemble MC simulations have been combined with Weighted Histogram Analysis Method(WHAM). Conformational transitions of proteins on surfaces will be discussed as a function of surface hydrophobicity and compared to analogous bulk transitions.

  14. Interfaces at equilibrium: A guide to fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Marmur, Abraham

    2016-05-20

    The fundamentals of the thermodynamics of interfaces are reviewed and concisely presented. The discussion starts with a short review of the elements of bulk thermodynamics that are also relevant to interfaces. It continues with the interfacial thermodynamics of two-phase systems, including the definition of interfacial tension and adsorption. Finally, the interfacial thermodynamics of three-phase (wetting) systems is discussed, including the topic of non-wettable surfaces. A clear distinction is made between equilibrium conditions, in terms of minimizing energies (internal, Gibbs or Helmholtz), and equilibrium indicators, in terms of measurable, intrinsic properties (temperature, chemical potential, pressure). It is emphasized that the equilibrium indicators are the same whatever energy is minimized, if the boundary conditions are properly chosen. Also, to avoid a common confusion, a distinction is made between systems of constant volume and systems with drops of constant volume.

  15. Computational Investigation of Conformational Changes in Proteins upon Adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sumit; Anand, Gaurav; Belfort, Georges; Kumar, Sanat K.

    2009-03-01

    Amyloidogenic diseases, such as, Alzheimer's, are caused by adsorption and aggregation of partially unfolded proteins. Protein adsorption is often accompanied by conformational rearrangements, which are thought to affect many properties such as their adhesion strength to the surface, biological activity, and aggregation tendency. Experiments have shown that many proteins, upon adsorption to hydrophobic surfaces, undergo a helix to sheet or random coil secondary structural rearrangement. To better understand the equilibrium structural complexities of this phenomenon, we have performed Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and Single Chain Mean Field calculations of adsorption of different proteins, modeled as lattice chains, to study the adsorption behavior and equilibrium protein conformations at different temperatures, protein concentration and surface hydrophobicity. Free energy and entropic effects on adsorption have been studied by determining density of states using Weighted Histogram Analysis Method. Conformational transitions of proteins on surfaces will be discussed as a function of surface hydrophobicity.

  16. Adsorption of hematite nanoparticles onto Caco-2 cells and the cellular impairments: effect of particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen; Kalive, Madhavi; Capco, David G.; Chen, Yongsheng

    2010-09-01

    The increasing applications of engineered nanomaterials nowadays have elevated the potential of human exposure through various routes including inhalation, skin penetration and digestion. To date there is scarce information on a quantitative description of the interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and cell surfaces and the detrimental effects from the exposure. The purpose of this work was to study in vitro exposure of Caco-2 cells to hematite (α-Fe2O3) NPs and to determine the particle size effects on the adsorption behaviors. Cellular impairment was also investigated and compared. Hematite NPs were synthesized as part of this study with a discrete size distribution and uniform morphology examined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Caco-2 cells were cultured as a model epithelium to mirror human intestinal cells and used to evaluate the impacts of the exposure to NPs by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Cell surface disruption, localization and translocation of NPs through the cells were analyzed with immunocytochemical staining and confocal microscopy. Results showed that hematite NPs had mean diameters of 26, 53, 76 and 98 nm and were positively charged with minor aggregation in the buffer solution. Adsorption of the four sizes of NPs on cells reached equilibrium within approximately 5 min but adsorption kinetics were found to be size-dependent. The adsorption rates expressed as mg m - 2 min - 1 were greater for large NPs (76 and 98 nm) than those for small NPs (26 and 53 nm). However, adsorption rates, expressed in units of m - 2 min - 1, were much greater for small NPs than large ones. After the adsorption equilibrium was reached, the adsorbed mass of NPs on a unit area of cells was calculated and showed no significant size dependence. Longer exposure time (>3 h) induced adverse cellular effects as indicated by the drop in TEER compared to the control cells without the exposure

  17. Europe reaches the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-11-01

    A complex package of tests on new technologies was successfully performed during the cruise to the Moon, while the spacecraft was getting ready for the scientific investigations which will come next. These technologies pave the way for future planetary missions. SMART-1 reached its closest point to the lunar surface so far - its first ‘perilune’ - at an altitude of about 5000 kilometres at 18:48 Central European Time (CET) on 15 November. Just hours before that, at 06:24 CET, SMART-1’s solar-electric propulsion system (or ‘ion engine’) was started up and is now being fired for the delicate manoeuvre that will stabilise the spacecraft in lunar orbit. During this crucial phase, the engine will run almost continuously for the next four days, and then for a series of shorter burns, allowing SMART-1 to reach its final operational orbit by making ever-decreasing loops around the Moon. By about mid-January, SMART-1 will be orbiting the Moon at altitudes between 300 kilometres (over the lunar south pole) and 3000 kilometres (over the lunar north pole), beginning its scientific observations. The main purpose of the first part of the SMART-1 mission, concluding with the arrival at the Moon, was to demonstrate new spacecraft technologies. In particular, the solar-electric propulsion system was tested over a long spiralling trip to the Moon of more than 84 million kilometres. This is a distance comparable to an interplanetary cruise. For the first time ever, gravity-assist manoeuvres, which use the gravitational pull of the approaching Moon, were performed by an electrically-propelled spacecraft. The success of this test is important to the prospects for future interplanetary missions using ion engines. SMART-1 has demonstrated new techniques for eventually achieving autonomous spacecraft navigation. The OBAN experiment tested navigation software on ground computers to determine the exact position and velocity of the spacecraft using images of celestial objects taken

  18. Methyl parathion imprinted polymer nanoshell coated on the magnetic nanocore for selective recognition and fast adsorption and separation in soils.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shiying; Guo, Changjuan; Li, Yongxian; Yu, Zerong; Wei, Chaohai; Tang, Youwen

    2014-01-15

    Core-shell magnetic methyl parathion (MP) imprinted polymers (Fe3O4@MPIPs) were fabricated by a layer-by-layer self-assembly process. In order to take full advantage of the synergistic effect of hydrogen-binding interactions and π-π accumulation between host and guest for molecular recognition, methacrylic acid and 4-vinyl pyridine were chosen as co-functional monomers and their optimal proportion were investigated. The core-shell and crystalline structure, morphology and magnetic properties of Fe3O4@MPIPs were characterized. The MP-imprinted nanoshell was almost uniform and about 100nm thick. Binding experiments demonstrated that Fe3O4@MPIPs possessed excellent binding properties, including high adsorption capacity and specific recognition, as well as fast adsorption kinetics and a fast phase separation rate. The equilibration adsorption capacity reached up to 9.1mg/g, which was 12 times higher than that of magnetic non-imprinted polymers, while adsorption reached equilibrium within 5min at a concentration of 0.2mmol/L. Furthermore, Fe3O4@MPIPs successfully provided selective separation and removal of MP in soils with a recovery and detection limit of 81.1-87.0% and 5.2ng/g, respectively.

  19. Fabrication of Gelatin-Based Electrospun Composite Fibers for Anti-Bacterial Properties and Protein Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ya; Wang, Yingbo; Wang, Yimin; Cui, Wenguo

    2016-10-21

    A major goal of biomimetics is the development of chemical compositions and structures that simulate the extracellular matrix. In this study, gelatin-based electrospun composite fibrous membranes were prepared by electrospinning to generate bone scaffold materials. The gelatin-based multicomponent composite fibers were fabricated using co-electrospinning, and the composite fibers of chitosan (CS), gelatin (Gel), hydroxyapatite (HA), and graphene oxide (GO) were successfully fabricated for multi-function characteristics of biomimetic scaffolds. The effect of component concentration on composite fiber morphology, antibacterial properties, and protein adsorption were investigated. Composite fibers exhibited effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The study observed that the composite fibers have higher adsorption capacities of bovine serum albumin (BSA) at pH 5.32-6.00 than at pH 3.90-4.50 or 7.35. The protein adsorption on the surface of the composite fiber increased as the initial BSA concentration increased. The surface of the composite reached adsorption equilibrium at 20 min. These results have specific applications for the development of bone scaffold materials, and broad implications in the field of tissue engineering.

  20. Fabrication of Gelatin-Based Electrospun Composite Fibers for Anti-Bacterial Properties and Protein Adsorption

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ya; Wang, Yingbo; Wang, Yimin; Cui, Wenguo

    2016-01-01

    A major goal of biomimetics is the development of chemical compositions and structures that simulate the extracellular matrix. In this study, gelatin-based electrospun composite fibrous membranes were prepared by electrospinning to generate bone scaffold materials. The gelatin-based multicomponent composite fibers were fabricated using co-electrospinning, and the composite fibers of chitosan (CS), gelatin (Gel), hydroxyapatite (HA), and graphene oxide (GO) were successfully fabricated for multi-function characteristics of biomimetic scaffolds. The effect of component concentration on composite fiber morphology, antibacterial properties, and protein adsorption were investigated. Composite fibers exhibited effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The study observed that the composite fibers have higher adsorption capacities of bovine serum albumin (BSA) at pH 5.32–6.00 than at pH 3.90–4.50 or 7.35. The protein adsorption on the surface of the composite fiber increased as the initial BSA concentration increased. The surface of the composite reached adsorption equilibrium at 20 min. These results have specific applications for the development of bone scaffold materials, and broad implications in the field of tissue engineering. PMID:27775645

  1. [Heavy metals contents and Hg adsorption characteristics of mosses in virgin forest of Gongga Mountain].

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Yang, Yong-Kui; He, Lei; Wang, Ding-Yong

    2008-06-01

    Seven main moss species in the Hailuogou virgin forest of Gongga Mountain were sampled to determine their heavy metals (Hg, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe) content, and two widely distributed species, Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Racomitrium laetum Besch., were selected to study their Hg adsorption characteristics. The results showed that the heavy metals contents in the mosses were lower than the background values in Europe and America, except that the Cd had a comparable value, which indicated that the atmosphere in study area was not polluted by heavy metals and good in quality. The Hg adsorption by P. schreberi and R. laetum was an initiative and rapid process, with the equilibrium reached in about two hours, and could be well fitted by Freundlich and Langmuir equations. Based on Langmuir equation, the maximum Hg adsorption capacities of P. schreberi and R. laetum were 15.24 and 8.19 mg x g(-1), respectively, suggesting that the two mosses had a good capacity of Hg adsorption, and could be used as the bio-monitors of atmospheric Hg pollution.

  2. Nitrate adsorption from aqueous solution using granular chitosan-Fe3+ complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qili; Chen, Nan; Feng, Chuanping; Hu, WeiWu

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, In order to efficiently remove nitrate, granular chitosan-Fe3+ complex with high chemical stability and good environmental adaptation was synthesized through precipitation method and characterized using SEM, XRD, BET and FTIR. The nitrate adsorption performance was evaluated by batch experiments. The results indicated that granular chitosan-Fe3+ complex was an amorphous and mesoporous material. The BET specific surface area and average pore size were 8.98 m2 g-1 and 56.94 Å, respectively. The point of zero charge was obtained at pH 5. The maximum adsorption capacity reached 8.35 mg NO3--N g-1 based on Langmuir-Freundlich model. Moreover, no significant change in the nitrate removal efficiency was observed in the pH range of 3.0-10.0. The adverse influence of sulphate on nitrate removal was the most significant, followed by bicarbonate and fluoride, whereas chloride had slightly adverse effect. Adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the experimental equilibrium data were fitted well with the Langmuir-Freundlich and D-R isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters revealed that nitrate adsorption was a spontaneous and exothermic process. Granular chitosan-Fe3+ complex could be effectively regenerated by NaCl solution.

  3. A Porous Aromatic Framework Constructed from Benzene Rings Has a High Adsorption Capacity for Perfluorooctane Sulfonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qin; Zhao, Changwei; Liu, Guixia; Ren, Hao

    2016-02-01

    A low-cost and easily constructed porous aromatic framework (PAF-45) was successfully prepared using the Scholl reaction. PAF-45 was, for the first time, used to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solution. Systematic experiments were performed to determine the adsorption capacity of PAF-45 for PFOS and to characterize the kinetics of the adsorption process. The adsorption of PFOS onto PAF-45 reached equilibrium in 30 min, and the adsorption capacity of PAF-45 for PFOS was excellent (5847 mg g‑1 at pH 3). The amount of PFOS adsorbed by PAF-45 increased significantly as the cation (Na+, Mg2+, or Fe3+) concentration increased, which probably occurred because the cations enhanced the interactions between the negatively charged PFOS molecules and the positively charged PAF-45 surface. The cations Na+, Mg2+, and Fe3+ were found to form complexes with PFOS anions in solution. Density functional theory was used to identify the interactions between PFOS and Na+, Mg2+, and Fe3+. We expect that materials of the same type as PAF-45 could be useful adsorbents for removing organic pollutants from industrial wastewater and contaminated surface water.

  4. Kinetics of Copper Adsorption from Effluent Stream by ZeoliteNaX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Surinder; Sambi, S. S.; Sharma, S. K.; Pandey, Pankaj Kumar

    2010-06-01

    The batch experiments were conducted to study the copper (II) removal by ZeoliteNaX at temperature of 288+1 K, adsorbent dose of 2 g/L and contact time of 24 hour. Effects of pH, temperature, contact time and Cu (II) ion concentration by the adsorbent were investigated. The data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. Freundlich isotherm was found to correlate the adsorption of Cu (II) better and the mono-layer adsorption capacity for Cu (II) removal was 41.6 mg/g. The adsorbed amounts of Cu (II) reached equilibrium within 150 minutes. The four adsorption kinetic models namely, the first order equation, second order equations, pseudo-first order equation and pseudo second-order equations were also tested to fit the data. The pseudo-first-order equation was found to fit best for the experimental data. Thermodynamic analysis indicated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption of Cu (II) by ZeoliteNaX.

  5. A Porous Aromatic Framework Constructed from Benzene Rings Has a High Adsorption Capacity for Perfluorooctane Sulfonate

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qin; Zhao, Changwei; Liu, Guixia; Ren, Hao

    2016-01-01

    A low-cost and easily constructed porous aromatic framework (PAF-45) was successfully prepared using the Scholl reaction. PAF-45 was, for the first time, used to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solution. Systematic experiments were performed to determine the adsorption capacity of PAF-45 for PFOS and to characterize the kinetics of the adsorption process. The adsorption of PFOS onto PAF-45 reached equilibrium in 30 min, and the adsorption capacity of PAF-45 for PFOS was excellent (5847 mg g−1 at pH 3). The amount of PFOS adsorbed by PAF-45 increased significantly as the cation (Na+, Mg2+, or Fe3+) concentration increased, which probably occurred because the cations enhanced the interactions between the negatively charged PFOS molecules and the positively charged PAF-45 surface. The cations Na+, Mg2+, and Fe3+ were found to form complexes with PFOS anions in solution. Density functional theory was used to identify the interactions between PFOS and Na+, Mg2+, and Fe3+. We expect that materials of the same type as PAF-45 could be useful adsorbents for removing organic pollutants from industrial wastewater and contaminated surface water. PMID:26843015

  6. Reaching Beyond The Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Mariah; Rosenthal, L.; Gaughan, A.; Hopkins, E.

    2014-01-01

    Strawbridge Observatory at Haverford College is home to a undergraduate-led public observing program. Our program holds ~once monthly public events throughout the academic year that take advantage of eyepiece observing on our 16-inch and 12-inch telescopes as well as of the classroom, library, and projection system. These resources allow us to organize a variety of astronomy related activities that are engaging for individuals of all ages: accessible student talks, current film screenings and even arts and crafts for the families who attend with young children. These events aim to spark curiosity in others about scientific discovery and about the remarkable nature of the world in which we live. In addition to exciting local families about astronomy, this program has excited Haverford students from a range of disciplines about both science and education. Being entirely student led means that we are able to take the initiative in planning, coordinating and running all events, fostering an atmosphere of collaboration, experimentation and commitment amongst our volunteers. Additionally, this program is one of the few at Haverford that regularly reaches beyond the campus walls to promote and build relationships with the outside community. In light of this, our program presents a distinctive and enlightening opportunity for student volunteers: we get to use our scientific backgrounds to educate a general audience, while also learning from them about how to communicate and inspire in others the excitement we feel about the subject of astronomy. The work on this project has been supported by NSF AST-1151462.

  7. Isotherms for Water Adsorption on Molecular Sieve 3A: Influence of Cation Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ronghong; Ladshaw, Austin; Nan, Yue; Liu, Jiuxu; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; DePaoli, David W.; Tavlarides, Lawrence L.

    2015-06-16

    This study is part of our continuing efforts to address engineering issues related to the removal of tritiated water from off-gases produced in used nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. In the current study, adsorption equilibrium of water on molecular sieve 3A beads was investigated. Adsorption isotherms for water on the UOP molecular sieve 3A were measured by a continuous-flow adsorption system at 298, 313, 333, and 353 K. Experimental data collected were analyzed by the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm model. The K+/Na+ molar ratio of this particular type of molecular sieve 3A was ~4:6. Our results showed that the GSTA isotherm model worked very well to describe the equilibrium behavior of water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A. The optimum number of parameters for the current experimental data was determined to be a set of four equilibrium parameters. This result suggests that the adsorbent crystals contain four energetically distinct adsorption sites. In addition, it was found that water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A follows a three-stage adsorption process. This three-stage adsorption process confirmed different water adsorption sites in molecular sieve crystals. In addition, the second adsorption stage is significantly affected by the K+/Na+ molar ratio. In this stage, the equilibrium adsorption capacity at a given water vapor pressure increases as the K+/Na+ molar ratio increases.

  8. Isotherms for Water Adsorption on Molecular Sieve 3A: Influence of Cation Composition

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Ronghong; Ladshaw, Austin; Nan, Yue; ...

    2015-06-16

    This study is part of our continuing efforts to address engineering issues related to the removal of tritiated water from off-gases produced in used nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. In the current study, adsorption equilibrium of water on molecular sieve 3A beads was investigated. Adsorption isotherms for water on the UOP molecular sieve 3A were measured by a continuous-flow adsorption system at 298, 313, 333, and 353 K. Experimental data collected were analyzed by the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm model. The K+/Na+ molar ratio of this particular type of molecular sieve 3A was ~4:6. Our results showed that themore » GSTA isotherm model worked very well to describe the equilibrium behavior of water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A. The optimum number of parameters for the current experimental data was determined to be a set of four equilibrium parameters. This result suggests that the adsorbent crystals contain four energetically distinct adsorption sites. In addition, it was found that water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A follows a three-stage adsorption process. This three-stage adsorption process confirmed different water adsorption sites in molecular sieve crystals. In addition, the second adsorption stage is significantly affected by the K+/Na+ molar ratio. In this stage, the equilibrium adsorption capacity at a given water vapor pressure increases as the K+/Na+ molar ratio increases.« less

  9. Synthesis, characterization and study of arsenate adsorption from aqueous solution by {alpha}- and {delta}-phase manganese dioxide nanoadsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Mandeep; Thanh, Dong Nguyen; Ulbrich, Pavel; Strnadova, Nina; Stepanek, Frantisek

    2010-12-15

    Single-phase {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} nanorods and {delta}-MnO{sub 2} nano-fiber clumps were synthesized using manganese pentahydrate in an aqueous solution. These nanomaterials were characterized using the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Brunauer-Elmet-Teller nitrogen adsorption technique (BET-N{sub 2} adsorption). The structural analysis shows that {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} (2x2 tunnel structure) has the form of needle-shaped nanorods and {delta}-MnO{sub 2} (2D-layered structure) consists of fine needle-like fibers arranged in ball-like aggregates. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to determine the effect of pH on adsorption kinetics and adsorption capacity for the removal of As(V) from aqueous solution onto these two types of nanoadsorbents. The adsorption capacity of As(V) was found to be highly pH dependent. The adsorption of As(V) onto {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} reached equilibrium more rapidly with higher adsorption capacity compared to {delta}-MnO{sub 2}. -- Graphical abstract: {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} (2x2 tunnel structure) nanorods and {delta}-MnO{sub 2} (2-D layered structure) nano-fiber clumps were synthesized in a facile way in an aqueous solution and characterized by TEM, FE-SEM, XRD and BET-N{sub 2} adsorption techniques. The structural analysis shows that {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} is needle shaped nanorods and {delta}-MnO{sub 2} consists of 2-D platelets of fine needle-like fibers arranged in ball-like aggregates. Further batch experiments confirmed that both nanoadsorbents are potential candidates for the adsorption of As(V) with a capacity of 19.41 and 15.33 mg g{sup -1} for {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} and {delta}-MnO{sub 2}, respectively. The presence of As3d peak in XPS study indicates that arsenic on the surface of nanoadsorbents is in the stable form of As(V) with a percentage of arsenate onto {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} is 0.099% as compared to 0.021% onto {delta}-MnO{sub 2

  10. Bromate adsorption using Fe-pillared bentonite.

    PubMed

    He, Shilong; Zhang, Dandan; Gu, Li; Zhang, Shenghua; Yu, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Bromate is an emerging hazardous substance in drinking water. In this study, the removal ofbromate by Fe-pillared bentonite was investigated using various experimental parameters: contact time, initial concentration (Co), temperature, initial pH and competing anions. The adsorption ofbromate followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic better than it followed other kinetic models, and the pseudo-second-order kinetic study showed that equilibrium could be achieved within 60 min. Equilibrium isotherms were analyzed by Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson and Toth isotherm models. The Toth and Redlich-Peterson models better represented the bromate adsorption. Results also indicated that, other than the competing anions and solution pH, temperature was a key parameter affecting adsorption. It was ultimately concluded that Fe-pillared bentonite was effective at removing bromate from water.

  11. Kinetic and equilibrium measurements of coal drying

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, A.; Elliott, G.R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The retention, attachment, and release of water (sorption, adsorption, and desorption) in Fruitland subbituminous coal are shown to be very complex phenomena. The vapor pressure and thermodynamic activity of water in the coal at about 315 K vary sharply with composition. Removal of 60% of the water initially present reduces the vapor pressure by about 60%. The total moisture content of saturated coal also varies with temperature. A 10 K rise in temperature reduces the sorbed water by about 8%. There is strong hysteresis in the sorption behavior; water which is desorbed by reducing the vapor pressure over a coal sample is not fully replaced by adsorption when the vapor pressure is returned to its original level. These measurements of desorption and adsorption reflect stable and metastable equilibria. Kinetic measurements are reported for approach to a new equilibrium if the vapor pressure over the coal is reduced. The kinetic measurements reflect the shape of the pores while equilibrium vapor pressures reflect how tightly the water is bound in the pores. Both types of measurement show changes in behavior at the same compositions. Implications of these results for UCG are discussed.

  12. Equilibrium theory-based analysis of nonlinear waves in separation processes.

    PubMed

    Mazzotti, Marco; Rajendran, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Different areas of engineering, particularly separation process technology, deal with one-dimensional, nonstationary processes that under reasonable assumptions, namely negligible dispersion effects and transport resistances, are described by mathematical models consisting of systems of first-order partial differential equations. Their behavior is characterized by continuous or discontinuous composition (or thermal) fronts that propagate along the separation unit. The equilibrium theory (i.e., the approach discussed here to determine the solution to these model equations) predicts this with remarkable accuracy, despite the simplifications and assumptions. Interesting applications are in adsorption, chromatography and ion-exchange, distillation, gas injection, heat storage, sedimentation, precipitation, and dissolution waves. We show how mathematics can enlighten the engineering aspects, and we guide the researcher not only to reach a synthetic understanding of properties of fundamental and applicative interest but also to discover new, unexpected, and fascinating phenomena. The tools presented here are useful to teachers, researchers, and practitioners alike.

  13. Getting Freshman in Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Various aspects of chemical equilibrium were discussed in six papers presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982). These include student problems in understanding hydrolysis, helping students discover/uncover topics, equilibrium demonstrations, instructional strategies, and flaws to kinetic…

  14. Adsorption mechanism of chloroacetanilide herbicides to modified montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    El-Nahhal, Yasser

    2003-09-01

    This study was undertaken to characterize the adsorption mechanism of alachlor and metolachlor on montmorillonite modified with cationic surfactants. Adsorbed amounts of cationic surfactant on montmorillonite surfaces were determined by CNHSO analyzer. Equilibrium concentrations of alachlor and metolachlor were determined by GC and adsorption results were fit to a linear regression equation. The slope of the isotherms (Kd) was normalized to the fraction of organic carbon on montmorillonite complexes to produce corresponding Koc. Adsorption of surfactants fit very well to Langmuir equation. Increased basal spacing indicates that surfactant molecules could penetrate through the interlayer spacing and arrange themselves in different ways. Equilibrium data of alachlor and metolachlor suggest that adsorption may occur via physical or chemical bonds. Koc values of alachlor or metolachlor decreased as the fraction of the organic carbon increased in montmorillonite complexes indicating independent adsorption process. Changes of the molar free energy of the adsorption reactions were in the range of physical adsorption, indicating that adsorption reactions are spontaneous and the molecules either adsorb on the surface or penetrate into the inter-layers of montmorillonite-surfactant complex. Careful investigation of the adsorption data suggests that interaction may occur via the active groups such as carbonyl group (-C=O), anilidic (C-N) group and/or phenyl rings. This information may provide better understanding on adsorption mechanism and be useful in designing ecologically acceptable herbicide formulations.

  15. Adsorption of EDTA on activated carbon from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hai-song; Yang, Xiao-juan; Mao, Yan-peng; Chen, Yu; Long, Xiang-li; Yuan, Wei-kang

    2011-01-30

    In this study, the adsorption of EDTA on activated carbon from aqueous solutions has been investigated in a batch stirred cell. Experiments have been carried out to investigate the effects of temperature, EDTA concentration, pH, activated carbon mass and particle size on EDTA adsorption. The experimental results manifest that the EDTA adsorption rate increases with its concentration in the aqueous solutions. EDTA adsorption also increases with temperature. The EDTA removal from the solution increases as activated carbon mass increases. The Langmuir and Freundlich equilibrium isotherm models are found to provide a good fitting of the adsorption data, with R(2) = 0.9920 and 0.9982, respectively. The kinetic study shows that EDTA adsorption on the activated carbon is in good compliance with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters (E(a), ΔG(0), ΔH(0), ΔS(0)) obtained indicate the endothermic nature of EDTA adsorption on activated carbon.

  16. Equilibrium of KSTAR Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, K.-I.; Lee, D.-K.; Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Hahn, S. H.; Lao, L.; Kstar Team

    2011-10-01

    We have installed the EFIT code on our computing system and made some modification to reconstruct the plasma equilibrium of KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research). KSTAR PF and TF coil systems use a CICC (Cable-In-Conduit Conductor) type superconductor. The CICC jacket material for most PF and all TF coils is Incoloy 908, which is a magnetic material with relative magnetic permeability greater than 10 in low external field. We newly introduced Diamagnetic Loop and variational Motion Stark Effect signals to equilibrium reconstruction. In this paper, we present some results of equilibrium reconstruction with the EFIT code, assess the effects of newly introduced diagnsotics signal on the equilibrium reconstruction and compare the EFIT results with the various diagnostics data in various plasma conditions including H- and L- modes. In addition, we will show the Incoloy908 effects on the plasma equilibrium.

  17. Applications and limits of theoretical adsorption models for predicting the adsorption properties of adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Ju; Nguyen, Duc Canh; Na, Choon-Ki; Kim, Chung-il

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the applicability of adsorption models for predicting the properties of adsorbents. The kinetics of the adsorption of NO3- ions on a PP-g-AA-Am non-woven fabric have been investigated under equilibrium conditions in both batch and fixed bed column processes. The adsorption equilibrium experiments in the batch process were carried out under different adsorbate concentration and adsorbent dosage conditions and the results were analyzed using adsorption isotherm models, energy models, and kinetic models. The results of the analysis indicate that the adsorption occurring at a fixed adsorbate concentration with a varying adsorbent dosage occur more easily compared to those under a fixed adsorbent dosage with a varying adsorbate concentration. In the second part of the study, the experimental data obtained using fixed bed columns were fit to Bed Depth Service Time, Bohart-Adams, Clark, and Wolborska models, to predict the breakthrough curves and determine the column kinetic parameters. The adsorption properties of the NO3- ions on the PP-g-AA-Am non-woven fabric were differently described by different models for both the batch and fixed bed column process. Therefore, it appears reasonable to assume that the adsorption properties were dominated by multiple mechanisms, depending on the experimental conditions.

  18. [Ion specificity during ion exchange equilibrium in natural clinoptilolite].

    PubMed

    He, Yun-Hua; Li, Hang; Liu, Xin-Min; Xiong, Hai-Ling

    2015-03-01

    Zeolites have been widely applied in soil improvement and environment protection. The study on ion specificity during ion exchange equilibrium is of important significance for better use of zeolites. The maximum adsorption capacities of alkali ions during ion exchange equilibrium in the clinoptilolite showed obvious specificity. For alkali metal ions with equivalent valence, the differences in adsorption capacity increased with the decrease of ionic concentration. These results cannot be well explained by the classical theories including coulomb force, ionic size, hydration, dispersion force, classic induction force and surface complexation. We found that the coupling of polarization effects resulted from the quantum fluctuation of diverse alkali metal ions and electric field near the zeolite surface should be the primary reason for specific ion effect during ion exchange in zeolite. The result of this coupling effect was that the difference in the ion dipole moment increased with the increase of surface potential, which further expanded the difference in the adsorption ability between zeolite surface and ions, resulting in different ion exchange adsorption ability at the solid/liquid interface. Due to the high surface charge density of zeolite, ionic size also played an important role in the distribution of ions in the double diffuse layer, which led to an interesting result that distinct differences in exchange adsorption ability of various alkali metal ions were only detected at high surface potential (the absolute value was greater than 0.2 V), which was different from the ion exchange equilibrium result on the surface with low charge density.

  19. Application of activated carbon derived from scrap tires for adsorption of Rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Liu, Shuangxi; Zhu, Tan

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon derived from solid hazardous waste scrap tires was evaluated as a potential adsorbent for cationic dye removal. The adsorption process with respect to operating parameters was investigated to evaluate the adsorption characteristics of the activated pyrolytic tire char (APTC) for Rhodamine B (RhB). Systematic research including equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic studies was performed. The results showed that APTC was a potential adsorbent for RhB with a higher adsorption capacity than most adsorbents. Solution pH and temperature exert significant influence while ionic strength showed little effect on the adsorption process. The adsorption equilibrium data obey Langmuir isotherm and the kinetic data were well described by the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The adsorption process followed intra-particle diffusion model with more than one process affecting the adsorption process. Thermodynamic study confirmed that the adsorption was a physisorption process with spontaneous, endothermic and random characteristics.

  20. Adsorption behavior of some radionuclides on the Chinese weathered coal.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianfeng; Xu, Qichu; Bai, Tao

    2007-08-01

    The equilibrium and kinetic properties of Am(III), Eu(III) and Cs(I) ions adsorption by three weathered coals (WCs) from China, have been investigated in batch stirred-tank experiments. The effects of contact time, solution acidity and initial sorbate concentration on the adsorption of Am(III), Eu(III) and Cs(I) by Yuxian(YX) Tongchuan (TC) and Pingxiang (PX) WC were evaluated. The radionuclide ions are able to form complex compounds with carboxylic and phenolic groups of WCs and they are also bounded with phenolic groups even at high acidity reaction solution (>0.1 mol/L). Mechanisms including ion exchange, complexation and adsorption to the coal surface are possible in the sorption process. The acidity of the solution played an important role in the adsorption. Even acidity as high as 0.1 mol/L, 60% of Am(III) or Eu(III), 40% of Cs(I) were found to be sorbed on the YX WC, which had the best adsorption capacity for Am(III) and Eu(III). Our batch adsorption studies showed the equilibrium adsorption data fit the linear Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The maximum equilibrium uptake of Eu(III) were 0.412, 3.701, 5.446 mmol/g for JXWC, TCWC and YXWC, respectively.

  1. Roundabout relaxation: collective excitation requires a detour to equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Morita, Hidetoshi; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2005-03-04

    Relaxation to equilibrium after strong and collective excitation is studied by using a Hamiltonian dynamical system of a one-dimensional XY model. After an excitation of a domain of K elements, the excitation is concentrated to fewer elements, which are made farther away from equilibrium, and the excitation intensity increases logarithmically with K. Equilibrium is reached only after taking this roundabout route, with the time for relaxation diverging asymptotically as Kgamma with gamma approximately 4.2.

  2. Roundabout Relaxation: Collective Excitation Requires a Detour to Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Hidetoshi; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2005-03-01

    Relaxation to equilibrium after strong and collective excitation is studied by using a Hamiltonian dynamical system of a one-dimensional XY model. After an excitation of a domain of K elements, the excitation is concentrated to fewer elements, which are made farther away from equilibrium, and the excitation intensity increases logarithmically with K. Equilibrium is reached only after taking this roundabout route, with the time for relaxation diverging asymptotically as Kγ with γ≈4.2.

  3. Adsorption of pesticides on resins.

    PubMed

    Kyriakopoulos, Grigorios; Hourdakis, Adamadia; Doulia, Danae

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the capability of organic hydrophobic polymeric resins Amberlite XAD-4 and XAD-7 to remove the pesticides alachlor and amitrole from water. The pesticides adsorption on the two different adsorbents was measured by batch equilibrium technique and isotherm types and parameters were estimated. Two theoretical models were applied based on a Freundlich and a Langmuir isotherms. The effect of pesticides chemical composition and structure as well as the nature of solid surface on the efficiency of adsorption was evaluated. The influence of pH also was studied. In low pH solutions adsorption of amitrole was higher upon the nonionic aliphatic acrylic ester copolymer XAD-7 in comparison to the nonionic, crosslinked macroreticular copolymer of styrene divinylbenzene XAD-4. In neutral and intermediate pH solutions the polar acrylic ester copolymer XAD-7 was more effective to the retention of alachlor. The acrylic ester copolymer showed at pH 3 the lower effectiveness in alachlor removal from water. The data of the adsorption isotherms of pesticides upon the examined polymeric resins seemed to conform to both the Freundlich and the Langmuir isotherm models.

  4. Influence of clay on the adsorption of heavy metals like copper and cadmium on chitosan.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Nagan; Latha, Srinivasan; Sudha, Persu N; Renganathan, N Gopalan

    2013-02-01

    The influence of clay on the adsorption of heavy metals like copper and cadmium on chitosan from simulated industrial wastewater is evaluated. Chitosan-clay blend with ratio of (1:1), (1:2), and (2:1) have been prepared, and these were used as membranes to remove copper and cadmium ions from synthetic industrial wastewater. The chemical parameters for quantities of adsorption of heavy metal contamination have been done, and the kinetics of adsorption has also been carried out. Clay provides enough absorbable sites to overcome mass transfer limitations. The number of absorbable sites for cadmium is more compared to copper, and thus the rate of recovery of cadmium is faster than copper, and the percentage removal of cadmium is more than copper at all times on clay over nylon 6. This difference indicates the influence of clay in the adsorption of heavy metals in comparison to synthetic polymer nylon 6. Rate constant for first-order kinetics of adsorption, k (1), for copper and cadmium is less than that of clay, which clearly indicates that clay, which is a natural polymer, is more kinetically favored compared to synthetic polymer. The difference in the intraparticle diffusion in both the natural and synthetic polymer is not much, and it suggests that the particle diffusion mechanism is the same in both cases. Copper and cadmium recovery is parallel at all times. The percentage of removal of copper increased with an increase in pH from 3 to 5. In the case of cadmium containing wastewater, the maximum removal of metal occurred at pH 5. The uptake amount of Cu(2+) ions on chitosan increased rapidly with increasing the contact time from 0 to 360 min and then reaches equilibrium after 360 min, and the equilibrium constant for copper and cadmium ions are more or less the same for the adsorption reaction. There are more adsorption sites for cadmium in the presence of clay and mass transfer limitation is avoided without resorting to rotation, which is the highlight of the

  5. Adsorption of As(V) and As(III) by nanocrystalline titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Pena, Maria E; Korfiatis, George P; Patel, Manish; Lippincott, Lee; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2005-06-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) in removing arsenate [As(V)] and arsenite [As(III)] and in photocatalytic oxidation of As(III). Batch adsorption and oxidation experiments were conducted with TiO(2) suspensions prepared in a 0.04 M NaCl solution and in a challenge water containing the competing anions phosphate, silicate, and carbonate. The removal of As(V) and As(III) reached equilibrium within 4h and the adsorption kinetics were described by a pseudo-second-order equation. The TiO(2) was effective for As(V) removal at pH<8 and showed a maximum removal for As(III) at pH of about 7.5 in the challenge water. The adsorption capacity of the TiO(2) for As(V) and As(III) was much higher than fumed TiO(2) (Degussa P25) and granular ferric oxide. More than 0.5 mmol/g of As(V) and As(III) was adsorbed by the TiO(2) at an equilibrium arsenic concentration of 0.6mM. The presence of the competing anions had a moderate effect on the adsorption capacities of the TiO(2) for As(III) and As(V) in a neutral pH range. In the presence of sunlight and dissolved oxygen, As(III) (26.7 microM or 2mg/L) was completely converted to As(V) in a 0.2g/L TiO(2) suspension through photocatalytic oxidation within 25 min. The nanocrystalline TiO(2) is an effective adsorbent for As(V) and As(III) and an efficient photocatalyst.

  6. Adsorption characteristics of nano-TiO2 onto zebrafish embryos and its impacts on egg hatching.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yu-Jen; Su, Chia-Chi; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Dong, Cheng-Di; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Huang, C P

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of nanoparticles (NPs) uptake may fundamentally alter physicochemical effects of engineered NPs on aquatic organisms, thereby yielding different ecotoxicology assessment results. The adsorption behavior of nano-TiO2 (P-25) on zebrafish embryos in Holtfreter's medium (pH 7.2, I ∼ 7.2 × 10(-2) M) and the presence of sodium alginate (100 mg/L) as dispersant was investigated. Zebrafish embryos (total 100) were exposed to nano-TiO2 at different concentrations (e.g., 0, 10, 20, 60, 120 mg/L) in batch-mode assay. The adsorption capacity of nano-TiO2 on fish eggs was determined by measuring the Ti concentration on the egg surface using ICP-OES analysis. Results showed that the adsorption capacity increased rapidly in the first hour, and then declined to reach equilibrium in 8 h. The adsorption characteristics was visualized as a three-step process of rapid initial layer formation, followed by break-up of aggregates and finally rearrangement of floc structures; the maximum adsorption capacity was the sum of an inner rigid layers of aggregates of 0.81-0.84 μg-TiO2/#-egg and an outer softly flocculated layers of 1.01 μg-TiO2/#-egg. The Gibbs free energy was 543.29-551.26 and 100.75 kJ/mol, respectively, for the inner-layer and the outer-layer aggregates. Adsorption capacity at 0.5-1.0 μg-TiO2/#-egg promoted egg hatching; but hatching was inhibited at higher adsorption capacity. Results clearly showed that the configuration of TiO2 aggregates could impact the hatching efficiency of zebrafish embryos.

  7. Solvothermal synthesis of MnFe2O4-graphene composite-Investigation of its adsorption and antimicrobial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chella, Santhosh; Kollu, Pratap; Komarala, Eswara Vara P. R.; Doshi, Sejal; Saranya, Murugan; Felix, Sathiyanathan; Ramachandran, Rajendran; Saravanan, Padmanapan; Koneru, Vijaya Lakshmi; Venugopal, Velmurugan; Jeong, Soon Kwan; Nirmala Grace, Andrews

    2015-02-01

    Graphene manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4-G) composite was prepared by a solvothermal process. The as-prepared graphene manganese ferrite composite was tested for the adsorption of lead (Pb(II)) and cadmium (Cd(II)) ions by analytical methods under diverse experimental parameters. With respect to contact time measurements, the adsorption of Pb and Cd ions increased and reached equilibrium within 120 and 180 min at 37 °C with a maximum adsorption at pH 5 and 7 respectively. The Langmuir model correlates to the experimental data showing an adsorption capacity of 100 for Pb(II) and 76.90 mg g-1 for Cd(II) ions. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption of Pb and Cd ions onto MnFe2O4-G was spontaneous, exothermic and feasible in the range of 27-47 °C. Cytotoxicity behavior of graphene against bacterial cell membrane is well known. To better understand its antimicrobial mechanism, the antibacterial activity of graphene and MnFe2O4-G nanocomposite was compared. Under similar concentration and incubation conditions, nanocomposite MnFe2O4-G dispersion showed the highest antibacterial activity of 82%, as compared to graphene showing 37% cell loss. Results showed that the prepared composite possess good adsorption efficiency and thus could be considered as an excellent material for removal of toxic heavy metal ions as explained by adsorption isotherm. Hence MnFe2O4-G can be used as an adsorbent as well as an antimicrobial agent.

  8. A biological oil adsorption filter.

    PubMed

    Pasila, Antti

    2004-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore.

  9. Metal adsorption on mosses: Toward a universal adsorption model.

    PubMed

    González, A G; Pokrovsky, O S

    2014-02-01

    This study quantifies the adsorption of heavy metals on 4 typical moss species used for environmental monitoring in the moss bag technique. The adsorption of Cu(2+), Cd(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) onto Hypnum sp., Sphagnum sp., Pseudoscleropodium purum and Brachytecium rutabulum has been investigated using a batch reactor in a wide range of pH (1.3-11.0) and metal concentrations in solution (1.6μM-3.8mM). A Linear Programming Model (LPM) was applied for the experimental data to derive equilibrium constants and the number of surface binding sites. The surface acid-base titration performed for 4 mosses at a pH range of 3-10 in 0.1M NaNO3 demonstrated that Sphagnum sp. is the most efficient adsorbent as it has the maximal number of proton-binding sites on the surface (0.65mmol g(-1)). The pKa computed for all the moss species suggested the presence of 5 major functional groups: phosphodiester, carboxyl, phosphoryl, amine and polyphenols. The results of pH-edge experiments demonstrated that B. rutabulum exhibits the highest percentage of metal adsorption and has the highest number of available sites for most of the metals studied. However, according to the results of the constant pH "Langmuirian" isotherm, Sphagnum sp. can be considered as the strongest adsorbent, although the relative difference from other mosses is within 20%. The LPM was found to satisfactorily fit the experimental data in the full range of the studied solution parameters. The results of this study demonstrate a rather similar pattern of five metal adsorptions on mosses, both as a function of pH and as a metal concentration, which is further corroborated by similar values of adsorption constants. Therefore, despite the species and geographic differences between the mosses, a universal adsorption edge and constant pH adsorption isotherm can be recommended for 4 studied mosses. The quantitative comparison of metal adsorption with other common natural organic and inorganic materials demonstrates

  10. The Reach Address Database (RAD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores reach address information for each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams, lakes, etc) in the National Hydrology Database (NHD) Plus dataset.

  11. Chemical Principles Revisited: Chemical Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes: (1) Law of Mass Action; (2) equilibrium constant and ideal behavior; (3) general form of the equilibrium constant; (4) forward and reverse reactions; (5) factors influencing equilibrium; (6) Le Chatelier's principle; (7) effects of temperature, changing concentration, and pressure on equilibrium; and (8) catalysts and equilibrium. (JN)

  12. Adsorption Neutralization Model and Floc Growth Kinetics Properties of Aluminum Coagulants Based on Sips and Boltzmann Equations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Xian; Zhou, Chunjiao; Pang, Jing-Lin; Zhang, Panyue

    2017-02-22

    Single-molecule aluminum salt AlCl3, medium polymerized polyaluminum chloride (PAC), and high polymerized polyaluminum chloride (HPAC) were prepared in a laboratory. The characteristics and coagulation properties of these prepared aluminum salts were investigated. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and Sips adsorption isotherms were first used to describe the adsorption neutralization process in coagulation, and the Boltzmann equation was used to fit the reaction kinetics of floc growth in flocculation. It was novel to find that the experimental data fitted well with the Sips and Boltzmann equation, and the significance of parameters in the equations was discussed simultaneously. Through the Sips equation, the adsorption neutralization reaction was proved to be spontaneous and the adsorption neutralization capacity was HPAC > PAC > AlCl3. Sips equation also indicated that the zeta potential of water samples would reach a limit with the increase of coagulant dosage, and the equilibrium zeta potential values were 30.25, 30.23, and 27.25 mV for AlCl3, PAC, and HPAC, respectively. The lower equilibrium zeta potential value of HPAC might be the reason why the water sample was not easy to achieve restabilization at a high coagulant dosage. Through the Boltzmann equation modeling, the maximum average floc size formed by AlCl3, PAC, and HPAC were 196.0, 188.0, and 203.6 μm, respectively, and the halfway time of reactions were 31.23, 17.08, and 9.55 min, respectively. The HPAC showed the strongest floc formation ability and the fastest floc growth rate in the flocculation process, which might be caused by the stronger adsorption and bridging functions of Alb and Alc contained in HPAC.

  13. Response reactions: equilibrium coupling.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Eufrozina A; Nagypal, Istvan

    2006-06-01

    It is pointed out and illustrated in the present paper that if a homogeneous multiple equilibrium system containing k components and q species is composed of the reactants actually taken and their reactions contain only k + 1 species, then we have a unique representation with (q - k) stoichiometrically independent reactions (SIRs). We define these as coupling reactions. All the other possible combinations with k + 1 species are the coupled reactions that are in equilibrium when the (q - k) SIRs are in equilibrium. The response of the equilibrium state for perturbation is determined by the coupling and coupled equilibria. Depending on the circumstances and the actual thermodynamic data, the effect of coupled equilibria may overtake the effect of the coupling ones, leading to phenomena that are in apparent contradiction with Le Chatelier's principle.

  14. Computing Equilibrium Chemical Compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1995-01-01

    Chemical Equilibrium With Transport Properties, 1993 (CET93) computer program provides data on chemical-equilibrium compositions. Aids calculation of thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Information essential in design and analysis of such equipment as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical-processing equipment. CET93/PC is version of CET93 specifically designed to run within 640K memory limit of MS-DOS operating system. CET93/PC written in FORTRAN.

  15. Adsorption of radon and water vapor on commercial activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, N.M.; Ghosh, T.K.; Hines, A.L.; Loyalka, S.K.

    1995-02-01

    Equilibrium adsorption isotherms are reported for radon and water vapor on two commercial activated carbons: coconut shell Type PCB and hardwood Type BD. The isotherms of the water vapor were measured gravimetrically at 298 K. The isotherms of radon from dry nitrogen were obtained at 293, 298, and 308 K while the data for the mixture of radon and water vapor were measured at 298 K. The concentrations of radon in the gas and solid phases were measured simultaneously, once the adsorption equilibrium and the radioactive equilibrium between the radon and its daughter products were established. The shape of the isotherms was of Type III for the radon and Type V for the water vapor, according to Brunauer`s classification. The adsorption mechanism was similar for both the radon and the water vapor, being physical adsorption on the macropore surface area in the low pressure region and micropore filling near saturation pressure. The uptake capacity of radon decreased both with increasing temperature and relative humidity. The heat of adsorption data indicated that the PCB- and the BD-activated carbons provided a heterogeneous surface for radon adsorption. The equilibrium data for radon were correlated with a modified Freundlich equation.

  16. Adsorption of deamidated antibody variants on macroporous and dextran-grafted cation exchangers: II. Adsorption kinetics.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yinying; Carta, Giorgio; Ferreira, Gisela; Robbins, David

    2011-03-18

    Single and multicomponent batch adsorption kinetics were obtained for deamidated mAb variants on two commercial cation exchangers, one with an open macroporous structure--UNOsphere S--and the other with charged dextran grafts--Capto S. The adsorption kinetics for the macroporous matrix was found to be controlled largely by pore diffusion. The effective diffusivity estimated from single component data was a fraction of the mAb free solution diffusivity, and its value could be used to accurately predict the adsorption kinetics for two- and three-component systems. In this case, when two or more variants were adsorbed simultaneously, both experimental and predicted results showed a temporary overshoot of the amount adsorbed above the equilibrium value for the more deamidated variant followed by a gradual approach to equilibrium. Adsorption rates on the dextran grafted material were much faster than those observed for the macroporous matrix for both single component and simultaneous adsorption cases. In this case, no significant overshoot was observed for the more deamidated forms. The Capto S adsorption kinetics could be described well by a diffusion model with an adsorbed phase driving force for single component adsorption and for the simultaneous adsorption of multiple variants. However, this model failed to predict the adsorption kinetics when more deamidated forms pre-adsorbed on the resin were displaced by less deamidated ones. In this case, the kinetics of the displacement process was much slower indicating that the pre-adsorbed components severely hindered transport of the more strongly bound variants. Overall, the results indicate that despite the lower capacity, the macroporous resin may be more efficient in process applications where displacement of one variant by another takes place as a result of the faster and more predictable kinetics.

  17. Local non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jinwoo, Lee; Tanaka, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Local Shannon entropy lies at the heart of modern thermodynamics, with much discussion of trajectory-dependent entropy production. When taken at both boundaries of a process in phase space, it reproduces the second law of thermodynamics over a finite time interval for small scale systems. However, given that entropy is an ensemble property, it has never been clear how one can assign such a quantity locally. Given such a fundamental omission in our knowledge, we construct a new ensemble composed of trajectories reaching an individual microstate, and show that locally defined entropy, information, and free energy are properties of the ensemble, or trajectory-independent true thermodynamic potentials. We find that the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution and Landauer's principle can be generalized naturally as properties of the ensemble, and that trajectory-free state functions of the ensemble govern the exact mechanism of non-equilibrium relaxation. PMID:25592077

  18. CO2 and humidity removal system for extended Shuttle missions - CO2, H2O, and trace contaminant equilibrium testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. H.; Kissinger, L. D.

    1977-01-01

    The equilibrium relationships for the co-adsorption of CO2 and H2O on an amine coated acrylic ester are presented. The equilibrium data collection and reduction techniques are discussed. Based on the equilibrium relationship, other modes of operation of systems containing HS-C are discussed and specific space applications for HS-C are presented. Equilibrium data for 10 compounds which are found as trace contaminants in closed environments are also presented.

  19. Enhanced mercuric chloride adsorption onto sulfur-modified activated carbons derived from waste tires.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chung-Shin; Wang, Guangzhi; Xue, Sheng-Han; Ie, Iau-Ren; Jen, Yi-Hsiu; Tsai, Hsieh-Hung; Chen, Wei-Jin

    2012-07-01

    A number of activated carbons derived from waste tires were further impregnated by gaseous elemental sulfur at temperatures of 400 and 650 degrees C, with a carbon and sulfur mass ratio of 1:3. The capabilities of sulfur diffusing into the micropores of the activated carbons were significantly different between 400 and 650 degrees C, resulting in obvious dissimilarities in the sulfur content of the activated carbons. The sulfur-impregnated activated carbons were examined for the adsorptive capacity of gas-phase mercuric chloride (HgC1) by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The analytical precision of TGA was up to 10(-6) g at the inlet HgCl2 concentrations of 100, 300, and 500 microg/m3, for an adsorption time of 3 hr and an adsorption temperature of 150 degrees C, simulating the flue gas emitted from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators. Experimental results showed that sulfur modification can slightly reduce the specific surface area of activated carbons. High-surface-area activated carbons after sulfur modification had abundant mesopores and micropores, whereas low-surface-area activated carbons had abundant macropores and mesopores. Sulfur molecules were evenly distributed on the surface of the inner pores after sulfur modification, and the sulfur content of the activated carbons increased from 2-2.5% to 5-11%. After sulfur modification, the adsorptive capacity of HgCl2 for high-surface-area sulfurized activated carbons reached 1.557 mg/g (22 times higher than the virgin activated carbons). The injection of activated carbons was followed by fabric filtration, which is commonly used to remove HgCl2 from MSW incinerators. The residence time of activated carbons collected in the fabric filter is commonly about 1 hr, but the time required to achieve equilibrium is less than 10 min. Consequently, it is worthwhile to compare the adsorption rates of HgCl2 in the time intervals of < 10 and 10-60 min.

  20. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamics simultaneously operate in the Galápagos islands.

    PubMed

    Valente, Luis M; Phillimore, Albert B; Etienne, Rampal S

    2015-08-01

    Island biotas emerge from the interplay between colonisation, speciation and extinction and are often the scene of spectacular adaptive radiations. A common assumption is that insular diversity is at a dynamic equilibrium, but for remote islands, such as Hawaii or Galápagos, this idea remains untested. Here, we reconstruct the temporal accumulation of terrestrial bird species of the Galápagos using a novel phylogenetic method that estimates rates of biota assembly for an entire community. We show that species richness on the archipelago is in an ascending phase and does not tend towards equilibrium. The majority of the avifauna diversifies at a slow rate, without detectable ecological limits. However, Darwin's finches form an exception: they rapidly reach a carrying capacity and subsequently follow a coalescent-like diversification process. Together, these results suggest that avian diversity of remote islands is rising, and challenge the mutual exclusivity of the non-equilibrium and equilibrium ecological paradigms.

  1. Adsorptive removal and photocatalytic decomposition of sulfamethazine in secondary effluent using TiO2-zeolite composites.

    PubMed

    Ito, Misaki; Fukahori, Shuji; Fujiwara, Taku

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the adsorption and decomposition of sulfamethazine (SMT), which is used as a synthetic antibacterial agent and discharged into environmental water, using high-silica Y-type zeolite (HSZ-385), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and TiO2-zeolite composites. By using ultrapure water and secondary effluent as solvents, we prepared SMT solutions (10 μg/L and 10 mg/L) and used them for adsorption and photocatalytic decomposition experiments. When HSZ-385 was used as an adsorbent, rapid adsorption of SMT in the secondary effluent was confirmed, and the adsorption reached equilibrium within 10 min. The photocatalytic decomposition rate using TiO2 in the secondary effluent was lower than that in ultrapure water, and we clarified the inhibitory effect of ions and organic matter contained in the secondary effluent on the reaction. We synthesized TiO2-zeolite composites and applied them to the removal of SMT. During the treatment of 10 μg/L SMT in the secondary effluent using the composites, 76% and more than 99% of the SMT were decomposed within 2 and 4 h by photocatalysis. The SMT was selectively adsorbed onto high-silica Y-type zeolite in the composites. Resultantly, the inhibitory effect of the coexisting materials was reduced, and the composites could remove SMT more effectively compared with TiO2 alone in the secondary effluent.

  2. Modeling adsorption: Investigating adsorbate and adsorbent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Charles Edwin

    1999-12-01

    Surface catalyzed reactions play a major role in current chemical production technology. Currently, 90% of all chemicals are produced by heterogeneously catalyzed reactions. Most of these catalyzed reactions involve adsorption, concentrating the substrate(s) (the adsorbate) on the surface of the solid (the adsorbent). Pore volumes, accessible surface areas, and the thermodynamics of adsorption are essential in the understanding of solid surface characteristics fundamental to catalyst and adsorbent screening and selection. Molecular properties such as molecular volumes and projected molecular areas are needed in order to convert moles adsorbed to surface volumes and areas. Generally, these molecular properties have been estimated from bulk properties, but many assumptions are required. As a result, different literature values are employed for these essential molecular properties. Calculated molar volumes and excluded molecular areas are determined and tabulated for a variety of molecules. Molecular dimensions of molecules are important in the understanding of molecular exclusion as well as size and shape selectivity, diffusion, and adsorbent selection. Molecular dimensions can also be used in the determination of the effective catalytic pore size of a catalyst. Adsorption isotherms, on zeolites, (crystalline mineral oxides) and amorphous solids, can be analyzed with the Multiple Equilibrium Analysis (MEA) description of adsorption. The MEA produces equilibrium constants (Ki), capacities (ni), and thermodynamic parameters (enthalpies, ΔHi, and entropies, ΔSi) of adsorption for each process. Pore volumes and accessible surface areas are calculated from the process capacities. Adsorption isotherms can also be predicted for existing and new adsorbate-adsorbent systems with the MEA. The results show that MEA has the potential of becoming a standard characterization method for microporous solids that will lead to an increased understanding of their behavior in gas

  3. Characteristics of lead(II) adsorption onto "Natural Red Earth" in simulated environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahatantila, K.; Vithanage, M. S.; Seike, Y.; Okumura, M.

    2011-12-01

    Lead is considered as a non-biodegradable and potentially toxic heavy metal and it is found as a common environmental pollutant. Adsorption characteristics of Pb(II) onto natural iron and aluminum coated sand, which is called Natural Red Earth (NRE), have been studied to ascertain the effect of pH, ionic strength, initial sorbate concentrations, temperature and time. Lead(II) adsorption achieved its maximum adsorption of nearly 100% at neutral to slightly acidic conditions. The optimum pH was nearly 5.5 and 6.5 for 2.41 and 24.1 μmol/L initial Pb(II) concentrations, respectively. Lead(II) adsorption was independent of 100 fold variation of ionic strength (0.001 - 0.1), indirectly evidencing dominance of an inner-sphere surface complexation mechanism for 10 fold variation of initial Pb(II) concentrations (2.41 and 24.1 μmol/L). Adsorption edges were quantified with a 2pK generalized diffuse double layer model considering two site types, >FeOH and >AlOH, for Pb(II) binding. The modeling results better fit with the mixture of monodentate and bidentated binding of Pb(II) onto >FeOH site and bidentate binding of Pb(II) onto >AlOH site. The intrinsic constants obtained were log KFeOPb=13.93, log K(FeO)2Pb=11.88 and log K(AlO)2Pb=13.21. Time required to reach the equilibrium was also increase from 15 min to 1hr with increasing Pb(II) concentrations from 2.41 to 24.1 μmol/L. Kinetic data fitted better to pseudo second order kinetic model. Lead(II) adsorption onto NRE was better explained by Two-site Langmuir isotherm with sorption maximum of 1.39x10-2 and 2.30x10-3 mol/kg for two sites with different affinities. Negative Gibbs free energy values indicated spontaneity of Pb(II) adsorption onto NRE, and entropy and enthalpy of adsorption were 124.04 J/K mol and 17.71 KJ/mol, respectively. These results suggested that the NRE could be effectively used as a low cost candidate for removal of Pb(II) from environmental water, since use of low cost materials to treat

  4. High adsorption capacity NaOH-activated carbon for dye removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng-Chin; Tseng, Ru-Ling

    2008-04-15

    In this study, the surface coverage ratio (Sc/Sp) and monolayer cover adsorption amount per unit surface area (qmon/Sp) were employed to investigate the adsorption isotherm equilibrium of the adsorption of dyes (AB74, BB1 and MB) on NaOH-activated carbons (FWNa2, FWNa3 and FWNa4); the adsorption rate of the Elovich equation (1/b) and the ratio of 1min adsorption amount of adsorbate to the monolayer cover amount of adsorbate (q1/qmon) were employed to investigate adsorption kinetics. The qmon/Sp of NaOH-activated carbons was better than that of KOH-activated carbons prepared from the same raw material (fir wood). The Sc/Sp values of the adsorption of all adsorbates on adsorbent FWNa3 in this study were found to be higher than those in related literature. Parameters 1/b and q1 of the adsorption of dyes on activated carbons in this study were higher than those on KOH-activated carbons; the q1/qmon value of FWNa3 was the highest. The pore structure and the TPD measurement of the surface oxide groups were employed to explain the superior adsorption performance of FWNa3. A high surface activated carbon (FWNa3) with excellent adsorption performance on dyes with relation to adsorption isotherm equilibrium and kinetics was obtained in this study. Several adsorption data processing methods were employed to describe the adsorption performance.

  5. Overcoming Rapid Inactivation of Lung Surfactant: Analogies Between Competitive Adsorption and Colloid Stability

    PubMed Central

    Zasadzinski, Joseph A.; Stenger, Patrick C.; Shieh, Ian; Dhar, Prajnaparamita

    2009-01-01

    Lung surfactant (LS) is a mixture of lipids and proteins that line the alveolar air-liquid interface, lowering the interfacial tension to levels that make breathing possible. In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), inactivation of LS is believed to play an important role in the development and severity of the disease. This review examines the competitive adsorption of LS and surface-active contaminants, such as serum proteins, present in the alveolar fluids of ARDS patients, and how this competitive adsorption can cause normal amounts of otherwise normal LS to be ineffective in lowering the interfacial tension. LS and serum proteins compete for the air-water interface when both are present in solution either in the alveolar fluids or in a Langmuir trough. Equilibrium favors LS as it has the lower equilibrium surface pressure, but the smaller proteins are kinetically favored over multi-micron LS bilayer aggregates by faster diffusion. If albumin reaches the interface, it creates an energy barrier to subsequent LS adsorption that slows or prevents the adsorption of the necessary amounts of LS required to lower surface tension. This process can be understood in terms of classic colloid stability theory in which an energy barrier to diffusion stabilizes colloidal suspensions against aggregation. This analogy provides qualitative and quantitative predictions regarding the origin of surfactant inactivation. An important corollary is that any additive that promotes colloid coagulation, such as increased electrolyte concentration, multivalent ions, hydrophilic non-adsorbing polymers such as PEG, dextran, etc. or polyelectrolytes such as chitosan, added to LS, also promotes LS adsorption in the presence of serum proteins and helps reverse surfactant inactivation. The theory provides quantitative tools to determine the optimal concentration of these additives and suggests that multiple additives may have a synergistic effect. A variety of physical and chemical

  6. Dynamics and thermodynamics of toxic metals adsorption onto soil-extracted humic acid.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Medhat A; albishri, Hassan M

    2014-09-01

    Humic acids, HA represent a large portion of natural organic matter in soils, sediments and waters. They are environmentally important materials due to their extensive ubiquity and strong complexation ability, which can influence heavy metal removal and transportation in waters. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the adsorption of Cd(II) and Cr(VI) onto solid soil-derived HA have been investigated at optimum conditions of pH (5.5±0.1), metal concentration (10-100mmolL(-1)) and different temperatures (293-323K). The suitability of adsorption models such as Freundlich and Langmuir to equilibrium data was investigated. The adsorption was well described by Langmuir isotherm model in multi-detectable steps. Adsorption sites, i (i=A, B, C) with different capacities, νi are characterized. The stoichiometric site capacity is independent of temperature and equilibrium constant, Ki. Adsorption sites A and B are selectively occupied by Cr(VI) cations while sites A and C are selectively occupied by Cd(II) cations. The thermodynamic parameters of adsorption systems are correlated for each adsorption step. The adsorption is endothermic, spontaneous and favorable. Different kinetic models are applied and the adsorption of these heavy metals onto HA follows pseudo-second-order kinetics and equilibrium is achieved within 24h. The adsorption reaction is controlled by diffusion processes and the type of the adsorption is physical.

  7. Determination of nonaxisymmetric equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Elkin, D.

    1980-01-01

    The Princeton Equilibrium Code is modified to determine the equilibrium surfaces for a large aspect ratio toroidal system with helical magnetic fields. The code may easily be made to include any variety of modes. Verification of the code is made by comparison with an analytic solution for l = 3. Previously observed shifting of the magnetic axis with increasing pressure or with a changed externally applied vertical field is obtained. The case l = 0, a bumpy torus, gives convergence only for the lenient convergence tolerance of epsilon/sub b/ = 1.0 x 10-/sup 2/.

  8. Beyond Equilibrium Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öttinger, Hans Christian

    2005-01-01

    Beyond Equilibrium Thermodynamics fills a niche in the market by providing a comprehensive introduction to a new, emerging topic in the field. The importance of non-equilibrium thermodynamics is addressed in order to fully understand how a system works, whether it is in a biological system like the brain or a system that develops plastic. In order to fully grasp the subject, the book clearly explains the physical concepts and mathematics involved, as well as presenting problems and solutions; over 200 exercises and answers are included. Engineers, scientists, and applied mathematicians can all use the book to address their problems in modelling, calculating, and understanding dynamic responses of materials.

  9. Study of adsorption mechanism of heavy metals onto waste biomass (wheat bran).

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Kangawa, Moe; Tominaga, Hisato; Tanaka, Yuko; Ueda, Ayaka; Iwata, Yuka; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2013-01-01

    In this study, raw wheat bran (R-WB), a type of waste biomass (WB) was treated with Pectinase PL (P-WB), and the properties (yield percentage, carboxy group surface concentration, the solution pH, and specific surface area) of R-WB and P-WB were investigated. The surface concentration of carboxy groups on R-WB (3.56 mmol/g) was greater than that of P-WB (2.11 mmol/g). In contrast, the specific surface area of P-WB (24.98 m²/g) was greater than that of R-WB (3.25 m²/g). In addition, the adsorption of cadmium and lead ions to WB was evaluated. Adsorption of the heavy-metal ions reached equilibrium within 9 h, and the experimental data was fitted to a pseudo-second-order model. More heavy-metal ions were adsorbed onto R-WB than onto P-WB. The correlation coefficient between the amount of ions adsorbed and the number of carboxy groups or pectin exceeded 0.884 and 0.975, respectively. This study indicated that wheat bran was useful for the removal of cadmium or lead ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorption mechanism of cadmium and lead ions to WB was associated with presence of carboxy group in pectin.

  10. Adsorption hysteresis in nanopores

    PubMed

    Neimark; Ravikovitch; Vishnyakov

    2000-08-01

    Capillary condensation hysteresis in nanopores is studied by Monte Carlo simulations and the nonlocal density functional theory. Comparing the theoretical results with the experimental data on low temperature sorption of nitrogen and argon in cylindrical channels of mesoporous siliceous molecular sieves of MCM-41 type, we have revealed four qualitatively different sorption regimes depending on the temperature and pore size. As the pore size increases at a given temperature, or as the temperature decreases at a given pore size, the following regimes are consequently observed: volume filling without phase separation, reversible stepwise capillary condensation, irreversible capillary condensation with developing hysteresis, and capillary condensation with developed hysteresis. We show that, in the regime of developed hysteresis (pores wider than 5 nm in the case of nitrogen sorption at 77 K), condensation occurs spontaneously at the vaporlike spinodal while desorption takes place at the equilibrium. A quantitative agreement is found between the modeling results and the experimental hysteresis loops formed by the adsorption-desorption isotherms. The results obtained provide a better understanding of the general behavior of confined fluids and the specifics of sorption and phase transitions in nanomaterials.

  11. Moisture adsorption isotherms and glass transition temperature of pectin.

    PubMed

    Basu, Santanu; Shivhare, U S; Muley, S

    2013-06-01

    The moisture adsorption isotherms of low methoxyl pectin were determined at 30-70°C and water activity ranging from 0.11 to 0.94. The moisture adsorption isotherms revealed that the equilibrium moisture content increased with water activity. Increase in temperature, in general, resulted in decreased equilibrium moisture content. However in some cases, equilibrium moisture content values increased with temperature at higher water activities. Selected sorption models (GAB, Halsey, Henderson, Oswin, modified Oswin) were tested for describing the adsorption isotherms. Parameters of each sorption models were determined by nonlinear regression analysis. Oswin model gave the best fit for pectin sorption behaviour. Isosteric heat of sorption decreased with increase in moisture content and varied between 14.607 and 0.552 kJ/mol. Glass transition temperature decreased with increase in moisture content of pectin.

  12. Removal of hazardous pharmaceutical dyes by adsorption onto papaya seeds.

    PubMed

    Weber, Caroline Trevisan; Collazzo, Gabriela Carvalho; Mazutti, Marcio Antonio; Foletto, Edson Luiz; Dotto, Guilherme Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds were used as adsorbent to remove toxic pharmaceutical dyes (tartrazine and amaranth) from aqueous solutions, in order to extend application range. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature were investigated. The kinetic data were evaluated by the pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and Elovich models. The equilibrium was evaluated by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. It was found that adsorption favored a pH of 2.5, temperature of 298 K and equilibrium was attained at 180-200 min. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo second-order model, and the equilibrium was well represented by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities were 51.0 and 37.4 mg g(-1) for tartrazine and amaranth, respectively. These results revealed that papaya seeds can be used as an alternative adsorbent to remove pharmaceutical dyes from aqueous solutions.

  13. Adsorption of Pyrene onto the Agricultural By-Product: Corncob.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojun; Tong, Dongli; Allinson, Graeme; Jia, Chunyun; Gong, Zongqing; Liu, Wan

    2016-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of pyrene on corncob was studied to provide a theoretical basis for the possible use of this material as an immobilized carrier for improving the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil. The results were as follows. Kinetic experiments showed that the adsorption processes obeyed a pseudo-second-order model. The intraparticle diffusion of Weber-Morris model fitting showed that the film and intraparticle diffusions were the key rate-limiting processes, and the adsorption process mainly consisted of three steps: boundary layer diffusion and two intra-particle diffusions. Experimental adsorption data for pyrene were successfully described by the adsorption-partition equilibrium model. The maximum adsorption capacity at 25°C was 214.8 μg g(-1). The adsorption contribution decreased significantly when the Ce/Sw (the equilibrium concentration/solubility in water) was higher than 1. Adsorption decreased with increased temperature. Based on the above results, the corncob particles could be helpful in the bioremediation of pyrene-contaminated soil.

  14. Preparation of organic sulfur adsorbent from coal for adsorption of dibenzothiophene-type compounds in diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cigdem Shalaby; Xiaoliang Ma; Anning Zhou; Chunshan Song

    2009-05-15

    High-performance organic sulfur adsorbents (OSA) have been prepared from coal by chemical activation for selective adsorption of the refractory sulfur compounds, such as 4-methyl dibenzothiophene and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene, in diesel fuel. The performance of the prepared OSAs for adsorptive desulfurization (ADS) was evaluated in batch and flow adsorption systems at room temperature using a model diesel fuel. It was found that coal rank and preparation conditions, including activation agents (NaOH, KOH, and NaOH + KOH) and their ratio to coal, activation temperature, and time have significant impacts on the yield and ADS performance of the OSAs. The high-performance OSAs can be prepared from different ranks of coal by using NaOH + KOH as an activation agent with an activating-agent-to-coal ratio of 3.5. The yield of OSA increased in the order of lignite < high volatile bituminous coal < medium volatile bituminous coal < anthracite. The OSA-A, which was derived from an anthracite with the highest yield (68 wt %) by the activation at 650{sup o}C for 1 h, gave the best ADS performance among the OSAs from all coal samples tested. The sulfur adsorption capacity of OSA-A reached 0.281 mmol-S/g-A at an equilibrium sulfur concentration of 50 ppmw in the model diesel fuel, which was 155% higher than a commercial coal-derived activated carbon and 35% higher than the best commercial activated carbon among all commercial activated carbons examined in our laboratory. The higher ADS capacity of OSA-A can be attributed to its significantly higher density (2.77 {mu}mol/m{sup 2}) of the adsorption sites on the surface as determined by Langmuir adsorption isotherm, which is related to its oxygen-containing functional groups on the carbonaceous surface as revealed by temperature-programmed desorption analysis. 57 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 for efficient adsorption and removal of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Niknam Shahrak, Mahdi; Ghahramaninezhad, Mahboube; Eydifarash, Mohsen

    2017-04-01

    Heavy metals are emerging toxic pollutants in which the development of advanced materials for their efficient adsorption and separation is thus of great significance in environmental sciences point of view. In this study, one of the zinc-based zeolitic imidazolate framework materials, known as ZIF-8, has been synthesized and used for chromium(VI) contaminant removal from water for the first time. The as-synthesized ZIF-8 adsorbent was characterized with different methodologies such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo-gravimetric analysis, FT-IR, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectra of solid state. Various factors affecting removal percentage (efficiency) are experimentally investigated including pH of solution, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial concentration of Cr(VI) to achieve the optimal condition. The obtained results indicate that the ZIF-8 shows good performance for the Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution so that 60 min mixing of 2 g of ZIF-8 adsorbent with the 2.5 ppm of Cr(VI) solution in a neutral environment will result in the highest separation efficiency around 70%. The time needed to reach the equilibrium (maximum separation efficiency) is only 60 min for a concentration of 5 mg L(-1). Structure stability in the presence of water is also carefully examined by XRD determination of ZIF-8 under different contact times in aqueous solution, which suggests that the structure is going to be destructed after 60 min immersed in solution. Electrostatic interaction of Cr(VI) anions by positively charged ZIF-8 is responsible for Cr(VI) adsorption and separation. Moreover, equilibrium adsorption study reveals that the Cr(VI) removal process using ZIF-8 nicely fits the Langmuir and Toth isotherm models which mean the adsorbent has low heterogeneous surface with different distributions of adsorption energies during Cr(VI) adsorption. Equilibrium adsorption capacity is observed around 0.25 for 20 mg L(-1) of initial Cr

  16. Methylene blue adsorption on graphene oxide/calcium alginate composites.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhui; Du, Qiuju; Liu, Tonghao; Sun, Jiankun; Wang, Yonghao; Wu, Shaoling; Wang, Zonghua; Xia, Yanzhi; Xia, Linhua

    2013-06-05

    Graphene oxide has been used as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment. However, the dispersibility in aqueous solution and the biotoxicity to human cells of graphene oxide limits its practical application in environmental protection. In this research, a novel environmental friendly adsorbent, calcium alginate immobilized graphene oxide composites was prepared. The effects of pH, contact time, temperature and dosage on the adsorption properties of methylene blue onto calcium alginate immobilized graphene oxide composites were investigated. The equilibrium adsorption data were described by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm equation was 181.81 mg/g. The pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and intraparticle diffusion equation were used to evaluate the kinetic data. Thermodynamic analysis of equilibriums indicated that the adsorption reaction of methylene blue onto calcium alginate immobilized graphene oxide composites was exothermic and spontaneous in nature.

  17. An Updated Equilibrium Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Emeric

    2008-01-01

    A device that can demonstrate equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic concepts is described. The device consists of a leaf blower attached to a plastic container divided into two chambers by a barrier of variable size and form. Styrofoam balls can be exchanged across the barrier when the leaf blower is turned on and various air pressures are…

  18. Adsorption Behavior of Pb(II) Onto Potassium Polytitanate Nanofibres.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Mohammad; Tiling, Leonard D; El Saliby, Ibrahim; McDonagh, Andrew; Kim, Jong-Beom; Kim, Jong-Ho; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2016-02-01

    Potassium polytitanate nanofibres prepared by a hydrothermal method were investigated for their possible application in removing toxic metals from aqueous solution. Particular attention was paid to employing the titanate as a novel effective adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II). Batch adsorption experiments demonstrated that the adsorption was influenced by various conditions such as solution pH, adsorbent dosage and initial Pb(II) concentration. The results showed that the adsorption rate was faster in the first 5 min and equilibrium was achieved after 180 min. The maximum amount of adsorption was detected at pH 5. Potassium titanate showed much higher adsorption capacity compared to P25. The kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption of Pb(II) onto titanate best fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. FTIR spectra revealed that the hydroxyl groups in titanate were responsible for Pb(II) adsorption. The principal mechanism of the adsorption of Pb(II) in the present study is attributed to both ion exchange and oxygen bonding. The adsorption-desorption results demonstrated that the titanate could be readily regenerated after adsorption. Therefore, the present titanate exhibits great potential for the removal of Pb(II) from wastewater.

  19. [Thermodynamics adsorption and its influencing factors of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on the bentonite and humus].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Jun; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jin-Chi; Zai, De-Xin; Zhao, Rong

    2010-11-01

    The adsorption of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on bentonite and humus was investigated by using the equilibrium oscillometry. The adsorption capacity of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on humus was great higher than bentonite at the same concentration. Equilibrium data of Langmuir, Freundlich isotherms showed significant relationship to the adsorption of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on humus (chlorpyrifos: R2 0.996 4, 0.996 3; triazophos: R2 0.998 9, 0.992 4). Langmuir isotherm was the best for chlorpyrifos and triazophos on bentonite (chlorpyrifos: R2 = 0.995 7, triazophos: R2 = 0.998 9). The pH value, adsorption equilibrium time and temperature were the main factors affecting adsorption of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on bentonite and humus. The adsorption equilibrium time on mixed adsorbent was 12h for chlorpyrifos and 6h for triazophos respectively. The mass ratio of humus and bentonite was 12% and 14% respectively, the adsorption of chlorpyrifos and triazophos was the stronglest and tended to saturation. At different temperatures by calculating the thermodynamic parameters deltaG, deltaH and deltaS, confirmed that the adsorption reaction was a spontaneous exothermic process theoretically. The adsorption was the best when the pH value was 6.0 and the temperature was 15 degrees C.

  20. In situ and Ex situ adsorption and recovery of betalains from hairy root cultures of Beta vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Rudrappa, Thimmaraju; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi; Aswathanarayana, Ravishankar G

    2004-01-01

    Various adsorbents were screened for in situ recovery of betalain pigments effluxed from hairy root cultures of red beet, Beta vulgaris. Alumina/silica (1:1) appeared ideal, showing in situ adsorption of 97% in a unit time of 30 min accounting for in situ recovery of 71.39% of the total betalaine effluxed. Other adsorbents such as Amberlite series (XAD-2 and -4), cyclodextrin, maltodextrin, dextrin white, and starches such as wheat starch and corn starch exhibited very poor in situ adsorption properties. Pretreatment of adsorbents with methanol significantly improved the adsorption capacities of some of the adsorbents, with a highest adsorption of 97.2% for alumina followed by alumina/silica (1:1) and higher adsorption by XAD-2 and -4. Complete in situ adsorption equilibrium was reached in 20 min for a solution containing 2.5 mg mL(-)(1) of betalain in adsorbents alumina, silica, and a mixture of alumina and silica. In situ betalain adsorption parameters for alumina/silica were determined using the Langmuir isotherm model where the adsorption capacity was found to be 0.174 mg g(-)(1) and the adsorption energy was 0.9 at pH 5.5 and 25 degrees C. Desorption of pigments from the adsorbents was invariably highest in poor adsorbents, indicating their poor adsorption energy for betalaines. Similarly, recovery by desorption was low in those adsorbents having high adsorption capacity, indicating that adsorbents such as activated ones with highest adsorption capacity with zero desorption property were unsuitable for the recovery of effluxed pigments. Ex situ recovery of betalain done using various combinations of alumina/silica and processed sand and different column geometries indicated that alumina with processed sand at a 2:1 ratio (w/w) and a minimum column material of 2 cm height and 2 cm diameter was good enough to cause 97% pigment adsorption from a solution containing 1.6 mg mL(-)(1). Desorption and recovery of pigments ex situ from columns were affected by various

  1. Adsorptive Removal and Adsorption Kinetics of Fluoroquinolone by Nano-Hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yajun; Lan, Tao; Duan, Lunchao; Wang, Fenghe; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Shengtian; Wei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Various kinds of antibiotics, especially fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs) have been widely used for the therapy of infectious diseases in human and livestock. For their poorly absorbed by living organisms, large-scale misuse or abuse of FQs will foster drug resistance among pathogenic bacteria, as well as a variety of environmental problems when they were released in the environment. In this work, the adsorption properties of two FQs, namely norfloxacin (NOR) and ciprofloxacin (CIP), by nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAP) were studied by batch adsorption experiments. The adsorption curves of FQs by n-HAP were simulated by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results shown that NOR and CIP can be adsorbed effectively by the adsorbent of n-HAP, and the adsorption capacity of FQs increase with increasing dosage of n-HAP. The optimum dosage of n-HAP for FQs removal was 20 g · L(-1), in which the removal efficiencies is 51.6% and 47.3%, and an adsorption equilibrium time is 20 min. The maximum removal efficiency occurred when pH is 6 for both FQs. The adsorption isotherm of FQs fits well for both Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The adsorption of both FQs by n-HAP follows second-order kinetics.

  2. Adsorptive Removal and Adsorption Kinetics of Fluoroquinolone by Nano-Hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yajun; Lan, Tao; Duan, Lunchao; Wang, Fenghe; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Shengtian; Wei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Various kinds of antibiotics, especially fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs) have been widely used for the therapy of infectious diseases in human and livestock. For their poorly absorbed by living organisms, large-scale misuse or abuse of FQs will foster drug resistance among pathogenic bacteria, as well as a variety of environmental problems when they were released in the environment. In this work, the adsorption properties of two FQs, namely norfloxacin (NOR) and ciprofloxacin (CIP), by nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAP) were studied by batch adsorption experiments. The adsorption curves of FQs by n-HAP were simulated by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results shown that NOR and CIP can be adsorbed effectively by the adsorbent of n-HAP, and the adsorption capacity of FQs increase with increasing dosage of n-HAP. The optimum dosage of n-HAP for FQs removal was 20 g·L-1, in which the removal efficiencies is 51.6% and 47.3%, and an adsorption equilibrium time is 20 min. The maximum removal efficiency occurred when pH is 6 for both FQs. The adsorption isotherm of FQs fits well for both Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The adsorption of both FQs by n-HAP follows second-order kinetics. PMID:26698573

  3. [Phosphate sorption characteristics onto sediments in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-li; Pan, Gang; Bao, Hua-ying; Zhang, Xian-wei; Chen, Hao; Guo, Bo-shu

    2008-08-01

    The equilibrium phosphate concentration (EPC0) of the Yellow River bed sediments has been measured, which was used to predict whether bed sediments are acting as a source or sink of soluble reactive phosphate (SRP). The modified Langmuir isotherm equation was used to describe phosphate (P) sorption on the Yellow River sediments. The maximum P sorption capacity (PAC) and P-binding energy constant (k) were obtained by the modified Langmuir isotherm model. Native adsorbed exchangeable phosphorus (NAP), the EPC0, and partitioning coefficients (Kp) were subsequently calculated by the corresponding formulae. The influence of pH values and ion strength were evaluated. All the EPC0 s are higher than the P concentration in the overlying water, indicating a potential source of phosphate from the sediments. PAC is linearly related to the contents of TOC of the sediment. The sorption capacity of P increased rapidly with pH below 6.0, and then reached a plateau between pH 6.0 to 9.7, and finally maintained at a slightly higher level from pH 9.7 to 12.0.The adsorption of P by the sediment decreased with the increase in Ca2+ ionic strength.

  4. Characterization and evaluation of a macroporous adsorbent for possible use in the expanded bed adsorption of flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba L.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Chase, Howard A

    2009-12-11

    The suitability of the use of macroporous adsorbent Amberlite XAD7HP in expanded bed adsorption processes for the isolation of flavonoids from crude extracts of Ginkgo biloba L. has been assessed. The expansion and hydrodynamic properties of expanded beds were investigated and analyzed. The bed expansion as a function of operational fluid velocity was measured and correlated with the Richardson-Zaki equation. Theoretical predictions of the correlation parameters (the terminal settling velocity u(t) and exponent n) were improved by modifying equations in the literature. Residence time distributions (RTDs) were studied using acetone as a tracer. Three measures of liquid phase dispersion (the height equivalent of theoretical plate, Bodenstein number and axial distribution coefficient) were investigated and compared to values previously obtained with commercial EBA adsorbents developed for protein purification. A suitable bed expansion ratio was found to be 1.25 times the settled bed height, which occurred at a corresponding flow velocity of 183 cm/h. For an initial settled bed height of 42 cm, the mean residence time of liquid in the expanded bed was around 28 min. Under these flow conditions, the axial mixing coefficient D(ax) was 7.54 x 10(-6) m(2)/s and the Bodenstein number was 28; the number of theoretical plates (N) was 19 and the height equivalent of a theoretical plate (HETP) was 2.77 cm. Rutin trihydrate was used as a model flavonoid for the characterization of the adsorption properties of Amberlite XAD7HP. Adsorption was observed to reach equilibrium within 3 h with 70% of the adsorption capacity being achieved within 30 min. The estimated maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity for rutin was estimated to be 43.0 mg/(gresin) when the results were fitted to Langmuir isotherms. The adsorption performance was not seriously impaired by the physical presence of G. biloba leaf powders. Assessment of the kinetics of the adsorption of rutin revealed that the rate

  5. Fluorocarbon Adsorption in Hierarchical Porous Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Motkuri, Radha K.; Annapureddy, Harsha V.; Vijayakumar, M.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Martin, P F.; McGrail, B. Peter; Dang, Liem X.; Krishna, Rajamani; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2014-07-09

    The adsorption behavior of a series of fluorocarbon derivatives was examined on a set of microporous metal organic framework (MOF) sorbents and another set of hierarchical mesoporous MOFs. The microporous M-DOBDC (M = Ni, Co) showed a saturation uptake capacity for R12 of over 4 mmol/g at a very low relative saturation pressure (P/Po) of 0.02. In contrast, the mesoporous MOF MIL-101 showed an exceptionally high uptake capacity reaching over 14 mmol/g at P/Po of 0.4. Adsorption affinity in terms of mass loading and isosteric heats of adsorption were found to generally correlate with the polarizability of the refrigerant with R12 > R22 > R13 > R14 > methane. These results suggest the possibility of exploiting MOFs for separation of azeotropic mixtures of fluorocarbons and use in eco-friendly fluorocarbon-based adsorption cooling and refrigeration applications.

  6. Photocatalytic TMO-NMs adsorbent: Temperature-Time dependent Safranine degradation, sorption study validated under optimized effective equilibrium models parameter with standardized statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, Rizwan; Khan, Farheen; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, chemically synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs), were employed for two processes: one is photocatalytic degradation and second one adsorption for the sorption of safranine (SA) dye in an aqueous medium at pH = 12.01. The optimized analytes amount (nano-adsorbent = 0.10 g, conc. range of SA dye 56.13 ppm to 154.37 ppm, pH = 12.01, temperature 303 K) reached to equilibrium point in 80 min, which acquired for chemical adsorption-degradation reactions. The degredated SA dye data’s recorded by UV-visible spectroscopy for the occurrence of TMO-NMs of CuO-NPs at anticipated period of interval. The feasible performance of CuO-NPs was admirable, shows good adsorption capacity qm = 53.676 mg g‑1 and most convenient to best fitted results establish by linear regression equation, corresponded for selected kinetic model (pseudo second order (R2 = 0.9981), equilibrium isotherm models (Freundlich, Langmuir, Dubnin-Radushkevich (D-R), Temkin, H-J and Halsey), and thermodynamic parameters (∆H° = 75461.909 J mol‑1, ∆S° = 253.761 J mol‑1, ∆G° = ‑1427.93 J mol‑1, Ea = 185.142 J mol‑1) with error analysis. The statistical study revealed that CuO-NPs was an effective adsorbent certified photocatalytic efficiency (η = 84.88%) for degradation of SA dye, exhibited more feasibility and good affinity toward adsorbate, the sorption capacity increases with increased temperature at equilibrium point.

  7. Photocatalytic TMO-NMs adsorbent: Temperature-Time dependent Safranine degradation, sorption study validated under optimized effective equilibrium models parameter with standardized statistical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Rizwan; Khan, Farheen; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, chemically synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs), were employed for two processes: one is photocatalytic degradation and second one adsorption for the sorption of safranine (SA) dye in an aqueous medium at pH = 12.01. The optimized analytes amount (nano-adsorbent = 0.10 g, conc. range of SA dye 56.13 ppm to 154.37 ppm, pH = 12.01, temperature 303 K) reached to equilibrium point in 80 min, which acquired for chemical adsorption-degradation reactions. The degredated SA dye data’s recorded by UV-visible spectroscopy for the occurrence of TMO-NMs of CuO-NPs at anticipated period of interval. The feasible performance of CuO-NPs was admirable, shows good adsorption capacity qm = 53.676 mg g−1 and most convenient to best fitted results establish by linear regression equation, corresponded for selected kinetic model (pseudo second order (R2 = 0.9981), equilibrium isotherm models (Freundlich, Langmuir, Dubnin-Radushkevich (D-R), Temkin, H-J and Halsey), and thermodynamic parameters (∆H° = 75461.909 J mol−1, ∆S° = 253.761 J mol−1, ∆G° = −1427.93 J mol−1, Ea = 185.142 J mol−1) with error analysis. The statistical study revealed that CuO-NPs was an effective adsorbent certified photocatalytic efficiency (η = 84.88%) for degradation of SA dye, exhibited more feasibility and good affinity toward adsorbate, the sorption capacity increases with increased temperature at equilibrium point. PMID:28195174

  8. Mercury adsorption properties of sulfur-impregnated adsorbents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hsi, N.-C.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Chen, S.; Chang, R.

    2002-01-01

    Carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous adsorbents were impregnated with elemental sulfur to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of the adsorbents and their equilibrium mercury adsorption capacities. Simulated coal combustion flue gas conditions were used to determine the equilibrium adsorption capacities for Hg0 and HgCl2 gases to better understand how to remove mercury from gas streams generated by coal-fired utility power plants. Sulfur was deposited onto the adsorbents by monolayer surface deposition or volume pore filling. Sulfur impregnation increased the total sulfur content and decreased the total and micropore surface areas and pore volumes for all of the adsorbents tested. Adsorbents with sufficient amounts of active adsorption sites and sufficient microporous structure had mercury adsorption capacities up to 4,509 ??g Hg/g adsorbent. Elemental sulfur, organic sulfur, and sulfate were formed on the adsorbents during sulfur impregnation. Correlations were established with R2>0.92 between the equilibrium Hg0/HgCl2 adsorption capacities and the mass concentrations of elemental and organic sulfur. This result indicates that elemental and organic sulfur are important active adsorption sites for Hg0 and HgCl2.

  9. Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccotti, Giovanni; Kapral, Raymond; Sergi, Alessandro

    Statistical mechanics provides a well-established link between microscopic equilibrium states and thermodynamics. If one considers systems out of equilibrium, the link between microscopic dynamical properties and non-equilibrium macroscopic states is more difficult to establish [1,2]. For systems lying near equilibrium, linear response theory provides a route to derive linear macroscopic laws and the microscopic expressions for the transport properties that enter the constitutive relations. If the system is displaced far from equilibrium, no fully general theory exists to treat such systems. By restricting consideration to a class of non-equilibrium states which arise from perturbations (linear or non-linear) of an equilibrium state, methods can be developed to treat non-equilibrium states. Furthermore, non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulation methods can be devised to provide estimates for the transport properties of these systems.

  10. Improved selective cholesterol adsorption by molecularly imprinted poly(methacrylic acid)/silica (PMAA-SiO₂) hybrid material synthesized with different molar ratios.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Débora Nobile; Pires, Igor Matheus Ruiz; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira

    2014-11-01

    The present paper describes the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer - poly(methacrylic acid)/silica and reports its performance feasibility with desired adsorption capacity and selectivity for cholesterol extraction. Two imprinted hybrid materials were synthesized at different methacrylic acid (MAA)/tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) molar ratios (6:1 and 1:5) and characterized by FT-IR, TGA, SEM and textural data. Cholesterol adsorption on hybrid materials took place preferably in apolar solvent medium, especially in chloroform. From the kinetic data, the equilibrium time was reached quickly, being 12 and 20 min for the polymers synthesized at MAA/TEOS molar ratio of 6:1 and 1:5, respectively. The pseudo-second-order model provided the best fit for cholesterol adsorption on polymers, confirming the chemical nature of the adsorption process, while the dual-site Langmuir-Freundlich equation presented the best fit to the experimental data, suggesting the existence of two kinds of adsorption sites on both polymers. The maximum adsorption capacities obtained for the polymers synthesized at MAA/TEOS molar ratios of 6:1 and 1:5 were found to be 214.8 and 166.4 mg g(-1), respectively. The results from isotherm data also indicated higher adsorption capacity for both imprinted polymers regarding to corresponding non-imprinted polymers. Nevertheless, taking into account the retention parameters and selectivity of cholesterol in the presence of structurally analogue compounds (5-α-cholestane and 7-dehydrocholesterol), it was observed that the polymer synthesized at the MAA/TEOS molar ratio of 6:1 was much more selective for cholesterol than the one prepared at the ratio of 1:5, thus suggesting that selective binding sites ascribed to the carboxyl group from MAA play a central role in the imprinting effect created on MIP.

  11. [Kinetics of adsorption of Pb2+ onto small river sediment].

    PubMed

    Shi, Gui-Tao; Chen, Zhen-Lou; Bi, Chun-Juan; Sun, Chao; Sun, Yue-Di; Xu, Shi-Yuan

    2009-06-15

    The batch experiments of adsorption of Pb2+ onto small river sediments were conducted. The kinetics of the sorption process was analyzed. The results showed that the equilibrium time of adsorption increased with the increasing of sediment mass in solution, while both adsorbed Pb2+ on per unit of sediment and Pb2+ concentration in the solution after equilibrium decreased. More than 95% of Pb2+ in solution was removed when sediment contents larger than 0.6 g x L(-1). Both pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics were tested and it was found that the latter gave a better explanation of the adsorption process. The equilibrium adsorption capacities calculated from the pseudo-second-order model could represent the true value. There was no significant correlation between initial adsorption rate of Pb2+ and the amount of sediment in solution. However, the pseudo-second-order rate constant increased in the solution with more adsorbent, namely chemical adsorption controlled the process. Elovich equation could explain the mechanism of sorption in the solution with higher contents of sediment; nevertheless, the process of low concentration of adsorbent adsorbing Pb2+ disagreed well with Elovich equation. In terms of adsorption rate in the sorption, intra-particle diffusion dominated in the more sediment solution. On the other hand, multi-linearity was presented for the adsorption rate in less adsorbent solution. The first, sharper portion represented adsorption on the external surface. The second portion indicated Pb2+ diffused gradually into the interior of particles and intra-particle diffusion controlled.

  12. Adsorption kinetics of Rhodamine-B on used black tea leaves

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Rhodamine B (Rh-B) is one of the most common pollutants in the effluents of textile industries effluents in developing countries. This study was carried out to evaluate the applicability of used black tea leaves (UBTL) for the adsorptive removal of Rh-B from aqueous system by investigating the adsorption kinetics in batch process. The effects of concentration and temperature on adsorption kinetics were examined. First-, second- and pseudo-second order kinetic equations were used to investigate the adsorption mechanism. The adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The equilibrium amount adsorbed and the equilibrium concentration were calculated from pseudo-second-order kinetic plots for different initial concentrations of Rh-B to construct the adsorption isotherm. The adsorption isotherm was well expressed by Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of UBTL to Rh-B was found to be 53.2 mg/g at pH = 2.0. The equilibrium amount adsorbed, calculated from pseudo-second-order kinetic plots, increased with temperature increase. The positive value of enthalpy of adsorption, ΔHads = 31.22 kJ/mol, suggested that the adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL at pH = 2.0 is an endothermic process. PMID:23369452

  13. [Adsorption behavior of exogenous thorium on soil contaminated by rare earth industries].

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng-ran; Jia, Xiao-yu; Duan, Tai-cheng; Qiu, Rong-liang; Chen, Hang-ting

    2009-10-15

    The adsorption behavior of exogenous thorium on soil was studied to evaluate the contaminated risk on soil. The adsorption capacity, equilibrium time, distribution coefficient and desorption ability were investigated by the experiments of static adsorption. The strong adsorption ability of exogenous thorium on soil samples was observed by high adsorption ratio (> 92%) and low desorption ratio (< 5%) in equilibrium, and the biggest distribution coefficient was over 10(4). The adsorption capacity and equilibrium time were related to soil properties. According to the results of adsorption, Freundlich equation (r > or = 0.9167) and Elovich equation (R2 > or = 0.8980) were primely fit for describing the thermodynamics and kinetics of the adsorption of exogenous thorium on soil samples, respectively, which indicated that the adsorption was belonged to the nonlinear adsorption, and was affected by the diffusion of thorium on soil surface and in mineral interbed. Sequential extraction procedure was employed to evaluate the bound fractions of exogenous thorium adsorbed on soil samples. Based on the extracted results of thorium fractions, exogenous thorium was presented in the labile nonresidual fractions (over 58%) at the low initial concentration (10(-7) - 10(-6) mol x L(-1)), and nonresidual fractions enhanced with the increase of the initial amount, meanwhile more exogenous throium was transferred to the stable residual fractions.

  14. An Updated Equilibrium Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Emeric

    2008-08-01

    A device that can demonstrate equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic concepts is described. The device consists of a leaf blower attached to a plastic container divided into two chambers by a barrier of variable size and form. Styrofoam balls can be exchanged across the barrier when the leaf blower is turned on and various air pressures are applied. Equilibrium can be approached from different distributions of balls in the container under different conditions. The Le Châtelier principle can be demonstrated. Kinetic concepts can be demonstrated by changing the nature of the barrier, either changing the height or by having various sized holes in the barrier. Thermodynamic concepts can be demonstrated by taping over some or all of the openings and restricting air flow into container on either side of the barrier.

  15. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  16. Solids Far from Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godrèche, C.

    2011-03-01

    Preface; 1. Shape and growth of crystals P. Nozières; 2. Instabilities of planar solidification fronts B. Caroli, C. Caroli and B. Roulet; 3. An introduction to the kinetics of first-order phase transition J. S. Langer; 4. Dendritic growth and related topics Y. Pomeau and M. Ben Amar; 5. Growth and aggregation far from equilibrium L. M. Sander; 6. Kinetic roughening of growing surfaces J. Krug and H. Spohn; Acknowledgements; References; Index.

  17. Molecular equilibrium with condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, C. M.; Huebner, W. F.

    1990-02-01

    Minimization of the Gibbs energy of formation for species of chemical elements and compounds in their gas and condensed phases determines their relative abundances in a mixture in chemical equilibrium. The procedure is more general and more powerful than previous abundance determinations in multiphase astrophysical mixtures. Some results for astrophysical equations of state are presented, and the effects of condensation on opacity are briefly indicated.

  18. Equilibrium Electroconvective Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, I.; Zaltzman, B.

    2015-03-01

    Since its prediction 15 years ago, hydrodynamic instability in concentration polarization at a charge-selective interface has been attributed to nonequilibrium electro-osmosis related to the extended space charge which develops at the limiting current. This attribution had a double basis. On the one hand, it has been recognized that neither equilibrium electro-osmosis nor bulk electroconvection can yield instability for a perfectly charge-selective solid. On the other hand, it has been shown that nonequilibrium electro-osmosis can. The first theoretical studies in which electro-osmotic instability was predicted and analyzed employed the assumption of perfect charge selectivity for the sake of simplicity and so did the subsequent studies of various time-dependent and nonlinear features of electro-osmotic instability. In this Letter, we show that relaxing the assumption of perfect charge selectivity (tantamount to fixing the electrochemical potential of counterions in the solid) allows for the equilibrium electroconvective instability. In addition, we suggest a simple experimental test for determining the true, either equilibrium or nonequilibrium, origin of instability in concentration polarization.

  19. Water vapor adsorption on activated carbon preadsorbed with naphtalene.

    PubMed

    Zimny, T; Finqueneisel, G; Cossarutto, L; Weber, J V

    2005-05-01

    The adsorption of water vapor on a microporous activated carbon derived from the carbonization of coconut shell has been studied. Preadsorption of naphthalene was used as a tool to determine the location and the influence of the primary adsorbing centers within the porous structure of active carbon. The adsorption was studied in the pressure range p/p0=0-0.95 in a static water vapor system, allowing the investigation of both kinetic and equilibrium experimental data. Modeling of the isotherms using the modified equation of Do and Do was applied to determine the effect of preadsorption on the mechanism of adsorption.

  20. Experimental adsorption isotherms based on inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kalogirou, E; Bassiotis, I; Artemiadi, Th; Margariti, S; Siokos, V; Roubani-Kalantzopoulou, F

    2002-09-06

    A new chromatographic perturbation method is used for studying the adsorption-desorption equilibrium in various gas-solid heterogeneous systems. It is the reversed-flow method giving accurate and precise values of many physicochemical constants including the basic and necessary adsorption isotherm values. For four inorganic oxides, namely, Cr2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and PbO, and two aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene) these adsorption isotherms have been determined through a non-linear model.

  1. Predicting protein dynamic binding capacity from batch adsorption tests.

    PubMed

    Carta, Giorgio

    2012-10-01

    The dynamic binding capacity (DBC) and its dependence on residence time influence the design and productivity of adsorption columns used in protein capture applications. This paper offers a very simple approach to predict the DBC of an adsorption column based on a measurement of the equilibrium binding capacity (EBC) and of the time needed to achieve one-half of the EBC in a batch adsorption test. The approach is based on a mass transfer kinetics model that assumes pore diffusion with a rectangular isotherm; however, the same approach is also shown to work for other systems where solute transport inside the particle occurs through other transport mechanisms.

  2. Alkali cation specific adsorption onto fcc(111) transition metal electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mills, J N; McCrum, I T; Janik, M J

    2014-07-21

    The presence of alkali cations in electrolyte solutions is known to impact the rate of electrocatalytic reactions, though the mechanism of such impact is not conclusively determined. We use density functional theory (DFT) to examine the specific adsorption of alkali cations to fcc(111) electrode surfaces, as specific adsorption may block catalyst sites or otherwise impact surface catalytic chemistry. Solvation of the cation-metal surface structure was investigated using explicit water models. Computed equilibrium potentials for alkali cation adsorption suggest that alkali and alkaline earth cations will specifically adsorb onto Pt(111) and Pd(111) surfaces in the potential range of hydrogen oxidation and hydrogen evolution catalysis in alkaline solutions.

  3. Superior Adsorption and Regenerable Dye Adsorbent Based on Flower-Like Molybdenum Disulfide Nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Sancan; Liu, Kerui; Hu, Linfeng; Teng, Feng; Yu, Pingping; Zhu, Yufang

    2017-03-01

    Herein we report superior dye-adsorption performance for flower-like nanostructure composed of two dimensional (2D) MoS2 nanosheets by a facile hydrothermal method, more prominent adsorption of cationic dye compared with anodic dye indicates the dye adsorption performance strongly depends on surface charge of MoS2 nanosheets. The adsorption mechanism of dye is analyzed, the kinetic data of dye adsorption fit well with the pseudo-second-order model, meanwhile adsorption capability at different equilibrium concentrations follows Langmuir model, indicating the favorability and feasibility of dye adsorption. The regenerable property for MoS2 with full adsorption of dye molecules by using alkaline solution were demonstrated, showing the feasibility of reuse for the MoS2, which is promising in its practical water treatment application.

  4. Superior Adsorption and Regenerable Dye Adsorbent Based on Flower-Like Molybdenum Disulfide Nanostructure

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sancan; Liu, Kerui; Hu, Linfeng; Teng, Feng; Yu, Pingping; Zhu, Yufang

    2017-01-01

    Herein we report superior dye-adsorption performance for flower-like nanostructure composed of two dimensional (2D) MoS2 nanosheets by a facile hydrothermal method, more prominent adsorption of cationic dye compared with anodic dye indicates the dye adsorption performance strongly depends on surface charge of MoS2 nanosheets. The adsorption mechanism of dye is analyzed, the kinetic data of dye adsorption fit well with the pseudo-second-order model, meanwhile adsorption capability at different equilibrium concentrations follows Langmuir model, indicating the favorability and feasibility of dye adsorption. The regenerable property for MoS2 with full adsorption of dye molecules by using alkaline solution were demonstrated, showing the feasibility of reuse for the MoS2, which is promising in its practical water treatment application. PMID:28272411

  5. Adsorption of humic acids and trace metals in natural waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    Studies concerning the interactions between suspended hydrous iron oxide and dissolved humic acids and trace metals are reported. As a major component of dissolved organic matters and its readiness for adsorption at the solid/water interface, humic acids may play a very important role in the organometallic geochemistry of suspended sediments and in determining the fate and distribution of trace metals, pesticides and anions in natural water systems. Most of the solid phases in natural waters contain oxides and hydroxides. The most simple promising theory to describe the interactions of hydrous iron oxide interface is the surface complex formation model. In this model, the adsorptions of humic acids on hydrous iron oxide may be interpreted as complex formation of the organic bases (humic acid oxyanions) with surface Fe ions. Measurements on adsorptions were made in both fresh water and seawater. Attempts have been made to fit our data to Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Adsorption equilibrium constants were determined.

  6. Reuse of Solid Waste in Adsorption of the Textile Dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meziti, Chafika; Boukerroui, Abdelhamid

    This work presents the study of the reuse of a regenerated spent bleaching earth (RSBE). The RSBE material was tested in the removal of a basic textile dye presents in aqueous solution. The effect of physicochemical parameters such as stirring speed, initial concentration, contact time and temperature have been invested and thermodynamic nature of the adsorption process was determined by calculating the ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG° values The results obtained show that the adsorption mechanism was described by the Langmuir model and the adsorption capacity, qmax (72.41 to 82.37 mg.g-1), increases with temperature (20-50 °C). The thermodynamic parameters show a presence of a strong affinity between two phases (liquid-solid) and an endothermic equilibrium adsorption process. However, the phenomenon of the adsorption kinetic follows the pseudo second order kinetic model.

  7. Effect of grain size on uranium(VI) surface complexation kinetics and adsorption additivity.

    PubMed

    Shang, Jianying; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Zachara, John M

    2011-07-15

    The contribution of variable grain sizes to uranium adsorption/desorption was studied using a sediment from the US DOE Hanford site. The sediment was wet sieved into four size fractions: coarse sand (1-2 mm), medium sand (0.2-1 mm), fine sand (0.053-0.2 mm), and clay/silt fraction (<0.053 mm). For each size fraction and their composite (sediment), batch and flow-cell experiments were performed to determine uranium adsorption isotherms and kinetic uranium adsorption and subsequent desorption. The results showed that uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics were size specific, reflecting the effects of size-specific adsorption site concentration and kinetic rate constants. The larger-size fraction had a larger mass percentage in the sediment but with a smaller adsorption site concentration and generally a slower uranium adsorption/desorption rate. The same equilibrium surface complexation reaction and reaction constant could describe uranium adsorption isotherms for all size fractions and the composite after accounting for the effect of adsorption site concentration. Mass-weighted, linear additivity was observed for both uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics in the composite. One important implication of this study is that grain-size distribution may be used to estimate uranium adsorption site and adsorption/desorption kinetic rates in heterogeneous sediments from a common location.

  8. Removal of Reactofix Navy Blue 2 GFN from aqueous solutions using adsorption techniques.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Jain, Rajeev; Varshney, Shaily; Saini, Vipin Kumar

    2007-03-15

    The wheat husk, an agricultural by-product, has been activated and used as an adsorbent for the adsorption of Reactofix Navy Blue 2 GFN from aqueous solution. In this work, adsorption of Reactofix Navy Blue 2 GFN on wheat husk and charcoal has been studied by using batch studies. The equilibrium adsorption level was determined to be a function of the solution pH, adsorbent dosage, dye concentration and contact time. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of wheat husk and charcoal for dye removal were obtained using Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters such as the free energies, enthalpies and entropies of adsorption were also evaluated. Adsorption process is considered suitable for removing color, COD from waste water.

  9. Adsorption of glucose, cellobiose, and cellotetraose onto cellulose model surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hoja, Johannes; Maurer, Reinhard J; Sax, Alexander F

    2014-07-31

    Reliable simulation of molecular adsorption onto cellulose surfaces is essential for the design of new cellulose nanocomposite materials. However, the applicability of classical force field methods to such systems remains relatively unexplored. In this study, we present the adsorption of glucose, cellobiose, and cellotetraose on model surfaces of crystalline cellulose Iα and Iβ. The adsorption of the two large carbohydrates was simulated with the GLYCAM06 force field. To validate this approach, quantum theoretical calculations for the adsorption of glucose were performed: Equilibrium geometries were studied with density functional theory (DFT) and dispersion-corrected DFT, whereas the adsorption energies were calculated with two standard density functional approximations and five dispersion-containing DFT approaches. We find that GLYCAM06 gives a good account of geometries and, in most cases, accurate adsorption energies when compared to dispersion-corrected DFT energies. Adsorption onto the (100) surface of cellulose Iα is, in general, stronger than onto the (100) surface of cellulose Iβ. Contrary to intuition, the adsorption energy is not directly correlated with the number of hydrogen bonds; rather, it is dominated by dispersion interactions. Especially for bigger adsorbates, a neglect of these interactions leads to a dramatic underestimation of adsorption energies.

  10. Probing the mechanism of water adsorption in carbon micropores with multitemperature isotherms and water preadsorption experiments.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, S W

    2006-11-21

    The phenomenon of water adsorption in carbon micropores is examined through the study of water adsorption equilibrium in molecular sieving carbon. Adsorption and desorption isotherms are obtained over a wide range of concentrations from less than 0.1% to beyond 80% of the vapor pressure. Evidence is provided in support of a proposed bimodal water adsorption mechanism that involves the interaction of water molecules with functional groups at low relative pressures and the adsorption of water molecules between graphene layers at higher pressures. Decomposition of the equilibrium isotherm data through application of the extended cooperative multimolecular sorption theory, together with favorable quantitative comparison, provides support for the proposed adsorption mechanism. Additional support is obtained from a multitemperature study of water equilibrium. Temperatures of 20, 50, and 60 degrees C were probed in this investigation in order to provide isosteric heat of adsorption data for water interaction with the carbon molecular sieve. At low loading, the derived isosteric heat of adsorption is estimated to be 69 kJ/mol. This value is indicative of the adsorption of water to functional groups. At higher loading, the isosteric heat of adsorption decreases with increasing loading and approaches the heat of condensation, indicative of adsorption between graphene layers. Further support for the proposed adsorption mechanism is derived from carbon dioxide adsorption experiments on carbon molecular sieve that is preadsorbed with various amounts of water. Significant exclusion of carbon dioxide occurs, and a quantitative analysis that is based on the proposed bimodal water adsorption mechanism is employed in this investigation.

  11. Structural design using equilibrium programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scotti, Stephen J.

    1992-01-01

    Multiple nonlinear programming methods are combined in the method of equilibrium programming. Equilibrium programming theory has been appied to problems in operations research, and in the present study it is investigated as a framework to solve structural design problems. Several existing formal methods for structural optimization are shown to actually be equilibrium programming methods. Additionally, the equilibrium programming framework is utilized to develop a new structural design method. Selected computational results are presented to demonstrate the methods.

  12. Application of surface complexation models to anion adsorption by natural materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various chemical models of ion adsorption will be presented and discussed. Chemical models, such as surface complexation models, provide a molecular description of anion adsorption reactions using an equilibrium approach. Two such models, the constant capacitance model and the triple layer model w...

  13. BORONATE AFFINITY ADSORPTION OF RNA: POSSIBLE ROLE OF CONFORMATIONAL CHANGES. (R825354)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Batch equilibrium adsorption isotherm determination is used to characterize the adsorption of mixed yeast RNA on agarose-immobilized m-aminophenylboronic acid. It is shown that the affinity-enhancing influence of divalent cations depends strongly on the precise nature of t...

  14. Competitive adsorption of molybdenum in the presence of phosphorus or sulfur on gibbsite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anion adsorption on the aluminum oxide, gibbsite was investigated as a function of solution pH (3-11) and equilibrium solution Mo (3.13, 31.3, or 313 µM), P (96.9 µM), or S (156 µM)concentration. Adsorption of all three anions decreased with increasing pH. Electrophoretic mobility measurements indi...

  15. [Adsorption of aflatoxin on montmorillonite modified by low-molecular-weight humic acids].

    PubMed

    Yao, Jia-Jia; Kang, Fu-Xing; Gao, Yan-Zheng

    2012-03-01

    The adsorption of a typical biogenic toxin aflatoxin B1 on montmorillonite modified by low-molecular-weight humic acids (M(r) < 3 500) was investigated. The montmorillonite rapidly adsorbed the aflatoxin B1 until amounting to the maximal capacity, and then the adsorbed aflatoxin B1 slowly released into solution and reached the sorption equilibrium state after 12 h. The sorption isotherm of aflatoxin B1 by montmorillonite could be well described by Langmiur model, while the sorption isotherm by humic acid-modified montmorillonite was well fitted by using the Freundlich model. The modification of the montmorillonite with humic acids obviously enhanced its adsorption capacity for aflatoxin B1, and the amounts of aflatoxin adsorbed by modified montmorillonite were obviously higher than those by montmorillonite. The sorption enhancement by humic acid modification was attributed to (1) the enlarged adsorption sites which owed to the surface collapse of crystal layers induced by organic acids, and (2) the binding of aflatoxin with the humic acid sorbed on mineral surface. In addition, the adsorption amounts of aflatoxin by montmorillonite and modified montmorillonite increased with the increase of pH values in solution, and more significant enhancement was observed for the latter than the former, which attributed to the release of humic acids from the modified montmorillonite with the high pH values in solution. This indicates that increasing the pH values resulted in the enhanced hydrophilic property and the release of the organic acids presented in modified montmorillonite, and more sorption sites were available for aflatoxin on the modified montmorillonite. Results of this work would strengthen our understanding of the behavior and fate of biological contaminants in the environment.

  16. Adsorption of phenanthrene on natural snow.

    PubMed

    Domine, Florent; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Bonnaud, Elodie; Martellini, Tania; Picaud, Sylvain

    2007-09-01

    The snowpack is a reservoir for semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and, in particular, for persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which are sequestered in winter and released to the atmosphere or hydrosphere in the spring. Modeling these processes usually assumes that SVOCs are incorporated into the snowpack by adsorption to snow surfaces, but this has never been proven because the specific surface area (SSA) of snow has never been measured together with snow composition. Here we expose natural snow to phenanthrene vapors (one of the more volatile POPs) and measure for the first time both the SSA and the chemical composition of the snow. The results are consistent with an adsorption equilibrium. The measured Henry's law constant is H(Phen)(T) = 2.88 x 10(22) exp(-10660/7) Pa m2 mol(-1), with Tin Kelvin. The adsorption enthalpy is delta H(ads) = -89 +/- 18 kJ mol(-1). We also perform molecular dynamics calculations of phenanthrene adsorption to ice and obtain AHads = -85 +/- 8 kJ mol(-1), close to the experimental value. Results are applied to the adsorption of phenanthrene to the Arctic and subarctic snowpacks. The subarctic snowpack, with a low snow area index (SAI = 1000), is a negligible reservoir of phenanthrene, butthe colder Arctic snowpack, with SAI = 2500, sequesters most of the phenanthrene present in the (snow + boundary layer) system.

  17. Thermo-chemical dynamics and chemical quasi-equilibrium of plasmas in thermal non-equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massot, Marc; Graille, Benjamin; Magin, Thierry E.

    2011-05-01

    We examine both processes of ionization by electron and heavy-particle impact in spatially uniform plasmas at rest in the absence of external forces. A singular perturbation analysis is used to study the following physical scenario, in which thermal relaxation becomes much slower than chemical reactions. First, electron-impact ionization is investigated. The dynamics of the system rapidly becomes close to a slow dynamics manifold that allows for defining a unique chemical quasi-equilibrium for two-temperature plasmas and proving that the second law of thermodynamics is satisfied. Then, all ionization reactions are taken into account simultaneously, leading to a surprising conclusion: the inner layer for short time scale (or time boundary layer) directly leads to thermal equilibrium. Global thermo-chemical equilibrium is reached within a short time scale, involving only chemical reactions, even if thermal relaxation through elastic collisions is assumed to be slow.

  18. Removal of water and iodine by solid sorbents: adsorption isotherms and kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, R.; Tavlarides, L.L.

    2013-07-01

    Tritium and iodine-129 are two major radioactive elements that are present in off-gases from spent fuel reprocessing plants. Adsorption by solid sorbents is the state-of-the-art technique for removal of these species from off-gases. Modeling and simulating adsorption processes require accurate adsorption equilibrium and kinetic data to permit reasonable estimates of process parameters. We have developed a continuous flow single-pellet adsorption system to gather accurate adsorption equilibrium and kinetic data for adsorption of water by molecular sieve 3A and for adsorption of iodine by silver exchanged mordenite. In this paper, the design of the water and iodine adsorption experimental systems are briefly described and results of water adsorption experiments are presented and discussed. Water uptake curves are fitted with the linear-driving force (LDF) model and the shrinking-core model to determine kinetic parameters. It is shown that the kinetics of water adsorption on zeolite 3A under current experimental conditions is controlled by both the external film resistance and the macro-pore diffusion and can be predicted by both the LDF model and the shrinking-core model with the former one performing slightly better. Preliminary results from iodine adsorption experiments will be presented in the conference.

  19. Removal of methylparaben from synthetic aqueous solutions using polyacrylonitrile beads: kinetic and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Forte, Maurizio; Mita, Luigi; Perrone, Rosa; Rossi, Sergio; Argirò, Mario; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Guida, Marco; Portaccio, Marianna; Godievargova, Tzonka; Ivanov, Yavour; Tamer, Mahmoud T; Omer, Ahmed M; Mohy Eldin, Mohamed S

    2017-01-01

    The removal of methylparaben (MP), a well-known endocrine disruptor, from aqueous solutions using polyacrylonitrile (PAN) beads has been studied under batch conditions, at room temperature and at different initial MP concentrations. The kinetic and equilibrium results have been analyzed. Kinetic modeling analysis has been carried out with three different types of adsorption models: pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and Elovich model. Kinetic data analysis indicated that the adsorption was a second-order process. The MP adsorption by PAN was also quantitatively evaluated by using the equilibrium adsorption isotherm models of Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R), and Temkin and the applicability of the respective isotherm equations has been compared through the correlation coefficients. Adsorption data resulted well fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. Data of MP adsorption have also been used to test different adsorption diffusion models. The diffusion rate equations inside particulate of Dumwald-Wagner and the intraparticle diffusion model have been used to calculate the diffusion rate. The actual rate-controlling step involved in the MB adsorption process was determined. The kinetic expression by Boyd gave the right indications. All together, our results indicate that PAN beads are a useful tool to remediate water bodies polluted by endocrine disruptors.

  20. Reaching All Students with Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Gilbert, Ed.; Driscoll, Mark, Ed.

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics'"Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics" and "Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics" reflect the belief that all students can learn a significant core of high-quality mathematics. Recognizing the magnitude of the task of reaching all students, this…

  1. Schools Reaching Out: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heleen, Owen

    1990-01-01

    Introduces an issue devoted to the Schools Reaching Out projects at David A. Ellis School in Roxbury (MA) and Adolph S. Ochs School in New York City. Projects attempt to link the schools with parents and their communities to promote the students' academic and social success. (DM)

  2. Reaching the "iBored"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauleke, Debra S.; Herrmann, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    As teachers, they are always looking for creative ways to engage their students. They start the school year determined to bring to the classroom creative projects that generate student interest and foster critical thinking skills. Reaching today's Gen M student is challenging and changing the way they teach. The idea of using music to teach…

  3. Americium(III) capture using phosphonic acid-functionalized silicas with different mesoporous morphologies: adsorption behavior study and mechanism investigation by EXAFS/XPS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; He, Xihong; Ye, Gang; Yi, Rong; Chen, Jing

    2014-06-17

    Efficient capture of highly toxic radionuclides with long half-lives such as Americium-241 is crucial to prevent radionuclides from diffusing into the biosphere. To reach this purpose, three different types of mesoporous silicas functionalized with phosphonic acid ligands (SBA-POH, MCM-POH, and BPMO-POH) were synthesized via a facile procedure. The structure, surface chemistry, and micromorphology of the materials were fully characterized by (31)P/(13)C/(29)Si MAS NMR, XPS, and XRD analysis. Efficient adsorption of Am(III) was realized with a fast rate to reach equilibrium (within 10 min). Influences including structural parameters and functionalization degree on the adsorption behavior were investigated. Slope analysis of the equilibrium data suggested that the coordination with Am(III) involved the exchange of three protons. Moreover, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis, in combination with XPS survey, was employed for an in-depth probe into the binding mechanism by using Eu(III) as a simulant due to its similar coordination behavior and benign property. The results showed three phosphonic acid ligands were coordinated to Eu(III) in bidentate fashion, and Eu(P(O)O)3(H2O) species were formed with the Eu-O coordination number of 7. These phosphonic acid-functionalized mesoporous silicas should be promising for the treatment of Am-containing radioactive liquid waste.

  4. Radial equilibrium of relativistic particle bunches in plasma wakefield accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotov, K. V.

    2017-02-01

    Drive particle beams in linear or weakly nonlinear regimes of the plasma wakefield accelerator quickly reach a radial equilibrium with the wakefield, which is described in detail for the first time. The equilibrium beam state and self-consistent wakefields are obtained by combining analytical relationships, numerical integration, and first-principles simulations. In the equilibrium state, the beam density is strongly peaked near the axis, the beam radius is constant along most of the beam, and longitudinal variation of the focusing strength is balanced by varying beam emittance. The transverse momentum distribution of beam particles depends on the observation radius and is neither separable nor Gaussian.

  5. The equilibrium of neural firing: A mathematical theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Sizhong

    2014-12-15

    Inspired by statistical thermodynamics, we presume that neuron system has equilibrium condition with respect to neural firing. We show that, even with dynamically changeable neural connections, it is inevitable for neural firing to evolve to equilibrium. To study the dynamics between neural firing and neural connections, we propose an extended communication system where noisy channel has the tendency towards fixed point, implying that neural connections are always attracted into fixed points such that equilibrium can be reached. The extended communication system and its mathematics could be useful back in thermodynamics.

  6. [Characteristic of ammonia nitrogen adsorption on karst underground river sediments].

    PubMed

    Guo, Fang; Chen, Kun-Kun; Jiang, Guang-Hui

    2011-02-01

    Karst aquifers are one of the most important aquifers in Southwestern China. One of the characteristics of karst aquifers is the enhanced permeability permits high flow velocities are capable of transporting suspended and bedload sediments. Mobile sediment in karst may act as a vector for the transport of contaminates. 14 sediment samples were collected from two underground rivers in two typical karst areas in Liuzhou city, Guangxi Autonomous Region, China. According to simulated experiment methods, characteristic of adsorption of ammonia nitrogen on sediment was studied. The results of ammonia nitrogen adsorption dynamics on sediments showed that the maximum adsorption velocity was less than 2 h. The adsorption balance quantity in 5 h accounted for 71% - 98% of the maximum adsorption quantity. The maximum adsorption quantity of ammonia nitrogen was 385.5 mg/kg, which was sediment from a cave in the middle areas of Guancun underground river system. The study of isotherm adsorption indicated adsorption quantity of NH4+ increase followed by incremental balance concentration of NH4+ in the aquatic phase. Adsorption quantity of ammonia nitrogen in sediments has a relative linear relationship with adsorption balance concentrations. Adsorption-desorption balance concentrations were all low, indicating sediments from underground rivers have great adsorption potential. Under the condition of low and high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen in overlying water, Langmuir and Tempkin couldn't simulate or simulate results couldn't reach remarkable level, whilst Linear and Freundlich models could simulate well. Research on different type sediments, sampling times and depths from two underground rivers shows characteristic of ammonia nitrogen adsorption on karst underground river sediments doesn't have good correspondence with the type of sediments. One of the reasons is there is no big difference between sediments in the development of climate, geology, hydrological conditions

  7. Adsorption characteristics of brilliant green dye on kaolin.

    PubMed

    Nandi, B K; Goswami, A; Purkait, M K

    2009-01-15

    Experimental investigations were carried out to adsorb toxic brilliant green dye from aqueous medium using kaolin as an adsorbent. Characterization of kaolin is done by measuring: (i) particle size distribution using particle size analyzer, (ii) BET surface area using BET surface analyzer, and (iii) structural analysis using X-ray diffractometer. The effects of initial dye concentration, contact time, kaolin dose, stirring speed, pH and temperature were studied for the adsorption of brilliant green in batch mode. Adsorption experiments indicate that the extent of adsorption is strongly dependent on pH of solution. Free energy of adsorption (DeltaG0), enthalpy (DeltaH0) and entropy (DeltaS0) changes are calculated to know the nature of adsorption. The calculated values of DeltaG0 at 299K and 323K indicate that the adsorption process is spontaneous. The estimated values of DeltaH0 and DeltaS0 both show the negative sign, which indicate that the adsorption process is exothermic and the dye molecules are organized on the kaolin surface in less randomly fashion than in solution. The adsorption kinetic has been described by first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle-diffusion models. It was observed that the rate of dye adsorption follows pseudo-second-order model for the dye concentration range studied in the present case. Standard adsorption isotherms were used to fit the experimental equilibrium data. It was found that the adsorption of brilliant green on kaolin follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  8. Thermal equilibrium of goats.

    PubMed

    Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2016-05-01

    The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation.

  9. Protein nanoparticle interaction: A spectrophotometric approach for adsorption kinetics and binding studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaishanav, Sandeep K.; Chandraker, Kumudini; Korram, Jyoti; Nagwanshi, Rekha; Ghosh, Kallol K.; Satnami, Manmohan L.

    2016-08-01

    Investigating the protein nanoparticle interaction is crucial to understand how to control the biological interactions of nanoparticles. In this work, Model protein Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used to evaluate the process of protein adsorption to the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) surface. The binding of a model protein (BSA) to GNPs was investigated through fluorescence quenching measurements. The strong affinities of BSA for GNPs were confirmed by the high value of binding constant (Ks) which was calculated to be 2.2 × 1011 L/mol. In this consequence, we also investigated the adsorption behavior of BSA on GNPs surface via UV-Vis spectroscopy. The effect of various operational parameters such as pH, contact time, initial BSA concentration, and temperature on adsorption of BSA was investigated using batch adsorption experiments. Kinetics of adsorption was found to follow the pseudo-second order rate equation. The suitability of Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models to the equilibrium data was investigated. The equilibrium adsorption was well described by the Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity for BSA adsorbed on GNPs was 58.71 mg/g and equilibrium constant was 0.0058 calculated by the Langmuir model at 298 K and pH = 11.0. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption of BSA onto GNPs was feasible, spontaneous, and exothermic.

  10. Sub-micron-sized polyethylenimine-modified polystyrene/Fe3O4/chitosan magnetic composites for the efficient and recyclable adsorption of Cu(II) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Changwei; Liu, Xijian; Mao, Shimin; Zhang, Lijuan; Lu, Jie

    2017-02-01

    A sub-micron-sized polyethylenimine(PEI)-modified polystyrene/Fe3O4/chitosan magnetic composite (PS/Fe3O4/CS-PEI) was developed as a novel adsorbent for the removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The PS/Fe3O4/CS-PEI microspheres with a diameter of ∼300 nm can be highly monodisperse and conveniently separated from suspensions by a magnet due to their excellent magnetism. When the PS/Fe3O4/CS-PEI microspheres were used as an absorbent for the absorption of Cu(II) ions, the adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics well fitted the Langmuir model and the pseudo-second-order model, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity was about 204.6 mg g-1, which was higher than those of other chitosan adsorbents reported recently. The adsorption was considerably fast, reaching the equilibrium within 15 min. In addition, the adsorbed Cu(II) ions could be effectively desorbed using 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH solution, and the regeneration study proved that the composite microspheres could be repeatedly utilized without significant capacity loss after six cycles. All the results demonstrated that the synthesized sub-micron-sized magnetic PS/Fe3O4/CS-PEI composites can be used as an ideal adsorbent of Cu(II) ions for environmental cleanup applications.

  11. Ultrasonic assisted arsenate adsorption on solvothermally synthesized calcite modified by goethite, α-MnO2 and goethite/α-MnO2.

    PubMed

    Markovski, Jasmina S; Đokić, Veljko; Milosavljević, Milutin; Mitrić, Miodrag; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra A; Onjia, Antonije E; Marinković, Aleksandar D

    2014-03-01

    A highly porous calcium carbonate (calcite; sorbent 1) was used as a support for modification with α-FeOOH (calcite/goethite; sorbent 2), α-MnO2 (calcite/α-MnO2; sorbent 3) and α-FeOOH/α-MnO2 (calcite/goethite/α-MnO2; sorbent 4) in order to obtain a cheap hybrid materials for simple and effective arsenate removal from aqueous solutions. The adsorption ability of synthesized adsorbents was studied as a function of functionalization methods, pH, contact time, temperature and ultrasonic treatment. Comparison of the adsorptive effectiveness of synthesized adsorbents for arsenate removal, under ultrasound treatment and classical stirring method, has shown better performance of the former one reaching maximum adsorption capacities of 1.73, 21.00, 10.36 and 41.94 mg g(-1), for sorbents 1-4, respectively. Visual MINTEQ equilibrium speciation modeling was used for prediction of pH and interfering ion influences on arsenate adsorption.

  12. Adsorption of Phosphate on Goethite: An Undergraduate Research Laboratory Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribe, Lorena; Barja, Beatriz C.

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory experiment on the adsorption of phosphate on goethite is presented, which also includes discussion on surface properties, interfaces, acid-base equilibrium, molecular structure and solid state chemistry. It was seen that many students were able to produce qualitatively correct results for a complex system of real interest and they…

  13. Adsorption behavior of methylene blue on carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yunjin; Xu, Feifei; Chen, Ming; Xu, Zhongxiao; Zhu, Zhiwen

    2010-05-01

    The effect of temperature on the equilibrium adsorption of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution using carbon nanotubes was investigated. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using two widely applied isotherms: Langmuir and Freundlich. The results revealed that Langmuir isotherm fit the experimental results well. Kinetic analyses were conducted using pseudo-first and second-order models and the intraparticle diffusion model. The regression results showed that the adsorption kinetics were more accurately represented by pseudo-second-order model. The activation energy of system (Ea) was calculated as 18.54 kJ/mol. Standard free energy changes (DeltaG(0)), standard enthalpy change (DeltaH(0)), and standard entropy change (DeltaS(0)) were calculated using adsorption equilibrium constants obtained from the Langmuir isotherm at different temperatures. All DeltaG(0) values were negative; the DeltaH(0) values and DeltaS(0) values of CNTs were 7.29 kJ/mol and 64.6 J/mol K, respectively. Results suggested that the methylene blue adsorption on CNTs was a spontaneous and endothermic process.

  14. [Adsorption characteristics of f2 bacteriophages by four substrates in constructed wetland].

    PubMed

    Chen, Di; Zheng, Xiang; Wei, Yuan-Song; Yang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Performance of f2 phages adsorption by four substrates including anthracite coal, steel slag, zeolite and forsterite was investigated through batch and dynamic experiments. Results of batch experiments showed that the removal efficiency of f2 phages by these four substrates was in the order of anthracite > steel slag > forsterite approximately zeolite. The adsorption of f2 phages by anthracite experienced fast, medium and slow stages, and the removal efficiency of f2 phages increased gradually with the increase of anthracite dosage, e. g. the optimized dosage of anthracite was 8.0 g at a solid/liquid ratio of 1:12.5 (m/V). The isothermal adsorption of all four substrates was described with Freundlich and Langmuir isothermal adsorption equation very well, and the adsorption of f2 phages by both anthracite and steel slag fitted pseudo-second order adsorption kinetics at their theoretical adsorption capacities of 3. 35 x 10(8) PFU.g-1 and 2.56 x 10(8) PFU.g-1, respectively, nearly the same as the equilibrium adsorption capacities obtained under the experiment conditions. And the liquid diffusion process was a rate-limiting step of the adsorption of f2 phage by both anthracite and steel slag, but not the only one. The results of dynamic adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption process of f2 phages in the three adsorption columns including anthracite, steel slag and zeolite experienced four stages of adaption, adsorption, pulse adsorption and adsorption equilibrium, and the total removal rates of f2 phages were more than 2. 55 Ig.

  15. Adsorption dynamics of colloidal ellipsoids at oil-water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Anna; Rogers, W. Benjamin; Manoharan, Vinothan N.

    Nonspherical particles at immiscible fluid interfaces have strong interactions with each other and with the curvature of the host interface. However, the dynamics of nonspherical colloidal particles attaching to an interface have not yet been studied. We use digital holographic microscopy to image micron-sized polystyrene ellipsoids breaching an oil-water interface at hundreds of frames per second. We show that the particle height and polar angle have large fluctuations, but both change approximately logarithmic with time, likely due to contact line pinning on the surface of the particle. Equilibrium is reached on a timescale at least three orders of magnitude slower than that expected from Langevin dynamics simulations. We also find that all the trajectories collapse into straight lines when we plot particle polar angle as a function of particle height, unlike the trajectories seen in simulation. The differences between experiment and simulation suggest that contact line pinning and the shape of the three phase contact line may strongly influence the dynamics of particle adsorption.

  16. The adsorption properties of Pb(II) and Cd(II) on functionalized graphene prepared by electrolysis method.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaojiao; Lü, Lili; Li, Hongwei; Luo, Fang

    2010-11-15

    The functionalized graphene (GNS(PF6)) was fabricated by simple and fast method of electrolysis with potassium hexafluorophosphate solution as electrolyte under the static potential of 15 V. The characterization results of transmission electron microscopy, atom force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis indicate that graphite rod was completely exfoliated to graphene layer containing 30 wt.% PF(6)- with the average thickness ca. 1.0 nm. Our sample of GNS(PF6) was developed for the removal of Pb(II) or Cd(II) ions from water, and the determined adsorption capacities are 406.6 mg/g (pH=5.1) for Pb(II) and 73.42 mg/g (pH=6.2) for Cd(II), which is much higher than that by our previous sample of GNS(C8P) and carbon nanotube. The adsorption processes reach equilibrium in just 40 min and the adsorption isotherms are described well by Langmuir and Freundlich classical isotherms models.

  17. Facile synthesis of hairy core-shell structured magnetic polymer submicrospheres and their adsorption of bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xianming; Kong, Juan; Yang, Chongchong; Fu, Guoqi

    2015-05-01

    Highly magnetic polymer submicrospheres with a hairy core-shell structure were facilely synthesized by combining distillation-precipitation polymerization (DPP) with subsequent surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP), and then investigated for protein adsorption. A robust polymer shell consisting of poly(divinylbenzene-co-chloromethylstyrene) (P(DVB-co-CMS)) was coated on superparamagnetic submicrometer-sized magnetite colloid nanocrystal clusters (MCNCs) via DPP. With the benzyl chloride groups on the shell as initiator, poly(2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) hairs were grafted by SI-ATRP approach. The resulting hairy core-shell structured Fe3O4@ P(DVB-co-CMS)-PDMAEMA microspheres showed pH- and temperature-sensitivity, and high-magnetization. The composite microspheres were further investigated for adsorption of a typical acidic protein, i.e. bovine serum albumin (BSA). They exhibited a high binding capacity up to over 660 mg/g (corresponding to 158 DMAEMA monomer units cooperating for binding one BSA molecule) and could rapidly reach binding equilibrium within 5 min. Moreover, the adsorption of BSA was found to be remarkably dependent on the pH and salt concentration of the protein solutions, and the bound protein could be quantitatively desorbed by washing with a medium with lowered pH or raised salt concentration.

  18. Uranium removal from aqueous solution by coir pith: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Parab, Harshala; Joshi, Shreeram; Shenoy, Niyoti; Verma, Rakesh; Lali, Arvind; Sudersanan, M

    2005-07-01

    Basic aspects of uranium adsorption by coir pith have been investigated by batch equilibration. The influence of different experimental parameters such as final solution pH, adsorbent dosage, sorption time, temperature and various concentrations of uranium on uptake were evaluated. Maximum uranium adsorption was observed in the pH range 4.0-6.0. The Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the adsorption equilibrium. The equilibrium data fitted well to both the equilibrium models in the studied concentration range of uranium (200-800 mg/l) and temperatures (305-336 K). The coir pith exhibited the highest uptake capacity for uranium at 317 K, at the final solution pH value of 4.3 and at the initial uranium concentration of 800 mg/l. The kinetics of the adsorption process followed a second-order adsorption. The adsorbent used proved to be suitable for removal of uranium from aqueous solutions. 0.2 N HCl was effective in uranium desorption. The results indicated that the naturally abundant coir pith of otherwise nuisance value exhibited considerable potential for application in removal of uranium from aqueous solution.

  19. Adsorption Refrigeration System

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kai; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption refrigeration is an environmentally friendly cooling technology which could be driven by recovered waste heat or low-grade heat such as solar energy. In comparison with absorption system, an adsorption system has no problems such as corrosion at high temperature and salt crystallization. In comparison with vapor compression refrigeration system, it has the advantages of simple control, no moving parts and less noise. This paper introduces the basic theory of adsorption cycle as well as the advanced adsorption cycles such as heat and mass recovery cycle, thermal wave cycle and convection thermal wave cycle. The types, characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of different adsorbents used in adsorption refrigeration systems are also summarized. This article will increase the awareness of this emerging cooling technology among the HVAC engineers and help them select appropriate adsorption systems in energy-efficient building design.

  20. Removal of hydrocarbons from synthetic road runoff through adsorptive filters.

    PubMed

    Vesting, Andreas; Heinz, Eva; Helmreich, Brigitte; Wichern, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Compact filter systems, which are installed to significantly reduce the load of pollutants from road runoff, are very promising treatments for urban runoff. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of activated carbon, activated lignite, zero valent iron, exfoliated graphite, amorphous ferric hydroxide, and activated alumina at removing petrol hydrocarbons from synthetic road runoff. Therefore, the kinetics and the equilibrium adsorption of petrol hydrocarbons onto these adsorbents were investigated using column adsorption experiments at levels ranging from 100 to 42 g L(-1). Of the tested adsorbents, exfoliated graphite is the most effective with a maximum adsorption capacity for petrol hydrocarbons of 3,850 mg g(-1). The experimental equilibrium data are fitted to the Freundlich and Langmuir models.

  1. Equilibrium of nematic vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napoli, Gaetano; Vergori, Luigi

    2010-11-01

    A variational scheme is proposed which allows the derivation of a concise and elegant formulation of the equilibrium equations for closed fluid membranes, endowed with a nematic microstructure. The nematic order is described by an in-plane nematic director and a degree of orientation, as customary in the theory of uniaxial nematics. The only constitutive ingredient in this scheme is a free-energy density which depends on the vesicle geometry and order parameters. The stress and the couple stress tensors related to this free-energy density are provided. As an application of the proposed scheme, a certain number of special theories are deduced: soap bubbles, lipid vesicles, chiral and achiral nematic membranes, and nematics on curved substrates.

  2. Statistical physics ""Beyond equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Ecke, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    The scientific challenges of the 21st century will increasingly involve competing interactions, geometric frustration, spatial and temporal intrinsic inhomogeneity, nanoscale structures, and interactions spanning many scales. We will focus on a broad class of emerging problems that will require new tools in non-equilibrium statistical physics and that will find application in new material functionality, in predicting complex spatial dynamics, and in understanding novel states of matter. Our work will encompass materials under extreme conditions involving elastic/plastic deformation, competing interactions, intrinsic inhomogeneity, frustration in condensed matter systems, scaling phenomena in disordered materials from glasses to granular matter, quantum chemistry applied to nano-scale materials, soft-matter materials, and spatio-temporal properties of both ordinary and complex fluids.

  3. [Adsorption of Congo red from aqueous solution on hydroxyapatite].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yan-Hui; Lin, Jian-Wei

    2013-08-01

    The adsorption of Congo red (CR) from aqueous solution on hydroxyapatite was investigated using batch experiments. The hydroxyapatite was effective for CR removal from aqueous solution. The adsorption kinetics of CR on hydroxyapatite well followed a pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium adsorption data of CR on hydroxyapatite could be described by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and showed that the adsorption of CR on hydroxyapatite was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The CR adsorption capacity for hydroxyapatite decreased significantly with increasing pH from 8 to 10. Thermal regeneration showed that hydroxyapatite could be used for six desorption-adsorption cycles with high removal efficiency for CR in each cycle. The mechanisms for CR adsorption on hydroxyapatite with pH value below the pH at point of zero charge (pH(PZC)) include electrostatic attraction, hydrogen bonding and Lewis acid-base interaction. The mechanisms for CR adsorption on hydroxyapatite with pH value above its pH(PZC) include hydrogen bonding and Lewis acid-base interaction. Results of this work indicate that hydroxyapatite is a promising adsorbent for CR removal from aqueous solution.

  4. Adsorption-desorption of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, S.K.; Selim, H.M.; Iskandar, I.K.

    1995-11-01

    This study studied the adsorption-desorption behavior of TNT (2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) in a bentonite/sand reference material (Swy-1 montmorillonite clay mixed with acid-washed sand) and two selected soils (Norwood and Kolin). Release of TNT,RDX, and other compounds from a contaminated soil obtained from the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant (AAP) site was also investigated. The kinetics of TNT and RDX retention were measured using batch methods for a range of input concentrations. For RDX, the adsorption isotherms were distinctly linear. The TNT adsorption isotherm for bentonite/sand mixture appeared linear and was described equally well using linear, Freundlich, Langmuir, and a modified Langmuir model. For the Norwood and Kolin soils, TNT adsorption isotherms exhibited distinct nonlinearity and the Freundlich model provided the best fit. As indicated by the K{sub d} values, TNT exhibited stronger retention or affinity to all soils and the bentonite/sand mixture than for RDX. The RDX retention data indicated little time-dependent behavior. The TNT retention data indicated a continued decrease in TNT concentration with time in the Norwood and Kolin soils. This was possibly caused by the formation and subsequent adsorption of transformation products because transformation products, such as amino nitro toluene compounds, were identified during batch experiments. For the bentonite/sand mixture, TNT retention was rapid initially and reached apparent equilibrium within 1 day. Unlike Kolin and Norwood soils, there was no hysteretic behavior of TNT adsorption-desorption by the bentonite/sand mixture and a mass balance suggested fully reversible retention mechanisms. 15 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Adsorption of mercury on laterite from Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Lijun; Guo, Baiwei; He, Shouyang

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of Hg(II) on laterite from Guizhou Province, China, were studied and the adsorption mechanism was discussed. The results showed that different mineral compositons in the laterite will cause differences in the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). Illite and non-crystalloids are the main contributors to enhancing the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). The pH of the solution is an important factor affecting the adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite. The alkalescent environment (pH 7-9) is favorable to the adsorption of Hg(II). The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) increases with increasing pH. When the pH reaches a certain value, the amount of the adsorbed Hg(II) will reach the maximum level. The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) decreases with increasing pH. The optimal pHs of laterite and kaolinite are 9 and 8, respectively. The optimal initial concentrations of Hg(II) on laterite and kaolinite are 250 and 200 microg/ml, respectively. The adsorption isotherms were described by the Langmuir model. The adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite is a quick process while that of Hg(II) on kaolinite is a slow reaction. Laterite from Guizhou Province is a promising environmental material which can be used in the removal of Hg(II) from wastewater.

  6. Passive samplers of hydrophobic organic chemicals reach equilibrium faster in the laboratory than in the field.

    PubMed

    Booij, Kees; Tucca, Felipe

    2015-09-15

    The use of passive sampling methods for monitoring hydrophobic organic chemicals frequently requires the determination of equilibration times and partition coefficients in the laboratory. These experiments are often carried out by exposing passive samplers in a finite water volume, and errors are easily made when the obtained results are applied to the field, where water volumes are essentially infinite. The effect of water volume on the equilibration rate constant is discussed, using a mechanistic model. Application of this model to two literature reports illustrates that aqueous concentrations in the field may be underestimated by a factor of 10 or more, when the water volume effect is neglected. Finally, it is shown that the concept of "sorption capacity" (sampler mass times partition coefficient) allows for a more intuitive understanding of the passive sampling process in small and large water volumes, which may reduce the risk of laboratory-field extrapolation errors.

  7. Enhanced adsorptive removal of toxic dyes using SiO2 nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batool, S. S.; Imran, Z.; Hassan, Safia; Rasool, Kamran; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Rafiq, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    Electrospinning method was used to synthesize porous SiO2 nanofibers. The adsorption of Methyl Orange and Safranin O by porous SiO2 nanofibers was carried out by varying the parameters such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, and temperature. Equilibrium adsorption data followed Langmuir isotherms. Kinetic adsorption followed second-order rate kinetics model. The maximum adsorption capacity for Methyl Orange and Safranin O was found to be 730.9 mg/g and 960.4 mg/g, respectively. Acidic pH was favorable for the adsorption of Methyl Orange while basic pH was favorable for the adsorptions of Safranin O. Modeling study suggested the major mode of adsorption, while thermodynamic study showed the endothermic reactions. This effort has pronounced impact on environmental applications of SiO2 nanofibers as auspicious adsorbent nanofibers for organic material from aqueous solution.

  8. [Adsorption of acid orange II from aqueous solution onto modified peat-resin particles].

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-Ye; Yang, Lin-Zhang

    2007-06-01

    The adsorption of acid orange II onto modified peat-resin particles was examined in aqueous solution in a batch system. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order kinetic and the intraparticle diffusion models were used to describe the kinetic data. The results showed that both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models could be used to describe the adsorption of acid orange II onto modified peat-resin particles. The maximum adsorption capacity was 71.43 mg x g(-1). The data analysis indicated that the intraparticle diffusion model could fit the results of kinetic experiment well. The adsorption rate of acid orange II onto modified peat-resin particles is affected by the initial dye concentrations, sizes and doses of modified peat-resin particles and agitation rates. The surface of modified peat-resin particle is the major adsorption area.

  9. Fast and considerable adsorption of methylene blue dye onto graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjie; Zhou, Chunjiao; Zhou, Weichang; Lei, Aihua; Zhang, Qinglin; Wan, Qiang; Zou, Bingsuo

    2011-07-01

    The quite efficient adsorption of methylene blue dye from an aqueous solution by graphene oxide was studied. The favorable electrostatic attraction is the main interaction between methylene blue and graphene oxide. As graphene oxide has the special nanostructural properties and negatively charged surface, the positively charged methylene blue molecules can be easily adsorbed on it. In the aqueous solution of methylene blue at 293 K, the adsorption data could be fitted by the Langmuir equation with a maximum adsorption amount of 1.939 mg/mg and a Langmuir adsorption equilibrium constant of 18.486 mL/mg. The adsorption amount increased with the increase of the solution pH (3-11), was not affected significantly by KCl under the examined condition and the adsorption process was exothermic in nature. The fast and considerable adsorption of graphene oxide could be regarded as a potential adsorbent for cationic dye removal in wastewater treatment process.

  10. Adsorption of anionic dyes from aqueous solutions using chemically modified straw.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenxuan; Li, Haijiang; Kan, Xiaowei; Dong, Lei; Yan, Han; Jiang, Ziwen; Yang, Hu; Li, Aimin; Cheng, Rongshi

    2012-08-01

    The effective disposal of redundant straw is a significant work for environmental protection and full utilization of resource. In this work, the wheat straw has been modified by etherification to prepare a kind of quaternary ammonium straw adsorbents. The adsorption behaviors of the modified straw for methyl orange (MO) and acid green 25(AG25) were studied in both batch and column systems. The adsorption capacity of the straw for both dyes improved evidently after modification. The maximal MO and AG25 uptakes were more than 300 and 950 mg g(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and column studies all indicated that the adsorption behavior was a monolayer chemical adsorption with an ion-exchange process. In addition, after adsorption of anionic dyes, the used adsorbents were successfully applied to adsorb a cationic dye directly at suitable conditions in the secondary adsorption. This was due to the altered surface structures of the used adsorbents.

  11. Adsorption potential of mercury(II) from aqueous solutions onto Romanian peat moss.

    PubMed

    Bulgariu, Laura; Ratoi, Mioara; Bulgariu, Dumitru; Macoveanu, Matei

    2009-06-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the adsorption potential of Romanian peat moss for the removal of mercury(II) from aqueous solutions. The batch system experiments carried out showed that this natural material was effective in removing mercury(II). The analysis of FT-IR spectra indicated that the mechanism involved in the adsorption can be mainly attributed to the binding of mercury(II) with the carboxylic groups of Romanian peat moss. Adsorption equilibrium approached within 60 min. The adsorption data fitted well the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) was 98.94 mg g(-1). Pseudo-second-order kinetic model was applicable to the adsorption data. The thermodynamic parameters indicate that the adsorption process was spontaneous as the Gibbs free energy values were found to be negative (between -17.58 and -27.25 kJ mol(-1)) at the temperature range of 6-54 degrees C.

  12. Equilibrium isotherm studies for the uptake of cadmium and lead ions onto sugar beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Pehlivan, E; Yanik, B H; Ahmetli, G; Pehlivan, M

    2008-06-01

    The adsorption of Cd2+ and Pb2+ on sugar beet pulp (SBP), a low-cost material, has been studied. In the present work, the abilities of native (SBP) to remove cadmium (Cd2+) and lead (Pb2+) ions from aqueous solutions were compared. The (SBP) an industrial by product and solid waste of sugar industry were used for the removal of Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions from aqueous water. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to examine the influence of various parameters such as initial pH, adsorbent dose, initial metal ion concentration, and time on uptake. The sorption process was relatively fast and equilibrium was reached after about 70 min of contact. As much as 70-75% removal of Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions for (SBP) are possible in about 70 min, respectively, under the batch test conditions. Uptake of Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions on (SBP) showed a pH-dependent profile. The overall uptake for the (SBP) is at a maximum at pH 5.3 and gives up to 46.1 mg g(-1) for Cd2+ and at pH 5.0 and gives 43.5 mg g(-1) for Pb2+ for (SBP), which seems to be removed exclusively by ion exchange, physical sorption and chelation. A dose of 8 gL(-1) was sufficient for the optimum removal of both the metal ions. The Freundlich represented the sorption data for (SBP). In the presence of 0.1M NaNO3 the level of metal ion uptake was found to reach its maximum value very rapidly with the speed increasing both with the (SPB) concentration and with increasing initial pH of the suspension. The reversibility of the process was investigated. The desorption of Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions which were previously deposited on the (SBP) back into the deionised water was observed only in acidic pH values during one day study period and was generally rather low. The extent of adsorption for both metals increased along with an increase of the (SBP) dosage. (SBP), which is cheap and highly selective, therefore seems to be a promising substrate to entrap heavy metals in aqueous solutions.

  13. Evaluation of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate-co-carbon monoxide) and polydimethylsiloxane for equilibrium sampling of polar organic contaminants in water.

    PubMed

    Magnér, Jörgen A; Alsberg, Tomas E; Broman, Dag

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a passive absorptive equilibrium sampler that would enable the determination of the concentrations of polar organic compound (POC) in water more efficiently than existing techniques. To this end, a novel plastic material, poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate-co-carbon monoxide) (PEVAC), was evaluated and the results were compared with an existing silicone-based passive absorptive equilibrium device. Seven compounds (imidacloprid, carbendazim, metoprolol, atrazin, carbamazepine, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos), a mixture of pharmaceuticals, and pesticides with a logarithmic octanol-water partition coefficient ranging from 0.2 to 4.77 were selected as model substances for the experiments. The results showed that six of the seven selected POCs reached distribution equilibrium within 4 d in the two materials tested. A linear relation with a regression coefficient of more than 0.8906 between the established logarithmic absorbent-water partition coefficient and the calculated logarithmic dissociation partition coefficient of the selected compounds in the two polymers was observed. The correlation between these two coefficients was within one order of magnitude for the compounds that reached equilibrium in the two polymers, which demonstrates that both materials are suitable for mimicking biological uptake of POCs. The PEVAC material showed an enhanced sorption for all selected compounds compared to the silicone material and up to five times higher enrichment for the most polar compound. Fluorescence analysis of the sampler cross-section, following the uptake of fluoranthene, and proof that the sorption was independent of surface area variations demonstrated that the PEVAC polymer possessed absorptive rather than adsorptive enrichment of organic compounds.

  14. Adsorption of globular proteins on locally planar surfaces. II. Models for the effect of multiple adsorbate conformations on adsorption equilibria and kinetics.

    PubMed Central

    Minton, A P

    1999-01-01

    Equilibrium and kinetic models for nonspecific adsorption of proteins to planar surfaces are presented. These models allow for the possibility of multiple interconvertible surface conformations of adsorbed protein. Steric repulsion resulting in area exclusion by adsorbed molecules is taken into account by treating the adsorbate as a thermodynamically nonideal two-dimensional fluid. In the equilibrium model, the possibility of attractive interactions between adsorbed molecules is taken into account in a limited fashion by permitting one of the adsorbed species to self-associate. Calculated equilibrium adsorption isotherms exhibit apparent high-affinity and low-affinity binding regions, corresponding respectively to adsorption of ligand at low fractional area occupancy in an energetically favorable side-on conformation and conversion at higher fractional area occupancy of the side-on conformation to an entropically favored end-on conformation. Adsorbate self-association may lead to considerable steepening of the adsorption isotherm, compensating to a variable extent for the broadening effect of steric repulsion. Kinetic calculations suggest that in the absence of attractive interactions between adsorbate molecules, the process of adsorption may be highly "stretched" along the time axis, rendering the attainment of adsorption equilibrium in the context of conventional experiments problematic. PMID:9876132

  15. Equilibrium Policy Proposals with Abstentions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    AB I I I EQUILIBRIUM POLICY PROPOSALS WITH ABSTENTIONS* by Peter Coughlin** 1. Introduction Spatial analyses of economic policy formation in elections...alternative in S at which there is a local equilibrium when the incumbent must defend the status quo. 5. Applications to Related Spatial Voting Models...York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Hestenes, M. [19751, Optimization Theoy, New York: Wiley. Hinich, M. [1977], " Equilibrium in Spatial Voting: The Median

  16. Grinding kinetics and equilibrium states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opoczky, L.; Farnady, F.

    1984-01-01

    The temporary and permanent equilibrium occurring during the initial stage of cement grinding does not indicate the end of comminution, but rather an increased energy consumption during grinding. The constant dynamic equilibrium occurs after a long grinding period indicating the end of comminution for a given particle size. Grinding equilibrium curves can be constructed to show the stages of comminution and agglomeration for certain particle sizes.

  17. Adsorption behavior of alpha -cypermethrin on cork and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Valentina F; Priolo, Giuseppe; Alves, Arminda C; Cabral, Miguel F; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2007-08-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the adsorption behavior of alpha -cypermethrin [R)-alpha -cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl(1S)-cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate, and (S)-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1R)-cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate] in solutions on granules of cork and activated carbon (GAC). The adsorption studies were carried out using a batch equilibrium technique. A gas chromatograph with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was used to analyze alpha -cypermethrin after solid phase extraction with C18 disks. Physical properties including real density, pore volume, surface area and pore diameter of cork were evaluated by mercury porosimetry. Characterization of cork particles showed variations thereby indicating the highly heterogeneous structure of the material. The average surface area of cork particles was lower than that of GAC. Kinetics adsorption studies allowed the determination of the equilibrium time - 24 hours for both cork (1-2 mm and 3-4 mm) and GAC. For the studied alpha -cypermethrin concentration range, GAC revealed to be a better sorbent. However, adsorption parameters for equilibrium concentrations, obtained through the Langmuir and Freundlich models, showed that granulated cork 1-2 mm have the maximum amount of adsorbed alpha-cypermethrin (q(m)) (303 microg/g); followed by GAC (186 microg/g) and cork 3-4 mm (136 microg/g). The standard deviation (SD) values, demonstrate that Freundlich model better describes the alpha -cypermethrin adsorption phenomena on GAC, while alpha -cypermethrin adsorption on cork (1-2 mm and 3-4 mm) is better described by the Langmuir. In view of the adsorption results obtained in this study it appears that granulated cork may be a better and a cheaper alternative to GAC for removing alpha -cypermethrin from water.

  18. Removal of ibuprofen, naproxen and carbamazepine in aqueous solution onto natural clay: equilibrium, kinetics, and thermodynamic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazri, Hassen; Ghorbel-Abid, Ibtissem; Kalfat, Rafik; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to describe the adsorption of three pharmaceuticals compounds (ibuprofen, naproxen and carbamazepine) onto natural clay on the basis of equilibrium parameters such as a function of time, effect of pH, varying of the concentration and the temperature. Adsorption kinetic data were modeled using the Lagergren's first-order and the pseudo-second-order kinetic equations. The kinetic results of adsorption are described better using the pseudo-second order model. The isotherm results were tested in the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models. The thermodynamic parameters obtained indicate that the adsorption of pharmaceuticals on the clay is a spontaneous and endothermic process.

  19. Adsorption of Ions at Uncharged Insoluble Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Peshkova, Tatyana V; Minkov, Ivan L; Tsekov, Roumen; Slavchov, Radomir I

    2016-09-06

    A method is proposed for the experimental determination of the adsorption of inorganic electrolytes at a surface covered with insoluble surfactant monolayer. This task is complicated by the fact that the change of the salt concentration alters both chemical potentials of the electrolyte and the surfactant. Our method resolves the question by combining data for the surface pressure versus area of the monolayer at several salt concentrations with data for the equilibrium spreading pressure of crystals of the surfactant (used to fix a standard state). We applied the method to alcohols spread at the surface of concentrated halide solutions. The measured salt adsorption is positive and has nonmonotonic dependence on the area per surfactant molecule. For the liquid expanded film, depending on the concentration, there is one couple of ions adsorbed per each 3-30 surfactant molecules. We analyzed which ion, the positive or the negative, stands closer to the surface, by measuring the effect of NaCl on the Volta potential of the monolayer. The potentiometric data suggest that Na(+) is specifically adsorbed, while Cl(-) remains in the diffuse layer, i.e., the surface is positively charged. The observed reverse Hofmeister series of the adsorptions of NaF, NaCl, and NaBr suggests the same conclusion holds for all these salts. The force that causes the adsorption of Na(+) seems to be the interaction of the ion with the dipole moment of the monolayer.

  20. Adsorption of Ions at Uncharged Insoluble Monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peshkova, T. V.; Minkov, I. L.; Tsekov, R.; Slavchov, R. I.

    2016-08-01

    A method is proposed for the experimental determination of the adsorption of inorganic electrolytes at a surface covered with insoluble surfactant monolayer. This task is complicated by the fact that the change of the salt concentration alters both chemical potentials of the electrolyte and the surfactant. Our method resolves the question by combining data for the surface pressure versus area of the monolayer at several salt concentrations with data for the equilibrium spreading pressure of crystals of the surfactant (used to fix a standard state). We applied the method to alcohols spread at the surface of concentrated halide solutions. The measured salt adsorption is positive and has nonmonotonic dependence on the area per surfactant molecule. For the liquid expanded film, depending on the concentration, there is one couple of ions adsorbed per each 3–30 surfactant molecules. We analyzed which ion, the positive or the negative, stands closer to the surface, by measuring the effect of NaCl on the Volta potential of the monolayer. The potentiometric data suggest that Na+ is specifically adsorbed, while Cl– remains in the diffuse layer, i.e., the surface is positively charged. The observed reverse Hofmeister series of the adsorptions of NaF, NaCl, and NaBr suggests the same conclusion holds for all these salts. The force that causes the adsorption of Na+ seems to be the interaction of the ion with the dipole moment of the monolayer.

  1. Napoleon Is in Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Rob

    2015-03-01

    It has been said that the cell is the test tube of the twenty-first century. If so, the theoretical tools needed to quantitatively and predictively describe what goes on in such test tubes lag sorely behind the stunning experimental advances in biology seen in the decades since the molecular biology revolution began. Perhaps surprisingly, one of the theoretical tools that has been used with great success on problems ranging from how cells communicate with their environment and each other to the nature of the organization of proteins and lipids within the cell membrane is statistical mechanics. A knee-jerk reaction to the use of statistical mechanics in the description of cellular processes is that living organisms are so far from equilibrium that one has no business even thinking about it. But such reactions are probably too hasty given that there are many regimes in which, because of a separation of timescales, for example, such an approach can be a useful first step. In this article, we explore the power of statistical mechanical thinking in the biological setting, with special emphasis on cell signaling and regulation. We show how such models are used to make predictions and describe some recent experiments designed to test them. We also consider the limits of such models based on the relative timescales of the processes of interest.

  2. Napoleon Is in Equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Rob

    2015-03-01

    It has been said that the cell is the test tube of the twenty-first century. If so, the theoretical tools needed to quantitatively and predictively describe what goes on in such test tubes lag sorely behind the stunning experimental advances in biology seen in the decades since the molecular biology revolution began. Perhaps surprisingly, one of the theoretical tools that has been used with great success on problems ranging from how cells communicate with their environment and each other to the nature of the organization of proteins and lipids within the cell membrane is statistical mechanics. A knee-jerk reaction to the use of statistical mechanics in the description of cellular processes is that living organisms are so far from equilibrium that one has no business even thinking about it. But such reactions are probably too hasty given that there are many regimes in which, because of a separation of timescales, for example, such an approach can be a useful first step. In this article, we explore the power of statistical mechanical thinking in the biological setting, with special emphasis on cell signaling and regulation. We show how such models are used to make predictions and describe some recent experiments designed to test them. We also consider the limits of such models based on the relative timescales of the processes of interest.

  3. Impact of biochar produced from post-harvest residue on the adsorption behavior of diesel oil on loess soil.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu Feng; Sun, Hang; Yves, Uwamungu J; Li, Hong; Hu, Xue Fei

    2016-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biochar, produced from wheat residue at different temperatures, on the adsorption of diesel oil by loess soil. Kinetic and equilibrium data were processed to understand the adsorption mechanism of diesel by biochar-affected loess soil; dynamic and thermodynamic adsorption experiments were conducted to characterize this adsorption. The surface features and chemical structure of biochar, modified at varying pyrolytic temperatures, were investigated using surface scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis. The kinetic data showed that the adsorption of diesel oil onto loess soil could be described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with the rate-controlling step being intraparticle diffusion. However, in the presence of biochar, boundary layer control and intraparticle diffusion were both involved in the adsorption. Besides, the adsorption equilibrium data were well described by the Freundlich isothermal model. The saturated adsorption capacity weakened as temperature increased, suggesting a spontaneous exothermic process. Thermodynamic parameter analysis showed that adsorption was mainly a physical process and was enhanced by chemical adsorption. The adsorption capacity of loess soil for diesel oil was weakened with increasing pH. The biochar produced by pyrolytic wheat residue increased the adsorption behavior of petroleum pollutants in loess soil.

  4. A comparative adsorption study: 17β-estradiol onto aerobic granular sludge and activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao-ying; He, Yu-jie; Chen, Wei; Wang, Ming-yang; Cao, Su-lan; Ni, Ming; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption plays a significant role in removing hydrophobic 17β-estradiol (E2) from wastewater. Batch experiments were conducted to compare the adsorption of E2 onto activated aerobic granular sludge (AGS) and activated sludge (AS), and features evaluated included the adsorption kinetics, thermodynamics, and influence of other environmental factors. By using a non-chemical wet-heat technique, both AGS and AS were treated to inactivated status. Then, after loading E2, the adsorption equilibrium capacity of the AGS was found to be greater than that of the AS at the same initial concentration of E2. Moreover, both the adsorption processes corresponded to a pseudo-second-order kinetic model; the adsorption rate constant of AGS was found to be higher and the half-adsorption time was shorter than that of AS. Next, evaluations of adsorption isotherms and thermodynamics indicated that the adsorption process was mainly a physical process. Lower temperatures facilitated a higher equilibrium adsorption capacity. However, the adsorption binding sites of AGS were distributed more uniformly at higher temperature, in contrast to the distribution found for AS. Finally, acidic conditions and an appropriate ionic strength (0.4 mol/L) were found to be particularly conducive to the adsorption process. Overall, the results showed that AGS has the potential to adsorb E2 with significant efficiency, thereby offering a new and more efficient means of treating E2 and trace oestrogens in wastewater.

  5. A Simple Adsorption Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guirado, Gonzalo; Ayllon, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    The study of adsorption phenomenon is one of the most relevant and traditional physical chemistry experiments performed by chemistry undergraduate students in laboratory courses. In this article, we describe an easy, inexpensive, and straightforward way to experimentally determine adsorption isotherms using pieces of filter paper as the adsorbent…

  6. Adsorption study of Ammonia Nitrogen by watermelon rind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, A.; Yusof, L.; Beddu, N. S.; Galasin, N.; Lee, P. Y.; Lee, R. N. S.; Zahrim, A. Y.

    2016-06-01

    The utilization of fruit waste for low-cost adsorbents as a replacement for costly conventional methods of removing ammonia nitrogen from wastewater has been reviewed. The adsorption studies were conducted as a function of contact time and adsorbent dosage and it were carried out on four different adsorbents; fresh watermelon rind and modified watermelon rind with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4). Adsorbents were tested for characterization by using zeta potential test and all samples shows negative values thus makes it favourable for the adsorption process. The batch experimental result showed that adsorption process is rapid and equilibrium was established within 40 minutes of contact time. The ammonia nitrogen removal rate amounted in range of 96% to 99%, and the adsorption capacities were in range of 1.21 to 1.24 mg/g for all four different types of adsorbents used.

  7. Bioaccumulation of PCBs by algae: Kinetics versus equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Swackhamer, D.L.; Skoglund, R.S. )

    1993-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) by phytoplankton is correlated to the compound's octanol/water partition coefficient (K[sub ow]) in a predictive relationship in laboratory experiments, and to confirm these findings with field observations. In laboratory experiments the authors measured the uptake of 40 representative polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners over time under conditions that inhibited and allowed phytoplankton growth. Results indicated that the bioaccumulation process is consistent with partitioning from water into cell lipids but is slower than previously thought. The uptake of PCBs was slow relative to growth of phytoplankton, preventing the chemical from reaching thermodynamic equilibrium in algal cells under conditions promoting growth (nonwinter). Thus under non-winter field conditions, many PCB congeners never reach equilibrium concentrations. Food-chain models that assume equilibrium between HOCs and the primary trophic level could be inaccurate and may need to use a kinetic framework.

  8. New insights into the dynamics of adsorption equilibria of humic matter as revealed by radiotracer studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippold, Holger; Lippmann-Pipke, Johanna

    2014-05-01

    The mobility of contaminants in the subsurface hydrosphere can be governed by their interaction with aquatic humic substances, which may act as carriers. For modelling migration processes, retardation of humic molecules at mineral surfaces must be considered. There is, however, a lack of clarity concerning the reversibility of adsorption of these natural polyelectrolytes. In this work, evidence was provided that a dynamic adsorption equilibrium exists. For this purpose, adsorption of humic substances (purified Aldrich humic acid and an aquatic fulvic acid) onto kaolinite was examined in tracer exchange studies by means of 14C-labelled humic material. In addition, the kinetics of adsorption and desorption were investigated in batch experiments.

  9. Study on Adsorption of Cu(II) on Chitosan Nanofiber Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianhua; Li, Dongzhou; Liang, Weihua; Wu, Dayong

    2014-12-01

    Chitosan nanofiber membranes by electrospinning technique were used to remove Cu(II) from aqueous solution. The adsorption kinetics, equilibrium isotherms, and pH effect were investigated in batch experiments. The Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second-order kinetic models agree well with the experimental data. The chitosan nanofiber membranes are effective for Cu(II) adsorption at pH6. Results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of the chitosan nanofiber membranes with Cu(II) is 118.62 mg g-1. The chitosan nanofiber membranes can be used as an effective adsorbent for the removal of Cu(II) in aqueous solution due to high adsorption capacity.

  10. Studies on Thorium Adsorption Characteristics upon Activated Titanium Hydroxide Prepared from Rosetta Ilmenite Concentrate

    SciTech Connect

    Gado, M Zaki, S

    2016-01-01

    The titanium hydroxide prepared from Rosetta ilmenite concentrate has been applied for Th (IV) adsorption from its acid aqueous solutions. The prepared hydroxide is first characterized by both Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum and thermogravimetric analysis. The relevant factors affecting the adsorption process have been studied. The obtained equilibrium data fits well with the Langmuir isotherm rather than Freundlich isotherm, while the adsorption kinetic data follow the pseudo-second order model. The different thermodynamic parameters have also been calculated and indicate that the adsorption process is spontaneous.

  11. Adsorption of alkenyl succinic anhydride from solutions in carbon tetrachloride on a fine magnetite surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmasova, O. V.; Ramazanova, A. G.; Korolev, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    The adsorption of alkenyl succinic anhydride from a solution in carbon tetrachloride on a fine magnetite surface at a temperature of 298.15 K is studied using fine magnetite, which forms the basis of magnetic fluids, as the adsorbent. An adsorption isotherm is recorded and interpreted in terms of the theory of the volume filling of micropores (TVFM). Adsorption process parameters are calculated on the basis of the isotherm. It is shown that at low equilibrium concentrations, the experimental adsorption isotherm is linear in the TVFM equation coordinates.

  12. Rapid-Equilibrium Enzyme Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberty, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid-equilibrium rate equations for enzyme-catalyzed reactions are especially useful because if experimental data can be fit by these simpler rate equations, the Michaelis constants can be interpreted as equilibrium constants. However, for some reactions it is necessary to use the more complicated steady-state rate equations. Thermodynamics is…

  13. Equilibrium states for hyperbolic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Vanessa; Viana, Marcelo

    2017-02-01

    We prove the existence of finitely many ergodic equilibrium states for local homeomorphisms and hyperbolic potentials. We also deal with partially hyperbolic skew-products over non-uniformly expanding maps with uniform contraction on the fibre. For these systems we prove the existence and finiteness of the equilibrium states associated with a class of Hölder continuous potentials.

  14. Thermodynamic efficiency out of equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivak, David; Crooks, Gavin

    2011-03-01

    Molecular-scale machines typically operate far from thermodynamic equilibrium, limiting the applicability of equilibrium statistical mechanics to understand their efficiency. Thermodynamic length analysis relates a non-equilibrium property (dissipation) to equilibrium properties (equilibrium fluctuations and their relaxation time). Herein we demonstrate that the thermodynamic length framework follows directly from the assumptions of linear response theory. Uniting these two frameworks provides thermodynamic length analysis a firmer statistical mechanical grounding, and equips linear response theory with a metric structure to facilitate the prediction and discovery of optimal (minimum dissipation) paths in complicated free energy landscapes. To explore the applicability of this theoretical framework, we examine its accuracy for simple bistable systems, parametrized to model single-molecule force-extension experiments. Through analytic derivation of the equilibrium fluctuations and numerical calculation of the dissipation and relaxation time, we verify that thermodynamic length analysis (though derived in a near-equilibrium limit) provides a strikingly good approximation even far from equilibrium, and thus provides a useful framework for understanding molecular motor efficiency.

  15. Assessment of multi-mycotoxin adsorption efficacy of grape pomace.

    PubMed

    Avantaggiato, Giuseppina; Greco, Donato; Damascelli, Anna; Solfrizzo, Michele; Visconti, Angelo

    2014-01-15

    Grape pomace (pulp and skins) was investigated as a new biosorbent for removing mycotoxins from liquid media. In vitro adsorption experiments showed that the pomace obtained from Primitivo grapes is able to sequester rapidly and simultaneously different mycotoxins. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was the most adsorbed mycotoxin followed by zearalenone (ZEA), ochratoxin A (OTA), and fumonisin B1 (FB1), whereas the adsorption of deoxynivalenol (DON) was negligible. AFB1 and ZEA adsorptions were not affected by changing pH values in the pH 3-8 range, whereas OTA and FB1 adsorptions were significantly affected by pH. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms obtained at different temperatures (5-70 °C) and pH values (3 and 7) were modeled and evaluated using the Freundlich, Langmuir, Sips, and Hill models. The goodness of the fits and the parameters involved in the adsorption mechanism were calculated by the nonlinear regression analysis method. The best-fitting models to describe AFB1, ZEA, and OTA adsorption by grape pomace were the Sips, Langmuir, and Freundlich models, respectively. The Langmuir and Sips models were the best models for FB1 adsorption at pH 7 and 3, respectively. The theoretical maximum adsorption capacities (mmol/kg dried pomace) calculated at pH 7 and 3 decreased in the following order: AFB1 (15.0 and 15.1) > ZEA (8.6 and 8.3) > OTA (6.3-6.9) > FB1 (2.2 and 0.4). Single- and multi-mycotoxin adsorption isotherms showed that toxin adsorption is not affected by the simultaneous presence of different mycotoxins in the liquid medium. The profiles of adsorption isotherms obtained at different temperatures and pH and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH°, ΔS°) suggest that mycotoxin adsorption is an exothermic and spontaneous process, which involves physisorption weak associations. Hydrophobic interactions may be associated with AFB1 and ZEA adsorption, whereas polar noncovalent interactions may be associated with OTA and FB1 adsorption. In conclusion, this study

  16. Porous cellulose spheres: Preparation, modification and adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaofei; Liu, Congzhi; Anderson, Debbie P; Chang, Peter R

    2016-12-01

    Porous cellulose spheres (PCS) were fabricated by precipitating the spheres from a cellulose ionic liquid solution, followed by freezing, solvent exchange, and drying. PCS had low crystallinity and a large surface area that facilitated modification with trisodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) to introduce phosphate ester groups into the porous structure of the heterogeneous system. The STMP-modified PCS (SPCS) were used to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. With increasing STMP dosage, the adsorption capacity of SPCS obviously improved due to chelation between Pb(2+) and phosphate ester groups. The kinetic adsorption and isotherm data matched the pseudo-second order model and the Langmuir model well. The maximum adsorption capacity reached 150.6 mg g(-1) for SPCS. SPCS were competitive with other absorbents because the phosphate ester groups and porous structure contributed to Pb(2+) adsorption. Moreover, SPCS can be regenerated with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA) solution for repetitious adsorption of Pb(2+).

  17. Kinetics of faceting of crystals in growth, etching, and equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachos, D. G.; Schmidt, L. D.; Aris, R.

    1993-03-01

    The faceting of crystals in equilibrium with the gas phase and also during crystal growth and etching conditions is studied using the Monte Carlo method. The dynamics of the transformation of unstable crystallographic orientations into hill and valley structures and the spatial patterns that develop are examined as functions of surface temperature, crystallographic orientation, and strength of interatomic potential for two transport processes: adsorption-desorption and surface diffusion. The results are compared with the continuum theory for facet formation. Thermodynamically unstable orientations break into hill and valley structures, and faceting exhibits three time regimes: disordering, facet nucleation, and coarsening of small facets to large facets. Faceting is accelerated as temperature increases, but thermal roughening can occur at high temperatures. Surface diffusion is the dominant mechanism at short times and small facets but adsorption-desorption becomes important at long times and large facets. Growth and etching promote faceting for conditions close to equilibrium but induce kinetic roughening for conditions far from equilibrium. Simultaneous irreversible growth and etching conditions with fast surface diffusion result in enhanced faceting.

  18. Equilibrium Shape of Colloidal Crystals.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Ray M; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2015-10-27

    Assembling colloidal particles into highly ordered configurations, such as photonic crystals, has significant potential for enabling a broad range of new technologies. Facilitating the nucleation of colloidal crystals and developing successful crystal growth strategies require a fundamental understanding of the equilibrium structure and morphology of small colloidal assemblies. Here, we report the results of a novel computational approach to determine the equilibrium shape of assemblies of colloidal particles that interact via an experimentally validated pair potential. While the well-known Wulff construction can accurately capture the equilibrium shape of large colloidal assemblies, containing O(10(4)) or more particles, determining the equilibrium shape of small colloidal assemblies of O(10) particles requires a generalized Wulff construction technique which we have developed for a proper description of equilibrium structure and morphology of small crystals. We identify and characterize fully several "magic" clusters which are significantly more stable than other similarly sized clusters.

  19. Adsorption of chromium (VI) by ethylenediamine-modified cross-linked magnetic chitosan resin: isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin-jiang; Wang, Jing-song; Liu, Yun-guo; Li, Xin; Zeng, Guang-ming; Bao, Zheng-lei; Zeng, Xiao-xia; Chen, An-wei; Long, Fei

    2011-01-15

    The adsorption of chromium (VI) ions from aqueous solution by ethylenediamine-modified cross-linked magnetic chitosan resin (EMCMCR) was studied in a batch adsorption system. Chromium (VI) removal is pH dependent and the optimum adsorption was observed at pH 2.0. The adsorption rate was extremely fast and the equilibrium was established within 6-10min. The adsorption data could be well interpreted by the Langmuir and Temkin model. The maximum adsorption capacities obtained from the Langmuir model are 51.813mgg(-1), 48.780mgg(-1) and 45.872mgg(-1) at 293, 303 and 313K, respectively. The adsorption process could be described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The intraparticle diffusion study revealed that film diffusion might be involved in the present case. Thermodynamic parameters revealed the feasibility, spontaneity and exothermic nature of adsorption. The sorbents were successfully regenerated using 0.1N NaOH solutions.

  20. Effect of Grain Size on Uranium(VI) Surface Complexation Kinetics and Adsorption Additivity

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, Jianying; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Zachara, John M.

    2011-07-27

    Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the contribution of variable grain sizes to uranium adsorption/desorption in a sediment collected from the US DOE Hanford site. The sediment was wet-sieved into four size fractions: coarse sand (1-2 mm), medium sand (0.2-1 mm), fine sand (0.05-0.2 mm), and clay/silt fraction (< 0.05mm). For each size fraction and their composite (sediment), batch experiments were performed to determine uranium adsorption isotherms, and stirred flow-cell experiments were conducted to derive kinetic data of uranium adsorption and subsequent desorption. The results showed that uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics were size-specific, reflecting the effects of size-specific adsorption site concentration and kinetic rate constants. The larger-size fraction had a larger mass percentage in the sediment, but with a smaller adsorption site concentration and generally a slower uranium adsorption/desorption rate. The same equilibrium surface complexation reaction and reaction constant could describe uranium adsorption isotherms for all size fractions and the composite after accounting for the effect of adsorption site concentration. Mass-weighted, linear additivity was observed for both uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics in the composite. Our analysis also showed that uranium adsorption site concentration estimated from the adsorption isotherms was 3 orders of magnitude less than a site concentration estimated from sediment surface area and generic site density. One important implication of this study is that grain size distribution may be used to estimate uranium adsorption site, and adsorption/desorption kinetic rates in heterogeneous sediments from a common location.

  1. Boronate affinity adsorption of RNA: possible role of conformational changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N.; Willson, R. C.; Fox, G. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Batch equilibrium adsorption isotherm determination is used to characterize the adsorption of mixed yeast RNA on agarose-immobilized m-aminophenylboronic acid. It is shown that the affinity-enhancing influence of divalent cations depends strongly on the precise nature of the cation used, with barium being far more effective than the conventionally-used magnesium. This adsorption-promoting influence of barium is suggested to arise primarily from ionic influences on the structure and rigidity of the RNA molecule, as the adsorption of ribose-based small molecules is not similarly affected. The substitution of barium for the standard magnesium counterion does not greatly promote the adsorption of DNA, implying that the effect is specific to RNA and may be useful in boronate-based RNA separations. RNA adsorption isotherms exhibit sharp transitions as functions of temperature, and these transitions occur at different temperatures with Mg2+ and with Ba2+. Adsorption affinity and capacity were found to increase markedly at lower temperatures, suggestive of an enthalpically favored interaction process. The stoichiometric displacement parameter, Z, in Ba2+ buffer is three times the value in Mg2+ buffer, and is close to unity.

  2. Kinetics and isotherms of Neutral Red adsorption on peanut husk.

    PubMed

    Han, Runping; Han, Pan; Cai, Zhaohui; Zhao, Zhenhui; Tang, Mingsheng

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption of Neutral Red (NR) onto peanut husk in aqueous solutions was investigated at 295 K. Experiments were carried out as function of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and initial concentration. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich, and Toth isotherm models. The results indicated that the Toth and Langmuir models provided the best correlation of the experimental data. The adsorption capacity of peanut husk for the removal of NR was determined with the Langmuir and found to be 37.5 mg/g at 295 K. The adsorption kinetic data were modeled using the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and intra-particle diffusion kinetic equations. It was seen that the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic equations could describe the adsorption kinetics. The intraparticle diffusion model was also used to express the adsorption process at the two-step stage. It was implied that peanut husk may be suitable as adsorbent material for adsorption of NR from aqueous solutions.

  3. Equilibrium studies for the sorption of zinc and copper from aqueous solutions using sugar beet pulp and fly ash.

    PubMed

    Pehlivan, E; Cetin, S; Yanik, B H

    2006-07-31

    In the present work, the abilities of native sugar beet pulp (SBP) and fly ash (FA) to remove copper (Cu(2+)) and zinc (Zn(2+)) ions from aqueous solutions were compared. The SBP and FA, an industrial by-product and solid waste of sugar industry, were used for the removal of copper and zinc from aqueous water. Batch adsorption experiments were performed in order to evaluate the removal efficiency of SBP and lignite-based FA. The effect of various operating variables, i.e. initial pH, adsorbent dose, initial metal ion concentration, and time on adsorption of copper and zinc onto the SBP and FA, has been studied. The sorption process was relatively fast and equilibrium was reached after about 60 min of contact. As much as 60-97% removal of copper and zinc for SBP and FA are possible in about 60 min, respectively, under the batch test conditions. Uptake showed a pH-dependent profile. The overall uptake for the SBP is at a maximum at pH 5.5 and gives up to 30.9 mg g(-1) for copper and at pH 6.0 and gives 35.6 mg g(-1) for zinc for SBP, which seems to be removed exclusively by ion exchange and physical sorption. Maximum adsorption of copper and zinc occurred 7.0 and 7.84 mg g(-1) at a pH value of 5.0 and 4.0 for FA, respectively. A dose of 8 g l(-1) of SBP and 8 g l(-1) FA were sufficient for the optimum removal of both the metal ions. The sorption data were represented by the Freundlich for SBP and the Langmuir and Freundlich for FA. The sorption data were better represented by the Langmuir isotherm than by the Freundlich one for FA in the adsorption of zinc ion, suggesting that the monolayer sorption, mainly due to ion exchange. The presence of low ionic strength or low concentration of Na and Cl ions does not have a significant effect on the adsorption of these metals by SBP and FA. The SBP and FA are shown to be effective metal adsorbents for these two metals.

  4. Reaching for the red planet

    PubMed

    David, L

    1996-05-01

    The distant shores of Mars were reached by numerous U.S. and Russian spacecraft throughout the 1960s to mid 1970s. Nearly 20 years have passed since those successful missions which orbited and landed on the Martian surface. Two Soviet probes headed for the planet in July, 1988, but later failed. In August 1993, the U.S. Mars Observer suddenly went silent just three days before it was to enter orbit around the planet and was never heard from again. In late 1996, there will be renewed activity on the launch pads with three probes departing for the red planet: 1) The U.S. Mars Global Surveyor will be launched in November on a Delta II rocket and will orbit the planet for global mapping purposes; 2) Russia's Mars '96 mission, scheduled to fly in November on a Proton launcher, consists of an orbiter, two small stations which will land on the Martian surface, and two penetrators that will plow into the terrain; and finally, 3) a U.S. Discovery-class spacecraft, the Mars Pathfinder, has a December launch date atop a Delta II booster. The mission features a lander and a microrover that will travel short distances over Martian territory. These missions usher in a new phase of Mars exploration, setting the stage for an unprecedented volley of spacecraft that will orbit around, land on, drive across, and perhaps fly at low altitudes over the planet.

  5. Kinetics of Remazol Black B adsorption onto carbon prepared from sugar beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Dursun, Arzu Y; Tepe, Ozlem; Uslu, Gülşad; Dursun, Gülbeyi; Saatci, Yusuf

    2013-04-01

    Dried sugar beet pulp, an agricultural solid waste, was used for the production of carbon. Carbonised beet pulp was tested in the adsorption of Remazol Black B dye, and adsorption studies with real textile wastewater were also performed. Batch kinetic studies showed that an equilibrium time of 180 min was needed for the adsorption. The maximum dye adsorption capacity was obtained as 80.0 mg g(-1) at the temperature of 25 °C at pH = 1.0. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the adsorption equilibrium, and it was reported that experimental data fitted very well to the Langmuir model. Mass transfer and kinetic models were applied to the experimental data to examine the mechanisms of adsorption and potential rate-controlling steps. It was found that both external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion played an important role in the adsorption mechanisms of dye, and adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order type kinetic model. The thermodynamic analysis indicated that the sorption process was exothermic and spontaneous in nature.

  6. Adsorption studies of azotetrazolate and 3,6-dihydrazinotetrazine on peat.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, Andrzej; Rydelek, Paweł; Szala, Mateusz

    2013-01-01

    The objective of our studies was the evaluation of the adsorption process of two high-nitrogen compounds-dihydrazinotetrazine (DHTz) and azotetrazolate ion (AZ)-on a chosen peat. The experiments were performed using a static method at three different temperatures (283, 298, and 333 K). The adsorption process of DHTz and AZ on peat was characterized by isotherms according to the Freundlich and Langmuir models. The obtained correlations between adsorption and equilibrium concentration were in good accordance with the Freundlich and Langmuir models, as confirmed by high values of the correlation coefficients (0.97-0.99). Adsorption of AZ on peat was less efficient than that of DHTz, and this inference was experimentally proven. The maximum surface coverages of peat particles with adsorbate according to the Langmuir model were calculated as 0.02 and 0.17 mol kg(-1) (at 298 K) for AZ and DHTz, respectively. The determined adsorption equilibrium constants confirmed greater adsorption of DHTz on the investigated peat. It can be concluded that adsorption of AZ occurred to a much lesser extent compared to that of DHTz, pointing to a potentially greater threat of migration of soluble azotetrazolates in soil. Standard enthalpies of adsorption estimated for AZ and DHTz were -11.1 and -23.7 kJ mol(-1), respectively. Based on these adsorption enthalpy values, it can be stated that both investigated compounds are adsorbed on peat by a physisorption process.

  7. Adsorption of a cationic surfactant by a magsorbent based on magnetic alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Layaly; El Kolli, Nadia; Dali, Noëlle; Talbot, Delphine; Abramson, Sébastien; Welschbillig, Mathias; Cabuil, Valérie; Bée, Agnès

    2014-10-15

    Adsorption of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cationic surfactant, by magnetic alginate beads (MagAlgbeads) was investigated. The magnetic adsorbent (called magsorbent) was prepared by encapsulation of magnetic functionalized nanoparticles in an alginate gel. The influence on CPC adsorption of several parameters such as contact time, pH and initial surfactant concentration was studied. The equilibrium isotherm shows that adsorption occurs through both electrostatic interactions with charge neutralization of the carboxylate groups of the beads and hydrophobic interactions inducing the formation of surfactant aggregates in the beads. The dosage of calcium ions released in the solution turns out to be a useful tool for understanding the adsorption mechanisms. Adsorption is accompanied by a shrinking of the beads that corresponds to a 45% reduction of the volume. Adsorption kinetic experiments show that equilibrium time is strongly dependent on the surfactant concentration, which monitors the nature of the interactions. On the other hand, since the pH affects the ionization state of adsorption sites, adsorption depends on the pH solution, maximum adsorption being obtained in a large pH range (3.2-12) in agreement with the pKa value of alginate (pKa=3.4-4.2). Finally, due to the formation of micelle-like surfactants aggregates in the magnetic alginate beads, they could be used as a new efficient magsorbent for hydrophobic pollutants.

  8. Adsorption of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen on an ultramicroporous copper metal-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofei; Yuan, Bin; Bao, Zongbi; Deng, Shuguang

    2014-09-15

    An ultramicroporous copper metal-organic framework (Cu-MOF), Cu(hfipbb)(H2hfipbb)0.5 [H2hfipbb=4,4'-(hexafluoro-isopropylidene) bis(benzoic acid)] was successfully synthesized by a microwave-assisted method (1) with a shorter reaction time and higher MOFs yield. The obtained Cu-MOF sample was characterized with scanning electron microscopy for crystal structure, powder X-ray diffraction for phase structure, and carbon dioxide adsorption at 273 K for pore textural properties. Single-component adsorption (adsorption equilibrium and kinetics) of CO2, CH4, and N2 on 1 was measured using a Micromeritics ASAP 2020 adsorption porosimeter at 278, 298 and 318 K, and pressures up to 1 bar. Isosteric heats of adsorption, Henry's constants, and diffusion time constants were calculated and carefully analyzed. Adsorption equilibrium selectivity (α), adsorbent selection parameter for pressure swing adsorption processes (S), kinetic selectivity and combined separation selectivity (β) for CO2/CH4, CO2/N2 and CH4/N2 binary mixtures were estimated based on the single-component adsorption data. The relative high values of the adsorption selectivities suggest that Cu-MOF is a promising adsorbent for separating CO2/CH4, CO2/N2 and CH4/N2 gas pairs.

  9. Multilayer PVA adsorption onto hydrophobic drug substrates to engineer drug-rich microparticles.

    PubMed

    Buttini, F; Soltani, A; Colombo, P; Marriott, C; Jones, S A

    2008-01-01

    Despite the availability of numerous crystal engineering techniques, generating drug-rich microparticles with a predetermined size, morphology and crystallinity still represents a significant challenge. A microparticle manufacturing method has recently been developed that attempts to 'shield' the physicochemical properties of micronised drugs by the application of a microfine polymer coating. The aims of this study were to investigate the nature of the drug-polymer interactions and determine the effects of this manufacturing strategy upon release of the drug from the microparticles. The adsorption of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) on the micronised hydrophobic drug surface was found to reach equilibrium between 23 and 27 h. The Freundlich isotherm model was shown to give the most accurate fit to the experimental data and thus multilayer adsorption was assumed. The adsorptive capacity (1/n) was specific to the substrate and PVA grade. An increase in the PVA (%) hydrolysis value caused 1/n to increase from 0.76 to 1.05 using budesonide and from 0.31 to 0.79 when betamethasone valerate (BMV) was used. Increasing the molecular weight of the adsorbing polymer caused a reduction in the strength of PVA-adsorbate interaction when budesonide was used as the substrate (from 0.76 to 0.59), whereas a three-fold increase (from 0.31 to 0.86) was achieved when the BMV substrate was employed. A proportion of the adsorbed polymer was shown to remain associated with the substrate during the spray-drying process and the polymer coating resulted in a significantly higher (p<0.05, ANOVA) amount of drug release in 60 min (ca. 100%) compared to budesonide alone.

  10. Adsorption of cesium on cement mortar from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Volchek, Konstantin; Miah, Muhammed Yusuf; Kuang, Wenxing; DeMaleki, Zack; Tezel, F Handan

    2011-10-30

    The adsorption of cesium on cement mortar from aqueous solutions was studied in series of bench-scale tests. The effects of cesium concentration, temperature and contact time on process kinetics and equilibrium were evaluated. Experiments were carried out in a range of initial cesium concentrations from 0.0103 to 10.88 mg L(-1) and temperatures from 278 to 313 K using coupons of cement mortar immersed in the solutions. Non-radioactive cesium chloride was used as a surrogate of the radioactive (137)Cs. Solution samples were taken after set periods of time and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Depending on the initial cesium concentration, its equilibrium concentration in solution ranged from 0.0069 to 8.837 mg L(-1) while the respective surface concentration on coupons varied from 0.0395 to 22.34 μg cm(-2). Equilibrium test results correlated well with the Freundlich isotherm model for the entire test duration. Test results revealed that an increase in temperature resulted in an increase in adsorption rate and a decrease in equilibrium cesium surface concentration. Among several kinetic models considered, the pseudo-second order reaction model was found to be the best to describe the kinetic test results in the studied range of concentrations. The adsorption activation energy determined from Arrhenius equation was found to be approximately 55.9 kJ mol(-1) suggesting that chemisorption was the prevalent mechanism of interaction between cesium ions and cement mortar.

  11. Preparation and characterization of superparamagnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for selective adsorption and separation of vanillin in food samples.

    PubMed

    Ning, Fangjian; Peng, Hailong; Dong, Liling; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Lingxin; Xiong, Hua

    2014-11-19

    Novel water-compatible superparamagnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (M-MIPs) were prepared by coating superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with MIPs in a methanol-water reaction system. The M-MIPs were used for the selective adsorption and separation of vanillin from aqueous solution. The M-MIPs were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results indicated that a core-shell structure of M-MIPs was obtained by coating a layer of silica and MIPs on the surface of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The obtained M-MIPs possess a loose and porous structure and can be rapidly separated from the solution using a magnet. The adsorption experiments showed that the binding capacity of the M-MIPs was significantly higher than that of the superparamagnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymers (M-NIPs). Meanwhile, the adsorption of M-MIPs reached equilibrium within 100 min, and the apparent maximum adsorption quantity (Qmax) and dissociation constant (Kd) were 64.12 μmol g(-1) and 58.82 μmol L(-1), respectively. The Scatchard analysis showed that homogeneous binding sites were formed on the M-MIP surface. The recoveries of 83.39-95.58% were achieved when M-MIPs were used for the pre-concentration and selective separation of vanillin in spiked food samples. These results provided the possibility for the separation and enrichment of vanillin from complicated food matrices by M-MIPs.

  12. Robust design of binary countercurrent adsorption separation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Storti, G. ); Mazzotti, M.; Morbidelli, M.; Carra, S. )

    1993-03-01

    The separation of a binary mixture, using a third component having intermediate adsorptivity as desorbent, in a four section countercurrent adsorption separation unit is considered. A procedure for the optimal and robust design of the unit is developed in the frame of Equilibrium Theory, using a model where the adsorption equilibria are described through the constant selectivity stoichiometric model, while mass-transfer resistances and axial mixing are neglected. By requiring that the unit achieves complete separation, it is possible to identify a set of implicity constraints on the operating parameters, that is, the flow rate ratios in the four sections of the unit. From these constraints explicit bounds on the operating parameters are obtained, thus yielding a region in the operating parameters space, which can be drawn a priori in terms of the adsorption equilibrium constants and the feed composition. This result provides a very convenient tool to determine both optimal and robust operating conditions. The latter issue is addressed by first analyzing the various possible sources of disturbances, as well as their effect on the separation performance. Next, the criteria for the robust design of the unit are discussed. Finally, these theoretical findings are compared with a set of experimental results obtained in a six port simulated moving bed adsorption separation unit operated in the vapor phase.

  13. Lysozyme immobilization via adsorption process using sulphonic acid functionalized silane grafted copolymer.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, T S; Rauf, Tharun A

    2013-07-01

    A unique silane based adsorbent material, [stearyl alcohol (SA)-grafted-epichlorohydrin (E)]-grafted-aminoproypyl silanetriol (APST) was synthesized and functionalized with sulphonyl groups via sulphonation process [(SA-g-E)-g-APST/SO3H]. The adsorbent material characterization was done by FTIR, XRD, and TGA analysis. Immobilization of protein Lysozyme (LYZ) using batch adsorption process was carried out for studying the protein-particle interaction. The most suitable pH for maximum adsorption was found to be 7.0. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model was found to be the best fit and the adsorption equilibrium was attained within 3h. Studies on diffusion parameters explained that the adsorption mechanism was controlled by film diffusion mode. The adsorption process was then evaluated using the various isotherm models and the Sips isotherm model proved to be the best fit with a maximum adsorption capacity of 37.68 mg/g. The isotherm favorability of the adsorption process was calculated by calculating the separation factor (R(L)) and the values confirmed the favorability of the adsorption process. Studies on adsorption percentage with respect to temperature and thermodynamic studies revealed that adsorption process is exothermic, spontaneous with maximum entropy. Batch adsorption/desorption studies in acidic medium, for over six cycles showed the repeatability and regeneration capability of the adsorbent material (SA-g-E)-g-APST/SO3H.

  14. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of gas-solid adsorption processes at pore scale level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Qu, Z. G.; Chen, L.; Tao, W. Q.

    2015-11-01

    A two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann (LB) approach was established to implement kinetic concentration boundary conditions in interfacial mass-transfer processes and to simulate the adsorption process in porous media at pore scale and mesoscopic levels. A general treatment was applied to conduct three types of concentration boundary conditions effectively and accurately. Applicability for adsorption was verified by two benchmark examples, which were representative of the interparticle mass transport and intraparticle mass transport in the adsorption system, respectively. The gas-solid adsorption process in reconstructed porous media at the pore scale level was numerically investigated. Mass-transfer processes of the adsorption reaction were simulated by executing Langmuir adsorption kinetics on surfaces of adsorbent particles. Meanwhile, the homogeneous solid diffusion model (HSDM) was used for mass transport in interior particles. The transient adsorbed amount was obtained in detail, and the impact of flow condition, porosity, and adsorbent particle size on the entire dynamic adsorption performance was investigated. The time needed to approach steady state decreased with increased fluid velocity. Transient adsorption capability and time consumption to equilibrium were nearly independent of porosity, whereas increasing pore size led to a moderating adsorption rate and more time was consumed to approach the saturation adsorption. Benefiting from the advantages of the LB method, both bulk and intraparticle mass transfer performances during adsorption can be obtained using the present pore scale approach. Thus, interparticle mass transfer and intraparticle mass transfer are the two primary segments, and intraparticle diffusion has the dominant role.

  15. Highly carbonylated cellulose nanofibrous membranes utilizing maleic anhydride grafting for efficient lysozyme adsorption.

    PubMed

    Ma, Juncheng; Wang, Xueqin; Fu, Qiuxia; Si, Yang; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2015-07-22

    Construction of adsorptive materials for simple, efficient, and high-throughput adsorption of proteins is critical to meet the great demands of highly purified proteins in biotechnological and biopharmaceutical industry; however, it has proven extremely challenging. Here, we report a cost-effective strategy to create carbonyl groups surface-functionalized nanofibrous membranes under mild conditions for positively charged protein adsorption. Our approach allows maleic anhydride to in situ graft on cellulose nanofibrous membranes (CMA) to construct adsorptive membranes with large surface area and tortuous porous structure. Thereby, the resultant CMA membranes exhibited high adsorption capacity of 160 mg g(-1), fast equilibrium within 12 h, and good reversibility to lysozyme. Moreover, the dynamic adsorption was performed under low pressure-drops (750 Pa), with a relatively high saturation adsorption amount of 118 mg g(-1), which matched well with the requirements for proteins purification. Considering the excellent adsorption performance of the as-prepared adsorptive membranes, this simple and intriguing approach may pave a way for the design and development of robust and cost-effective adsorption membranes to meet the great demands for fast and efficient adsorption of positively charged proteins.

  16. Helical axis stellarator equilibrium model

    SciTech Connect

    Koniges, A.E.; Johnson, J.L.

    1985-02-01

    An asymptotic model is developed to study MHD equilibria in toroidal systems with a helical magnetic axis. Using a characteristic coordinate system based on the vacuum field lines, the equilibrium problem is reduced to a two-dimensional generalized partial differential equation of the Grad-Shafranov type. A stellarator-expansion free-boundary equilibrium code is modified to solve the helical-axis equations. The expansion model is used to predict the equilibrium properties of Asperators NP-3 and NP-4. Numerically determined flux surfaces, magnetic well, transform, and shear are presented. The equilibria show a toroidal Shafranov shift.

  17. Interregional equilibrium with heterogeneous labor.

    PubMed

    Michel, P; Perrot, A; Thisse J-f

    1996-02-01

    "The impact of labor migration on interregional equilibrium is studied when workers are heterogeneous in productivity and regional mobility. The skilled respond to market disequilibrium by moving into the most attractive region. The unskilled are immobile in the short-run and move with the skilled in the long-run. Both regions have a neoclassical production function affected by an externality depending on the number of skilled. Workers move according to the utility differential when regional amenities vary with population or according to the wage differential. The equilibrium pattern depends on the unskilled's mobility and on migration incentives. Typically, regional imbalance characterizes the equilibrium which is often suboptimal."

  18. Removal of phenol and chlorophenols from water by coir pith carbon: equilibrium and rate studies.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Kavitha, D

    2004-07-01

    Batch mode studies were conducted to study the removal of phenol, 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol (TCP) and Pentachlorophenol (PCP) from aqueous solution on coir pith carbon by adsorption process under varying experimental conditions such as agitation time, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature. Kinetics of adsorption obeyed second order rate equation and the rate constant was found to be in the range 0.0098-0.0672, 0.0949-0.8801 and 0.172-0.305 g/mg/min for phenol, TCP and PCP respectively. Equilibrium adsorption data follow Langmuir isotherm for phenol and PCP and the adsorption capacities were found to be 48.3 mg and 3.7 mg/g, respectively. For TCP, adsorption followed Freundlich isotherm only. Acidic pH was favorable for the adsorption of all the chlorophenols. Studies on pH effect and desorption show that chemisorption seems to play a major rule in the adsorption process. The positive values of H0 24.99, 18.69, and 8.907 kJ/mol for phenol, TCP and PCP respectively, confirm the endothermic nature of adsorption.

  19. 2, 4 dichlorophenol (2, 4-DCP) sorption from aqueous solution using granular activated carbon and polymeric adsorbents and studies on effect of temperature on activated carbon adsorption.

    PubMed

    Ghatbandhe, A S; Yenkie, M K N

    2008-04-01

    Adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), one of the most commonly used chlorophenol, onto bituminous coal based Filtrasorb-400 grade granular activated carbon, were studied in aqueous solution in a batch system with respect to temperature. Uptake capacity of activated carbon found to increase with temperature. Langmuir isotherm models were applied to experimental equilibrium data of 2, 4-DCP adsorption and competitive studies with respect to XAD resin were carried out. Equilibrium data fitted very well to the Langmuir equilibrium model. Adsorbent monolayer capacity 'Q0, Langmuir constant 'b' and adsorption rate constant 'k(a)' were evaluated at different temperatures for activated carbon adsorption. This data was then used to calculate the energy of activation of adsorption and also the thermodynamic parameters, namely the free energy of adsorption, deltaG0, enthalpy of adsorption, deltaH0 and the entropy of adsorption deltaS0. The obtained results showed that the monolayer capacity increases with the increase in temperatures. The obtained values of thermodynamic parameters showed that adsorption of 2,4 DCP is an endothermic process. Synthetic resin was not found efficient to adsorb 2,4 DCP compared to activated carbon. The order of adsorption efficiencies of three resins used in the study found as XAD7HP > XAD4 > XAD1180.

  20. Adsorption Model for Off-Gas Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Veronica J. Rutledge

    2011-03-01

    The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include gas stream constituents, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. It models dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions for a multiple component gas stream. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which the breakthrough data is obtained. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data will be input into the adsorption model to develop a model specific for iodine adsorption on silver mordenite as well as model(s) specific for krypton and xenon adsorption. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Another future off-gas modeling goal is to develop a model for the unit operation absorption. The off-gas models will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.

  1. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  2. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  3. A theory for the adsorption of protein to liposomal membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suezaki, Y.; Ichinose, H.; Takiguchi, K.; Hotani, H.

    2000-06-01

    Topology changes of spherical lipid vesicles to coffee cups (Saitoh, A. et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 1026 (1998)) were analyzed by a statistical mechanical theory. The topology change was due to the adsorption of talin molecules to the orifices of the coffee cups. The equilibrium is determined by the balance of the energy gain for the adsorption of talin to the periphery of the vesicles and the change of the bending energy of the membrane due to the shape change. The observed coexistence of coffee cups and sheet-like vesicles were reproduced. .

  4. A solvable model for localized adsorption in a Coulomb system

    SciTech Connect

    Rosinberg, M.L.; Blum, L.; Lebowitz, J.L.

    1986-07-01

    A model for an interface with localized adsorption is presented, in which the surface has a distribution of sticky adhesive sites in contact with a Coulomb fluid. Contrary to the current literature on the electrical double layer the surface charge is in dynamic equilibrium with the bulk fluid. The sum rules obeyed by the one- and two-body correlation functions are investigated. Explicit results are obtained for a solvable model, the two-dimensional one-component plasma at reduced temperature 2. The effect of the granularity of the adsorbed charge on the adsorption isotherm is discussed.

  5. Adsorption character for removal Cu(II) by magnetic Cu(II) ion imprinted composite adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yueming; Wei, Xizhu; Zhang, Milin

    2008-10-01

    A novel magnetic Cu(II) ion imprinted composite adsorbent (Cu(II)-MICA) was synthesized, characterized and applied for the selective removal Cu(II) from aqueous solution in the batch system. The adsorption-desorption and selectivity characteristics were investigated. The maximum adsorption occurred