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Sample records for adsorption isotherm analysis

  1. The Langmuir isotherm: a commonly applied but misleading approach for the analysis of protein adsorption behavior.

    PubMed

    Latour, Robert A

    2015-03-01

    The Langmuir adsorption isotherm provides one of the simplest and most direct methods to quantify an adsorption process. Because isotherm data from protein adsorption studies often appear to be fit well by the Langmuir isotherm model, estimates of protein binding affinity have often been made from its use despite that fact that none of the conditions required for a Langmuir adsorption process may be satisfied for this type of application. The physical events that cause protein adsorption isotherms to often provide a Langmuir-shaped isotherm can be explained as being due to changes in adsorption-induced spreading, reorientation, clustering, and aggregation of the protein on a surface as a function of solution concentration in contrast to being due to a dynamic equilibrium adsorption process, which is required for Langmuir adsorption. Unless the requirements of the Langmuir adsorption process can be confirmed, fitting of the Langmuir model to protein adsorption isotherm data to obtain thermodynamic properties, such as the equilibrium constant for adsorption and adsorption free energy, may provide erroneous values that have little to do with the actual protein adsorption process, and should be avoided. In this article, a detailed analysis of the Langmuir isotherm model is presented along with a quantitative analysis of the level of error that can arise in derived parameters when the Langmuir isotherm is inappropriately applied to characterize a protein adsorption process.

  2. Characterizing Nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms in soils using multifractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz Ferreiro, Jorge; Miranda, José G. V.; Vidal Vázquez, Eva

    2010-05-01

    The specific surface area is an attribute known to characterize the soil ability to retain and transport nutrients and water. A number of studies have shown that specific surface area correlates cation exchange capacity, organic matter content, water retention, aggregate stability and clay swelling. In the past fractal theory has been widely used to study different gas adsorption isotherms like water vapour and nitrogen adsorption isotherms. More recently we have shown that nitrogen adsorption isotherms showed multifractal nature. In this work, both N2 adsorption and desorption isotherms measured in a Mollisol were examined as a probability measure using the multifractal formalism in order to determinate its possible multifractal behaviour. Soil samples were collected in two different series of an Argiudoll located in the north of Buenos Aires and in the south of Santa Fe provinces, Argentina. Two treatments of each soil series were sampled at three depths, without replication, resulting in six samples per soil series and a total of twelve samples analyzed. Multifractal analysis was performed using the box counting method. Both, the N2 adsorption and desorption isotherms exhibited a well defined scaling behaviour indicating a fully developed multifractal structure of each isotherm branch. The singularity spectra and Rényi dimension spectra obtained for adsorption and also for desorption isotherms had shapes similar to the spectra of multifractal measures and several parameters were extracted from these spectra. The capacity dimension, D0, for both N2 adsorption and desorption data sets were not significantly different from 1.00. However, nitrogen adsorption and desorption data showed significantly different values of entropy dimension, D1, and correlation dimension, D2. For instance, entropy dimension values extracted from multifractal spectra of adsorption isotherms were on average 0.578 and varied from 0.501 to 0.666. In contrast, the corresponding figures for

  3. Characterization of nitrogen adsorption isotherms of thermally-treated organoclays using multifractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lado, Marcos; Borisover, Mikhail; Paz-Gonzalez, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Nitrogen adsorption isotherms of soils have been reported to exhibit multifractal behavior. In the present work, multifractal analysis is used to characterize changes in N2 adsorption isotherms of organoclays prepared with different cations and exposed to various thermal treatments. Wyoming bentonite was exchanged with benzyltrimethylammonium (BTMA-clay), tetraethylammonium (TEA-clay), and hexadecyltrimethylammonium exchanged at 41 and 90% of the cation exchange capacity of the clay (HDTMA41- and HDTMA90-clay). The resulting organoclays were exposed to temperatures ranging from 25 to 420°C during two hours, freeze-dried, and N2 adsorption isotherms were measured at 77°K. The obtained isotherms showed multifractal behavior, and parameters derived from Rényi and singularity spectra varied with changes in the organic cation and the treatment temperature. The type of cation was the dominant factor responsible for changes in spectra, and significant interactions were observed between type of cation and temperature for several parameters. Significant correlations were found between organic carbon content and multifractal parameters, indicating a relation between changes in N2 sorption sites and thermal transformations of the organic cations. Significant correlations were also found between some multifractal parameters and the heterogeneity exponent of a Freundlich model fitted to nitrobenzene isotherms measured in the organoclays, suggesting that multifractal analysis of N2 adsorption isotherms could be useful to analyze the heterogeneity of sorption sites when sorption determinations yield a limited amount of data.

  4. A New Approach in Regression Analysis for Modeling Adsorption Isotherms

    PubMed Central

    Onjia, Antonije E.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous regression approaches to isotherm parameters estimation appear in the literature. The real insight into the proper modeling pattern can be achieved only by testing methods on a very big number of cases. Experimentally, it cannot be done in a reasonable time, so the Monte Carlo simulation method was applied. The objective of this paper is to introduce and compare numerical approaches that involve different levels of knowledge about the noise structure of the analytical method used for initial and equilibrium concentration determination. Six levels of homoscedastic noise and five types of heteroscedastic noise precision models were considered. Performance of the methods was statistically evaluated based on median percentage error and mean absolute relative error in parameter estimates. The present study showed a clear distinction between two cases. When equilibrium experiments are performed only once, for the homoscedastic case, the winning error function is ordinary least squares, while for the case of heteroscedastic noise the use of orthogonal distance regression or Margart's percent standard deviation is suggested. It was found that in case when experiments are repeated three times the simple method of weighted least squares performed as well as more complicated orthogonal distance regression method. PMID:24672394

  5. Adsorption isotherm of non-azeotropic solution onto porous adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bono, A.; Ramlan, N. A.; Anisuzzaman, S. M.; Chu, C. M.; Farm, Y. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Adsorption isotherm is essential component in the understanding of the adsorption process. Several methods of the measurements, analysis and interpretation of adsorption from solution have been reported in the literature. Most of the measurements of adsorption isotherm from solution were involved the measurement of excess isotherm conducted at low region of sorbates concentration. Direct interpretation of excess adsorption isotherm as adsorption isotherm is always been practice. Therefore, in this work a study on the measurement of the adsorption isotherm from solution of non-azeotropic organic solvent mixture onto porous adsorbents for whole range of liquid concentration was conducted. The study included the measurement of excess adsorption isotherm using conventional technique. Theoretical analysis and interpretation of adsorption isotherm from the excess isotherm were conducted using Pseudo Ideal Adsorption, Gibbs Dividing Plane Model and Langmuir-Fruendlich binary isotherm model. For organic solvents, acetone and propanol were chosen as the adsorbates due to the non-azeotropic properties in the mixture. Activated carbon and silicalite were chosen as adsorbents due to the different in their porosity such as macro porous and micro porous structure. The result of the study has revealed that the adsorption isotherm of non-azeotropic mixture onto activated carbon and silicalite can be interpreted as monolayer type of adsorption.

  6. Multiscale analysis of nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms in soils developed over sandstone and basic parent materials with contrasting texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Marinho, Mara de A.; de Abreu, Cleide A.

    2014-05-01

    Mono- and multifractal analysis of soil nitrogen adsorption isotherms (NAI) have been proven to be useful, allowing a better characterization of soil surface properties and soil porous system. Multiscale analysis of nitrogen desorption isotherms (NDI), which was less frequently performed, can also provide very valuable information. The multifractal theory was used to analyse both soil adsorption and desorption isotherms from soils developed over contrasting parent material and with different texture. We sampled 32 soil horizons from 6 soil profiles in neighbouring sites from São Paulo State, Brazil. Three of the profiles, developed over sandstone, were sandy loam or loamy, whereas the other three profiles, developed over weathered sediments or basic parent material, were clayey textured. Soil specific surface area (SSA) varied, from about 3.0 to 46 m2 g-1. Surface parameters showed a strong correlation with clay content, but they were not correlated with cation exchange capacity (CEC). The scaling properties of both nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms from all the studied soil horizons could be fitted reasonably well with multifractal models. Multifractal parameters from NAIs and NDIs showed great differences. The singularity spectra, f(α) of the desorption isotherms had an asymmetrically long left part and its asymmetry was in general higher compared with adsorption isotherms. Moreover, adsorption isotherms behaved like more clustered measures, showing lower entropy dimension, D1, smaller correlation dimension, D2, and higher heterogeneity than desorption isotherms. Differences in multifractal behaviour of NAIs and NDIs had been proven to be mainly related to the characteristics of the hysteretic loop measured at high relative pressures. Several multifractal parameters extracted from NAIs and NDIs also distinguished between sandy-loam and loam soils and clayey soils. Multifractal parameters calculated from NAIs and NDIs provide new insight to assess

  7. Determination of the adsorptive capacity and adsorption isotherm of vapor-phase mercury chloride on powdered activated carbon using thermogravimetric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsun-Yu Lin; Chung-Shin Yuan; Wei-Ching Chen; Chung-Hsuang Hung

    2006-11-15

    This study investigated the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine the adsorptive capacity and adsorption isotherm of vapor-phase mercury chloride on powdered activated carbon (PAC). The technique is commonly applied to remove mercury-containing air pollutants from gas streams emitted from municipal solid waste incinerators. An alternative form of powdered activated carbon derived from a pyrolyzed tire char was prepared for use herein. The capacity of waste tire-derived PAC to adsorb vapor-phase HgCl{sub 2} was successfully measured using a self-designed TGA adsorption system. Experimental results showed that the maximum adsorptive capacities of HgCl{sub 2} were 1.75, 0.688, and 0.230 mg of HgCl{sub 2} per gram of powdered activated carbon derived from carbon black at 30, 70, and 150{sup o} for 500 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of HgCl{sub 2}, respectively. Four adsorption isotherms obtained using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, and Brunauer-Emmett-eller (BET) models were used to simulate the adsorption of HgCl{sub 2}. The comparison of experimental data associated with the four adsorption isotherms indicated that BET fit the experimental results better than did the other isotherms at 30{sup o}, whereas the Freundlich isotherm fit the experimental results better at 70 and 150{sup o}. Furthermore, the calculations of the parameters associated with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms revealed that the adsorption of HgCl{sub 2} by PAC-derived carbon black favored adsorption at various HgCl{sub 2} concentrations and temperatures. 35 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Adsorption Isotherms and Surface Reaction Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobo, L. S.; Bernardo, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    Explains an error that occurs in calculating the conditions for a maximum value of a rate expression for a bimolecular reaction. The rate expression is derived using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm to relate gas pressures and corresponding surface coverages. (GS)

  9. Adsorption of methylene blue onto poly(cyclotriphosphazene-co-4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol) nanotubes: kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamics analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhonghui; Zhang, Jianan; Fu, Jianwei; Wang, Minghuan; Wang, Xuzhe; Han, Runping; Xu, Qun

    2014-05-30

    Poly(cyclotriphosphazene-co-4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol) (PZS) nanotubes, an excellent adsorbent, were successfully synthesized by an in situ template method and used for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The morphology and structures of as-synthesized PZS nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms. The effects of temperature, concentration, pH and contact time on MB adsorption were studied. It was favorable for adsorption under the condition of basic and high temperature. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were used to fit adsorption data in the kinetic studies. And results showed that the adsorption kinetics were more accurately described by the pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium isotherms were conducted using Freundlich and Langmuir models. It has been demonstrated that the better agreement was Langmuir isotherm with correlation coefficient of 0.9933, equilibrium absorption capacity of 69.16mg/g and the corresponding contact time of 15min. Thermodynamic analyses showed that MB adsorption onto the PZS nanotubes was endothermic and spontaneous and it was also a physisorption process.

  10. Moisture adsorption isotherms and glass transition temperature of pectin.

    PubMed

    Basu, Santanu; Shivhare, U S; Muley, S

    2013-06-01

    The moisture adsorption isotherms of low methoxyl pectin were determined at 30-70°C and water activity ranging from 0.11 to 0.94. The moisture adsorption isotherms revealed that the equilibrium moisture content increased with water activity. Increase in temperature, in general, resulted in decreased equilibrium moisture content. However in some cases, equilibrium moisture content values increased with temperature at higher water activities. Selected sorption models (GAB, Halsey, Henderson, Oswin, modified Oswin) were tested for describing the adsorption isotherms. Parameters of each sorption models were determined by nonlinear regression analysis. Oswin model gave the best fit for pectin sorption behaviour. Isosteric heat of sorption decreased with increase in moisture content and varied between 14.607 and 0.552 kJ/mol. Glass transition temperature decreased with increase in moisture content of pectin. PMID:24425957

  11. A model free method for estimation of complicated adsorption isotherms in liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Forssén, Patrik; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2015-08-28

    Here we show that even extremely small variations in the adsorption isotherm can have a tremendous effect on the shape of the overloaded elution profiles and that the earlier in the adsorption isotherms the variation take place, the larger its impact on the shape of the elution profile. These variations are so small that they can be "hidden" by the discretization and in the general experimental noise when using traditional experimental methods, such as frontal analysis, to measure adsorption isotherms. But as the effects of these variations are more clearly visible in the elution profiles, the Inverse Method (IM) of adsorption isotherm estimation is an option. However, IM usually requires that one selects an adsorption isotherm model prior to the estimation process. Here we show that even complicated models might not be able to estimate the adsorption isotherms with multiple inflection points that small variations might give rise to. We therefore developed a modified IM that, instead of fixed adsorption isotherm models, uses monotone piecewise interpolation. We first validated the method with synthetic data and showed that it can be used to estimate an adsorption isotherm, which accurately predicts an extremely "strange" elution profile. For this case it was impossible to estimate the adsorption isotherm using IM with a fixed adsorption model. Finally, we will give an example of a real chromatographic system where adsorption isotherm with inflection points is estimated by the modified IM.

  12. Kinetics and isotherm analysis of Tropaeoline 000 adsorption onto unsaturated polyester resin (UPR): a non-carbon adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rajeev; Sharma, Pooja; Sikarwar, Shalini

    2013-03-01

    The presence of dyes in water is undesirable due to the toxicological impact of their entrance into the food chain. Owing to the recalcitrant nature of dyes to biological oxidation, a tertiary treatment like adsorption is required. In the present study, unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) has been used as a sorbent in the treatment of dye-contaminated water. Different concentrations of Tropaeoline 000 containing water were treated with UPR. The preliminary investigations were carried out by batch adsorption to examine the effects of pH, adsorbate concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and temperature. A plausible mechanism for the ongoing adsorption process and thermodynamic parameters have also been obtained from Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameter showed that the sorption process of Tropaeoline 000 onto activated carbon (AC) and UPR were feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic under studied conditions. The estimated values for (ΔG) are -10.48 × 10(3) and -6.098 × 10(3) kJ mol(-1) over AC and UPR at 303 K (30 °C), indicating towards a spontaneous process. The adsorption process followed pseudo-first-order model. The mass transfer property of the sorption process was studied using Lagergren pseudo-first-order kinetic models. The values of % removal and k (ad) for dye systems were calculated at different temperatures (303-323 K). The mechanism of the adsorption process was determined from the intraparticle diffusion model. PMID:22689095

  13. The Calculation of Adsorption Isotherms from Chromatographic Peak Shapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between adsorption isotherms and elution peak shapes in gas chromatography, and describes a laboratory experiment which involves the adsorption of hexane, cyclohexane, and benzene on alumina at different temperatures. (MLH)

  14. Adsorption isotherm special study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-01

    The study was designed to identify methods to determine adsorption applicable to Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, and to determine how changes in aquifer conditions affect metal adsorption, resulting retardation factors, and estimated contaminant migration rates. EPA and ASTM procedures were used to estimate sediment sorption of U, As, and Mo under varying groundwater geochemical conditions. Aquifer matrix materials from three distinct locations at the DOE UMTRA Project site in Rifle, CO, were used as the adsorbents under different pH conditions; these conditions stimulated geochemical environments under the tailings, near the tailings, and downgradient from the tailings. Grain size, total surface area, bulk and clay mineralogy, and petrography of the sediments were characterized. U and Mo yielded linear isotherms, while As had nonlinear ones. U and Mo were adsorbed strongly on sediments acidified to levels similar to tailings leachate. Changes in pH had much less effect on As adsorption. Mo was adsorbed very little at pH 7-7.3, U was weakly sorbed, and As was moderately sorbed. Velocities were estimated for metal transport at different pHs. Results show that the aquifer materials must be characterized to estimate metal transport velocities in aquifers and to develop groundwater restoration strategies for the UMTRA project.

  15. Multifractal characteristics of Nitrogen adsorption isotherms from tropical soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    One of the primary methods used to characterize a wide range of porous materials, including soils, are gas adsorption isotherms. An adsorption isotherm is a function relating the amount of adsorbed gas or vapour to the respective equilibrium pressure, during pressure increase at constant temperature. Adsorption data allow easily estimates of specific surface area and also can provide a characterization of pore surface heterogeneity. Most of the properties and the reactivity of soil colloids are influenced by their specific surface area and by parameters describing the surface heterogeneity. For a restricted scale range, linearity between applied pressure and volume of adsorbate holds, which is the basis for current estimations of specific surface area. However, adsorption isotherms contain also non-linear segments of pressure versus volume so that evidence of multifractal scale has been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to analyze the multifractal behaviour of nitrogen adsorption isotherms from a set of tropical soils. Samples were collected form 54 horizons belonging to 19 soil profiles in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The most frequent soil type was Oxisol, according to the Soil Survey Staff, equivalent to Latossolo in the Brazilian soil classification system. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms at standard 77 K were measured using a Thermo Finnigan Sorptomatic 1990 gas sorption analyzer (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA). From the raw data a distributions of mass along a support was obtained to perform multifractal analysis. The probability distribution was constructed by dividing the values of the measure in a given segment by the sum of the measure in the whole scale range. The box-counting method was employed to perform multifractal analysis. All the analyzed N2 adsorption isotherms behave like a multifractal system. The singularity spectra, f(α), showed asymmetric concave down parabolic shapes, with a greater tendency toward the left side, where moments

  16. Multicomponent adsorption of alcohols onto silicalite-1 from aqueous solution: isotherms, structural analysis, and assessment of ideal adsorbed solution theory.

    PubMed

    Bai, Peng; Tsapatsis, Michael; Siepmann, J Ilja

    2012-11-01

    Configurational-bias Monte Carlo (CBMC) simulations in the isobaric-isothermal version of the Gibbs ensemble (GE) were carried out to probe the adsorption from aqueous solutions of methanol and/or ethanol onto silicalite-1. This methodology does require neither specification of the chemical potential nor any reference to activity models based on experimental data. The CBMC-GE methodology can be applied to the complete range of mixture compositions from pure water to pure alcohols and can also be used when multiple solute types are present at high concentration. The simulations demonstrate high selectivities for the alcohols (α(ethanol) > α(methanol)) almost over the entire composition range. The ideal adsorbed solution theory is found to substantially underpredict the amount of sorbed water and leads to very large errors for low alcohol solution concentrations. The simulations indicate that, at lower loadings, the adsorbed alcohol molecules can serve as seeds for water adsorption but, at higher loadings, alcohols displace water molecules from their preferred region.

  17. The special features of protein adsorption isotherms on silica adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukhrai, E. S.; Atyaksheva, L. F.; Pilipenko, O. S.

    2011-05-01

    The adsorption isotherms of hemoglobin, peroxidase, and β-galactosidase on silochrome and mesoporous and biporous silicas were comparatively studied. Adsorption developed in two stages, including fast "reversible" protein adsorption (equilibrium was reached in t ≤ 1-2 h) and a "slow stage" of irreversible binding in t ≫ 24 h (multipoint adsorption). The corresponding equilibrium constants were determined. The mechanism of unlimited linear association of peroxidase in the adsorption layer on the surface of silochrome was established.

  18. Derivation of the Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm from Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skopp, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The Freundlich adsorption isotherm is a useful description of adsorption phenomena. It is frequently presented as an empirical equation with little theoretical basis. In fact, a variety of derivations exist. Here a new derivation is presented using the concepts of fractal reaction kinetics. This derivation provides an alternative basis for…

  19. Simulated Water Adsorption Isotherms in Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Cylinderical Nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    StrioloDr., A; Naicker, P. K.; Chialvo, Ariel A; Cummings, Peter T; Gubbins, Dr. K. E.

    2005-01-01

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations are performed to study the adsorption of water in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNs). At room temperature the resulting adsorption isotherms in (10:10) and wider SWCNs are characterized by negligible amount of water uptake at low pressures, sudden and complete pore filling once a threshold pressure is reached, and wide adsorption/desorption hysteresis loops. The width of these loops decreases as pore diameter narrows. Adsorption/desorption hysteresis loops are not observed for water adsorption in (6:6) SWCNs. When the nanotubes are doped with small amounts of oxygenated sites it is possible to obtain adsorption isotherms in which the water uptake increases gradually as the pressure increases. Simulated X-ray diffraction patterns for confined water are also reported.

  20. Experimental adsorption isotherms based on inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kalogirou, E; Bassiotis, I; Artemiadi, Th; Margariti, S; Siokos, V; Roubani-Kalantzopoulou, F

    2002-09-01

    A new chromatographic perturbation method is used for studying the adsorption-desorption equilibrium in various gas-solid heterogeneous systems. It is the reversed-flow method giving accurate and precise values of many physicochemical constants including the basic and necessary adsorption isotherm values. For four inorganic oxides, namely, Cr2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and PbO, and two aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene) these adsorption isotherms have been determined through a non-linear model. PMID:12385379

  1. Adsorption Isotherm studies of Methyl Bromide adsorbed on Magnesium Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Teresa; Sprung, Michael

    2005-03-01

    Understanding the interaction of polar molecules with ionic surfaces is technologically very important. Using high precision, volumetric adsorption isotherms the layering properties of methyl bromide on the MgO(100) surface were examined between 164 K and 179 K. Methyl bromide (Triple point = 179.49K) is found to exhibit two layering transitions within this temperature interval. Thermodynamic quantities derived from this study including the layering transition temperatures, the 2D compressibility, layer enthalpy and entropy of adsorption, and the isosteric enthalpy of adsorption will be presented. Comparisons with the adsorption properties of methyl chloride and methyl iodide will also be included.

  2. Adsorption kinetics and isotherms of pesticides onto activated carbon-cloth.

    PubMed

    Ayranci, Erol; Hoda, Numan

    2005-09-01

    Adsorption of pesticides ametryn, aldicarb, dinoseb and diuron from aqueous solution onto high specific area activated carbon-cloth was studied. Kinetics of adsorption was followed by in situ UV-spectroscopy and the data were treated according to various rate models. The extent of adsorption was determined at the end of 125 min adsorption period. Rate constants and the extent of adsorption for the four pesticides were found to follow the order: dinoseb > ametryn > diuron > aldicarb. Adsorption isotherms were derived at 25 degrees C on the basis of batch analysis. Isotherm data were treated according to Langmuir and Freundlich models. The fits of experimental data to these equations were examined. The types of interactions between the surface and pesticide molecules were discussed. PMID:16083766

  3. A thermodynamically consistent explicit competitive adsorption isotherm model based on second-order single component behaviour.

    PubMed

    Ilić, Milica; Flockerzi, Dietrich; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    A competitive adsorption isotherm model is derived for binary mixtures of components characterized by single component isotherms which are second-order truncations of higher order equilibrium models suggested by multi-layer theory and statistical thermodynamics. The competitive isotherms are determined using the ideal adsorbed solution (IAS) theory which, in case of complex single component isotherms, does not generate explicit expressions to calculated equilibrium loadings and causes time consuming iterations in simulations of adsorption processes. The explicit model derived in this work is based on an analysis of the roots of a cubic polynomial resulting from the set of IAS equations. The suggested thermodynamically consistent and widely applicable competitive isotherm model can be recommended as a flexible tool for efficient simulations of fixed-bed adsorber dynamics.

  4. Kinetics and isotherm analysis of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyl acetic acid adsorption onto soil components under oxic and anoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Ololade, Isaac A; Alomaja, Folasade; Oladoja, Nurudeen A; Ololade, Oluwaranti O; Oloye, Femi F

    2015-01-01

    2,4-dichlorophenoxyl acetic acid (2,4-D, pKa = 2.8) is used extensively as a herbicide in agricultural practices. Its sorption behavior on both untreated and soils treated to significantly remove specific components (organic and iron and manganese [Fe-Mn] oxides and hydroxides phases) was investigated under oxic and anoxic conditions. The chemical and structural heterogeneity of the soil components were characterized by elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The coexistence of the various components seems to either mask sorption sites on the untreated soil surfaces or inhibit interlayer diffusion of 2,4-D. All sorption data conform to the Freundlich description and a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. There was a strong positive correlation between sorption capacity K(d), and surface area (r(2) ≤ 0.704), but a negative correlation was uncovered with both pH and organic carbon (r(2) ≤ -0.860). The results indicate that 2,4-D is preferably sorbed under oxic rather than anoxic conditions and it is greater on soils containing a high Fe content. There was incomplete 2,4-D sorption reversibility, with desorption occurring more rapidly under anoxic conditions. The study suggests that stimulation of Fe III reduction could be used for the bioremediation of a 2,4-D-contaminated site. PMID:25996813

  5. Immobilization of Acetobacter aceti on cellulose ion exchangers: adsorption isotherms

    SciTech Connect

    Bar, R.; Gainer, J.L.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1986-08-01

    The adsorptive behavior of cells of Acetobacter aceti, ATCC 23746, on DEAE-, TEAE-, and DEHPAE-cellulose ion exchangers in a modified Hoyer's medium at 30 degrees Centigrade was investigated. The maximum observed adsorption capacities varied from 46 to 64 mg dry wt/g resin. The Langmuir isotherm form was used to fit the data, since the cells formed a monolayer on the resin and exhibited saturation. The equilibrium constant in the Langmuir expression was qualitatively correlated with the surface charge density of the resin. The adsorption was also ''normalized'' by considering the ionic capacities of the resins. The exceptionally high normalized adsorption capacity of ECTEOLA-cellulose, 261 mg dry/meq, may be explained by an interaction between the cell wall and the polyglyceryl chains of the exchanging groups in addition to the electrostatic effects. The effect of pH on the bacterial adsorption capacity of ECTEOLA-, TEAE-, and phosphate-cellulose resins was studied and the pH of the bacteria was estimated to be 3.0. 17 references.

  6. Removal Rate of Organic Matter Using Natural Cellulose via Adsorption Isotherm and Kinetic Studies.

    PubMed

    Din, Mohd Fadhil Md; Ponraj, Mohanadoss; Low, Wen-Pei; Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Iwao, Kenzo; Songip, Ahmad Rahman; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan; Ismail, Zulhilmi; Jamal, Mohamad Hidayat

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) using coconut fiber (CF) and palm oil fiber (POF) was investigated. Preliminary analysis was performed using a jar test for the selection of optimal medium before the fabricated column model experiment. The equilibrium studies on isotherms and kinetic models for NOM adsorption were analyzed using linearized correlation coefficient. Results showed that the equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir isotherm model for both CF and POF. The most suitable adsorption model was the pseudo-first-order kinetic model for POF and pseudo-second-order kinetic model for CF. The adsorption capacities achieved by the CF and POF were 15.67 and 30.8 mg/g respectively. Based on this investigation, it can be concluded that the POF is the most suitable material for the removal of NOM in semi polluted river water.

  7. Removal Rate of Organic Matter Using Natural Cellulose via Adsorption Isotherm and Kinetic Studies.

    PubMed

    Din, Mohd Fadhil Md; Ponraj, Mohanadoss; Low, Wen-Pei; Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Iwao, Kenzo; Songip, Ahmad Rahman; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan; Ismail, Zulhilmi; Jamal, Mohamad Hidayat

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) using coconut fiber (CF) and palm oil fiber (POF) was investigated. Preliminary analysis was performed using a jar test for the selection of optimal medium before the fabricated column model experiment. The equilibrium studies on isotherms and kinetic models for NOM adsorption were analyzed using linearized correlation coefficient. Results showed that the equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir isotherm model for both CF and POF. The most suitable adsorption model was the pseudo-first-order kinetic model for POF and pseudo-second-order kinetic model for CF. The adsorption capacities achieved by the CF and POF were 15.67 and 30.8 mg/g respectively. Based on this investigation, it can be concluded that the POF is the most suitable material for the removal of NOM in semi polluted river water. PMID:26803100

  8. Isotherm study of reactive Blue 19 adsorption by an alum sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khim, Ong Keat; Nor, Mohd Asri Md; Mohamad, Syuriya; Nasaruddin, Nas Aulia Ahmad; Jamari, Nor Laili-Azua; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the adsorption of Reactive Blue 19 using dewatered alum sludge. The dewatered alum sludge was a sludge produced from drinking water treatment plant. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to investigate the mechanism of the dye adsorption. The adsorption was rapid at its initial stage but the rate decreased as it approached equilibrium. The adsorption data were evaluated by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models but was best described by the Langmuir isotherm model as it gave the highest correlation.

  9. Suitability of adsorption isotherms for predicting the retention capacity of active slag filters removing phosphorus from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pratt, C; Shilton, A

    2009-01-01

    Active slag filters are an emerging technology for removing phosphorus (P) from wastewater. A number of researchers have suggested that adsorption isotherms are a useful tool for predicting P retention capacity. However, to date the appropriateness of using isotherms for slag filter design remains unverified due to the absence of benchmark data from a full-scale, field filter operated to exhaustion. This investigation compared the isotherm-predicted P retention capacity of a melter slag with the P adsorption capacity determined from a full-scale, melter slag filter which had reached exhaustion after five years of successfully removing P from waste stabilization pond effluent. Results from the standard laboratory batch test showed that P adsorption correlated more strongly with the Freundlich Isotherm (R(2)=0.97, P<0.01) than the Langmuir Isotherm, a similar finding to previous studies. However, at a P concentration of 10 mg/L, typical of domestic effluent, the Freundlich equation predicted a retention capacity of 0.014 gP/kg slag; markedly lower than the 1.23 gP/kg slag adsorbed by the field filter. Clearly, the result generated by the isotherm bears no resemblance to actual field capacity. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed porous, reactive secondary minerals on the slag granule surfaces from the field filter which were likely created by weathering. This slow weathering effect, which generates substantial new adsorption sites, is not accounted for by adsorption isotherms rendering them ineffective in slag filter design. PMID:19403982

  10. Effect of pore blockage on adsorption isotherms and dynamics: Anomalous adsorption of iodine on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, S.K.; Liu, F.; Arvind, G.

    2000-04-18

    Isotherm hysteresis and pore-clocking effects of trapped molecules on adsorption dynamics is studied here, using the iodine-carbon system in the 300--343 K temperature range. It is found that a portion of the iodine is strongly adsorbed, and does not desorb, even over very long time scales, while the remainder adsorbs reversibly as a homogeneous monolayer with a Langmuirian isotherm in mesopores. The strongly adsorbed iodine appears to adsorb in micropores and at the mesopore mouths, hindering uptake of the reversible iodine. The uptake data for the adsorption and desorption dynamics of the reversible part is found to be best explained by means of a pore mouth resistance control mechanism. it is concluded that the dynamics of the adsorption and desorption at the pore mouth is important at early stages of the process.

  11. Chromatography Models with Langmuir and Steric Mass Action Adsorption Isotherms are of Differential Index One

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Lieres, Eric

    2010-09-01

    Chromatography is commonly applied for the separation of bio-molecules in pharmaceutical industry, and chromatography models are increasingly applied for rational process analysis and optimization. A rapid equilibrium assumption is often applied for the adsorption equation, which results in a non-linear system of partial differential-algebraic equations (PDAEs). In this contribution a proof is given, that these PDAEs are of differential index one for the two most prominent isotherm models, Langmuir and steric mass action (SMA).

  12. Magnetic vinylphenyl boronic acid microparticles for Cr(VI) adsorption: kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Kara, Ali; Demirbel, Emel; Tekin, Nalan; Osman, Bilgen; Beşirli, Necati

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic vinylphenyl boronic acid microparticles, poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate(EG)-vinylphenyl boronic acid(VPBA)) [m-poly(EG-VPBA)], produced by suspension polymerization and characterized, was found to be an efficient solid polymer for Cr(VI) adsorption. The m-poly(EG-VPBA) microparticles were prepared by copolymerizing of ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EG) with 4-vinyl phenyl boronic acid (VPBA). The m-poly(EG-VPBA) microparticles were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, electron spin resonance (ESR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and swelling studies. The m-poly(EG-VPBA) microparticles were used at adsorbent/Cr(VI) ion ratios. The influence of pH, Cr(VI) initial concentration, temperature of the removal process was investigated. The maximum removal of Cr(VI) was observed at pH 2. Langmuir isotherm and Dubinin-Radushkvich isotherm were found to better fit the experiment data rather than Fruendlich isotherm. The kinetics of the adsorption process of Cr(VI) on the m-poly(EG-VPBA) microparticles were investigated using the pseudo first-order, pseudo-second-order, Ritch-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models, results showed that the pseudo-second order equation model provided the best correlation with the experimental results. The thermodynamic parameters (free energy change, ΔG(0) enthalpy change, ΔH(0); and entropy change, ΔS(0)) for the adsorption have been evaluated. PMID:25666882

  13. Comparison of multifractal parameters form adsorption isotherms, desorption isotherms and mercury intrusion curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Mon, Rodolfo; Vidal Vázquez, Eva

    2013-04-01

    The soil pore space is composed of a continuum of pores extremely variable in size, which range from equivalent diameter sizes smaller than nanometers to an upper limit of the order of centimeters. So, it is quite typical for soil pore space to display a size range of more than a factor of 106 in scale. Nitrogen sorption and mercury injection provide pores size distributions in the range from about 0.1 to 0.001 μm and 150 to 0.005 μm, respectively. The aims of this study were to evaluate the scaling properties of nitrogen adsorption isotherms (NAI), nitrogen desorption isotherms (NDI) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) curves of agricultural soils from "La Pampa húmeda", in the north of Buenos Aires and south of Santa Fé provinces, Argentina. Both NAIs, NDIs and MIPs exhibited multifractal behavior but its scaling properties were different so that the multifractality index, assessed by the width of the generalized dimension and the singularity spectra ranked as follows: NAI > NDI > MIP. Also, parameterization by the Hurst exponent indicates NAIs were less persistent than NDIs and in turn, these were less persistent than MIPs. The multfractal approach was useful to characterize the heterogeneity of various domains of the soil nano- micro- and mesopore system at the scale of small aggregates.

  14. A modified Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model for simulating pH-dependent adsorption effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeppu, Gautham P.; Clement, T. Prabhakar

    2012-03-01

    Analytical isotherm equations such as Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms are widely used for modeling adsorption data. However, these isotherms are primarily useful for simulating data collected at a fixed pH value and cannot be easily adapted to simulate pH-dependent adsorption effects. Therefore, most adsorption studies currently use numerical surface-complexation models (SCMs), which are more complex and time consuming than traditional analytical isotherm models. In this work, we propose a new analytical isotherm model, identified as the modified Langmuir-Freundlich (MLF) isotherm, which can be used to simulate pH-dependent adsorption. The MLF isotherm uses a linear correlation between pH and affinity coefficient values. We validated the proposed MLF isotherm by predicting arsenic adsorption onto two different types of sorbents: pure goethite and goethite-coated sand. The MLF model gave good predictions for both experimental and surface complexation-model predicted datasets for these two sorbents. The proposed analytical isotherm framework can help reduce modeling complexity, model development time, and computational efforts. One of the limitations of the proposed method is that it is currently valid only for single-component systems. Furthermore, the model requires a system-specific pH. vs. affinity coefficient relation. Despite these limitations, the approach provides a promising analytical framework for simulating pH-dependent adsorption effects.

  15. Ni (II) adsorption onto Chrysanthemum indicum: Influencing factors, isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Vilvanathan, Sowmya; Shanthakumar, S

    2016-10-01

    The study explores the adsorption potential of Chrysanthemum indicum biomass for nickel ion removal from aqueous solution. C. indicum flowers in raw (CIF-I) and biochar (CIF-II) forms were used as adsorbents in this study. Batch experiments were conducted to ascertain the optimum conditions of solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and temperature for varying initial Ni(II) ion concentrations. Surface area, surface morphology, and functionality of the adsorbents were characterized by Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Adsorption kinetics were modeled using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich, intraparticle diffusion, Bangham's, and Boyd's plot. The equilibrium data were modeled using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. Experimental data provided the best fit to pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model for the adsorption of Ni(II) ion on both CIF-I and CIF-II with maximum adsorption capacities of 23.97 and 44.02 mg g(-1), respectively. Thermodynamic analysis of the data proved the process to be spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Desorption studies were conducted to evaluate the possibility of reusing the adsorbents. Findings of the present study provide substantial evidence for the use of C. indicum flower as an eco-friendly and potential adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution. PMID:27185382

  16. Correlation of adsorption isotherms of hydrogen isotopes on mordenite adsorbents using reactive vacancy solution theory

    SciTech Connect

    Munakata, K.; Nakamura, A.; Kawamura, Y.

    2015-03-15

    The authors have applied the isotherm equations derived from the reactive vacancy solution theory (RVST) to correlation of experimental and highly non-ideal adsorption isotherms of hydrogen and deuterium on a mordenite adsorbent, and have examined the ability of the isotherm equations to match this correlation. Several isotherm equations such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Toth, Vacancy Solution Theory and so forth were also tested, but they did not work. For the Langmuir-Freundlich equation tests have indicated that its 'ability to correlate' of the adsorption isotherms is not satisfactory. For the multi-site Langmuir-Freundlich (MSLF) equation the correlation of the isotherms appears to be somewhat improved but remains unsatisfactory. The results show that the isotherm equations derived from RVST can better correlate the experimental isotherms.

  17. Heterogeneous three-site lattice model for adsorption of aromatics in ZSM-5 zeolites: Temperature dependence of adsorption isotherms

    SciTech Connect

    Narkiewicz-Michalek, J.; Szabelski, P.; Rudzinski, W.; Chiang, A.S.T.

    1999-08-31

    The three-site lattice model of collective localized adsorption of aromatics in ZSM-5 zeolites, presented in previous publications, is extended by taking into account the effects of energetic heterogeneity of the sites of the same type. The appropriate theoretical equations are derived and used for simultaneous description of the experimental adsorption isotherms and heats of adsorption of benzene and p-xylene in silicalite at 303 K. It is shown that taking into account this additional level of heterogeneity leads to a much better description of both the adsorption isotherms and the related heats of adsorption in these systems. The extended model also allows one to predict correctly the adsorption isotherms of benzene and p-xylene in silicalite at different temperatures using the parameters found at one temperature.

  18. Valorization of agricultural wastes as dye adsorbents: characterization and adsorption isotherms.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Luisa A; Cuevas, Fernando A; Contreras, Elsa G

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the valorization of agricultural waste, wheat straw (WS) and corn cob leaves (CCLs) as textile dye adsorbents. Physico-chemical and superficial characteristics of the agricultural wastes, together with the interactions with the CI Basic Violet 4 (BV4) dye, were investigated by means of the determination of the isotherm adsorption at different temperatures. The morphological characterization showed that the solid surface is coarse with a low pore level. However, through Fourier transformed infrared analysis, the presence of carboxylic and hydroxylic acid groups and hydrophobic methyl groups was detected. The concentration of acid groups is determined by the Boehm method and was found to be 1.00 and 0.89 meq/g for WS and CCLs, respectively. The point zero charge for each adsorbent was 5.76 and 4.08. Adsorption experimental data presented a better-fit Langmuir model, indicating that adsorption occurred in a monolayer with preferential interaction. The maximum adsorption capacity was determined to be 70.0-89.0 and 47.0-68.0 mg/g for CCLs and WS, respectively. The thermodynamic analysis of the Langmuir parameter b showed that the adsorption of the BV4 dye is spontaneous and exothermic with adsorption energies of 14.43 and 5.58 KJ/mol for CCLs and WS, respectively.

  19. Valorization of agricultural wastes as dye adsorbents: characterization and adsorption isotherms.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Luisa A; Cuevas, Fernando A; Contreras, Elsa G

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the valorization of agricultural waste, wheat straw (WS) and corn cob leaves (CCLs) as textile dye adsorbents. Physico-chemical and superficial characteristics of the agricultural wastes, together with the interactions with the CI Basic Violet 4 (BV4) dye, were investigated by means of the determination of the isotherm adsorption at different temperatures. The morphological characterization showed that the solid surface is coarse with a low pore level. However, through Fourier transformed infrared analysis, the presence of carboxylic and hydroxylic acid groups and hydrophobic methyl groups was detected. The concentration of acid groups is determined by the Boehm method and was found to be 1.00 and 0.89 meq/g for WS and CCLs, respectively. The point zero charge for each adsorbent was 5.76 and 4.08. Adsorption experimental data presented a better-fit Langmuir model, indicating that adsorption occurred in a monolayer with preferential interaction. The maximum adsorption capacity was determined to be 70.0-89.0 and 47.0-68.0 mg/g for CCLs and WS, respectively. The thermodynamic analysis of the Langmuir parameter b showed that the adsorption of the BV4 dye is spontaneous and exothermic with adsorption energies of 14.43 and 5.58 KJ/mol for CCLs and WS, respectively. PMID:25655393

  20. Surface area and pore size characteristics of nanoporous gold subjected to thermal, mechanical, or surface modification studied using gas adsorption isotherms, cyclic voltammetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yih Horng; Davis, Jason A.; Fujikawa, Kohki; Ganesh, N. Vijaya; Demchenko, Alexei V.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms are used to investigate the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore size distribution of physically modified, thermally annealed, and octadecanethiol functionalized np-Au monoliths. We present the full adsorption-desorption isotherms for N2 gas on np-Au, and observe type IV isotherms and type H1 hysteresis loops. The evolution of the np-Au under various thermal annealing treatments was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images of both the exterior and interior of the thermally annealed np-Au show that the porosity of all free standing np-Au structures decreases as the heat treatment temperature increases. The modification of the np-Au surface with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of C18-SH (coverage of 2.94 × 1014 molecules cm−2 based from the decomposition of the C18-SH using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)), was found to reduce the strength of the interaction of nitrogen gas with the np-Au surface, as reflected by a decrease in the ‘C’ parameter of the BET equation. From cyclic voltammetry studies, we found that the surface area of the np-Au monoliths annealed at elevated temperatures followed the same trend with annealing temperature as found in the BET surface area study and SEM morphology characterization. The study highlights the ability to control free-standing nanoporous gold monoliths with high surface area, and well-defined, tunable pore morphology. PMID:22822294

  1. Water adsorption isotherms of carboxymethyl cellulose, guar, locust bean, tragacanth and xanthan gums.

    PubMed

    Torres, María D; Moreira, Ramón; Chenlo, Francisco; Vázquez, María J

    2012-06-20

    Water adsorption isotherms of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), guar gum (GG), locust bean gum (LBG), tragacanth gum (TG) and xanthan gum (XG) were determined at different temperatures (20, 35, 50, and 65°C) using a gravimetric method. Several saturated salt solutions were selected to obtain different water activities in the range from 0.09 to 0.91. Water adsorption isotherms of tested hydrocolloids were classified like type II isotherms. In all cases, equilibrium moisture content decreased with increasing temperature at each water activity value. Three-parameter Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model was employed to fit the experimental data in the water activity range and statistical analysis indicated that this model gave satisfactory results. CMC and GG were the most and the least hygroscopic gums, respectively. Sorption heats decreased with increasing moisture content. Monolayer moisture content evaluated with GAB model was consistent with equilibrium conditions of maximum stability calculated from thermodynamic analysis of net integral entropy. Values of equilibrium relative humidity at 20°C are proposed to storage adequately the tested gums.

  2. Ciprofloxacin adsorption on graphene and granular activated carbon: kinetics, isotherms, and effects of solution chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuan; Tsang, Daniel C W; Chen, Feng; Li, Shiyu; Yang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is a commonly used antibiotic and widely detected in wastewaters and farmlands nowadays. This study evaluated the efficacy of next-generation adsorbent (graphene) and conventional adsorbent (granular activated carbon, GAC) for CIP removal. Batch experiments and characterization tests were conducted to investigate the adsorption kinetics, equilibrium isotherms, thermodynamic properties, and the influences of solution chemistry (pH, ionic strength, natural organic matter (NOM), and water sources). Compared to GAC, graphene showed significantly faster adsorption and reached equilibrium within 3 min, confirming the rapid access of CIP into the macroporous network of high surface area of graphene as revealed by the Brunner-Emmet-Teller measurements analysis. The kinetics was better described by a pseudo-second-order model, suggesting the importance of the initial CIP concentration related to surface site availability of graphene. The adsorption isotherm on graphene followed Langmuir model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 323 mg/g, which was higher than other reported carbonaceous adsorbents. The CIP adsorption was thermodynamically favourable on graphene and primarily occurred through π - π interaction, according to the FTIR spectroscopy. While the adsorption capacity of graphene decreased with increasing solution pH due to the speciation change of CIP, the adverse effects of ionic strength (0.01-0.5 mol L(-1)), presence of NOM (5 mg L⁻¹), and different water sources (river water or drinking water) were less significant on graphene than GAC. These results indicated that graphene can serve as an alternative adsorbent for CIP removal in commonly encountered field conditions, if proper separation and recovery is available in place. PMID:26050736

  3. The Effect of Pore Connectivity on Water Adsorption Isotherms in Non-activated Graphitic Nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    StrioloDr., A; Gubbins, Dr. K. E.; Chialvo, Ariel A; Cummings, Peter T

    2005-01-01

    The adsorption of water in graphitic carbons is usually simulated via a weighted average of the adsorption isotherms simulated in carbon-slit pore of different widths. By following this procedure, details about pore morphology and pore connectivity may be overlooked. Towards a better match between virtual and real experiments, we present simulated adsorption isotherms for SPC/E model water in porous carbons composed by interconnected carbon-slit pores. The pores are separated from each other by one graphene layer. Imperfections (lack of carbon atoms) in the graphene layers result in interconnections between pores. The grand canonical Monte Carlo algorithm is used here to simulate water adsorption. Our results show that while the qualitative features obtained in the simulation of independent slit-shaped pores are reproduced when interconnected pores are considered, the adsorption isotherms rise more gradually and the adsorption/desorption hysteresis loops are narrower in the latter case.

  4. Cadmium-109 Radioisotope Adsorption onto Polypyrrole Coated Sawdust of Dryobalanops aromatic: Kinetics and Adsorption Isotherms Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Olatunji, Michael Adekunle; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Mahmud, Habibun Nabi Muhammad Ekramul

    2016-01-01

    A radiotracer study was conducted to investigate the removal characteristics of cadmium (109Cd) from aqueous solution by polypyrrole/ sawdust composite. Several factors such as solution pH, sorbent dosage, initial concentration, contact time, temperature and interfering metal ions were found to have influence on the adsorption process. The kinetics of adsorption was relatively fast, reaching equilibrium within 3 hours. A lowering of the solution pH reduced the removal efficiency from 99.3 to ~ 46.7% and an ambient temperature of 25°C was found to be optimum for maximum adsorption. The presence of sodium and potassium ions inhibited 109Cd removal from its aqueous solution. The experimental data for 109Cd adsorption showed a very good agreement with the Langmuir isotherm and a pseudo-first order kinetic model. The surface condition of the adsorbent before and after cadmium loading was investigated using BET, FESEM and FTIR. Considering the low cost of the precursor’s materials and the toxicity of 109Cd radioactive metal, polypyrrole synthesized on the sawdust of Dryobalanops aromatic could be used as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of 109Cd radioisotope from radionuclide-containing effluents. PMID:27706232

  5. Predicting the adsorption capacity and isotherm curvature of organic compounds onto activated carbons in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Hung, H W; Lin, T F

    2006-03-01

    A simple approach to predict the adsorption capacity and isotherm curvature of organic compounds onto activated carbon in natural water was investigated. A combination of the well-known equivalent background compound (EBC), and the simplified competitive adsorption model (SCAM) was employed to delineate the equilibrium capacity. This SCAM-EBC approach may reduce the numerical and experimental effort to obtain the parameters required to predict the adsorption capacity for a specific adsorption system. Several sets of experimental data, including weakly adsorbing (MTBE), strongly adsorbing compounds (TCP, atrazine, and chloroform), and two taste and odor causing compounds (MIB and geosmin) onto different activated carbons in three natural waters and a synthetic groundwater, were tested to verify the SCAM-EBC approach. Based on the approach, a parameter, called relative adsorptivity, describing the adsorption preference of the adsorbent between EBC and the target compound was employed to simulate the isotherm curvature in natural water. The relative adsorptivity of the SCAM-EBC approach is constant and can be directly obtained from the SCAM-EBC parameters in a specific adsorption system. The potential and extent of isotherm curvature can be simulated by only changing the parameter of relative adsorptivity. The marked isotherm curvature was found while the relative adsorptivity is larger than 2.0 to 4.0 for all the systems tested.

  6. Isotherms for Water Adsorption on Molecular Sieve 3A: Influence of Cation Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ronghong; Ladshaw, Austin; Nan, Yue; Liu, Jiuxu; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; DePaoli, David W.; Tavlarides, Lawrence L.

    2015-06-16

    This study is part of our continuing efforts to address engineering issues related to the removal of tritiated water from off-gases produced in used nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. In the current study, adsorption equilibrium of water on molecular sieve 3A beads was investigated. Adsorption isotherms for water on the UOP molecular sieve 3A were measured by a continuous-flow adsorption system at 298, 313, 333, and 353 K. Experimental data collected were analyzed by the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm model. The K+/Na+ molar ratio of this particular type of molecular sieve 3A was ~4:6. Our results showed that the GSTA isotherm model worked very well to describe the equilibrium behavior of water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A. The optimum number of parameters for the current experimental data was determined to be a set of four equilibrium parameters. This result suggests that the adsorbent crystals contain four energetically distinct adsorption sites. In addition, it was found that water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A follows a three-stage adsorption process. This three-stage adsorption process confirmed different water adsorption sites in molecular sieve crystals. In addition, the second adsorption stage is significantly affected by the K+/Na+ molar ratio. In this stage, the equilibrium adsorption capacity at a given water vapor pressure increases as the K+/Na+ molar ratio increases.

  7. Isotherms for Water Adsorption on Molecular Sieve 3A: Influence of Cation Composition

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Ronghong; Ladshaw, Austin; Nan, Yue; Liu, Jiuxu; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; DePaoli, David W.; Tavlarides, Lawrence L.

    2015-06-16

    This study is part of our continuing efforts to address engineering issues related to the removal of tritiated water from off-gases produced in used nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. In the current study, adsorption equilibrium of water on molecular sieve 3A beads was investigated. Adsorption isotherms for water on the UOP molecular sieve 3A were measured by a continuous-flow adsorption system at 298, 313, 333, and 353 K. Experimental data collected were analyzed by the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm model. The K+/Na+ molar ratio of this particular type of molecular sieve 3A was ~4:6. Our results showed that themore » GSTA isotherm model worked very well to describe the equilibrium behavior of water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A. The optimum number of parameters for the current experimental data was determined to be a set of four equilibrium parameters. This result suggests that the adsorbent crystals contain four energetically distinct adsorption sites. In addition, it was found that water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A follows a three-stage adsorption process. This three-stage adsorption process confirmed different water adsorption sites in molecular sieve crystals. In addition, the second adsorption stage is significantly affected by the K+/Na+ molar ratio. In this stage, the equilibrium adsorption capacity at a given water vapor pressure increases as the K+/Na+ molar ratio increases.« less

  8. Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation of the adsorption isotherms of water molecules on model soot particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulin, F.; Picaud, S.; Hoang, P. N. M.; Jedlovszky, P.

    2007-10-01

    The grand canonical Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the adsorption isotherms of water molecules on different types of model soot particles. The soot particles are modeled by graphite-type layers arranged in an onionlike structure that contains randomly distributed hydrophilic sites, such as OH and COOH groups. The calculated water adsorption isotherm at 298K exhibits different characteristic shapes depending both on the type and the location of the hydrophilic sites and also on the size of the pores inside the soot particle. The different shapes of the adsorption isotherms result from different ways of water aggregation in or/and around the soot particle. The present results show the very weak influence of the OH sites on the water adsorption process when compared to the COOH sites. The results of these simulations can help in interpreting the experimental isotherms of water adsorbed on aircraft soot.

  9. Determination of gas phase adsorption isotherms--a simple constant volume method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daekeun; Cai, Zhangli; Sorial, George A

    2006-08-01

    Single and ternary solute gas phase adsorption isotherms were conducted in this study to evaluate the effectiveness of a simple constant volume method, which was utilized by using Tedlar gas sampling bags as a constant volume batch reactor. For this purpose, gas phase adsorption of toluene, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) on two types of activated carbons, BPL-bituminous base and OVC--coconut base, were investigated. For the single solute adsorption, the experimental adsorption data were found to be well correlated with Freundlich and Myers adsorption equations. The pore size distribution of adsorbents was found to affect their adsorption capacities; its effect was dependant on the solute concentration. The ternary adsorption experimental isotherms were accurately predicted by using the well-known model, i.e., ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST).

  10. A Sixth-Form Teaching Unit on the Langmuir Adsorption Isotherm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkley, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    Presents a teaching unit on the Langmuir absorption isotherm suitable for advanced secondary school chemistry classes. Describes the experimental investigation of the isothermal adsorption of sulfur dioxide on charcoal, and discusses the derivation of the Langmuir equation and some applications. (JR)

  11. Isotherms for adsorption of cellobiohydrolase I and II from Trichoderma reesei on microcrystalline cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Medve, J.; Tjerneld, F.; Stahlberg, J.

    1997-04-01

    Adsorption to microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) of pure cellobiohydrolase I and II (CBH I and CBH II) from Trichoderma reesei has been studied. Adsorption isotherms of the enzymes were measured at 4{degree}C using CBH I and CBH II alone and in reconstituted equimolar mixtures. Several models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Jovanovic) were tested to describe the experimental adsorption isotherms. The isotherms did not follow the basic (one site) Langmuir equation that has often been used to describe adsorption isotherms of cellulases; correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) were only 0.926 and 0.947, for CBH I and II, respectively. The experimental isotherms were best described by a model of Langmuir type with two adsorption sites and by a combined Langmuir-Freundlich model (analogous to the Hill equation); using these models the correlation coefficients were in most cases higher than 0.995. Apparent binding parameters derived from the two sites Langmuir model indicated stronger binding of CBH II compared to CBH I; the distribution coefficients were 20.7 and 3.7 L/g for the two enzymes, respectively. The binding capacity was higher for CBH I than for CBH II. The isotherms when analyzed with the combined model indicated presence of unequal binding sites on cellulose and/or negative cooperativity in the binding of the enzyme molecules. 39 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Low-cost magnetic adsorbent for As(III) removal from water: adsorption kinetics and isotherms.

    PubMed

    Kango, Sarita; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles as adsorbent for arsenic (As) were coated on sand particles. The coated sand was used for the removal of highly toxic element 'As(III)' from drinking water. Here, batch experiments were performed with the variation of solution pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial arsenic concentration. The adsorbent showed significant removal efficiency around 99.6 % for As(III). Analysis of adsorption kinetics revealed that the adsorbent follows pseudo-second-order kinetics model showing R (2) = 0.999, whereas for pseudo-first-order kinetics model, the value of R (2) was 0.978. In the case of adsorption equilibrium, the data is well fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm model (R (2) > 0.99), indicating monolayer adsorption of As(III) on the surface of adsorbent. The existence of commonly present ions in water influences the removal efficiency of As(III) minutely in the following order PO4 (3-) > HCO3 (-) > Cl(-) > SO4 (2-). The obtained adsorbent can be used to overcome the problem of water filtration in rural areas. Moreover, as the nano-magnetite is coated on the sand, it avoids the problem of extraction of nanoparticles from treated water and can easily be removed by a simple filtration process. PMID:26711813

  13. Low-cost magnetic adsorbent for As(III) removal from water: adsorption kinetics and isotherms.

    PubMed

    Kango, Sarita; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles as adsorbent for arsenic (As) were coated on sand particles. The coated sand was used for the removal of highly toxic element 'As(III)' from drinking water. Here, batch experiments were performed with the variation of solution pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial arsenic concentration. The adsorbent showed significant removal efficiency around 99.6 % for As(III). Analysis of adsorption kinetics revealed that the adsorbent follows pseudo-second-order kinetics model showing R (2) = 0.999, whereas for pseudo-first-order kinetics model, the value of R (2) was 0.978. In the case of adsorption equilibrium, the data is well fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm model (R (2) > 0.99), indicating monolayer adsorption of As(III) on the surface of adsorbent. The existence of commonly present ions in water influences the removal efficiency of As(III) minutely in the following order PO4 (3-) > HCO3 (-) > Cl(-) > SO4 (2-). The obtained adsorbent can be used to overcome the problem of water filtration in rural areas. Moreover, as the nano-magnetite is coated on the sand, it avoids the problem of extraction of nanoparticles from treated water and can easily be removed by a simple filtration process.

  14. Mechanistic understanding and performance of biosorption of metal ions by grapefruit peel using FTIR spectroscopy, kinetics and adsorption isotherms modeling, alkali and alkaline metal displacement and EDX analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The performance and mechanism of the sorptive removal of Ni2+ and Zn2+ from aqueous solution using grapefruit peel (GFP) as a new sorbent was investigated. The sorption process was fast, equilibrium was established in 60 min. The equilibrium process was described well by the Langmuir isotherm model,...

  15. Study and numerical solution of a generalized mathematical model of isothermal adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Komissarov, Yu.A.; Vetokhin, V.N.; Tsenev, V.A.; Gordeeva, E.L.

    1995-06-01

    A generalized mathematical model of isothermal adsorption that takes into account mass transfer on the surface of a particle, diffusion in micro- and macropores, and dispersion along the length of the apparatus is considered The parameters {lambda} and {var_phi}{sup 2} determine the dominating effect of any of the mass transfer mechanisms of the adsorption process. A numerical algorithm for solving the generalized adsorption model is suggested.

  16. Comparative adsorption isotherms and modeling of methylene blue onto activated carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhachemi, Meriem; Addoun, Fatima

    2011-12-01

    The adsorption of methylene blue (MB) on activated carbons prepared from date stones with different degree of activation has been investigated. Equilibrium adsorption data of MB was carried out at 298 K. Four isotherm models (Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson and Sips) were tested for modeling the adsorption isotherms by nonlinear method. The three-parameter equations (Redlich-Peterson and Sips) showed more applicability than the two-parameter equations (Freundlich and Langmuir), which can be explained by the fact that these have three adjustable parameters. The best fit was achieved with the Redlich-Peterson equation according to the high value of correlation coefficient. All the samples were capable of retaining the MB, with the best result being reached by the sample with higher burn-off. Date stones activated carbon showed high adsorption capacity of 460 mg/g, calculated from the Sips isotherm model.

  17. How soil organic matter composition controls hexachlorobenzene-soil-interactions: adsorption isotherms and quantum chemical modeling.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ashour A; Kühn, Oliver; Aziz, Saadullah G; Hilal, Rifaat H; Leinweber, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Hazardous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) interact in soil with the soil organic matter (SOM) but this interaction is insufficiently understood at the molecular level. We investigated the adsorption of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on soil samples with systematically modified SOM. These samples included the original soil, the soil modified by adding a hot water extract (HWE) fraction (soil+3 HWE and soil+6 HWE), and the pyrolyzed soil. The SOM contents increased in the order pyrolyzed soiladsorption. The pyrolyzed soil adsorbed more HCB than the other samples at low initial concentrations, but at higher concentrations the HCB adsorption became weaker than in the samples with HWE addition. This adsorption combined with the differences in the chemical composition between the soil samples suggested that alkylated aromatic, phenol, and lignin monomer compounds contributed most to the HCB adsorption. To obtain a molecular level understanding, a test set has been developed on the basis of elemental analysis which comprises 32 representative soil constituents. The calculated binding energy for HCB with each representative system shows that HCB binds to SOM stronger than to soil minerals. For SOM, HCB binds to alkylated aromatic, phenols, lignin monomers, and hydrophobic aliphatic compounds stronger than to polar aliphatic compounds confirming the above adsorption isotherms. Moreover, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of the binding energy with independent physical properties of the test set systems for the first time indicated that the polarizability, the partial charge on the carbon atoms, and the molar volume are the most important properties controlling HCB-SOM interactions.

  18. Predicting heavy metals' adsorption edges and adsorption isotherms on MnO2 with the parameters determined from Langmuir kinetics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinghai; Xiao, Zhongjin; Xiong, Xinmei; Zhou, Gongming; Guan, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Although surface complexation models have been widely used to describe the adsorption of heavy metals, few studies have verified the feasibility of modeling the adsorption kinetics, edge, and isotherm data with one pH-independent parameter. A close inspection of the derivation process of Langmuir isotherm revealed that the equilibrium constant derived from the Langmuir kinetic model, KS-kinetic, is theoretically equivalent to the adsorption constant in Langmuir isotherm, KS-Langmuir. The modified Langmuir kinetic model (MLK model) and modified Langmuir isotherm model (MLI model) incorporating pH factor were developed. The MLK model was employed to simulate the adsorption kinetics of Cu(II), Co(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) on MnO2 at pH3.2 or 3.3 to get the values of KS-kinetic. The adsorption edges of heavy metals could be modeled with the modified metal partitioning model (MMP model), and the values of KS-Langmuir were obtained. The values of KS-kinetic and KS-Langmuir are very close to each other, validating that the constants obtained by these two methods are basically the same. The MMP model with KS-kinetic constants could predict the adsorption edges of heavy metals on MnO2 very well at different adsorbent/adsorbate concentrations. Moreover, the adsorption isotherms of heavy metals on MnO2 at various pH levels could be predicted reasonably well by the MLI model with the KS-kinetic constants.

  19. Enhanced fluoride adsorption by nano crystalline γ-alumina: adsorption kinetics, isotherm modeling and thermodynamic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnakoti, Prathibha; Chunduri, Avinash L. A.; Vankayala, Ranganayakulu K.; Patnaik, Sandeep; Kamisetti, Venkataramaniah

    2016-06-01

    Nano materials in particular nano oxides with enhanced surface area and an excellent catalytic surface serve as potential adsorbents for defluoridation of water. In the present study nano γ-alumina was synthesized through a simple and low cost, surfactant assisted solution combustion method. As synthesized material was characterized by XRD and FESEM for its phase, size and morphological characteristics. Surface properties have been investigated by BET method. Nano γ-alumina was further used for a detailed adsorption study to remove fluoride from water. Batches of experiments were performed at various experimental conditions such as solution pH, adsorbent dose, initial fluoride concentration and contact time to test the defluoridation ability of γ-alumina. Fluoride Adsorption by nano sized γ-alumina was rapid and reached equilibrium within two hours. The adsorption worked well at pH 4.0, where ˜96 % of fluoride was found to be adsorbed on adsorbent. It was possible to reduce fluoride levels to as low as 0.3 mg/L (within the safe limit of WHO: ≤1.5 mg/L) from an initial fluoride levels of 10 mg/L. This could be achieved using a very small quantity, 1 g/L of γ-alumina at pH 4 within 1 h of contact time. Defluoridation capacity of nano γ-alumina was further investigated by fitting the equilibrium data to various isotherm as well as kinetic models. The present study revealed that γ-alumina could be an efficient adsorbent for treating fluoride contaminated water.

  20. Adsorption of emulsified oil from metalworking fluid on activated bleaching earth-chitosan-SDS composites: Optimization, kinetics, isotherms.

    PubMed

    Naowanat, Nitiya; Thouchprasitchai, Nutthavich; Pongstabodee, Sangobtip

    2016-03-15

    The adsorption of emulsified oil from metalworking fluid (MWF) on activated bleaching earth (BE)-chitosan-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) composites (BE/MCS) was investigated under a statistical design of experiments at a 95% confidence interval to identify the critical factors and to optimize the adsorption capacity. The BE/MCS adsorbents were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller adsorption/desorption isotherms, contact angle analysis (sessile drop technique) and their zeta potential. From the results of a full 2(5) factorial design with three center points, the adsorbent weight and initial pH of the MWF had a significant antagonistic effect on the adsorption capacity while the initial MWF concentration and BE:chitosan:SDS weight ratio had a synergistic influence. Temperature factor has no discernible effect on the capacity. From the FCCC-RSM design, the optimal capacity range of 2840-2922.5 mg g(-1) was achieved at sorbent weight of 1.6-1.9 g, pH of 5.5-6.5, initial MWF concentration of 52-55 g l(-1) and BE:chitosan:SDS (w/w/w) ratio of 4.7:1:1-6.2:1:1. To test the validation and sensitivity of RSM model, the results showed that the estimated adsorption capacity was close to the experimental capacity within an error range of ±3%, suggesting that the RSM model was acceptable and satisfied. From three kinetics models (pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order model and Avrami's equation) and two adsorption isotherms (Langmuir model and Freundlich model), assessed using an error function (Err) and the coefficient of determination (R(2)), Avrami's equation and Freundlich isotherm model provided a good fitting for the data, suggesting the presence of more than one reaction pathway in the MWF adsorption process and the heterogeneous surface adsorption of the BC/ABE-5.5 composite. PMID:26731309

  1. Adsorption of emulsified oil from metalworking fluid on activated bleaching earth-chitosan-SDS composites: Optimization, kinetics, isotherms.

    PubMed

    Naowanat, Nitiya; Thouchprasitchai, Nutthavich; Pongstabodee, Sangobtip

    2016-03-15

    The adsorption of emulsified oil from metalworking fluid (MWF) on activated bleaching earth (BE)-chitosan-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) composites (BE/MCS) was investigated under a statistical design of experiments at a 95% confidence interval to identify the critical factors and to optimize the adsorption capacity. The BE/MCS adsorbents were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller adsorption/desorption isotherms, contact angle analysis (sessile drop technique) and their zeta potential. From the results of a full 2(5) factorial design with three center points, the adsorbent weight and initial pH of the MWF had a significant antagonistic effect on the adsorption capacity while the initial MWF concentration and BE:chitosan:SDS weight ratio had a synergistic influence. Temperature factor has no discernible effect on the capacity. From the FCCC-RSM design, the optimal capacity range of 2840-2922.5 mg g(-1) was achieved at sorbent weight of 1.6-1.9 g, pH of 5.5-6.5, initial MWF concentration of 52-55 g l(-1) and BE:chitosan:SDS (w/w/w) ratio of 4.7:1:1-6.2:1:1. To test the validation and sensitivity of RSM model, the results showed that the estimated adsorption capacity was close to the experimental capacity within an error range of ±3%, suggesting that the RSM model was acceptable and satisfied. From three kinetics models (pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order model and Avrami's equation) and two adsorption isotherms (Langmuir model and Freundlich model), assessed using an error function (Err) and the coefficient of determination (R(2)), Avrami's equation and Freundlich isotherm model provided a good fitting for the data, suggesting the presence of more than one reaction pathway in the MWF adsorption process and the heterogeneous surface adsorption of the BC/ABE-5.5 composite.

  2. Adsorption on molecularly imprinted polymers of structural analogues of a template. Single-component adsorption isotherm data

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyunjung; Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-10-01

    The equilibrium adsorption isotherms on two otherwise identical polymers, one imprinted with Fmoc-L-tryptophan (Fmoc-L-Trp) (MIP), the other nonimprinted (NIP), of compounds that are structural analogues of the template were acquired by frontal analysis (FA) in an acetonitrile/acetic acid (99/1 v/v) mobile phase, over a wide concentration range (from 0.005 to 50 mM). These analogues were Fmoc-L-tyrosine, Fmoc-L-serine, Fmoc-L-phenyalanine, Fmoc-glycine (Fmoc-Gly), Fmoc-L-tryptophan pentafluorophenyl ester (Fmoc-L-Trp(OPfp)), and their antipodes. These substrates have different numbers of functional groups able to interact with the 4-vinylpyridine groups of the polymer. For a given number of the functional groups, these substrates have different hydrophobicities of their side groups (as indicated by their partition coefficients (log P{sub ow}) in the octanol-water system (e.g., from 4.74 for Fmoc-Trp to 2.53 for Fmoc-Gly)). Statistical results from the fitting of the FA data to Langmuirian isotherm models, the calculation of the affinity energy distribution, and the comparison of calculated and experimental band profiles show that all these sets of FA data are best accounted for by a tri-Langmuir isotherm model, except for the data of Fmoc-L-Trp(OPfp) that are best modeled by a simple Langmuir isotherm. So, all compounds but Fmoc-L-Trp(OPfp) find three different types of adsorption sites on both the MIP and the NIP. The properties of these different types of sites were studied systematically. The results show that the affinity of the structural analogues for the NIP is controlled mostly by the number of the functional groups on the substrates and somewhat by the hydrophobicity of their side groups. These two factors control also the MIP affinity toward the enantiomers of the structural analogues that have a stereochemistry different from that of the template. In contrast, the affinity of the highest affinity sites of the MIP toward the enantiomers of these

  3. Isothermal Adsorption Measurement for the Development of High Performance Solid Sorption Cooling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Bidyut Baran; Koyama, Shigeru; Alam, K. C. Amanul; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao; Ng, Kim Choon; Chua, Hui Tong

    Interest in low-grade thermal heat powered solid sorption system using natural refrigerants has been increased. However, the drawbacks of these adsorption systems are their poor performance. The objective of this paper is to improve the performance of thermally powered adsorption cooling system by selecting new adsorbent-refrigerant pairs. Adsorption capacity of adsorbent-refrigerant pair depends on the thermophysical properties (pore size, pore volume and pore diameter) of adsorbent and isothermal characteristics of the adsorbent-refrigerant pair. In this paper, the thermophysical properties of three types of silica gels and three types of pitch based activated carbon fibers are determined from the nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The standard nitrogen gas adsorption/desorption measurements on various adsorbents at liquid nitrogen of temperature 77.4 K were performed. Surface area of each adsorbent was determined by the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) plot of nitrogen adsorption data. Pore size distribution was measured by the Horvath and Kawazoe (HK) method. Adsorption/desorption isotherm results showed that all three carbon fibers have no hysteresis and had better adsorption capacity in comparison with those of silica gels.

  4. Kinetic Interpretation of Water Vapor Adsorption-Desorption Behavior of a Desiccant Rotor Showing S-shaped Adsorption Isotherm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Kumiko; Oshima, Kazunori; Takewaki, Takahiko; Kodama, Akio

    Adsorption / desorption behavior of water vapor in a desiccant rotor containing an iron aluminophosphate type zeolite FAM-Z01 (Functional Adsorbent Material Zeolite 01) was experimentally investigated for humidity swing. This rotor exhibited an S-shaped adsorption isotherm with its temperature dependence. Humidity swing, using a small piece of the rotor, could be usefully applied to interpret adsorption / desorption mechanisms by observing their rates. The most significant finding was that the adsorption / desorption rates in humidity swing could be described by the amount of adsorption, temperature and amplitude of the humidity swing, not by cycle time. Also, using the liner driving force (LDF) model, the overall mass transfer coefficient changed with the elapse of time or with the amount of adsorbed water. This implied that the LDF model, considering constant value of the overall mass transfer coefficient, was probably unable to explain the water adsorption / desorption behavior of FAM-Z01 desiccant rotor.

  5. Eriobotrya japonica seed biocomposite efficiency for copper adsorption: Isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamic and desorption studies.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Mehwish; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Iqbal, Munawar; Noreen, Saima

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption techniques are widely used to remove pollutants from wastewater; however, composites are gaining more importance due to their excellent adsorption properties. Bentonite composite with Eriobotrya japonica seed was prepared and used for the adsorption of copper (Cu) metal from aqueous media. The process variables such as pH, Cu(II) ions initial concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were optimized for maximum Cu(II) adsorption. At pH 5, adsorbent dose 0.1 g, contact time 45 min, Cu(II) ions initial concentration 75 mg/L and temperature 45 °C, maximum Cu(II) adsorption was achieved. Desorption studies revealed that biocomposite is recyclable. Langmuir, Freundlich and Harkins-Jura isotherms as well as pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetics models were applied to understand the adsorption mechanism. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG(0), ΔH(0) and ΔS(0)) suggest that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm fitted well to the adsorption data. Results showed that biocomposite was more efficient for Cu(II) adsorption in comparison to individuals native Eriobotrya japonica seed biomass and Na-bentonite.

  6. Eriobotrya japonica seed biocomposite efficiency for copper adsorption: Isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamic and desorption studies.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Mehwish; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Iqbal, Munawar; Noreen, Saima

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption techniques are widely used to remove pollutants from wastewater; however, composites are gaining more importance due to their excellent adsorption properties. Bentonite composite with Eriobotrya japonica seed was prepared and used for the adsorption of copper (Cu) metal from aqueous media. The process variables such as pH, Cu(II) ions initial concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were optimized for maximum Cu(II) adsorption. At pH 5, adsorbent dose 0.1 g, contact time 45 min, Cu(II) ions initial concentration 75 mg/L and temperature 45 °C, maximum Cu(II) adsorption was achieved. Desorption studies revealed that biocomposite is recyclable. Langmuir, Freundlich and Harkins-Jura isotherms as well as pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetics models were applied to understand the adsorption mechanism. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG(0), ΔH(0) and ΔS(0)) suggest that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm fitted well to the adsorption data. Results showed that biocomposite was more efficient for Cu(II) adsorption in comparison to individuals native Eriobotrya japonica seed biomass and Na-bentonite. PMID:27039361

  7. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm of anionic dyes onto organo-bentonite from single and multisolute systems.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dazhong; Fan, Jianxin; Zhou, Weizhi; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Kang, Qi

    2009-12-15

    The performances of polydiallydimethylammonium modified bentonite (PDADMA-bentonite) as an adsorbent to remove anionic dyes, namely Acid Scarlet GR (AS-GR), Acid Turquoise Blue 2G (ATB-2G) and Indigo Carmine (IC), were investigated in single, binary and ternary dye systems. In adsorption from single dye solutions with initial concentration of 100 micromol/L, the dosage of PDADMA-bentonite needed to remove 95% dye was 0.42, 0.68 and 0.75 g/L for AS-GR, ATB-2G and IC, respectively. The adsorption isotherms of the three dyes obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model with the equilibrium constants of 0.372, 0.629 and 4.31 L/micromol, the saturation adsorption amount of 176.3, 149.2 and 228.7 micromol/g for ATB-2G, IC and AS-GR, respectively. In adsorption from mixed dye solutions, the isotherm of each individual dye followed an expanded Langmuir isotherm model and the relationship between the total amount of dyes adsorbed and the total equilibrium dye concentration was interpreted well by Langmuir isotherm model. In the region of insufficient dosage of PDADMA-bentonite, the dye with a larger affinity was preferentially removed by adsorption. Desorption was observed in the kinetic curve of the dye with lower affinity on PDADMA-bentonite surface by the competitive adsorption. The kinetics in single dye solution and the total adsorption of dyes in binary and ternary dye systems nicely followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  8. Kinetic and isotherm error optimization studies for adsorption of atrazine and imidacloprid on bark of Eucalyptus tereticornis L.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Abhishek; Singh, Neera

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the bark of Eucalyptus tereticornis L. (EB) as a low cost bio-adsorbent for the removal of imidacloprid and atrazine from aqueous medium. The pseudo-first-order (PFO), pseudo-second-order (PSO), Elovich and intra-particle diffusion (IPD) models were used to describe the kinetic data and rate constants were evaluated. Adsorption data was analysed using ten 2-, 3- and 4-parameter models viz. Freundlich, Jovanovic, Langmuir, Temkin, Koble-Corrigan, Redlich-Peterson, Sips, Toth, Radke-Prausnitz, and Fritz-Schluender isotherms. Six error functions were used to compute the best fit single component isotherm parameters by nonlinear regression analysis. The results showed that the sorption of atrazine was better explained by PSO model, whereas the sorption of imidacloprid followed the PFO kinetic model. Isotherm model optimization analysis suggested that the Freundlich along with Koble-Corrigan, Toth and Fritz-Schluender were the best models to predict atrazine and imidacloprid adsorption onto EB. Error analysis suggested that minimization of chi-square (χ(2)) error function provided the best determination of optimum parameter sets for all the isotherms.

  9. Electrochemically enhanced adsorption of nonylphenol on carbon nanotubes: Kinetics and isotherms study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaona; Chen, Shuo; Li, Liying; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-02-01

    Removal of nonylphenol (NP) from aqueous solution has attracted widely attention due to its aquatic toxicity and potential to disrupt the endocrine system. In an effort to develop the effective and environment-friendly treatment method for NP, adsorption of 4-n-nonylphenol (4-NP) on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) under electrochemical assistance was studied. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were investigated at different polarization potentials and compared with those of open circuit (OC) and powder MWCNTs adsorption. The adsorption kinetics was simulated by the model including pseudo-first-order model, pseudo-second-order model and intraparticle diffusion model. The isotherm was simulated with Langmuir model and Freudlich model, respectively. Experimental results indicated that 4-NP is able to be efficiently removed at a potential of -0.6V. Comparing with that of powder MWCNTs adsorption, the initial adsorption rate υ0 at -0.6V increased 7.9-fold according to pseudo-second-order model and the maximum adsorption capacity qm improved 1.7-fold according to Langmuir model. The improved adsorption effect at negative potential was ascribed to enhanced π-π electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interaction between 4-NP and MWCNTs under electrochemical assistance.

  10. Adsorption of pharmaceuticals onto activated carbon fiber cloths - Modeling and extrapolation of adsorption isotherms at very low concentrations.

    PubMed

    Fallou, Hélène; Cimetière, Nicolas; Giraudet, Sylvain; Wolbert, Dominique; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2016-01-15

    Activated carbon fiber cloths (ACFC) have shown promising results when applied to water treatment, especially for removing organic micropollutants such as pharmaceutical compounds. Nevertheless, further investigations are required, especially considering trace concentrations, which are found in current water treatment. Until now, most studies have been carried out at relatively high concentrations (mg L(-1)), since the experimental and analytical methodologies are more difficult and more expensive when dealing with lower concentrations (ng L(-1)). Therefore, the objective of this study was to validate an extrapolation procedure from high to low concentrations, for four compounds (Carbamazepine, Diclofenac, Caffeine and Acetaminophen). For this purpose, the reliability of the usual adsorption isotherm models, when extrapolated from high (mg L(-1)) to low concentrations (ng L(-1)), was assessed as well as the influence of numerous error functions. Some isotherm models (Freundlich, Toth) and error functions (RSS, ARE) show weaknesses to be used as an adsorption isotherms at low concentrations. However, from these results, the pairing of the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model with Marquardt's percent standard of deviation was evidenced as the best combination model, enabling the extrapolation of adsorption capacities by orders of magnitude. PMID:26606322

  11. Effect of the endcapping of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography adsorbents on the adsorption isotherm

    SciTech Connect

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-09-01

    The retention mechanisms of n-propylbenzoate, 4-t ert-butylphenol, and caffeine on the endcapped Symmetry-C{sub 18} and the non-endcapped Resolve-C{sub 18} are compared. The adsorption isotherms were measured by frontal analysis (FA), using as the mobile phase mixtures of methanol or acetonitrile and water of various compositions. The isotherm data were modeled and the adsorption energy distributions calculated. The surface heterogeneity increases faster with decreasing methanol concentration on the non-endcapped than on the endcapped adsorbent. For instance, for methanol concentrations exceeding 30% (v/v), the adsorption of caffeine is accounted for by assuming three and two different types of adsorption sites on Resolve-C{sub 18} and Symmetry-C{sub 18}, respectively. This is explained by the effect of the mobile phase composition on the structure of the C{sub 18}-bonded layer. The bare surface of bonded silica appears more accessible to solute molecules at high water contents in the mobile phase. On the other hand, replacing methanol by a stronger organic modifier like acetonitrile dampens the differences between non-endcapped and endcapped stationary phase and decreases the degree of surface heterogeneity of the adsorbent. For instance, at acetonitrile concentrations exceeding 20%, the surface appears nearly homogeneous for the adsorption of caffeine.

  12. Kinetics and isothermal modeling of liquid phase adsorption of rhodamine B onto urea modified Raphia hookerie epicarp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inyinbor, A. A.; Adekola, F. A.; Olatunji, G. A.

    2016-09-01

    Epicarp of Raphia hookerie, a bioresource material, was modified with urea (UMRH) to adsorb Rhodamine B (RhB) from aqueous solution. Adsorbent morphology and surface chemistry were established by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area determination, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as the pH point of zero charge (pHpzc) determination. Prepared material was subsequently utilized for the uptake of Rhodamine B (RhB). Operational parameters, such as adsorbent dosage, concentration, time, and temperature, were investigated. Evidence of effective urea modification was confirmed by vivid absorption bands at 1670 and 1472 cm-1 corresponding to C=O and C-N stretching vibrations, respectively. Optimum adsorption was obtained at pH 3. Freundlich adsorption isotherm best fits the equilibrium adsorption data, while evidence of adsorbate-adsorbate interaction was revealed by Temkin isotherm model. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (q max) was 434.78 mg/g. Kinetics of the adsorption process was best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. Desorption efficiency was less than or equal to 25 % for all the eluents, and it follows the order HCl > H2O > CH3COOH.

  13. Experimental studies of hydrogen on boron nitride: I. Adsorption isotherms of HD

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.D.; Sullivan, N.S.

    1995-09-01

    The authors report the results of measurements of adsorption isotherms of deuterium hydride (HD) adsorbed onto boron nitride. From this data they derive both the two-dimensional critical point temperatures (using Larher`s method) and the heat of adsorption for the first few layers of this system. These results are compared with similar measurements of HD adsorbed onto graphite and MgO. While substantial substeps within some adlayer steps are evident in the adsorption isotherms of HD on graphite and MgO and have been shown to indicate a two-dimensional liquid-solid transition within the layer, no substep is evident at the level of one percent of a step level for HD adsorbed onto BN.

  14. Adsorption isotherms and kinetics of activated carbons produced from coals of different ranks.

    PubMed

    Purevsuren, B; Lin, Chin-Jung; Davaajav, Y; Ariunaa, A; Batbileg, S; Avid, B; Jargalmaa, S; Huang, Yu; Liou, Sofia Ya-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    Activated carbons (ACs) from six coals, ranging from low-rank lignite brown coal to high-rank stone coal, were utilized as adsorbents to remove basic methylene blue (MB) from an aqueous solution. The surface properties of the obtained ACs were characterized via thermal analysis, N2 isothermal sorption, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Boehm titration. As coal rank decreased, an increase in the heterogeneity of the pore structures and abundance of oxygen-containing functional groups increased MB coverage on its surface. The equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model, and adsorption capacity of MB ranged from 51.8 to 344.8 mg g⁻¹. Good correlation coefficients were obtained using the intra-particle diffusion model, indicating that the adsorption of MB onto ACs is diffusion controlled. The values of the effective diffusion coefficient ranged from 0.61 × 10⁻¹⁰ to 7.1 × 10⁻¹⁰ m² s⁻¹, indicating that ACs from lower-rank coals have higher effective diffusivities. Among all the ACs obtained from selected coals, the AC from low-rank lignite brown coal was the most effective in removing MB from an aqueous solution. PMID:25909729

  15. Adsorption of surfactants on sand surface in enhanced oil recovery: Isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Achinta; Kumar, T.; Ojha, Keka; Mandal, Ajay

    2013-11-01

    Adsorption of surfactants onto reservoir rock surface may result in the loss and reduction of their concentrations in surfactant flooding, which may render them less efficient or ineffective in practical applications of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques. Surfactant flooding for EOR received attraction due to its ability to increase the displacement efficiency by lowering the interfacial tension between oil and water and mobilizing the residual oil. This article highlights the adsorption of surfactants onto sand surface with variation of different influencing factors. It has been experimentally found that adsorption of cationic surfactant on sand surface is more and less for anionic surfactant, while non-ionic surfactant shows intermediate behaviour. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study of clean sand particles has been made to determine the main component present in the sand particles. The interaction between sand particles and surfactant has been studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy of the sand particles before and after aging with surfactant. Salinity plays an important role in adsorption of anionic surfactant. Batch experiments were also performed to understand the effects of pH and adsorbent dose on the sorption efficiency. The sand particles exhibited high adsorption efficiency at low pH for anionic and nonionic surfactants. But opposite trend was found for cationic surfactant. Adsorption data were analyzed by fitting with Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, and Sips isotherm models. Results show that the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetics models suit the equilibrium and kinetics of adsorption on sand surface. Thermodynamics feasibility of the adsorption process was also studied to verify the spontaneity of the process.

  16. Water adsorption isotherms on porous onionlike carbonaceous particles. Simulations with the grand canonical Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Hantal, György; Picaud, Sylvain; Hoang, Paul N M; Voloshin, Vladimir P; Medvedev, Nikolai N; Jedlovszky, Pál

    2010-10-14

    The grand canonical Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the adsorption isotherms of water molecules on different types of model soot particles. These soot models are constructed by first removing atoms from onion-fullerene structures in order to create randomly distributed pores inside the soot, and then performing molecular dynamics simulations, based on the reactive adaptive intermolecular reactive empirical bond order (AIREBO) description of the interaction between carbon atoms, to optimize the resulting structures. The obtained results clearly show that the main driving force of water adsorption on soot is the possibility of the formation of new water-water hydrogen bonds with the already adsorbed water molecules. The shape of the calculated water adsorption isotherms at 298 K strongly depends on the possible confinement of the water molecules in pores of the carbonaceous structure. We found that there are two important factors influencing the adsorption ability of soot. The first of these factors, dominating at low pressures, is the ability of the soot of accommodating the first adsorbed water molecules at strongly hydrophilic sites. The second factor concerns the size and shape of the pores, which should be such that the hydrogen bonding network of the water molecules filling them should be optimal. This second factor determines the adsorption properties at higher pressures. PMID:20950025

  17. Water adsorption isotherms on porous onionlike carbonaceous particles. Simulations with the grand canonical Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hantal, György; Picaud, Sylvain; Hoang, Paul N. M.; Voloshin, Vladimir P.; Medvedev, Nikolai N.; Jedlovszky, Pál

    2010-10-01

    The grand canonical Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the adsorption isotherms of water molecules on different types of model soot particles. These soot models are constructed by first removing atoms from onion-fullerene structures in order to create randomly distributed pores inside the soot, and then performing molecular dynamics simulations, based on the reactive adaptive intermolecular reactive empirical bond order (AIREBO) description of the interaction between carbon atoms, to optimize the resulting structures. The obtained results clearly show that the main driving force of water adsorption on soot is the possibility of the formation of new water-water hydrogen bonds with the already adsorbed water molecules. The shape of the calculated water adsorption isotherms at 298 K strongly depends on the possible confinement of the water molecules in pores of the carbonaceous structure. We found that there are two important factors influencing the adsorption ability of soot. The first of these factors, dominating at low pressures, is the ability of the soot of accommodating the first adsorbed water molecules at strongly hydrophilic sites. The second factor concerns the size and shape of the pores, which should be such that the hydrogen bonding network of the water molecules filling them should be optimal. This second factor determines the adsorption properties at higher pressures.

  18. Linearised and non-linearised isotherm models optimization analysis by error functions and statistical means.

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Busetty; Das, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    In adsorption study, to describe sorption process and evaluation of best-fitting isotherm model is a key analysis to investigate the theoretical hypothesis. Hence, numerous statistically analysis have been extensively used to estimate validity of the experimental equilibrium adsorption values with the predicted equilibrium values. Several statistical error analysis were carried out. In the present study, the following statistical analysis were carried out to evaluate the adsorption isotherm model fitness, like the Pearson correlation, the coefficient of determination and the Chi-square test, have been used. The ANOVA test was carried out for evaluating significance of various error functions and also coefficient of dispersion were evaluated for linearised and non-linearised models. The adsorption of phenol onto natural soil (Local name Kalathur soil) was carried out, in batch mode at 30 ± 20 C. For estimating the isotherm parameters, to get a holistic view of the analysis the models were compared between linear and non-linear isotherm models. The result reveled that, among above mentioned error functions and statistical functions were designed to determine the best fitting isotherm. PMID:25018878

  19. Relation between Water Vapor Adsorption Isotherms and Dynamic Dehumidification Performances of Desiccant Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Koji; Matsuguma, Shingo; Jin, Wei-Li; Okano, Hiroshi; Teraoka, Yasutake; Hirose, Tsutomu

    Desiccant rotors with different water vapor adsorption properties were fabricated by the synthesis of silica gels inside the honeycomb matrices. Dynamic dehumidification performances of the rotors were measured under different conditions and they were discussed in relation to water vapor adsorption isotherms. At the reactivation air temperatures of 80 and 140 oC, the best dynamic performance was observed with the rotor on which the adsorbed amount of water vapor at lower relative humidity was highest. When the reactivation air temperature was 50 oC, on the other hand, the rotor of which the isotherm exhibited monotonic and nearly linear increase up to higher relative humidity was the most suitable. The normalized changes of absolute humidity and adsorbed amount were defined, and these phenomena were analyzed. When the dependences of both parameters against the relative humidity were similar, the rotor showed the best dehumidification performance.

  20. Adsorption on heterogeneous surfaces: site energy distribution functions from Fritz-Schlüender isotherms.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kannuchamy Vasanth; Monteiro de Castro, Mateus Carvalho; Martinez-Escandell, Manuel; Molina-Sabio, Miguel; Rodriguez-Reinoso, Francisco

    2010-08-23

    Different site energy distribution functions based on the condensation approximation method are proposed for the liquid-phase or gas-phase adsorption equilibrium data following the Fritz-Schlüender isotherm. Energy distribution functions for the four limiting cases of the Fritz-Schlüender isotherm are also discussed. The proposed models are successfully applied to the experimental equilibrium data of nitrogen molecules at 77 K on a pitch-based activated carbon (PA) and a pitch-based activated carbon containing boron (PBA). An energy distribution function based on FS isotherm containing five parameters suggest a unimodal distribution of binding sites for carbon PA, the binding site energies being distributed as exponential or unimodal, depending on the pressure, in the case of carbon PBA. The advantages of the proposed models are discussed.

  1. Oxygen chemisorption on V/sub 2/O/sub 5/: isotherms and isobars of adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, L.; Gambaro, L.A.; Thomas, H.J.

    1984-06-01

    Experimental results of oxygen adsorption on V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ (isotherms and isobars) are reported. In its normal state V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ is a nonstoichiometric oxide that shows oxygen vacancies with the subsequent formation of V/sup 4 +/ ions. A model is developed for the interaction between oxygen (gaseous, adsorbed, and bulk) and the solid phase (V/sub 2/O/sub 5/). 12 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  2. A regularization method for the reconstruction of adsorption isotherms in liquid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ye; Lin, Guang-Liang; Forssén, Patrik; Gulliksson, Mårten; Fornstedt, Torgny; Cheng, Xiao-Liang

    2016-10-01

    Determining competitive adsorption isotherms is an open problem in liquid chromatography. Since traditional experimental trial-and-error approaches are too complex and expensive, a modern technique of obtaining adsorption isotherms is to solve the inverse problem so that the simulated batch separation coincides with actual experimental results. This is a typical ill-posed problem. Moreover, in almost all cases the observed concentration at the outlet is the total response of all components, which makes the problem more difficult. In this work, we tackle the ill-posedness with a new regularization method, which is based on the fact that the adsorption isotherms do not depend on the injection profile. The proposed method transfers the original problem to an optimization problem with a time-dependent convection-diffusion equation constraint. Iterative algorithms for solving constraint optimization problems for both the equilibrium-dispersive and the transport-dispersive models are developed. The mass transfer resistance is also estimated by the proposed inverse method. A regularization parameter selection method and the convergence property of the proposed algorithm are discussed. Finally, numerical tests for both synthetic problems and real-world problems are given to show the efficiency and feasibility of the proposed regularization method.

  3. The investigation of kinetic and isotherm of fluoride adsorption onto functionalize pumice stone.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Ghorban; Roshani, Babak; Ghanizadeh, Ghader

    2012-05-30

    In this research work, pumice that is functionalized by the cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium (HDTMA), is used as an adsorbent for the removal of fluoride from drinking water. This work was carried out in two parts. The effects of HDTMA loading, pH (3-10), reaction time (5-60 min) and the adsorbent dosage (0.15-2.5 g L(-1)) were investigated on the removal of fluoride as a target contaminate from water through the design of different experimental sets in the first part. The results from this first part revealed that surfactant-modified pumice (SMP) exhibited the best performance at dose 0.5 g L(-1), pH 6, and it adsorbs over 96% of fluoride from a solution containing 10 mg L(-1) fluoride after 30 min of mixing time. The four linear forms of the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms model were applied to determine the best fit of equilibrium expressions. Apart from the regression coefficient (R(2)), four error functions were used to validate the isotherm and kinetics data. The experimental adsorption isotherm complies with Langmuir equation model type 1. The maximum amount of adsorption (Q(max)) was 41 mg g(-1). The kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption of fluoride best fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic type 1. Thermodynamic parameters evaluation of fluoride adsorption on SMP showed that the adsorption process under the selected conditions was spontaneous and endothermic. The suitability of SMP in defluoridation at field condition was investigated with natural groundwater samples collected from a nearby fluoride endemic area in the second part of this study. Based on this study's results, SMP was shown to be an affordable and a promising option for the removal of fluoride in drinking water.

  4. Adsorption of Phenol from Aqueous Solution Using Lantana camara, Forest Waste: Kinetics, Isotherm, and Thermodynamic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Girish, C. R.; Ramachandra Murty, V.

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigates the potential of Lantana camara, a forest waste, as an adsorbent for the phenol reduction in wastewater. Batch studies were conducted with adsorbent treated with HCl and KOH to determine the influence of various experimental parameters such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and phenol concentration. The experimental conditions were optimized for the removal of phenol from wastewater. Equilibrium isotherms for the adsorption of phenol were analyzed by Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters like the Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) were also determined and they showed that the adsorption process was feasible, spontaneous, and exothermic in the temperature range of 298–328 K. The kinetic data were fitted with pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium data that followed Langmuir model with the monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 112.5 mg/g and 91.07 mg/g for adsorbent treated with HCl and KOH, respectively, for the concentration of phenol ranging from 25 to 250 mg/L. This indicates that the Lantana camara was a promising adsorbent for the removal of phenol from aqueous solutions. PMID:27350997

  5. Modeling Nonlinear Adsorption to Carbon with a Single Chemical Parameter: A Lognormal Langmuir Isotherm.

    PubMed

    Davis, Craig Warren; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2015-07-01

    Predictive models for linear sorption of solutes onto various media, e.g., soil organic carbon, are well-established; however, methods for predicting parameters for nonlinear isotherm models, e.g., Freundlich and Langmuir models, are not. Predicting nonlinear partition coefficients is complicated by the number of model parameters to fit n isotherms (e.g., Freundlich (2n) or Polanyi-Manes (3n)). The purpose of this paper is to present a nonlinear adsorption model with only one chemically specific parameter. To accomplish this, several simplifications to a log-normal Langmuir (LNL) isotherm model with 3n parameters were explored. A single sorbate-specific binding constant, the median Langmuir binding constant, and two global sorbent parameters; the total site density and the standard deviation of the Langmuir binding constant were employed. This single-solute specific (ss-LNL) model (2 + n parameters) was demonstrated to fit adsorption data as well as the 2n parameter Freundlich model. The LNL isotherm model is fit to four data sets composed of various chemicals sorbed to graphite, charcoal, and activated carbon. The RMS errors for the 3-, 2-, and 1-chemical specific parameter models were 0.066, 0.068, 0.069, and 0.113, respectively. The median logarithmic parameter standard errors for the four models were 1.070, 0.4537, 0.382, and 0.201 respectively. Further, the single-parameter model was the only model for which there were no standard errors of estimated parameters greater than a factor of 3 (0.50 log units). The surprising result is that very little decrease in RMSE occurs when two of the three parameters, σκ and qmax, are sorbate independent. However, the large standard errors present in the other models are significantly reduced. This remarkable simplification yields the single sorbate-specific parameter (ss-LNL) model. PMID:26035092

  6. Modeling Nonlinear Adsorption to Carbon with a Single Chemical Parameter: A Lognormal Langmuir Isotherm.

    PubMed

    Davis, Craig Warren; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2015-07-01

    Predictive models for linear sorption of solutes onto various media, e.g., soil organic carbon, are well-established; however, methods for predicting parameters for nonlinear isotherm models, e.g., Freundlich and Langmuir models, are not. Predicting nonlinear partition coefficients is complicated by the number of model parameters to fit n isotherms (e.g., Freundlich (2n) or Polanyi-Manes (3n)). The purpose of this paper is to present a nonlinear adsorption model with only one chemically specific parameter. To accomplish this, several simplifications to a log-normal Langmuir (LNL) isotherm model with 3n parameters were explored. A single sorbate-specific binding constant, the median Langmuir binding constant, and two global sorbent parameters; the total site density and the standard deviation of the Langmuir binding constant were employed. This single-solute specific (ss-LNL) model (2 + n parameters) was demonstrated to fit adsorption data as well as the 2n parameter Freundlich model. The LNL isotherm model is fit to four data sets composed of various chemicals sorbed to graphite, charcoal, and activated carbon. The RMS errors for the 3-, 2-, and 1-chemical specific parameter models were 0.066, 0.068, 0.069, and 0.113, respectively. The median logarithmic parameter standard errors for the four models were 1.070, 0.4537, 0.382, and 0.201 respectively. Further, the single-parameter model was the only model for which there were no standard errors of estimated parameters greater than a factor of 3 (0.50 log units). The surprising result is that very little decrease in RMSE occurs when two of the three parameters, σκ and qmax, are sorbate independent. However, the large standard errors present in the other models are significantly reduced. This remarkable simplification yields the single sorbate-specific parameter (ss-LNL) model.

  7. Batch removal of malachite green from aqueous solutions by adsorption on oil palm trunk fibre: equilibrium isotherms and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Hameed, B H; El-Khaiary, M I

    2008-06-15

    Oil palm trunk fibre (OPTF)--an agricultural solid waste--was used as low-cost adsorbent to remove malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions. The operating variables studied were contact time, initial dye concentration, and solution pH. Equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by three isotherms, namely the Freundlich isotherm, the Langmuir isotherm, and the multilayer adsorption isotherm. The best fit to the data was obtained with the multilayer adsorption. The monolayer adsorption capacity of OPTF was found to be 149.35 mg/g at 30 degrees C. Adsorption kinetic data were modeled using the Lagergren pseudo-first-order, Ho's pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. It was found that the Lagergren's model could be used for the prediction of the system's kinetics. The overall rate of dye uptake was found to be controlled by external mass transfer at the beginning of adsorption, then for initial MG concentrations of 25, 50, 100, 150, and 300 mg/L the rate-control changed to intraparticle diffusion at a later stage, but for initial MG concentrations 200 and 250 mg/L no evidence was found of intraparticle diffusion at any period of adsorption. It was found that with increasing the initial concentration of MG, the pore-diffusion coefficient increased while the film-diffusion coefficient decreased. PMID:18022316

  8. A site energy distribution function from Toth isotherm for adsorption of gases on heterogeneous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Vasanth; de Castro, M Monteiro; Martinez-Escandell, M; Molina-Sabio, M; Rodriguez-Reinoso, F

    2011-04-01

    A site energy distribution function based on a condensation approximation method is proposed for gas-phase adsorption systems following the Toth isotherm. The proposed model is successfully applied to estimate the site energy distribution of three pitch-based activated carbons (PA, PFeA and PBA) developed in our laboratory and also for other common adsorbent materials for different gas molecules. According to the proposed model the site energy distribution curves of the activated carbons are found to be exponential for hydrogen at 77 K. The site energy distribution of some of the activated carbon fibers, ambersorb, Dowex optipore, 13X Zeolite for different adsorbate molecules represents a quasi-Gaussian curve with a widened left hand side, indicating that most sites have adsorption energies lower than a statistical mean value.

  9. Description of Chemically and Thermally Treated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using Sequential Decomposition of Adsorption Isotherms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albesa, Alberto G.; Rafti, Matías; Vicente, José Luis

    2016-03-01

    The effect of wet acid oxidation by means of sulfuric/nitric acid mixtures, and high-temperature treatment of commercial arc-discharge synthesized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was studied. In order to analyze the adsorption capacities of differently treated MWCNTs, we employed a multistep method that considers separately different pressure ranges (zones) on the experimentally obtained isotherms. The method is based on simple gas isotherm measurements (N2, CO2, CH4, etc.). Low pressure ranges can be described using Dubinin’s model, while high pressure regimes can be fitted using different models such as BET multilayer and Freundlich equations. This analysis allows to elucidate how different substrate treatments (chemical and thermal) can affect the adsorbate-adsorbent interactions; moreover, theoretical description of adsorbate-adsorbate interactions can be improved if a combination of adsorption mechanisms are used instead of a unique model. The results hereby presented also show that, while MWCNTs are a promising material for storage applications, gas separation applications should carefully consider the effect of wide nanotube size distribution present on samples after activation procedures.

  10. Adsorption of malachite green by polyaniline-nickel ferrite magnetic nanocomposite: an isotherm and kinetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Manohar R.; Shrivastava, V. S.

    2014-11-01

    This work deals with the development of an efficient method for the removal of a MG (malachite green) dye from aqueous solution using polyaniline (PANI)-Nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) magnetic nanocomposite. It is successfully synthesised in situ through self polymerisation of monomer aniline. Adsorptive removal studies are carried out for water soluble MG dye using PANI-Nickel ferrite magnetic nanocomposite in aqueous solution. Different parameters like dose of adsorbent, contact time, different initial conc., and pH have been studied to optimise reaction condition. It is concluded that adsorptive removal by PANI-Nickel ferrite magnetic nanocomposite is an efficient method for removing a MG dye from aqueous solution than work done before. The optimum conditions for the removal of the dye are initial concentration 30 mg l-1, adsorbent dose 5gm l-1 and pH 7. The adsorption capacity is found 4.09 mg g-1 at optimum condition 30 mg l-1. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The experimental isotherm is found to fit with Langmuir equation. The prepared adsorbent is characterised by techniques SEM, EDS, XRD and VSM.

  11. Modeling and CFD prediction for diffusion and adsorption within room with various adsorption isotherms.

    PubMed

    Murakami, S; Kato, S; Ito, K; Zhu, Q

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents physical models that are used for analyzing numerically the transportation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from building materials in a room. The models are based on fundamental physicochemical principles of their diffusion and adsorption/desorption (hereafter simply sorption) both in building materials and in room air. The performance of the proposed physical models is examined numerically in a test room with a technique supported by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Two building materials are used in this study. One is a VOC emitting material for which the emission rate is mainly controlled by the internal diffusion of the material. The other is an adsorptive material that has no VOC source. It affects the room air concentration of VOCs with its sorption process. The floor is covered with an emission material made of polypropylene styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). An adsorbent material made of coal-based activated carbon is spread over the sidewalls. The results of numerical prediction show that the physical models and their numerical simulations explain well the mechanism of the transportation of VOCs in a room.

  12. Statistical physics studies of multilayer adsorption isotherm in food materials and pore size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouaini, F.; Knani, S.; Ben Yahia, M.; Ben Lamine, A.

    2015-08-01

    Water sorption isotherms of foodstuffs are very important in different areas of food science engineering such as for design, modeling and optimization of many processes. The equilibrium moisture content is an important parameter in models used to predict changes in the moisture content of a product during storage. A formulation of multilayer model with two energy levels was based on statistical physics and theoretical considerations. Thanks to the grand canonical ensemble in statistical physics. Some physicochemical parameters related to the adsorption process were introduced in the analytical model expression. The data tabulated in literature of water adsorption at different temperatures on: chickpea seeds, lentil seeds, potato and on green peppers were described applying the most popular models applied in food science. We also extend the study to the newest proposed model. It is concluded that among studied models the proposed model seems to be the best for description of data in the whole range of relative humidity. By using our model, we were able to determine the thermodynamic functions. The measurement of desorption isotherms, in particular a gas over a solid porous, allows access to the distribution of pore size PSD.

  13. Effect of 300 and 500 MPa pressure treatments on starch-water adsorption/desorption isotherms and hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Mauro D.; Cunha, Pedro; Queirós, Rui P.; Fidalgo, Liliana G.; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A.

    2014-10-01

    Pressure treatments of 300 and 500 MPa during 15 min were found to change starch-water sorption (adsorption and desorption) isotherms and the hysteresis effect, particularly the 500 MPa. This last treatment shifted the adsorption/desorption isotherms downward, compared with non-treated starch and starch treated at 300 MPa. The observed hysteresis effect decreased with the increase in pressure level in the whole aw range, indicating that adsorption and desorption isotherms became closer. Guggenheim-Anderson-De Boer and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller model parameters Cb, Cg, K and Mm also showed changes caused by pressure, the latter being lower in the pressure-processed samples, thus indicating possible changes on microbial and (bio)chemical stabilities of pressure-processed food products containing starch.

  14. Evaluation of gaseous fluorocarbon adsorption isotherms on porous adsorbents under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Kaliappan, S.; Furuya, E.G.; Noll, K.E.; Chang, H.T.; Wang, H.C.

    1996-11-01

    In this study data have been collected to aid in the design of a control system that will remove fluorocarbons by adsorbing onto porous adsorbents. A bench scale experimental adsorption system had been designed using high accuracy MKS pressure transducers of 10,000 torr (two nos.) and a 100 torr connected to digital readout units. Tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) one of the fluorinated carbon family has been selected to evaluate the adsorption characteristics on porous adsorbents. The CF{sub 4} was charged to a sample reservoir in the test system at 200 psig pressure and at 22 C was allowed into an adsorption chamber at small increment of pressure rise. The pressure drop, using a Valydine PS 309 differential pressure gauge from the sample reservoir and the pressure buildup in the adsorption chamber were measured and the amount of CF{sub 4} adsorbed onto the adsorbents was calculated using ideal gas law. Various adsorbents, molecular sieve 13X, Silicagel (14 x 20), Beads Activated Carbon, Granular Activated Carbons PCB 6 x 16, BPL 4 x 10, F300, and F400 had been studied. It has been found that GAC-PCB 6 x 16 has the highest adsorbing capacity of 0.51 gm/gm at the conditions established. GAC-F300 had the second highest adsorbing capacity of 0.413 gm/gm, among all the adsorbents tested. The isotherms were analyzed using several equations employing both two parameters and three parameters. The relationship between the constants and physical properties of adsorbent solids and adsorbate molecules is discussed. The result of this study will be utilized to design a pressure swing fluorocarbon adsorption system that can be economically (using recycle of the collected fluorocarbons) applied to fluorocarbon removal in the electronic industry.

  15. Adsorption of fluoride to UiO-66-NH2 in water: Stability, kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Liu, Yu-Ting; Chen, Shen-Yi

    2016-01-01

    To provide safe drinking water, fluoride in water must be removed and adsorption processes appear to be the most widely used method. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a new class of adsorbents that have been used in various adsorption applications. To study the adsorption mechanism of fluoride to MOFs in water and obtain related adsorption parameters, we synthesized a zirconium-based MOF with a primary amine group on its ligand, named UiO-66-NH2. The kinetics, adsorption isotherm and thermodynamics of fluoride adsorption to UiO-66-NH2 were investigated. The crystalline structure of UiO-66-NH2 remained intact and the local structure of zirconium in UiO-66-NH2 did not change significantly after being exposed to fluoride. The kinetics of the fluoride adsorption in UiO-66-NH2 could be well represented by the pseudo second order rate law. The enthalpy of the adsorption indicates that the F(-) adsorption to UiO-66-NH2 was classified as a physical adsorption. However, the comparison between the adsorption capacities of UiO-66-NH2 and UiO-66 suggests that the fluoride adsorption to UiO-66-NH2 might primarily involve a strong interaction between F(-) and the metal site. The fluoride adsorption capacity of UiO-66-NH2 was found to decrease when pH>7. While the presence of chloride/bromide ions did not noticeably change the adsorption capacity of UiO-66-NH2, the ionic surfactants slightly affected the adsorption capacity of UiO-66-NH2. These findings provide insights to further optimize the adsorption process for removal of fluoride using zirconium-based MOFs. PMID:26397913

  16. Adsorption isotherm studies of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions using sol-gel hydrotalcite-like compounds.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Ramírez, Esthela; Ortega, Norma L Gutiérrez; Soto, Cesar A Contreras; Gutiérrez, Maria T Olguín

    2009-12-30

    In under-developed countries, industries such as paint and pigment manufacturing, leather tanning, chrome plating and textile processing, usually discharge effluents containing Cr(VI) and Cr(III) into municipal sanitary sewers. It has been reported that Cr(VI) acts as a powerful epithelial irritant and as a human carcinogen. In the present work, hydrotalcite-like compounds with a Mg/Al ratio=2 were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The hydrotalcite-like compounds and their corresponding thermally treated products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and N(2) adsorption. The hydrotalcite-like compounds and the heated solids were used as adsorbents for Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions. Adsorption isotherm studies of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution are described. The adsorbent capacity was determined using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherm models. The Cr(VI) adsorption isotherm data fit best to the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum Cr(VI) uptake by hydrotalcite and the heated solids was determined using the Langmuir equation and was found to range between 26 and 29 mg Cr(VI)/g adsorbent.

  17. Isothermal thermogravimetric data acquisition analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Kenneth, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The description of an Isothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) Data Acquisition System is presented. The system consists of software and hardware to perform a wide variety of TGA experiments. The software is written in ANSI C using Borland's Turbo C++. The hardware consists of a 486/25 MHz machine with a Capital Equipment Corp. IEEE488 interface card. The interface is to a Hewlett Packard 3497A data acquisition system using two analog input cards and a digital actuator card. The system provides for 16 TGA rigs with weight and temperature measurements from each rig. Data collection is conducted in three phases. Acquisition is done at a rapid rate during initial startup, at a slower rate during extended data collection periods, and finally at a fast rate during shutdown. Parameters controlling the rate and duration of each phase are user programmable. Furnace control (raising and lowering) is also programmable. Provision is made for automatic restart in the event of power failure or other abnormal terminations. Initial trial runs were conducted to show system stability.

  18. Evaluation of lead(II) immobilization by a vermicompost using adsorption isotherms and IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Carrasquero-Durán, Armando; Flores, Iraima

    2009-02-01

    The immobilization of lead ions by a vermicompost with calcite added was evaluated by adsorption isotherms and the results were explained on basis of the pH dependent surface charge and by IR spectroscopy. The results showed maximum adsorption values between 113.6 mg g(-1) (33 degrees C) and 123.5mg g(-1) (50 degrees C). The point of zero net charge (PZC) was 7.5+/-0.1, indicating the presence of a positive surface charge at the pH of batch experiments. The differences in the IR spectra at pH 3.8 and 7.0 in the region from 1800 to 1300 cm(-1), were interpreted on the basis of the carboxyl acid ionization, that reduced the band intensity around 1725 cm(-1), producing signals at 1550 cm(-1) and 1390 cm(-1) of carboxylate groups. Similar changes were detected at pH 3.8 when Pb2+ was present suggesting that the ion complexation takes place by a cationic exchange equilibrium, between the protons and Pb2+ ions.

  19. Highly efficient ultrasonic-assisted removal of Hg(II) ions on graphene oxide modified with 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone: Adsorption isotherms and kinetics studies.

    PubMed

    Tadjarodi, Azadeh; Moazen Ferdowsi, Somayeh; Zare-Dorabei, Rouholah; Barzin, Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    A novel adsorbent, based on modifying graphene oxide (GO) chemically with 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (2-PTSC) as ligand, was designed by facile process for removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solution. Characterization of the adsorbent was performed using various techniques, such as FT-IR, XRD, XPS, SEM and AFM analysis. The adsorption capacity was affected by variables such as adsorbent dosage, pH solution, Hg(2+) initial concentration and sonicating time. These variables were optimized by rotatable central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). The predictive model for Hg(II) adsorption was constructed and applied to find the best conditions at which the responses were maximized. In this conditions, the adsorption capacity of this adsorbent for Hg(2+) ions was calculated to be 309mgg(-1) that was higher than that of GO. Appling the ultrasound power combined with adsorption method was very efficient in shortening the removal time of Hg(2+) ions by enhancing the dispersion of adsorbent and metal ions in solution and effective interactions among them. The adsorption process was well described by second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm model in which the maximum adsorption capacity (Qm) was found to be 555mgg(-1) for adsorption of Hg(2+) ions over the obtained adsorbent. The performance of adsorbent was examined on the real wastewaters and confirmed the applicability of adsorbent for practical applications. PMID:27245963

  20. Predicting CH4 adsorption capacity of microporous carbon using N2 isotherm and a new analytical model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Chen, S.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    A new analytical pore size distribution (PSD) model was developed to predict CH4 adsorption (storage) capacity of microporous adsorbent carbon. The model is based on a 3-D adsorption isotherm equation, derived from statistical mechanical principles. Least squares error minimization is used to solve the PSD without any pre-assumed distribution function. In comparison with several well-accepted analytical methods from the literature, this 3-D model offers relatively realistic PSD description for select reference materials, including activated carbon fibers. N2 and CH4 adsorption data were correlated using the 3-D model for commercial carbons BPL and AX-21. Predicted CH4 adsorption isotherms, based on N2 adsorption at 77 K, were in reasonable agreement with the experimental CH4 isotherms. Modeling results indicate that not all the pores contribute the same percentage Vm/Vs for CH4 storage due to different adsorbed CH4 densities. Pores near 8-9 A?? shows higher Vm/Vs on the equivalent volume basis than does larger pores.

  1. Heavy Metal Adsorption onto Kappaphycus sp. from Aqueous Solutions: The Use of Error Functions for Validation of Isotherm and Kinetics Models

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Sayedur; Sathasivam, Kathiresan V.

    2015-01-01

    Biosorption process is a promising technology for the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastes and effluents using low-cost and effective biosorbents. In the present study, adsorption of Pb2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, and Zn2+ onto dried biomass of red seaweed Kappaphycus sp. was investigated as a function of pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and temperature. The experimental data were evaluated by four isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich) and four kinetic models (pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion models). The adsorption process was feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic in nature. Functional groups in the biomass involved in metal adsorption process were revealed as carboxylic and sulfonic acids and sulfonate by Fourier transform infrared analysis. A total of nine error functions were applied to validate the models. We strongly suggest the analysis of error functions for validating adsorption isotherm and kinetic models using linear methods. The present work shows that the red seaweed Kappaphycus sp. can be used as a potentially low-cost biosorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Further study is warranted to evaluate its feasibility for the removal of heavy metals from the real environment. PMID:26295032

  2. Adsorption of Pb(II) on mesoporous activated carbons fabricated from water hyacinth using H3PO4 activation: Adsorption capacity, kinetic and isotherm studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yang; Li, Shunxing; Chen, Jianhua; Zhang, Xueliang; Chen, Yiping

    2014-02-01

    Activated carbons with high mesoporosity and abundant oxygen-containing functional groups were prepared from water hyacinth using H3PO4 activation (WHAC) to eliminate Pb(II) in water. Characterizations of the WHAC were performed using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The BET analysis showed that WHAC possesses a high mesoporosity (93.9%) with a BET surface area of 423.6 m2/g. The presence of oxygen-containing functional groups including hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl and phosphate groups renders the WHAC a favorable adsorbent for Pb(II) with the maximum monolayer capacity (qm) 118.8 mg/g. The adsorption behavior follows pseudo-first order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm. The desorption study demonstrated that the WHAC could be readily regenerated using 0.1 M HCl (pH = 1.0). The desorbed WHAC could be reused at least six times without significant adsorption capacity reduction. The adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic with ΔG (-0.27, -1.13, -3.02, -3.62, -5.54, and -9.31 kJ/mol) and ΔH (38.72 kJ/mol). Under the optimized conditions, a small amount of the adsorbent (1.0 g/L) could remove as much as 90.1% of Pb(II) (50 mg/L) in 20 min at pH 6.0 and temperature of 298 K. Therefore, the WHAC has a great potential to be an economical and efficient adsorbent in the treatment of lead-contaminated water.

  3. Adsorption of arsenite and arsenate onto ferrihydrite under competitive conditions : kinetics, isotherm, and pH effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, P.; Pichler, T.

    2014-12-01

    Competitive adsorption of As(III) and As(V) onto ferrihydrite was investigated in both single and bi-component systems using batch experiments. The adsorption of As(III) was inhibited by the presence of As(V) over the whole pH range when compared to As(III) only conditions. As(V) was adsorbed to a similar extent with As(III) at low pH under competitive conditions. Isotherm studies also showed that As(V) significantly decreased the adsorption of As(III) at pH 5, while the presence of As(III) had a small effect on As(V) adsorption. The Freundlich isotherm equation was successfully fitted to both single and bi-component adsorption scenarios of As(III) and As(V). At the same time intervals in the first 2 h under competitive conditions, kinetics studies suggested that the amount of As(III) adsorbed in the presence of As(V) was reduced compared to the single component system at low pH. The effect of As(III) on the adsorption rate of As(V) was negligible. A pseudo-second-order model could be fitted perfectly to each species under both single and competitive conditions. The spectra of ferrihydrite with adsorbed As(III), As(V) or both As species have a similar shape by ATR-FTIR, indicating that competition may be at play.

  4. Optimizing available phosphorus in calcareous soils fertilized with diammonium phosphate and phosphoric acid using Freundlich adsorption isotherm.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Asif; Akhtar, Muhammad; Ahmad, Waqar

    2013-01-01

    In calcareous soils, phosphorus (P) retention and immobilization take place due to precipitation and adsorption. Since soil pH is considered a major soil variable affecting the P sorption, an acidic P fertilizer could result in low P adsorption compared to alkaline one. Therefore, P adsorption from DAP and phosphoric acid (PA) required to produce desired soil solution P concentration was estimated using Freundlich sorption isotherms. Two soils from Faisalabad and T. T. Singh districts were spiked with 0, 10, and 20 % CaCO3 for 15 days. Freundlich adsorption isotherms (P = aC(b/a)) were constructed, and theoretical doses of PA and DAP to develop a desired soil solution P level (i.e., 0.20 mg L(-1)) were calculated. It was observed that P adsorption in soil increased with CaCO3. Moreover, at all the levels of CaCO3, P adsorption from PA was lower compared to that from DAP in both the soils. Consequently, lesser quantity of PA was required to produce desired solution P, 0.2 mg L(-1), compared to DAP. However, extrapolating the developed relationship between soil CaCO3 contents and quantity of fertilizer to other similar textured soils needs confirmation. PMID:24307878

  5. The Republic of the Philippines coalbed methane assessment: based on seventeen high pressure methane adsorption isotherms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, Romeo M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Papasin, Ramon F.; Pendon, Ronaldo R.; del Rosario, Rogelio A.; Malapitan, Ruel T.; Pastor, Michael S.; Altomea, Elmer A.; Cuaresma, Federico; Malapitan, Armando S.; Mortos, Benjamin R.; Tilos, Elizabeth N.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The Republic of the Philippines has some 19 coal districts that contain coal deposits ranging from Eocene to Pleistocene in age. These coal districts include: (1) Catanduanes (Eocene); (2) Cebu, Zamboanga Sibuguey, Bukidnon, Maguindanao, Sarangani, and Surigao (Oligocene to Miocene); (3) Batan Island, Masbate, Semirara (including Mindoro), and Quezon-Polilio (lower-upper Miocene); (4) Davao, Negros, and Sorsogon (middle-upper Miocene); (5) Cotabato (lower Miocene-lower Pliocene), Cagayan-Isabella, and Quirino (upper Miocene-Pliocene); (6) Sultan Kudarat (upper Miocene-Pleistocene); and (7) Samar-Leyte (lower Pliocene-Pleistocene). In general, coal rank is directly related to the age of the deposits - for example, the Eocene coal is semi-anthracite and the Pliocene-Pleistocene coal is lignite. Total coal resources in these 19 coal districts, which are compiled by the Geothermal and Coal Resources Development Division (GCRDD) of the Department of Energy of the Philippines, are estimated at a minimum of 2,268.4 million metric tonnes (MMT) (approximately 2.3 billion metric tones). The largest resource (550 MMT) is the subbituminous coal in the Semirara (including Mindoro) coal district, and the smallest (0.7 MMT) is the lignite-subbituminous coal in the Quirino coal district. The combined lignite and subbituminous coal resources, using the classification by GCRDD and including Semirara and Surigao coal districts, are about 1,899.2 MMT, which make up about 84 percent of the total coal resources of the Philippines. The remaining resources are composed of bituminous and semi-anthracite coal. The subbituminous coal of Semirara Island in the Mindoro- Semirara coal district (fig. 2) is known to contain coalbed methane (CBM), with the coal being comparable in gas content and adsorption isotherms to the coal of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming, USA (Flores and others, 2005). As a consequence, the presence of CBM in the

  6. Rapid Adsorption of Copper(II) and Lead(II) by Rice Straw/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite: Optimization, Equilibrium Isotherms, and Adsorption Kinetics Study

    PubMed Central

    Khandanlou, Roshanak; Ahmad, Mansor B.; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Shameli, Kamyar; Basri, Mahiran; Kalantari, Katayoon

    2015-01-01

    Rice straw/magnetic nanocomposites (RS/Fe3O4-NCs) were prepared via co-precipitation method for removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to find the optimum conditions for removal of ions. The effects of three independent variables including initial ion concentration, removal time, and adsorbent dosage were investigated on the maximum adsorption of Pb (II) and Cu (II). The optimum conditions for the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained (100 and 60 mg/L) of initial ion concentration, (41.96 and 59.35 s) of removal time and 0.13 g of adsorbent for both ions, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained 96.25% and 75.54%, respectively. In the equilibrium isotherm study, the adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics was best depicted by the pseudo-second order model. Desorption experiments showed adsorbent can be reused successfully for three adsorption-desorption cycles. PMID:25815470

  7. Rapid adsorption of copper(II) and lead(II) by rice straw/Fe₃O₄ nanocomposite: optimization, equilibrium isotherms, and adsorption kinetics study.

    PubMed

    Khandanlou, Roshanak; Ahmad, Mansor B; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Shameli, Kamyar; Basri, Mahiran; Kalantari, Katayoon

    2015-01-01

    Rice straw/magnetic nanocomposites (RS/Fe3O4-NCs) were prepared via co-precipitation method for removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to find the optimum conditions for removal of ions. The effects of three independent variables including initial ion concentration, removal time, and adsorbent dosage were investigated on the maximum adsorption of Pb (II) and Cu (II). The optimum conditions for the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained (100 and 60 mg/L) of initial ion concentration, (41.96 and 59.35 s) of removal time and 0.13 g of adsorbent for both ions, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained 96.25% and 75.54%, respectively. In the equilibrium isotherm study, the adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics was best depicted by the pseudo-second order model. Desorption experiments showed adsorbent can be reused successfully for three adsorption-desorption cycles.

  8. Adsorption isotherms for hydrogen chloride (HCl) on ice surfaces between 190 and 220 K.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, S; Kippenberger, M; Schuster, G; Crowley, J N

    2016-05-18

    The interaction of hydrogen chloride (HCl) with ice surfaces at temperatures between 190 and 220 K was investigated using a coated-wall flow-tube connected to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. Equilibrium surface coverages of HCl were determined at gas phase concentrations as low as 2 × 10(9) molecules cm(-3) (∼4 × 10(-8) Torr at 200 K) to derive Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The data are described by a temperature independent partition coefficient: KLang = (3.7 ± 0.2) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) with a saturation surface coverage Nmax = (2.0 ± 0.2) × 10(14) molecules cm(-2). The lack of a systematic dependence of KLang on temperature contrasts the behaviour of numerous trace gases which adsorb onto ice via hydrogen bonding and is most likely related to the ionization of HCl at the surface. The results are compared to previous laboratory studies, and the equilibrium partitioning of HCl to ice surfaces under conditions relevant to the atmosphere is evaluated. PMID:27142478

  9. Adsorption isotherms for hydrogen chloride (HCl) on ice surfaces between 190 and 220 K.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, S; Kippenberger, M; Schuster, G; Crowley, J N

    2016-05-18

    The interaction of hydrogen chloride (HCl) with ice surfaces at temperatures between 190 and 220 K was investigated using a coated-wall flow-tube connected to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. Equilibrium surface coverages of HCl were determined at gas phase concentrations as low as 2 × 10(9) molecules cm(-3) (∼4 × 10(-8) Torr at 200 K) to derive Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The data are described by a temperature independent partition coefficient: KLang = (3.7 ± 0.2) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) with a saturation surface coverage Nmax = (2.0 ± 0.2) × 10(14) molecules cm(-2). The lack of a systematic dependence of KLang on temperature contrasts the behaviour of numerous trace gases which adsorb onto ice via hydrogen bonding and is most likely related to the ionization of HCl at the surface. The results are compared to previous laboratory studies, and the equilibrium partitioning of HCl to ice surfaces under conditions relevant to the atmosphere is evaluated.

  10. Effect of humic acid on the adsorption/desorption behavior of glyphosate on goethite. Isotherms and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Arroyave, Jeison Manuel; Waiman, Carolina C; Zanini, Graciela P; Avena, Marcelo J

    2016-02-01

    The effects of humic acid (HA) on the adsorption/desorption of glyphosate (Gly) on goethite were investigated under pseudo equilibrium conditions by adsorption isotherms and under kinetic conditions by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Isotherms reveal that the attachment of Gly is almost completely inhibited by HA molecules. The opposite effect is not observed: HA adsorption is not affected by the presence of Gly. ATR-FTIR allowed the simultaneous detection of adsorbed HA and Gly during kinetic runs, revealing that HA at the surface decreases markedly the adsorption rate of Gly likely as a result of a decreased availability of sites for Gly adsorption and because of electrostatic repulsion. In addition, HA in solution increases the desorption rate of Gly. The rate law for Gly desorption could be determined giving important insights on the desorption mechanism. The herbicide is desorbed by two parallel processes: i) a direct detachment from the surface, which is first order in adsorbed Gly; and ii) a ligand exchange with HA molecules, which is first order in adsorbed Gly and first order in dissolved HA. Rate constants for both processes were quantified, leading to half-lives of 3.7 h for the first process, and 1.4 h for the second process in a 400 mg L(-1) HA solution. These data are important for modeling the dynamics of glyphosate in environmentally relevant systems, such as soils and surface waters. PMID:26657085

  11. Effect of humic acid on the adsorption/desorption behavior of glyphosate on goethite. Isotherms and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Arroyave, Jeison Manuel; Waiman, Carolina C; Zanini, Graciela P; Avena, Marcelo J

    2016-02-01

    The effects of humic acid (HA) on the adsorption/desorption of glyphosate (Gly) on goethite were investigated under pseudo equilibrium conditions by adsorption isotherms and under kinetic conditions by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Isotherms reveal that the attachment of Gly is almost completely inhibited by HA molecules. The opposite effect is not observed: HA adsorption is not affected by the presence of Gly. ATR-FTIR allowed the simultaneous detection of adsorbed HA and Gly during kinetic runs, revealing that HA at the surface decreases markedly the adsorption rate of Gly likely as a result of a decreased availability of sites for Gly adsorption and because of electrostatic repulsion. In addition, HA in solution increases the desorption rate of Gly. The rate law for Gly desorption could be determined giving important insights on the desorption mechanism. The herbicide is desorbed by two parallel processes: i) a direct detachment from the surface, which is first order in adsorbed Gly; and ii) a ligand exchange with HA molecules, which is first order in adsorbed Gly and first order in dissolved HA. Rate constants for both processes were quantified, leading to half-lives of 3.7 h for the first process, and 1.4 h for the second process in a 400 mg L(-1) HA solution. These data are important for modeling the dynamics of glyphosate in environmentally relevant systems, such as soils and surface waters.

  12. Ab initio prediction of adsorption isotherms for small molecules in metal-organic frameworks: the effect of lateral interactions for methane/CPO-27-Mg.

    PubMed

    Sillar, Kaido; Sauer, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    A hybrid method that combines density functional theory for periodic structures with wave function-based electron correlation methods for finite-size models of adsorption sites is employed to calculate energies for adsorption of CH(4) onto different sites in the metal-organic framework (MOF) CPO-27-Mg (Mg-MOF-74) with chemical accuracy. The adsorption energies for the Mg(2+), linker, second layer sites are -27.8, -18.3, and -15.1 kJ/mol. Adsorbate-adsorbate interactions increase the average CH(4) adsorption energy by about 10% (2.4 kJ/mol). The free rotor-harmonic oscillator-ideal gas model is applied to calculate free energies/equilibrium constants for adsorption on the individual sites. This information is used in a multisite Langmuir model, augmented with a Bragg-Williams model for lateral interactions, to calculate adsorption isotherms. This ab initio approach yields the contributions of the individual sites to the final isotherms and also of the lateral interactions that contribute about 15% to the maximum excess adsorption capacity. Isotherms are calculated for both absolute amounts, for calculation of isosteric heats of adsorption as function of coverage, and excess amounts, for comparison with measured isotherms. Agreement with observed excess isotherms is reached if the experimentally determined limited accessibility of adsorption sites (78%) is taken into account.

  13. Adsorption Isotherms for Xenon and Krypton using INL HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh; Veronica J. Rutledge; Jack D. Law

    2014-08-01

    The generation of adsorption isotherms compliments the scale-up of off-gas processes used to control the emission of encapsulated radioactive volatile fission and activation products released during Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) reprocessing activities. A series of experiments were conducted to obtain capacity results for varying Kr and Xe gas concentrations using HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN engineered form sorbents. Gas compositions for Kr ranged from 150-40,000 ppmv and 250-5020 ppmv for Xe in a helium balance. The experiments were all performed at 220 K at a flowrate of 50 sccm. Acquired capacities were then respectively fit to the Langmuir equation using the Langmuir linear regression method to obtain the equilibrium parameters Qmax and Keq. Generated experimental adsorption isotherms were then plotted with the Langmuir predicted isotherms to illustrate agreement between the two. The Langmuir parameters were provided for input into the OSPREY model to predict breakthrough of single component adsorption of Kr and Xe on HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN sorbents at the experimental conditions tested. Kr and Xe capacities resulting from model breakthrough predictions were then compared to experimental capacities for model validation.

  14. Critical analysis of adsorption data statistically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, Achla; Singh, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    Experimental data can be presented, computed, and critically analysed in a different way using statistics. A variety of statistical tests are used to make decisions about the significance and validity of the experimental data. In the present study, adsorption was carried out to remove zinc ions from contaminated aqueous solution using mango leaf powder. The experimental data was analysed statistically by hypothesis testing applying t test, paired t test and Chi-square test to (a) test the optimum value of the process pH, (b) verify the success of experiment and (c) study the effect of adsorbent dose in zinc ion removal from aqueous solutions. Comparison of calculated and tabulated values of t and χ 2 showed the results in favour of the data collected from the experiment and this has been shown on probability charts. K value for Langmuir isotherm was 0.8582 and m value for Freundlich adsorption isotherm obtained was 0.725, both are <1, indicating favourable isotherms. Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient values for Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were obtained as 0.99 and 0.95 respectively, which show higher degree of correlation between the variables. This validates the data obtained for adsorption of zinc ions from the contaminated aqueous solution with the help of mango leaf powder.

  15. Temperature dependence of adsorption of PEGylated lysozyme and pure polyethylene glycol on a hydrophobic resin: comparison of isothermal titration calorimetry and van't Hoff data.

    PubMed

    Werner, Albert; Hackemann, Eva; Hasse, Hans

    2014-08-22

    The influence of temperature on the adsorption of PEGylated lysozyme and pure PEG on Toyopearl PPG-600M, a hydrophobic resin, is studied by batch equilibrium measurements and pulse response experiments. Differently PEGylated lysozymes are used for the studies, enabling a systematic variation of the solute properties. Either ammonium sulfate or sodium chloride are added. The enthalpy of adsorption is calculated from a van't Hoff analysis based on these data. It is also directly measured by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry. In the investigated temperature range from 5 °C to 35 °C adsorption is favored by higher temperatures and hence endothermic. The results of the van't Hoff analysis of the equilibrium and the pulse response data agree well. Discrepancies between enthalpies of adsorption obtained by calorimetry and van't Hoff analysis are found and discussed. We conclude that the most likely explanation is that thermodynamic equilibrium is not reached in the experiments even though they were carried out carefully and in the generally accepted way.

  16. Activated carbon derived from carbon residue from biomass gasification and its application for dye adsorption: Kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Maneerung, Thawatchai; Liew, Johan; Dai, Yanjun; Kawi, Sibudjing; Chong, Clive; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    In this work, activated carbon (AC) as an effective and low-cost adsorbent was successfully prepared from carbon residue (or char, one of the by-products from woody biomass gasification) via physical activation. The surface area of char was significantly increased from 172.24 to 776.46m(2)/g after steam activation at 900°C. The obtained activated carbons were then employed for the adsorption of dye (Rhodamine B) and it was found that activated carbon obtained from steam activation exhibited the highest adsorption capability, which is mainly attributed to the higher surface area and the abundance of hydroxyl (-OH) and carboxyl (-COOH) groups on the activated carbon surface. Moreover, it was also found that the adsorption capability significantly increased under the basic condition, which can be attributed to the increased electrostatic interaction between the deprotonated (negatively charged) activated carbon and dye molecules. Furthermore, the equilibrium data were fitted into different adsorption isotherms and found to fit well with Langmuir model (indicating that dye molecules form monolayer coverage on activated carbon) with a maximum monolayer adsorption capability of 189.83mg/g, whereas the adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics.

  17. Activated carbon derived from carbon residue from biomass gasification and its application for dye adsorption: Kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Maneerung, Thawatchai; Liew, Johan; Dai, Yanjun; Kawi, Sibudjing; Chong, Clive; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    In this work, activated carbon (AC) as an effective and low-cost adsorbent was successfully prepared from carbon residue (or char, one of the by-products from woody biomass gasification) via physical activation. The surface area of char was significantly increased from 172.24 to 776.46m(2)/g after steam activation at 900°C. The obtained activated carbons were then employed for the adsorption of dye (Rhodamine B) and it was found that activated carbon obtained from steam activation exhibited the highest adsorption capability, which is mainly attributed to the higher surface area and the abundance of hydroxyl (-OH) and carboxyl (-COOH) groups on the activated carbon surface. Moreover, it was also found that the adsorption capability significantly increased under the basic condition, which can be attributed to the increased electrostatic interaction between the deprotonated (negatively charged) activated carbon and dye molecules. Furthermore, the equilibrium data were fitted into different adsorption isotherms and found to fit well with Langmuir model (indicating that dye molecules form monolayer coverage on activated carbon) with a maximum monolayer adsorption capability of 189.83mg/g, whereas the adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. PMID:26512858

  18. Kinetic and isotherm modeling of Cd (II) adsorption by L-cysteine functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes as adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, Mahmoud; Zazouli, Mohammad Ali; Yousefi, Zabihollah; Akbari-adergani, Behrouz

    2015-11-01

    In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes were functionalized by L-cysteine to show the kinetic and isotherm modeling of Cd (II) ions onto L-cysteine functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The adsorption behavior of Cd (II) ion was studied by varying parameters including dose of L-MWCNTs, contact time, and cadmium concentration. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were also investigated based on Cd (II) adsorption tests. The results showed that an increase in contact time and adsorbent dosage resulted in increase of the adsorption rate. The optimum condition of the Cd (II) removal process was found at pH=7.0, 15 mg/L L-MWCNTs dosage, 6 mg/L cadmium concentration, and contact time of 60 min. The removal percent was equal to 89.56 at optimum condition. Langmuir and Freundlich models were employed to analyze the experimental data. The data showed well fitting with the Langmuir model (R2=0.994) with q max of 43.47 mg/g. Analyzing the kinetic data by the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equations revealed that the adsorption of cadmium using L-MWSNTs following the pseudo-second-order kinetic model with correlation coefficients (R2) equals to 0.998, 0.992, and 0.998 for 3, 6, and 9 mg/L Cd (II) concentrations, respectively. The experimental data fitted very well with the pseudo-second-order. Overall, treatment of polluted solution to Cd (II) by adsorption process using L-MWCNT can be considered as an effective technology.

  19. Investigation of adsorption kinetics and isotherm of cellulase and B-Glucosidase on lignocellulosic substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clear understanding of enzyme adsorption during enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is essential to enhance the cost-efficiency of hydrolysis. However, conclusions from literatures often contradicted each other because enzyme adsorption is enzyme, biomass/pretreatment and experimental co...

  20. Adsorption mechanism of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate on carbon blacks by adsorption isotherm and zeta potential determinations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yapei; Lu, Pei; Li, Caiting; Fan, Xiaopeng; Wen, Qingbo; Zhan, Qi; Shu, Xin; Xu, Tieliang; Zeng, Guangming

    2013-01-01

    Surfactant solutions were propounded to remove fine and hydrophobic carbon black particles from coal-fired flue gas. The adsorption mechanisms between sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS, an anionic surfactant) and carbon black particles in suspension were investigated. The influence of inorganic salt (NaCl) was also considered. As results showed, hydrophobic interactions contributed to the strong adsorption between SDBS and carbon black particles in the absence of NaCl, and adding NaCl affected the adsorption process. The adsorption amount of SDBS significantly increased when NaCl was added into the SDBS solution; however, when SDBS was in low concentration, the amount of adsorbed SDBS, which was responsible for the shift of zeta potentials, varied little under different concentrations of NaCl. This indicated that the adsorption of SDBS was mainly caused by hydrophobic interaction and Na+ could not change the adsorption of SDBS on adsorption site when SDBS was in low concentration. Moreover, the adsorbed SDBS and Na+ were retained in the Stern layer. PMID:23530331

  1. Liquid phase adsorptions of Rhodamine B dye onto raw and chitosan supported mesoporous adsorbents: isotherms and kinetics studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inyinbor, A. A.; Adekola, F. A.; Olatunji, G. A.

    2016-04-01

    Irvingia gabonensis endocarp waste was charred (DNc) and subsequently coated with chitosan (CCDNc). Physicochemical characteristics of the two adsorbents were established, while Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area methods were further employed for characterization. Efficiencies of the prepared adsorbents in the uptake of Rhodamine B (RhB) from aqueous effluent were investigated and adsorption data were tested using four isotherms and four kinetics models. The BET surface areas of the prepared adsorbent were 0.0092 and 4.99 m2/g for DNc and CCDNc, respectively, and maximum adsorption was recorded at pH between 3 and 4, respectively. While monolayer adsorption dominates the uptake of RhB onto DNc, uptake of RhB onto CCDNc was onto heterogeneous surface. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacities (q max) obtained from the Langmuir equation are 52.90 and 217.39 mg/g for DNc and CCDNc, respectively. Pseudo second order and Elovich kinetic models well described the kinetics of the two adsorption processes. The mean sorption energy (E) calculated from the D-R model and desorption efficiencies suggests that while the uptake of RhB onto DNc was physical in nature, for RhB-CCDNc system chemisorption dominates.

  2. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution with magnetite loaded multi-wall carbon nanotube: kinetic, isotherm and mechanism analysis.

    PubMed

    Ai, Lunhong; Zhang, Chunying; Liao, Fang; Wang, Yao; Li, Ming; Meng, Lanying; Jiang, Jing

    2011-12-30

    In this study, we have demonstrated the efficient removal of cationic dye, methylene blue (MB), from aqueous solution with the one-pot solvothermal synthesized magnetite-loaded multi-walled carbon nanotubes (M-MWCNTs). The as-prepared M-MWCNTs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The effects of contact time, initial dye concentration, and solution pH on the adsorption of MB onto M-MWCNTs were systematically studied. It was shown that the MB adsorption was pH-dependent. Adsorption kinetics was best described by the pseudo-second-order model. Equilibrium data were well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model, yielding maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 48.06 mg g(-1). FTIR analysis suggested that the adsorption mechanism was possibly attributed to the electrostatic attraction and π-π stacking interactions between MWCNTs and MB.

  3. Removal of water and iodine by solid sorbents: adsorption isotherms and kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, R.; Tavlarides, L.L.

    2013-07-01

    Tritium and iodine-129 are two major radioactive elements that are present in off-gases from spent fuel reprocessing plants. Adsorption by solid sorbents is the state-of-the-art technique for removal of these species from off-gases. Modeling and simulating adsorption processes require accurate adsorption equilibrium and kinetic data to permit reasonable estimates of process parameters. We have developed a continuous flow single-pellet adsorption system to gather accurate adsorption equilibrium and kinetic data for adsorption of water by molecular sieve 3A and for adsorption of iodine by silver exchanged mordenite. In this paper, the design of the water and iodine adsorption experimental systems are briefly described and results of water adsorption experiments are presented and discussed. Water uptake curves are fitted with the linear-driving force (LDF) model and the shrinking-core model to determine kinetic parameters. It is shown that the kinetics of water adsorption on zeolite 3A under current experimental conditions is controlled by both the external film resistance and the macro-pore diffusion and can be predicted by both the LDF model and the shrinking-core model with the former one performing slightly better. Preliminary results from iodine adsorption experiments will be presented in the conference.

  4. Pore size distribution analysis of activated carbons prepared from coconut shell using methane adsorption data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadpour, A.; Okhovat, A.; Darabi Mahboub, M. J.

    2013-06-01

    The application of Stoeckli theory to determine pore size distribution (PSD) of activated carbons using high pressure methane adsorption data is explored. Coconut shell was used as a raw material for the preparation of 16 different activated carbon samples. Four samples with higher methane adsorption were selected and nitrogen adsorption on these adsorbents was also investigated. Some differences are found between the PSD obtained from the analysis of nitrogen adsorption isotherms and their PSD resulting from the same analysis using methane adsorption data. It is suggested that these differences may arise from the specific interactions between nitrogen molecules and activated carbon surfaces; therefore caution is required in the interpretation of PSD obtained from the nitrogen isotherm data.

  5. Fractal analysis of granular activated carbons using isotherm data

    SciTech Connect

    Khalili, N.R.; Pan, M.; Sandi, G.

    1997-08-01

    Utilization of adsorption on solid surfaces was exercised for the first time in 1785. Practical application of unactivated carbon filters, and powdered carbon were first demonstrated in the American water treatment plant, and a municipal treatment plant in New Jersey, in 1883 and 1930, respectively. The use of activated carbon became widespread in the next few decades. At present, adsorption on carbons has a wide spread application in water treatment and removal of taste, odor, removal of synthetic organic chemicals, color-forming organics, and desinfection by-products and their naturally occurring precursors. This paper presents an analysis of the surface fractal dimension and adsorption capacity of a group of carbons.

  6. Adsorption of methyl orange from aqueous solution by aminated pumpkin seed powder: Kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Subbaiah, Munagapati Venkata; Kim, Dong-Su

    2016-06-01

    Present research discussed the utilization of aminated pumpkin seed powder (APSP) as an adsorbent for methyl orange (MO) removal from aqueous solution. Batch sorption experiments were carried to evaluate the influence of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time, and temperature. The APSP was characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The experimental equilibrium adsorption data were fitted using two two-parameter models (Langmuir and Freundlich) and two three-parameter models (Sips and Toth). Langmuir and Sips isotherms provided the best model for MO adsorption data. The maximum monolayer sorption capacity was found to be 200.3mg/g based on the Langmuir isotherm model. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model equations were used to analyze the kinetic data of the adsorption process and the data was fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R(2)>0.97). The calculated thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG(0), ΔH(0) and ΔS(0) from experimental data showed that the sorption of MO onto APSP was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range 298-318 K. The FTIR results revealed that amine and carboxyl functional groups present on the surface of APSP. The SEM results show that APSP has an irregular and porous surface which is adequate morphology for dye adsorption. Desorption experiments were carried to explore the feasibility of adsorbent regeneration and the adsorbed MO from APSP was desorbed using 0.1M NaOH with an efficiency of 93.5%. Findings of the present study indicated that APSP can be successfully used for removal of MO from aqueous solution. PMID:26921544

  7. Hemoglobin adsorption isotherm at the silica-water interface with evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Martin, W Blake; Mirov, Sergey; Martyshkin, Dmitri; Venugopalan, Ramakrishna; Shaw, Andrew M

    2005-01-01

    Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (EW-CRDS) is used to observe the adsorption isotherm for hemoglobin (Hb) from controlled urine samples to assess the potential for rapid diagnosis in hemoglobinuria. The absorbance of Hb at 425 nm is monitored using an alexandrite laser-pumped, room temperature, LiF:F2+** color-center pulsed laser. A minimum absorbance detection level of 2.57 x 10(-4) is achieved, corresponding to a minimum detectable concentration of Hb in urea of 5.8 nM. A multilayered Hb biofilm is formed, and a minimum of eight layers are required to model the adsorption isotherm, allowing for cooperative binding within the layers and extending 56 nm into the interface. A binding constant for Hb to silica 18.23+/-7.58 x 10(6) M is derived, and a binding constant for Hb to Hb in subsequent layers is determined to be 5.631+/-0.432 x 10(5) M. Stoichiometric binding coefficients of 1.530+/-0.981 for layer one and 1.792+/-0.162 for subsequent layers suggest that cooperative binding both to the silica surface and between the layers of the biofilm is important.

  8. Dextran-grafted cation exchanger based on superporous agarose gel: adsorption isotherms, uptake kinetics and dynamic protein adsorption performance.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qing-Hong; Jia, Guo-Dong; Sun, Yan

    2010-07-30

    A novel chromatographic medium for high-capacity protein adsorption was fabricated by grafting dextran (40kDa) onto the pore surfaces of superporous agarose (SA) beads. The bead was denoted as D-SA. D-SA, SA and homogeneous agarose (HA) beads were modified with sulfopropyl (SP) group to prepare cation exchangers, and the adsorption and uptake of lysozyme on all three cation-exchange chromatographic beads (SP-HA, SP-SA and SP-D-SA) were investigated at salt concentrations of 6-50mmol/L. Static adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption capacity of SP-D-SA (2.24mmol/g) was 78% higher than that of SP-SA (1.26mmol/g) and 54% higher than that of SP-HA (1.45mmol/g) at a salt concentration of 6mmol/L. Moreover, salt concentration had less influence on the adsorption capacity and dissociation constant of SP-D-SA than it did on SP-HA, suggesting that dextran-grafted superporous bead is a more potent architecture for chromatographic beads. In the dynamic uptake of lysozyme to the three cation-exchange beads, the D(e)/D(0) (the ratio of effective pore diffusivity to free solution diffusivity) values of 1.6-2.0 were obtained in SA-D-SA, indicating that effective pore diffusivities of SP-D-SA were about two times higher than free solution diffusivity for lysozyme. At 6mmol/L NaCl, the D(e) value in SA-D-SA (22.0x10(-11)m(2)/s) was 14.4-fold greater than that in SP-HA. Due to the superior uptake kinetics in SA-D-SA, the highest dynamic binding capacity (DBC) and adsorption efficiency (the ratio of DBC to static adsorption capacity) was likewise found in SP-D-SA. It is thus confirmed that SP-D-SA has combined the advantages of superporous matrix structure and drafted ligand chemistry in mass transport and offers a new opportunity for the development of high-performance protein chromatography.

  9. Adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic studies towards understanding the interaction between cross-linked alginate-guar gum matrix and chymotrypsin.

    PubMed

    Woitovich Valetti, Nadia; Picó, Guillermo

    2016-02-15

    The adsorption kinetics of chymotrypsin, a pancreatic serine protease, onto an alginate-gum guar matrix cross-linked with epichlorohydrin has been performed using a batch-adsorption technique. The effect of various experimental parameters such as pH, salt presence, contact time and temperature were investigated. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic data which shows that the adsorption of the enzyme followed the pseudo-second-order rate expression. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill adsorption isotherm models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms, and the isotherm constants were determined. It was found that Hill model was more suitable for our data because the isotherm data showed a sigmoidal behavior with the free enzyme concentration increasing in equilibrium. At 8°C and at pH 5.0, 1g hydrate matrix adsorbed about 7mg of chymotrypsin. In the desorption process 80% of the biological activity of chymotrypsin was recovered under the condition of 50mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.00-500mM NaCl. When successive cycles of adsorption/washing/desorption were performed, it was observed that the matrix remained functional until the fourth cycle of repeated batch enzyme adsorption. These results are important in terms of diminishing of cost and waste generation. PMID:26849187

  10. Adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic studies towards understanding the interaction between cross-linked alginate-guar gum matrix and chymotrypsin.

    PubMed

    Woitovich Valetti, Nadia; Picó, Guillermo

    2016-02-15

    The adsorption kinetics of chymotrypsin, a pancreatic serine protease, onto an alginate-gum guar matrix cross-linked with epichlorohydrin has been performed using a batch-adsorption technique. The effect of various experimental parameters such as pH, salt presence, contact time and temperature were investigated. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic data which shows that the adsorption of the enzyme followed the pseudo-second-order rate expression. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill adsorption isotherm models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms, and the isotherm constants were determined. It was found that Hill model was more suitable for our data because the isotherm data showed a sigmoidal behavior with the free enzyme concentration increasing in equilibrium. At 8°C and at pH 5.0, 1g hydrate matrix adsorbed about 7mg of chymotrypsin. In the desorption process 80% of the biological activity of chymotrypsin was recovered under the condition of 50mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.00-500mM NaCl. When successive cycles of adsorption/washing/desorption were performed, it was observed that the matrix remained functional until the fourth cycle of repeated batch enzyme adsorption. These results are important in terms of diminishing of cost and waste generation.

  11. Chromatographic and traditional albumin isotherms on cellulose: a model for wound protein adsorption on modified cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Albumin is the most abundant protein found in healing wounds. Traditional and chromatogrpahic protein isotherms of albumin binding on modified cotton fibers are useful in understanding albumin binding to cellulose wound dressings. An important consideration in the design of cellulosic wound dressin...

  12. Bayesian and Frequentist Methods for Estimating Joint Uncertainty of Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm Fitting Parameters

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper, we present methods for estimating Freundlich isotherm fitting parameters (K and N) and their joint uncertainty, which have been implemented into the freeware software platforms R and WinBUGS. These estimates were determined by both Frequentist and Bayesian analyse...

  13. Dye adsorption of cotton fabric grafted with PPI dendrimers: Isotherm and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Salimpour Abkenar, Samera; Malek, Reza Mohammad Ali; Mazaheri, Firouzmehr

    2015-11-01

    In this research, the cotton fabrics grafted with two generations of the poly(propylene imine) dendrimers were applied to adsorb textile dyes from aqueous solutions. Direct Red 80 (anionic dye), Disperse Yellow 42 (nonionic dye) and Basic Blue 9 (cationic dye) were selected as model dyes. The effect of various experimental parameters such as initial concentration of dyes, charge of dyes molecule, salt and pH was investigated on the adsorption process. Furthermore, kinetics and equilibrium of the adsorption process on the grafted samples were studied. It was found that maximum adsorption of anionic and disperse dyes took place at around pH 3, while cationic dye could be adsorbed at around pH 11. The Langmuir equation was able to describe the mechanism of dyes adsorption. In addition, the second-order equation was found to be fit with the kinetics data. Interestingly, it seems that the dye adsorption of the grafted fabrics is strongly pH dependent. PMID:26292774

  14. Dye adsorption of cotton fabric grafted with PPI dendrimers: Isotherm and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Salimpour Abkenar, Samera; Malek, Reza Mohammad Ali; Mazaheri, Firouzmehr

    2015-11-01

    In this research, the cotton fabrics grafted with two generations of the poly(propylene imine) dendrimers were applied to adsorb textile dyes from aqueous solutions. Direct Red 80 (anionic dye), Disperse Yellow 42 (nonionic dye) and Basic Blue 9 (cationic dye) were selected as model dyes. The effect of various experimental parameters such as initial concentration of dyes, charge of dyes molecule, salt and pH was investigated on the adsorption process. Furthermore, kinetics and equilibrium of the adsorption process on the grafted samples were studied. It was found that maximum adsorption of anionic and disperse dyes took place at around pH 3, while cationic dye could be adsorbed at around pH 11. The Langmuir equation was able to describe the mechanism of dyes adsorption. In addition, the second-order equation was found to be fit with the kinetics data. Interestingly, it seems that the dye adsorption of the grafted fabrics is strongly pH dependent.

  15. Predicting Phase Diagram of the CaCl2-H2O Binary System from the BET Adsorption Isotherm

    SciTech Connect

    Ally, Moonis Raza

    2008-01-01

    A recent publication in Fluid Phase Equilibria by Zeng (Zeng, Zhou et al. 2007) claimed remarkable accuracy in predicting the solubility of CaCl2-H2O solutions with the Brunaruer-Emett-Teller (BET) model parameters. Their approach necessarily requires prior knowledge of equilibrium water vapor pressures above saturated solutions as a function of temperature for the hydrates of CaCl2 that exist under those conditions. However, the intrinsic BET model does not require prior knowledge of such solubility data that the approach of (Zeng, Zhou et al. 2007) is dependent upon. This paper highlights the differences between the two approaches and covers a much wider range of compositions and temperatures than is done by (Zeng, Zhou et al. 2007). The statistical mechanical description of multilayer adsorption culminating in the BET adsorption isotherm for aqueous electrolytes as developed by Ally and Braunstein (Ally and Braunstein 1993) is used to predict the liquidus behavior of CaCl2-H2O across the entire composition range (from the melting point of pure water to the melting point of anhydrous calcium chloride), including possible metastable crystalline phases. The method requires as input the two BET parameters r, the statistically averaged number of adsorption sites and ε, the energy of adsorption of water in excess of the energy of condensation of pure water. Usually it suffices to keep r and ε constant, typically evaluated at 298.15 K, but in the case of CaCl2-H2O, it is found that both r and ε must be considered temperature dependent in order to predict the liquidus curve, eutectic and peritectic points with reasonable accuracy over the large temperature and compositional range for this binary system.

  16. Effect of cation type, alkyl chain length, adsorbate size on adsorption kinetics and isotherms of bromide ionic liquids from aqueous solutions onto microporous fabric and granulated activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Safia; Duclaux, Laurent; Lévêque, Jean-Marc; Reinert, Laurence; Farooq, Amjad; Yasin, Tariq

    2014-11-01

    The adsorption from aqueous solution of imidazolium, pyrrolidinium and pyridinium based bromide ionic liquids (ILs) having different alkyl chain lengths was investigated on two types of microporous activated carbons: a fabric and a granulated one, well characterized in terms of surface chemistry by "Boehm" titrations and pH of point of zero charge measurements and of porosity by N2 adsorption at 77 K and CO2 adsorption at 273 K. The influence of cation type, alkyl chain length and adsorbate size on the adsorption properties was analyzed by studying kinetics and isotherms of eight different ILs using conductivity measurements. Equilibrium studies were carried out at different temperatures in the range [25-55 °C]. The incorporation of ILs on the AC porosity was studied by N2 adsorption-desorption measurements at 77 K. The experimental adsorption isotherms data showed a good correlation with the Langmuir model. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption of ILs onto activated carbons was an exothermic process, and that the removal efficiency increased with increase in alkyl chain length, due to the increase in hydrophobicity of long chain ILs cations determined with the evolution of the calculated octanol-water constant (Kow). The negative values of free energies indicated that adsorption of ILs with long chain lengths having hydrophobic cations was more spontaneous at the investigated temperatures.

  17. Interpretation of dynamic frontal analysis data in solid/supercritical fluid adsorption systems. I: theory.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; Tarafder, Abhijit; Guiochon, Georges

    2013-05-17

    A theory is proposed to relate the elution times of the adsorption front shocks of breakthrough curves recorded during classical dynamic frontal analysis (FA) experiments with selected compounds and their adsorption isotherms in solid/supercritical fluid adsorption systems. The actual density and viscosity of binary mixtures of CO2 and methanol were obtained from the NIST REPPROP software. Diluted solutions of S-naproxen were considered (<2% in mass) but the possible effects of the analyte concentration on the viscosity and the density of the eluent percolating through the column were neglected. This allows the determination of the excess adsorption isotherm (or Gibbs excess isotherm) of the adsorbed analyte in the whole column at constant mass and volumetric flow rate of pure CO2 and of the modifier solution. A local Langmuir adsorption isotherm and a constant saturation capacity were assumed in the calculations. The variation of the adsorption-desorption constant with the eluent density was taken from the experimental variation of the retention factor of S-naproxen on a chiral column packed with Whelk-O1 particles. The results show that the isotherm parameters obtained from the best adjustment of the Langmuir model to the SFC excess adsorption data deviates by less than 7% from the assumed saturation capacity and from the average of the equilibrium constant along the chromatographic column. In practice, this conclusion holds true provided that the precision of the measurement of elution times of front shocks of breakthrough curves is better than 1% and that the maximum surface coverage qexp,max/qS is at least equal to 20%.

  18. Interactions between lignosulphonates and the components of the lead-acid battery. Part 1. Adsorption isotherms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrvold, Bernt O.

    The expander performs at least five different tasks in the battery. It is a fluidiser for the negative paste. It controls the formation stage of the battery. It controls the shape and size of the lead sulphate crystals formed upon discharge, and thus prevents the sintering of the active mass. It controls the rate of the lead to lead sulphate oxidation during discharge. Finally, it affects the charge acceptance. To gain more understanding of these different effects the interaction between lead, lead(II) oxide, lead(IV) oxide, lead sulphate, barium sulphate and carbon black and the experimental lignosulphonate (LS) expander UP-414 has been investigated. We also compared with Vanisperse A and several other lignosulphonates, to elucidate the mechanisms operating. In most cases, we have studied concentration ranges that are both higher and lower than those normally encountered in batteries. There is no adsorption of lignosulphonates to pure lead surfaces. Adsorption to lead sulphate is a slow process. In the presence of lead ions lignosulphonates will also adsorb to lead. The adsorption to lead(II) oxide is a fast process, and a strong adsorption occurs. In all these cases, it is preferably the high molecular weight fraction that interacts with the solid surfaces. Lead ions leaching from the surface complexes with lignosulphonates to give a more hydrophobic species. This allows the normally negatively charged lignosulphonate to adsorb to the negatively charged substrates. The lignosulphonates have an ability to complex lead ions and keep them solvated. This confirms previous observations of the lignosulphonates ability to promote the dissolution-precipitation mechanism for lead sulphate formation on the expense of the solid-state reaction.

  19. Water adsorption isotherms on CH3-, OH-, and COOH-terminated organic surfaces at ambient conditions measured with PM-RAIRS.

    PubMed

    Tu, Aimee; Kwag, Hye Rin; Barnette, Anna L; Kim, Seong H

    2012-10-30

    The water adsorption isotherms on methyl (CH(3))-, hydroxyl (OH)-, and carboxylic acid (COOH)-terminated alkylthiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au were studied at room temperature and ambient pressure with polarization modulation reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (PM-RAIRS). PM-RAIRS analysis showed that water does not adsorb at all on the CH(3)-SAM/Au at subsaturation humidity conditions. In a dry Ar environment, the OH-SAM/Au holds at least 2 layer thick strongly bound water molecules which exhibit a broad O-H stretch vibration peak centered at ∼3360 cm(-1). The peak position implies that the strongly bound water layer on the OH SAM is more like a liquid than an ice. The additional uptake of water in humid environments is relatively weak, and the peak position changes very little. Unlike the OH-SAM/Au, the COOH-SAM/Au does not have strongly bound water layer. This seems to be due to the strong hydrogen bonding between terminal COOH groups in dry conditions. The weak interactions between water and carboxyl groups at low relative humidity (RH) and the solvation of dissociated carboxylic groups in high RH lead to a type III isotherm behavior, based on the BET categories, for water adsorption on the COOH-SAM/Au. The water spectra on the COOH-SAM at RH > 45% are centered at ∼3430 cm(-1) and very broad, indicating that the hydrogen-bonding network of water on the COOH-SAM is much different from that on the OH-SAM.

  20. Kinetic and isotherm studies of adsorption and biosorption processes in the removal of phenolic compounds from aqueous solutions: comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The phenolic compounds are known by their carcinogenicity and high toxicity as well as creating unpleasant taste and odor in water resources. The present study develops a cost-effective technology for the treatment of water contaminated with phenolic compounds, including Phenol (Ph), 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). So, two sorbents, rice bran ash (RBA) and biomass of brown algae, Cystoseiraindica, were used and results were compared with the commercially granular activated carbon (GAC). The phenolic compounds were determined using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) under batch equilibrium conditions. The effects of contact time, pH, initial adsorbate concentration, and adsorbent dosages on the removal efficiency were studied. The adsorption data were simulated by isotherm and kinetic models. Results indicated that RBA and GAC had the lowest efficiency for the removal of 2-CP, while the order of removal efficiency for C. indica biomass was as follows: 2-CP > 4-CP > phenol. The efficiency of GAC was higher than those of other adsorbents for all of the phenolic compounds. Furthermore, the adsorption capacity of RBA was found to be higher than that of C. indica biomass. The optimal initial pH for the removal of phenol, 2-CP and 4-CP was determined to be 5, 7, and 7 for RBA, GAC, and algal biomass, respectively. Kinetic studies suggested that the pseudo-second order best fitted the kinetic data. PMID:24355013

  1. Isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies on Hg(II) adsorption from aqueous solution by silica- multiwall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Tawfik A

    2015-11-01

    Silica combined with 2% multiwall carbon nanotubes (SiO2-CNT) was synthesized and characterized. Its sorption efficacy was investigated for the Hg(II) removal from an aqueous solution. The effect of pH on the percentage removal by the prepared material was examined in the range from 3 to 7. The adsorption kinetics were well fitted by using a pseudo-second-order model at various initial Hg(II) concentrations with R (2) of >0.99. The experimental data were plotted using the interparticle diffusion model, which indicated that the interparticle diffusion is not the only rate-limiting step. The data is well described by the Freundlich isotherm equation. The activation energy (Ea) for adsorption was 12.7 kJ mol(-1), indicating the process is to be physisorption. Consistent with an endothermic process, an increase in the temperature resulted in increasing mercury removal with a ∆H(o) of 13.3 kJ/mol and a ∆S(o) 67.5 J/mol K. The experimental results demonstrate that the combining of silica and nanotubes is a promising alternative material, which can be used to remove the mercury from wastewaters. PMID:26087931

  2. Isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies on Hg(II) adsorption from aqueous solution by silica- multiwall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Tawfik A

    2015-11-01

    Silica combined with 2% multiwall carbon nanotubes (SiO2-CNT) was synthesized and characterized. Its sorption efficacy was investigated for the Hg(II) removal from an aqueous solution. The effect of pH on the percentage removal by the prepared material was examined in the range from 3 to 7. The adsorption kinetics were well fitted by using a pseudo-second-order model at various initial Hg(II) concentrations with R (2) of >0.99. The experimental data were plotted using the interparticle diffusion model, which indicated that the interparticle diffusion is not the only rate-limiting step. The data is well described by the Freundlich isotherm equation. The activation energy (Ea) for adsorption was 12.7 kJ mol(-1), indicating the process is to be physisorption. Consistent with an endothermic process, an increase in the temperature resulted in increasing mercury removal with a ∆H(o) of 13.3 kJ/mol and a ∆S(o) 67.5 J/mol K. The experimental results demonstrate that the combining of silica and nanotubes is a promising alternative material, which can be used to remove the mercury from wastewaters.

  3. Investigation of simultaneous biosorption of copper(II) and chromium(VI) on dried Chlorella vulgaris from binary metal mixtures: Application of multicomponent adsorption isotherms

    SciTech Connect

    Aksu, Z.; Acikel, U.; Kutsal, T.

    1999-02-01

    Although the biosorption of single metal ions to various kinds of microorganisms has been extensively studied and the adsorption isotherms have been developed for only the single metal ion situation, very little attention has been given to the bioremoval and expression of adsorption isotherms of multimetal ions systems. In this study the simultaneous biosorption of copper(II) and chromium(VI) to Chlorella vulgaris from a binary metal mixture was studied and compared with the single metal ion situation in a batch stirred system. The effects of pH and single- and dual-metal ion concentrations on the equilibrium uptakes were investigated. In previous studies the optimum biosorption pH had been determined as 4.0 for copper(II) and as 2.0 for chromium(VI). Multimetal ion biosorption studies were performed at these two pH values. It was observed that the equilibrium uptakes of copper(II) or chromium(VI) ions were changed due to the biosorption pH and the presence of other metal ions. Adsorption isotherms were developed for both single- and dual-metal ions systems at these two pH values, and expressed by the mono- and multicomponent Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. Model parameters were estimated by nonlinear regression. It was seen that the adsorption equilibrium data fitted very well to the competitive Freundlich model in the concentration ranges studied.

  4. The study of non-linear kinetics and adsorption isotherm models for Acid Red 18 from aqueous solutions by magnetite nanoparticles and magnetite nanoparticles modified by sodium alginate.

    PubMed

    Berizi, Zohre; Hashemi, Seyed Yaser; Hadi, Mahdi; Azari, Ali; Mahvi, Amir Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Azo dyes are widely used in various industries. These substances produce toxic byproducts in aquatic environments in addition to their mutagenic and carcinogenic potential effects. In this study, the effect of magnetite nanoparticles and magnetite nanoparticles modified by sodium alginate in batch systems and nonlinear kinetic and adsorption isotherm models were investigated. Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method and then modified and used as adsorbent to adsorb Acid Red 18. After determining the optimum pH and adsorbent dose, non-equilibrium models for kinetic adsorption were tested with concentrations (25-100 mg/L) and at eight different periods of time (1-15 min) and the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order non-linear models were used to describe the results. For adsorption isotherm, a contact time of 120 min was studied in different concentrations (25-100 mg/L) and the residual concentration of Acid Red 18 was obtained. The results are described by non-linear Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The optimum amounts of pH for magnetite nanoparticles and for modified ones were 3 and 5, respectively, the efficiencies were 0.75 and 0.2 g/L, respectively. According to the results sodium alginate has a high performance in adsorption of Acid Red 18. Adjusted correlation coefficients and chi-square test showed that Freundlich isotherm and then Langmuir isotherm can well describe the experimental results. In Freundlich, the value of (Kf) was 3.231 (L/g) for magnetite nanoparticles and 21.615 (L/g) for modified adsorbent. In Langmuir, the value of (qm) was 16.259 (mg/g) for magnetite nanoparticles and 73.464 (mg/g) for modified adsorbent. Comparing the Langmuir maximum calculated adsorption capacity indicated that modified adsorbent can adsorb the pollutants 6.5 times more than the other one.

  5. The study of non-linear kinetics and adsorption isotherm models for Acid Red 18 from aqueous solutions by magnetite nanoparticles and magnetite nanoparticles modified by sodium alginate.

    PubMed

    Berizi, Zohre; Hashemi, Seyed Yaser; Hadi, Mahdi; Azari, Ali; Mahvi, Amir Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Azo dyes are widely used in various industries. These substances produce toxic byproducts in aquatic environments in addition to their mutagenic and carcinogenic potential effects. In this study, the effect of magnetite nanoparticles and magnetite nanoparticles modified by sodium alginate in batch systems and nonlinear kinetic and adsorption isotherm models were investigated. Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method and then modified and used as adsorbent to adsorb Acid Red 18. After determining the optimum pH and adsorbent dose, non-equilibrium models for kinetic adsorption were tested with concentrations (25-100 mg/L) and at eight different periods of time (1-15 min) and the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order non-linear models were used to describe the results. For adsorption isotherm, a contact time of 120 min was studied in different concentrations (25-100 mg/L) and the residual concentration of Acid Red 18 was obtained. The results are described by non-linear Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The optimum amounts of pH for magnetite nanoparticles and for modified ones were 3 and 5, respectively, the efficiencies were 0.75 and 0.2 g/L, respectively. According to the results sodium alginate has a high performance in adsorption of Acid Red 18. Adjusted correlation coefficients and chi-square test showed that Freundlich isotherm and then Langmuir isotherm can well describe the experimental results. In Freundlich, the value of (Kf) was 3.231 (L/g) for magnetite nanoparticles and 21.615 (L/g) for modified adsorbent. In Langmuir, the value of (qm) was 16.259 (mg/g) for magnetite nanoparticles and 73.464 (mg/g) for modified adsorbent. Comparing the Langmuir maximum calculated adsorption capacity indicated that modified adsorbent can adsorb the pollutants 6.5 times more than the other one. PMID:27642843

  6. ISOTHERMAL AND MULTITHERMAL ANALYSIS OF CORONAL LOOPS OBSERVED WITH AIA

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelz, J. T.; Jenkins, B. S.; Worley, B. T.; Anderson, D. J.; Pathak, S.; Kimble, J. A.

    2011-04-10

    The coronal filters in the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory peak at different temperatures; the series covers the entire active region temperature range, making AIA ideal for multithermal analysis. Here, we analyze coronal loops from several active regions that have been observed by AIA. We have specifically targeted cool loops (or at least loops with a cool component) that were chosen in the 171 A channel of AIA, which has a peak response temperature of log T = 5.8. We wanted to determine if the loops could be described as isothermal or multithermal. We find that several of our 12 loops have narrow temperature distributions, which may be consistent with isothermal plasma; these can be modeled with a single flux tube. Other loops have intermediate-width temperature distributions, appear well-constrained, and should be multi-stranded. The remaining loops, however, have unrealistically broad differential emission measures. We find that this problem is the result of missing low-temperature lines in the AIA 131 A channel. If we repeat the analysis without the 131 A data, these loops also appear to be well-constrained and multi-stranded.

  7. Study of the kinetics and the adsorption isotherm of cadmium(II) from aqueous solution using green algae (Ulva lactuca) biomass.

    PubMed

    Asnaoui, H; Laaziri, A; Khalis, M

    2015-01-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to study the adsorption of hazardous cadmium onto low-cost algae biomass in aqueous solution with respect to concentration of adsorbate, adsorbent dosage, contact time, solution pH and temperature. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms and the isotherm constants were determined. The activation energy of adsorption was also evaluated for the adsorption of cadmium onto Ulva lactuca biomass. Experimental data were tested in terms of biosorption kinetics using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the biosorption processes of Cd(II) followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics. Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by Ulva lactuca biomass. Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The biosorption capacity of Ulva lactuca biomass for cadmium was found to be 3.02 mg/g at pH 5.60 min equilibrium time and 20 °C. The mean free energy which was calculated was 6.24 kJ/mol for Cd(II) biosorption, which shows that the adsorption is physical. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔG0, ΔH0 and ΔS0) showed that the biosorption of Cd(II) onto Ulva lactuca biomass was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic under examined conditions. The results indicate that algae Ulva lactuca could be employed as a low-cost material for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solution. PMID:26524441

  8. Determination of adsorption isotherm parameters for minor whey proteins by gradient elution preparative liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Faraji, Naeimeh; Zhang, Yan; Ray, Ajay K

    2015-09-18

    Ion-Exchange Chromatography (IEC) techniques have been extensively investigated in protein purification processes, due to the more selective and milder separation steps. To date, existing studies of minor whey proteins fractionation in IEC have primarily been conducted as batch uptake studies, which require more experimental search space, time and materials. In this work, the selected resin's (SP Sepharose FF) equilibrium and dynamic binding capacity were first investigated. Next, adsorption of the pure binary mixture of lactoperoxidase and lactoferrin was studied to calibrate steric mass action (SMA) model using a simplified approach with data from single column experiments. The calibrated model was then verified by performing factorial-design based experiments for various process operating conditions assessing process performance on a larger bed height column. The model predicted results demonstrated a realistic agreement with the experiments providing reproducible column elution profile and reduced experimental work. Finally, whey protein isolate was used to evaluate model parameters in real conditions. Results obtained herein are suitable for future large scale applications.

  9. Extended forward sensitivity analysis of one-dimensional isothermal flow

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.; Zhao, H.

    2013-07-01

    Sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification is an important part of nuclear safety analysis. In this work, forward sensitivity analysis is used to compute solution sensitivities on 1-D fluid flow equations typical of those found in system level codes. Time step sensitivity analysis is included as a method for determining the accumulated error from time discretization. The ability to quantify numerical error arising from the time discretization is a unique and important feature of this method. By knowing the relative sensitivity of time step with other physical parameters, the simulation is allowed to run at optimized time steps without affecting the confidence of the physical parameter sensitivity results. The time step forward sensitivity analysis method can also replace the traditional time step convergence studies that are a key part of code verification with much less computational cost. One well-defined benchmark problem with manufactured solutions is utilized to verify the method; another test isothermal flow problem is used to demonstrate the extended forward sensitivity analysis process. Through these sample problems, the paper shows the feasibility and potential of using the forward sensitivity analysis method to quantify uncertainty in input parameters and time step size for a 1-D system-level thermal-hydraulic safety code. (authors)

  10. Adsorption isotherms and structure of cationic surfactants adsorbed on mineral oxide surfaces prepared by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Wangchareansak, Thipvaree; Craig, Vincent S J; Notley, Shannon M

    2013-12-01

    The adsorption isotherms and aggregate structures of adsorbed surfactants on smooth thin-film surfaces of mineral oxides have been studied by optical reflectometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Films of the mineral oxides of titania, alumina, hafnia, and zirconia were produced by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with low roughness. We find that the surface strongly influences the admicelle organization on the surface. At high concentrations (2 × cmc) of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), the surfactant aggregates on a titania surface exhibit a flattened admicelle structure with an average repeat distance of 8.0 ± 1.0 nm whereas aggregates on alumina substrates exhibit a larger admicelle with an average separation distance of 10.5 ± 1.0 nm. A wormlike admicelle structure with an average separation distance of 7.0 ± 1.0 nm can be observed on zirconia substrates whereas a bilayered aggregate structure on hafnia substrates was observed. The change in the surface aggregate structure can be related to an increase in the critical packing parameter through a reduction in the effective headgroup area of the surfactant. The templating strength of the surfaces are found to be hafnia > alumina > zirconia > titania. Weakly templating surfaces are expected to have superior biocompatibility.

  11. Use of lipophilic ion adsorption isotherms to determine the surface area and the monolayer capacity of a chromatographic packing, as well as the thermodynamic equilibrium constant for its adsorption.

    PubMed

    Cecchi, T

    2005-04-29

    A method that champions the approaches of two independent research groups, to quantitate the chromatographic stationary phase surface available for lipophilic ion adsorption, is presented. For the first time the non-approximated expression of the electrostatically modified Langmuir adsorption isotherm was used. The non approximated Gouy-Chapman (G-C) theory equation was used to give the rigorous surface potential. The method helps model makers, interested in ionic interactions, determine whether the potential modified Langmuir isotherm can be linearized, and, accordingly, whether simplified retention equations can be properly used. The theory cultivated here allows the estimates not only of the chromatographically accessible surface area, but also of the thermodynamic equilibrium constant for the adsorption of the amphiphile, the standard free energy of its adsorption, and the monolayer capacity of the packing. In addition, it establishes the limit between a theoretical and an empirical use of the Freundlich isotherm to determine the surface area. Estimates of the parameters characterising the chromatographic system are reliable from the physical point of view, and this greatly validates the present comprehensive approach.

  12. Numerical determination of non-Langmuirian adsorption isotherms of ibuprofen enantiomers on Chiralcel OD column using ultraviolet-circular dichroism dual detector.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Jiang, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Wei; Chen, Yongtao; Yu, Weifang; Xu, Jin

    2016-02-26

    Competitive adsorption isotherm of ibuprofen enantiomers on Chiralcel OD stationary phase at 298K was determined by the application of inverse method. Transport dispersive (TD) chromatography model was used to describe mass balances of the enatiomers. Axial dispersion and mass transfer coefficients were estimated from a series of linear pulse experiments. It was found that the overloaded elution profile of total concentration of racemic ibuprofen cannot be satisfactorily fitted by substituting bi-Langmuir model, the most widely used isotherm model for enantiomers, into TD model and tuning the isotherm parameters. UV-CD dual detector setup was then applied to obtain the individual overloaded elution profiles of both enantiomers. The more informative experimental data revealed non-Langmuirian adsorption behavior of ibuprofen enantiomers on chiralcel OD stationary phase. Two analytical binary isotherm models, both accounting for adsorbate-adsorbate interactions and having the feature of inflection points, were then evaluated. A comparison between quadratic model and Moreau model showed that the former gives better fitting results. The six parameters involved in quadratic model were determined stepwisely. Three of them were first obtained by fitting overloaded elution profiles of S-ibuprofen. The other three were then acquired by fitting overloaded elution profiles of both enantiomers recorded by UV-CD dual detector for racemic ibuprofen. A further attempt was also made at reducing the number of quadratic model parameters. PMID:26846132

  13. Numerical determination of non-Langmuirian adsorption isotherms of ibuprofen enantiomers on Chiralcel OD column using ultraviolet-circular dichroism dual detector.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Jiang, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Wei; Chen, Yongtao; Yu, Weifang; Xu, Jin

    2016-02-26

    Competitive adsorption isotherm of ibuprofen enantiomers on Chiralcel OD stationary phase at 298K was determined by the application of inverse method. Transport dispersive (TD) chromatography model was used to describe mass balances of the enatiomers. Axial dispersion and mass transfer coefficients were estimated from a series of linear pulse experiments. It was found that the overloaded elution profile of total concentration of racemic ibuprofen cannot be satisfactorily fitted by substituting bi-Langmuir model, the most widely used isotherm model for enantiomers, into TD model and tuning the isotherm parameters. UV-CD dual detector setup was then applied to obtain the individual overloaded elution profiles of both enantiomers. The more informative experimental data revealed non-Langmuirian adsorption behavior of ibuprofen enantiomers on chiralcel OD stationary phase. Two analytical binary isotherm models, both accounting for adsorbate-adsorbate interactions and having the feature of inflection points, were then evaluated. A comparison between quadratic model and Moreau model showed that the former gives better fitting results. The six parameters involved in quadratic model were determined stepwisely. Three of them were first obtained by fitting overloaded elution profiles of S-ibuprofen. The other three were then acquired by fitting overloaded elution profiles of both enantiomers recorded by UV-CD dual detector for racemic ibuprofen. A further attempt was also made at reducing the number of quadratic model parameters.

  14. Isotherm and kinetics study of malachite green adsorption onto copper nanowires loaded on activated carbon: artificial neural network modeling and genetic algorithm optimization.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, M; Shojaeipour, E; Ghaedi, A M; Sahraei, Reza

    2015-05-01

    In this study, copper nanowires loaded on activated carbon (Cu-NWs-AC) was used as novel efficient adsorbent for the removal of malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution. This new material was synthesized through simple protocol and its surface properties such as surface area, pore volume and functional groups were characterized with different techniques such XRD, BET and FESEM analysis. The relation between removal percentages with variables such as solution pH, adsorbent dosage (0.005, 0.01, 0.015, 0.02 and 0.1g), contact time (1-40min) and initial MG concentration (5, 10, 20, 70 and 100mg/L) was investigated and optimized. A three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) model was utilized to predict the malachite green dye removal (%) by Cu-NWs-AC following conduction of 248 experiments. When the training of the ANN was performed, the parameters of ANN model were as follows: linear transfer function (purelin) at output layer, Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA), and a tangent sigmoid transfer function (tansig) at the hidden layer with 11 neurons. The minimum mean squared error (MSE) of 0.0017 and coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.9658 were found for prediction and modeling of dye removal using testing data set. A good agreement between experimental data and predicted data using the ANN model was obtained. Fitting the experimental data on previously optimized condition confirm the suitability of Langmuir isotherm models for their explanation with maximum adsorption capacity of 434.8mg/g at 25°C. Kinetic studies at various adsorbent mass and initial MG concentration show that the MG maximum removal percentage was achieved within 20min. The adsorption of MG follows the pseudo-second-order with a combination of intraparticle diffusion model. PMID:25699703

  15. Isotherm and kinetics study of malachite green adsorption onto copper nanowires loaded on activated carbon: artificial neural network modeling and genetic algorithm optimization.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, M; Shojaeipour, E; Ghaedi, A M; Sahraei, Reza

    2015-05-01

    In this study, copper nanowires loaded on activated carbon (Cu-NWs-AC) was used as novel efficient adsorbent for the removal of malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution. This new material was synthesized through simple protocol and its surface properties such as surface area, pore volume and functional groups were characterized with different techniques such XRD, BET and FESEM analysis. The relation between removal percentages with variables such as solution pH, adsorbent dosage (0.005, 0.01, 0.015, 0.02 and 0.1g), contact time (1-40min) and initial MG concentration (5, 10, 20, 70 and 100mg/L) was investigated and optimized. A three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) model was utilized to predict the malachite green dye removal (%) by Cu-NWs-AC following conduction of 248 experiments. When the training of the ANN was performed, the parameters of ANN model were as follows: linear transfer function (purelin) at output layer, Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA), and a tangent sigmoid transfer function (tansig) at the hidden layer with 11 neurons. The minimum mean squared error (MSE) of 0.0017 and coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.9658 were found for prediction and modeling of dye removal using testing data set. A good agreement between experimental data and predicted data using the ANN model was obtained. Fitting the experimental data on previously optimized condition confirm the suitability of Langmuir isotherm models for their explanation with maximum adsorption capacity of 434.8mg/g at 25°C. Kinetic studies at various adsorbent mass and initial MG concentration show that the MG maximum removal percentage was achieved within 20min. The adsorption of MG follows the pseudo-second-order with a combination of intraparticle diffusion model.

  16. Isotherm and kinetics study of malachite green adsorption onto copper nanowires loaded on activated carbon: Artificial neural network modeling and genetic algorithm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaedi, M.; Shojaeipour, E.; Ghaedi, A. M.; Sahraei, Reza

    2015-05-01

    In this study, copper nanowires loaded on activated carbon (Cu-NWs-AC) was used as novel efficient adsorbent for the removal of malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution. This new material was synthesized through simple protocol and its surface properties such as surface area, pore volume and functional groups were characterized with different techniques such XRD, BET and FESEM analysis. The relation between removal percentages with variables such as solution pH, adsorbent dosage (0.005, 0.01, 0.015, 0.02 and 0.1 g), contact time (1-40 min) and initial MG concentration (5, 10, 20, 70 and 100 mg/L) was investigated and optimized. A three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) model was utilized to predict the malachite green dye removal (%) by Cu-NWs-AC following conduction of 248 experiments. When the training of the ANN was performed, the parameters of ANN model were as follows: linear transfer function (purelin) at output layer, Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA), and a tangent sigmoid transfer function (tansig) at the hidden layer with 11 neurons. The minimum mean squared error (MSE) of 0.0017 and coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.9658 were found for prediction and modeling of dye removal using testing data set. A good agreement between experimental data and predicted data using the ANN model was obtained. Fitting the experimental data on previously optimized condition confirm the suitability of Langmuir isotherm models for their explanation with maximum adsorption capacity of 434.8 mg/g at 25 °C. Kinetic studies at various adsorbent mass and initial MG concentration show that the MG maximum removal percentage was achieved within 20 min. The adsorption of MG follows the pseudo-second-order with a combination of intraparticle diffusion model.

  17. A comparative examination of the adsorption mechanism of an anionic textile dye (RBY 3GL) onto the powdered activated carbon (PAC) using various the isotherm models and kinetics equations with linear and non-linear methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Açıkyıldız, Metin; Gürses, Ahmet; Güneş, Kübra; Yalvaç, Duygu

    2015-11-01

    The present study was designed to compare the linear and non-linear methods used to check the compliance of the experimental data corresponding to the isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson) and kinetics equations (pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order). In this context, adsorption experiments were carried out to remove an anionic dye, Remazol Brillant Yellow 3GL (RBY), from its aqueous solutions using a commercial activated carbon as a sorbent. The effects of contact time, initial RBY concentration, and temperature onto adsorbed amount were investigated. The amount of dye adsorbed increased with increased adsorption time and the adsorption equilibrium was attained after 240 min. The amount of dye adsorbed enhanced with increased temperature, suggesting that the adsorption process is endothermic. The experimental data was analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson isotherm equations in order to predict adsorption isotherm. It was determined that the isotherm data were fitted to the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The adsorption process was also found to follow a pseudo second-order kinetic model. According to the kinetic and isotherm data, it was found that the determination coefficients obtained from linear method were higher than those obtained from non-linear method.

  18. Isothermal pumping analysis for high-altitude tethered balloons.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Kirsty A; Hunt, Hugh E M

    2015-06-01

    High-altitude tethered balloons have potential applications in communications, surveillance, meteorological observations and climate engineering. To maintain balloon buoyancy, power fuel cells and perturb atmospheric conditions, fluids could be pumped from ground level to altitude using the tether as a hose. This paper examines the pumping requirements of such a delivery system. Cases considered include delivery of hydrogen, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and powders as fluid-based slurries. Isothermal analysis is used to determine the variation of pressures and velocities along the pipe length. Results show that transport of small quantities of hydrogen to power fuel cells and maintain balloon buoyancy can be achieved at pressures and temperatures that are tolerable in terms of both the pipe strength and the current state of pumping technologies. To avoid solidification, transport of SO2 would require elevated temperatures that cannot be tolerated by the strength fibres in the pipe. While the use of particle-based slurries rather than SO2 for climate engineering can reduce the pipe size significantly, the pumping pressures are close to the maximum bursting pressure of the pipe. PMID:26543573

  19. Isothermal pumping analysis for high-altitude tethered balloons

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Kirsty A.; Hunt, Hugh E. M.

    2015-01-01

    High-altitude tethered balloons have potential applications in communications, surveillance, meteorological observations and climate engineering. To maintain balloon buoyancy, power fuel cells and perturb atmospheric conditions, fluids could be pumped from ground level to altitude using the tether as a hose. This paper examines the pumping requirements of such a delivery system. Cases considered include delivery of hydrogen, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and powders as fluid-based slurries. Isothermal analysis is used to determine the variation of pressures and velocities along the pipe length. Results show that transport of small quantities of hydrogen to power fuel cells and maintain balloon buoyancy can be achieved at pressures and temperatures that are tolerable in terms of both the pipe strength and the current state of pumping technologies. To avoid solidification, transport of SO2 would require elevated temperatures that cannot be tolerated by the strength fibres in the pipe. While the use of particle-based slurries rather than SO2 for climate engineering can reduce the pipe size significantly, the pumping pressures are close to the maximum bursting pressure of the pipe. PMID:26543573

  20. Phycoremediation and adsorption isotherms of cadmium and copper ions by Merismopedia tenuissima and their effect on growth and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fawzy, Mustafa A

    2016-09-01

    The current study tends to investigate the removal of cadmium and copper ions by Merismopedia tenuissima, grown in different concentrations of cadmium and copper ions, as well to investigate their effects on growth and metabolism. Sorption isotherms of Langmuir and Freundlich were obtained for the quantitative description of cadmium and copper uptake by M. tenuissima. Langmuir model adequately to describe the data of biosorption for these metals. However, the Freundlich model could work well in case of Cu(2+) only. M. tenuissima appears to be more efficient for removing Cd(2+) ions than Cu(2+). However, the affinity constant of Cu(2+) on the biomass of M. tenuissima was higher than Cd(2+) indicating that M. tenuissima is more tolerant to Cd(2+) phytotoxicity than Cu(2+). FTIR analysis of algae with and without biosorption revealed the presence of carboxyl, amino, amide and hydroxyl groups, which were responsible for biosorption of Cd(+2) and Cu(+2) ions. PMID:27458699

  1. Interpretation of the excess adsorption isotherms of organic eluent components on the surface of reversed-phase adsorbents. Effect on the analyte retention.

    PubMed

    Kazakevich, Y V; LoBrutto, R; Chan, F; Patel, T

    2001-04-13

    The excess adsorption isotherms of acetonitrile, methanol and tetrahydrofuran from water on reversed-phase packings were studied, using 10 different columns packed with C1-C6, C8, C10, C12, and C18 monomeric phases, bonded on the same type of silica. The interpretation of isotherms on the basis of the theory of excess adsorption shows significant accumulation of the organic eluent component on the adsorbent surface on the top of "collapsed" bonded layer. The accumulated amount was shown to be practically independent of the length of alkyl chains bonded to the silica surface. A model that describes analyte retention on a reversed-phase column from a binary mobile phase is developed. The retention mechanism involves a combination of analyte distribution between the eluent and organic adsorbed layer, followed by analyte adsorption on the surface of the bonded phase. A general retention equation for the model is derived and methods for independent measurements of the involved parameters are suggested. The theory was tested by direct measurement of analyte retention from the eluents of varied composition and comparison of the values obtained with those theoretically calculated values. Experimental and theoretically calculated values are in good agreement.

  2. Use of solid waste for chemical stabilization: Adsorption isotherms and {sup 13}C solid-state NMR study of hazardous organic compounds sorbed on coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.; Lane, D.C.; Rovani, J.F.; Cox, J.D.; Clark, J.A.; Miknis, F.P.

    1993-09-01

    Adsorption of hazardous organic compounds on the Dave Johnston plant fly ash is described. Fly ash from Dave Johnston and Laramie River power plants were characterized using elemental, x-ray, and {sup 29}Si NMR; the Dave Johnston (DJ) fly ash had higher quartz contents, while the Laramie River fly ash had more monomeric silicate anions. Adsorption data for hydroaromatics and chlorobenzenes indicate that the adsorption capacity of DJ coal fly ash is much less than that of activated carbon by a factor of >3000; but it is needed to confirm that solid-gas and solid-liquid equilibrium isotherms can indeed be compared. However, for pyridine, pentachlorophenol, naphthalene, and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, the DJ fly ash appears to adsorb these compounds nearly as well as activated carbon. {sup 13}C NMR was used to study the adsorption of hazardous org. cpds on coal fly ash; the nuclear spin relaxation times often were very long, resulting in long experimental times to obtain a spectrum. Using a jumbo probe, low concentrations of some hazardous org. cpds could be detected; for pentachlorophenol adsorbed onto fly ash, the chemical shift of the phenolic carbon was changed. Use of NMR to study the adsorption needs further study.

  3. Heterogeneous adsorption behavior of landfill leachate on granular activated carbon revealed by fluorescence excitation emission matrix (EEM)-parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sonmin; Hur, Jin

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous adsorption behavior of landfill leachate on granular activated carbon (GAC) was investigated by fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). The equilibrium adsorption of two leachates on GAC was well described by simple Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. More nonlinear isotherm and a slower adsorption rate were found for the leachate with the higher values of specific UV absorbance and humification index, suggesting that the leachate containing more aromatic content and condensed structures might have less accessible sites of GAC surface and a lower degree of diffusive adsorption. Such differences in the adsorption behavior were found even within the bulk leachate as revealed by the dissimilarity in the isotherm and kinetic model parameters between two identified PARAFAC components. For both leachates, terrestrial humic-like fluorescence (C1) component, which is likely associated with relatively large sized and condensed aromatic structures, exhibited a higher isotherm nonlinearity and a slower kinetic rate for GAC adsorption than microbial humic-like (C2) component. Our results were consistent with size exclusion effects, a well-known GAC adsorption mechanism. This study demonstrated the promising benefit of using EEM-PARAFAC for GAC adsorption processes of landfill leachate through fast monitoring of the influent and treated leachate, which can provide valuable information on optimizing treatment processes and predicting further environmental impacts of the treated effluent.

  4. Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic investigations of phosphate adsorption onto core-shell Fe₃O₄@LDHs composites with easy magnetic separation assistance.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liang-guo; Yang, Kun; Shan, Ran-ran; Yan, Tao; Wei, Jing; Yu, Shu-jun; Yu, Hai-qin; Du, Bin

    2015-06-15

    In this study, three different magnetic core-shell Fe3O4@LDHs composites, Fe3O4@Zn-Al-, Fe3O4@Mg-Al-, and Fe3O4@Ni-Al-LDH were prepared via a rapid coprecipitation method for phosphate adsorptive removal. The composites were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TEM, VSM and BET analyses. Characterization results proved the successful synthesis of core-shell Fe3O4@LDHs composites with good superparamagnetisms. Batch experiments were conducted to study the adsorption efficiency of phosphate. Optimal conditions for the phosphate adsorption were obtained: 0.05 g of adsorbent, solution pH of 3, and contact time of 60 min. Proposed mechanisms for the removal of phosphate species onto Fe3O4@LDHs composites at different initial solution pH were showed. The kinetic data were described better by the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and KASRA model. The adsorption isotherm curves showed a three-region behavior in the ARIAN model. It had a good fit with Langmuir model and the maximum adsorption capacity followed the order of Fe3O4@Zn-Al-LDH>Fe3O4@Mg-Al-LDH>Fe3O4@Ni-Al-LDH. Thermodynamic analyses indicated that the phosphate adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous in nature. The three Fe3O4@LDHs composites could be easily separated from aqueous solution by the external magnetic field in 10s. These novel magnetic core-shell Fe3O4@LDHs adsorbents may offer a simple single step adsorption treatment option to remove phosphate from water without the requirement of pre-/post-treatment for current industrial practice.

  5. Can carbon surface oxidation shift the pore size distribution curve calculated from Ar, N2 and CO2 adsorption isotherms? Simulation results for a realistic carbon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furmaniak, Sylwester; Terzyk, Artur P.; Gauden, Piotr A.; Harris, Peter J. F.; Kowalczyk, Piotr

    2009-08-01

    Using the virtual porous carbon model proposed by Harris et al, we study the effect of carbon surface oxidation on the pore size distribution (PSD) curve determined from simulated Ar, N2 and CO2 isotherms. It is assumed that surface oxidation is not destructive for the carbon skeleton, and that all pores are accessible for studied molecules (i.e., only the effect of the change of surface chemical composition is studied). The results obtained show two important things, i.e., oxidation of the carbon surface very slightly changes the absolute porosity (calculated from the geometric method of Bhattacharya and Gubbins (BG)); however, PSD curves calculated from simulated isotherms are to a greater or lesser extent affected by the presence of surface oxides. The most reliable results are obtained from Ar adsorption data. Not only is adsorption of this adsorbate practically independent from the presence of surface oxides, but, more importantly, for this molecule one can apply the slit-like model of pores as the first approach to recover the average pore diameter of a real carbon structure. For nitrogen, the effect of carbon surface chemical composition is observed due to the quadrupole moment of this molecule, and this effect shifts the PSD curves compared to Ar. The largest differences are seen for CO2, and it is clearly demonstrated that the PSD curves obtained from adsorption isotherms of this molecule contain artificial peaks and the average pore diameter is strongly influenced by the presence of electrostatic adsorbate-adsorbate as well as adsorbate-adsorbent interactions.

  6. Can carbon surface oxidation shift the pore size distribution curve calculated from Ar, N(2) and CO(2) adsorption isotherms? Simulation results for a realistic carbon model.

    PubMed

    Furmaniak, Sylwester; Terzyk, Artur P; Gauden, Piotr A; Harris, Peter J F; Kowalczyk, Piotr

    2009-08-01

    Using the virtual porous carbon model proposed by Harris et al, we study the effect of carbon surface oxidation on the pore size distribution (PSD) curve determined from simulated Ar, N(2) and CO(2) isotherms. It is assumed that surface oxidation is not destructive for the carbon skeleton, and that all pores are accessible for studied molecules (i.e., only the effect of the change of surface chemical composition is studied). The results obtained show two important things, i.e., oxidation of the carbon surface very slightly changes the absolute porosity (calculated from the geometric method of Bhattacharya and Gubbins (BG)); however, PSD curves calculated from simulated isotherms are to a greater or lesser extent affected by the presence of surface oxides. The most reliable results are obtained from Ar adsorption data. Not only is adsorption of this adsorbate practically independent from the presence of surface oxides, but, more importantly, for this molecule one can apply the slit-like model of pores as the first approach to recover the average pore diameter of a real carbon structure. For nitrogen, the effect of carbon surface chemical composition is observed due to the quadrupole moment of this molecule, and this effect shifts the PSD curves compared to Ar. The largest differences are seen for CO(2), and it is clearly demonstrated that the PSD curves obtained from adsorption isotherms of this molecule contain artificial peaks and the average pore diameter is strongly influenced by the presence of electrostatic adsorbate-adsorbate as well as adsorbate-adsorbent interactions. PMID:21828590

  7. Adsorption of lead on multi-walled carbon nanotubes with different outer diameters and oxygen contents: kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Wu, Yanqing; Ma, Jie; Zhang, Chi

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different outer diameters and surface oxygen contents on the adsorption of heavy metals onto six types of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were investigated in an aqueous solution and lead was chosen as a model metal ion. The results indicated that the percentage removal and adsorption capacity of lead remarkably increased with decreasing outer diameter due to larger specific surface area (SSA). The SSA-normalized maximum adsorption capacity (qmSSA) and SSA-normalized adsorption coefficient (Kd/SSA) were strongly positively correlated with surface oxygen content, implying that lead adsorption onto MWCNTs significantly increases with the rise of oxygen content and decreases with decreasing SSA. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicated that adsorption of lead on MWCNTs was endothermic and spontaneous. When the oxygen content of MWCNTs increased from 2.0% to 5.9%, the standard free energy (deltaG0) became more negative, which implied that the oxygenated functional groups increased the adsorption affinity of MWCNTs for lead. Through calculation of enthalpy (deltaH0), deltaG0 and free energy of adsorption (Ea), lead adsorption onto MWCNTs was recognized as a chemisorption process. The chemical interaction between lead and the phenolic groups of MWCNTs could be one of the main adsorption mechanisms due to highly positive correlations between the phenolic groups and Kd/SSA or qm/SSA.

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of Bacillus subtilis endospore protonation using isothermal titration calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrold, Zoë R.; Gorman-Lewis, Drew

    2013-05-01

    Bacterial proton and metal adsorption reactions have the capacity to affect metal speciation and transport in aqueous environments. We coupled potentiometric titration and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) analyses to study Bacillus subtilis spore-proton adsorption. We modeled the potentiometric data using a four and five-site non-electrostatic surface complexation model (NE-SCM). Heats of spore surface protonation from coupled ITC analyses were used to determine site specific enthalpies of protonation based on NE-SCMs. The five-site model resulted in a substantially better model fit for the heats of protonation but did not significantly improve the potentiometric titration model fit. The improvement observed in the five-site protonation heat model suggests the presence of a highly exothermic protonation reaction circa pH 7 that cannot be resolved in the less sensitive potentiometric data. From the log Ks and enthalpies we calculated corresponding site specific entropies. Log Ks and site concentrations describing spore surface protonation are statistically equivalent to B. subtilis cell surface protonation constants. Spore surface protonation enthalpies, however, are more exothermic relative to cell based adsorption suggesting a different bonding environment. The thermodynamic parameters defined in this study provide insight on molecular scale spore-surface protonation reactions. Coupled ITC and potentiometric titrations can reveal highly exothermic, and possibly endothermic, adsorption reactions that are overshadowed in potentiometric models alone. Spore-proton adsorption NE-SCMs derived in this study provide a framework for future metal adsorption studies.

  9. How realistic is the pore size distribution calculated from adsorption isotherms if activated carbon is composed of fullerene-like fragments?

    PubMed

    Terzyk, Artur P; Furmaniak, Sylwester; Harris, Peter J F; Gauden, Piotr A; Włoch, Jerzy; Kowalczyk, Piotr; Rychlicki, Gerhard

    2007-11-28

    A plausible model for the structure of non-graphitizing carbon is one which consists of curved, fullerene-like fragments grouped together in a random arrangement. Although this model was proposed several years ago, there have been no attempts to calculate the properties of such a structure. Here, we determine the density, pore size distribution and adsorption properties of a model porous carbon constructed from fullerene-like elements. Using the method proposed recently by Bhattacharya and Gubbins (BG), which was tested in this study for ideal and defective carbon slits, the pore size distributions (PSDs) of the initial model and two related carbon models are calculated. The obtained PSD curves show that two structures are micro-mesoporous (with different ratio of micro/mesopores) and the third is strictly microporous. Using the grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) method, adsorption isotherms of Ar (87 K) are simulated for all the structures. Finally PSD curves are calculated using the Horvath-Kawazoe, non-local density functional theory (NLDFT), Nguyen and Do, and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) approaches, and compared with those predicted by the BG method. This is the first study in which different methods of calculation of PSDs for carbons from adsorption data can be really verified, since absolute (i.e. true) PSDs are obtained using the BG method. This is also the first study reporting the results of computer simulations of adsorption on fullerene-like carbon models.

  10. Generalized adsorption isotherms for molecular and dissociative adsorption of a polar molecular species on two polar surface geometries: Perovskite (100) (Pm-3m) and fluorite (111) (Fm-3m)

    DOE PAGES

    Danielson, Thomas; Hin, Celine; Savara, Aditya

    2016-08-10

    Lattice based kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations have been used to determine a functional form for the second order adsorption isotherms on two commonly investigated crystal surfaces: the (111) fluorite surface and the (100) perovskite surface which has the same geometric symmetry as the NaCl (100) surface. The functional form is generalized to be applicable to all values of the equilibrium constant by a shift along the pressure axis. Functions have been determined for estimating the pressure at which a desired coverage would be achieved and for estimating the coverage at a certain pressure. The generalized form has been calculatedmore » by investigating the surface adsorbate coverage across a range of thermodynamic equilibrium constants that span the range 10-26 to 1013. Finally, the equations have been shown to be general for any value of the adsorption equilibrium constant.« less

  11. Generalized adsorption isotherms for molecular and dissociative adsorption of a polar molecular species on two polar surface geometries: Perovskite (100) (Pm-3m) and fluorite (111) (Fm-3m)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, Thomas; Hin, Celine; Savara, Aditya

    2016-08-01

    Lattice based kinetic Monte Carlo simulations have been used to determine a functional form for the second order adsorption isotherms on two commonly investigated crystal surfaces: the (111) fluorite surface and the (100) perovskite surface which has the same geometric symmetry as the NaCl (100) surface. The functional form is generalized to be applicable to all values of the equilibrium constant by a shift along the pressure axis. Functions have been determined for estimating the pressure at which a desired coverage would be achieved and, conversely, for estimating the coverage at a certain pressure. The generalized form has been calculated by investigating the surface adsorbate coverage across a range of thermodynamic equilibrium constants that span the range 10-26 to 1013. The equations have been shown to be general for any value of the adsorption equilibrium constant.

  12. Analysis of moisture desorption isotherms of eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    PubMed

    Moreira, R; Chenlo, F; Torres, M D; Vallejo, N

    2010-10-01

    Sorption isotherms of eggplant were determined employing, as experimental technique, a static gravimetric method, using saturated salt solutions to achieve the equilibrium. The experiments were carried out at different temperatures (20, 35, 50 and 65 °C). The sorption isotherms can be classified, according to Brunauer's classification, as type II or III depending on temperature. Equilibrium moisture content data were correlated by two models usually applied to foodstuffs (Brunauer--Emmet--Teller (BET) and Halsey). BET model was employed to determine monolayer moisture content (0.121 kg/kg d.b.). Halsey model was selected by the goodness of fitting. Experimental data were analyzed by a thermodynamic approach to obtain some properties as net isosteric heat, equilibrium heat and differential and net integral entropy. The differential enthalpy and entropy decreased with increasing moisture content and satisfied the compensation theory. The net integral enthalpy and entropy showed maximum values (≈31 kJ/mol and ≈88 J/mol.K) at 0.093 (kg/kg d.b.) of moisture content.

  13. Bioremoval of Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 by Pseudomonas putida and its adsorption isotherms and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Arunarani, A; Chandran, Preethy; Ranganathan, B V; Vasanthi, N S; Sudheer Khan, S

    2013-02-01

    Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 are the most important group of synthetic colourants extensively used in textile industries for dyeing cotton, wool, silk and nylon. Release of these dye pollutants in to the environment adversely affects the human health and aquatic organisms. The present study we used Pseudomonas putida MTCC 4910 for the adsorptive removal of Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 from the aqueous solutions. The pH (4-9) and NaCl concentrations (1mM-1M) did not influence the adsorption process. The equilibrium adsorption process fitted well to Freundlich model than Langmuir model. The kinetics of adsorption fitted well by pseudo-second-order. Thus in the present study an attempt has been made to exploit the dye removal capability of P. putida MTCC 4910, and it was found to be an efficient microbe that could be used for bio removal of dyes from textile effluents.

  14. Optimization, isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of Pb(II) ions adsorption onto N-maleated chitosan-immobilized TiO₂ nanoparticles from aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Medhat A; Yakout, Amr A

    2016-02-01

    Chitosan, CS was chemically engineered by maleic anhydride via simple protocol to produce N-maleated chitosan, MCS which immobilized on anatase TiO2 to synthesize novel eco-friendly nanosorbent (51±3.8 nm), MCS@TiO2 for cost-effective and efficient removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous media. The chemical structure, surface properties and morphology of MCS@TiO2 were recognized by FTIR, (1)H NMR, XRD, TEM, DLS and zeta-potential techniques. The relations between %removal of Pb(II) and different analytical parameters such as solution acidity (pH), MCS@TiO2 dosage, time of contact and initial Pb(II) concentration were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and Box-Behnken design (BBD) statistical procedures. The fitting of the experimental data to four different isotherm models at optimized conditions was carried out by various statistical treatments including the correlation coefficient (r), coefficient of determination (r(2)) and non-linear Chi-square (χ(2)) test analyses which all confirm the suitability of Langmuir model to explain the adsorption isotherm data. Also, statistics predicted that the pseudo-second-order model is the optimum kinetic model among four applied kinetic models to closely describe the rate equation of the adsorption process. Thermodynamics viewed the adsorption as endothermic and feasible physical process. EDTA could release the sorbed Pb(II) ions from MCS@TiO2 with a recovery above 92% after three sorption-desorption cycles. The novel synthesized nanosorbent is evidenced to be an excellent solid phase extractor for Pb(II) ions from wastewaters.

  15. Optimization, isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of Pb(II) ions adsorption onto N-maleated chitosan-immobilized TiO2 nanoparticles from aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaker, Medhat A.; Yakout, Amr A.

    2016-02-01

    Chitosan, CS was chemically engineered by maleic anhydride via simple protocol to produce N-maleated chitosan, MCS which immobilized on anatase TiO2 to synthesize novel eco-friendly nanosorbent (51 ± 3.8 nm), MCS@TiO2 for cost-effective and efficient removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous media. The chemical structure, surface properties and morphology of MCS@TiO2 were recognized by FTIR, 1H NMR, XRD, TEM, DLS and zeta-potential techniques. The relations between %removal of Pb(II) and different analytical parameters such as solution acidity (pH), MCS@TiO2 dosage, time of contact and initial Pb(II) concentration were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and Box-Behnken design (BBD) statistical procedures. The fitting of the experimental data to four different isotherm models at optimized conditions was carried out by various statistical treatments including the correlation coefficient (r), coefficient of determination (r2) and non-linear Chi-square (χ2) test analyses which all confirm the suitability of Langmuir model to explain the adsorption isotherm data. Also, statistics predicted that the pseudo-second-order model is the optimum kinetic model among four applied kinetic models to closely describe the rate equation of the adsorption process. Thermodynamics viewed the adsorption as endothermic and feasible physical process. EDTA could release the sorbed Pb(II) ions from MCS@TiO2 with a recovery above 92% after three sorption-desorption cycles. The novel synthesized nanosorbent is evidenced to be an excellent solid phase extractor for Pb(II) ions from wastewaters.

  16. Optimization, isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of Pb(II) ions adsorption onto N-maleated chitosan-immobilized TiO₂ nanoparticles from aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Medhat A; Yakout, Amr A

    2016-02-01

    Chitosan, CS was chemically engineered by maleic anhydride via simple protocol to produce N-maleated chitosan, MCS which immobilized on anatase TiO2 to synthesize novel eco-friendly nanosorbent (51±3.8 nm), MCS@TiO2 for cost-effective and efficient removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous media. The chemical structure, surface properties and morphology of MCS@TiO2 were recognized by FTIR, (1)H NMR, XRD, TEM, DLS and zeta-potential techniques. The relations between %removal of Pb(II) and different analytical parameters such as solution acidity (pH), MCS@TiO2 dosage, time of contact and initial Pb(II) concentration were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and Box-Behnken design (BBD) statistical procedures. The fitting of the experimental data to four different isotherm models at optimized conditions was carried out by various statistical treatments including the correlation coefficient (r), coefficient of determination (r(2)) and non-linear Chi-square (χ(2)) test analyses which all confirm the suitability of Langmuir model to explain the adsorption isotherm data. Also, statistics predicted that the pseudo-second-order model is the optimum kinetic model among four applied kinetic models to closely describe the rate equation of the adsorption process. Thermodynamics viewed the adsorption as endothermic and feasible physical process. EDTA could release the sorbed Pb(II) ions from MCS@TiO2 with a recovery above 92% after three sorption-desorption cycles. The novel synthesized nanosorbent is evidenced to be an excellent solid phase extractor for Pb(II) ions from wastewaters. PMID:26520475

  17. [Impact of regional water chemistry on the phosphorus isothermal adsorption of the sediments in three subsidence waters of the Huainan Mine areas].

    PubMed

    Yi, Qi-Tao; Sun, Peng-Fei; Xie, Kai; Qu, Xi-Jie; Wang, Ting-Ting

    2013-10-01

    Three research sites of subsidence waters, including Panji (PJ), Guqiao (GQ) and Xieqiao (XQ) located in the Huainan "Panxie" Mine Area have been selected to address their phosphorus (P) adsorption behavior in the sediments considering the site-specific regional water chemistry. The P isothermal adsorption was measured in pure water and four different types of ion solutions, prepared through additions of sodium chloride (NaCl), calcium chloride (CaCl2), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), and a mixture of sodium bicarbonate and calcium chloride (NaHCO3 + CaCI2). The first four settings were studied to analyze the individual impact of each solution on P adsorption while the last one was to study their combined effect. In general, Ca2 + could enhance P adsorption on sediment surfaces while weakly alkaline conditions caused by bicarbonates were unfavorable for its adsorption. As a comprehensive effect, the positive effect of the former was greater than the negative effect of the latter. The zero equilibrium phosphorus concentrations (EPC) in the three sites were 0. 059, 0. 032 and 0. 040 mg.L-1, respectively, showing trends of P releasing to the overlying water column. The site of PJ showed greater P releasing potential than those at the GQ and XQ sites, probably due to its higher nutrient level. Overall, P releasing risks in the researched sediments are weaker than those in eutrophic lakes, while they are very similar to lakes with lower trophic levels, because of their unique sedimentary environments from inundated agricultural soils.

  18. Adsorption of Cd(II) by Mg-Al-CO3- and magnetic Fe3O4/Mg-Al-CO3-layered double hydroxides: Kinetic, isothermal, thermodynamic and mechanistic studies.

    PubMed

    Shan, Ran-ran; Yan, Liang-guo; Yang, Kun; Hao, Yuan-feng; Du, Bin

    2015-12-15

    Understanding the adsorption mechanisms of metal cations on the surfaces of solids is important for determining the fate of these metals in water and wastewater treatment. The adsorption kinetic, isothermal, thermodynamic and mechanistic properties of cadmium (Cd(II)) in an aqueous solution containing Mg-Al-CO3- and magnetic Fe3O4/Mg-Al-CO3-layered double hydroxide (LDH) were studied. The results demonstrated that the adsorption kinetic and isotherm data followed the pseudo-second-order model and the Langmuir equation, respectively. The adsorption process of Cd(II) was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in nature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to explain the adsorption mechanisms. The characteristic XRD peaks and FTIR bands of CdCO3 emerged in the LDH spectra after Cd(II) adsorption, which indicated that the adsorption of Cd(II) by LDHs occurred mainly via CdCO3 precipitation, surface adsorption and surface complexation. Furthermore, the magnetic Fe3O4/Mg-Al-CO3-LDH can be quickly and easily separated using a magnet before and after the adsorption process.

  19. Multifractal analysis of soil porosity based on mercury porosimetry and nitrogen adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Vidal Vázquez, E.; Miranda, J. G. V.

    2009-04-01

    The soil pore space is composed of a continuum of pores extremely variable in size which include structures smaller than nanometres and as large as macropores > 20 mm in diameter, i.e. with an upper size limit of the order of centimetres. Thus, a ratio of at least 106 is displayed in soil pore sizes. Soil pore size distribution directly influences many soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Characterization of soil structure may be achieved by pore size distribution analysis. There is not a unique method for determining soil pore size distributions all over the size scale. Mercury injection porosimetry and N2 adsorption isotherms are techniques commonly used for assessing equivalent pore size diameters in selected ranges. The Hg injection technique provides pore size distributions in the range from about 50 nm to 100 m, whereas N2 adsorption isotherms may be used for finer pores ranging in size from about 2 to 500 nm. In this work, multifractal formalism has been used to describe Hg injection porosimetry and N2 adsorption isotherms measured in a Mollisol and in a Vertisol with four different soil use intensities, ranging from native, never cultivated, land to continuous cropping. Three samples per treatment were analyzed resulting in a total of twelve samples per soil. All the Hg injection curves and N2 adsorption isotherms exhibited multifractal behaviour as shown by singularity spectra and Rényi dimension spectra. The capacity dimension, D0, for both Hg injection and N2 adsorption data sets was not significantly different from 1.00. However, significantly different values of entropy dimension, D1, and correlation dimension, D2, were obtained for mercury injection and nitrogen adsorption experimental data. For instance, entropy dimension, D1, values extracted from multifractal spectra of Hg intrusion porosimetry were on average 0.913 and varied from 0.889 to 0.939. However, the corresponding figures for N2 adsorption isotherms were on average 0

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of sorption isotherms of cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    PubMed

    Koua, Blaise Kamenan; Koffi, Paul Magloire Ekoun; Gbaha, Prosper; Toure, Siaka

    2014-09-01

    Sorption isotherms of cassava were determined experimentally using a static gravimetric method at 30, 45 and 60 °C and within the range of 0.10-0.90 water activity. At a constant water activity, equilibrium moisture content decreased with increasing temperature. The equilibrium moisture content increased with increasing water activity at a given temperature. The experimental results were modelled using seven sorption models using non-linear regression technique. Results demonstrated that the GAB model adequately predicted equilibrium moisture content of cassava for the range of temperatures and water activities studied. The thermodynamic functions such as net isosteric heat of sorption, differential entropy of sorption, net integral enthalpy and entropy were evaluated to provide an understanding of the properties of water and energy requirements associated with the sorption behaviour. Net isosteric heat and differential entropy decreased with increasing equilibrium moisture content. The net integral enthalpy decreased while net integral entropy increased with increasing equilibrium moisture content. Net integral entropy was negative in value. All thermodynamic functions were adequately characterised by a power law model. The point of maximum stability was found between 0.053 and 0.154 kg water/kg db for cassava. PMID:25190827

  1. A sum-frequency generation spectroscopic study of the Gibbs analysis paradox: monolayer or sub-monolayer adsorption?

    PubMed

    Shahir, Afshin Asadzadeh; Nguyen, Khoi Tan; Nguyen, Anh V

    2016-04-01

    The Gibbs adsorption isotherm (GAI) has been considered as the foundation of surfactant adsorption studies for over a century; however, its application in determining the limiting surface excess has recently been intensively discussed, with contradictory experimental evidence either supporting or refuting the theory. The available arguments are based on monolayer adsorption models. In this paper, we experimentally and intellectually propose and validate the contribution of sub-monolayer adsorption to the GAI paradox. We utilize a powerful intrinsically surface-sensitive technique, vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy (SFG), complementing with conventional tensiometric measurements to address these controversies both quantitatively and qualitatively. Our SFG results revealed that the precipitous decrease in surface tension directly corresponds to surface occupancy by adsorbates. In addition, the Gibbs analysis was successfully applied to the soluble monolayer of a surface-active alcohol to full saturation. However, the full saturation of the topmost monolayer does not necessarily mean that the surface adsorption was completed because the adsorption was observed to continuously occur in the sub-monolayer region soon after the topmost monolayer became saturated. Nonetheless, the Gibbs isotherm failed to account for the excess of alcohol adsorbed in this sub-monolayer region. This new concept of surface excess must therefore be treated thermodynamically.

  2. A study of the adsorption of the amphiphilic penicillins cloxacillin and dicloxacillin onto human serum albumin using surface tension isotherms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Silvia; Leis, David; Taboada, Pablo; Attwood, David; Mosquera, Victor

    The interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with two structurally similar anionic amphiphilic penicillins, cloxacillin and dicloxacillin, at 25°C has been examined by surface tension measurements under conditions at which the HSA molecule was positively (pH 4.5) or negatively charged (pH 7.4). Measurements were at fixed HSA concentrations (0.0125 and 0.125% w/v) and at drug concentrations over a range including, where possible, the critical micelle concentration (cmc). Interaction between anionic drugs and positively charged HSA at pH 7.4 resulted in an increase of the cmc of each drug as a consequence of its removal from solution by adsorption. Limited data for cloxacillin at pH 4.5 indicated an apparent decrease of the cmc in the presence of HSA suggesting a facilitation of the aggregation by association with the protein. Changes in the surface tension-log (drug concentration) plots in the presence of HSA have been discussed in terms of the adsorption of drug at the air-solution and protein-solution interfaces. Standard free energy changes associated with the micellization of both drugs and their adsorption at the air-solution interface have been calculated and compared.

  3. Isotherm Sensor Calibration Program for Mars Science Laboratory Heat Shield Flight Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santos, Jose A.; Oishi, Tomo; Martinez, Ed R.

    2011-01-01

    Seven instrumented sensor plugs were installed on the Mars Science Laboratory heat shield in December 2008 as part of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI) project. These sensor plugs contain four in-depth thermocouples and one Hollow aErothermal Ablation and Temperature (HEAT) sensor. The HEAT sensor follows the time progression of a 700 C isotherm through the thickness of a thermal protection system (TPS) material. The data can be used to infer char depth and, when analyzed in conjunction with the thermocouple data, the thermal gradient through the TPS material can also be determined. However, the uncertainty on the isotherm value is not well defined. To address this uncertainty, a team at NASA Ames Research Center is carrying out a HEAT sensor calibration test program. The scope of this test program is described, and initial results from experiments conducted in the laboratory to study the isotherm temperature of the HEAT sensor are presented. Data from the laboratory tests indicate an isotherm temperature of 720 C 60 C. An overview of near term arc jet testing is also given, including preliminary data from 30.48cm 30.48cm PICA panels instrumented with two MEDLI sensor plugs and tested in the NASA Ames Panel Test Facility. Forward work includes analysis of the arc jet test data, including an evaluation of the isotherm value based on the instant in time when it reaches a thermocouple depth.

  4. Dynamic technique for measuring adsorption in a gas chromatograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deuel, C. L.; Hultgren, N. W.; Mobert, M. L.

    1973-01-01

    Gas-chromatographic procedure, together with mathematical analysis of adsorption isotherm, allows relative surface areas and adsorptive powers for trace concentrations to be determined in a few minutes. Technique may be used to evaluate relative surface areas of different adsorbates, expressed as volume of adsorbent/gram of adsorbate, and to evaluate their relative adsorptive power.

  5. Isothermal thermogravimetric analysis of soybean oil oxidation correlated to thin film micro-oxidation test methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method of correlation between the Thin Film Micro-Oxidation (TFMO) test with isothermal thermogravimetric analysis is reported utilizing a soybean oil system. Utilizing a kinetic model, pseudo-rate constants and “activation energy” can be calculated from weight loss data. This model accounts for o...

  6. Integration and global analysis of isothermal titration calorimetry data for studying macromolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Brautigam, Chad A; Zhao, Huaying; Vargas, Carolyn; Keller, Sandro; Schuck, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a powerful and widely used method to measure the energetics of macromolecular interactions by recording a thermogram of differential heating power during a titration. However, traditional ITC analysis is limited by stochastic thermogram noise and by the limited information content of a single titration experiment. Here we present a protocol for bias-free thermogram integration based on automated shape analysis of the injection peaks, followed by combination of isotherms from different calorimetric titration experiments into a global analysis, statistical analysis of binding parameters and graphical presentation of the results. This is performed using the integrated public-domain software packages NITPIC, SEDPHAT and GUSSI. The recently developed low-noise thermogram integration approach and global analysis allow for more precise parameter estimates and more reliable quantification of multisite and multicomponent cooperative and competitive interactions. Titration experiments typically take 1-2.5 h each, and global analysis usually takes 10-20 min.

  7. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm constants and prediction of phosphorus bioavailability as affected by different phosphorus sources in two Kansas soils.

    PubMed

    Shafqat, Mustafa N; Pierzynski, Gary M

    2014-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) adsorption onto soil constituents influences P bioavailability from both agronomic and environmental perspectives. In this study, the P availability from different P sources along with utility of Freundlich adsorption coefficients on the predictability of various crop growth parameters were assessed. Two soils were amended with 150mgPkg(-1) each from six different P sources comprised of manures from two types of ruminants animals, three types of monogastric animals, and inorganic P fertilizer. Corn (Zea mays) was grown and harvested seven times under greenhouse conditions to remove P from the P amended treatments. The application of all P sources reduced the value of Freundlich K and increased the value of Freundlich 1/n and equilibrium P concentration (EPC0) in both soils compared to the un-amended control before cropping. The swine (Sus scrofa) manure (HM) resulted in significant smaller values of Freundlich K and larger values of 1/n in the P deficient Eram-Lebo soil compared to other P sources while, the opposite was true for the turkey (Meleagris gallopava) litter (TL) in the Ulysses soil. The corn biomass, tissue P concentration and P uptake were significantly influenced by all P sources during the first harvest and the total P uptake during seven harvests in both soils compared to the control treatment. Both Freundlich coefficients had strong relationships with the aforementioned corn parameters in the P deficient Eram-Lebo soil while, strength of the association was weak or missing in the Ulysses soil which had optimum levels of antecedent P. PMID:24238913

  8. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm constants and prediction of phosphorus bioavailability as affected by different phosphorus sources in two Kansas soils.

    PubMed

    Shafqat, Mustafa N; Pierzynski, Gary M

    2014-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) adsorption onto soil constituents influences P bioavailability from both agronomic and environmental perspectives. In this study, the P availability from different P sources along with utility of Freundlich adsorption coefficients on the predictability of various crop growth parameters were assessed. Two soils were amended with 150mgPkg(-1) each from six different P sources comprised of manures from two types of ruminants animals, three types of monogastric animals, and inorganic P fertilizer. Corn (Zea mays) was grown and harvested seven times under greenhouse conditions to remove P from the P amended treatments. The application of all P sources reduced the value of Freundlich K and increased the value of Freundlich 1/n and equilibrium P concentration (EPC0) in both soils compared to the un-amended control before cropping. The swine (Sus scrofa) manure (HM) resulted in significant smaller values of Freundlich K and larger values of 1/n in the P deficient Eram-Lebo soil compared to other P sources while, the opposite was true for the turkey (Meleagris gallopava) litter (TL) in the Ulysses soil. The corn biomass, tissue P concentration and P uptake were significantly influenced by all P sources during the first harvest and the total P uptake during seven harvests in both soils compared to the control treatment. Both Freundlich coefficients had strong relationships with the aforementioned corn parameters in the P deficient Eram-Lebo soil while, strength of the association was weak or missing in the Ulysses soil which had optimum levels of antecedent P.

  9. Analysis of the variation of the 0°C isothermal altitude during rainfall events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeimetz, Fränz; Garcìa, Javier; Schaefli, Bettina; Schleiss, Anton J.

    2016-04-01

    In numerous countries of the world (USA, Canada, Sweden, Switzerland,…), the dam safety verifications for extreme floods are realized by referring to the so called Probable Maximum Flood (PMF). According to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), this PMF is determined based on the PMP (Probable Maximum Precipitation). The PMF estimation is performed with a hydrological simulation model by routing the PMP. The PMP-PMF simulation is normally event based; therefore, if no further information is known, the simulation needs assumptions concerning the initial soil conditions such as saturation or snow cover. In addition, temperature series are also of interest for the PMP-PMF simulations. Temperature values can not only be deduced from temperature measurement but also using the temperature gradient method, the 0°C isothermal altitude can lead to temperature estimations on the ground. For practitioners, the usage of the isothermal altitude for referring to temperature is convenient and simpler because one value can give information over a large region under the assumption of a certain temperature gradient. The analysis of the evolution of the 0°C isothermal altitude during rainfall events is aimed here and based on meteorological soundings from the two sounding stations Payerne (CH) and Milan (I). Furthermore, hourly rainfall and temperature data are available from 110 pluviometers spread over the Swiss territory. The analysis of the evolution of the 0°C isothermal altitude is undertaken for different precipitation durations based on the meteorological measurements mentioned above. The results show that on average, the isothermal altitude tends to decrease during the rainfall events and that a correlation between the duration of the altitude loss and the duration of the rainfall exists. A significant difference in altitude loss is appearing when the soundings from Payerne and Milan are compared.

  10. Isotherms and kinetic study of dihydrogen and hydrogen phosphate ions (H{2}PO{4}- and HPO{4}2-) adsorption onto crushed plant matter of the semi-arid zones of Morocco: Asphodelus microcarpus, Asparagus albus and Senecio anthophorbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiban, M.; Benhima, H.; Saadi, B.; Nounah, A.; Sinan, F.

    2005-03-01

    In the present work H{2}PO4- and HPO42- ions adsorption onto organic matter (OM) obtained from ground dried three plants growing in arid zones of Morocco has been studied. The adsorption process is affected by various parameters such as contact time, particle size and initial concentration of phosphate solution (Ci ≤ 30 mg/l). The uptake of both ions is increased by increasing the concentration of them selves. The retention of phosphate ions by Asphodelus microcarpus, Asparagus albus are well defined by several isotherms such as the Langmuir, Temkin and Freundlich.

  11. Adsorptive potential of cationic Basic Yellow 2 (BY2) dye onto natural untreated clay (NUC) from aqueous phase: Mass transfer analysis, kinetic and equilibrium profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztürk, A.; Malkoc, E.

    2014-04-01

    In this work, natural untreated clay (NUC) was studied for the removal of Basic Yellow 2 (BY2) from aqueous solution in batch system. The effects of initial BY2 concentration, contact time, solution temperature and solution pH on BY2 adsorption were investigated. Nitrogen sorption measurements were employed to investigate the variation in surface and pore properties after dye adsorption. The adsorbent was characterized by means of FTIR, PSD, TEM, XRD and BET analysis. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Scatchard isotherm models. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 833.33 mg/g at 25 °C (at room temperature). The pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided the best fit to the experimental datas compared with pseudo-first-order kinetic adsorption models. To explain mass transfer mechanism of BY2 adsorption, obtained experimental datas were applied Weber and Morris model, Body and Frusawa and Smith models. The results show that the adsorption process is controlled by film diffusion. The thermodynamic parameters such as, Gibbs free energy changes (ΔG°), standard enthalpy change (ΔH°) and standard entropy change (ΔS°) were determined. Adsorption of BY2 on NUC is exothermic and spontaneous in nature. The calculated activation energy of adsorption was found to be 5.24 kJ/mol for BY2. This value indicates that the adsorption process is a physisorption.

  12. Analysis of application of Langmuir isotherm to heterogeneous systems: high-pressure conditions.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Cristian Nunes; da Rocha, Milton Silva; Faleiros, Antônio C; Iha, Koshun

    2005-06-15

    In this paper, an adsorption model that is based on the statistical mechanics approach was applied to study the saturation phenomena in adsorption to calculate the minimum pressure needed to attain the complete surface coverage on a physical adsorption. The fundamental integral equation, Theta(T)(Q)=integral N(Q)Theta(Q)dQ, for the calculation of the coverage degree of the surface was developed for an exponential distribution function, N(Q)=(m/RT)exp(-mQ/RT), and the representation of local adsorption sites is given by the Langmuir expression, Theta(Q)=b(0)C exp(Q/RT)/(1+b(0)C exp(Q/RT)). At high values of the pressure C, a solution of the fundamental integral equation was obtained by imposing the condition b(0)C>1. The expression for the saturation condition, b(0)C>m/(m+1), was obtained; that is, the saturation phenomenon is dependent on two parameters, correlated with the energetic heterogeneity and adsorption energy of the system. The pressure in the analysis of the cited expression shows that, for low m values (more heterogeneous systems), saturation is attained for b(0)C>m, while for m congruent with 1 (more homogeneous systems), the saturation is attained for b(0)C>0.5.

  13. A computational analysis for amino acid adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Brandon E.; Riemann, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    In this study we have systematically investigated the effects of surface configuration and molecular state for the adsorption of methionine (C5H11NO2S) on a graphite surface using two model force fields, AMBER 3 and MM +. Computational results were compared with experimental results.

  14. Adsorption of Organic Compounds to Diesel Soot: Frontal Analysis and Polyparameter Linear Free-Energy Relationship.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhijiang; MacFarlane, John K; Gschwend, Philip M

    2016-01-01

    Black carbons (BCs) dominate the sorption of many hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in soils and sediments, thereby reducing the HOCs' mobilities and bioavailabilities. However, we do not have data for diverse HOCs' sorption to BC because it is time-consuming and labor-intensive to obtain isotherms on soot and other BCs. In this study, we developed a frontal analysis chromatographic method to investigate the adsorption of 21 organic compounds with diverse functional groups to NIST diesel soot. This method was precise and time-efficient, typically taking only a few hours to obtain an isotherm. Based on 102 soot-carbon normalized sorption coefficients (KsootC) acquired at different sorbate concentrations, a sorbate-activity-dependent polyparameter linear free-energy relationship was established: logKsootC = (3.74 ± 0.11)V + ((-0.35 ± 0.02)log ai)E + (-0.62 ± 0.10)A + (-3.35 ± 0.11)B + (-1.45 ± 0.09); (N = 102, R(2) = 0.96, SE = 0.18), where V, E, A, and B are the sorbate's McGowan's characteristic volume, excess molar refraction, and hydrogen acidity and basicity, respectively; and ai is the sorbate's aqueous activity reflecting the system's approach to saturation. The difference in dispersive interactions with the soot versus with the water was the dominant factor encouraging adsorption, and H-bonding interactions discouraged this process. Using this relationship, soot-water and sediment-water or soil-water adsorption coefficients of HOCs of interest (PAHs and PCBs) were estimated and compared with the results reported in the literature. PMID:26587648

  15. Theoretical consideration of the use of a Langmuir adsorption isotherm to describe the effect of light intensity on electron transfer in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Fragata, Mário; Viruvuru, Venkataramanaiah; Dudekula, Subhan

    2007-03-29

    Electron transport through photosystem II (PSII), measured as oxygen evolution, was investigated in isolated PSII particles and thylakoid membranes irradiated with white light of intensities (I) of 20 to about 4000 micromol of photons/(m2.s). In steady-state conditions, the evolution of oxygen varies with I according to the hyperbolic expression OEth = OEth(max)I/(L1/2 + I) (eq i) where OEth is the theoretical oxygen evolution, OEth(max) is the maximum oxygen evolution, and L1/2 is the light intensity giving OEth(max)/2. In this work, the mathematical derivation of this relationship was performed by using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and assuming that the photon interaction with the chlorophyll (Chl) in the PSII reaction center is a heterogeneous reaction in which the light is represented as a stream of particles instead of an electromagnetic wave (see discussion in Turro, N. J. Modern Molecular Photochemistry; University Science Books: Mill Valley, CA, 1991). In accordance with this approximation, the Chl molecules (P680) were taken as the adsorption surfaces (or heterogeneous catalysts), and the incident (or exciting) photons as the substrate, or the reagent. Using these notions, we demonstrated that eq i (Langmuir equation) is a reliable interpretation of the photon-P680 interaction and the subsequent electron transfer from the excited state P680, i.e., P680*, to the oxidized pheophytin (Phe), then from Phe- to the primary quinone QA. First, eq i contains specific functional and structural information that is apparent in the definition of OEth(max) as a measure of the maximal number of PSII reaction centers open for photochemistry, and L1/2 as the equilibrium between the electron transfer from Phe- to QA and the formation of reduced Phe in the PSII reaction center by electrons in provenance from P680*. Second, a physiological control mechanism in eq i is proved by the observation that the magnitudes of OEth(max) and L1/2 are affected differently by exogenous

  16. Adsorption analysis of ammonia in an aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Arman, B.; Panchal, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    An analysis is carried out to determine the effects of the diffusional resistance on the rate of the adsorption of ammonia in an aqueous solution. A performance prediction model is developed to calculate the local rate of heat and mass transfer, including physical and thermodynamic property calculations of the mixture. An algorithm is developed for calculating the interfacial conditions. The local heat- and mass-transfer calculation is then incorporated into the performance prediction method for adsorption for a given geometry.

  17. Critical analysis of the apoferritin adsorption at solid-liquid interfaces in the framework of a particular adsorption model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavalle, Ph.; Gergely, C.; Lustig, A.; Ball, V.

    2000-11-01

    The adsorption mechanism of horse spleen apoferritin on smooth Si(Ti)O2 surfaces was investigated by means of optical wave guide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) as well as with atomic force microscopy (AFM), for which images of high resolution were obtained on muscovite mica surfaces. By the use of both experimental methods, the adsorption process could be studied from a kinetic as well as from a statistical thermodynamics point of view. This approach allowed to test the hypothesis of the occurrence of a particular type of deposition mechanism, namely the random sequential adsorption (RSA), by evaluating all the requirements that should be fulfilled in such a process. Only the requirement relative to the kinetics of the adsorption process, and subsequently, the estimation of the surface coverage at saturation is fulfilled by our experiments. From the fit of the theoretical kinetic equations corresponding to the RSA model to the experimental adsorption kinetics we find that the apoferritin molecules occupy an area of 140±30 nm2, in agreement with the values found by counting the number of particles per unit area in the AFM experiments and also with the saturation level of the adsorption isotherm. From our experiments we found that the evolution of the surface coverage close to saturation did not follow the expected power law evolution with time in the framework of the RSA model. Moreover, the dependence of the density fluctuations on the sub-surface area in the AFM image is not consistent with the expected evolution obtained by computer simulations based on the RSA model. These results emphasize the difficulty to study the adsorption mechanism of proteins at solid—liquid interfaces in the framework of any given adsorption model.

  18. Phosphate adsorption on lanthanum loaded biochar.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanghong; Shen, Dekui; Shen, Fei; Li, Tianyu

    2016-05-01

    To attain a low-cost and high-efficient phosphate adsorbent, lanthanum (La) loaded biochar (La-BC) prepared by a chemical precipitation method was developed. La-BC and its pristine biochar (CK-BC) were comparatively characterized using zeta potential, BET surface area, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The adsorption ability and the mechanisms during adsorption process for the La-BC samples were also investigated. La loaded on the surface of biochar can be termed as La-composites (such as LaOOH, LaONO3 and La(OH)3), leading to the decrease of negative charge and surface area of biochar. La-BC exhibited the high adsorption capacity to phosphate compared to CK-BC. Adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetic studies showed that the Langmuir isotherm and second order model could well describe the adsorption process of La-BC, indicating that the adsorption was dominated by a homogeneous and chemical process. The calculated maximum adsorption capacity was as high as 46.37 mg g(-1) (computed in P). Thermodynamic analysis revealed that the adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. SEM, XRD, XPS and FT-IR analysis suggested that the multi-adsorption mechanisms including precipitation, ligand exchange and complexation interactions can be evidenced during the phosphate adsorption process by La-composites in La-BC. PMID:26871732

  19. Thermodynamic investigations of nitroxoline sublimation by simultaneous DSC-FTIR method and isothermal TG analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Gau-Yi; Lin, Shan-Yang

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the physicochemical characteristics, thermodynamics, possible sublimation process and kinetics of nitroxoline, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), isothermal thermogravimetry (TG), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy equipped with a micro hot-stage of DSC microscopy assembly (simultaneous DSC-FTIR method) were used. The DSC result indicates that nitroxoline exhibited a sharp endothermic peak at 182 degrees C with enthalpy of 103.1 J/g due to the melting point of nitroxoline. A sublimation behavior of nitroxoline was found from 129 degrees C by gradual weight loss in TG curve. However, the nonisothermal DSC-FTIR method reveals that the temperature at 95 degrees C was the onset temperature of nitroxoline sublimation. A significant difference between DSC-FTIR method and TG analysis suggests that the simultaneous DSC-FTIR method was more sensitive than that of the TG analysis to detect the beginning temperature of nitroxoline sublimation. The sublimation kinetics of nitroxoline determined by isothermal TG analysis evidenced that the zero-order kinetics was followed over the sublimation time. The sublimation enthalpy correction was also carried out by a group additivity approach for the estimation of heat capacity. The enthalpy of nitroxoline sublimation estimated was 86.14 KJ/mol at 298.15 K.

  20. Adsorption site analysis of impurity embedded single-walled carbon nanotube bundles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Agnihotri, S.; Mota, J.P.B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Bundle morphology and adsorptive contributions from nanotubes and impurities are studied both experimentally and by simulation using a computer-aided methodology, which employs a small physisorbed probe molecule to explore the porosity of nanotube samples. Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation of nitrogen adsorption on localized sites of a bundle is carried out to predict adsorption in its accessible internal pore volume and on its external surface as a function of tube diameter. External adsorption is split into the contributions from the clean surface of the outermost nanotubes of the bundle and from the surface of the impurities. The site-specific isotherms are then combined into a global isotherm for a given sample using knowledge of its tube-diameter distribution obtained by Raman spectroscopy. The structural parameters of the sample, such as the fraction of open-ended nanotubes and the contributions from impurities and nanotube bundles to total external surface area, are determined by fitting the experimental nitrogen adsorption data to the simulated isotherm. The degree of closure between experimental and calculated adsorption isotherms for samples manufactured by two different methods, to provide different nanotube morphology and contamination level, further strengthens the validity and resulting interpretations based on the proposed approach. The average number of nanotubes per bundle and average bundle size, within a sample, are also quantified. The proposed method allows for extrapolation of adsorption properties to conditions where the purification process is 100% effective at removing all impurities and opening access to all intrabundle adsorption sites. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of aeromagnetic anomalies; mapping of Curie isothermal surface at Long Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of the nature and extent of the Long Valley geothermal system at depth. Airborne magnetic data was used to calculate the Curie isotherm depth for mapping the underground temperature distribution using a spectral analysis and Marquardt non-linear least squares method. Other geophysical and topographic data, such as gravity, Landsat and Digital Terrain Model combined with aeromagnetic data were also used to understand the tectonic structure at depth. These data were geometrically corrected and registered to the basic UTM map, and displayed with a technique of computer color-graphics. In spectral analysis, the Maximum Entropy power spectrum was used to estimate the Curie isotherm depth rather than FET spectrum because this can produce high resolution with accurate frequency and power estimates even for short data samples. The result of magnetic analysis showed that the east-half of Long Valley caldera is cool with curie depth of about 8 km, while the west-half is very hot with Curie depth of about 4.5 km. These estimates are reasonable depths from the surface heat flow data, and are also consistent with the temperature distribution obtained by deep hole data. This fact suggests that the Curie depth analysis is a very encouraging technique and tool for the geothermal exploration. The superimposed image data of geophysical and topographic data suggested that Hilton Creek fault extends northward all the way to Bridgeport Valley. The preliminary result showed that east of the Hilton Creek fault it is cool while to the west it is hot. This may be explained by the flow of cool ground-water through the deep fracture zones of the Hilton Creek fault.

  2. 3D Finite Element Analysis of Spider Non-isothermal Forging Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Ling; Wei, Wei; Wei, Kun Xia; Alexandrov, Igor V.; Hu, Jing

    2016-06-01

    The differences of effective stress, effective strain, velocity field, and the load-time curves between the spider isothermal and non-isothermal forging processes are investigated by making full use of 3D FEA, and verified by the production experiment of spider forging. Effective stress is mainly concentrated on the pin, and becomes lower closer to the front of the pin. The maximum effective strain in the non-isothermal forging is lower than that in the isothermal. The great majority of strain in the non-isothermal forging process is 1.76, which is larger than the strain of 1.31 in the isothermal forging. The maximum load required in the isothermal forging is higher than that in the non-isothermal. The maximum experimental load and deformation temperature in the spider production are in good agreement with those in the non-isothermal FEA. The results indicate that the non-isothermal 3D FEA results can guide the design of the spider forging process.

  3. Artificial neural network (ANN) method for modeling of sunset yellow dye adsorption using zinc oxide nanorods loaded on activated carbon: Kinetic and isotherm study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghsoudi, M.; Ghaedi, M.; Zinali, A.; Ghaedi, A. M.; Habibi, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, ZnO nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (ZnO-NPs-AC) was synthesized simply by a low cost and nontoxic procedure. The characterization and identification have been completed by different techniques such as SEM and XRD analysis. A three layer artificial neural network (ANN) model is applicable for accurate prediction of dye removal percentage from aqueous solution by ZnO-NRs-AC following conduction of 270 experimental data. The network was trained using the obtained experimental data at optimum pH with different ZnO-NRs-AC amount (0.005-0.015 g) and 5-40 mg/L of sunset yellow dye over contact time of 0.5-30 min. The ANN model was applied for prediction of the removal percentage of present systems with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA), a linear transfer function (purelin) at output layer and a tangent sigmoid transfer function (tansig) in the hidden layer with 6 neurons. The minimum mean squared error (MSE) of 0.0008 and coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.998 were found for prediction and modeling of SY removal. The influence of parameters including adsorbent amount, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time on sunset yellow (SY) removal percentage were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. Optimal conditions were set as follows: pH, 2.0; 10 min contact time; an adsorbent dose of 0.015 g. Equilibrium data fitted truly with the Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 142.85 mg/g for 0.005 g adsorbent. The adsorption of sunset yellow followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation.

  4. Effect of Grain Size on Uranium(VI) Surface Complexation Kinetics and Adsorption Additivity

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, Jianying; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Zachara, John M.

    2011-07-27

    Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the contribution of variable grain sizes to uranium adsorption/desorption in a sediment collected from the US DOE Hanford site. The sediment was wet-sieved into four size fractions: coarse sand (1-2 mm), medium sand (0.2-1 mm), fine sand (0.05-0.2 mm), and clay/silt fraction (< 0.05mm). For each size fraction and their composite (sediment), batch experiments were performed to determine uranium adsorption isotherms, and stirred flow-cell experiments were conducted to derive kinetic data of uranium adsorption and subsequent desorption. The results showed that uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics were size-specific, reflecting the effects of size-specific adsorption site concentration and kinetic rate constants. The larger-size fraction had a larger mass percentage in the sediment, but with a smaller adsorption site concentration and generally a slower uranium adsorption/desorption rate. The same equilibrium surface complexation reaction and reaction constant could describe uranium adsorption isotherms for all size fractions and the composite after accounting for the effect of adsorption site concentration. Mass-weighted, linear additivity was observed for both uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics in the composite. Our analysis also showed that uranium adsorption site concentration estimated from the adsorption isotherms was 3 orders of magnitude less than a site concentration estimated from sediment surface area and generic site density. One important implication of this study is that grain size distribution may be used to estimate uranium adsorption site, and adsorption/desorption kinetic rates in heterogeneous sediments from a common location.

  5. Strategies for assessing proton linkage to bimolecular interactions by global analysis of isothermal titration calorimetry data

    PubMed Central

    Coussens, Nathan P.; Schuck, Peter; Zhao, Huaying

    2012-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a traditional and powerful method for studying the linkage of ligand binding to proton uptake or release. The theoretical framework has been developed for more than two decades and numerous applications have appeared. In the current work, we explored strategic aspects of experimental design. To this end, we simulated families of ITC data sets that embed different strategies with regard to the number of experiments, range of experimental pH, buffer ionization enthalpy, and temperature. We then re-analyzed the families of data sets in the context of global analysis, employing a proton linkage binding model implemented in the global data analysis platform SEDPHAT, and examined the information content of all data sets by a detailed statistical error analysis of the parameter estimates. In particular, we studied the impact of different assumptions about the knowledge of the exact concentrations of the components, which in practice presents an experimental limitation for many systems. For example, the uncertainty in concentration may reflect imperfectly known extinction coefficients and stock concentrations or may account for different extents of partial inactivation when working with proteins at different pH values. Our results show that the global analysis can yield reliable estimates of the thermodynamic parameters for intrinsic binding and protonation, and that in the context of the global analysis the exact molecular component concentrations may not be required. Additionally, a comparison of data from different experimental strategies illustrates the benefit of conducting experiments at a range of temperatures. PMID:22773848

  6. Strategies for assessing proton linkage to bimolecular interactions by global analysis of isothermal titration calorimetry data.

    PubMed

    Coussens, Nathan P; Schuck, Peter; Zhao, Huaying

    2012-09-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a traditional and powerful method for studying the linkage of ligand binding to proton uptake or release. The theoretical framework has been developed for more than two decades and numerous applications have appeared. In the current work, we explored strategic aspects of experimental design. To this end, we simulated families of ITC data sets that embed different strategies with regard to the number of experiments, range of experimental pH, buffer ionization enthalpy, and temperature. We then re-analyzed the families of data sets in the context of global analysis, employing a proton linkage binding model implemented in the global data analysis platform SEDPHAT, and examined the information content of all data sets by a detailed statistical error analysis of the parameter estimates. In particular, we studied the impact of different assumptions about the knowledge of the exact concentrations of the components, which in practice presents an experimental limitation for many systems. For example, the uncertainty in concentration may reflect imperfectly known extinction coefficients and stock concentrations or may account for different extents of partial inactivation when working with proteins at different pH values. Our results show that the global analysis can yield reliable estimates of the thermodynamic parameters for intrinsic binding and protonation, and that in the context of the global analysis the exact molecular component concentrations may not be required. Additionally, a comparison of data from different experimental strategies illustrates the benefit of conducting experiments at a range of temperatures.

  7. Adsorption of phenolic compound by aged-refuse.

    PubMed

    Xiaoli, Chai; Youcai, Zhao

    2006-09-01

    The adsorption of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol by aged-refuse has been studied. Adsorption isotherms have been determined for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol and the data fits well to the Freundlich equation. The chlorinated phenols are absorbed more strongly than the phenol and the adsorption capacity has an oblivious relationship with the numbers and the position of chlorine subsistent. The experiment data suggests that both the partition function and the chemical adsorption involve in the adsorption process. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model were applied to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption and the results show that it fit the pseudo-second-order model. More than one step involves in the adsorption process and the overall rate of the adsorption process appears to be controlled by the chemical reaction. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic.

  8. [Fluoride adsorption form drinking water by granular lanthanum alginate].

    PubMed

    Huo, Ya-Kun; Ding, Wen-Ming; Huang, Xia

    2010-11-01

    Granular lanthanum alginate was prepared by dripping solved sodium alginate into lanthanum chloride solution. After washed and dried, sorbent with 1-1.5 mm diameter, 25% (mass fraction) La content was made and applied for fluoride removal from drinking test. Adsorption performance such as adsorption rate, adsorption isotherm, pH and disturbing ions effects were tested in batch adsorption. The changes of adsorbent surface and the solution composition before and after adsorption were also studied. Results showed that the adsorption rate was fast, fluoride concentration trend to stable after 2h reaction, and the adsorption rate fit for pseudo second order equation. The adsorption was significantly affected by pH and some disturbing ions, optimum pH = 4, phosphate and carbonate reduced adsorption. Adsorption isotherm fitted Langmuir equation well; the max adsorption capacity was 197.2 mg x g(-1). SEM photographs of sorbent before and after adsorption showed significantly different surface morphology; EDX composition analysis of sorbent surface and solution concentration changes before and after adsorption showed that ion exchange take placed between solution F- and sorbent surface Cl- and OH-.

  9. The enhanced adsorption of sulfur compounds onto mesoporous Ni-AlKIT-6 sorbent, equilibrium and kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Subhan, Fazle; Yan, Zifeng; Peng, Peng; Ikram, Muhammad; Rehman, Sadia

    2014-04-15

    High performance nickel supported on mesoporous AlKIT-6 (Si/Al=15, 25, 50, 100) sorbents were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation (IWI) with ultrasonic aid for adsorptive desulfurization of commercial diesel and simulated fuels. The sorbents were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, NH3-TPD, Py-FT-IR, HRTEM, SEM and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques. The analysis results confirmed that Aluminum atoms entered the framework and 20%Ni-AlKIT-6(15) can still retain three dimensional structure of AlKIT-6(15) and Ni is highly dispersed in the support. The kinetic pseudo second-order model and Langmuir isotherm are shown to exhibits the best fits of experimental data for the adsorption of thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) over AlKIT-6 and 5-30%Ni-AlKIT-6. Intraparticle diffusion and steric hindrance were the rate controlling step of the adsorption of T and DBT over AlKIT-6(15) and 20%Ni-AlKIT-6(15) as verified through the intraparticle diffusion model. The characterization of regenerated 20%Ni-AlKIT-6(15) revealed that three-dimensional cubic Ia3d symmetric structure was maintained in the sorbent after 6 successive desulfurization-regeneration cycles.

  10. The enhanced adsorption of sulfur compounds onto mesoporous Ni-AlKIT-6 sorbent, equilibrium and kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Subhan, Fazle; Yan, Zifeng; Peng, Peng; Ikram, Muhammad; Rehman, Sadia

    2014-04-15

    High performance nickel supported on mesoporous AlKIT-6 (Si/Al=15, 25, 50, 100) sorbents were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation (IWI) with ultrasonic aid for adsorptive desulfurization of commercial diesel and simulated fuels. The sorbents were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, NH3-TPD, Py-FT-IR, HRTEM, SEM and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques. The analysis results confirmed that Aluminum atoms entered the framework and 20%Ni-AlKIT-6(15) can still retain three dimensional structure of AlKIT-6(15) and Ni is highly dispersed in the support. The kinetic pseudo second-order model and Langmuir isotherm are shown to exhibits the best fits of experimental data for the adsorption of thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) over AlKIT-6 and 5-30%Ni-AlKIT-6. Intraparticle diffusion and steric hindrance were the rate controlling step of the adsorption of T and DBT over AlKIT-6(15) and 20%Ni-AlKIT-6(15) as verified through the intraparticle diffusion model. The characterization of regenerated 20%Ni-AlKIT-6(15) revealed that three-dimensional cubic Ia3d symmetric structure was maintained in the sorbent after 6 successive desulfurization-regeneration cycles. PMID:24556462

  11. Evaluation of the isosteric heat of adsorption at zero coverage for hydrogen on activated carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohnke, E.; Beckner, M.; Romanos, J.; Olsen, R.; Wexler, C.; Pfeifer, P.

    2011-03-01

    Activated carbons made from corn cob show promise as materials for high-capacity hydrogen storage. As part of our characterization of these materials, we are interested in learning how different production methods affect the adsorption energies. In this talk, we will show how hydrogen adsorption isotherms may be used to calculate these adsorption energies at zero coverage using Henry's law. We will additionally discuss differences between the binding energy and the isosteric heat of adsorption by applying this analysis at different temperatures.

  12. Surface Analysis of 4-Aminothiophenol Adsorption at Polycrystalline Platinum Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosario-Castro, Belinda I.; Fachini, Estevao R.; Contes, Enid J.; Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2008-01-01

    Formation of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) on polycrystalline platinum electrodes has been studied by surface analysis and electrochemistry techniques. The 4-ATP monolayer was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), Raman spectroscopy, reflection absorption infrared (RAIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments give an idea about the packing quality of the monolayer. RAIR and Raman spectra for 4-ATP modified platinum electrodes showed the characteristic adsorption bands for neat 4-ATP indicating the adsorption of 4-ATP molecules on platinum surface. The adsorption on platinum was also evidenced by the presence of sulfur and nitrogen peaks by XPS survey spectra of the modified platinum electrodes. High resolution XPS studies and RAIR spectrum for platinum electrodes modified with 4-ATP indicate that molecules are sulfur-bonded to the platinum surface. The formation of S-Pt bond suggests that ATP adsorption gives up an amino terminated SAM. Thickness of the monolayer was evaluated via angle-resolved XPS (AR-XPS) analyses. Derivatization of 4-ATP SAM was performed using 16-Br hexadecanoic acid.

  13. Diffusional analysis of the adsorption of methyl iodide on silver exchanged mordenite

    SciTech Connect

    Jubin, R.T.; Counce, R.M.

    1997-08-01

    The removal of organic iodides from off-gas streams is an important step in controlling the release of radioactive iodine to the environment during the treatment of radioactive wastes or the processing of some irradiated materials. Nine-well accepted mass transfer models were evaluated for their ability to adequately explain the observed CH{sub 3}I uptake behavior onto the Ag{degrees}Z. Linear and multidimensional regression techniques were used to estimate the diffusion constants and other model parameters, which then permitted the selection of an appropriate mass transfer model. Although a number of studies have been conducted to evaluate the loading of both elemental and methyl iodide on silver-exchanged mordenite, these studies focused primarily on the macro scale (deep bed) while evaluating the material under a broad range of process conditions and contaminants for total bed loading at the time of breakthrough. A few studies evaluated equilibrium or maximum loading. Thus, to date, only bulk loading data exist for the adsorption of CH{sub 3}I onto Ag{degrees}Z. Hence this is believed to be the first study to quantify the controlling mass transfer mechanisms of this process, It can be concluded from the analysis of the experimental data obtained by the {open_quotes}single-pellet{close_quotes} type experiments and for the process conditions used in this study that the overall mass transfer rate associated with the adsorption of CH{sub 3}I onto Ag{degrees}Z is affected by both micropore and macropore diffusion. The macropore diffusion rate was significantly faster than the micropore diffusion, resulting in a two-step adsorption behavior which was adequately modeled by a bimodal pore distribution model. The micropore diffusivity was determined to be on the order of 2 x 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}/s. The system was also shown to be isothermal under all conditions of this study. 21 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Evaluation of theoretical and empirical water vapor sorption isotherm models for soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per; de Jonge, Lis W.

    2016-01-01

    The mathematical characterization of water vapor sorption isotherms of soils is crucial for modeling processes such as volatilization of pesticides and diffusive and convective water vapor transport. Although numerous physically based and empirical models were previously proposed to describe sorption isotherms of building materials, food, and other industrial products, knowledge about the applicability of these functions for soils is noticeably lacking. We present an evaluation of nine models for characterizing adsorption/desorption isotherms for a water activity range from 0.03 to 0.93 based on measured data of 207 soils with widely varying textures, organic carbon contents, and clay mineralogy. In addition, the potential applicability of the models for prediction of sorption isotherms from known clay content was investigated. While in general, all investigated models described measured adsorption and desorption isotherms reasonably well, distinct differences were observed between physical and empirical models and due to the different degrees of freedom of the model equations. There were also considerable differences in model performance for adsorption and desorption data. While regression analysis relating model parameters and clay content and subsequent model application for prediction of measured isotherms showed promise for the majority of investigated soils, for soils with distinct kaolinitic and smectitic clay mineralogy predicted isotherms did not closely match the measurements.

  15. Isothermal Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Pressure-feedback signal indicates rate of heating. Improved isothermal calorimeter measures rate of heating in object under test. Called "isothermal" because chamber holding object and its environment maintained at or near constant temperature to minimize spurious tranfers of heat introducing errors into measurements. When item under test generates heat, rate of boiling and pressure in inner chamber increase. Servo-valve opens wider to maintain preset differential pressure. Valve-control voltage used as measure of rate of heating.

  16. Analysis of isothermal and cooling rate dependent immersion freezing by a unifying stochastic ice nucleation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-05-01

    Immersion freezing is an important ice nucleation pathway involved in the formation of cirrus and mixed-phase clouds. Laboratory immersion freezing experiments are necessary to determine the range in temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) at which ice nucleation occurs and to quantify the associated nucleation kinetics. Typically, isothermal (applying a constant temperature) and cooling rate dependent immersion freezing experiments are conducted. In these experiments it is usually assumed that the droplets containing ice nuclei (IN) all have the same IN surface area (ISA), however the validity of this assumption or the impact it may have on analysis and interpretation of the experimental data is rarely questioned. A stochastic immersion freezing model based on first principles of statistics is presented, which accounts for variable ISA per droplet and uses physically observable parameters including the total number of droplets (Ntot) and the heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient, Jhet(T). This model is applied to address if (i) a time and ISA dependent stochastic immersion freezing process can explain laboratory immersion freezing data for different experimental methods and (ii) the assumption that all droplets contain identical ISA is a valid conjecture with subsequent consequences for analysis and interpretation of immersion freezing. The simple stochastic model can reproduce the observed time and surface area dependence in immersion freezing experiments for a variety of methods such as: droplets on a cold-stage exposed to air or surrounded by an oil matrix, wind and acoustically levitated droplets, droplets in a continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC), the Leipzig aerosol cloud interaction simulator (LACIS), and the aerosol interaction and dynamics in the atmosphere (AIDA) cloud chamber. Observed time dependent isothermal frozen fractions exhibiting non-exponential behavior with time can be readily explained by this model considering varying ISA. An

  17. Adsorption modeling for off-gas treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ladshaw, A.; Sharma, K.; Yiacoumi, S.; Tsouris, C.; De Paoli, D.W.

    2013-07-01

    Off-gas generated from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel contains a mixture of several radioactive gases including {sup 129}I{sub 2}, {sup 85}Kr, HTO, and {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. Over the past few decades, various separation and recovery processes have been studied for capturing these gases. Adsorption data for gaseous mixtures of species can be difficult to determine experimentally. Therefore, procedures capable of predicting the adsorption behavior of mixtures need to be developed from the individual isotherms of each of the pure species. A particular isotherm model of interest for the pure species is the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption isotherm. This model contains an adjustable number of parameters and will therefore describe a wide range of adsorption isotherms for a variety of components. A code has been developed in C++ to perform the non-linear regression analysis necessary for the determination of the isotherm parameters, as well as the least number of parameters needed to describe an entire set of data. (authors)

  18. Studies on Thorium Adsorption Characteristics upon Activated Titanium Hydroxide Prepared from Rosetta Ilmenite Concentrate

    SciTech Connect

    Gado, M Zaki, S

    2016-01-01

    The titanium hydroxide prepared from Rosetta ilmenite concentrate has been applied for Th (IV) adsorption from its acid aqueous solutions. The prepared hydroxide is first characterized by both Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum and thermogravimetric analysis. The relevant factors affecting the adsorption process have been studied. The obtained equilibrium data fits well with the Langmuir isotherm rather than Freundlich isotherm, while the adsorption kinetic data follow the pseudo-second order model. The different thermodynamic parameters have also been calculated and indicate that the adsorption process is spontaneous.

  19. Biosorption of food dyes onto Spirulina platensis nanoparticles: equilibrium isotherm and thermodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Dotto, G L; Lima, E C; Pinto, L A A

    2012-01-01

    The biosorption of food dyes FD&C red no. 40 and acid blue 9 onto Spirulina platensis nanoparticles was studied at different conditions of pH and temperature. Four isotherm models were used to evaluate the biosorption equilibrium and the thermodynamic parameters were estimated. Infra red analysis (FT-IR) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to verify the biosorption behavior. The maximum biosorption capacities of FD&C red no. 40 and acid blue 9 were found at pH 4 and 298 K, and the values were 468.7 mg g(-1) and 1619.4 mg g(-1), respectively. The Sips model was more adequate to fit the equilibrium experimental data (R2>0.99 and ARE<5%). Thermodynamic study showed that the biosorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favorable. FT-IR and EDS analysis suggested that at pH 4 and 298 K, the biosorption of both dyes onto nanoparticles occurred by chemisorption.

  20. EXAFS analysis of cadmium(II) adsorption to kaolinite

    SciTech Connect

    Vasconcelos, Igor F.; Haack, Elizabeth A.; Maurice, Patricia A.; Bunker, Bruce A.

    2008-06-06

    The local molecular structure of Cd sorbed to kaolinite was examined with X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) over a range of pH and initial Cd solution concentrations, ([Cd{sub aq}]{sub in}). Quantitative analysis of kaolinite samples with [Cd{sub aq}]{sub in} of 100 {mu}M and pH 7, shows a single hydration sphere around Cd, consistent with an outer-sphere adsorption complex. At pH 9, a Cd-M coordination (where M stands for Si or Al) at second shell distance indicates the formation of inner-sphere adsorption complex(es) on edge sites. Although adsorption to Al edge sites is probably preferred, the similarity in atomic numbers between Al and Si and the small difference in bond lengths prevents us from distinguishing complexation to Si- versus Al-edge sites based on the XAFS data. The possibility of precipitation of Cd solid phases was ruled out due to similar local environment around Cd in samples prepared under air (where carbonate species would be present) and N{sub 2} atmospheres, and the absence of a Cd-Cd coordination characterizing a Cd-bearing solid phase. Finally, analysis of kaolinite samples with [Cd{sub aq}]{sub in} of 3 {mu}M, 10 {mu}M, and 100 {mu}M at pH 9 shows a consistent change in Cd-M distance and Debye-Waller factor as a function of [Cd{sub aq}]{sub in}, suggesting a change in the type of inner-sphere complex being formed as a function of loading. Whether this means that there is a change in the relative importance of Al versus Si edge sites with loading, or whether adsorption of Cd to edge sites alters binding to other nearby sites, or some other factor, has not been determined at this time.

  1. Adsorption isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics and desorption studies for uranium and thorium ions from aqueous solution by novel microporous composite P(HEMA-EP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkaya, Recep; Akkaya, Birnur

    2013-03-01

    In this research, a novel composite, poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-expanded perlite) [P(HEMA-EP)], was synthesized and its adsorptive features were investigated. P(HEMA-EP)'s adsorptive features were evaluated for UO22+ and Th4+ ions in terms of the dependency upon the ion concentration, pH, temperature, and time. P(HEMA-EP) was able to bind UO22+ and Th4+ ions with strong chemical affinity. The adsorption results were fitted to the classical Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) sorption models. P(HEMA-EP) was also used to study the removal of UO22+ and Th4+ ions from aqueous solutions in a batch system. The adsorption capacity (XL) of UO22+ and Th4+ ions was found to be 0.29 and 0.44 mol kg-1, respectively. The kinetic data corresponds well to the pseudo-second-order equation. Changes in the enthalpy and entropy values demonstrated that the overall adsorption process was spontaneous (ΔG < 0), endothermic (ΔH > 0), and had increased entropy (ΔS > 0), as expected. The reusability of the composites was confirmed for five sequential reuses.

  2. Thermodynamic Analysis of Isothermal Redox Cycling of Ceria for Solar Fuel Production

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, R; Venstrom, LJ; Davidson, JH; Lipinski, W

    2013-09-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of continuous fuel production by redox cycling of ceria in a single solar reactor under isothermal conditions is presented. Ceria is partially reduced in a sweep gas flow of purified nitrogen and reoxidized with either steam or carbon dioxide to produce hydrogen or carbon monoxide, respectively. The sweep gas and oxidizer flows are preheated by the product gases. The influence of selected process parameters, including operating temperature, pressure, and the effectiveness of heat recovery, on the solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency is determined. For a solar concentration ratio of 3000, typical of state-of-the-art solar dish concentrators, and operating temperature of 1773 K, 95.5% of the available gas-phase heat must be recovered to reach conversion efficiencies of 10% and 18% for hydrogen and carbon monoxide production, respectively, assuming the flow rate of inert sweep gas is equivalent to that in a counter-current flow arrangement of gas and ceria. The efficiency depends strongly on the gas-phase heat recovery effectiveness and the sweep gas flow rate. Introducing a temperature swing of 150 K between reduction and oxidation steps strongly reduces the sweep gas flow rate and increases the efficiency from 10% to 31.6% for hydrogen production.

  3. Modeling of boldine alkaloid adsorption onto pure and propyl-sulfonic acid-modified mesoporous silicas. A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Geszke-Moritz, Małgorzata; Moritz, Michał

    2016-12-01

    The present study deals with the adsorption of boldine onto pure and propyl-sulfonic acid-functionalized SBA-15, SBA-16 and mesocellular foam (MCF) materials. Siliceous adsorbents were characterized by nitrogen sorption analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, and Temkin isotherms. Moreover, the Dubinin-Radushkevich and Dubinin-Astakhov isotherm models based on the Polanyi adsorption potential were employed. The latter was calculated using two alternative formulas including solubility-normalized (S-model) and empirical C-model. In order to find the best-fit isotherm, both linear regression and nonlinear fitting analysis were carried out. The Dubinin-Astakhov (S-model) isotherm revealed the best fit to the experimental points for adsorption of boldine onto pure mesoporous materials using both linear and nonlinear fitting analysis. Meanwhile, the process of boldine sorption onto modified silicas was described the best by the Langmuir and Temkin isotherms using linear regression and nonlinear fitting analysis, respectively. The values of adsorption energy (below 8kJ/mol) indicate the physical nature of boldine adsorption onto unmodified silicas whereas the ionic interactions seem to be the main force of alkaloid adsorption onto functionalized sorbents (energy of adsorption above 8kJ/mol).

  4. Modeling of boldine alkaloid adsorption onto pure and propyl-sulfonic acid-modified mesoporous silicas. A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Geszke-Moritz, Małgorzata; Moritz, Michał

    2016-12-01

    The present study deals with the adsorption of boldine onto pure and propyl-sulfonic acid-functionalized SBA-15, SBA-16 and mesocellular foam (MCF) materials. Siliceous adsorbents were characterized by nitrogen sorption analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, and Temkin isotherms. Moreover, the Dubinin-Radushkevich and Dubinin-Astakhov isotherm models based on the Polanyi adsorption potential were employed. The latter was calculated using two alternative formulas including solubility-normalized (S-model) and empirical C-model. In order to find the best-fit isotherm, both linear regression and nonlinear fitting analysis were carried out. The Dubinin-Astakhov (S-model) isotherm revealed the best fit to the experimental points for adsorption of boldine onto pure mesoporous materials using both linear and nonlinear fitting analysis. Meanwhile, the process of boldine sorption onto modified silicas was described the best by the Langmuir and Temkin isotherms using linear regression and nonlinear fitting analysis, respectively. The values of adsorption energy (below 8kJ/mol) indicate the physical nature of boldine adsorption onto unmodified silicas whereas the ionic interactions seem to be the main force of alkaloid adsorption onto functionalized sorbents (energy of adsorption above 8kJ/mol). PMID:27612776

  5. Kinetic and isotherm analyses for thorium (IV) adsorptive removal from aqueous solutions by modified magnetite nanoparticle using response surface methodology (RSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Mohammad; Milani, Saeid Alamdar; Abolgashemi, Hossein

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the ability and the adsorption capacity of magnetite/aminopropyltriethoxysilane/glutaraldehyde (Fe3O4/APTES/GA) adsorbent were evaluated for the adsorption of thorium (IV) ions from aqueous solutions. The influence of the several variables such as pH (1-5), Th (IV) initial concentration (50-300 mg L-1) and adsorbent concentration (1-5 g L-1) on the Th (IV) adsorption were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the highest absorption capacity (q) was 107.23 mg g-1 with respect to pH = 4.5, initial concentration of 250 mg L-1 and adsorbent concentration of 1 g L-1 for 90 min. Modeling equilibrium sorption data with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models pointed out that the results were in good agreement with Langmuir model. The experimental kinetic data were well fitted to pseudo-second-order equation with R2 = 0.9739. Also thermodynamic parameters (ΔGo, ΔHo, ΔSo) declared that the Th (IV) adsorption was endothermic and spontaneous.

  6. Weakly nonlinear stability analysis of non-isothermal Poiseuille flow in a vertical channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Manish K.; Bera, P.

    2015-06-01

    A weakly nonlinear stability theory in terms of Landau equation is developed to analyze the nonlinear saturation of stably stratified non-isothermal Poiseuille flow in a vertical channel. The results are presented with respect to fluids: mercury, gases, liquids, and heavy oils. The weakly nonlinear stability results predict only the supercritical instability, in agreement with the published result [Y. C. Chen and J. N. Chung, "A direct numerical simulation of K and H-type flow transition in heated vertical channel," Comput. Fluids 32, 795-822 (2003)] based on direct numerical simulation. Apart from this, the influence of nonlinear interaction among different superimposed waves on the heat transfer rate, real part of wavespeed, and friction coefficient on the wall is also investigated. A substantial enhancement (reduction) in heat transfer rate (friction coefficient) is found for liquids and heavy oils from the basic state beyond the critical Rayleigh number. The amplitude analysis indicates that the equilibrium amplitude decreases on increasing the value of Reynolds number. However, in the case of mercury, influence of nonlinear interaction on the variation of equilibrium amplitude, heat transfer rate, wavespeed, as well as friction coefficient is complex and subtle. The analysis of the nonlinear energy spectra for the disturbance also supports the supercritical instability at and beyond the critical point. Finally, the effect of superimposed waves on the pattern of secondary flow, based on linear stability theory, is also studied. It has been found that the impact of nonlinear interaction of waves on the pattern of secondary flow for mercury is weak compared to gases, which is the consequence of negligible modification in the buoyant production of disturbance kinetic energy of the mercury.

  7. Adsorption characteristics of rocks from vapor-dominated geothermal reservoir at the Geysers, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Satik, Cengiz; Walters, Mark; Horne, Roland N.

    1996-01-24

    This paper reports on a continuing experimental effort to characterize the adsorption behavior of rocks from The Geysers steam field in California. We show adsorption results obtained for 36 rock samples. All of the adsorption isotherms plotted on the same graph exhibit an envelope of isotherms. The minimum and the maximum values of the slope (or rate of adsorption) and of the magnitude within this envelope of isotherms belonged to the UOC-1 (felsite) and NCPA B-5 (serpentine) samples. The values of surface area and porosity, and pore size distribution for 19 of the samples indicated a very weak correlation with adsorption. An interpretation of the pore size distributions and the liquid saturation isotherms suggests that the change in the slope and the magnitude of the adsorption isotherms within the envelope is controlled primarily by the physical adsorption mechanism instead of capillary condensation. Grain-size and framework grain to matrix ratio are found to be insufficient to characterize this adsorption behavior. An accurate identification of the mineralogy of the samples will be essential to complete this analysis.

  8. Isothermal Analysis of the Crystallization Kinetics in Lithium Disilicate Glass using Trans Temp Furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuss, T.; Ray, C. S.; Day, D. E.

    2006-01-01

    Crystallization kinetics for lithium disilicate, Li2O2SiO2, (LS2) glass has been studied extensively by nonisothermal methods, but only a few studies on the isothermal crystallization kinetics of LS2 are available. In the present research, isothermal crystallization experiments or the LS2 glass were conducted in a Trans Temp furnace between 600 and 635 C, and selected properties such as the activation energy for crystallization (E), crystal growth index or Avrami parameter (n), the concentration of quenched-in nuclei in the starting glass (Ni) and the crystal nucleation rate (I) were measured. The crystal nucleation rate (I) was measured at only one selected temperature of 452 C, at this time. This commercial furnace has a 13 cm long isothermal heating zone (+/- 1 C) that allows precise heat treatment of relatively large samples. By placing a thermocouple within approx. 2 mm of the sample, it was possible to detect the heat of crystallization in the form of an isothermal crystallization exotherm during isothermal heat treatment of the sample. The values of E (318 plus or minus 10 kJ/mol), n (3.6 plus or minus 0.l), and N(sub i) (1.6 x 10(exp l2) m(sup -3)) calculated by analyzing these isotherms using the standard Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equation were reproducible and in agreement with the literature values. The value of I, 1.9 x 10(exp 10) m(sup -3) s(sup -1) at 452 C, is an order of magnitude higher than the reported value for LS2.

  9. Non-isothermal kinetic analysis of thermal decomposition of the Ca-bentonite from Santai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang-hui; He, Chuan; Wang, Ling; Li, Zhong-quan; Deng, Miao; Liu, Jing; Li, Hong-kui; Feng, Qian

    2015-06-01

    The thermal decompositions of Ca-bentonites (CaB) from Santai, Shichuan Province, China, over the temperature range of 30-1,100 °C were investigated by simultaneous thermal analyzer. Non-isothermal kinetic analysis was employed to study the thermal decomposition mechanism by using Netzsch Thermokinetics software. Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Friedman isoconversional methods were used to calculate the activation energy and analyze the reaction steps. The probable mechanism and the corresponding kinetic parameters were determined by multivariate non-linear regression program. The results show that the thermal decomposition process of CaB over the temperature range of 30-800 °C is a kind of six-step, competitive reaction ( F 1 D 3 F n C 1E F n F n model). The dehydration reaction is controlled by two consecutive mechanisms, nucleation and growth, followed by a diffusion-controlled reaction ( F 1 D 3 model), the first step: E = 61.68 kJ mol-1, log A = 6.75 s-1; the second step: E = 50.73 kJ mol-1, log A = 3.11 s-1. The dehydroxylation reaction is controlled by three-step competitive mechanisms, an autocatalytically activated, initial reaction followed by n-order competitive reaction ( C 1E F n F n model), the first step: E = 124.74 kJ mol-1, log A = 5.67 s-1; the second step: E = 245.29 kJ mol-1, log A = 11.69 s-1; the third step : E = 261.73 kJ mol-1, log A = 11.23 s-1. A combination reaction of the dehydration and dehydroxylation is observed, and controlled by one n-order reaction ( F n model), E = 8.99 kJ mol-1, log A = -1.91 s-1.

  10. Principal component analysis- adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system modeling and genetic algorithm optimization of adsorption of methylene blue by activated carbon derived from Pistacia khinjuk.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, M; Ghaedi, A M; Abdi, F; Roosta, M; Vafaei, A; Asghari, A

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, activated carbon (AC) simply derived from Pistacia khinjuk and characterized using different techniques such as SEM and BET analysis. This new adsorbent was used for methylene blue (MB) adsorption. Fitting the experimental equilibrium data to various isotherm models shows the suitability and applicability of the Langmuir model. The adsorption mechanism and rate of processes was investigated by analyzing time dependency data to conventional kinetic models and it was found that adsorption follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Principle component analysis (PCA) has been used for preprocessing of input data and genetic algorithm optimization have been used for prediction of adsorption of methylene blue using activated carbon derived from P. khinjuk. In our laboratory various activated carbon as sole adsorbent or loaded with various nanoparticles was used for removal of many pollutants (Ghaedi et al., 2012). These results indicate that the small amount of proposed adsorbent (1.0g) is applicable for successful removal of MB (RE>98%) in short time (45min) with high adsorption capacity (48-185mgg(-1)).

  11. Analysis of the statistical thermodynamic model for nonlinear binary protein adsorption equilibria.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Peng; Su, Xue-Li; Sun, Yan

    2007-01-01

    The statistical thermodynamic (ST) model was used to study nonlinear binary protein adsorption equilibria on an anion exchanger. Single-component and binary protein adsorption isotherms of bovine hemoglobin (Hb) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) on DEAE Spherodex M were determined by batch adsorption experiments in 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer containing a specific NaCl concentration (0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 M) at pH 7.40. The ST model was found to depict the effect of ionic strength on the single-component equilibria well, with model parameters depending on ionic strength. Moreover, the ST model gave acceptable fitting to the binary adsorption data with the fitted single-component model parameters, leading to the estimation of the binary ST model parameter. The effects of ionic strength on the model parameters are reasonably interpreted by the electrostatic and thermodynamic theories. The effective charge of protein in adsorption phase can be separately calculated from the two categories of the model parameters, and the values obtained from the two methods are consistent. The results demonstrate the utility of the ST model for describing nonlinear binary protein adsorption equilibria.

  12. Design, construction, and calibration of an isothermal titration calorimeter and its application in the study of the adsorption of phenolic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Piraján, Juan Carlos; Giraldo, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    An isothermal calorimetric titration was designed and built, and some of the results obtained are presented here. For this purpose, a Calvet heat-conducting microcalorimeter was developed and connected to a titration unit built for this experiment to record titration thermograms. The microcalorimeter was electrically calibrated to establish its sensitivity and reproducibility, obtaining K = 13.56 ± 0.21 W V-1. Additionally, the equipment was tested using the heat of neutralisation for the tris-hydroxymethyl-aminomethane-HCl (THAM-HCl) system, obtaining ΔH = -30.92 ± 0.03 kJ mol-1. The unit was assembled to obtain titration heats and the corresponding thermodynamic variables (ΔH, ΔG, ΔS, and Ke) with a system of phenolic derivatives-activated carbon (synthesised from potato peel).

  13. Design, construction, and calibration of an isothermal titration calorimeter and its application in the study of the adsorption of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Piraján, Juan Carlos; Giraldo, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    An isothermal calorimetric titration was designed and built, and some of the results obtained are presented here. For this purpose, a Calvet heat-conducting microcalorimeter was developed and connected to a titration unit built for this experiment to record titration thermograms. The microcalorimeter was electrically calibrated to establish its sensitivity and reproducibility, obtaining K = 13.56 ± 0.21 W V(-1). Additionally, the equipment was tested using the heat of neutralisation for the tris-hydroxymethyl-aminomethane-HCl (THAM-HCl) system, obtaining ΔH = -30.92 ± 0.03 kJ mol(-1). The unit was assembled to obtain titration heats and the corresponding thermodynamic variables (ΔH, ΔG, ΔS, and K(e)) with a system of phenolic derivatives-activated carbon (synthesised from potato peel).

  14. Application of isothermal titration calorimetry for characterizing thermodynamic parameters of biomolecular interactions: peptide self-assembly and protein adsorption case studies.

    PubMed

    Kabiri, Maryam; Unsworth, Larry D

    2014-10-13

    The complex nature of macromolecular interactions usually makes it very hard to identify the molecular-level mechanisms that ultimately dictate the result of these interactions. This is especially evident in the case of biological systems, where the complex interaction of molecules in various situations may be responsible for driving biomolecular interactions themselves but also has a broader effect at the cell and/or tissue level. This review will endeavor to further the understanding of biomolecular interactions utilizing the isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) technique for thermodynamic characterization of two extremely important biomaterial systems, viz., peptide self-assembly and nonfouling polymer-modified surfaces. The advantages and shortcomings of this technique will be presented along with a thorough review of the recent application of ITC to these two areas. Furthermore, the controversies associated with the enthalpy-entropy compensation effect as well as thermodynamic equilibrium state for such interactions will be discussed.

  15. Interaction of hydrogen chloride with alumina. [influence of outgas and temperature conditions on adsorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. R.; Wightman, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of outgas conditions and temperature on the adsorptive properties of two aluminas Alon-c and Al6sG were studied using adsorption isotherm measurements. Alon-C and Al6SG were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET nitrogen surface areas. Some of these techniques were applied to two other aluminas but no isotherm data was obtained. Isotherm data and techniques applied to each alumina are summarized in tabular form.

  16. The sorption of sulfamethazine on soil samples: isotherms and error analysis.

    PubMed

    Mutavdžić Pavlović, Dragana; Ćurković, Lidija; Blažek, Dijana; Župan, Josip

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, batch sorption of sulfamethazine on eight soil samples (six from Croatia and two from Bosnia and Hercegovina) with different organic matter contents ranging from 1.52 to 12.8% was investigated. The effects of various parameters such as agitation time, initial concentration, and ionic strength on the sulfamethazine sorption were studied. The experimental data were analysed using a one-parameter model, Linear isotherm, and two two-parameter models, the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The goodness of fit was measured using the linear regression and the determination coefficient (R(2)) value. Also, the equilibrium data of the two-parameter models were analysed using the residual root mean square error (RMSE), the sum of squares of errors (ERRSQ), and a composite fractional error function (HYBRID). Non-linear regression has better characteristics for analysing experimental data. The obtained sorption coefficients Kd (from 0.25 to 8.10 mL/g) and the Freundlich sorption coefficients KF (from 1.16 to 7.99 (μg/g)(mL/μg)(1/n)) exhibited quite low values, which indicated that sulfamethazine is weakly adsorbed on the evaluated soils, is highly mobile, and has a great potential to penetrate and pollute the ground water. The Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm was used to estimate the apparent free energy of sorption. PMID:25163651

  17. The sorption of sulfamethazine on soil samples: isotherms and error analysis.

    PubMed

    Mutavdžić Pavlović, Dragana; Ćurković, Lidija; Blažek, Dijana; Župan, Josip

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, batch sorption of sulfamethazine on eight soil samples (six from Croatia and two from Bosnia and Hercegovina) with different organic matter contents ranging from 1.52 to 12.8% was investigated. The effects of various parameters such as agitation time, initial concentration, and ionic strength on the sulfamethazine sorption were studied. The experimental data were analysed using a one-parameter model, Linear isotherm, and two two-parameter models, the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The goodness of fit was measured using the linear regression and the determination coefficient (R(2)) value. Also, the equilibrium data of the two-parameter models were analysed using the residual root mean square error (RMSE), the sum of squares of errors (ERRSQ), and a composite fractional error function (HYBRID). Non-linear regression has better characteristics for analysing experimental data. The obtained sorption coefficients Kd (from 0.25 to 8.10 mL/g) and the Freundlich sorption coefficients KF (from 1.16 to 7.99 (μg/g)(mL/μg)(1/n)) exhibited quite low values, which indicated that sulfamethazine is weakly adsorbed on the evaluated soils, is highly mobile, and has a great potential to penetrate and pollute the ground water. The Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm was used to estimate the apparent free energy of sorption.

  18. Curie temperature isotherm analysis and tectonic implications of aeromagnetic data from Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakely, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Estimates of the depth to the Curie temperature isotherm in Nevada are in accordance with other regional geologic and geophysical information and together can be explained in the context of presentday tectonism. A method to estimate the depth extent of magnetic sources from the statistical properties of magnetic anomalies was applied to a statewide compilation of aeromagnetic data from Nevada. Basal depths of magnetic sources show no apparent correlation with the so-called magnetic quiet zone, which trends northerly through the eastern part of the state, or with basin-and-range topography. However, certain correlations with published heat flow measurements are apparent and suggest that undulations in basal depth of magnetic sources are related in part to undulations in the Curie temperature isotherm. For example, an area of shallow basal depth (<10 km) near Battle Mountain corresponds to an area of exceptionally high conductive heat flow and indicates a shallow depth to the Curie temperature isotherm in this region. A narrow zone of shallow basal depth extends south from the Battle Mountain area along the 118??W meridian to at least latitude 38??N, which also is a zone of historic surface offsets and high-magnitude earthquakes. The correspondence along the 118?? meridian of shallow basal depth, high heat flow, high lower crustal seismic velocities, attenuated P and S wave arrivals, historic faulting and, large earthquakes suggests that they each are related to an active north trending spreading zone in this part of the Basin and Range province. -Author

  19. Combination of computational methods, adsorption isotherms and selectivity tests for the conception of a mixed non-covalent-semi-covalent molecularly imprinted polymer of vanillin.

    PubMed

    Puzio, Kinga; Delépée, Raphaël; Vidal, Richard; Agrofoglio, Luigi A

    2013-08-01

    A novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for vanillin was prepared by photo initiated polymerization in dichloromethane using a mixed semi-covalent and non-covalent imprinting strategy. Taking polymerisable syringaldehyde as "dummy" template, acrylamide was chosen as functional monomer on B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) density functional theory computational method basis with counterpoise. The binding parameters for the recognition of vanillin on imprinted polymers were studied with three different isotherm models (Langmuir, bi-Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich) and compared. The results indicate an heterogeneity of binding sites. It was found and proved by DFT calculations that the specific binding of vanillin in the cavities is due to non-covalent interactions of the template with the hydroxyphenyl- and the amide-moieties. The binding geometry of vanillin in the MIP cavity was also modelled. The obtained MIP is highly specific for vanillin (with an imprinting factor of 7.4) and was successfully applied to the extraction of vanillin from vanilla pods, red wine spike with vanillin, natural and artificial vanilla sugar with a recovery of 80%.

  20. Communication: Thermodynamic analysis of critical conditions of polymer adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Cimino, R.; Neimark, A. V.; Rasmussen, C. J.

    2013-11-28

    Polymer adsorption to solid surfaces is a ubiquitous phenomenon, which has attracted long-lasting attention. Dependent on the competition between the polymer-solid adsorption and polymer-solvent solvation interactions, a chain may assume either 3d solvated conformation when adsorption is weak or 2d adsorbed conformation when adsorption is strong. The transition between these conformations occurring upon variation of adsorption strength is quite sharp, and in the limit of “infinite” chain length, can be treated as a critical phenomenon. We suggest a novel thermodynamic definition of the critical conditions of polymer adsorption from the equality of incremental chemical potentials of adsorbed and free chains. We show with the example of freely jointed Lennard-Jones chains tethered to an adsorbing surface that this new definition provides a link between thermodynamic and geometrical features of adsorbed chains and is in line with classical scaling relationships for the fraction of adsorbed monomers, chain radii of gyration, and free energy.

  1. Carbon dioxide and nitrogen adsorption on cation-exchanged SSZ-13 zeolites.

    PubMed

    Pham, Trong D; Liu, Qingling; Lobo, Raul F

    2013-01-15

    Samples of high-silica SSZ-13, ion exchanged with protons and alkali-metal cations Li(+), Na(+), and K(+), were investigated using adsorption isotherms of CO(2) and N(2). The results show that Li-, Na-SSZ-13 have excellent CO(2) capacity at ambient temperature and pressure; in general, Li-SSZ-13 shows the highest capacity for N(2), CO(2) particularly in the low-pressure region. The effect of cation type and Si/Al ratio (6 and 12) on the adsorption properties was investigated through analysis of adsorption isotherms and heats of adsorption. The separation of CO(2) in a flue gas mixture was evaluated for these adsorbents in the pressure swing adsorption and vacuum pressure adsorption processes. PMID:23249267

  2. Curie temperature isotherm analysis and tectonic implications of aeromagnetic data from Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, R.J.

    1988-10-10

    Estimates of the depth to the Curie temperature isotherm in Nevada are in accordance with other regional geologic and geophysical information and together can be explained in the context of present-day tectonism. A method to estimate the depth extent of magnetic sources from the statistical properties of magnetic anomalies was applied to a statewide compilation of aeromagnetic data from Nevada. Basal depths of magnetic sources show no apparent correlation with the so-called magnetic quiet zone, which trends northerly through the eastern part of the state, or with basin-and-range topography. However, certain correlations with published heat flow measurements are apparent and suggest that undulations in basal depth of magnetic sources are related in part to undulations in the Curie temperature isotherm. For example, an area of shallow basal depth (< 10 km) near Battle Mountain corresponds to an area of exceptionally high conductive heat flow and indicates a shallow depth to the Curie temperature isotherm in this region. A narrow zone of shallow basal depth extends south from the Battle Mountain area along the 118/degrees/W meridian to at least latitude 38/degrees/N, which also is a zone of historic surface offsets and high-magnitude earthquakes. The correspondence along the 118/degrees/ meridian of shallow basal depth, high heat flow, high lower crustal seismic velocities, attenuated P and S wave arrivals, historic faulting, and large earthquakes suggests that they each are related to an active north trending spreading zone in this part of the Basin and Range province. 83 references.

  3. Comparison of Co(2+) adsorption by chitosan and its triethylene-tetramine derivative: Performance and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liao, Bing; Sun, Wei-Yi; Guo, Na; Ding, Sang-Lan; Su, Shi-Jun

    2016-10-20

    A cross-linked chitosan derivative (CCTS) was synthesized via cross-linking of epichlorohydrin and grafting of triethylene-tetramine. The adsorption performance and capacity of the raw chitosan (CTS) and its derivative were also investigated for removal of Co(2+) from aqueous solution. A maximum adsorbed amount of 30.45 and 59.51mg/g was obtained for CTS and CCTS, respectively under the optimized conditions. In addition, the adsorption kinetics for the adsorption of Co(2+) by CTS and CCTS were better described by the pseudo second-order equation. The adsorption isotherm of CCTS was well fitted by the Langmuir equation, but the data of the adsorption of Co(2+) onto CTS followed Freundlich and Sips isotherms better. Furthermore, the adsorbent still exhibited good adsorption performance after five regeneration cycles. Finally, Co(2+) removal mechanisms, including physical, chemical, and electrostatic adsorption, were discussed based on microstructure analysis and adsorption kinetics and isotherms. Chemical adsorption was the main adsorption method among these mechanisms. PMID:27474539

  4. Kinetic analysis of gluconate phosphorylation by human gluconokinase using isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Rohatgi, Neha; Guðmundsson, Steinn; Rolfsson, Óttar

    2015-11-30

    Gluconate is a commonly encountered nutrient, which is degraded by the enzyme gluconokinase to generate 6-phosphogluconate. Here we used isothermal titration calorimetry to study the properties of this reaction. ΔH, KM and kcat are reported along with substrate binding data. We propose that the reaction follows a ternary complex mechanism, with ATP binding first. The reaction is inhibited by gluconate, as it binds to an Enzyme-ADP complex forming a dead-end complex. The study exemplifies that ITC can be used to determine mechanisms of enzyme catalyzed reactions, for which it is currently not commonly applied.

  5. Preparation of adsorbent with magnesium sulfate and straw pulp black liquor and its phenol adsorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lugang; Wang, Haizeng

    2009-09-01

    A magnesia adsorbent was prepared from straw pulp black liquor and magnesium sulfate for the first time, and its adsorption of phenol from aqueous solution was examined. The characteristics of the adsorbent were tested through chemical analysis, surface analysis, X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy. The effects of various factors, such as dose, adsorption time and adsorption temperature, on phenol adsorption behavior were studied. The results show that the adsorption processes can be fitted to the isotherm Langmuir model very well. It was found that the adsorption process was strongly influenced by temperature and the optimal temperature for phenol removal was 40 °C. The optimum adsorption time was 10 min, and desorption would happen afterwards. Between the models of Langmuir and Freundlich, the adsorption process of phenol onto magnesia fitted the Langmuir equation better.

  6. A Simple Adsorption Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guirado, Gonzalo; Ayllon, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    The study of adsorption phenomenon is one of the most relevant and traditional physical chemistry experiments performed by chemistry undergraduate students in laboratory courses. In this article, we describe an easy, inexpensive, and straightforward way to experimentally determine adsorption isotherms using pieces of filter paper as the adsorbent…

  7. Gravimetric analysis of CO2 adsorption on activated carbon at various pressures and temperatures using piezoelectric microcantilevers.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yusung; Lee, Dongkyu; Lee, Sangkyu; Moon, Wonkyu; Jeon, Sangmin

    2011-09-15

    We investigated the adsorption and desorption of CO(2) on activated carbon using piezoelectric microcantilevers. After coating the free end of a cantilever with activated carbon, variations in the resonance frequency of the cantilever were measured as a function of CO(2) pressure, which is related to mass changes due to the adsorption or desorption of CO(2). The pressure-dependent viscous damping effects were compensated in the calculation of the CO(2) adsorption capacity of the activated carbon by comparing the frequency differences between the coated and uncoated cantilevers. The mass sensitivity of the piezoelectric cantilever was found to be better than 1 pg. The fractional coverage of CO(2) agreed with a Langmuir adsorption isotherm, indicating that a submonolayer of adsorbed CO(2) occurred on the surface of the activated carbon under the experimental conditions. The heat of adsorption was determined using the Clausius-Clapeyron relation and the fractional coverage of CO(2) at various temperatures and pressures.

  8. Adsorption of proteins at the aqueous solution/alkane interface: Co-adsorption of protein and alkane.

    PubMed

    Miller, R; Aksenenko, E V; Zinkovych, I I; Fainerman, V B

    2015-08-01

    The equations of state, adsorption isotherms and functions of the distribution of protein molecules in liquid interfacial layers with respect to molar area and the equations for their viscoelastic behavior are presented. This theory was used to determine the adsorption characteristics of β-casein and β-lactoglobulin at water/oil interfaces. The experimental results are shown to be describable quite adequately by the proposed theory with consistent model parameters. The data analysis demonstrated that the β-casein molecule adsorbed at equilibrium conditions is more unfolded as compared with dynamic conditions, and this fact causes the significant increase of the adsorption equilibrium constant. The theory assumes the adsorption of protein molecules from the aqueous solution and a competitive adsorption of alkane molecules from the alkane phase. The comparison of the experimental equilibrium interfacial tension isotherms for β-lactoglobulin at the solution/hexane interface with data calculated using the proposed theoretical model demonstrates that the assumption of a competitive adsorption is essential, and the influence of the hexane molecules on the shape of the adsorption isotherm does in fact exist.

  9. Studies of gas adsorption in flexible Metal-Organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sircar, Sarmishtha

    Flexible Metal-Organic frameworks that exhibit a gate-opening (GO) adsorption mechanism have potential for gas separations and gas storage. The GO phenomenon occurs when molecular gates in the structure expand/contract in response to the activation/de-activation of a system variable e.g. temperature, pressure or gas. Sharp discontinuities in the isotherm leading to S-shapes and large adsorption-desorption hysteresis are typical of this phenomenon. This study investigates the kinetics and thermodynamics of the GO behavior by combining adsorption measurements and analytical modeling of adsorption kinetics and capacity as a function of adsorbate, GO pressure, and temperature. Basic understanding of GO mechanism will help harness GO-MOF's as adsorbents for gas separations and storage. Experiments were performed on two precharacterized MOFs with verified GO behavior. These are (1) Zn2(bpdc)2(bpee), which expands from a relative amorphous to crystalline structure and (2) Cu[(dhbc) 2(4,4f-bpy)]H2O, a mutually interdigitated 2-D structure (bpdc = biphenyldicarboxylate, bpee = 1,2]bipyridylethene; DMF = N,N-dimethyl formamide, dhbc= 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, bpy=bipyridine). Both sub- and super-critical adsorption data were collected using three adsorption units: a standard low-pressure volumetric adsorption unit, a commercial high-pressure gravimetric analyzer and a custom-built high-pressure differential volumetric unit. Collected laboratory data were combined with published adsorption rate and isotherm data for analysis to broaden the range of data collection. The accuracy of the high-pressure differential unit was improved by over 300-fold by changing analytical methods of processing data to establish a reliable null correction. A pronounced effect of the allowed experimental time was found at cryogenic temperatures on (1). Tightening the stability criteria used by the adsorption equipment to determine equilibration increased the experimental time from the order of

  10. Methylene blue adsorption on graphene oxide/calcium alginate composites.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhui; Du, Qiuju; Liu, Tonghao; Sun, Jiankun; Wang, Yonghao; Wu, Shaoling; Wang, Zonghua; Xia, Yanzhi; Xia, Linhua

    2013-06-01

    Graphene oxide has been used as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment. However, the dispersibility in aqueous solution and the biotoxicity to human cells of graphene oxide limits its practical application in environmental protection. In this research, a novel environmental friendly adsorbent, calcium alginate immobilized graphene oxide composites was prepared. The effects of pH, contact time, temperature and dosage on the adsorption properties of methylene blue onto calcium alginate immobilized graphene oxide composites were investigated. The equilibrium adsorption data were described by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm equation was 181.81 mg/g. The pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and intraparticle diffusion equation were used to evaluate the kinetic data. Thermodynamic analysis of equilibriums indicated that the adsorption reaction of methylene blue onto calcium alginate immobilized graphene oxide composites was exothermic and spontaneous in nature.

  11. Rapid detection of Plasmodium falciparum with isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification and lateral flow analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nucleic acid amplification is the most sensitive and specific method to detect Plasmodium falciparum. However the polymerase chain reaction remains laboratory-based and has to be conducted by trained personnel. Furthermore, the power dependency for the thermocycling process and the costly equipment necessary for the read-out are difficult to cover in resource-limited settings. This study aims to develop and evaluate a combination of isothermal nucleic acid amplification and simple lateral flow dipstick detection of the malaria parasite for point-of-care testing. Methods A specific fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of P. falciparum was amplified in 10 min at a constant 38°C using the isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) method. With a unique probe system added to the reaction solution, the amplification product can be visualized on a simple lateral flow strip without further labelling. The combination of these methods was tested for sensitivity and specificity with various Plasmodium and other protozoa/bacterial strains, as well as with human DNA. Additional investigations were conducted to analyse the temperature optimum, reaction speed and robustness of this assay. Results The lateral flow RPA (LF-RPA) assay exhibited a high sensitivity and specificity. Experiments confirmed a detection limit as low as 100 fg of genomic P. falciparum DNA, corresponding to a sensitivity of approximately four parasites per reaction. All investigated P. falciparum strains (n = 77) were positively tested while all of the total 11 non-Plasmodium samples, showed a negative test result. The enzymatic reaction can be conducted under a broad range of conditions from 30-45°C with high inhibitory concentration of known PCR inhibitors. A time to result of 15 min from start of the reaction to read-out was determined. Conclusions Combining the isothermal RPA and the lateral flow detection is an approach to improve molecular diagnostic for P. falciparum in

  12. Adsorption thermodynamics of Methylene Blue onto bentonite.

    PubMed

    Hong, Song; Wen, Cheng; He, Jing; Gan, Fuxing; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2009-08-15

    The effect of temperature on the equilibrium adsorption of Methylene Blue dye from aqueous solution using bentonite was investigated. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using three widely applied isotherms: Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson. A non-linear method was used for comparing the best fit of the isotherms. Best fit was found to be Redlich-Peterson isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters, such as DeltaG degrees, DeltaH degrees, and DeltaS degrees were calculated using adsorption equilibrium constant obtained from the Langmuir isotherm. Results suggested that the Methylene Blue adsorption on bentonite was a spontaneous and endothermic process.

  13. Analysis of the use of adsorption processes in trigeneration systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzebielec, Andrzej; Rusowicz, Artur

    2013-12-01

    The trigeneration systems for production of cold use sorption refrigeration machines: absorption and adsorption types. Absorption systems are characterized namely by better cooling coefficient of performance, while the adsorptive systems are characterized by the ability to operate at lower temperatures. The driving heat source temperature can be as low as 60-70 °C. Such temperature of the driving heat source allows to use them in district heating systems. The article focuses on the presentation of the research results on the adsorption devices designed to work in trigeneration systems.

  14. Adsorption of halogenated aliphatic contaminants by graphene nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Apul, Onur Guven; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-08-01

    In this study, adsorption of ten environmentally halogenated aliphatic synthetic organic compounds (SOCs) by a pristine graphene nanosheet (GNS) and a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was examined, and their adsorption behaviors were compared with those of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and a granular activated carbon (GAC). In addition, the impacts of background water components (i.e., natural organic matter (NOM), ionic strength (IS) and pH) on the SOC adsorption behavior were investigated. The results indicated HD3000 and SWCNT with higher microporous volumes exhibited higher adsorption capacities for the selected aliphatic SOCs than graphenes, demonstrating microporosity of carbonaceous adsorbents played an important role in the adsorption. Analysis of adsorption isotherms demonstrated that hydrophobic interactions were the dominant contributor to the adsorption of aliphatic SOCs by graphenes. However, π-π electron donor-acceptor and van der Waals interactions are likely the additional mechanisms contributing to the adsorption of aliphatic SOCs on graphenes. Among the three background solution components examined, NOM showed the most influential effect on adsorption of the selected aliphatic SOCs, while pH and ionic strength had a negligible effects. The NOM competition on aliphatic adsorption was less pronounced on graphenes than SWCNT. Overall, in terms of adsorption capacities, graphenes tested in this study did not exhibit a major advantage over SWCNT and GAC for the adsorption of aliphatic SOCs.

  15. Long term isothermal aging and thermal analysis of N-CYCAP polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, James K.; Waters, John F.; Schverman, Marla A.

    1991-01-01

    The N-CYCAP polyimides utilize a (2,2) paracyclophane endcap that polymerizes and does not generate volatile gases during the cure process. These polyimides have both high glass temperatures (390 C) and an onset of decomposition in air of 560 C. Thermal oxidative stability (TOS) weight loss studies show that replacing 25 percent by weight of the paraphenylene diamine in the polymer backbone with metaphenylene diamine improves the weight loss characteristics. N-CYCAP neat resin samples performed better than PMR-II-50 when exposed at 343 and 371 C in air for up to 1000 hours. Preliminary composite studies show that both PMR-II-50 and N-CYCAP have better thermal stability when fabricated on T-40R. Higher isothermal aging temperatures of longer aging times are needed to determine the differences in TOS between composite samples of PMR-II-50 and N-CYCAP polyimides.

  16. Identification of the epoxy curing mechanism under isothermal conditions by thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Hideki; Morita, Shigeaki

    2014-07-01

    A curing reaction of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether epoxy resin with 4,4‧-diaminodicyclohexyl methane hardener was investigated by means of modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), thermal scanning rheometer (TSR), near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy. The relation between change in the physical properties and molecular structures during the isothermal curing reaction were studied. MDSC and NIR results corroborated vitrification with the secondary to tertiary amine conversion; the process afforded a three-dimensional cross-linking structure. TSR estimation of the gelation point was corroborated with the NIR-determined maximum concentration of the generated secondary amine. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy confirmed that reaction between the primary amine and epoxy occurred more rapidly than any other functional group reaction. The ether groups were generated at the early stage of the curing reaction, and their formation occurred immediately with the generation of hydroxyl groups.

  17. Molecular structure-adsorption study on current textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Örücü, E; Tugcu, G; Saçan, M T

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the adsorption of a diverse set of textile dyes onto granulated activated carbon (GAC). The adsorption experiments were carried out in a batch system. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to experimental data and the isotherm constants were calculated for 33 anthraquinone and azo dyes. The adsorption equilibrium data fitted more adequately to the Langmuir isotherm model than the Freundlich isotherm model. Added to a qualitative analysis of experimental results, multiple linear regression (MLR), support vector regression (SVR) and back propagation neural network (BPNN) methods were used to develop quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models with the novel adsorption data. The data were divided randomly into training and test sets. The predictive ability of all models was evaluated using the test set. Descriptors were selected with a genetic algorithm (GA) using QSARINS software. Results related to QSPR models on the adsorption capacity of GAC showed that molecular structure of dyes was represented by ionization potential based on two-dimensional topological distances, chromophoric features and a property filter index. Comparison of the performance of the models demonstrated the superiority of the BPNN over GA-MLR and SVR models. PMID:25529487

  18. Kinetic Analysis of Batch Ethanol Acetylation in Isothermal Non-Stationary Multiphase Systems by Lyophilized Mycelium of Aspergillus Oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Palazzi, Emilio; Molinari, Francesco; Fabiano, Bruno; Pessoa, Adalberto; Converti, Attilio

    2011-01-01

    A relatively complex network of reactions has been investigated, using as a network model the isothermal batch esterification of acetic acid with ethanol in n-heptane catalyzed by lyophilized mycelium of Aspergillus oryzae. The kinetic analysis was firstly carried out on the whole system, without any simplification, by means of the well-known integral method. Owing to the poor results obtained by this way, we developed an alternative approach, combining initial rates and integral analysis and reducing the number of empirical parameters to be determined by the use of equilibrium data. All the values of the parameters calculated according to this “composite” approach to kinetic analysis well correlate with experimental data. PMID:24031645

  19. Application of novel Polypyrrole/thiol-functionalized zeolite Beta/MCM-41 type mesoporous silica nanocomposite for adsorption of Hg2+ from aqueous solution and industrial wastewater: Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javadian, Hamedreza; Taghavi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical zeolite consists of both microporous and unordered mesoporous structures. A composite of Polypyrrole/thiol-functionalized Beta/MCM-41 (PPy/SH-Beta/MCM-41) was prepared, characterized by FE-SEM, FT-IR, XRD, TGA and BET analysis and applied in the investigation of its adsorption characteristics for the removal of Hg2+ ions from aqueous solutions. Thiol-functionalized Beta/MCM-41 (SH-Beta/MCM-41) was prepared by 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) in the presence of aerosil-200 as a silica source by two-step hydrothermal crystallization procedure. Batch mode experiments were conducted and three kinetic models were used to describe the adsorption process. The experimental data fitted very well with the Pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS and ΔG) revealed that the adsorption of Hg2+ onto PPy/SH-Beta/MCM-41 is an endothermic and spontaneous process. It was found that temperature has a positive effect on the removal efficiency and that PPy/SH-Beta/MCM-41 is potentially able to remove Hg2+ ions from aqueous solutions at even high concentrations (400 mg L-1). The recovery of Hg2+ from the PPy/SH-Beta/MCM-41 adsorbent was found to be more than 90% using 0.5 M H2SO4, and the ability of the absorbent to be reused for removal of Hg2+ was investigated.

  20. Statistical analysis of molecular nanotemplate driven DNA adsorption on graphite.

    PubMed

    Dubrovin, E V; Speller, S; Yaminsky, I V

    2014-12-30

    In this work, we have studied the conformation of DNA molecules aligned on the nanotemplates of octadecylamine, stearyl alcohol, and stearic acid on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). For this purpose, fluctuations of contours of adsorbed biopolymers obtained from atomic force microscopy (AFM) images were analyzed using the wormlike chain model. Moreover, the conformations of adsorbed biopolymer molecules were characterized by the analysis of the scaling exponent ν, which relates the mean squared end-to-end distance and contour length of the polymer. During adsorption on octadecylamine and stearyl alcohol nanotemplates, DNA forms straight segments, which order along crystallographic axes of graphite. In this case, the conformation of DNA molecules can be described using two different length scales. On a large length scale (at contour lengths l > 200-400 nm), aligned DNA molecules have either 2D compact globule or partially relaxed 2D conformation, whereas on a short length scale (at l ≤ 200-400 nm) their conformation is close to that of rigid rods. The latter type of conformation can be also assigned to DNA adsorbed on a stearic acid nanotemplate. The different conformation of DNA molecules observed on the studied monolayers is connected with the different DNA-nanotemplate interactions associated with the nature of the functional group of the alkane derivative in the nanotemplate (amine, alcohol, or acid). The persistence length of λ-DNA adsorbed on octadecylamine nanotemplates is 31 ± 2 nm indicating the loss of DNA rigidity in comparison with its native state. Similar values of the persistence length (34 ± 2 nm) obtained for 24-times shorter DNA molecules adsorbed on an octadecylamine nanotemplate demonstrate that this rigidity change does not depend on biopolymer length. Possible reasons for the reduction of DNA persistence length are discussed in view of the internal DNA structure and DNA-surface interaction.

  1. Effects of surface features on sulfur dioxide adsorption on calcined NiAl hydrotalcite-like compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ling; Li, Xinyong; Quan, Xie; Chen, Guohua

    2011-06-15

    The hydrotalcite-based NiAl mixed oxides were synthesized by coprecipitation and urea hydrolysis approaches and employed for SO₂ removal. The samples were well characterized by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and N₂ adsorption/desorption isotherm analyses. The acid-base properties were characterized by pyridine chemisorption and CO₂ temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). The calcined NiAlO from the urea method showed excellent SO₂ adsorption and its adsorption equilibrium showed a type I isotherm, which significantly improved the adsorption performance for low-concentration SO₂. Both the physical structure and the acidic-basic sites were found to play important roles in the SO₂ adsorption process. In situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) investigation revealed that adsorbed SO₂ molecules formed surface bisulfite, sulfite, and bidentate binuclear sulfate. The mechanisms for SO₂ adsorption and transformation are discussed in detail. PMID:21609013

  2. Analysis of entropy generation for double diffusive MHD convection in a square cavity with isothermal hollow cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojumder, Satyajit; Saha, Sourav; Saha, Sumon

    2016-07-01

    Entropy optimization is a major concern for designing modern thermal management system. In the present work, entropy analysis in a square cavity with an isothermal hollow cylinder at the center is carried out for magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) double diffusive convection. Galerkin weighted residuals method of finite element formulation is adopted for the numerical solution. Entropies due to fluid flow, heat, and mass transfer are computed for wide range of Hartmann (0 ≤ Ha ≤ 50) and Lewis numbers (1 ≤ Le ≤ 15), and buoyancy ratios (-5 ≤ N ≤ 5) at constant Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers. It is found that the influence of buoyancy ratio is prominent on entropy generation, which also depends on both Lewis and Hartmann numbers. The ratio N = -1 shows minimum entropy generation for any combination of Lewis and Hartman numbers. Visualization of isentropic contours and the variation of total entropy with the governing parameters provide remarkable evidences of entropy optimization.

  3. Pyrolysis of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse: non-isothermal thermogravimetric kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ounas, A; Aboulkas, A; El Harfi, K; Bacaoui, A; Yaacoubi, A

    2011-12-01

    Thermal degradation and kinetics for olive residue and sugar cane bagasse have been evaluated under dynamic conditions in the presence of nitrogen atmosphere, using a non-isothermal thermogravimetric method (TGA). The effect of heating rate was evaluated in the range of 2-50 K min(-1) providing significant parameters for the fingerprinting of the biomass. The DTG plot for the olive residue and sugar cane bagasse clearly shows that the bagasse begins to degrade at 473 K and exhibits two major peaks. The initial mass-loss was associated with hemicellulose pyrolysis and responsible for the first peak (538-543 K) whereas cellulose pyrolysis was initiated at higher temperatures and responsible for the second peak (600-607 K). The two biomass mainly devolatilized around 473-673 K, with total volatile yield of about 70-75%. The char in final residue was about 19-26%. Mass loss and mass loss rates were strongly affected by heating rate. It was found that an increase in heating rate resulted in a shift of thermograms to higher temperatures. Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Vyazovkin methods were applied to determine apparent activation energy to the olive residue and sugar cane bagasse. Two different steps were detected with apparent activation energies in the 10-40% conversion range have a value of 153-162 kJ mol(-1) and 168-180 kJ mol(-1) for the hemicellulose degradation of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse, respectively. In the 50-80% conversion range, this value is 204-215 kJ mol(-1) and 231-240 kJ mol(-1) for the cellulose degradation of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse, respectively.

  4. Adsorption characteristics of methylene blue onto agricultural wastes lotus leaf in bath and column modes.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiuli; Wang, Wei; Ma, Xiaojian

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption potential of lotus leaf to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution was investigated in batch and fixed-bed column experiments. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were employed to discuss the adsorption behavior. The results of analysis indicated that the equilibrium data were perfectly represented by Temkin isotherm and the Langmuir saturation adsorption capacity of lotus leaf was found to be 239.6 mg g(-1) at 303 K. In fixed-bed column experiments, the effects of flow rate, influent concentration and bed height on the breakthrough characteristics of adsorption were discussed. The Thomas and the bed-depth/service time (BDST) models were applied to the column experimental data to determine the characteristic parameters of the column adsorption. The two models were found to be suitable to describe the dynamic behavior of MB adsorbed onto the lotus leaf powder column.

  5. Adsorption/electrosorption of catechol and resorcinol onto high area activated carbon cloth.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Edip; Hoda, Numan; Ayranci, Erol

    2009-09-15

    Removal of catechol and resorcinol from aqueous solutions by adsorption and electrosorption onto high area activated carbon cloth (ACC) was investigated. Kinetics of both adsorption and electrosorption were followed by in-situ UV-spectroscopic method and the data were treated according to pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. It was found that the adsorption and electrosorption of these compounds onto ACC follows pseudo-second-order model. pH changes during adsorption and electrosorption were followed and discussed with regard to the interaction between ACC and adsorbate molecules, utilizing the pH(pzc) value of ACC. An electrodesorption experiment was conducted to explore the possibility of regeneration of ACC. Adsorption isotherms were derived at 25 degrees C on the basis of batch analysis. The fits of experimental isotherm data to the well-known Freundlich, Langmuir and Tempkin models were examined. PMID:19345487

  6. Estimation of Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagrams of Mold Powder Slags from Thermo-analysis of Non-isothermal Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Yadira G.; Barraza de la P., Claudia; Rodríguez A., Sergio; Castillejos E., A. Humberto; Thomas, Brian G.

    2015-02-01

    The temperature range across the mold powder slag in the interfacial gap between the continuous casting mold and strand leads through different transformation behavior into crystalline phases. The transformation rates play a key role in determining the proportion of glassy and crystalline phases present, and thus greatly influence mold heat transfer and lubrication. Although thermal analysis has held great promise to quantify the crystallization of mold slags, so far the information it has provided is scarce. This work shows how differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, data allow evaluation of Time-Temperature-Transformation, TTT, diagrams of mold powder slags, when analyzed with the induction period and the Kissinger methods. The data required for estimating this important tool for the analysis and design of mold powders are onset temperature, T i, peak maximum temperature, T m, shape index, S, and conversion at peak maximum, x m, of the crystallization peaks appearing on thermograms obtained at various heating and cooling rates, ϕ or - ϕ, respectively. Industrial mold powders for casting low- and medium-carbon steels were analyzed to obtain TTT diagrams which correctly portray their different crystallization behavior. The diagrams reveal the start and end curves of the crystalline phases forming at each DSC crystallization peak. The estimated TTT curves present a correct picture of the degree of transformation observed in glass disks (~3 mm thick) treated isothermally for specified time intervals, quenched and examined with a scanning electron microscope. Additionally, the procedure developed for DSC-based TTT diagram calculation is supported by the good agreement between expected transformations and qualitative or quantitative X-ray diffraction results obtained from mold glass-powdered samples treated isothermally in a muffle furnace.

  7. Estimation of Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagrams of Mold Powder Slags from Thermo-analysis of Non-isothermal Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Yadira G.; Barraza de la P., Claudia; Rodríguez A., Sergio; Castillejos E., A. Humberto; Thomas, Brian G.

    2014-09-01

    The temperature range across the mold powder slag in the interfacial gap between the continuous casting mold and strand leads through different transformation behavior into crystalline phases. The transformation rates play a key role in determining the proportion of glassy and crystalline phases present, and thus greatly influence mold heat transfer and lubrication. Although thermal analysis has held great promise to quantify the crystallization of mold slags, so far the information it has provided is scarce. This work shows how differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, data allow evaluation of Time-Temperature-Transformation, TTT, diagrams of mold powder slags, when analyzed with the induction period and the Kissinger methods. The data required for estimating this important tool for the analysis and design of mold powders are onset temperature, T i, peak maximum temperature, T m, shape index, S, and conversion at peak maximum, x m, of the crystallization peaks appearing on thermograms obtained at various heating and cooling rates, ϕ or -ϕ, respectively. Industrial mold powders for casting low- and medium-carbon steels were analyzed to obtain TTT diagrams which correctly portray their different crystallization behavior. The diagrams reveal the start and end curves of the crystalline phases forming at each DSC crystallization peak. The estimated TTT curves present a correct picture of the degree of transformation observed in glass disks (~3 mm thick) treated isothermally for specified time intervals, quenched and examined with a scanning electron microscope. Additionally, the procedure developed for DSC-based TTT diagram calculation is supported by the good agreement between expected transformations and qualitative or quantitative X-ray diffraction results obtained from mold glass-powdered samples treated isothermally in a muffle furnace.

  8. Experimental comparison of adsorption characteristics of silica gel and zeolite in moist air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, F.; Yuan, Z. X.; Wang, W. C.; Du, C. X.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the macro adsorption characteristic of water vapor by the allochroic silica gel and the zeolite 5A and ZSM-5 were investigated experimentally. BET analysis method presented the difference of the porosity, the micro pore volume, and the specific surface area of the material. The dynamic and the equilibrium characteristics of the sample were measured thermo-gravimetrically in the moist air. In general, the ZSM-5 zeolite showed an inferior feature of the adsorption speed and the equilibrium concentration to the others. By comparison to the result of SAPO-34 zeolite in the open literature, the 5A zeolite showed some superiorities of the adsorption. The equilibrium concentration of the ZSM-5 zeolite was higher than that of the SAPO-34 calcined in the nitrogen, whereas it was lower than that calcined in the air. The adsorption isotherm was correlated and the relation of the isotherm to the microstructure of the material was discussed. With more mesopore volume involved, the zeolite presented an S-shaped isotherm in contrast to the exponential isotherm of the silica gel. In addition, the significance of the S-shaped isotherm for the application in adsorption heat pump has also been addressed.

  9. Adsorption of hydrogen chloride on microcrystalline silica. [solid rocket propellant exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Y.; Wightman, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    The interaction of hydrogen chloride with quartz was studied to determine the extent to which silica can irreversibly remove hydrogen chloride from the atmosphere. Adsorption isotherms were measured at 30 C for hydrogen chloride on silica outgassed between 100 C and 400 C. Readsorption isotherms were also measured. The silica surface was characterized further by infrared spectroscopy, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and immersional calorimetry. Ground debris samples obtained from the Kennedy Space Center, were likewise examined.

  10. Functionalization of delaminated zeolite ITQ-6 for the adsorption of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Zukal, A.; Dominguez, I.; Mayerova, J.; Cejka, J.

    2009-09-15

    Novel functionalized adsorbents for CO{sub 2} separation were synthesized by grafting 3-aminopropyl, 3-(methylamino) propyl, or 3-(phenylamino)propyl ligands in the delaminated zeolite ITQ-6. On the basis of the texture parameters determined from nitrogen adsorption isotherms recorded at 77 K and the results of chemical analysis, physicochemical properties of functionalized ITQ-6 were evaluated and compared with those of mesoporous SBA-15 silica functionalized with the same ligands. To examine carbon dioxide adsorption on functionalized materials, adsorption isotherms at 293 K were measured. To obtain information on the surface energetics of CO{sub 2} adsorption on selected samples, isotherms were taken in the temperature range front 273 to 333 K and adsorption isosteres were calculated. Isosteric adsorption heats determined from the slope of adsorption isosteres proved that all of the 3-aminopropyl ligands in ITQ-6 take part in CO{sub 2} adsorption. It was found that in the whole region of CO{sub 2} pressures the efficiency of the amine ligand, defined as the number of adsorbed CO{sub 2} molecules per one airline ligand, is higher for functionalized ITQ-6 than for functionalized SBA-15 silica.

  11. Analysis of isothermal and cooling-rate-dependent immersion freezing by a unifying stochastic ice nucleation model

    DOE PAGES

    Alpert, Peter A.; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2016-02-24

    Immersion freezing is an important ice nucleation pathway involved in the formation of cirrus and mixed-phase clouds. Laboratory immersion freezing experiments are necessary to determine the range in temperature, T, and relative humidity, RH, at which ice nucleation occurs and to quantify the associated nucleation kinetics. Typically, isothermal (applying a constant temperature) and cooling-rate-dependent immersion freezing experiments are conducted. In these experiments it is usually assumed that the droplets containing ice nucleating particles (INPs) all have the same INP surface area (ISA); however, the validity of this assumption or the impact it may have on analysis and interpretation of the experimentalmore » data is rarely questioned. Descriptions of ice active sites and variability of contact angles have been successfully formulated to describe ice nucleation experimental data in previous research; however, we consider the ability of a stochastic freezing model founded on classical nucleation theory to reproduce previous results and to explain experimental uncertainties and data scatter. A stochastic immersion freezing model based on first principles of statistics is presented, which accounts for variable ISA per droplet and uses parameters including the total number of droplets, Ntot, and the heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient, Jhet(T). This model is applied to address if (i) a time and ISA-dependent stochastic immersion freezing process can explain laboratory immersion freezing data for different experimental methods and (ii) the assumption that all droplets contain identical ISA is a valid conjecture with subsequent consequences for analysis and interpretation of immersion freezing. The simple stochastic model can reproduce the observed time and surface area dependence in immersion freezing experiments for a variety of methods such as: droplets on a cold-stage exposed to air or surrounded by an oil matrix, wind and acoustically

  12. Analysis of isothermal and cooling-rate-dependent immersion freezing by a unifying stochastic ice nucleation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Peter A.; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2016-02-01

    Immersion freezing is an important ice nucleation pathway involved in the formation of cirrus and mixed-phase clouds. Laboratory immersion freezing experiments are necessary to determine the range in temperature, T, and relative humidity, RH, at which ice nucleation occurs and to quantify the associated nucleation kinetics. Typically, isothermal (applying a constant temperature) and cooling-rate-dependent immersion freezing experiments are conducted. In these experiments it is usually assumed that the droplets containing ice nucleating particles (INPs) all have the same INP surface area (ISA); however, the validity of this assumption or the impact it may have on analysis and interpretation of the experimental data is rarely questioned. Descriptions of ice active sites and variability of contact angles have been successfully formulated to describe ice nucleation experimental data in previous research; however, we consider the ability of a stochastic freezing model founded on classical nucleation theory to reproduce previous results and to explain experimental uncertainties and data scatter. A stochastic immersion freezing model based on first principles of statistics is presented, which accounts for variable ISA per droplet and uses parameters including the total number of droplets, Ntot, and the heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient, Jhet(T). This model is applied to address if (i) a time and ISA-dependent stochastic immersion freezing process can explain laboratory immersion freezing data for different experimental methods and (ii) the assumption that all droplets contain identical ISA is a valid conjecture with subsequent consequences for analysis and interpretation of immersion freezing. The simple stochastic model can reproduce the observed time and surface area dependence in immersion freezing experiments for a variety of methods such as: droplets on a cold-stage exposed to air or surrounded by an oil matrix, wind and acoustically levitated droplets

  13. Branched pore kinetic model analysis of geosmin adsorption on super-powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yoshihiko; Ando, Naoya; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Taku; Ohno, Koichi

    2009-07-01

    Super-powdered activated carbon (S-PAC) is activated carbon of much finer particle size than powdered activated carbon (PAC). Geosmin is a naturally occurring taste and odor compound that impairs aesthetic quality in drinking water. Experiments on geosmin adsorption on S-PAC and PAC were conducted, and the results using adsorption kinetic models were analyzed. PAC pulverization, which produced the S-PAC, did not change geosmin adsorption capacity, and geosmin adsorption capacities did not differ between S-PAC and PAC. Geosmin adsorption kinetics, however, were much higher on S-PAC than on PAC. A solution to the branched pore kinetic model (BPKM) was developed, and experimental adsorption kinetic data were analyzed by BPKM and by a homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM). The HSDM describing the adsorption behavior of geosmin required different surface diffusivity values for S-PAC and PAC, which indicated a decrease in surface diffusivity apparently associated with activated carbon particle size. The BPKM, consisting of macropore diffusion followed by mass transfer from macropore to micropore, successfully described the batch adsorption kinetics on S-PAC and PAC with the same set of model parameter values, including surface diffusivity. The BPKM simulation clearly showed geosmin removal was improved as activated carbon particle size decreased. The simulation also implied that the rate-determining step in overall mass transfer shifted from intraparticle radial diffusion in macropores to local mass transfer from macropore to micropore. Sensitivity analysis showed that adsorptive removal of geosmin improved with decrease in activated carbon particle size down to 1microm, but further particle size reduction produced little improvement.

  14. Surface free energy analysis of adsorbents used for radioiodine adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, C. M.; Román, S.; González, J. F.; Sabio, E.; Ledesma, B.

    2013-10-01

    In this work, the surface free energy of biomass-based activated carbons, both fresh and impregnated with triethylenediamine, has been evaluated. The contribution of Lifshitz van der Waals components was determined by the model proposed by van Oss et al. The results obtained allowed predicting the most probable configurations of the impregnant onto the carbon surface and its influence on the subsequent adsorption of radioactive methyl iodide.

  15. High-capacity adsorption of aniline using surface modification of lignocellulose-biomass jute fibers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Da-Wen; Hu, Qi; Pan, Hongyu; Jiang, Jiping; Wang, Peng

    2015-10-01

    Pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) modified jute fiber (MJF) were prepared with microwave treatment to generate a biosorbent for aniline removal. The characterization of the biosorbent was investigated by SEM, BET and FT-IR analysis to discuss the adsorption mechanism. The studies of various factors influencing the adsorption behavior indicated that the optimum dosage for aniline adsorption was 3g/L, the maximum adsorption capacity was observed at pH 7.0 and the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. The aniline adsorption follows the pseudo second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model. Moreover, the biosorbent could be regenerated through the desorption of aniline by using 0.5M HCl solution, and the adsorption capacity after regeneration is even higher than that of virgin MJF. All these results prove MJF is a promising adsorbent for aniline removal in wastewater.

  16. High-capacity adsorption of aniline using surface modification of lignocellulose-biomass jute fibers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Da-Wen; Hu, Qi; Pan, Hongyu; Jiang, Jiping; Wang, Peng

    2015-10-01

    Pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) modified jute fiber (MJF) were prepared with microwave treatment to generate a biosorbent for aniline removal. The characterization of the biosorbent was investigated by SEM, BET and FT-IR analysis to discuss the adsorption mechanism. The studies of various factors influencing the adsorption behavior indicated that the optimum dosage for aniline adsorption was 3g/L, the maximum adsorption capacity was observed at pH 7.0 and the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. The aniline adsorption follows the pseudo second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model. Moreover, the biosorbent could be regenerated through the desorption of aniline by using 0.5M HCl solution, and the adsorption capacity after regeneration is even higher than that of virgin MJF. All these results prove MJF is a promising adsorbent for aniline removal in wastewater. PMID:26172392

  17. Kinetics of salicylic acid adsorption on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Polakovic, Milan; Gorner, Tatiana; Villiéras, Frédéric; de Donato, Philippe; Bersillon, Jean Luc

    2005-03-29

    The adsorption and desorption of salicylic acid from water solutions was investigated in HPLC microcolumns packed with activated carbon. The adsorption isotherm was obtained by the step-up frontal analysis method in a concentration range of 0-400 mg/L and was well fitted with the Langmuir equation. The investigation of rate aspects of salicylic acid adsorption was based on adsorption/desorption column experiments where different inlet concentrations of salicylic acid were applied in the adsorption phase and desorption was conducted with pure water. The concentration profiles of individual adsorption/desorption cycles data were fitted using several single-parameter models of the fixed-bed adsorption to assess the influence of different phenomena on the column behavior. It was found that the effects of axial dispersion and extraparticle mass transfer were negligible. A rate-determining factor of fixed-bed column dynamics was the kinetics of pore surface adsorption. A bimodal kinetic model reflecting the heterogeneous character of adsorbent pores was verified by a simultaneous fit of the column outlet concentration in four adsorption/desorption cycles. The fitted parameters were the fraction of mesopores and the adsorption rate constants in micropores and mesopores, respectively. It was shown that the former rate constant was an intrinsic one whereas the latter one was an apparent value due to the effects of pore blocking and diffusional hindrances in the micropores. PMID:15779975

  18. Surface heterogeneity analysis of MCM-41 metallosilicates by using nitrogen adsorption data

    SciTech Connect

    Kruk, M.; Jaroniec, M.; Sayari, A.

    1999-08-31

    MCM-41 silicas with framework-incorporated aluminum and boron heteroatoms were studied using nitrogen adsorption at 77K over a wide range of relative pressures. It was shown that despite significant differences in surface area, pore sizes, and widths of pore size distributions, the framework-substituted MCM-41 materials studied exhibited very similar low-pressure relative adsorption curves and adsorption energy distributions. This indicates that the presence of heteroatoms does not lead to significant changes in the surface properties with respect to nitrogen molecules. However, small but detectable and systematic changes in the low-pressure adsorption were observed for two series of samples with different contents of heteroatoms prepared under similar conditions. It was concluded that low-pressure nitrogen adsorption exhibits rather low sensitivity toward framework-incorporated aluminum and boron heteroatoms, but it may provide some information about contents of heteroatoms for samples prepared under the same conditions. Because of the similarity of nitrogen adsorption processes on surfaces of siliceous ordered mesoporous materials with and without framework-substituted heteroatoms, the methods of micropore analysis (e.g., the comparative plot method) and mesopore size analysis developed and/or calibrated for pure-silica materials are expected to be fully applicable for samples with different kinds of incorporated heteroatoms.

  19. Microfluidic lab-on-a-foil for nucleic acid analysis based on isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA).

    PubMed

    Lutz, Sascha; Weber, Patrick; Focke, Max; Faltin, Bernd; Hoffmann, Jochen; Müller, Claas; Mark, Daniel; Roth, Günter; Munday, Peter; Armes, Niall; Piepenburg, Olaf; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix

    2010-04-01

    For the first time we demonstrate a self-sufficient lab-on-a-foil system for the fully automated analysis of nucleic acids which is based on the recently available isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). The system consists of a novel, foil-based centrifugal microfluidic cartridge including prestored liquid and dry reagents, and a commercially available centrifugal analyzer for incubation at 37 degrees C and real-time fluorescence detection. The system was characterized with an assay for the detection of the antibiotic resistance gene mecA of Staphylococcus aureus. The limit of detection was <10 copies and time-to-result was <20 min. Microfluidic unit operations comprise storage and release of liquid reagents, reconstitution of lyophilized reagents, aliquoting the sample into < or = 30 independent reaction cavities, and mixing of reagents with the DNA samples. The foil-based cartridge was produced by blow-molding and sealed with a self-adhesive tape. The demonstrated system excels existing PCR based lab-on-a-chip platforms in terms of energy efficiency and time-to-result. Applications are suggested in the field of mobile point-of-care analysis, B-detection, or in combination with continuous monitoring systems. PMID:20300675

  20. Microfluidic lab-on-a-foil for nucleic acid analysis based on isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA).

    PubMed

    Lutz, Sascha; Weber, Patrick; Focke, Max; Faltin, Bernd; Hoffmann, Jochen; Müller, Claas; Mark, Daniel; Roth, Günter; Munday, Peter; Armes, Niall; Piepenburg, Olaf; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix

    2010-04-01

    For the first time we demonstrate a self-sufficient lab-on-a-foil system for the fully automated analysis of nucleic acids which is based on the recently available isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). The system consists of a novel, foil-based centrifugal microfluidic cartridge including prestored liquid and dry reagents, and a commercially available centrifugal analyzer for incubation at 37 degrees C and real-time fluorescence detection. The system was characterized with an assay for the detection of the antibiotic resistance gene mecA of Staphylococcus aureus. The limit of detection was <10 copies and time-to-result was <20 min. Microfluidic unit operations comprise storage and release of liquid reagents, reconstitution of lyophilized reagents, aliquoting the sample into < or = 30 independent reaction cavities, and mixing of reagents with the DNA samples. The foil-based cartridge was produced by blow-molding and sealed with a self-adhesive tape. The demonstrated system excels existing PCR based lab-on-a-chip platforms in terms of energy efficiency and time-to-result. Applications are suggested in the field of mobile point-of-care analysis, B-detection, or in combination with continuous monitoring systems.

  1. Performance of reversed transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification technique detecting EV71: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaoying; Wen, Hongling; Zhao, Li; Yu, Xuejie

    2014-04-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which is a common infectious disease in young children. Studies in the past have shown that reversed transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was a rapid approach for the detection of EV71 in HFMD. This meta-analysis study is to evaluate the diagnostic role of RT-LAMP in detecting EV71 infection. A comprehensive literature research of PubMed, Embase, Wan Fang Data, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases was conducted on articles aiming at the diagnostic performance of RT-LAMP in EV71 detection published before February 10, 2014. Data from selected studies were pooled to yield the summary sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio (PLR, NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve by using STATA VERSION 12.0 software. Ten studies including a total of 907 clinical samples were of high quality in this meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, PLR, NLR, DOR, and the area under the SROC curve was 0.99 (0.97, 1.00), 0.97 (0.94, 1.00), 5.90 (95% CI: 3.90-8.94), 0.20 (95% CI: 0.14-0.29), and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99-1.00), respectively. The univariate analysis of potential variables showed some changes in the diagnostic performance, but none of the differences reached statistical significance. Despite inter-study variability, the test performance of RT-LAMP was consistent with real-time RT-PCR in detecting EV71. This meta-analysis suggests that RT-LAMP is a useful diagnostic tool with high sensitivity and specificity for detecting EV71. PMID:24815384

  2. Performance of reversed transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification technique detecting EV71: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaoying; Wen, Hongling; Zhao, Li; Yu, Xuejie

    2014-04-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which is a common infectious disease in young children. Studies in the past have shown that reversed transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was a rapid approach for the detection of EV71 in HFMD. This meta-analysis study is to evaluate the diagnostic role of RT-LAMP in detecting EV71 infection. A comprehensive literature research of PubMed, Embase, Wan Fang Data, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases was conducted on articles aiming at the diagnostic performance of RT-LAMP in EV71 detection published before February 10, 2014. Data from selected studies were pooled to yield the summary sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio (PLR, NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve by using STATA VERSION 12.0 software. Ten studies including a total of 907 clinical samples were of high quality in this meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, PLR, NLR, DOR, and the area under the SROC curve was 0.99 (0.97, 1.00), 0.97 (0.94, 1.00), 5.90 (95% CI: 3.90-8.94), 0.20 (95% CI: 0.14-0.29), and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99-1.00), respectively. The univariate analysis of potential variables showed some changes in the diagnostic performance, but none of the differences reached statistical significance. Despite inter-study variability, the test performance of RT-LAMP was consistent with real-time RT-PCR in detecting EV71. This meta-analysis suggests that RT-LAMP is a useful diagnostic tool with high sensitivity and specificity for detecting EV71.

  3. Adsorption Behavior of Extracellular Polymeric Substances on Graphene Materials Explored by Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Infrared Correlation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo-Mi; Hur, Jin

    2016-07-19

    Adsorption isotherms of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on graphene oxide (GO) and reduced GO (rGO) were studied using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) combined with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Chemical reduction of GO resulted in a greater extent of carbon adsorption with a higher degree of isotherm nonlinearity, suggesting that heterogeneous adsorption sites were additionally created by GO reduction. Two protein-like and two humic-like components were identified from EPS by EEM-PARAFAC. Adsorption of protein-like components was greater than that of humic-like components, and the preferential adsorption was more pronounced for GO versus rGO. Adsorption of protein-like components was more governed by site-limiting mechanisms than humic-like components as shown by the higher isotherm nonlinearity. 2D-COS provided further information on the adsorption of secondary protein structures. Adsorption of the EPS structures related to amide I and aromatic C-C bands was greater for rGO versus GO. Protein structures of EPS were more favorable for adsorption in the order of α-helix → amide II → β-sheet structures with increasing site limitation. Our results revealed successful applicability of EEM-PARAFAC and 2D-COS in examining the adsorption behavior of heterogeneous biological materials on graphene materials.

  4. Adsorption of nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds on bamboo charcoal: kinetics, thermodynamics, and microwave regeneration.

    PubMed

    Liao, Peng; Yuan, Songhu; Xie, Wenjing; Zhang, Wenbiao; Tong, Man; Wang, Kun

    2013-01-15

    The adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds (NHCs), pyridine, indole and quinoline, in aqueous solutions on bamboo charcoal (BC), as well as the regeneration of spent BC by microwave radiation, are investigated. BC is produced by incomplete combustion of moso bamboo at high temperature and nitrogen atmosphere. Adsorption kinetics is analyzed using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order as well as Weber-Morris model. The results show that NHC adsorption on BC is predominantly regulated by surface diffusion in initial 1h followed by intraparticle diffusion in later stage. BC exhibits a strong adsorption affinity to NHCs, and the adsorption isotherms are well described by Freundlich model. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic. Adsorption site energy analysis illustrates a distribution of adsorption energy, which indicates the heterogeneous sites on BC for NHC adsorption. Furthermore, spent BC with NHC adsorption can be effectively regenerated by MW radiation. The adsorption capacity becomes even higher than that of virgin BC after five times of adsorption-regeneration cycles. This study proves BC is a promising adsorbent for NHC removal in wastewater.

  5. X-Ray Diffraction Profile Analysis for Characterizing Isothermal Aging Behavior of M250 Grade Maraging Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, S.; Jayakumar, T.; Rao, B. P. C.; Kumar, Anish; Rajkumar, K. V.; Raj, Baldev

    2008-08-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were carried out to characterize aging behavior of M250 grade maraging steel samples subjected to isothermal aging at 755 K for varying durations of 0.25, 1, 3, 10, 40, 70, and 100 hours. Earlier studies had shown typical features of precipitation hardening, wherein the hardness increased to a peak value due to precipitation of intermetallics and decreased upon further aging (overaging) due to reversion of martensite to austenite. Intermetallic precipitates, while coherent, are expected to increase the microstrain in the matrix. Hence, an attempt has been made in the present study to understand the microstructural changes in these samples using XRD line profile analysis. The anisotropic broadening with diffraction angle observed in the simple Williamson Hall (WH) plot has been addressed using the modified WH (mWH) approach, which takes into account the contrast caused by dislocations on line profiles, leading to new scaling factors in the WH plot. The normalized mean square strain and crystallite size estimated from mWH have been used to infer early precipitation and to characterize aging behavior. The normalized mean square strain has been used to determine the Avrami exponent in the Johnson Mehl Avrami (JMA) equation, which deals with the kinetics of precipitation. The Avrami exponent thus determined has matched well with values found by other methods, as reported in literature.

  6. The Inversion Point of the Isothermal Reactivity Coefficient of the IPEN/MB-01 Reactor - II: Theoretical Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, A. dos; Fuga, R.; Abe, A.Y.

    2005-10-15

    TORT, an S{sub N} three-dimensional transport code, is employed for the analysis of the inversion point of the isothermal reactivity coefficient of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor. The analyses are performed in companion NJOY, AMPX-II, and TORT systems considering the data libraries ENDF/B-VI.8, JENDL3.3, and JEF3.0. The analyses reveal that for this peculiar problem, there is a need to convert all the computer codes to DOUBLE-PRECISION as well as to increase to seven the number of digits of the ANISN library generated by XSDRNPM. Contrary to the traditional diffusion theory codes, TORT k{sub eff} results are very sensitive to the number of both fine and broad groups. For instance, the traditional and very well known two- and four-group structure, largely utilized in several diffusion codes, produced simply unacceptable k{sub eff} results. The highest deviation between calculated and experimental values found for the inversion point was -4.48 deg. C. At first glance, there appears to be a significant discrepancy. However, in terms of reactivity coefficient, this discrepancy means a deviation of -0.90 {+-} 0.05 pcm/deg. C, which indicates that the calculational methodology and related nuclear data libraries meet the desired accuracy (-1.0 pcm/deg. C) for the determination of this parameter for thermal reactors.

  7. Modeling adsorption: Investigating adsorbate and adsorbent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Charles Edwin

    1999-12-01

    Surface catalyzed reactions play a major role in current chemical production technology. Currently, 90% of all chemicals are produced by heterogeneously catalyzed reactions. Most of these catalyzed reactions involve adsorption, concentrating the substrate(s) (the adsorbate) on the surface of the solid (the adsorbent). Pore volumes, accessible surface areas, and the thermodynamics of adsorption are essential in the understanding of solid surface characteristics fundamental to catalyst and adsorbent screening and selection. Molecular properties such as molecular volumes and projected molecular areas are needed in order to convert moles adsorbed to surface volumes and areas. Generally, these molecular properties have been estimated from bulk properties, but many assumptions are required. As a result, different literature values are employed for these essential molecular properties. Calculated molar volumes and excluded molecular areas are determined and tabulated for a variety of molecules. Molecular dimensions of molecules are important in the understanding of molecular exclusion as well as size and shape selectivity, diffusion, and adsorbent selection. Molecular dimensions can also be used in the determination of the effective catalytic pore size of a catalyst. Adsorption isotherms, on zeolites, (crystalline mineral oxides) and amorphous solids, can be analyzed with the Multiple Equilibrium Analysis (MEA) description of adsorption. The MEA produces equilibrium constants (Ki), capacities (ni), and thermodynamic parameters (enthalpies, ΔHi, and entropies, ΔSi) of adsorption for each process. Pore volumes and accessible surface areas are calculated from the process capacities. Adsorption isotherms can also be predicted for existing and new adsorbate-adsorbent systems with the MEA. The results show that MEA has the potential of becoming a standard characterization method for microporous solids that will lead to an increased understanding of their behavior in gas

  8. Analysis of the interactions between human serum albumin/amphiphilic penicillin in different aqueous media: an isothermal titration calorimetry and dynamic light scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Silvia; Taboada, Pablo; Mosquera, Victor

    2005-04-01

    The complexation process of the amphiphilic penicillins sodium cloxacillin and sodium dicloxacillin with the protein human serum albumin (HSA) in aqueous buffered solutions of pH 4.5 and 7.4 at 25 °C was investigated through isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and dynamic light scattering. ITC experiments were carried out in the very dilute regime and showed that although hydrophobic interactions are the leading forces for complexation, electrostatic interactions also play an important role. The possibility of the formation of hydrogen bonds is also deduced from experimental data. The thermodynamic quantities of the binding mechanism, i.e, the enthalpy, ΔHITCi, entropy, ΔSITCi, Gibbs energy, ΔGITCi, binding constant, KITCi and the number of binding sites, ni, were obtained. The binding was saturable and is characterised by Langmuir adsorption isotherms. From ITC data and following a theoretical model, the number of bound and free penicillin molecules was calculated. From Scatchard plots, KITCi and ni were obtained and compared with those from ITC data. The interaction potential between the HSA-penicillin complexes and their stability were determined at pH 7.4 from the dependence of the diffusion coefficients on protein concentration by application of the DLVO colloidal stability theory. The results indicate decreasing stability of the colloidal dispersion of the drug-protein complexes with increase in the concentration of added drug.

  9. Adsorption of the enantiomers of 3-chloro-1-phenyl-propanol on silica-bonded chiral quinidine carbamate

    SciTech Connect

    Asnin, Leonid; Kaczmarski, Krzysztof; Felinger, Attila; Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-10-01

    The interactions of 3-chloro-1-phenyl-propanol with a quinidine carbamate-bonded chiral stationary phase under NPLC conditions were studied by measuring the adsorption isotherm data of its enantiomers by frontal analysis, modeling these data with a suitable isotherm model, and comparing the experimental overloaded elution band profiles with those calculated with this isotherm and the equilibrium dispersive model of liquid chromatography. The affinity energy distribution was calculated from the adsorption isotherm data. The results show that the surface of the adsorbent is heterogeneous and exhibits a bimodal adsorption energy distribution. This fact is interpreted in terms of the presence of two different types of adsorption sites on the stationary phase, nonselective and enantioselective sites. Albeit the bi-Langmuir isotherm model successfully accounts for the single-component data corresponding to both enantiomers, the competitive bi-Langmuir isotherm model does not allow an accurate prediction of the overloaded band profiles of the racemic mixture. Thermodynamic data are drawn for explanation. Some aspects of the retention mechanism are discussed in the light of the data obtained.

  10. Non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis of oil-palm solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Luangkiattikhun, P; Tangsathitkulchai, C; Tangsathitkulchai, M

    2008-03-01

    Thermal decomposition of oil-palm solid wastes, including oil-palm shell, fibre and kernel, was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Effect of heating rate and sample particle size on the behaviour of thermogram and kinetic parameters were investigated. The one-step global model, two-step consecutive model and two-parallel reactions model were used to simulate the pyrolysis process of the three materials studied. The one-step global model was able to describe the fractional weight loss upon pyrolysis of oil-palm kernel reasonably well but gave a large deviation for oil-palm shell and fibre. The two-step consecutive model could improve the fitting for oil-palm shell and fibre, but it cannot account for the inflection characteristic of the thermogram. Prediction by the two-parallel reactions model gave the best fitting with the experimental data of all oil-palm wastes under all pyrolysis conditions investigated. This proposed model was also tested with other biomass materials and proved to be satisfactory. PMID:17451942

  11. Characterization of Connectivity between Fractures and Nano-pores in Shale Using Gas Adsorption Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, H.; Daigle, H.; Hayman, N. W.

    2015-12-01

    Most pores hosting hydrocarbon in mudrocks are at the nanometer to tens of nanometer scale. However, observational evidence shows that natural and induced fractures which govern the permeability of mudrocks appear to be spaced at centimeter scale or greater. The mismatch in scales raises the question of how the hydrocarbons in the nanopores can gain access to the induced hydraulic fracture systems. To answer the question, we experimentally induced fractures on core-scale samples, and characterized microstructure around the stimulated fracture networks and in the surrounding, unfractured rock matrix. Confined compressive strength tests were performed on preserved core plugs from the Eagle Ford shale and a siliceous, oil-bearing mudrock from the northern Rocky Mountains. Dried, ground specimens were collected from before-test (intact) and after-test (failed) samples. Their pore structure was analyzed by N2/CO2 gas adsorption, which together can measure pore diameters between 0.35 and 300 nm. Adsorption data shows a Type IV N2 isotherm and a Type I CO2 isotherm. The hysteresis loop in the N2 adsorption curve indicates the presence of slit-shaped pores. Failed siliceous samples exhibit higher overall N2 and CO2 adsorbed gas amount compared with the intact samples, indicating a wide range increase of nanoporosity. Eagle Ford samples, however, show no significant change in adsorbed gas amount. We determined pore size distributions (PSDs) using density functional theory (DFT). The N2 PSDs of the siliceous samples appear to be bimodal, with a peak around 1 nm pore size, while the N2 PSDs of the Eagle Ford samples is unimodal. Comparison of intact and failed samples reveals no significant change in pore volume for Eagle Ford samples. The siliceous samples, in contrast, increase their nanopore volume (1-100 nm pore diameter) after fracturing. The increased nanoporosity may result from microcracks that develop in the matrix surrounding the main fractures that connect nano

  12. Microgravimetric Analysis Method for Activation-Energy Extraction from Trace-Amount Molecule Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengcheng; Yu, Haitao; Li, Xinxin

    2016-05-01

    Activation-energy (Ea) value for trace-amount adsorption of gas molecules on material is rapidly and inexpensively obtained, for the first time, from a microgravimetric analysis experiment. With the material loaded, a resonant microcantilever is used to record in real time the adsorption process at two temperatures. The kinetic parameter Ea is thereby extracted by solving the Arrhenius equation. As an example, two CO2 capture nanomaterials are examined by the Ea extracting method for evaluation/optimization and, thereby, demonstrating the applicability of the microgravimetric analysis method. The achievement helps to solve the absence in rapid quantitative characterization of sorption kinetics and opens a new route to investigate molecule adsorption processes and materials.

  13. Adsorption of lead(II) on O₂-plasma-oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes: thermodynamics, kinetics, and desorption.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin-Yao; Luo, Tao; Zhang, Yong-Xing; Jia, Yong; Zhu, Bang-Jing; Fu, Xu-Cheng; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2011-07-01

    O(2)-plasma-oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (po-MWCNTs) have been used as an adsorbent for adsorption of lead(II) in water. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy measurements show that the bulk properties of MWCNTs were not changed after O(2)-plasma oxidation. The adsorption capacity of MWCNTs for lead(II) was greatly enhanced after plasma oxidation mainly because of the introduction of oxygen-containing functional groups onto the surface of MWCNTs. The removal of lead(II) by po-MWCNTs occurs rather quickly, and the adsorption kinetics can be well described by the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption isotherm of lead(II) onto MWCNTs fits the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption of lead(II) onto MWCNTs is strongly dependent upon the pH values. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows that the adsorption mechanism is mainly due to the chemical interaction between lead(II) and the surface functional groups of po-MWCNTs. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH°, ΔS°, and ΔG°) calculated from the adsorption isotherms suggest that the adsorption of lead(II) onto MWCNTs is endothermic and spontaneous. The regeneration performance shows that lead(II) can be easily regenerated from po-MWCNTs by altering the pH values of the solution.

  14. Applications and limits of theoretical adsorption models for predicting the adsorption properties of adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Ju; Nguyen, Duc Canh; Na, Choon-Ki; Kim, Chung-il

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the applicability of adsorption models for predicting the properties of adsorbents. The kinetics of the adsorption of NO3- ions on a PP-g-AA-Am non-woven fabric have been investigated under equilibrium conditions in both batch and fixed bed column processes. The adsorption equilibrium experiments in the batch process were carried out under different adsorbate concentration and adsorbent dosage conditions and the results were analyzed using adsorption isotherm models, energy models, and kinetic models. The results of the analysis indicate that the adsorption occurring at a fixed adsorbate concentration with a varying adsorbent dosage occur more easily compared to those under a fixed adsorbent dosage with a varying adsorbate concentration. In the second part of the study, the experimental data obtained using fixed bed columns were fit to Bed Depth Service Time, Bohart-Adams, Clark, and Wolborska models, to predict the breakthrough curves and determine the column kinetic parameters. The adsorption properties of the NO3- ions on the PP-g-AA-Am non-woven fabric were differently described by different models for both the batch and fixed bed column process. Therefore, it appears reasonable to assume that the adsorption properties were dominated by multiple mechanisms, depending on the experimental conditions.

  15. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy and electron backscatter diffraction analysis of isothermally aged SAF 2507 type superduplex stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobranszky, J.; Szabo, P. J.; Berecz, T.; Hrotko, V.; Portko, M.

    2004-10-01

    Due to thermal effects, several precipitation and segregation processes are known in duplex stainless steels. These microstructural changes influence both of the original phases, but in different ways. Isothermal ageing in a large range of temperature was performed on SAF 2507 type steel. The temperature range was 300-1000 °C, the ageing time was between 100 s and 24 h. This paper discusses the results of ageing at 900 °C. Microstructural changes were investigated by electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy and electron backscattered diffraction analysis. This technique allowed the determination of the microstructure of the secondary austenite and sigma phase and their mutual orientation properties. Beside this, thermoelectric power measurements were also performed, which gave information about the kinetics of the precipitation process. Results showed that sigma-phase precipitation started right after 200 s in the case of annealed steel, and faster than 100 s in the cold-rolled state. After 5000 s, the delta-ferrite disappeared. Chemical composition of sigma phase was independent on the ageing time. A small decrease in nickel content was observed with a slight increase of Cr content. Small amount of chi phase had also been observed on the ferrite-ferrite boundaries, but later they changed into sigma phase. Similarly to sigma phase, chi phase showed significant phosphorus enrichment. During ageing, small chrome nitride precipitates developed, which amount increased in time, and some vanadium could be measured in them. The orientation relationship between austenite and sigma phase deviated from Nenno-orientationship with about 24°, and seems to form a [110]‖[310] relationship, which was characteristic right from the beginning of the process, and remains more or less constant.

  16. In situ analysis of adsorption process from residual gases during thin film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giedraitis, A.; Tamulevicius, S.; Slapikas, K.; Gudaitis, R.; Juraitis, A.

    2008-03-01

    In this work we present the developed experimental technique as well as results of optical control of adsorption processes during thin film deposition. Different metallic films: (silver) as a model material and barium getter films were studied. Thermal evaporation method has been used to deposit thin metallic films and films of barium getter on glass substrates. Kinetics of the optical absorbance of the growing film was registered in situ measuring transmission of the film-substrate structure. These measurements were done in parallel to the ex-situ absorption (UV-VIS) and reflection spectra as well as XRD analysis. Such complex measurements enabled us to follow adsorption process from the residual gases during thermal evaporation as well to control adsorption process after the evaporation.

  17. Understanding Adsorption-Induced Effects on Platinum Nanoparticles: An Energy-Decomposition Analysis.

    PubMed

    Calle-Vallejo, Federico; Sautet, Philippe; Loffreda, David

    2014-09-18

    Platinum nanoparticle catalysts are used in a myriad of gas-phase, liquid-phase, and electrochemical reactions. Although a high catalytic activity is paramount, stability must also be guaranteed, especially when the nanoparticles are in contact with strongly bound adsorbates. Therefore, it is crucial to be able to accurately calculate adsorption-energy trends on Pt nanoparticles of multiple sizes and morphologies using ab initio methods at affordable computational expenses. Here, through an energy-decomposition analysis in which adsorption processes are regarded as the interplay between pure binding and various compensating core-shell deformations, we show that pure binding is responsible for the overall linear adsorption trends. Conversely, the energetic cost of the deformations is a site-independent, adsorbate-dependent constant value. These two observations and the description of the trends by means of generalized coordination numbers help to significantly reduce the computational expense of simulating large nanoparticles.

  18. Adsorption of ferrous ions onto montmorillonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Dawei; Niu, Xia; Qiao, Min; Liu, Gang; Li, Hongxin; Meng, Zhenxiao

    2015-04-01

    The adsorption of Fe (II) onto montmorillonites was investigated through initial concentration, contact time, pH and temperature. During the whole adsorption process, the ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) was added as a kind of antioxidant, at the same time, deionized water (after boiling) and nitrogen protection were also used to avoid oxidation. The Fe2+/Fetotal ratio of the iron exists in the Fe-montmorillonites was found more than 95%. Two kinetic models, including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model, were used to analyze the adsorption process of Fe (II) on montmorillonites. The results of our study showed that adsorption process fitted with pseudo-second-order well. Adsorption isotherms showed that Langmuir model was better than Freundlich model. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG0 and ΔH0 were 3.696 kJ/mol and 6.689 kJ/mol (we just gave the values at 298 K), respectively. The positive values at different temperatures showed that the adsorption process was non-spontaneous and endothermic. The characteristics of materials were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Surface area and porosity analyzer, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and Zeta potential distribution.

  19. Enhanced interpretation of adsorption data generated by liquid chromatography and by modern biosensors.

    PubMed

    Agmo Hernández, Víctor; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Forssén, Patrik; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2013-11-22

    In this study we demonstrate the importance of proper data processing in adsorption isotherm estimations. This was done by investigating and reprocessing data from five cases on two closely related platforms: liquid chromatography (LC) and biosensors. The previously acquired adsorption data were reevaluated and reprocessed using a three-step numerical procedure: (i) preprocessing of adsorption data, (ii) adsorption data analysis and (iii) final rival model fit. For each case, we will discuss what we really measure and what additional information can be obtained by numerical processing of the data. These cases clearly demonstrate that numerical processing of LC and biosensor data can be used to gain deeper understanding of molecular interactions with adsorption media. This is important because adsorption data, especially from biosensors, is often processed using old and simplified methods. PMID:23928411

  20. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of ofloxacin adsorption from aqueous solution onto modified coal fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.-L.; Zhao, F.; Wang, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Batch adsorption experiments were carried out for the removal of ofloxacin from aqueous solution using modified coal fly ash as adsorbent. The effects of various parameters such as contact time, initial solution concentration and temperature on the adsorption system were investigated. The optimum contact time was found to be 150 min. The adsorption isotherm data fit well with the Langmuir model, and the kinetic data fit well with the pseudo-second order and the intra-particle diffusion model. Intra-particle diffusion analysis demonstrates that ofloxacin diffuses quickly among the particles at the beginning of the adsorption process, and then the diffusion slows down and stabilizes. Thermodynamic parameters such as Δ G, Δ H, and Δ S were also calculated. The negative Gibbs free energy change and the positive enthalpy change indicated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption, and the positive entropy change indicated that the adsorption process was aided by increased randomness.

  1. Unified water isotherms for clayey porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil, A.; Lu, N.

    2013-09-01

    We provide a unified model for the soil-water retention function, including the effect of bound and capillary waters for all types of soils, including clayey media. The model combines a CEC-normalized isotherm describing the sorption of the bound water (and the filling of the trapped porosity) and the van Genuchten model to describe the capillary water sorption retention but ignore capillary condensation. For the CEC-normalized isotherm, we tested both the BET and Freundlich isotherms, and we found that the Freundlich is more suitable than the BET isotherm in fitting the data. It is also easier to combine the Freundlich isotherm with the van Genuchten model. The new model accounts for (1) the different types of clay minerals, (2) the different types of ions sorbed in the Stern layer and on the basal planes of 2:1 clays, and (3) the pore size distribution. The model is validated with different data sets, including mixtures of kaolinite and bentonite. The model parameters include two exponents (the pore size exponent of the van Genuchten model and the exponent of the Freundlich isotherm), the capillary entry pressure, and two critical water contents. The first critical water content is the water content at saturation (porosity), and the second is the maximum water content associated with adsorption forces, including the trapped nonbound water.

  2. Scaling in Supersonic Isothermal Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kritsuk, A. G.; Wagner, R.; Norman, M. L.

    2015-10-01

    An exact relation for third-order structure functions in isothermal compressible turbulence (Galtier & Banerjee 2011) is verified using numerical data from a simulation at Mach 6. The analysis supports a Kolmogorov-like cascade phenomenology and yields a reduced version of the relation for high Mach number turbulence.

  3. Comparative analysis of mono- and polyelement adsorption of copper, lead, and zinc by an ordinary chernozem from nitrate and acetate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinskii, D. L.; Minkina, T. M.; Gaponova, Yu. I.

    2010-07-01

    Isotherms of mono- and polyelement adsorption of Cu2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+ by an ordinary chernozem were described by the Langmuir equation. The values of the adsorption constant k decreased in the range Cu2+ > Pb2+ ≫ Zn2+ for the monoelement adsorption from nitrate and acetate salt solutions, Cu2+ > Pb2+ > Zn2+ for the polyelement adsorption from nitrate solutions, and Pb2+ > Cu2+ ≫ Zn2+ for the polyelement adsorption from acetate solutions. The maximum adsorption ( C max, ∞) of individual cations at the polyelement contamination was always lower than at the monoelement contamination because of the mutual competition. At the same time, the values of k for the polyelement adsorption were higher than those for the monoelement adsorption because heavy metals (HMs) interact with most of the specific adsorption centers. It was shown that the ratio between the content of exchangeable cations displaced from the soil exchangeable complex (SEC) into the solution and the content of adsorbed HMs decreased with the increasing concentration of adsorbed HMs. These values could be higher (for Cu2+), equal, or lower than 1 (for Pb2+ and Zn2+). In the former case, this was due to the dissolution of readily soluble salts at low HM concentrations in the SEC. In the latter case, this was related to the adsorption of associated HMs and the formation of new phases localized on the surface of soil particles at high HM concentrations in the SEC.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of loop-mediated isothermal amplification in detection of Clostridium difficile in stool samples: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chen; Yang-Ming, Li; Shan, Luo; Yi-Ming, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. More recently, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has become readily available for the diagnosis of CDI, and many studies have investigated the usefulness of LAMP for rapid and accurate diagnosis of CDI. However, the overall diagnostic accuracy of LAMP for CDI remains unclear. In this meta-analysis, our aim was to establish the overall diagnostic accuracy of LAMP in detection of Clostridium difficile (CD) in stool samples. Material and methods A search was done in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases up to February 2014 to identify published studies that evaluated the diagnostic role of LAMP for CD. Methodological quality was assessed according to the quality assessment for studies of diagnostic accuracy (QUADAS) instrument. The sensitivities (SEN), specificities (SPE), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR) and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were pooled statistically using random effects models. Statistical analysis was performed by employing Meta-Disc 1.4 software. Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves were used to summarize overall test performance. Funnel plots were used to test the potential publication bias. Result A total of 9 studies met inclusion criteria for the present meta-analysis. The pooled SEN and SPE for diagnosing CD were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.91–0.95) and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.98–0.99), respectively. The PLR was 47.72 (95% CI: 15.10–150.82), NLR was 0.07 (95% CI: 0.04–0.14) and DOR was 745.19 (95% CI: 229.30−2421.72). The area under the ROC was 0.98. Meta-regression indicated that the total number of samples was a source of heterogeneity for LAMP in detection of CD. The funnel plots suggested no publication bias. Conclusions The LAMP meets the minimum desirable characteristics of a diagnostic test of SEN, SPE and other measures of accuracy in the diagnosis of CD, and it is suitable

  5. An analysis of isothermal, bithermal, and thermomechanical fatigue data of Haynes 188 and B1900+Hf by energy considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, V. M.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Halford, Gary R.

    1993-01-01

    The low-cycle fatigue behavior of Haynes 188 and B1900+Hf under isothermal, bithermal, and thermomechanical loading conditions has been analyzed on the basis of the total hysteresis energy expended per cycle. It has been observed that in the case of isothermal fatigue the total hysteresis energy correlates well with the fatigue life. In the case of bithermal 'high rate' fatigue, for a given total hysteresis energy per cycle, the fatigue life is equal to or greater than the isothermal fatigue life at the maximum bithermal temperature. This observation could be used to establish a lower bound on life for design purposes. In one case of bithermal creep-fatigue and in thermomechanical fatigue, the life is shorter than that corresponding to the isothermal life at the maximum temperature. The energy supplied, per se, may not always give a systematic correlation with the fatigue life in the cases where time-dependent creep and environmental effects are encountered. Thus, in bithermal creep-fatigue and thermomechanical fatigue, the role of creep and environment and their dependence on the energy supplied have to be properly accounted for before the energy term can be used for life prediction.

  6. Adsorption mechanism in RPLC. Effect of the nature of the organic modifier

    SciTech Connect

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-07-01

    The adsorption isotherms of phenol and caffeine were acquired by frontal analysis on two different adsorbents, Kromasil-C{sub 18} and Discovery-C{sub 18}, with two different mobile phases, aqueous solutions of methanol (MeOH/H{sub 2}O = 40/60 and 30/70, v/v) and aqueous solutions of acetonitrile (MeCN/H{sub 2}O = 30/70 and 20/80, v/v). The adsorption isotherms are always strictly convex upward in methanol/water solutions. The calculations of the adsorption energy distribution confirm that the adsorption data for phenol are best modeled with the bi-Langmuir and the tri-Langmuir isotherm models for Kromasil-C{sub 18} and Discovery-C{sub 18}, respectively. Because its molecule is larger and excluded from the deepest sites buried in the bonded layer, the adsorption data of caffeine follow bi-Langmuir isotherm model behavior on both adsorbents. In contrast, with acetonitrile/water solutions, the adsorption data of both phenol and caffeine deviate far less from linear behavior. They were best modeled by the sum of a Langmuir and a BET isotherm models. The Langmuir term represents the adsorption of the analyte on the high-energy sites located within the C{sub 18} layers and the BET term its adsorption on the low-energy sites and its accumulation in an adsorbed multilayer system of acetonitrile on the bonded alkyl chains. The formation of a complex adsorbed phase containing up to four layers of acetonitrile (with a thickness of 3.4 {angstrom} each) was confirmed by the excess adsorption isotherm data measured for acetonitrile on Discovery-C{sub 18}. A simple interpretation of this change in the isotherm curvature at high concentrations when methanol is replaced with acetonitrile as the organic modifier is proposed, based on the structure of the interface between the C{sub 18} chains and the bulk mobile phase. This new model accounts for all the experimental observations.

  7. Isothermal separation processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.

    1982-01-01

    The isothermal processes of membrane separation, supercritical extraction and chromatography were examined using availability analysis. The general approach was to derive equations that identified where energy is consumed in these processes and how they compare with conventional separation methods. These separation methods are characterized by pure work inputs, chiefly in the form of a pressure drop which supplies the required energy. Equations were derived for the energy requirement in terms of regular solution theory. This approach is believed to accurately predict the work of separation in terms of the heat of solution and the entropy of mixing. It can form the basis of a convenient calculation method for optimizing membrane and solvent properties for particular applications. Calculations were made on the energy requirements for a membrane process separating air into its components.

  8. On-Chip Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification on Flow-Based Chemiluminescence Microarray Analysis Platform for the Detection of Viruses and Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kunze, A; Dilcher, M; Abd El Wahed, A; Hufert, F; Niessner, R; Seidel, M

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an on-chip isothermal nucleic acid amplification test (iNAAT) for the multiplex amplification and detection of viral and bacterial DNA by a flow-based chemiluminescence microarray. In a principle study, on-chip recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) on defined spots of a DNA microarray was used to spatially separate the amplification reaction of DNA from two viruses (Human adenovirus 41, Phi X 174) and the bacterium Enterococcus faecalis, which are relevant for water hygiene. By establishing the developed assay on the microarray analysis platform MCR 3, the automation of isothermal multiplex-amplification (39 °C, 40 min) and subsequent detection by chemiluminescence imaging was realized. Within 48 min, the microbes could be identified by the spot position on the microarray while the generated chemiluminescence signal correlated with the amount of applied microbe DNA. The limit of detection (LOD) determined for HAdV 41, Phi X 174, and E. faecalis was 35 GU/μL, 1 GU/μL, and 5 × 10(3) GU/μL (genomic units), which is comparable to the sensitivity reported for qPCR analysis, respectively. Moreover the simultaneous amplification and detection of DNA from all three microbes was possible. The presented assay shows that complex enzymatic reactions like an isothermal amplification can be performed in an easy-to-use experimental setup. Furthermore, iNAATs can be potent candidates for multipathogen detection in clinical, food, or environmental samples in routine or field monitoring approaches.

  9. Tetraethylenepentamine embedded zeolite A for carbon dioxide adsorption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ki; Mo, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Jun; You, Hyo-Sang; Yi, Chang-Keun; Park, Young Cheol; Park, Sang-Eon

    2013-04-01

    Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) embedded zeolite A crystals were synthesized by using TEPA and the preformed zeolite A precursor under the microwave irradiation. The presence of TEPA in zeolite A crystal was confirmed by TG analysis and FTIR, Raman spectra. The CO2 adsorptive behavior of TEPA embedded zeolite A samples was investigated by CO2 isotherms measured at 25 degrees C comparing with zeolite A. The optimum CO2 sorption capacity was found in the case of 7.5% TEPA embedded zeolite A, which showed 3.75 mmol g(-1) where as the zeolite A showed less CO2 adsorption capacity of 2.88 mmol g(-1). The adsorption capacity of TEPA embedded Zeolite A was sustained up to 90% during 4 cycles of temperature swing adsorption (TSA) from 40 degrees C to 140 degrees C, indicating that the TEPA embedded Zeolite A was found to be useful as one of the application to solid amine adsorbent for CO2.

  10. Sonochemical assisted hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO: Cr nanoparticles loaded activated carbon for simultaneous ultrasound-assisted adsorption of ternary toxic organic dye: Derivative spectrophotometric, optimization, kinetic and isotherm study.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, M; Ghaedi, M; Dashtian, K; Hajati, S; Bazrafshan, A A

    2016-09-01

    Chromium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO: Cr-NPs) was synthesized by ultrasonically assisted hydrothermal method and characterized by FE-SEM, XRD and TEM analysis. Subsequently, this composite ultrasonically assisted was deposited on activated carbon (ZnO: Cr-NPs-AC) and used for simultaneous ultrasound-assisted removal of three toxic organic dye namely of malachite green (MG), eosin yellow (EY) and Auramine O (AO). Dyes spectra overlap in mixture (major problem for simultaneous investigation) of this systems was extensively resolved by derivative spectrophotometric method. The magnitude of variables like initial dyes concentration, adsorbent mass and sonication time influence on dyes removal was optimized using small central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function (DF) approach, while pH was studied by one-a-time approach. The maximized removal percentages at desirability of 0.9740 was set as follow: pH 6.0, 0.019g ZnO: Cr-NPs-AC, 3.9min sonication at 4.5, 4.8 and 4.7mgL(-1) of MG, EY and AO, respectively. Above optimized points lead to achievement of removal percentage of 98.36%, 97.24%, and 99.26% correspond to MG, EY and AO, respectively. ANOVA for each dyes based p-value less than (<0.0001) suggest highly efficiency of CCD model for prediction of data concern to simultaneous removal of these dyes within 95% confidence interval, while their F-value for MG, EY and AO is 935, 800.2, and 551.3, respectively, that confirm low participation of this them in signal. The value of multiple correlation coefficient R(2), adjusted and predicted R(2) for simultaneous removal of MG is 0.9982, 0.9972 and 0.9940, EY is 0.9979, 0.9967 and 0.9930 and for AO is 0.9970, 0.9952 and 0.9939. The adsorption rate well fitted by pseudo second-order and Langmuir model via high, economic and profitable adsorption capacity of 214.0, 189.7 and 211.6mgg(-1) for MG, EY and AO, respectively. PMID:27150752

  11. Sonochemical assisted hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO: Cr nanoparticles loaded activated carbon for simultaneous ultrasound-assisted adsorption of ternary toxic organic dye: Derivative spectrophotometric, optimization, kinetic and isotherm study.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, M; Ghaedi, M; Dashtian, K; Hajati, S; Bazrafshan, A A

    2016-09-01

    Chromium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO: Cr-NPs) was synthesized by ultrasonically assisted hydrothermal method and characterized by FE-SEM, XRD and TEM analysis. Subsequently, this composite ultrasonically assisted was deposited on activated carbon (ZnO: Cr-NPs-AC) and used for simultaneous ultrasound-assisted removal of three toxic organic dye namely of malachite green (MG), eosin yellow (EY) and Auramine O (AO). Dyes spectra overlap in mixture (major problem for simultaneous investigation) of this systems was extensively resolved by derivative spectrophotometric method. The magnitude of variables like initial dyes concentration, adsorbent mass and sonication time influence on dyes removal was optimized using small central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function (DF) approach, while pH was studied by one-a-time approach. The maximized removal percentages at desirability of 0.9740 was set as follow: pH 6.0, 0.019g ZnO: Cr-NPs-AC, 3.9min sonication at 4.5, 4.8 and 4.7mgL(-1) of MG, EY and AO, respectively. Above optimized points lead to achievement of removal percentage of 98.36%, 97.24%, and 99.26% correspond to MG, EY and AO, respectively. ANOVA for each dyes based p-value less than (<0.0001) suggest highly efficiency of CCD model for prediction of data concern to simultaneous removal of these dyes within 95% confidence interval, while their F-value for MG, EY and AO is 935, 800.2, and 551.3, respectively, that confirm low participation of this them in signal. The value of multiple correlation coefficient R(2), adjusted and predicted R(2) for simultaneous removal of MG is 0.9982, 0.9972 and 0.9940, EY is 0.9979, 0.9967 and 0.9930 and for AO is 0.9970, 0.9952 and 0.9939. The adsorption rate well fitted by pseudo second-order and Langmuir model via high, economic and profitable adsorption capacity of 214.0, 189.7 and 211.6mgg(-1) for MG, EY and AO, respectively.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and mercury adsorption properties of hybrid mesoporous aluminosilicate sieve prepared with fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Minmin; Hou, Li-an; Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Ying; Xia, Xunfeng

    2013-05-01

    A novel hybrid mesoporous aluminosilicate sieve (HMAS) was prepared with fly ash and impregnated with zeolite A precursors. This improved the mercury adsorption of HMAS compared to original MCM-41. The HMAS was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and 29Si and 27Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectra. These showed that the HMAS structure was still retained after impregnated with zeolite A. But the surface area and pore diameter of HMAS decreased due to pore blockage. Adsorption of mercury from aqueous solution was studied on untreated MCM-41and HMAS. The mercury adsorption rate of HMAS was higher than that of origin MCM-41. The adsorption of mercury was investigated on HMAS regarding the pH of mercury solution, initial mercury concentration, and the reaction temperature. The experimental data fit well to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Dublin-Radushkevich isotherm and the characterization show that the mercury adsorption on HMAS involved the ion-exchange mechanisms. In addition, the thermodynamic parameters suggest that the adsorption process was endothermic in nature. The adsorption of mercury on HMAS followed the first order kinetics.

  13. Adsorption of soluble oil from water to graphene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Zhang, Yuchang; Zhu, Fuzhen; Li, Jingyi; Liu, Shuaishuai; Na, Ping

    2014-05-01

    The toxicity of soluble oil to the aquatic environment has started to attract wide attention in recent years. In the present work, we prepare graphene according to oxidation and thermal reduction methods for the removal of soluble oil from the solution. Characterization of the as-prepared graphene are performed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle analysis. The adsorption behavior of soluble oil on graphene is examined, and the obtained adsorption data are modeled using conventional theoretical models. Adsorption experiments reveal that the adsorption rate of soluble oil on graphene is notably fast, especially for the soluble diesel oil, which could reach equilibrium within 30 min, and the kinetics of adsorption is perfectly consistent with a pseudo-second-order model. Furthermore, it is determined that the adsorption isotherm of soluble diesel oil with graphene fit the Freundlich model best, and graphene has a very strong adsorption capacity for soluble diesel oil in the solution. These results demonstrate that graphene is the material that provided both good adsorptive capacity and good kinetics, implying that it could be used as a promising sorbent for soluble oil removal from wastewater.

  14. Impact of biochar produced from post-harvest residue on the adsorption behavior of diesel oil on loess soil.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu Feng; Sun, Hang; Yves, Uwamungu J; Li, Hong; Hu, Xue Fei

    2016-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biochar, produced from wheat residue at different temperatures, on the adsorption of diesel oil by loess soil. Kinetic and equilibrium data were processed to understand the adsorption mechanism of diesel by biochar-affected loess soil; dynamic and thermodynamic adsorption experiments were conducted to characterize this adsorption. The surface features and chemical structure of biochar, modified at varying pyrolytic temperatures, were investigated using surface scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis. The kinetic data showed that the adsorption of diesel oil onto loess soil could be described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with the rate-controlling step being intraparticle diffusion. However, in the presence of biochar, boundary layer control and intraparticle diffusion were both involved in the adsorption. Besides, the adsorption equilibrium data were well described by the Freundlich isothermal model. The saturated adsorption capacity weakened as temperature increased, suggesting a spontaneous exothermic process. Thermodynamic parameter analysis showed that adsorption was mainly a physical process and was enhanced by chemical adsorption. The adsorption capacity of loess soil for diesel oil was weakened with increasing pH. The biochar produced by pyrolytic wheat residue increased the adsorption behavior of petroleum pollutants in loess soil.

  15. [Adsorption Characteristics of Norfloxacin by Biochars Derived from Reed Straw and Municipal Sludge].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han-yu; Wang, Zhao-wei; Gao, Jun-hong; Zhu, Jun-min; Xie, Chao-ran; Xie, Xiao-yun

    2016-02-15

    Two types of biochars were prepared by pyrolyzing reed straw and municipal sludge at the temperature of 500 degrees C. The structure and properties of biochars were characterized by BET, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ( FTIR ). The effects of pH value, adsorption time, temperature and initial concentration of norfloxacin (NOR) on the adsorption behaviors were determined by single factor experiments, which were used to preliminarily discuss adsorption mechanism. The results showed that the adsorption of NOR onto biochars derived from reed straw and municipal sludge could reach 70% and 60% of the total adsorption within 12 h, respectively; the maximum adsorption capacities of the two biochars were 2.13 mg x g(-1) (biochar derived from reed straw) and 2.09 mg x g(-1) (biochar derived from municipal sludge). The quantities of both absorptions increased with the decreasing solution pH. The two adsorption kinetics of NOR onto biochars followed the pseudo second order kinetic equations, and adsorption isotherms fitted well with the Langmuir equations. Adsorption thermodynamics parameters such as Gibbs free energy (AG), enthalpy (AH) and entropy (AS) indicated that the two adsorptions were endothermic reactions. Infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated that oxygen-containing functional groups on biochars provided NOR molecules with adsorptive sites, which facilitated the formation of hydrogen bonds between NOR and the biochars.

  16. [Adsorption Characteristics of Norfloxacin by Biochars Derived from Reed Straw and Municipal Sludge].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han-yu; Wang, Zhao-wei; Gao, Jun-hong; Zhu, Jun-min; Xie, Chao-ran; Xie, Xiao-yun

    2016-02-15

    Two types of biochars were prepared by pyrolyzing reed straw and municipal sludge at the temperature of 500 degrees C. The structure and properties of biochars were characterized by BET, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ( FTIR ). The effects of pH value, adsorption time, temperature and initial concentration of norfloxacin (NOR) on the adsorption behaviors were determined by single factor experiments, which were used to preliminarily discuss adsorption mechanism. The results showed that the adsorption of NOR onto biochars derived from reed straw and municipal sludge could reach 70% and 60% of the total adsorption within 12 h, respectively; the maximum adsorption capacities of the two biochars were 2.13 mg x g(-1) (biochar derived from reed straw) and 2.09 mg x g(-1) (biochar derived from municipal sludge). The quantities of both absorptions increased with the decreasing solution pH. The two adsorption kinetics of NOR onto biochars followed the pseudo second order kinetic equations, and adsorption isotherms fitted well with the Langmuir equations. Adsorption thermodynamics parameters such as Gibbs free energy (AG), enthalpy (AH) and entropy (AS) indicated that the two adsorptions were endothermic reactions. Infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated that oxygen-containing functional groups on biochars provided NOR molecules with adsorptive sites, which facilitated the formation of hydrogen bonds between NOR and the biochars. PMID:27363161

  17. Isothermal and Adiabatic Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNairy, William W.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the working of the Adiabatic Gas Law Apparatus, a useful tool for measuring the pressure, temperature, and volume of a variety of gases undergoing compressions and expansions. Describes the adaptation of this apparatus to perform isothermal measurements and discusses the theory behind the adiabatic and isothermal processes. (JRH)

  18. Analysis of the sorption properties of different soils using water vapour adsorption and potentiometric titration methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skic, Kamil; Boguta, Patrycja; Sokołowska, Zofia

    2016-07-01

    Parameters of specific surface area as well as surface charge were used to determine and compare sorption properties of soils with different physicochemical characteristics. The gravimetric method was used to obtain water vapour isotherms and then specific surface areas, whereas surface charge was estimated from potentiometric titration curves. The specific surface area varied from 12.55 to 132.69 m2 g-1 for Haplic Cambisol and Mollic Gleysol soil, respectively, and generally decreased with pH (R=0.835; α = 0.05) and when bulk density (R=-0.736; α = 0.05) as well as ash content (R=-0.751; α = 0.05) increased. In the case of surface charge, the values ranged from 63.00 to 844.67 μmol g-1 Haplic Fluvisol and Mollic Gleysol, respecively. Organic matter gave significant contributions to the specific surface area and cation exchange capacity due to the large surface area and numerous surface functional groups, containing adsorption sites for water vapour molecules and for ions. The values of cation exchange capacity and specific surface area correlated linearly at the level of R=0.985; α = 0.05.

  19. Mathematical techniques to characterize nitrogen isotherms from eroded sediments under conventional tillage and no tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinho, M. D.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.

    2011-12-01

    Soil specific surface area (SSA) is one of the most important soil properties as it affects chemical reactivity, cation exchange capacity and, in general, nutrient holding capacity. The SSA of a soil mainly depends on texture, clay type and organic matter content, which in turn are factors affecting the erosion potential. An important consideration in the link between soil erosion and nutrient transfer to waters is the well-documented relation between SSA (or particle size distribution) and nutrient losses. Because, sediment erosion and transport processes are particle size dependent, they influence also SSA. Characterization of both, soil nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms by monofractal and multifractal analysis has been demonstrated to be an useful tool, which allows a better understanding of the organization of the soil colloidal complex. Here, we report measures of nitrogen isotherm in sediments produced under three different management histories and we characterize them by various mathematical techniques including fractal and multifractal analysis. Soil and water losses from an Oxisol were evaluated under natural rain, at the experimental station of UNICAMP/ FEAGRI, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Experimental plots were 20 m x 30 m (i.e. 600 m2) and the management systems compared were no-tillage and two different conventional tillage techniques. Specific surface area determined by the classical BET method was significantly lower in sediments eroded from the no-tilled than from the tilled plots. The scaling properties of both nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms from all the studied sediment samples could be fitted reasonably well with multifractal models. Various fractal and multifractal parameters obtained from the adsorption and desorption characteristics also were useful to differentiate the impact of tillage treatment on the adsorption and desorption characteristics of the eroded sediments. Reasons for such differences have been already explored.

  20. Enthalpy contributions to adsorption of highly charged lysozyme onto a cation-exchanger under linear and overloaded conditions.

    PubMed

    Silva, G L; Marques, F S; Thrash, M E; Dias-Cabral, A C

    2014-07-25

    An investigation of the adsorption mechanism of lysozyme onto carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was conducted using flow calorimetry and adsorption isotherm measurements. This study was undertaken to provide additional insight into the underlying mechanisms involved in protein adsorption that traditional approaches such isotherm measurements or van't Hoff analysis can't always provide, particularly when protein adsorption occurs under overloaded conditions. Lysozyme and CMC were selected for this study because the characteristics of the protein and the adsorbent are well known, hence, allowing the focus of this work to be on the driving forces influencing adsorption. Calorimetry results have showed that lysozyme adsorption onto CMC produced both exothermic and endothermic heats of adsorption. More specifically flow calorimetry data coupled with peak deconvolution methods illustrated a series of chronological events that included dilution, primary protein adsorption, rearrangement of surface proteins and a secondary adsorption of lysozyme molecules. The observations and conclusions derived from the experimental work presented in our figures and tables were developed within the mechanistic framework proposed by Lin et al., J. Chromatogr. A. 912 (2001) 281.

  1. The Adsorption of Reactive Blue 19 Dye onto Cucurbit[8]uril and Cucurbit[6]uril: An Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaomei; Li, Xiaolei; Luo, Hanhan; Lu, Huijuan; Chen, Feifei; Li, Wei

    2016-05-01

    The adsorption behavior and mechanism of Reactive Blue 19 (RB19) on cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) and cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) were investigated. The adsorption isotherm data obtained at different temperatures were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm, and according to this model, CB[8] and CB[6] exhibited maximum monolayer adsorption capacities of 714.29 and 100.5 mg/g, respectively, at 298.15 K. The adsorption thermodynamic functions ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS were evaluated and revealed that RB19 adsorption onto CB[8] and CB[6] is a spontaneous and enthalpy-driven process. The adsorption process was determined to follow pseudo-second-order kinetics, indicating that chemisorption dominates the adsorption process. Fourier tranform IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed that the formation of an inclusion complex is the main driving force of adsorption. The phenyl and sulfone moieties of RB19 reside inside the cavity of CB[8], but because of the small cavity, only the sulfone of RB19 resides inside the cavity of CB[6]. Time-dependent DFT calculations revealed that all of the absorption bands of RB19 derive from π → π* transitions, while for the adsorption product of CB[8], the bands located at 590 and 287 nm derive from π → π* transitions and the bands located at 254 and 202 nm mainly derive from intermolecular charge transfer (ICT). PMID:27064317

  2. Kinetic and equilibrium studies on the removal of acid dyes from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto activated carbon cloth.

    PubMed

    Hoda, Numan; Bayram, Edip; Ayranci, Erol

    2006-09-01

    Removal of acid dyes Acid Blue 45, Acid Blue 92, Acid Blue 120 and Acid Blue 129 from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto high area activated carbon cloth (ACC) was investigated. Kinetics of adsorption was followed by in situ UV-spectroscopy and the data were treated according to pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. It was found that the adsorption process of these dyes onto ACC follows the pseudo-second-order model. Adsorption isotherms were derived at 25 degrees C on the basis of batch analysis. Isotherm data were treated according to Langmuir and Freundlich models. The fits of experimental data to these equations were examined. PMID:16563617

  3. Ozone treatment of coal- and coffee grounds-based active carbons: Water vapor adsorption and surface fractal micropores

    SciTech Connect

    Tsunoda, Ryoichi; Ozawa, Takayoshi; Ando, Junichi

    1998-09-15

    Characteristics of the adsorption iostherms of water vapor on active carbons from coal and coffee grounds and those ozonized ones from the surface fractal dimension analysis are discussed. The upswing of the adsorption isotherms in the low relative pressure of coffee grounds-based active carbon, of which isotherms were not scarcely affected on ozonization, was attributed to the adsorption of water molecules on the metallic oxides playing the role of oxygen-surface complexes, which formed the corrugated surfaces on the basal planes of micropore walls with the surface fractal dimension D{sub s} > 2. On the other hand, coal-based active carbon with D{sub s} < 2, which indicated the flat surfaces of micropore walls, showed little effect on the upswing even on ozonization, even though the adsorption amounts of water vapor were increased in the low relative pressure.

  4. Adsorption of cinnabarinic acid from culture fluid with magnetic microbeads.

    PubMed

    Göçenoğlu Sarıkaya, Aslı; Osman, Bilgen; Kara, Ali; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan; Beşirli, Necati

    2016-02-01

    In this study, antimicrobial pigment cinnabarinic acid (CA) was produced from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus in laboratory-scale batch cultures. Magnetic poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-N-methacryloyl-l-tryptophan methyl ester) [m-poly(EGDMA-MATrp)] beads (average diameter = 53-103 µm) were synthesized by copolymerizing of N-methacryloyl-l-tryptophan methyl ester (MATrp) with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) in the presence of magnetite (Fe3O4) and used for the adsorption of CA. The m-poly(EGDMA-MATrp) beads were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms (Brunauer Emmet Teller), X-ray photoelecron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, electron spin resonance and swelling studies. The efficiency of m-poly(EGDMA-MATrp) beads for separation of CA from culture fluid was evaluated. The effects of pH, initial concentration, contact time and temperature on adsorption were analyzed. The maximum CA adsorption capacity of the m-poly(EGDMA-MATrp) beads was 272.9 mg g(-1) at pH 7.0, 25 °C. All the isotherm data can be fitted with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The adsorption process obeyed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic parameters ΔH = 5.056 kJ mol(-1), ΔS = 52.44 J K(-1)  mol(-1) and ΔG = -9.424 kJ mol-(1) to -11.27 kJ mol-(1) with the rise in temperature from 4 to 40 °C indicated that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous. PMID:25994378

  5. Adsorption of cinnabarinic acid from culture fluid with magnetic microbeads.

    PubMed

    Göçenoğlu Sarıkaya, Aslı; Osman, Bilgen; Kara, Ali; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan; Beşirli, Necati

    2016-02-01

    In this study, antimicrobial pigment cinnabarinic acid (CA) was produced from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus in laboratory-scale batch cultures. Magnetic poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-N-methacryloyl-l-tryptophan methyl ester) [m-poly(EGDMA-MATrp)] beads (average diameter = 53-103 µm) were synthesized by copolymerizing of N-methacryloyl-l-tryptophan methyl ester (MATrp) with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) in the presence of magnetite (Fe3O4) and used for the adsorption of CA. The m-poly(EGDMA-MATrp) beads were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms (Brunauer Emmet Teller), X-ray photoelecron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, electron spin resonance and swelling studies. The efficiency of m-poly(EGDMA-MATrp) beads for separation of CA from culture fluid was evaluated. The effects of pH, initial concentration, contact time and temperature on adsorption were analyzed. The maximum CA adsorption capacity of the m-poly(EGDMA-MATrp) beads was 272.9 mg g(-1) at pH 7.0, 25 °C. All the isotherm data can be fitted with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The adsorption process obeyed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic parameters ΔH = 5.056 kJ mol(-1), ΔS = 52.44 J K(-1)  mol(-1) and ΔG = -9.424 kJ mol-(1) to -11.27 kJ mol-(1) with the rise in temperature from 4 to 40 °C indicated that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous.

  6. Liquid Phase Adsorption of α-Tocopherol by Activated Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bono, Awang; Ming, Chu Chi; Sundang, Murni

    α-Tocopherol or commonly called vitamin E can be found in major commercial vegetable oils such as soya oil and palm oil. However the existence in these oil is in low concentration. The recovery of low concentration of α-tocopherol from palm oils is increasingly popular. Adsorption technique for the recovery of α-tocopherol from palm oil is believed to be much lower in cost and more effective. As a case study in this work, activated carbon is chosen as the adsorbent and ethanol as the solvent. The adsorption equilibria of α-tocopherol onto activated carbon was conducted in batch and the concentration of α-tocopherol was identified by LCMS. Langmuirian monolayer adsorption theory was used for the analysis of the isotherm equilibria. The adsorptivity of α-tocopherol onto activated carbon was identified. The adsorption equilibria at low concentration found to be linear. The breakthrough curve was then generated using model assuming isothermal, single transition trace component with intraparticle diffusion. Sensitivity test on the curve indicated that the system is very sensitive to changes in diffusitivity and passive to changes on the equilibrium constant.

  7. Adsorption behavior of Zn(II) on calcinated Chinese loess.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaowu; Li, Zhenze; Chen, Yunmin

    2009-01-30

    Chinese loess has proven to be effective in removing Zn(II) from aqueous solutions, but the resultant adsorbent-water slurry is difficult to separate. In this paper, the crude loess was calcinated to improve the separation efficiency of slurries in terms of sedimentary rate by increasing the particle sizes of the adsorbent. The sorption capacities of different sorbents, including crude loess, calcinated loess, de-organic crude loess and acid-treated calcinated loess, were obtained and sequenced. The adsorption capacity of the calcinated loess towards Zn(II) was found to be as high as 113.6 mg g(-1). The adsorption isotherms and kinetics of calcinated loess were best-fit with the Freundlich isotherm and the pseudo-second order kinetics, respectively. The thermodynamic analysis revealed that the adsorption was exothermic and spontaneous with a high preference for Zn(II) removal. The adsorption of Zn(II) on calcinated loess implies an ion exchange of the solute with calcite and goethite due to the observed FT-IR and XRD patterns as well as the predicted mean free energies (-11.58 to -9.28 kJ mol(-1) by D-R model). The byproduct of adsorption can be purified and refreshed by using a 0.01 M HCl solution.

  8. Fractional Statistical Theory of Adsorption of Polyatomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardo, J. L.; Ramirez-Pastor, A. J.; Romá, F.

    2004-10-01

    A new theoretical description of fractional statistical theory of adsorption (FSTA) phenomena is presented based on Haldane’s statistics. Thermodynamic functions for adsorption of polyatomics are analytically developed. The entropy is characterized by an exclusion parameter g, which relates to the configuration of the admolecules and surface geometry. FSTA provides a simple framework to address a large class of complex adsorption systems. Comparisons of theoretical adsorption isotherms with experiments and simulations indicate that adsorption configuration and adsorption energy can accurately be assessed from this theory.

  9. Fractional statistical theory of adsorption of polyatomics.

    PubMed

    Riccardo, J L; Ramirez-Pastor, A J; Romá, F

    2004-10-29

    A new theoretical description of fractional statistical theory of adsorption (FSTA) phenomena is presented based on Haldane's statistics. Thermodynamic functions for adsorption of polyatomics are analytically developed. The entropy is characterized by an exclusion parameter g, which relates to the configuration of the admolecules and surface geometry. FSTA provides a simple framework to address a large class of complex adsorption systems. Comparisons of theoretical adsorption isotherms with experiments and simulations indicate that adsorption configuration and adsorption energy can accurately be assessed from this theory. PMID:15525184

  10. Adsorption of nicotine from aqueous solution onto hydrophobic zeolite type USY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarevic, Natasa; Adnadjevic, Borivoj; Jovanovic, Jelena

    2011-07-01

    The isothermal adsorption of nicotine from an aqueous solution onto zeolite type USY was investigated. The adsorption isotherms of nicotine onto the zeolite at different temperatures ranging from 298 to 322 K were determined. It was found that the adsorption isotherms can be described by the model of Freundlich adsorption isotherm. Based on the adsorption isotherms the changes of adsorption heat, free energy and entropy with adsorption degree were determined. The determined decrease of adsorption heat with adsorption degree can be explained by the presence of the adsorption centers of different energy and concentration on interface of zeolite-nicotine solution. It was found that the probability function of density distribution of the heat of adsorption (DDF) has exponential form. It was concluded that the possibility of fitting the adsorption isotherms of nicotine onto the zeolite by Freundlich adsorption isotherm was a direct consequence of that. The determined increase in entropy with the increase in adsorption degree can be explained with the change of phase state of adsorbed nicotine.

  11. Time-resolved chromatographic analysis and mechanisms in adsorption and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Roubani-Kalantzopoulou, Fani

    2009-03-01

    The main object of this review is the study of fundamentals of adsorption and heterogeneous catalysis, a benefit for the understanding of adsorptive and catalytic properties. This work aims to define and record, with the utmost accuracy, the phenomena and the possible reactions. A new methodology for the study of the adsorption is presented, which is a version of the well-known inverse gas chromatography. This reversed-flow inverse gas chromatography (RF-IGC) is technically very simple, and it is combined with a mathematical analysis that gives the possibility for the estimation of various physicochemical parameters related to adsorbent or catalyst characterization, under conditions compatible with the operation of real adsorbents and catalysts. On this base, this methodology has been successfully applied to the study of the impact of air pollutants, volatile organic and/or inorganic, on many solids such as marbles, ceramics, oxide-pigments of works of art, building materials, authentic statues of the Greek Archaeological Museums. Moreover, this methodology proved to be a powerful tool for studying the topography of active sites of heterogeneous surfaces in the nano-scale domain. Thus, some very important local quantities for the surface chemistry have been determined experimentally for many solids including thin films. These physicochemical local quantities (among which adsorption energy and entropy, surface diffusion coefficient, probability density function) have been determined from the experimental pairs of height of extra chromatographic peaks and time by a nonlinear least-squares method, through personal computer programs written in GW BASIC and lately in FORTRAN. Through the time-resolved analysis the surface characterization of the examined materials took place. In addition, the kinetic constants responsible for adsorption/desorption and surface chemical reactions have also been calculated. Thus, important answers have been provided to the following

  12. Adsorption of mercury from water by modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes: adsorption behaviour and interference resistance by coexisting anions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Paris Honglay; Hsu, Cheng-Feng; Tsai, David Dah-wei; Lu, Yen-Ming; Huang, Winn-Jung

    2014-08-01

    This investigation reports the use of modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with various functional groups for adsorbing inorganic divalent mercury (Hg(II)) from water samples. To elucidate the behaviours and mechanisms of Hg(II) adsorption by modified MWCNTs, their adsorption capacity was studied by considering adsorption isotherms and kinetics. Particular attention was paid to interference of coexisting inorganic ions with Hg(II) adsorption. The results reveal that functionalization with oxygen-containing groups improved the Hg(II) adsorption capacity of the MWCNTs. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that the adsorption of Hg(II) by MWCNTs was closely described by the pseudo-second-order and Elovich models, suggesting that the adsorption of Hg(II) by MWCNTs was significantly affected by chemical adsorption. The kinetic results were also analysed using the intraparticle diffusion model, which revealed that intraparticle diffusion was not the only rate-controlling mechanism. The adsorption of Hg(II) on MWCNTs fell drastically as the ionic strength increased from 0 to 1.0mol/L chloride ions, and declined significantly as the pH increased from 2.2 to 10.5. The elemental maps obtained by energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) revealed the formation of surface complexes of chloride ions with functional groups on MWCNTs, which reduced the number of available sites for the adsorption of Hg(II) and strengthened the repulsive forces between Hg(II) and MWCNTs. The EDS results suggest that chloride ions are important in controlling Hg(II) speciation and adsorption on the surfaces of MWCNTs.

  13. Radiation synthesis of spherical cellulose-based adsorbent for efficient adsorption and detoxification of Cr(VI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Du, Jifu; Li, Cancan; Zhao, Long

    2016-09-01

    Spherical cellulose-based adsorbent (2-AMPR) with 2-aminomethyl pyridine was synthesized by radiation method. The adsorption behaviors of 2-AMPR for Cr(VI) removal were evaluated through batch and column experiments. The results presented that the adsorption kinetics well obeyed pseudo-second-order mode and the adsorption isotherm of Cr(VI) followed the Langmuir model with adsorption capacity of 209.6 mg/g at optimal pH 2.0. Dynamical experiments revealed that the 2-AMPR could selectively and simultaneously separate and detoxify trace amount of Cr(VI) even from simulated electroplating wastewater including high concentration of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) ions. Additionally, FTIR and XPS analysis verified that part of Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) during adsorption process by adsorption-reduction mechanism.

  14. Insight into the adsorption mechanisms of vanadium(V) on a high-efficiency biosorbent (Ti-doped chitosan bead).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Lingfan

    2015-08-01

    In this present study, a new chitosan bead modified with titanium ions (TiCB) was prepared and employed for the adsorption of vanadium ions from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to research the effect of various factors, including pH, temperature, contact time and initial concentration of vanadium(V) ions. The adsorption of vanadium was followed by the pseudo second-order kinetic and the Langmuir isotherm model, with a remarkable maximum adsorption capacity of 210 mg/g. The analysis of thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) revealed that the nature of adsorption was feasible, spontaneous (ΔG°<0) and endothermic (ΔH°>0) process. FTIR, EDS, EMI and XPS studies suggested that the mechanisms of adsorption were possibly attributed to electrostatic attraction, ligand-exchange and redox reaction between TiCB and vanadium ions.

  15. Insight into the adsorption mechanisms of vanadium(V) on a high-efficiency biosorbent (Ti-doped chitosan bead).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Lingfan

    2015-08-01

    In this present study, a new chitosan bead modified with titanium ions (TiCB) was prepared and employed for the adsorption of vanadium ions from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to research the effect of various factors, including pH, temperature, contact time and initial concentration of vanadium(V) ions. The adsorption of vanadium was followed by the pseudo second-order kinetic and the Langmuir isotherm model, with a remarkable maximum adsorption capacity of 210 mg/g. The analysis of thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) revealed that the nature of adsorption was feasible, spontaneous (ΔG°<0) and endothermic (ΔH°>0) process. FTIR, EDS, EMI and XPS studies suggested that the mechanisms of adsorption were possibly attributed to electrostatic attraction, ligand-exchange and redox reaction between TiCB and vanadium ions. PMID:25940529

  16. [Study on the co-adsorption mechanism of Pb (II) and chlorpyrifos on arid loess in northwestern China].

    PubMed

    Fan, Chun-Hui; Zhang, Ying-Chao; Wang, Jia-Hong

    2013-08-01

    The co-adsorption characteristics of Pb(II) and chlorpyrifos on arid loess were investigated with batch adsorption procedures, and the co-adsorption mechanism was studied with approaches of SEM, FT-IR, XRD and theoretical analysis. The experimental results indicated that the adsorption process of Pb(II) and chlorpyrifos on loess fit better the Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity of q(m) is 12.5 and 0.64 mg x g(-1) for Pb(II) and chlorpyrifos on loess, respectively, and the reaction could be illustrated with pseudo-second order kinetic equation. The SEM micrograph of loess surface varies little after the adsorption process of Pb(II) and chlorpyrifos, and certain wave peaks of FTIR spectra red-shift, disappears or intensity-decrease, with the XRD pattern and theoretical analysis, the adsorption mechanism is described as follows: the adsorption of Pb (II) on arid loess is the chemical-effect of coordination-complexation and Van der Waals force; the physical-adsorption on chlorpyrifos involves the interception function, hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals force, and chemical adsorption effect to some extent. The organic matter in arid loess plays an important role in Pb(II) and chlorpyrifos adsorption.

  17. Adsorption properties of Congo Red from aqueous solution onto surfactant-modified montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Wang, Aiqin

    2008-12-15

    A series of surfactant-modified montmorillonites (MMT) were prepared using octyltrimethylammonium bromide (OTAB), dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and stearyltrimethylammonium bromide (STAB), and the organification of MMT was proved by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron micrographic (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The adsorption of Congo Red (CR) anionic dye from aqueous solution onto surfactant-modified MMT was carried out. Compared with MMT, the adsorption capacity of surfactant-modified MMT for CR was greatly enhanced and MMT modified with CTAB (2.0 CEC) exhibited the higher adsorption capacity. The effects of pH value of the dye solution, adsorption temperature, adsorption time and the initial dye concentration on the adsorption capacity of CR on CTAB-MMT have been investigated. The results showed that the adsorption kinetic of CR on CTAB-MMT could be best described by the pseudo-second-order model and that the adsorption isotherm of CR was in good agreement with the Langmuir equation. The IR spectra and SEM analysis also revealed that the adsorption of CTAB-MMT was a chemical adsorption process between CTAB and the NH(2), -N=N- and SO(3) groups of CR. PMID:18400385

  18. Adsorptive removal of heavy metals by magnetic nanoadsorbent: an equilibrium and thermodynamic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirsath, D. S.; Shirivastava, V. S.

    2015-11-01

    An efficient and new magnetic nanoadsorbent photocatalyst was fabricated by co-precipitation technique. This research focuses on understanding metal removal process and developing a cost-effective technology for treatment of heavy metal-contaminated industrial wastewater. In this investigation, magnetic nanoadsorbent has been employed for the removal of Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions by a batch adsorption technique. The adsorption equilibrium data fitted very well to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. The thermodynamics of Zn(II) ions adsorption onto the magnetic nanoadsorbents indicated that the adsorption was spontaneous, endothermic and physical in nature. Surface morphology of magnetic nanoadsorbent by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and elemental analysis by EDX technique. The structural and photocatalytic properties of magnetic nanoadsorbent were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR techniques. Also, the magnetic properties of synthesized magnetic nanoadsorbent were determined by vibrating spinning magnetometer (VSM).

  19. Analysis of a Reverse Transcription Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP) for yellow fever diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Marcio R T; Vianez, João Lídio; Nunes, Keley N B; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Lima, Clayton P S; Guzman, Hilda; Martins, Lívia C; Carvalho, Valéria L; Tesh, Robert B; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2015-12-15

    Yellow Fever virus (YFV) is an important human pathogen in tropical areas of Africa and South America. Although an efficient vaccine is available and has been used since the early 1940s, sylvatic YFV transmission still occurs in forested areas where anthropogenic actions are present, such as mineral extraction, rearing livestock and agriculture, and ecological tourism. In this context, two distinct techniques based on the RT-PCR derived method have been previously developed, however both methods are expensive due to the use of thermo cyclers and labeled probes. We developed isothermal genome amplification, which is a rapid, sensitive, specific and low cost molecular approach for YFV genome detection. This assay used a set of degenerate primers designed for the NS1 gene and was able to amplify, within 30 min in isothermal conditions, the YFV 17D vaccine strain derived from an African wild prototype strain (Asibi), as well as field strains from Brazil, other endemic countries from South and Central America, and the Caribbean. The generic RT-LAMP assay could be helpful for YFV surveillance in field and rapid response during outbreaks in endemic areas.

  20. Embryo sexing and sex chromosomal chimerism analysis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification in cattle and water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Hiroki; Kageyama, Soichi; Moriyasu, Satoru; Sawai, Ken; Minamihashi, Akira

    2013-01-01

    In domestic animals of the family Bovidae, sex preselection of offspring has been demanded for convenience of milk/beef production and animal breeding. Development of the nonsurgical embryo transfer technique and sexing methods of preimplantation embryos made it possible. Sexing based on detection of Y chromosome-specific DNA sequences is considered the most reliable method to date. PCR enables amplification of a target sequence from a small number of blastomeres. However, it requires technical skill and is time consuming. Furthermore, PCR has the risk of false positives because of DNA contamination during handling of the PCR products in duplicate PCR procedures and/or electrophoresis. Therefore, for embryo sexing to become widely used in the cattle embryo transfer industry, a simple, rapid and precise sexing method needs to be developed. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel DNA amplification method, and the reaction is carried out under isothermal conditions (range, 60 to 65 C) using DNA polymerase with strand displacement activity. When the target DNA is amplified by LAMP, a white precipitate derived from magnesium pyrophosphate (a by-product of the LAMP reaction) is observed. It is noteworthy that LAMP does not need special reagents or electrophoresis to detect the amplified DNA. This review describes the development and application of an embryo sexing method using LAMP in cattle and water buffaloes.

  1. On-Chip Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification on Flow-Based Chemiluminescence Microarray Analysis Platform for the Detection of Viruses and Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kunze, A; Dilcher, M; Abd El Wahed, A; Hufert, F; Niessner, R; Seidel, M

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an on-chip isothermal nucleic acid amplification test (iNAAT) for the multiplex amplification and detection of viral and bacterial DNA by a flow-based chemiluminescence microarray. In a principle study, on-chip recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) on defined spots of a DNA microarray was used to spatially separate the amplification reaction of DNA from two viruses (Human adenovirus 41, Phi X 174) and the bacterium Enterococcus faecalis, which are relevant for water hygiene. By establishing the developed assay on the microarray analysis platform MCR 3, the automation of isothermal multiplex-amplification (39 °C, 40 min) and subsequent detection by chemiluminescence imaging was realized. Within 48 min, the microbes could be identified by the spot position on the microarray while the generated chemiluminescence signal correlated with the amount of applied microbe DNA. The limit of detection (LOD) determined for HAdV 41, Phi X 174, and E. faecalis was 35 GU/μL, 1 GU/μL, and 5 × 10(3) GU/μL (genomic units), which is comparable to the sensitivity reported for qPCR analysis, respectively. Moreover the simultaneous amplification and detection of DNA from all three microbes was possible. The presented assay shows that complex enzymatic reactions like an isothermal amplification can be performed in an easy-to-use experimental setup. Furthermore, iNAATs can be potent candidates for multipathogen detection in clinical, food, or environmental samples in routine or field monitoring approaches. PMID:26624222

  2. A comparative analysis of the cryo-compression and cryo-adsorption hydrogen storage methods

    SciTech Connect

    Petitpas, G; Benard, P; Klebanoff, L E; Xiao, J; Aceves, S M

    2014-07-01

    While conventional low-pressure LH₂ dewars have existed for decades, advanced methods of cryogenic hydrogen storage have recently been developed. These advanced methods are cryo-compression and cryo-adsorption hydrogen storage, which operate best in the temperature range 30–100 K. We present a comparative analysis of both approaches for cryogenic hydrogen storage, examining how pressure and/or sorbent materials are used to effectively increase onboard H₂ density and dormancy. We start by reviewing some basic aspects of LH₂ properties and conventional means of storing it. From there we describe the cryo-compression and cryo-adsorption hydrogen storage methods, and then explore the relationship between them, clarifying the materials science and physics of the two approaches in trying to solve the same hydrogen storage task (~5–8 kg H₂, typical of light duty vehicles). Assuming that the balance of plant and the available volume for the storage system in the vehicle are identical for both approaches, the comparison focuses on how the respective storage capacities, vessel weight and dormancy vary as a function of temperature, pressure and type of cryo-adsorption material (especially, powder MOF-5 and MIL-101). By performing a comparative analysis, we clarify the science of each approach individually, identify the regimes where the attributes of each can be maximized, elucidate the properties of these systems during refueling, and probe the possible benefits of a combined “hybrid” system with both cryo-adsorption and cryo-compression phenomena operating at the same time. In addition the relationships found between onboard H₂ capacity, pressure vessel and/or sorbent mass and dormancy as a function of rated pressure, type of sorbent material and fueling conditions are useful as general designing guidelines in future engineering efforts using these two hydrogen storage approaches.

  3. Aflatoxin B(1) adsorption by natural and copper modified montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Daković, Aleksandra; Matijasević, Srdan; Rottinghaus, George E; Ledoux, David R; Butkeraitis, Paula; Sekulić, Zivko

    2008-10-01

    Adsorption of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB1) by natural montmorillonite (MONT) and montmorillonite modified with copper ions (Cu-MONT) was investigated. Both MONTs were characterized using the X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis, thermal analysis (DTA/TGA) and scanning electron miscroscopy/electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The results of XRPD and SEM/EDS analyses of Cu-MONT suggested partial ion exchange of native inorganic cations in MONT with copper occurred. Investigation of AFB1 adsorption by MONT and Cu-MONT, at pH 3, 7 or 9, showed that adsorption of this toxin by both MONTs was high (over 93%). Since AFB1 is nonionizable, no differences in AFB1 adsorption by both MONTs, at different pHs, were observed, as expected. Futhermore, it was determined that adsorption of AFB1 by both MONTs followed a non-linear (Langmuir) type of isotherm, at pH 3. The calculated maximum adsorbed amounts of AFB1 by MONT (40.982mg/g) and Cu-MONT (66.225mg/g), derived from Langmuir plots of isotherms, indicate that Cu-MONT was much effective in adsorbing AFB1. Since, the main cation in an exchangeable position in MONT is calcium, and in Cu-MONT both calcium and copper, the fact that ion exchange of inorganic cations in MONT with copper increases adsorption of AFB1 suggests that additional interactions between AFB1 and copper ions in Cu-MONT caused greater adsorption. PMID:18585010

  4. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of adsorptive removal of phenol onto eggshell waste.

    PubMed

    Daraei, H; Mittal, A; Noorisepehr, M; Daraei, F

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present research is to develop economic, fast, and versatile method for the removal of toxic organic pollutant phenol from wastewater using eggshell. The batch experiments are conducted to evaluate the effect of pH, phenol concentration, dosage of adsorbent, and contact time on the removal of phenol. The paper includes in-depth kinetic studies of the ongoing adsorption process. Attempts have also been made to verify Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The morphology and characteristics of eggshell have also been studied using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray fluorescence analysis. At ambient temperature, the maximum adsorption of phenol onto eggshells has been achieved at pH 9 and the contact time, 90 min. The experimental data give best-fitted straight lines for pseudo-first-order as well as pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Furthermore, the adsorption process verifies Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, and on the basis of mathematical expressions of these models, various necessary adsorption constants have been calculated. Using adsorption data, various thermodynamic parameters like change in enthalpy (∆H(0)), change in entropy (∆S(0)), and change in free energy ∆G(0) have also been evaluated. Results clearly reveal that the solid waste material eggshell acts as an effective adsorbent for the removal of phenol from aqueous solutions. PMID:23274804

  5. Nickel oxide grafted andic soil for efficient cesium removal from aqueous solution: adsorption behavior and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dahu; Lei, Zhongfang; Yang, Yingnan; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Zhenya

    2013-10-23

    An andic soil, akadama clay, was modified with nickel oxide and tested for its potential application in the removal of cesium from aqueous solution. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed the nickel oxide was successfully grafted into akadama clay. N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms indicated the surface area decreased remarkably after modification while the portion of mesopores increased greatly. Thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) showed the modified akadama clay had better thermostability than the pristine akadama clay. Decreases in cation exchange capacity (CEC) and ζ-potential were also detected after the modification. Adsorption kinetic and isotherm studies indicated the adsorption of Cs+ on the modified akadama clay was a monolayer adsorption process. Adsorption capacity was greatly enhanced for the modified akadama clay probably due to the increase in negative surface charge caused by the modification. The adsorption of Cs+ on the modified akadama clay was dominated by an electrostatic adsorption process. Results of this work are of great significance for the application of akadama clay as a promising adsorbent material for cesium removal from aqueous solutions.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, and mercury adsorption properties of hybrid mesoporous aluminosilicate sieve prepared with fly ash

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Minmin; Hou, Li-an; Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Ying; Xia, Xunfeng

    2013-01-01

    A novel hybrid mesoporous aluminosilicate sieve (HMAS) was prepared with fly ash and impregnated with zeolite A precursors. This improved the mercury adsorption of HMAS compared to original MCM-41. The HMAS was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption–desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and 29Si and 27Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectra. These showed that the HMAS structure was still retained after impregnated with zeolite A. But the surface area and pore diameter of HMAS decreased due to pore blockage. Adsorption of mercury from aqueous solution was studied on untreated MCM-41and HMAS. The mercury adsorption rate of HMAS was higher than that of origin MCM-41. The adsorption of mercury was investigated on HMAS regarding the pH of mercury solution, initial mercury concentration, and the reaction temperature. The experimental data fit well to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Dublin–Radushkevich isotherm and the characterization show that the mercury adsorption on HMAS involved the ion-exchange mechanisms. In addition, the thermodynamic parameters suggest that the adsorption process was endothermic in nature. The adsorption of mercury on HMAS followed the first order kinetics. PMID:23687400

  7. Adsorption of malachite green by magnetic litchi pericarps: A response surface methodology investigation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao; Qi, Jinqiu; Jiang, Ruixue; Gao, Yan; Li, Xiaochen

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we synthesized a novel magnetic adsorbent containing litchi pericarps, denoted as MLP, for the removal of malachite green (MG) from solution. The factors influencing MG adsorption, such as contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial dye concentration, were optimized using the Box-Behnken response surface methodology (RSM). The adsorption isotherms as well as the kinetics and thermodynamics of the adsorption of MG onto MLP are discussed. The results showed that MLP has a maximum adsorption efficiency of 99.5% when the temperature, pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial MG concentration were optimally set as 25 °C, 6.0, 66.69 min, 5.14 g/L, and 150 mg/L, respectively. The best model to describe this process is the Langmuir isotherm, with the maximum adsorption capacity being 70.42 mg/g. In addition, the kinetics of MG adsorption onto MLP followed a pseudo-second-order model; moreover, thermodynamic analysis suggested that MG adsorption onto MLP is spontaneous and endothermic. Finally, it was found that the new magnetic adsorbent can be separated easily and rapidly from mixed solutions in the presence of an external magnetic field. PMID:26254991

  8. Adsorption of malachite green by magnetic litchi pericarps: A response surface methodology investigation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao; Qi, Jinqiu; Jiang, Ruixue; Gao, Yan; Li, Xiaochen

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we synthesized a novel magnetic adsorbent containing litchi pericarps, denoted as MLP, for the removal of malachite green (MG) from solution. The factors influencing MG adsorption, such as contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial dye concentration, were optimized using the Box-Behnken response surface methodology (RSM). The adsorption isotherms as well as the kinetics and thermodynamics of the adsorption of MG onto MLP are discussed. The results showed that MLP has a maximum adsorption efficiency of 99.5% when the temperature, pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial MG concentration were optimally set as 25 °C, 6.0, 66.69 min, 5.14 g/L, and 150 mg/L, respectively. The best model to describe this process is the Langmuir isotherm, with the maximum adsorption capacity being 70.42 mg/g. In addition, the kinetics of MG adsorption onto MLP followed a pseudo-second-order model; moreover, thermodynamic analysis suggested that MG adsorption onto MLP is spontaneous and endothermic. Finally, it was found that the new magnetic adsorbent can be separated easily and rapidly from mixed solutions in the presence of an external magnetic field.

  9. Adsorption of Ar on individual carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzyubenko, Boris; Kahn, Joshua; Vilches, Oscar; Cobden, David

    2015-03-01

    We compare and contrast results of adsorption measurements of Ar on single-walled carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphite. Adsorption isotherms on individual suspended nanotubes were obtained using both the mechanical resonance frequency shift (sensitive to mass adsorption) and the electrical conductance. Isotherms on graphene mounted on hexagonal boron nitride were obtained using only the conductance. New volumetric adsorption isotherms on bulk exfoliated graphite were also obtained, paying special attention to the very low coverage region (less than 2% of a monolayer). This allowed us to compare the degree of heterogeneity on the three substrate types, the binding energies, and the van der Waals 2D parameters. Research supported by NSF DMR 1206208.

  10. Modelling and understanding the competitive adsorption of microcystins and tannic acid.

    PubMed

    Campinas, Margarida; Viegas, Rui M C; Rosa, Maria João

    2013-10-01

    A predictive model integrating adsorption kinetics and competitive isotherm models (Homogeneous Surface Diffusion Model, Freundlich-type and Fritz & Schlünder isotherms) was developed to describe and understand the competing mechanism(s) and the ionic strength (IS) role on microcystins (MC) and tannic acid (TA) competitive adsorption. The developed model showed good agreement with the experimental data obtained from batch adsorption tests and isotherms conducted with MC extracts and TA model solutions (single-solute and multicomponent, IS presence and absence) using a mesoporous powdered activated carbon (PAC). Results confirm that similar size molecules such as MC and TA are strong competitors and tannin-rich waters may severely affect MC residuals in the treated water. Unlike usually considered, both direct site and pore blockage mechanisms seem relevant. Competition effects appear to be more dependent on the competitor/contaminant molar ratio than on the initial concentrations. The IS affects the extent and the mechanisms of MC-TA competitive adsorption, reducing PAC dose for safe control of MC residuals. The developed model, including a Ds analysis, is an important tool to understand the competitive adsorption of similar size adsorbates. PMID:23880216

  11. Adsorptive Films in Support of In-field UF6 Destructive Assay Sample Collection and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, Christopher A.; Martinez, Alonzo; McNamara, Bruce K.; Cannon, Bret D.; Anheier, Norman C.

    2014-07-20

    International Atom Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguard verification measures in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) rely on environmental sampling, non-destructive assay (NDA), and destructive assay (DA) sampling and analysis to determine uranium enrichment. UF6 bias defect measurements are made by DA sampling and analysis to assure that enrichment is consistent with declarations. DA samples are collected from a limited number of cylinders for high precision, offsite mass spectrometer analysis. Samples are typically drawn from a sampling tap into a UF6 sample bottle, then packaged, sealed, and shipped under IAEA chain of custody to an offsite analytical laboratory. Future DA safeguard measures may require improvements in efficiency and effectiveness as GCEP capacities increase and UF6 shipping regulations become increasingly more restrictive. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) DA sampler concept and Laser Ablation Absorption Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) assay method are under development to potentially provide DA safeguard tools that increase inspection effectiveness and reduce sample shipping constraints. The PNNL DA sampler concept uses a handheld sampler to collect DA samples for either onsite LAARS assay or offsite laboratory analysis. The DA sampler design will use a small sampling planchet that is coated with an adsorptive film to collect controlled quantities of UF6 gas directly from a cylinder or process sampling tap. Development efforts are currently underway at PNNL to enhance LAARS assay performance to allow high-precision onsite bias defect measurements. In this paper, we report on the experimental investigation to develop adsorptive films for the PNNL DA sampler concept. These films are intended to efficiently capture UF6 and then stabilize the collected DA sample prior to onsite LAARS or offsite laboratory analysis. Several porous material composite films were investigated, including a film designed to maximize the chemical adsorption

  12. Studies of gas adsorption in flexible Metal-Organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sircar, Sarmishtha

    Flexible Metal-Organic frameworks that exhibit a gate-opening (GO) adsorption mechanism have potential for gas separations and gas storage. The GO phenomenon occurs when molecular gates in the structure expand/contract in response to the activation/de-activation of a system variable e.g. temperature, pressure or gas. Sharp discontinuities in the isotherm leading to S-shapes and large adsorption-desorption hysteresis are typical of this phenomenon. This study investigates the kinetics and thermodynamics of the GO behavior by combining adsorption measurements and analytical modeling of adsorption kinetics and capacity as a function of adsorbate, GO pressure, and temperature. Basic understanding of GO mechanism will help harness GO-MOF's as adsorbents for gas separations and storage. Experiments were performed on two precharacterized MOFs with verified GO behavior. These are (1) Zn2(bpdc)2(bpee), which expands from a relative amorphous to crystalline structure and (2) Cu[(dhbc) 2(4,4f-bpy)]H2O, a mutually interdigitated 2-D structure (bpdc = biphenyldicarboxylate, bpee = 1,2]bipyridylethene; DMF = N,N-dimethyl formamide, dhbc= 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, bpy=bipyridine). Both sub- and super-critical adsorption data were collected using three adsorption units: a standard low-pressure volumetric adsorption unit, a commercial high-pressure gravimetric analyzer and a custom-built high-pressure differential volumetric unit. Collected laboratory data were combined with published adsorption rate and isotherm data for analysis to broaden the range of data collection. The accuracy of the high-pressure differential unit was improved by over 300-fold by changing analytical methods of processing data to establish a reliable null correction. A pronounced effect of the allowed experimental time was found at cryogenic temperatures on (1). Tightening the stability criteria used by the adsorption equipment to determine equilibration increased the experimental time from the order of

  13. Adsorption of antimony onto iron oxyhydroxides: adsorption behavior and surface structure.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuejun; Wu, Zhijun; He, Mengchang; Meng, Xiaoguang; Jin, Xin; Qiu, Nan; Zhang, Jing

    2014-07-15

    Antimony is detected in soil and water with elevated concentration due to a variety of industrial applications and mining activities. Though antimony is classified as a pollutant of priority interest by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Europe Union (EU), very little is known about its environmental behavior and adsorption mechanism. In this study, the adsorption behaviors and surface structure of antimony (III/V) on iron oxides were investigated using batch adsorption techniques, surface complexation modeling (SCM), X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). The adsorption isotherms and edges indicated that the affinity of Sb(V) and Sb(III) toward the iron oxides depended on the Sb species, solution pH, and the characteristics of iron oxides. Sb(V) adsorption was favored at acidic pH and decreased dramatically with increasing pH, while Sb(III) adsorption was constant over a broad pH range. When pH is higher than 7, Sb(III) adsorption by goethite and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) was greater than Sb(V). EXAFS analysis indicated that the majority of Sb(III), either adsorbed onto HFO or co-precipitated by FeCl3, was oxidized into Sb(V) probably due to the involvement of O2 in the long duration of sample preservation. Only one Sb-Fe subshell was filtered in the EXAFS spectra of antimony adsorption onto HFO, with the coordination number of 1.0-1.9 attributed to bidentate mononuclear edge-sharing ((2)E) between Sb and HFO.

  14. Numerical Analysis on Adsorption Characteristics of Activated Carbon/Ethanol Pair in Finned Tube Type Adsorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makimoto, Naoya; Kariya, Keishi; Koyama, Shigeru

    The cycle performance of adsorption cooling system depends on the thermophysical properties of the adsorbent/refrigerant pair and configuration of the adsorber/desorber heat exchanger. In this study, a twodimensional analysis is carried out in order to clarify the performance of the finned tube type adsorber/desorber heat exchanger using a highly porous activated carbon powder (ACP)/ethanol pair. The simulation results show that the average cooling capacity per unit volume of adsorber/desorber heat exchanger and coefficient of performance (COP) can be improved by optimizing fin thickness, fin height, fin pitch and tube diameter. The performance of a single stage adsorption cooling system using ACP/ethanol pair is also compared with that of activated carbon fiber (ACF)/ethanol pair. It is found that the cooling capacities of each adsorbent/refrigerant pair increase with the decrease of adsorption/desorption time and the cooling capacity of ACP/ethanol pair is approximately 2.5 times as much as that of ACF/ethanol pair. It is also shown that COP of ACP/ethanol pair is superior to that of ACF/ethanol pair.

  15. Component analysis and heavy metal adsorption ability of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from sulfate reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yue, Zheng-Bo; Li, Qing; Li, Chuan-chuan; Chen, Tian-hu; Wang, Jin

    2015-10-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) play an important role in the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In this paper, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans was used as the test strain to explore the effect of heavy metals on the components and adsorption ability of EPS. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis results showed that heavy metals did not influence the type of functional groups of EPS. Potentiometric titration results indicated that the acidic constants (pKa) of the EPS fell into three ranges of 3.5-4.0, 5.9-6.7, and 8.9-9.8. The adsorption site concentrations of the surface functional groups also increased. Adsorption results suggested that EPS had a specific binding affinity for the dosed heavy metal, and that EPS extracted from the Zn(2+)-dosed system had a higher binding affinity for all heavy metals. Additionally, Zn(2+) decreased the inhibitory effects of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) on the SRB.

  16. Analysis of Casein Biopolymers Adsorption to Lignocellulosic Biomass as a Potential Cellulase Stabilizer

    PubMed Central

    Eckard, Anahita Dehkhoda; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Gibbons, William

    2012-01-01

    Although lignocellulosic materials have a good potential to substitute current feedstocks used for ethanol production, conversion of these materials to fermentable sugars is still not economical through enzymatic hydrolysis. High cost of cellulase has prompted research to explore techniques that can prevent from enzyme deactivation. Colloidal proteins of casein can form monolayers on hydrophobic surfaces that alleviate the de-activation of protein of interest. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and Kjeldahl and BSA protein assays were used to investigate the unknown mechanism of action of induced cellulase activity during hydrolysis of casein-treated biomass. Adsorption of casein to biomass was observed with all of the analytical techniques used and varied depending on the pretreatment techniques of biomass. FT-IR analysis of amides I and II suggested that the substructure of protein from casein or skim milk were deformed at the time of contact with biomass. With no additive, the majority of one of the cellulase mono-component, 97.1 ± 1.1, was adsorbed to CS within 24 h, this adsorption was irreversible and increased by 2% after 72 h. However, biomass treatment with skim-milk and casein reduced the adsorption to 32.9% ± 6.0 and 82.8% ± 6.0, respectively. PMID:23118515

  17. Triple cascade reactions: An ultrasensitive and specific single tube strategy enabling isothermal analysis of microRNA at sub-attomole level.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xueqing; Liang, Yongqian; Xu, Yuzhi; Lin, Xiulian; Chen, Jun; Ma, Yingjun; Zhang, Li; Chen, Danping; Song, Fenyun; Dai, Zong; Zou, Xiaoyong

    2016-06-15

    Sensitive and specific analysis of microRNAs (miRNAs) in a single tube without the need of thermal cycler instrument would greatly facilitate the investigation of miRNA-associated regulatory circuits and diseases. Homogeneous isothermal amplification assays are attractive in conducting single tube assays that can minimize contamination-prone steps and simplifies assay procedures. However, the relative low amplification efficiency and high detection background remain as bottlenecks restricting their more versatile applications. In this work, we have developed a novel isothermal exponential enzymatic amplification (IEEA) strategy for miRNAs analysis. By rational triple cascade amplification cycles of target recycling, nicking-replication reaction, and DNAzyme catalysis, the strategy exhibited high signal amplification efficiency (10(4)-10(9) folds of amplification in 1h) with very low detection background and excellent specificity. As a result, the miR-27a target model was rapidly determined with a limit of detection down to 0.79 aM (S/N=3), corresponding to 94 copies of the miRNA molecule in a 200 μL sample solution. The levels of miR-27a in atherosclerotic sprague-dawley rats were accurately quantified. The strategy is anticipated to have an important impact on the development of simple and rapid molecular diagnostic applications for any short oligonucleotides.

  18. Adsorption properties of zeolites synthesized from coal fly ash for Cu (II).

    PubMed

    Song, Huiping; Cheng, Huaigang; Zhang, Zepeng; Cheng, Fangqin

    2014-09-01

    This study explored the hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites in a homogeneous reactor using coal fly ash (CFA) as a raw material via a two-step method at normal pressure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction analysis showed that the synthetic products has the basic structural unit of microporous zeolite molecular sieves, and consiste of zeolite 4A and zeolite X. The ability of zeolites synthesized from CFAto adsorb Cu(ll) was studied. The optimal conditions for adsorption were as follows: pH 5 and dosage of modified CFA 4g l(-1). The isothermal adsorption of zeolites of Cu(ll) showed that the maximum adsorption quantity ranged from 69.44 (at 20 degrees C) to 140.85 mg g(-1) (at 50 degrees C). Adsorption kinetics analysis showed that chemical adsorption was the rate-controlling step. Apparent activation energy data, however, showed that the process of adsorption of Cu(II) had the features of physical adsorption. Thus, the adsorption process included both chemical and physical adsorption.

  19. Analysis of the adsorption process and of desiccant cooling systems: a pseudo- steady-state model for coupled heat and mass transfer. [DESSIM, DESSIM2, DESSIM4

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, R.S.

    1982-12-01

    A computer model to simulate the adiabatic adsorption/desorption process is documented. Developed to predict the performance of desiccant cooling systems, the model has been validated through comparison with experimental data for single-blow adsorption and desorption. A literature review on adsorption analysis, detailed discussions of the adsorption process, and an initial assessment of the potential for performance improvement through advanced component development are included.

  20. Preparation and characterization of poly(AA co PVP)/PGS composite and its application for methylene blue adsorption.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cai-xia; Lei, Lei; Zhou, Peng-xin; Zhang, Zhe; Lei, Zi-qiang

    2015-04-01

    Poly (AA co PVP)/PGS (PAPP) composite adsorbent was prepared by radical polymerization from Acrylic acid (AA), Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Palygorskite (PGS), using N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as cross-linker and potassium persulfate (KPS) as initiator. The PAPP was characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PAPP was used as adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions. The influences of pH, adsorption temperature and adsorption time on the adsorption properties of the composite to the dye were also investigated. Meanwhile, the adsorption rate data and adsorption equilibrium date were analyzed based on the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, respectively. The results indicating that the kinetic behavior better fit with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity (q(m)) is 1815 mg/g at 289 K. The isotherm behavior can be explained by the Langmuir isotherm models. The activation energy was also evaluated for the removal of methylene blue onto PAPP. These results demonstrate that this composite material could be used as a good adsorbent for the removal of cationic dyes from wastewater. PMID:25540826

  1. Preparation and characterization of poly(AA co PVP)/PGS composite and its application for methylene blue adsorption.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cai-xia; Lei, Lei; Zhou, Peng-xin; Zhang, Zhe; Lei, Zi-qiang

    2015-04-01

    Poly (AA co PVP)/PGS (PAPP) composite adsorbent was prepared by radical polymerization from Acrylic acid (AA), Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Palygorskite (PGS), using N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as cross-linker and potassium persulfate (KPS) as initiator. The PAPP was characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PAPP was used as adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions. The influences of pH, adsorption temperature and adsorption time on the adsorption properties of the composite to the dye were also investigated. Meanwhile, the adsorption rate data and adsorption equilibrium date were analyzed based on the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, respectively. The results indicating that the kinetic behavior better fit with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity (q(m)) is 1815 mg/g at 289 K. The isotherm behavior can be explained by the Langmuir isotherm models. The activation energy was also evaluated for the removal of methylene blue onto PAPP. These results demonstrate that this composite material could be used as a good adsorbent for the removal of cationic dyes from wastewater.

  2. Determination of effective moisture diffusivity and drying kinetics for poplar sawdust by thermogravimetric analysis under isothermal condition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dengyu; Zheng, Yan; Zhu, Xifeng

    2012-03-01

    The current study presents a thermogravimetric method to determine the effective moisture diffusivity and drying kinetics of biomass. Drying experiments on poplar sawdust were performed at four temperatures (60, 70, 80, and 90°C) by a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The major assumption in experimentally determining effective diffusivity by Fick's diffusion equation is that drying is mass transfer limited and temperature remains isothermal during drying. The results indicated that TGA could well achieve these determining conditions. The drying process of sawdust mostly took place in the falling rate period. Midilli-Kucuk model showed the best fit for all experimental data. The effective diffusivity values changed from 9.38 × 10(-10)m(2)/s to 1.38 × 10(-9)m(2)/s within the given temperature range, and the activation energy was calculated to be 12.3 kJ/mol. PMID:22237174

  3. Binding of an Oligomeric Ellagitannin Series to Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA): Analysis by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC).

    PubMed

    Karonen, Maarit; Oraviita, Marianne; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Green, Rebecca J

    2015-12-16

    A unique series of oligomeric ellagitannins was used to study their interactions with bovine serum albumin (BSA) by isothermal titration calorimetry. Oligomeric ellagitannins, ranging from monomer to heptamer and a mixture of octamer-undecamers, were isolated as individual pure compounds. This series allowed studying the effects of oligomer size and other structural features. The monomeric to trimeric ellagitannins deviated most from the overall trends. The interactions of ellagitannin oligomers from tetramers to octa-undecamers with BSA revealed strong similarities. In contrast to the equilibrium binding constant, enthalpy showed an increasing trend from the dimer to larger oligomers. It is likely that first the macrocyclic part of the ellagitannin binds to the defined binding sites on the protein surface and then the "flexible tail" of the ellagitannin coats the protein surface. The results highlight the importance of molecular flexibility to maximize binding between the ellagitannin and protein surfaces.

  4. Binding of an Oligomeric Ellagitannin Series to Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA): Analysis by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC).

    PubMed

    Karonen, Maarit; Oraviita, Marianne; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Green, Rebecca J

    2015-12-16

    A unique series of oligomeric ellagitannins was used to study their interactions with bovine serum albumin (BSA) by isothermal titration calorimetry. Oligomeric ellagitannins, ranging from monomer to heptamer and a mixture of octamer-undecamers, were isolated as individual pure compounds. This series allowed studying the effects of oligomer size and other structural features. The monomeric to trimeric ellagitannins deviated most from the overall trends. The interactions of ellagitannin oligomers from tetramers to octa-undecamers with BSA revealed strong similarities. In contrast to the equilibrium binding constant, enthalpy showed an increasing trend from the dimer to larger oligomers. It is likely that first the macrocyclic part of the ellagitannin binds to the defined binding sites on the protein surface and then the "flexible tail" of the ellagitannin coats the protein surface. The results highlight the importance of molecular flexibility to maximize binding between the ellagitannin and protein surfaces. PMID:26608224

  5. Kinetics and thermodynamics of interaction between sulfonamide antibiotics and humic acids: Surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration microcalorimetry analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Yu, Han-Qing; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-01-25

    The presence of sulfonamide antibiotics in the environments has been recognized as a crucial issue. Their migration and transformation in the environment is determined by natural organic matters that widely exist in natural water and soil. In this study, the kinetics and thermodynamics of interactions between humic acids (HA) and sulfamethazine (SMZ) were investigated by employing surface plasmon resonance (SPR) combined with isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC) technologies. Results show that SMZ could be effectively bound with HA. The binding strength could be enhanced by increasing ionic strength and decreasing temperature. High pH was not favorable for the interaction. Hydrogen bond and electrostatic interaction may play important roles in driving the binding process, with auxiliary contribution from hydrophobic interaction. The results implied that HA existed in the environment may have a significant influence on the migration and transformation of organic pollutants through the binding process.

  6. Adsorption / Desorption Behavior of Water Vapor in an Adsorbent Desiccant Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujiguchi, Takuya; Kodama, Akio

    Adsorption / desorption behavior of water vapor onto desiccant rotor has been investigated to improve the desiccant cooling system by means of computer simulation. In this paper, we paid attention to the relationship between the equilibrium amount of water adsorbed onto the desiccant material and the relative humidity, that is adsorption isotherm as a principal characteristic feature of adsorbent. Considering actual adsorbents, five types of adsorption isotherms were assumed to clarify the influence of adsorption isotherm on the dehumidifying performance. After the investigation on the influences of some operating conditions on the dehumidifying performance at each selected adsorption isotherm, it was found that higher dehumidifying performance and reduction of length of desiccant rotor could be achieved by selecting appropriate adsorption isotherm. It was also predicted that S-shaped adsorption isotherm which is raised sharply at relative humidity around 15 % could produce the lowest air humidity at regeneration air temperature 80 °C. Moreover influence of the intraparticle diffusion coefficient which significantly influence on the adsorption / desorption rate was discussed choosing two adsorption isotherm from the above five isotherms. It seems that effective range of the intraparticle diffusion coefficient for the significant improvement of the dehumidifying performance was strongly influenced by the shape of adsorption isotherm.

  7. Approaches to mitigate the impact of dissolved organic matter on the adsorption of synthetic organic contaminants by porous carbonaceous sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Yanping Guo; Abhishek Yadav; Tanju Karanfil

    2007-11-15

    Adsorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) and atrazine, two synthetic organic contaminants (SOCs) having different optimum adsorption pore regions, by four activated carbons and an activated carbon fiber (ACF) was examined. Adsorbents included two coconut-shell based granular activated carbons (GACs), two coal-based GACs (F400 and HD4000) and a phenol formaldehyde-based activated carbon fiber. The selected adsorbents had a wide range of pore size distributions but similar surface acidity and hydrophobicity. Single solute and preloading (with a dissolved organic matter (DOM)) isotherms were performed. Single solute adsorption results showed that (i) the adsorbents having higher amounts of pores with sizes about the dimensions of the adsorbate molecules exhibited higher uptakes, (ii) there were some pore structure characteristics, which were not completely captured by pore size distribution analysis, that also affected the adsorption, and (iii) the BET surface area and total pore volume were not the primary factors controlling the adsorption of SOCs. The preloading isotherm results showed that for TCE adsorbing primarily in pores <10 {angstrom}, the highly microporous ACF and GACs, acting like molecular sieves, exhibited the highest uptakes. For atrazine with an optimum adsorption pore region of 10-20 {angstrom}, which overlaps with the adsorption region of some DOM components, the GACs with a broad pore size distribution and high pore volumes in the 10-20 {angstrom} region had the least impact of DOM on the adsorption. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Effect of pectin on adsorption of Cu(II) by two variable-charge soils from southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ru-hai; Zhu, Xiao-fang; Qian, Wei; Yu, Yuan-chun; Xu, Ren-kou

    2015-12-01

    The influence of pectin on Cu(II) adsorption by two variable-charge soils (an Oxisol and an Ultisol) was investigated. Pectin increased the adsorption, and the extent of adsorption increased linearly with the dose of pectin, being greater in the Oxisol than that in the Ultisol because the adsorption of pectin by the Oxisol was greater. Both Langmuir and Freundlich equations fitted the adsorption isotherms of Cu(II) for both soils well. The fitting parameters of both equations indicated that pectin increased not only the adsorption capacity of the soils for Cu(II) but also the adsorption strength of Cu(II). The effect of pectin decreased with rising pH in the pH range 3.5-6.0, although the extent of electrostatic adsorption of Cu(II) by both soils was markedly greater over the pH range. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy analysis and zeta potential measurement of soil colloids indicated that adsorption of pectin by the soils made the negative charge on both soils more negative, which was responsible for the increase in the electrostatic adsorption of Cu(II) induced by the addition of pectin. In conclusion, pectin-enhanced adsorption of Cu(II) especially at low pH would be beneficial to the soils as it would decrease the activity and mobility of Cu(II) in acidic variable-charge soils.

  9. Removal of ethylenthiourea and 1,2,4-triazole pesticide metabolites from water by adsorption in commercial activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Camila C; Bottrel, Sue Ellen C; Costa, Elizângela P; Teixeira, Ana Paula C; Leão, Mônica M D

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the adsorption capacity of ethylenthiourea (ETU) and 1H-1,2,4-triazole (1,2,4-T) for two commercial activated carbons: charcoal-powdered activated carbon (CPAC) and bovine bone-powdered activated carbon (BPAC). The tests were conducted at a bench scale, with ETU and 1,2,4-T diluted in water, for isotherm and adsorption kinetic studies. The removal of the compounds was accompanied by a total organic carbon (TOC) analysis and ultraviolet (UV) reduction analysis. The coals were characterized by their surface area using nitrogen adsorption/desorption, by a scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and by a zero charge point analysis (pHpcz). The results showed that adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model for both coals, and the adsorption isotherms for CPAC and BPAC were adjusted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, respectively. The CPAC removed approximately 77% of the ETU and 76% of the 1,2,4-T. The BPAC was ineffective at removing the contaminants. PMID:23356339

  10. Isothermal and non-isothermal torrefaction characteristics and kinetics of microalga Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Wu, Zih-Ying; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2014-03-01

    Isothermal and non-isothermal torrefaction characteristics and kinetics of microalga Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) CNW-N are studied using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis of S. obliquus CNW-N with increasing temperature is characterized by four-stage decomposition. Depending on the torrefaction temperature, light, mild, and severe torrefaction from the weight loss and the maximum decomposition rate of the microalga can be classified. Under the same average temperature and torrefaction duration, non-isothermal torrefaction gives more severe pretreatment than the isothermal one. Increasing the heating rate of non-isothermal torrefaction also intensifies the pretreatment severity. Therefore, microalgae can be torrefied via non-isothermal torrefaction in a shorter time under the same pretreatment extent. The atomic H/C ratio in the microalga decreases with increasing torrefaction severity, whereas the atomic O/C ratio rises. The analysis suggests that the activation energy of isothermal torrefaction is 57.52×10(3)Jmol(-1), while it is between 40.14×10(3) and 88.41×10(3)Jmol(-1) for non-isothermal torrefaction.

  11. Characterization of the adsorption of water vapor and chlorine on microcrystalline silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skiles, J. A.; Wightman, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    The characterization of water adsorption on silica is necessary to an understanding of how hydrogen chloride interacts with silica. The adsorption as a function of outgas temperatures of silica and as a function of the isotherm temperature was studied. Characterization of the silica structure by infrared analysis, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, surface area determinations, characterization of the sample surface by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), and determinations of the heat of immersion in water of silica were investigated. The silica with a scanning electron microscope was examined.

  12. Revisiting Isotherm Analyses Using R: Comparison of Linear, Non-linear, and Bayesian Techniques

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extensive adsorption isotherm data exist for an array of chemicals of concern on a variety of engineered and natural sorbents. Several isotherm models exist that can accurately describe these data from which the resultant fitting parameters may subsequently be used in numerical ...

  13. [Removal of Sulfate Ions from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption with Hydrotalcite- like Composite].

    PubMed

    Gu, Yi-bing; Ma, Yong-wen; Wan, Jin-quan; Wang, Yan; Guan, Ze-yu

    2016-03-15

    Hydrotalcite-like composite synthesized by co-precipitation method was used as an adsorbent to remove the sulfate ions in aqueous solution. XRD, FT-IR , SEM and EDS elemental analysis were used to clarify the structure and composition of the hydrotalcite- like composite. The influences of time, initial pH value and coexisting ions on adsorption performance were investigated. The result showed the material was the composite of zinc aluminum nitrate hydrotalcite-like compounds and zinc aluminum phenylalanine hydrotalcite-like compounds. Hydrotalcite-like composite had a good performance in adsorption of sulfate ions, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 52.75 mg · g⁻¹. The data fitted pseudo-second order kinetic model best, which indicated that chemical adsorption was the rate-limiting step. Freundlich isotherm was more suitable to describe the adsorption process, and this meant the adsorption of sulfate ions by hydrotalcite-like composite was multilayered adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous at room temperature. Hydrotalcite-like composite adsorbed sulfate ions mainly through ion exchange, electrostatic force and physical adsorption. The experimental results showed that the hydrotalcite-like composite had potential for sulfate ion removal in the aqueous solution.

  14. [Removal of Sulfate Ions from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption with Hydrotalcite- like Composite].

    PubMed

    Gu, Yi-bing; Ma, Yong-wen; Wan, Jin-quan; Wang, Yan; Guan, Ze-yu

    2016-03-15

    Hydrotalcite-like composite synthesized by co-precipitation method was used as an adsorbent to remove the sulfate ions in aqueous solution. XRD, FT-IR , SEM and EDS elemental analysis were used to clarify the structure and composition of the hydrotalcite- like composite. The influences of time, initial pH value and coexisting ions on adsorption performance were investigated. The result showed the material was the composite of zinc aluminum nitrate hydrotalcite-like compounds and zinc aluminum phenylalanine hydrotalcite-like compounds. Hydrotalcite-like composite had a good performance in adsorption of sulfate ions, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 52.75 mg · g⁻¹. The data fitted pseudo-second order kinetic model best, which indicated that chemical adsorption was the rate-limiting step. Freundlich isotherm was more suitable to describe the adsorption process, and this meant the adsorption of sulfate ions by hydrotalcite-like composite was multilayered adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous at room temperature. Hydrotalcite-like composite adsorbed sulfate ions mainly through ion exchange, electrostatic force and physical adsorption. The experimental results showed that the hydrotalcite-like composite had potential for sulfate ion removal in the aqueous solution. PMID:27337893

  15. Adsorption of zearalenone to Japanese acid clay and influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Risa; Takahashi, Noriyuki; Sakao, Kazunori; Goto, Tetsuhisa

    2014-02-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) mainly contaminates grains such as corn and wheat, causing damage to livestock through ingestion of contaminated feed. Recently, various clays have been added to the feed to adsorb mycotoxins and to prevent mycotoxicosis of animals fed contaminated feeds. However the adsorption mechanism of the mycotoxin to clay is not well understood. In this study, a method to analyze the level of adsorption of ZEA to clay was developed using Japanese acid clay. Changes to the amount of the clay, concentration of ZEA, shaking time, and other parameters were evaluated to determine their influence on adsorption. The adsorption isotherms were also developed. Under conditions that mimic the gastrointestinal tract of swine, 100 % of ZEA was adsorbed to clay at a pH equivalent to the stomach, while the level of desorption under intestinal basic conditions was 1.8 %. Thus Japanese acid clay has a high ability to absorb ZEA with very little desorption under gastrointestinal conditions of the swine. Isothermal analysis suggests that the Japanese acid clay is potentially highly efficacious as a ZEA adsorbent.

  16. Detection of Vibrio cholerae by isothermal cross-priming amplification combined with nucleic acid detection strip analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Du, Xin-Jun; Guan, Chun; Li, Ping; Zheng, Wen-Jie; Wang, Shuo

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a water- and food-borne human pathogen, and V. cholerae serotypes O1 and O139 have attracted attention because of their severe pathogenesis. However, non-O1, non-O139 cholera vibrios (NCVs) were also recently recognized as having virulence properties. In this study, we developed a cross-priming amplification (CPA) method for the detection of all serotypes of V. cholerae. The specificity of the CPA method was tested using a panel of 60 different bacterial strains. All of the V. cholerae strains showed positive results, and 41 other types of bacteria gave negative results. The limit of detection of the CPA method was 79.28 fg of genomic DNA, 4.2 × 10(2) CFU/ml for bacteria in pure culture, and 5.6 CFU per 25 g of sample with pre-enrichment. This method showed a higher sensitivity than the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method did and was more convenient to perform. These results indicate that the CPA method can be used for the rapid preliminary screening of V. cholerae.

  17. Entropy-Driven Folding of an RNA Helical Junction: An Isothermal Titration Calorimetric Analysis of the Hammerhead Ribozyme†

    PubMed Central

    Mikulecky, Peter J.; Takach, Jennifer C.; Feig, Andrew L.

    2008-01-01

    Helical junctions are extremely common motifs in naturally occurring RNAs, but little is known about the thermodynamics that drive their folding. Studies of junction folding face several challenges: non-two-state folding behavior, superposition of secondary and tertiary structural energetics, and drastically opposing enthalpic and entropic contributions to folding. Here we describe a thermodynamic dissection of the folding of the hammerhead ribozyme, a three-way RNA helical junction, by using isothermal titration calorimetry of bimolecular RNA constructs. By using this method, we show that tertiary folding of the hammerhead core occurs with a highly unfavorable enthalpy change, and is therefore entropically driven. Furthermore, the enthalpies and heat capacities of core folding are the same whether supported by monovalent or divalent ions. These properties appear to be general to the core sequence of bimolecular hammerhead constructs. We present a model for the ion-induced folding of the hammerhead core that is similar to those advanced for the folding of much larger RNAs, involving ion-induced collapse to a structured, non-native state accompanied by rearrangement of core residues to produce the native fold. In agreement with previous enzymological and structural studies, our thermodynamic data suggest that the hammerhead structure is stabilized in vitro predominantly by diffusely bound ions. Our approach addresses several significant challenges that accompany the study of junction folding, and should prove useful in defining the thermodynamic determinants of stability in these important RNA motifs. PMID:15134461

  18. Analysis of Secondary Structure and Self-Assembly of Amelogenin by Variable Temperature Circular Dichroism and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    PubMed Central

    Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Yoon, Il; Hegde, Balachandra G.; Daming, Fan; Du, Chang; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Amelogenin is a proline-rich enamel matrix protein known to play an important role in the oriented growth of enamel crystals. Amelogenin self-assembles to form nanospheres and higher order structures mediated by hydrophobic interactions. This study aims to obtain a better insight into the relationship between primary-secondary structure and self-assembly of amelogenin by applying computational and biophysical methods. Variable temperature circular dichroism studies indicated that under physiological pH recombinant full-length porcine amelogenin contains unordered structures in equilibrium with polyproline type II (PPII) structure, the latter being more populated at lower temperatures. Increasing the concentration of rP172 resulted in the promotion of folding to an ordered β-structured assembly. Isothermal titration calorimetry dilution studies revealed that, at all temperatures, self-assembly is entropically driven due to the hydrophobic effect and the molar heat of assembly (ΔHA) decreases with temperature. Using a computational approach, a profile of domains in the amino acid sequence that have a high propensity to assemble and to have PPII structures has been identified. We conclude that the assembly properties of amelogenin are due to complementarity between the hydrophobic and PPII helix prone regions. PMID:19274734

  19. Adsorption of probe molecules in pillared interlayered clays: Experiment and computer simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, A. Guil, J. M.; Lomba, E.; Almarza, N. G.; Khatib, S. J.; Cabrillo, C.; Sanz, A.; Pires, J.

    2014-06-14

    In this paper we investigate the adsorption of various probe molecules in order to characterize the porous structure of a series of pillared interlayered clays (PILC). To that aim, volumetric and microcalorimetric adsorption experiments were performed on various Zr PILC samples using nitrogen, toluene, and mesitylene as probe molecules. For one of the samples, neutron scattering experiments were also performed using toluene as adsorbate. Various structural models are proposed and tested by means of a comprehensive computer simulation study, using both geometric and percolation analysis in combination with Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations in order to model the volumetric and microcalorimetric isotherms. On the basis of this analysis, we propose a series of structural models that aim at accounting for the adsorption experimental behavior, and make possible a microscopic interpretation of the role played by the different interactions and steric effects in the adsorption processes in these rather complex disordered microporous systems.

  20. Thermodynamics of binary gas adsorption in nanopores.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Sujeet; Lefort, Ronan; Morineau, Denis; Mhanna, Ramona; Merdrignac-Conanec, Odile; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; Leclercq, Théo

    2016-09-21

    MCM-41 nanoporous silicas show a very high selectivity for monoalcohols over aprotic molecules during adsorption of a binary mixture in the gas phase. We present here an original use of gravimetric vapour sorption isotherms to characterize the role played by the alcohol hydrogen-bonding network in the adsorption process. Beyond simple selectivity, vapour sorption isotherms measured for various compositions help to completely unravel at the molecular level the step by step adsorption mechanism of the binary system in the nanoporous solid, from the first monolayers to the complete liquid condensation. PMID:27532892

  1. Adsorption in sparse networks. 2: Silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, G.W.; Calas, S.; Sempere, R.

    1998-06-15

    The model developed in Part 1 is applied to nitrogen adsorption isotherms obtained for a series of silica aerogels whose densities are varied by partial sintering. The isotherms are adequately described by a cubic network model, with all of the pores falling in the mesopore range; the adsorption and desorption branches are fit by the same pore size distribution. For the least dense gels, a substantial portion of the pore volume is not detected by condensation. The model attributes this effect to the shape of the adsorbate/adsorptive interface, which can adopt zero curvature even in mesopores, because of the shape of the network.

  2. High throughput analysis of atmospheric volatile organic compounds by thermal injection--isothermal gas chromatography--time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ryan B; Hoggard, Jamin C; Synovec, Robert E

    2013-01-15

    Sixty one volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a standard gas mixture were separated via isothermal gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) in a ≈ 35s separation time window (≈ 45 s separation). The VOCs in the standard gas mixture were selected based on the EPA TO-15 methodology. The high throughput separation was achieved with a relatively high total peak capacity (n(c) ≈ 114), by simultaneously minimizing both on-column and off-column peak width broadening. The on-column contributions to peak width broadening were minimized by taking into account and applying GC separation theory for the selection of column dimensions and carrier gas flow rate conditions. Both fast cryogenic focusing and re-injection of compounds (implemented via a commercially available thermal modulator and referred to herein as thermal injection (TI) and fast TOFMS detection (100 scans/s)) were applied to reduce off-column sources of peak width band broadening (sometimes referred to as off-column band broadening). Cryogenic focusing during TI and minimal band broadening-based dilution during separation resulted in preconcentration factors for the detected peaks ranging from 78 (1,4-dichlorobenzene) to 420 (propylene). Since the injected volume for preconcentration was 500 μl, and based on the detected noise levels at selected m/z for each analyte compound, the concentration limit of detection (LOD) ranged from 67 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) for propylene, to 4 ppbv for freon-12. While application of standard VOC analysis conditions leads to separation times typically ranging from ≈ 30 to 50 min, the isothermal GC-TOFMS method reported herein represents a 40-fold improvement in analysis time while maintaining peak capacity and detection sensitivity that is comparable to traditional GC-MS VOC analysis. PMID:23200363

  3. [Preparation of surface molecularly imprinted polymers for penicilloic acid, and its adsorption properties].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Penglei; Luo, Zhimin; Chang, Ruimiao; Ge, Yanhui; Du, Wei; Chang, Chun; Fu, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    On account of the specificity and reproducibility for the determination of penicilloic acid in penicillin, this study aims to prepare penicilloic acid imprinted polymers (PEOA-MIPs) by surface polymerization method at the surface of modified silica particles by using penicilloic acid (PEOA) as the template molecule, methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate ( EGDMA) as the cross linker, and methanol/acetonitrile as the solvents. The synthesis conditions were optimized, and PEOA-MIPs had the best adsorption capacity when the molar ratio of template molecule/functional monomer was 1 :4, cross linking degree was 85% and the solvent ratio of methanol/acetonitrile was 1 :1 (v/v). The adsorption properties were evaluated by adsorption experiments, including the adsorption isotherms, kinetics and selectivity. The adsorption process between PEOA-MIPs and PEOA fitted the Langmuir adsorption isotherm with the maximum adsorption capacity of 122. 78 mg/g and the pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics with fast adsorption kinetics (the equilibrium time of 45 min). The as-synthesized PEOA-MIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicated that the MIPs layer has been successfully grafted on the surface of SiO2 microparticles and the PEOA-MIPs had the excellent thermal stability. The PEOA-MIPs showed the highest selective recognition for PEOA. The PEOA-MIPs possess a high adsorption capacity, rapid mass-transfer rate and high selectivity to PEOA when compared with non-imprinted polymers (PEOA-NIPs). The PEOA-MIPs was expected to be used as the solid phase extraction medium and this study provides the potential applications for fast recognition and analysis of the penicilloic acid in penicillin. PMID:26753284

  4. Visualizing Gas Adsorption on Porous Solids: Four Simple, Effective Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Ocean

    2014-01-01

    Gas adsorption on porous solids is a topic that is often discussed in an undergraduate chemistry or chemical engineering course. The idea of porosity and gas adsorption on a porous solid is usually discussed with adsorption isotherms recorded using commercially available equipment. This discussion can be rather abstract and can be difficult for…

  5. The adsorption mechanism of nortryptiline on C18-bonded discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-08-01

    The adsorption isotherms of an ionizable compound, nortriptyline, were accurately measured by frontal analysis (FA) on a C{sub 18}-Discovery column, first without buffer (in an aqueous solution of acetonitrile at 15%, v/v of ACN), then with a buffer (in 28%, v/v ACN solution). The buffers were aqueous solutions containing 20 mM of formic acid or a phosphate buffer at pH 2.70. The linear range of the isotherm could not be reached with the non-buffered mobile phase using a dynamic range larger than 40,000 (from 1.2 x 10{sup -3} g/L to 50 g/L). With a 20 mM buffer in the liquid phase, the isotherm is linear for concentrations of nortriptyline inferior to 10{sup -3} g/L (or 3 {micro} mol/L). The adsorption energy distribution (AED) was calculated to determine the heterogeneity of the adsorption process. AED and FA were consistent and lead to a trimodal distribution. A tri-Moreau and a tri-Langmuir isotherm models accounted the best for the adsorption of nortriptyline without and with buffer, respectively. The nature of the buffer affects significantly the middle-energy sites while the properties of the lowest and highest of the three types of energy sites are almost unchanged. The desorption profiles of nortriptyline show some anomalies in relation with the formation of a complex multilayer adsorbed phase of acetonitrile whose excess isotherm was measured by the minor disturbance method. The C{sub 18}-Discovery column has about the same total saturation capacity, around 200 g of nortriptyline per liter of adsorbent (or 116 mg/g), with or without buffer. About 98-99% of the available surface consists in low energy sites. The coexistence of these different types of sites on the surface solves the McCalley's enigma, that the column efficiency begins to drop rapidly when the analyte concentration reaches values that are almost one hundred times lower than those that could be predicted from the isotherm data acquired under the same experimental conditions. Due to the

  6. Aged nano-structured platinum based catalyst: effect of chemical treatment on adsorption and catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Shim, Wang Geun; Nahm, Seung Won; Park, Hyuk Ryeol; Yun, Hyung Sun; Seo, Seong Gyu; Kim, Sang Chai

    2011-02-01

    To examine the effect of chemical treatment on the adsorption and catalytic activity of nanostructured platinum based catalyst, the aged commercial Pt/AC catalyst was pretreated with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and a cleaning agent (Hexane). Several reliable methods such as nitrogen adsorption, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) were employed to characterize the aged Pt/AC catalyst and its chemically pretreated Pt/AC catalysts. The catalytic and adsorption activities of nano-structured heterogeneous Pt/AC catalyst were investigated on the basis of toluene oxidation and adsorption isotherm data. In addition, the adsorption isotherms of toluene were used to calculate the adsorption energy distribution functions for the parent catalyst and its pre-treated nano-structured Pt/AC catalysts. It was found that sulfuric acid aqueous treatment can enhance the catalytic performance of aged Pt/AC catalyst toward catalytic oxidation of toluene. It was also shown that a comparative analysis of the energy distribution functions for nano-structured Pt/AC catalysts as well as the pore size distribution provides valuable information about their structural and energetic heterogeneity.

  7. Adsorption properties of an activated carbon for 18 cytokines and HMGB1 from inflammatory model plasma.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Satoru; Kiriyama, Kentaro; Hatanaka, Yoshihiro; Kanoh, Hirofumi

    2015-02-01

    The ability of an activated carbon (AC) to adsorb 18 different cytokines with molecular weights ranging from 8 kDa to 70 kDa and high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) from inflammatory model plasma at 310 K and the mechanisms of adsorption were examined. Porosity analysis using N2 gas adsorption at 77K showed that the AC had micropores with diameters of 1-2 nm and mesopores with diameters of 5-20 nm. All 18 cytokines and HMGB1 were adsorbed on the AC; however, the shapes of the adsorption isotherms changed depending on the molecular weight. The adsorption isotherms for molecules of 8-10 kDa, 10-20 kDa, 20-30 kDa, and higher molecular weights were classified as H-2, L-3, S-3, and S-1 types, respectively. These results suggested that the adsorption mechanism for the cytokines and HMGB1 in the mesopores and on the surface of the AC differed as a function of the molecular weight. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that AC should be efficient for cytokine adsorption.

  8. Performance, kinetics, and equilibrium of methylene blue adsorption on biochar derived from eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric, tartaric, and acetic acids.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Chen, Dongmei; Wan, Shungang; Yu, Zebin

    2015-12-01

    Biochar derived from eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric, tartaric, and acetic acids at low temperatures was utilized as adsorbent to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the carboxyl group was introduced on the biochar surface. Adsorption experiment data indicated that eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric acid showed higher MB adsorption efficiency than that modified with tartaric and acetic acids. Pseudo-second-order kinetics was the most suitable model for describing MB adsorption on biochar compared with pseudo-first-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion models. The calculated values of ΔG(0) and ΔH(0) indicated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption process. MB adsorption on biochar followed the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacities for eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric, tartaric, and acetic acids were 178.57, 99.01, and 29.94 mg g(-1), respectively, at 35°C.

  9. Adsorption studies of methylene blue and gentian violet on sugarcane bagasse modified with EDTA dianhydride (EDTAD) in aqueous solutions: kinetic and equilibrium aspects.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Karla Aparecida Guimarães; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Melo, Tânia Márcia Sacramento; Gil, Laurent Frédéric

    2013-03-30

    In this study the adsorption of cationic dyes by modified sugarcane bagasse with EDTA dianhydride (EB) was examined using methylene blue (MB) and gentian violet (GV) as model compounds in aqueous single solutions. The synthesized adsorbent (EB) was characterized by FTIR, elemental analysis, and BET. The capacity of EB to adsorb dyes was evaluated at different contact times, pH values, and initial dye concentrations. According to the obtained results, the adsorption processes could be described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption isotherms were well fitted by the Langmuir model. Maximum adsorption capacities for MB and GV on EB were found to be 202.43 and 327.83 mg/g, respectively. The free energy change during adsorption of MB and GV was found to be -22.50 and -24.21 kJ/mol, respectively, suggesting that chemisorption is the main mechanism controlling the adsorption process.

  10. Preparation of triethylene-tetramine grafted magnetic chitosan for adsorption of Pb(II) ion from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Shao-Ping; Wang, Zhao-Zhan; Liu, Jie; Wu, Zhan-Chao

    2013-09-15

    In this paper, a novel triethylene-tetramine grafted magnetic chitosan was synthesized. The chemical structure and the percentage content of each element of chitosan and its derivatives were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, solid state (13)C NMR, X-ray diffraction analysis and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. Their surface topography was observed by the transmission electron microscope. The results of adsorption kinetics and adsorption thermodynamics showed the adsorption mechanism could be better described by the pseudo-second-order equation (R>0.999). The adsorption isotherm was well fitted by the Langmuir equation (R>0.999), and 0adsorption capacity was 370.63 mg/g at the optimized adsorption conditions, which were pH=6, T=298 K, t=1.5h, C(0)=200 mg/L and adsorbent dose is 500 mg/L. The rate-limiting step may be the chemical adsorption rather than mass transport. The adsorbent still exhibited very good adsorption performance after the fifth regeneration cycle. The mechanism for adsorption and desorption was discussed.

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of the heterogeneous binding sites of molecularly imprinted polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyunjung; Kaczmarski, Krzysztof; Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-11-01

    The thermodynamic interactions of two polymers, one Fmoc-L-Trp-imprinted (MIP), the other one an unimprinted reference (NIP), with the two Fmoc-tryptophan enantiomers were studied by frontal analysis, which allows accurate measurements of the adsorption isotherms. These isotherms were acquired at temperatures of 40, 50, 60, and 70 C, for sample concentrations ranging between 0.005 and 40 mM. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile with one percent acetic acid as an organic modifier. Within the measured concentration ranges, the tri-Langmuir isotherm model accounts best for the isotherm data of both enantiomers on the MIP, the bi-Langmuir model for the isotherm data of Fmoc-L-Trp on the NIP. These isotherm models were selected using three independent processes: statistical tests on the results from regression of the isotherm data to different isotherm models; calculation of the affinity energy distribution from the raw isotherm data; comparison of the experimental and the calculated band profiles. The isotherm parameters obtained from these best selected isotherm models showed that the enantiomeric selectivity does not change significantly with temperature, while the affinity of the substrates for both the MIP and the NIP decrease considerably with increasing temperatures. These temperature effects on the binding performance of the MIP were clarified by considering the thermodynamic functions (i.e., the standard molar Gibbs free energy, the standard molar entropy of adsorption, and the standard molar enthalpy of adsorption) for each identified type of adsorption sites, derived from the Van't Hoff equation. This showed that the entropy of transfer of Fmoc-L-Trp from the mobile to the MIP stationary phase is the dominant driving force for the selective adsorption of Fmoc-L-Trp onto the enantioselective binding sites. This entropy does not change significantly with increasing temperatures from 40 to 70 C.

  12. Structural analysis of IPC zeolites and related materials using positron annihilation spectroscopy and high-resolution argon adsorption.

    PubMed

    Jagiello, J; Sterling, M; Eliášová, P; Opanasenko, M; Zukal, A; Morris, R E; Navaro, M; Mayoral, A; Crivelli, P; Warringham, R; Mitchell, S; Pérez-Ramírez, J; Čejka, J

    2016-06-01

    The advanced investigation of pore networks in isoreticular zeolites and mesoporous materials related to the IPC family was performed using high-resolution argon adsorption experiments coupled with the development of a state-of-the-art non-local density functional theory approach. The optimization of a kernel for model sorption isotherms for materials possessing the same layer structure, differing only in the interlayer connectivity (e.g. oxygen bridges, single- or double-four-ring building units, mesoscale pillars etc.) revealed remarkable differences in their porous systems. Using high-resolution adsorption data, the bimodal pore size distribution consistent with crystallographic data for IPC-6, IPC-7 and UTL samples is shown for the first time. A dynamic assessment by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) provided complementary insights, simply distinguishing the enhanced accessibility of the pore network in samples incorporating mesoscale pillars and revealing the presence of a certain fraction of micropores undetected by gas sorption. Nonetheless, subtle differences in the pore size could not be discriminated based on the widely-applied Tao-Eldrup model. The combination of both methods can be useful for the advanced characterization of microporous, mesoporous and hierarchical materials. PMID:27210107

  13. Structural analysis of IPC zeolites and related materials using positron annihilation spectroscopy and high-resolution argon adsorption.

    PubMed

    Jagiello, J; Sterling, M; Eliášová, P; Opanasenko, M; Zukal, A; Morris, R E; Navaro, M; Mayoral, A; Crivelli, P; Warringham, R; Mitchell, S; Pérez-Ramírez, J; Čejka, J

    2016-06-01

    The advanced investigation of pore networks in isoreticular zeolites and mesoporous materials related to the IPC family was performed using high-resolution argon adsorption experiments coupled with the development of a state-of-the-art non-local density functional theory approach. The optimization of a kernel for model sorption isotherms for materials possessing the same layer structure, differing only in the interlayer connectivity (e.g. oxygen bridges, single- or double-four-ring building units, mesoscale pillars etc.) revealed remarkable differences in their porous systems. Using high-resolution adsorption data, the bimodal pore size distribution consistent with crystallographic data for IPC-6, IPC-7 and UTL samples is shown for the first time. A dynamic assessment by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) provided complementary insights, simply distinguishing the enhanced accessibility of the pore network in samples incorporating mesoscale pillars and revealing the presence of a certain fraction of micropores undetected by gas sorption. Nonetheless, subtle differences in the pore size could not be discriminated based on the widely-applied Tao-Eldrup model. The combination of both methods can be useful for the advanced characterization of microporous, mesoporous and hierarchical materials.

  14. Analysis of Casein Biopolymers Adsorption to Lignocellulosic Biomass as a Potential Cellulase Stabilizer

    DOE PAGES

    Eckard, Anahita Dehkhoda; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Gibbons, William

    2012-01-01

    Although lignocellulosic materials have a good potential to substitute current feedstocks used for ethanol production, conversion of these materials to fermentable sugars is still not economical through enzymatic hydrolysis. High cost of cellulase has prompted research to explore techniques that can prevent from enzyme deactivation. Colloidal proteins of casein can form monolayers on hydrophobic surfaces that alleviate the de-activation of protein of interest. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and Kjeldahl and BSA protein assays were used to investigate the unknown mechanism of action of induced cellulase activity during hydrolysis of casein-treated biomass. Adsorptionmore » of casein to biomass was observed with all of the analytical techniques used and varied depending on the pretreatment techniques of biomass. FT-IR analysis of amides I and II suggested that the substructure of protein from casein or skim milk were deformed at the time of contact with biomass. With no additive, the majority of one of the cellulase mono-component, 97.1 ± 1.1, was adsorbed to CS within 24 h, this adsorption was irreversible and increased by 2% after 72 h. However, biomass treatment with skim-milk and casein reduced the adsorption to 32.9% ± 6.0 and 82.8% ± 6.0, respectively.« less

  15. Static Analysis of Double Effect Adsorption Refrigeration Cycle Using Silica gel/Water Pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlinda; Miyazaki, Takahiko; Ueda, Yuki; Akisawa, Atsushi

    In this paper,a static analysis of double effect adsorption refrigeration cycle utilizing condensation heat is discussed. Double effect adsorption refrigeration cycle consists of two cycles, High Temperature Cycle (HTC) which is driven from external heat sources, and Low Temperature Cycle (LTC) which is driven by condensation heat from HTC. Both of HTC and LTC are using silica gel and water as working pairs. The effect of heat source temperature on cycle performance was investigated in terms of coefficient of performance (COP) and specific cooling energy (SCE). Results showed that double effect cycle would produce higher COP than single effect cycle for driving temperature observed between 80-150°C with the same operating condition. However, the value of SCE is lower than single effect, despite that the SCE of double effect cycle is improved with heat source temperature higher than 100°C. Further, it was also observed that adsorbent mass ratio of HTC and LTC affected performance of chiller. When adsorbent mass ratio of HTC and LTC was unity, it was found that SCE and COP took the maximum.

  16. Random sequential adsorption with two components: asymptotic analysis and finite size effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeve, Louise; Wattis, Jonathan A. D.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the model of random sequential adsorption (RSA) in which two lengths of rod-like polymer compete for binding on a long straight rigid one-dimensional substrate. We take all lengths to be discrete, assume that binding is irreversible, and short or long polymers are chosen at random with some probability. We consider both the cases where the polymers have similar lengths and when the lengths are vastly different. We use a combination of numerical simulations, computation and asymptotic analysis to study the adsorption process, specifically, analysing how competition between the two polymer lengths affects the final coverage, and how the coverage depends on the relative sizes of the two species and their relative binding rates. We find that the final coverage is always higher than in the one-species RSA, and that the highest coverage is achieved when the rate of binding of the longer polymer is higher. We find that for many binding rates and relative lengths of binding species, the coverage due to the shorter species decreases with increasing substrate length, although there is a small region of parameter space in which all coverages increase with substrate length.

  17. Adsorption on ordered and disordered duplex layers of porous anodic alumina.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Phadungbut, Poomiwat; Do, D D; Nicholson, D; Mayamei, Yashar; Lee, Woo

    2015-05-01

    We have carried out systematic experiments and numerical simulations of the adsorption on porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) duplex layers presenting either an ordered or a disordered interconnecting interface between the large (cavity) and small (constriction) sections of the structured pores. Selective blocking of the pore openings resulted in three different pore topologies: open structured pores, funnel pores, and ink-bottle pores. In the case of the structured pores having an ordered interface, the adsorption isotherms present a rich phenomenology characterized by the presence of two steps in the condensation branch and the opening of one (two) hysteresis loops during evaporation for the ink-bottle (open and funnel) pores. The isotherms can be obtained by summing the isotherms measured on uniform pores having the dimensions of the constrictions or of the cavities. The numerical analysis of the three different pore topologies indicates that the shape of the junction between the two pore sections is only important for the adsorption branch. In particular, a conic junction which resembles that of the AAO pores represents the experimental isotherms for the open and funnel pores better, but the shape of the junction in the ink bottle pores does not matter. The isotherms for the duplex layers with a disordered interface display the same general features found for the ordered duplex layers. In both cases, the adsorption branches coincide and have two steps which are shifted to lower relative pressures compared to those for the ordered duplex. Furthermore, the desorption branches comprise hysteresis loops much wider than those of the ordered duplex layers. Overall, this study highlights the important role played by morphologies where there are interconnections between large and small pores.

  18. Comparative evaluation of adsorption kinetics of diclofenac and isoproturon by activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Torrellas, Silvia A; Rodriguez, Araceli R; Escudero, Gabriel O; Martín, José María G; Rodriguez, Juan G

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption mechanism of diclofenac and isoproturon onto activated carbon has been proposed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Adsorption capacity and optimum adsorption isotherms were predicted by nonlinear regression method. Different kinetic equations, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intraparticle diffusion model and Bangham kinetic model, were applied to study the adsorption kinetics of emerging contaminants on activated carbon in two aqueous matrices. PMID:26301850

  19. Adsorption of organic chemicals in soils.

    PubMed Central

    Calvet, R

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a review on adsorption of organic chemicals on soils sediments and their constituents. The first part of this review deals with adsorption from gas and liquid phases and gives a discussion on the physical meaning of the shape of adsorption isotherms. Results show that no general rules can be proposed to describe univocally the relation between the shape of isotherms and the nature of adsorbate-adsorbent system. Kinetics of adsorption is discussed through the description of various models. Theoretical developments exist both for the thermodynamics and the kinetics of adsorption, but there is a strong need for experimental results. Possible adsorption mechanisms are ion exchange, interaction with metallic cations, hydrogen bonds, charge transfers, and London-van der Waals dispersion forces/hydrophobic effect. However, direct proofs of a given mechanism are rare. Several factors influence adsorption behavior. Electronic structure of adsorbed molecules, properties of adsorbents, and characteristics of the liquid phase are discussed in relation to adsorption. Such properties as water solubility, organic carbon content of adsorbing materials, and the composition of the liquid phase are particularly important. Evaluation of adsorption can be obtained through either laboratory measurements or use of several correlations. Adsorption measurements must be interpreted, taking into account treatment of adsorbent materials, experimental conditions, and secondary phenomena such as degradations. Correlations between adsorption coefficients and water-octanol partition coefficient or water solubility are numerous. They may be useful tools for prediction purposes. Relations with transport, bioavailability, and degradation are described. PMID:2695323

  20. Adsorption of organic chemicals in soils.

    PubMed

    Calvet, R

    1989-11-01

    This paper presents a review on adsorption of organic chemicals on soils sediments and their constituents. The first part of this review deals with adsorption from gas and liquid phases and gives a discussion on the physical meaning of the shape of adsorption isotherms. Results show that no general rules can be proposed to describe univocally the relation between the shape of isotherms and the nature of adsorbate-adsorbent system. Kinetics of adsorption is discussed through the description of various models. Theoretical developments exist both for the thermodynamics and the kinetics of adsorption, but there is a strong need for experimental results. Possible adsorption mechanisms are ion exchange, interaction with metallic cations, hydrogen bonds, charge transfers, and London-van der Waals dispersion forces/hydrophobic effect. However, direct proofs of a given mechanism are rare. Several factors influence adsorption behavior. Electronic structure of adsorbed molecules, properties of adsorbents, and characteristics of the liquid phase are discussed in relation to adsorption. Such properties as water solubility, organic carbon content of adsorbing materials, and the composition of the liquid phase are particularly important. Evaluation of adsorption can be obtained through either laboratory measurements or use of several correlations. Adsorption measurements must be interpreted, taking into account treatment of adsorbent materials, experimental conditions, and secondary phenomena such as degradations. Correlations between adsorption coefficients and water-octanol partition coefficient or water solubility are numerous. They may be useful tools for prediction purposes. Relations with transport, bioavailability, and degradation are described.

  1. Protein adsorption induced bridging flocculation: the dominant entropic pathway for nano-bio complexation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eren, Necla Mine; Narsimhan, Ganesan; Campanella, Osvaldo H.

    2016-02-01

    Lysozyme-silica interactions and the resulting complexation were investigated through adsorption isotherms, dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering, circular dichroism (CD), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). A thermodynamic analysis of ITC data revealed the existence of two binding modes during protein-nanoparticle complexation. Both binding modes are driven by the cooperation of a favorable enthalpy in the presence of a dominating entropy gain. The first binding mode has a higher binding affinity, a lower equilibrium stoichiometry and is driven by a higher entropic contribution compared to the second type. The observed favorable enthalpy gain in both modes is attributed to non-covalent complexation whereas the entropy gain is associated with the re-organization of the silica surface including not only the solvent and counter ion release, but also the protein's conformational changes. Possible mechanisms are proposed to explain non-covalent complexations for each binding mode by relating the changes in the zeta potential and hydrodynamic radius to the obtained adsorption isotherms and calorimetry profile. Based on all these findings, it is proposed that lysozyme adsorption on nano-silica is the result of protein-nanoparticle and protein-protein interactions that further leads to spontaneous, non-directional and random complexation of silica through bridging flocculation.Lysozyme-silica interactions and the resulting complexation were investigated through adsorption isotherms, dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering, circular dichroism (CD), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). A thermodynamic analysis of ITC data revealed the existence of two binding modes during protein-nanoparticle complexation. Both binding modes are driven by the cooperation of a favorable enthalpy in the presence of a dominating entropy gain. The first binding mode has a higher binding affinity, a lower equilibrium stoichiometry and is driven by a higher entropic

  2. Asymmetric exponential amplification reaction on a toehold/biotin featured template: an ultrasensitive and specific strategy for isothermal microRNAs analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Zhou, Xueqing; Ma, Yingjun; Lin, Xiulian; Dai, Zong; Zou, Xiaoyong

    2016-01-01

    The sensitive and specific analysis of microRNAs (miRNAs) without using a thermal cycler instrument is significant and would greatly facilitate biological research and disease diagnostics. Although exponential amplification reaction (EXPAR) is the most attractive strategy for the isothermal analysis of miRNAs, its intrinsic limitations of detection efficiency and inevitable non-specific amplification critically restrict its use in analytical sensitivity and specificity. Here, we present a novel asymmetric EXPAR based on a new biotin/toehold featured template. A biotin tag was used to reduce the melting temperature of the primer/template duplex at the 5′ terminus of the template, and a toehold exchange structure acted as a filter to suppress the non-specific trigger of EXPAR. The asymmetric EXPAR exhibited great improvements in amplification efficiency and specificity as well as a dramatic extension of dynamic range. The limit of detection for the let-7a analysis was decreased to 6.02 copies (0.01 zmol), and the dynamic range was extended to 10 orders of magnitude. The strategy enabled the sensitive and accurate analysis of let-7a miRNA in human cancer tissues with clearly better precision than both standard EXPAR and RT-qPCR. Asymmetric EXPAR is expected to have an important impact on the development of simple and rapid molecular diagnostic applications for short oligonucleotides. PMID:27257058

  3. Effect of organic matter and calcium carbonate on behaviors of cadmium adsorption-desorption on/from purple paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiulan; Jiang, Tao; Du, Bin

    2014-03-01

    Batch experiments and sequential extraction analysis were employed to investigate the effects of soil organic matter and CaCO3 on the adsorption and desorption of cadmium (Cd(2+)) onto and from two purple paddy soils, an acidic purple paddy soil (APPS) and a calcareous purple paddy soil (CPPS). The Cd(2+) adsorption isotherms on both soils could be well-described by the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. CPPS had a higher capacity and a stronger affinity for Cd(2+) adsorption compared with APPS. The adsorption process of Cd(2+) on APPS was dominated by electrostatic attractions, whereas the adsorption mechanism varied depending on the Cd(2+) concentrations in equilibrium solutions on CPPS. At low equilibrium concentrations, the adsorption process was primarily specific adsorption, but nonspecific adsorption dominated at high equilibrium concentrations. Removal of organic matter decreased the amount of Cd(2+) adsorption on both of the soils, slightly affected the Cd(2+) desorption rate and exchangeable Cd (EXC-Cd) in APPS and increased the desorption rate and EXC-Cd in CPPS, suggesting that the effect of organic matter on Cd(2+) adsorption-desorption depends on the soils. CPPS and APPS containing CaCO3 exhibited higher adsorption amounts but lower desorption rates and lower proportions of EXC-Cd than those of their corresponding soils without CaCO3, demonstrating that CaCO3 played an important role in Cd(2+) specific adsorption on soil. The changes in the thermodynamic parameters, including free energy (ΔG(0)), enthalpy (ΔH(0)) and entropy (ΔS(0)), as evaluated by the Van't Hoff equations, indicated that the adsorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process with the primary interaction forces of dipole interactions and hydrogen bonds on APPS, whereas both physical and chemical interactions dominated the adsorption on CPPS.

  4. A Study of Adsorptive Characteristics of Australian Coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Y. P.; Tsai, L. L.

    2012-04-01

    Ever since the Kyoto Protocol, controlling carbon dioxide emission and reducing its content in atmosphere are very important environmental issues up to today. One of the effective methods for permanent sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 is to inject CO2 into deep, unminable coal seams and recover coal bed methane at the same time. CO2-ECBM technology had been proved to be very promising to meet the needs of both environment and energy. Beside other external environment factors, capacity of CO2 adsorption and CH4 desorption are the most influencing factors in selection of sites for the geological storage of CO2. Therefore, the objective of this study is to understand the relationship between gas adsorption and CO2 sequestration, by various experiments for the characterization of Australian of coals. Generally speaking, coal seam gas comprises mostly of CH4, CO2, C2H6, and N2. However, some of the Australian coals were reported with significant amount of CO2 up to 90%, which might strongly affect their capacity of CO2 capture and storage (CCS). High to medium volatile bituminous coals from Sydney Basin and Bowen Basin, southeast Australia were selected in this study. Experiments include maceral composition and vitrinite reflectance measurements, petrographic analysis, Proximate analysis, Ultimate analysis, specific surface area analysis as well as CO2 and CH4 adsorption experiments were performed. Parameters for difference adsorption functions (Langmuir, BET, D-R and D-A) were then calculated to fit their adsorption isotherms the best fitting curve can then be found. Among these adsorption functions, Langmuir is the most basic and commonly used function theory. The results of all experiments were synthesized to discuss the relations among each other, so as to establish the relationship between gas adsorption and coal characteristics.

  5. Selective adsorption of silver ions from aqueous solution using polystyrene-supported trimercaptotriazine resin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiming; Li, Hongling; Chen, Xiaoya; Yang, Min; Qi, Yanxing

    2012-01-01

    Trimercaptotriazine-functionalized polystyrene chelating resin was prepared and employed for the adsorption of Ag(I) from aqueous solution. The adsorbent was characterized according to the following techniques: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller method. The effects of initial Ag(I) concentration, contact time, solution pH and coexisting ions on the adsorption capacity of Ag(I) were systematically investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of Ag(I) was up to 187.1 mg/g resin at pH 0.0 and room temperature. The kinetic experiments indicated that the adsorption rate of Ag(I) onto the chelating resin was quite fast in the first 60 min and reached adsorption equilibrium after 360 min. The adsorption process can be well described by the pseudo second-order kinetic model and the equilibrium adsorption isotherm was closely fitted by the Langmuir model. Moreover, the chelating resin could selectively adsorb more Ag(I) ions than other heavy metal ions including: Cu(I), Zn(II), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Cr(III) during competitive adsorption in the binary metal species systems, which indicated that it was a highly selective adsorbent of Ag(I) from aqueous solution.

  6. Adsorption of thorium from aqueous solutions by perlite.

    PubMed

    Talip, Z; Eral, M; Hiçsönmez, U

    2009-02-01

    The use of expanded perlite for the adsorption of thorium from aqueous solution by batch technique is presented. The effects of particle size, pH of the solution, initial thorium concentration, shaking time, V/m ratio and temperature were determined. It was found that the adsorption capacity increases by the increase in the pH of the suspensions. The rate of thorium adsorption on expanded perlite was observed to be fast in the first hour of the reaction time. Adsorption isotherms were expressed by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models and the adsorption experiments conducted at 30 +/- 1 degrees C showed that the adsorption isotherms correlated well with the Langmuir model. From the adsorption data, thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaG(o), DeltaH(o) and DeltaS(o) were calculated as a function of temperature.

  7. Mesoporous carbon adsorbents from melamine-formaldehyde resin using nanocasting technique for CO2 adsorption.

    PubMed

    Goel, Chitrakshi; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K

    2015-06-01

    Mesoporous carbon adsorbents, having high nitrogen content, were synthesized via nanocasting technique with melamine-formaldehyde resin as precursor and mesoporous silica as template. A series of adsorbents were prepared by varying the carbonization temperature from 400 to 700°C. Adsorbents were characterized thoroughly by nitrogen sorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental (CHN) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Boehm titration. Carbonization temperature controlled the properties of the synthesized adsorbents ranging from surface area to their nitrogen content, which play major role in their application as adsorbents for CO2 capture. The nanostructure of these materials was confirmed by XRD and TEM. Their nitrogen content decreased with an increase in carbonization temperature while other properties like surface area, pore volume, thermal stability and surface basicity increased with the carbonization temperature. These materials were evaluated for CO2 adsorption by fixed-bed column adsorption experiments. Adsorbent synthesized at 700°C was found to have the highest surface area and surface basicity along with maximum CO2 adsorption capacity among the synthesized adsorbents. Breakthrough time and CO2 equilibrium adsorption capacity were investigated from the breakthrough curves and were found to decrease with increase in adsorption temperature. Adsorption process for carbon adsorbent-CO2 system was found to be reversible with stable adsorption capacity over four consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles. From three isotherm models used to analyze the equilibrium data, Temkin isotherm model presented a nearly perfect fit implying the heterogeneous adsorbent surface.

  8. Rapid and effective diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis with novel and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay in clinical samples: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Le-yong; Li, Yan; Wang, Ming; Ke, Zun-qiong; Xu, Wan-zhou

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay has been introduced for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). We performed the meta-analysis to establish the overall accuracy of LAMP assay for diagnosing pulmonary TB. Based on comprehensive searches of the pubmed, embase and cochrane databases, we identified outcome datas from all articles estimating diagnostic accuracy with LAMP assay until 1 October 2012. A summary estimation for sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratios (DOR) and the area under the summary ROC curve (AUC) was calculated by using the bivariate random-effects approach. The meta-analysis included 10 studies (1920 suspected specimens). The summary estimate was 80.0% (95%CI, 78.0%-83.0%) for sensitivity, 96.0% (95%CI, 95.0%-97.0%) for specificity and 119.85/0.9633 for DOR/AUC in pulmonary TB. The findings in subgroup analysis were as follows: the accuracy of LAMP assay is higher in high quality level studies than moderate and low quality level studies. The pooled sensitivity for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB was 90.0% (95%CI, 86.0-93.0%) and 75.0% (95%CI, 71.0-78.0%) for high quality level studies and moderate combined low quality level studies, respectively, while the specificity was 99.0% (95%CI, 98.0-100.0%) and 91.0% (95%CI, 88.0-94.0%). Pulmonary TB can be rapidly and accurately diagnosed with LAMP assay.

  9. Adsorption of cesium from aqueous solution using agricultural residue--walnut shell: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dahu; Zhao, Yingxin; Yang, Shengjiong; Shi, Wansheng; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang; Yang, Yingnan

    2013-05-01

    A novel biosorbent derived from agricultural residue - walnut shell (WS) is reported to remove cesium from aqueous solution. Nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) was incorporated into this biosorbent, serving as a high selectivity trap agent for cesium. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) were utilized for the evaluation of the developed biosorbent. Determination of kinetic parameters for adsorption was carried out using pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order kinetic models and intra-particle diffusion models. Adsorption equilibrium was examined using Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherms. A satisfactory correlation coefficient and relatively low chi-square analysis parameter χ(2) between the experimental and predicted values of the Freundlich isotherm demonstrate that cesium adsorption by NiHCF-WS is a multilayer chemical adsorption. Thermodynamic studies were conducted under different reaction temperatures and results indicate that cesium adsorption by NiHCF-WS is an endothermic (ΔH° > 0) and spontaneous (ΔG° < 0) process.

  10. Excellent adsorption and desorption characteristics of polypyrrole/TiO2 composite for Methylene Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingjing; Feng, Jiangtao; Yan, Wei

    2013-08-01

    P25 or self-prepared TiO2 coated polypyrrole (PPy/P25 or PPy/TiO2) composites as novel adsorbents were prepared. Their adsorption-desorption characteristics for Methylene Blue (MB) were comparatively investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that PPy/TiO2 possessed higher doping level than PPy/P25. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that PPy/TiO2 contained more PPy than PPy/P25. The results of water vapor adsorption suggested that the PPy/TiO2 composite was more hydrophobic than PPy/P25. The adsorption results revealed that the composites pretreated in the solution with higher pH value exhibited larger adsorption capacities. The ionic concentration in MB solution slightly impacted the removal of MB by the PPy/TiO2 composite. The adsorption equilibrium results showed that the adsorption of MB was completed in a short time of 30 min. Pseudo-second-order and Langmuir isotherm models were effectively employed to describe the adsorption behavior of MB. PPy/TiO2 and PPy/P25 were found to have better removal ability for MB compared with pure PPy; especially PPy/TiO2, on which the maximum adsorption amount was about 3.6 or 5.5 times higher than that of PPy/P25 or pure PPy, respectively. The thermodynamic analysis indicated that the adsorption of MB was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The regeneration experiments exhibited that PPy/TiO2 can be reused at least seven times without obvious loss of its original adsorption capacity. Electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction played the roles in MB adsorption performance. It is expected that the PPy/TiO2 composite can be considered as a stable adsorbent for dye removal.

  11. A detailed analysis of entropy production and improvement of the thermodynamic cycle of an adsorption refrigerating plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okunev, B. N.; Safonov, M. S.

    2006-07-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of an adsorption refrigerating plant with closed loops for a working substance and auxiliary liquid heat carrier has been carried out in application to the adsorption pair “water-CaCl2 impregnated into the pores of a silica gel.” Using the obtained periodic solutions of the system of energy-balance equations for the heat carrier and the sorbent layer, the most thermodynamically effective modes of operation of the refrigerating plant have been determined as functions of governing parameters. The entropy production in various modules of the plant is calculated, and the main sources of entropy generation are revealed. This made it possible to suggest an improved scheme of an adsorption refrigerating cycle with regenerative heat exchangers connected at the inlet and outlet from the adsorbers. The possibility of a considerable increase in the coefficient of thermodynamic efficiency in such a system has been justified.

  12. Adsorption of Cd, Cu and Zn from aqueous solutions onto ferronickel slag under different potentially toxic metal combination.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Seong-Heon; Kang, Se-Won; Kang, Byung-Hwa; Cho, Ju-Sik; Heo, Jong-Soo; Delaune, Ronald D; Ok, Yong Sik; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption characteristics of potentially toxic metals in single- and multi-metal forms onto ferronickel slag were evaluated. Competitive sorption of metals by ferronickel slag has never been reported previously. The maximum adsorption capacities of toxic metals on ferronickel were in the order of Cd (10.2 mg g(-1)) > Cu (8.4 mg g(-1)) > Zn (4.4 mg g(-1)) in the single-metal adsorption isotherm and Cu (6.1 mg g(-1)) > Cd (2.3 mg g(-1)) > Zn (0.3 mg g(-1)) in the multi-metal adsorption isotherm. In comparison with single-metal adsorption isotherm, the reduction rates of maximum toxic metal adsorption capacity in the multi-metal adsorption isotherm were in the following order of Zn (93%) > Cd (78%) > Cu (27%). The Freundlich isotherm provides a slightly better fit than the Langmuir isotherm equation using ferronickel slag for potentially toxic metal adsorption. Multi-metal adsorption behaviors differed from single-metal adsorption due to competition, based on data obtained from Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models and three-dimensional simulation. Especially, Cd and Zn were easily exchanged and substituted by Cu during multi-metal adsorption. Further competitive adsorption studies are necessary in order to accurately estimate adsorption capacity of ferronickel slag for potentially toxic metals in natural environments. PMID:26942519

  13. Adsorption of Cd, Cu and Zn from aqueous solutions onto ferronickel slag under different potentially toxic metal combination.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Seong-Heon; Kang, Se-Won; Kang, Byung-Hwa; Cho, Ju-Sik; Heo, Jong-Soo; Delaune, Ronald D; Ok, Yong Sik; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption characteristics of potentially toxic metals in single- and multi-metal forms onto ferronickel slag were evaluated. Competitive sorption of metals by ferronickel slag has never been reported previously. The maximum adsorption capacities of toxic metals on ferronickel were in the order of Cd (10.2 mg g(-1)) > Cu (8.4 mg g(-1)) > Zn (4.4 mg g(-1)) in the single-metal adsorption isotherm and Cu (6.1 mg g(-1)) > Cd (2.3 mg g(-1)) > Zn (0.3 mg g(-1)) in the multi-metal adsorption isotherm. In comparison with single-metal adsorption isotherm, the reduction rates of maximum toxic metal adsorption capacity in the multi-metal adsorption isotherm were in the following order of Zn (93%) > Cd (78%) > Cu (27%). The Freundlich isotherm provides a slightly better fit than the Langmuir isotherm equation using ferronickel slag for potentially toxic metal adsorption. Multi-metal adsorption behaviors differed from single-metal adsorption due to competition, based on data obtained from Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models and three-dimensional simulation. Especially, Cd and Zn were easily exchanged and substituted by Cu during multi-metal adsorption. Further competitive adsorption studies are necessary in order to accurately estimate adsorption capacity of ferronickel slag for potentially toxic metals in natural environments.

  14. Characterization of Tight Gas Reservoir Pore Structure Using USANS/SANS and Gas Adsorption Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Clarkson, Christopher R; He, Lilin; Agamalian, Michael; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Mastalerz, Maria; Bustin, Mark; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell; Blach, Tomasz P

    2012-01-01

    Small-angle and ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (SANS and USANS) measurements were performed on samples from the Triassic Montney tight gas reservoir in Western Canada in order to determine the applicability of these techniques for characterizing the full pore size spectrum and to gain insight into the nature of the pore structure and its control on permeability. The subject tight gas reservoir consists of a finely laminated siltstone sequence; extensive cementation and moderate clay content are the primary causes of low permeability. SANS/USANS experiments run at ambient pressure and temperature conditions on lithologically-diverse sub-samples of three core plugs demonstrated that a broad pore size distribution could be interpreted from the data. Two interpretation methods were used to evaluate total porosity, pore size distribution and surface area and the results were compared to independent estimates derived from helium porosimetry (connected porosity) and low-pressure N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption (accessible surface area and pore size distribution). The pore structure of the three samples as interpreted from SANS/USANS is fairly uniform, with small differences in the small-pore range (< 2000 {angstrom}), possibly related to differences in degree of cementation, and mineralogy, in particular clay content. Total porosity interpreted from USANS/SANS is similar to (but systematically higher than) helium porosities measured on the whole core plug. Both methods were used to estimate the percentage of open porosity expressed here as a ratio of connected porosity, as established from helium adsorption, to the total porosity, as estimated from SANS/USANS techniques. Open porosity appears to control permeability (determined using pressure and pulse-decay techniques), with the highest permeability sample also having the highest percentage of open porosity. Surface area, as calculated from low-pressure N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption, is significantly less

  15. Isothermic hemodialysis and ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Rosales, L M; Schneditz, D; Morris, A T; Rahmati, S; Levin, N W

    2000-08-01

    The increase in patient temperature during hemodialysis is explained by hemodynamic compensation during ultrafiltration and hypovolemia that leads to peripheral vasoconstriction and reduced heat losses. We analyzed 51 stable high-efficiency hemodialysis treatments in 27 patients during isothermic dialysis in which body temperature was maintained at a constant level (+/-0.1 degrees C) using the temperature-control option of the Blood Temperature Monitor (BTM; Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, Germany). Hemodialysis was delivered using ultrapure water (limulus amebocyte lysate test < 0. 06 endotoxin units/mL) at mean blood flows of 410 +/- 40 mL/min. During treatments lasting 178 +/- 23 minutes, 4.8% +/- 1.4% of postdialysis body weight (W%) and 9.5% +/- 2.5% of postdialysis body water were removed using mean ultrafiltration rates of 1.1 +/- 0.3 L/h. Dialysate temperatures significantly decreased from 35.9 degrees C +/- 0.3 degrees C to 35.6 degrees C +/- 0.6 degrees C during hemodialysis. During these treatments, 187 +/- 69 kJ of thermal energy were removed from the patients through the extracorporeal circulation using cool dialysate. Extracorporeal heat flow was 17 +/- 6 W. Energy expenditure (H) estimated from anthropometric data was 65 +/- 12 W. Thus, 28% +/- 10% of estimated energy expenditure (H%) was removed during isothermic dialysis. A highly significant correlation was observed between H% and W% (H% = -5.6 * W%; r(2) = 0.91; P < 0.0001). This result is in support of the volume hypothesis of intradialytic heat accumulation and provides a rule of thumb to estimate extracorporeal cooling requirements for isothermic dialysis. Approximately 6% of H must be removed through the extracorporeal circulation for each percent of ultrafiltration-induced body-weight change. The importance of body temperature control during hemodialysis increases with increased ultrafiltration requirements.

  16. Adsorption of mercury in coal-fired power plants gypsum slurry on TiO2/chitosan composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, P.; Gao, B. B.; Gao, J. Q.; Zhang, K.; Chen, Y. J.; Yang, Y. P.; Chen, H. W.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a simple method was used to prepare a chitosan adsorbent to mix with KI and TiO2. Gravimetric analysis (TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the samples before and after adsorption of Hg2+. A mercury adsorption experiment was also conducted in the gypsum slurry. The results show that using hydrobromic acid as a solvent of adsorbent resulted in a better adsorption effect than using acetic acid alone. Also, the sample (CS-KI/TiO2-HBr) had a maximum mercury adsorption capacity when the pH=5 and the t=50°C. The characterization experiments showed that the thermal stability of composite materials declined and the TiO2 uniformly dispersed in the surface of the samples with a lamellar structure, generating a lot of cracks and recesses that increased the reactive sites. Furthermore, when the TiO2 reacted with CS, it resulted in Ti-C, Ti-O and Ti-N bonds. The Br- can prevent the growth of TiO2 crystal grains and strengthen the ability of I- to remove mercury. The adsorption isotherm and kinetic results indicated that the adsorption behaviour of CS-KI/TiO2-HBr as it removes Hg2+ is an inhomogeneous multilayer adsorption process. The surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion effects are both important in the Hg2+ adsorption process.

  17. Efficient Pb(II) removal using sodium alginate-carboxymethyl cellulose gel beads: Preparation, characterization, and adsorption mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ren, Huixue; Gao, Zhimin; Wu, Daoji; Jiang, Jiahui; Sun, Youmin; Luo, Congwei

    2016-02-10

    Alginate-carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) gel beads were prepared in this study using sodium alginate (SA) and sodium CMC through blending and cross-linking. The specific surface area and aperture of the prepared SA-CMC gel beads were tested. The SA-CMC structure was characterized and analyzed via infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Static adsorption experiment demonstrated that Pb(II) adsorption of SA-CMC exceeded 99% under the optimized conditions. In addition, experiments conducted under the same experimental conditions showed that the lead ion removal efficiency of SA-CMC was significantly higher than that of conventional adsorbents. The Pb(II) adsorption process of SA-CMC followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the dynamic adsorption model could be described through a pseudo-second-order rate equation. Pb(II) removal mechanisms of SA-CMC, including physical, chemical, and electrostatic adsorptions, were discussed based on microstructure analysis and adsorption kinetics. Chemical adsorption was the main adsorption method among these mechanisms. PMID:26686144

  18. Adsorptive separation of isobutene and isobutane on Cu3(BTC)2.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Martin; Kunz, Sebastian; Himsl, Dieter; Tangermann, Oliver; Ernst, Stefan; Wagener, Alex

    2008-08-19

    The metal organic framework material Cu3(BTC)2 (BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) has been synthesized using different routes: under solvothermal conditions in an autoclave, under atmospheric pressure and reflux, and by electrochemical reaction. Although the compounds display similar structural properties as evident from the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, they differ largely in specific surface area and total pore volume. Thermogravimetric and chemical analysis support the assumption that pore blocking due to trimesic acid and/or methyltributylammoniummethylsulfate (MTBS) which has been captured in the pore system during reaction is a major problem for the electrochemically synthesized samples. Isobutane and isobutene adsorption has been studied for all samples at different temperatures in order to check the potential of Cu3(BTC)2 for the separation of small hydrocarbons. While the isobutene adsorption isotherms are of type I according to the IUPAC classification, the shape of the isobutane isotherm is markedly different and closer to type V. Adsorption experiments at different temperatures show that a somewhat higher amount of isobutene is adsorbed as compared to isobutane. Nevertheless, the differential enthalpies of adsorption are only different by about 5 kJ/mol, indicating that a strong interaction between the copper centers and isobutene does not drive the observed differences in adsorption capacity. The calculated breakthrough curves of isobutene and isobutane reveal that a low pressure separation is preferred due to the peculiar shape of the isobutane adsorption isotherms. This has been confirmed by preliminary breakthrough experiments using an equimolar mixture of isobutane and isobutene. PMID:18611044

  19. Adsorption of phenol on wood surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    Adsorption of phenol on aspen and pine wood is investigated. It is shown that adsorption isotherms are described by the Langmuir model. The woods' specific surface areas and adsorption interaction constants are determined. It is found that the sorption of phenol on surfaces of aspen and pine is due to Van der Waals interactions ( S sp = 45 m2/godw for aspen and 85 m2/godw for pine). The difference between the adsorption characteristics is explained by properties of the wood samples' microstructures.

  20. Adsorption of nucleotides on biomimetic apatite: The case of adenosine 5‧ monophosphate (AMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammami, K.; Feki, H. El; Marsan, O.; Drouet, C.

    2015-10-01

    This work investigates the interaction between the nucleotide adenosine 5‧ monophosphate molecule (AMP) and a biomimetic nanocrystalline carbonated apatite as a model for bone mineral. The analogy of the apatite phase used in this work with biological apatite was first pointed out by complementary techniques. AMP adsorption isotherms were then investigated. Obtained data were fitted to a Sips isotherm with an exponent greater than one suggesting positive cooperativity among adsorbed molecules. The data were compared to a previous study relative to the adsorption of another nucleotide, cytidine monophosphate (CMP) onto a similar substrate, evidencing some effect of the chemical nature of the nucleic base. An enhanced adsorption was observed under acidic (pH 6) conditions as opposed to pH 7.4, which parallels the case of DNA adsorption on biomimetic apatite. An estimated standard Gibbs free energy associated to the adsorption process (ΔG°ads ≅ -22 kJ/mol) intermediate between "physisorption" and "chemisorption" was found. The analysis of the solids after adsorption pointed to the preservation of the main characteristics of the apatite substrate but shifts or enhancements of Raman bands attributed to AMP showed the existence of chemical interactions involving both the phosphate and adenine parts of AMP. This contribution adds to the works conducted in view of better understanding the interaction of DNA/RNA and their constitutive nucleotides and the surface of biomimetic apatites. It could prove helpful in disciplines such as bone diagenesis (DNA/apatite interface in aged bones) or nanomedicine (setup of DNA- or RNA-loaded apatite systems). Also, the adsorption of nucleic acids on minerals like apatites could have played a role in the preservation of such biomolecules in the varying conditions known to exist at the origin of life on Earth, underlining the importance of dedicated adsorption studies.

  1. ADSORPTION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN AGED HARBOR SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of hydrophobic organic contaminants which have low aqueous solubilities and are common pollutants in harbor sediments. Adsorption and desorption isotherms for PAHs are conducted to study the abiotic sorption of PAHs in uncontami...

  2. Adsorption of human fibrinogen and albumin onto hydrophobic and hydrophilic Ti6Al4V powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Jesús; Gallardo-Moreno, Amparo M.; Bruque, José M.; González-Martín, M. Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption of proteins on solid surfaces has been widely studied because of its importance in various biotechnological, medical and technical applications, such as medical implants or biosensors. One of the main problems is the adsorption-induced conformational changes because they often modify the biological activity of the proteins, which is believed to be a key factor on the subsequent cellular adhesion. The aim of this work is the study of the adsorption of human fibrinogen (Fg) and human serum albumin (HSA) onto Ti6Al4V particles, commercially available on different size, that are used to elaborate scaffolds to provide structural support to cell proliferation, promoting tissue development and bone regeneration among others. The study was done through the analysis of the adsorption isotherms and the electrical characterization of surfaces after adsorption in terms of the zeta potential (ζ). From this analysis it seems that Fg adsorbs preferentially vertically oriented (end-on) and HSA moves sequentially over the surface of the Ti6Al4V particles through dimmer formation, allowing adsorption progress over this initial bilayer. The zeta potential values of both proteins remain constant when the monolayer is formed. The study also extends the analysis of both adsorption behaviour and ζ potential characterization factors to the influence of the substrate hydrophobicity as this property can be modified for the Ti6Al4V by irradiating it with ultraviolet light (UV-C) without changes on its chemical composition [1,2]. Differences at low protein concentrations were found for both isotherms and zeta-potential values.

  3. [Adsorption of methylene blue onto vanadium-doped magnetite].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yuan-Hong; Liang, Xiao-Liang; Zhu, Jian-Xi; He, Hong-Ping; Yuan, Peng

    2010-06-01

    A series of vanadium-doped magnetite (Fe3-x VxO4, x < 0.4) synthesized by an oxidation-precipitation method, were characterized using chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), as well as thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) analyses. The obtained results show that the synthetic Fe3-x VxO4 has spinel structure while vanadium mostly replaces Fe3+ in the octahedral sites. The synthetic Fe3-x VxO4 is magnetic material, with crystal size ranging from 28 to 35 nm. The substitution of vanadium in the magnetite structure increases the amount of surface hydroxyls. The experimental adsorption results indicate that, in neutral pH condition, the maximum adsorption capacities of Fe3-x VxO4 increase obviously with the increase of vanadium concentration in magnetite while the adsorption isotherm complies well with the Langmuir model. The adsorption of methylene blue (MB) on Fe3-x VxO4 can get equilibrium in the first 25 min, supporting a pseudo-second order equation. Moreover, the rise of the solution pH value results in an increase of the adsorption capability of MB on Fe3-x VxO4.

  4. Generalized gas-solid adsorption modeling: Single-component equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Ladshaw, Austin; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; DePaoli, David W.

    2015-01-07

    Over the last several decades, modeling of gas–solid adsorption at equilibrium has generally been accomplished through the use of isotherms such as the Freundlich, Langmuir, Tóth, and other similar models. While these models are relatively easy to adapt for describing experimental data, their simplicity limits their generality to be used with many different sets of data. This limitation forces engineers and scientists to test each different model in order to evaluate which one can best describe their data. Additionally, the parameters of these models all have a different physical interpretation, which may have an effect on how they can be further extended into kinetic, thermodynamic, and/or mass transfer models for engineering applications. Therefore, it is paramount to adopt not only a more general isotherm model, but also a concise methodology to reliably optimize for and obtain the parameters of that model. A model of particular interest is the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm. The GSTA isotherm has enormous flexibility, which could potentially be used to describe a variety of different adsorption systems, but utilizing this model can be fairly difficult due to that flexibility. To circumvent this complication, a comprehensive methodology and computer code has been developed that can perform a full equilibrium analysis of adsorption data for any gas-solid system using the GSTA model. The code has been developed in C/C++ and utilizes a Levenberg–Marquardt’s algorithm to handle the non-linear optimization of the model parameters. Since the GSTA model has an adjustable number of parameters, the code iteratively goes through all number of plausible parameters for each data set and then returns the best solution based on a set of scrutiny criteria. Data sets at different temperatures are analyzed serially and then linear correlations with temperature are made for the parameters of the model. The end result is a full set of

  5. Generalized gas-solid adsorption modeling: Single-component equilibria

    DOE PAGES

    Ladshaw, Austin; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; DePaoli, David W.

    2015-01-07

    Over the last several decades, modeling of gas–solid adsorption at equilibrium has generally been accomplished through the use of isotherms such as the Freundlich, Langmuir, Tóth, and other similar models. While these models are relatively easy to adapt for describing experimental data, their simplicity limits their generality to be used with many different sets of data. This limitation forces engineers and scientists to test each different model in order to evaluate which one can best describe their data. Additionally, the parameters of these models all have a different physical interpretation, which may have an effect on how they can bemore » further extended into kinetic, thermodynamic, and/or mass transfer models for engineering applications. Therefore, it is paramount to adopt not only a more general isotherm model, but also a concise methodology to reliably optimize for and obtain the parameters of that model. A model of particular interest is the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm. The GSTA isotherm has enormous flexibility, which could potentially be used to describe a variety of different adsorption systems, but utilizing this model can be fairly difficult due to that flexibility. To circumvent this complication, a comprehensive methodology and computer code has been developed that can perform a full equilibrium analysis of adsorption data for any gas-solid system using the GSTA model. The code has been developed in C/C++ and utilizes a Levenberg–Marquardt’s algorithm to handle the non-linear optimization of the model parameters. Since the GSTA model has an adjustable number of parameters, the code iteratively goes through all number of plausible parameters for each data set and then returns the best solution based on a set of scrutiny criteria. Data sets at different temperatures are analyzed serially and then linear correlations with temperature are made for the parameters of the model. The end result is a full set

  6. Kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamics investigation on the adsorption of lead(II) by coal-based activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhengji; Yao, Jun; Zhu, Mijia; Chen, Huilun; Wang, Fei; Liu, Xing

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the feasibility of using activated coal-based activated carbon (CBAC) to adsorb Pb(II) from aqueous solutions through batch tests. Effects of contact time, pH, temperature and initial Pb(II) concentration on the Pb(II) adsorption were examined. The Pb(II) adsorption is strongly dependent on pH, but insensitive to temperature. The best pH for Pb(II) removal is in the range of 5.0-5.5 with more than 90 % of Pb(II) removed. The equilibrium time was found to be 60 min and the adsorption data followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. Isotherm data followed Langmuir isotherm model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 162.33 mg/g. The adsorption was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis suggested that CBAC possessed a porous structure and was rich in carboxyl and hydroxyl groups on its surface, which might play a major role in Pb(II) adsorption. These findings indicated that CBAC has great potential as an alternative adsorbent for Pb(II) removal. PMID:27504258

  7. Proton Adsorption onto Alumina: Extension of Multisite Complexation (MUSIC) Theory.

    PubMed

    Nagashima; Blum

    1999-09-01

    The adsorption isotherm of protons onto a commercial gamma-alumina sample was determined in aqueous nitric acid with sodium nitrate as a background electrolyte. Three discrete regions could be discerned in the log-log plots of the proton isotherm determined at the solution pH 5 to 2. The multisite complexation (MUSIC) model was modified to analyze the simultaneous adsorption of protons onto various kinds of surface species. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10441408

  8. Proton adsorption onto alumina: extension of multisite complexation (MUSIC) theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nagashima, K.; Blum, F.D.

    1999-09-01

    The adsorption isotherm of protons onto a commercial {gamma}-alumina sample was determined in aqueous nitric acid with sodium nitrate as a background electrolyte. Three discrete regions could be discerned in the log-log plots of the proton isotherm determined at the solution pH 5 to 2. The multisite complexation (MUSIC) model was modified to analyze the simultaneous adsorption of protons onto various kinds of surface species.

  9. Proton Adsorption onto Alumina: Extension of Multisite Complexation (MUSIC) Theory.

    PubMed

    Nagashima; Blum

    1999-09-01

    The adsorption isotherm of protons onto a commercial gamma-alumina sample was determined in aqueous nitric acid with sodium nitrate as a background electrolyte. Three discrete regions could be discerned in the log-log plots of the proton isotherm determined at the solution pH 5 to 2. The multisite complexation (MUSIC) model was modified to analyze the simultaneous adsorption of protons onto various kinds of surface species. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  10. Label-free, real-time interaction and adsorption analysis 1: surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Fee, Conan J

    2013-01-01

    A key requirement for the development of proteins for use in nanotechnology is an understanding of how individual proteins bind to other molecules as they assemble into larger structures. The introduction of labels to enable the detection of biomolecules brings the inherent risk that the labels themselves will influence the nature of biomolecular interactions. Thus, there is a need for label-free interaction and adsorption analysis. In this and the following chapter, two biosensor techniques are reviewed: surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Both allow real-time analysis of biomolecular interactions and both are label-free. The first of these, SPR, is an optical technique that is highly sensitive to the changes in refractive index that occur with protein (or other molecule) accumulation near an illuminated gold surface. Unlike QCM ( Chapter 18 ) SPR is not affected by the water that may be associated with the adsorbed layer nor by conformational changes in the adsorbed species. SPR thus provides unique information about the interaction of a protein with its binding partners. PMID:23504431

  11. Analysis of organic compounds in water by direct adsorption and thermal desorption. [Dissertation

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.P. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    An instrument was designed and constructed that makes it possible to thermally desorb organic compounds from wet adsorption traps to a gas chromatograph in an efficient and reproducible manner. Based on this device, a method of analyzing organics in water was developed that is rapid, sensitive, and of broader scope than previously published methods. The system was applied to the analysis of compounds with a wide range of volatilities. Temperature and flow parameters were investigated and specific procedures for quantitation were established. Real samples, including tap water and well water, were also analyzed with this system. Depending on the analysis requirements, the thermal desorption instrument can be used with either packed column or high resolution open-tubular column gas chromatography. The construction plans of normal and high-resolution systems are presented along with chromatograms and data produced by each. Finally, an improved thermal desorption instrument is described. Modifications to the basic system, including splitless injection onto a capillary column, automation, dual cryogenic trapping, reduction of scale, and effluent splitting to dual detection are discussed at length as they relate to the improved instrument.

  12. Short-term effect of aniline on soil microbial activity: a combined study by isothermal microcalorimetry, glucose analysis, and enzyme assay techniques.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huilun; Zhuang, Rensheng; Yao, Jun; Wang, Fei; Qian, Yiguang; Masakorala, Kanaji; Cai, Minmin; Liu, Haijun

    2014-01-01

    The accidents of aniline spill and explosion happened almost every year in China, whereas the toxic effect of aniline on soil microbial activity remained largely unexplored. In this study, isothermal microcalorimetric technique, glucose analysis, and soil enzyme assay techniques were employed to investigate the toxic effect of aniline on microbial activity in Chinese soil for the first time. Soil samples were treated with aniline from 0 to 2.5 mg/g soil to tie in with the fact of aniline spill. Results from microcalorimetric analysis showed that the introduction of aniline had a significant adverse effect on soil microbial activity at the exposure concentrations ≥0.4 mg/g soil (p < 0.05) and ≥0.8 mg/g soil (p < 0.01), and the activity was totally inhibited when the concentration increased to 2.5 mg/g soil. The glucose analysis indicated that aniline significantly decreased the soil microbial respiratory activity at the concentrations ≥0.8 mg/g soil (p < 0.05) and ≥1.5 mg/g soil (p < 0.01). Soil enzyme activities for β-glucosidase, urease, acid-phosphatase, and dehydrogenase revealed that aniline had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the nutrient cycling of C, N, and P as well as the oxidative capacity of soil microorganisms, respectively. All of these results showed an intensively toxic effect of aniline on soil microbial activity. The proposed methods can provide toxicological information of aniline to soil microbes from the metabolic and biochemical point of views which are consistent with and correlated to each other.

  13. Adsorption of H2, Ne, and N2 on Activated Charcoal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. K.; Tward, E.; Boudaie, K. I.

    1986-01-01

    9-page report presents measured adsorption isotherms of hydrogen, neon, and nitrogen on activated charcoal for temperatures from 77 to 400 K and pressures from 1 to 80 atmospheres (0.1 to 8.1 MPa). Heats of adsorption calculated from isotherms also presented. Report gives expressions, based on ideal-gas law, which show relationship between different definitions of volume of gas adsorbed and used in describing low-pressure isotherms.

  14. Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution by graphene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tonghao; Li, Yanhui; Du, Qiuju; Sun, Jiankun; Jiao, Yuqin; Yang, Guangming; Wang, Zonghua; Xia, Yanzhi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai

    2012-02-01

    Graphene was prepared using a modified Hummers' method. The physico-chemical properties of graphene were characterized by TEM, BET specific surface area, FTIR, Raman and XRD measurements. The effect factors including pH, contact time, temperature and dosage on the adsorption properties of methylene blue onto graphene were investigated. The experimental data of isotherm followed the Langmuir isotherm model better than the Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm equation at 293 K was 153.85 mg/g, indicating graphene is a good adsorbent for the adsorption of MB. The kinetic study illustrated that the adsorption of methylene blue onto graphene fit the pseudo second-order model. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption of methylene blue onto graphene was an endothermic and spontaneous process.

  15. Adsorption of alkenyl succinic anhydride from solutions in carbon tetrachloride on a fine magnetite surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmasova, O. V.; Ramazanova, A. G.; Korolev, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    The adsorption of alkenyl succinic anhydride from a solution in carbon tetrachloride on a fine magnetite surface at a temperature of 298.15 K is studied using fine magnetite, which forms the basis of magnetic fluids, as the adsorbent. An adsorption isotherm is recorded and interpreted in terms of the theory of the volume filling of micropores (TVFM). Adsorption process parameters are calculated on the basis of the isotherm. It is shown that at low equilibrium concentrations, the experimental adsorption isotherm is linear in the TVFM equation coordinates.

  16. Sulfate adsorption on goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1999-10-15

    Recent spectroscopic work has suggested that only one surface species of sulfate is dominant on hematite. Sulfate is therefore a very suitable anion to test and develop adsorption models for variable charge minerals. The authors have studied sulfate adsorption on goethite covering a large range of sulfate concentrations, surface coverages, pH values, and electrolyte concentrations. Four different techniques were used to cover the entire range of conditions. For characterization at low sulfate concentrations, below the detection limit of sulfate with ICP-AES, the authors used proton-sulfate titrations at constant pH. Adsorption isotherms were studied for the intermediate sulfate concentration range. Acid-base titrations in sodium sulfate and electromobility were used for high sulfate concentrations. All the data can be modeled with one adsorbed species if it is assumed that the charge of adsorbed sulfate is spatially distributed in the interface. The charge distribution of sulfate follows directly from modeling the proton-sulfate adsorption stoichoimemtry sine this stoichiometry is independent of the intrinsic affinity constant of sulfate. The charge distribution can be related to the structure of the surface complex by use of the Pauling bond valence concept and is in accordance with the microscopic structure found by spectroscopy. The intrinsic affinity constant follows from the other measurements. Modeling of the proton-ion stoichoimetry with the commonly used 2-pK models, where adsorbed ions are treated as point charges, is possible only if at least two surface species for sulfate are used.

  17. Effects of temperature on trichloroethylene desorption from silica gel and natural sediments. 1. Isotherms

    SciTech Connect

    Werth, C.J.; Reinhard, M.

    1997-03-01

    Aqueous phase isotherms were calculated from vapor phase desorption isotherms measured at 15, 30, and 60{degree}C for trichloroethylene on a silica gel, an aquifer sediment, a soil, a sand fraction, and a clay and silt fraction, all at 100% relative humidity. Isosteric heats of adsorption (Q{sub st}(q)) were calculated as a function of the sorbed concentration, q, and examined with respect to the following mechanisms: adsorption on water wet mineral surfaces, sorption in amorphous organic matter (AOM), and adsorption in hydrophobic micropores. Silica gel, sand fraction, and clay and silt fraction 60{degree}C isotherms are characterized by a Freundlich region and a region at very low concentrations where isotherm points deviate from log-log linear behavior. The latter is designated the non-Freundlich region. For the silica gel, values of Q{sub st}(q) (9.5-45 kJ/mol) in both regions are consistent with adsorption in hydrophobic micropores. For the natural solids, values of Q{sub st}(q) in the Freundlich regions are less than or equal to zero and are consistent with sorption on water wet mineral surfaces and in AOM. In the non-Freundlich regions, diverging different temperature isotherms with decreasing q and Q{sub st}(q) value of 34 kJ/mol for the clay and silt fraction suggest that adsorption is occurring in hydrophobic micropores. The General Adsorption Isotherm is used to capture this adsorption heterogeneity. 57 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. [Effect of SO2 volume fraction in flue gas on the adsorption behaviors adsorbed by ZL50 activated carbon and kinetic analysis].

    PubMed

    Gao, Ji-xian; Wang, Tie-feng; Wang, Jin-fu

    2010-05-01

    The influence of SO2 dynamic adsorption behaviors using ZL50 activated carbon for flue gas desulphurization and denitrification under different SO2 volume fraction was investigated experimentally, and the kinetic analysis was conducted by kinetic models. With the increase of SO2 volume fraction in flue gas, the SO2 removal ratio and the activity ratio of ZL50 activated carbon decreased, respectively, and SO2 adsorption rate and capacity increased correspondingly. The calculated results indicate that Bangham model has the best prediction effect, the chemisorption processes of SO2 was significantly affected by catalytic oxidative reaction. The adsorption rate constant of Lagergren's pseudo first order model increased with the increase of inlet SO, volume fraction, which indicated that catalytic oxidative reaction of SO2 adsorbed by ZL50 activated carbon may be the rate controlling step in earlier adsorption stage. The Lagergren's and Bangham's initial adsorption rate were deduced and defined, respectively. The Ho's and Elovich's initial adsorption rate were also deduced in this paper. The Bangham's initial adsorption rate values were defined in good agreement with those of experiments. The defined Bangham's adsorptive reaction kinetic model can describe the SO2 dynamic adsorption rate well. The studied results indicated that the SO2 partial order of initial reaction rate was one or adjacent to one, while the O2 and water vapor partial order of initial reaction rate were constants ranging from 0.15-0.20 and 0.45-0.50, respectively.

  19. Adsorption characteristics of Cu(II) from aqueous solution onto biochar derived from swine manure.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jun; Feng, Xiaoli; Dai, Zhongmin; Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Jianjun; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate adsorption characteristic of swine manure biochars pyrolyzed at 400 °C and 700 °C for the removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The biochars were characterized using BET surface area, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), zeta potential, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The adsorption of Cu(II) ions by batch method was carried out and the optimum conditions were investigated. The adsorption processes of these biochars are well described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the adsorption isotherm closely fitted the Sips model. Thermodynamic analysis suggested that the adsorption was endothermic. The maximum Cu(II) adsorption capacities of biochars derived from fresh and composted swine manure at 400 °C were 17.71 and 21.94 mg g(-1), respectively, which were higher than those at 700 °C. XRD patterns indicated that the silicate and phosphate particles within the biochars served as adsorption sites for Cu(II). The removal of Cu(II) ions from industrial effluent indicated that the fresh swine manure biochar pyrolyzed at 400 °C can be considered as an effective adsorbent. PMID:24532283

  20. Adsorption studies of the gram-negative bacteria onto nanostructured silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, Andrzej; Szala, Mateusz; Cłapa, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrated a significant adsorption of Pseudomonas putida bacteria onto aggregates of nanofibers (NFSiC) and nanorods (NRSiC) of silicon carbide (SiC) in aqueous suspensions. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to quantify adsorption affinities. It was found that adsorption of the bacteria strongly depended on the structure of the silicon carbide and the pH of the aqueous solution, which affected the isoelectric point of both the silicon carbide and the bacterial cells. The strongest affinity of bacteria was noted in the case of NRSiC aggregates. Affinity was inversely proportional to pH. Similarly, the adsorption of bacteria to the surface of the aggregates increased with decreasing pH. For NFSiC, the affinity of the bacteria for the surface of the aggregates was also inversely proportional to pH. However, adsorption increased at higher pH values. This discrepancy was explained by microscopic analysis, which showed that the bacterial cells were both adsorbed onto and trapped by NFSiC. The adsorption of bacteria onto a micrometric silicon carbide reference material was significantly smaller than adsorption onto nanostructured SiC.

  1. Adsorption characteristics of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions onto a natural biosorbent, fallen arborvitae leaves.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jie; Zhao, Zhiwei; Liang, Zhijie; Sun, Tianyi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the potential of the oriental arborvitae leaves for the adsorption of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions was evaluated. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis showed that the surface area of arborvitae leaves was 29.52 m(2)/g with pore diameter ranging from 2 to 50 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed C-C or C-H, C-O, and O-C=O were the main groups on the arborvitae leaves, which were the main sites for surface complexation. Finally, effects of adsorbent dose, initial pH, contact time, and coexisting natural organic matters (humic acid (HA)) on the adsorption of Pb(II) were investigated. The results indicated that the pHZPC (adsorbents with zero point charge at this pH) was 5.3 and the adsorption reached equilibrium in 120 min. Isotherm simulations revealed that the natural arborvitae leaves exhibit effective adsorption for Pb(II) in aqueous solution, giving adsorptive affinity and capacity in an order of 'no HA' > 5 mg/L HA > 10 mg/L HA, and according to the Langmuir models, the maximum adsorptions of Pb(II) were 43.67 mg/g, 38.61 mg/g and 35.97 mg/g, respectively. The results demonstrated that the oriental arborvitae leaves showed high potentials for the adsorption of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions. PMID:27191563

  2. Composition and structural effects on the adsorption of ionic liquids onto activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Lemus, Jesús; Neves, Catarina M S S; Marques, Carlos F C; Freire, Mara G; Coutinho, João A P; Palomar, Jose

    2013-09-01

    The applications and variety of ionic liquids (ILs) have increased during the last few years, and their use at a large scale will require their removal/recovery from wastewater streams. Adsorption on activated carbons (ACs) has been recently proposed for this aim and this work presents a systematic analysis of the influence of the IL chemical structures (cation side chain, head group, anion type and the presence of functional groups) on their adsorption onto commercial AC from water solution. Here, the adsorption of 21 new ILs, which include imidazolium-, pyridinium-, pyrrolidinium-, piperidinium-, phosphonium- and ammonium-based cations and different hydrophobic and hydrophilic anions, has been experimentally measured. This contribution allows an expansion of the range of IL compounds studied in previous works, and permits a better understanding of the influence of the IL structures through the adsorption on AC. In addition, the COSMO-RS method was used to analyze the measured adsorption isotherms, allowing the understanding of the role of the cationic and anionic structures in the adsorption process, in terms of the different interactions between the IL compound and AC surface/water solvent. The results of this work provide new insights for the development of adsorption as an effective operation to remove/recover ILs with very different chemical nature from water solution.

  3. A combined QCM and XPS investigation of asphaltene adsorption on metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Rudrake, Amit; Karan, Kunal; Horton, J Hugh

    2009-04-01

    To investigate asphaltene-metal interactions, a combined quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study of asphaltene adsorption on a gold surface was conducted. Adsorption experiments were conducted at 25 degrees C with solutions of asphaltenes in toluene at concentrations ranging from 50 to 1500 ppm. QCM measurements yielded information on the kinetics of adsorption and further assessment of the data allowed the estimation of equilibrium adsorption levels. XPS analysis of adsorbed and bulk asphaltene demonstrated the presence of carboxylic, thiophenic, sulfide, pyridinic and pyrrolic type functional groups. The intensity of the main carbon (C-H) peak was related to surface coverage of adsorbed asphaltene as a function of asphaltene concentration by a simple mathematical model. The mass adsorption data from the QCM experiments also allowed estimation of the surface coverage, which was compared to those from XPS analyses. Surface coverage estimates as a function of asphaltene concentration could be described by a Langmuir (type-I) isotherm. The free energy of asphaltene adsorption was estimated to be -26.8+/-0.1 and -27.3+/-0.1 kJ/mol from QCM and XPS data, respectively assuming asphaltene molar mass of 750 g/gmol. QCM and XPS data was also analyzed to estimate adsorbed layer thickness after accounting for surface coverage. The thickness of the adsorbed asphaltene estimated from both XPS and QCM data analyses ranged from 6-8 nm over the entire range of adsorption concentrations investigated.

  4. Production of ultra-low-sulfur gasoline: an equilibrium and kinetic analysis on adsorption of sulfur compounds over Ni/MMS sorbents.

    PubMed

    Subhan, Fazle; Liu, B S; Zhang, Q L; Wang, W S

    2012-11-15

    High performance nickel-based micro-mesoporous silica (Ni/MMS) sorbent was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation with ultrasonic aid (IWI-u) for adsorptive desulfurization (ADS) of commercial gasoline and simulated fuels. The sorbents were characterized with BET, XRD, TPR, SEM, HRTEM and TG/DTG. These results show that 20 wt%Ni/MMS (IWI-u) can still retain the framework of MMS and nickel particles were homogeneously distributed in the MMS channels without any aggregation, which improved significantly the ADS performance of the sorbents. The studies on the ADS kinetics indicate that the adsorption behavior of thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) over 20 wt%Ni/MMS (IWI-u) can be described appropriately by pseudo second-order kinetic model. The intraparticle diffusion model verified that the steric hindrance and intraparticle diffusion were the rate controlling step of the adsorption process of DBT molecules. Langmuir model can be used to describe the adsorption isotherms for T, BT and DBT due to low coverage. The regeneration sorbent maintains the sulfur removal efficiency of 85.9% for 6 cycles.

  5. Production of ultra-low-sulfur gasoline: an equilibrium and kinetic analysis on adsorption of sulfur compounds over Ni/MMS sorbents.

    PubMed

    Subhan, Fazle; Liu, B S; Zhang, Q L; Wang, W S

    2012-11-15

    High performance nickel-based micro-mesoporous silica (Ni/MMS) sorbent was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation with ultrasonic aid (IWI-u) for adsorptive desulfurization (ADS) of commercial gasoline and simulated fuels. The sorbents were characterized with BET, XRD, TPR, SEM, HRTEM and TG/DTG. These results show that 20 wt%Ni/MMS (IWI-u) can still retain the framework of MMS and nickel particles were homogeneously distributed in the MMS channels without any aggregation, which improved significantly the ADS performance of the sorbents. The studies on the ADS kinetics indicate that the adsorption behavior of thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) over 20 wt%Ni/MMS (IWI-u) can be described appropriately by pseudo second-order kinetic model. The intraparticle diffusion model verified that the steric hindrance and intraparticle diffusion were the rate controlling step of the adsorption process of DBT molecules. Langmuir model can be used to describe the adsorption isotherms for T, BT and DBT due to low coverage. The regeneration sorbent maintains the sulfur removal efficiency of 85.9% for 6 cycles. PMID:23022413

  6. Direct injection method for HPLC/MS/MS analysis of acrylamide in aqueous solutions: application to adsorption experiments.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Ines; Hurel, Charlotte; Marmier, Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    Polyacrylamides are polymers used in many fields and represent the main source of release of the highly toxic acrylamide in the environment. In this work, a simple, rapid, and sensitive analytical method was developed with HPLC/MS/MS and direct injection for acrylamide analysis in water and adsorption samples. AFNOR standards NF T90-210 and NF T90-220 were used for the analytical method validation and uncertainty estimation. Limit of quantification (LOQ) for acrylamide was 1 μg/L, and accuracy was checked at three acrylamide levels (1, 6, and 10 μg/L). Uncertainties were estimated at 34.2, 22, and 12.4 % for acrylamide concentrations at LOQ, 6 μg/L, and 10 μg/L, respectively. Acrylamide adsorption on clays (kaolinite, illite) and sludge was then studied as a function of pH, time, and acrylamide concentrations. Acrylamide adsorption on kaolinite, illite, and sludge was found to be very weak since adsorption percentages were inferior to 10 %, whatever the pH value and the initial acrylamide concentration. The low affinity of acrylamide for clays and sludge is likely due to its hydrophilic property, small size, and charge neutrality.

  7. Development and analysis of micro-polygeneration systems and adsorption chillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle

    About a fifth of all primary energy in the US is consumed by residential buildings, mostly for cooling, heating and to provide electricity. Furthermore, retrofits are essential to reducing this consumption, since the buildings that exist today will comprise over half of those in use in 2050. Residential combined heat and power (or micro CHP, defined by <5 kW electrical generation capacity) has been identified as a retrofit technology which can reduce energy consumption in existing homes during the heating season by 5-30%. This thesis investigates the addition of a thermally-driven chiller/heat pump to a CHP system (to form a trigeneration system) to additionally provide savings during the cooling season, and enhance heating season savings. Scenarios are identified in which adding thermally-driven equipment to a micro CHP system reduces primary energy consumption, through analytical and experimental investigations. The experimental focus is on adsorption heat pump systems, which are capable of being used with the CHP engines (prime movers) that are already widely deployed. The analytical analysis identifies energy saving potential off-grid for today's prime movers, with potential on-grid for various fuel cell technologies. A novel dynamic test facility was developed to measure real-world residential trigeneration system performance using a prototype adsorption chiller. The chiller was designed and constructed for this thesis and was driven by waste heat from a commercially available natural gas-fueled 4 kW (electric) CHP engine. A control strategy for the chiller was developed, enabling a 5-day experiment to be run using a thermal load profile based on moderate Maryland summer air conditioning loads and typical single-family domestic hot water demand, with experimental results in agreement with models. In this summer mode, depending on electrical loads, the trigeneration system used up to 36% less fuel than off-grid separate generation and up to 29% less fuel than

  8. Competitive adsorption of heavy metals onto sesame straw biochar in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Seong-Heon; Cho, Ju-Sik; Heo, Jong-Soo; Delaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Objective of this research was to evaluate adsorption of heavy metals in mono and multimetal forms onto sesame straw biochar (SSB). Competitive sorption of metals by SSB has never been reported previously. The maximum adsorption capacities (mgg(-1)) of metals by SSB were in the order of Pb (102)≫Cd (86)≫Cr (65)>Cu (55)≫Zn (34) in the monometal adsorption isotherm and Pb (88)≫Cu (40)≫Cr (21)>Zn (7)⩾Cd (5) in the multimetal adsorption isotherm. Based on data obtained from the distribution coefficients, Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models, and three-dimensional simulation, multimetal adsorption behaviors differed from monometal adsorption due to competition. Especially, during multimetal adsorption, Cd was easily exchanged and substituted by other metals. Further competitive adsorption studies are necessary in order to accurately estimate the heavy metal adsorption capacity of biochar in natural environments.

  9. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry of Chiral Polymeric Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Werber, Liora; Preiss, Laura C; Landfester, Katharina; Muñoz-Espí, Rafael; Mastai, Yitzhak

    2015-09-01

    Chiral polymeric nanoparticles are of prime importance, mainly due to their enantioselective potential, for many applications such as catalysis and chiral separation in chromatography. In this article we report on the preparation of chiral polymeric nanoparticles by miniemulsion polymerization. In addition, we describe the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to measure the chiral interactions and the energetics of the adsorption of enantiomers from aqueous solutions onto chiral polymeric nanoparticles. The characterization of chirality in nano-systems is a very challenging task; here, we demonstrate that ITC can be used to accurately determine the thermodynamic parameters associated with the chiral interactions of nanoparticles. The use of ITC to measure the energetics of chiral interactions and recognition at the surfaces of chiral nanoparticles can be applied to other nanoscale chiral systems and can provide further insight into the chiral discrimination processes of nanomaterials.

  10. Isothermal Amplification of Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongxi; Chen, Feng; Li, Qian; Wang, Lihua; Fan, Chunhai

    2015-11-25

    Isothermal amplification of nucleic acids is a simple process that rapidly and efficiently accumulates nucleic acid sequences at constant temperature. Since the early 1990s, various isothermal amplification techniques have been developed as alternatives to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These isothermal amplification methods have been used for biosensing targets such as DNA, RNA, cells, proteins, small molecules, and ions. The applications of these techniques for in situ or intracellular bioimaging and sequencing have been amply demonstrated. Amplicons produced by isothermal amplification methods have also been utilized to construct versatile nucleic acid nanomaterials for promising applications in biomedicine, bioimaging, and biosensing. The integration of isothermal amplification into microsystems or portable devices improves nucleic acid-based on-site assays and confers high sensitivity. Single-cell and single-molecule analyses have also been implemented based on integrated microfluidic systems. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the isothermal amplification of nucleic acids encompassing work published in the past two decades. First, different isothermal amplification techniques are classified into three types based on reaction kinetics. Then, we summarize the applications of isothermal amplification in bioanalysis, diagnostics, nanotechnology, materials science, and device integration. Finally, several challenges and perspectives in the field are discussed. PMID:26551336

  11. Isothermal Amplification of Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongxi; Chen, Feng; Li, Qian; Wang, Lihua; Fan, Chunhai

    2015-11-25

    Isothermal amplification of nucleic acids is a simple process that rapidly and efficiently accumulates nucleic acid sequences at constant temperature. Since the early 1990s, various isothermal amplification techniques have been developed as alternatives to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These isothermal amplification methods have been used for biosensing targets such as DNA, RNA, cells, proteins, small molecules, and ions. The applications of these techniques for in situ or intracellular bioimaging and sequencing have been amply demonstrated. Amplicons produced by isothermal amplification methods have also been utilized to construct versatile nucleic acid nanomaterials for promising applications in biomedicine, bioimaging, and biosensing. The integration of isothermal amplification into microsystems or portable devices improves nucleic acid-based on-site assays and confers high sensitivity. Single-cell and single-molecule analyses have also been implemented based on integrated microfluidic systems. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the isothermal amplification of nucleic acids encompassing work published in the past two decades. First, different isothermal amplification techniques are classified into three types based on reaction kinetics. Then, we summarize the applications of isothermal amplification in bioanalysis, diagnostics, nanotechnology, materials science, and device integration. Finally, several challenges and perspectives in the field are discussed.

  12. Equilibrium and kinetic analysis of CO2-N2 adsorption separation by concentration pulse chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyuan; Tezel, F Handan

    2007-09-01

    CO2 and N(2) adsorption kinetics and equilibrium behaviours have been studied with silicalite, NaY and 13X by using concentration pulse chromatography for the separation of these gases in the present study. Adsorption Henry's Law constants, the heat of adsorption values, micropore diffusion coefficients and corresponding activation energies are determined experimentally and the three different mass transfer mechanisms are discussed. From the equilibrium data, the corresponding separation factors are obtained for the adsorption separation processes. The heat of adsorption values as well as the Henry's Law adsorption equilibrium constants of CO(2) are much higher than those of N(2) for all the adsorbents studied. 13X, NaY and silicalite all have good separation factors for CO(2)/N(2) system based on equilibrium processes. The order of the equilibrium separation factors is 13X (Ceca)>13X (Zeochem)>NaY (UOP)>silicalite (UOP). Equilibrium selectivity favours CO(2) over N(2). Micropore diffusion resistance is the definite dominant mass transfer mechanism for CO(2) with silicalite and NaY.

  13. Adsorption of Methyl Blue on Mesoporous Materials Using Rice Husk Ash as Silica Source.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nhat Thien; Chen, Shiao-shing; Nguyen, Nguyen Cong; Nguyen, Hau Thi; Tsai, Hsiao Hsin; Chang, Chang Tang

    2016-04-01

    It is recognized that recycling and reuse of waste can result in significant savings in materials and energy. In this research, the adsorption of methyl blue (MB) using waste rice husk ash (Rha) and mesoporous silica materials made from Rha (R-MCM) were analyzed. Mesoporous silica materials were synthesized using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant and Rha as the silica source. The prepared samples were characterized by Brunnaur-Emmet-Teller (BET) adsorption isotherm analyzer and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The results showed the surface area of R-MCM materials was 1347 m2g-1 and the pore volume was 0.906 cm3g-1. TEM analysis showed that the mesoporous materials generally exhibited ordered hexagonal arrays of mesopores with a uniform pore size. The effects on adsorption performance under different initial dye concentrations, different pH values and different dosages of adsorbent were also studied. Both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms. The results show that the maximum removal efficiency of MB more than 99%. PMID:27451772

  14. Coronal Loops: Evolving Beyond the Isothermal Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Cirtain, J. W.; Allen, J. D.

    2002-05-01

    Are coronal loops isothermal? A controversy over this question has arisen recently because different investigators using different techniques have obtained very different answers. Analysis of SOHO-EIT and TRACE data using narrowband filter ratios to obtain temperature maps has produced several key publications that suggest that coronal loops may be isothermal. We have constructed a multi-thermal distribution for several pixels along a relatively isolated coronal loop on the southwest limb of the solar disk using spectral line data from SOHO-CDS taken on 1998 Apr 20. These distributions are clearly inconsistent with isothermal plasma along either the line of sight or the length of the loop, and suggested rather that the temperature increases from the footpoints to the loop top. We speculated originally that these differences could be attributed to pixel size -- CDS pixels are larger, and more `contaminating' material would be expected along the line of sight. To test this idea, we used CDS iron line ratios from our data set to mimic the isothermal results from the narrowband filter instruments. These ratios indicated that the temperature gradient along the loop was flat, despite the fact that a more complete analysis of the same data showed this result to be false! The CDS pixel size was not the cause of the discrepancy; rather, the problem lies with the isothermal approximation used in EIT and TRACE analysis. These results should serve as a strong warning to anyone using this simplistic method to obtain temperature. This warning is echoed on the EIT web page: ``Danger! Enter at your own risk!'' In other words, values for temperature may be found, but they may have nothing to do with physical reality. Solar physics research at the University of Memphis is supported by NASA grant NAG5-9783. This research was funded in part by the NASA/TRACE MODA grant for Montana State University.

  15. Protein Adsorption on Surfaces with Grafted Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Szleifer, I.

    1997-01-01

    A general theoretical framework for studying the adsorption of protein molecules on surfaces with grafted polymers is presented. The approach is a generalization of the single-chain mean-field theory, in which the grafted polymer-protein-solvent layer is assumed to be inhomogeneous in the direction perpendicular to the grafting surface. The theory enables the calculation of the adsorption isotherms of the protein as a function of the surface coverage of grafted polymers, concentration of protein in bulk, and type of solvent molecules. The potentials of mean force of the protein with the surface are calculated as a function of polymer surface coverage and amount of protein adsorbed. The theory is applied to model lysozyme on surfaces with grafted polyethylene oxide. The protein is modeled as spherical in solution, and it is assumed that the protein-polymer, protein-solvent, and polymer-solvent attractive interactions are all equal. Therefore, the interactions determining the structure of the layer (beyond the bare polymer-surface and protein-surface interactions) are purely repulsive. The bare surface-protein interaction is taken from atomistic calculations by Lee and Park. For surfaces that do not have preferential attractions with the grafted polymer segments, the adsorption isotherms of lysozyme are independent of the polymer length for chains with more than 50 ethylene oxide units. However, the potentials of mean force show strong variations with grafted polymer molecular weight. The competition between different conformations of the adsorbed protein is studied in detail. The adsorption isotherms change qualitatively for surfaces with attractive interactions with ethylene oxide monomers. The protein adsorption is a function of chain length—the longer the polymer the more effective it is in preventing protein adsorption. The structure of the layer and its deformation upon protein adsorption are very important in determining the adsorption isotherms and the

  16. Crosslinked Electro-Spun Chitosan Nanofiber Mats with Cd(II) as Template Ions for Adsorption Applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Xu, Cong; Qiu, Tianbao; Xu, Xiaoyan

    2015-06-01

    The Cd(II) ion imprinting electro-spun crosslinked chitosan nanofiber mats were successfully prepared using Cd(II) as template ions and glutaraldehyde (GA) as crosslinker to investigate the adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in aqueous solutions. The Cd(II) ion imprinting electro-spun crosslinked chitosan nanofiber mats were characterized by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), elemental analysis and solubility tests. The prepared chitosan nanofiber mats exhibited a higher adsorption capacity for both Cd(II) (364.3 mg/g) and Pb(II) (272.0 mg/g) ions. The dynamic study demonstrated that the adsorption process followed the second-order kinetic equation. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were used to analyze the equilibrium isotherm data. The results showed that the Langmuir model was best suitable for predicting the adsorption isotherm of the studied system. The as prepared Cd(II) ion imprinting electro-spun crosslinked chitosan nanofiber mats might be used as an effective adsorbent for Cd(II) and Pb(II) removal from heavy metal wastewater. PMID:26369036

  17. Studies of adsorption equilibria and kinetics in the systems: Aqueous solution of dyes-mesoporous carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derylo-Marczewska, A.; Marczewski, A. W.; Winter, Sz.; Sternik, D.

    2010-06-01

    Two carbonaceous materials were synthesized by using the method of impregnation of mesoporous silicas obtained by applying the Pluronic copolymers as pore-creating agents. The isotherms of adsorption of methylene blue and methyl orange from aqueous solutions were measured by the static method. The profiles of adsorbate concentration change in time were obtained from the UV-vis spectra. The adsorption isotherms and kinetic dependence were discussed in the terms of theory of adsorption on heterogeneous surfaces.

  18. Lysozyme adsorption onto a cation-exchanger: mechanism of interaction study based on the analysis of retention chromatographic data.

    PubMed

    Marques, F S; Silva, G L; Thrash, M E; Dias-Cabral, A C

    2014-10-01

    In this study, based on the analysis of retention chromatographic data, we examined the adsorption of lysozyme onto carboxymethyl cellulose. Lysozyme retention data was collected at pH 5 and pH 8. The sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration in the mobile phase ranged from 300mM to 500mM and the temperature for this study varied from 288K to 308K. The retention measurements generated from these experimental conditions were analyzed with the Van't Hoff method, the preferential interaction model and the stoichiometric displacement model. Endothermic heats-of-adsorption and increases in entropy were observed under certain experimental conditions. These data suggest the presence of entropic driving forces such as the release of water and/or possibly structural changes in lysozyme molecules adsorbed to the surface of carboxymethyl cellulose. The modest observed exergonic adsorption ΔG° and the preferential interaction analysis corroborate the presence of water-release for this study. Additional analysis with the stoichiometric displacement model method revealed negligible changes in the structure of lysozyme molecules in contact with the surface of carboxymethyl cellulose. PMID:25193151

  19. Characterization of sorption properties of selected soils from Lublin region by using water vapour adsorption method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skic, Kamil; Boguta, Patrycja; Sokołowska, Zofia

    2016-04-01

    *The studies were carried out within the framework of a research project. The project was financed from funds of National Science Center on the base of decision number DEC-2013/11/D/NZ9/02545 Among many methods proposed to study sorption properties of soils an analysis of adsorption/ desorption isotherm is probably the easiest and most convenient one. It characterizes both quantity and quality of mineral and organic components and also their physical and physicochemical properties. The main aim of this study is comparison of sorption properties of selected Polish soils by using water vapour adsorption method. Samples were taken from the depth of 0-20 cm, from the Lublin region, eastern Poland. Soils were selected on the basis of their different physicochemical properties and were classified as: Haplic Fluvisol, Haplic Chernozem, Mollic Gleysol, Rendzic Phaeozem, Stagnic Luvisol, Haplic Cambisol (WG WRB 2006). Data taken from experimental adsorption isotherms were used to determine parameters of monolayer capacity, specific surface area and the total amount of vapour adsorbed at relative pressure of 0.974. Obtained adsorption and desorption isotherms reviled that adsorbate molecules interacted with the soil particles in different extent. Similar monolayer capacity was observed for Haplic Fluvisol, Haplic Chernozem and Stagnic Luvisol, while for Mollic Gleysol was more than 4 times higher. Mollic Gleysol was also characterized by highest values of specific surface area as well as quantity of adsorbed vapour at relative pressure of 0.974. Higher sorption was caused by presence of soil colloids which contains functional groups of a polar nature (mainly hydroxyls, phenolic and carboxyls). These groups similarly to silicates, oxides, hydratable cations as well as electric charge form adsorption centres for water vapour molecules.

  20. Adsorption studies of Cu(II) onto biopolymer chitosan and its nanocomposite 5%bentonite/chitosan.

    PubMed

    Moussout, Hamou; Ahlafi, Hammou; Aazza, Mustapha; Zegaoui, Omar; El Akili, Charaf

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan (CS) and nanocomposite 5%bentonite/chitosan (5%Bt/CS) prepared from the natural biopolymer CS were tested to remove Cu(II) ions using a batch adsorption experiment at various temperatures (25, 35 and 45°C). X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) were used in CS and the nanocomposite characterisation. This confirmed the exfoliation of bentonite (Bt) to form the nanocomposite. The adsorption kinetics of copper on both solids was found to follow a pseudo-second-order law at each studied temperature. The Cu(II) adsorption capacity increased as the temperature increased from 25 to 45°C for nanocomposite adsorbent but slightly increased for CS. The data were confronted to the nonlinear Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson models. It was found that the experimental data fitted very well the Langmuir isotherm over the whole temperature and concentration ranges. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity for the Cu(II) was 404-422 mg/g for CS and 282-337 mg/g for 5%Bt/CS at 25-45°C. The thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The complexation of Cu(II) with NH(2) and C = O groups as active sites was found to be the main mechanism in the adsorption processes. PMID:27148722

  1. Calcium lignosulfonate adsorption and desorption on Berea sandstone.

    PubMed

    Grigg, Reid B; Bai, Baojun

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes adsorption and desorption studies carried out with calcium lignosulfonate (CLS) on Berea sandstone. Circulation experiments were performed to determine CLS adsorption isotherms and the effects of CLS concentration, temperature, salinity, brine hardness, and injection rate on adsorption density. Flow-through experiments were performed to assess the reversibility of CLS adsorption and the influence of postflush rate, brine concentration, brine hardness, brine pH, and temperature on the desorption process. Results indicate that CLS adsorption isotherms on Berea sandstone follow the Freundlich isotherm law. The results presented in this paper on the effects of CLS adsorption and desorption on Berea sandstone show that: (1) increasing CLS concentration and salinity increases CLS adsorption density; (2) increasing temperature will decrease adsorption density; (3) increasing injection rate of CLS solution will slightly decrease CLS adsorption density; (4) postflush rate and salinity of brine have a large impact on the CLS desorption process; (5) the adsorption and desorption process are not completely reversible; and (5) temperature and pH of the postflush brine have little effect on desorption.

  2. Adsorptive removal of PPCPs by biomorphic HAP templated from cotton.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Xiong, Dan; Zhao, Tingting; He, Huan; Pan, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Biomorphic nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) was fabricated by a co-precipitation method using cotton as bio-templates and employed in adsorptive removal of ofloxacin (OFL) and triclosan (TCS) that are two representative pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). The surface area and porosity, crystal phase, functional group, morphology and micro-structure of the synthesized HAP were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller isotherm, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron macroscopic and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of initial pH, ionic strength, initial concentration, contact time and temperature on the removal of PPCPs were studied in a batch experiment. The adsorption of OFL and TCS was rapid and almost accomplished within 50 min. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption process of OFL and TCS followed the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models, respectively. The Freundlich isotherm described the OFL adsorption process well but the adsorption of TCS fitted the Langmuir isotherm better. Thermodynamics and isotherm parameters suggested that both OFL and TCS adsorption were feasible and spontaneous. Hydrogen bond and Lewis acid-base reaction may be the dominating adsorption mechanism of OFL and TCS, respectively. Compared to other adsorbents, biomorphic HAP is environmentally friendly and has the advantages of high adsorption capacity, exhibiting potential application for PPCPs removal. PMID:27387006

  3. EFFECT OF GAC CHARACTERISTICS ON ADSORPTION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of the characteristics of granular activated carbon (GAC) on adsorption capacity and on the potential for polymerization of phenolic compounds on the surface of GAC in the presence of molecular oxygen is evaluated in this study. Adsorption isotherm data were collected...

  4. The application of moment analysis to the dynamic adsorption of radon by activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaul, Wayne C.

    The adsorption of radon by activated carbon has received a great deal of attention within the academic press because of the importance of determining the radon concentration in the living environment. The deposition of energy from 222Rn decay and the daughter products of 222Rn is considered significant probable cause agent for lung cancer in the general population. Therefore, study of the adsorption by activated carbon has focused on the ability to determine radon concentrations under static conditions. The adsorption of radon under dynamic conditions, from moving air, has not been studied adequately to determine the underlying properties associated with this phenomenon. No method of determining the properties associated with dynamic has been developed. This research has provided a method to accurately determine the attributes that control radon adsorption from moving air at two different temperatures. The characteristics of several common activated carbons were determined and correlated to current theories. Changes in carrier gas velocity were shown to affect the mass transfer characteristics which are represented by the van Deemter equation used in gas chromatography. The methodology can be used to determine specific parameters of gas adsorption from the experimental data and include; (1) the coefficient for axial dispersion (2) the tortuosity factor, and (3) the intraparticle diffusion coefficient. These parameters affect changes in the number of theoretical plates and the height equivalent of a theoretical plate which are related to interparticle and intraparticle diffusion along with resistance to mass transfer.

  5. Adsorption layer properties of alkyltrimethylammonium bromides at interfaces between water and different alkanes.

    PubMed

    Mucic, N; Kovalchuk, N M; Aksenenko, E V; Fainerman, V B; Miller, R

    2013-11-15

    We measured the interfacial tensions of aqueous solutions against different oil phases using drop profile analysis tensiometry (PAT-1, Sinterface Technologies, Germany) for decyl- and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C10TAB and C12TAB) in phosphate buffer (10 mM, pH7). The following alkanes were used as oil phases: hexane, heptane, octane, nonane, decane, dodecane and tetradecane. The obtained equilibrium interfacial tension isotherms were fitted by the Frumkin Ionic Compressibility model (FIC). The surfactants adsorb at the water/oil interface in competition with the oil molecules. At high surfactant surface coverage this competitive adsorption is manifested in two ways. First, for short chain surfactants, the oil molecules are embedded into the adsorption layer. Second, for long chain surfactants, the short alkane chains of the oil molecules are squeezed out from the adsorption layer due to strong mutual interaction between surfactants' chains. PMID:24011787

  6. 40 CFR 796.2750 - Sediment and soil adsorption isotherm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 23:720-724 (1975). (2) Goring, C.A.I., Hamaker, J.W., (eds). Organic Chemicals... minerals and the amount present in a sediment or soil. (iii) “Organic matter” is the organic fraction of.... (vii) “Sediment” is the unconsolidated inorganic and organic material that is suspended in and...

  7. 40 CFR 796.2750 - Sediment and soil adsorption isotherm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 23:720-724 (1975). (2) Goring, C.A.I., Hamaker, J.W., (eds). Organic Chemicals... minerals and the amount present in a sediment or soil. (iii) “Organic matter” is the organic fraction of.... (vii) “Sediment” is the unconsolidated inorganic and organic material that is suspended in and...

  8. 40 CFR 796.2750 - Sediment and soil adsorption isotherm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 23:720-724 (1975). (2) Goring, C.A.I., Hamaker, J.W., (eds). Organic Chemicals... minerals and the amount present in a sediment or soil. (iii) “Organic matter” is the organic fraction of.... (vii) “Sediment” is the unconsolidated inorganic and organic material that is suspended in and...

  9. 40 CFR 796.2750 - Sediment and soil adsorption isotherm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 23:720-724 (1975). (2) Goring, C.A.I., Hamaker, J.W., (eds). Organic Chemicals... minerals and the amount present in a sediment or soil. (iii) “Organic matter” is the organic fraction of.... (vii) “Sediment” is the unconsolidated inorganic and organic material that is suspended in and...

  10. 40 CFR 796.2750 - Sediment and soil adsorption isotherm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 23:720-724 (1975). (2) Goring, C.A.I., Hamaker, J.W., (eds). Organic Chemicals... minerals and the amount present in a sediment or soil. (iii) “Organic matter” is the organic fraction of.... (vii) “Sediment” is the unconsolidated inorganic and organic material that is suspended in and...

  11. Adsorption Analysis of Lactoferrin to Titanium, Stainless Steel, Zirconia, and Polymethyl Methacrylate Using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance Method

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Eiji; Hayakawa, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    It is postulated that biofilm formation in the oral cavity causes some oral diseases. Lactoferrin is an antibacterial protein in saliva and an important defense factor against biofilm development. We analyzed the adsorbed amount of lactoferrin and the dissociation constant (Kd) of lactoferrin to the surface of different dental materials using an equilibrium analysis technique in a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurement. Four different materials, titanium (Ti), stainless steel (SUS), zirconia (ZrO2) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), were evaluated. These materials were coated onto QCM sensors and the surfaces characterized by atomic force microscopic observation, measurements of surface roughness, contact angles of water, and zeta potential. QCM measurements revealed that Ti and SUS showed a greater amount of lactoferrin adsorption than ZrO2 and PMMA. Surface roughness and zeta potential influenced the lactoferrin adsorption. On the contrary, the Kd value analysis indicated that the adsorbed lactoferrin bound less tightly to the Ti and SUS surfaces than to the ZrO2 and PMMA surfaces. The hydrophobic interaction between lactoferrin and ZrO2 and PMMA is presumed to participate in better binding of lactoferrin to ZrO2 and PMMA surfaces. It was revealed that lactoferrin adsorption behavior was influenced by the characteristics of the material surface. PMID:26998486

  12. Adsorption Analysis of Lactoferrin to Titanium, Stainless Steel, Zirconia, and Polymethyl Methacrylate Using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance Method.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Eiji; Hayakawa, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    It is postulated that biofilm formation in the oral cavity causes some oral diseases. Lactoferrin is an antibacterial protein in saliva and an important defense factor against biofilm development. We analyzed the adsorbed amount of lactoferrin and the dissociation constant (K(d)) of lactoferrin to the surface of different dental materials using an equilibrium analysis technique in a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurement. Four different materials, titanium (Ti), stainless steel (SUS), zirconia (ZrO2) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), were evaluated. These materials were coated onto QCM sensors and the surfaces characterized by atomic force microscopic observation, measurements of surface roughness, contact angles of water, and zeta potential. QCM measurements revealed that Ti and SUS showed a greater amount of lactoferrin adsorption than ZrO2 and PMMA. Surface roughness and zeta potential influenced the lactoferrin adsorption. On the contrary, the K(d) value analysis indicated that the adsorbed lactoferrin bound less tightly to the Ti and SUS surfaces than to the ZrO2 and PMMA surfaces. The hydrophobic interaction between lactoferrin and ZrO2 and PMMA is presumed to participate in better binding of lactoferrin to ZrO2 and PMMA surfaces. It was revealed that lactoferrin adsorption behavior was influenced by the characteristics of the material surface.

  13. Adsorption Analysis of Lactoferrin to Titanium, Stainless Steel, Zirconia, and Polymethyl Methacrylate Using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance Method.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Eiji; Hayakawa, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    It is postulated that biofilm formation in the oral cavity causes some oral diseases. Lactoferrin is an antibacterial protein in saliva and an important defense factor against biofilm development. We analyzed the adsorbed amount of lactoferrin and the dissociation constant (K(d)) of lactoferrin to the surface of different dental materials using an equilibrium analysis technique in a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurement. Four different materials, titanium (Ti), stainless steel (SUS), zirconia (ZrO2) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), were evaluated. These materials were coated onto QCM sensors and the surfaces characterized by atomic force microscopic observation, measurements of surface roughness, contact angles of water, and zeta potential. QCM measurements revealed that Ti and SUS showed a greater amount of lactoferrin adsorption than ZrO2 and PMMA. Surface roughness and zeta potential influenced the lactoferrin adsorption. On the contrary, the K(d) value analysis indicated that the adsorbed lactoferrin bound less tightly to the Ti and SUS surfaces than to the ZrO2 and PMMA surfaces. The hydrophobic interaction between lactoferrin and ZrO2 and PMMA is presumed to participate in better binding of lactoferrin to ZrO2 and PMMA surfaces. It was revealed that lactoferrin adsorption behavior was influenced by the characteristics of the material surface. PMID:26998486

  14. Thermodynamical and structural insights of orange II adsorption by Mg{sub R}AlNO{sub 3} layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Mustapha Bouhent, Mohamed; Derriche, Zoubir; Denoyel, Renaud; Prevot, Vanessa; Forano, Claude

    2011-05-15

    [Mg{sub 1-x} Al{sub x}(OH){sub 2}][(NO{sub 3}){sub x}, nH{sub 2}O] Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) sorbents with variable Mg/Al molar (R=(1-x)/x) ratios were investigated for adsorption of azo dye, orange II (OII) at various pH and temperature conditions. Mg{sub 2}AlNO{sub 3} displays the highest adsorption capacity with 3.611 mmol of OII per gram of Mg{sub 2}AlNO{sub 3} at 40 {sup o}C. Adsorption isotherms have been fitted using the Langmuir model and free energy of adsorption ({Delta}G{sup o}), enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}) and entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}) were calculated. The experimental values for {Delta}G{sup o} in temperature range between 10 and 40 {sup o}C were found to be negative indicating that a spontaneous process occurred. Positive calculated enthalpy values, characteristic of an endothermic process were found. Characterization of solids (PXRD, FTIR, UV-vis, TGA/DTA, adsorption isotherm BET analysis, SEM and Zetametry) before and after adsorption showed that adsorption proceeds in two steps. First, adsorption occurs at the LDH surface, followed by intercalation via anion exchange. -- Graphical Abstract: Structural and thermodynamical insight of adsorption/Intercalation of OII in Mg{sub R}Al LDH Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} The nitrate containing hydrotalcite-like compounds (Mg{sub R}AlNO{sub 3} LDH) were prepared by the coprecipitation method. {yields} Adsorption of anionic orange dye(OII) is studied on LDHs at different temperatures. {yields} The adsorption process is well described by the Langmuir isotherm model. {yields} Mg{sub 2}AlNO{sub 3} displays the highest adsorption capacity with 3.611 mmol of OII per gram of Mg{sub 2}AlNO{sub 3} at 40 {sup o}C. {yields} Adsorption process does not occur on the surface of the LDH only but an intercalation process is also occurring concomitantly according to the thermodynamical values.

  15. Studies on lipase-affinity adsorption using response-surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, E S; Medieta, O; Rodrigues, M I; Maugeri, F

    2001-06-01

    Lipases are widely distributed enzymes that can be obtained from animals, plants and micro-organisms. Coupling lipases with a wide range of substrates allows the opportunity for synthesis of optically pure pharmaceutical preparations, flavour compounds and other food additives. Affinity chromatography owes its power as a purification method to specific biological interactions. Response-surface analysis was chosen to study column efficiency. This method allows the understanding of interactions between variables with advantages over conventional methods, which involve changing one variable while fixing others at certain levels. The aim of this work was to study the influence of the ratio bed height/column diameter (L/D) and superficial velocity (V) on the column efficiency. The experimental design involved the two variables, L/D (2-10) and v (1-2 cm/min), at five levels. Lipase was obtained from Geotrichum sp. culture in a complex medium composed of 5% corn-steep liquor, 0.5% NH(4)NO(3) and 1% olive oil at 30 degrees C, with 1VVM (air volume/medium volume per min) aeration and 400 rev./min agitation. Maximum lipase activity was 19 units/ml after almost 9 h of fermentation. This lipase could potentially be used in esterification reactions to increase the content of gamma-linolenic acid and to produce bioaromas for food industries. The adsorption assays were carried out in a fixed-bed column with an affinity adsorbent, which was obtained by reaction of a gel with oleic acid as ligand. Breakthrough curves were obtained for all experiments. It has been shown that the lower the values of both L/D and v, the higher the column efficiency (maximum 65.43%). Also, it was observed from the response surface that the efficiency reached a minimum at an L/D of around 8.

  16. Analysis and optimization of carbon nanotubes and graphene sensors based on adsorption-desorption kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Sang-Zi; Chen, Gugang; Harutyunyan, Avetik R.; Cole, Milton W.; Sofo, Jorge O.

    2013-12-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes mats and graphene have shown great potential as gas sensors. We analyze NO adsorption/sensing experiments with the kinetic Langmuir model adapted to include adsorption sites from which the molecule does not desorb. The model reproduces the available experimental data. Its fitting parameters provide information on the microscopic phenomena governing adsorption, and variation of these parameters allows the optimization of the sensitivity, detection limit, and time response of the sensors. The result reveals an optimal operating temperature before thermal desorption becomes dominant at high temperature, the potential improvement of selectivity by tuning the gate voltage in a field effect transistor configuration, and quantifies the benefits of reducing the density of defects in the sensing materials.

  17. Adsorption of isopropanol and cyclohexane on zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratchikova, I. G.; Pylinina, A. I.; Platonov, E. A.; Danilova, M. N.; Isaeva, N. Yu.; Yagodovskii, V. D.

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption isotherms of isopropanol and cyclohexane are obtained in the range of 234-303 K on an initial surface of zinc oxide and after its treatment with glow-discharge plasma in O2 and high-frequency plasma in Ar. The values of isosteric heat and adsorption entropy are shown to be only slightly affected by these treatments. It is found that the acidity of the surface increases by 38 and 97%, respectively, and the acidic sites are not adsorption sites for either adsorbate. At low degrees of occupation, the adsorption isotherms of (CH3)2CHOH are described by an equation of induced adsorption whose parameters are dependent on the plasma-chemical treatments. It is concluded that adsorbed isopropanol particles exist in positively and negatively charged forms. The adsorption of cyclohexane is described by the Hill-de Boer equation for the initial ZnO surface, and by the Langmuir equation after plasma-chemical treatments.

  18. Kinetics of Copper Adsorption from Effluent Stream by ZeoliteNaX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Surinder; Sambi, S. S.; Sharma, S. K.; Pandey, Pankaj Kumar

    2010-06-01

    The batch experiments were conducted to study the copper (II) removal by ZeoliteNaX at temperature of 288+1 K, adsorbent dose of 2 g/L and contact time of 24 hour. Effects of pH, temperature, contact time and Cu (II) ion concentration by the adsorbent were investigated. The data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. Freundlich isotherm was found to correlate the adsorption of Cu (II) better and the mono-layer adsorption capacity for Cu (II) removal was 41.6 mg/g. The adsorbed amounts of Cu (II) reached equilibrium within 150 minutes. The four adsorption kinetic models namely, the first order equation, second order equations, pseudo-first order equation and pseudo second-order equations were also tested to fit the data. The pseudo-first-order equation was found to fit best for the experimental data. Thermodynamic analysis indicated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption of Cu (II) by ZeoliteNaX.

  19. Competitive adsorption of phenolic compounds from aqueous solution using sludge-based activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, E F; Andriantsiferana, C; Wilhelm, A M; Delmas, H

    2011-01-01

    Preparation of activated carbon from sewage sludge is a promising approach to produce cheap and efficient adsorbent for pollutants removal as well as to dispose of sewage sludge. The first objective of this study was to investigate the physical and chemical properties (BET surface area, ash and elemental content, surface functional groups by Boehm titration and weight loss by thermogravimetric analysis) of the sludge-based activated carbon (SBAC) so as to give a basic understanding of its structure and to compare to those of two commercial activated carbons, PICA S23 and F22. The second and main objective was to evaluate the performance of SBAC for single and competitive adsorption of four substituted phenols (p-nitrophenol, p-chlorophenol, p-hydroxy benzoic acid and phenol) from their aqueous solutions. The results indicated that, despite moderate micropore and mesopore surface areas, SBAC had remarkable adsorption capacity for phenols, though less than PICA carbons. Uptake of the phenolic compound was found to be dependent on both the porosity and surface chemistry of the carbons. Furthermore, the electronegativity and the hydrophobicity of the adsorbate have significant influence on the adsorption capacity. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were used for the mathematical description of the adsorption equilibrium for single-solute isotherms. Moreover, the Langmuir-Freundlich model gave satisfactory results for describing multicomponent system isotherms. The capacity of the studied activated carbons to adsorb phenols from a multi-solute system was in the following order: p-nitrophenol > p-chlorophenol > PHBA > phenol.

  20. Isothermal nucleation and growth kinetics of Pd/Ag alloy phase via in-situ time-resolved high-temperature x-ray diffraction (HTXRD) analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ayturk, Mahmut Engin; Payzant, E Andrew; Speakman, Scott A; Ma, Yi Hua

    2008-01-01

    Among several different approaches to form Pd/Ag alloys for hydrogen separation applications, ex-situ studies carried by conventional X-ray point scanning detectors might fail to reveal the key aspects of the phase transformation between Pd and Ag metals. In this respect, in-situ time-resolved high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) was employed to study the Pd/Ag alloy phase nucleation and growth kinetics. By the use of linear position sensitive detectors, advanced optics and profile fitting with the use of JADE-6.5 software, isothermal phase evolution of the Pd/Ag alloy at 500 C, 550 C and 600 C under hydrogen atmosphere were quantified to elucidate the mechanistic details of the Pd/Ag alloy phase nucleation and growth pattern. Analysis of the HTXRD data by the Avrami model indicated that the nucleation of the Pd/Ag alloy phase was instantaneous where the growth mechanism was through diffusion-controlled one-dimensional thickening of the Pd/Ag alloy layer. The value of the Avrami exponent, n, was found to increase with temperature with the values of 0.34, 0.39 and 0.67 at 500oC, 550oC and 600oC, respectively. In addition, parabolic rate law analysis suggested that the nucleation of the Pd/Ag alloy phase was through a heterogeneous nucleation mode, in which the nucleation sites were defined as the non-equilibrium defects. The cross-sectional SEI micrographs indicated that the Pd/Ag alloy phase growth was strongly dependent upon the deposition morphology of the as-synthesized Pd and Ag layers formed by the electroless plating. Based on the Avrami model and the parabolic rate law, the estimated activation energies for the phase transformation were 236.5 and 185.6 kJ/mol and in excellent agreement with the literature values (183-239.5 kJ/mol).

  1. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Signature Identification Software

    2009-03-17

    This is an extendable open-source Loop-mediated isothermal AMPlification (LAMP) signature design program called LAVA (LAMP Assay Versatile Analysis). LAVA was created in response to limitations of existing LAMP signature programs.

  2. A new porous magnetic chitosan modified by melamine for fast and efficient adsorption of Cu(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhan-Chao; Wang, Zhao-Zhan; Liu, Jie; Yin, Jin-Hua; Kuang, Shao-Ping

    2015-11-01

    A new porous magnetic chitosan modified by melamine (MA-CS/Fe3O4) was synthesized. The compositions and surface topographies were characterized by infrared (IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The results of adsorption kinetics showed the adsorption behavior could be better described by the pseudo-second-order equation (R>0.999). The adsorption isotherm was well fitted by the Langmuir equation (R>0.999), and the values of separation factors were in the range of 0-1.0. The maximum adsorption capacity for Cu(II) was 2.58mmolg(-1) at the optimal experimental conditions, which were pH=5.5, t=25min, C0=5.0mmolL(-1). The rate-controlling step was supposed to be chemical adsorption rather than mass transport. The adsorbent still exhibited high adsorption