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Sample records for adsorption measurements show

  1. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-12-31

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with super-heated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200{degrees}C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220{degrees}C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: (1) At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. (2) There is no significant temperature effect. (3) Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. (4) Pores smaller than 15 {Angstrom} do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  2. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-01-24

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with superheated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200 °C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220 °C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: 1. At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. 2. There is no significant temperature effect. 3. Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. 4. Pores smaller than 15 Å do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  3. Measurements of water vapor adsorption on the Geysers rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw S.; Horita, Juske; Simonson, John M.; Mesmer, Robert E.

    1996-01-24

    The ORNL high temperature isopiestic apparatus was adapted for adsorption measurements. The quantity of water retained by rock samples taken from three different wells of The Geysers was measured at 150 °C and at 200 °C as a function of pressure in the range 0.00 ≤ p/p0 ≤ 0.98, where p0 is the saturated water vapor pressure. The rocks were crushed and sieved into three fractions of different grain sizes (with different specific surface areas). Both adsorption (increasing pressure) and desorption (decreasing pressure) runs were made in order to investigate the nature and extent of the hysteresis. Additionally, BET surface area analyses were performed by Porous Materials Inc. on the same rock samples using nitrogen or krypton adsorption measurements at 77 K. Specific surface areas and pore volumes were determined. These parameters are important in estimating water retention capability of a porous material. The same laboratory also determined the densities of the samples by helium pycnometry. Their results were then compared with our own density values obtained by measuring the effect of buoyancy in compressed argon. One of the goals of this project is to determine the dependence of the water retention capacity of the rocks as a function of temperature. The results show a significant dependence of the adsorption and desorption isotherms on the grain size of the sample. The increase in the amount of water retained with temperature observed previously (Shang et al., 1994a, 1994b, 1995) between 90 and 130°C for various reservoir rocks from The Geysers may be due to the contribution of slow chemical adsorption and may be dependent on the time allowed for equilibration. In contrast with the results of Shang et al. (1994a, 1994b, 1995), some closed and nearly closed hysteresis loops on the water adsorption/desorption isotherms (with closing points at p/p0 ≈ 0.6) were obtained in this study. In these cases the effects of activated

  4. Kinetic Interpretation of Water Vapor Adsorption-Desorption Behavior of a Desiccant Rotor Showing S-shaped Adsorption Isotherm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Kumiko; Oshima, Kazunori; Takewaki, Takahiko; Kodama, Akio

    Adsorption / desorption behavior of water vapor in a desiccant rotor containing an iron aluminophosphate type zeolite FAM-Z01 (Functional Adsorbent Material Zeolite 01) was experimentally investigated for humidity swing. This rotor exhibited an S-shaped adsorption isotherm with its temperature dependence. Humidity swing, using a small piece of the rotor, could be usefully applied to interpret adsorption / desorption mechanisms by observing their rates. The most significant finding was that the adsorption / desorption rates in humidity swing could be described by the amount of adsorption, temperature and amplitude of the humidity swing, not by cycle time. Also, using the liner driving force (LDF) model, the overall mass transfer coefficient changed with the elapse of time or with the amount of adsorbed water. This implied that the LDF model, considering constant value of the overall mass transfer coefficient, was probably unable to explain the water adsorption / desorption behavior of FAM-Z01 desiccant rotor.

  5. Isothermal Adsorption Measurement for the Development of High Performance Solid Sorption Cooling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Bidyut Baran; Koyama, Shigeru; Alam, K. C. Amanul; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao; Ng, Kim Choon; Chua, Hui Tong

    Interest in low-grade thermal heat powered solid sorption system using natural refrigerants has been increased. However, the drawbacks of these adsorption systems are their poor performance. The objective of this paper is to improve the performance of thermally powered adsorption cooling system by selecting new adsorbent-refrigerant pairs. Adsorption capacity of adsorbent-refrigerant pair depends on the thermophysical properties (pore size, pore volume and pore diameter) of adsorbent and isothermal characteristics of the adsorbent-refrigerant pair. In this paper, the thermophysical properties of three types of silica gels and three types of pitch based activated carbon fibers are determined from the nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The standard nitrogen gas adsorption/desorption measurements on various adsorbents at liquid nitrogen of temperature 77.4 K were performed. Surface area of each adsorbent was determined by the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) plot of nitrogen adsorption data. Pore size distribution was measured by the Horvath and Kawazoe (HK) method. Adsorption/desorption isotherm results showed that all three carbon fibers have no hysteresis and had better adsorption capacity in comparison with those of silica gels.

  6. Measurements of water vapor adsorption on The Geysers rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Gruszkiewicz, M.S.; Horita, J.; Simonson, J.M.; Mesmer, R.E.

    1996-04-01

    One of the goals of this project is to determine the dependence of the water retention capacity of the rocks as a function of temperature. The results show a significant dependence of the adsorption and desorption isotherms on the grain size of the sample. The increase in the amount of water retained with temperature observed previously between 90 and 30{degrees}C for various reservoir rocks from The Geysers may be due to the contribution of slow chemical adsorption and may be dependent on the time allowed for equilibration. In contrast with the results of Shang, some closed and nearly closed hysteresis loops on the water adsorption/desorption isotherms were obtained in this study. In these cases the effects of activated processes were not present, and no increase in water adsorption with temperature was observed.

  7. Hydrophobic dipeptide crystals: a promising Ag-free class of ultramicroporous materials showing argon/oxygen adsorption selectivity.

    PubMed

    Afonso, R; Mendes, A; Gales, L

    2014-09-28

    The adsorption isotherms of nitrogen, oxygen and argon in four VA-class hydrophobic dipeptides are presented. Isotherms were determined at 5, 20 and 35 °C, for a pressure range of 0-6 bar. Under these conditions, adsorption is still in the Henry region. For all materials and temperatures, the sequence of preferential adsorption is Ar > O2 > N2, a highly abnormal result. At 5 °C, the dipeptide with the smallest pores, VI, has Ar/O2 adsorption equilibrium selectivities up to 1.30, the highest ever measured in Ag-free adsorbents. Gas uptakes, at 1 bar and 20 °C, are ∼0.05 mol kg(-1), very low relative values that are partially explained by the low porosity of the solids (<10%). The significance of these results for the development of new materials for the process of O2 generation by pressure swing adsorption (PSA) is discussed. The results indicate some of the structural and chemical properties that prospective Ag-free adsorbents should have in order to have Ar/O2 selectivity, hydrophobic pores, less than 0.5 nm-wide, and porosity of, at least, 20%.

  8. A high surface area Zr(IV)-based metal–organic framework showing stepwise gas adsorption and selective dye uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Xiu-Liang; Tong, Minman; Huang, Hongliang; Wang, Bin; Gan, Lei; Yang, Qingyuan; Zhong, Chongli; Li, Jian-Rong

    2015-03-15

    Exploitation of new metal–organic framework (MOF) materials with high surface areas has been attracting great attention in related research communities due to their broad potential applications. In this work, a new Zr(IV)-based MOF, [Zr{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(eddb){sub 6}] (BUT-30, H{sub 2}eddb=4,4′-(ethyne-1,2-diyl)dibenzoic acid) has been solvothermally synthesized, characterized, and explored for gases and dyes adsorptions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates a three-dimensional cubic framework structure of this MOF, in which each Zr{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4} building unit is linked by 12 linear eddb ligands. BUT-30 has been found stable up to 400 °C and has a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area as high as 3940.6 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} (based on the N{sub 2} adsorption at 77 K) and total pore volume of 1.55 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}. It is more interesting that this MOF exhibits stepwise adsorption behaviors for Ar, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} at low temperatures, and selective uptakes towards different ionic dyes. - Graphical abstract: A new Zr(IV)-based MOF with high surface area has been synthesized and structurally characterized, which shows stepwise gas adsorption at low temperature and selective dye uptake from solution. - Highlights: • A new Zr-based MOF was synthesized and structurally characterized. • This MOF shows a higher surface area compared with its analogous UiO-67 and 68. • This MOF shows a rare stepwise adsorption towards light gases at low temperature. • This MOF performs selective uptakes towards cationic dyes over anionic ones. • Using triple-bond spacer is confirmed feasible in enhancing MOF surface areas.

  9. Tetracycline adsorption on chitosan: a mechanistic description based on mass uptake and zeta potential measurements.

    PubMed

    Caroni, A L P F; de Lima, C R M; Pereira, M R; Fonseca, J L C

    2012-12-01

    Adsorption phenomena occurring at the solid/liquid interface of chitosan particles are of extreme importance in the kinetics of drug release/upload as well as in effluent treatment by adsorption. In this work, equilibrium and kinetic aspects of protonated tetracycline adsorption on chitosan are explored using classic solution depletion method and zeta potential measurements. Equilibrium experiments showed that for solutions with tetracycline initial concentration of ca. 1.2 g L(-1), corresponding to a pH around 3, chitosan structure disrupted, as indicated by an increase in magnitude of tetracycline sorption. Adsorption and zeta potential isotherms before disruption suggested that the process of adsorption had a Langmuir character up to a point at which subsurface was exposed to adsorption; at this point, a second mode of sorption began: zeta potential tended to an equilibrium value, following Sips isotherm and tetracycline sorption had a linear dependence on its continuous phase concentration. The kinetics of tetracycline sorption suggested that sorption of tetracycline was divided between the sorption of protonated and non-protonated tetracycline; tetracycline in its non-protonated form seemed to rule the sorption of tetracycline.

  10. Acid strength of silica-supported oxide catalysts studied by microcalorimetric measurements of pyridine adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Cardona-Martinez, N.; Dumesic, J.A. )

    1991-02-01

    Microcalorimetric measurements of the differential heat of pyridine adsorption were used to probe the distribution of acid strength on a series of silica-supported oxide catalysts. Depositing oxides of the following cations onto silica increased the acid strength of the catalyst: Ga{sup 3{plus}}, Zn{sup 2{plus}}, Al{sup 3{plus}}, Fe{sup 3{plus}}, Fe{sup 2{plus}}, Mg{sup 2{plus}}, and Sc{sup 3{plus}}. The acid strength distribution curves for the supported oxide samples showed either two or three regions of constant heat of adsorption while silica had an energetically homogeneous surface. The Ga, Al, and Sc samples were found to have both Bronsted and Lewis acidity while the remaining samples showed only Lewis acidity. Incremental adsorption of pyridine indicated that the initial region of highest heat corresponds to strong Lewis acidity while intermediate heats seemed to be due to weaker Lewis acid sites or a combination of Lewis and Bronsted acid sites. The final region of lowest heat was due to H-bonded pyridine on silica. Estimates of the entropies of adsorption were determined, providing information about the mobility of the adsorbed pyridine molecules. The initial differential heat of adsorption increases proportionally to the Sanderson electronegativity of the added oxide.

  11. 21. Photocopy of 1897 measured drawing showing details of Solitude. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of 1897 measured drawing showing details of Solitude. Delineators: Charles L. Hillman and John McClintock. Original at the Free Library of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa. - Solitude, Zoo grounds, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 22. Photocopy of 1897 measured drawing showing details of Solitude. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of 1897 measured drawing showing details of Solitude. Delineators: Charles L. Hillman and John McClintock. Original at the Free Library of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa. - Solitude, Zoo grounds, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 20. Photocopy of 1897 measured drawing showing elevations and plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of 1897 measured drawing showing elevations and plans of Soliture. Delineators: Charles L. Hillman and John McClintock. Original at the Free Library of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa. - Solitude, Zoo grounds, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. Dynamic technique for measuring adsorption in a gas chromatograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deuel, C. L.; Hultgren, N. W.; Mobert, M. L.

    1973-01-01

    Gas-chromatographic procedure, together with mathematical analysis of adsorption isotherm, allows relative surface areas and adsorptive powers for trace concentrations to be determined in a few minutes. Technique may be used to evaluate relative surface areas of different adsorbates, expressed as volume of adsorbent/gram of adsorbate, and to evaluate their relative adsorptive power.

  15. Lithium inclusion in indium metal-organic frameworks showing increased surface area and hydrogen adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Bosch, Mathieu; Zhang, Muwei; Feng, Dawei; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Xuan; Chen, Ying-Pin; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2014-12-01

    Investigation of counterion exchange in two anionic In-Metal-Organic Frameworks (In-MOFs) showed that partial replacement of disordered ammonium cations was achieved through the pre-synthetic addition of LiOH to the reaction mixture. This resulted in a surface area increase of over 1600% in (Li [In(1,3 − BDC){sub 2}]){sub n} and enhancement of the H{sub 2} uptake of approximately 275% at 80 000 Pa at 77 K. This method resulted in frameworks with permanent lithium content after repeated solvent exchange as confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lithium counterion replacement appears to increase porosity after activation through replacement of bulkier, softer counterions and demonstrates tuning of pore size and properties in MOFs.

  16. 10. DETAIL SHOWING THRUST MEASURING SYSTEM. Looking up from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL SHOWING THRUST MEASURING SYSTEM. Looking up from the test stand deck to east. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. 49. INTERIOR VIEW OF HARDENER AREA SHOWING GAUGE THAT MEASURES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. INTERIOR VIEW OF HARDENER AREA SHOWING GAUGE THAT MEASURES HARDNESS, THE NAIL MUST BREAK IN THE CENTER RANGE OF THE CURVED BAR TO HAVE THE CORRECT HARDNESS (THE NAIL WILL BREAK TOO EASILY IF TOO HARD AND WILL BEND TOO MUCH IF TOO SOFT) - LaBelle Iron Works, Thirtieth & Wood Streets, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  18. Measurement of Critical Adsorption of Nitrogen near Its Liquid-vapor Critical Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Moses

    2003-01-01

    The density profile of a critical fluid near a solid surface is expected to show an universal shape. This is known as critical adsorption. The measurement of this effect, especially close to the critical point, is often obscured by gravity. We were able to separate the gravitational effect from critical adsorption by using two capacitors, one with a large gap and one with a small gap of approximately 2 m. Within the uncertainty in the measurement, our data, which ranges between 10(exp -3) to 2 x 10(exp -6) in reduced temperatures, is consistent with the predicted power law dependence. This work is carried out in collaboration with Rafael Garcia, Sarah Scheidemantel and Klaus Knorr. It is funded by NASA's office of Biological and Physical Researchunder.

  19. Measurements of Submicron Particle Adsorption and Particle Film Elasticity at Oil-Water Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Manga, Mohamed S; Hunter, Timothy N; Cayre, Olivier J; York, David W; Reichert, Matthew D; Anna, Shelly L; Walker, Lynn M; Williams, Richard A; Biggs, Simon R

    2016-05-01

    The influence of particle adsorption on liquid/liquid interfacial tension is not well understood, and much previous research has suggested conflicting behaviors. In this paper we investigate the surface activity and adsorption kinetics of charge stabilized and pH-responsive polymer stabilized colloids at oil/water interfaces using two tensiometry techniques: (i) pendant drop and (ii) microtensiometer. We found, using both techniques, that charge stabilized particles had little or no influence on the (dynamic) interfacial tension, although dense silica particles affected the "apparent" measured tension in the pendent drop, due to gravity driven elongation of the droplet profile. Nevertheless, this apparent change additionally allowed the study of adsorption kinetics, which was related qualitatively between particle systems by estimated diffusion coefficients. Significant and real interfacial tension responses were measured using ∼53 nm core-shell latex particles with a pH-responsive polymer stabilizer of poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (pMMA-b-pDMAEMA) diblock copolymer. At pH 2, where the polymer is strongly charged, behavior was similar to that of the bare charge-stabilized particles, showing little change in the interfacial tension. At pH 10, where the polymer is discharged and poorly soluble in water, a significant decrease in the measured interfacial tension commensurate with strong adsorption at the oil-water interface was seen, which was similar in magnitude to the surface activity of the free polymer. These results were both confirmed through droplet profile and microtensiometry experiments. Dilational elasticity measurements were also performed by oscillation of the droplet; again, changes in interfacial tension with droplet oscillation were only seen with the responsive particles at pH 10. Frequency sweeps were performed to ascertain the dilational elasticity modulus, with measured values being significantly higher

  20. Measurements of Submicron Particle Adsorption and Particle Film Elasticity at Oil-Water Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Manga, Mohamed S; Hunter, Timothy N; Cayre, Olivier J; York, David W; Reichert, Matthew D; Anna, Shelly L; Walker, Lynn M; Williams, Richard A; Biggs, Simon R

    2016-05-01

    The influence of particle adsorption on liquid/liquid interfacial tension is not well understood, and much previous research has suggested conflicting behaviors. In this paper we investigate the surface activity and adsorption kinetics of charge stabilized and pH-responsive polymer stabilized colloids at oil/water interfaces using two tensiometry techniques: (i) pendant drop and (ii) microtensiometer. We found, using both techniques, that charge stabilized particles had little or no influence on the (dynamic) interfacial tension, although dense silica particles affected the "apparent" measured tension in the pendent drop, due to gravity driven elongation of the droplet profile. Nevertheless, this apparent change additionally allowed the study of adsorption kinetics, which was related qualitatively between particle systems by estimated diffusion coefficients. Significant and real interfacial tension responses were measured using ∼53 nm core-shell latex particles with a pH-responsive polymer stabilizer of poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (pMMA-b-pDMAEMA) diblock copolymer. At pH 2, where the polymer is strongly charged, behavior was similar to that of the bare charge-stabilized particles, showing little change in the interfacial tension. At pH 10, where the polymer is discharged and poorly soluble in water, a significant decrease in the measured interfacial tension commensurate with strong adsorption at the oil-water interface was seen, which was similar in magnitude to the surface activity of the free polymer. These results were both confirmed through droplet profile and microtensiometry experiments. Dilational elasticity measurements were also performed by oscillation of the droplet; again, changes in interfacial tension with droplet oscillation were only seen with the responsive particles at pH 10. Frequency sweeps were performed to ascertain the dilational elasticity modulus, with measured values being significantly higher

  1. Venus: new microwave measurements show no atmospheric water vapor.

    PubMed

    Janssen, M A; Hills, R E; Thornton, D D; Welch, W J

    1973-03-01

    Two sets of passive radio observations of Venus-measurements of the spectrum of the disk temperature near the 1-centimeter wavelength, and interferometric measurements of the planetary limb darkening at the 1.35-centimeter water vapor resonance-show no evidence of water vapor in the lower atmosphere of Venus. The upper limit of 2 x 10(-3) for the mixing ratio of water vapor is substantially less than the amounts derived from the Venera space probes (0.5 x 10(-2) to 2.5 x 10(-2)). This amount of water vapor cannot produce dense clouds, and it is doubtful that it may contribute significantly to a greenhouse effect.

  2. Hydrogen Desorption and Adsorption Measurements on Graphite Nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, C. C.; Ye, Y.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Witham, C. K.; Bowman, R. C., Jr.; Fultz, B.

    1998-01-01

    Graphite nanofibers were synthesized and their hydrogen desorption and adsorption properties are reported for 77 and 300 K. Catalysts were made by several different methods including chemical routes, mechanical alloying and gas condensation.

  3. Measuring political polarization: Twitter shows the two sides of Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, A. J.; Borondo, J.; Losada, J. C.; Benito, R. M.

    2015-03-01

    We say that a population is perfectly polarized when divided in two groups of the same size and opposite opinions. In this paper, we propose a methodology to study and measure the emergence of polarization from social interactions. We begin by proposing a model to estimate opinions in which a minority of influential individuals propagate their opinions through a social network. The result of the model is an opinion probability density function. Next, we propose an index to quantify the extent to which the resulting distribution is polarized. Finally, we apply the proposed methodology to a Twitter conversation about the late Venezuelan president, Hugo Chávez, finding a good agreement between our results and offline data. Hence, we show that our methodology can detect different degrees of polarization, depending on the structure of the network.

  4. Shear rheology of mixed protein adsorption layers vs their structure studied by surface force measurements.

    PubMed

    Danov, Krassimir D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Radulova, Gergana M; Basheva, Elka S; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Pelan, Eddie G

    2015-08-01

    The hydrophobins are proteins that form the most rigid adsorption layers at liquid interfaces in comparison with all other investigated proteins. The mixing of hydrophobin HFBII with other conventional proteins is expected to reduce the surface shear elasticity and viscosity, E(sh) and η(sh), proportional to the fraction of the conventional protein. However, the experiments show that the effect of mixing can be rather different depending on the nature of the additive. If the additive is a globular protein, like β-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin, the surface rigidity is preserved, and even enhanced. The experiments with separate foam films indicate that this is due to the formation of a bilayer structure at the air/water interface. The more hydrophobic HFBII forms the upper layer adjacent to the air phase, whereas the conventional globular protein forms the lower layer that faces the water phase. Thus, the elastic network formed by the adsorbed hydrophobin remains intact, and even reinforced by the adjacent layer of globular protein. In contrast, the addition of the disordered protein β-casein leads to softening of the HFBII adsorption layer. Similar (an even stronger) effect is produced by the nonionic surfactant Tween 20. This can be explained with the penetration of the hydrophobic tails of β-casein and Tween 20 between the HFBII molecules at the interface, which breaks the integrity of the hydrophobin interfacial elastic network. The analyzed experimental data for the surface shear rheology of various protein adsorption layers comply with a viscoelastic thixotropic model, which allows one to determine E(sh) and η(sh) from the measured storage and loss moduli, G' and G″. The results could contribute for quantitative characterization and deeper understanding of the factors that control the surface rigidity of protein adsorption layers with potential application for the creation of stable foams and emulsions with fine bubbles or droplets.

  5. Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements showing Rapid Chlorine Activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M.Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approximately 46 mb) and 585 K (approximately 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER. photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: (1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the UKMO temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; (2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; (3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

  6. Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements Showing Rapid Chlorine Activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M. Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec. 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approx. 46 mb) and 585 K (approxi. 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: 1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the U.K. Meteorological Office (UKMO) temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; 2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; 3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

  7. Milky Way a Swifter Spinner, More Massive, New Measurements Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    Fasten your seat belts -- we're faster, heavier, and more likely to collide than we thought. Astronomers making high-precision measurements of the Milky Way say our home Galaxy is rotating about 100,000 miles per hour faster than previously understood. That increase in speed, said Mark Reid, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, increases the Milky Way's mass by 50 percent, bringing it even with the Andromeda Galaxy. "No longer will we think of the Milky Way as the little sister of the Andromeda Galaxy in our Local Group family." Milky Way Artist's Conception of our Milky Way Galaxy: Blue, green dots indicate distance measurements. CREDIT: Robert Hurt, IPAC; Mark Reid, CfA, NRAO/AUI/NSF JPEG graphic with scale marks on sides PostScript graphic with scale marks on sides The larger mass, in turn, means a greater gravitational pull that increases the likelihood of collisions with the Andromeda galaxy or smaller nearby galaxies. Our Solar System is about 28,000 light-years from the Milky Way's center. At that distance, the new observations indicate, we're moving at about 600,000 miles per hour in our Galactic orbit, up from the previous estimate of 500,000 miles per hour. The scientists are using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope to remake the map of the Milky Way. Taking advantage of the VLBA's unparalleled ability to make extremely detailed images, the team is conducting a long-term program to measure distances and motions in our Galaxy. They reported their results at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Long Beach, California. The scientists observed regions of prolific star formation across the Galaxy. In areas within these regions, gas molecules are strengthening naturally-occuring radio emission in the same way that lasers strengthen light beams. These areas, called cosmic masers, serve as bright landmarks for the sharp radio vision of the VLBA. By observing these regions repeatedly at times

  8. Measuring and understanding radon adsorption in microporous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, Raymond; Busto, José

    2015-08-17

    The background from the radon decay chain is the strongest constraint for many experiments working at low energy and very low counting rate. A facility for studying the optimum radon capture by very selective porous materials was developed at CPPM in the context of the SuperNEM O project. In collaboration with Institut Jean Lamour, studies were carried out for better understanding radon adsorption in carbon adsorbents.

  9. Searching for Measures of Reversibility in Continuous Adsorption through Packed Bed Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidiras, Dimitris K.

    2009-08-01

    This work deals with searching for measures of after-process reversibility in continuous adsorption through packed bed columns. A methodology has been designed/developed under the form of an algorithmic procedure including 17 activity stages and 5 decision nodes. An implementation is presented concerning adsorption/desorption of methylene blue on pine sawdust. An Ideal Reversibility Index (IRI) and two Real Rreversibility Indices (RRIs) have been estimated after fitting kinetic adsorption/desorption models to experimental data. Last, the implications of applying an innovation are discussed in terms of techno-economic analysis.

  10. Adsorption in gas mass spectrometry. I. Effects on the measurement of individual isotopic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonfiantini, Roberto; Valkiers, Staf; Taylor, Philip D. P.; de Bièvre, Paul

    1997-05-01

    The adsorption-desorption process of gas molecules on the walls of the mass spectrometer inlet system was studied in order to assess quantitatively its influence on measurement results. The effects on individual isotopic species in SiF4 measurements required for the re-determination of the Avogadro constant are discussed in this paper, while the effects on isotope amount ratio determinations will be discussed in a companion paper. A model based on the Langmuir adsorption isotherm is developed, which fits well the experimental observations and provides the means to investigate adsorption and desorption kinetics in the inlet system. A parameter called the [`]apparent leak-rate coefficient' is introduced; this represents the relative variation with time of any isotopic species in the inlet system. All the adsorption parameters appearing in the balance equations are derived from the apparent leak-rate coefficient. Application of the model to long mass-spectrometric measurements of SiF4 yields a rate constant of 6.5 × 10-5 s-1 for SiF4 effusion through the molecular leak of the inlet system. Adsorption and desorption rate-constants are equal to 20-25% of the leak rate-constant, and the adsorption sites are about two orders of magnitude lower than the number of Ni and Cu atoms present on the inlet system walls.

  11. Single-nanoparticle near-infrared surface plasmon resonance microscopy for real-time measurements of DNA hybridization adsorption.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Aaron R; Wood, Jennifer B; Wang, Yong; Corn, Robert M

    2014-01-28

    A novel 814 nm near-infrared surface plasmon resonance (SPR) microscope is used for the real-time detection of the sequence-selective hybridization adsorption of single DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles. The objective-coupled, high numerical aperture SPR microscope is capable of imaging in situ the adsorption of single polystyrene and gold particles with diameters ranging from 450 to 20 nm onto a 90 μm × 70 μm area of a gold thin film with a time resolution of approximately 1-3 s. Initial real-time SPR imaging (SPRI) measurements were performed to detect the accumulation of 40 nm gold nanoparticles for 10 min onto a gold thin film functionalized with a 100% complementary DNA surface at concentrations from 5 pM to 100 fM by counting individual particle binding events. A 100% noncomplementary DNA surface exhibited virtually no nanoparticle adsorption. In contrast, in a second set of SPRI measurements, two component complementary/noncomplementary mixed DNA monolayers that contained a very small percentage of complementary sequences ranging from 0.1 to 0.001%, showed both permanent and transient hybridization adsorption of the gold nanoparticles that could be tracked both temporally and spatially with the SPR microscope. These experiments demonstrate that SPR imaging measurements of single biofunctionalized nanoparticles can be incorporated into bioaffinity biosensing methods at subpicomolar concentrations.

  12. Visualization and Measurement of Adsorption/Desorption Process of Ethanol in Activated Carbon Adsorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Hitoshi; Murata, Kenta; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Saito, Yasushi

    Adsorption refrigerator is one of the efficient tools for waste heat recovery, because the system is driven by heat at relative low temperature. However, the coefficient of performance is low due to its batch operation and the heat capacity of the adsorber. In order to improve the performance, it is important to optimize the configuration to minimize the amount of driving heat, and to clarify adsorption/desorption phenomena in transient conditions. Neutron radiography was applied to visualize and measure the adsorption amount distribution in an adsorber. The visualization experiments had been performed at the neutron radiography facility of E-2 port of Kyoto University Research Reactor. Activated carbon and ethanol were used as the adsorbent and refrigerant. From the acquired radiographs, adsorption amount was quantitatively measured by applying the umbra method using a checkered neutron absorber with boron powder. Then, transient adsorption and desorption processes of a rectangular adsorber with 84 mm in width, 50 mm in height and 20 mm in depth were visualized. As the result, the effect of fins in the adsorbent layer on the adsorption amount distribution was clearly visualized.

  13. Measurements of VOC adsorption/desorption characteristics of typical interior building materials

    SciTech Connect

    An, Y.; Zhang, J.S.; Shaw, C.Y.

    2000-07-01

    The adsorption/desorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on interior building material surfaces (i.e., the sink effect) can affect the VOC concentrations in a building, and thus need to be accounted for an indoor air quality (IAQ) prediction model. In this study, the VOC adsorption/desorption characteristics (sink effect) were measured for four typical interior building materials including carpet, vinyl floor tile, painted drywall, and ceiling tile. The VOCs tested were ethylbenzene, cyclohexanone, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, benzaldehyde, and dodecane. These five VOCs were selected because they are representative of hydrocarbons, aromatics, ketones, aldehydes, and chlorine substituted compounds. The first order reversible adsorption/desorption model was based on the Langmuir isotherm was used to analyze the data and to determine the equilibrium constant of each VOC-material combination. It was found that the adsorption/desorption equilibrium constant, which is a measure of the sink capacity, increased linearly with the inverse of the VOC vapor pressure. For each compound, the adsorption/desorption equilibrium constant, and the adsorption rate constant differed significantly among the four materials tested. A detailed characterization of the material structure in the micro-scale would improve the understanding and modeling of the sink effect in the future. The results of this study can be used to estimate the impact of sink effect on the VOC concentrations in buildings.

  14. Protein adsorption on surfaces: dynamic contact-angle (DCA) and quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements.

    PubMed

    Stadler, H; Mondon, M; Ziegler, C

    2003-01-01

    Adsorption of the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) on gold has been tested at various concentrations in aqueous solution by dynamic contact-angle analysis (DCA) and quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. With the Wilhelmy plate technique advancing and receding contact angles and the corresponding hysteresis were measured and correlated with the hydrophilicity and the homogeneity of the surface. With electrical admittance measurements of a gold-coated piezoelectrical quartz crystal, layer mass and viscoelastic contributions to the resonator's frequency shift during adsorption could be separated. A correlation was found between the adsorbed mass and the homogeneity and hydrophilicity of the adsorbed film.

  15. Direct calorimetric measurement of enthalpy of adsorption of carbon dioxide on CD-MOF-2, a green metal-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Gassensmith, Jeremiah J; Gouvêa, Douglas; Ushakov, Sergey; Stoddart, J Fraser; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2013-05-01

    The enthalpy of adsorption of CO2 on an environmentally friendly metal-organic framework, CD-MOF-2, has been determined directly for the first time using adsorption calorimetry at 25 °C. This calorimetric methodology provides a much more accurate and model-independent measurement of adsorption enthalpy than that obtained by calculation from the adsorption isotherms, especially for systems showing complex and strongly exothermic adsorption behavior. The differential enthalpy of CO2 adsorption shows enthalpy values in line with chemisorption behavior. At near-zero coverage, an irreversible binding event with an enthalpy of -113.5 kJ/mol CO2 is observed, which is followed by a reversible -65.4 kJ/mol binding event. These enthalpies are assigned to adsorption on more and less reactive hydroxyl groups, respectively. Further, a second plateau shows an enthalpy of -40.1 kJ/mol and is indicative of physisorbed CO2. The calorimetric data confirm the presence of at least two energetically distinct binding sites for chemisorbed CO2 on CD-MOF-2.

  16. Measuring and modeling the competitive adsorption of CO2, CH4, and N2 on a dry coal.

    PubMed

    Ottiger, Stefan; Pini, Ronny; Storti, Giuseppe; Mazzotti, Marco

    2008-09-01

    Data on the adsorption behavior of CO 2, CH 4, and N 2 on coal are needed to develop enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery processes, a technology where the recovery of CH 4 is enhanced by injection of a gas stream consisting of either pure CO 2, pure N 2, or a mixture of both. The pure, binary, and ternary adsorption of these gases on a dry coal from the Sulcis Coal Province in Italy has been measured at pressures up to 180 bar and temperatures of 45 and 70 degrees C for the pure gases and of 45 degrees C for the mixtures. The experiments were performed in a system consisting of a magnetic suspension balance using a gravimetric-chromatographic technique. The excess adsorption isotherms are successfully described using a lattice density functional theory model based on the Ono-Kondo equations exploiting information about the structure of the coal, the adsorbed gases, and the interaction between them. The results clearly show preferential adsorption of CO 2 over CH 4 and N 2, which therefore indicate that ECBM may be a viable option for the permanent storage of CO 2. PMID:18680385

  17. Simple fabrication of carbon/TiO2 composite nanotubes showing dual functions with adsorption and photocatalytic decomposition of Rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Im, Ji Hyuk; Yang, Seung Jae; Yun, Chang Hun; Park, Chong Rae

    2012-01-27

    Carbon/TiO2 composite nanotubes were fabricated via a very simple electrospinning process and their dual functionalities of adsorptivity and photocatalytic activity were evaluated using Rhodamine B (RhB) as a model organic pollutant. A poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) aqueous solution was directly electrospun into a coagulation bath containing titanium (IV) tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) solution so that PVA-core/TiO2-shell composite nanofibers were formed through the in situ sol-gel reaction of TTIP. The carbon/TiO2 composite nanotubes were then fabricated by heat treatment of composite nanofibers under nitrogen atmosphere. By using several characterization methods, we confirmed that the resultant nanotubes consisted of anatase TiO2 nanocrystallites embedded in a carbonaceous matrix. The prepared nanotubes exhibited fast adsorption of RhB with high capacity compared with a commercial porous carbon, and they also showed the photocatalytic decomposition activity for the dye molecules under UV irradiation comparable to the degradation by P-25 and ST-01 (commercial TiO2). Finally, the carbon/TiO2 composite nanotubes exhibited several cycle performances of adsorption-photodegradation for RhB. This indicates that the composite nanotubes can adsorb and photodecompose organic pollutants repeatedly without additional activating processes. PMID:22172680

  18. Simple fabrication of carbon/TiO2 composite nanotubes showing dual functions with adsorption and photocatalytic decomposition of Rhodamine B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Ji Hyuk; Yang, Seung Jae; Yun, Chang Hun; Park, Chong Rae

    2012-01-01

    Carbon/TiO2 composite nanotubes were fabricated via a very simple electrospinning process and their dual functionalities of adsorptivity and photocatalytic activity were evaluated using Rhodamine B (RhB) as a model organic pollutant. A poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) aqueous solution was directly electrospun into a coagulation bath containing titanium (IV) tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) solution so that PVA-core/TiO2-shell composite nanofibers were formed through the in situ sol-gel reaction of TTIP. The carbon/TiO2 composite nanotubes were then fabricated by heat treatment of composite nanofibers under nitrogen atmosphere. By using several characterization methods, we confirmed that the resultant nanotubes consisted of anatase TiO2 nanocrystallites embedded in a carbonaceous matrix. The prepared nanotubes exhibited fast adsorption of RhB with high capacity compared with a commercial porous carbon, and they also showed the photocatalytic decomposition activity for the dye molecules under UV irradiation comparable to the degradation by P-25 and ST-01 (commercial TiO2). Finally, the carbon/TiO2 composite nanotubes exhibited several cycle performances of adsorption-photodegradation for RhB. This indicates that the composite nanotubes can adsorb and photodecompose organic pollutants repeatedly without additional activating processes.

  19. Simple fabrication of carbon/TiO2 composite nanotubes showing dual functions with adsorption and photocatalytic decomposition of Rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Im, Ji Hyuk; Yang, Seung Jae; Yun, Chang Hun; Park, Chong Rae

    2012-01-27

    Carbon/TiO2 composite nanotubes were fabricated via a very simple electrospinning process and their dual functionalities of adsorptivity and photocatalytic activity were evaluated using Rhodamine B (RhB) as a model organic pollutant. A poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) aqueous solution was directly electrospun into a coagulation bath containing titanium (IV) tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) solution so that PVA-core/TiO2-shell composite nanofibers were formed through the in situ sol-gel reaction of TTIP. The carbon/TiO2 composite nanotubes were then fabricated by heat treatment of composite nanofibers under nitrogen atmosphere. By using several characterization methods, we confirmed that the resultant nanotubes consisted of anatase TiO2 nanocrystallites embedded in a carbonaceous matrix. The prepared nanotubes exhibited fast adsorption of RhB with high capacity compared with a commercial porous carbon, and they also showed the photocatalytic decomposition activity for the dye molecules under UV irradiation comparable to the degradation by P-25 and ST-01 (commercial TiO2). Finally, the carbon/TiO2 composite nanotubes exhibited several cycle performances of adsorption-photodegradation for RhB. This indicates that the composite nanotubes can adsorb and photodecompose organic pollutants repeatedly without additional activating processes.

  20. Determination of surface area and porosity of small, nanometer-thick films by quartz crystal microbalance measurement of gas adsorption.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yoshitaka; Hashizume, Mineo; Onoue, Shinya; Kunitake, Toyoki

    2008-11-20

    The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 15 nm-thick films made of TiO2/polyelectrolyte bilayer was determined by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurement of N2 and Ar adsorption isotherms at 77 K. The measurements were carried out using a home-built vacuum chamber that includes built-in 9 MHz QCM and cryostat units. As little as 1 ng of the adsorbed gas could be detected, and the BET surface area of a flat Au film (ca. 0.5 cm2) on an oscillator was determined within an experimental error of +/-5%. The titania/polymer composite film gives N2 and Ar adsorption isotherms consisting of a less-pronounced type-I curve and a break at around p/p0 = 0.7. This behavior is ascribed to the presence of irregular micropores and 6 nm phi-mesopores in the composite film. An analysis of the isotherms shows that the porosity of the composite film is about 12%, which is much smaller than that of bulk titania gel powder. The greater density appears to be related to the reported superior properties (robustness and resistance to electrical breakdown) of the organic/inorganic multilayer film. We conclude that the QCM-based, high-precision measurement of gas adsorption is a powerful tool for investigation of the detailed morphology of nanometer-thick films.

  1. Adsorption of tannic acid on polyelectrolyte monolayers determined in situ by streaming potential measurements.

    PubMed

    Oćwieja, M; Adamczyk, Z; Morga, M

    2015-01-15

    Physicochemical characteristics of tannic acid (tannin) suspensions comprising its stability for a wide range of ionic strength and pH were thoroughly investigated using UV-vis spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering and microelectrophoretic measurements. These studies allowed to determine the hydrodynamic diameter of the tannic acid that was 1.63 nm for the pH range 3.5-5.5. For pH above 6.0 the hydrodynamic diameter significantly decreased as a result of the tannin hydrolysis. The electrophoretic mobility measurements confirmed that tannic acid is negatively charged for these values of pH and ionic strength 10(-4)-10(-2) M. Therefore, in order to promote adsorption of tannin molecules on negatively charged mica, the poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) supporting monolayers were first adsorbed under diffusion transport conditions. The coverage of polyelectrolyte monolayers was regulated by changing bulk concentration of PAH and the adsorption time. The electrokinetic characteristics of bare and PAH-covered mica were determined using the streaming potential measurements. The zeta potential of these PAH monolayers was highly positive, equal to 46 mV for ionic strength of 10(-2) M. The kinetics of tannin adsorption on these PAH supporting monolayers was evaluated by the in situ the streaming potential measurements. The zeta potential of PAH monolayers abruptly decreases with the adsorption of tannin molecules that was quantitatively interpreted in terms of the three-dimensional electrokinetic model. The acid-base characteristics of tannin monolayers were acquired via the streaming potential measurements for a broad range of pH. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to control adsorption of tannin on positively charged surfaces in order to designed new multilayer structures of desirable electrokinetic properties and stability.

  2. Measurement uncertainty of adsorption testing of desiccant materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C E; Pesaran, A A

    1988-12-01

    The technique of measurement uncertainty analysis as described in the current ANSI/ASME standard is applied to the testing of desiccant materials in SERI`s Sorption Test Facility. This paper estimates the elemental precision and systematic errors in these tests and propagates them separately to obtain the resulting uncertainty of the test parameters, including relative humidity ({plus_minus}.03) and sorption capacity ({plus_minus}.002 g/g). Errors generated by instrument calibration, data acquisition, and data reduction are considered. Measurement parameters that would improve the uncertainty of the results are identified. Using the uncertainty in the moisture capacity of a desiccant, the design engineer can estimate the uncertainty in performance of a dehumidifier for desiccant cooling systems with confidence. 6 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Application of ultrasonic backscattering for level measurement and process monitoring of expanded-bed adsorption columns.

    PubMed

    Thelen, T V; Mairal, A P; Thorsen, C S; Ramirez, W F

    1997-01-01

    Expanded-bed adsorption is a newly commercialized technique for the purification of proteins from cellular debris in downstream processing. An expanded bed presents the possibility of protein recovery in a single step, eliminating the often costly clarification processing steps such as ultrafiltration, centrifugation, and precipitation. A major obstacle to the successful commercialization of this technology is the inability to accurately monitor and control the bed height in these systems. Fluctuations in the feedstock viscosity are common during normal operation and tend to make the operation and control of expanded beds for biological applications complex and difficult. We develop a level measurement technique based upon ultrasonics. It is shown that this technique has great promise for bed-height measurement in expanded-bed adsorption systems. Furthermore, the bed-height measurement can be used in feedback control strategies for bed-height regulation. The proposed ultrasonic sensor is also capable of monitoring for plugging and bubbling in the column. PMID:9336988

  4. Fibrinogen adsorption mechanisms at the gold substrate revealed by QCM-D measurements and RSA modeling.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Katarzyna; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Cieśla, Michał

    2016-03-01

    Adsorption kinetics of fibrinogen at a gold substrate at various pHs was thoroughly studied using the QCM-D method. The experimental were interpreted in terms of theoretical calculations performed according to the random sequential adsorption model (RSA). In this way, the hydration functions and water factors of fibrinogen monolayers were quantitatively evaluated at various pHs. It was revealed that for the lower range of fibrinogen coverage the hydration function were considerably lower than previously obtained for the silica sensor [33]. The lower hydration of fibrinogen monolayers on the gold sensor was attributed to its higher roughness. However, for higher fibrinogen coverage the hydration functions for both sensors became identical exhibiting an universal behavior. By using the hydration functions, the fibrinogen adsorption/desorption runs derived from QCM-D measurements were converted to the Γd vs. the time relationships. This allowed to precisely determine the maximum coverage that varied between 1.6mgm(-2) at pH 3.5 and 4.5mgm(-2) at pH 7.4 (for ionic strength of 0.15M). These results agree with theoretical eRSA modeling and previous experimental data derived by using ellipsometry, OWLS and TIRF. Various fibrinogen adsorption mechanisms were revealed by exploiting the maximum coverage data. These results allow one to develop a method for preparing fibrinogen monolayers of well-controlled coverage and molecule orientation.

  5. Method and means for dynamic measurement of rates of adsorption from solutions

    DOEpatents

    Slomka, Bogdan J.; Buttermore, William H.

    1992-05-05

    A method and apparatus for dynamic measurement of rates of absorption from solutions. The method has the advantage of avoiding the use of solvent normally used to establish a baseline. The method involves pre-evacuating the adsorbent contained in an adsorbent cell and thereafter rapidly contacting the adsorbent with analytical solution, all without prior exposure of adsorbent to pure solvent. The result is a sharp characteristic adsorption line.

  6. Method and means for dynamic measurement of rates of adsorption from solutions

    DOEpatents

    Slomka, B.J.; Buttermore, W.H.

    1992-05-05

    A method and apparatus are described for the dynamic measurement of rates of absorption from solutions. The method has the advantage of avoiding the use of solvent normally used to establish a baseline. The method involves pre-evacuating the adsorbent contained in an adsorbent cell and thereafter rapidly contacting the adsorbent with analytical solution, all without prior exposure of adsorbent to pure solvent. The result is a sharp characteristic adsorption line. 5 figs.

  7. Apparatus to measure adsorption of condensable solvents on technical surfaces by photothermal deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plimmer, M. D.; du Colombier, D.; Iraqi Houssaini, N.; Silvestri, Z.; Pinot, P.; Hannachi, R.

    2012-11-01

    This article describes an instrument for the measurement of the mirage effect as a tool to determine the molar adsorption per unit surface area Y1 of condensable solvents in the presence of a non-condensable carrier gas. The present apparatus is a much improved version of previous prototypes developed in our laboratory and elsewhere with a higher surface bake-out temperature (150 °C rather than 40 °C), lower residual vacuum (3 Pa versus 100 Pa), greater sample surface (40 mm diameter instead of 10 mm), more powerful optical pump beam (150 W cf. 50 W), and larger saturated vapour preparation volume (4 L instead of 1 L). The new set-up also includes the in situ monitoring of the surface via a reflected HeNe laser beam for the real-time detection of the onset of condensation. Here, we give a detailed description of the various components, outline the experimental procedure, show typical results, and suggest some straightforward improvements.

  8. Apparatus to measure adsorption of condensable solvents on technical surfaces by photothermal deflection.

    PubMed

    Plimmer, M D; du Colombier, D; Iraqi Houssaini, N; Silvestri, Z; Pinot, P; Hannachi, R

    2012-11-01

    This article describes an instrument for the measurement of the mirage effect as a tool to determine the molar adsorption per unit surface area Y(1) of condensable solvents in the presence of a non-condensable carrier gas. The present apparatus is a much improved version of previous prototypes developed in our laboratory and elsewhere with a higher surface bake-out temperature (150 °C rather than 40 °C), lower residual vacuum (3 Pa versus 100 Pa), greater sample surface (40 mm diameter instead of 10 mm), more powerful optical pump beam (150 W cf. 50 W), and larger saturated vapour preparation volume (4 L instead of 1 L). The new set-up also includes the in situ monitoring of the surface via a reflected HeNe laser beam for the real-time detection of the onset of condensation. Here, we give a detailed description of the various components, outline the experimental procedure, show typical results, and suggest some straightforward improvements. PMID:23206087

  9. Recombinant albumin adsorption on mica studied by AFM and streaming potential measurements.

    PubMed

    Kujda, Marta; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Morga, Maria; Sofińska, Kamila

    2015-03-01

    Recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) in monomeric state is widely used in pharmaceutical industry as a drug excipient and for preparing coatings for medical devices. In this work the adsorption process of rHSA on model mica surface at pH 3.5 was studied using the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and in situ streaming potential measurements. The kinetics of albumin adsorption was determined by a direct enumeration of single molecules over various substrate areas. These results were consistent with streaming potential measurements carried out for the parallel-plate channel flow and with theoretical predictions derived from the random sequential adsorption (RSA) model. Desorption kinetics of albumin under flow conditions was also evaluated via the streaming potential measurements. In this way, the amount of irreversibly bound albumin was quantitatively evaluated to be 0.64 and 1.2 mg m(-2) for ionic strength of 0.01 and 0.15 M, respectively. This agrees with previous results obtained for HSA and theoretical calculations derived from the RSA model. Additionally, it was demonstrated that there existed a fraction of reversibly bound albumin that can be fully eluted within a few hours. The binding energy of these fraction of molecules was -18 kT that is consistent with the electrostatic controlled adsorption mechanism of albumin at this pH. It was concluded that the rHSA monolayers of well-defined coverage can find applications for quantitatively analyzing ligand binding and for performing efficient biomaterials and immunological tests.

  10. Recombinant albumin adsorption on mica studied by AFM and streaming potential measurements.

    PubMed

    Kujda, Marta; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Morga, Maria; Sofińska, Kamila

    2015-03-01

    Recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) in monomeric state is widely used in pharmaceutical industry as a drug excipient and for preparing coatings for medical devices. In this work the adsorption process of rHSA on model mica surface at pH 3.5 was studied using the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and in situ streaming potential measurements. The kinetics of albumin adsorption was determined by a direct enumeration of single molecules over various substrate areas. These results were consistent with streaming potential measurements carried out for the parallel-plate channel flow and with theoretical predictions derived from the random sequential adsorption (RSA) model. Desorption kinetics of albumin under flow conditions was also evaluated via the streaming potential measurements. In this way, the amount of irreversibly bound albumin was quantitatively evaluated to be 0.64 and 1.2 mg m(-2) for ionic strength of 0.01 and 0.15 M, respectively. This agrees with previous results obtained for HSA and theoretical calculations derived from the RSA model. Additionally, it was demonstrated that there existed a fraction of reversibly bound albumin that can be fully eluted within a few hours. The binding energy of these fraction of molecules was -18 kT that is consistent with the electrostatic controlled adsorption mechanism of albumin at this pH. It was concluded that the rHSA monolayers of well-defined coverage can find applications for quantitatively analyzing ligand binding and for performing efficient biomaterials and immunological tests. PMID:25679491

  11. Adsorption of zwitterionic surfactant on limestone measured with high-performance liquid chromatography: micelle-vesicle influence.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Alvarez, David Aaron; Zamudio-Rivera, Luis S; Luna-Rojero, Erick E; Rodríguez-Otamendi, Dinora I; Marín-León, Adlaí; Hernández-Altamirano, Raúl; Mena-Cervantes, Violeta Y; Chávez-Miyauchi, Tomás Eduardo

    2014-10-21

    Herein is presented a new methodology to determine the static adsorption of a zwitterionic surfactant on limestone in three different aqueous media [high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) water, seawater, and connate water] with the use of HPLC at room temperature and 70 °C. The results showed that, in both HPLC water and seawater, the surfactant adsorption followed a monolayer Langmuir tendency. In contrast, for connate water, the surfactant presented a new adsorption profile, characterized by two regions: (i) At surfactant concentrations below 1500 mg L(-1), an increase of adsorption is observed as the amount of divalent cations increases in the aqueous media. (ii) At surfactant concentrations above 1500 mg L(-1), the adsorption decreases because the equilibrium, monomer ⇆ micelle ⇆ vesicle, is shifted to the formation of vesicles, giving as a result a decrease in the concentration of monomers, thus reducing the interaction between the surfactant and the rock, and therefore, lower adsorption values were obtained. The behavior of the surfactant adsorption under different concentrations of divalent cations was well-described by the use of a new modified Langmuir model: (dΓ/dt)ads = k(ads)c(Γ∞ - Γ) - k(cmc)(c - c(cmc))(n)ΓH(c - c(cmc)). It was also observed that, as the temperature increases, the adsorption is reduced because of the exothermic nature of the adsorption processes. PMID:25254947

  12. Adsorption of zwitterionic surfactant on limestone measured with high-performance liquid chromatography: micelle-vesicle influence.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Alvarez, David Aaron; Zamudio-Rivera, Luis S; Luna-Rojero, Erick E; Rodríguez-Otamendi, Dinora I; Marín-León, Adlaí; Hernández-Altamirano, Raúl; Mena-Cervantes, Violeta Y; Chávez-Miyauchi, Tomás Eduardo

    2014-10-21

    Herein is presented a new methodology to determine the static adsorption of a zwitterionic surfactant on limestone in three different aqueous media [high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) water, seawater, and connate water] with the use of HPLC at room temperature and 70 °C. The results showed that, in both HPLC water and seawater, the surfactant adsorption followed a monolayer Langmuir tendency. In contrast, for connate water, the surfactant presented a new adsorption profile, characterized by two regions: (i) At surfactant concentrations below 1500 mg L(-1), an increase of adsorption is observed as the amount of divalent cations increases in the aqueous media. (ii) At surfactant concentrations above 1500 mg L(-1), the adsorption decreases because the equilibrium, monomer ⇆ micelle ⇆ vesicle, is shifted to the formation of vesicles, giving as a result a decrease in the concentration of monomers, thus reducing the interaction between the surfactant and the rock, and therefore, lower adsorption values were obtained. The behavior of the surfactant adsorption under different concentrations of divalent cations was well-described by the use of a new modified Langmuir model: (dΓ/dt)ads = k(ads)c(Γ∞ - Γ) - k(cmc)(c - c(cmc))(n)ΓH(c - c(cmc)). It was also observed that, as the temperature increases, the adsorption is reduced because of the exothermic nature of the adsorption processes.

  13. Measurements of water sorption enthalpy on polymer surfaces and its effect on protein adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joonyeong; Qian, Wei; Al-Saigh, Zeki Y.

    2011-02-01

    The molar enthalpy of sorption ( ΔHms`) of water vapor onto three polymer surfaces and its effect on nonspecific protein adsorption were investigated by inverse gas chromatography (IGC). The values of ΔHms measured by IGC were found to be -16.9 ± 1.2, -18.6 ± 1.3, and -29.9 ± 2.4 kJ/mole for polystyrene (PS), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), respectively, over a temperature range of 333-423 K. Protein adsorption to three polymer-coated substrates was conducted as a function of the bulk protein concentration using lysozyme, fibrinogen, and bovine serum albumin (BSA), and the amount of adsorbed protein was measured by the solution depletion method. For a given bulk protein concentration, a larger amount of protein is adsorbed on PS and PMMA surfaces which have greater ΔHms than that of PHEMA surfaces. Although ΔHms for PS and PMMA are close to each other, PS surfaces were found to exhibit a higher adsorption affinity than PMMA surfaces over the proteins and concentrations investigated. Our results indicate that the strength of water-polymer interactions and the functional groups on the polymer surface are important factors for controlling the amount of nonspecifically adsorbed protein.

  14. Using competitive protein adsorption to measure fibrinogen in undiluted human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seokheun; Wang, Ran; Lajevardi-Khosh, Arad; Chae, Junseok

    2010-12-01

    We report a unique sensing mechanism based on competitive protein adsorption to measure fibrinogen, a cardiovascular biomarker, in undiluted human serum. The method uses physical adsorption of proteins to a surface rather than complex and time-consuming immobilization procedures. Two fibrinogen concentrations were differentiated in spiked in human serum [3.0 mg/ml (normal concentration) versus 3.2 mg/ml (abnormal concentration with heart disease)]. Real-time surface plasmon resonance signals were monitored as fibrinogen displaced a preadsorbed protein, IgM, on a hydrophobic gold surface. The relatively strong-affinity protein, IgM, was displaced primarily by fibrinogen and much less by other proteins in human serum.

  15. Observation of Henry's Law in Low-Density Measurements of Adsorption on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzyubenko, Boris; Schmitz, Denise; Lee, Hao-Chun; Vilches, Oscar E.; Cobden, David H.

    2014-03-01

    We have studied the adsorption of noble gases on pristine suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes at low temperatures in the limit of low density (coverage), as determined from the shift of the mechanical resonance frequency of the nanotube due to mass loading. The high homogeneity of the nanotube substrate and the sensitivity of the technique allow us to observe Henry's law, in which the coverage is proportional to the gas pressure. In this limit the adsorption isotherm is determined by single-atom effects, allowing unprecedentedly accurate (+/- 2%) determination of the single-particle binding energies to a nanotube. Also, by measuring the deviation from Henry's law as coverage increases we obtain information about the pairwise interactions between the adsorbed atoms using the virial expansion.

  16. Measurements of Increased Enthalpies of Adsorption for Boron-Doped Activated Carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Andrew; Beckner, Matthew; Chada, Nagaraju; Schaeperkoetter, Joseph; Singh, Anupam; Lee, Mark; Wexler, Carlos; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Boron-doping of activated carbons has been shown to increase the enthalpies of adsorption for hydrogen as compared to their respective undoped precursors (>10kJ/mol compared to ca. 5kJ/mol). This has brought significant interest to boron-doped carbons for their potential to improve hydrogen storage. Boron-doped activated carbons have been produced using a process involving the deposition of decaborane (B10H14) and high-temperature annealing resulting in boron contents up to 15%. In this talk, we will present a systematic study of the effect that boron content has on the samples' structure, hydrogen sorption, and surface chemistry. Measurements have shown a significant increase in the areal hydrogen excess adsorption and binding energy. Experimental enthalpies of adsorption will be presented for comparison to theoretical predictions. Additionally, samples have been characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. TGA and GC-MS results investigated the decomposition of the decaborane in the carbon. Boron-carbon bonds are shown in the FTIR and XPS spectra, indicating that boron has been incorporated into the carbon matrix. Work supported by DOE-EERE, Award No. DE-FG36-08GO18142

  17. Correlating single-molecule and ensemble-average measurements of peptide adsorption onto different inorganic materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Oh; Jackman, Joshua A; Mochizuki, Masahito; Yoon, Bo Kyeong; Hayashi, Tomohiro; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-06-01

    The coating of solid-binding peptides (SBPs) on inorganic material surfaces holds significant potential for improved surface functionalization at nano-bio interfaces. In most related studies, the goal has been to engineer peptides with selective and high binding affinity for a target material. The role of the material substrate itself in modulating the adsorption behavior of a peptide molecule remains less explored and there are few studies that compare the interaction of one peptide with different inorganic substrates. Herein, using a combination of two experimental techniques, we investigated the adsorption of a 16 amino acid-long random coil peptide to various inorganic substrates - gold, silicon oxide, titanium oxide and aluminum oxide. Quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) experiments were performed in order to measure the peptide binding affinity for inorganic solid supports at the ensemble average level, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments were conducted in order to determine the adhesion force of a single peptide molecule. A positive trend was observed between the total mass uptake of attached peptide and the single-molecule adhesion force on each substrate. Peptide affinity for gold was appreciably greater than for the oxide substrates. Collectively, the results obtained in this study offer insight into the ways in which inorganic materials can differentially influence and modulate the adhesion of SBPs.

  18. Correlating single-molecule and ensemble-average measurements of peptide adsorption onto different inorganic materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Oh; Jackman, Joshua A; Mochizuki, Masahito; Yoon, Bo Kyeong; Hayashi, Tomohiro; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-06-01

    The coating of solid-binding peptides (SBPs) on inorganic material surfaces holds significant potential for improved surface functionalization at nano-bio interfaces. In most related studies, the goal has been to engineer peptides with selective and high binding affinity for a target material. The role of the material substrate itself in modulating the adsorption behavior of a peptide molecule remains less explored and there are few studies that compare the interaction of one peptide with different inorganic substrates. Herein, using a combination of two experimental techniques, we investigated the adsorption of a 16 amino acid-long random coil peptide to various inorganic substrates - gold, silicon oxide, titanium oxide and aluminum oxide. Quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) experiments were performed in order to measure the peptide binding affinity for inorganic solid supports at the ensemble average level, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments were conducted in order to determine the adhesion force of a single peptide molecule. A positive trend was observed between the total mass uptake of attached peptide and the single-molecule adhesion force on each substrate. Peptide affinity for gold was appreciably greater than for the oxide substrates. Collectively, the results obtained in this study offer insight into the ways in which inorganic materials can differentially influence and modulate the adhesion of SBPs. PMID:27174015

  19. Mechanisms of fibrinogen adsorption at the silica substrate determined by QCM-D measurements.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Katarzyna; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Wasilewska, Monika

    2015-11-01

    Adsorption kinetics of fibrinogen at a silica substrate was thoroughly studied in situ using the QCM-D method. Because of low dissipation, the Sauerbrey's equation was used for calculating the wet mass per unit area (wet coverage of the protein). Measurements were done for various bulk suspension concentrations, flow rates and pHs. These experimental data were compared with the theoretical dry coverage data derived from the solution of the mass transfer equation. In this way, the hydration functions and water factors of fibrinogen monolayers were quantitatively evaluated for various pHs. In the case of pH 7.4 and ionic strength of 0.15 M, the hydration function changed from 0.75 to 0.6 for the dry coverage Γ(d) equal to 0 and 4 mg m(-2), respectively. Interestingly, for pH 7.4 and 4.5 (ionic strength of 10(-2) M) a minimum of the hydration function appeared at Γ(d) ca. 2 mg m(-2). Analytical polynomial expressions were formulated for the interpolation of the experimental results. By using the hydration functions, the fibrinogen adsorption/desorption runs derived from QCM-D measurements were converted to the Γ(d) vs. the time relationships. This allowed to precisely determine the maximum coverage that varied between 1.2 mg m(-2) at pH 3.5 and 4.2 mg m(-2) at pH 7.4 for ionic strength of 0.15 M. These results agree with theoretical modeling and previous experimental data derived by using ellipsometry, OWLS and TIRF. Various fibrinogen adsorption mechanisms were revealed by exploiting the maximum coverage data whose validity was also confirmed by the dissipation vs. the dry mass relationships. Beside significance to basic science, these results enable to develop a robust technique, based on the QCM-D measurements, suitable for precisely determining the dry mass of protein monolayers adsorbed under various physicochemical conditions.

  20. Adsorption of organic chemicals in soils.

    PubMed Central

    Calvet, R

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a review on adsorption of organic chemicals on soils sediments and their constituents. The first part of this review deals with adsorption from gas and liquid phases and gives a discussion on the physical meaning of the shape of adsorption isotherms. Results show that no general rules can be proposed to describe univocally the relation between the shape of isotherms and the nature of adsorbate-adsorbent system. Kinetics of adsorption is discussed through the description of various models. Theoretical developments exist both for the thermodynamics and the kinetics of adsorption, but there is a strong need for experimental results. Possible adsorption mechanisms are ion exchange, interaction with metallic cations, hydrogen bonds, charge transfers, and London-van der Waals dispersion forces/hydrophobic effect. However, direct proofs of a given mechanism are rare. Several factors influence adsorption behavior. Electronic structure of adsorbed molecules, properties of adsorbents, and characteristics of the liquid phase are discussed in relation to adsorption. Such properties as water solubility, organic carbon content of adsorbing materials, and the composition of the liquid phase are particularly important. Evaluation of adsorption can be obtained through either laboratory measurements or use of several correlations. Adsorption measurements must be interpreted, taking into account treatment of adsorbent materials, experimental conditions, and secondary phenomena such as degradations. Correlations between adsorption coefficients and water-octanol partition coefficient or water solubility are numerous. They may be useful tools for prediction purposes. Relations with transport, bioavailability, and degradation are described. PMID:2695323

  1. Adsorption of organic chemicals in soils.

    PubMed

    Calvet, R

    1989-11-01

    This paper presents a review on adsorption of organic chemicals on soils sediments and their constituents. The first part of this review deals with adsorption from gas and liquid phases and gives a discussion on the physical meaning of the shape of adsorption isotherms. Results show that no general rules can be proposed to describe univocally the relation between the shape of isotherms and the nature of adsorbate-adsorbent system. Kinetics of adsorption is discussed through the description of various models. Theoretical developments exist both for the thermodynamics and the kinetics of adsorption, but there is a strong need for experimental results. Possible adsorption mechanisms are ion exchange, interaction with metallic cations, hydrogen bonds, charge transfers, and London-van der Waals dispersion forces/hydrophobic effect. However, direct proofs of a given mechanism are rare. Several factors influence adsorption behavior. Electronic structure of adsorbed molecules, properties of adsorbents, and characteristics of the liquid phase are discussed in relation to adsorption. Such properties as water solubility, organic carbon content of adsorbing materials, and the composition of the liquid phase are particularly important. Evaluation of adsorption can be obtained through either laboratory measurements or use of several correlations. Adsorption measurements must be interpreted, taking into account treatment of adsorbent materials, experimental conditions, and secondary phenomena such as degradations. Correlations between adsorption coefficients and water-octanol partition coefficient or water solubility are numerous. They may be useful tools for prediction purposes. Relations with transport, bioavailability, and degradation are described.

  2. Construction and measurements of a vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    SciTech Connect

    Schnee, R. W.; Bunker, R.; Ghulam, G.; Jardin, D.; Kos, M.; Tenney, A. S.

    2013-08-08

    Long-lived alpha and beta emitters in the {sup 222}Rn decay chain on (and near) detector surfaces may be the limiting background in many experiments attempting to detect dark matter or neutrinoless double beta decay, and in screening detectors. In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto the wires of the Beta Cage during its assembly, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at Syracuse University using a vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system. The radon filter shows ∼20× reduction at its output, from 7.47±0.56 to 0.37±0.12 Bq/m{sup 3}, and the cleanroom radon activity meets project requirements, with a lowest achieved value consistent with that of the filter, and levels consistently < 2 Bq/m{sup 3}.

  3. Construction and measurements of a vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnee, R. W.; Bunker, R.; Ghulam, G.; Jardin, D.; Kos, M.; Tenney, A. S.

    2013-08-01

    Long-lived alpha and beta emitters in the 222Rn decay chain on (and near) detector surfaces may be the limiting background in many experiments attempting to detect dark matter or neutrinoless double beta decay, and in screening detectors. In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto the wires of the Beta Cage during its assembly, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at Syracuse University using a vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system. The radon filter shows ˜20× reduction at its output, from 7.47±0.56 to 0.37±0.12 Bq/m3, and the cleanroom radon activity meets project requirements, with a lowest achieved value consistent with that of the filter, and levels consistently < 2 Bq/m3.

  4. Measuring and modeling the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} on a dry coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ottiger, S.; Pini, R.; Storti, G.; Mazzotti, M.

    2008-09-15

    Data on the adsorption behavior of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} on coal are needed to develop enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery processes, a technology where the recovery of CH{sub 4} is enhanced by injection of a gas stream consisting of either pure CO{sub 2}, pure N{sub 2}, or a mixture of both. The pure, binary, and ternary adsorption of these gases on a dry coal from the Sulcis Coal Province in Italy has been measured at pressures up to 180 bar and temperatures of 45 and 70{sup o}C for the pure gases and of 45{sup o}C for the mixtures. The experiments were performed in a system consisting of a magnetic suspension balance using a gravimetric-chromatographic technique. The excess adsorption isotherms are successfully described using a lattice density functional theory model based on the Ono-Kondo equations exploiting information about the structure of the coal, the adsorbed gases, and the interaction between them. The results clearly show preferential adsorption of CO{sub 2} over CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}, which therefore indicate that ECBM may be a viable option for the permanent storage of CO{sub 2}.

  5. Adsorption Behavior of Heat Modified Soybean Oil via Boundary Lubrication Coefficient of Friction Measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frictional behaviors of soybean oil and heat modified soybean oils with different Gardner scale viscosities as additives in hexadecane have been examined in a boundary lubrication test regime (steel contacts) using Langmuir adsorption model. The free energy of adsorption (delta-Gads) of various...

  6. Orientation dependence of oxygen adsorption on a cylindrical GaAs sample. I. Auger measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranke, W.; Xing, Y. R.; Shen, G. D.

    1982-08-01

    The orientation dependence of oxygen adsorption has been investigated by AES on the surface of a cylindrically shaped GaAs single crystal with [111¯0] being its axis. It thus exposes the main low index orientations (001), (111)Ga, (110), and (111¯)As, as well as all their vicinal surfaces and intermediate orientations on its surface. It is shown that it is possible to prepare all these orientations simultaneously and with reasonable quality by ion bombardment and annealing (IBA). The orientation dependence of the amount of adsorbed oxygen in the range (001)(111)Ga(110)(111¯)As can be understood in terms of different sticking coefficients on the different types of terrace site and of enhanced adsorption on edge-adjacent sites. These edge-adjacent sites show saturation at about 4 × 10 5 L. Starting from (110) towards (111)Ga, at first, steps one atomic layer high are found, changing to a height of two layers when approaching (331). This behaviour can be understood in terms of the known relaxation on (110). A deep minimum in the amount of adsorbed oxygen between (111¯)As and (001¯) is interpreted to be due to an As stabilized low sticking coefficient phase between (112¯) and (113¯). Early saturation (at˜10 5 L) on (001) and (111¯)As is consistent with the fact that these surfaces usually do not reach their room temperature equilibrium phase upon preparation by IBA. Sudden and accidental oxygen induced composition changes towards As-richer substrate compositions further confirm this.

  7. Random sequential adsorption on fractals.

    PubMed

    Ciesla, Michal; Barbasz, Jakub

    2012-07-28

    Irreversible adsorption of spheres on flat collectors having dimension d < 2 is studied. Molecules are adsorbed on Sierpinski's triangle and carpet-like fractals (1 < d < 2), and on general Cantor set (d < 1). Adsorption process is modeled numerically using random sequential adsorption (RSA) algorithm. The paper concentrates on measurement of fundamental properties of coverages, i.e., maximal random coverage ratio and density autocorrelation function, as well as RSA kinetics. Obtained results allow to improve phenomenological relation between maximal random coverage ratio and collector dimension. Moreover, simulations show that, in general, most of known dimensional properties of adsorbed monolayers are valid for non-integer dimensions.

  8. Reflectometric measurement of n-hexane adsorption on ZnO2 nanohybrid film modified by hydrophobic gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebők, Dániel; Csapó, Edit; Ábrahám, Nóra; Dékány, Imre

    2015-04-01

    Zinc-peroxide/poly(styrenesulfonate) nanohybrid thin films (containing 20 bilayers: [ZnO2/PSS]20, d ∼ 500 nm) were prepared using layer-by-layer (LbL) method. The thin film surface was functionalized by different surface modifying agents (silanes, alkylthiols and hydrophobized nanoparticles). Based on the experimental results of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and contact angle measurements (as prequalifications) the octanethiol covered gold nanoparticles (OT-AuNPs) were selected for further vapour adsorption studies. Reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) was used to measure n-hexane vapour adsorption on the original and modified nanohybrid films in a gas flow platform. The thin film provides only the principle of the measurement (by interference phenomenon), the selectivity and hydrophobicity is controlled and enhanced by surface functionalization (by dispersion interaction between the alkyl chains). The interference pattern shift (Δλ) caused by the increase of the optical thickness of the thin film due to vapour adsorption was investigated. It was found that due to the surface functionalization by hydrophobic nanoparticles the effect of water vapour adsorption decreased significantly, while for n-hexane opposite tendency was observed (the effective refractive index and thus the interference pattern shift increased drastically). The correlation between QCM technique and optical method (RIfS) was specified: linear specific adsorbed amount vs. wavelength shift calibration curves were determined in the pr = 0-0.4 relative vapour pressure range. The thin film is suitable for sensorial application (e.g. volatile organic compound/VOC sensor).

  9. Errors in Measuring Water Potentials of Small Samples Resulting from Water Adsorption by Thermocouple Psychrometer Chambers 1

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Jerry M.; Cortes, Peter M.

    1985-01-01

    The adsorption of water by thermocouple psychrometer assemblies is known to cause errors in the determination of water potential. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of sample size and psychrometer chamber volume on measured water potentials of leaf discs, leaf segments, and sodium chloride solutions. Reasonable agreement was found between soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) leaf water potentials measured on 5-millimeter radius leaf discs and large leaf segments. Results indicated that while errors due to adsorption may be significant when using small volumes of tissue, if sufficient tissue is used the errors are negligible. Because of the relationship between water potential and volume in plant tissue, the errors due to adsorption were larger with turgid tissue. Large psychrometers which were sealed into the sample chamber with latex tubing appeared to adsorb more water than those sealed with flexible plastic tubing. Estimates are provided of the amounts of water adsorbed by two different psychrometer assemblies and the amount of tissue sufficient for accurate measurements of leaf water potential with these assemblies. It is also demonstrated that water adsorption problems may have generated low water potential values which in prior studies have been attributed to large cut surface area to volume ratios. PMID:16664367

  10. Probing of Competitive Displacement Adsorption of Casein at Oil-in-Water Interface Using Equilibrium Force Distance Measurements.

    PubMed

    Mahendran, V; Sangeetha, J; Philip, John

    2015-06-01

    The equilibrium force distance measurement is employed for the first time to probe the competitive and displacement adsorption of casein at an oil-water (O/W) emulsion interface that was initially adsorbed with either a diblock polymer or an anionic surfactant. A significant change in the force-distance profile was observed under the competitive displacement adsorption of casein, which is further confirmed from the hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential measurements. A decrease in the onset of repulsion and decay length are observed on competitive adsorption of smaller size casein molecules at O/W interface. With addition of casein in PVA-vac diblock polymer stabilized emulsion, the onset of repulsion decreases from 88 to 48 nm whereas the magnitude of force increases from 1 to 19 nN. The force decay length is reduced from 10.5 to 4.5 nm upon addition of casein. Our results suggest the complete replacement of adsorbed diblock polymers by casein molecules. The hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential measurements corroborate the casein mediated polymer displacement and the competitive adsorption of casein at the O/W interface. In the case of anionic surfactant covered O/W interfaces, casein molecules weakly associate at the interface without displacing the smaller size surfactant molecules where no significant changes in the onset repulsion and force profiles are observed. These results suggest that the casein molecules are effective displacers for replacement of adsorbed macromolecules from formulations, which has several important practical applications.

  11. Added value measures in education show genetic as well as environmental influence.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Claire M A; Asbury, Kathryn; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2011-02-02

    Does achievement independent of ability or previous attainment provide a purer measure of the added value of school? In a study of 4000 pairs of 12-year-old twins in the UK, we measured achievement with year-long teacher assessments as well as tests. Raw achievement shows moderate heritability (about 50%) and modest shared environmental influences (25%). Unexpectedly, we show that for indices of the added value of school, genetic influences remain moderate (around 50%), and the shared (school) environment is less important (about 12%). The pervasiveness of genetic influence in how and how much children learn is compatible with an active view of learning in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities.

  12. Measurement and characteristic analysis of refractive index of biological medium adsorption on two-dimensional photonic crystal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Kai; Lu, Jianru; Zhang, Zhenguo; Wang, Hui-bo; Chen, Ying

    2014-07-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) SiO2 photonic crystal (PC) is constructed with the substrate of polyester film. The PC period is 800nm, and the duty cycle is 0.5.The high refractive index coating is deposited on the surface of PC. Rigorous coupled-wave (RCWA) theory is used to analyze 2D PC narrowband reflection spectrum characteristic. A relationship model between reflection peak wavelength and medium refractive index adsorption on surface of 2D PC is established. The conclusion shows that there is a linear relationship between reflection wavelength of the PC and the refractive index of adsorption medium, with the refractive index of adsorption medium in the range of 1.3-1.8. The effects of the refractive index of deposited coating on the sensitivity of the PC biosensor are analyzed. With the increase of the refractive index of the deposited coating, the sensitivity of the sensor is increasing.

  13. Surfactant adsorption kinetics in microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Riechers, Birte; Maes, Florine; Akoury, Elias; Semin, Benoît; Gruner, Philipp; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions are metastable dispersions. Their lifetimes are directly related to the dynamics of surfactants. We design a microfluidic method to measure the kinetics of adsorption of surfactants to the droplet interface, a key process involved in foaming, emulsification, and droplet coarsening. The method is based on the pH decay in the droplet as a direct measurement of the adsorption of a carboxylic acid surfactant to the interface. From the kinetic measurement of the bulk equilibration of the pH, we fully determine the adsorption process of the surfactant. The small droplet size and the convection during the droplet flow ensure that the transport of surfactant through the bulk is not limiting the kinetics of adsorption. To validate our measurements, we show that the adsorption process determines the timescale required to stabilize droplets against coalescence, and we show that the interface should be covered at more than 90% to prevent coalescence. We therefore quantitatively link the process of adsorption/desorption, the stabilization of emulsions, and the kinetics of solute partitioning—here through ion exchange—unraveling the timescales governing these processes. Our method can be further generalized to other surfactants, including nonionic surfactants, by making use of fluorophore–surfactant interactions. PMID:27688765

  14. IR surface electromagnetic-wave measurement of hydrogen adsorption and surface reconstruction on W(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Hanssen, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    Both the clean and hydrogen covered W(100) surfaces are probed with an inhomogenous electromagnetic mode which is bound to the metal surface. This Surface Electromagnetic Wave (SEW) is generated from a plane-wave spectrum by means of a grating directly etched into the metal surface. A second grating, spaced about 5 cm from the first, transforms the SEW back into a plane wave infrared beam. Near room temperature, the temperature dependence of the magnitude of the SEW signal agrees with the Drude model prediction using the d.c. resistivity. At high temperatures (>1000K) however, SEW signal is attenuated to such a large extent that plane wave radiation generated at the first grating can be detected as well. The first SEW spectrum of surface reconstruction was observed upon hydrogen adsorption on a W(100) sample maintained near room temperature. The reconstruction of the W(100)-H surface is checked and calibrated through LEED observations and thermal desorption measurements. The SEW signal is found to follow a sigmoid curve as a function of coverage. Intensity changes as large as 30% of the clean surface value occur as the state of the W(100)-H surface changes. This extreme sensitivity of the SEW attentuation length to surface reconstruction is shown to be consistent with changes in the diffuse surface scattering component of the conduction electron scattering time.

  15. Studies of gas adsorption on ZnO using ESR, FTIR spectroscopy, and MHE (Microwave Hall Effect) measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Byungki Na; Vannice, M.A. ); Walters, A.B. )

    1993-04-01

    This paper describes the application of a new technique - Microwave Hall Effect (MHE) measurements - to measure electron mobilities and to determine the effect of adsorption on electron densities of powders. Conduction electron densities calculated from microwave measurements of both mobilities and conductivities, as well as ESR spectroscopy and chemisorption measurements, have been applied to characterize high-surface-area ZnO (up to 30 m[sup 2]/g) samples before and after exposure to O[sub 2], CO[sub 2], CO, and H[sub 2]. Evacuation at 673 K removed lattice oxygen to produce paramagnetic lattice vacancies, (V[sub 0][sup +])[sup [minus

  16. GRACE, GLDAS and measured groundwater data products show water storage loss in Western Jilin, China.

    PubMed

    Moiwo, Juana Paul; Lu, Wenxi; Tao, Fulu

    2012-01-01

    Water storage depletion is a worsening hydrological problem that limits agricultural production in especially arid/semi-arid regions across the globe. Quantifying water storage dynamics is critical for developing water resources management strategies that are sustainable and protective of the environment. This study uses GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) and measured groundwater data products to quantify water storage in Western Jilin (a proxy for semi-arid wetland ecosystems) for the period from January 2002 to December 2009. Uncertainty/bias analysis shows that the data products have an average error <10% (p < 0.05). Comparisons of the storage variables show favorable agreements at various temporal cycles, with R(2) = 0.92 and RMSE = 7.43 mm at the average seasonal cycle. There is a narrowing soil moisture storage change, a widening groundwater storage loss, and an overall storage depletion of 0.85 mm/month in the region. There is possible soil-pore collapse, and land subsidence due to storage depletion in the study area. Invariably, storage depletion in this semi-arid region could have negative implications for agriculture, valuable/fragile wetland ecosystems and people's livelihoods. For sustainable restoration and preservation of wetland ecosystems in the region, it is critical to develop water resources management strategies that limit groundwater extraction rate to that of recharge rate.

  17. The wildgeographer avatar shows how to measure soil erosion rates by means of a rainfall simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Iserloh, Thomas; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    This contribution to the immersed worlds wish to develop the avatar that will teach the students and other scientists how to develop measurements of soil erosion, surface runoff and wetting fronts by means of simulated rainfall experiments. Rainfall simulation is a well established and knows methodology to measure the soil erosion rates and soil hydrology under controlled conditions (Cerdà 1998a; Cerdà, 1998b; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011; Dunkerley, 2012; Iserloh et al., 2012; Iserloh et al., 2013; Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013; Butzen et al., 2014). However, is a method that requires a long training and expertise to avoid mismanagement and mistaken. To use and avatar can help in the teaching of the technique and the dissemination of the findings. This contribution will show to other avatars how to develop an experiment with simulated rainfall and will help to take the right decision in the design of the experiments. Following the main parts of the experiments and measurements the Wildgeographer avatar must develop: 1. Determine the objectives and decide which rainfall intensity and distribution, and which plot size to be used. Choose between a laboratory or a field rainfall simulation. 2. Design of the rainfall simulator to achieve the objectives: type of rainfall simulator (sprayer or drop former) and calibrate. 3. The experiments are carried out. 4. The results are show. Acknowledgements To the "Ministerio de Economía and Competitividad" of Spanish Government for finance the POSTFIRE project (CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R). The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7-ENV-2013- supported this research. References Butzen, V., Seeger, M., Wirtz, S., Huemann, M., Mueller, C., Casper, M., Ries, J. B. 2014. Quantification of Hortonian overland flow generation and soil erosion in a Central European low mountain range using rainfall experiments. Catena, 113, 202-212. Cerdà, A

  18. Dispersant adsorption and viscoelasticity of alumina suspensions measured by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and in situ dynamic rheology.

    PubMed

    Palmqvist, Lisa; Holmberg, Krister

    2008-09-16

    Adsorption behavior and water content of adsorbed layers of four dispersants for aqueous ceramic processing were studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) on alumina surfaces. The dispersants were a poly(acrylic acid), a lignosulfonate, and two hydrophilic comb copolymers with nonionic polyoxyethylene chains of different molecular weights. A Voigt model was applied to analyze the viscoelastic behavior of the adsorbed dispersant layers. The results from QCM-D were compared with viscoelastic properties determined by in situ dynamic rheology measurements of highly concentrated alumina suspensions during slip casting. The QCM-D results showed that both the poly(acrylic acid) and the lignosulfonate adsorbed in low amounts and in a flat conformation, which generated thin, highly rigid layers less than 1 nm thick. The water content of these layers was found to be around 30% for the lignosulfonate and 35% for the poly(acrylic acid). High casting rate and strength in terms of storage modulus were observed in the final consolidate of the suspensions with the two polyelectrolytes. In contrast, the high molecular weight comb copolymer adsorbed in a less elastic layer with a thickness of about 6 nm, which is enough to provide steric stabilization. The viscous behavior of this layer was attributed to high water content, which was calculated to be around 90%. Such a water-rich layer gives a lubrication effect, which allows for reorientation of particles during the consolidation process, resulting in a high final strength of the ceramic material. During consolidation, the suspension showed a slow casting rate, most likely due to rearrangement facilitated by the lubricating layer. The short-chain comb copolymer adsorbed in a 1.5 nm thick, rigid layer and gave low final strength to the consolidated suspension. It is likely that the poor consolidation behavior is caused by flocculation due to insufficient stabilization of the dispersion.

  19. ATR-FTIR measurements of albumin and fibrinogen adsorption: Inert versus calcium phosphate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Boix, Marcel; Eslava, Salvador; Costa Machado, Gil; Gosselin, Emmanuel; Ni, Na; Saiz, Eduardo; De Coninck, Joël

    2015-11-01

    Arthritis, bone fracture, bone tumors and other musculoskeletal diseases affect millions of people across the world. Nowadays, inert and bioactive ceramics are used as bone substitutes or for bone regeneration. Their bioactivity is very much dictated by the way proteins adsorb on their surface. In this work, we compared the adsorption of albumin and fibrinogen on inert and calcium phosphates ceramics (CaPs) using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to follow in situ protein adsorption on these materials. To this effect, we developed a sol-gel technique to control the surface chemistry of an ATR-FTIR detector. Hydroxyapatite adsorbed more albumin and β-tricalcium phosphate adsorbed more fibrinogen. Biphasic calcium phosphate presented the lowest adsorption among CaP for both proteins, illustrating the effect of surface heterogeneities. Inert ceramics adsorbed a lower amount of both proteins compared with bioactive ceramics. A significant change was observed in the conformation of the adsorbed protein versus the surface chemistry. Hydroxyapatite produced a larger loss of α-helix structure on albumin and biphasic calcium phosphate reduced β-sheet percentage on fibrinogen. Inert ceramics produced large α-helix loss on albumin and presented weak interaction with fibrinogen. Zirconia did not adsorb albumin and titanium dioxide promoted huge denaturalization of fibrinogen.

  20. Extracorporeal adsorption of endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Staubach, K H; Rosenfeldt, J A; Veit, O; Bruch, H P

    1997-02-01

    In a porcine endotoxin shock model using a continuous intravenous endotoxin infusion of 250 ng/kg body weight per hour, the cardiorespiratory and hematologic parameters were studied while applying a new on-line polymyxin B immobilized adsorption system. This preliminary report shows that the new adsorbent can remove endotoxin selectively from the circulation and confers a good amount of protection from endotoxin-induced cardiopulmonary decompensation as well as hematologic alterations. Survival time could be extended from 216 min to 313 min. Whereas cardiac output and mean arterial pressure declined critically after 3 h in the controls, the treated group remained stable for another 3 h. These data show that endotoxin adsorption by polymyxin B coupled covalently to acrylic spheres as an adjunctive on-line measure in the septic syndrome seems feasible. PMID:10225785

  1. Elasticity measurements show the existence of thin rigid cores inside mitotic chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Houchmandzadeh, B; Dimitrov, S

    1999-04-19

    Chromosome condensation is one of the most critical steps during cell division. However, the structure of condensed mitotic chromosomes is poorly understood. In this paper we describe a new approach based on elasticity measurements for studying the structure of in vitro assembled mitotic chromosomes in Xenopus egg extract. The approach is based on a unique combination of measurements of both longitudinal deformability and bending rigidity of whole chromosomes. By using specially designed micropipettes, the chromosome force-extension curve was determined. Analysis of the curvature fluctuation spectrum allowed for the measurement of chromosome bending ridigity. The relationship between the values of these two parameters is very specific: the measured chromosome flexibility was found to be 2,000 times lower than the flexibility calculated from the experimentally determined Young modulus. This requires the chromosome structure to be formed of one or a few thin rigid elastic axes surrounded by a soft envelope. The properties of these axes are well-described by models developed for the elasticity of titin-like molecules. Additionally, the deformability of in vitro assembled chromosomes was found to be very similar to that of native somatic chromosomes, thus demonstrating the existence of an essentially identical structure.

  2. Cation location in microporous zeolite, SSZ-13, probed with xenon adsorption measurement and 129Xe NMR spectrum.

    PubMed

    Shin, Na Ra; Kim, Su Hyun; Shin, Hye Sun; Jang, Ik Jun; Cho, Sung June

    2013-06-01

    The location of metal ion, Ag2+, Ca2+, Cu2+ and Y3+ in the SSZ-13 has been investigated with xenon adsorption measurement and 129Xe NMR spectrum. It was referred that the location of the metal ion varies depending on the corresponding charge. The ion-exchanged Ag ion was located in the alpha-cage to interact directly with xenon. Others multivalent cation contributed little with xenon because these were present near the six membered rings where xenon cannot access. PMID:23862500

  3. A 3D MOF showing unprecedented solvent-induced single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation and excellent CO2 adsorption selectivity at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Qin, Tao; Gong, Jun; Ma, Junhan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Yonghua; Xu, Yan; Shen, Xuan; Zhu, Dunru

    2014-12-28

    A water stable porous 3D metal-organic framework, [Cu3L2(μ3-OH)2(μ2-H2O)]·2DMA (1, mother crystal, H2L = 2,2'-dinitrobiphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, DMA = N,N-dimethylacetamide), shows unprecedented irreversible solvent-induced substitutions of bridging aqua ligands and guest-exchanges in single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) transformations at room temperature (RT), producing quantitatively three daughter crystals, [Cu3L2(μ3-OH)2]·2S (2: 2A, S = acetone; 2B, S = 2-propanol; 2C, S = 2-butanol), which exhibit reversible interconversion by guest-exchanges at RT in SCSC transformations. MOF 1 shows excellent separation selectivity (128) of CO2/N2 at RT and is a better sorbent of micro-solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE) than currently known benchmark ZIF-8.

  4. Adsorption of xenon and krypton on shales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podosek, F. A.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Kramer, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    A method that uses a mass spectrometer as a manometer is employed in the measurement of Xe and Kr adsorption parameters on shales and related samples, where gas partial pressures were lower than 10 to the -11th atm, corresponding adsorption coverages are only small fractions of a monolayer, and Henry's Law behavior is expected and observed. Results show heats of adsorption in the 2-7 kcal/mol range, and Henry constants at 0-25 C of 1 cu cm STP/g per atmosphere are extrapolated. Although the adsorption properties obtained are variable by sample, the range obtained suggests that shales may be capable of an equilibrium adsorption with modern air high enough to account for a significant fraction of the atmospheric inventory of Xe, and perhaps even of Kr. This effect will nevertheless not account for the factor-of-25 defficiency of atmospheric Xe, in comparison with the planetary gas patterns observed in meteorites.

  5. Volumetric apparatus for hydrogen adsorption and diffusion measurements: Sources of systematic error and impact of their experimental resolutions

    SciTech Connect

    Policicchio, Alfonso; Maccallini, Enrico; Kalantzopoulos, Georgios N.; Cataldi, Ugo; Abate, Salvatore; Desiderio, Giovanni

    2013-10-15

    The development of a volumetric apparatus (also known as a Sieverts’ apparatus) for accurate and reliable hydrogen adsorption measurement is shown. The instrument minimizes the sources of systematic errors which are mainly due to inner volume calibration, stability and uniformity of the temperatures, precise evaluation of the skeletal volume of the measured samples, and thermodynamical properties of the gas species. A series of hardware and software solutions were designed and introduced in the apparatus, which we will indicate as f-PcT, in order to deal with these aspects. The results are represented in terms of an accurate evaluation of the equilibrium and dynamical characteristics of the molecular hydrogen adsorption on two well-known porous media. The contribution of each experimental solution to the error propagation of the adsorbed moles is assessed. The developed volumetric apparatus for gas storage capacity measurements allows an accurate evaluation over a 4 order-of-magnitude pressure range (from 1 kPa to 8 MPa) and in temperatures ranging between 77 K and 470 K. The acquired results are in good agreement with the values reported in the literature.

  6. Children’s Number-Line Estimation Shows Development of Measurement Skills (Not Number Representations)

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Dale J.; Sarnecka, Barbara W.

    2016-01-01

    Children’s understanding of numbers is often assessed using a number-line task, where the child is shown a line labeled with 0 at one end and a higher number (e.g., 100) at the other end. The child is then asked where on the line some intermediate number (e.g., 70) should go. Performance on this task changes predictably during childhood, and this has often been interpreted as evidence of a change in the child’s psychological representation of integer quantities. The present article presents theoretical and empirical evidence that the change in number-line performance actually reflects the development of measurement skills used in the task. We compare 2 versions of the number-line task: the bounded version used in the literature and a new, unbounded version. Results indicate that it is only children’s performance on the bounded task (which requires subtraction or division) that changes markedly with age. In contrast, children’s performance on the unbounded task (which requires only addition) remains fairly constant as they get older. Thus, developmental changes in performance on the traditional bounded number-line task likely reflect the growth of task-specific measurement skills rather than changes in the child’s understanding of numerical quantities. PMID:24512172

  7. In situ evolutionary rate measurements show ecological success of recently emerged bacterial hybrids.

    PubMed

    Denef, Vincent J; Banfield, Jillian F

    2012-04-27

    Few data are available on how quickly free-living microorganisms evolve. We analyzed biofilms collected from a well-defined acid mine drainage system over 9 years to investigate the processes and determine rates of bacterial evolution directly in the environment. Population metagenomic analyses of the dominant primary producer yielded the nucleotide substitution rate, which we used to show that proliferation of a series of recombinant bacterial strains occurred over the past few decades. The ecological success of hybrid bacterial types highlights the role of evolutionary processes in rapid adaptation within natural microbial communities. PMID:22539719

  8. In situ evolutionary rate measurements show ecological success of recently emerged bacterial hybrids.

    PubMed

    Denef, Vincent J; Banfield, Jillian F

    2012-04-27

    Few data are available on how quickly free-living microorganisms evolve. We analyzed biofilms collected from a well-defined acid mine drainage system over 9 years to investigate the processes and determine rates of bacterial evolution directly in the environment. Population metagenomic analyses of the dominant primary producer yielded the nucleotide substitution rate, which we used to show that proliferation of a series of recombinant bacterial strains occurred over the past few decades. The ecological success of hybrid bacterial types highlights the role of evolutionary processes in rapid adaptation within natural microbial communities.

  9. Optical volume and mass measurements show that mammalian cells swell during mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz, Ewa; Monnier, Sylvain; Cappello, Giovanni; Le Berre, Mael

    2015-01-01

    The extent, mechanism, and function of cell volume changes during specific cellular events, such as cell migration and cell division, have been poorly studied, mostly because of a lack of adequate techniques. Here we unambiguously report that a large range of mammalian cell types display a significant increase in volume during mitosis (up to 30%). We further show that this increase in volume is tightly linked to the mitotic state of the cell and not to its spread or rounded shape and is independent of the presence of an intact actomyosin cortex. Importantly, this volume increase is not accompanied by an increase in dry mass and thus corresponds to a decrease in cell density. This mitotic swelling might have important consequences for mitotic progression: it might contribute to produce strong pushing forces, allowing mitotic cells to round up; it might also, by lowering cytoplasmic density, contribute to the large change of physicochemical properties observed in mitotic cells. PMID:26598614

  10. Optical volume and mass measurements show that mammalian cells swell during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz, Ewa; Monnier, Sylvain; Cappello, Giovanni; Le Berre, Mael; Piel, Matthieu

    2015-11-23

    The extent, mechanism, and function of cell volume changes during specific cellular events, such as cell migration and cell division, have been poorly studied, mostly because of a lack of adequate techniques. Here we unambiguously report that a large range of mammalian cell types display a significant increase in volume during mitosis (up to 30%). We further show that this increase in volume is tightly linked to the mitotic state of the cell and not to its spread or rounded shape and is independent of the presence of an intact actomyosin cortex. Importantly, this volume increase is not accompanied by an increase in dry mass and thus corresponds to a decrease in cell density. This mitotic swelling might have important consequences for mitotic progression: it might contribute to produce strong pushing forces, allowing mitotic cells to round up; it might also, by lowering cytoplasmic density, contribute to the large change of physicochemical properties observed in mitotic cells.

  11. Thermodynamics of binary gas adsorption in nanopores.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Sujeet; Lefort, Ronan; Morineau, Denis; Mhanna, Ramona; Merdrignac-Conanec, Odile; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; Leclercq, Théo

    2016-09-21

    MCM-41 nanoporous silicas show a very high selectivity for monoalcohols over aprotic molecules during adsorption of a binary mixture in the gas phase. We present here an original use of gravimetric vapour sorption isotherms to characterize the role played by the alcohol hydrogen-bonding network in the adsorption process. Beyond simple selectivity, vapour sorption isotherms measured for various compositions help to completely unravel at the molecular level the step by step adsorption mechanism of the binary system in the nanoporous solid, from the first monolayers to the complete liquid condensation. PMID:27532892

  12. Construction and measurements of an improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, J.; Bunker, R.; Dunagan, C.; Loose, X.; Schnee, R. W.; Stark, M.; Sundarnath, K.; Tronstad, D.

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto detector surfaces, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. An improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system and cleanroom build upon a previous design implemented at Syracuse University that achieved radon levels of ˜0.2 Bq m-3. This improved system will employ a better pump and larger carbon beds feeding a redesigned cleanroom with an internal HVAC unit and aged water for humidification. With the rebuilt (original) radon mitigation system, the new low-radon cleanroom has already achieved a > 300× reduction from an input activity of 58.6 ± 0.7 Bq m-3 to a cleanroom activity of 0.13 ± 0.06 Bq m-3.

  13. Construction and measurements of an improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    SciTech Connect

    Street, J. Bunker, R.; Dunagan, C.; Loose, X.; Schnee, R. W.; Stark, M.; Sundarnath, K.; Tronstad, D.

    2015-08-17

    In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto detector surfaces, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. An improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system and cleanroom build upon a previous design implemented at Syracuse University that achieved radon levels of ∼0.2 Bq m{sup −3}. This improved system will employ a better pump and larger carbon beds feeding a redesigned cleanroom with an internal HVAC unit and aged water for humidification. With the rebuilt (original) radon mitigation system, the new low-radon cleanroom has already achieved a > 300× reduction from an input activity of 58.6 ± 0.7 Bq m{sup −3} to a cleanroom activity of 0.13 ± 0.06 Bq m{sup −3}.

  14. Interaction of cement model systems with superplasticizers investigated by atomic force microscopy, zeta potential, and adsorption measurements.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Lucia; Kaufmann, Josef; Winnefeld, Frank; Plank, Johann

    2010-07-01

    Polyelectrolyte-based dispersants are commonly used in a wide range of industrial applications to provide specific workability to colloidal suspensions. Their working mechanism is based on adsorption onto the surfaces of the suspended particles. The adsorbed polymer layer can exercise an electrostatic and/or a steric effect which is responsible for achieving dispersion. This study is focused on the dispersion forces induced by polycarboxylate ether-based superplasticizers (PCEs) commonly used in concrete. They are investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) applying standard silicon nitride tips exposed to solutions with different ionic compositions in a wet cell. Adsorption isotherms and zeta potential analysis were performed to characterize polymer displacement in the AFM system on nonreactive model substrates (quartz, mica, calcite, and magnesium oxide) in order to avoid the complexity of cement hydration products. The results show that PCE is strongly adsorbed by positively charged materials. This fact reveals that, being silicon nitride naturally positively charged, in most cases the superplasticizer adsorbs preferably on the silicon nitride tip than on the AFM substrate. However, the force-distance curves displayed repulsive interactions between tip and substrates even when polymer was poorly adsorbed on both. These observations allow us to conclude that the dispersion due to PCE strongly depends on the particle charge. It differs between colloids adsorbing and not adsorbing PCE, and leads to different forces acting between the particles.

  15. Heavy metal adsorption changes of EAF steel slag after phosphorus adsorption.

    PubMed

    Song, Guanling; Cao, Lijing; Chen, Xiao; Hou, Wenhua; Wang, Qunhui

    2012-01-01

    A kind of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag was phosphated, and its isothermal and dynamic adsorptions of copper, cadmium, and lead ions were measured to determine if heavy metal adsorption changes after phosphorus adsorption. The surface area increased greatly after the slag was phosphated. Isothermal adsorption experiments showed that the theoretical Q(max) of the EAF steel slag on Cu(2+), Cd(2+), and Pb(2+) improved 59, 50, and 89% respectively after it was phosphated. Dynamic adsorption results showed that the greatest adsorption capacities of unit volume of Cu(2+), Cd(2+), and Pb(2+) were 2.2, 1.8, and 1.8 times that of the column packed with original EAF steel slag when the column was packed with phosphate EAF steel slag at the same heavy metal ion concentration. The breakthrough time, the exhaustion time and elution efficiency of the column also increased when the column was packed with phosphated EAF steel slag compared with that packed with original EAF steel slag. Phosphorus adsorption could further improve the heavy metal ion adsorption of the EAF steel slag.

  16. Functionalizing the pore wall of chiral porous metal-organic frameworks by distinct -H, -OH, -NH2, -NO2, -COOH shutters showing selective adsorption of CO2, tunable photoluminescence, and direct white-light emission.

    PubMed

    Luo, Feng; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Luo, Ming-Biao; Sun, Gong-Ming; Song, Yu-Mei; Li, Pei-Xin; Guo, Guo-Cong

    2012-06-18

    This work presents a prototype of chiral porous metal-organic framework with the porous wall decorated by different functional groups. The special structure in conjunction with the gas adsorption results reveals some relationship between CO2 adsorption and functional points. Moreover, outstanding tunable photoluminescence and direct white-light emission is observed. PMID:22576457

  17. Simultaneous laboratory measurements of CO2 and H2O adsorption on palagonite: Implications for the Martian climate and volatile reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, A. P.; Quinn, R.

    1993-01-01

    We are measuring the simultaneous adsorption of H2O and CO2 on palagonite materials in order to improve the formulation of climate models for Mars. We report on the initial co-adsorption data. Models of the Martian climate and volatile inventory indicate that the regolith serves as one of the primary reservoirs of outgassed volatiles and that it exchanges H2O and CO2 with the atmosphere in response to changes in insolation associated with astronomical cycles. Physical adsorbate must exist on the surfaces of the cold particulates that constitute the regolith, and the size of that reservoir can be assessed through laboratory measurements of adsorption on terrestrial analogs. Many studies of the independent adsorption of H2O and CO2 on Mars analog were made and appear in the literature. Empirical expressions that relate the adsorptive coverage of each gas to the temperature of the soil and partial pressure have been derived based on the laboratory data. Numerical models incorporate these adsorption isotherms into climatic models, which predict how the adsorptive coverage of the regolith and hence, the pressure of each gas in the atmosphere will vary as the planet moves through its orbit. These models suggest that the regolith holds several tens to hundreds of millibars of CO2 and that during periods of high obliquity warming of the high-latitude regolith will result in desorption of the CO2, and a consequent increase in atmospheric pressure. At lower obliquities, the caps cool and the equator warms forcing the desorption of several tens of millibars of CO2, which is trapped into quasipermanent CO2 caps.

  18. Adsorption of nisin and pediocin on nanoclays.

    PubMed

    Meira, Stela Maris Meister; Jardim, Arthur Izé; Brandelli, Adriano

    2015-12-01

    Three different nanoclays (bentonite, octadecylamine-modified montmorillonite and halloysite) were studied as potential carriers for the antimicrobial peptides nisin and pediocin. Adsorption occurred from peptide solutions in contact with nanoclays at room temperature. Higher adsorption of nisin and pediocin was obtained on bentonite. The antimicrobial activity of the resultant bacteriocin-nanoclay systems was analyzed using skimmed milk agar as food simulant and the largest inhibition zones were observed against Gram-positive bacteria for halloysite samples. Bacteriocins were intercalated into the interlayer space of montmorillonites as deduced from the increase of the basal spacing measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) assay. Infrared spectroscopy suggested non-electrostatic interactions, such as hydrogen bonding between siloxane groups from clays and peptide molecules. Transmission electron microscopy did not show any alteration in morphologies after adsorption of antimicrobial peptides on bentonite and halloysite. These results indicate that nanoclays, especially halloysite, are suitable nanocarriers for nisin and pediocin adsorption.

  19. Adsorption of nisin and pediocin on nanoclays.

    PubMed

    Meira, Stela Maris Meister; Jardim, Arthur Izé; Brandelli, Adriano

    2015-12-01

    Three different nanoclays (bentonite, octadecylamine-modified montmorillonite and halloysite) were studied as potential carriers for the antimicrobial peptides nisin and pediocin. Adsorption occurred from peptide solutions in contact with nanoclays at room temperature. Higher adsorption of nisin and pediocin was obtained on bentonite. The antimicrobial activity of the resultant bacteriocin-nanoclay systems was analyzed using skimmed milk agar as food simulant and the largest inhibition zones were observed against Gram-positive bacteria for halloysite samples. Bacteriocins were intercalated into the interlayer space of montmorillonites as deduced from the increase of the basal spacing measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) assay. Infrared spectroscopy suggested non-electrostatic interactions, such as hydrogen bonding between siloxane groups from clays and peptide molecules. Transmission electron microscopy did not show any alteration in morphologies after adsorption of antimicrobial peptides on bentonite and halloysite. These results indicate that nanoclays, especially halloysite, are suitable nanocarriers for nisin and pediocin adsorption. PMID:26041178

  20. Characterization of micro- and mesoporous materials using accelerated dynamics adsorption.

    PubMed

    Qajar, Ali; Peer, Maryam; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Foley, Henry C

    2013-10-01

    Porosimetry is a fundamental characterization technique used in development of new porous materials for catalysis, membrane separation, and adsorptive gas storage. Conventional methods like nitrogen and argon adsorption at cryogenic temperatures suffer from slow adsorption dynamics especially for microporous materials. In addition, CO2, the other common probe, is only useful for micropore characterization unless being compressed to exceedingly high pressures to cover all required adsorption pressures. Here, we investigated the effect of adsorption temperature, pressure, and type of probe molecule on the adsorption dynamics. Methyl chloride (MeCl) was used as the probe molecule, and measurements were conducted near room temperature under nonisothermal condition and subatmospheric pressure. A pressure control algorithm was proposed to accelerate adsorption dynamics by manipulating the chemical potential of the gas. Collected adsorption data are transformed into pore size distribution profiles using the Horvath-Kavazoe (HK), Saito-Foley (SF), and modified Kelvin methods revised for MeCl. Our study shows that the proposed algorithm significantly speeds up the rate of data collection without compromising the accuracy of the measurements. On average, the adsorption rates on carbonaceous and aluminosilicate samples were accelerated by at least a factor of 4-5. PMID:23919893

  1. Bovine serum albumin adsorption onto colloidal Al2O3 particles: a new model based on zeta potential and UV-vis measurements.

    PubMed

    Rezwan, Kurosch; Meier, Lorenz P; Rezwan, Mandana; Vörös, Janos; Textor, Marcus; Gauckler, Ludwig J

    2004-11-01

    We investigated the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on colloidal Al2O3 particles in an aqueous environment. Changes in the zeta potential of the Al2O3 particles upon the adsorption of BSA were measured using an electro-acoustic technique. The mass of protein adsorbed was determined by using UV-vis spectroscopy. The change of the isoelectric point of the Al2O3 powder-protein suspension was found to be a function of adsorbed protein mass. It was shown that approximately one monolayer of BSA was needed to fully mask the surface and to compromise the charge of Al2O3. From titration experiments it follows that about 30-36% of the negatively charged groups of the protein form bonds with the protonated and charged Al2O3 surface. On the basis of our observations we introduced a new adsorption model for BSA on Al2O3 particles.

  2. Measurements of procalcitonin facilitate targeting of endotoxin adsorption treatment in febrile neutropenic patients suffering from shock.

    PubMed

    Hara, Masaki; Tsuchiya, Ken; Nitta, Kosaku; Ando, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Immediate initiation of hemoperfusion treatment with polymixin B immobilized fiber (PMX-DHP) is a potent strategy to improve hemodynamics in septic patients with critical circulatory failure. However, it is often difficult to accurately and rapidly differentiate between bacterial infections and non-infectious causes of shock in acutely critically-ill patients. Procalcitonin (PCT) measurements may assist in the early identification of bacterial infection/sepsis and determination of severity in such patients. We present two febrile neutropenic (FN) patients who developed severe shock after chemotherapy for hematological malignancies. PCT levels were markedly elevated in both patients (≥ 10 ng/ml), suggesting a high likelihood of bacterial infectious etiology as the cause of their shock, and thus they were promptly treated with PMX-DHP. Measurements of PCT may facilitate targeting of PMX-DHP treatment among FN patients suffering from shock, which may lead to better prognosis.

  3. Artifacts in measuring aerosol uptake kinetics: the roles of time, concentration and adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renbaum, L. H.; Smith, G. D.

    2011-03-01

    In laboratory studies of organic aerosol particles reacting with gas-phase oxidants, high concentrations of radicals are often used to study on the timescale of seconds reactions which may be occurring over days or weeks in the troposphere. Implicit in this approach is the assumption that radical concentration and time are interchangeable parameters, though this has not been established. Here, the kinetics of OH- and Cl-initiated oxidation reactions of model single-component liquid organic aerosols (squalane, brassidic acid and 2-octyldodecanoic acid) are studied by varying separately the radical concentration and the reaction time. Two separate flow tubes with residence times of 2 and 66 s are used, and [OH] and [Cl] are varied by adjusting either the laser photolysis fluence or the radical precursor concentration ([O3] or [Cl2], respectively) used to generate the radicals. It is found that the rates measured by varying the radical concentration and the reaction time are equal only if the precursor concentrations are the same in the two approaches. Further, the rates depend on the concentrations of the precursor species with a Langmuir-type functional form suggesting that O3 and Cl2 saturate the surface of the liquid particles. It is believed that the presence of O3 inhibits the rate of OH reaction, perhaps by reacting with OH radicals or blocking surface sites, while Cl2 enhances the rate of Cl reaction by participating in a radical chain mechanism. These results have important implications for laboratory experiments in which high concentrations of gas-phase oxidants are used to study atmospheric reactions over short timescales and may explain the variability in recent measurements of the reactive uptake of OH on squalane particles in reactor systems used in this and other laboratories.

  4. Artifacts in measuring aerosol uptake kinetics: the roles of time, concentration and adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renbaum, L. H.; Smith, G. D.

    2011-07-01

    In laboratory studies of organic aerosol particles reacting with gas-phase oxidants, high concentrations of radicals are often used to study on the timescale of seconds reactions which may be occurring over days or weeks in the troposphere. Implicit in this approach is the assumption that radical concentration and time are interchangeable parameters, though this has not been established. Here, the kinetics of OH- and Cl-initiated oxidation reactions of model single-component liquid (squalane) and supercooled (brassidic acid and 2-octyldodecanoic acid) organic aerosols are studied by varying separately the radical concentration and the reaction time. Two separate flow tubes with residence times of 2 and 66 s are used, and [OH] and [Cl] are varied by adjusting either the laser photolysis fluence or the radical precursor concentration ([O3] or [Cl2], respectively) used to generate the radicals. It is found that the rates measured by varying the radical concentration and the reaction time are equal only if the precursor concentrations are the same in the two approaches. Further, the rates depend on the concentrations of the precursor species with a Langmuir-type functional form suggesting that O3 and Cl2 saturate the surface of the liquid particles. It is believed that the presence of O3 inhibits the rate of OH reaction, perhaps by reacting with OH radicals or by O3 or intermediate species blocking surface sites, while Cl2 enhances the rate of Cl reaction by participating in a radical chain mechanism. These results have important implications for laboratory experiments in which high concentrations of gas-phase oxidants are used to study atmospheric reactions over short timescales and may explain the variability in recent measurements of the reactive uptake of OH on squalane particles in reactor systems used in this and other laboratories.

  5. Radionuclide adsorption distribution coefficients measured in Hanford sediments for the low level waste performance assessment project

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.I.; Serne, R.J.; Owen, A.T.

    1996-08-01

    Preliminary modeling efforts for the Hanford Site`s Low Level Waste-Performance Assessment (LLW PA) identified {sup 129}I, {sup 237}Np, {sup 79}Se, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 234},{sup 235},{sup 238}U as posing the greatest potential health hazard. It was also determined that the outcome of these simulations was very sensitive to the parameter describing the extent to which radionuclides sorb to the subsurface matrix, i.e., the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}). The distribution coefficient is a ratio of the radionuclide concentration associated with the solid phase to that in the liquid phase. The objectives of this study were to (1) measure iodine, neptunium, technetium, and uranium K{sub d} values using laboratory conditions similar to those expected at the LLW PA disposal site, and (2) evaluate the effect of selected environmental parameters, such as pH, ionic strength, moisture concentration, and radio nuclide concentration, on K{sub d} values of selected radionuclides. It is the intent of these studies to develop technically defensible K{sub d} values for the PA. The approach taken throughout these studies was to measure the key radio nuclide K{sub d} values as a function of several environmental parameters likely to affect their values. Such an approach provides technical defensibility by identifying the mechanisms responsible for trends in K{sub d} values. Additionally, such studies provide valuable guidance regarding the range of K{sub d} values likely to be encountered in the proposed disposal site.

  6. Carbonaceous materials for adsorptive refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczek, B.; Wolak, E.

    2012-06-01

    Carbon monoliths prepared from hard coal precursors were obtained. The porous structure of the monoliths was evaluated on the basis of nitrogen adsorption — desorption equilibrium data. The investigated monoliths have a well-developed microporous structure with significant specific surface area (S BET ). Equilibrium studies of methanol vapour adsorption were used to characterize the methanol adsorptive capacity that was determined using a volumetric method. The heat of wetting by methanol was determined in order to estimate the energetic effects of the adsorption process. The results of the investigations show that all monoliths exhibit high adsorption capacity and high heat of wetting with methanol.

  7. Isotherms for Water Adsorption on Molecular Sieve 3A: Influence of Cation Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ronghong; Ladshaw, Austin; Nan, Yue; Liu, Jiuxu; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; DePaoli, David W.; Tavlarides, Lawrence L.

    2015-06-16

    This study is part of our continuing efforts to address engineering issues related to the removal of tritiated water from off-gases produced in used nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. In the current study, adsorption equilibrium of water on molecular sieve 3A beads was investigated. Adsorption isotherms for water on the UOP molecular sieve 3A were measured by a continuous-flow adsorption system at 298, 313, 333, and 353 K. Experimental data collected were analyzed by the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm model. The K+/Na+ molar ratio of this particular type of molecular sieve 3A was ~4:6. Our results showed that the GSTA isotherm model worked very well to describe the equilibrium behavior of water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A. The optimum number of parameters for the current experimental data was determined to be a set of four equilibrium parameters. This result suggests that the adsorbent crystals contain four energetically distinct adsorption sites. In addition, it was found that water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A follows a three-stage adsorption process. This three-stage adsorption process confirmed different water adsorption sites in molecular sieve crystals. In addition, the second adsorption stage is significantly affected by the K+/Na+ molar ratio. In this stage, the equilibrium adsorption capacity at a given water vapor pressure increases as the K+/Na+ molar ratio increases.

  8. Isotherms for Water Adsorption on Molecular Sieve 3A: Influence of Cation Composition

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Ronghong; Ladshaw, Austin; Nan, Yue; Liu, Jiuxu; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; DePaoli, David W.; Tavlarides, Lawrence L.

    2015-06-16

    This study is part of our continuing efforts to address engineering issues related to the removal of tritiated water from off-gases produced in used nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. In the current study, adsorption equilibrium of water on molecular sieve 3A beads was investigated. Adsorption isotherms for water on the UOP molecular sieve 3A were measured by a continuous-flow adsorption system at 298, 313, 333, and 353 K. Experimental data collected were analyzed by the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm model. The K+/Na+ molar ratio of this particular type of molecular sieve 3A was ~4:6. Our results showed that themore » GSTA isotherm model worked very well to describe the equilibrium behavior of water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A. The optimum number of parameters for the current experimental data was determined to be a set of four equilibrium parameters. This result suggests that the adsorbent crystals contain four energetically distinct adsorption sites. In addition, it was found that water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A follows a three-stage adsorption process. This three-stage adsorption process confirmed different water adsorption sites in molecular sieve crystals. In addition, the second adsorption stage is significantly affected by the K+/Na+ molar ratio. In this stage, the equilibrium adsorption capacity at a given water vapor pressure increases as the K+/Na+ molar ratio increases.« less

  9. A model free method for estimation of complicated adsorption isotherms in liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Forssén, Patrik; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2015-08-28

    Here we show that even extremely small variations in the adsorption isotherm can have a tremendous effect on the shape of the overloaded elution profiles and that the earlier in the adsorption isotherms the variation take place, the larger its impact on the shape of the elution profile. These variations are so small that they can be "hidden" by the discretization and in the general experimental noise when using traditional experimental methods, such as frontal analysis, to measure adsorption isotherms. But as the effects of these variations are more clearly visible in the elution profiles, the Inverse Method (IM) of adsorption isotherm estimation is an option. However, IM usually requires that one selects an adsorption isotherm model prior to the estimation process. Here we show that even complicated models might not be able to estimate the adsorption isotherms with multiple inflection points that small variations might give rise to. We therefore developed a modified IM that, instead of fixed adsorption isotherm models, uses monotone piecewise interpolation. We first validated the method with synthetic data and showed that it can be used to estimate an adsorption isotherm, which accurately predicts an extremely "strange" elution profile. For this case it was impossible to estimate the adsorption isotherm using IM with a fixed adsorption model. Finally, we will give an example of a real chromatographic system where adsorption isotherm with inflection points is estimated by the modified IM.

  10. Gas adsorption capacity of wood pellets

    DOE PAGES

    Yazdanpanah, F.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Lim, C. Jim; Lau, A.; Bi, X. T.

    2016-02-03

    In this paper, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) analysis was used to measure and analyze the adsorption of off-gases and oxygen by wood pellets during storage. Such information on how these gases interact with the material helps in the understanding of the purging/stripping behavior of off-gases to develop effective ventilation strategies for wood pellets. Steam-exploded pellets showed the lowest carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake compared to the regular and torrefied pellets. The high CO2 adsorption capacity of the torrefied pellets could be attributed to their porous structure and therefore greater available surface area. Quantifying the uptake of carbon monoxide by pellets was challengingmore » due to chemical adsorption, which formed a strong bond between the material and carbon monoxide. The estimated energy of desorption for CO (97.8 kJ/mol) was very high relative to that for CO2 (7.24 kJ/mol), demonstrating the mechanism of chemical adsorption and physical adsorption for CO and CO2, respectively. As for oxygen, the strong bonds that formed between the material and oxygen verified the existence of chemical adsorption and formation of an intermediate material.« less

  11. Adsorption calorimetry during metal vapor deposition on single crystal surfaces: Increased flux, reduced optical radiation, and real-time flux and reflectivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, Jason R. V.; James, Trevor E.; Hemmingson, Stephanie L.; Farmer, Jason A.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2013-12-15

    Thin films of metals and other materials are often grown by physical vapor deposition. To understand such processes, it is desirable to measure the adsorption energy of the deposited species as the film grows, especially when grown on single crystal substrates where the structure of the adsorbed species, evolving interface, and thin film are more homogeneous and well-defined in structure. Our group previously described in this journal an adsorption calorimeter capable of such measurements on single-crystal surfaces under the clean conditions of ultrahigh vacuum [J. T. Stuckless, N. A. Frei, and C. T. Campbell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2427 (1998)]. Here we describe several improvements to that original design that allow for heat measurements with ∼18-fold smaller standard deviation, greater absolute accuracy in energy calibration, and, most importantly, measurements of the adsorption of lower vapor-pressure materials which would have previously been impossible. These improvements are accomplished by: (1) using an electron beam evaporator instead of a Knudsen cell to generate the metal vapor at the source of the pulsed atomic beam, (2) changing the atomic beam design to decrease the relative amount of optical radiation that accompanies evaporation, (3) adding an off-axis quartz crystal microbalance for real-time measurement of the flux of the atomic beam during calorimetry experiments, and (4) adding capabilities for in situ relative diffuse optical reflectivity determinations (necessary for heat signal calibration). These improvements are not limited to adsorption calorimetry during metal deposition, but also could be applied to better study film growth of other elements and even molecular adsorbates.

  12. Adsorption calorimetry during metal vapor deposition on single crystal surfaces: Increased flux, reduced optical radiation, and real-time flux and reflectivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellers, Jason R. V.; James, Trevor E.; Hemmingson, Stephanie L.; Farmer, Jason A.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2013-12-01

    Thin films of metals and other materials are often grown by physical vapor deposition. To understand such processes, it is desirable to measure the adsorption energy of the deposited species as the film grows, especially when grown on single crystal substrates where the structure of the adsorbed species, evolving interface, and thin film are more homogeneous and well-defined in structure. Our group previously described in this journal an adsorption calorimeter capable of such measurements on single-crystal surfaces under the clean conditions of ultrahigh vacuum [J. T. Stuckless, N. A. Frei, and C. T. Campbell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2427 (1998)]. Here we describe several improvements to that original design that allow for heat measurements with ˜18-fold smaller standard deviation, greater absolute accuracy in energy calibration, and, most importantly, measurements of the adsorption of lower vapor-pressure materials which would have previously been impossible. These improvements are accomplished by: (1) using an electron beam evaporator instead of a Knudsen cell to generate the metal vapor at the source of the pulsed atomic beam, (2) changing the atomic beam design to decrease the relative amount of optical radiation that accompanies evaporation, (3) adding an off-axis quartz crystal microbalance for real-time measurement of the flux of the atomic beam during calorimetry experiments, and (4) adding capabilities for in situ relative diffuse optical reflectivity determinations (necessary for heat signal calibration). These improvements are not limited to adsorption calorimetry during metal deposition, but also could be applied to better study film growth of other elements and even molecular adsorbates.

  13. Fenhexamid adsorption behavior on soil amended with wine lees.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Maria Vittoria; Budroni, Marilena; Farris, Giovanni Antonio; Pusino, Alba

    2008-11-26

    The adsorption of fenhexamid (FEN) [N-(2,3-dichloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methylcyclohexanecarboxamide] on vineyard soil amended with wine lees (WL) produced by vinery was studied. The adsorption extent depends on WL fraction. The addition of the centrifuged solid lees (SWL) increases the FEN adsorption on soil. Most likely, the organic insoluble fraction formed mainly by dead fermentation yeasts is responsible for the observed increase. The adsorption measured on some deactivated yeasts of wine fermentation shows that Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the most active in FEN retention. On the other hand, the soil amendment with whole WL decreases considerably the fungicide adsorption. This opposite effect may be the result of FEN hydrophobic bonds with the dissolved organic matter of lees that keeps fungicide in solution. This hypothesis is substantiated by the increased FEN solubility in the supernatant of centrifuged wine lees (LWL). The results of soil column mobility confirm that the elution with LWL increases the mobility of FEN in soil.

  14. Field and controlled environment measurements show strong seasonal acclimation in photosynthesis and respiration potential in boreal Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Kolari, Pasi; Chan, Tommy; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Bäck, Jaana; Nikinmaa, Eero; Juurola, Eija

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the seasonality of photosynthesis in boreal evergreen trees and its control by the environment requires separation of the instantaneous and slow responses, as well as the dynamics of light reactions, carbon reactions, and respiration. We determined the seasonality of photosynthetic light response and respiration parameters of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the field in southern Finland and in controlled laboratory conditions. CO2 exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured in the field using a continuously operated automated chamber setup and fluorescence monitoring systems. We also carried out monthly measurements of photosynthetic light, CO2 and temperature responses in standard conditions with a portable IRGA and fluorometer instrument. The field and response measurements indicated strong seasonal variability in the state of the photosynthetic machinery with a deep downregulation during winter. Despite the downregulation, the photosynthetic machinery retained a significant capacity during winter, which was not visible in the field measurements. Light-saturated photosynthesis (P sat) and the initial slope of the photosynthetic light response (α) obtained in standard conditions were up to 20% of their respective summertime values. Respiration also showed seasonal acclimation with peak values of respiration in standard temperature in spring and decline in autumn. Spring recovery of all photosynthetic parameters could be predicted with temperature history. On the other hand, the operating quantum yield of photosystem II and the initial slope of photosynthetic light response stayed almost at the summertime level until late autumn while at the same time P sat decreased following the prevailing temperature. Comparison of photosynthetic parameters with the environmental drivers suggests that light and minimum temperature are also decisive factors in the seasonal acclimation of photosynthesis in boreal evergreen trees. PMID:25566291

  15. Measurement of the adsorption energy difference between ortho- and para-D2 on an amorphous ice surface.

    PubMed

    Amiaud, L; Momeni, A; Dulieu, F; Fillion, J H; Matar, E; Lemaire, J-L

    2008-02-01

    Molecular hydrogen interaction on water ice surfaces is a major process taking place in interstellar dense clouds. By coupling laser detection and classical thermal desorption spectroscopy, it is possible to study the effect of rotation of D(2) on adsorption on amorphous solid water ice surfaces. The desorption profiles of ortho- and para-D(2) are different. This difference is due to a shift in the adsorption energy distribution of the two lowest rotational states. Molecules in J''=1 rotational state are on average more strongly bound to the ice surface than those in J''=0 rotational state. This energy difference is estimated to be 1.4+/-0.3 meV. This value is in agreement with previous calculation and interpretation. The nonspherical wave function J'' =1 has an interaction with the asymmetric part of the adsorption potential and contributes positively in the binding energy.

  16. Isosteric heats of adsorption for activated carbons made from corn cob

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckner, M.; Olsen, R.; Romanos, J.; Burress, J.; Dohnke, E.; Carter, S.; Casteel, G.; Wexler, C.; Pfeifer, P.

    2010-03-01

    Activated carbons made from corn cob show promise as materials for high-capacity hydrogen storage. As part of our characterization of these materials, we are interested in learning how different production methods affect the adsorption energies. In this talk, we will present experimentally measured isosteric heats of adsorption for various activated carbons calculated using the Clausius-Clayperon equation and hydrogen isotherms at temperatures of 80 and 90K and pressures up to 100 bar measured on a volumetric instrument. We discuss differences observed between isosteric heats determined from Gibbs excess adsorption vs. absolute adsorption curves.

  17. Adsorption Device Based on a Langatate Crystal Microbalance for High Temperature High Pressure Gas Adsorption in Zeolite H-ZSM-5.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wenjin; Baracchini, Giulia; Klumpp, Michael; Schwieger, Wilhelm; Dittmeyer, Roland

    2016-01-01

    We present a high-temperature and high-pressure gas adsorption measurement device based on a high-frequency oscillating microbalance (5 MHz langatate crystal microbalance, LCM) and its use for gas adsorption measurements in zeolite H-ZSM-5. Prior to the adsorption measurements, zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals were synthesized on the gold electrode in the center of the LCM, without covering the connection points of the gold electrodes to the oscillator, by the steam-assisted crystallization (SAC) method, so that the zeolite crystals remain attached to the oscillating microbalance while keeping good electroconductivity of the LCM during the adsorption measurements. Compared to a conventional quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) which is limited to temperatures below 80 °C, the LCM can realize the adsorption measurements in principle at temperatures as high as 200-300 °C (i.e., at or close to the reaction temperature of the target application of one-stage DME synthesis from the synthesis gas), owing to the absence of crystalline-phase transitions up to its melting point (1,470 °C). The system was applied to investigate the adsorption of CO2, H2O, methanol and dimethyl ether (DME), each in the gas phase, on zeolite H-ZSM-5 in the temperature and pressure range of 50-150 °C and 0-18 bar, respectively. The results showed that the adsorption isotherms of these gases in H-ZSM-5 can be well fitted by Langmuir-type adsorption isotherms. Furthermore, the determined adsorption parameters, i.e., adsorption capacities, adsorption enthalpies, and adsorption entropies, compare well to literature data. In this work, the results for CO2 are shown as an example. PMID:27585356

  18. Polymer adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joanny, Jean-Francois

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this talk is to review Pierre-Gilles deGennes' work on polymer adsorption and the impact that it has now in our understanding of this problem. We will first present the self-consistent mean-field theory and its applications to adsorption and depletion. De Gennes most important contribution is probably the derivation of the self-similar power law density profile for adsorbed polymer layers that we will present next, emphasizing the differences between the tail sections and the loop sections of the adsorbed polymers. We will then discuss the kinetics of polymer adsorption and the penetration of a new polymer chain in an adsobed layer that DeGennes described very elegantly in analogy with a quantum tunneling problem. Finally, we will discuss the role of polymer adsorption for colloid stabilization.

  19. Field measures show methanotroph sensitivity to soil moisture follows precipitation regime of the grassland sites across the US Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, A.; Webb, C. T.; Johnson, N. G.; Brewer, P. E.; von Fischer, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Methane uptake rates are known to have temporal variation in response to changing soil moisture levels. However, the relative importance of soil diffusivity vs. methanotroph physiology has not been disentangled to date. Testing methanotroph physiology in the laboratory can lead to misleading results due to changes in the fine-scale habitat where methanotrophs reside. To assay the soil moisture sensitivity of methanotrophs under field conditions, we studied 22 field plots scattered across eight Great Plains grassland sites that differed in precipitation regime and soil moisture, making ca. bi-weekly measures during the growing seasons over three years. Quantification of methanotroph activity was achieved from chamber-based measures of methane uptake coincident with SF6-derived soil diffusivity, and interpretation in a reaction-diffusion model. At each plot, we also measured soil water content (SWC), soil temperature and inorganic nitrogen (N) contents. We also assessed methanotroph community composition via 454 sequencing of the pmoA gene. Statistical analyses showed that methanotroph activity had a parabolic response with SWC (concave down), and significant differences in the shape of this response among sites. Moreover, we found that the SWC at peak methanotroph activity was strongly correlated with mean annual precipitation (MAP) of the site. The sequence data revealed distinct composition patterns, with structure that was associated with variation in MAP and soil texture. These results suggest that local precipitation regime shapes methanotroph community composition, which in turn lead to unique sensitivity of methane uptake rates with soil moisture. Our findings suggest that methanotroph activity may be more accurately modeled when the biological and environmental responses are explicitly described.

  20. Electrochemical and colorimetric measurements show the dominant role of FeS in a permanently anoxic lake.

    PubMed

    Bura-Nakić, Elvira; Viollier, Eric; Ciglenečki, Irena

    2013-01-15

    Recent publications have shown that the anodic reaction between FeS and Hg can be used for electrochemical detection of colloidal and particulate FeS in natural waters. Anodic waves that were recorded around -0.45 V (vs Ag/AgCl) in model solutions correspond to the electrochemical transformation of nanoparticulate FeS to HgS. Here, as a further step, the proposed approach is tested on anoxic, sulfidic, and iron-rich samples of a meromictic freshwater lake (Lake Pavin, France). Based on new and more comprehensive work on FeS electrochemistry in model and anoxic Lake Pavin samples, a new interpretation is given for previously recorded voltammetric signals in sulfide and iron rich environment, usually designated FeS(aq), and its role in controlling solubility of different FeS phases. A comparison of the depth profiles of S(-II) measured by voltammetry and the methylene blue method showed that the majority of S(-II) is in the form of FeS. In the monimolimnion layer, thermodynamic calculations based on total Fe(II) and S(-II) concentration, measured by ferrozine and the methylene blue method, predict precipitation of FeS with log K(s) values between -3.6 and -3.8, very close to mackinawite's K(s) value. In the upper part of the same layer, precipitation of greigite is predicted. It is shown that modification of a Hg electrode by surface-formed FeS has a significant influence on voltammetric Fe(II) determination, since reduction of Fe(II) under such conditions occurs both on bare (-1.4 V) and on FeS modified Hg surfaces (-1.1 V); Fe(II) may be underdetermined when only the -1.4 V peak is measured.

  1. Macroscopic experimental and modeling evaluation of selenite and selenate adsorption mechanisms on gibbsite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenite Se(IV) and selenate Se(VI) adsorption behavior was investigated on gibbsite as a function of solution pH and solution ionic strength. Adsorption of both Se redox states decreased with increasing solution pH. Electrophoretic mobility measurements showed downward shifts in point of zero cha...

  2. Macroscopic experimental and modeling evaluation of selenite and selenate adsorption mechanisms on gibbsite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenite Se(IV) and selenate Se(VI) selenium adsorption behavior was investigated on gibbsite as a function of solution pH and solution ionic strength. Adsorption of both Se redox states decreased with increasing solution pH. Electrophoretic mobility measurements showed downward shifts in point of...

  3. Adsorption of hydroxyacetone on pure ice surfaces.

    PubMed

    Petitjean, Mélanie; Darvas, Maria; Picaud, Sylvain; Jedlovszky, Pál; Le Calvé, Stéphane

    2010-12-17

    The adsorption of hydroxyacetone molecules at the surface of ice is investigated by means of flow-tube reactor measurements in the temperature range: 213-253 K. The number of molecules adsorbed per surface unit is conventionally plotted as a function of the absolute gas concentration of hydroxyacetone and is compared to that previously obtained for acetone and ethanol. The enthalpy of adsorption and the monolayer capacity at the ice surface are determined. In addition, molecular dynamics simulations are performed to support the experimental results. However, it is shown that the available interaction potential between hydroxyacetone and ice is not accurate enough to allow a robust detailed analysis of the adsorption process. Finally, a rapid estimation of the hydroxyacetone partitioning between the gas phase and ice shows that in the densest ice clouds, up to 29% of hydroxyacetone could be adsorbed on pure ice surfaces at 203 K.

  4. Simultaneous normalized optical reflectivity and microgravimetric measurements at electrode/electrolyte interfaces. The adsorption of bromide on gold in aqueous media

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, Y.; Hwang, E.; Scherson, D.A.

    1995-07-15

    A system is herein described for the simultaneous acquisition of in situ microgravimetric (QCM) and UV-visible reflectance data ({Delta}R/R) of metal film electrodes sputtered on the surface of optically polished quartz crystals. This dual-technique approach makes it possible to establish correlations between the changes in weight and relative reflectivities associated with the adsorption of ions (and other species) on the electrode surface as a function of the applied potential without uncertainties derived from electrode surface preparation. Simultaneous in situ QCM-{Delta}R/R measurements for the adsorption of bromide on gold from aqueous electrolytes yielded results in excellent agreement with those reported by other authors for each independent technique. In particular, plots of the change in the resonant frequency of the QCM vs {Delta}R/R were found to be linear in the potential region in which bromide adsorption is expected to occur for concentrations of bromide spanning more than 2 orders of magnitude. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Adsorption of aqueous copper on peanut hulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Kanika Octavia

    A method was established for measuring the adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution to unmodified and modified peanut hulls at constant temperature and pH. Modification of the hulls was performed by oxidation with alkaline hydrogen peroxide. During the modification process, the hydrogen peroxide solubilizes the lignin component, making the surface more porous which increases the availability of binding sites, while simultaneously oxidizing the cellulose. The oxidation of alcohol groups creates more binding sites by creating functional groups such as COO-, which increases chelation to metal ions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms delignification of the peanut hulls by the disappearance of carboxyl peaks of the modified hulls, which were originally produced from the lignin content. Although, oxidation is not fully confirmed, it is not ruled out because the expected carboxylate peak (1680 cm-1) maybe overshadowed by a broad peak due to OH bending of water adsorbed to the hulls. Hulls adsorbed copper from solutions in the concentration range of 50-1000 ppm of CuCl2. Concentrations of pre- and post-adsorption solutions were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The adsorption isotherms were fit to known two and three-parameter models, evaluated and the binding mechanism was inferred. Maximum surface coverage was 3.5 +/- 0.6 mg Cu2+ /g hull for unmodified hulls and 11 +/- 1 mg Cu2+/g hull for modified hulls. The adsorption for the hulls is best described by the Langmuir model, suggesting monolayer, homogeneous adsorption. With a free energy of adsorption of 10.5 +/- 0.9 kJ/mol for unmodified hulls and 14.5 +/-0.4 kJ/mol for modified hulls, the process is categorized as chemisorption for both types of hulls. The adsorption for both hulls is also described by the Redlich-Peterson model, giving beta nearer to 1 than 0, which further suggests homogeneous adsorption described by the Langmuir model. After rinsing the hulls

  6. Arctic organic aerosol measurements show particles from mixed combustion in spring haze and from frost flowers in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, P. M.; Russell, L. M.; Jefferson, A.; Quinn, P. K.

    2010-05-01

    Submicron atmospheric aerosol particles were collected between 1 March 2008 and 1 March 2009 at Barrow, Alaska, to characterize the organic mass (OM) in the Arctic aerosol. Organic functional group concentrations and trace metals were measured with FTIR on submicron particles collected on Teflon filters. The OM varied from 0.07 μg m-3 in summer to 0.43 μg m-3 in winter, and 0.35 μg m-3 in spring, showing a transition in OM composition between spring and winter. Most of the OM in spring could be attributed to anthropogenic sources, consisting primarily of alkane and carboxylic acid functional groups and correlated to elemental tracers of industrial pollution, biomass burning, and shipping emissions. PMF analysis associated OM with two factors, a Mixed Combustion factor (MCF) and an Ocean-derived factor (ODF). Back trajectory analysis revealed that the highest fractions of the MCF were associated with air masses that had originated from northeastern Asia and the shipping lanes south of the Bering Straits. The ODF consisted of organic hydroxyl groups and correlated with organic and inorganic seawater components. The ODF accounted for more than 55% of OM in winter when the sampled air masses originated along the coastal and lake regions of the Northwest Territories of Canada. Frost flowers with organic-salt coatings that arise by brine rejection during sea ice formation may account for this large source of carbohydrate-like OM during the ice-covered winter season. While the anthropogenic sources contributed more than 0.3 μg m-3 of the springtime haze OM, ocean-derived particles provided comparable OM sources in winter.

  7. Adsorption of small organic molecules on graphene.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Petr; Karlický, František; Jurečka, Petr; Kocman, Mikuláš; Otyepková, Eva; Šafářová, Klára; Otyepka, Michal

    2013-04-24

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical quantification of the adsorption enthalpies of seven organic molecules (acetone, acetonitrile, dichloromethane, ethanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, and toluene) on graphene. Adsorption enthalpies were measured by inverse gas chromatography and ranged from -5.9 kcal/mol for dichloromethane to -13.5 kcal/mol for toluene. The strength of interaction between graphene and the organic molecules was estimated by density functional theory (PBE, B97D, M06-2X, and optB88-vdW), wave function theory (MP2, SCS(MI)-MP2, MP2.5, MP2.X, and CCSD(T)), and empirical calculations (OPLS-AA) using two graphene models: coronene and infinite graphene. Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory calculations indicated that the interactions were governed by London dispersive forces (amounting to ∼60% of attractive interactions), even for the polar molecules. The results also showed that the adsorption enthalpies were largely controlled by the interaction energy. Adsorption enthalpies obtained from ab initio molecular dynamics employing non-local optB88-vdW functional were in excellent agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the functional can cover physical phenomena behind adsorption of organic molecules on graphene sufficiently well.

  8. Measured and Estimated Sodium-Adsorption Ratios for Tongue River and its Tributaries, Montana and Wyoming, 2004-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, M.R.; Nimick, David A.; Cleasby, Thomas E.; Kinsey, Stacy M.; Lambing, John H.

    2007-01-01

    The Tongue River drains an area of about 5,400 square miles and flows northward from its headwaters in the Bighorn National Forest of northeastern Wyoming to join the Yellowstone River at Miles City, Montana. Water from the Tongue River and its tributaries is extensively used for irrigation in both Wyoming and Montana. The Tongue River watershed contains vast coal deposits that are extracted at several surface mines. In some areas of the watershed, the coal beds also contain methane gas (coal-bed methane or natural gas), which has become the focus of intense exploration and development. Production of coal-bed methane requires the pumping of large volumes of ground water from the coal beds to reduce water pressure within the formation and release the stored gas. Water from the coal beds typically is high in sodium and low in calcium and magnesium, resulting in a high sodium-adsorption ratio (SAR). Disposal of ground water with high sodium concentrations into the Tongue River has the potential to increase salinity and SAR of water in the river, and potentially reduce the quality of water for irrigation purposes. This report documents SAR values measured in water samples collected at 12 monitoring sites in the Tongue River watershed and presents regression relations between specific conductance (SC) and SAR at each site for the years 2004-06. SAR in water samples was determined from laboratory-measured concentrations of sodium, calcium, and magnesium. The results of regression analysis indicated that SC and SAR were significantly related (p-values < 0.05) at most sites. The regression relations developed for most monitoring sites in the Tongue River watershed were used with continuous SC data to estimate daily SAR during the 2004 and 2005 irrigation seasons and to estimate 2006 provisional SAR values, which were displayed on the Web in real-time. Water samples were collected and analyzed from seven sites on the main stem of the Tongue River located at: (1) Monarch

  9. Tetraethylenepentamine embedded zeolite A for carbon dioxide adsorption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ki; Mo, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Jun; You, Hyo-Sang; Yi, Chang-Keun; Park, Young Cheol; Park, Sang-Eon

    2013-04-01

    Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) embedded zeolite A crystals were synthesized by using TEPA and the preformed zeolite A precursor under the microwave irradiation. The presence of TEPA in zeolite A crystal was confirmed by TG analysis and FTIR, Raman spectra. The CO2 adsorptive behavior of TEPA embedded zeolite A samples was investigated by CO2 isotherms measured at 25 degrees C comparing with zeolite A. The optimum CO2 sorption capacity was found in the case of 7.5% TEPA embedded zeolite A, which showed 3.75 mmol g(-1) where as the zeolite A showed less CO2 adsorption capacity of 2.88 mmol g(-1). The adsorption capacity of TEPA embedded Zeolite A was sustained up to 90% during 4 cycles of temperature swing adsorption (TSA) from 40 degrees C to 140 degrees C, indicating that the TEPA embedded Zeolite A was found to be useful as one of the application to solid amine adsorbent for CO2.

  10. Study of adsorption of Neon on open Carbon nanohorns aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Carl Andrew

    Adsorption isotherms can be used to determine surface area of a substrate and the heat released when adsorption occurs. Our measurements are done determining the equilibrium pressures corresponding to a given amount of gas adsorbed on a substrate at constant temperature. The adsorption studies were done on aggregates of open dahlia-like carbon nanohorns. The nanohorns were oxidized for 9 hours at 550 °C to open them up and render their interior space accessible for adsorption. Volumetric adsorption measurements of Ne were performed at twelve different temperatures between 19 K and 48 K. The isotherms showed two substeps. The first substep corresponds to adsorption on the high energy binding sites in the interior of the nanohorns, near the tip. The second substep corresponds to low energy binding sites both on the outside of the nanotubes and inside the nanotube away from the tip. The isosteric heat measurements obtained from the isotherm data also shows these two distinct substeps. The effective surface area of the open nanotubes was determined from the isotherms using the point-B method. The isosteric heat and surface area data for neon on open nanohorns were compared to two similar experiments of neon adsorbed on aggregates of closed nanohorns.

  11. Studies of gas adsorption in flexible Metal-Organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sircar, Sarmishtha

    Flexible Metal-Organic frameworks that exhibit a gate-opening (GO) adsorption mechanism have potential for gas separations and gas storage. The GO phenomenon occurs when molecular gates in the structure expand/contract in response to the activation/de-activation of a system variable e.g. temperature, pressure or gas. Sharp discontinuities in the isotherm leading to S-shapes and large adsorption-desorption hysteresis are typical of this phenomenon. This study investigates the kinetics and thermodynamics of the GO behavior by combining adsorption measurements and analytical modeling of adsorption kinetics and capacity as a function of adsorbate, GO pressure, and temperature. Basic understanding of GO mechanism will help harness GO-MOF's as adsorbents for gas separations and storage. Experiments were performed on two precharacterized MOFs with verified GO behavior. These are (1) Zn2(bpdc)2(bpee), which expands from a relative amorphous to crystalline structure and (2) Cu[(dhbc) 2(4,4f-bpy)]H2O, a mutually interdigitated 2-D structure (bpdc = biphenyldicarboxylate, bpee = 1,2]bipyridylethene; DMF = N,N-dimethyl formamide, dhbc= 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, bpy=bipyridine). Both sub- and super-critical adsorption data were collected using three adsorption units: a standard low-pressure volumetric adsorption unit, a commercial high-pressure gravimetric analyzer and a custom-built high-pressure differential volumetric unit. Collected laboratory data were combined with published adsorption rate and isotherm data for analysis to broaden the range of data collection. The accuracy of the high-pressure differential unit was improved by over 300-fold by changing analytical methods of processing data to establish a reliable null correction. A pronounced effect of the allowed experimental time was found at cryogenic temperatures on (1). Tightening the stability criteria used by the adsorption equipment to determine equilibration increased the experimental time from the order of

  12. Cd adsorption onto bacterial surfaces: A universal adsorption edge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Nathan; Fein, Jeremy

    2001-07-01

    In this study, we measure the thermodynamic stability constants for proton and Cd binding onto the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus megaturium, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Sporosarcina ureae, and Bacillus cereus. Potentiometric titrations and Cd-bacteria adsorption experiments yield average values for the carboxyl site pK a, site concentration, and log stability constant for the bacterial surface Cd-carboxyl complex of 5.0, 2.0 × 10 -3 mol/g and 4.0 respectively. Our results indicate that a wide range of bacterial species exhibit nearly identical Cd adsorption behavior as a function of pH. We propose that metal-bacteria adsorption is not dependent on the bacterial species involved, and we develop a generalized adsorption model which may greatly simplify the task of quantifying the effects of bacterial adsorption on dissolved mass transport in realistic geologic systems.

  13. Controls on polyacrylamide adsorption to quartz, kaolinite, and feldspar

    SciTech Connect

    Graveling, G.J.; Ragnarsdottir, K.V.; Allen, G.C.

    1997-09-01

    Potentiometric titrations of quartz, kaolinite, feldspar, and partially hydrolysed polyacrylamide (HPAM), and sorption measurements of HPAM on the minerals, allows identification of the general mechanisms of polyacrylamide adsorption to aluminosilicates and quartz. Adsorption was monitored at the mineral solution interface by way of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS spectra of the unreacted minerals show bands in the Ols, Si2p, Al2p, and Cls regions. Additional peaks are observed in the Cls and N1s regions after treatment with polyacrylamide and the latter is used in this study to monitor corresponding to surface site saturation. At a fixed polymer concentration, adsorption varies with pH-dependent surface charge. The adsorption mechanism changes with pH, reflecting variation in the pH-dependent concentrations of ionizable groups on polyacrylamide and at aluminosilicate surfaces, and the extent of hydrogen-bonding between uncharged mineral surface sites and polymer amide groups. 42 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  15. Hydrogen and oxygen adsorption stoichiometries on silica supported ruthenium nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Berthoud, Romain; Delichere, Pierre; Gajan, David; Lukens, Wayne; Pelzer, Katrin; Basset, Jean-Marie; Candy, Jean-Pierre; Coperet, Christophe

    2008-12-01

    Treatment under H{sub 2} at 300 C of Ru(COD)(COT) dispersed on silica yields 2 nm ruthenium nanoparticles, [Ru{sub p}/SiO{sub 2}], according to EXAFS, HRTEM and XPS. H{sub 2} adsorption measurements on [Ru{sub p}/SiO{sub 2}] in the absence of O{sub 2} show that Ru particles adsorb up to ca. 2 H per surface ruthenium atoms (2H/Ru{sub s}) on various samples; this technique can therefore be used to measure the dispersion of Ru particles. In contrast, O{sub 2} adsorption on [Ru{sub p}/SiO{sub 2}] leads to a partial oxidation of the bulk at 25 C, to RuO{sub 2} at 200 C and to sintering upon further reduction under H{sub 2}, showing that O{sub 2} adsorption cannot be used to measure the dispersion of Ru particles.

  16. Individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum show sensory processing differences as measured by the Sensory Profile

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Winnie; Strominger, Zoe; Sherr, Elliott H.; Marco, Elysa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Given reports of high pain thresholds and reduced auditory response in individuals with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum (AgCC), this study investigated whether affected participants report atypical experiences and behaviors on a well-established sensory processing measure. Methods Fourteen participants with AgCC (ages 11-59) completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (Brown & Dunn, 2001). Sensory profile scales were classified as “Atypical” if they were more than one standard deviation from the mean. Results Fifty-seven percent of participants with AgCC reported reduced sensory registration as compared to an expected 16% of the normative sample. Similarly, 50% of the AgCC participants reported atypically increased auditory processing difficulties. Conclusions Using a well-established sensory processing questionnaire, participants with AgCC reported measurable differences in multiple aspects of sensory processing. The most notable difference was in the quadrant of low sensory registration, suggesting that individuals with AgCC may require sensory information to be presented more slowly or at a higher intensity for adequate processing. The sensory modality that was most affected was the auditory system, which is consistent with increased rates of language disorders and Autism Spectrum Disorders in this population. Understanding sensory processing in individuals with AgCC can both elucidate the role of inter-hemispheric transfer in the development of intact sensory processing as well as contribute to our knowledge of the role of the corpus callosum in a range of disorders in which sensory processes are impacted. PMID:25528608

  17. Influence of Irreversible Adsorption on the Glass Transition Temperature of Polymer Thin Films as Measured by Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burroughs, Mary; Priestley, Rodney

    2014-03-01

    Polymers confined to the nanometer length scale have been shown to exhibit deviations in the glass transition temperature (Tg) from the bulk. With the increasing use of confined polymers in nanotechnology, understanding and predicting this behavior is extremely relevant to industries ranging from pharmaceuticals to organic electronics. Recent work (Napolitano, Wübbenhorst, Nature Communications, 2, 260 (2011)) has connected deviations in Tg under confinement with irreversible physical adsorption of polymer chains at substrate interfaces. Here we investigate the influence of irreversibly adsorbed layers on the Tg of polystyrene (PS) thin films supported on silica via fluorescence. We examine the Tg of the brushes as a function of annealing time and irreversibly adsorbed layer thickness. By incorporating fluorescently labeled polymer layers into multilayered films of unlabeled polymer, we will examine the influence of brushes on adjacent layers dynamics. Finally, we will compare the results on PS with those of poly(methyl methacrylate).

  18. [Do men and women in illness and stress situations show different measures of risk attitude and therapy behaviour?].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, C

    2010-09-01

    We analyse which factors influence patient compliance decision. We built a simple therapy behaviour model reflecting the trade-off between perceived side effects and patient compliance behaviour. A total of 1,034 patients were included in the study utilising a clinical trial in Germany between 2007 and 2008. The separate evaluation of the behavioural model taking into account the variable gender led to the following result: The meaning of single parameters clearly differs for the explanation of patient's compliance behaviour between men and women. Men show more willingness to take a risk in dealing with their therapy and health than women. To do justice to the different behavioural strengths and deficits of men and women in therapy, it is indispensable to consider patient's gender by the development of risk-based health insurance rates. PMID:20865976

  19. Measure, Then Show: Grasping Human Evolution Through an Inquiry-Based, Data-driven Hominin Skulls Lab

    PubMed Central

    Luberda, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Incomprehension and denial of the theory of evolution among high school students has been observed to also occur when teachers are not equipped to deliver a compelling case also for human evolution based on fossil evidence. This paper assesses the outcomes of a novel inquiry-based paleoanthropology lab teaching human evolution to high-school students. The inquiry-based Be a Paleoanthropologist for a Day lab placed a dozen hominin skulls into the hands of high-school students. Upon measuring three variables of human evolution, students explain what they have observed and discuss findings. In the 2013/14 school year, 11 biology classes in 7 schools in the Greater New Orleans area participated in this lab. The interviewed teacher cohort unanimously agreed that the lab featuring hominin skull replicas and stimulating student inquiry was a pedagogically excellent method of delivering the subject of human evolution. First, the lab’s learning path of transforming facts to data, information to knowledge, and knowledge to acceptance empowered students to themselves execute part of the science that underpins our understanding of deep time hominin evolution. Second, although challenging, the hands-on format of the lab was accessible to high-school students, most of whom were readily able to engage the lab’s scientific process. Third, the lab’s exciting and compelling pedagogy unlocked higher order thinking skills, effectively activating the cognitive, psychomotor and affected learning domains as defined in Bloom’s taxonomy. Lastly, the lab afforded students a formative experience with a high degree of retention and epistemic depth. Further study is warranted to gauge the degree of these effects. PMID:27513927

  20. Measure, Then Show: Grasping Human Evolution Through an Inquiry-Based, Data-driven Hominin Skulls Lab.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Chris N; Luberda, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Incomprehension and denial of the theory of evolution among high school students has been observed to also occur when teachers are not equipped to deliver a compelling case also for human evolution based on fossil evidence. This paper assesses the outcomes of a novel inquiry-based paleoanthropology lab teaching human evolution to high-school students. The inquiry-based Be a Paleoanthropologist for a Day lab placed a dozen hominin skulls into the hands of high-school students. Upon measuring three variables of human evolution, students explain what they have observed and discuss findings. In the 2013/14 school year, 11 biology classes in 7 schools in the Greater New Orleans area participated in this lab. The interviewed teacher cohort unanimously agreed that the lab featuring hominin skull replicas and stimulating student inquiry was a pedagogically excellent method of delivering the subject of human evolution. First, the lab's learning path of transforming facts to data, information to knowledge, and knowledge to acceptance empowered students to themselves execute part of the science that underpins our understanding of deep time hominin evolution. Second, although challenging, the hands-on format of the lab was accessible to high-school students, most of whom were readily able to engage the lab's scientific process. Third, the lab's exciting and compelling pedagogy unlocked higher order thinking skills, effectively activating the cognitive, psychomotor and affected learning domains as defined in Bloom's taxonomy. Lastly, the lab afforded students a formative experience with a high degree of retention and epistemic depth. Further study is warranted to gauge the degree of these effects. PMID:27513927

  1. Assessing the adsorption properties of shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pini, Ronny

    2015-04-01

    applied, where these measures are simultaneously evaluated through a graphical method. The density of the adsorbed phase is estimated and compared to data reported in the literature; the latter is key to disclose gas-reserves and/or potential storage capacity estimates. The comparison with engineered materials highlights the complexity of the adsorption process in rocks. In fact, when evaluated against classic adsorbent materials, these preliminary data show that the adsorption mechanism in shales is further complicated by the presence of resident fluids (such as oil) that can additionally contribute to their total uptake capacity. This further highlights the need of improving our current understanding of the fundamental mechanisms controlling the uptake and release of fluids from these materials, and provides substantial research opportunities under the common goal of providing an efficient and sustainable use of unconventional resources.

  2. Thickness Dependence of Bovine Serum Albumin Adsorption on Thin Thermoresponsive Poly(diethylene glycol) Methyl Ether Methacrylate Brushes by Surface Plasmon Resonance Measurements.

    PubMed

    Wassel, Ekram; Jiang, Siyu; Song, Qimeng; Vogt, Stephan; Nöll, Gilbert; Druzhinin, Sergey I; Schönherr, Holger

    2016-09-13

    This study reports on the dependence of the temperature-induced changes in the properties of thin thermoresponsive poly(diethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PDEGMA) layers of end-tethered chains on polymer thickness and grafting density. PDEGMA layers with a dry ellipsometric thickness of 5-40 nm were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization on gold. To assess the temperature-induced changes, the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated systematically as a function of film thickness, temperature, and grafting density by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), complemented by wettability and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) measurements. BSA adsorption on PDEGMA brushes is shown to differ significantly above and below an apparent transition temperature. This surface transition temperature was found to depend linearly on the PDEGMA thickness and changed from 35 °C at 5 nm thickness to 48 °C at 23 nm. Similarly, a change of the grafting density enables the adjustment of this transition temperature presumably via a transition from the mushroom to the brush regime. Finally, BSA that adsorbed irreversibly on polymer brushes at temperatures above the transition temperature can be desorbed by reducing the temperature to 25 °C, underlining the reversibly switchable properties of PDEGMA brushes in response to temperature changes.

  3. Thickness Dependence of Bovine Serum Albumin Adsorption on Thin Thermoresponsive Poly(diethylene glycol) Methyl Ether Methacrylate Brushes by Surface Plasmon Resonance Measurements.

    PubMed

    Wassel, Ekram; Jiang, Siyu; Song, Qimeng; Vogt, Stephan; Nöll, Gilbert; Druzhinin, Sergey I; Schönherr, Holger

    2016-09-13

    This study reports on the dependence of the temperature-induced changes in the properties of thin thermoresponsive poly(diethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PDEGMA) layers of end-tethered chains on polymer thickness and grafting density. PDEGMA layers with a dry ellipsometric thickness of 5-40 nm were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization on gold. To assess the temperature-induced changes, the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated systematically as a function of film thickness, temperature, and grafting density by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), complemented by wettability and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) measurements. BSA adsorption on PDEGMA brushes is shown to differ significantly above and below an apparent transition temperature. This surface transition temperature was found to depend linearly on the PDEGMA thickness and changed from 35 °C at 5 nm thickness to 48 °C at 23 nm. Similarly, a change of the grafting density enables the adjustment of this transition temperature presumably via a transition from the mushroom to the brush regime. Finally, BSA that adsorbed irreversibly on polymer brushes at temperatures above the transition temperature can be desorbed by reducing the temperature to 25 °C, underlining the reversibly switchable properties of PDEGMA brushes in response to temperature changes. PMID:27531168

  4. Sulfate adsorption on goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1999-10-15

    Recent spectroscopic work has suggested that only one surface species of sulfate is dominant on hematite. Sulfate is therefore a very suitable anion to test and develop adsorption models for variable charge minerals. The authors have studied sulfate adsorption on goethite covering a large range of sulfate concentrations, surface coverages, pH values, and electrolyte concentrations. Four different techniques were used to cover the entire range of conditions. For characterization at low sulfate concentrations, below the detection limit of sulfate with ICP-AES, the authors used proton-sulfate titrations at constant pH. Adsorption isotherms were studied for the intermediate sulfate concentration range. Acid-base titrations in sodium sulfate and electromobility were used for high sulfate concentrations. All the data can be modeled with one adsorbed species if it is assumed that the charge of adsorbed sulfate is spatially distributed in the interface. The charge distribution of sulfate follows directly from modeling the proton-sulfate adsorption stoichoimemtry sine this stoichiometry is independent of the intrinsic affinity constant of sulfate. The charge distribution can be related to the structure of the surface complex by use of the Pauling bond valence concept and is in accordance with the microscopic structure found by spectroscopy. The intrinsic affinity constant follows from the other measurements. Modeling of the proton-ion stoichoimetry with the commonly used 2-pK models, where adsorbed ions are treated as point charges, is possible only if at least two surface species for sulfate are used.

  5. Surface modification of activated carbon for enhanced adsorption of perfluoroalkyl acids from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Yue; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the research was to examine the effect of increasing carbon surface basicity on uptake of perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and carboxylic acids (PFOA) by activated carbon. Granular activated carbons made from coal, coconut shell, wood, and phenolic-polymer-based activated carbon fibers were modified through high-temperature and ammonia gas treatments to facilitate systematical evaluation of the impact of basicity of different origins. Comparison of adsorption isotherms and adsorption distribution coefficients showed that the ammonia gas treatment was more effective than the high-temperature treatment in enhancing surface basicity. The resultant higher point of zero charges and total basicity (measured by total HCl uptake) correlated with improved adsorption affinity for PFOS and PFOA. The effectiveness of surface modification to enhance adsorption varied with carbon raw material. Wood-based carbons and activated carbon fibers showed enhancement by one to three orders of magnitudes while other materials could experience reduction in adsorption towards either PFOS or PFOA.

  6. Surface modification of activated carbon for enhanced adsorption of perfluoroalkyl acids from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Yue; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the research was to examine the effect of increasing carbon surface basicity on uptake of perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and carboxylic acids (PFOA) by activated carbon. Granular activated carbons made from coal, coconut shell, wood, and phenolic-polymer-based activated carbon fibers were modified through high-temperature and ammonia gas treatments to facilitate systematical evaluation of the impact of basicity of different origins. Comparison of adsorption isotherms and adsorption distribution coefficients showed that the ammonia gas treatment was more effective than the high-temperature treatment in enhancing surface basicity. The resultant higher point of zero charges and total basicity (measured by total HCl uptake) correlated with improved adsorption affinity for PFOS and PFOA. The effectiveness of surface modification to enhance adsorption varied with carbon raw material. Wood-based carbons and activated carbon fibers showed enhancement by one to three orders of magnitudes while other materials could experience reduction in adsorption towards either PFOS or PFOA. PMID:26469934

  7. Surface complexation modeling of uranyl adsorption on corrensite from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang-Won; Leckie, J.O.; Siegel, M.D.

    1995-09-01

    Corrensite is the dominant clay mineral in the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The surface characteristics of corrensite, a mixed chlorite/smectite clay mineral, have been studied. Zeta potential measurements and titration experiments suggest that the corrensite surface contains a mixture of permanent charge sites on the basal plane and SiOH and AlOH sites with a net pH-dependent charge at the edge of the clay platelets. Triple-layer model parameters were determined by the double extrapolation technique for use in chemical speciation calculations of adsorption reactions using the computer program HYDRAQL. Batch adsorption studies showed that corrensite is an effective adsorbent for uranyl. The pH-dependent adsorption behavior indicates that adsorption occurs at the edge sites. Adsorption studies were also conducted in the presence of competing cations and complexing ligands. The cations did not affect uranyl adsorption in the range studied. This observation lends support to the hypothesis that uranyl adsorption occurs at the edge sites. Uranyl adsorption was significantly hindered by carbonate. It is proposed that the formation of carbonate uranyl complexes inhibits uranyl adsorption and that only the carbonate-free species adsorb to the corrensite surface. The presence of the organic complexing agents EDTA and oxine also inhibits uranyl sorption.

  8. Protein nanoparticle interaction: A spectrophotometric approach for adsorption kinetics and binding studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaishanav, Sandeep K.; Chandraker, Kumudini; Korram, Jyoti; Nagwanshi, Rekha; Ghosh, Kallol K.; Satnami, Manmohan L.

    2016-08-01

    Investigating the protein nanoparticle interaction is crucial to understand how to control the biological interactions of nanoparticles. In this work, Model protein Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used to evaluate the process of protein adsorption to the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) surface. The binding of a model protein (BSA) to GNPs was investigated through fluorescence quenching measurements. The strong affinities of BSA for GNPs were confirmed by the high value of binding constant (Ks) which was calculated to be 2.2 × 1011 L/mol. In this consequence, we also investigated the adsorption behavior of BSA on GNPs surface via UV-Vis spectroscopy. The effect of various operational parameters such as pH, contact time, initial BSA concentration, and temperature on adsorption of BSA was investigated using batch adsorption experiments. Kinetics of adsorption was found to follow the pseudo-second order rate equation. The suitability of Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models to the equilibrium data was investigated. The equilibrium adsorption was well described by the Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity for BSA adsorbed on GNPs was 58.71 mg/g and equilibrium constant was 0.0058 calculated by the Langmuir model at 298 K and pH = 11.0. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption of BSA onto GNPs was feasible, spontaneous, and exothermic.

  9. Cobalt nanoparticles-embedded magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon for highly effective adsorption of rhodamine B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lin; Cai, Ye; Yang, Guide; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zeng, Guangming; Zhou, Yaoyu; Li, Sisi; Wang, Jiajia; Zhang, Sheng; Fang, Yan; He, Yibin

    2014-09-01

    Cobalt nanoparticles-embedded magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (Co/OMC), prepared through a simple method involving infusing and calcination, was used as a highly effective adsorbent for rhodamine B (Rh B) removal. Several techniques, including SEM, HRTEM, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, XRD, Raman spectra, EDX, zeta potential and VSM measurement, were applied to characterize the adsorbent. Batch tests were conducted to investigate the adsorption performance. The adsorption capacity of the resultant adsorbent was relatively high compared with raw ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) and reached an equilibrium value of 468 mg/g at 200 mg/L initial Rh B concentration. Removal efficiency even reached 96% within 25 min at 100 mg/L initial Rh B concentration. Besides, the adsorption amount increased with the increase of solution pH, adsorbent dose and initial Rh B concentration. Kinetics study showed that the adsorption agreed well with pseudo-second-order model (R2 = 0.999) and had a significant correlation with intra-particle diffusion model in the both two adsorption periods. Furthermore, thermodynamics research indicated that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous in nature. The adsorption isotherms fitted well with Langmuir model, demonstrating the formation of mono-molecular layer on the surface of Co/OMC during adsorption process. The results confirmed that Co/OMC has the potential superiority in removal of Rh B from aqueous solution.

  10. Adsorption of diblock polypeptides on polystyrene latex.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ritesh; Forciniti, Daniel

    2012-10-30

    The adsorption of peptides at solid/liquid interfaces is affected by peptide/surface and peptide/peptide hydrophobic and electrostatic forces. Three diblock copolypeptides and two homopeptides were adsorbed on poly(styrene) nanospheres from water, water/methanol, and water/glycerol mixtures at different pH's to study both of these effects. Peptides with one hydrophilic (glutamic acid or lysine) and one nonpolar block (alanine) or with both hydrophilic blocks with opposite charges (glutamic acid and lysine) were chemically synthesized and used as adsorbates in this study. The amount adsorbed was determined, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to measure the adsorbed layer thickness. It was found that peptide/surface and peptide/peptide electrostatic interactions dominate the adsorption process. Hydrophobic forces also play a role, but secondary to electrostatic forces. Positively charged blocks show high affinity for the surface, whereas negatively charged blocks were excluded from it. Poly(Lys) has the highest affinity by the surface, while (Glu)(14)-b-(Ala)(5) has the lowest. Adsorption of all peptides was inhibited by methanol and promoted by glycerol. The adsorption for (Lys)(5)-b-(Glu)(6) was extremely sensitive to pH, irrespective of cosolvent, whereas the thickness for (Lys)(30)-b-(Ala)(41) was sensitive to pH as well as cosolvent. Aggregation was observed in the presence of the nanosurfaces but not in the bulk peptides under some pH and solvent conditions. PMID:23009064

  11. Zinc modulates thrombin adsorption to fibrin

    SciTech Connect

    Hopmeier, P.; Halbmayer, M.; Fischer, M.; Marx, G. )

    1990-05-01

    Human thrombin with high affinity to Sepharose insolubilized fibrin monomers (high-affinity thrombin) was used to investigate the effect of Zn(II) on the thrombin adsorption to fibrin. Results showed that at Zn(II) concentrations exceeding 100 mumols/l, thrombin binding to fibrin was decreased concomitant with the Zn(II) concentration and time; at lower Zn(II) concentrations, thrombin adsorption was enhanced. Experimental results were identical by using 125I-labelled high-affinity alpha-thrombin or by measuring the thrombin activity either by chromogenic substrate or by a clotting time method. In contrast, Ca(II) alone (final conc. 3 mmol/l) or in combination with Zn(II) was not effective. However, at higher Ca(II) concentrations (7.5-15 mmol/l), thrombin adsorption was apparently decreased. Control experiments revealed that Zn(II) had no impact on the clottability of fibrinogen, and that the results of the experiments with Ca(II) were not altered by possible cross-linking of fibrin. We conclude that unlike Ca(II), Zn(II) is highly effective in modulating thrombin adsorption to fibrin.

  12. Adsorption of the antimicrobial peptide tritrpticin onto solid and liquid surfaces: Ion-specific effects.

    PubMed

    Salay, Luiz C; Petri, Denise F S; Nakaie, Clovis R; Schreier, Shirley

    2015-12-01

    Developing functional biointerfaces is important for technological applications. We investigated the interaction and adsorption of the antimicrobial peptide tritrpticin (VRRFPWWWPFLRR, TRP3) onto solid and liquid surfaces and the influence of ions on these processes by several techniques. Surface tension measurements showed that salt addition to TRP3 solution causes a high decrease of surface tension due to the adsorption of TRP3 at air-liquid surface. Ellipsometry studies show the TRP3 adsorption on silicon surfaces forming nanometric films that are able to further interact with liposomes. Contact angle measurements gave insight on the nature of thin film and its roughness. AFM shows the topology of the film on the solid substrates. In addition, those techniques also showed that anions can act as modulators on adsorption phenomena and are correlated with the Hofmeister series. The findings of the current work are relevant for the development of functional interfaces such as biocidal surfaces. PMID:26529674

  13. Real-time measurement of protein adsorption on electrophoretically deposited hydroxyapatite coatings and magnetron sputtered metallic films using the surface acoustic wave technique.

    PubMed

    Meininger, M; Schmitz, T; Wagner, T; Ewald, A; Gbureck, U; Groll, J; Moseke, C

    2016-04-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensors are highly sensitive for mass binding and are therefore used to detect protein-protein and protein-antibody interactions. Whilst the standard surface of the chips is a thin gold film, measurements on implant- or bone-like surfaces could significantly enhance the range of possible applications for this technique. The aim of this study was to establish methods to coat biosensor chips with Ti, TiN, and silver-doped TiN using physical vapor deposition as well as with hydroxyapatite by electrophoresis. To demonstrate that protein adsorption can be detected on these surfaces, binding experiments with fibronectin and fibronectin-specific antibodies have been performed with the coatings, which successfully proved the applicability of PVD and EPD for SAW biosensor functionalization.

  14. Regenerative Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) biosensor: real-time measurement of fibrinogen in undiluted human serum using the competitive adsorption of proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ran; Lajevardi-Khosh, Arad; Choi, Seokheun; Chae, Junseok

    2011-10-15

    Epidemiological studies suggest that elevated plasma fibrinogen levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disorders. Normal fibrinogen level is in the range of 1.5-4.5mg/mL, depending upon both genetic (intrinsic) and environmental (extrinsic) factors. An increase of 0.25mg/mL from the normal level can often be correlated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus, it is useful to monitor fibrinogen level in serum of a patient for clinical diagnosis. We report a regenerative biosensor that measures real-time fibrinogen levels in undiluted serum. The biosensor uses Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), highly sensitive optical technique. The biosensor does not use bio-receptors (i.e., antibodies, enzymes, DNA, etc.) unlike conventional biosensors, and deploys the nature of competitive adsorption of proteins to achieve selective detection of fibrinogen. We measured fibrinogen-spiked serum samples with a concentration of 1.5-4.5 mg/mL, and repeated six measurement trials to obtain statistical distribution of the measurements using the regeneration method of the sensing surface. The SPR biosensor has a sensitivity of 42 mDeg/(mg/mL) for a fibrinogen concentration in the range of 0.5-2.5 mg/mL, whereas it was hard to correlate the measurements to the spiked-fibrinogen samples of above 2.5 mg/mL.

  15. Adsorption of nanoparticles at the solid-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Thorsten; Paulus, Michael; Schroer, Martin A; Tiemeyer, Sebastian; Sternemann, Christian; Möller, Johannes; Tolan, Metin; Degen, Patrick; Rehage, Heinz

    2012-05-15

    The adsorption of differently charged nanoparticles at liquid-solid interfaces was investigated by in situ X-ray reflectivity measurements. The layer formation of positively charged maghemite (γ-Fe(2)O(3)) nanoparticles at the aqueous solution-SiO(2) interface was observed while negatively charged gold nanoparticles show no adsorption at this interface. Thus, the electrostatic interaction between the particles and the charged surface was determined as the driving force for the adsorption process. The data analysis shows that a logarithmic particle size distribution describes the density profile of the thin adsorbed maghemite layer. The size distribution in the nanoparticle solution determined by small angle X-ray scattering shows an average particle size which is similar to that found for the adsorbed film. The formed magehemite film exhibits a rather high stability.

  16. Adsorption of nanoparticles at the solid-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Thorsten; Paulus, Michael; Schroer, Martin A; Tiemeyer, Sebastian; Sternemann, Christian; Möller, Johannes; Tolan, Metin; Degen, Patrick; Rehage, Heinz

    2012-05-15

    The adsorption of differently charged nanoparticles at liquid-solid interfaces was investigated by in situ X-ray reflectivity measurements. The layer formation of positively charged maghemite (γ-Fe(2)O(3)) nanoparticles at the aqueous solution-SiO(2) interface was observed while negatively charged gold nanoparticles show no adsorption at this interface. Thus, the electrostatic interaction between the particles and the charged surface was determined as the driving force for the adsorption process. The data analysis shows that a logarithmic particle size distribution describes the density profile of the thin adsorbed maghemite layer. The size distribution in the nanoparticle solution determined by small angle X-ray scattering shows an average particle size which is similar to that found for the adsorbed film. The formed magehemite film exhibits a rather high stability. PMID:22386203

  17. Adsorption of methylene blue onto sonicated sepiolite from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Küncek, Ilknur; Sener, Savaş

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to enhance the methylene blue (MB) adsorption of sepiolite by ultrasonic treatment. The natural sepiolite was pretreated by sonication to improve the surface characteristics and enhance the dye uptake capacity. Sonication process resulted in a significant increase in the specific surface area (SSA) of sepiolite. The FTIR spectrum of the sonicated sepiolite indicates that the tetrahedral sheet is probably distorted after sonication process. The effect of various parameters such as sonication, pH, initial dye concentration and temperature on dye adsorption has been investigated. The adsorbed amount of MB on sepiolite increased after sonication as well as with increasing pH and temperature. The experimental data were evaluated by applying the pseudo-first- and second-order, and the intraparticle diffusion adsorption kinetic models. Adsorption process of MB onto sepiolite followed the pseudo-second-order rate expression. The experimental data were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, and found that the isotherm data were reasonably well correlated by Langmuir isotherm. Maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of sepiolite for MB increased from 79.37 to 128.21 mg/g after the sonication. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as Delta G(0), Delta H(0) and DeltaS(0) were calculated. The thermodynamics of MB/sepiolite system indicated spontaneous and endothermic nature of the process. Adsorption measurements showed that the process was very fast and physical in nature.

  18. Adsorption of dyes onto activated carbon prepared from olive stones.

    PubMed

    Najar-Souissi, Souad; Ouederni, Abdelmottaleb; Ratel, Abdelhamid

    2005-01-01

    Activated carbon was produced from olive stones(OSAC) by a physical process in two steps. The adsorption character of this activated carbon was tested on three colour dyes molecules in aqueous solution: Methylene blue (MB), Rhodamine B (RB) and Congo Red(CR). The adsorption equilibrium was studied through isotherms construction at 30 degrees C, which were well described by Langmuir model. The adsorption capacity on the OSAC was estimated to be 303 mg/g, 217 mg/g and 167 mg/g respectively for MB, RB and CR. This activated carbon has a similar adsorption properties to that of commercial ones and show the same adsorption performances. The adsorption kinetics of the MB molecule in aqueous solution at different initial concentrations by OSAC was also studied. Kinetic experiments were well fitted by a simple intra-particle diffusion model. The measured kinetics constant was influenced by the initial concentration and we found the following correlation: Kid = 1.55 C0(0.51). PMID:16465895

  19. A Thermodynamic Study of Heavy Metal Adsorption at the Biofilm/Mineral Interface: Comparison Between Thermodynamic Model Results and In-situ Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelabert, A.; Ha, J.; Wang, Y.; Ona-Nguema, G.; Cordova-Ardy, C.; Gescher, J.; Bargar, J. R.; Rogers, J.; Eng, P. J.; Ghose, S. K.; Farges, F.; Spormann, A. M.; Brown, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    Fe- and Al-(oxyhydr)oxides are among the most reactive mineral surfaces in water-rock systems. Bacteria are effective adsorbents of metal ions and can form colonies on the surfaces of minerals. The resulting biofilm coatings may create local microenvironments that could change significantly trace metal ion sorption compared to biofilm-free mineral surfaces. In this study, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy were used to identify the different types of metal binding sites in Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 (wild type) as well as the nature of the functional groups involved in metal complexation. Adsorption affinities of these sites for Pb(II) and Zn(II) as well as site densities were determined by fitting metal adsorption data as a function of pH and ionic strength using a constant capacitance model in the FITEQL computer code. Electrokinetic techniques were used to determine the biofilm influence on the overall mineral surface charge. This influence was quantified by determining the in-situ partitioning of Pb(II) between S. oneidensis MR-1 biofilms and highly polished and oriented single crystal surfaces of α-alumina (1-102) and hematite (0001) using the long-period X-ray standing wave-fluorescent yield (XSW-FY) method. ATR-FTIR spectra of S. oneidensis strain MR-1 revealed the presence of carboxyl, amide, and phosphate groups, as well as carbohydrate moieties. Electrophoretic mobility measurements of S. oneidensis MR-1 cell surfaces indicate that the bacterial surfaces become negatively charged at pH ~ 3.5, suggesting a high Pb(II) and Zn(II) adsorption capacity of the biofilm. Changes in ionic strengths from 1M to 0.01M NaNO3 had no effect on the interactions of the metal ions with the bacteria, suggesting that the physical structure of the cell wall does not change over this range of electrolyte concentrations. The thermodynamic stability of metal complexes on S. oneidensis and the binding sites concentrations for these metal complexes have been determined by FITEQL

  20. Microstructure and its influence on CH4 adsorption behavior of deep coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yan-Yan; Jiang, Cheng-Fa; Liu, Dai-Jun; Chu, Wei

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence of microstructure on the CH4 adsorption behavior of deep coal. The coal microstructure is characterized by N2 adsorption at 77 K, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The CH4 adsorptions are measured at 298 K at pressures up to 5.0 MPa by the the volumetric method and fitted by the Langmuir model. The results show that the Langmuir model fits well with the experimental data, and there is a positive correlation with surface area, pore volume, ID/IG, and CH4 adsorption capacity. The burial depth also affects the methane adsorption capacity of the samples.

  1. Phosphate adsorption on lanthanum loaded biochar.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanghong; Shen, Dekui; Shen, Fei; Li, Tianyu

    2016-05-01

    To attain a low-cost and high-efficient phosphate adsorbent, lanthanum (La) loaded biochar (La-BC) prepared by a chemical precipitation method was developed. La-BC and its pristine biochar (CK-BC) were comparatively characterized using zeta potential, BET surface area, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The adsorption ability and the mechanisms during adsorption process for the La-BC samples were also investigated. La loaded on the surface of biochar can be termed as La-composites (such as LaOOH, LaONO3 and La(OH)3), leading to the decrease of negative charge and surface area of biochar. La-BC exhibited the high adsorption capacity to phosphate compared to CK-BC. Adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetic studies showed that the Langmuir isotherm and second order model could well describe the adsorption process of La-BC, indicating that the adsorption was dominated by a homogeneous and chemical process. The calculated maximum adsorption capacity was as high as 46.37 mg g(-1) (computed in P). Thermodynamic analysis revealed that the adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. SEM, XRD, XPS and FT-IR analysis suggested that the multi-adsorption mechanisms including precipitation, ligand exchange and complexation interactions can be evidenced during the phosphate adsorption process by La-composites in La-BC. PMID:26871732

  2. Water adsorption isotherms on CH3-, OH-, and COOH-terminated organic surfaces at ambient conditions measured with PM-RAIRS.

    PubMed

    Tu, Aimee; Kwag, Hye Rin; Barnette, Anna L; Kim, Seong H

    2012-10-30

    The water adsorption isotherms on methyl (CH(3))-, hydroxyl (OH)-, and carboxylic acid (COOH)-terminated alkylthiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au were studied at room temperature and ambient pressure with polarization modulation reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (PM-RAIRS). PM-RAIRS analysis showed that water does not adsorb at all on the CH(3)-SAM/Au at subsaturation humidity conditions. In a dry Ar environment, the OH-SAM/Au holds at least 2 layer thick strongly bound water molecules which exhibit a broad O-H stretch vibration peak centered at ∼3360 cm(-1). The peak position implies that the strongly bound water layer on the OH SAM is more like a liquid than an ice. The additional uptake of water in humid environments is relatively weak, and the peak position changes very little. Unlike the OH-SAM/Au, the COOH-SAM/Au does not have strongly bound water layer. This seems to be due to the strong hydrogen bonding between terminal COOH groups in dry conditions. The weak interactions between water and carboxyl groups at low relative humidity (RH) and the solvation of dissociated carboxylic groups in high RH lead to a type III isotherm behavior, based on the BET categories, for water adsorption on the COOH-SAM/Au. The water spectra on the COOH-SAM at RH > 45% are centered at ∼3430 cm(-1) and very broad, indicating that the hydrogen-bonding network of water on the COOH-SAM is much different from that on the OH-SAM.

  3. Salt induced reduction of lysozyme adsorption at charged interfaces.

    PubMed

    Göhring, Holger; Paulus, Michael; Salmen, Paul; Wirkert, Florian; Kruse, Theresa; Degen, Patrick; Stuhr, Susan; Rehage, Heinz; Tolan, Metin

    2015-06-17

    A study of lysozyme adsorption below a behenic acid membrane and at the solid-liquid interface between aqueous lysozyme solution and a silicon wafer in the presence of sodium chloride is presented. The salt concentration was varied between 1 mmol L(-1) and 1000 mmol L(-1). X-ray reflectivity data show a clear dependence of the protein adsorption on the salt concentration. Increasing salt concentrations result in a decreased protein adsorption at the interface until a complete suppression at high concentrations is reached. This effect can be attributed to a reduced attractive electrostatic interaction between the positively charged proteins and negatively charged surfaces by charge screening. The measurements at the solid-liquid interfaces show a transition from unoriented order of lysozyme in the adsorbed film to an oriented order with the short protein axis perpendicular to the solid-liquid interface with rising salt concentration.

  4. Charge induced enhancement of adsorption for hydrogen storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiang

    2009-12-01

    . Direct measurement of the amount of hydrogen adsorption was also carried out with porous nickel oxides and magnesium oxides using the piezoelectric material PMN-PT as the charge supplier due to the pressure. The adsorption enhancement from the PMN-PT generated charges is obvious at hydrogen pressure between 0 and 60 bars, where the hydrogen uptake is increased at about 35% for nickel oxide and 25% for magnesium oxide. Computer simulation reveals that under the external electric field, the electron cloud of hydrogen molecules is pulled over to the adsorbent site and can overlap with the adsorbent electrons, which in turn enhances the adsorption energy. Experiments were also carried out to examine the effects of hydrogen spillover with charge induced enhancement. The results show that the overall storage capacity in nickel oxide increased remarkably by a factor of 4.

  5. Enthalpy contributions to adsorption of highly charged lysozyme onto a cation-exchanger under linear and overloaded conditions.

    PubMed

    Silva, G L; Marques, F S; Thrash, M E; Dias-Cabral, A C

    2014-07-25

    An investigation of the adsorption mechanism of lysozyme onto carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was conducted using flow calorimetry and adsorption isotherm measurements. This study was undertaken to provide additional insight into the underlying mechanisms involved in protein adsorption that traditional approaches such isotherm measurements or van't Hoff analysis can't always provide, particularly when protein adsorption occurs under overloaded conditions. Lysozyme and CMC were selected for this study because the characteristics of the protein and the adsorbent are well known, hence, allowing the focus of this work to be on the driving forces influencing adsorption. Calorimetry results have showed that lysozyme adsorption onto CMC produced both exothermic and endothermic heats of adsorption. More specifically flow calorimetry data coupled with peak deconvolution methods illustrated a series of chronological events that included dilution, primary protein adsorption, rearrangement of surface proteins and a secondary adsorption of lysozyme molecules. The observations and conclusions derived from the experimental work presented in our figures and tables were developed within the mechanistic framework proposed by Lin et al., J. Chromatogr. A. 912 (2001) 281.

  6. Adsorption and desorption studies of lysozyme by Fe3O4-polymer nanocomposite via fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koc, Kenan; Alveroglu, Esra

    2015-06-01

    The work have been undertaken in this study is to synthesis and characterize Fe3O4-polymer nanocomposites which are having different morphological properties. Also, investigation of the adsorption and desorption behaviour of lysozyme onto Fe3O4-polymer nanocomposites have been studied. Fe3O4 nanoparticles, synthesized by in situ in polyacrylamide hydrogels, show super-paramagnetic behaviour and saturation magnetization of composite material have been tuned by changing the hydrogel conformation. Adsorption and desorption studies of lysozyme were followed by using pure water at room temperature via fluorescence measurements. Fluorescence measurements showed that, the composite materials adsorbed lysozyme molecules less than 20 s and higher monomer concentration of composite materials cause faster adsorption. Besides, structure of lysozyme molecules were not changed during the adsorption and desorption. As a result Fe3O4-polymer nanocomposites could be used for drug delivery, protein separation and PAAm gels could be used for synthesis of magnetic composites with varying magnetic properties.

  7. Study of char gasification in a reaction/adsorption apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Sotirchos, S.V.; Crowley, J.A.

    1987-09-01

    The reaction of an activated carbon (coconut char) with CO/sub 2/ was studied in a reaction/adsorption apparatus which allows successive reactivity and physical adsorption measurements to be made on the same solid sample. Reaction and surface area evolution data were obtained in the temperature range from 800 to 900/sup 0/C. All reaction rate trajectories obtained in this study showed a maximum in the reaction rate, 2-3 times higher than the initial rate, at about 85% conversion. There was no correlation between these results and the evolution of the internal surface area although the reaction appeared to take place initially in the kinetically controlled regime.

  8. [Adsorption characteristics of acetone and butanone onto honeycomb ZSM-5 molecular sieve].

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Luan, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Qiang; Ye, Ping-Wei; Li, Kai; Wang, Xi-Qin

    2013-12-01

    Adsorption capacity of acetone and acetone-butanone mixture onto honeycomb ZSM-5 molecular sieve was measured in this paper, and the influences of relative humidity, initial adsorbate concentration and airflow velocity on the adsorption process were investigated. Besides, adsorption performance parameters were calculated by Wheeler's equation. The results showed that relative humidity had no obvious influence on the acetone adsorption performance, which suggests that this material has good hydrophobic ability; in the low concentration range, the dynamic saturated adsorption capacity of acetone increased with the increase of initial concentration, but in the occasion of high concentration of acetone gas (more than 9 mg x L(-1)), the dynamic saturated adsorption capacity maintained at a certain level and did not vary with the increase of initial concentration; the increase of air flow velocity resulted in significant increase of acetone adsorption rate constant, at the same time the critical layer thickness of the adsorbent bed also increased significantly. In the cases of acetone-butanone mixture, the adsorption capacity of butanone onto ZSM-5 was clearly higher than that of acetone.

  9. Oxygen adsorption on the Al₉Co₂(001) surface: first-principles and STM study.

    PubMed

    Villaseca, S Alarcón; Loli, L N Serkovic; Ledieu, J; Fournée, V; Gille, P; Dubois, J-M; Gaudry, E

    2013-09-01

    Atomic oxygen adsorption on a pure aluminum terminated Al9Co2(001) surface is studied by first-principle calculations coupled with STM measurements. Relative adsorption energies of oxygen atoms have been calculated on different surface sites along with the associated STM images. The local electronic structure of the most favourable adsorption site is described. The preferential adsorption site is identified as a 'bridge' type site between the cluster entities exposed at the (001) surface termination. The Al-O bonding between the adsorbate and the substrate presents a covalent character, with s-p hybridization occurring between the states of the adsorbed oxygen atom and the aluminum atoms of the surface. The simulated STM image of the preferential adsorption site is in agreement with experimental observations. This work shows that oxygen adsorption generates important atomic relaxations of the topmost surface layer and that sub-surface cobalt atoms strongly influence the values of the adsorption energies. The calculated Al-O distances are in agreement with those reported in Al2O and Al2O3 oxides and for oxygen adsorption on Al(111). PMID:23883551

  10. Oxygen adsorption on the Al₉Co₂(001) surface: first-principles and STM study.

    PubMed

    Villaseca, S Alarcón; Loli, L N Serkovic; Ledieu, J; Fournée, V; Gille, P; Dubois, J-M; Gaudry, E

    2013-09-01

    Atomic oxygen adsorption on a pure aluminum terminated Al9Co2(001) surface is studied by first-principle calculations coupled with STM measurements. Relative adsorption energies of oxygen atoms have been calculated on different surface sites along with the associated STM images. The local electronic structure of the most favourable adsorption site is described. The preferential adsorption site is identified as a 'bridge' type site between the cluster entities exposed at the (001) surface termination. The Al-O bonding between the adsorbate and the substrate presents a covalent character, with s-p hybridization occurring between the states of the adsorbed oxygen atom and the aluminum atoms of the surface. The simulated STM image of the preferential adsorption site is in agreement with experimental observations. This work shows that oxygen adsorption generates important atomic relaxations of the topmost surface layer and that sub-surface cobalt atoms strongly influence the values of the adsorption energies. The calculated Al-O distances are in agreement with those reported in Al2O and Al2O3 oxides and for oxygen adsorption on Al(111).

  11. Effect of the surface oxygen groups on methane adsorption on coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Shixiong; Wen, Jie; Yu, Xiaopeng; Chu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the influence of surface oxygen groups on methane adsorption on coals, one bituminous coal was modified with H2O2, (NH4)2S2O8 and HNO3 respectively, to prepare coal samples with different surface properties. The oxygen groups on coal surface were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The textures of the coal samples were investigated by N2 adsorption at 77 K. Their surface morphologies were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The methane adsorption behaviors of these coal samples were measured at 303 K in pressure range of 0-5.3 MPa by volumetric method. The adsorption data of methane were fitted to the Langmuir model and Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A) model. The fitting results showed that the D-A model fitted the isotherm data better than the Langmuir model. It was observed that there was, in general, a positive correlation between the methane saturated adsorption capacity and the micropore volume of coals while a negative correlation between methane saturated adsorption capacity and the Ototal/Ctotal. The methane adsorption capacity was determined by the coal surface chemistry when the microporosity parameters of two samples were similar. Coal with a higher amount of oxygen surface groups, and consequently with a less hydrophobic character, had lower methane adsorption capacity.

  12. Dithiocarbamate-modified starch derivatives with high heavy metal adsorption performance.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Bo; Fan, Wen; Yi, Xiaowei; Wang, Zuohua; Gao, Feng; Li, Yijiu; Gu, Hongbo

    2016-01-20

    In this work, three types of dithiocarbamate (DTC)-modified starch derivatives including DTC starch (DTCS), DTC enzymolysis starch (DTCES) and DTC mesoporous starch (DTCMS) were developed, which showed the significant heavy metal adsorption performance. The adsorption ability of these three DTC modified starch derivatives followed the sequences: DTCMS>DTCES>DTCS. In single metal aqueous solutions, the uptake amount of heavy metal ions onto the modified starches obeyed the orders: Cu(II)>Ni(II)>Cr(VI)>Zn(II)>Pb(II). The adsorption mechanism was proved by the chelating between DTC groups and heavy metal ions through the pH effect measurements. A monolayer adsorption of Langmuir isotherm model for the adsorption of Cu(II) onto DTCMS was well fitted rather than the multilayer adsorption of Freundlich isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics of Cu(II) onto starch derivatives was found to be fit well with the pseudo-second-order model. Additionally, in the presence of EDTA, the adsorption ability and uptake amount of heavy metal ions onto these three DTC modified starch derivatives is identical with the results obtained in the absence of EDTA.

  13. The adsorption of caesium—137 on bentonites from the Carpathian basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, N. M.; Kónya, J.; Földvári, M.; Kovács-Pálffy, P.

    2003-01-01

    The adsorption of cesium was studied on the surface of bentonite rocks from the Carpathian basin. The adsorbed quantity at carrier-free concentration was measured using 137Cs, the adsorption capacity of bentonites for cesium ions was determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The relation of the cesium adsorption and mineral composition as well as the structural modifications of crystal structure was studied by X-ray diffraction spectrometry and thermoanalysis. The results show that the adsorbed quantity of cesium primarily depends on the montmorillonite content of bentonites.

  14. Adsorption of H2, Ne, and N2 on Activated Charcoal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. K.; Tward, E.; Boudaie, K. I.

    1986-01-01

    9-page report presents measured adsorption isotherms of hydrogen, neon, and nitrogen on activated charcoal for temperatures from 77 to 400 K and pressures from 1 to 80 atmospheres (0.1 to 8.1 MPa). Heats of adsorption calculated from isotherms also presented. Report gives expressions, based on ideal-gas law, which show relationship between different definitions of volume of gas adsorbed and used in describing low-pressure isotherms.

  15. PDMS compound adsorption in context.

    PubMed

    Li, Nianzhen; Schwartz, Michael; Ionescu-Zanetti, Cristian

    2009-02-01

    Soft lithography of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), an elastomeric polymer, has enabled rapid and inexpensive fabrication of microfluidic devices for various biotechnology applications. However, concerns remain about adsorption of compounds on PDMS surfaces because of its porosity and hydrophobicity. Here, the adsorption of 2 small fluorescent dyes of different hydrophobicity (calcein and 5- (and 6-)carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TMR)) on PDMS surface has been systematically characterized, and PDMS adsorption has been compared with 2 traditional substrates: glass and polystyrene. To characterize adsorption in a regimen that is more relevant to microfluidic applications, the adsorption and desorption of the 2 compounds in PDMS microfluidic channels under flow conditions were also studied. Results showed that there was minimal adsorption of the hydrophilic compound calcein on PDMS, whereas the more hydrophobic TMR adsorbed on PDMS up to 4 times of that on glass or polystyrene. Under flow conditions, the desorption profiles and times needed to drop desorbed compound concentrations to negligible levels (desorption time constant, 10-42 s) were characterized. In the worst case scenario, after a 4-min exposure to TMR, 4 min of continuous wash resulted in compound concentrations in the microchannels to drop to values below 2 x 10(- 5) of the initial concentration.

  16. Adsorption of goethite onto quartz and kaolinite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, M.C.; Weiner, Eugene R.; Boymel, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    The adsorption of colloidal goethite onto quartz and kaolinite substrates has been studied as a function of pH and NaCl concentration. Goethite adsorption was measured quantitatively by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results indicate that adsorption onto both substrates is due primarily to coulombic forces; however, the pH dependence of adsorption is very different for the two substrates. This is explained by the fact that the surface charge on quartz is entirely pH-dependent, while kaolinite has surface faces which carry a permanent negative charge. Adsorption of goethite on to kaolinite increases markedly with increasing NaCl concentration, while adsorption onto quartz is relatively independent of NaCl concentration. This can be explained by the influence of NaCl concentration upon the development of surface charge on the substrates. A method is described for separating surface-bound goethite from free goethite.

  17. Carbon dioxide adsorption in Brazilian coals

    SciTech Connect

    Jose Luciano Soares; Andre L.B. Oberziner; Humberto J. Jose; Alirio E. Rodrigues; Regina F.P.M. Moreira

    2007-01-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is one of the most important greenhouse gases. In the period between 1980 and 1998, CO{sub 2} emissions increased more than 21% and projections suggest that the emissions will continue to increase globally by 2.2% between 2000 and 2020 and 3.3% in the developed countries. The sequestration of CO{sub 2} in deep unminable coal beds is one of the more promising of several methods of geological sequestration that are currently being investigated. CO{sub 2} can adsorb onto coal, and there are several studies demonstrating that CO{sub 2} dissolves in coals and swells them. At very low pressures (P {lt} 1 bar), CO{sub 2} dissolution does not seem to be a problem; however, high pressures are necessary for CO{sub 2} sequestration (P {gt} 50 bar). In this study, we evaluated the kinetics and equilibrium of sorption of CO{sub 2} on Brazilian coals at low pressures. The adsorption equilibrium isotherm at room temperature (30{sup o}C) was measured through the static method. The results showed that the Freundlich model or the Langmuir model is suitable to describe the equilibrium experimental results. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of Brazilian coals are in the range of 0.089-0.186 mmol CO{sub 2}/g, which are typical values for coals with high ash content. The dynamics of adsorption in a fixed-bed column that contains granular coal (particle sizes of 0.8, 2.4, and 4.8 mm) showed that the adsorption rate is fast and a mathematical model was developed to describe the CO{sub 2} dynamics of the adsorption in a fixed-bed column. The linear driving force (LDF) was used to describe the rate of adsorption and the mass-transfer constants of the LDF model (K{sub s}) are in the range of 1.0-2.0 min{sup -1}. 29 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Heat transfer to the adsorbent in solar adsorption cooling device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilat, Peter; Patsch, Marek; Papucik, Stefan; Vantuch, Martin

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with design and construction of solar adsorption cooling device and with heat transfer problem in adsorber. The most important part of adsorption cooling system is adsorber/desorber containing adsorbent. Zeolith (adsorbent) type was chosen for its high adsorption capacity, like a coolant was used water. In adsorber/desorber occur, at heating of adsorbent, to heat transfer from heat change medium to the adsorbent. The time required for heating of adsorber filling is very important, because on it depend flexibility of cooling system. Zeolith has a large thermal resistance, therefore it had to be adapted the design and construction of adsorber. As the best shows the tube type of adsorber with double coat construction. By this construction is ensured thin layer of adsorbent and heating is quick in all volume of adsorbent. The process of heat transfer was experimentally measured, but for comparison simulated in ANSYS, too.

  19. Capture of formaldehyde by adsorption on nanoporous materials.

    PubMed

    Bellat, Jean-Pierre; Bezverkhyy, Igor; Weber, Guy; Royer, Sébastien; Averlant, Remy; Giraudon, Jean-Marc; Lamonier, Jean-François

    2015-12-30

    The aim of this work is to assess the capability of a series of nanoporous materials to capture gaseous formaldehyde by adsorption in order to develop air treatment process and gas detection in workspaces or housings. Adsorption-desorption isotherms have been accurately measured at room temperature by TGA under very low pressure (p<2 hPa) on various adsorbents, such as zeolites, mesoporous silica (SBA15), activated carbon (AC NORIT RB3) and metal organic framework (MOF, Ga-MIL-53), exhibiting a wide range of pore sizes and surface properties. Results reveal that the NaX, NaY and CuX faujasite (FAU) zeolites are materials which show strong adsorption capacity and high affinity toward formaldehyde. In addition, these materials can be completely regenerated by heating at 200°C under vacuum. These cationic zeolites are therefore promising candidates as adsorbents for the design of air depollution process or gas sensing applications.

  20. Adsorptive removal of nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) antiscalant from membrane concentrates by iron-coated waste filtration sand.

    PubMed

    Boels, L; Tervahauta, T; Witkamp, G J

    2010-10-15

    Iron-coated waste filtration sand was investigated as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) (NTMP) from membrane concentrates. The adsorption of this phosphonate-based antiscalant on this material was measured and compared with two commercially available anion exchange resins and activated carbon. Comprehensive adsorption experiments were conducted in several synthetic concentrate solutions and in a concentrate collected from a full scale nano-filtration brackish water desalination plant. The effect of pH, ionic strength and the presence of competitive anions on the equilibrium adsorption were investigated. The results showed that, in contrast to the anion exchange resins, the adsorption on coated filtration sand is not suppressed at increasing ionic strength and is much less affected by the competitive anions carbonate and sulphate. The adsorption decreased slightly when the pH was raised from 7.0 to 8.0. The adsorption isotherms in the real nano-filtration concentrate, measured in the concentration interval of 5-50 mg dm(-1) NTMP, showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of coated filtration sand was 4.06 mg g(-1). The adsorption capacity per unit mass of the adsorbents at low NTMP concentration (12.5 mg dm(-3)) followed the decreasing order Amberlite IRA-410>coated filtration sand>Amberlite IRA-900>Norit SAE Super. This demonstrates that the use of iron-coated waste filtration sand offers a promising means for the removal of NTMP from membrane concentrates.

  1. Deformation of Microporous Carbons during N2, Ar, and CO2 Adsorption: Insight from the Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Balzer, Christian; Cimino, Richard T; Gor, Gennady Y; Neimark, Alexander V; Reichenauer, Gudrun

    2016-08-16

    Using the nonlocal density functional theory, we investigate adsorption of N2 (77 K), Ar (77 K), and CO2 (273 K) and respective adsorption-induced deformation of microporous carbons. We show that the smallest micropores comparable in size and even smaller than the nominal molecular diameter of the adsorbate contribute significantly to the development of the adsorption stress. While pores of approximately the nominal adsorbate diameter exhibit no adsorption stress regardless of their filling level, the smaller pores cause expansive adsorption stresses up to almost 4 GPa. Accounting for this effect, we determined the pore-size distribution of a synthetic microporous carbon by simultaneously fitting its experimental CO2 adsorption isotherm (273 K) and corresponding adsorption-induced strain measured by in situ dilatometry. Based on the pore-size distribution and the elastic modulus fitted from CO2 data, we predicted the sample's strain isotherms during N2 and Ar adsorption (77 K), which were found to be in reasonable agreement with respective experimental data. The comparison of calculations and experimental results suggests that adsorption-induced deformation caused by micropores is not limited to the low relative pressures typically associated with the micropore filling, but is effective over the whole relative pressure range up to saturation pressure. PMID:27420036

  2. Adsorption isotherm of non-azeotropic solution onto porous adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bono, A.; Ramlan, N. A.; Anisuzzaman, S. M.; Chu, C. M.; Farm, Y. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Adsorption isotherm is essential component in the understanding of the adsorption process. Several methods of the measurements, analysis and interpretation of adsorption from solution have been reported in the literature. Most of the measurements of adsorption isotherm from solution were involved the measurement of excess isotherm conducted at low region of sorbates concentration. Direct interpretation of excess adsorption isotherm as adsorption isotherm is always been practice. Therefore, in this work a study on the measurement of the adsorption isotherm from solution of non-azeotropic organic solvent mixture onto porous adsorbents for whole range of liquid concentration was conducted. The study included the measurement of excess adsorption isotherm using conventional technique. Theoretical analysis and interpretation of adsorption isotherm from the excess isotherm were conducted using Pseudo Ideal Adsorption, Gibbs Dividing Plane Model and Langmuir-Fruendlich binary isotherm model. For organic solvents, acetone and propanol were chosen as the adsorbates due to the non-azeotropic properties in the mixture. Activated carbon and silicalite were chosen as adsorbents due to the different in their porosity such as macro porous and micro porous structure. The result of the study has revealed that the adsorption isotherm of non-azeotropic mixture onto activated carbon and silicalite can be interpreted as monolayer type of adsorption.

  3. Study of the physical properties of a mesogenic mixture showing induced smectic A(d) phase by refractive index, density and x-ray diffraction measurements.

    PubMed

    Roy, P D; Prasad, A; Das, M K

    2009-02-18

    The binary mixture of 4-n-pentyl phenyl 4-n'-hexyloxy benzoate (ME6O.5) and p-cyanophenyl trans-4-pentyl cyclohexane carboxylate (CPPCC) shows the presence of an induced smectic A(d) phase in a certain concentration range 0.03measurements are reported here. In general, the change in birefringence is continuous at the smectic A(d) to nematic phase transition for mixtures with x>0.33, whereas there is a discontinuity in these values for mixtures with x<0.33, consistent with the density and transition entropy measurements done on this system. The orientational order parameter, measured from x-ray diffraction studies, are somewhat smaller than those obtained from refractive index measurement in the induced smectic phase for all the mixtures. In the smectic phase, the OOP values initially increases with molar concentration up to x = 0.24 and then decreases showing a broad minima around x = 0.4. The variation of layer thickness in the induced smectic phase with composition has been explained by assuming the formation of homo- and heterodimers. We conclude that the possible packing of molecules in the induced smectic A(d) phase stabilizes the layers but increases the orientational free volume, consistent with the lower orientational order parameter.

  4. Adsorption of lead(II) on O₂-plasma-oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes: thermodynamics, kinetics, and desorption.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin-Yao; Luo, Tao; Zhang, Yong-Xing; Jia, Yong; Zhu, Bang-Jing; Fu, Xu-Cheng; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2011-07-01

    O(2)-plasma-oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (po-MWCNTs) have been used as an adsorbent for adsorption of lead(II) in water. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy measurements show that the bulk properties of MWCNTs were not changed after O(2)-plasma oxidation. The adsorption capacity of MWCNTs for lead(II) was greatly enhanced after plasma oxidation mainly because of the introduction of oxygen-containing functional groups onto the surface of MWCNTs. The removal of lead(II) by po-MWCNTs occurs rather quickly, and the adsorption kinetics can be well described by the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption isotherm of lead(II) onto MWCNTs fits the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption of lead(II) onto MWCNTs is strongly dependent upon the pH values. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows that the adsorption mechanism is mainly due to the chemical interaction between lead(II) and the surface functional groups of po-MWCNTs. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH°, ΔS°, and ΔG°) calculated from the adsorption isotherms suggest that the adsorption of lead(II) onto MWCNTs is endothermic and spontaneous. The regeneration performance shows that lead(II) can be easily regenerated from po-MWCNTs by altering the pH values of the solution.

  5. Adsorption of phenolic compound by aged-refuse.

    PubMed

    Xiaoli, Chai; Youcai, Zhao

    2006-09-01

    The adsorption of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol by aged-refuse has been studied. Adsorption isotherms have been determined for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol and the data fits well to the Freundlich equation. The chlorinated phenols are absorbed more strongly than the phenol and the adsorption capacity has an oblivious relationship with the numbers and the position of chlorine subsistent. The experiment data suggests that both the partition function and the chemical adsorption involve in the adsorption process. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model were applied to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption and the results show that it fit the pseudo-second-order model. More than one step involves in the adsorption process and the overall rate of the adsorption process appears to be controlled by the chemical reaction. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic.

  6. Modeling the adsorption of mixed gases based on pure gas adsorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzabar, N.; Holland, H. J.; Vermeer, C. H.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Sorption-based Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers usually operate with pure gases. A sorption-based compressor has many benefits; however, it is limited by the pressure ratios it can provide. Using a mixed-refrigerant (MR) instead of a pure refrigerant in JT cryocoolers allows working at much lower pressure ratios. Therefore, it is attractive using MRs in sorption- based cryocoolers in order to reduce one of its main limitations. The adsorption of mixed gases is usually investigated under steady-state conditions, mainly for storage and separation processes. However, the process in a sorption compressor goes through various temperatures, pressures and adsorption concentrations; therefore, it differs from the common mixed gases adsorption applications. In order to simulate the sorption process in a compressor a numerical analysis for mixed gases is developed, based on pure gas adsorption characteristics. The pure gas adsorption properties have been measured for four gases (nitrogen, methane, ethane, and propane) with Norit-RB2 activated carbon. A single adsorption model is desired to describe the adsorption of all four gases. This model is further developed to a mixed-gas adsorption model. In future work more adsorbents will be tested using these four gases and the adsorption model will be verified against experimental results of mixed-gas adsorption measurements.

  7. Hydrogen Adsorption on Activated Carbon an Carbon Nanotubes Using Volumetric Differential Pressure Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sanip, S. M.; Saidin, M. A. R.; Aziz, M.; Ismail, A. F.

    2010-03-11

    A simple hydrogen adsorption measurement system utilizing the volumetric differential pressure technique has been designed, fabricated and calibrated. Hydrogen adsorption measurements have been carried out at temperatures 298 K and 77 K on activate carbon and carbon nanotubes with different surface areas. The adsorption data obtained will be helpful in understanding the adsorption property of the studied carbon materials using the fundamentals of adsorption theory. The principle of the system follows the Sievert-type method. The system measures a change in pressure between the reference cell, R1 and the sample cell S1, S2, S3 over a certain temperature range, R1, S1, S2, and S3 having known fixed volume. The sample temperatures will be monitored by thermocouple TC while the pressures in R1 an S1, S2, S3 will be measured using a digital pressure transducer. The maximum operating pressure of the pressure transducer is 20 bar and calibrated with an accuracy of +-0.01 bar. High purity hydrogen is being used in the system and the amount of samples for the study is between 1.0-2.0 grams. The system was calibrated using helium gas without any samples in S1, S2 an S3. This will provide a correction factor during the adsorption process providing an adsorption free reference point when using hydrogen gas resulting in a more accurate reading of the adsorption process by eliminating the errors caused by temperature expansion effects and other non-adsorption related phenomena. The ideal gas equation of state is applied to calculate the hydrogen adsorption capacity based on the differential pressure measurements. Activated carbon with a surface area of 644.87 m{sup 2}/g showed a larger amount of adsorption as compared to multiwalled nanotubes (commercial) with a surface area of 119.68 m{sup 2}/g. This study als indicated that there is a direct correlation between the amounts of hydrogen adsorbed an surface area of the carbon materials under the conditions studied and that the

  8. Hydrogen Adsorption on Activated Carbon an Carbon Nanotubes Using Volumetric Differential Pressure Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanip, S. M.; Saidin, M. A. R.; Aziz, M.; Ismail, A. F.

    2010-03-01

    A simple hydrogen adsorption measurement system utilizing the volumetri differential pressure technique has been designed, fabricated and calibrated. Hydroge adsorption measurements have been carried out at temperatures 298 K and 77 K on activate carbon and carbon nanotubes with different surface areas. The adsorption data obtained will b helpful in understanding the adsorption property of the studied carbon materials using th fundamentals of adsorption theory. The principle of the system follows the Sievert-type metho The system measures a change in pressure between the reference cell, R1 and the sample cell S1, S2, S3 over a certain temperature range. R1, S1, S2, and S3 having known fixed volume The sample temperatures will be monitored by thermocouple TC while the pressures in R1 an S1, S2, S3 will be measured using a digital pressure transducer. The maximum operatin pressure of the pressure transducer is 20 bar and calibrated with an accuracy of ±0.01 bar. Hig purity hydrogen is being used in the system and the amount of samples for the study is betwee 1.0-2.0 grams. The system was calibrated using helium gas without any samples in S1, S2 an S3. This will provide a correction factor during the adsorption process providing an adsorption free reference point when using hydrogen gas resulting in a more accurate reading of th adsorption process by eliminating the errors caused by temperature expansion effects and oth non-adsorption related phenomena. The ideal gas equation of state is applied to calculate th hydrogen adsorption capacity based on the differential pressure measurements. Activated carbo with a surface area of 644.87 m2/g showed a larger amount of adsorption as compared to multiwalled nanotubes (commercial) with a surface area of 119.68 m2/g. This study als indicated that there is a direct correlation between the amounts of hydrogen adsorbed an surface area of the carbon materials under the conditions studied and that the adsorption significant at 77

  9. Surface chemistry of ferrihydrite: Part 2. Kinetics of arsenate adsorption and coprecipitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, C.C.; Dadis, J.A.; Waychunas, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics of As(V) adsorption by ferrihydrite was investigated in coprecipitation and postsynthesis adsorption experiments conducted in the pH range 7.5-9.0. In coprecipitation experiments, As(V) was present in solution during the hydrolysis and precipitation of iron. In adsorption experiments, a period of rapid (<5 min) As(V) uptake from solution was followed by continued uptake for at least eight days, as As(V) diffused to adsorption sites on ferrihydrite surfaces within aggregates of colloidal particles. The time dependence of As(V) adsorption is well described by a general model for diffusion into a sphere if a subset of surface sites located near the exterior of aggregates is assumed to attain adsorptive equilibrium rapidly. The kinetics of As(V) desorption after an increase in pH were also consistent with diffusion as a rate-limiting process. Aging of pure ferrihydrite prior to As(V) adsorption caused a decrease in adsorption sites on the precipitate owing to crystallite growth. In coprecipitation experiments, the initial As(V) uptake was significantly greater than in post-synthesis adsorption experiments, and the rate of uptake was not diffusion limited because As(V) was coordinated by surface sites before crystallite growth and coagulation processes could proceed. After the initial adsorption, As(V) was slowly released from coprecipitates for at least one month, as crystallite growth caused desorption of As(V). Adsorption densities as high as 0.7 mole As(V) per mole of Fe were measured in coprecipitates, in comparison to 0.25 mole As(V) per mole of Fe in post-synthesis adsorption experiments. Despite the high Concentration of As(V) in the precipitates, EXAFS spectroscopy (Waychunas et al., 1993) showed that neither ferric arsenate nor any other As-bearing surface precipitate or solid solution was formed. The high adsorption densities are possible because the ferrihydrite particles are extremely small, approaching the size of small dioctahedral chains at

  10. Determination of the adsorptive capacity and adsorption isotherm of vapor-phase mercury chloride on powdered activated carbon using thermogravimetric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsun-Yu Lin; Chung-Shin Yuan; Wei-Ching Chen; Chung-Hsuang Hung

    2006-11-15

    This study investigated the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine the adsorptive capacity and adsorption isotherm of vapor-phase mercury chloride on powdered activated carbon (PAC). The technique is commonly applied to remove mercury-containing air pollutants from gas streams emitted from municipal solid waste incinerators. An alternative form of powdered activated carbon derived from a pyrolyzed tire char was prepared for use herein. The capacity of waste tire-derived PAC to adsorb vapor-phase HgCl{sub 2} was successfully measured using a self-designed TGA adsorption system. Experimental results showed that the maximum adsorptive capacities of HgCl{sub 2} were 1.75, 0.688, and 0.230 mg of HgCl{sub 2} per gram of powdered activated carbon derived from carbon black at 30, 70, and 150{sup o} for 500 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of HgCl{sub 2}, respectively. Four adsorption isotherms obtained using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, and Brunauer-Emmett-eller (BET) models were used to simulate the adsorption of HgCl{sub 2}. The comparison of experimental data associated with the four adsorption isotherms indicated that BET fit the experimental results better than did the other isotherms at 30{sup o}, whereas the Freundlich isotherm fit the experimental results better at 70 and 150{sup o}. Furthermore, the calculations of the parameters associated with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms revealed that the adsorption of HgCl{sub 2} by PAC-derived carbon black favored adsorption at various HgCl{sub 2} concentrations and temperatures. 35 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. [Fluoride adsorption form drinking water by granular lanthanum alginate].

    PubMed

    Huo, Ya-Kun; Ding, Wen-Ming; Huang, Xia

    2010-11-01

    Granular lanthanum alginate was prepared by dripping solved sodium alginate into lanthanum chloride solution. After washed and dried, sorbent with 1-1.5 mm diameter, 25% (mass fraction) La content was made and applied for fluoride removal from drinking test. Adsorption performance such as adsorption rate, adsorption isotherm, pH and disturbing ions effects were tested in batch adsorption. The changes of adsorbent surface and the solution composition before and after adsorption were also studied. Results showed that the adsorption rate was fast, fluoride concentration trend to stable after 2h reaction, and the adsorption rate fit for pseudo second order equation. The adsorption was significantly affected by pH and some disturbing ions, optimum pH = 4, phosphate and carbonate reduced adsorption. Adsorption isotherm fitted Langmuir equation well; the max adsorption capacity was 197.2 mg x g(-1). SEM photographs of sorbent before and after adsorption showed significantly different surface morphology; EDX composition analysis of sorbent surface and solution concentration changes before and after adsorption showed that ion exchange take placed between solution F- and sorbent surface Cl- and OH-.

  12. The effect of pre-adsorption of OVA or WPC on subsequent OVA or WPC fouling on heated stainless steel surface.

    PubMed

    Lv, Huiting; Huang, Song; Mercadé-Prieto, Ruben; Wu, Xue E; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2015-05-01

    Fouling on the heat exchanger surface during food processing has been researched extensively due to its great importance in energy efficiency, product quality and food safety. The nature of heat exchanger surface has an effect on the initial deposition behavior and deposit removal behavior to some degree. Protein adsorption on surface is considered to be the initial stage in fouling. In the current study, protein 'pre-adsorption' at room temperature on stainless steel has been investigated as a means to influence the behavior of protein fouling at pasteurization temperatures. Pre-adsorption was carried out with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and ovalbumin (OVA), respectively, which reduced the fouling of OVA (∼20-30% energy saving in the processing time examined). However, the pre-adsorption had little effect on fouling of whey protein concentrate. Contact angles were measured to show the surface change due to protein pre-adsorption. Protein pre-adsorption made the surfaces more hydrophilic.

  13. Partition and water/oil adsorption of some surfactants.

    PubMed

    Tadmouri, Rawad; Zedde, Chantal; Routaboul, Corinne; Micheau, Jean-Claude; Pimienta, Véronique

    2008-10-01

    Adsorption isotherms have been determined at the water/oil interface for five biphasic systems involving surfactants (non-ionic and ionic) present in both phases at partition equilibrium. The systems studied were polyoxyethylene(23)lauryl ether (Brij35) in water/hexane and four ionic surfactants, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and a series of three tetraalkylammonium dodecylsulfate (TEADS, TPADS, and TBADS) in water/CH 2Cl 2. Interfacial tension measurements performed at the water/air and water/oil interfaces provided all the necessary information for the determination of the adsorption parameters by taking partition into account. These measurements also allowed the comparison of the adsorption properties at both interfaces which showed an increase of the adsorption equilibrium constant and a decrease of the maximum surface concentration at the water/oil interface compared to water/air. The values of the critical aggregation concentration showed, in all cases, that only the surfactant dissolved in the aqueous phase contribute to the decrease of the water/oil interfacial tension. In the case of the four ionic surfactants, the critical aggregation concentration obtained in biphasic conditions were lowered because of the formation of mixed surfactant-CH 2Cl 2 aggregates.

  14. Adsorptive potential of cationic Basic Yellow 2 (BY2) dye onto natural untreated clay (NUC) from aqueous phase: Mass transfer analysis, kinetic and equilibrium profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztürk, A.; Malkoc, E.

    2014-04-01

    In this work, natural untreated clay (NUC) was studied for the removal of Basic Yellow 2 (BY2) from aqueous solution in batch system. The effects of initial BY2 concentration, contact time, solution temperature and solution pH on BY2 adsorption were investigated. Nitrogen sorption measurements were employed to investigate the variation in surface and pore properties after dye adsorption. The adsorbent was characterized by means of FTIR, PSD, TEM, XRD and BET analysis. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Scatchard isotherm models. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 833.33 mg/g at 25 °C (at room temperature). The pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided the best fit to the experimental datas compared with pseudo-first-order kinetic adsorption models. To explain mass transfer mechanism of BY2 adsorption, obtained experimental datas were applied Weber and Morris model, Body and Frusawa and Smith models. The results show that the adsorption process is controlled by film diffusion. The thermodynamic parameters such as, Gibbs free energy changes (ΔG°), standard enthalpy change (ΔH°) and standard entropy change (ΔS°) were determined. Adsorption of BY2 on NUC is exothermic and spontaneous in nature. The calculated activation energy of adsorption was found to be 5.24 kJ/mol for BY2. This value indicates that the adsorption process is a physisorption.

  15. Determination of the orientational order parameter of a binary mixture showing an induced smectic A(d) phase from magnetic susceptibility measurements.

    PubMed

    Roy, Prithwi Dev; Das, Banani; Das, Malay Kumar

    2009-08-19

    The diamagnetic susceptibility anisotropy (Δχ) measurement of a binary mixture comprising of a strongly polar mesogen (CPPCC) and a weakly polar mesogen (ME6O.5) showing an induced smectic A(d) phase is reported here. Assuming an axially symmetric molecule, the temperature dependence of the orientational order parameter ⟨P(2)⟩ has been investigated from the anisotropy of the susceptibility at different temperatures throughout the entire composition range. The results are compared with x-ray and optical birefringence measurements along with the mean-field theory of the smectic A phase. The maximum in the stability of the smectic A(d) phase (at x(CPPCC) = 0.33) corresponds to the minimum in the order parameter values. The order of the smectic to nematic phase transition has also been discussed.

  16. Albumin (BSA) Adsorption over Graphene in Aqueous Environment: Influence of Orientation, Adsorption Protocol, and Solvent Treatment.

    PubMed

    Vilhena, J G; Rubio-Pereda, Pamela; Vellosillo, Perceval; Serena, P A; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-02-23

    We report 150 ns explicit solvent MD simulations of the adsorption on graphene of albumin (BSA) in two orientations and using two different adsorption protocols, i.e., free and forced adsorption. Our results show that free adsorption occurs with little structural rearrangements. Even taking adsorption to an extreme, by forcing it with a 5 nN downward force applied during the initial 20 ns, we show that along a particular orientation BSA is able to preserve the structural properties of the majority of its binding sites. Furthermore, in all the cases considered in this work, the ibuprofen binding site has shown a strong resilience to structural changes. Finally, we compare these results with implicit solvent simulations and find that the latter predicts an extreme protein unfolding upon adsorption. The origin of this discrepancy is attributed to a poor description of the water entropic forces at interfaces in the implicit solvent methods.

  17. Albumin (BSA) Adsorption over Graphene in Aqueous Environment: Influence of Orientation, Adsorption Protocol, and Solvent Treatment.

    PubMed

    Vilhena, J G; Rubio-Pereda, Pamela; Vellosillo, Perceval; Serena, P A; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-02-23

    We report 150 ns explicit solvent MD simulations of the adsorption on graphene of albumin (BSA) in two orientations and using two different adsorption protocols, i.e., free and forced adsorption. Our results show that free adsorption occurs with little structural rearrangements. Even taking adsorption to an extreme, by forcing it with a 5 nN downward force applied during the initial 20 ns, we show that along a particular orientation BSA is able to preserve the structural properties of the majority of its binding sites. Furthermore, in all the cases considered in this work, the ibuprofen binding site has shown a strong resilience to structural changes. Finally, we compare these results with implicit solvent simulations and find that the latter predicts an extreme protein unfolding upon adsorption. The origin of this discrepancy is attributed to a poor description of the water entropic forces at interfaces in the implicit solvent methods. PMID:26799950

  18. Adsorption of halogenated hydrocarbons from aqueous solutions by wetted and nonwetted hydrophobic and hydrophilic sorbents: Equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Rexwinkel, G.; Heesink, B.B.M.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1999-12-01

    Single-solute adsorption equilibria of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, trans-1,2-dichloroethene, chloroform, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and dichloromethane dissolved in water have been measured, using both wetted and nonwetted hydrophobic Amberlite XAD-4 resin at 20 C. The results could be described by means of Freundlich isotherms indicating the heterogeneity of the Amberlite XAD-4 surface. Wetted and nonwetted Amberlite XAD-4 showed identical adsorption capacities. The influence of the ionic strength on the adsorption capacity of Amberlite XAD-4 for 1,1,1-trichloroethane has been measured by adding KCI to the aqueous solution. The apparent adsorption capacity was found to increase with salt concentration due to the salting-out effect. Adsorption equilibria of dichloromethane, which is generally regarded as a key component with regard to water treatment demands, have also been measured using several other synthetic resins, as well as activated carbon. The order of increasing adsorption capacity was found to be Amberlite XAD-7 {le} Amberlite XAD-4 {approximately} Dowex XUS 43493.00 {le} Norit ROW 0.8 SUPRA {le} Ambersorb XE-572 {le} Ambersorb XE-563.

  19. MEG-measured auditory steady-state oscillations show high test-retest reliability: A sensor and source-space analysis.

    PubMed

    Tan, H-R M; Gross, J; Uhlhaas, P J

    2015-11-15

    Stability of oscillatory signatures across magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurements is an important prerequisite for basic and clinical research that has been insufficiently addressed. Here, we evaluated the test-retest reliability of auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) over two MEG sessions. The study required participants (N=13) to detect the rare occurrence of pure tones interspersed within a stream of 5 Hz or 40 Hz amplitude-modulated (AM) tones. Intraclass correlations (ICC; Shrout and Fleiss, 1979) were derived to assess stability of spectral power changes and the inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) of task-elicited neural responses. ASSRs source activity was estimated using eLORETA beamforming from bilateral auditory cortex. ASSRs to 40 Hz AM stimuli evoked stronger power modulation and phase-locking than 5 Hz stimulation. Overall, spectral power and ITPC values at both sensor- and source-level showed robust ICC values. Notably, ITPC measures yielded higher ICCs (~0.86-0.96) between sessions compared to the assessment of spectral power change (~0.61-0.82). Our data indicate that spectral modulations and phase consistency of ASSRs in MEG data are highly reproducible, providing support for MEG-measured oscillatory parameters in basic and clinical research.

  20. H2O Adsorption Kinetics on Smectites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Howard, J.; Quinn, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    The adsorptive equilibration of H2O with montomorillonite has been measured. At low temperatures and pressures equilibration can require many hours, effectively preventing smectites at the martian surface from responding to diurnal pressure and temperature variations.

  1. Fluorescence measurements show stronger cold inhibition of photosynthetic light reactions in Scots pine compared to Norway spruce as well as during spring compared to autumn.

    PubMed

    Linkosalo, Tapio; Heikkinen, Juha; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Mäkipää, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    We studied the photosynthetic activity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) in relation to air temperature changes from March 2013 to February 2014. We measured the chlorophyll fluorescence of approximately 50 trees of each species growing in southern Finland. Fluorescence was measured 1-3 times per week. We began by measuring shoots present in late winter (i.e., March 2013) before including new shoots once they started to elongate in spring. By July, when the spring shoots had achieved similar fluorescence levels to the older ones, we proceeded to measure the new shoots only. We analyzed the data by fitting a sigmoidal model containing four parameters to link sliding averages of temperature and fluorescence. A parameter defining the temperature range over which predicted fluorescence increased most rapidly was the most informative with in describing temperature dependence of fluorescence. The model generated similar fluorescence patterns for both species, but differences were observed for critical temperature and needle age. Down regulation of the light reaction was stronger in spring than in autumn. Pine showed more conservative control of the photosynthetic light reactions, which were activated later in spring and more readily attenuated in autumn. Under the assumption of a close correlation of fluorescence and photosynthesis, spruce should therefore benefit more than pine from the increased photosynthetic potential during warmer springs, but be more likely to suffer frost damage with a sudden cooling following a warm period. The winter of 2013-2014 was unusually mild and similar to future conditions predicted by global climate models. During the mild winter, the activity of photosynthetic light reactions of both conifers, especially spruce, remained high. Because light levels during winter are too low for photosynthesis, this activity may translate to a net carbon loss due to respiration.

  2. Comparative Adsorption of Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids at the Iron Oxide/Oil Interface.

    PubMed

    Wood, Mary H; Casford, M T; Steitz, R; Zarbakhsh, A; Welbourn, R J L; Clarke, Stuart M

    2016-01-19

    A detailed comparison of the adsorption behavior of long straight chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids at the iron oxide/oil interface has been considered using a combination of surface study techniques. Both depletion isotherms and polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) show that the extent of adsorption decreases as the number of double bonds in the alkyl chains increases. Sum frequency generation spectroscopic measurements demonstrate that there is also an increase in chain disorder within the adsorbed layer as the unsaturation increases. However, for the unsaturated analogues, a decrease in peak intensity is seen for the double bond peak upon heating, which is thought to arise from isomerization in the surface-bound layer. The PNR study of oleic acid adsorption indicates chemisorbed monolayer adsorption, with a further diffuse reversible adsorbed layer formed at higher concentrations. PMID:26707597

  3. Kinetics and mechanism of removal of methylene blue by adsorption onto perlite.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Mehmet; Alkan, Mahir; Türkyilmaz, Aydin; Ozdemir, Yasemin

    2004-06-18

    The kinetics and mechanism of methylene blue adsorption on perlite have been studied. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as initial dye concentration, temperature and pH on the adsorption rate were investigated. Adsorption measurements show that the process is very fast and physical in nature. The extent of the dye removal increased with increase in the initial concentration of the dye and the initial pH and temperature of solution. Adsorption data were modelled using the first and second-order kinetic equations, mass transfer and intra-particle diffusion models. It was shown that the second-order kinetic equation could best describe the sorption kinetics. The diffusion coefficient, D, was found to increase when the initial dye concentration, pH and temperature were raised. Thermodynamic activation parameters, such as DeltaG*, DeltaS* and DeltaH*, were calculated.

  4. Characterizing Nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms in soils using multifractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz Ferreiro, Jorge; Miranda, José G. V.; Vidal Vázquez, Eva

    2010-05-01

    The specific surface area is an attribute known to characterize the soil ability to retain and transport nutrients and water. A number of studies have shown that specific surface area correlates cation exchange capacity, organic matter content, water retention, aggregate stability and clay swelling. In the past fractal theory has been widely used to study different gas adsorption isotherms like water vapour and nitrogen adsorption isotherms. More recently we have shown that nitrogen adsorption isotherms showed multifractal nature. In this work, both N2 adsorption and desorption isotherms measured in a Mollisol were examined as a probability measure using the multifractal formalism in order to determinate its possible multifractal behaviour. Soil samples were collected in two different series of an Argiudoll located in the north of Buenos Aires and in the south of Santa Fe provinces, Argentina. Two treatments of each soil series were sampled at three depths, without replication, resulting in six samples per soil series and a total of twelve samples analyzed. Multifractal analysis was performed using the box counting method. Both, the N2 adsorption and desorption isotherms exhibited a well defined scaling behaviour indicating a fully developed multifractal structure of each isotherm branch. The singularity spectra and Rényi dimension spectra obtained for adsorption and also for desorption isotherms had shapes similar to the spectra of multifractal measures and several parameters were extracted from these spectra. The capacity dimension, D0, for both N2 adsorption and desorption data sets were not significantly different from 1.00. However, nitrogen adsorption and desorption data showed significantly different values of entropy dimension, D1, and correlation dimension, D2. For instance, entropy dimension values extracted from multifractal spectra of adsorption isotherms were on average 0.578 and varied from 0.501 to 0.666. In contrast, the corresponding figures for

  5. Studies of gas adsorption in flexible Metal-Organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sircar, Sarmishtha

    Flexible Metal-Organic frameworks that exhibit a gate-opening (GO) adsorption mechanism have potential for gas separations and gas storage. The GO phenomenon occurs when molecular gates in the structure expand/contract in response to the activation/de-activation of a system variable e.g. temperature, pressure or gas. Sharp discontinuities in the isotherm leading to S-shapes and large adsorption-desorption hysteresis are typical of this phenomenon. This study investigates the kinetics and thermodynamics of the GO behavior by combining adsorption measurements and analytical modeling of adsorption kinetics and capacity as a function of adsorbate, GO pressure, and temperature. Basic understanding of GO mechanism will help harness GO-MOF's as adsorbents for gas separations and storage. Experiments were performed on two precharacterized MOFs with verified GO behavior. These are (1) Zn2(bpdc)2(bpee), which expands from a relative amorphous to crystalline structure and (2) Cu[(dhbc) 2(4,4f-bpy)]H2O, a mutually interdigitated 2-D structure (bpdc = biphenyldicarboxylate, bpee = 1,2]bipyridylethene; DMF = N,N-dimethyl formamide, dhbc= 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, bpy=bipyridine). Both sub- and super-critical adsorption data were collected using three adsorption units: a standard low-pressure volumetric adsorption unit, a commercial high-pressure gravimetric analyzer and a custom-built high-pressure differential volumetric unit. Collected laboratory data were combined with published adsorption rate and isotherm data for analysis to broaden the range of data collection. The accuracy of the high-pressure differential unit was improved by over 300-fold by changing analytical methods of processing data to establish a reliable null correction. A pronounced effect of the allowed experimental time was found at cryogenic temperatures on (1). Tightening the stability criteria used by the adsorption equipment to determine equilibration increased the experimental time from the order of

  6. Multimodal underwater adsorption of oxide nanoparticles on catechol-based polymer nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Uchiyama, Shun; Miyashita, Tokuji; Mitsuishi, Masaya

    2016-03-01

    Multimodal underwater adsorption behaviour of catechol units was demonstrated by examining the adsorption of different oxide nanoparticles on nanoscale-integrated polymer nanosheets. Catechol-based polymer nanosheets were fabricated using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique with random copolymers (p(DDA/DMA)s) of N-dodecylacrylamide (DDA) and dopamine methacrylamide (DMA). The p(DDA/DMA) nanosheets were immersed into water dispersions of SiO2, Al2O3, and WO3 nanoparticles (NPs) respectively. The results show that the adsorption properties can be altered by varying the NP type: SiO2 NP adsorption was observed only below pH = 6, at which the o-quinone form in p(DDA/DMA) nanosheets transforms into the catechol form or vice versa. However, their transition point for Al2O3 NP adsorption was found at approximately pH 10, at which the surface potential of Al2O3 NPs changes the charge polarity, indicating that the electrostatic interaction is predominant. For WO3 NPs, adsorption was observed when citric acid, which modifies the surface of WO3 NPs by complex formation, was used as a pH-controlling agent, but no adsorption was found for hydrochloric acid used as a pH controlling agent. FT-IR measurements proved that miniscule amounts of water molecules were trapped in p(DDA/DMA) nanosheets and that they acquired hydrogen bonding network formations, which might assist nanoparticle adsorption underwater and make the catechol units adjustable. The results indicate that the nanoscale spatial arrangements of catechol units in films are crucially important for the application of multimodal adsorption of oxide nanoparticles on catechol-based polymer materials.Multimodal underwater adsorption behaviour of catechol units was demonstrated by examining the adsorption of different oxide nanoparticles on nanoscale-integrated polymer nanosheets. Catechol-based polymer nanosheets were fabricated using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique with random copolymers (p(DDA/DMA)s) of N

  7. Arsenic Adsorption Equilibrium Concentration and Adsorption Rate of Activated Carbon Coated with Ferric-Aluminum Hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Oguma, T.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2015-12-01

    In some areas of developing countries, ground or well water contaminated with arsenic has been reluctantly used as drinking water. It is highly desirable that effective and inexpensive arsenic removal agents should be developed and provided to reduce the potential health risk. Previous studies demonstrated that activated carbon coated with ferric-aluminum hydroxides (Fe-Al-C) has high adsorptive potential for removal of arsenic. In this study, a series of experiments using Fe-Al-C were carried to discuss adsorption equilibrium time, adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorption rate of arsenic for Fe-Al-C. Fe-Al-C used in this study was provided by Astec Co., Ltd. Powder reagent of disodium hydrogen arsenate heptahydrate was dissolved into ion-exchanged water. The solution was then further diluted with ion-exchanged water to be 1 and 10 mg/L as arsenic concentration. The pH of the solution was adjusted to be around 7 by adding HCl and/or NaOH. The solution was used as artificial arsenic contaminated water in two types of experiments (arsenic adsorption equilibrium and arsenic adsorption rate tests). The results of the arsenic equilibrium tests were showed that a time period of about 3 days to reach apparent adsorption equilibrium for arsenic. The apparent adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorbed amount of arsenic on Fe-Al-C adsorbent could be estimated by application of various adsorption isotherms, but the distribution coefficient of arsenic between solid and liquid varies with experimental conditions such as initial concentration of arsenic and addition concentration of adsorbent. An adsorption rate equation that takes into account the reduction in the number of effective adsorption sites on the adsorbent caused by the arsenic adsorption reaction was derived based on the data obtained from the arsenic adsorption rate tests.

  8. CO2 adsorption on single-walled dahlia-like carbon nanohorns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohorquez, Jaime; Krungleviciute, Vaiva; Migone, Aldo; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio

    2010-03-01

    The adsorption of CO2 on spherical aggregates of as-produced (i.e., closed) dahlia-like single-walled carbon nanohorns was investigated. We conducted volumetric adsorption measurements at five temperatures between 147 and 180 K. The shape of the isotherms for CO2 is very different from those measured with neon and CF4. For CO2 there is a single, smeared step in the adsorption data between the lowest coverages and saturation. By contrast, Ne and CF4 show two distinct substeps on the same substrate. The isosteric heat was also obtained and its dependence on coverage also showed an usual behavior: it increased with increasing coverage. The isosteric heat decreases with coverage both for Ne and CF4. The stronger intermolecular interactions present for CO2 probably are responsible for this adsorbate's unusual behavior. Comparisons with the behavior reported in the literature for CO2 on SWNTs, which shows similar unusual characteristics, will also be made.

  9. Analysis of conservative tracer measurement results using the Frechet distribution at planted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel and showing the effect of clogging processes.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Ernő; Klincsik, Mihály

    2015-11-01

    A mathematical process, developed in Maple environment, has been successful in decreasing the error of measurement results and in the precise calculation of the moments of corrected tracer functions. It was proved that with this process, the measured tracer results of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel (HSFCW-C) can be fitted more accurately than with the conventionally used distribution functions (Gaussian, Lognormal, Fick (Inverse Gaussian) and Gamma). This statement is true only for the planted HSFCW-Cs. The analysis of unplanted HSFCW-Cs needs more research. The result of the analysis shows that the conventional solutions (completely stirred series tank reactor (CSTR) model and convection-dispersion transport (CDT) model) cannot describe these types of transport processes with sufficient accuracy. These outcomes can help in developing better process descriptions of very difficult transport processes in HSFCW-Cs. Furthermore, a new mathematical process can be developed for the calculation of real hydraulic residence time (HRT) and dispersion coefficient values. The presented method can be generalized to other kinds of hydraulic environments.

  10. Adsorption of thorium from aqueous solutions by perlite.

    PubMed

    Talip, Z; Eral, M; Hiçsönmez, U

    2009-02-01

    The use of expanded perlite for the adsorption of thorium from aqueous solution by batch technique is presented. The effects of particle size, pH of the solution, initial thorium concentration, shaking time, V/m ratio and temperature were determined. It was found that the adsorption capacity increases by the increase in the pH of the suspensions. The rate of thorium adsorption on expanded perlite was observed to be fast in the first hour of the reaction time. Adsorption isotherms were expressed by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models and the adsorption experiments conducted at 30 +/- 1 degrees C showed that the adsorption isotherms correlated well with the Langmuir model. From the adsorption data, thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaG(o), DeltaH(o) and DeltaS(o) were calculated as a function of temperature.

  11. Adsorption kinetics of methyl violet onto perlite.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Mehmet; Alkan, Mahir

    2003-01-01

    This study examines adsorption kinetics and activation parameters of methyl violet on perlite. The effect of process parameters like contact time, concentration of dye, temperature and pH on the extent of methyl violet adsorption from solution has been investigated. Results of the kinetic studies show that the adsorption reaction is first order with respect to dye solution concentration with activation energy of 13.2 kJ mol(-1). This low activation energy value indicates that the adsorption reaction is diffusion controlled. The activation parameters using Arrhenius and Eyring equations have been calculated. Adsorption increases with increase of variables such as contact time, initial dye concentration, temperature and pH.

  12. Evaluation of the potassium adsorption capacity of a potassium adsorption filter during rapid blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, H; Akatsuka, Y; Muramatsu, C; Isogai, S; Sugiura, Y; Arakawa, S; Murayama, M; Kurahashi, M; Takasuga, H; Oshige, T; Yuba, T; Mizuta, S; Emi, N

    2015-05-01

    The concentration of extracellular potassium in red blood cell concentrates (RCCs) increases during storage, leading to risk of hyperkalemia. A potassium adsorption filter (PAF) can eliminate the potassium at normal blood transfusion. This study aimed to investigate the potassium adsorption capacity of a PAF during rapid blood transfusion. We tested several different potassium concentrations under a rapid transfusion condition using a pressure bag. The adsorption rates of the 70-mEq/l model were 76·8%. The PAF showed good potassium adsorption capacity, suggesting that this filter may provide a convenient method to prevent hyperkalemia during rapid blood transfusion.

  13. Adsorption Refrigeration System

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kai; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption refrigeration is an environmentally friendly cooling technology which could be driven by recovered waste heat or low-grade heat such as solar energy. In comparison with absorption system, an adsorption system has no problems such as corrosion at high temperature and salt crystallization. In comparison with vapor compression refrigeration system, it has the advantages of simple control, no moving parts and less noise. This paper introduces the basic theory of adsorption cycle as well as the advanced adsorption cycles such as heat and mass recovery cycle, thermal wave cycle and convection thermal wave cycle. The types, characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of different adsorbents used in adsorption refrigeration systems are also summarized. This article will increase the awareness of this emerging cooling technology among the HVAC engineers and help them select appropriate adsorption systems in energy-efficient building design.

  14. Characteristics and kinetics of phosphate adsorption on dewatered ferric-alum residuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Guo, Wei; Tian, Binghui; Pei, Yuansheng; Zhang, Kejiang

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics and kinetics of phosphate (P) adsorption on dewatered ferric-alum water treatment residuals (Fe-Al-WTRs) have been investigated. The existence of both aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) in the residuals can result in significantly high P adsorption capacities. The P adsorption kinetics of Fe-Al-WTRs exhibited an initial rapid phase, followed by a slower phase. This could be described by three models, including a pseudo-first-order equation, a pseudo-second-order equation, and a double-constant rate equation. The latter was especially good for those runs with initial P concentrations of 500 and 1000 mg L(-1). Both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms fit the experimental data well, particularly the Freundlich isotherm, which had a correlation coefficient of 0.9930. The maximum measured P adsorption capacity of Fe-Al-WTRs was 45.42 mg g(-1), which is high when compared to those of most WTRs, as well as other reported adsorbents. The results also show that the P adsorption is a spontaneous endothermic process. Highest P adsorption capacities of Fe-Al-WTRs were measured at low pHs and a particle size range of 0.6 to 0.9 mm.

  15. Competitive adsorption of ibuprofen and amoxicillin mixtures from aqueous solution on activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Hayet; Carmona, Rocio J; Gomis-Berenguer, Alicia; Souissi-Najar, Souad; Ouederni, Abdelmottaleb; Ania, Conchi O

    2015-07-01

    This work investigates the competitive adsorption under dynamic and equilibrium conditions of ibuprofen (IBU) and amoxicillin (AMX), two widely consumed pharmaceuticals, on nanoporous carbons of different characteristics. Batch adsorption experiments of pure components in water and their binary mixtures were carried out to measure both adsorption equilibrium and kinetics, and dynamic tests were performed to validate the simultaneous removal of the mixtures in breakthrough experiments. The equilibrium adsorption capacities evaluated from pure component solutions were higher than those measured in dynamic conditions, and were found to depend on the porous features of the adsorbent and the nature of the specific/dispersive interactions that are controlled by the solution pH, density of surface change on the carbon and ionization of the pollutant. A marked roll-up effect was observed for AMX retention on the hydrophobic carbons, not seen for the functionalized adsorbent likely due to the lower affinity of amoxicillin towards the carbon adsorbent. Dynamic adsorption of binary mixtures from wastewater of high salinity and alkalinity showed a slight increase in IBU uptake and a reduced adsorption of AMX, demonstrating the feasibility of the simultaneous removal of both compounds from complex water matrices.

  16. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests

  17. Adsorption and excess fission xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podosek, F. A.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Kramer, F. E.

    1982-01-01

    The adsorption of Xe and Kr on lunar soil 10084 was measured by a method that employs only very low fractions of monolayer coverage. Results are presented as parameters for calculation of the Henry constant for adsorption as a function of temperature. The adsorption potentials are about 3 kcal/mole for Kr and 5 kcal/mole for Xe; heating the sample in vacuum increased the Xe potential to nearly 7 kcal/mole. Henry constants at the characteristic lunar temperature are about 0.3 cu cm STP/g-atm. These data were applied to consider whether adsorption is important in producing the excess fission Xe effect characteristic of highland breccias. Sorption equilibrium with a transient lunar atmosphere vented fission Xe produces concentrations seven orders of magnitude lower than observed concentrations. Higher concentrations result because of the resistance of the regolith to upward diffusion of Xe. A diffusion coefficient of 0.26 sq cm/sec is estimated for this process.

  18. TREATMENT OF LANDFILL LEACHATE BY COUPLING COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION OR OZONATION TO GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON ADSORPTION.

    PubMed

    Oloibiri, Violet; Ufomba, Innocent; Chys, Michael; Audenaert, Wim; Demeestere, Kristof; Van Hulle, Stijn W H

    2015-01-01

    A major concern for landfilling facilities is the treatment of their leachate. To optimize organic matter removal from this leachate, the combination of two or more techniques is preferred in order to meet stringent effluent standards. In our study, coagulation-flocculation and ozonation are compared as pre- treatment steps for stabilized landfill leachate prior to granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. The efficiency of the pre treatment techniques is evaluated using COD and UVA254 measurements. For coagulation- flocculation, different chemicals are compared and optimal dosages are determined. After this, iron (III) chloride is selected for subsequent adsorption studies due to its high percentage of COD and UVA254 removal and good sludge settle-ability. Our finding show that ozonation as a single treatment is effective in reducing COD in landfill leachate by 66% compared to coagulation flocculation (33%). Meanwhile, coagulation performs better in UVA254 reduction than ozonation. Subsequent GAC adsorption of ozonated effluent, coagulated effluent and untreated leachate resulted in 77%, 53% and 8% total COD removal respectively (after 6 bed volumes). The effect of the pre-treatment techniques on GAC adsorption properties is evaluated experimentally and mathematically using Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. Mathematical modelling of the experimental GAC adsorption data shows that ozonation increases the adsorption capacity and break through time with a factor of 2.5 compared to coagulation-flocculation. PMID:26630756

  19. TREATMENT OF LANDFILL LEACHATE BY COUPLING COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION OR OZONATION TO GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON ADSORPTION.

    PubMed

    Oloibiri, Violet; Ufomba, Innocent; Chys, Michael; Audenaert, Wim; Demeestere, Kristof; Van Hulle, Stijn W H

    2015-01-01

    A major concern for landfilling facilities is the treatment of their leachate. To optimize organic matter removal from this leachate, the combination of two or more techniques is preferred in order to meet stringent effluent standards. In our study, coagulation-flocculation and ozonation are compared as pre- treatment steps for stabilized landfill leachate prior to granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. The efficiency of the pre treatment techniques is evaluated using COD and UVA254 measurements. For coagulation- flocculation, different chemicals are compared and optimal dosages are determined. After this, iron (III) chloride is selected for subsequent adsorption studies due to its high percentage of COD and UVA254 removal and good sludge settle-ability. Our finding show that ozonation as a single treatment is effective in reducing COD in landfill leachate by 66% compared to coagulation flocculation (33%). Meanwhile, coagulation performs better in UVA254 reduction than ozonation. Subsequent GAC adsorption of ozonated effluent, coagulated effluent and untreated leachate resulted in 77%, 53% and 8% total COD removal respectively (after 6 bed volumes). The effect of the pre-treatment techniques on GAC adsorption properties is evaluated experimentally and mathematically using Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. Mathematical modelling of the experimental GAC adsorption data shows that ozonation increases the adsorption capacity and break through time with a factor of 2.5 compared to coagulation-flocculation.

  20. Detailed characterization and preliminary adsorption model for materials for an intermediate-scale reactive-transport experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, D.B.; Bryan, C.R.; Siegel, M.D.

    1994-12-31

    An experiment involving migration of fluid and tracers (Li, Br, Ni) through a 6-m-high x 3-m-dia caisson Wedron 510 sand, is being carried out for Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Sand`s surface chemistry of the sand was studied and a preliminary surface-complexation model of Ni adsorption formulated for transport calculations. XPS and leaching suggest that surface of the quartz sand is partially covered by thin layers of Fe-oxyhydroxide and Ca-Mg carbonate and by flakes of kaolinite. Ni adsorption by the sand is strongly pH-dependent, showing no adsorption at pH 5 and near-total adsorption at pH 7. Location of adsorption edge is independent of ionic strength and dissolved Ni concentration; it is shifted to slightly lower pH with higher pCO2 and to slightly higher pH by competition with Li. Diminished adsorption at alkiline pH with higher pCO2 implies formation of dissolved Ni-carbonato complexes. Ni adsorption edges for goethite and quartz, two components of the sand were also measured. Ni adsorption on pure quartz is only moderately pH-dependent and differs in shape and location from that of the sand, whereas Ni adsorption by goethite is strongly pH-dependent. A triple-layer surface-complexation model developed for goethite provides a good fit to the Ni-adsorption curve of the sand. Based on this model, the apparent surface area of the Fe-oxyhydroxide coating is estimated to be 560 m{sup 2}/g, compatible with its occurrence as amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxide. Potentiometric titrations on sand also differ from pure quartz and suggest that effective surface area of sand may be much greater than that measured by N{sub 2}-BET gas adsorption. Attempts to model the adsorption of bulk sand in terms of properties of pure end member components suggest that much of the sand surface is inert. Although the exact Ni adsorption mechanisms remain ambiguous, this preliminary adsorption model provides an initial set of parameters that can be used in transport calculations.

  1. Measurement of surface stay times for physical adsorption of gases. Ph.D. Thesis - Va. Univ.; [using molecular beam time of flight technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmoth, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    A molecular beam time-of-flight technique is studied as a means of determining surface stay times for physical adsorption. The experimental approach consists of pulsing a molecular beam, allowing the pulse to strike an adsorbing surface and detecting the molecular pulse after it has subsequently desorbed. The technique is also found to be useful for general studies of adsorption under nonequilibrium conditions including the study of adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. The shape of the detected pulse is analyzed in detail for a first-order desorption process. For mean stay times, tau, less than the mean molecular transit times involved, the peak of the detected pulse is delayed by an amount approximately equal to tau. For tau much greater than these transit times, the detected pulse should decay as exp(-t/tau). However, for stay times of the order of the transit times, both the molecular speed distributions and the incident pulse duration time must be taken into account.

  2. Random sequential adsorption of trimers and hexamers.

    PubMed

    Cieśla, Michał; Barbasz, Jakub

    2013-12-01

    Adsorption of trimers and hexamers built of identical spheres was studied numerically using the random sequential adsorption (RSA) algorithm. Particles were adsorbed on a two-dimensional, flat and homogeneous surface. Numerical simulations allowed us to determine the maximal random coverage ratio, RSA kinetics as well as the available surface function (ASF), which is crucial for determining the kinetics of the adsorption process obtained experimentally. Additionally, the density autocorrelation function was measured. All the results were compared with previous results obtained for spheres, dimers and tetramers.

  3. Effect of cation type, alkyl chain length, adsorbate size on adsorption kinetics and isotherms of bromide ionic liquids from aqueous solutions onto microporous fabric and granulated activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Safia; Duclaux, Laurent; Lévêque, Jean-Marc; Reinert, Laurence; Farooq, Amjad; Yasin, Tariq

    2014-11-01

    The adsorption from aqueous solution of imidazolium, pyrrolidinium and pyridinium based bromide ionic liquids (ILs) having different alkyl chain lengths was investigated on two types of microporous activated carbons: a fabric and a granulated one, well characterized in terms of surface chemistry by "Boehm" titrations and pH of point of zero charge measurements and of porosity by N2 adsorption at 77 K and CO2 adsorption at 273 K. The influence of cation type, alkyl chain length and adsorbate size on the adsorption properties was analyzed by studying kinetics and isotherms of eight different ILs using conductivity measurements. Equilibrium studies were carried out at different temperatures in the range [25-55 °C]. The incorporation of ILs on the AC porosity was studied by N2 adsorption-desorption measurements at 77 K. The experimental adsorption isotherms data showed a good correlation with the Langmuir model. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption of ILs onto activated carbons was an exothermic process, and that the removal efficiency increased with increase in alkyl chain length, due to the increase in hydrophobicity of long chain ILs cations determined with the evolution of the calculated octanol-water constant (Kow). The negative values of free energies indicated that adsorption of ILs with long chain lengths having hydrophobic cations was more spontaneous at the investigated temperatures.

  4. Adsorption and recovery of cellulases during hydrolysis of newspaper

    SciTech Connect

    Castanon, M.; Wilke, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The adsorption of cellulases from Trichoderma viride was studied during the hydrolysis of newspaper. By measuring individual enzyme activities it was found that in the early stage of hydrolysis enzyme components showing C/sub x/A were adsorbed preferentially to those showing C/sub 1/A; afterwards this situation was inverted. Electrophoretic resolution of proteins in hydrolysates showed a continuous decrease of enzyme proteins in solution, and furthermore suggested that the enzymes once adsorbed remained immobilized on the substrate (even after extensive digestion). Experiments to recover the enzymes that had remained in solution after typical hydrolysis showed a potential saving of enzyme of up to 40%.

  5. Adsorption of halogenated aliphatic contaminants by graphene nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Apul, Onur Guven; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-08-01

    In this study, adsorption of ten environmentally halogenated aliphatic synthetic organic compounds (SOCs) by a pristine graphene nanosheet (GNS) and a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was examined, and their adsorption behaviors were compared with those of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and a granular activated carbon (GAC). In addition, the impacts of background water components (i.e., natural organic matter (NOM), ionic strength (IS) and pH) on the SOC adsorption behavior were investigated. The results indicated HD3000 and SWCNT with higher microporous volumes exhibited higher adsorption capacities for the selected aliphatic SOCs than graphenes, demonstrating microporosity of carbonaceous adsorbents played an important role in the adsorption. Analysis of adsorption isotherms demonstrated that hydrophobic interactions were the dominant contributor to the adsorption of aliphatic SOCs by graphenes. However, π-π electron donor-acceptor and van der Waals interactions are likely the additional mechanisms contributing to the adsorption of aliphatic SOCs on graphenes. Among the three background solution components examined, NOM showed the most influential effect on adsorption of the selected aliphatic SOCs, while pH and ionic strength had a negligible effects. The NOM competition on aliphatic adsorption was less pronounced on graphenes than SWCNT. Overall, in terms of adsorption capacities, graphenes tested in this study did not exhibit a major advantage over SWCNT and GAC for the adsorption of aliphatic SOCs.

  6. [Adsorption and Desorption Characteristics of Endosulfan in Purple Soil].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Zheng, Guo-can; Zhu, Heng; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Zhu, Xiu-ying; Hu, Shu-chun; Wu, Ya-lin

    2015-09-01

    In order to reveal the residual process of endosulfan in purple soil and protect soil ecological environment, the adsorption and desorption characteristics of endosulfan in purple soil were investigated, and effects of temperature, adsorbent amount, and initial pH of adsorption solution on the adsorption capacity were also examined by static adsorption and desorption experiments. The results showed that the adsorption kinetic process could be well described by the second-order kinetic equation with the initial rate constants of α-, β-endosulfan as 0. 157 and 0. 115 mg.(g.min)-1, respectively. The adsorption thermodynamic process could be well described by the Langmuir isotherm with the maximum adsorption capacities of α-, β-endosulfan as 0. 257 mg . g -1 and 0. 155 mg . g -1, respectively. The adsorption process of endosulfan in purple soil may be an exothermic physicochemical process, and is dominated by physical adsorption. Under the experimental conditions examined in this study, the initial pH of adsorption solution had a relative great influence on the adsorption capacity, whereas the temperature and adsorbent amount had no significant influence. The desorption experiments found that the maximum desorption capacities of α-, β-endosulfan adsorbed in purple soil were 0. 029 mg . g -1 and 0. 017 mg . g -1 at 6 and 4 h, and accounted for 10. 5% and 16. 1% in the maximum adsorption capacities, respectively. PMID:26717711

  7. [Adsorption and Desorption Characteristics of Endosulfan in Purple Soil].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Zheng, Guo-can; Zhu, Heng; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Zhu, Xiu-ying; Hu, Shu-chun; Wu, Ya-lin

    2015-09-01

    In order to reveal the residual process of endosulfan in purple soil and protect soil ecological environment, the adsorption and desorption characteristics of endosulfan in purple soil were investigated, and effects of temperature, adsorbent amount, and initial pH of adsorption solution on the adsorption capacity were also examined by static adsorption and desorption experiments. The results showed that the adsorption kinetic process could be well described by the second-order kinetic equation with the initial rate constants of α-, β-endosulfan as 0. 157 and 0. 115 mg.(g.min)-1, respectively. The adsorption thermodynamic process could be well described by the Langmuir isotherm with the maximum adsorption capacities of α-, β-endosulfan as 0. 257 mg . g -1 and 0. 155 mg . g -1, respectively. The adsorption process of endosulfan in purple soil may be an exothermic physicochemical process, and is dominated by physical adsorption. Under the experimental conditions examined in this study, the initial pH of adsorption solution had a relative great influence on the adsorption capacity, whereas the temperature and adsorbent amount had no significant influence. The desorption experiments found that the maximum desorption capacities of α-, β-endosulfan adsorbed in purple soil were 0. 029 mg . g -1 and 0. 017 mg . g -1 at 6 and 4 h, and accounted for 10. 5% and 16. 1% in the maximum adsorption capacities, respectively.

  8. Adsorption equilibria of chlorinated organic solvents onto activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, J.H.; Choi, D.K.; Kim, S.H.

    1998-04-01

    Adsorption equilibria of dichloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and trichloroethylene on activated carbon were obtained by a static volumetric technique. Isotherms were measured for the pure vapors in the temperature range from 283 to 363 K and pressures up to 60 kPa for dichloromethane, 16 kPa for 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and 7 kPa for trichloroethylene, respectively. The Toth and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations were used to correlate experimental isotherms. Thermodynamic properties such as the isosteric heat of adsorption and the henry`s constant were calculated. It was found that the values of isosteric heat of adsorption were varied with surface loading. Also, the Henry`s constant showed that the order of adsorption affinity is 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and dichloromethane. By employing the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation, the limiting volume of the adsorbed space, which equals micropore volume, was determined, and its value was found to be approximately independent of adsorbates.

  9. Lichen substances affect metal adsorption in Hypogymnia physodes.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus; Huneck, Siegfried

    2007-01-01

    Lichen substances are known to function as chelators of cations. We tested the hypothesis that lichen substances can control the uptake of toxic metals by adsorbing metal ions at cation exchange sites on cell walls. If true, this hypothesis would help to provide a mechanistic explanation for results of a recent study showing increased production of physodalic acid by thalli of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes transplanted to sites with heavy metal pollution. We treated cellulose filters known to mimic the cation exchange abilities of lichen thalli with four lichen substances produced by H. physodes (physodic acid, physodalic acid, protocetraric acid, and atranorin). Treated filters were exposed to solutions containing seven cations (Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), and Na(+)), and changes to the solution concentrations were measured. Physodalic acid was most effective at influencing metal adsorption, as it increased the adsorption of Fe(3+), but reduced the adsorption of Cu(2+), Mn(2+), and Na(+), and to a lesser extent, that of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Reduced Na(+) adsorption matches with the known tolerance of this species to NaCl. The results may indicate a possible general role of lichen substances in metal homeostasis and pollution tolerance. PMID:17136464

  10. Molecular Adsorption on Nano Colloidal Particles Probed by Second Harmonic Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, Shih-Hui; Dai, Hai-Lung

    2006-03-01

    It is shown that second-harmonic generation (SHG), detected at 90 degree angle from the fundamental beam propagation direction, can be used to probe molecular adsorption on spherical nano colloidal particles with diameter as small as 50 nm. Measurements done with the malachite green dye adsorbed on polystyrene particles with diameters ranging from 50 to 250 nm show that the SHG signal from these surface adsorbed molecules tilts toward larger scattering angles when the particle size becomes smaller. This phenomenon can be rigorously described by the nonlinear Rayleigh-Gans-Debye theory and used for measuring the density and adsorption free energy of molecules adsorbed on nanometer size colloidal particles.

  11. Thermodynamic model for swelling of unconfined coal due to adsorption of mixed gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Peach, Colin; Spiers, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    gases, the adsorbed concentrations predicted reduce to the Langmuir isotherm for mixed gases. 3) Preferential adsorption sites model. This assumes adsorption sites show selectivity towards one gas, i.e. nsα adsorption sites can be occupied by both gases (cf. 2) while only (nsα -nsβ) adsorption sites can be occupied by gas β ( cf. 1). This model can be treated as a combination of Models 1 and 2. We compared these models to experimental measurements of swelling of an Australian sub-bituminous coal exposed to CH4, CO2 and to their mixtures at pressures up to 15 MPa, performed by Day et al. (2012, IJCG, 93, 40-48). Compared to other two models, the preferential adsorption sites model describes the experimental results best. This finding complies with the conventional view that CH4 is displaced by CO2 due to both depletion of CH4 partial pressure and preferential CO2 adsorption. However, our findings contradict the proposal by Day et al., based on their experiments, that CH4 and CO2 have access to all adsorption sites and that swelling solely depends on partial pressures. Additional experiments on different rank coals and gas species are underway to evaluate our models further.

  12. An eco-friendly dyeing of woolen yarn by Terminalia chebula extract with evaluations of kinetic and adsorption characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Mohd; Rather, Luqman Jameel; Shahid-Ul-Islam; Bukhari, Mohd Nadeem; Shahid, Mohd; Ali Khan, Mohd; Mohammad, Faqeer

    2016-05-01

    In the present study Terminalia chebula was used as an eco-friendly natural colorant for sustainable textile coloration of woolen yarn with primary emphasis on thermodynamic and kinetic adsorption aspects of dyeing processes. Polyphenols and ellagitannins are the main coloring components of the dye extract. Assessment of the effect of pH on dye adsorption showed an increase in adsorption capacity with decreasing pH. Effect of temperature on dye adsorption showed 80 °C as optimum temperature for wool dyeing with T. chebula dye extract. Two kinetic equations, namely pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order equations, were employed to investigate the adsorption rates. Pseudo second-order model provided the best fit (R (2) = 0.9908) to the experimental data. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The adsorption behavior accorded well (R (2) = 0.9937) with Langmuir isotherm model. Variety of eco-friendly and sustainable shades were developed in combination with small amount of metallic mordants and assessed in terms of colorimetric (CIEL(∗) a (∗) b (∗) and K/S) properties measured using spectrophotometer under D65 illuminant (10° standard observer). The fastness properties of dyed woolen yarn against light, washing, dry and wet rubbing were also evaluated.

  13. An eco-friendly dyeing of woolen yarn by Terminalia chebula extract with evaluations of kinetic and adsorption characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Shabbir, Mohd; Rather, Luqman Jameel; Shahid-ul-Islam; Bukhari, Mohd Nadeem; Shahid, Mohd; Ali Khan, Mohd; Mohammad, Faqeer

    2016-01-01

    In the present study Terminalia chebula was used as an eco-friendly natural colorant for sustainable textile coloration of woolen yarn with primary emphasis on thermodynamic and kinetic adsorption aspects of dyeing processes. Polyphenols and ellagitannins are the main coloring components of the dye extract. Assessment of the effect of pH on dye adsorption showed an increase in adsorption capacity with decreasing pH. Effect of temperature on dye adsorption showed 80 °C as optimum temperature for wool dyeing with T. chebula dye extract. Two kinetic equations, namely pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order equations, were employed to investigate the adsorption rates. Pseudo second-order model provided the best fit (R2 = 0.9908) to the experimental data. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The adsorption behavior accorded well (R2 = 0.9937) with Langmuir isotherm model. Variety of eco-friendly and sustainable shades were developed in combination with small amount of metallic mordants and assessed in terms of colorimetric (CIEL∗a∗b∗ and K/S) properties measured using spectrophotometer under D65 illuminant (10° standard observer). The fastness properties of dyed woolen yarn against light, washing, dry and wet rubbing were also evaluated. PMID:27222752

  14. An eco-friendly dyeing of woolen yarn by Terminalia chebula extract with evaluations of kinetic and adsorption characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Mohd; Rather, Luqman Jameel; Shahid-Ul-Islam; Bukhari, Mohd Nadeem; Shahid, Mohd; Ali Khan, Mohd; Mohammad, Faqeer

    2016-05-01

    In the present study Terminalia chebula was used as an eco-friendly natural colorant for sustainable textile coloration of woolen yarn with primary emphasis on thermodynamic and kinetic adsorption aspects of dyeing processes. Polyphenols and ellagitannins are the main coloring components of the dye extract. Assessment of the effect of pH on dye adsorption showed an increase in adsorption capacity with decreasing pH. Effect of temperature on dye adsorption showed 80 °C as optimum temperature for wool dyeing with T. chebula dye extract. Two kinetic equations, namely pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order equations, were employed to investigate the adsorption rates. Pseudo second-order model provided the best fit (R (2) = 0.9908) to the experimental data. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The adsorption behavior accorded well (R (2) = 0.9937) with Langmuir isotherm model. Variety of eco-friendly and sustainable shades were developed in combination with small amount of metallic mordants and assessed in terms of colorimetric (CIEL(∗) a (∗) b (∗) and K/S) properties measured using spectrophotometer under D65 illuminant (10° standard observer). The fastness properties of dyed woolen yarn against light, washing, dry and wet rubbing were also evaluated. PMID:27222752

  15. A human intervention study with foods containing natural Ah-receptor agonists does not significantly show AhR-mediated effects as measured in blood cells and urine.

    PubMed

    de Waard, Pim W J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Baykus, Hakan; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Kok, Theo M C M

    2008-10-22

    Binding and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is thought to be an essential step in the toxicity of the environmental pollutants dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. However, also a number of natural compounds, referred to as NAhRAs (natural Ah-receptor agonists), which are present in, for example, fruits and vegetables, can bind and activate this receptor. To study their potential effects in humans, we first investigated the effect of the prototypical AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on gene expression in ex vivo exposed freshly isolated human lymphocytes, and compared the resulting gene expression profile with those caused by the well-known NAhRA indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (ICZ), originating from cruciferous vegetables, and by a hexane extract of NAhRA-containing grapefruit juice (GJE). Only ICZ induced a gene expression profile similar to TCDD in the lymphocytes, and both significantly up-regulated CYP1B1 and TIPARP (TCDD-inducible poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase) mRNA. Next, we performed a human intervention study with NAhRA-containing cruciferous vegetables and grapefruit juice. The expression of the prototypical AhR-responsive genes CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and NQO1 in whole blood cells and in freshly isolated lymphocytes was not significantly affected. Also enzyme activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and xanthine oxidase (XO), as judged by caffeine metabolites in urine, were unaffected, except for a small down-regulation of NAT2 activity by grapefruit juice. Examination of blood plasma with DR CALUX showed a 12% increased AhR agonist activity 3 and 24 h after consumption of cruciferous vegetables, but did not show a significant effect of grapefruit juice consumption. We conclude that intake of NAhRAs from food may result in minor AhR-related effects measurable in human blood and urine. PMID:18762178

  16. A Simple Adsorption Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guirado, Gonzalo; Ayllon, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    The study of adsorption phenomenon is one of the most relevant and traditional physical chemistry experiments performed by chemistry undergraduate students in laboratory courses. In this article, we describe an easy, inexpensive, and straightforward way to experimentally determine adsorption isotherms using pieces of filter paper as the adsorbent…

  17. [Adsorption characteristics of the antibiotic sulfanilamide onto rice husk ash].

    PubMed

    Ji, Ying-Xue; Wang, Feng-He; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Guo-Xiang; Gu, Zhong-Zhu

    2013-10-01

    Under different conditions of initial rice husk ash (RHA) dosage, oscillating temperature, oscillating frequency and solution pH, the adsorption characteristics of sulfanilamide on RHA with the change of time and its adsorption kinetics were investigated. RHA was characterized by SEM and FTIR before and after sulfanilamide adsorption. The results indicated that the adsorption characteristics of sulfanilamide on RHA was influenced by RHA dosage, oscillating temperature, oscillating frequency and solution pH. Within the RHA dosing range (0. 1-2.0 g.L-1) in this experiment, the optimal temperature for the adsorption was 25C , and with the increase of RHA dosage, the removal efficiency of sulfanilamide increased, the time required to reach adsorption equilibrium was shortened and the adsorptive quantity of sulfanilamide by per unit mass of RHA decreased. A high oscillating frequency was used to ensure the adsorption effect when the RHA concentration was high. Strong acidic and strong alkaline conditions were conducive to the adsorption of sulfanilamide. The analysis of adsorption dynamics showed that for the adsorption process with high RHA dosage ( >or= 1.0 g.L-1), the pseudo-second-order model fitted the adsorption behavior well, and the process was controlled by physical and chemical adsorption. Intraparticle diffusion model showed that the adsorption process was controlled by both membrane diffusion and internal diffusion, and the influence of the former became more obvious with the increase of the adsorbent concentration. Both the SEM and FTIR spectra proved the effective adsorption of sulfanilamide by RHA. PMID:24364310

  18. Phenolic resin-based porous carbons for adsorption and energy storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramaratne, Nilantha P.

    The main objective of this dissertation research is to develop phenolic resin based carbon materials for range of applications by soft-templating and Stober-like synthesis strategies. Applications Studied in this dissertation are adsorption of CO2, bio-molecular and heavy metal ions, and energy storage devices. Based on that, our goal is to design carbon materials with desired pore structure, high surface area, graphitic domains, incorporated metal nanoparticles, and specific organic groups and heteroatoms. In this dissertation the organic-organic self-assembly of phenolic resins and triblock copolymers under acidic conditions will be used to obtain mesoporous carbons/carbon composites and Stober-like synthesis involving phenolic resins under basic condition will be used to prepare polymer/carbon particles and their composites. The structure of this dissertation consists of an introductory chapter (Chapter 1) discussing the general synthesis of carbon materials, particularly the soft-templating strategy and Stober-like carbon synthesis. Also, Chapter 1 includes a brief outline of applications namely adsorption of CO2, biomolecule and heavy metal ions, and supercapacitors. Chapter 2 discusses the techniques used for characterization of the carbon materials studied. This chapter starts with nitrogen adsorption analysis, which is used to measure the specific surface area, pore volume, distribution of pore sizes, and pore width. In addition to nitrogen adsorption, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution thermogravimetric analysis (HR-TGA), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and CHNS elemental analysis (EA) are mentioned too. Chapter 3 is focused on carbon materials for CO2 adsorption. There are different types of porous solid materials such as silicate, MOFs, carbons, and zeolites studied for CO2 adsorption. However, the carbon based materials are considered to be the best candidates for CO 2 adsorption to the industrial point of

  19. A Modular Approach To Study Protein Adsorption on Surface Modified Hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Ozhukil Kollath, Vinayaraj; Van den Broeck, Freya; Fehér, Krisztina; Martins, José C; Luyten, Jan; Traina, Karl; Mullens, Steven; Cloots, Rudi

    2015-07-13

    Biocompatible inorganic nano- and microcarriers can be suitable candidates for protein delivery. This study demonstrates facile methods of functionalization by using nanoscale linker molecules to change the protein adsorption capacity of hydroxyapatite (HA) powder. The adsorption capacity of bovine serum albumin as a model protein has been studied with respect to the surface modifications. The selected linker molecules (lysine, arginine, and phosphoserine) can influence the adsorption capacity by changing the electrostatic nature of the HA surface. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of linker-molecule interactions with the HA surface have been performed by using NMR spectroscopy, zeta-potential measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analyses. Additionally, correlations to theoretical isotherm models have been calculated with respect to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Lysine and arginine increased the protein adsorption, whereas phosphoserine reduced the protein adsorption. The results show that the adsorption capacity can be controlled with different functionalization, depending on the protein-carrier selections under consideration. The scientific knowledge acquired from this study can be applied in various biotechnological applications that involve biomolecule-inorganic material interfaces. PMID:26096378

  20. Adsorption of n-pentane on mesoporous silica and adsorbent deformation.

    PubMed

    Gor, Gennady Yu; Paris, Oskar; Prass, Johannes; Russo, Patrícia A; Ribeiro Carrott, M Manuela L; Neimark, Alexander V

    2013-07-01

    Development of quantitative theory of adsorption-induced deformation is important, e.g., for enhanced coalbed methane recovery by CO2 injection. It is also promising for the interpretation of experimental measurements of elastic properties of porous solids. We study deformation of mesoporous silica by n-pentane adsorption. The shape of experimental strain isotherms for this system differs from the shape predicted by thermodynamic theory of adsorption-induced deformation. We show that this difference can be attributed to the difference of disjoining pressure isotherm, responsible for the solid-fluid interactions. We suggest the disjoining pressure isotherm suitable for n-pentane adsorption on silica and derive the parameters for this isotherm from experimental data of n-pentane adsorption on nonporous silica. We use this isotherm in the formalism of macroscopic theory of adsorption-induced deformation of mesoporous materials, thus extending this theory for the case of weak solid-fluid interactions. We employ the extended theory to calculate solvation pressure and strain isotherms for SBA-15 and MCM-41 silica and compare it with experimental data obtained from small-angle X-ray scattering. Theoretical predictions for MCM-41 are in good agreement with the experiment, but for SBA-15 they are only qualitative. This deviation suggests that the elastic modulus of SBA-15 may change during pore filling.

  1. A Modular Approach To Study Protein Adsorption on Surface Modified Hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Ozhukil Kollath, Vinayaraj; Van den Broeck, Freya; Fehér, Krisztina; Martins, José C; Luyten, Jan; Traina, Karl; Mullens, Steven; Cloots, Rudi

    2015-07-13

    Biocompatible inorganic nano- and microcarriers can be suitable candidates for protein delivery. This study demonstrates facile methods of functionalization by using nanoscale linker molecules to change the protein adsorption capacity of hydroxyapatite (HA) powder. The adsorption capacity of bovine serum albumin as a model protein has been studied with respect to the surface modifications. The selected linker molecules (lysine, arginine, and phosphoserine) can influence the adsorption capacity by changing the electrostatic nature of the HA surface. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of linker-molecule interactions with the HA surface have been performed by using NMR spectroscopy, zeta-potential measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analyses. Additionally, correlations to theoretical isotherm models have been calculated with respect to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Lysine and arginine increased the protein adsorption, whereas phosphoserine reduced the protein adsorption. The results show that the adsorption capacity can be controlled with different functionalization, depending on the protein-carrier selections under consideration. The scientific knowledge acquired from this study can be applied in various biotechnological applications that involve biomolecule-inorganic material interfaces.

  2. Theoretical and experimental study of isothiazolinone adsorption onto ordered mesoporous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardones, Lucas E.; Legnoverde, María Soledad; Simonetti, Sandra; Basaldella, Elena I.

    2016-12-01

    Mesoporous silica SBA-15 particles were synthesized in order to evaluate their effectiveness as encapsulating agents for a commercial biocide composed of a mixture of methylisothiazolinone and chloromethylisothiazolinone (MIT/CMIT). Three powdered samples of silica particles having different textural properties, sizes and morphologies were hydrothermally obtained and then characterized by SEM, TEM, SAXS, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements. Adsorption of the biocide on the prepared materials was investigated, and the results showed that adsorption capacities increase as the particle size becomes smaller. Higher biocide amounts were also retained on particles having increased pore size and pore volume. Additionally, a most probable interaction mechanism between MIT/CMIT and SBA-15 is proposed on the basis of molecular modeling calculations. The theoretical approach indicates that two adsorption geometries with comparable minimum levels of strength can be adopted by the biocide: planar adsorption when the biocide molecule rings are adsorbed on the silica surface and vertical adsorption when the O atom of the MIT/CMIT interacts with the H atom of silanols.

  3. The effect of adsorption kinetics on film formation of silica/PVA suspension.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunhyung; Sung, Jun Hee; Hur, Kangheon; Ahn, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Seung Jong

    2010-04-15

    Particle/binder/solvent systems are widely used in many applications and have long been studied. Understanding and controlling polymer adsorption in these complex material systems are important to achieve successful final performance. In this study, the effect of polymer adsorption on film formation and the relation between the microstructures of the suspension and film have been investigated by measuring the amount of polymer adsorption and the stress development during drying. In terms of mixing (or dispersion) time (t(m)), the adsorption amount (Gamma(PVA)), characteristic stress (sigma(ch)) and dried film density (rho) showed a similar behavior in the form of 1 - e(t(m)/tau) with a single characteristic time tau = 45 h, which implies that the drying process is determined by this single time constant. The porous and non-uniform microstructure of the dried film at short t(m) became close-packed and uniform with longer t(m). The polymer adsorption was found to play a key role in film formation as it introduces steric repulsion in suspension and suppresses the flocculation during solvent evaporation. It was also pointed out that enough mixing time for the saturated polymer adsorption is critical to acquire the consolidated and uniform film microstructure.

  4. Adsorption of toluene onto activated carbon fibre cloths and felts: application to indoor air treatment.

    PubMed

    Lorimier, C; Subrenat, A; Le Coq, L; Le Cloirec, P

    2005-11-01

    Due to their bad effects on human health, removing Volatile Organic Compounds from indoor air has become an issue of major interest. In this study, the potential use of six commercial activated carbon felts and cloths for indoor toluene removal was investigated. Both batch and dynamic adsorption studies were performed, at toluene concentrations ranging from 21 to 18160 mg m(-3), for an air velocity representative of indoor air treatment (0.37 m s(-1)). Batch measurements showed that felts exhibited higher adsorption capacities at equilibrium than cloths at high toluene concentrations, whereas this trend may be inverted at low concentrations. Experimental isotherms and kinetics were satisfactorily fitted by the Langmuir-Freundlich model and the Linear Driving Force model respectively. No main differences between the adsorption kinetics of felts and cloths were reported. Dynamic adsorption capacities at saturation appeared to be higher than 120 mg g(-1) for both cloths and felts, irrespective of relative humidity levels and toluene concentrations. The influence of relative humidity on the adsorption capacity of felts was not significant for the higher toluene concentration studied in dynamics (307 mg m(-3)), whereas an increase in relative humidity induced a decrease in adsorption capacity at the lower toluene concentration (38 mg m(-3)). Moreover, experimental curves of breakthrough time versus thickness of medium were satisfactorily fitted by the Adams-Bohart model, and the critical thickness determined by this model appeared to be below 1.3 mm, regardless of the medium or toluene concentration.

  5. Adsorption-desorption behavior of thiram onto humic acid.

    PubMed

    Filipe, O M S; Vidal, M M; Duarte, A C; Santos, E B H

    2009-06-10

    The adsorption/desorption behavior of pure thiram (Thi-P) and formulated thiram (Thi-F) onto commercial humic acids (HA) was studied using a batch equilibration procedure. Results of adsorption kinetic experiments showed that thiram adsorption is a fast process since 85% of the equilibrium concentration is reached within two hours. Experimental K(D) values between 0.110 to 0.210 L g(-1) were obtained for the adsorption of both Thi-P and Thi-F onto HA, suggesting that thiram is strongly sorbed by humic acids. In general, for both Thi-P and Thi-F, the lower the initial thiram concentration, the stronger is its adsorption (higher K(D) and percentage adsorption values). The adsorption isotherms were found to match the BET model. The results show that thiram adsorption onto condensed humic acids cannot be explained only in terms of specific interactions, such as those identified in studies of adsorption of thiram with humic acids in solution. The comparison of sorption and desorption results allowed the observation of hysteresis phenomena. Desorption K(D) values were consistently higher than those for adsorption at the same equilibrium concentration. Hysteresis was lower for the formulated thiram suggesting that adsorption is more reversible in the presence of the formulation components turning the pesticide more susceptible to be leached.

  6. Fluorocarbon Adsorption in Hierarchical Porous Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Motkuri, Radha K.; Annapureddy, Harsha V.; Vijayakumar, M.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Martin, P F.; McGrail, B. Peter; Dang, Liem X.; Krishna, Rajamani; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2014-07-09

    The adsorption behavior of a series of fluorocarbon derivatives was examined on a set of microporous metal organic framework (MOF) sorbents and another set of hierarchical mesoporous MOFs. The microporous M-DOBDC (M = Ni, Co) showed a saturation uptake capacity for R12 of over 4 mmol/g at a very low relative saturation pressure (P/Po) of 0.02. In contrast, the mesoporous MOF MIL-101 showed an exceptionally high uptake capacity reaching over 14 mmol/g at P/Po of 0.4. Adsorption affinity in terms of mass loading and isosteric heats of adsorption were found to generally correlate with the polarizability of the refrigerant with R12 > R22 > R13 > R14 > methane. These results suggest the possibility of exploiting MOFs for separation of azeotropic mixtures of fluorocarbons and use in eco-friendly fluorocarbon-based adsorption cooling and refrigeration applications.

  7. Tube Polypropylene: A Neglected Critical Parameter for Protein Adsorption During Biospecimen Storage.

    PubMed

    Kofanova, Olga A; Mommaerts, Kathleen; Betsou, Fay

    2015-08-01

    This biospecimen research case study illustrates the importance of a neglected pre-analytical factor, the polypropylene type of storage tubes. We measured amyloid β1-42 peptide and showed that a non-irradiated, homopolymer type of polypropylene has the lowest adsorption properties. PMID:26186497

  8. Selected pesticides adsorption and desorption in substrates from artificial wetland and forest buffer.

    PubMed

    Passeport, Elodie; Benoit, Pierre; Bergheaud, Valérie; Coquet, Yves; Tournebize, Julien

    2011-07-01

    Buffer zones such as artificial wetlands and forest buffers may help decrease non-point-source pesticide pollution from agricultural catchments. The present study focuses on understanding the role of the substrates mainly found in such buffer zones for pesticide adsorption and desorption. Radiolabeled [(14)C]isoproturon, [(14)C]metazachlor, and [(14)C]epoxiconazole were used to measure adsorption and desorption isotherms on wetland sediments and plants and forest soil and litter from two sites in France. Wetland sediments and forest soil exhibited the most important potential for pesticide adsorption. Wetland plants and forest litter also showed high adsorption coefficients and were associated with highly hysteretic desorption, particularly for the moderately mobile isoproturon and metazachlor. Adsorption of the highly hydrophobic epoxiconazole was strong and associated with weak desorption from all substrates. Calculated sorption coefficients were larger than those classically measured on soils. Isoproturon, metazachlor, and epoxiconazole K(OC) sorption coefficients ranged from 84 to 372, 131 to 255, and 1,356 to 3,939 L/kg, respectively. Therefore, specifically collecting buffer zone substrate sorption data is needed for modeling purposes. Results showed that forests and wetlands present potential for pesticide retention. This may be enhanced by planting vegetation and leaving dead vegetal material in buffer zone design.

  9. Adsorption of poly(ethylene glycol)-modified ribonuclease A to a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) surface.

    PubMed

    Daly, Susan M; Przybycien, Todd M; Tilton, Robert D

    2005-06-30

    Protein adsorption is a source of variability in the release profiles of therapeutic proteins from biodegradable microspheres. We employ optical reflectometry and total internal reflection fluorescence to explore the extent and kinetics of ribonuclease A (RNase A) adsorption to spin-cast films of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) and, in particular, to determine how covalent grafting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to RNase A affects adsorption. Adsorption kinetics on PLG surfaces are surface-limited for RNase A but transport-limited for unconjugated PEG homopolymers and for PEG-modified RNase A, indicating that PEG anchors the conjugates to the surface during the transport-limited regime. PEG modification of RNase A decreases the total number of adsorbed molecules per unit area but increases the areal surface coverage because the grafted PEG chains exclude additional surface area. Total internal reflection fluorescence-based exchange measurements show that there is no exchange between adsorbed and solution-phase protein molecules. This indicates an unusually tenacious adsorption. Streaming current measurements indicate that the zeta potential of the PLG surface becomes increasingly negative as the film is exposed to water for several weeks, as expected. Aging of the PLG surface results in increased adsorption of unmodified RNase A but decreased adsorption of unconjugated PEG homopolymers and of PEG-RNase A conjugates, relative to the extent of adsorption on freshly prepared PLG surfaces. Adsorption results correlate well with an increase in the rate, total extent and preservation of bioactivity of RNase A released from PLG microspheres for the PEG-modified version of RNase A.

  10. 2-Hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium xylan adsorption onto rod-like cellulose nanocrystal.

    PubMed

    Sim, Jae Hyun; Dong, Shuping; Röemhild, Katrin; Kaya, Abdulaziz; Sohn, Daewon; Tanaka, Keiji; Roman, Maren; Heinze, Thomas; Esker, Alan R

    2015-02-15

    Chemical incompatibility and relatively weak interaction between lignocellulosic fibers and synthetic polymers have made studies of wood fiber-thermoplastic composite more challenging. In this study, adsorption of 2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium xylans onto rod-like cellulose nanocrystals are investigated by zeta-potential measurements, and polarized and depolarized dynamic light scattering as a factor for better understanding of lignocellulosic fibers and cellulose nanocrystals. Zeta-potential measurements show xylan derivative adsorption onto cellulose nanocrystals. Decay time distributions of the ternary system and binary system from dynamic light scattering show that aggregates exist in the binary system and they disappear in the ternary system. At low 2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium xylan concentrations relative to that of cellulose nanocrystal, xylan derivatives adsorbed onto some of the cellulose nanocrystal. Hence, more xylan derivatives adsorbed onto cellulose nanocrystal increased with increasing xylan derivative concentration. Also, the concentration dependence of the ratio of the rotational diffusion coefficient to the translational diffusion coefficient revealed a strong adsorptive interaction between xylan derivatives and the cellulose nanocrystals.

  11. Adsorption of ferrous ions onto montmorillonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Dawei; Niu, Xia; Qiao, Min; Liu, Gang; Li, Hongxin; Meng, Zhenxiao

    2015-04-01

    The adsorption of Fe (II) onto montmorillonites was investigated through initial concentration, contact time, pH and temperature. During the whole adsorption process, the ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) was added as a kind of antioxidant, at the same time, deionized water (after boiling) and nitrogen protection were also used to avoid oxidation. The Fe2+/Fetotal ratio of the iron exists in the Fe-montmorillonites was found more than 95%. Two kinetic models, including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model, were used to analyze the adsorption process of Fe (II) on montmorillonites. The results of our study showed that adsorption process fitted with pseudo-second-order well. Adsorption isotherms showed that Langmuir model was better than Freundlich model. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG0 and ΔH0 were 3.696 kJ/mol and 6.689 kJ/mol (we just gave the values at 298 K), respectively. The positive values at different temperatures showed that the adsorption process was non-spontaneous and endothermic. The characteristics of materials were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Surface area and porosity analyzer, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and Zeta potential distribution.

  12. Reversible Adsorption Kinetics of Near Surface Dimer Colloids.

    PubMed

    Salipante, Paul F; Hudson, Steven D

    2016-08-30

    We investigate the effect of shape on reversible adsorption kinetics using colloidal polystyrene dimers near a solid glass surface as a model system. The interaction between colloid and wall is tuned using electrostatic, depletion, and gravity forces to produce a double-well potential. The dwell time in each of the potential wells is measured from long duration particle trajectories. The height of each monomer relative to the glass surface is measured to a resolution of <20 nm by in-line holographic microscopy. The measured transition probability distributions are used in kinetic equations to describe the flux of particles to and from the surface. The dimers are compared to independent isolated monomers to determine the effects of shape on adsorption equilibria and kinetics. To elucidate these differences, we consider both mass and surface coverage and two definitions of surface coverage. The results show that dimers with single coverage produce slower adsorption, lower surface coverage, and higher mass coverage in comparison to those of monomers, while dimers with double coverage adsorb faster and result in higher surface coverage. PMID:27483023

  13. Study on adsorption and desorption of ammonia on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengwei; Zhang, Xinfang; Luo, Wei; Yang, Hang; He, Yanlan; Liu, Yixing; Zhang, Xueao; Peng, Gang

    2015-09-01

    The gas sensor based on pristine graphene with conductance type was studied theoretically and experimentally. The time response of conductance measurements showed a quickly and largely increased conductivity when the sensor was exposed to ammonia gas produced by a bubble system of ammonia water. However, the desorption process in vacuum took more than 1 h which indicated that there was a larger number of transferred carriers and a strong adsorption force between ammonia and graphene. The desorption time could be greatly shortened down to about 2 min by adding the flow of water-vapor-enriched air at the beginning of the recovery stage which had been confirmed as a rapid and high-efficiency desorption process. Moreover, the optimum geometries, adsorption energies, and the charge transfer number of the composite systems were studied with first-principle calculations. However, the theoretical results showed that the adsorption energy between NH3 and graphene was too small to fit for the experimental phenomenon, and there were few charges transferred between graphene and NH3 molecules, which was completely different from the experiment measurement. The adsorption energy between NH4 and graphene increased stage by stage which showed NH4 was a strong donor. The calculation suggested that H2O molecule could help a quick desorption of NH4 from graphene by converting NH4 to NH3 or (NH3)n(H2O)m groups, which was consistent with the experimental results. This study demonstrates that the ammonia gas produced by a bubble system of ammonia water is mainly ammonium groups of NH3 and NH4, and the NH4 moleculars are ideal candidates for the molecular doping of graphene while the interaction between graphene and the NH3 moleculars is weak.

  14. Study on adsorption and desorption of ammonia on graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengwei; Zhang, Xinfang; Luo, Wei; Yang, Hang; He, Yanlan; Liu, Yixing; Zhang, Xueao; Peng, Gang

    2015-12-01

    The gas sensor based on pristine graphene with conductance type was studied theoretically and experimentally. The time response of conductance measurements showed a quickly and largely increased conductivity when the sensor was exposed to ammonia gas produced by a bubble system of ammonia water. However, the desorption process in vacuum took more than 1 h which indicated that there was a larger number of transferred carriers and a strong adsorption force between ammonia and graphene. The desorption time could be greatly shortened down to about 2 min by adding the flow of water-vapor-enriched air at the beginning of the recovery stage which had been confirmed as a rapid and high-efficiency desorption process. Moreover, the optimum geometries, adsorption energies, and the charge transfer number of the composite systems were studied with first-principle calculations. However, the theoretical results showed that the adsorption energy between NH3 and graphene was too small to fit for the experimental phenomenon, and there were few charges transferred between graphene and NH3 molecules, which was completely different from the experiment measurement. The adsorption energy between NH4 and graphene increased stage by stage which showed NH4 was a strong donor. The calculation suggested that H2O molecule could help a quick desorption of NH4 from graphene by converting NH4 to NH3 or (NH3)n(H2O)m groups, which was consistent with the experimental results. This study demonstrates that the ammonia gas produced by a bubble system of ammonia water is mainly ammonium groups of NH3 and NH4, and the NH4 moleculars are ideal candidates for the molecular doping of graphene while the interaction between graphene and the NH3 moleculars is weak.

  15. [Characteristic of ammonia nitrogen adsorption on karst underground river sediments].

    PubMed

    Guo, Fang; Chen, Kun-Kun; Jiang, Guang-Hui

    2011-02-01

    Karst aquifers are one of the most important aquifers in Southwestern China. One of the characteristics of karst aquifers is the enhanced permeability permits high flow velocities are capable of transporting suspended and bedload sediments. Mobile sediment in karst may act as a vector for the transport of contaminates. 14 sediment samples were collected from two underground rivers in two typical karst areas in Liuzhou city, Guangxi Autonomous Region, China. According to simulated experiment methods, characteristic of adsorption of ammonia nitrogen on sediment was studied. The results of ammonia nitrogen adsorption dynamics on sediments showed that the maximum adsorption velocity was less than 2 h. The adsorption balance quantity in 5 h accounted for 71% - 98% of the maximum adsorption quantity. The maximum adsorption quantity of ammonia nitrogen was 385.5 mg/kg, which was sediment from a cave in the middle areas of Guancun underground river system. The study of isotherm adsorption indicated adsorption quantity of NH4+ increase followed by incremental balance concentration of NH4+ in the aquatic phase. Adsorption quantity of ammonia nitrogen in sediments has a relative linear relationship with adsorption balance concentrations. Adsorption-desorption balance concentrations were all low, indicating sediments from underground rivers have great adsorption potential. Under the condition of low and high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen in overlying water, Langmuir and Tempkin couldn't simulate or simulate results couldn't reach remarkable level, whilst Linear and Freundlich models could simulate well. Research on different type sediments, sampling times and depths from two underground rivers shows characteristic of ammonia nitrogen adsorption on karst underground river sediments doesn't have good correspondence with the type of sediments. One of the reasons is there is no big difference between sediments in the development of climate, geology, hydrological conditions

  16. Multifractal characteristics of Nitrogen adsorption isotherms from tropical soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    One of the primary methods used to characterize a wide range of porous materials, including soils, are gas adsorption isotherms. An adsorption isotherm is a function relating the amount of adsorbed gas or vapour to the respective equilibrium pressure, during pressure increase at constant temperature. Adsorption data allow easily estimates of specific surface area and also can provide a characterization of pore surface heterogeneity. Most of the properties and the reactivity of soil colloids are influenced by their specific surface area and by parameters describing the surface heterogeneity. For a restricted scale range, linearity between applied pressure and volume of adsorbate holds, which is the basis for current estimations of specific surface area. However, adsorption isotherms contain also non-linear segments of pressure versus volume so that evidence of multifractal scale has been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to analyze the multifractal behaviour of nitrogen adsorption isotherms from a set of tropical soils. Samples were collected form 54 horizons belonging to 19 soil profiles in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The most frequent soil type was Oxisol, according to the Soil Survey Staff, equivalent to Latossolo in the Brazilian soil classification system. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms at standard 77 K were measured using a Thermo Finnigan Sorptomatic 1990 gas sorption analyzer (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA). From the raw data a distributions of mass along a support was obtained to perform multifractal analysis. The probability distribution was constructed by dividing the values of the measure in a given segment by the sum of the measure in the whole scale range. The box-counting method was employed to perform multifractal analysis. All the analyzed N2 adsorption isotherms behave like a multifractal system. The singularity spectra, f(α), showed asymmetric concave down parabolic shapes, with a greater tendency toward the left side, where moments

  17. Cu and Zn adsorption to a heterogeneous natural sediment: Influence of leached cations and natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Fisher-Power, Leanne M; Cheng, Tao; Rastghalam, Zahra Sadat

    2016-02-01

    Adsorption of heavy metals by natural sediments has important implications to the fate and transport of contaminants in subsurface environments. Although the importance of major multivalent cations and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in heavy metal adsorption had been previously demonstrated, the leaching of major cations and DOM from sediments and its influence on heavy metal adsorption have not been fully examined. In this study, the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, and natural organic matter that leached from a natural sediment in Cu and Zn adsorption experiments were measured and used in surface complexation models to elucidate their effects on Cu and Zn adsorption. Experimental results showed that the leaching of cations and DOM was substantial and pH-dependent. The leached concentrations of Ca and Mg were reasonably simulated based on BaCl2 extractable Ca and Mg at pH < 5, and Al and Fe activities were accurately predicted for specific pH ranges by assuming solubility control by Al(OH)3 and Fe(OH)3. Visual MINTEQ simulations showed that the leached cations markedly decreased Cu adsorption at pH < 6 and Zn adsorption at pH 3-8. Due to varying affinity for DOM between Cu and Zn, DOM was found to decrease Cu adsorption at pH > 6 due to formation of Cu-DOM aqueous complexes, but increase Zn adsorption at pH 4-7 due to formation of aqueous complexes between DOM and major cations, which reduced competition from these cations against Zn for binding sites on the sediment.

  18. Cu and Zn adsorption to a heterogeneous natural sediment: Influence of leached cations and natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Fisher-Power, Leanne M; Cheng, Tao; Rastghalam, Zahra Sadat

    2016-02-01

    Adsorption of heavy metals by natural sediments has important implications to the fate and transport of contaminants in subsurface environments. Although the importance of major multivalent cations and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in heavy metal adsorption had been previously demonstrated, the leaching of major cations and DOM from sediments and its influence on heavy metal adsorption have not been fully examined. In this study, the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, and natural organic matter that leached from a natural sediment in Cu and Zn adsorption experiments were measured and used in surface complexation models to elucidate their effects on Cu and Zn adsorption. Experimental results showed that the leaching of cations and DOM was substantial and pH-dependent. The leached concentrations of Ca and Mg were reasonably simulated based on BaCl2 extractable Ca and Mg at pH < 5, and Al and Fe activities were accurately predicted for specific pH ranges by assuming solubility control by Al(OH)3 and Fe(OH)3. Visual MINTEQ simulations showed that the leached cations markedly decreased Cu adsorption at pH < 6 and Zn adsorption at pH 3-8. Due to varying affinity for DOM between Cu and Zn, DOM was found to decrease Cu adsorption at pH > 6 due to formation of Cu-DOM aqueous complexes, but increase Zn adsorption at pH 4-7 due to formation of aqueous complexes between DOM and major cations, which reduced competition from these cations against Zn for binding sites on the sediment. PMID:26547878

  19. High-resolution BOLD fMRI measurements of local orientation-dependent contextual modulation show a mismatch between predicted V1 output and local BOLD response

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Jennifer F.; Olman, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI response to suppressive neural activity has not been tested on a fine spatial scale. Using Gabor patches placed in the near periphery, we precisely localized individual regions of interest in primary visual cortex and measured the response at a range of contrasts in two different contexts: with parallel and with orthogonal flanking Gabor patches. Psychophysical measurements confirmed strong suppression of the target Gabor response when flanked by parallel Gabors. However, the BOLD response to the target with parallel flankers decreased as the target contrast increased, which contradicts psychophysical estimates of local neural activity. PMID:20382175

  20. Measured flow and tracer-dye data showing the anthropogenic effects on the hydrodynamics of south Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, spring 1996 and 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oltmann, Richard N.

    1998-01-01

    Tidal flows were measured using acoustic Doppler current profilers and ultrasonic velocity meters during spring 1996 and 1997 in south Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, when (1) a temporary barrier was installed at the head of Old River to prevent the entrance of migrating San Joaquin River salmon smolts, (2) the rate of water export from the south Delta was reduced for an extended period of time, and (3) a 30-day pulse flow was created on the San Joaquin River to move salmon smolts north away from the export facilities during spring 1997. Tracer-dye measurements also were made under these three conditions.

  1. Superparamagnetic silica nanoparticles with immobilized metal affinity ligands for protein adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhiya; Guan, Yueping; Liu, Huizhou

    2006-06-01

    Superparamagnetic silica-coated magnetite (Fe 3O 4) nanoparticles with immobilized metal affinity ligands were prepared for protein adsorption. First, magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitating Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ in an ammonia solution. Then silica was coated on the Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles using a sol-gel method to obtain magnetic silica nanoparticles. The condensation product of 3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GLYMO) and iminodiacetic acid (IDA) was immobilized on them and after charged with Cu 2+, the magnetic silica nanoparticles with immobilized Cu 2+ were applied for the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Scanning electron micrograph showed that the magnetic silica nanoparticles with an average size of 190 nm were well dispersed without aggregation. X-ray diffraction showed the spinel structure for the magnetite particles coated with silica. Magnetic measurement revealed the magnetic silica nanoparticles were superparamagnetic and the saturation magnetization was about 15.0 emu/g. Protein adsorption results showed that the nanoparticles had high adsorption capacity for BSA (73 mg/g) and low nonspecific adsorption. The regeneration of these nanoparticles was also studied.

  2. Argon adsorption and the lunar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.

    1991-01-01

    The results of Ar adsorption experiments on a terrestrial labradorite and lunar rock 15415 crushed in vacuo are reported. The experiments were designed to test lunar atmosphere simulation models for the behavior of Ar on the lunar surface, as determined from the Apollo 17 mass spectrometer results. These models (Hodges, 1980, 1982) used a single adsorption potential to characterize the surfaces of lunar soil grains, with the result that high (6-7 kcal/mol) heats of adsorption were inferred. The present experimental results show that very high adsorption potentials are indeed associated with fresh mineral surfaces, but that these energetic surfaces occupy only small fractions of the total surface area. Nonetheless, these small fractions of surface, if they can be maintained in the lunar regolith in steady-state condition, could be sufficient to account for the Apollo 17 mass spectrometer observations.

  3. Adsorption of methylchloride on Si(100) from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Aldo H.; Sbraccia, Carlo; Silvestrelli, Pier Luigi; Ancilotto, Francesco

    2003-07-01

    The chemisorption of methylchloride (CH3Cl) on Si(100) is studied from first principles. We find that, among a number of possible adsorption configurations, the lowest-energy structure is one in which the methylchloride molecule is dissociated into CH3 and Cl fragments which are bound to the two Si atoms of the same surface dimer. Our calculations show that dissociative chemisorption of methylchloride on Si(100) may proceed along different reaction paths characterized by different energy barriers that the system must overcome: some dissociation processes are mediated by a molecular precursor state and, at least in one case, we find that the dissociation process is nonactivated, in agreement with recent experimental findings. We have also generated, for many possible adsorption structures, theoretical scanning tunneling microscopy images which could facilitate the interpretation of experimental measurements.

  4. Hierarchical Porous Zeolite Structures for Pressure Swing Adsorption Applications.

    PubMed

    Besser, Benjamin; Tajiri, Henrique Akira; Mikolajczyk, Gerd; Möllmer, Jens; Schumacher, Thomas C; Odenbach, Stefan; Gläser, Roger; Kroll, Stephen; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2016-02-10

    Porous adsorbents with hierarchical structured macropores ranging from 1 to 100 μm are prepared using a combination of freeze casting and additional sacrificial templating of polyurethane foams, with a zeolite 13X powder serving as adsorbent. The pore system of the prepared monoliths features micropores assigned to the zeolite 13X particle framework, interparticular pores of ∼1-2 μm, lamellar pores derived from freeze casting of ∼10 μm, and an interconnected pore network obtained from the sacrificial templates ranging from around 100 to 200 μm with a total porosity of 71%. Gas permeation measurements show an increase in intrinsic permeability by a factor of 14 for monoliths prepared with an additional sacrificial templated foam compared to monoliths solely providing freeze casting pores. Cyclic CO2 adsorption and desorption tests where pressure swings between 8 and 140 kPa reveal constant working capacities over multiple cycles. Furthermore, the monoliths feature a high volumetric working capacity of ∼1.34 mmol/cm(3) which is competitive to packed beds made of commercially available zeolite 13X beads (∼1.28 mmol/cm(3)). Combined with the faster CO2 uptake showing an adsorption of 50% within 5-8 s (beads ∼10 s), the monoliths show great potential for pressure swing adsorption applications, where high volumetric working capacities, fast uptakes, and low pressure drops are needed for a high system performance. PMID:26760054

  5. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  6. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOEpatents

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  7. Adsorption Behavior of Nonplanar Phthalocyanines: Competition of Different Adsorption Conformations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Using density functional theory augmented with state-of-the-art van der Waals corrections, we studied the geometric and electronic properties of nonplanar chlorogallium-phthalocyanine GaClPc molecules adsorbed on Cu(111). Comparing these results with published experimental data for adsorption heights, we found indications for breaking of the metal–halogen bond when the molecule is heated during or after the deposition process. Interestingly, the work-function change induced by this dissociated geometry is the same as that computed for an intact adsorbate layer in the “Cl-down” configuration, with both agreeing well with the experimental photoemission data. This is unexpected, as the chemical natures of the adsorbates and the adsorption distances are markedly different in the two cases. The observation is explained as a consequence of Fermi-level pinning due to fractional charge transfer at the interface. Our results show that rationalizing the adsorption configurations on the basis of electronic interface properties alone can be ambiguous and that additional insight from dispersion-corrected DFT simulations is desirable. PMID:27066160

  8. Whole scalp resting state EEG of oscillatory brain activity shows no parametric relationship with psychoacoustic and psychosocial assessment of tinnitus: A repeated measures study.

    PubMed

    Pierzycki, Robert H; McNamara, Adam J; Hoare, Derek J; Hall, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is a perception of sound that can occur in the absence of an external stimulus. A brief review of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) literature demonstrates that there is no clear relationship between tinnitus presence and frequency band power in whole scalp or source oscillatory activity. Yet a preconception persists that such a relationship exists and that resting state EEG could be utilised as an outcome measure for clinical trials of tinnitus interventions, e.g. as a neurophysiological marker of therapeutic benefit. To address this issue, we first examined the test-retest correlation of EEG band power measures in tinnitus patients (n = 42). Second we examined the evidence for a parametric relationship between numerous commonly used tinnitus variables (psychoacoustic and psychosocial) and whole scalp EEG power spectra, directly and after applying factor reduction techniques. Test-retest correlation for both EEG band power measures and tinnitus variables were high. Yet we found no relationship between whole scalp EEG band powers and psychoacoustic or psychosocial variables. We conclude from these data that resting state whole scalp EEG should not be used as a biomarker for tinnitus and that greater caution should be exercised in regard to reporting of findings to avoid confirmation bias. The data was collected during a randomised controlled trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT01541969).

  9. Use of a novel cell adhesion method and digital measurement to show stimulus-dependent variation in somatic and oral ciliary beat frequency in Paramecium.

    PubMed

    Bell, Wade E; Hallworth, Richard; Wyatt, Todd A; Sisson, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    When Paramecium encounters positive stimuli, the membrane hyperpolarizes and ciliary beat frequency increases. We adapted an established immobilization protocol using a biological adhesive and a novel digital analysis system to quantify beat frequency in immobilized Paramecium. Cells showed low mortality and demonstrated beat frequencies consistent with previous studies. Chemoattractant molecules, reduction in external potassium, and posterior stimulation all increased somatic beat frequency. In all cases, the oral groove cilia maintained a higher beat frequency than mid-body cilia, but only oral cilia from cells stimulated with chemoattactants showed an increase from basal levels.

  10. A combined streaming-potential optical reflectometer for studying adsorption at the water/solid surface.

    PubMed

    Theodoly, O; Cascão-Pereira, L; Bergeron, V; Radke, C J

    2005-10-25

    A novel in-situ streaming-potential optical reflectometry apparatus (SPOR) was constructed and utilized to probe the molecular architecture of aqueous adsorbates on a negatively charged silica surface. By combining optical reflectometry and electrokinetic streaming potentials, we measure simultaneously the adsorption density, gamma, and zeta potential, zeta, in a rectangular flow cell constructed with one transparent wall. Both dynamic and equilibrium measurements are possible, allowing the study of sorption kinetics and reversibility. Using SPOR, we investigate the adsorption of a classic nonionic surfactant (pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether, C12E5), a simple cationic surfactant (hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) of opposite charge to that of the substrate surface, and two cationic polyelectrolytes (poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate), PDAEMA; (poly(propyl methacrylate) trimethylammonium chloride, MAPTAC). For the polyethylene oxide nonionic surfactant, bilayer adsorption is established above the critical micelle concentration (cmc) both from the adsorption amounts and from the interpretation of the observed zeta potentials. Near adsorption saturation, CTAB also forms bilayer structures on silica. Here, however, we observe a strong charge reversal of the surface. The SPOR data, along with Gouy-Chapman theory, permit assessment of the net ionization fraction of the CTAB bilayer at 10% so that most of the adsorbed CTAB molecules are counterion complexed. The adsorption of both C12E5 and CTAB is reversible. The adsorption of the cationic polymers, however, is completely irreversible to a solvent wash. As with CTAB, both PDAEMA and MAPTAC demonstrate strong charge reversal. For the polyelectrolyte molecules, however, the adsorbed layer is thin and flat. Here also, a Gouy-Chapman analysis shows that less than 20% of the adsorbed layer is ionized. Furthermore, the amount of charge reversal is inversely proportional to the Debye length in agreement

  11. The adsorption behavior of octafluoropropane at the water/gas interface

    SciTech Connect

    Giebel, Friederike; Paulus, Michael; Nase, Julia Bieder, Steffen; Kiesel, Irena; Tolan, Metin

    2014-12-14

    We studied the adsorption behavior of the gas octafluoropropane at the water/gas interface as a function of different pressures. In a custom-made measurement cell, the gas pressure was varied in a range between 1 bar and close to the condensation pressure of octafluoropropane. The electron density profiles of the adsorption layers show that the layer thickness increases with pressure. The evolution of the layer electron density indicates that the bulk electron density is reached if a layer consisting of more than one monolayer of octafluoropropane is adsorbed on the water surface.

  12. Assessing the Adsorption Properties of Shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pini, R.

    2014-12-01

    Fine-grained rocks, such as shales, contain a significant amount of nanopores that can significantly contribute to their storage capacity through the mechanism of adsorption. The current ability to extract natural gas that is adsorbed in the rock's matrix is limited and current technology focuses primarily on the free gas in the fractures, thus leading to very low recovery efficiencies. Shales constitute also a great portion of so-called caprocks above potential CO2 sequestration sites; hereby, the adsorption process may limit the CO2 mobility within the cap-rock, thus minimizing leakage phenomena. Whether it is a reservoir or a caprock, understanding and quantifying the mechanisms of adsorption in these natural materials is key to improve the engineering design of subsurface operations. Results will be presented from a laboratory study that combines conventional techniques for the measurement of adsorption isotherms with novel methods that allows for the imaging of adsorption using x-rays. Various nanoporous materials are considered, thus including rocks, such as shales and coals, pure clay minerals and engineered adsorbents with well-defined nanopore structures, such as zeolites. Supercritical CO2 adsorption isotherms have been measured with a Rubotherm Magnetic Suspension balance by covering the pressure range 0.1-20~MPa. A medical x-ray CT scanner has been used to identify three-dimensional patterns of the adsorption properties of a packed-bed of adsorbent, thus enabling to assess the spatial variability of the adsorption isotherm. The data are analyzed by using thermodynamically rigorous measures of adsorption and a graphical method is applied for their interpretation. The density of the adsorbed phase is estimated and compared to data reported in the literature; the latter is key to disclose gas-reserves and/or potential storage capacity estimates. When evaluated against classic adsorbent materials, the adsorption mechanism in shales is further complicated by

  13. Adsorption of a cell-adhesive oligopeptide on polymer surfaces irradiated by ion beams.

    PubMed

    Satriano, C; Manso, M; Gambino, G L; Rossi, F; Marletta, G

    2005-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of H-Arg-Gly-Asp-OH (RGD) oligopeptide on ion-irradiated polymer surfaces has been studied. The RGD-incubated surfaces of poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) and poly(hydroxymethylsiloxane) (PHMS) thin films, before and after irradiation with 50 keV Ar+ to 1x10(15) ions/cm2, were investigated by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. It was found that no significant adsorption occurs on PET, while a measurable amount of RGD is preferentially adsorbed onto irradiated PHMS surfaces. The evaluated surface coverage was found to range between 5 and 12%. In situ adsorption measurements performed by using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation monitoring technique showed that the irradiation induced remarkable changes of mass uptake with respect to the unirradiated surfaces, mostly attributed to the change in the water adsorption capability of the irradiated surfaces. The adsorption results are discussed in terms of the ion-induced changes on the morphology, chemical structure and composition, surface free energy and surface charge. PMID:15623933

  14. Argon adsorption in open-ended single-wall carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Rols, S.; Johnson, M.R.; Zeppenfeld, P.; Bienfait, M.; Vilches, O.E.; Schneble, J.

    2005-04-15

    Thermodynamic and neutron-diffraction measurements combined with molecular dynamics simulation are used to determine the adsorption energies and the structure of argon condensed in the various adsorption sites of purified open-ended single-wall nanotube bundles. On the basis of these experiments and the simulation results, a consistent adsorption scenario has been derived. The adsorption proceeds first by the population of the walls inside the open nanotubes and the formation of one-dimensional Ar chains in the grooves at the outer surface of the bundles, followed by the filling of the remaining axial sites inside the nanotubes and the completion of a quasihexagonal monolayer on the outer surface of the bundle. The measurements also provide an estimate of the relative abundance of the various adsorption sites revealing that a major part of the adsorbed Ar is stored inside the open-ended nanotubes. Nanotube bundles generally show a certain degree of heterogeneity and some interstitial sites should be populated over a range of Ar chemical potential. However, for the sample used here, diffraction data and simulations suggest that heterogeneity is not a key feature of the bundles and there is little direct evidence of interstitial sites being populated.

  15. Kinetics and thermodynamics of adsorption of ionizable aromatic compounds from aqueous solutions by as-prepared and oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Sheng, G D; Shao, D D; Ren, X M; Wang, X Q; Li, J X; Chen, Y X; Wang, X K

    2010-06-15

    The adsorption of 1-naphthylamine, 1-naphthol and phenol on as-prepared and oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been investigated. The results illustrated that both as-prepared and oxidized MWCNTs showed high adsorption capacity for the three ionizable aromatic compounds (IACs) studied. Oxidation of MWCNTs increased the surface area and the pore volume, and introduced oxygen-containing functional groups to the surfaces of MWCNTs, which depressed the adsorption of IACs on MWCNTs. Both Langmuir and Freundlich models described the adsorption isotherms very well and the adsorption thermodynamic parameters (DeltaG degrees, DeltaH degrees and DeltaS degrees) were measured. The adsorption for 1-naphthylamine, 1-naphthol and phenol is general spontaneous and thermodynamically favorable. The adsorption of phenol is an exothermic process, whereas the adsorption of 1-naphthylamine and 1-naphthol is an endothermic process. Results of this work are of great significance for the environmental application of MWCNTs for the removal of IACs from large volume of aqueous solutions.

  16. Properties and reactivity of Fe-organic matter associations formed by coprecipitation versus adsorption: Clues from arsenate batch adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikutta, Robert; Lorenz, Dennis; Guggenberger, Georg; Haumaier, Ludwig; Freund, Anja

    2014-11-01

    Ferric oxyhydroxides play an important role in controlling the bioavailability of oxyanions such as arsenate and phosphate in soil. Despite this, little is known about the properties and reactivity of Fe(III)-organic matter phases derived from adsorption (reaction of organic matter (OM) to post-synthesis Fe oxide) versus coprecipitation (formation of Fe oxides in presence of OM). Coprecipitates and adsorption complexes were synthesized at pH 4 using two natural organic matter (NOM) types extracted from forest floor layers (Oi and Oa horizon) of a Haplic Podzol. Iron(III) coprecipitates were formed at initial molar metal-to-carbon (M/C) ratios of 1.0 and 0.1 and an aluminum (Al)-to-Fe(III) ratio of 0.2. Sample properties were studied by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N2 gas adsorption, dynamic light scattering, and electrophoretic mobility measurements. Arsenic [As(V)] adsorption to Fe-OM phases was studied in batch experiments (168 h, pH 4, 100 μM As). The organic carbon (OC) contents of the coprecipitates (82-339 mg g-1) were higher than those of adsorption complexes (31 and 36 mg g-1), leading to pronounced variations in specific surface area (9-300 m2 g-1), average pore radii (1-9 nm), and total pore volumes (11-374 mm3 g-1) but being independent of the NOM type or the presence of Al. The occlusion of Fe solids by OM (XPS surface concentrations: 60-82 atom% C) caused comparable pHPZC (1.5-2) of adsorption complexes and coprecipitates. The synthesis conditions resulted in different Fe-OM association modes: Fe oxide particles in 'M/C 0.1' coprecipitates covered to a larger extent the outermost aggregate surfaces, for some 'M/C 1.0' coprecipitates OM effectively enveloped the Fe oxides, while OM in the adsorption complexes primarily covered the outer aggregate surfaces. Despite of their larger OC contents, adsorption of As(V) was fastest to coprecipitates formed at low Fe availability (M/C 0.1) and facilitated by desorption of weakly

  17. Adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions by perlite.

    PubMed

    Mathialagan, T; Viraraghavan, T

    2002-10-14

    The present study examined the use of perlite for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions. The effects of pH and contact time on the adsorption process were examined. The optimum pH for adsorption was found to be 6.0. Residual cadmium concentration reached equilibrium in 6h and the rate of cadmium adsorption by perlite was rapid in the first hour of the reaction time. Ho's pseudo-second-order model best described the kinetics of the reaction. Batch adsorption experiments conducted at room temperature (22+/-1 degrees C) showed that the adsorption pattern followed the Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum removal of cadmium obtained from batch studies was 55%. Thomas model was used to describe the adsorption data from column studies. The results generally showed that perlite could be considered as a potential adsorbent for cadmium removal from aqueous solutions.

  18. The adsorptive capacity of vapor-phase mercury chloride onto powdered activated carbon derived from waste tires

    SciTech Connect

    Hsun-Yu Lin; Chung-Shin Yuan; Chun-Hsin Wu; Chung-Hsuang Hung

    2006-11-15

    Injection of powdered activated carbon (PAC) upstream of particulate removal devices (such as electrostatic precipitator and baghouses) has been used effectively to remove hazardous air pollutants, particularly mercury containing pollutants, emitted from combustors and incinerators. Compared with commercial PACs (CPACs), an alternative PAC derived from waste tires (WPAC) was prepared for this study. The equilibrium adsorptive capacity of mercury chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) vapor onto the WPAC was further evaluated with a self-designed bench-scale adsorption column system. The adsorption temperatures investigated in the adsorption column were controlled at 25 and 150{sup o}C. The superficial velocity and residence time of the flow were 0.01 m/sec and 4 sec, respectively. The adsorption column tests were run under nitrogen gas flow. Experimental results showed that WPAC with higher Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area could adsorb more HgCl{sub 2} at room temperature. The equilibrium adsorptive capacity of HgCl{sub 2} for WPAC measured in this study was 1.49 x 10{sup -1} mg HgCl{sub 2}/g PAC at 25{sup o}C with an initial HgCl{sub 2} concentration of 25 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. With the increase of adsorption temperature {le} 150{sup o}C, the equilibrium adsorptive capacity of HgCl{sub 2} for WPAC was decreased to 1.34 x 10{sup -1} mg HgCl{sub 2}/g PAC. Furthermore, WPAC with higher sulfur contents could adsorb even more HgCl{sub 2}. It was demonstrated that the mechanisms for adsorbing HgCl{sub 2} onto WPAC were physical adsorption and chemisorption at 25 and 150{sup o}C, respectively. 35 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. "Glass fairies" and "bone children": adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa show positive reactions towards extremely emaciated body pictures measured by the startle reflex paradigm.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Valeska A; Schneider, Nora; Grünewald, Barbara; Kienast, Thorsten; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Korte, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the emotional processing of extremely emaciated body cues in adolescents and young adults with (n  =  36) and without (n =  36) anorexia nervosa (AN), introducing a new picture type, which was taken from websites that promote extreme thinness and is targeted specifically at adolescents interested in extreme thinness. A startle reflex paradigm was used for implicit reactions, while a self-assessment instrument was used for subjective responses. We found a significant group difference with a startle inhibition (appetitive response) among the patients and a startle potentiation (aversive response) among the controls, whereas no such difference for subjective measures was found. The results are in contrast to previous studies, which proposed a general failure to activate the appetitive motivational system in AN, but in keeping with findings from other addictions, where the same response pattern has been found. Implications for prevention and therapy are discussed.

  20. Human plasma protein adsorption onto dextranized surfaces: a two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Irene Y; Tomczyk, Nancy; Eckmann, Joshua I; Composto, Russell J; Eckmann, David M

    2011-05-01

    Protein adsorption is fundamental to thrombosis and to the design of biocompatible materials. We report a two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry study to characterize multiple human plasma proteins adsorbed onto four different types of model surfaces: silicon oxide, dextranized silicon, polyurethane and dextranized polyurethane. Dextran was grafted onto the surfaces of silicon and polyurethane to mimic the blood-contacting endothelial cell glycocalyx surface. Surface topography and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity were determined and analyzed using atomic force microscopy and water contact angle measurements, respectively. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis, we show that, relative to the unmodified surfaces, dextranization significantly inhibits the adsorption of several human plasma proteins including IGHG1 protein, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, Apo A-IV, Apo A-I, immunoglobulin, serum retinal-binding protein and truncated serum albumin. We further demonstrate the selectivity of plasma protein adsorbed onto the different functionalized surfaces and the potential to control and manipulate proteins adsorption on the surfaces of medical devices, implants and microfluidic devices. This result shows that adsorption experiments using a single protein or a binary mixture of proteins are consistent with competitive protein adsorption studies. In summary, these studies indicate that coating blood-contacting biomedical applications with dextran is an effective route to reduce thrombo-inflammatory responses and to surface-direct biological activities. PMID:21277175

  1. Adsorption and synergism of cellobiohydrolase I and II of Trichoderma reesei during hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Medve, J.; Tjerneld, F. . Dept. of Biochemistry); Staahlberg, J. . Dept. of Molecular Biology)

    1994-11-05

    Hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) by cellobiohydrolase I and II (CBH I and II) from Trichoderma reesei has been studied. Adsorption and synergism of the enzymes were investigated. Experiments were performed at different temperatures and enzyme/substrate ratios using CBH I and CBH II alone and in reconstituted equimolar mixtures. Fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) analysis was found to be an accurate and reproducible method to follow the enzyme adsorption. A linear correlation was found between the conversion and the amount of adsorbed enzyme when Avicel was hydrolyzed by increasing amounts of CBH I and/or CBH II. CBH I had lower specific activity compared to CBH II although, over a wide concentration range, more CBH I was adsorbed than CBH II. Synergism between the cellobiohydrolases during hydrolysis of the amorphous fraction of Avicel showed a maximum as a function of total enzyme concentration. Synergism measured as a function of bound enzyme showed a continuous increase, which indicates that by decreasing the distance between the two enzymes the synergism is enhanced. The adsorption process for both enzymes was slow. Depending on the enzyme/substrate ratio it took 30--90 min to reach 95% of the equilibrium binding. The amount of bound enzyme decreased with increasing temperature. The two enzymes compete for the adsorption sites but also bind to specific sites. Stronger competition for adsorption sites was shown by CBH I.

  2. A self-assembled monolayer-based micropatterned array for controlling cell adhesion and protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Jin; Lee, Jong Min; Park, Jin-Goo; Chung, Bong Geun

    2011-05-01

    We developed a surface micropatterning technique to control the cell adhesion and protein adsorption. This micropatterned array system was fabricated by a photolithography technique and self-assembled monolayer (SAM) deposition. It was hypothesized that the wettability and functional terminal group would regulate cell adhesion and protein adsorption. To demonstrate this hypothesis, glass-based micropatterned arrays with various functional terminal groups, such as amine (NH(2)) group (3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane, APT), methyl (CH(3)) group (trichlorovinylsilane, TVS), and fluorocarbon (CF(3)) group (trichloro(1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyl)silane, FOTS), were used. The contact angle was measured to determine the hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of materials, demonstrating that TVS and FOTS were hydrophobic, whereas APTs were relatively hydrophilic. The cell adhesion was significantly affected by the wettability, showing that the cells were not adhered to hydrophobic surfaces, such as TVS and FOTS. Thus, the cells were selectively adhered to glass substrates within TVS- and FOTS-based micropatterned arrays. However, the cells were randomly adhered to APTs-based micropatterned arrays due to hydrophilic property of APTs. Furthermore, the protein adsorption of the SAM-based micropatterned array was analyzed, showing that the protein was more absorbed to the TVS surface. The surface functional terminal group enabled the control of protein adsorption. Therefore, this SAM-based micropatterned array system enabled the control of cell adhesion and protein adsorption and could be a potentially powerful tool for regulating the cell-cell interactions in a well-defined microenvironment.

  3. Mechanisms of CPB Modified Zeolite on Mercury Adsorption in Simulated Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Huang, Hui; Huang, Rong; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hao, Shuoshuo; Shen, Yuanyuan; Chen, Hong

    2016-06-01

    A systematic study was carried out to analyze the effects of mercury(II) adsorption by surface modified zeolite (SMZ) and adsorption mechanism. Cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) was used to prepare SMZ. The characterization methods by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that both the surface and internal zeolite were covered with CPB molecules, but the main binding sites were surface. Results showed that the organic carbon and cation exchange capacity of the SMZ were 7.76 times and 4.22 times higher than those of natural zeolite (NZ), respectively. Zeta potentials before and after modification were measured at -7.80 mV and -30.27 mV, respectively. Moreover, the saturation adsorptive capacity of SMZ was 16.35 times higher than NZ in mercury-containing wastewater. The possible mechanisms of mercury elimination were surface adsorption, hydrophobic interaction, ion exchange, electricity neutralization. The adsorption process was affected little by competitive ions.

  4. Experimental comparison of adsorption characteristics of silica gel and zeolite in moist air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, F.; Yuan, Z. X.; Wang, W. C.; Du, C. X.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the macro adsorption characteristic of water vapor by the allochroic silica gel and the zeolite 5A and ZSM-5 were investigated experimentally. BET analysis method presented the difference of the porosity, the micro pore volume, and the specific surface area of the material. The dynamic and the equilibrium characteristics of the sample were measured thermo-gravimetrically in the moist air. In general, the ZSM-5 zeolite showed an inferior feature of the adsorption speed and the equilibrium concentration to the others. By comparison to the result of SAPO-34 zeolite in the open literature, the 5A zeolite showed some superiorities of the adsorption. The equilibrium concentration of the ZSM-5 zeolite was higher than that of the SAPO-34 calcined in the nitrogen, whereas it was lower than that calcined in the air. The adsorption isotherm was correlated and the relation of the isotherm to the microstructure of the material was discussed. With more mesopore volume involved, the zeolite presented an S-shaped isotherm in contrast to the exponential isotherm of the silica gel. In addition, the significance of the S-shaped isotherm for the application in adsorption heat pump has also been addressed.

  5. Isosteric heat of hydrogen adsorption on MOFs: comparison between adsorption calorimetry, sorption isosteric method, and analytical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloutse, A. F.; Zacharia, R.; Cossement, D.; Chahine, R.; Balderas-Xicohténcatl, R.; Oh, H.; Streppel, B.; Schlichtenmayer, M.; Hirscher, M.

    2015-12-01

    Isosteric heat of adsorption is an important parameter required to describe the thermal performance of adsorptive storage systems. It is most frequently calculated from adsorption isotherms measured over wide ranges of pressure and temperature, using the so-called adsorption isosteric method. Direct quantitative estimation of isosteric heats on the other hand is possible using the coupled calorimetric-volumetric method, which involves simultaneous measurement of heat and adsorption. In this work, we compare the isosteric heats of hydrogen adsorption on microporous materials measured by both methods. Furthermore, the experimental data are compared with the isosteric heats obtained using the modified Dubinin-Astakhov, Tóth, and Unilan adsorption analytical models to establish the reliability and limitations of simpler methods and assumptions. To this end, we measure the hydrogen isosteric heats on five prototypical metal-organic frameworks: MOF-5, Cu-BTC, Fe-BTC, MIL-53, and MOF-177 using both experimental methods. For all MOFs, we find a very good agreement between the isosteric heats measured using the calorimetric and isosteric methods throughout the range of loading studied. Models' prediction on the other hand deviates from both experiments depending on the MOF studied and the range of loading. Under low-loadings of less than 5 mol kg-1, the isosteric heat of hydrogen adsorption decreases in the order Cu-BTC > MIL-53 > MOF-5 > Fe-BTC > MOF-177. The order of isosteric heats is coherent with the strength of hydrogen interaction revealed from previous thermal desorption spectroscopy measurements.

  6. Protein Adsorption on Surfaces with Grafted Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Szleifer, I.

    1997-01-01

    A general theoretical framework for studying the adsorption of protein molecules on surfaces with grafted polymers is presented. The approach is a generalization of the single-chain mean-field theory, in which the grafted polymer-protein-solvent layer is assumed to be inhomogeneous in the direction perpendicular to the grafting surface. The theory enables the calculation of the adsorption isotherms of the protein as a function of the surface coverage of grafted polymers, concentration of protein in bulk, and type of solvent molecules. The potentials of mean force of the protein with the surface are calculated as a function of polymer surface coverage and amount of protein adsorbed. The theory is applied to model lysozyme on surfaces with grafted polyethylene oxide. The protein is modeled as spherical in solution, and it is assumed that the protein-polymer, protein-solvent, and polymer-solvent attractive interactions are all equal. Therefore, the interactions determining the structure of the layer (beyond the bare polymer-surface and protein-surface interactions) are purely repulsive. The bare surface-protein interaction is taken from atomistic calculations by Lee and Park. For surfaces that do not have preferential attractions with the grafted polymer segments, the adsorption isotherms of lysozyme are independent of the polymer length for chains with more than 50 ethylene oxide units. However, the potentials of mean force show strong variations with grafted polymer molecular weight. The competition between different conformations of the adsorbed protein is studied in detail. The adsorption isotherms change qualitatively for surfaces with attractive interactions with ethylene oxide monomers. The protein adsorption is a function of chain length—the longer the polymer the more effective it is in preventing protein adsorption. The structure of the layer and its deformation upon protein adsorption are very important in determining the adsorption isotherms and the

  7. Hydrophobically modified polyelectrolytes: Characterization, aggregation and adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammad Ferdous

    The focus of our work was to experimentally study the aggregation and adsorption behavior of model HM polyelectrolytes. Hydrophobically modified alkali soluble emulsions (HASE), the model HM polyelectrolytes, were chosen because they had complex architecture yet possessed key variables for systematic study. The HASE polymers have methacrylic acid (MAA) and ethyl acrylate (EA) in the backbone with pendent hydrophobic groups. Characterization of a single molecule is an important first step in understanding the aggregation and adsorption of these polymers. However, characterizations of the HASE polymers using conventional techniques such as gel permeation chromatography or static light scattering were difficult because of the hydrophobic association. In this study, two different approaches have been taken to prevent the hydrophobic association in aqueous solution: (1) hydrolyze the polymer to cleave the hydrophobic constituents, and (2) use methyl beta-cyclodextrin that has a hydrophobic cavity and a hydrophilic outer shell, to shield the hydrophobes from associating. By taking these two approaches and using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), dynamic (DLS) and static (SLS) light scattering techniques, the molecular weight, hydrodynamic radius and radius of gyration of a single molecule were determined. Except for one chemical site, we were able to determine that branching or grafting did not occur in the polymer chain during synthesis. Our aggregation studies showed that, in aqueous solutions, the HASE polymers formed small aggregates (presumably single micelles of single or a few chains) and large aggregates (presumably formed by bridging between micelles). The radii and masses of the larger aggregates, measured using DLS and SLS, were found to increase with an increase in the polymer concentration, indicating an open association process for the HASE polymers. Our SLS results also showed that, at high salt concentration, the aggregates of the HASE polymer with

  8. Adsorption of Ar on individual carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzyubenko, Boris; Kahn, Joshua; Vilches, Oscar; Cobden, David

    2015-03-01

    We compare and contrast results of adsorption measurements of Ar on single-walled carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphite. Adsorption isotherms on individual suspended nanotubes were obtained using both the mechanical resonance frequency shift (sensitive to mass adsorption) and the electrical conductance. Isotherms on graphene mounted on hexagonal boron nitride were obtained using only the conductance. New volumetric adsorption isotherms on bulk exfoliated graphite were also obtained, paying special attention to the very low coverage region (less than 2% of a monolayer). This allowed us to compare the degree of heterogeneity on the three substrate types, the binding energies, and the van der Waals 2D parameters. Research supported by NSF DMR 1206208.

  9. A novel method of measuring leaf epidermis and mesophyll stiffness shows the ubiquitous nature of the sandwich structure of leaf laminas in broad-leaved angiosperm species

    PubMed Central

    Onoda, Yusuke; Schieving, Feike; Anten, Niels P. R.

    2015-01-01

    Plant leaves commonly exhibit a thin, flat structure that facilitates a high light interception per unit mass, but may increase risks of mechanical failure when subjected to gravity, wind and herbivory as well as other stresses. Leaf laminas are composed of thin epidermis layers and thicker intervening mesophyll layers, which resemble a composite material, i.e. sandwich structure, used in engineering constructions (e.g. airplane wings) where high bending stiffness with minimum weight is important. Yet, to what extent leaf laminas are mechanically designed and behave as a sandwich structure remains unclear. To resolve this issue, we developed and applied a novel method to estimate stiffness of epidermis- and mesophyll layers without separating the layers. Across a phylogenetically diverse range of 36 angiosperm species, the estimated Young’s moduli (a measure of stiffness) of mesophyll layers were much lower than those of the epidermis layers, indicating that leaf laminas behaved similarly to efficient sandwich structures. The stiffness of epidermis layers was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species, and strongly associated with cuticle thickness. The ubiquitous nature of sandwich structures in leaves across studied species suggests that the sandwich structure has evolutionary advantages as it enables leaves to be simultaneously thin and flat, efficiently capturing light and maintaining mechanical stability under various stresses. PMID:25675956

  10. A novel method of measuring leaf epidermis and mesophyll stiffness shows the ubiquitous nature of the sandwich structure of leaf laminas in broad-leaved angiosperm species.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Yusuke; Schieving, Feike; Anten, Niels P R

    2015-05-01

    Plant leaves commonly exhibit a thin, flat structure that facilitates a high light interception per unit mass, but may increase risks of mechanical failure when subjected to gravity, wind and herbivory as well as other stresses. Leaf laminas are composed of thin epidermis layers and thicker intervening mesophyll layers, which resemble a composite material, i.e. sandwich structure, used in engineering constructions (e.g. airplane wings) where high bending stiffness with minimum weight is important. Yet, to what extent leaf laminas are mechanically designed and behave as a sandwich structure remains unclear. To resolve this issue, we developed and applied a novel method to estimate stiffness of epidermis- and mesophyll layers without separating the layers. Across a phylogenetically diverse range of 36 angiosperm species, the estimated Young's moduli (a measure of stiffness) of mesophyll layers were much lower than those of the epidermis layers, indicating that leaf laminas behaved similarly to efficient sandwich structures. The stiffness of epidermis layers was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species, and strongly associated with cuticle thickness. The ubiquitous nature of sandwich structures in leaves across studied species suggests that the sandwich structure has evolutionary advantages as it enables leaves to be simultaneously thin and flat, efficiently capturing light and maintaining mechanical stability under various stresses. PMID:25675956

  11. A novel method of measuring leaf epidermis and mesophyll stiffness shows the ubiquitous nature of the sandwich structure of leaf laminas in broad-leaved angiosperm species.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Yusuke; Schieving, Feike; Anten, Niels P R

    2015-05-01

    Plant leaves commonly exhibit a thin, flat structure that facilitates a high light interception per unit mass, but may increase risks of mechanical failure when subjected to gravity, wind and herbivory as well as other stresses. Leaf laminas are composed of thin epidermis layers and thicker intervening mesophyll layers, which resemble a composite material, i.e. sandwich structure, used in engineering constructions (e.g. airplane wings) where high bending stiffness with minimum weight is important. Yet, to what extent leaf laminas are mechanically designed and behave as a sandwich structure remains unclear. To resolve this issue, we developed and applied a novel method to estimate stiffness of epidermis- and mesophyll layers without separating the layers. Across a phylogenetically diverse range of 36 angiosperm species, the estimated Young's moduli (a measure of stiffness) of mesophyll layers were much lower than those of the epidermis layers, indicating that leaf laminas behaved similarly to efficient sandwich structures. The stiffness of epidermis layers was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species, and strongly associated with cuticle thickness. The ubiquitous nature of sandwich structures in leaves across studied species suggests that the sandwich structure has evolutionary advantages as it enables leaves to be simultaneously thin and flat, efficiently capturing light and maintaining mechanical stability under various stresses.

  12. Calcium lignosulfonate adsorption and desorption on Berea sandstone.

    PubMed

    Grigg, Reid B; Bai, Baojun

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes adsorption and desorption studies carried out with calcium lignosulfonate (CLS) on Berea sandstone. Circulation experiments were performed to determine CLS adsorption isotherms and the effects of CLS concentration, temperature, salinity, brine hardness, and injection rate on adsorption density. Flow-through experiments were performed to assess the reversibility of CLS adsorption and the influence of postflush rate, brine concentration, brine hardness, brine pH, and temperature on the desorption process. Results indicate that CLS adsorption isotherms on Berea sandstone follow the Freundlich isotherm law. The results presented in this paper on the effects of CLS adsorption and desorption on Berea sandstone show that: (1) increasing CLS concentration and salinity increases CLS adsorption density; (2) increasing temperature will decrease adsorption density; (3) increasing injection rate of CLS solution will slightly decrease CLS adsorption density; (4) postflush rate and salinity of brine have a large impact on the CLS desorption process; (5) the adsorption and desorption process are not completely reversible; and (5) temperature and pH of the postflush brine have little effect on desorption.

  13. Novel sandwich structure adsorptive membranes for removal of 4-nitrotoluene from water.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuexin; Jia, Zhiqian

    2016-11-01

    Novel sandwich PES-SPES/PS-PDVB/PTFE adsorptive membranes were prepared by a filtration/immersion precipitation method and employed for the removal of 4-nitrotoluene from water. The static adsorption thermodynamics, kinetics, dynamic adsorption/desorption and membrane reusability were investigated. The results showed that the Freundlich model describes the adsorption isotherm satisfactorily. With increased PS-PDVB content, the maximum static adsorption capacity, partition coefficient, apparent adsorption rate constant, and dynamic adsorption capacity all significantly increased. The sandwich membranes showed much higher removal efficiency and adsorption capacity than those of mixed matrix membranes. With respect to dynamics adsorption/desorption, the sandwich membranes exhibited excellent reusability, with a removal efficiency greater than 95% even after five recycles. PMID:27322899

  14. Macroscopic and spectroscopic characterization of selenate, selenite, and chromate adsorption at the solid-water interface of gamma-Al(2)O(3).

    PubMed

    Elzinga, Evert J; Tang, Yuanzhi; McDonald, Jason; DeSisto, Stephanie; Reeder, Richard J

    2009-12-15

    The interaction of selenate, selenite, and chromate with the hydrated surface of gamma-Al(2)O(3) was studied using a combination of macroscopic pH edge data, electrophoretic mobility measurements, and X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses. The pH edge data show generally increased oxyanion adsorption with decreasing pH, and indicate ionic strength-(in)dependent adsorption of chromate and selenate across the pH range 4-9, and ionic strength-(in)dependent adsorption of selenite in this pH range. The adsorption of chromate peaks at pH 5.0, whereas for selenate and selenite no pH adsorption maxima are observed. Electrophoretic mobility measurements show that all three oxyanions decrease the zeta potential of gamma-Al(2)O(3) upon adsorption; however, only selenite decreased the pH(PZC) of the gamma-Al(2)O(3) sorbent. EXAFS data indicate that selenite ions are coordinated in a bridging bidentate fashion to surface AlO(6) octahedra, whereas no second-neighbor Al scattering was observed for adsorbed selenate ions. Combined, the results presented here show that pH is a major factor in determining the extent of adsorption of selenate, selenite, and chromate on hydrated gamma-Al(2)O(3). The results point to substantial differences between these anions as to the mode of adsorption at the hydrated gamma-Al(2)O(3) surface, with selenate adsorbing as nonprotonated outer-sphere complexes, chromate forming a mixture of monoprotonated and nonprotonated outer-sphere adsorption complexes, and selenite coordinating as inner-sphere surface complexes in bridging configuration.

  15. Membrane Docking of the Synaptotagmin 7 C2A Domain: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Measurements Show Contributions from Two Membrane Binding Loops

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, J. Ryan; Chon, Nara Lee; Boo, Arthur; Maynard, Favinn A.; Lin, Hai; Knight, Jefferson D.

    2015-01-01

    The synaptotagmin (Syt) family of proteins plays an important role in vesicle docking and fusion during Ca2+-induced exocytosis in a wide variety of cell types. Its role as a Ca2+ sensor derives primarily from its two C2 domains, C2A and C2B, which insert into anionic lipid membranes upon binding Ca2+. Syt isoforms 1 and 7 differ significantly in their Ca2+ sensitivity; the C2A domain from Syt7 binds Ca2+ and membranes much more tightly than the C2A domain from Syt1, due at least in part to greater contributions from the hydrophobic effect. While the structure and membrane activity of Syt1 have been extensively studied, the structural origins of differences between Syt7 and Syt1 are unknown. The present study used site-directed spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine depth parameters for the Syt7 C2A domain, for comparison to analogous previous measurements with Syt1 C2A. In a novel approach, the membrane docking geometry of both Syt1 and Syt7 C2A was modeled by mapping depth parameters onto multiple molecular dynamics simulated structures of the Ca2+-bound protein. The models reveal membrane penetration of Ca2+ binding loops (CBLs) 1 and 3, and membrane binding is more sensitive to mutations in CBL3. On average, Syt7 C2A inserts more deeply in the membrane than Syt1 C2A, although depths vary among the different structural models. This observation provides a partial structural explanation for the hydrophobically driven membrane docking of Syt7 C2A. PMID:26322740

  16. Late Pleistocene Rapid Climate Change Events Measured in Stalagmites From a Semi-Arid Cave in Iran Show Pan-Eurasian Climate Signal Matching NGRIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehterian, S.; Pourmand, A.; Sharifi, A.; Murphy, L.; Lahijani, H. A. K.; Naderi, M.; Swart, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Although new records of Pleistocene climate variability have begun to emerge from speleothems in Western and Eastern Asia, much remains unknown about climate variability on centennial to millennial timescales during the last glacial and interglacial periods across the interior of West Asia. The regional climate of West Asia is governed by interactions between the Northern Hemisphere Westerly Jet, the Siberian Anticyclone and the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon, making this region highly sensitive to abrupt climate variability. Here we present the first high-resolution oxygen isotope record of two stalagmites from a cave in the semi-arid region of NW Iran. The records from Qaleh Kord Cave (QKC, 35°47'50"N, 48°51'25"E) span between 73 kya to 127 kya and cover marine isotope stages MIS4 and MIS5. The absolute chronology of both stalagmites was established using a novel high-precision U-Th geochronometry technique with multi-collection ICP-MS. The δ18O composition of QKC stalagmites closely agree with changes in δ18O composition of the NGRIP ice core from Greenland, indicating a close atmospheric teleconnection between the climate of the North Atlantic and the interior of West Asia during this period. Because the chronology of NGRIP beyond 60 kya is calculated via numerical flow models and not directly measured, data from our stalagmites provide absolute age tie points to improve the accuracy of the deepest portion of the ice record. Furthermore, agreement between our records and those from the Soreq (Israel) and Sanbao (China) caves in West and East Asia point to a pan-Eurasian climate signal. In order to investigate the mechanisms that drive changes in climate in Western Asia on millennial timescales and examine the role of orbital characteristics and changes in insolation on atmospheric circulation and precipitation during MIS5, we present results from fully-coupled general circulation simulation CESM1 at three time slices of 80, 95, and 115 kya.

  17. The influence of using Jordanian natural zeolite on the adsorption, physical, and mechanical properties of geopolymers products.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Rushdi Ibrahim; El-Eswed, Bassam; Alshaaer, Mazen; Khalili, Fawwaz; Khoury, Hani

    2009-06-15

    Geopolymers consist of an amorphous, three-dimensional structure resulting from the polymerization of aluminosilicate monomers that result from dissolution of kaolin in an alkaline solution at temperatures around 80 degrees C. One potential use of geopolymers is as Portland cement replacement. It will be of great importance to provide a geopolymer with suitable mechanical properties for the purpose of water storage and high adsorption capacity towards pollutants. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of using Jordanian zeolitic tuff as filler on the mechanical performance and on the adsorption capacity of the geopolymers products. Jordanian zeolitic tuff is inexpensive and is known to have high adsorption capacity. The results confirmed that this natural zeolitic tuff can be used as a filler of stable geopolymers with high mechanical properties and high adsorption capacity towards methylene blue and Cu(II) ions. The XRD measurements showed that the phillipsite peaks (major mineral constituent of Jordanian zeolite) were disappeared upon geopolymerization. The zeolite-based geopolymers revealed high compressive strength compared to reference geopolymers that employ sand as filler. Adsorption experiments showed that among different geopolymers prepared, the zeolite-based geopolymers have the highest adsorption capacity towards methylene blue and copper(II) ions.

  18. Moisture adsorption in optical coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macleod, H. Angus

    1988-01-01

    The thin film filter is a very large aperture component which is exceedingly useful because of its small size, flexibility and ease of mounting. Thin film components, however, do have defects of performance and especially of stability which can cause problems in systems, particularly where long-term measurements are being made. Of all of the problems, those associated with moisture absorption are the most serious. Moisture absorption occurs in the pore-shaped voids inherent in the columnar structure of the layers. Ion-assisted deposition is a promising technique for substantially reducing moisture adsorption effects in thin film structures.

  19. Adsorption of primary substituted hydrocarbons onto solid gallium substrates.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Chrishani M; Pandey, Bipin; Li, Feng; Ito, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    Adsorption of a series of primary substituted hydrocarbons (RX; C18H37PO(OH)2 (ODPA), C17H35COOH, C18H37OH, C18H37NH2, and C18H37SH) onto solid gallium substrates with and without UV/ozone treatment was studied using contact angle goniometry, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and cyclic voltammetry (CV). UV/ozone treatment offered a hydrophilic surface (water contact angle (θ(water)) less than 10°), reflecting the formation of a surface oxide layer with the maximum thickness of ca. 1 nm and possibly the removal of surface contaminants. Upon immersion in a toluene solution of a RX, θ(water) increased due to adsorption of the RX onto gallium substrates. In particular, UV/ozone-treated gallium substrates (UV-Ga) immersed in an ODPA solution exhibited θ(water) close to 105°. The ellipsometric thickness of the adsorbed ODPA layer was ca. 2.4 nm, and CV data measured in an acetonitrile solution showed significant inhibition of redox reaction on the substrate surface. These results indicate the formation of a densely packed ODPA monolayer on UV-Ga. The coverage of a C17H35COOH layer adsorbed onto UV-Ga was lower, as shown by smaller θ(water) (ca. 99°), smaller ellipsometric thickness (ca. 1.3 nm), and smaller electrode reaction inhibition. Adsorption of the other RX onto UV-Ga was weaker, as indicated by smaller θ(water) (82°-92°). ODPA did not strongly adsorb onto UV-untreated gallium substrates, suggesting that the ODPA adsorption mainly originates from hydrogen bond interaction of a phosphonate group with surface oxide. These results will provide a means for controlling the surface properties of oxide-coated gallium that play an essential role in monolayer conductivity measurements and electroanalytical applications.

  20. Water Adsorption on a-Fe2O3(0001) at Near Ambient Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Susumu

    2011-08-19

    We have investigated hydroxylation and water adsorption on {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) at water vapor pressures up to 2 Torr and temperatures ranging from 277 to 647 K (relative humidity (RH) {le} 34%) using ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Hydroxylation occurs at the very low RH of 1 x 10{sup -7} % and precedes the adsorption of molecular water. With increasing RH, the OH coverage increases up to one monolayer (ML) without any distinct threshold pressure. Depth profiling measurements showed that hydroxylation occurs only at the topmost surface under our experimental conditions. The onset of molecular water adsorption varies from {approx}2 x 10{sup -5} to {approx} 4 x 10{sup -2} % RH depending on sample temperature and water vapor pressure. The coverage of water reaches 1 ML at {approx}15% RH and increases to 1.5 ML at 34% RH.

  1. Water adsorption on alpha-Fe2O3(0001) at near ambient conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Susumu; Kendelewicz, Tom; Newberg, John T.; Ketteler, Guido; Starr, David E.; Mysak, Erin R.; Andersson, Klas J.; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Bluhm, Henrik; Salmeron, Miquel; Brown Jr., Gordon E.; Nilsson, Anders

    2009-11-23

    We have investigated hydroxylation and water adsorption on {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) at water vapor pressures up to 2 Torr and temperatures ranging from 277 to 647 K (relative humidity (RH) {<=} 34%) using ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Hydroxylation occurs at the very low RH of 1 x 10{sup -7}% and precedes the adsorption of molecular water. With increasing RH, the OH coverage increases up to one monolayer (ML) without any distinct threshold pressure. Depth profiling measurements showed that hydroxylation occurs only at the topmost surface under our experimental conditions. The onset of molecular water adsorption varies from {approx}2 x 10{sup -5} to {approx}4 x 10{sup -2}% RH depending on sample temperature and water vapor pressure. The coverage of water reaches I ML at {approx} 15% RH and increases to 1.5 ML at 34% RH.

  2. Prediction of static contact angles on the basis of molecular forces and adsorption data.

    PubMed

    Diaz, M Elena; Savage, Michael D; Cerro, Ramon L

    2016-08-01

    At a three-phase contact line, a liquid bulk phase is in contact with and coexists with a very thin layer of adsorbed molecules. This adsorbed film in the immediate vicinity of a liquid wedge modifies the balance of forces between the liquid and solid phases such that, when included in the balance of forces, a quantitative relationship emerges between the adsorbed film thickness and the static contact angle. This relationship permits the prediction of static contact angles from molecular forces and equilibrium adsorption data by means of quantities that are physically meaningful and measurable. For n-alkanes on polytetrafluoroethylene, for which there are experimental data available on adsorption and contact angles, our computations show remarkable agreement with the data. The results obtained are an improvement on previously published calculations-particularly for alkanes with a low number of carbon atoms, for which adsorption is significant. PMID:27627371

  3. Prediction of static contact angles on the basis of molecular forces and adsorption data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, M. Elena; Savage, Michael D.; Cerro, Ramon L.

    2016-08-01

    At a three-phase contact line, a liquid bulk phase is in contact with and coexists with a very thin layer of adsorbed molecules. This adsorbed film in the immediate vicinity of a liquid wedge modifies the balance of forces between the liquid and solid phases such that, when included in the balance of forces, a quantitative relationship emerges between the adsorbed film thickness and the static contact angle. This relationship permits the prediction of static contact angles from molecular forces and equilibrium adsorption data by means of quantities that are physically meaningful and measurable. For n-alkanes on polytetrafluoroethylene, for which there are experimental data available on adsorption and contact angles, our computations show remarkable agreement with the data. The results obtained are an improvement on previously published calculations—particularly for alkanes with a low number of carbon atoms, for which adsorption is significant.

  4. Prediction of static contact angles on the basis of molecular forces and adsorption data.

    PubMed

    Diaz, M Elena; Savage, Michael D; Cerro, Ramon L

    2016-08-01

    At a three-phase contact line, a liquid bulk phase is in contact with and coexists with a very thin layer of adsorbed molecules. This adsorbed film in the immediate vicinity of a liquid wedge modifies the balance of forces between the liquid and solid phases such that, when included in the balance of forces, a quantitative relationship emerges between the adsorbed film thickness and the static contact angle. This relationship permits the prediction of static contact angles from molecular forces and equilibrium adsorption data by means of quantities that are physically meaningful and measurable. For n-alkanes on polytetrafluoroethylene, for which there are experimental data available on adsorption and contact angles, our computations show remarkable agreement with the data. The results obtained are an improvement on previously published calculations-particularly for alkanes with a low number of carbon atoms, for which adsorption is significant.

  5. {sup 4}He adsorption and superfluid transition on C{sub 60}

    SciTech Connect

    Teizer, W.; Hallock, R.B.; Hebard, A.F.

    1997-10-01

    The authors present adsorption isotherm data of {sup 4}He on C{sub 60} for 1.50 K < T < 1.68 K determined by measurements of the frequency of quartz crystal microbalances (QCM`s) coated with C{sub 60} films. They find a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition with a jump in the areal superfluid density close to predictions. By comparing the adsorbed {sup 4}He on two QCM`s they derive an upper limit for the amount of {sup 4}He intercalated into C{sup 60} at low temperature of 0.05 {sup 4}He atoms per C{sub 60} molecule. The low coverage portion of the adsorption data shows an apparent excess adsorption of {sup 4}He onto the C{sub 60}.

  6. Protein Adsorption and Reorganization on Nanoparticles Probed by the Coffee-Ring Effect: Application to Single Point Mutation Detection.

    PubMed

    Devineau, Stéphanie; Anyfantakis, Manos; Marichal, Laurent; Kiger, Laurent; Morel, Mathieu; Rudiuk, Sergii; Baigl, Damien

    2016-09-14

    The coffee-ring effect denotes the accumulation of particles at the edge of an evaporating sessile drop pinned on a substrate. Because it can be detected by simple visual inspection, this ubiquitous phenomenon can be envisioned as a robust and cost-effective diagnostic tool. Toward this direction, here we systematically analyze the deposit morphology of drying drops containing polystyrene particles of different surface properties with various proteins (bovine serum albumin (BSA) and different forms of hemoglobin). We show that deposit patterns reveal information on both the adsorption of proteins onto particles and their reorganization following adsorption. By combining pattern analysis with adsorption isotherm and zeta potential measurements, we show that the suppression of the coffee-ring effect and the formation of a disk-shaped pattern is primarily associated with particle neutralization by protein adsorption. However, our findings also suggest that protein reorganization following adsorption can dramatically invert this tendency. Exposure of hydrophobic (respectively charged) residues can lead to disk (respectively ring) deposit morphologies independently of the global particle charge. Surface tension measurements and microscopic observations of the evaporating drops show that the determinant factor of the deposit morphology is the accumulation of particles at the liquid/gas interface during evaporation. This general behavior opens the possibility to probe protein adsorption and reorganization on particles by the analysis of the deposit patterns, the formation of a disk being the robust signature of particles rendered hydrophobic by protein adsorption. We show that this method is sensitive enough to detect a single point mutation in a protein, as demonstrated here by the distinct patterns formed by human native hemoglobin h-HbA and its mutant form h-HbS, which is responsible for sickle cell anemia. PMID:27562632

  7. Studies with an immobilized metal affinity chromatography cassette system involving binuclear triazacyclononane-derived ligands: automation of batch adsorption measurements with tagged recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Martin; Coghlan, Campbell J; Hearn, Milton T W

    2014-07-18

    This study describes the determination of the adsorption isotherms and binding kinetics of tagged recombinant proteins using a recently developed IMAC cassette system and employing automated robotic liquid handling procedures for IMAC resin screening. These results confirm that these new IMAC resins, generated from a variety of different metal-charged binuclear 1,4,7-triaza-cyclononane (tacn) ligands, interact with recombinant proteins containing a novel N-terminal metal binding tag, NT1A, with static binding capacities similar to those obtained with conventional hexa-His tagged proteins, but with significantly increased association constants. In addition, higher kinetic binding rates were observed with these new IMAC systems, an attribute that can be positively exploited to increase process productivity. The results from this investigation demonstrate that enhancements in binding capacities and affinities were achieved with these new IMAC resins and chosen NT1A tagged protein. Further, differences in the binding performances of the bis(tacn) xylenyl-bridged ligands were consistent with the distance between the metal binding centres of the two tacn moieties, the flexibility of the ligand and the potential contribution from the aromatic ring of the xylenyl group to undergo π/π stacking interactions with the tagged proteins.

  8. Ion adsorption mechanism of bundled single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Tsutsui, M.; Al-zubaidi, A.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, S.

    2016-07-01

    In order to elucidate ion adsorption mechanism of bundled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), in situ synchrotron XRD measurements of SWCNT electrode in alkali halide aqueous electrolyte at several applied potentials were performed. It was found that the surface inside SWCNT is the important ion adsorption site.

  9. Evaluation of various substances to prevent adsorption of tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) to glass surfaces*

    PubMed Central

    Landi, S.; Held, H. R.; Tseng, M. C.

    1970-01-01

    It is well known that a dilute tuberculin PPD solution (1 IU or 5 IU per dose) very rapidly loses its potency owing to adsorption of tuberculoprotein to the wall of the container into which it is dispensed. The amount of tuberculoprotein adsorbed per cm2 of glass surface has been measured for phosphate-buffered saline over a wide pH range (pH 1 to pH 10). The maximum adsorption was found at pH 4 (0.31 μg/cm2) and the least at between pH 6 and pH 10 (0.15 μg/cm2). The rate of adsorption of tuberculoprotein to glass was not changed when the phosphate-buffered saline was replaced by borate-buffered saline. Tuberculin PPD prepared by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method, by the trichloroacetic acid precipitation method and by a combination of both methods adsorbed equally well to glass and no difference in the rate of adsorption for these tuberculoproteins was found. Forty-two substances in addition to Tween 80 were tested for their property to prevent adsorption of tuberculoprotein to glass in dilute tuberculin PPD solutions (50 IU/ml of 14C-labelled PPD). The most efficient anti-adsorption agents were found to be nonionic surfactants, some ionic surfactants and some colloidal substances; polypeptides and non-surface-active substances of low molecular weight showed little or no anti-adsorption property. The labelling of PPD with 14C has proved to be a valuable tool, particularly for long-term adsorption studies and for screening substances to be used as efficient anti-adsorption agents. These studies have permitted the selection of agents which could be added to dilute solutions of tuberculin PPD (10 IU/ml to 500 IU/ml or 0.2 μg/ml to 10 μg/ml respectively) in order to avoid loss of potency due to adsorption. PMID:5312323

  10. Interpretation of dynamic frontal analysis data in solid/supercritical fluid adsorption systems. I: theory.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; Tarafder, Abhijit; Guiochon, Georges

    2013-05-17

    A theory is proposed to relate the elution times of the adsorption front shocks of breakthrough curves recorded during classical dynamic frontal analysis (FA) experiments with selected compounds and their adsorption isotherms in solid/supercritical fluid adsorption systems. The actual density and viscosity of binary mixtures of CO2 and methanol were obtained from the NIST REPPROP software. Diluted solutions of S-naproxen were considered (<2% in mass) but the possible effects of the analyte concentration on the viscosity and the density of the eluent percolating through the column were neglected. This allows the determination of the excess adsorption isotherm (or Gibbs excess isotherm) of the adsorbed analyte in the whole column at constant mass and volumetric flow rate of pure CO2 and of the modifier solution. A local Langmuir adsorption isotherm and a constant saturation capacity were assumed in the calculations. The variation of the adsorption-desorption constant with the eluent density was taken from the experimental variation of the retention factor of S-naproxen on a chiral column packed with Whelk-O1 particles. The results show that the isotherm parameters obtained from the best adjustment of the Langmuir model to the SFC excess adsorption data deviates by less than 7% from the assumed saturation capacity and from the average of the equilibrium constant along the chromatographic column. In practice, this conclusion holds true provided that the precision of the measurement of elution times of front shocks of breakthrough curves is better than 1% and that the maximum surface coverage qexp,max/qS is at least equal to 20%.

  11. Nanostructured Biointerfaces: Nanoarchitectonics of Thermoresponsive Polymer Brushes Impact Protein Adsorption and Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Psarra, Evmorfia; König, Ulla; Ueda, Yuichiro; Bellmann, Cornelia; Janke, Andreas; Bittrich, Eva; Eichhorn, Klaus-J; Uhlmann, Petra

    2015-06-17

    Controlling the reversibility, quantity, and extent of biomolecule interaction at interfaces has a significant relevance for biomedical and biotechnological applications, because protein adsorption is always the first step when a solid surface gets in contact with a biological fluid. Polymer brushes, composed of end-tethered linear polymers with sufficient grafting density, are very promising to control and alter interactions with biological systems because of their unique structure and distinct collaborative response to environmental changes. We studied protein adsorption and cell adhesion at polymer brush substrates which consisted of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), having a lower critical solution temperature (LCST), to control bioadsorptive processes by changing the environmental temperature. Preparing the PNIPAAm brushes by the "grafting-to"-method two differently synthesized PNIPAAm polymers were used, at which one possessed an additional hydrophobic terminal headgroup. It is known that hydrophobic moieties can influence protein adsorption significantly. The films were comprehensively analyzed by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, contact angle measurements, streaming potential, and atomic force microscopy. Our study was mainly focused on the investigation of the fibrinogen (FGN) adsorption responsiveness both on homo polymer PNIPAAm brushes with and without the hydrophobic terminal functionalization, and further on binary brushes made of the polyelectrolyte poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and one of the prior described two PNIPAAm species. The results show that the terminal hydrophobic modification of PNIPAAm has a considerable impact on wettability, LCST, and morphology of the homo and the binary brush systems, which consequently led to an alteration of FGN adsorption. By using binary PNIPAAm-PAA brushes with different composition it was possible to induce stimuli dependent FGN adsorption with a considerable amplified switching effect by introducing a

  12. The effects of oil on As(V) adsorption on illite, kaolinite, montmorillonite and chlorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainipee, Wimolporn; Cuadros, Javier; Sephton, Mark A.; Unsworth, Catherine; Gill, Martin G.; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Weiss, Dominik J.

    2013-11-01

    The effect of oil on As(V) adsorption on clay minerals has been investigated using batch experiments at low and high pH, NaCl concentration and oil contents. Four clay minerals were chosen because of their abundance in sediments and their different crystal chemistry: illite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and chlorite. The values for pH were 4 and 8 and salt concentrations were 0.001 and 0.7 M NaCl to appreciate the effects of changing salinity, e.g. from fresh water to seawater conditions. For the coating experiments, a well-characterised oil was used to survey the main effects of complex organic mixtures on adsorption and oil to clay mineral (w/w) ratios were 0.0325 and 0.3250. As(V) adsorption increased with increasing NaCl concentration, suggesting that the mechanisms of As(V) adsorption are related to the formation of surface complexes in which Na+ ions act as bridges between the clay surface and the As(V) anions. Cation bridging is also indicated by zeta potential measurements which show that higher NaCl concentrations along with the presence of As(V) can cause the clay particles and adsorbed ions to have a more negative overall charge. Adsorption is lower at higher pH due to the reduced number of positively charged sites on the edge of clay mineral layers. Oil coating reduces As(V) adsorption by decreasing the available surface area of clay minerals, except in the case of oil-coated montmorillonite, where surface area following dispersion in water is increased. The main variables controlling As(V) adsorption are surface area and surface charge density, as confirmed by a simplified quantitative model. These findings advance our ability to predict the effects of complex pollution events in various freshwater and marine settings.

  13. Electrochemistry of ferrocene derivatives on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG): quantification and impacts of surface adsorption.

    PubMed

    Cuharuc, Anatolii S; Zhang, Guohui; Unwin, Patrick R

    2016-02-14

    Cyclic voltammetry of three ferrocene derivatives - (ferrocenylmethyl)trimethylammonium (FcTMA(+)), ferrocenecarboxylic acid (FcCOOH), and ferrocenemethanol (FcCH2OH) - in aqueous solutions shows that the reduced form of the first two redox species weakly adsorbs onto freshly cleaved surfaces of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), with the fractional surface coverage being in excess of 10% of a monolayer at a bulk concentration level of 0.25 mM for both compounds. FcCH2OH was found to exhibit greater and stronger adsorption (up to a monolayer) for the same bulk concentration. The adsorption of FcTMA(+) on freshly cleaved surfaces of high quality (low step edge density) and low quality (high step edge density) HOPG is the same within experimental error, suggesting that the amount of step edges has no influence on the adsorption process. The amount of adsorption of FcTMA(+) is the same (within error) for low quality HOPG, irrespective of whether the surface is freshly cleaved or left in air for up to 12 hours, while - with aging - high quality HOPG adsorbs notably more FcTMA(+). The formation of an airborne contaminating film is proposed to be responsible for the enhanced entrapment of FcTMA(+) on aged high quality HOPG surfaces, while low quality surfaces appear less prone to the accumulation of such films. The impact of the adsorption of ferrocene derivatives on graphite for voltammetric studies is discussed. Adsorption is quantified by developing a theory and methodology to process cyclic voltammetry data from peak current measurements. The accuracy and applicability, as well as limits of the approach, are demonstrated for various adsorption isotherms.

  14. Competitive and synergistic effects in pH dependent phosphate adsorption in soils: LCD modeling.

    PubMed

    Weng, Liping; Vega, Flora Alonso; Van Riemsdijk, Willem H

    2011-10-01

    The pH dependency of soluble phosphate in soil was measured for six agricultural soils over a pH range of 3-10. A mechanistic model, the LCD (ligand charge distribution) model, was used to simulate this change, which considers phosphate adsorption to metal (hydr)oxides in soils under the influence of natural organic matter (NOM) and polyvalent cations (Ca(2+), Al(3+), and Fe(3+)). For all soils except one, the description in the normal pH range 5-8 is good. For some soils at more extreme pH values (for low P-loading soils at low pH and for high P-loading soils at high pH), the model over predicts soluble P. The calculation shows that adsorption is the major mechanism controlling phosphate solubility in soils, except at high pH in high P-loading soils where precipitation of calcium phosphate may take place. NOM and polyvalent cations have a very strong effect on the concentration level of P. The pattern of pH dependency of soluble P in soils differs greatly from the pH effects on phosphate adsorption to synthetic metal (hydr)oxides in a monocomponent system. According to the LCD model, the pH dependency in soil is mainly caused by the synergistic effects of Ca(2+) adsorption to oxides. Adsorption of Al(3+) to NOM adsorbed plays an important role only at a pH < 4.5. Presence of NOM coating strongly competes with phosphate for the adsorption and is an important factor to consider in modeling phosphate adsorption in natural samples.

  15. [Adsorption kinetics of reactive dyes on activated carbon fiber].

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Yue, Qin-Yan; Gao, Bao-Yu; Yang, Jing; Zheng, Yan

    2007-11-01

    The adsorption capability of activated carbon fiber (ACF) to four reactive dyes (reactive brilliant red K-2BP, reactive turquoise blue KN-G, reactive golden yellow K-3RP, reactive black KN-B) in aqueous solution was studied, and adsorption mechanism was focused on from kinetics point of view. The results show that the equilibrium adsorbing capacity (q(e)) of each dye increases with the addition of initial concentration or temperature. On the same condition, the order of q(e) is: reactive brilliant red > reactive golden yellow > reactive black > reactive turquoise blue. The adsorption processes follow a pseudo second-order kinetic rate equation, and the steric structure, size and polarity of dyes are important influence factors to initial adsorption rate. The adsorption activation energy of each dye is low (16.42, 3.56, 5.21, 26.38 kJ x mol(-1) respectively), which indicates that it belongs to physics adsorption.

  16. Communication: Thermodynamic analysis of critical conditions of polymer adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Cimino, R.; Neimark, A. V.; Rasmussen, C. J.

    2013-11-28

    Polymer adsorption to solid surfaces is a ubiquitous phenomenon, which has attracted long-lasting attention. Dependent on the competition between the polymer-solid adsorption and polymer-solvent solvation interactions, a chain may assume either 3d solvated conformation when adsorption is weak or 2d adsorbed conformation when adsorption is strong. The transition between these conformations occurring upon variation of adsorption strength is quite sharp, and in the limit of “infinite” chain length, can be treated as a critical phenomenon. We suggest a novel thermodynamic definition of the critical conditions of polymer adsorption from the equality of incremental chemical potentials of adsorbed and free chains. We show with the example of freely jointed Lennard-Jones chains tethered to an adsorbing surface that this new definition provides a link between thermodynamic and geometrical features of adsorbed chains and is in line with classical scaling relationships for the fraction of adsorbed monomers, chain radii of gyration, and free energy.

  17. CRYOGENIC ADSORPTION OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES OVER NANO-STRUCTURED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, S.; Heung, L.

    2010-10-07

    Porous materials such as zeolites, activated carbon, silica gels, alumina and a number of industrial catalysts are compared and ranked for hydrogen and deuterium adsorption at liquid nitrogen temperature. All samples show higher D{sub 2} adsorption than that of H{sub 2}, in which a HY sample has the greatest isotopic effect while 13X has the highest hydrogen uptake capacity. Material's moisture content has significant impact to its hydrogen uptake. A material without adequate drying could result in complete loss of its adsorption capacity. Even though some materials present higher H{sub 2} adsorption capacity at full pressure, their adsorption at low vapor pressure may not be as good as others. Adsorption capacity in a dynamic system is much less than in a static system. A sharp desorption is also expected in case of temperature upset.

  18. Adsorption of diethyl phthalate ester to clay minerals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanhua; Si, Youbin; Zhou, Dongmei; Gao, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Phthalate esters are a group of plasticizers, which have been widely detected in China's agricultural and industrial soils. In this study, batch adsorption experiments were conducted to investigate the environmental effects on the adsorption of diethyl phthalate ester (DEP) to clay minerals. The results showed that DEP adsorption isotherms were well fitted with the Freundlich model; the interlayer spacing of K(+) saturated montmorillonite (K-mont) was the most important adsorption area for DEP, and di-n-butyl ester (DnBP) was limited to intercalate into the interlayer of K-mont due to the bigger molecular size; there was no significant effect of pH and ionic strength on DEP adsorption to K-mont/Ca-mont, but to Na-mont clay. The adsorption to kaolinite was very limited. Data of X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectra further proved that DEP molecules could intercalate into K-/Ca-mont interlayer, and might interact with clay through H-bonding between carbonyl groups and clay adsorbed water. Coated humic acid on clay surface would enhance DEP adsorption at low concentration, but not at high concentration (eg. Ce>0.26 mM). The calculated adsorption enthalpy (ΔHobs) and adsorption isotherms at varied temperatures showed that DEP could be adsorbed easier as more adsorbed. This study implied that clay type, compound structure, exchangeable cation, soil organic matter and temperature played important roles in phthalate ester's transport in soil.

  19. Strong adsorption of phosphate by amorphous zirconium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu; Cui, Hang; Li, Qi; Gao, Shian; Shang, Jian Ku

    2013-09-15

    Phosphate removal is important in the control of eutrophication of water bodies. Adsorption is one of the promising approaches for the removal of phosphate, which could serve as a supplement for the biological phosphate removal process commonly used in the wastewater treatment industry to meet the discharge requirement when the biological performance is deteriorated from changes of operation conditions. Amorphous zirconium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and low-cost hydrothermal process, and their phosphate removal performance was explored in aqueous environment under various conditions. A fast adsorption of phosphate was observed in the kinetics study, and their adsorption capacity was determined at about 99.01 mg/g at pH 6.2 in the equilibrium adsorption isotherm study. Commonly coexisting anions showed no or minimum effect on their phosphate adsorption performance. The phosphate adsorption showed little pH dependence in the range from pH 2 to 6, while it decreased sharply with the pH increase above pH 7. After adsorption, phosphate on these am-ZrO2 nanoparticles could be easily desorbed by NaOH solution washing. Both the macroscopic and microscopic techniques demonstrated that the phosphate adsorption mechanism of am-ZrO2 nanoparticles followed the inner-sphere complexing mechanism, and the surface hydroxyl groups played a key role in the phosphate adsorption.

  20. Experimental design based response surface methodology optimization of ultrasonic assisted adsorption of safaranin O by tin sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roosta, M.; Ghaedi, M.; Daneshfar, A.; Sahraei, R.

    2014-03-01

    In this research, the adsorption rate of safranine O (SO) onto tin sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (SnS-NPAC) was accelerated by the ultrasound. SnS-NP-AC was characterized by different techniques such as SEM, XRD and UV-Vis measurements. The present results confirm that the ultrasound assisted adsorption method has remarkable ability to improve the adsorption efficiency. The influence of parameters such as the sonication time, adsorbent dosage, pH and initial SO concentration was examined and evaluated by central composite design (CCD) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function (DF). Conducting adsorption experiments at optimal conditions set as 4 min of sonication time, 0.024 g of adsorbent, pH 7 and 18 mg L-1 SO make admit to achieve high removal percentage (98%) and high adsorption capacity (50.25 mg g-1). A good agreement between experimental and predicted data in this study was observed. The experimental equilibrium data fitting to Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models show that the Langmuir model is a good and suitable model for evaluation and the actual behavior of adsorption. Kinetic evaluation of experimental data showed that the adsorption processes followed well pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models.

  1. Poliovirus Adsorption by 34 Minerals and Soils

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Rebecca S.; Taylor, Dene H.; Sturman, Lawrence S.; Reddy, Michael M.; Fuhs, G. Wolfgang

    1981-01-01

    The adsorption of radiolabeled infectious poliovirus type 2 by 34 well-defined soils and mineral substrates was analyzed in a synthetic freshwater medium containing 1 mM CaCl2 and 1.25 mM NaHCO3 at pH 7. In a model system, adsorption of poliovirus by Ottawa sand was rapid and reached equilibrium within 1 h at 4°C. Near saturation, the adsorption could be described by the Langmuir equation; the apparent surface saturation was 2.5 × 106 plaque-forming units of poliovirus per mg of Ottawa sand. At low surface coverage, adsorption was described by the Freundlich equation. The soils and minerals used ranged from acidic to basic and from high in organic content to organic free. The available negative surface charge on each substrate was measured by the adsorption of a cationic polyelectrolyte, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride. Most of the substrates adsorbed more than 95% of the virus. In general, soils, in comparison with minerals, were weak adsorbents. Among the soils, muck and Genesee silt loam were the poorest adsorbents; among the minerals, montmorillonite, glauconite, and bituminous shale were the least effective. The most effective adsorbents were magnetite sand and hematite, which are predominantly oxides of iron. Correlation coefficients for substrate properties and virus adsorption revealed that the elemental composition of the adsorbents had little effect on poliovirus uptake. Substrate surface area and pH, by themselves, were not significantly correlated with poliovirus uptake. A strong negative correlation was found between poliovirus adsorption and both the contents of organic matter and the available negative surface charge on the substrates as determined by their capacities for adsorbing the cationic polyelectrolyte, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride. PMID:6274259

  2. Structural study of Fe (II) adsorption on hematite (1102)

    SciTech Connect

    Tanwar, K.S.; Petitto, S.C.; Ghose, S.K.; Eng, P.J.; Trainor, T.P.

    2008-07-15

    The structure of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(1{bar 1}02) reacted with Fe(II) under anoxic conditions was studied using crystal truncation rod (CTR) diffraction. The CTR results show the crystalline termination of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(1{bar 1}02) is modified due to adsorption of Fe(II) at crystallographic lattice sites. In addition, the binding sites for adsorbed Fe are similar for all studied conditions: reaction for 2 h at pH 5.0, for 34 d at pH 5.0, and for 5.5 h at pH 7.0. The occupancy of adsorbed Fe increases with both reaction time and pH, which is consistent with typical cation adsorption behavior on iron (hydr)oxide surfaces. The metal-oxygen bond lengths of the (ordered) surface Fe atoms are characteristic of Fe(III), which provides indirect evidence for oxidation of adsorbed Fe(II) and is consistent with recent studies indicating that Fe(III)-hydroxides are effective oxidants for dissolved ferrous iron. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that no crystalline surface reaction products formed during the course of Fe(II) reaction. Overall, the structural characterization of the Fe(II) adsorption reaction results in an enhanced understanding of how reduced iron affects the structure, stability and reactivity of hematite.

  3. The effect of elastomer chain flexibility on protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Vyner, Moira C; Liu, Lina; Sheardown, Heather D; Amsden, Brian G

    2013-12-01

    Cells are known to respond differently when grown on materials of varying stiffness. However, the mechanism by which a cell senses substrate stiffness is unknown. Lower crosslink density elastomers formed from acrylated star-poly(d,l lactide-co-ϵ-caprolactone) have previously been shown to support higher smooth muscle cell proliferation in in vitro culture. This difference in growth was hypothesized to be due to differences in protein adsorption that resulted from differences in polymer chain mobility at the surface. Therefore, layer mass and viscoelastic properties were measured for HSA, IgG, fibronectin, vitronectin, and serum supplemented media adsorbed to elastomers of two crosslink densities. Significantly more fibronectin adsorbed to the lower crosslink density surface while significantly more IgG adsorbed to the higher crosslink density surface. Furthermore, differences in fibronectin and IgG layer shear moduli were observed, suggesting that there was a difference in the conformation of the adsorbed protein. ATR-FTIR analysis showed that the lower crosslink density elastomer absorbed more surface water. The increased amount of water may cause greater entropic gains upon protein adsorption to the lower crosslink density surface, which increases total protein adsorption from serum and may cause differences in protein conformation and thus cell behavior. PMID:24034504

  4. Evaluation of the isosteric heat of adsorption at zero coverage for hydrogen on activated carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohnke, E.; Beckner, M.; Romanos, J.; Olsen, R.; Wexler, C.; Pfeifer, P.

    2011-03-01

    Activated carbons made from corn cob show promise as materials for high-capacity hydrogen storage. As part of our characterization of these materials, we are interested in learning how different production methods affect the adsorption energies. In this talk, we will show how hydrogen adsorption isotherms may be used to calculate these adsorption energies at zero coverage using Henry's law. We will additionally discuss differences between the binding energy and the isosteric heat of adsorption by applying this analysis at different temperatures.

  5. H2O Adsorption Kinetics on Smectites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Quinn, Richard C.; Howard, Jeanie; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The adsorptive equilibration of H2O a with montomorillonite, a smectite clay has been measured. At low temperatures and pressures, equilibration can require many hours, effectively preventing smectites at the martian surface from responding rapidly to diurnal pressure and temperature variations.

  6. Modeling adsorption: Investigating adsorbate and adsorbent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Charles Edwin

    1999-12-01

    Surface catalyzed reactions play a major role in current chemical production technology. Currently, 90% of all chemicals are produced by heterogeneously catalyzed reactions. Most of these catalyzed reactions involve adsorption, concentrating the substrate(s) (the adsorbate) on the surface of the solid (the adsorbent). Pore volumes, accessible surface areas, and the thermodynamics of adsorption are essential in the understanding of solid surface characteristics fundamental to catalyst and adsorbent screening and selection. Molecular properties such as molecular volumes and projected molecular areas are needed in order to convert moles adsorbed to surface volumes and areas. Generally, these molecular properties have been estimated from bulk properties, but many assumptions are required. As a result, different literature values are employed for these essential molecular properties. Calculated molar volumes and excluded molecular areas are determined and tabulated for a variety of molecules. Molecular dimensions of molecules are important in the understanding of molecular exclusion as well as size and shape selectivity, diffusion, and adsorbent selection. Molecular dimensions can also be used in the determination of the effective catalytic pore size of a catalyst. Adsorption isotherms, on zeolites, (crystalline mineral oxides) and amorphous solids, can be analyzed with the Multiple Equilibrium Analysis (MEA) description of adsorption. The MEA produces equilibrium constants (Ki), capacities (ni), and thermodynamic parameters (enthalpies, ΔHi, and entropies, ΔSi) of adsorption for each process. Pore volumes and accessible surface areas are calculated from the process capacities. Adsorption isotherms can also be predicted for existing and new adsorbate-adsorbent systems with the MEA. The results show that MEA has the potential of becoming a standard characterization method for microporous solids that will lead to an increased understanding of their behavior in gas

  7. Adding adsorption to a geothermal simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.; Pingol, A.

    1992-01-01

    Physical adsorption of steam has increasingly become recognized as an important storage mechanism in vapor dominated geothermal reservoirs. A method has been developed which allows the effects of adsorption to be modeled using TETRAD, a commercially available geothermal simulator. The method consists of replacing the standard steam table with a new steam table which has been derived to include adsorptive effects. The TETRAD simulator, when run with the pseudo steam table, approximately matches the pressure, production, and saturation behavior of a desorbing geothermal system. Adsorption can be described as the existence of an immobile layer of liquid on the surfaces within a porous medium. The presence of an adsorbed liquid water layer in rocks has been shown experimentally to cause the vapor pressure of steam to be lower than its flat surface vapor pressure for a particular The pseudo steam table accounts for this vapor pressure lowering effect. A test run was made with TETRAD using the pseudo steam table and a low porosity, low permeability reservoir matrix. This test run was compared to an equivalent run made with Stanford Geothermal Program's simulator, ADSORB. The program ADSORB is a one dimensional simulator which has adsorption effects built into its difference equations. The comparison of these runs shows that the pseudo steam table allows TETRAD to match the behavior of the ADSORB simulator. Injection was not investigated in this study. A convenient method of modeling adsorption with TETRAD is to use standard steam tables while allowing for the vapor pressure lowering effect of adsorption. This will require modifications of the equations in the code that describe the partial pressure of the steam phase.

  8. Preparation of mesoporous poly (acrylic acid)/SiO2 composite nanofiber membranes having adsorption capacity for indigo carmine dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ran; Jia, Min; Li, Fengting; Wang, Hongtao; Zhang, Bingru; Qiao, Junlian

    2012-03-01

    Mesoporous poly (acrylic acid)/SiO2 (PAA/SiO2) composite nanofiber membranes functionalized with mercapto groups were fabricated by a sol-gel electrospinning method, and their adsorption capacity for indigo carmine was investigated. The membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. SEM and TEM observation results showed that the PAA/SiO2 fibers had diameters between 400-800 nm and mesopores with an average pore size of 3.88 nm. The specific surface area of the mesoporous nanofiber membranes was 514.89 m2/g. The characteristic peaks for mercapto group vibration in FTIR and Raman spectra demonstrated that the mercapto groups have been incorporated into the silica skeleton. The adsorption isotherm data of indigo carmine on the membranes fit well with Redlich-Peterson model, and the maximum adsorption capacity calculated was 523.11 mg/g. It was found that the removal rate of indigo carmine by the membranes reached a maximum of 98% in 90 min and the adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model. The high adsorption capacity of PAA/SiO2 nanofiber membrane makes it a promising adsorbent for indigo carmine removal from the wastewater.

  9. Adsorption of Anionic, Cationic and Nonionic Surfactants on Carbonate Rock in Presence of ZrO 2 Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Pouriya; Bahramian, Alireza; Fakhroueian, Zahra

    The adsorption of surfactants at the solid-water interface is important for the control of wetting, lubrication, detergency and in mineral flotation.We have studied the adsorptions of different types of surfactants, cationic (Dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide, DTAB), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) and non-anionic (lauryl alcohol-7 mole ethoxylate, LA7) on carbonate rock in presence of zirconium oxide spherical nanoparticles (17-19 nm). ZrO2 nanoparticles with tetrahedral structure have significant effect on adsorption of surfactants on the carbonate rock. We have used the measured conductivities to determine the rate of adsorption of surfactants at rock-water interfaces. The conductivity of DTAB in aqueous solutions containing calcite powder decreases more than the other surfactants in contact with ZrO2 nanoparticles. We have also investigated the adsorption of surfactants at the air-water interface. The presence of nanoparticles, as demonstrated by our experiments, enhances the surface activity and surface adsorption of the surfactants through electrostatic forces or formation of nanostructures. Dynamic light structuring data shows similar aggregation number of nanoparticles in presence of nanoparticles.

  10. Adsorption of reovirus by minerals and soils.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R S; Taylor, D H; Reddy, M M; Sturman, L S

    1982-01-01

    Adsorption of [35S]methionine-labeled reovirus by 30 dry soils, minerals, and finely ground rocks suspended in synthetic freshwater at pH 7 was investigated to determine the conditions necessary for optimum virus removal during land application of wastewaters. All of the minerals and soils studied were excellent adsorbents of reovirus, with greater than 99% of the virus adsorbed after 1 h at 4 degrees C. Thereafter, virus remaining in suspension was significantly inactivated, and within 24 h a three to five log10 reduction in titer occurred. The presence of divalent cations, i.e., Ca2+ and Mg2+, in synthetic freshwater enhanced removal, whereas soluble organic matter decreased the amount of virus adsorbed in secondary effluent. The amount of virus adsorbed by these substrates was inversely correlated with the amount of organic matter, capacity to adsorb cationic polyelectrolyte, and electrophoretic mobility. Adsorption increased with increasing available surface area, as suspended infectivity was reduced further by the more finely divided substrates. However, the organic content of the soils reduced the level of infectious virus adsorbed below that expected from surface area measurements alone. The inverse correlation between virus adsorption and substrate capacity for cationic polyelectrolyte indicates that the adsorption of infectious reovirus particles is predominately a charged colloidal particle-charged surface interaction. Thus, adsorption of polyelectrolyte may be useful in predicting the fate of viruses during land application of sewage effluents and sludges. PMID:7149717

  11. New Adsorption Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankat, Phillip C.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses a simple method for following the movement of a solute in an adsorption or ion exchange system. This movement is used to study a variety of operational methods, including continuous flow and pulsed flow counter-current operations and simulated counter-current systems. Effect of changing thermodynamic variables is also considered. (JM)

  12. SEPARATION BY ADSORPTION

    DOEpatents

    Lowe, C.S.

    1959-06-16

    Separation of Pu from fission products by adsorption on hydrous aluminum silicate is described. The Pu in a HNO/sub 3/ solution is oxidized to the hexavalent state and contacted with the silicate which adsorbs fission products. (T.R.H.)

  13. Cellulase adsorption and relationship to features of corn stover solids produced by leading pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E

    2009-06-01

    Although essential to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass to sugars for fermentation to ethanol or other products, enzyme adsorption and its relationship to substrate features has received limited attention, and little data and insight have been developed on cellulase adsorption for promising pretreatment options, with almost no data available to facilitate comparisons. Therefore, adsorption of cellulase on Avicel, and of cellulase and xylanase on corn stover solids resulting from ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), ammonia recycled percolation (ARP), controlled pH, dilute acid, lime, and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) pretreatments were measured at 4 degrees C. Langmuir adsorption parameters were then estimated by non-linear regression using Polymath software, and cellulase accessibility to cellulose was estimated based on adsorption data for pretreated solids and lignin left after carbohydrate digestion. To determine the impact of delignification and deacetylation on cellulose accessibility, purified CBHI (Cel7A) adsorption at 4 degrees C and hydrolysis with whole cellulase were followed for untreated (UT) corn stover. In all cases, cellulase attained equilibrium in less than 2 h, and upon dilution, solids pretreated by controlled pH technology showed the greatest desorption followed by solids from dilute acid and SO(2) pretreatments. Surprisingly, the lowest desorption was measured for Avicel glucan followed by solids from AFEX pretreatment. The higher cellulose accessibility for AFEX and lime pretreated solids could account for the good digestion reported in the literature for these approaches. Lime pretreated solids had the greatest xylanase capacity and AFEX solids the least, showing pretreatment pH did not seem to be controlling. The 24 h glucan hydrolysis rate data had a strong relationship to cellulase adsorption capacities, while 24 h xylan hydrolysis rate data showed no relationship to xylanase adsorption capacities. Furthermore, delignification greatly

  14. Cotton cellulose: enzyme adsorption and enzymic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beltrame, P.L.; Carniti, P.; Focher, B.; Marzetti, A.; Cattaneo, M.

    1982-01-01

    The adsorption of a crude cellulase complex from Trichoderma viride on variously pretreated cotton cellulose samples was studied in the framework of the Langmuir approach at 2-8 degrees. The saturation amount of adsorbed enzyme was related to the susceptibility of the substrates to hydrolysis. In every case the adsorption process was faster by 2-3 orders of magnitude than the hydrolysis step to give end products. For ZnCl/sub 2/-treated cotton cellulose the Langmuir parameters correlated fairly well with the value of the Michaelis constant, measured for its enzymic hydrolysis, and the adsorptive complex was indistinguishable from the complex of the Michaelis-Menten model for the hydrolysis.

  15. Functionalized mesoporous silica materials for molsidomine adsorption: Thermodynamic study

    SciTech Connect

    Alyoshina, Nonna A.; Parfenyuk, Elena V.

    2013-09-15

    A series of unmodified and organically modified mesoporous silica materials was prepared. The unmodified mesoporous silica was synthesized via sol–gel synthesis in the presence of D-glucose as pore-forming agent. The functionalized by phenyl, aminopropyl and mercaptopropyl groups silica materials were prepared via grafting. The fabricated adsorbent materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption and elemental analysis methods. Then their adsorption properties for mesoionic dug molsidomine were investigated at 290–313 K and physiological pH value. Thermodynamic parameters of molsidomine adsorption on the synthesized materials have been calculated. The obtained results showed that the adsorption process of molsidomine on the phenyl modified silica is the most quantitatively and energetically favorable. The unmodified and mercaptopropyl modified silica materials exhibit significantly higher adsorption capacities and energies for molsidomine than the aminopropyl modified sample. The effects are discussed from the viewpoint of nature of specific interactions responsible for the adsorption. - Graphical abstract: Comparative analysis of the thermodynamic characteristics of molsidomine adsorption showed that the adsorption process on mesoporous silica materials is controlled by chemical nature of surface functional groups. Molsidomine adsorption on the phenyl modified silica is the most quantitatively and energetically favorable. Taking into account ambiguous nature of mesoionic compounds, it was found that molsidomine is rather aromatic than dipolar. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Unmodified and organically modified mesoporous silica materials were prepared. • Molsidomine adsorption on the silica materials was studied. • Phenyl modified silica shows the highest adsorption capacity and favorable energy. • Molsidomine exhibits the lowest affinity to aminopropyl modified silica.

  16. Neptunium(V) adsorption to calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heberling, Frank; Brendebach, Boris; Bosbach, Dirk

    2008-12-01

    The migration behavior of the actinyl ions U(VI)O 22+, Np(V)O 2+ and Pu(V,VI)O 2(+,2+) in the geosphere is to a large extend controlled by sorption reactions (inner- or outer-sphere adsorption, ion-exchange, coprecipitation/structural incorporation) with minerals. Here NpO 2+ adsorption onto calcite is studied in batch type experiments over a wide range of pH (6.0-9.4) and concentration (0.4 μM-40 μM) conditions. pH is adjusted by variation of CO 2 partial pressure. Adsorption is found to be pH dependent with maximal adsorption at pH 8.3 decreasing with increasing and decreasing pH. pH dependence of adsorption decreases with increasing Np(V) concentration. EXAFS data of neptunyl adsorbed to calcite and neptunyl in the supernatant shows differences in the Np(V)-O-yl distance, 1.85 ± 0.01 Å for the adsorbed and 1.82 ± 0.01 Å for the solution species. The equatorial environment of the neptunyl in solution shows about 5 oxygen neighbours at 2.45 ± 0.02 Å. For adsorbed neptunyl there are also about 5 oxygen neighbours at 2.46 ± 0.01 Å. An additional feature in the adsorbed species' R-space spectrum can be related to carbonate neighbours, 3 to 6 carbon backscatterers (C-eq) at 3.05 ± 0.03 Å and 3 to 6 oxygen backscatterers (O-eq2) at 3.31 ± 0.02 Å. The differences in the Np(V)-O-yl distance and the C-eq and O-eq2 backscatterers which are only present for the adsorbed species indicate inner-sphere bonding of the adsorbed neptunyl species to the calcite surface. Experiments on adsorption kinetics indicate that after a fast surface adsorption process a continuous slow uptake occurs which may be explained by incorporation via surface dissolution and reprecipitation processes. This is also indicated by the part irreversibility of the adsorption as shown by increased KD values after desorption compared to adsorption.

  17. Influence of Ca2+ on tetracycline adsorption on montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Parolo, M Eugenia; Avena, Marcelo J; Pettinari, Gisela R; Baschini, Miria T

    2012-02-15

    The adsorption of tetracycline (TC) on montmorillonite was studied as a function of pH and Ca(2+) concentration using a batch technique complemented with X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. In the absence of Ca(2+), TC adsorption was high at low pH and decreased as the pH increased. In the presence of Ca(2+), at least two different adsorption processes took place in the studied systems, i.e., cation exchange and Ca-bridging. Cation exchange was the prevailing process at pH<5, and thus, TC adsorption decreased by increasing total Ca(2+) concentration. On the contrary, Ca-bridging was the prevailing process at pH>5, and thus, TC adsorption increased by increasing Ca(2+) concentration. The pH 5 represents an isoadsorption pH where both adsorption processes compensate each other. TC adsorption became independent of Ca(2+) concentration at this pH. For TC adsorption on Ca(2+)-montmorillonite in 0.01 M NaCl experiments, the ratio adsorbed TC/retained Ca(2+) was close to 1 in the pH range of 5-9, indicating an important participation of Ca(2+) in the binding of TC to montmorillonite. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that TC adsorption induced intercalation between montmorillonite layers forming a multiphase system with stacking of layers with and without intercalated TC. PMID:22189389

  18. Adsorption behavior of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) on boehmite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Liu, Chengshuai; Shih, Kaimin

    2012-11-01

    Understanding the interaction of perfluorochemicals, persistent pollutants with known human health effects, with mineral compounds in surface water and groundwater environments is essential to determining their fate and transport. Kinetic experiments showed that adsorption equilibrium can be achieved within 48 h and the boehmite (AlOOH) surface is receptive to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) adsorption. The adsorption isotherms estimated the maximum adsorption capacities of PFOS and PFOA on boehmite as 0.877 μg m(-2) and 0.633 μg m(-2), respectively. Compared to the adsorption capacity on γ-alumina, the abundant hydroxyl groups on boehmite surfaces resulted in the 2-3 times higher adsorption of PFOS and PFOA. Increasing solution pH led to a moderate decrease in PFOS and PFOA adsorption, owing to an increase in ligand exchange reactions and the decrease of electrostatic interactions. The presence of NaCl and CaCl(2) in solution demonstrated negative effects for PFOS and PFOA adsorption on boehmite surfaces, with potential mechanisms being electrical double layer compression, competitive adsorption of chloride, and the Ca(2+) bridging effect between perfluorochemicals. PMID:22897837

  19. Solvothermal synthesis of MnFe2O4-graphene composite-Investigation of its adsorption and antimicrobial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chella, Santhosh; Kollu, Pratap; Komarala, Eswara Vara P. R.; Doshi, Sejal; Saranya, Murugan; Felix, Sathiyanathan; Ramachandran, Rajendran; Saravanan, Padmanapan; Koneru, Vijaya Lakshmi; Venugopal, Velmurugan; Jeong, Soon Kwan; Nirmala Grace, Andrews

    2015-02-01

    Graphene manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4-G) composite was prepared by a solvothermal process. The as-prepared graphene manganese ferrite composite was tested for the adsorption of lead (Pb(II)) and cadmium (Cd(II)) ions by analytical methods under diverse experimental parameters. With respect to contact time measurements, the adsorption of Pb and Cd ions increased and reached equilibrium within 120 and 180 min at 37 °C with a maximum adsorption at pH 5 and 7 respectively. The Langmuir model correlates to the experimental data showing an adsorption capacity of 100 for Pb(II) and 76.90 mg g-1 for Cd(II) ions. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption of Pb and Cd ions onto MnFe2O4-G was spontaneous, exothermic and feasible in the range of 27-47 °C. Cytotoxicity behavior of graphene against bacterial cell membrane is well known. To better understand its antimicrobial mechanism, the antibacterial activity of graphene and MnFe2O4-G nanocomposite was compared. Under similar concentration and incubation conditions, nanocomposite MnFe2O4-G dispersion showed the highest antibacterial activity of 82%, as compared to graphene showing 37% cell loss. Results showed that the prepared composite possess good adsorption efficiency and thus could be considered as an excellent material for removal of toxic heavy metal ions as explained by adsorption isotherm. Hence MnFe2O4-G can be used as an adsorbent as well as an antimicrobial agent.

  20. Monitoring adsorption and sedimentation using evanescent-wave cavity ringdown ellipsometry.

    PubMed

    Stamataki, Katerina; Papadakis, Vassilis; Everest, Michael A; Tzortzakis, Stelios; Loppinet, Benoit; Peter Rakitzis, T

    2013-02-10

    We monitor the adsorption of Rhodamine 800, and the sedimentation of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) suspension at the surface of a fused-silica prism, by measuring both the absorption and s-p phase shift Δ of a 740 nm probe laser beam, using evanescent-wave cavity ringdown ellipsometry (EW-CRDE). The two systems demonstrate the complementary strengths of EW-CRDE, as the progress of adsorption of the Rhodamine 800 dye can only be observed sensitively via the measurement of absorption, whereas the progress of sedimentation of PTFE can only be observed sensitively via the measurement of Δ. We show that EW-CRDE provides a sensitive method for the measurement of Δ and demonstrates precision in Δ of about 10(-4) deg.

  1. One pot synthesis and characterization of Fe3O4 Nanorod-PNIPA Nanogel Composite for protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Rajar, Kausar; Karakus, Baris; Koc, Kenan; Alveroglu, Esra

    2016-11-01

    In this study, Fe3O4 Nanorod-PNIPA Nanogel Composite nanomaterial is synthesized, characterized and used for lysozyme adsorption. XRD, ATR-FTIR, AFM and SEM measurements reveal that nanorods-nanogels composite was prepared successfully. The diameter of nanorods and the average particle size of nanogels are found around 150nm and 300nm, respectively. VSM measurement shows that the Fe3O4 particles are in rod shape and has superparamagnetic behavior, no hysteresis and remnant is detected. The adsorption kinetic of lysozyme on composite material is studied via fluorescence method, and the adsorption reaction rate constant is calculated as 0.904s(-1) by using Langmuir-Hinshelwood pseudo second order model. Fe3O4 Nanorod-PNIPA Nanogel Composite is appeared as a fast catalyst for lysozyme like protein immobilization. PMID:27523996

  2. One pot synthesis and characterization of Fe3O4 Nanorod-PNIPA Nanogel Composite for protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Rajar, Kausar; Karakus, Baris; Koc, Kenan; Alveroglu, Esra

    2016-11-01

    In this study, Fe3O4 Nanorod-PNIPA Nanogel Composite nanomaterial is synthesized, characterized and used for lysozyme adsorption. XRD, ATR-FTIR, AFM and SEM measurements reveal that nanorods-nanogels composite was prepared successfully. The diameter of nanorods and the average particle size of nanogels are found around 150nm and 300nm, respectively. VSM measurement shows that the Fe3O4 particles are in rod shape and has superparamagnetic behavior, no hysteresis and remnant is detected. The adsorption kinetic of lysozyme on composite material is studied via fluorescence method, and the adsorption reaction rate constant is calculated as 0.904s(-1) by using Langmuir-Hinshelwood pseudo second order model. Fe3O4 Nanorod-PNIPA Nanogel Composite is appeared as a fast catalyst for lysozyme like protein immobilization.

  3. Evaluation of the adsorption capacity of alkali-treated waste materials for the adsorption of sulphamethoxazole.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Lisha

    2012-01-01

    The present work is to develop potential adsorbents from waste material and employ them for the removal of a hazardous antibacterial, sulphamethoxazole, from the wastewater by the Adsorption technique. The Adsorption technique was used to impound the dangerous antibiotics from wastewater using Deoiled Soya (DOS), an agricultural waste, and Water Hyacinth (WH), a prolific colonizer. The adsorption capacity of these adsorbents was further enhanced by treating them with sodium hydroxide solution and it was seen that the adsorption capacity increases by 10 to 25%. Hence a comparative account of the adsorption studies of all the four adsorbents, i.e. DOS, Alkali-treated DOS, WH and Alkali-treated Water Hyacinth has been discussed in this paper. Different isotherms like Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich were also deduced from the adsorption data. Isotherm studies were in turn used in estimating the thermodynamic parameters. DOS showed sorption capacity of 0.0007 mol g(-1) while Alkali-treated Deoiled Soya exhibited 0.0011 mol g(-1) of sorption capacity, which reveals that the adsorption is higher in case of alkali-treated adsorbent. The mean sorption energy (E) was obtained between 9 and 12 kJ mol, which shows that the reaction proceeds by ion exchange reaction. Kinetic study reveals that the reaction follows pseudo-second-order rate equation. Moreover, mass transfer studies performed for the ongoing processes show that the mass transfer coefficient obtained for alkali-treated moieties was higher than the parent moieties. The breakthrough curves plotted from the column studies show percentage saturation of 90-98%. About 87-97% of sulphamethoxazole was recovered from column by desorption. PMID:22508113

  4. Adsorption of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid from an Aqueous Solution on Fly Ash.

    PubMed

    Kuśmierek, Krzysztof; Świątkowski, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    The adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on fly ash was studied. The effects of adsorbent dose, contact time, pH, ionic strength, and temperature on the adsorption were investigated. Adsorption kinetic data were analyzed using pseudo-first and pseudo-second order models, and results showed that adsorption kinetics were better represented by the pseudo-second order model. Adsorption isotherms of 2,4-D on fly ash were analyzed using the Freundlich and Langmuir models. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS°) indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The negative values of ΔG° and the positive value of ΔH° indicate the spontaneous nature of 2,4-D adsorption on fly ash, and that the adsorption process was endothermic. Results showed that fly ash is an efficient, low-cost adsorbent for removal of 2,4-D from water.

  5. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  6. H2O Adsorption on Smectites: Application to the Diurnal Variation of H2O in the Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Howard, J.; Quinn, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    Observations of the Martian planetary boundary layer lead to interpretations that are baffling and contradictory. In this paper, we specifically address the question of whether or not water vapor finds a substantial diurnal reservoir in the Martian regolith. To address this issue, we have measured H2O adsorption kinetics on SWy-1, a Na-rich montmorillonite from Wyoming. The highest-temperature (273 K) data equilibrates rapidly. Data gathered at realistic H2O partial pressures and temperatures appropriate to early morning show two phenomena that preclude a significant role for smectites in diurnally exchanging a large column abundance. First, the equilibration timescale is longer than a sol. Second, the equilibrium abundances are a small fraction of that predicted by earlier adsorption isotherms. The explanation for this phenomenon is that smectite clay actually increases its surface area as a function of adsorptive coverage. At Mars-like conditions, we show that the interlayer sites of smectites are likely to be unavailable.

  7. [Adsorption of Congo red from aqueous solution on hydroxyapatite].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yan-Hui; Lin, Jian-Wei

    2013-08-01

    The adsorption of Congo red (CR) from aqueous solution on hydroxyapatite was investigated using batch experiments. The hydroxyapatite was effective for CR removal from aqueous solution. The adsorption kinetics of CR on hydroxyapatite well followed a pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium adsorption data of CR on hydroxyapatite could be described by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and showed that the adsorption of CR on hydroxyapatite was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The CR adsorption capacity for hydroxyapatite decreased significantly with increasing pH from 8 to 10. Thermal regeneration showed that hydroxyapatite could be used for six desorption-adsorption cycles with high removal efficiency for CR in each cycle. The mechanisms for CR adsorption on hydroxyapatite with pH value below the pH at point of zero charge (pH(PZC)) include electrostatic attraction, hydrogen bonding and Lewis acid-base interaction. The mechanisms for CR adsorption on hydroxyapatite with pH value above its pH(PZC) include hydrogen bonding and Lewis acid-base interaction. Results of this work indicate that hydroxyapatite is a promising adsorbent for CR removal from aqueous solution.

  8. Adsorption and desorption characteristics of arsenic onto ceria nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The rapid increase in the use of engineered nanoparticles [ENPs] has resulted in an increasing concern over the potential impacts of ENPs on the environmental and human health. ENPs tend to adsorb a large variety of toxic chemicals when they are emitted into the environment, which may enhance the toxicity of ENPs and/or adsorbed chemicals. The study was aimed to investigate the adsorption and desorption behaviors of arsenic on ceria NPs in aqueous solution using batch technique. Results show that the adsorption behavior of arsenic on ceria NPs was strongly dependent on pH and independent of ionic strength, indicating that the electrostatic effect on the adsorption of these elements was relatively not important compared to surface chemical reactions. The adsorption isotherms fitted very well to both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH0, ΔS0, and ΔG0) for the adsorption of arsenic were determined at three different temperatures of 283, 303, and 323 K. The adsorption reaction was endothermic, and the process of adsorption was favored at high temperature. The desorption data showed that desorption hysteresis occurred at the initial concentration studied. High adsorption capacity of arsenic on ceria NPs suggests that the synergistic effects of ceria NPs and arsenic on the environmental systems may exist when they are released into the environment. PMID:22269298

  9. Adsorption of Pyrene onto the Agricultural By-Product: Corncob.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojun; Tong, Dongli; Allinson, Graeme; Jia, Chunyun; Gong, Zongqing; Liu, Wan

    2016-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of pyrene on corncob was studied to provide a theoretical basis for the possible use of this material as an immobilized carrier for improving the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil. The results were as follows. Kinetic experiments showed that the adsorption processes obeyed a pseudo-second-order model. The intraparticle diffusion of Weber-Morris model fitting showed that the film and intraparticle diffusions were the key rate-limiting processes, and the adsorption process mainly consisted of three steps: boundary layer diffusion and two intra-particle diffusions. Experimental adsorption data for pyrene were successfully described by the adsorption-partition equilibrium model. The maximum adsorption capacity at 25°C was 214.8 μg g(-1). The adsorption contribution decreased significantly when the Ce/Sw (the equilibrium concentration/solubility in water) was higher than 1. Adsorption decreased with increased temperature. Based on the above results, the corncob particles could be helpful in the bioremediation of pyrene-contaminated soil.

  10. Adsorption of Pyrene onto the Agricultural By-Product: Corncob.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojun; Tong, Dongli; Allinson, Graeme; Jia, Chunyun; Gong, Zongqing; Liu, Wan

    2016-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of pyrene on corncob was studied to provide a theoretical basis for the possible use of this material as an immobilized carrier for improving the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil. The results were as follows. Kinetic experiments showed that the adsorption processes obeyed a pseudo-second-order model. The intraparticle diffusion of Weber-Morris model fitting showed that the film and intraparticle diffusions were the key rate-limiting processes, and the adsorption process mainly consisted of three steps: boundary layer diffusion and two intra-particle diffusions. Experimental adsorption data for pyrene were successfully described by the adsorption-partition equilibrium model. The maximum adsorption capacity at 25°C was 214.8 μg g(-1). The adsorption contribution decreased significantly when the Ce/Sw (the equilibrium concentration/solubility in water) was higher than 1. Adsorption decreased with increased temperature. Based on the above results, the corncob particles could be helpful in the bioremediation of pyrene-contaminated soil. PMID:26573838

  11. [Adsorption of Congo red from aqueous solution on hydroxyapatite].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yan-Hui; Lin, Jian-Wei

    2013-08-01

    The adsorption of Congo red (CR) from aqueous solution on hydroxyapatite was investigated using batch experiments. The hydroxyapatite was effective for CR removal from aqueous solution. The adsorption kinetics of CR on hydroxyapatite well followed a pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium adsorption data of CR on hydroxyapatite could be described by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and showed that the adsorption of CR on hydroxyapatite was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The CR adsorption capacity for hydroxyapatite decreased significantly with increasing pH from 8 to 10. Thermal regeneration showed that hydroxyapatite could be used for six desorption-adsorption cycles with high removal efficiency for CR in each cycle. The mechanisms for CR adsorption on hydroxyapatite with pH value below the pH at point of zero charge (pH(PZC)) include electrostatic attraction, hydrogen bonding and Lewis acid-base interaction. The mechanisms for CR adsorption on hydroxyapatite with pH value above its pH(PZC) include hydrogen bonding and Lewis acid-base interaction. Results of this work indicate that hydroxyapatite is a promising adsorbent for CR removal from aqueous solution. PMID:24191561

  12. Adsorption of humic acids and trace metals in natural waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    Studies concerning the interactions between suspended hydrous iron oxide and dissolved humic acids and trace metals are reported. As a major component of dissolved organic matters and its readiness for adsorption at the solid/water interface, humic acids may play a very important role in the organometallic geochemistry of suspended sediments and in determining the fate and distribution of trace metals, pesticides and anions in natural water systems. Most of the solid phases in natural waters contain oxides and hydroxides. The most simple promising theory to describe the interactions of hydrous iron oxide interface is the surface complex formation model. In this model, the adsorptions of humic acids on hydrous iron oxide may be interpreted as complex formation of the organic bases (humic acid oxyanions) with surface Fe ions. Measurements on adsorptions were made in both fresh water and seawater. Attempts have been made to fit our data to Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Adsorption equilibrium constants were determined.

  13. Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution by graphene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tonghao; Li, Yanhui; Du, Qiuju; Sun, Jiankun; Jiao, Yuqin; Yang, Guangming; Wang, Zonghua; Xia, Yanzhi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai

    2012-02-01

    Graphene was prepared using a modified Hummers' method. The physico-chemical properties of graphene were characterized by TEM, BET specific surface area, FTIR, Raman and XRD measurements. The effect factors including pH, contact time, temperature and dosage on the adsorption properties of methylene blue onto graphene were investigated. The experimental data of isotherm followed the Langmuir isotherm model better than the Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm equation at 293 K was 153.85 mg/g, indicating graphene is a good adsorbent for the adsorption of MB. The kinetic study illustrated that the adsorption of methylene blue onto graphene fit the pseudo second-order model. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption of methylene blue onto graphene was an endothermic and spontaneous process.

  14. The adsorption of polyelectrolytes on nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jun

    The adsorption of poly(N- isopropylacrylainide) (PNIPAM) and gelatin on surfactant- free polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles has been investigated by a combination of static and dynamic laser light scattering (LLS). We found that the coil-to-globule transition of thermo-sensitive PNIPAM chains at PS hydrophobic surface was three degrees lower than the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the free PNIPAM chains in water. The transition at surface in turn increased the adsorbed amount by additional adsorption when the temperature increased across the LCST. We established a method based on static LLS to calculate the adsorbed amount. By combining with dynamic LLS measurements, we were able to calculate the average density of the adsorbed layer. We made a general conclusion: For long linear flexible polymer chains adsorbed on a spherical surface driven by hydrophobic attraction, the volume of the adsorbed layer is proportional to the square of the adsorbed amount. We further proposed a simple scaling of the density profile for linear polymer chains on hydrophobic surface. For the adsorption of amphoteric polyelectrolyte gelatin on the same PS nanoparticles, we found that if pure water is used as a dispersing agent, the adsorption was driven by electrostatic attraction. However, by pre-dissolving gelatin in small amount of formamide and then repeating the adsorption processes, the adsorption was switched to the hydrophobic attraction driving and the same relationship between the shell volume and the adsorbed amount as that for PNIPAM/PS system recurred. Formamide is believed to have screened out the electrostatic interactions and possible hydrogen binding. We also found a general structural model in the study of different polymeric dispersions: the surface area per-stabilizer occupied is a constant; and successfully applied this model to the core-shell nanostructure formed by the self- assembly of block copolymer micelles. The preparation of narrowly distributed PS

  15. Regenerable adsorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roychoudhury, Subir (Inventor); Perry, Jay (Inventor); Walsh, Dennis (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method for regenerable adsorption includes providing a substrate that defines at least one layer of ultra short channel length mesh capable of conducting an electrical current therethrough, coating at least a portion of the substrate with a desired sorbent for trace contaminant control or CO.sub.2 sorption, resistively heating the substrate, and passing a flowstream through the substrate and in contact with the sorbent.

  16. Adsorption of Ions at Uncharged Insoluble Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Peshkova, Tatyana V; Minkov, Ivan L; Tsekov, Roumen; Slavchov, Radomir I

    2016-09-01

    A method is proposed for the experimental determination of the adsorption of inorganic electrolytes at a surface covered with insoluble surfactant monolayer. This task is complicated by the fact that the change of the salt concentration alters both chemical potentials of the electrolyte and the surfactant. Our method resolves the question by combining data for the surface pressure versus area of the monolayer at several salt concentrations with data for the equilibrium spreading pressure of crystals of the surfactant (used to fix a standard state). We applied the method to alcohols spread at the surface of concentrated halide solutions. The measured salt adsorption is positive and has nonmonotonic dependence on the area per surfactant molecule. For the liquid expanded film, depending on the concentration, there is one couple of ions adsorbed per each 3-30 surfactant molecules. We analyzed which ion, the positive or the negative, stands closer to the surface, by measuring the effect of NaCl on the Volta potential of the monolayer. The potentiometric data suggest that Na(+) is specifically adsorbed, while Cl(-) remains in the diffuse layer, i.e., the surface is positively charged. The observed reverse Hofmeister series of the adsorptions of NaF, NaCl, and NaBr suggests the same conclusion holds for all these salts. The force that causes the adsorption of Na(+) seems to be the interaction of the ion with the dipole moment of the monolayer. PMID:27529571

  17. Adsorption of Ions at Uncharged Insoluble Monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peshkova, T. V.; Minkov, I. L.; Tsekov, R.; Slavchov, R. I.

    2016-08-01

    A method is proposed for the experimental determination of the adsorption of inorganic electrolytes at a surface covered with insoluble surfactant monolayer. This task is complicated by the fact that the change of the salt concentration alters both chemical potentials of the electrolyte and the surfactant. Our method resolves the question by combining data for the surface pressure versus area of the monolayer at several salt concentrations with data for the equilibrium spreading pressure of crystals of the surfactant (used to fix a standard state). We applied the method to alcohols spread at the surface of concentrated halide solutions. The measured salt adsorption is positive and has nonmonotonic dependence on the area per surfactant molecule. For the liquid expanded film, depending on the concentration, there is one couple of ions adsorbed per each 3–30 surfactant molecules. We analyzed which ion, the positive or the negative, stands closer to the surface, by measuring the effect of NaCl on the Volta potential of the monolayer. The potentiometric data suggest that Na+ is specifically adsorbed, while Cl– remains in the diffuse layer, i.e., the surface is positively charged. The observed reverse Hofmeister series of the adsorptions of NaF, NaCl, and NaBr suggests the same conclusion holds for all these salts. The force that causes the adsorption of Na+ seems to be the interaction of the ion with the dipole moment of the monolayer.

  18. "Show" Them "the Money!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Al

    2009-01-01

    This article describes ways of measuring the monetary value of resource sharing across jurisdictional boundaries, using the same "buy once, use many times" logic that is the basic underpinning of libraries. (Contains 4 notes.)

  19. Adsorption of oleic acid at sillimanite/water interface.

    PubMed

    Kumar, T V Vijaya; Prabhakar, S; Raju, G Bhaskar

    2002-03-15

    The interaction of oleic acid at sillimanite-water interface was studied by adsorption, FT-IR, and zeta potential measurements. The isoelectric point (IEP) of sillimanite obtained at pH 8.0 was found to shift in the presence of oleic acid. This shift in IEP was attributed to chemisorption of oleic acid on sillimanite. Adsorption experiments were conducted at pH 8.0, where the sillimanite surface is neutral. The adsorption isotherm exhibited a plateau around 5 micromol/m2 that correspond to a monolayer formation. Adsorption of oleic acid on sillimanite, alumina, and aluminum hydroxide was studied by FT-IR. Chemisorption of oleic acid on the above substrates was confirmed by FT-IR studies. Hydroxylation of mineral surface was found to be essential for the adsorption of oleic acid molecules. These surface hydroxyl sites were observed to facilitate deprotonation of oleic acid and its subsequent adsorption. Thus protons from oleic acid react with surface hydroxyl groups and form water molecules. Based on the experimental results, the mechanism of oleic acid adsorption on mineral substrate was proposed. Free energy of adsorption was estimated using the Stern-Graham equation for a sillimanite-oleate system. PMID:16290466

  20. Adsorption of lead onto smectite from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Mhamdi, M; Galai, H; Mnasri, N; Elaloui, E; Trabelsi-Ayadi, M

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the effect of a new method of adsorption using membrane filtration to determine the maximum amount of lead adsorbed by clay and investigate the behavior of the clay after adsorption of the said metal. Treatment of wastewater contaminated with heavy metals depends on the characteristics of the effluent, the amount of final discharge, the cost of treatment, and the compatibility of the treatment process. The process of adsorption of heavy metals by clays may be a simple, selective, and economically viable alternative to the conventional physical-chemical treatment. This is justified by the importance of the surface developed by this material, the presence of negative charges on the said surface, the possibility of ion exchange taking place, and its wide availability in nature. The removal of lead from wastewater was studied by using the adsorption technique and using clay as the adsorbent. A method was optimized for adsorption through a membrane approaching natural adsorption. This new method is simple, selective, and the lead adsorption time is about 3 days. The various properties of clay were determined. It was observed that the cation exchange capacity of the clay was 56 meq/100 g of hydrated clay for the raw sample and 82 meq/100 g for the purified sample. The total surface area determined by the methylene blue method was equal to 556 and 783 m(2)/g for the raw and purified samples, respectively. The adsorption kinetics depends on several parameters. The Pb(II) clay, obeys the Langmuir, Freundlich, and the Elovich adsorption isotherms with high regression coefficients. The use of this adsorbent notably decreases the cost of treatment. It was concluded that clay shows a strong adsorption capacity on Pb(II), the maximum interaction occurring with purified clay treated at high concentration of lead. It is proposed that this adsorption through a membrane be extended for the treatment of effluents containing other metals. PMID

  1. Characterization of nitrogen adsorption isotherms of thermally-treated organoclays using multifractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lado, Marcos; Borisover, Mikhail; Paz-Gonzalez, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Nitrogen adsorption isotherms of soils have been reported to exhibit multifractal behavior. In the present work, multifractal analysis is used to characterize changes in N2 adsorption isotherms of organoclays prepared with different cations and exposed to various thermal treatments. Wyoming bentonite was exchanged with benzyltrimethylammonium (BTMA-clay), tetraethylammonium (TEA-clay), and hexadecyltrimethylammonium exchanged at 41 and 90% of the cation exchange capacity of the clay (HDTMA41- and HDTMA90-clay). The resulting organoclays were exposed to temperatures ranging from 25 to 420°C during two hours, freeze-dried, and N2 adsorption isotherms were measured at 77°K. The obtained isotherms showed multifractal behavior, and parameters derived from Rényi and singularity spectra varied with changes in the organic cation and the treatment temperature. The type of cation was the dominant factor responsible for changes in spectra, and significant interactions were observed between type of cation and temperature for several parameters. Significant correlations were found between organic carbon content and multifractal parameters, indicating a relation between changes in N2 sorption sites and thermal transformations of the organic cations. Significant correlations were also found between some multifractal parameters and the heterogeneity exponent of a Freundlich model fitted to nitrobenzene isotherms measured in the organoclays, suggesting that multifractal analysis of N2 adsorption isotherms could be useful to analyze the heterogeneity of sorption sites when sorption determinations yield a limited amount of data.

  2. The distribution and adsorption behavior of aliphatic amines in marine and lacustrine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xuchen; Lee, C. )

    1990-10-01

    The methylated amines - monomethyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyl amine (MMA, DMA, TMA) - are commonly found in aquatic environments, apparently as a result of decomposition processes. Adsorption of these amines to clay minerals and organic matter significantly influences their distribution in sediments. Laboratory measurements using {sup 14}C-radiolabelled amines and application of a linear partitioning model resulted in calculated adsorption coefficients of 2.4-4.7 (MMA), 3.3 (DMA), and 3.3-4.1 (TMA). Further studies showed that adsorption of amines is influenced by salinity of the porewaters, and clay mineral and organic matter content of the sediment solid phase. Concentrations of monomethyl- and dimethyl amine were measured in the porewaters and the solid phase of sediment samples collected from Flax Pond and Lake Ronkonkoma (NY), Long Island Sound, and the coastal Peru upwelling area. These two amines were present in all sediments investigated. A clear seasonal increase in the solid-phase concentration of MMA and DMA in Flax Pond sediments was likely related to the annual senescence of salt marsh grasses, either directly as a source of these compounds or indirectly by providing additional exchange capacity to the sediments. The distribution of amines in the solid and dissolved phases observed in all sediments investigated suggests that the distribution of these compounds results from a balance among production, decomposition, and adsorption processes.

  3. Laboratory investigation of steam adsorption in geothermal reservoir rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Luetkehans, J.

    1988-02-01

    Some vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs and low-permeability gas reservoirs exhibit anomalous behavior that may be caused by surface adsorption. For example, geothermal reservoirs in the Larderello are of Italy and reservoirs in the Geysers Geothermal Field, California produce little, if any, liquid. Yet to satisfy material balance constraints, another phase besides steam must be present. If steam adsorption occurring in significant amounts is not accounted for, the reserves will be grossly under-estimated. In addition, well tests may be misinterpreted because the pressure response is delayed owing to be adsorbed material leaving or entering the gaseous phase. In the present research the role of adsorption in geothermal reservoirs in investigated. Two sets of laboratory equipment were constructed to measure adsorption isotherms of cores from Berea sandstone, Larderello, and The Geysers. Seven experimental runs were completed using nitrogen on the low temperature apparatus at -196/sup 0/C. Eight runs were conducted using steam on the high temperature apparatus at temperatures ranging from 150 C to 207/sup 0/C. The largest specific surface area and the greatest nitrogen adsorption isotherm were measured on the Berea sandstone, followed by a core from Larderello and then The Geysers. Difficulties in determining whether a system had reached equilibrium at the end of each step lead to questions regarding the magnitude of adsorption measured by the steam runs. Nevertheless, adsorption was observed and the difficulties themselves were useful indicators of needed future research.

  4. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  5. Adsorption Properties of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide in Prussian Blue Analogues M3[Co(CN)6]2, M ) Co, Zn

    SciTech Connect

    Natesakhawat, S.; Culp, J.T.; Matranga, C.S.; Bockrath, B.C.

    2007-01-18

    H2 and CO2 adsorption were studied in dehydrated Prussian blue analogues M3[Co(CN)6]2 (M ) Co, Zn) using volumetric isotherm measurements. Both materials adsorbed 1.2-1.3 wt % of H2 at 77 K and 760 Torr with isosteric heats of adsorption ranging from 5.9 to 6.8 kJ/mol. High-pressure H2 isotherms at 77 K showed that Co3[Co(CN)6]2 started to saturate well above 6 atm with a saturation coverage of ~1.9 wt %. These materials adsorbed approximately 17.6-19.7 wt % of CO2 at 253 K and 760 Torr with isosteric heats of adsorption of ~25-28 kJ/mol. The CO2 saturation coverages from high-pressure isotherms at 263 K and 15 atm were ~27.4-29.0 wt %. The displacement of CO2 by H2 in these compounds was investigated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The FTIR experiments showed that CO2 physisorption at cryogenic temperatures produced an infrared peak at 2335 cm-1. Co-adsorption experiments revealed that H2 was able to displace preadsorbed CO2 if the PH2/PCO2 ratio was well above 100. The infrared results from the co-adsorption experiments also showed that H2 and CO2 competed for adsorption in the same pores under these conditions.

  6. Adsorption efficiency of natural materials for low-concentration cesium in solution.

    PubMed

    Miura, A; Kubota, T; Hamada, K; Hitomi, T

    2016-01-01

    In this study, several natural materials were investigated in order to clarify their potential use as cesium (Cs) adsorbents in situ. Four materials--carbonized rice hull, beech sawdust, oak sawdust, and charcoal (Japanese cedar)--which were previously shown to have Cs adsorption capabilities, were examined. Cs adsorption experiments were conducted using different initial Cs and adsorbent concentrations. The physical properties, adsorption isotherms, and adsorption processes were then examined, so as to exploit the Cs adsorption characteristics in the field. Based on these findings, carbonized rice hull and beech sawdust were selected as effective Cs adsorbents. It was found that these materials show continuous and stable Cs adsorption rates for different initial Cs concentrations. The adsorption efficiency of these two adsorption materials in combination was considered, and it was shown that the adsorption isotherms for carbonized rice hull and beech sawdust follow the Freundlich model. Furthermore, the beech sawdust adsorption process exhibited better agreement with the calculated values obtained via the adsorption rate model and the adsorption kinetics model than did the carbonized rice hull adsorption.

  7. Adsorption efficiency of natural materials for low-concentration cesium in solution.

    PubMed

    Miura, A; Kubota, T; Hamada, K; Hitomi, T

    2016-01-01

    In this study, several natural materials were investigated in order to clarify their potential use as cesium (Cs) adsorbents in situ. Four materials--carbonized rice hull, beech sawdust, oak sawdust, and charcoal (Japanese cedar)--which were previously shown to have Cs adsorption capabilities, were examined. Cs adsorption experiments were conducted using different initial Cs and adsorbent concentrations. The physical properties, adsorption isotherms, and adsorption processes were then examined, so as to exploit the Cs adsorption characteristics in the field. Based on these findings, carbonized rice hull and beech sawdust were selected as effective Cs adsorbents. It was found that these materials show continuous and stable Cs adsorption rates for different initial Cs concentrations. The adsorption efficiency of these two adsorption materials in combination was considered, and it was shown that the adsorption isotherms for carbonized rice hull and beech sawdust follow the Freundlich model. Furthermore, the beech sawdust adsorption process exhibited better agreement with the calculated values obtained via the adsorption rate model and the adsorption kinetics model than did the carbonized rice hull adsorption. PMID:27191567

  8. Adsorption of small biological molecules on silica from diluted aqueous solutions: Quantitative characterization and implications to the Bernal's hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basiuk, Vladimir A.; Gromovoy, Taras Yu.; Khil'Chevskaya, Elena G.

    1995-08-01

    To describe quantitatively the adsorption of prebiotically important compounds of low molecular weight (amino acids, short linear peptides, cyclic dipeptides, the Krebs's cycle and other carboxylic acids, nucleosides and related phosphates) on silica surface from diluted neutral aqueous solutions, equilibrium constants (K) and free energies (-ΔG) of adsorption were determined from the retention values measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatography on a silica gel column and from the isotherms measured under static conditions. For most carboxylic acids (including amino acids and linear peptides) -ΔG values were negative and K<1, thus showing very weak adsorption. Cyclic dipeptides (2,5-piperazinediones) exhibited higher adsorbability; -ΔG>0 and K>1 were found for most of them. Influence of the structure of α-substituent on the adsorbability is analyzed. A linear dependence of -ΔG on the number of aliphatic carbon atoms in a sorbate molecule was found for the series of aliphatic bifunctional amino acids, related dipeptides and 2,5-piperazinediones, as well as for the row from glycine to triglycyl glycine. The adsorption of nucleosides and their phosphates is characterized by much higherK and -ΔG values (of the order of 102 and 104, respectively). The adsorption data available from our work and literature are summarized and discussed with implications to the Bernal's hypothesis on the roles of solid surfaces in the prebiotic formation of biopolymers from monomeric ‘building blocks’.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis of silico-manganese nanohybrid for Cu(II) adsorption from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiufeng; Wang, Liting; An, Zehuan; Ye, Hong; Feng, Xudong

    2016-05-01

    A novel silico-manganese nanohybrid adsorbent (SMNA) was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and zeta potential measurement. The adsorption of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution on the SMNA was investigated with variations in contact time, pH and initial Cu(II) concentration. The results showed that hydrothermal method would generate nanowire/nanorod incomplete crystallite (δ-MnO2) adsorbent. The adsorption of Cu(II) onto SMNA increased sharply within 25 min and reached equilibrium gradually. The maximum adsorption capacities of SMNA for Cu(II) were ∼40-88 mg g-1, which was lower than δ-MnO2 (92.42 mg g-1) but had a lower pH dependency. As compared with δ-MnO2, higher adsorption capacities of SMNA (7.5-15 wt% of silica doping amount) for Cu(II) could be observed when pH of the aqueous solution was low (<4). The pseudo-second-order model was the best choice to describe the adsorption behavior of Cu(II) onto SMNA, suggesting that the removal of Cu(II) by the as-prepared adsorbents was dominated by migration of Cu(II). The possibility of Cu(II) recovery was also investigated and it revealed that SMNA was a promising recyclable adsorbent for removal of heavy metal ions in water and wastewater treatment.

  10. On the Henry constant and isosteric heat at zero loading in gas phase adsorption.

    PubMed

    Do, D D; Nicholson, D; Do, H D

    2008-08-01

    The Henry constant and the isosteric heat of adsorption at zero loading are commonly used as indicators of the strength of the affinity of an adsorbate for a solid adsorbent. It is assumed that (i) they are observable in practice, (ii) the Van Hoff's plot of the logarithm of the Henry constant versus the inverse of temperature is always linear and the slope is equal to the heat of adsorption, and (iii) the isosteric heat of adsorption at zero loading is either constant or weakly dependent on temperature. We show in this paper that none of these three points is necessarily correct, first because these variables might not be observable since they are outside the range of measurability; second that the linearity of the Van Hoff plot breaks down at very high temperature, and third that the isosteric heat versus loading is a strong function of temperature. We demonstrate these points using Monte Carlo integration and Monte Carlo simulation of adsorption of various gases on a graphite surface. Another issue concerning the Henry constant is related to the way the adsorption excess is defined. The most commonly used equation is the one that assumes that the void volume is the volume extended all the way to a boundary passing through the centres of the outermost solid atoms. With this definition the Henry constant can become negative at high temperatures. Although adsorption at these temperatures may not be practical because of the very low value of the Henry constant, it is more useful to define the Henry constant in such a way that it is always positive at all temperatures. Here we propose the use of the accessible volume; the volume probed by the adsorbate when it is in nonpositive regions of the potential, to calculate the Henry constant.

  11. Ciprofloxacin adsorption on graphene and granular activated carbon: kinetics, isotherms, and effects of solution chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuan; Tsang, Daniel C W; Chen, Feng; Li, Shiyu; Yang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is a commonly used antibiotic and widely detected in wastewaters and farmlands nowadays. This study evaluated the efficacy of next-generation adsorbent (graphene) and conventional adsorbent (granular activated carbon, GAC) for CIP removal. Batch experiments and characterization tests were conducted to investigate the adsorption kinetics, equilibrium isotherms, thermodynamic properties, and the influences of solution chemistry (pH, ionic strength, natural organic matter (NOM), and water sources). Compared to GAC, graphene showed significantly faster adsorption and reached equilibrium within 3 min, confirming the rapid access of CIP into the macroporous network of high surface area of graphene as revealed by the Brunner-Emmet-Teller measurements analysis. The kinetics was better described by a pseudo-second-order model, suggesting the importance of the initial CIP concentration related to surface site availability of graphene. The adsorption isotherm on graphene followed Langmuir model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 323 mg/g, which was higher than other reported carbonaceous adsorbents. The CIP adsorption was thermodynamically favourable on graphene and primarily occurred through π - π interaction, according to the FTIR spectroscopy. While the adsorption capacity of graphene decreased with increasing solution pH due to the speciation change of CIP, the adverse effects of ionic strength (0.01-0.5 mol L(-1)), presence of NOM (5 mg L⁻¹), and different water sources (river water or drinking water) were less significant on graphene than GAC. These results indicated that graphene can serve as an alternative adsorbent for CIP removal in commonly encountered field conditions, if proper separation and recovery is available in place. PMID:26050736

  12. Fractionation of Natural Organic Matter Upon Adsorption to the Bacterium, Bacillus subtilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manecki, M.; Maurice, P. A.; Fein, J. B.

    2001-12-01

    High pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) was used to measure changes in molecular weight distribution and average molecular weight upon adsorption of fulvic acid onto Bacillus subtilis at pH 3-7. The FA was an XAD-8 extract from a stream in the New Jersey Pine Barrens (USA), and had a weight average molecular weight of 1890 Da. Adsorption of aqueous FA onto B.subtilis was relatively fast, with steady state attained within 2 hours. An adsorption isotherm at pH 4.5 revealed a strong affinity of FA for the B.subtilis surface. The maximum adsorption capacity of a 20g bacteria/L suspension was greater than 9 mg C/L of FA at pH 4.5. Adsorption of FA onto B.subtilis was strongly pH dependent, increasing markedly with decreasing pH over the pH range 3-7. Comparison of HPSEC analysis of control (FA not reacted with bacteria) versus reacted samples showed that in all experiments, the weight average molecular weight (Mw) of FA remaining in solution decreased by several hundred Da. The observed decrease in solution Mw upon adsorption indicated that the higher molecular weight FA components adsorbed preferentially to the bacterial surfaces, at all studied pH values (3-7). Additionally, there was a low molecular weight FA fraction that did not adsorb, even at low pH. Our results suggest that hydrophobic interactions may be important for FA sorption to B.subtilis and that low molecular weight, more hydrophilic components may thus be less likely to adsorb than higher molecular weight, more hydrophobic components.

  13. Effect of adsorption time on the adhesion strength between salivary pellicle and human tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y F; Zheng, J; Zheng, L; Zhou, Z R

    2015-02-01

    Salivary pellicle is a biofilm that is formed by the selective adsorption of salivary proteins. Almost all the functions of the salivary pellicle (lubricating properties, anti-caries properties, etc.) are closely associated with its adhesion strength to tooth surface. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of adsorption time on the adhesion strength between salivary pellicle and human tooth enamel, aiming to understand what act as the determinant of the interfacial adhesion. In this study, human tooth enamel samples were immersed in human whole saliva in vitro to obtain a salivary pellicle on the surface of enamel. Immersion treatments lasting up to 1, 3, 10 and 60 min were conducted, respectively. Nano-scratch tests were conducted on the surface of enamel after different adsorption times. The wettability of enamel surface was measured through water contact angle. Results showed that the shear energy between salivary pellicle and enamel surface increased exponentially with the adsorption time. The adhesion force between salivary pellicle and bare enamel surface was more than twice that between salivary pellicle and salivary pellicle. It was found that both the wettability and zeta potential of enamel increased obviously after 1 min saliva-adsorption treatment, and then they almost kept stable as the adsorption time further increased. In summary, the adhesion strength between initial salivary pellicle and enamel surface was much higher than that between initial salivary pellicle and outer salivary pellicle. It seemed that electrostatic interaction contributed to the adhesion between the initial salivary pellicle and enamel surface, but not to the adhesion between the initial and outer salivary pellicle. The results would be helpful to extend the understanding of the adhesion mechanism of salivary pellicle and then to develop new artificial saliva and dental restorative materials.

  14. Ab initio study of hydrogen adsorption in MOF-5.

    PubMed

    Sillar, Kaido; Hofmann, Alexander; Sauer, Joachim

    2009-03-25

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising adsorbents for hydrogen storage. Density functional theory and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) are used to calculate the interaction energies between H(2) and individual structural elements of the MOF-5 framework. The strongest interaction, DeltaH(77) = -7.1 kJ/mol, is found for the alpha-site of the OZn(4)(O(2)Ph)(6) nodes. We show that dispersion interactions and zero-point vibrational energies must be taken into account. Comparison of calculations done under periodic boundary conditions for the complete structure with those done for finite models cut from the MOF-5 framework shows that the interactions with H(2) originate mainly from the local environment around the adsorption site. When used within a Multi-Langmuir model, the MP2 results reproduce measured adsorption isotherms (the predicted amount is 6 wt % at 77 K and 40 bar) if we assume that the H(2) molecules preserve their rotational degrees of freedom in the adsorbed state. This allows to discriminate between different isotherms measured for different MOF-5 samples and to reliably predict isotherms for new MOF structures. PMID:19253977

  15. Optical reflectivity changes induced by adsorption on metal surfaces: The origin and applications to monitoring adsorption kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Joseph; Dai, Hai-Lung

    2000-01-01

    It is observed that when a monolayer of CO and acetylene is chemisorbed on the Cu(100) surface, the reflectivity of the metal surface at the He-Ne laser wavelength of 632 nm is reduced on the order of 1%, while the physisorption of water, methanol, and acetone induces a reflectivity change on the order of 0.01%. The small reflectivity change induced by physisorption can be described by a three-layer model taking into account the molecular layer refractive index. The much bigger reflectivity change induced by the chemisorbed adsorbates, on the other hand, is a result of bonding perturbations to the electronic structure of the metal surface layer. The latter is supported by an electron scattering model description of the reflectivity change up to 1.96 eV on Cu. For both CO and acetylene, the optical reflectivity change is found to be linearly proportional to the submonolayer coverage. The phenomenon thus offers an excellent method to measure surface kinetics. It is found from the reflectivity change measurements that the initial sticking coefficient for both adsorbates is nearly unity at 110 K; 0.85 for CO and 1.0 for acetylene. The temperature and coverage dependence of the sticking coefficient shows that the adsorption behavior of both molecules is well described as direct adsorption mediated with an extrinsic precursor. For acetylene adsorption, the sticking coefficient shows little dependence on the substrate temperature suggesting that the "extrinsic precursor" is not a thermally equilibrated species. For CO, the transition into a compression phase beyond 0.5 ML results in a corresponding change in the sticking coefficient deduced from the reflectivity data.

  16. DNA Adsorption Kinetics in Evaporating Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiaohua; Li, Bingquan; Chen, Yong; Shew, Chwen-Yang; Samuilov, V. A.; Seo, Y.-S.; Baron, Joseph; Sokolov, J.; Rafailovich, M.

    2004-03-01

    The evaporation kinetics of droplets containing DNA was studied as a function of DNA concentration. The contact angle and overall droplet morphology were observed using a KSV contact angle goniometer as a function of time. Simultaneously, the DNA distribution and adsorption kinetics were measured with confocal microscopy. The DNA droplets were stained with ethidium bromide solution and deposited on various material covered silicon surfaces. Up to 3 stages were found during DNA droplet drying process, depending on the DNA concentration and the size of the droplet. The results also show that a ring is formed at the air/solid /liquid interface in a manner similar to that reported for a colloidal suspension by Robert D. Deegan et.al. [Robert D.Deegan et. al. Nature, Vol 389, Oct.1997] The phase transition happened during those 3 stages were detected by applying electrical field surrounding the drying droplet. Possible transition stages were detected by thermal analysis also. AFM scan was done at each drying stage to detect the deposition morphology. The absorbed amount of DNA was obtained by measuring the intensity on the ring. [Supported by NSF-MRSEC program (DMR-9632525)

  17. Competitive adsorption of cellulase components and its significance in a synergistic mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, D.D.Y.; Kim, C.; Mandels, M.

    1984-05-01

    Some studies on the adsorption of cellulase on cellulose revealed part of the mechanisms involved in the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and provided some clues to the synergistic mechanism of cellulase complex. The adsorption of cellulase was significantly affected by the reaction conditions and physical chemical characteristics of cellulose. Endoglucanase consisted of adsorbable and nonadsorbable components. Cellobiohydrolase had the strongest adsorption affinity. Each cellulase component is postulated to have distinctly different adsorption sites on cellulose, corresponding to the active sites in the hydrolysis reaction. Competitive adsorption kinetics between cellulase components were also observed during the adsorption process. The degree of competitive adsorption was most remarkable when the composition of cellulase components was nearly the same as that in the crude cellulase complex. This seems to show the optimal relative composition of cellulase components. The synergism between cellobiohydrolase and endoglucananse could be elucidated more clearly by this competitive adsorption model of the reaction mechanism.

  18. Preparation of adsorbent with magnesium sulfate and straw pulp black liquor and its phenol adsorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lugang; Wang, Haizeng

    2009-09-01

    A magnesia adsorbent was prepared from straw pulp black liquor and magnesium sulfate for the first time, and its adsorption of phenol from aqueous solution was examined. The characteristics of the adsorbent were tested through chemical analysis, surface analysis, X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy. The effects of various factors, such as dose, adsorption time and adsorption temperature, on phenol adsorption behavior were studied. The results show that the adsorption processes can be fitted to the isotherm Langmuir model very well. It was found that the adsorption process was strongly influenced by temperature and the optimal temperature for phenol removal was 40 °C. The optimum adsorption time was 10 min, and desorption would happen afterwards. Between the models of Langmuir and Freundlich, the adsorption process of phenol onto magnesia fitted the Langmuir equation better.

  19. Adsorption kinetics of herbicide paraquat from aqueous solution onto activated bleaching earth.

    PubMed

    Tsai, W T; Lai, C W; Hsien, K J

    2004-05-01

    In the present study, the activated bleaching earth was used as adsorbent for the herbicide paraquat adsorption in a batch adsorber. The rate of adsorption has been investigated under the controlled process parameters like agitation speed, initial paraquat concentration, adsorbent dosage and temperature. A batch kinetic model, based on the assumption of a pseudo-second order mechanism, has been tested to predict the rate constant of adsorption, equilibrium adsorption capacity, time of half-adsorption, and equilibrium concentration by the fittings of the experimental data. The results of the kinetic studies show that the adsorption process can be well described with the pseudo-second order equation. Based on the isotherm data obtained from the fittings of the adsorption kinetics, Freundlich model appears to fit the adsorption better than Langmuir model. In addition, the effective diffusion coefficient has also been estimated based on the restrictive diffusion model.

  20. Thermodynamic investigations using molecular dynamics simulations with potential of mean force calculations for cardiotoxin protein adsorption on mixed self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Hung, Shih-Wei; Hsiao, Pai-Yi; Lu, Ming-Chang; Chieng, Ching-Chang

    2012-10-25

    Understanding protein adsorption onto solid surfaces is of critical importance in the field of bioengineering, especially for applications such as medical implants, diagnostic biosensors, drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering. This study proposed the use of molecular dynamics simulations with potential of mean force (PMF) calculations to identify and characterize the mechanisms of adsorption of a protein molecule on a designed surface. A set of model systems consisting of a cardiotoxin (CTX) protein and mixed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces were used as examples. The set of mixed SAM surfaces with varying topographies were created by mixing alkanethiol chains of different lengths. The results revealed that CTX proteins underwent similar conformal changes upon adsorption onto the various mixed SAMs but showed distinctive characteristics in free energy profiles. Enhancement of the adsorption affinity, i.e., the change in free energy of adsorption, for mixed SAMs was demonstrated by using atomic force microscopic measurements. A component analysis conducted to quantify the physical mechanisms that promoted CTX adsorption revealed contributions from both SAMs and the solvent. Further component analyses of thermodynamic properties, such as the free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the contribution from SAMs was driven by enthalpy, and the contribution from the solvent was driven by entropy. The results indicated that CTX adsorption was an entropy-driven process, and the entropic component from the solvent, i.e., the hydrophobic interaction, was the major driving force for CTX adsorption onto SAMs. The study also concluded that the surfaces composed of mixtures of SAMs with different chain lengths promoted the adsorption of CTX protein.

  1. Valine adsorption and electrooxidation at carbon materials

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrova, L.R.; Andreev, V.N.; Bogdanovskaya, V.A.; Safronov, A.Yu.

    1987-08-01

    The authors study the electrochemical behavior of valine (which is contained on most proteins) at electrodes made of carbon materials. The electrochemical behavior of valine at carbon materials was studied potentiodynamically. Adsorption measurements involving radiotracers were performed. The valine with C/sub 1//sup 14/ label was 1% of the total amino acid concentration. Potentiodynamic curves measured at an electrode of BM-4 carbon in base electrolyte solution are presented. The results of measurements made in solutions of different pH and at different electrode materials are given. It is found that the mesoporous BM-4 carbon has the highest adsorption capacity for amino acid, while electrooxidation only occurs in neutral solutions, but at all types of carbon materials.

  2. Adsorption behaviour of PuF6 on UO2F2 by the use of 236Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Nobuaki; Matsuda, Minoru; Mitsugashira, Toshiaki; Kirishima, Akira

    2010-03-01

    To know the behavior of plutonium in the fluoride volatility process (FLUOREX PROCESS) for the spent nuclear fuel, both UO2 and PuO2 are fluorinated by fluorine forming volatile UF6 and PuF6, respectively. Then PuF6 is separated and recovered from UF6 by using adsorption materials such as uranyl fluoride UO2F2. In this paper, adsorption behavior of PuF6on UO2F2 was examined by the use of 236Pu tracer. First, the stability of UO2F2 in F2atmosphere was analyzed by TG-DTA method showing that uranium volatilized completely over 350 °C by the formation of UF6 and the adsorption of plutonium by UO2F2 should be done at temperatures lower than 250 °C. The behavior of PtF6 as a chemical analogue of PuF6 was also conducted for comparison and it showed that the deposition of PtF4 on UO2F2 at 200 °C. When the 236Pu doped U3O8 was reacted with 10%F2-He gas, the PuF6 vaporized at ca. 600 °C. Then adsorption of 236Pu on UO2F2 was observed by α ray measurement. The adsorption mechanism of Pu on UO2F2 was discussed with experimental data and thermodynamic consideration.

  3. [Adsorption of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) onto modified activated carbons].

    PubMed

    Tong, Xi-Zhen; Shi, Bao-You; Xie, Yue; Wang, Dong-Sheng

    2012-09-01

    Modified coal and coconut shell based powdered activated carbons (PACs) were prepared by FeCl3 and medium power microwave treatment, respectively. Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the characteristics of adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) onto original and modified PACs. Based on pore structure and surface functional groups characterization, the adsorption behaviors of modified and original PACs were compared. The competitive adsorption of humic acid (HA) and PFOS on original and modified coconut shell PACs were also investigated. Results showed that both Fe3+ and medium power microwave treatments changed the pore structure and surface functional groups of coal and coconut shell PACs, but the changing effects were different. The adsorption of PFOS on two modified coconut shell-based PACs was significantly improved. While the adsorption of modified coal-based activated carbons declined. The adsorption kinetics of PFOS onto original and modified coconut shell-based activated carbons were the same, and the time of reaching adsorption equilibrium was about 6 hours. In the presence of HA, the adsorption of PFOS by modified PAC was reduced but still higher than that of the original. PMID:23243870

  4. Adsorption of mercury on laterite from Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Lijun; Guo, Baiwei; He, Shouyang

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of Hg(II) on laterite from Guizhou Province, China, were studied and the adsorption mechanism was discussed. The results showed that different mineral compositons in the laterite will cause differences in the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). Illite and non-crystalloids are the main contributors to enhancing the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). The pH of the solution is an important factor affecting the adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite. The alkalescent environment (pH 7-9) is favorable to the adsorption of Hg(II). The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) increases with increasing pH. When the pH reaches a certain value, the amount of the adsorbed Hg(II) will reach the maximum level. The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) decreases with increasing pH. The optimal pHs of laterite and kaolinite are 9 and 8, respectively. The optimal initial concentrations of Hg(II) on laterite and kaolinite are 250 and 200 microg/ml, respectively. The adsorption isotherms were described by the Langmuir model. The adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite is a quick process while that of Hg(II) on kaolinite is a slow reaction. Laterite from Guizhou Province is a promising environmental material which can be used in the removal of Hg(II) from wastewater. PMID:19202872

  5. Adsorption of a multicomponent rhamnolipid surfactant to soil

    SciTech Connect

    Noordmann, W.H.; Brusseau, M.L.; Janssen, D.B.

    2000-03-01

    The adsorption of rhamnolipid, a multicomponent biosurfactant with potential application in soil remediation, to two sandy soils was investigated using batch and column studies. The surfactant mixture contained six anionic components differing in lipid chain length and number of rhamnose moieties. Batch adsorption experiments indicated that the overall adsorption isotherms of total surfactant and of the individual components leveled off above a concentration at which micelles were formed. Column experiments showed that the retardation factors for the total surfactant and for the individual components decreased with increasing influent concentration. Extended tailing was observed in the distal portion of the surfactant breakthrough curve. The concentration-dependent retardation factors and the extended tailing are in accordance with the nonlinear (concave) adsorption isotherms found in the batch adsorption studies. The more hydrophobic rhamnolipid components were preferentially adsorbed, but adsorption was not correlated with the organic carbon content of the soil. This suggests that adsorption of rhamnolipid to soil is not a partitioning process but mainly an interfacial adsorption process.

  6. Mechanism of amitriptyline adsorption on Ca-montmorillonite (SAz-2).

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Hsiang; Jiang, Wei-Teh; Li, Zhaohui; Kuo, Chung-Yih; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Chen, Wan-Ru; Lv, Guocheng

    2014-07-30

    The uptake of amitriptyline (AMI) from aqueous environment by Ca-montmorillonite (SAz-2) was studied in a batch system under different physicochemical conditions. The adsorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses. The AMI adsorption on SAz-2 obeyed the Langmuir isotherm with a capacity of 330mg/g (1.05mmol/g) at pH 6-7. The adsorption kinetics was fast, almost reaching equilibrium in 2h, and followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Desorption of exchangeable cations correlated with the AMI adsorption well, indicating that cation exchange was the major mechanism. X-ray diffraction patterns showing significant expansions of the d001 spacing and characteristic FTIR band shifts toward higher frequencies after AMI adsorption onto SAz-2 indicated that the adsorbed AMI molecules were intercalated into the interlayers of the mineral. Thermodynamic parameters based on partitioning coefficients suggested that the AMI adsorption was an endothermic physisorption at high adsorption levels. At low and higher AMI adsorption levels, the intercalated AMI molecules take a horizontal monolayer and bilayer conformation, respectively. The higher adsorption capacity suggested that SAz-2 could be a good candidate to remove AMI from wastewater and would be an important environmental sink for the fate and transport of AMI in soils and groundwater. PMID:24373983

  7. Adsorption of mercury on laterite from Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Lijun; Guo, Baiwei; He, Shouyang

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of Hg(II) on laterite from Guizhou Province, China, were studied and the adsorption mechanism was discussed. The results showed that different mineral compositons in the laterite will cause differences in the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). Illite and non-crystalloids are the main contributors to enhancing the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). The pH of the solution is an important factor affecting the adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite. The alkalescent environment (pH 7-9) is favorable to the adsorption of Hg(II). The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) increases with increasing pH. When the pH reaches a certain value, the amount of the adsorbed Hg(II) will reach the maximum level. The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) decreases with increasing pH. The optimal pHs of laterite and kaolinite are 9 and 8, respectively. The optimal initial concentrations of Hg(II) on laterite and kaolinite are 250 and 200 microg/ml, respectively. The adsorption isotherms were described by the Langmuir model. The adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite is a quick process while that of Hg(II) on kaolinite is a slow reaction. Laterite from Guizhou Province is a promising environmental material which can be used in the removal of Hg(II) from wastewater.

  8. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  9. Fluorocarbon adsorption in hierarchical porous frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motkuri, Radha Kishan; Annapureddy, Harsha V. R.; Vijaykumar, M.; Schaef, H. Todd; Martin, Paul F.; McGrail, B. Peter; Dang, Liem X.; Krishna, Rajamani; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2014-07-01

    Metal-organic frameworks comprise an important class of solid-state materials and have potential for many emerging applications such as energy storage, separation, catalysis and bio-medical. Here we report the adsorption behaviour of a series of fluorocarbon derivatives on a set of microporous and hierarchical mesoporous frameworks. The microporous frameworks show a saturation uptake capacity for dichlorodifluoromethane of >4 mmol g-1 at a very low relative saturation pressure (P/Po) of 0.02. In contrast, the mesoporous framework shows an exceptionally high uptake capacity reaching >14 mmol g-1 at P/Po of 0.4. Adsorption affinity in terms of mass loading and isosteric heats of adsorption is found to generally correlate with the polarizability and boiling point of the refrigerant, with dichlorodifluoromethane >chlorodifluoromethane >chlorotrifluoromethane >tetrafluoromethane >methane. These results suggest the possibility of exploiting these sorbents for separation of azeotropic mixtures of fluorocarbons and use in eco-friendly fluorocarbon-based adsorption cooling.

  10. Fluorocarbon adsorption in hierarchical porous frameworks.

    PubMed

    Motkuri, Radha Kishan; Annapureddy, Harsha V R; Vijaykumar, M; Schaef, H Todd; Martin, Paul F; McGrail, B Peter; Dang, Liem X; Krishna, Rajamani; Thallapally, Praveen K

    2014-07-09

    Metal-organic frameworks comprise an important class of solid-state materials and have potential for many emerging applications such as energy storage, separation, catalysis and bio-medical. Here we report the adsorption behaviour of a series of fluorocarbon derivatives on a set of microporous and hierarchical mesoporous frameworks. The microporous frameworks show a saturation uptake capacity for dichlorodifluoromethane of >4 mmol g(-1) at a very low relative saturation pressure (P/Po) of 0.02. In contrast, the mesoporous framework shows an exceptionally high uptake capacity reaching >14 mmol g(-1) at P/Po of 0.4. Adsorption affinity in terms of mass loading and isosteric heats of adsorption is found to generally correlate with the polarizability and boiling point of the refrigerant, with dichlorodifluoromethane > chlorodifluoromethane > chlorotrifluoromethane > tetrafluoromethane > methane. These results suggest the possibility of exploiting these sorbents for separation of azeotropic mixtures of fluorocarbons and use in eco-friendly fluorocarbon-based adsorption cooling.

  11. Fluorocarbon adsorption in hierarchical porous frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Motkuri, RK; Annapureddy, HVR; Vijaykumar, M; Schaef, HT; Martin, PF; McGrail, BP; Dang, LX; Krishna, R; Thallapally, PK

    2014-07-09

    Metal-organic frameworks comprise an important class of solid-state materials and have potential for many emerging applications such as energy storage, separation, catalysis and bio-medical. Here we report the adsorption behaviour of a series of fluorocarbon derivatives on a set of microporous and hierarchical mesoporous frameworks. The microporous frameworks show a saturation uptake capacity for dichlorodifluoromethane of >4 mmol g(-1) at a very low relative saturation pressure (P/P-o) of 0.02. In contrast, the mesoporous framework shows an exceptionally high uptake capacity reaching >14 mmol g(-1) at P/P-o of 0.4. Adsorption affinity in terms of mass loading and isosteric heats of adsorption is found to generally correlate with the polarizability and boiling point of the refrigerant, with dichlorodifluoromethane >chlorodifluoromethane >chlorotrifluoromethane >tetrafluoromethane >methane. These results suggest the possibility of exploiting these sorbents for separation of azeotropic mixtures of fluorocarbons and use in eco-friendly fluorocarbon-based adsorption cooling.

  12. Critical analysis of adsorption data statistically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, Achla; Singh, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    Experimental data can be presented, computed, and critically analysed in a different way using statistics. A variety of statistical tests are used to make decisions about the significance and validity of the experimental data. In the present study, adsorption was carried out to remove zinc ions from contaminated aqueous solution using mango leaf powder. The experimental data was analysed statistically by hypothesis testing applying t test, paired t test and Chi-square test to (a) test the optimum value of the process pH, (b) verify the success of experiment and (c) study the effect of adsorbent dose in zinc ion removal from aqueous solutions. Comparison of calculated and tabulated values of t and χ 2 showed the results in favour of the data collected from the experiment and this has been shown on probability charts. K value for Langmuir isotherm was 0.8582 and m value for Freundlich adsorption isotherm obtained was 0.725, both are <1, indicating favourable isotherms. Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient values for Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were obtained as 0.99 and 0.95 respectively, which show higher degree of correlation between the variables. This validates the data obtained for adsorption of zinc ions from the contaminated aqueous solution with the help of mango leaf powder.

  13. Effect of Grain Size on Uranium(VI) Surface Complexation Kinetics and Adsorption Additivity

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, Jianying; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Zachara, John M.

    2011-07-27

    Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the contribution of variable grain sizes to uranium adsorption/desorption in a sediment collected from the US DOE Hanford site. The sediment was wet-sieved into four size fractions: coarse sand (1-2 mm), medium sand (0.2-1 mm), fine sand (0.05-0.2 mm), and clay/silt fraction (< 0.05mm). For each size fraction and their composite (sediment), batch experiments were performed to determine uranium adsorption isotherms, and stirred flow-cell experiments were conducted to derive kinetic data of uranium adsorption and subsequent desorption. The results showed that uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics were size-specific, reflecting the effects of size-specific adsorption site concentration and kinetic rate constants. The larger-size fraction had a larger mass percentage in the sediment, but with a smaller adsorption site concentration and generally a slower uranium adsorption/desorption rate. The same equilibrium surface complexation reaction and reaction constant could describe uranium adsorption isotherms for all size fractions and the composite after accounting for the effect of adsorption site concentration. Mass-weighted, linear additivity was observed for both uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics in the composite. Our analysis also showed that uranium adsorption site concentration estimated from the adsorption isotherms was 3 orders of magnitude less than a site concentration estimated from sediment surface area and generic site density. One important implication of this study is that grain size distribution may be used to estimate uranium adsorption site, and adsorption/desorption kinetic rates in heterogeneous sediments from a common location.

  14. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the adsorption of phenol onto graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yanhui; Du, Qiuju; Liu, Tonghao; Sun, Jiankun; Jiao, Yuqin; Xia, Yanzhi; Xia, Linhua; Wang, Zonghua; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: The effect of temperature on phenol adsorbed by graphene shows that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of phenol increases with the increase in temperature from 285 to 333 K. Increasing adsorption capacities with temperature indicates that the adsorption of phenol is controlled by an endothermic reaction. Highlights: ► The graphene has high phenol adsorption capacity. ► The graphene has a high specific surface area of 305 m{sup 2}/g. ► The adsorption capacity is high at acidic pH range. ► The graphene has rapid phenol adsorption rate. ► Phenol adsorption is a spontaneous and endothermic process. -- Abstract: Graphene, a new member of carbon family, has been prepared, characterized and used as adsorbent to remove phenol from aqueous solution. The effect parameters including pH, dosage, contact time, and temperature on the adsorption properties of phenol onto graphene were investigated. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity can reach 28.26 mg/g at the conditions of initial phenol concentration of 50 mg/L, pH 6.3 and 285 K. Adsorption data were well described by both Freundlich and Langmuir models. The kinetic study illustrated that the adsorption of phenol onto graphene fit the pseudo second-order model. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption of phenol onto graphene was endothermic and spontaneous.

  15. Adsorption and kinetic behavior of purified endoglucanases and exoglucanases from Trichoderma viride

    SciTech Connect

    Beldman, G.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Rombouts, F.M.; Searle-van Leeuwen, M.F.; Pilnik, W.

    1987-01-01

    Adsorption on crystalline cellulose of six endoglucanases and two exoglucanases, purified from a commercial cellulase preparation of Trichoderma viride origin, was studied, Endo I, III, and V adsorbed strongly on Avicel cellulose, while adsorption of Endo II, IV, and VI was much lower. Also, the two exoglucanases could be divided into one enzyme (Exo III) that had a high adsorption affinity and another enzyme (Exo II) that adsorbed only moderately. Adsorption data fitted the Langmuir-type adsorption isotherm. However, adsorption was only partially reversible with respect to dilution. No relation could be found between adsorption affinity and degree of randomness in cellulose hydrolysis, measured as the diversity of released hydrolytic products. Kinetic measurements indicated that only part of the adsorbed enzyme molecules are hydrolytically active.

  16. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  17. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  18. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  19. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  20. What Do Maps Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

  1. Obesity in show cats.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  2. Show Me the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  3. The Art Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scolarici, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    This article describes what once was thought to be impossible--a formal art show extravaganza at an elementary school with 1,000 students, a Department of Defense Dependent School (DODDS) located overseas, on RAF Lakenheath, England. The dream of this this event involved the transformation of the school cafeteria into an elegant art show…

  4. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  5. Adsorption dynamics of methyl violet onto granulated mesoporous carbon: Facile synthesis and adsorption kinetics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yohan; Bae, Jiyeol; Park, Hosik; Suh, Jeong-Kwon; You, Young-Woo; Choi, Heechul

    2016-09-15

    A new and facile one-step synthesis method for preparing granulated mesoporous carbon (GMC) with three-dimensional spherical mesoporous symmetry is prepared to remove large molecular weight organic compounds in aqueous phase. GMC is synthesized in a single step using as-synthesized mesoporous carbon particles and organic binders through a simple and economical synthesis approach involving a simultaneous calcination and carbonization process. Characterization results obtained from SEM, XRD, as well as surface and porosity analysis indicate that the synthesized GMC has similar physical properties to those of the powdered mesoporous carbon and maintains the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and pore volume because the new synthesis method prevents the collapse of the pores during the granulation process. Batch adsorption experiments revealed GMC showed a substantial adsorption capacity (202.8 mg/g) for the removal of methyl violet as a target large molecular contaminant in aqueous phase. The mechanisms and dynamics modeling of GMC adsorption were also fully examined, which revealed that surface diffusion was rate limiting step on adsorption process of GMC. Adsorption kinetics of GMC enables 3 times faster than that of granular activated carbon in terms of surface diffusion coefficient. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to synthesize GMC as an adsorbent for water purification by using facile granulation method and to investigate the adsorption kinetics and characteristics of GMC. This study introduces a new and simple method for the synthesis of GMC and reveals its adsorption characteristics for large molecular compounds in a water treatment.

  6. Adsorption dynamics of methyl violet onto granulated mesoporous carbon: Facile synthesis and adsorption kinetics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yohan; Bae, Jiyeol; Park, Hosik; Suh, Jeong-Kwon; You, Young-Woo; Choi, Heechul

    2016-09-15

    A new and facile one-step synthesis method for preparing granulated mesoporous carbon (GMC) with three-dimensional spherical mesoporous symmetry is prepared to remove large molecular weight organic compounds in aqueous phase. GMC is synthesized in a single step using as-synthesized mesoporous carbon particles and organic binders through a simple and economical synthesis approach involving a simultaneous calcination and carbonization process. Characterization results obtained from SEM, XRD, as well as surface and porosity analysis indicate that the synthesized GMC has similar physical properties to those of the powdered mesoporous carbon and maintains the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and pore volume because the new synthesis method prevents the collapse of the pores during the granulation process. Batch adsorption experiments revealed GMC showed a substantial adsorption capacity (202.8 mg/g) for the removal of methyl violet as a target large molecular contaminant in aqueous phase. The mechanisms and dynamics modeling of GMC adsorption were also fully examined, which revealed that surface diffusion was rate limiting step on adsorption process of GMC. Adsorption kinetics of GMC enables 3 times faster than that of granular activated carbon in terms of surface diffusion coefficient. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to synthesize GMC as an adsorbent for water purification by using facile granulation method and to investigate the adsorption kinetics and characteristics of GMC. This study introduces a new and simple method for the synthesis of GMC and reveals its adsorption characteristics for large molecular compounds in a water treatment. PMID:27262123

  7. Adsorption of serum alpha-1-microglobulin onto biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Santin, M; Cannas, M; Wassall, M A; Denyer, S P

    1998-03-01

    The adsorption of alpha-1-microglobulin (alpha-1-m) from serum to the surface of polymers with different physicochemical properties was investigated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed binding of this protein to the surface of polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and a polyurethane, Chronoflex, after water washing, but only trace levels could be detected on two polymethacrylate derivatives, polymethyl methacrylate and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate). alpha-1-m was selectively desorbed from the five materials by sequential washes of serum-conditioned surfaces with isopropanol solutions at increasing concentrations. The presence of alpha-1-m in the washing supernatants was detected by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The relative binding strength of alpha-1-m to each surface was evaluated as the isopropanol (IsoPOH) concentration required to desorb the protein from that surface. Analysis of bound proteins by SDS-PAGE conclusively demonstrated the binding of a range of serum proteins, including alpha-1-m, to all polymer systems, but with varying binding strengths. The majority of protein was removed by water washing for the polymethacrylate polymers, while varying concentrations of IsoPOH were required to desorb proteins from PS, PVC and Chronoflex. There was a correlation between the hydrophobic nature of the material, determined by water contact angle measurements, and adsorption of alpha-1-m. Immunoblotting of isopropanol-eluted proteins by alpha-1-m antibodies showed the positive staining of a 29 kDa protein as well as selected bands within a molecular weight range of 40 200 kDa, suggesting the adsorption of this protein as both free and complexed forms. The ability of alpha-1-m to adsorb on to material surfaces and to participate in events relevant to the biocompatibility of a polymer, such as bacterial infection or inflammation control, suggests the need for further characterization of the properties of this

  8. Measurement of the interaction forces at various pH levels by using AFM for the interpretation of DNA adsorption on silanized surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seung Pil; Suga, Kosaku; Fujihara, Masamichi; Park, Byung-Eun

    2014-09-01

    Various surfaces have been used for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) immobilization, one example being a silanized surface. This is useful for determining DNA lengths and, thus, locating specific gene sequences in DNA by using fluorescence microscopy and scanning probe microscopy. In this study, we deposited DNA by using the molecular combing method and, we used fluorescence microscopy to study how the chain lengths of n-alkylsilanes affected the surface density of DNA deposited on the silanized surfaces in a tris-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (TE) buffer. The forces between a cleaned silicon-nitride (Si3N4) tip and each substrate surface in aqueous buffers at various pH levels (1.0 ~ 9.0) were also studied by using atomic force microscopy to measure the force-distance curves. We explain why the density of lambda bacteriophage DNA (λ-DNA) deposited by using the molecular combing method at pH 8 was lower on the silanized surface with the shorter alkyl chain than it was on the silanized surface with the longer alkyl chain in terms of the electrical double layer (EDL) and the adhesive force.

  9. Volumetric Interpretation of Protein Adsorption: Ion-Exchange Adsorbent Capacity, Protein pI, and Interaction Energetics

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Hyeran; Yohe, Stefan; Vogler, Erwin A.

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption of lysozyme (Lys), human serum albumin (HSA), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) to anion- and cation-exchange resins is dominated by electrostatic interactions between protein and adsorbent. The solution-depletion method of measuring adsorption shows, however, that these proteins do not irreversibly adsorb to ion-exchange surfaces, even when the charge disparity between adsorbent and protein inferred from protein pI is large. Net-positively-charged Lys (pI = 11) and net-negatively-charged HSA (pI = 5.5) adsorb so strongly to sulfopropyl sepharose (SP; a negatively-charged, strong cation exchange resin, −0.22 mmol/mL exchange capacity) that both resist displacement by net-neutral IgG (pI = 7.0) in simultaneous adsorption-competition experiments. By contrast, IgG readily displaces both Lys and HSA adsorbed either to quarternary-ammonium sepharose (Q; a positively-charged, strong anion exchanger, + 0.22 mmol/mL exchange capacity) or octadecyl sepharose (ODS, a neutral hydrophobic resin, 0 mmol/mL exchange capacity). Thus it is concluded that adsorption results do not sensibly correlate with protein pI and that pI is actually a rather poor predictor of affinity for ion-exchange surfaces. Adsorption of Lys, HSA, and IgG to ion-exchange resins from stagnant solution leads to adsorbed multi-layers, into-or-onto which IgG adsorbs in adsorption-competition experiments. Comparison of adsorption to ion-exchange resins and neutral ODS leads to the conclusion that the apparent standard free-energy-of-adsorption ΔGadso of Lys, HSA, and IgG is not large in comparison to thermal energy due to energy-compensating interactions between water, protein, and ion-exchange surfaces that leaves a small net ΔGadso. Thus water is found to control protein adsorption to a full range of substratum types spanning hydrophobic (poorly water wettable) surfaces, hydrophilic surfaces bearing relatively-weak Lewis acid/base functionalities that wet with (hydrogen bond to) water but do not

  10. Phase 2 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Nick; Watson, Tony

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear fission produces fission products (FPs) and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the second phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during the second half of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014. Test results continue to show that methyl iodide adsorption using AgZ can achieve total iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) above 1,000, until breakthrough occurred. However, mass transfer zone depths are deeper for methyl iodide adsorption compared to diatomic iodine (I2) adsorption. Methyl iodide DFs for the Ag Aerogel test adsorption efficiencies were less than 1,000, and the methyl iodide mass transfer zone depth exceeded 8 inches. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption under various conditions specified in the methyl iodide test plan, and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  11. Competitive adsorption of copper and zinc ions in two natural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi Janetti, E.; Riva, M.; Guadagnini, A.; Dror, I.; Berkowitz, B.

    2010-12-01

    We studied the competitive adsorption of Cu and Zn ions in different natural soils. We considered two Israeli soils, Bet Dagan and Yatir, both of which are slightly alkaline but with substantially different adsorption capacities (1.2% and 3.7% organic matter, and 16.2% and 36.9% clay content, respectively). Experiments under batch conditions were performed in single- and double-component systems to obtain adsorption isotherms. The equilibrium adsorption data were collected after 48 h contact time, with a soil-solution ratio of 1:50, initial soil pH=7, by varying the initial ion concentrations in the range 20-200 mg/l for Bet Dagan soil and 20-800 mg/l for Yatir soil. Experimental mono-component adsorption isotherms showed similar nonlinear behavior for Cu and Zn in both Bet Dagan and Yatir soils. The latter had maximum adsorption capacity about 4 times larger than the former. Cu and Zn exhibited almost the same affinity for both types of soils in single-component systems, while in competitive systems Cu adsorption increased significantly as compared to Zn. Experimental data obtained in single-component systems were analyzed with Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson (R-P) models. Measurements of adsorption behavior under double-component conditions were interpreted using different competitive models: unmodified, modified and extended Langmuir, unmodified and modified R-P models, and the Sheindorf-Rebuhn-Sheintuch (SRS) model. The results were examined using formal model quality criteria. These allow discrimination among different models on the basis on their goodness-of-fit to available observations, number of parameters, and quality of the available data and parameter estimates. The analysis suggested that for both soils, single-component data were better represented by Freundlich or R-P models. In double- component systems, the modified R-P model was identified as best in the case of Bet Dagan soil while the SRS model best described the behavior of the Yatir

  12. The adsorption of HCl on volcanic ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Xochilt; Schiavi, Federica; Keppler, Hans

    2016-03-01

    data provided here, the gas compositions in equilibrium with the ash surfaces can be calculated. In particular, for dacitic composition, the molar ratio of S/Cl adsorbed to the ash surface is related to the molar S/Cl ratio in the gas phase according to the equation ln ⁡(S / Cl) adsorbed = 2855T-1 + 0.28 ln ⁡(S / Cl) gas - 11.14. Our data also show that adsorption on ash will significantly reduce the fraction of HCl reaching the stratosphere, only if the initial HCl content in the volcanic gas is low (<1 mol%). For higher initial HCl concentrations, adsorption on ash has only a minor effect. While HCl scavenging by hydrometeors may remove a considerable fraction of HCl from the eruption column, recent models suggest that this process is much less efficient than previously thought. Our experimental data therefore support the idea that the HCl loading from major explosive eruptions may indeed cause severe depletions of stratospheric ozone.

  13. Modeling the Adsorption of Oxalate onto Montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M Elena; Emiroglu, Caglayan; García, David; Sainz-Díaz, C Ignacio; Huertas, F Javier

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a multiscale modeling of the interaction of oxalate with clay mineral surfaces from macroscale thermodynamic equilibria simulations to atomistic calculations is presented. Previous results from macroscopic adsorption data of oxalate on montmorillonite in 0.01 M KNO3 media at 25 °C within the pH range from 2.5 to 9 have been used to develop a surface complexation model. The experimental adsorption edge data were fitted using the triple-layer model (TLM) with the aid of the FITEQL 4.0 computer program. Surface complexation of oxalate is described by two reactions: >AlOH + Ox(2-) + 2H(+) = >AlOxH + H2O (log K = 14.39) and >AlOH + Ox(2-) + H(+) = >AlOx(-) + H2O (log K = 10.39). The monodentate complex >AlOxH dominated adsorption below pH 4, and the bidentate complex >AlOx(-) was predominant at higher pH values. Both of the proposed inner-sphere oxalate species are qualitatively consistent with previously published diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopic results for oxalate on montmorillonite edge surface (Chem. Geol. 2014, 363, 283-292). Atomistic computational studies have been performed to understand the interactions at the molecular level between adsorbates and mineral surface, showing the atomic structures and IR frequency shifts of the adsorption complexes of oxalate with the edge surface of a periodic montmorillonite model. PMID:26444928

  14. Random sequential adsorption on partially covered surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Weroński, Paweł

    1998-06-01

    The random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach was used to analyze adsorption of hard spheres at surfaces precovered with smaller sized particles. Numerical simulations were performed to determine the available surface function φl of larger particles for various particle size ratios λ=al/as and surface concentration of smaller particles θs. It was found that the numerical results were in a reasonable agreement with the formula stemming from the scaled particle theory with the modification for the sphere/sphere geometry. Particle adsorption kinetics was also determined in terms of the RSA simulations. By extrapolating the θl vs τ-1/2 dependencies, the jamming concentrations of larger spheres θl∞ were determined as a function of the initial smaller sphere concentration. It was found that θl∞ were considerably reduced by the presence of smaller sized particles, especially for λ≫1. The pair correlation function g of larger particles in the jamming state was also determined, showing more short range ordering (at the same θl) in comparison with monodisperse systems. The theoretical predictions stemming from our calculations suggest that the presence of trace amounts of very small particles may exert a decisive influence on adsorption of larger particles.

  15. Adsorption of hexavalent chromium on dunite.

    PubMed

    Demetriou, Antri; Pashalidis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses the effect of various physicochemical parameters (e.g. pH, ionic strength, Cr(VI) initial concentration, amount of the adsorbent, temperature and contact time between metal ion and adsorbent) on the adsorption efficiency of Cr(VI) on dunite in aqueous solutions under atmospheric conditions. Evaluation of the experimental data shows that dunite presents increased affinity for Cr(VI) over a wide pH range and Cr(VI) concentration, and the experimental data are well fitted by the K(d) adsorption model. The relative adsorption is pH dependent and decreases slightly (about 10%) with increasing pH, because of changes in the surface charge of the solid. The effect of the ionic strength is significant (particularly at low pH), indicating the predominance of outer-sphere complexes. Moreover, adsorption experiments at various temperatures, two different pH values (pH 3 and pH 8) and three different ionic strengths (0.0, 0.1 and 1.0 M NaClO(4)), indicate an endothermic but spontaneous entropy-driven processes. PMID:21330733

  16. Adsorption Microcalorimetry: Recent Advances in Instrumentation and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Matthew C.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2011-07-01

    Adsorption microcalorimetry measures the energetics of adsorbate-surface interactions and can be performed by use of several different techniques. This review focuses on three methods: single-crystal adsorption calorimetry (SCAC), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and electrochemical adsorption calorimetry. SCAC is a uniquely powerful technique that has been applied to a variety of atoms and molecules that represent a large variety of well-defined adsorbate species on a wide range of single-crystal surfaces. ITC and electrochemical microcalorimetry are useful for studying adsorption energies in liquid solutions (on surfaces of suspended powders) and at the electrode-electrolyte interface, respectively. Knowledge of the energetics of adsorbate formation is valuable to ongoing research in many fields, including catalysis, fuel cells, and solar power. In addition, calorimetric measurements serve as benchmarks for the improvement of computational approaches to understanding surface chemistry. We review instrumentation and applications, emphasizing our own work.

  17. [Comparison of remnant lipoprotein-cholesterol measurements: the immune adsorption method (RLP-C) and the direct assay with detergent (RemL-C)].

    PubMed

    Hihara, Mari; Sato, Itsuko; Hayashi, Fujio; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kawano, Seiji; Fujioka, Yoshio; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Kumagai, Shunichi

    2009-01-01

    Elevation of serum remnant lipoprotein concentration is an emerging risk factor for coronary artery disease. An immunoseparation procedure for remnant-like particle cholesterol(RLP-C) has been evaluated extensively in recent years. In addition, a new detergent-based method has been developed and applied to automated analyzer as "MetaboLead RemL-C" (RemL-C, KYOWA MEDEX CO., LTD.). Then, we compared the concentrations of remnant lipoproteins as RemL-C with those as RLP-C in various conditions. RemL-C assay was intra-assay-reproducible (n=20, CVs: 0.6-2.2%), and reproducible for 2 days in the refrigeration and for 8 hours in room temperature. This assay was also inter-assay-reproducible (during 5 days in the deep freezing, CVs: 1.6-3.0%). The available range for RemL-C assay was between 0.09 and 121.1 mg/dl. There were no detectable interferences from hemoglobin, free/conjugated bilirubin, chyle, and Intrafat. However, heparin influenced the titer of RemL-C concentrations. Correlation of values between RLP-C and RemL-C in 123 samples was excellent (r=0.924, p<0.001). However, different responses to intermediate lipoprotein fraction derived from a patients with type III hyperlipidemia were observed. In conclusion, RemL-C and RLP-C measurements may have a similar clinical significance. Differences in sensitivity for intermediate lipoprotein fraction between both methods may exist.

  18. Rethinking Critical Adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Carl; Peach, Sarah; Polak, Robert D.

    1996-03-01

    Recent reflectivity experiments on near-critical mixtures of carbon disulfide and nitromethane contained in glass cells footnote Niraj S. Desai, Sarah Peach, and Carl Franck, Phys. Rev. E 52, 4129 (1995) have shown that preferential adsorption of one liquid component onto the wall can be controlled by chemical modification of the glass. The glass was treated with varying amounts of hexamethyldisilazane to decrease surface polarity and therefore enhance the adsorption of carbon disulfide in a surprisingly continuous way. The effect of the glass wall on the local liquid composition can be described by two different scaling hypotheses: using a short range field on the liquid closest to the wall, or pinning the amplitude of the order parameter at the surface. We have found that only the second approach is consistent with the experimental data, although this is difficult to reconcile with observed wetting critical phenomena. We also have reexamined the issue of substrate inhomogeneity and conclude that the substrates were indeed homogeneous on relevant length scales. Supported by the NSF under DMR-9320910 and the central facilities of the Materials Science Center at Cornell University.

  19. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments. PMID:27249887

  20. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments.

  1. Adsorption of nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds on bamboo charcoal: kinetics, thermodynamics, and microwave regeneration.

    PubMed

    Liao, Peng; Yuan, Songhu; Xie, Wenjing; Zhang, Wenbiao; Tong, Man; Wang, Kun

    2013-01-15

    The adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds (NHCs), pyridine, indole and quinoline, in aqueous solutions on bamboo charcoal (BC), as well as the regeneration of spent BC by microwave radiation, are investigated. BC is produced by incomplete combustion of moso bamboo at high temperature and nitrogen atmosphere. Adsorption kinetics is analyzed using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order as well as Weber-Morris model. The results show that NHC adsorption on BC is predominantly regulated by surface diffusion in initial 1h followed by intraparticle diffusion in later stage. BC exhibits a strong adsorption affinity to NHCs, and the adsorption isotherms are well described by Freundlich model. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic. Adsorption site energy analysis illustrates a distribution of adsorption energy, which indicates the heterogeneous sites on BC for NHC adsorption. Furthermore, spent BC with NHC adsorption can be effectively regenerated by MW radiation. The adsorption capacity becomes even higher than that of virgin BC after five times of adsorption-regeneration cycles. This study proves BC is a promising adsorbent for NHC removal in wastewater.

  2. A pressure-amplifying framework material with negative gas adsorption transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Simon; Bon, Volodymyr; Senkovska, Irena; Stoeck, Ulrich; Wallacher, Dirk; Többens, Daniel M.; Zander, Stefan; Pillai, Renjith S.; Maurin, Guillaume; Coudert, François-Xavier; Kaskel, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Adsorption-based phenomena are important in gas separations, such as the treatment of greenhouse-gas and toxic-gas pollutants, and in water-adsorption-based heat pumps for solar cooling systems. The ability to tune the pore size, shape and functionality of crystalline porous coordination polymers—or metal–organic frameworks (MOFs)—has made them attractive materials for such adsorption-based applications. The flexibility and guest-molecule-dependent response of MOFs give rise to unexpected and often desirable adsorption phenomena. Common to all isothermal gas adsorption phenomena, however, is increased gas uptake with increased pressure. Here we report adsorption transitions in the isotherms of a MOF (DUT-49) that exhibits a negative gas adsorption; that is, spontaneous desorption of gas (methane and n-butane) occurs during pressure increase in a defined temperature and pressure range. A combination of in situ powder X-ray diffraction, gas adsorption experiments and simulations shows that this adsorption behaviour is controlled by a sudden hysteretic structural deformation and pore contraction of the MOF, which releases guest molecules. These findings may enable technologies using frameworks capable of negative gas adsorption for pressure amplification in micro- and macroscopic system engineering. Negative gas adsorption extends the series of counterintuitive phenomena such as negative thermal expansion and negative refractive indices and may be interpreted as an adsorptive analogue of force-amplifying negative compressibility transitions proposed for metamaterials.

  3. A pressure-amplifying framework material with negative gas adsorption transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Simon; Bon, Volodymyr; Senkovska, Irena; Stoeck, Ulrich; Wallacher, Dirk; Többens, Daniel M.; Zander, Stefan; Pillai, Renjith S.; Maurin, Guillaume; Coudert, François-Xavier; Kaskel, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Adsorption-based phenomena are important in gas separations, such as the treatment of greenhouse-gas and toxic-gas pollutants, and in water-adsorption-based heat pumps for solar cooling systems. The ability to tune the pore size, shape and functionality of crystalline porous coordination polymers—or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)—has made them attractive materials for such adsorption-based applications. The flexibility and guest-molecule-dependent response of MOFs give rise to unexpected and often desirable adsorption phenomena. Common to all isothermal gas adsorption phenomena, however, is increased gas uptake with increased pressure. Here we report adsorption transitions in the isotherms of a MOF (DUT-49) that exhibits a negative gas adsorption; that is, spontaneous desorption of gas (methane and n-butane) occurs during pressure increase in a defined temperature and pressure range. A combination of in situ powder X-ray diffraction, gas adsorption experiments and simulations shows that this adsorption behaviour is controlled by a sudden hysteretic structural deformation and pore contraction of the MOF, which releases guest molecules. These findings may enable technologies using frameworks capable of negative gas adsorption for pressure amplification in micro- and macroscopic system engineering. Negative gas adsorption extends the series of counterintuitive phenomena such as negative thermal expansion and negative refractive indices and may be interpreted as an adsorptive analogue of force-amplifying negative compressibility transitions proposed for metamaterials.

  4. A pressure-amplifying framework material with negative gas adsorption transitions.

    PubMed

    Krause, Simon; Bon, Volodymyr; Senkovska, Irena; Stoeck, Ulrich; Wallacher, Dirk; Többens, Daniel M; Zander, Stefan; Pillai, Renjith S; Maurin, Guillaume; Coudert, François-Xavier; Kaskel, Stefan

    2016-04-21

    Adsorption-based phenomena are important in gas separations, such as the treatment of greenhouse-gas and toxic-gas pollutants, and in water-adsorption-based heat pumps for solar cooling systems. The ability to tune the pore size, shape and functionality of crystalline porous coordination polymers--or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)--has made them attractive materials for such adsorption-based applications. The flexibility and guest-molecule-dependent response of MOFs give rise to unexpected and often desirable adsorption phenomena. Common to all isothermal gas adsorption phenomena, however, is increased gas uptake with increased pressure. Here we report adsorption transitions in the isotherms of a MOF (DUT-49) that exhibits a negative gas adsorption; that is, spontaneous desorption of gas (methane and n-butane) occurs during pressure increase in a defined temperature and pressure range. A combination of in situ powder X-ray diffraction, gas adsorption experiments and simulations shows that this adsorption behaviour is controlled by a sudden hysteretic structural deformation and pore contraction of the MOF, which releases guest molecules. These findings may enable technologies using frameworks capable of negative gas adsorption for pressure amplification in micro- and macroscopic system engineering. Negative gas adsorption extends the series of counterintuitive phenomena such as negative thermal expansion and negative refractive indices and may be interpreted as an adsorptive analogue of force-amplifying negative compressibility transitions proposed for metamaterials. PMID:27049950

  5. STXM and NanoSIMS investigations on EPS fractions before and after adsorption to goethite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinran; Eusterhues, Karin; Thieme, Jürgen; Ciobota, Valerian; Höschen, Carmen; Mueller, Carsten W; Küsel, Kirsten; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Totsche, Kai U

    2013-04-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are expected to be an important source for the formation of mineral-organic associations in soil. Because such formations affect the composition of mobile and immobile organic matter as well as the reactivity of minerals, we investigated the composition of EPS before and after adsorption to goethite. Raman measurements on EPS extracted from Bacillus subtilis distinguished four fractions rich in proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, or lipids and proteins. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy identified three different EPS-fractions that varied in their composition in proteins, nonaromatic proteins, and polysaccharides. Reaction of EPS with goethite led to a preferential adsorption of lipids and proteins. The organic coverage was heterogeneous, consisting of ~100 × 200 nm large patches of either lipid-rich or protein-rich material. Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry showed a strong S enrichment in aggregates of ~400 nm in the goethite adsorbed EPS. From our simplified model system, we learned that only a small portion (<10%) of EPS was immobilized via adsorption to goethite. This fraction formed a coating of subμm spaced protein-rich and lipid-rich domains, i.e., of two materials which will strongly differ in their reactive sites. This will finally affect further adsorption, the particle mobility and eventually also colloidal stability.

  6. Adsorption of short-chain organic acids onto nearshore marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Sansone, F.J.; Andrews, C.C.; Okamoto, M.

    1987-07-01

    The adsorption of acetate, butyrate, lactate, and stearate was measured using a clastic mud from Cape Lookout Bight, N.C. (CLB), a lateritic muddy sand from Kahana Stream, Oahu, Hawaii (KS), and a fine carbonate sand from Waimanalo Beach, Oahu, (WB). Partition coefficients (K/sub d/, moles adsorbed per g of solid phasemoles dissolved per ml of pore water) ranged from 10/sup 2.3/ to less than or equal to 10/sup -3.0/, and displayed the following trends: CLB > KS > WB, and stearate >> acetate similarly ordered butyrate > lactate. The percent adsorption of the sediment organic acid pools showed similar trends: stearate, 99%; acetate, 9-23%; butyrate, 5-23%; lactate, less than or equal to 0.2-7%. These results reflected the relatively nonpolar nature of the sand surfaces in WB and KS sediments, and the polarities of the organic acids. K/sub d/ was approximately constant for each organic acid-sediment combination over a dissolved organic acid concentration range of 10/sup 7/, using concentrations between 1M and 10/sup -14/ M. This constancy over a wide pore water concentration range suggested that adsorption was not limited by the availability of surface adsorption sites.

  7. Characterization of natural resin materials using water adsorption and various advanced techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favvas, Evangelos P.; Kouvelos, Evangelos P.; Papageorgiou, Sergios K.; Tsanaktsidis, Constantinos G.; Mitropoulos, Athanasios Ch.

    2015-05-01

    A physicochemical characterization of natural raw resin material was evaluated and reported. The studied material is a natural resin, a natural product from pinus halepensis trees which is collected from the forests of Chalkidiki region of North Greece. The plurality of this product combined with its special property of removing water from commercial liquid fuels commands the detailed physicochemical characterization of this material. In particular, various techniques, such as water adsorption at 22 °C, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, were used in order to evaluate the structural and surface properties of the material. The water adsorption isotherm was also measured and fitted using the Guggenheim, Anderson and De Boer model in order to correlate the water activity characteristics. In addition, the kinetics of the adsorption was also fitted with good accuracy using the exponential Chapman model. Furthermore, as the results show, the natural resin presents good thermal characteristics. Finally, the studied material presents efficient water adsorption properties, up to 246.8 mmol/g, and it can be proposed as a promising dehydration material.

  8. Design of a hybrid advective-diffusive microfluidic system with ellipsometric detection for studying adsorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Cunlu; Wijnperlé, Daniel; Duits, Michel H G; Mugele, Frieder

    2016-05-01

    Establishing and maintaining concentration gradients that are stable in space and time is critical for applications that require screening the adsorption behavior of organic or inorganic species onto solid surfaces for wide ranges of fluid compositions. In this work, we present a design of a simple and compact microfluidic device based on steady-state diffusion of the analyte, between two control channels where liquid is pumped through. The device generates a near-linear distribution of concentrations. We demonstrate this via experiments with dye solutions and comparison to finite-element numerical simulations. In a subsequent step, the device is combined with total internal reflection ellipsometry to study the adsorption of (cat)ions on silica surfaces from CsCl solutions at variable pH. Such a combined setup permits a fast determination of an adsorption isotherm. The measured optical thickness is compared to calculations from a triple layer model for the ion distribution, where surface complexation reactions of the silica are taken into account. Our results show a clear enhancement of the ion adsorption with increasing pH, which can be well described with reasonable values for the equilibrium constants of the surface reactions. PMID:27375818

  9. Preparation, performance and adsorption activity of TiO2 nanoparticles entrapped PVDF hybrid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Wang, Yang; You, Yuting; Meng, Hao; Zhang, Jianghua; Xu, Xinxin

    2012-12-01

    The TiO2 nanoparticles entrapped poly(vinylidenefluoride) (PVDF) hybrid membranes were prepared through impregnating the pre-treated PVDF film in the TiO2 suspension. SEM, XRD, TG and ATR-IR analyses were used to character the hybrid membranes. The results showed that the TiO2 nanoparticles with average size about 44 nm were deposited on the surface and inner pores of PVDF films. The pre-treatment of PVDF with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) is benefit for TiO2loading. The ATR-IR spectra revealed that physical interaction played important role in the construction of hybrid membranes. The adsorption behavior of Cu2+ on the hybrid membranes was studied, and a promoted adsorption and elution efficiency of PVDF/TiO2 hybrid membranes were observed compared with that of the pristine PVDF film. Meanwhile, the surface contact angle, pure water flux and static adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the hybrid membranes were also measured to study the effects of TiO2 nanoparticles. It was found that the TiO2 nanoparticles improved the surface hydrophilicity and permeability of PVDF membranes, and the decreasing adsorption capacity of BSA indicated the promoted antifouling ability of PVDF membranes. Such the PVDF/TiO2 hybrid membranes exhibit potential applications in the separation and pre-concentration of metal ions.

  10. Preparation of Fiber Based Binder Materials to Enhance the Gas Adsorption Efficiency of Carbon Air Filter.

    PubMed

    Lim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Jeong Rak; Lim, Dae Young; Lee, So Hee; Yeo, Sang Young

    2015-10-01

    Fiber binder adapted carbon air filter is prepared to increase gas adsorption efficiency and environmental stability. The filter prevents harmful gases, as well as particle dusts in the air from entering the body when a human inhales. The basic structure of carbon air filter is composed of spunbond/meltblown/activated carbon/bottom substrate. Activated carbons and meltblown layer are adapted to increase gas adsorption and dust filtration efficiency, respectively. Liquid type adhesive is used in the conventional carbon air filter as a binder material between activated carbons and other layers. However, it is thought that the liquid binder is not an ideal material with respect to its bonding strength and liquid flow behavior that reduce gas adsorption efficiency. To overcome these disadvantages, fiber type binder is introduced in our study. It is confirmed that fiber type binder adapted air filter media show higher strip strength, and their gas adsorption efficiencies are measured over 42% during 60 sec. These values are higher than those of conventional filter. Although the differential pressure of fiber binder adapted air filter is relatively high compared to the conventional one, short fibers have a good potential as a binder materials of activated carbon based air filter.

  11. Adsorption of short-chain organic acids onto nearshore marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansone, Francis J.; Andrews, Christine C.; Okamoto, Mauri Y.

    1987-07-01

    The adsorption of acetate, butyrate, lactate, and stearate was measured using a clastic mud from Cape Lookout Bight N.C. (CLB), a lateritic muddy sand from Kahana Stream, Oahu, Hawaii (KS), and a fine carbonate sand from Waimanalo Beach, Oahu, (WB). Partition coefficients ( Kd, moles adsorbed per g of solid phase/moles dissolved per ml of porewater) ranged from 10 2.3 to ≤10 -3.0, and displayed the following trends: CLB > KS > WB, and stearate > acetate ˜- butyrate > lactate. The percent adsorption of the sediment organic acid pools showed similar trends: stearate, 99%; acetate, 9-23%; butyrate, 5-23%; lactate, ≤0.2-7%. These results reflected the relatively nonpolar nature of the sand surfaces in WB and KS sediments, and the polarities of the organic acids. Kd was approximately constant for each organic acid-sediment combination over a dissolved organic acid concentration range of 10 7, using concentrations between 1M and 10 -14 M. This constancy over a wide porewater concentration range suggested that adsorption was not limited by the availability of surface adsorption sites.

  12. Competitive adsorption, displacement, and transport of organic matter on iron oxide: I. Competitive adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Baohua; Mehlhorn, Tonia L.; Liang, Liyuan; McCarthy, John F.

    1996-06-01

    Different organic compounds or fractions of natural organic matter (NOM) show different adsorption affinities ( K) and capacities ( qm) on mineral surfaces. We hypothesize that these different organic compounds or fractions compete for adsorption when surface adsorption sites are limited. In this study, competitive adsorption of binary mixtures of Suwannee River NOM (SR-NOM), polyacrylic acid (PAA), phthalic acid, and salicylic acid on iron oxide was investigated at a constant solid:solution ratio, temperature, and pressure, but at varying C weight fractions, pH, and solution concentrations of the mixture. Results revealed that, in general, PAA is the most competitive whereas SR-NOM is more competitive than phthalic and salicylic acids. The competitive adsorption of these organic compounds is pH-dependent. At pH < 4, PAA becomes less competitive than SR-NOM or phthalic and salicylic acids. The competition among these organic compounds may be related to their carboxyl functional groups and their molecular structure. The overall strong competitiveness of PAA at pH > 4 in comparison with other organics is attributed to its high carboxyl density and linear molecular structure, which promote strong surface complexation with iron oxide. Because of the heterogeneity or polydispersity of NOM, this research indicates that NOM partitioning and transport in the subsurface soil environment are influenced by the dynamic competitive interactions between NOM subcomponents (or fractions). This process ultimately influences the distribution, interaction, and cotransport of contaminants and mineral colloids that are associated with NOM.

  13. Obesity in show dogs.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

  14. Adsorption of imidazole on Au(111) surface: Dispersion corrected density functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzaouihda, Safia; Mahjoubi, Khaled; Abou El Makarim, Hassna; Komiha, Najia; Benoit, David M.

    2016-10-01

    We use density functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation to study the adsorption of imidazole on the Au(111) surface and account for dispersion effect using Grimme's empirical dispersion correction technique. Our results show that the adsorption energy of imidazole depends on the slab size and on the adsorption site. In agreement with other studies, we find the largest adsorption energy for imidazole on a top site of Au(111). However, we also note that the adsorption energy at other sites is substantial.

  15. Adsorption of ionisable pesticides in soils.

    PubMed

    Kah, M; Brown, C D

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the fate of a pesticide in soil is fundamental to the accurate assessment of its environmental behaviour and vital in ensuring the safe use of new and existing products. Ionisable pesticides comprise a significant proportion of both existing and new active substances registered for use in agriculture worldwide. This group of pesticides includes chemicals that are frequently found in groundwater and surface waters in many different countries. Despite this, approaches to predict the influence of soil properties on the behaviour of ionisable pesticides in soils are poorly developed. Current regulatory assessments frequently default to methods developed for nonionic chemicals, although it is evident that ionisable compounds do not often react like neutral molecules. This review presents the state of knowledge on the adsorption of ionisable pesticides in soils. It first introduces the issues concerning adsorption and the characteristics of this particular kind of chemical. The mechanisms postulated for the adsorption of ionisable pesticides are then described: these are hydrophobic partitioning, ionic exchange, charge transfer, ligand exchange, cation or water bridging, and the formation of bound residues. Relatively little experimental evidence is available, and we are still unable to determine the quantitative contribution of each process in a particular situation. Knowledge is still lacking concerning phenomena occurring at the surfaces of soil particles. Measurements do not allow determination of the operative pH at the surface of soil particles or in microenvironments, and the influence of ionic strength or competition effects is difficult to assess. Subsequently, the review focuses on the influence of soil properties on adsorption and on potential to predict the behaviour of ionisable pesticides in soils. Unlike hydrophobic compounds, adsorption of ionisable pesticides is highly sensitive to variation in pH. This relationship mainly derives from the

  16. Surface fractal dimension, water adsorption efficiency, and cloud nucleation activity of insoluble aerosol

    PubMed Central

    Laaksonen, Ari; Malila, Jussi; Nenes, Athanasios; Hung, Hui-Ming; Chen, Jen-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Surface porosity affects the ability of a substance to adsorb gases. The surface fractal dimension D is a measure that indicates the amount that a surface fills a space, and can thereby be used to characterize the surface porosity. Here we propose a new method for determining D, based on measuring both the water vapour adsorption isotherm of a given substance, and its ability to act as a cloud condensation nucleus when introduced to humidified air in aerosol form. We show that our method agrees well with previous methods based on measurement of nitrogen adsorption. Besides proving the usefulness of the new method for general surface characterization of materials, our results show that the surface fractal dimension is an important determinant in cloud drop formation on water insoluble particles. We suggest that a closure can be obtained between experimental critical supersaturation for cloud drop activation and that calculated based on water adsorption data, if the latter is corrected using the surface fractal dimension of the insoluble cloud nucleus. PMID:27138171

  17. Surface fractal dimension, water adsorption efficiency, and cloud nucleation activity of insoluble aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laaksonen, Ari; Malila, Jussi; Nenes, Athanasios; Hung, Hui-Ming; Chen, Jen-Ping

    2016-05-01

    Surface porosity affects the ability of a substance to adsorb gases. The surface fractal dimension D is a measure that indicates the amount that a surface fills a space, and can thereby be used to characterize the surface porosity. Here we propose a new method for determining D, based on measuring both the water vapour adsorption isotherm of a given substance, and its ability to act as a cloud condensation nucleus when introduced to humidified air in aerosol form. We show that our method agrees well with previous methods based on measurement of nitrogen adsorption. Besides proving the usefulness of the new method for general surface characterization of materials, our results show that the surface fractal dimension is an important determinant in cloud drop formation on water insoluble particles. We suggest that a closure can be obtained between experimental critical supersaturation for cloud drop activation and that calculated based on water adsorption data, if the latter is corrected using the surface fractal dimension of the insoluble cloud nucleus.

  18. Surface fractal dimension, water adsorption efficiency, and cloud nucleation activity of insoluble aerosol.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Ari; Malila, Jussi; Nenes, Athanasios; Hung, Hui-Ming; Chen, Jen-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Surface porosity affects the ability of a substance to adsorb gases. The surface fractal dimension D is a measure that indicates the amount that a surface fills a space, and can thereby be used to characterize the surface porosity. Here we propose a new method for determining D, based on measuring both the water vapour adsorption isotherm of a given substance, and its ability to act as a cloud condensation nucleus when introduced to humidified air in aerosol form. We show that our method agrees well with previous methods based on measurement of nitrogen adsorption. Besides proving the usefulness of the new method for general surface characterization of materials, our results show that the surface fractal dimension is an important determinant in cloud drop formation on water insoluble particles. We suggest that a closure can be obtained between experimental critical supersaturation for cloud drop activation and that calculated based on water adsorption data, if the latter is corrected using the surface fractal dimension of the insoluble cloud nucleus. PMID:27138171

  19. Surface fractal dimension, water adsorption efficiency, and cloud nucleation activity of insoluble aerosol.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Ari; Malila, Jussi; Nenes, Athanasios; Hung, Hui-Ming; Chen, Jen-Ping

    2016-05-03

    Surface porosity affects the ability of a substance to adsorb gases. The surface fractal dimension D is a measure that indicates the amount that a surface fills a space, and can thereby be used to characterize the surface porosity. Here we propose a new method for determining D, based on measuring both the water vapour adsorption isotherm of a given substance, and its ability to act as a cloud condensation nucleus when introduced to humidified air in aerosol form. We show that our method agrees well with previous methods based on measurement of nitrogen adsorption. Besides proving the usefulness of the new method for general surface characterization of materials, our results show that the surface fractal dimension is an important determinant in cloud drop formation on water insoluble particles. We suggest that a closure can be obtained between experimental critical supersaturation for cloud drop activation and that calculated based on water adsorption data, if the latter is corrected using the surface fractal dimension of the insoluble cloud nucleus.

  20. Preparation, Characterization and Application of Magnetic Fe3O4-CS for the Adsorption of Orange I from Aqueous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yankai; Pei, Meishan; He, Youjun; Yu, Faqi; Guo, Wenjuan; Wang, Luyan

    2014-01-01

    Fe3O4 (Fe3O4-CS) coated with magnetic chitosan was prepared as an adsorbent for the removal of Orange I from aqueous solutions and characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM and TGA measurements. The effects of pH, initial concentration and contact time on the adsorption of Orange I from aqueous solutions were investigated. The decoloration rate was higher than 94% in the initial concentration range of 50–150 mg L−1 at pH 2.0. The maximum adsorption amount was 183.2 mg g−1 and was obtained at an initial concentration of 400 mg L−1 at pH 2.0. The adsorption equilibrium was reached in 30 minutes, demonstrating that the obtained adsorbent has the potential for practical application. The equilibrium adsorption isotherm was analyzed by the Freundlich and Langmuir models, and the adsorption kinetics were analyzed by the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The higher linear correlation coefficients showed that the Langmuir model (R2 = 0.9995) and pseudo-second-order model (R2 = 0.9561) offered the better fits. PMID:25271644

  1. Experimental-Theoretical Approach to the Adsorption Mechanisms for Anionic, Cationic, and Zwitterionic Surfactants at the Calcite-Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Durán-Álvarez, Agustín; Maldonado-Domínguez, Mauricio; González-Antonio, Oscar; Durán-Valencia, Cecilia; Romero-Ávila, Margarita; Barragán-Aroche, Fernando; López-Ramírez, Simón

    2016-03-22

    The adsorption of surfactants (DTAB, SDS, and CAPB) at the calcite-water interface was studied through surface zeta potential measurements and multiscale molecular dynamics. The ground-state polarization of surfactants proved to be a key factor for the observed behavior; correlation was found between adsorption and the hard or soft charge distribution of the amphiphile. SDS exhibits a steep aggregation profile, reaching saturation and showing classic ionic-surfactant behavior. In contrast, DTAB and CAPB featured diversified adsorption profiles, suggesting interplay between supramolecular aggregation and desorption from the solid surface and alleviating charge buildup at the carbonate surface when bulk concentration approaches CMC. This manifests as an adsorption profile with a fast initial step, followed by a metastable plateau and finalizing with a sharp decrease and stabilization of surface charge. Suggesting this competition of equilibria, elicited at the CaCO3 surface, this study provides atomistic insight into the adsorption mechanism for ionic surfactants on calcite, which is in accordance with experimental evidence and which is a relevant criterion for developing enhanced oil recovery processes.

  2. Static and dynamic adsorption of phosphonate and polymeric scale inhibitors onto reservoir core from laboratory tests to field application

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, M.M.; Sorbie, K.S.; Yuan, M.D.; Taylor, K.; Hourston, K.E.; Ramstad, K.; Griffin, P.

    1995-11-01

    In this paper, results from static tests have been used to establish scale inhibitor adsorption mechanisms and levels in consolidated reservoir cores and to rank inhibitors for their adsorption behavior and, in some cases, squeeze return lifetimes. The purpose of this rapid and simple type of bulk adsorption measurement is to assist in the selection of inhibitors for further coreflooding which should be carried out on a minimum number of inhibitors. A bulk adsorption sensitivity study can be carried out very rapidly compared with carefully carried out reservoir condition core floods. The value of such rapid screening tests is evident although the authors show that it is not always possible for all factors concerning squeeze lifetime to be determined in this way. It is still often necessary to carry out a much smaller number of reservoir condition core floods for a few (usually between 1 and 3) selected inhibitor products. This is necessary if the dynamic adsorption isotherm, {Gamma}(C), is to be derived in order to develop the ``Field Squeeze Strategy`` or for the assessment of formation damage which might occur in the squeeze treatment. A field example of this is presented briefly in this paper although details can be found elsewhere.

  3. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  4. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  5. Global versus local adsorption selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauzat, Françoise; Marloie, Gael; Markovits, Alexis; Ellinger, Yves

    2015-10-01

    The origin of the enantiomeric excess found in the amino acids present in the organic matter of carbonaceous meteorites is still unclear. Selective adsorption of one of the two enantiomers existing after a racemic formation could be part of the answer. Hereafter we report a comparative study of the adsorption of the R and S enantiomers of α-alanine and lactic acid on the hydroxylated { } chiral surface of α-quartz using numerical simulation techniques. Structurally different adsorption sites were found with opposite R versus S selectivity for the same molecule-surface couple, raising the problem of whether to consider adsorption as a local property or as a global response characteristic of the whole surface. To deal with the second term of this alternative, a statistical approach was designed, based on the occurrence of each adsorption site whose energy was calculated using first principle periodic density functional theory. It was found that R-alanine and S-lactic acid are the enantiomers preferentially adsorbed, even if the adsorption process on the quartz { } surface stays with a disappointingly poor enantio-selectivity. Nevertheless, it highlighted the important point that considering adsorption as a global property changes perspectives in the search for more efficient enantio-selective supports and more generally changes the way to apprehend adsorption processes in astro-chemistry/biology.

  6. Design method for adsorption beds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakely, R. L.; Jackson, J. K.

    1970-01-01

    Regenerable adsorption beds for long-term life support systems include synthetic geolite to remove carbon dioxide and silica gel to dehumidify the atmospheric gas prior to its passage through the geolite beds. Bed performance is evaluated from adsorption characteristics, heat and mass transfer, and pressure drop.

  7. Liquid-Phase Adsorption Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, David O.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an experiment developed and used in the unit operations laboratory course at the University of Wyoming. Involves the liquid-phase adsorption of an organic compound from aqueous solution on activated carbon, and is relevant to adsorption processes in general. (TW)

  8. [Adsorption characteristics of f2 bacteriophages by four substrates in constructed wetland].

    PubMed

    Chen, Di; Zheng, Xiang; Wei, Yuan-Song; Yang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Performance of f2 phages adsorption by four substrates including anthracite coal, steel slag, zeolite and forsterite was investigated through batch and dynamic experiments. Results of batch experiments showed that the removal efficiency of f2 phages by these four substrates was in the order of anthracite > steel slag > forsterite approximately zeolite. The adsorption of f2 phages by anthracite experienced fast, medium and slow stages, and the removal efficiency of f2 phages increased gradually with the increase of anthracite dosage, e. g. the optimized dosage of anthracite was 8.0 g at a solid/liquid ratio of 1:12.5 (m/V). The isothermal adsorption of all four substrates was described with Freundlich and Langmuir isothermal adsorption equation very well, and the adsorption of f2 phages by both anthracite and steel slag fitted pseudo-second order adsorption kinetics at their theoretical adsorption capacities of 3. 35 x 10(8) PFU.g-1 and 2.56 x 10(8) PFU.g-1, respectively, nearly the same as the equilibrium adsorption capacities obtained under the experiment conditions. And the liquid diffusion process was a rate-limiting step of the adsorption of f2 phage by both anthracite and steel slag, but not the only one. The results of dynamic adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption process of f2 phages in the three adsorption columns including anthracite, steel slag and zeolite experienced four stages of adaption, adsorption, pulse adsorption and adsorption equilibrium, and the total removal rates of f2 phages were more than 2. 55 Ig.

  9. Adsorption of cadmium(II) on waste biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Baláž, M; Bujňáková, Z; Baláž, P; Zorkovská, A; Danková, Z; Briančin, J

    2015-09-15

    Significant increase of the adsorption ability of the eggshell biomaterial toward cadmium was observed upon milling, as is evidenced by the value of maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 329mgg(-1), which is markedly higher than in the case of most "green" sorbents. The main driving force of the adsorption was proven to be the presence of aragonite phase as a consequence of phase transformation from calcite occurring during milling. Cadmium is adsorbed in a non-reversible way, as documented by different techniques (desorption tests, XRD and EDX measurements). The optimum pH for cadmium adsorption was 7. The adsorption process was accompanied by the increase of the value of specific surface area. The course of adsorption has been described by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The adsorption kinetics was evaluated using three models, among which the best correlation coefficients and the best normalized standard deviation values were achieved for the pseudo-second order model and the intraparticle diffusion model, respectively.

  10. Adsorption of cadmium(II) on waste biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Baláž, M; Bujňáková, Z; Baláž, P; Zorkovská, A; Danková, Z; Briančin, J

    2015-09-15

    Significant increase of the adsorption ability of the eggshell biomaterial toward cadmium was observed upon milling, as is evidenced by the value of maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 329mgg(-1), which is markedly higher than in the case of most "green" sorbents. The main driving force of the adsorption was proven to be the presence of aragonite phase as a consequence of phase transformation from calcite occurring during milling. Cadmium is adsorbed in a non-reversible way, as documented by different techniques (desorption tests, XRD and EDX measurements). The optimum pH for cadmium adsorption was 7. The adsorption process was accompanied by the increase of the value of specific surface area. The course of adsorption has been described by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The adsorption kinetics was evaluated using three models, among which the best correlation coefficients and the best normalized standard deviation values were achieved for the pseudo-second order model and the intraparticle diffusion model, respectively. PMID:26005798

  11. Adsorption properties of. cap alpha. -modification of boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilova, T.B.; Kiselev, A.V.; Parshina, I.V.; Roshchina, T.M.

    1986-11-01

    The adsorption properties of four samples of ..cap alpha..-BN were studied by means of gas chromatography. The particles of ..cap alpha..-BN particles, according to data obtained by electron microscopy, have the shape of thin platelets. A sample of ..cap alpha..-BN prepared from magnesium polyboride was found to be the most nearly homogeneous adsorbent. For a number of n-alkanes, benzene, and alkylbenzenes, data have been obtained on the retention volumes (Henry constants) and the differential heats of adsorption for surface coverages approaching zero. These thermodynamic data on the adsorption showed that ..cap alpha..-BN, like graphitized thermal carbon black, is a nonspecific adsorbent.

  12. Removal of carbonyl sulfide using activated carbon adsorption.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Melanie L; Rosenberk, Ranjith Samuel

    2006-02-01

    Wastewater treatment plant odors are caused by compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptans, and carbonyl sulfide (COS). One of the most efficient odor control processes is activated carbon adsorption; however, very few studies have been conducted on COS adsorption. COS is not only an odor causing compound but is also listed in the Clean Air Act as a hazardous air pollutant. Objectives of this study were to determine the following: (1) the adsorption capacity of 3 different carbons for COS removal; (2) the impact of relative humidity (RH) on COS adsorption; (3) the extent of competitive adsorption of COS in the presence of H2S; and (4) whether ammonia injection would increase COS adsorption capacity. Vapor phase react (VPR; reactivated), BPL (bituminous coal-based), and Centaur (physically modified to enhance H2S adsorption) carbons manufactured by Calgon Carbon Corp. were tested in three laboratory-scale columns, 6 in. in depth and 1 in. in diameter. Inlet COS concentrations varied from 35 to 49 ppmv (86-120 mg/m3). RHs of 17%, 30%, 50%, and 90% were tested. For competitive adsorption studies, H2S was tested at 60 ppmv, with COS at 30 ppmv. COS, RH, H2S, and ammonia concentrations were measured using an International Sensor Technology Model IQ-350 solid state sensor, Cole-Parmer humidity stick, Interscan Corp. 1000 series portable analyzer, and Drager Accuro ammonia sensor, respectively. It was found that the adsorption capacity of Centaur carbon for COS was higher than the other two carbons, regardless of RH. As humidity increased, the percentage of decrease in adsorption capacity of Centaur carbon, however, was greater than the other two carbons. The carbon adsorption capacity for COS decreased in proportion to the percentage of H2S in the gas stream. More adsorption sites appear to be available to H2S, a smaller molecule. Ammonia, which has been found to increase H2S adsorption capacity, did not increase the capacity for COS.

  13. Methylene blue adsorption on a DMPA lipid langmuir monolayer.

    PubMed

    Giner Casares, Juan José; Camacho, Luis; Martín-Romero, Maria Teresa; López Cascales, José Javier

    2010-07-12

    Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) onto a dimyristoylphosphatidic acid (DMPA) Langmuir air/water monolayer is studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, UV reflection spectroscopy and surface potential measurements. The free-energy profile associated with MB transfer from water to the lipid monolayer shows two minima of -66 and -60 kJ mol(-1) for its solid and gas phase, respectively, corresponding to a spontaneous thermodynamic process. From the position of the free-energy minima, it is possible to predict the precise location of MB in the interior of the DMPA monolayer. Thus, MB is accommodated in the phosphoryl or carbonyl region of the DMPA Langmuir air/water interface, depending on the isomorphic state (solid or gas phase, respectively). Reorientation of MB, measured from the bulk solution to the interior of the lipid monolayer, passes from a random orientation in bulk solution to an orientation parallel to the surface of the lipid monolayer when MB is absorbed. PMID:20544777

  14. Methylene blue adsorption on a DMPA lipid langmuir monolayer.

    PubMed

    Giner Casares, Juan José; Camacho, Luis; Martín-Romero, Maria Teresa; López Cascales, José Javier

    2010-07-12

    Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) onto a dimyristoylphosphatidic acid (DMPA) Langmuir air/water monolayer is studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, UV reflection spectroscopy and surface potential measurements. The free-energy profile associated with MB transfer from water to the lipid monolayer shows two minima of -66 and -60 kJ mol(-1) for its solid and gas phase, respectively, corresponding to a spontaneous thermodynamic process. From the position of the free-energy minima, it is possible to predict the precise location of MB in the interior of the DMPA monolayer. Thus, MB is accommodated in the phosphoryl or carbonyl region of the DMPA Langmuir air/water interface, depending on the isomorphic state (solid or gas phase, respectively). Reorientation of MB, measured from the bulk solution to the interior of the lipid monolayer, passes from a random orientation in bulk solution to an orientation parallel to the surface of the lipid monolayer when MB is absorbed.

  15. Adsorption edge study about cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc adsorption by variable charge soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Mouta, E. R.; Soares, M. R.

    2009-04-01

    The improper discharge of industrial and urban residues and the inadvertent use of fertilizers and pesticides can result in soil and water pollution and improve the potential of trace metals to enter in the human food chain. Adsorption reactions occur at the solid/liquid interface and are the most important mechanisms for controlling the activity of metal ions in soil solution. In a complex system with amphoteric behavior, the comprehension of the mobility, availability and fate of pollutants in the soil system is crucial for the prediction of the environmental consequences and for development of prevention/remediation strategies. A comparative study of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) adsorption by highly weathered soils was carried out. Surface (0-0.2m) and subsoil (B horizon) samples were taken from a Rhodic Kandiudalf (RH), an Anionic "Xanthic" Acrudox (XA) and an Anionic "Rhodic" Acrudox (RA), located in brazilian humid tropical area. As the pH and the ionic strength are important environmental factors influencing the solution chemistry of heavy metals in variable charge systems, adsorption envelopes, in a batch adsorption experiment, were elaborated by reacting, for 24 h, soil samples with individual 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 aqueous solutions containing nitrate salts of the adsorptive heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) at the initial concentration of 5 mg L-1, with an increasing pH value from 3.0 to 8.0. pH50-100%, the difference between the pH of 100 and 50 percent metal adsorption was determined. A sharp increase of adsorption density (adsorption edge) was observed within a very narrow pH range, usually less than two pH units. Commonly, the relative affinity of a soil for a metal cation increases with the tendency of the cation to form inner-sphere surface complexes. This may be caused by differences in extent of hydrolysis of Cu ions and in affinity of adsorption sites for Cu. In general, subsurface samples showed low pH50

  16. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  17. Adsorption of radon and water vapor on commercial activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, N.M.; Ghosh, T.K.; Hines, A.L.; Loyalka, S.K.

    1995-02-01

    Equilibrium adsorption isotherms are reported for radon and water vapor on two commercial activated carbons: coconut shell Type PCB and hardwood Type BD. The isotherms of the water vapor were measured gravimetrically at 298 K. The isotherms of radon from dry nitrogen were obtained at 293, 298, and 308 K while the data for the mixture of radon and water vapor were measured at 298 K. The concentrations of radon in the gas and solid phases were measured simultaneously, once the adsorption equilibrium and the radioactive equilibrium between the radon and its daughter products were established. The shape of the isotherms was of Type III for the radon and Type V for the water vapor, according to Brunauer`s classification. The adsorption mechanism was similar for both the radon and the water vapor, being physical adsorption on the macropore surface area in the low pressure region and micropore filling near saturation pressure. The uptake capacity of radon decreased both with increasing temperature and relative humidity. The heat of adsorption data indicated that the PCB- and the BD-activated carbons provided a heterogeneous surface for radon adsorption. The equilibrium data for radon were correlated with a modified Freundlich equation.

  18. Nonlinear optical property of hemicyanine self-assembled monolayers on gold and its adsorption kinetics probed by optical second-harmonic generation and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naraoka, Ryo; Kaise, Go; Kajikawa, Kotaro; Okawa, Haruki; Ikezawa, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Kazuhiko

    2002-08-01

    We have prepared the organosulfur self-assembled monolayer (SAM) containing hemicyanine on gold. It shows a large second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χzzz=58 pm/V. The adsorption kinetics of the SAM on gold was also probed by the in situ real time measurements of second-harmonic generation (SHG) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. While the SHG kinetics was saturated immediately after the immersion of the gold substrate in the solution, the SPR kinetics showed additional slow adsorption for more than 20 000 s. This means that rapid formation of the well-ordered hemicyanine SAM is followed by gradual physisorption where the molecules are disordered.

  19. [Adsorption-desorption Characteristics of Fermented Rice Husk for Ferrous and Sulfur Ions].

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao-mei; Liao, Min; Hua, Jia-yuan; Chen, Na; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Pei-zhi; Xie Kai-zhi; XU, Chang-xu; Liu, Guang-rong

    2015-10-01

    To understand the potential of rice husk to fix Fe2+ and S2- ions, the sorption of Fe2+ and S2- by fermented rice husk was studied by using batch incubation experiments in the present study. The effects of adsorption time, Fe2+ and S2- concentration, pH, the temperature and ionic strength in adsorption reaction solution on the sorption were investigated. Therefore, the stability of Fe2+ and S2- adsorbed by fermented rice husk was further validated by desorption experiments performed under similar conditions as adsorption. The results showed that, the adsorption kinetics of Fe2+ (r = 0.912 1) and S2- (r = 0.901 1) by fermented rice husk fits the Elovich kinetics equation, and Freundlich isotherm model could simulate the isotherm adsorption processes of Fe2+ (R2 = 0.965 1) and S2- (R2 = 0.936 6) on fermented rice husk was better than other models. The adsorption processes on fermented rice husk were non- preferential adsorption for Fe2+ and S2, while the adsorption process of Fe2+ on fermented rice husk was spontaneous reaction and the adsorption process of S2- was non-spontaneous reaction. The adsorption processes of Fe2+ and S2- on fermented rice husk were endothermic process since high temperature could benefit to the adsorption. The adsorption mechanism of Fe2+ on fermented rice husk was mainly controlled by coordination adsorption, the adsorption mechanism of S2- on fermented rice husk was mainly controlled by ligand exchange adsorption. The adsorption processes of Fe2+ and S2- on fermented rice husk showed greater pH adaptability which ranged from 1.50 to 11.50. With the increasing of ionic strength, the amount of adsorbed Fe2+ on fermented rice husk wasincreased in some extent, the amount of adsorbed S2- on fermented rice husk was slightly decreased, which further proved the adsorption of Fe2+ was major in inner sphere complexation and the adsorption of S2- was major in outer complexation. The desorption rates of Fe2+ and S2- which was adsorbed by fermented

  20. [Adsorption-desorption Characteristics of Fermented Rice Husk for Ferrous and Sulfur Ions].

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao-mei; Liao, Min; Hua, Jia-yuan; Chen, Na; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Pei-zhi; Xie Kai-zhi; XU, Chang-xu; Liu, Guang-rong

    2015-10-01

    To understand the potential of rice husk to fix Fe2+ and S2- ions, the sorption of Fe2+ and S2- by fermented rice husk was studied by using batch incubation experiments in the present study. The effects of adsorption time, Fe2+ and S2- concentration, pH, the temperature and ionic strength in adsorption reaction solution on the sorption were investigated. Therefore, the stability of Fe2+ and S2- adsorbed by fermented rice husk was further validated by desorption experiments performed under similar conditions as adsorption. The results showed that, the adsorption kinetics of Fe2+ (r = 0.912 1) and S2- (r = 0.901 1) by fermented rice husk fits the Elovich kinetics equation, and Freundlich isotherm model could simulate the isotherm adsorption processes of Fe2+ (R2 = 0.965 1) and S2- (R2 = 0.936 6) on fermented rice husk was better than other models. The adsorption processes on fermented rice husk were non- preferential adsorption for Fe2+ and S2, while the adsorption process of Fe2+ on fermented rice husk was spontaneous reaction and the adsorption process of S2- was non-spontaneous reaction. The adsorption processes of Fe2+ and S2- on fermented rice husk were endothermic process since high temperature could benefit to the adsorption. The adsorption mechanism of Fe2+ on fermented rice husk was mainly controlled by coordination adsorption, the adsorption mechanism of S2- on fermented rice husk was mainly controlled by ligand exchange adsorption. The adsorption processes of Fe2+ and S2- on fermented rice husk showed greater pH adaptability which ranged from 1.50 to 11.50. With the increasing of ionic strength, the amount of adsorbed Fe2+ on fermented rice husk wasincreased in some extent, the amount of adsorbed S2- on fermented rice husk was slightly decreased, which further proved the adsorption of Fe2+ was major in inner sphere complexation and the adsorption of S2- was major in outer complexation. The desorption rates of Fe2+ and S2- which was adsorbed by fermented

  1. How specific halide adsorption varies hydrophobic interactions.

    PubMed

    Stock, Philipp; Müller, Melanie; Utzig, Thomas; Valtiner, Markus

    2016-03-11

    Hydrophobic interactions (HI) are driven by the water structure around hydrophobes in aqueous electrolytes. How water structures at hydrophobic interfaces and how this influences the HI was subject to numerous studies. However, the effect of specific ion adsorption on HI and hydrophobic interfaces remains largely unexplored or controversial. Here, the authors utilized atomic force microscopy force spectroscopy at well-defined nanoscopic hydrophobic interfaces to experimentally address how specific ion adsorption of halide ions as well as NH4 (+), Cs(+), and Na(+) cations alters interaction forces across hydrophobic interfaces. Our data demonstrate that iodide adsorption at hydrophobic interfaces profoundly varies the hydrophobic interaction potential. A long-range and strong hydration repulsion at distances D > 3 nm, is followed by an instability which could be explained by a subsequent rapid ejection of adsorbed iodides from approaching hydrophobic interfaces. In addition, the authors find only a weakly pronounced influence of bromide, and as expected no influence of chloride. Also, all tested cations do not have any significant influence on HI. Complementary, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and quartz-crystal-microbalance with dissipation monitoring showed a clear adsorption of large halide ions (Br(-)/I(-)) onto hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Interestingly, iodide can even lead to a full disintegration of SAMs due to specific and strong interactions of iodide with gold. Our data suggest that hydrophobic surfaces are not intrinsically charged negatively by hydroxide adsorption, as it was generally believed. Hydrophobic surfaces rather interact strongly with negatively charged large halide ions, leading to a surface charging and significant variation of interaction forces.

  2. Adsorption behavior and mechanism of glufosinate onto goethite.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Gu, Xueyuan; Guo, Yong; Tong, Fei; Chen, Liangyan

    2016-08-01

    The adsorption of glufosinate (GLU), a widely used herbicide similar to glyphosate (GLY), onto goethite was investigated as a function of the pH, ionic strength, background cations and anions, heavy metal ions and fulvic acids (FAs) by using batch adsorption experiments. In situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to characterize the molecular interactions between GLU and goethite surfaces. The macroscopic results indicated that an increasing pH exerted an adverse effect on GLU adsorption because of the electrostatic repulsion, and the adsorption was not sensitive to ionic strengths or background cation types, indicating that an inner-sphere surface complex was involved. GLU adsorption can be considerably depressed by PO4(3-), SO4(2-), and a high level of FA because of the competitive effect, while being enhanced by Cu(2+) with a maximum adsorption at approximately pH5 because of the metal ion bridging effect. Other examined divalent metal cations (Cd(2+), Zn(2+), and Pb(2+)) showed almost no effect on GLU adsorption, indicating weak interaction between them. ATR-FTIR spectra and the DFT calculations further proved that GLU was bonded to goethite surfaces through the formation of a monodentate mononuclear inner-sphere complex between the phosphinic moiety and surface Fe(III) centers under an acidic condition. The results showed that GLU had a similar adsorption mechanism to that of GLY onto goethite, but with a lower adsorption affinity, possibly exerting higher mobility and risk in soils. PMID:27096492

  3. The adsorption mechanism of nortryptiline on C18-bonded discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-08-01

    The adsorption isotherms of an ionizable compound, nortriptyline, were accurately measured by frontal analysis (FA) on a C{sub 18}-Discovery column, first without buffer (in an aqueous solution of acetonitrile at 15%, v/v of ACN), then with a buffer (in 28%, v/v ACN solution). The buffers were aqueous solutions containing 20 mM of formic acid or a phosphate buffer at pH 2.70. The linear range of the isotherm could not be reached with the non-buffered mobile phase using a dynamic range larger than 40,000 (from 1.2 x 10{sup -3} g/L to 50 g/L). With a 20 mM buffer in the liquid phase, the isotherm is linear for concentrations of nortriptyline inferior to 10{sup -3} g/L (or 3 {micro} mol/L). The adsorption energy distribution (AED) was calculated to determine the heterogeneity of the adsorption process. AED and FA were consistent and lead to a trimodal distribution. A tri-Moreau and a tri-Langmuir isotherm models accounted the best for the adsorption of nortriptyline without and with buffer, respectively. The nature of the buffer affects significantly the middle-energy sites while the properties of the lowest and highest of the three types of energy sites are almost unchanged. The desorption profiles of nortriptyline show some anomalies in relation with the formation of a complex multilayer adsorbed phase of acetonitrile whose excess isotherm was measured by the minor disturbance method. The C{sub 18}-Discovery column has about the same total saturation capacity, around 200 g of nortriptyline per liter of adsorbent (or 116 mg/g), with or without buffer. About 98-99% of the available surface consists in low energy sites. The coexistence of these different types of sites on the surface solves the McCalley's enigma, that the column efficiency begins to drop rapidly when the analyte concentration reaches values that are almost one hundred times lower than those that could be predicted from the isotherm data acquired under the same experimental conditions. Due to the

  4. The impact of alkyl sulfate surfactant geometry and electrolyte on the co-adsorption of anionic surfactants with model perfumes at the air-solution interface.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Robert; Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Tucker, Ian M; Petkov, Jordan T; Jones, Craig

    2013-08-01

    The impact of surfactant geometry and electrolyte on the co-adsorption of anionic surfactants and model perfumes at the air-solution interface has been studied by neutron reflectivity. The more hydrophobic perfume linalool, competes more favourably for the surface with sodium dodecylsulfate than was previously reported for the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl 6-benzenesulfonate. Due to an increase in surface activity of the sodium dodecylsulfate, the addition of electrolyte results in a reduction in the linalool adsorption. Changing the alkyl chain length affects the relative adsorption of linalool and surfactant at the interface. Similar measurements for the different alkyl sulfates and with electrolyte with the more hydrophilic perfume phenyl ethanol, reveal broadly similar trends. Although the relative adsorption of phenyl ethanol with sodium dodecylsulfate is substantially enhanced compared to sodium dodecyl-6-benzenesulfonate the effects are not as significant as was observed with linalool. The variations with alkyl chain geometry show the importance of the hydrophobic interaction between the perfume and surfactant and changes in the packing constraints on the relative adsorption. The results highlight the importance of the specific interaction between the surfactant and perfume, and the surfactant and perfume geometries on the relative adsorption at the interface.

  5. Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

    When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

    The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

    The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled

  6. The adsorption of plutonium IV and V on goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Arthur L.; Murray, James W.; Sibley, Thomas H.

    1985-11-01

    The adsorption of Pu(IV) and Pu(V) on goethite (αFeOOH) from NaNO 3 solution shows distinct differences related to the different hydrolytic character of these two oxidation states. Under similar solution conditions, the adsorption edge of the more strongly hydrolyzable Pu(IV) occurs in the pH range 3 to 5 while that for Pu(V) is at pH 5 to 7. The adsorption edge for Pu(V) shifts with time to lower pH values and this appears to be due to the reduction of Pu(V) to Pu(IV) in the presence of the goethite surface. These results suggest that redox transformations may be an important aspect of Pu adsorption chemistry and the resulting scavenging of Pu from natural waters. Increasing ionic strength (from 0.1 M to 3 M NaCl or NaNO 3 and 0.03 M to 0.3 M Na 2SO 4) did not influence Pu(IV) or Pu(V) adsorption. In the presence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Pu(V) reduction to Pu(IV) occurred in solution. Pu(IV) adsorption on goethite decreased by 30% in the presence of 240 ppm natural DOC found in Soap Lake, Washington waters. Increasing concentrations of carbonate ligands decreased Pu(IV) and Pu(V) adsorption on goethite, with an alkalinity of 1000 meq/l totally inhibiting adsorption. The Pu-goethite adsorption system provides the data base for developing a thermodynamic model of Pu interaction with an oxide surface and with dissolved ligands, using the MINEQL computer program. From the model calculations we determined equilibrium constants for the adsorption of Pu(IV) hydrolysis species. The model was then applied to Pu adsorption in carbonate media to see how the presence of CO 3-2 could influence the mobility of Pu. The decrease in adsorption appears to be due to formation of a Pu-CO 3 complex. Model calculations were used to predict what the adsorption curves would look like if Pu-CO 3 complexes formed.

  7. Alkoxysilane adsorption on metal oxide substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsier, R. D.; Zhuang, G. R.; Henriksen, P. N.

    1989-01-01

    Reflection-absorption infrared and inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopies have been used to study adsorption of liquid phase mono-, di-, and trialkoxysilanes on evaporated Al and Cu substrates. Spectral evidence shows that substrate properties influence the chemical and physical nature of trialkoxysilane films and that silane functionality plays a role in molecular orientation. Results show that dialkoxysilane films contain structural gradients, with adsorption at the monomolecular level influenced by surface morphology, and with organofunctionality and dosing procedure affecting the formation of thicker films. Evidence is presented that monoalkoxysilanes react with alumina surfaces, and a broad, multipeaked band from 1600 to 1900/cm has been interpreted as characteristic of the silylated AlO(x)Pb interface.

  8. Two-step adsorption on jungle-gym-type porous coordination polymers: dependence on hydrogen-bonding capability of adsorbates, ligand-substituent effect, and temperature.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Yukari; Onishi, Fumiaki; Kita, Hidetoshi; Ebihara, Masahiro

    2010-11-01

    A preliminary study of isopropanol (IPA) adsorption/desorption isotherms on a jungle-gym-type porous coordination polymer, [Zn(2)(bdc)(2)(dabco)](n) (1, H(2)bdc = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, dabco =1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane), showed unambiguous two-step profiles via a highly shrunk intermediate framework. The results of adsorption measurements on 1, using probing gas molecules of alcohol (MeOH and EtOH) for the size effect and Me(2)CO for the influence of hydrogen bonding, show that alcohol adsorption isotherms are gradual two-step profiles, whereas the Me(2)CO isotherm is a typical type-I isotherm, indicating that a two-step adsorption/desorption is involved with hydrogen bonds. To further clarify these characteristic adsorption/desorption behaviors, selecting nitroterephthalate (bdc-NO(2)), bromoterephthalate (bdc-Br), and 2,5-dichloroterephthalate (bdc-Cl(2)) as substituted dicarboxylate ligands, isomorphous jungle-gym-type porous coordination polymers, {[Zn(2)(bdc-NO(2))(2)(dabco)]·solvents}(n) (2 ⊃ solvents), {[Zn(2)(bdc-Br)(2)(dabco)]·solvents}(n) (3 ⊃ solvents), and {[Zn(2)(bdc-Cl(2))(2)(dabco)]·solvents}(n) (4 ⊃ solvents), were synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray analyses. Thermal gravimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, and N(2) adsorption at 77 K measurements reveal that [Zn(2)(bdc-NO(2))(2)(dabco)](n) (2), [Zn(2)(bdc-Br)(2)(dabco)](n) (3), and [Zn(2)(bdc-Cl(2))(2)(dabco)](n) (4) maintain their frameworks without guest molecules with Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas of 1568 (2), 1292 (3), and 1216 (4) m(2) g(-1). As found in results of MeOH, EtOH, IPA, and Me(2)CO adsorption/desorption on 2-4, only MeOH adsorption on 2 shows an obvious two-step profile. Considering the substituent effects and adsorbate sizes, the hydrogen bonds, which are triggers for two-step adsorption, are formed between adsorbates and carboxylate groups at the corners in the pores, inducing wide pores to become narrow pores. Interestingly, such

  9. Understanding the adsorption mechanism of noble gases Kr and Xe in CPO-27-Ni, CPO-27-Mg, and ZIF-8.

    PubMed

    Magdysyuk, O V; Adams, F; Liermann, H-P; Spanopoulos, I; Trikalitis, P N; Hirscher, M; Morris, R E; Duncan, M J; McCormick, L J; Dinnebier, R E

    2014-11-21

    An experimental study of Xe and Kr adsorption in metal-organic frameworks CPO-27-Ni, CPO-27-Mg, and ZIF-8 was carried out. In situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction experiments allowed precise determination of the adsorption sites and sequence of their filling with increasing of gas pressure at different temperatures. Structural investigations were used for interpretation of gas adsorption measurements.

  10. Adsorption study of Ammonia Nitrogen by watermelon rind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, A.; Yusof, L.; Beddu, N. S.; Galasin, N.; Lee, P. Y.; Lee, R. N. S.; Zahrim, A. Y.

    2016-06-01

    The utilization of fruit waste for low-cost adsorbents as a replacement for costly conventional methods of removing ammonia nitrogen from wastewater has been reviewed. The adsorption studies were conducted as a function of contact time and adsorbent dosage and it were carried out on four different adsorbents; fresh watermelon rind and modified watermelon rind with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4). Adsorbents were tested for characterization by using zeta potential test and all samples shows negative values thus makes it favourable for the adsorption process. The batch experimental result showed that adsorption process is rapid and equilibrium was established within 40 minutes of contact time. The ammonia nitrogen removal rate amounted in range of 96% to 99%, and the adsorption capacities were in range of 1.21 to 1.24 mg/g for all four different types of adsorbents used.

  11. Hydrogen adsorption on sulphur-doped SiC nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevak Singh, Ram

    2016-07-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is an energy carrier and clean fuel that can be used for a broad range of applications that include fuel cell vehicles. Therefore, development of materials for hydrogen storage is demanded. Nanotubes, in this context, are appropriate materials. Recently, silicon carbide nanotube (SiCNTs) have been predicted as potential nanomaterials for hydrogen storage, and atomic doping into the nanotubes improves the H2 adsorption. Here, we report H2 adsorption properties of sulphur-doped (S-doped) SiCNTs using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The H2 adsorption properties are investigated by calculations of energy band structures, density of states (DOS), adsorption energy and Mulliken charge population analysis. Our findings show that, compared to the intrinsic SiCNT, S-doped SiCNT is more sensitive to H2 adsorption. H2 gas adsorption on S-doped C-sites of SiCNT brings about significant modulation of the electronic structure of the nanotube, which results in charge transfer from the nanotube to the gas, and dipole-dipole interactions cause chemisorptions of hydrogen. However, in the case of H2 gas adsorption on S-doped Si-sites of the nanotube, lesser charge transfer from the nanotube to the gas results in physisorptions of the gas. The efficient hydrogen sensing properties of S-doped SiCNTs, studied here, may have potential for its practical realization for hydrogen storage application.

  12. Hydrogen adsorption on sulphur-doped SiC nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevak Singh, Ram

    2016-07-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is an energy carrier and clean fuel that can be used for a broad range of applications that include fuel cell vehicles. Therefore, development of materials for hydrogen storage is demanded. Nanotubes, in this context, are appropriate materials. Recently, silicon carbide nanotube (SiCNTs) have been predicted as potential nanomaterials for hydrogen storage, and atomic doping into the nanotubes improves the H2 adsorption. Here, we report H2 adsorption properties of sulphur-doped (S-doped) SiCNTs using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The H2 adsorption properties are investigated by calculations of energy band structures, density of states (DOS), adsorption energy and Mulliken charge population analysis. Our findings show that, compared to the intrinsic SiCNT, S-doped SiCNT is more sensitive to H2 adsorption. H2 gas adsorption on S-doped C-sites of SiCNT brings about significant modulation of the electronic structure of the nanotube, which results in charge transfer from the nanotube to the gas, and dipole–dipole interactions cause chemisorptions of hydrogen. However, in the case of H2 gas adsorption on S-doped Si-sites of the nanotube, lesser charge transfer from the nanotube to the gas results in physisorptions of the gas. The efficient hydrogen sensing properties of S-doped SiCNTs, studied here, may have potential for its practical realization for hydrogen storage application.

  13. Effect of DOM Size on Organic Micropollutant Adsorption by GAC.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Anthony M; Summers, R Scott

    2015-06-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption of the micropollutants 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and warfarin (WFN) at ng/L levels was investigated in five waters with isolated natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) held at a constant dissolved organic carbon concentration. Each water was evaluated for competitive adsorption effects based on the pretreatment of ultrafiltration, coagulation, and additional background micropollutants. Using the breakthrough with unfractionated DOM as a baseline, on average, the water with lower molecular weight (MW) DOM decreased MIB and WFN adsorption capacity by 59%, whereas the water with higher MW DOM increased MIB and WFN adsorption capacity by 64%. All waters showed similar decreasing MIB and WFN adsorption capacity with increasing empty bed contact time (EBCT), with more dramatic effects seen for the more strongly adsorbing WFN. On average, MIB and WFN adsorption kinetics were two times slower in the water with higher MW DOM compared to the water with lower MW DOM, as described by the intraparticle pore diffusion tortuosity. Increased adsorption competition from 27 micropollutants other than MIB and WFN at environmentally relevant concentrations had little to no effect on MIB and WFN breakthrough behavior. Any competitive effect from background micropollutants became indiscernible at longer EBCTs. PMID:25955134

  14. [Adsorption of Cr (VI) on magnetic graphene from aqueous solution].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Yang, Qi; Li, Bo; Chen, Hai; Nie, Lan-Yu

    2015-02-01

    Chemical deposition method was applied to prepare magnetic graphene composites using graphite oxide and ferric salt (FeCl2 - 4H2O and FeCl3 x 6H2O) as starting materials. The static experiments were performed to study kinetics, thermodynamic, adsorption isotherm and effects of various parameters, such as pH, temperature and time on Cr(VI) adsorption. The results showed that adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model. Compared with Freundlich isotherm, Langmuir isotherm could better describe the adsorption process. The parameters of thermodynamics were ΔHθ = 33.89 kJ x mol(-1), ΔSθ = 120.15 J x (mol x K)(-1), ΔGθ = -2.51 kJ x mol(-1) (303 K), it demonstrated that the adsorption was a spontaneously endothermic process. It also indicated that the optimal pH was 2. Higher temperature and extension of time were in favor of adsorption. When used repeatedly for three times, the adsorption capacity decreased from 3.9 mg x g(-1) to 2.1 mg x g(-1) with an initial concentration of 5 mg x L(-1). By using a permanent magnet, the recycling process of adsorbent was easy to be operated and adsorbent could be regenerated by sodium hydrate solution. Hence, the composites is a promising adsorbent for efficient removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater. PMID:26031080

  15. Synthesis and CO₂ adsorption properties of molecularly imprinted adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; Shen, Yanmei; Bai, Lu; Hao, Rongjie; Dong, Liyan

    2012-02-01

    A series of molecularly imprinted adsorbents of CO(2) were developed by molecular self-assembly procedures, using ethanedioic acid, acrylamide, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as template, functional monomer, and cross-linker, respectively. Textural properties of these adsorbents were characterized by N(2) adsorption experiment, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. CO(2) adsorption capacities of adsorbents were investigated by thermo-gravimetric balance under 15% CO(2)/85% Ar atmosphere. Adsorption selectivity of CO(2) was studied by fixed-bed adsorption/desorption experiments. All the adsorbents displayed good thermal stability at 200 °C. Among them, MIP1b, with the higher amine content, exhibited the largest CO(2) capacity, which maintained steady after 50 adsorption-desorption cycles. Although MIP3 showed the highest specific surface, the CO(2) capacity was lower than that of MIP1b. CO(2) adsorption mechanism of molecularly imprinted adsorbents was determined to be physical sorption according to the adsorption enthalpies integrated from the DSC heatflow profiles. The calculated separation factors of CO(2) under 15% CO(2)/85% N(2) atmosphere were above 100 for all adsorbents.

  16. Children's school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports (in 24-h dietary recalls): conventional and reporting-error-sensitive measures show inconsistent accuracy results for retention interval and breakfast location.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Suzanne D; Guinn, Caroline H; Smith, Albert F; Hitchcock, David B; Royer, Julie A; Puryear, Megan P; Collins, Kathleen L; Smith, Alyssa L

    2016-04-14

    Validation-study data were analysed to investigate retention interval (RI) and prompt effects on the accuracy of fourth-grade children's reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch (in 24-h recalls), and the accuracy of school-breakfast reports by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria). Randomly selected fourth-grade children at ten schools in four districts were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and were interviewed under one of eight conditions created by crossing two RIs ('short'--prior-24-hour recall obtained in the afternoon and 'long'--previous-day recall obtained in the morning) with four prompts ('forward'--distant to recent, 'meal name'--breakfast, etc., 'open'--no instructions, and 'reverse'--recent to distant). Each condition had sixty children (half were girls). Of 480 children, 355 and 409 reported meals satisfying criteria for reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch, respectively. For breakfast and lunch separately, a conventional measure--report rate--and reporting-error-sensitive measures--correspondence rate and inflation ratio--were calculated for energy per meal-reporting child. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio--but not report rate--showed better accuracy for school-breakfast and school-lunch reports with the short RI than with the long RI; this pattern was not found for some prompts for each sex. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better school-breakfast report accuracy for the classroom than for cafeteria location for each prompt, but report rate showed the opposite. For each RI, correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better accuracy for lunch than for breakfast, but report rate showed the opposite. When choosing RI and prompts for recalls, researchers and practitioners should select a short RI to maximise accuracy. Recommendations for prompt selections are less clear. As report rates distort validation-study accuracy conclusions, reporting-error-sensitive measures are recommended. PMID

  17. Competition between adsorption-induced swelling and elastic compression of coal at CO2 pressures up to 100 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hol, Sander; Spiers, Christopher J.

    2012-11-01

    Enhanced Coalbed Methane production (ECBM) by CO2 injection frequently proves ineffective due to rapidly decreasing injectivity. Adsorption-induced swelling of the coal matrix has been identified as the principal factor controlling this reduction. To improve understanding of coal swelling in response to exposure to CO2 at high pressures, numerous laboratory studies have been performed in the past decades. These studies consistently reveal an increase in swelling with CO2 pressure. However, it remains unclear what the relative contributions are of adsorption-induced swelling versus elastic compression of the coal framework, and hence what is the true relationship between adsorption-induced swelling and CO2 uptake. Here, we report the results of dilatometry experiments conducted on unconfined, cylindrical coal matrix samples (˜4 mm long and 4 mm in diameter) of high volatile bituminous coal, where we aim to measure the effective volumetric effect of CO2 and to separate this into a component caused by adsorption-induced swelling and a component caused by elastic compression. The experiments were performed using a high pressure eddy current dilatometer that was used to measure one-dimensional sample expansion or contraction (resolution <50 nm). The tests were conducted at a constant temperature of 40 °C, and CO2 pressures up to 100 MPa. Our results show that the matrix samples reveal anisotropic expansion over the full range of CO2 pressures used. Expansion perpendicular to the bedding was about 1.4 times the average expansion measured in the bedding plane. Net volumetric strains, which were computed from the net linear strain in all directions measured, reveal that the response of coal is characterised by an expansion-dominated stage below 10-20 MPa of CO2 pressure and a contraction-dominated stage at higher CO2 pressures. Our data demonstrate direct competition between adsorption-induced swelling and elastic compression in the coal matrix. We propose a model for

  18. Adsorption of hematite nanoparticles onto Caco-2 cells and the cellular impairments: effect of particle size.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Kalive, Madhavi; Capco, David G; Chen, Yongsheng

    2010-09-01

    The increasing applications of engineered nanomaterials nowadays have elevated the potential of human exposure through various routes including inhalation, skin penetration and digestion. To date there is scarce information on a quantitative description of the interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and cell surfaces and the detrimental effects from the exposure. The purpose of this work was to study in vitro exposure of Caco-2 cells to hematite (alpha-Fe(2)O(3)) NPs and to determine the particle size effects on the adsorption behaviors. Cellular impairment was also investigated and compared. Hematite NPs were synthesized as part of this study with a discrete size distribution and uniform morphology examined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Caco-2 cells were cultured as a model epithelium to mirror human intestinal cells and used to evaluate the impacts of the exposure to NPs by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Cell surface disruption, localization and translocation of NPs through the cells were analyzed with immunocytochemical staining and confocal microscopy. Results showed that hematite NPs had mean diameters of 26, 53, 76 and 98 nm and were positively charged with minor aggregation in the buffer solution. Adsorption of the four sizes of NPs on cells reached equilibrium within approximately 5 min but adsorption kinetics were found to be size-dependent. The adsorption rates expressed as mg m(-2) min(-1) were greater for large NPs (76 and 98 nm) than those for small NPs (26 and 53 nm). However, adsorption rates, expressed in units of m(-2) min(-1), were much greater for small NPs than large ones. After the adsorption equilibrium was reached, the adsorbed mass of NPs on a unit area of cells was calculated and showed no significant size dependence. Longer exposure time (>3 h) induced adverse cellular effects as indicated by the drop in TEER compared to the control cells without the

  19. Adsorption of hematite nanoparticles onto Caco-2 cells and the cellular impairments: effect of particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen; Kalive, Madhavi; Capco, David G.; Chen, Yongsheng

    2010-09-01

    The increasing applications of engineered nanomaterials nowadays have elevated the potential of human exposure through various routes including inhalation, skin penetration and digestion. To date there is scarce information on a quantitative description of the interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and cell surfaces and the detrimental effects from the exposure. The purpose of this work was to study in vitro exposure of Caco-2 cells to hematite (α-Fe2O3) NPs and to determine the particle size effects on the adsorption behaviors. Cellular impairment was also investigated and compared. Hematite NPs were synthesized as part of this study with a discrete size distribution and uniform morphology examined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Caco-2 cells were cultured as a model epithelium to mirror human intestinal cells and used to evaluate the impacts of the exposure to NPs by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Cell surface disruption, localization and translocation of NPs through the cells were analyzed with immunocytochemical staining and confocal microscopy. Results showed that hematite NPs had mean diameters of 26, 53, 76 and 98 nm and were positively charged with minor aggregation in the buffer solution. Adsorption of the four sizes of NPs on cells reached equilibrium within approximately 5 min but adsorption kinetics were found to be size-dependent. The adsorption rates expressed as mg m - 2 min - 1 were greater for large NPs (76 and 98 nm) than those for small NPs (26 and 53 nm). However, adsorption rates, expressed in units of m - 2 min - 1, were much greater for small NPs than large ones. After the adsorption equilibrium was reached, the adsorbed mass of NPs on a unit area of cells was calculated and showed no significant size dependence. Longer exposure time (>3 h) induced adverse cellular effects as indicated by the drop in TEER compared to the control cells without the exposure

  20. Adsorption of levofloxacin onto goethite: effects of pH, calcium and phosphate.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaopeng; Liu, Fei; Wang, Guangcai; Weng, Liping; Li, Lu

    2014-04-01

    Adsorption of levofloxacin (LEV), one of the extensively used antibiotics, onto goethite was investigated using batch experiments. The adsorption of LEV on goethite was pH-dependent. A maximum adsorption was reached at pH 6. Above or below pH 6, the adsorption decreased. In the presence of calcium (Ca(2+)), a decrease in adsorption was observed, due to probably formation of Ca(2+)-LEV complexes in solutions. Phosphate also showed a significant inhibition on LEV adsorption over a pH range of 3-10. Phosphate competed with LEV for binding sites on the surface of goethite, and the electrostatic competition between LEV and phosphate on goethite surface might be another reason for the decrease in adsorption. These results indicated that Ca(2+) and phosphate have a great influence on the distribution of LEV in soils and waters, which will eventually affect its antibacterial activity in the environment.

  1. Study on the methylene blue adsorption from wastewaters by pore-expanded calcium fluoride sludge adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Hong, Junming; Lin, Bing; Hong, Gui-Bing; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2014-04-01

    The adsorption of methylene blue (MB) onto pore-expanded calcium fluoride sludge (ECF) by the batch adsorption technique was investigated. The results showed that the adsorption capacity increased with increasing MB concentration but decreased as pH was increased. In order to investigate the adsorption mechanisms, three simplified isotherm models and kinetic models were used in this study. The best-fit adsorption isotherm was achieved with the Temkin model. Furthermore, the pseudo-second-order kinetic model agreed very well with the dynamical behavior for the adsorption of MB onto ECF. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption process of MB onto ECF was spontaneous and exothermic. The results indicated that ECF adsorbed MB efficiently and could be used as a waste adsorbent for the removal of cationic dyes in wastewater treatment.

  2. Enhanced adsorptive removal of toxic dyes using SiO2 nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batool, S. S.; Imran, Z.; Hassan, Safia; Rasool, Kamran; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Rafiq, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    Electrospinning method was used to synthesize porous SiO2 nanofibers. The adsorption of Methyl Orange and Safranin O by porous SiO2 nanofibers was carried out by varying the parameters such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, and temperature. Equilibrium adsorption data followed Langmuir isotherms. Kinetic adsorption followed second-order rate kinetics model. The maximum adsorption capacity for Methyl Orange and Safranin O was found to be 730.9 mg/g and 960.4 mg/g, respectively. Acidic pH was favorable for the adsorption of Methyl Orange while basic pH was favorable for the adsorptions of Safranin O. Modeling study suggested the major mode of adsorption, while thermodynamic study showed the endothermic reactions. This effort has pronounced impact on environmental applications of SiO2 nanofibers as auspicious adsorbent nanofibers for organic material from aqueous solution.

  3. New insight into the biological treatment by activated sludge: the role of adsorption process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Li, Xinrun; Zhang, Qingrui; Peng, Qiuming; Zhang, Wen; Gao, Faming

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adsorption on the biological treatment process of wastewater. In the absence of substrate in the water, activated sludge developed well in the first hour, indicating that the growth of microorganism was not directly related to substrate concentration and the dissolved organic matter in the water assays were performed, no organic matter was detected out, revealing that there was no desorption in the activated sludge adsorption process. Activated sludge batch growth experiments in the presence of different adsorption capacities indicated that specific growth rate increased as specific adsorption capacity increased. The experiment on the relationship of adsorption capacity and substrate concentration or sludge concentration was also carried out. Specific adsorption capacity increased as sludge load increased, presenting linear correlation. The experiment results showed that adsorption should be taken into account in the study of the biological treatment process of wastewater.

  4. Adsorption of arsenate from aqueous solution by rice husk-based adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Taimur; Chaudhuri, Malay

    2013-06-01

    Rice husk-based adsorbent (RHBA) was prepared by burning rice husk in a muffle furnace at 400°C for 4 h and adsorption of arsenate by the RHBA from aqueous solution was examined. Batch adsorption test showed that extent of arsenate adsorption depended on contact time and pH. Equilibrium adsorption was attained in 60 min, with maximum adsorption occurring at pH 7. Equilibrium adsorption data were well described by the Freundlich isotherm model. Freundlich constants Kf and 1/n were 3.62 and 2, respectively. The RHBA is effective in the adsorption of arsenate from water and is a potentially suitable filter medium for removing arsenate from groundwater at wells or in households.

  5. Enhanced adsorptive removal of toxic dyes using SiO2 nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batool, S. S.; Imran, Z.; Hassan, Safia; Rasool, Kamran; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Rafiq, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    Electrospinning method was used to synthesize porous SiO2 nanofibers. The adsorption of Methyl Orange and Safranin O by porous SiO2 nanofibers was carried out by varying the parameters such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, and temperature. Equilibrium adsorption data followed Langmuir isotherms. Kinetic adsorption followed second-order rate kinetics model. The maximum adsorption capacity for Methyl Orange and Safranin O was found to be 730.9 mg/g and 960.4 mg/g, respectively. Acidic pH was favorable for the adsorption of Methyl Orange while basic pH was favorable for the adsorptions of Safranin O. Modeling study suggested the major mode of adsorption, while thermodynamic study showed the endothermic reactions. This effort has pronounced impact on environmental applications of SiO2 nanofibers as auspicious adsorbent nanofibers for organic material from aqueous solution.

  6. Adsorption mechanism of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate on carbon blacks by adsorption isotherm and zeta potential determinations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yapei; Lu, Pei; Li, Caiting; Fan, Xiaopeng; Wen, Qingbo; Zhan, Qi; Shu, Xin; Xu, Tieliang; Zeng, Guangming

    2013-01-01

    Surfactant solutions were propounded to remove fine and hydrophobic carbon black particles from coal-fired flue gas. The adsorption mechanisms between sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS, an anionic surfactant) and carbon black particles in suspension were investigated. The influence of inorganic salt (NaCl) was also considered. As results showed, hydrophobic interactions contributed to the strong adsorption between SDBS and carbon black particles in the absence of NaCl, and adding NaCl affected the adsorption process. The adsorption amount of SDBS significantly increased when NaCl was added into the SDBS solution; however, when SDBS was in low concentration, the amount of adsorbed SDBS, which was responsible for the shift of zeta potentials, varied little under different concentrations of NaCl. This indicated that the adsorption of SDBS was mainly caused by hydrophobic interaction and Na+ could not change the adsorption of SDBS on adsorption site when SDBS was in low concentration. Moreover, the adsorbed SDBS and Na+ were retained in the Stern layer. PMID:23530331

  7. Microcalorimetry of oxygen adsorption on fcc Co{110}.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kristine; Fiorin, Vittorio; Jenkins, Stephen J; King, David A

    2012-05-28

    The coverage dependent heats of adsorption and sticking probabilities for oxygen on fcc Co{110} have been measured at 300 K using single crystal adsorption calorimetry (SCAC). Initial adsorption is consistent with dissociative chemisorption at low coverage followed by oxide formation above 0.6 ML coverage. The initial heat of adsorption of 633 kJ mol(-1) is similar to heat values calorimetrically measured on other ferromagnetic metal surfaces, such as nickel and iron. As the coverage increases, the heat of adsorption and sticking probability drop very rapidly up to the onset of oxidation. As already observed for other oxygen-metal surface systems, strong lateral adatom repulsions are responsible for the transition from the chemisorption regime to oxide film formation at higher coverage. The heat of oxide formation at the onset is 475 kJ mol(-1), which is consistent with the formation of CoO crystallites. The oxide film formation is discussed in terms of nucleation and island growth, and the Mott-Cabrera mechanisms, the latter being evidenced by the relatively constant heat of adsorption and sticking probability in contrast to the nickel and iron oxidation cases.

  8. Adsorption behavior of hydrophobically modified polyelectrolytes onto amino- or methyl-terminated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Briones, Ximena G; Encinas, María V; Petri, Denise F S; Pavez, Jorge E; Tapia, Ricardo A; Yazdani-Pedram, M; Urzúa, Marcela D

    2011-11-15

    The adsorption of hydrophobically modified polyelectrolytes derived from poly(maleic anhydride-alt-styrene) (P(MA-alt-St)) containing in their side chain aryl-alkyl groups onto amino- or methyl-terminated silicon wafers was investigated. The effect of the spacer group, the chemical nature of the side chain, molecular weight of polyelectrolyte, and ionic strength of solution on the polyelectrolyte adsorbed amount was studied by null ellipsometry. The adsorbed amount of polyelectrolyte increased with increasing ionic strength, in agreement with the screening-enhanced adsorption regime, indicating that hydrophobic interactions with the surface play an important role in the adsorption process. At constant ionic strength, the adsorbed amount was slightly higher for polyelectrolytes with larger alkyl side chain and decreased with the hydrophobicity of aryl group. The adsorption behavior is discussed in terms of the side chain flexibility of the polymer. Characteristics of the adsorbed layer were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements. AFM images show the presence of aggregates and closed globular structure of polyelectrolyte onto the amino- or methyl-terminated surface, which agrees with a 3D and 2D growth mechanism, respectively. Fluorescence measurements showed that the aggregation of polyelectrolyte containing the hydrophobic naphthyl group occurs already in the solution. However, the aggregation of polyelectrolytes containing the phenyl group in its side chain is not observed in solution but is induced by the amino-terminated surface. This difference can be explained in terms of the higher flexibility of side chain bearing the phenyl group. The polyelectrolyte films showed a high chemical heterogeneity and moderate hydrophobicity.

  9. Enhanced laminin adsorption on nanowires compared to flat surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hammarin, Greger; Persson, Henrik; Dabkowska, Aleksandra P; Prinz, Christelle N

    2014-10-01

    Semiconductor nanowires are widely used to interface living cells, and numerous nanowire-based devices have been developed to manipulate or sense cell behavior. We have, however, little knowledge on the nature of the cell-nanowire interface. Laminin is an extracellular matrix protein promoting cell attachment and growth. Here, we used a method based on fluorescence microscopy and measured the relative amount of laminin adsorbed on nanowires compared to flat surfaces. The amount of adsorbed laminin per surface area is up to 4 times higher on 55nm diameter gallium phosphide nanowires compared to the flat gallium phosphide surface between the nanowires. We show that this enhanced adsorption on nanowires cannot be attributed to electrostatic effects, nor to differences in surface chemistry, but possibly to pure geometrical effects, as increasing the nanowire diameter results in a decreased amount of adsorbed protein. The increased adsorption of laminin on nanowires may explain the exceptionally beneficial properties of nanowire substrates for cellular growth reported in the literature since laminin is often used as surface coating prior to cell cultures in order to promote cell growth, and also because primary cell suspensions contain endogenous laminin.

  10. Adsorption and diffusion of fluids in well-characterized adsorbent materials. Renewal progress report, August 1, 1995 to January 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbins, Keith E.; Cracknell, R.F.; Maddox, M.; Nicholson, D.

    1999-08-01

    This is an invited review paper describing recent advances in molecular simulation and theory of fluids confined within well-characterized porous materials. Methods and intermolecular potential models are described. This is followed by showing results for several examples, including supercritical methane adsorption in carbons, adsorption and diffusion of argon in VPI-5, adsorption of argon in silicalite-1, nitrogen adsorption in MCM-41, and adsorption of argon and nitrogen in carbon nanotubes.

  11. [Adsorption Characteristics of Norfloxacin by Biochars Derived from Reed Straw and Municipal Sludge].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han-yu; Wang, Zhao-wei; Gao, Jun-hong; Zhu, Jun-min; Xie, Chao-ran; Xie, Xiao-yun

    2016-02-15

    Two types of biochars were prepared by pyrolyzing reed straw and municipal sludge at the temperature of 500 degrees C. The structure and properties of biochars were characterized by BET, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ( FTIR ). The effects of pH value, adsorption time, temperature and initial concentration of norfloxacin (NOR) on the adsorption behaviors were determined by single factor experiments, which were used to preliminarily discuss adsorption mechanism. The results showed that the adsorption of NOR onto biochars derived from reed straw and municipal sludge could reach 70% and 60% of the total adsorption within 12 h, respectively; the maximum adsorption capacities of the two biochars were 2.13 mg x g(-1) (biochar derived from reed straw) and 2.09 mg x g(-1) (biochar derived from municipal sludge). The quantities of both absorptions increased with the decreasing solution pH. The two adsorption kinetics of NOR onto biochars followed the pseudo second order kinetic equations, and adsorption isotherms fitted well with the Langmuir equations. Adsorption thermodynamics parameters such as Gibbs free energy (AG), enthalpy (AH) and entropy (AS) indicated that the two adsorptions were endothermic reactions. Infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated that oxygen-containing functional groups on biochars provided NOR molecules with adsorptive sites, which facilitated the formation of hydrogen bonds between NOR and the biochars.

  12. Adsorption of clofibric acid and ketoprofen onto powdered activated carbon: effect of natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yaohuan; Deshusses, Marc A

    2011-12-01

    The adsorption of two acidic pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), clofibric acid and ketoprofen, onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) was investigated with a particular focus on the influence of natural organic matter (NOM) on the adsorption of the PhACs. Suwannee River humic acids (SRHAs) were used as a substitute for NOM. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to obtain adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms with and without SRHAs in the system. The adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics showed that the adsorption ofclofibric acid was not significantly affected by the presence of SRHAs at a concentration of 5 mg (as carbon) L(-1). An adsorption capacity of 70 to 140 mg g(-1) was observed and equilibrium was reached within 48 h. In contrast, the adsorption of ketoprofen was markedly decreased (from about 120 mg g(-1) to 70-100 mg g(-1)) in the presence of SRHAs. Higher initial concentrations of clofibric acid than ketoprofen during testing may explain the different behaviours that were observed. Also, the more hydrophobic ketoprofen molecules may have less affinity for PAC when humic acids (which are hydrophilic) are present. The possible intermolecular forces that could account for the different behaviour of clofibric acid and ketoprofen adsorption onto PAC are discussed. In particular, the relevance of electrostatic forces, electron donor-acceptor interaction, hydrogen bonding and London dispersion forces are discussed PMID:22439557

  13. Preparation of titanium peroxide and its selective adsorption property on cationic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiao-guang; Huang, Ji-guo; Wang, Bo; Bi, Qiang; Dong, Li-li; Liu, Xing-juan

    2014-02-01

    Titanium peroxide powder was prepared with the reaction of titanium sulfate and H2O2 and showed good selective adsorption property on cationic dyes. The obtained material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC). The selective adsorption property was confirmed and evaluated by adsorption experiments of methyl orange (MO), phenol and three kinds of cationic dyes including methylene blue (MB), malachite green (MG) and neutral red (NR). The adsorption was very fast and adsorption equilibrium was reached in a very short time for all three cationic dyes. The adsorption kinetics of MB, MG and NR were studied then. It was found that the adsorption data fitted perfectly with the pseudo-second-order kinetics and the saturated adsorption capacities for MB, MG and NR were 224.37, 251.38 and 327.61 mg/g at 25 °C, respectively. The characterization and adsorption results indicated the controlling mechanism of adsorption processes could be electrostatic adsorption.

  14. [Adsorption Characteristics of Norfloxacin by Biochars Derived from Reed Straw and Municipal Sludge].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han-yu; Wang, Zhao-wei; Gao, Jun-hong; Zhu, Jun-min; Xie, Chao-ran; Xie, Xiao-yun

    2016-02-15

    Two types of biochars were prepared by pyrolyzing reed straw and municipal sludge at the temperature of 500 degrees C. The structure and properties of biochars were characterized by BET, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ( FTIR ). The effects of pH value, adsorption time, temperature and initial concentration of norfloxacin (NOR) on the adsorption behaviors were determined by single factor experiments, which were used to preliminarily discuss adsorption mechanism. The results showed that the adsorption of NOR onto biochars derived from reed straw and municipal sludge could reach 70% and 60% of the total adsorption within 12 h, respectively; the maximum adsorption capacities of the two biochars were 2.13 mg x g(-1) (biochar derived from reed straw) and 2.09 mg x g(-1) (biochar derived from municipal sludge). The quantities of both absorptions increased with the decreasing solution pH. The two adsorption kinetics of NOR onto biochars followed the pseudo second order kinetic equations, and adsorption isotherms fitted well with the Langmuir equations. Adsorption thermodynamics parameters such as Gibbs free energy (AG), enthalpy (AH) and entropy (AS) indicated that the two adsorptions were endothermic reactions. Infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated that oxygen-containing functional groups on biochars provided NOR molecules with adsorptive sites, which facilitated the formation of hydrogen bonds between NOR and the biochars. PMID:27363161

  15. Correlating Physicochemical Properties of Boronic Acid-Chitosan Conjugates to Glucose Adsorption Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Asantewaa, Yaa; Aylott, Jonathan; Burley, Jonathan C.; Billa, Nashiru; Roberts, Clive J.

    2012-01-01

    Phenyl boronic acid (PBA), which is known to interact with glucose, was covalently bonded to chitosan by direct reductive N-alkylation of chitosan with 4-formylphenylboronic acid (4-FPBA). Evidence of PBA bonding on chitosan was assessed by FTIR, ToF-SIMS, SEM, DSC and glucose adsorption sensitivity measurements. FTIR spectra showed strong signals at 1560 and 630 cm−1 indicating the formation of p-substituted benzene. Similarly, ToF-SIMS analyses on the conjugates registered fragments of boron ion (B−) at 11.0 m/z whose intensity increased in proportion to 4-FPBA loading. The degree to which PBA was bonded to chitosan was related to the 4-FPBA load used in the reaction (termed F1 through to F6 with increasing 4-FPBA load). Glucose adsorption sensitivity to PBA-bonded chitosan was directly related to the amount of PBA functionality within the conjugates and the physical nature of the matrices (porous or crystalline). Topographic analysis by SEM revealed that PBA-chitosan conjugates F1, F2 and F3 have porous matrices and their sensitivity to glucose adsorption was directly proportional to the degree of PBA substitution onto chitosan. Conversely, conjugates F4, F5 and F6 appeared crystalline under SEM and glucose adsorption sensitivity decreased in proportion to amount of PBA bonded to chitosan. The crystalline nature of the conjugates was confirmed by DSC, where the exothermic event related to the melting of the bonded PBA moiety, occurred at 338 °C. Thus, decreased sensitivity to glucose adsorption by the conjugates can be ascribed to the crystallinity imparted by increased content of the bonded PBA moiety, providing an optimal loading of PBA in terms of maximizing response to glucose. PMID:24300397

  16. Protein Adsorption in Three Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, Erwin A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical work clarifying the physical chemistry of blood-protein adsorption from aqueous-buffer solution to various kinds of surfaces is reviewed and interpreted within the context of biomaterial applications, especially toward development of cardiovascular biomaterials. The importance of this subject in biomaterials surface science is emphasized by reducing the “protein-adsorption problem” to three core questions that require quantitative answer. An overview of the protein-adsorption literature identifies some of the sources of inconsistency among many investigators participating in more than five decades of focused research. A tutorial on the fundamental biophysical chemistry of protein adsorption sets the stage for a detailed discussion of the kinetics and thermodynamics of protein adsorption, including adsorption competition between two proteins for the same adsorbent immersed in a binary-protein mixture. Both kinetics and steady-state adsorption can be rationalized using a single interpretive paradigm asserting that protein molecules partition from solution into a three-dimensional (3D) interphase separating bulk solution from the physical-adsorbent surface. Adsorbed protein collects in one-or-more adsorbed layers, depending on protein size, solution concentration, and adsorbent surface energy (water wettability). The adsorption process begins with the hydration of an adsorbent surface brought into contact with an aqueous-protein solution. Surface hydration reactions instantaneously form a thin, pseudo-2D interface between the adsorbent and protein solution. Protein molecules rapidly diffuse into this newly-formed interface, creating a truly 3D interphase that inflates with arriving proteins and fills to capacity within milliseconds at mg/mL bulk-solution concentrations CB. This inflated interphase subsequently undergoes time-dependent (minutes-to-hours) decrease in volume VI by expulsion of either-or-both interphase water and

  17. Ibuprofen adsorption in four agricultural volcanic soils.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Esmeralda; Hernandez-Moreno, Jose Manuel; Fernandez-Vera, Juan Ramon; Palacios-Diaz, Maria Pino

    2014-01-15

    Ibuprofen (IB) is a high environmental risk drug and one of the most frequently prescribed in human medicine. Recently, IB has been detected in Gran Canaria in reclaimed water for irrigation and in groundwater. Adsorption was studied in four volcanic soils from three islands of the Canarian Archipelago. Once the biodegradation process has been excluded from the experimental conditions, a batch method was applied using initial concentrations of 1-5-10-20-50-100-200 mg L(-1) and two soil/water ratios (w/V): 1:5 (OECD, 2000) and 1:1. Non-linear and linearized Langmuir and Freundlich equations were well fitted. The wide IB range tested in our batch studies allowed us to measure experimental adsorption values close to the maximum adsorption capacity (S(max)) as estimated by Langmuir, making it possible thereby to validate the use of the Langmuir equation when there is a burst of contamination at high concentration. The distribution coefficient (Kd), S(max) and Retardation Factor (RF) varied from 0.04 to 0.5 kg L(-1), 4-200 mgk g(-1) and 1.2-1.9, respectively. The lowest S(max) and Kd values were found for the 1:1S/W ratio whereas most batch studies employ 1:5S/W ratios, thus obtaining higher adsorption parameters than when considering field conditions (1:1). Despite the high anion retention of andic soils, similar Kd and RF to those reported for other soils were obtained in 1:5, while high S(max) was found. Our results demonstrate that IB adsorption in volcanic areas responds not only to the soil properties commonly cited in adsorption studies, but also depends on andic properties, sorbent concentration and Dissolved Organic Carbon, the higher values of which are related to the lower Kd and S(max). The low RF and low detection frequency of the IB in groundwater suggests that a) reclaimed water irrigation is not the main source of IB, and b) the existence of some uncontrolled water disposal points in the zone.

  18. Ethane adsorption on aggregates of dahlia-like nanohorns: experiments and computer simulations.

    PubMed

    Russell, Brice A; Migone, Aldo D; Petucci, Justin; Mercedes Calbi, M; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio

    2016-06-01

    This is a report on a study of the adsorption characteristics of ethane on aggregates of unopened dahlia-like carbon nanohorns. This sorbent presents two main groups of adsorpti