Science.gov

Sample records for adsorption ratio residual

  1. Effect of polymer adsorption on mobility ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Omar, A.E.

    1983-03-01

    Several properties of two of the viscous polymer fluids used in rheological control were investigated. Polymer adsorption on the rock surfaces of porous sandstones and its effect on permeability of producing formation was studied. A naturally occurring polymer, a Guar gum, was found greatly to reduce the permeability of the producing formation, although the use of a breaker solution was found to restore the permeability lost through polymer plugging. Use of appropriate breaker solution was found to reduce the permeability loss to only one or two per cent of the original value. Adsorption of the synthetic polymer, acrylamide, was found to be directly related to the shaliness of the porous sand. Deactivation of polymer due to adsorption was found to be significant in formations having large surface areas. The results indicate that polymer loss eventually results in a water bank ahead of the polymer solution and thus greatly reduces the polymer's effectiveness in water-flooding.

  2. Adsorption of Roxarsone onto Drinking Water Treatment Residuals: Preliminary Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, J.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenyl-arsonic acid) is an organo-arsenical compound, commonly used as a feed additive in the broiler poultry industry to control coccidial intestinal parasites. Roxarsone is not toxic to the birds not only because of the low dose, and also because it most likely does not convert to toxic inorganic arsenic (As) in their systems. However, upon excretion, roxarsone may undergo transformation to inorganic As, posing a serious risk of contaminating the agricultural land and water bodies via surface runoff or leaching. The use of poultry litter as fertilizer results in As accumulation rates of up to 50 metric tons per year in agricultural lands. The immediate challenge, as identified by the various regulatory bodies in recent years is to develop an efficient, yet cost-effective and environmentally sound approach to cleaning up such As- contaminated soils. Recent studies conducted by our group have suggested that the drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) can effectively retain As, thereby decreasing its mobility in the environment. The WTRs are byproducts of drinking water treatment processes and are typically composed of amorphous Fe/Al oxides, activated C and cationic polymers. They can be obtained free-of-cost from water treatment plants. It is well demonstrated that the environmental mobility of As is controlled by adsorption/desorption reactions onto mineral surfaces. Hence, knowledge of adsorption and desorption of As onto the WTRs is of environmental relevance. The reported study examined the adsorption and desorption characteristics of As using two types of WTRs, namely the Fe-WTRs (byproduct of Fe salt treatment), and the Al-WTRs (byproduct of Al salt treatment). All adsorption experiments were carried out in batch and As retention on the WTRs was investigated as a function of solid/solution ratio (1:5, 1:10, 1:25 and 1:50), equilibration time (10 min - 48 hr), pH (2 - 10) and initial As load (100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg As/L). The

  3. Preparation of activated carbons from agricultural residues for pesticide adsorption.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Ourania A; Zabaniotou, Anastasia A; Stavropoulos, George G; Islam, Md Azharul; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2010-09-01

    Activated carbons (ACs) can be used not only for liquid but also for vapour phase applications, such as water treatment, deodorisation, gas purification and air treatment. In the present study, activated carbons produced from agricultural residues (olive kernel, corn cobs, rapeseed stalks and soya stalks) via physical steam activation were tested for the removal of Bromopropylate (BP) from water. For the characterization of the activated carbons ICP, SEM, FTIR and XRD analyses were performed. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherms were investigated for all biomass activated carbons in aqueous solutions. Experimental data of BP adsorption have fitted best to the pseudo 2nd-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. The study resulted that corn cobs showed better adsorption capacity than the other biomass ACs. Comparison among ACs from biomass and commercial ones (F400 and Norit GL50) revealed that the first can be equally effective for the removal of BP from water with the latter.

  4. Selenium adsorption to aluminum-based water treatment residuals

    SciTech Connect

    Ippolito, James A.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Barbarick, Ken A.

    2009-09-02

    Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (WTR) can adsorb water- and soil-borne P, As(V), As(III), and perchlorate, and may be able to adsorb excess environmental selenium. WTR, clay minerals, and amorphous aluminum hydroxide were shaken for 24 h in selenate or selenite solutions at pH values of 5-9, and then analyzed for selenium content. Selenate and selenite adsorption edges were unaffected across the pH range studied. Selenate adsorbed on to WTR, reference mineral phases, and amorphous aluminum hydroxide occurred as outer sphere complexes (relatively loosely bound), while selenite adsorption was identified as inner-sphere complexation (relatively tightly bound). Selenite sorption to WTR in an anoxic environment reduced Se(IV) to Se(0), and oxidation of Se(0) or Se(IV) appeared irreversible once sorbed to WTR. Al-based WTR could play a favorable role in sequestering excess Se in affected water sources.

  5. Dynamics of Potassium Release and Adsorption on Rice Straw Residue

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jifu; Lu, Jianwei; Li, Xiaokun; Ren, Tao; Cong, Rihuan; Zhou, Li

    2014-01-01

    Straw application can not only increase crop yields, improve soil structure and enrich soil fertility, but can also enhance water and nutrient retention. The aim of this study was to ascertain the relationships between straw decomposition and the release-adsorption processes of K+. This study increases the understanding of the roles played by agricultural crop residues in the soil environment, informs more effective straw recycling and provides a method for reducing potassium loss. The influence of straw decomposition on the K+ release rate in paddy soil under flooded condition was studied using incubation experiments, which indicated the decomposition process of rice straw could be divided into two main stages: (a) a rapid decomposition stage from 0 to 60 d and (b) a slow decomposition stage from 60 to 110 d. However, the characteristics of the straw potassium release were different from those of the overall straw decomposition, as 90% of total K was released by the third day of the study. The batches of the K sorption experiments showed that crop residues could adsorb K+ from the ambient environment, which was subject to decomposition periods and extra K+ concentration. In addition, a number of materials or binding sites were observed on straw residues using IR analysis, indicating possible coupling sites for K+ ions. The aqueous solution experiments indicated that raw straw could absorb water at 3.88 g g−1, and this rate rose to its maximum 15 d after incubation. All of the experiments demonstrated that crop residues could absorb large amount of aqueous solution to preserve K+ indirectly during the initial decomposition period. These crop residues could also directly adsorb K+ via physical and chemical adsorption in the later period, allowing part of this K+ to be absorbed by plants for the next growing season. PMID:24587364

  6. Effect of Solution Properties on Arsenic Adsorption by Drinking Water Treatment Residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagar, R.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2005-05-01

    purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of solution properties, such as pH, ionic strength and competing ions on the adsorption of As by WTRs and WTR amended soils. Three types of WTRs are being used, namely Fe- WTR, Al- WTR and Ca-WTR. Effect of pH is being studied by varying the pH values between 3 and 9. The solid/solution ratio has been fixed at 1:5 and a 24 h equilibration has been chosen based on the results of earlier adsorption experiments. Furthermore, As adsorption will be studied in presence of potentially competing ions such as phosphate, sulfate, and selenate. Keywords: Adsorption, water treatment residuals, oxyanions, in-situ remediation, Arsenic

  7. Equilibrium and kinetic adsorption study of the adsorptive removal of Cr(VI) using modified wheat residue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Suhong; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Xu, Xing

    2010-09-01

    A new adsorbent modified from wheat residue was synthesized after reaction with epichlorohydrin and triethylamine by using the modifying agents of diethylenetriamine in the presence of organic medium of N,N-dimethylformamide. The performance of the modified wheat straw (MWS) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and point of zero charge analysis. The adsorption was investigated in a batch adsorption system, including both equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics. Results showed that MWR had great anion-adsorbing capacity, due to the existence of a large number of introduced amino groups, and the value of pH(PZC) was around 5.0. Equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models and were found to be best represented by the Freundlich isotherm model. Evaluation of the adsorption process identified its endothermic nature. The maximum adsorption capacity of MWS for the removal of Cr(VI) was 322.58mg/g at 328K, indicating that MWS has high chromium removal efficiency, compared to other adsorbents reported. The kinetics of adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation. The mechanism of adsorption was investigated using the intraparticle diffusion model. Thermodynamic parameters (free energy change, enthalpy change, and entropy change) revealed that the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto MWS was endothermic and spontaneous; additionally, the adsorption can be characterized as an ion-exchange process. The results suggest that MWS is an inexpensive and efficient adsorbent for removing Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution.

  8. Adsorption of arsenic from a Nova Scotia groundwater onto water treatment residual solids.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Meaghan K; Gagnon, Graham A

    2010-11-01

    Water treatment residual solids were examined in batch adsorption and column adsorption experiments using a groundwater from Halifax Regional Municipality that had an average arsenic concentration of 43 μg/L (±4.2 μg/L) and a pH of 8.1. The residual solids studied in this paper were from five water treatment plants, four surface water treatment plants that utilized either alum, ferric, or lime in their treatment systems, and one iron removal plant. In batch adsorption experiments, iron-based residual solids and lime-based residual solids pre-formed similarly to GFH, a commercially-available adsorbent, while alum-based residual solids performed poorly. Langmuir isotherm modeling showed that ferric residuals had the highest adsorptive capacity for arsenic (Q(max) = 2230 mg/kg and 42,910 mg/kg), followed by GFH (Q(max) = 640 mg/kg), lime (Q(max) = 160 mg/kg) and alum (Q(max) = <1 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg). Similarly, the maximum arsenic removal was >93% for the ferric and lime residuals and GFH, while the maximum arsenic removal was <49% for the alum residuals under the same conditions. In a column adsorption experiment, ferric residual solids achieved arsenic removal of >26,000 bed volumes before breakthrough past 10 μg As/L, whereas the effluent arsenic concentration from the GFH column was under the method detection limit at 28,000 bed volumes. Overall, ferric and lime water treatment residuals were promising adsorbents for arsenic adsorption from the groundwater, and alum water treatment residuals did not achieve high levels of arsenic adsorption.

  9. Adsorption of DDT and PCB by Nanomaterials from Residual Soil

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Mohd Raihan; Mobasser, Shariat

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study on adsorption of dichlorodiphenythreechloroethen (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on three nanomaterials including Multi walled Carbon Nanotube (MWNT), nano-clay and nano-alumina. DDT and PCBs are of significant concern due their high toxicity and long environmental half-lives. Experiments were conducted using batch adsorption procedures at different DDT and PCBs concentrations, from 10 to 60 mg/L. The amounts of MWNT, nano-clay and Nano-alumina used were 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1%, 2% and 10%. The adsorption of PCBs solution onto the MWNT, nano-clay and nano-alumina was characterized by an initial rapid adsorption which eventually became constant within 22, 20, and 17 hours, respectively. The adsorption of DDT solution onto the MWNT, nano-clay and nano-alumina was also characterized by an initial rapid adsorption which gradually became constant within 22, 22 and 16 hours, respectively. Results of this study indicated that MWNT was a better adsorbent material compared to nano-clay and nano-alumina for both contaminants in this study. While at 10% of MWNT 88.9% and 77% of DDT and PCB were removed by MWNT, respectively. The effect of pH and temperature were also investigated. PMID:26659225

  10. Adsorption of DDT and PCB by Nanomaterials from Residual Soil.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mohd Raihan; Mobasser, Shariat

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study on adsorption of dichlorodiphenythreechloroethen (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on three nanomaterials including Multi walled Carbon Nanotube (MWNT), nano-clay and nano-alumina. DDT and PCBs are of significant concern due their high toxicity and long environmental half-lives. Experiments were conducted using batch adsorption procedures at different DDT and PCBs concentrations, from 10 to 60 mg/L. The amounts of MWNT, nano-clay and Nano-alumina used were 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1%, 2% and 10%. The adsorption of PCBs solution onto the MWNT, nano-clay and nano-alumina was characterized by an initial rapid adsorption which eventually became constant within 22, 20, and 17 hours, respectively. The adsorption of DDT solution onto the MWNT, nano-clay and nano-alumina was also characterized by an initial rapid adsorption which gradually became constant within 22, 22 and 16 hours, respectively. Results of this study indicated that MWNT was a better adsorbent material compared to nano-clay and nano-alumina for both contaminants in this study. While at 10% of MWNT 88.9% and 77% of DDT and PCB were removed by MWNT, respectively. The effect of pH and temperature were also investigated.

  11. Phosphate adsorption performance of a novel filter substrate made from drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wendong; Ma, Cui; Zhang, Yinting; Yang, Shengjiong; Shao, Yue; Wang, Xiaochang

    2016-07-01

    Phosphate is one of the most predominant pollutants in natural waters. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the phosphate adsorption performance of a (NFS) made from drinking water treatment residuals. The adsorption of phosphate on the NFS fitted well with the Freundlich isotherm and pseudo second-order kinetic models. At pH7.0, the maximum adsorption capacity of 1.03mg/g was achieved at 15°C corresponding to the wastewater temperature in cold months, and increased notably to 1.31mg/g at 35°C. Under both acidic conditions (part of the adsorption sites was consumed) and basic conditions (negative charges formed on the surface of NFS, which led to a static repulsion of PO4(3-) and HPO4(2-)), the adsorption of phosphate was slightly inhibited. Further study showed that part of the adsorption sites could be recovered by 0.25mol/L NaOH. The activation energy was calculated to be above 8.0kJ/mol, indicating that the adsorption of phosphate on NFS was probably a chemical process. Considering the strong phosphate adsorption capacity and recoverability, NFS showed great promise on enhancing phosphate removal from the secondary treated wastewater in the filtration process.

  12. Selenium-Water Treatment Residual Adsorption And Characterization

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (WTR) have the ability to adsorb tremendous quantities of soil-borne P, and have been shown to adsorb other anions, such as As (V), As (III), and ClO4-. Environmental issues associated with Se in the Western US led us to study W...

  13. Selenium Adsorption To Aluminum-Based Water Treatment Residuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (WTR) can adsorb water-and soil-borne P, As(V), As(III), and perchlorate, and may be able to adsorb excess environmental selenium. WTR, clay minerals, and amorphous aluminum hydroxide were shaken for 24 hours in selenate or selenite solut...

  14. Selenium adsorption to aluminum-based water treatment residuals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (WTR) can adsorb water- and soil-borne P, As(V), As(III), and perchlorate, and may be able to adsorb excess environmental selenium. WTR, clay minerals, and amorphous aluminum hydroxide were shaken for 24 hours in selenate or selenite solutions at pH values o...

  15. Solution chemistry effects on orthophosphate adsorption by cationized solid wood residues.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, K G; Tshabalala, Mandla A; Wang, D; Kalbasi, M

    2004-02-01

    Adsorption of orthophosphate anions in aqueous solution by cationized milled solid wood residues was characterized as a function of sorbate-to-sorbent ratio (approximately equal to 0.001-2.58 mmol of P/g substrate), pH (3-9), ionic strength, I (no I control; 0.001 and 0.01 M NaCl), reaction time (4 min to 24 h), and in the presence of other competing anions (0.08-50 mM SO4(2-); 0.08-250 mM NO3-). Sorption isotherms revealed the presence of two kinds of adsorption sites corresponding to high and low binding affinities for orthophosphate anions. Consequently, a two-site Langmuir equation was needed to adequately describe the data over a range of solution conditions. In addition to higher sorption capacity, cationized bark possessed a higher binding energy for orthophosphate anions compared to cationized wood. The sorption capacity and binding energy for bark were 0.47 mmol of P g(-1) and 295.7 L mmol(-1), respectively, and for wood, the corresponding values were 0.27 mmol g(-1) and 61.4 L mmol(-1). Both the sorption capacity and binding energy decreased with increasing I, due to competition from Cl- ions for the available anion-exchange sites. The surface charge characteristics of cationized bark (pHzpc = 7.9) acted in concert with orthophosphate speciation to create a pH-dependent sorption behavior. Orthophosphate uptake was quite rapid and attained equilibrium levels after 3 h. Both SO4(2-) and NO3- influenced percent removal but required high relative competing anion to H2PO4- molar ratios, i.e., 2.5-3 for SO4(2-) and 25 for NO3-, to cause appreciable reduction. These results support our hypothesis that adsorption of orthophosphate anions on cationized bark involves ion exchange and other specific Lewis acid-base interactions.

  16. Adsorption of Nickel (II) from Aqueous Solution by Bicarbonate Modified Coconut Oilcake Residue Carbon.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumari, N; Srinivasan, K

    2014-07-01

    The adsorption of Ni (II) on modified coconut oilcake residue carbon (bicarbonate treated coconut oilcake residue carbon-BCORC) was employed for the removal of Ni (II) from water and wastewater. The influence of various factors such as agitation time, pH and carbon dosage on the adsorption capacity has been studied. Adsorption isothermal data could be interpreted by Langmuir and Freundlich equations. In order to understand the reaction mechanism, kinetic data has been studied using reversible first order rate equation. Similar studies were carried out using commercially available activated carbon--CAC, for comparison purposes. Column studies were conducted to obtain breakthrough capacities of BCORC and CAC. Common anions and cations affecting the removal of Ni (II) on both the carbons were also studied. Experiments were also done with wastewater containing Ni (II), to assess the potential of these carbons.

  17. [Active carbon from Thalia dealbata residues: its preparation and adsorption performance to crystal violet].

    PubMed

    Chu, Shu-Yi; Yang, Min; Xiao, Ji-Bo; Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Yan-Ping; Yan, Xiang-Jun; Tian, Guang-Ming

    2013-06-01

    By using phosphoric acid as activation agent, active carbon was prepared from Thalia dealbata residues. The BET specific surface area of the active carbon was 1174.13 m2 x g(-1), micropore area was 426.99 m2 x g(-1), and average pore diameter was 3.23 nm. An investigation was made on the adsorption performances of the active carbon for crystal violet from aqueous solution under various conditions of pH, initial concentration of crystal violet, contact time, and contact temperature. It was shown that the adsorbed amount of crystal violet was less affected by solution pH, and the adsorption process could be divided into two stages, i. e., fast adsorption and slow adsorption, which followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. At the temperature 293, 303, and 313 K, the adsorption process was more accordance with Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 409.83, 425.53, and 438.59 mg x g(-1), respectively. In addition, the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic, and the randomness of crystal violet molecules increased.

  18. Quantifying residual hydrogen adsorption in low-temperature STMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natterer, F. D.; Patthey, F.; Brune, H.

    2013-09-01

    We report on low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy observations demonstrating that individual Ti atoms on hexagonal boron nitride dissociate and adsorb hydrogen without measurable reaction barrier. The clean and hydrogenated states of the adatoms are clearly discerned by their apparent height and their differential conductance revealing the Kondo effect upon hydrogenation. Measurements at 50 K and 5 × 10- 11 mbar indicate a sizable hydrogenation within only 1 h originating from the residual gas pressure, whereas measurements at 4.7 K can be carried out for days without H2 contamination problems. However, heating up a low-T STM to operate it at variable temperature results in very sudden hydrogenation at around 17 K that correlates with a sharp peak in the total chamber pressure. From a quantitative analysis we derive the desorption energies of H2 on the cryostat walls. We find evidence for hydrogen contamination also during Ti evaporation and propose a strategy on how to dose transition metal atoms in the cleanliest fashion. The present contribution raises awareness of hydrogenation under seemingly ideal ultra-high vacuum conditions, it quantifies the H2 uptake by isolated transition metal atoms and its thermal desorption from the gold plated cryostat walls.

  19. Impact of biochar produced from post-harvest residue on the adsorption behavior of diesel oil on loess soil.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu Feng; Sun, Hang; Yves, Uwamungu J; Li, Hong; Hu, Xue Fei

    2016-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biochar, produced from wheat residue at different temperatures, on the adsorption of diesel oil by loess soil. Kinetic and equilibrium data were processed to understand the adsorption mechanism of diesel by biochar-affected loess soil; dynamic and thermodynamic adsorption experiments were conducted to characterize this adsorption. The surface features and chemical structure of biochar, modified at varying pyrolytic temperatures, were investigated using surface scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis. The kinetic data showed that the adsorption of diesel oil onto loess soil could be described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with the rate-controlling step being intraparticle diffusion. However, in the presence of biochar, boundary layer control and intraparticle diffusion were both involved in the adsorption. Besides, the adsorption equilibrium data were well described by the Freundlich isothermal model. The saturated adsorption capacity weakened as temperature increased, suggesting a spontaneous exothermic process. Thermodynamic parameter analysis showed that adsorption was mainly a physical process and was enhanced by chemical adsorption. The adsorption capacity of loess soil for diesel oil was weakened with increasing pH. The biochar produced by pyrolytic wheat residue increased the adsorption behavior of petroleum pollutants in loess soil.

  20. Influence of the inherent properties of drinking water treatment residuals on their phosphorus adsorption capacities.

    PubMed

    Bai, Leilei; Wang, Changhui; He, Liansheng; Pei, Yuansheng

    2014-12-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the phosphorus (P) adsorption and desorption on five drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) collected from different regions in China. The physical and chemical characteristics of the five WTRs were determined. Combined with rotated principal component analysis, multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the inherent properties of the WTRs and their P adsorption capacities. The results showed that the maximum P adsorption capacities of the five WTRs calculated using the Langmuir isotherm ranged from 4.17 to 8.20mg/g at a pH of 7 and further increased with a decrease in pH. The statistical analysis revealed that a factor related to Al and 200 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Al (Alox) accounted for 36.5% of the variations in the P adsorption. A similar portion (28.5%) was attributed to an integrated factor related to the pH, Fe, 200 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Fe (Feox), surface area and organic matter (OM) of the WTRs. However, factors related to other properties (Ca, P and 5 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Fe and Al) were rejected. In addition, the quantity of P desorption was limited and had a significant negative correlation with the (Feox+Alox) of the WTRs (p<0.05). Overall, WTRs with high contents of Alox, Feox and OM as well as large surface areas were proposed to be the best choice for P adsorption in practical applications.

  1. Effect of low molecular weight organic acids on phosphorus adsorption by ferric-alum water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Wang, Ziyuan; Lin, Lu; Tian, Binghui; Pei, Yuansheng

    2012-02-15

    Effects of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs; citric acid, oxalic acid and tartaric acid) on phosphorus (P) adsorption by ferric-alum water treatment residuals (FARs) were studied. Both batch and column experiments indicated that the effects of LMWOAs on P adsorption were closely related to adsorption time. Initially, all acids presented inhibitory function on P adsorption. The inhibition became weaker with time, eventually promoting P adsorption for citric acid and tartaric acid. In the column experiment with a 61-day duration, high P adsorption rates (>55%) were observed for the test groups containing citric acid and tartaric acid. Interestingly, higher pH likely enhanced P adsorption with the effects of LMWOAs and a distinct relationship between LMWOAs' effects on P adsorption and their concentrations was not observed. Moreover, fractionation of the adsorbed P from the FARs demonstrated that oxalic acid reduced P adsorption capacity, while citric acid and tartaric acid increased. Based on the forms of Fe and Al existing in the FARs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses, LMWOAs can promote P adsorption through activating crystalline Fe/Al and preventing crystallization of amorphous Fe/Al to increase P adsorption sites, and can also inhibit P adsorption by competition with adsorption sites.

  2. [Characteristics of orthophosphate adsorption on ferric-alum residuals (FARs) from drinking water treatment plant].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Hui; Pei, Yuan-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Batch tests have been used to investigate the characteristics of orthophosphate adsorption on ferric-alum residuals (FARs) from drinking water treatment plant. ICP, SEM and XRD analyses confirm that the FARs enriched in Fe and Al elements and presented amorphism structure. Orthophosphate sorption by the FARs can be described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics equation. Fine adsorption effects of the FARs were found under lower pH values, particularly a 40.13% drop of the adsorptive capacity from pH 4.6 to pH 7.6. The FARs with grain sizes of 0.6-0.9 mm had the highest adsorption capacity of orthophosphate. Experimental data could be better fitted by the isotherm models of Langmuir (R2 = 0.9736) and Freundlich (R2 = 0.9916). The maximal adsorptive capacity reached 45.45 mg x g(-1) estimated from Langmuir isotherm model. Compared with other natural and industrial materials, FARs has relatively higher adsorption capacity. Under similar testing conditions, it was found that only about 10% orthophosphate could be desorbed from the FARs. Further study demonstrated that the mean energy of orthophosphate sorption on the FARs was 13.36 kJ x mol(-1) and the deltaH0 > 0, deltaS0 > 0 and deltaG0 < 0, which indicated that orthophosphate sorption on the FARs was a spontaneously endothermic chemical reaction. It can be therefore highly valued that the FARs may be applied to phosphate removal from wastewater and surface water.

  3. The role of basic residues in the adsorption of blood proteins onto the graphene surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zonglin; Yang, Zaixing; Wang, Lingle; Zhou, Hong; Jimenez-Cruz, Camilo A.; Zhou, Ruhong

    2015-06-01

    With its many unique properties, graphene has shown great potential in various biomedical applications, while its biocompatibility has also attracted growing concerns. Previous studies have shown that the formation of protein-graphene corona could effectively reduce its cytotoxicity; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains not well-understood. Herein, we use extensive molecular dynamics simulations to demonstrate that blood proteins such as bovine fibrinogen (BFG) can absorb onto the graphene surface quickly and tightly to form a corona complex. Aromatic residues contributed significantly during this adsorption process due to the strong π-π stacking interactions between their aromatic rings and the graphene sp2-carbons. Somewhat surprisingly, basic residues like arginine, also played an equally or even stronger role during this process. The strong dispersion interactions between the sidechains of these solvent-exposed basic residues and the graphene surface provide the driving force for a tight binding of these basic residues. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study with blood proteins to show that, in addition to the aromatic residues, the basic residues also play an important role in the formation of protein-graphene corona complexes.

  4. The effect of zeolite treatment by acids on sodium adsorption ratio of coal seam gas water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Ozdemir, Orhan; Hampton, Marc A; Nguyen, Anh V; Do, Duong D

    2012-10-15

    Many coal seam gas (CSG) waters contain a sodium ion concentration which is too high relative to calcium and magnesium ions for environment acceptance. Natural zeolites can be used as a cheap and effective method to control sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, which is a measure of the relative preponderance of sodium to calcium and magnesium) due to its high cation exchange capacity. In this study, a natural zeolite from Queensland was examined for its potential to treat CSG water to remove sodium ions to lower SAR and reduce the pH value. The results demonstrate that acid activated zeolite at 30%wt solid ratio can reduce the sodium content from 563.0 to 182.7 ppm; the pH from 8.74 to 6.95; and SAR from 70.3 to 18.5. Based on the results of the batch experiments, the sodium adsorption capacity of the acid-treated zeolite is three times greater than that of the untreated zeolite. Both the untreated and acid-treated zeolite samples were characterized using zeta potential, surface characterization, DTA/TG and particle size distribution in order to explain their adsorption behaviours.

  5. Comparison study of phosphorus adsorption on different waste solids: Fly ash, red mud and ferric-alum water treatment residues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yu, Yange; Li, Haiyan; Shen, Chanchan

    2016-12-01

    The adsorption of phosphorus (P) onto three industrial solid wastes (fly ash, red mud and ferric-alum water treatment residual (FAR)) and their modified materials was studied systematically via batch experiments. Compared with two natural adsorbents (zeolite and diatomite), three solid wastes possessed a higher adsorption capacity for P because of the higher Fe, Al and Ca contents. After modification (i.e., the fly ash and red mud modified by FeCl3 and FARs modified by HCl), the adsorption capacity increased, especially for the modified red mud, where more Fe bonded P was observed. The P adsorption kinetics can be satisfactorily fitted using the pseudo-second-order model. The Langmuir model can describe well the P adsorption on all of the samples in our study. pH and dissolved organic matter (DOM) are two important factors for P adsorption. Under neutral conditions, the maximum adsorption amount on the modified materials was observed. With the deviation from pH7, the adsorption amount decreased, which resulted from the change of P species in water and surface charges of the adsorbents. The DOM in water can promote P adsorption, which may be due to the promotion effects of humic-Fe(Al) complexes and the pH buffer function exceeds the depression of competitive adsorption.

  6. An adsorbent with a high adsorption capacity obtained from the cellulose sludge of industrial residues.

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Géssica; Cavasotto, Jéssica; Machado, Francisco R S; Colpani, Gustavo L; Magro, Jacir Dal; Dalcanton, Francieli; Mello, Josiane M M; Fiori, Márcio A

    2017-02-01

    One of the major problems in effluent treatment plants of the cellulose and paper industry is the large amount of residual sludge generated. Therefore, this industry is trying to develop new methods to treat such residues and to use them as new products, such as adsorbents. In this regard, the objective of this work was to develop an adsorbent using the raw activated sludge generated by the cellulose and paper industry. The activated cellulose sludge, after being dried, was chemically activated with 42.5% (v/v) phosphoric acid at 85 °C for 1 h and was charred at 500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C for 2 h. The efficiency of the obtained adsorbent materials was evaluated using kinetic tests with methylene blue solutions. Using the adsorption kinetics, it was verified that the three adsorbents showed the capacity to adsorb dye, and the adsorbent obtained at a temperature of 600 °C showed the highest adsorption capacity of 107.1 mg g(-1). The kinetic model that best fit the experimental data was pseudo-second order. The Langmuir-Freudlich isotherm adequately described the experimental data. As a result, the cellulose sludge generated by the cellulose and paper industries could be used as an adsorbent.

  7. Adsorption performance of creatinine on dialdehyde nanofibrillated cellulose derived from potato residues.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dongli; Liu, Zehua; Yang, Yaxing; Huang, Rijin; Cheng, Xiaojuan; Fatehi, Pedram; Sun, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Potato residue is vastly produced in the food industry but it is landfilled. This article describes the treatment of purified cellulose derived from potato residues by a high pressure homogenizer to produce nano-fibrillated cellulose (NFC), which was then oxidized by sodium periodate to prepare dialdehyde nano-fibrillated cellulose (DANFC). The produced NFC and DANFC were characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The orthogonal experiment was induced to obtain the maximum degree of oxidation (DO) on DANFC. The results indicated that the optimal conditions were 40°C and pH 3. Alternatively, the isotherm and kinetic studies for the adsorption of creatinine on DANFC with different DOs (70.5 and 88.8%) were investigated, and the experimental results fitted well into Freundlich isotherm model and pseudo second-order kinetic model. The maximum adsorption capacities of DANFCs with the DO of 70.55 and 88.85% were 6.7 and 17.2 mg g(-1) , respectively, which were achieved under the conditions of 37°C and initial creatinine concentration of 100 mg L(-1).

  8. A combined process of adsorption and Fenton-like oxidation for furfural removal using zero-valent iron residue.

    PubMed

    Li, Furong; Bao, Jianguo; Zhang, Tian C; Lei, Yutian

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of using a combined adsorption and Fenton-like oxidation process (with zero-valent iron (ZVI) residue from heat wraps as an absorbent and catalyst) to remove furfural in the solution was evaluated. The influencing parameters (e.g. pH, H2O2 concentration, initial furfural concentration) and the reusability of ZVI residue (to replace the iron powder) were estimated. The ZVI residue was found to have much better adsorption effect on furfural at pH 2.0 compared with pH 6.7. For Fenton-like reaction alone with ZVI residue, the highest furfural removal of 97.5% was observed at the concentration of 0.176 mol/L H2O2, and all of the samples had >80% removal efficiency at different initial furfural concentrations of 2, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmol/L. However, with a combined adsorption and Fenton-like oxidation, the removal efficiency of furfural was nearly 100% for all treatments. The ZVI residue used for furfural removal was much better than that of iron powder in the Fenton-like reaction at a seven-cycle experiment. This study suggests the combined process of adsorption and Fenton-like oxidation using ZVI residue is effective for the treatment of furfural in the liquid.

  9. Overall adsorption rate of metronidazole, dimetridazole and diatrizoate on activated carbons prepared from coffee residues and almond shells.

    PubMed

    Flores-Cano, J V; Sánchez-Polo, M; Messoud, J; Velo-Gala, I; Ocampo-Pérez, R; Rivera-Utrilla, J

    2016-03-15

    This study analyzed the overall adsorption rate of metronidazole, dimetridazole, and diatrizoate on activated carbons prepared from coffee residues and almond shells. It was also elucidated whether the overall adsorption rate was controlled by reaction on the adsorbent surface or by intraparticle diffusion. Experimental data of the pollutant concentration decay curves as a function of contact time were interpreted by kinetics (first- and second-order) and diffusion models, considering external mass transfer, surface and/or pore volume diffusion, and adsorption on an active site. The experimental data were better interpreted by a first-order than second-order kinetic model, and the first-order adsorption rate constant varied linearly with respect to the surface area and total pore volume of the adsorbents. According to the diffusion model, the overall adsorption rate is governed by intraparticle diffusion, and surface diffusion is the main mechanism controlling the intraparticle diffusion, representing >90% of total intraparticle diffusion.

  10. Removal of copper from acid wastewater of bioleaching by adsorption onto ramie residue and uptake by Trichoderma viride.

    PubMed

    Wang, Buyun; Wang, Kai

    2013-05-01

    A continuous batch bioleaching was built to realize the bioleaching of sewage sludge in large scale. In the treatment, heavy metal in acid wastewater of bioleaching was removed by adsorption onto ramie residue. Then, acid wastewater was reused in next bioleaching batch. In this way, most time and water of bioleaching was saved and leaching efficiency of copper, lead and chromium kept at a high level in continuous batch bioleaching. It was found that residual heavy metal in sewage sludge is highly related to that in acid wastewater after bioleaching. To get a high leaching efficiency, concentration of heavy metal in acid wastewater should be low. Adsorption of copper from acid wastewater onto ramie residue can be described by pseudo first-order kinetics equation and Freundlich isotherm model. Trichoderma viride has the potential to be used for the concentration and recovery of heavy metal adsorbed onto ramie residue.

  11. Cationic cellulose nanofibers from waste pulp residues and their nitrate, fluoride, sulphate and phosphate adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Sehaqui, Houssine; Mautner, Andreas; Perez de Larraya, Uxua; Pfenninger, Numa; Tingaut, Philippe; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Cationic cellulose nanofibers (CNF) having 3 different contents of positively charged quaternary ammonium groups have been prepared from waste pulp residues according to a water-based modification method involving first the etherification of the pulp with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride followed by mechanical disintegration. The cationic nanofibers obtained were observed by scanning electron microscopy and the extent of the reaction was evaluated by conductometric titration, ζ-potential measurements, and thermogravimetric analyses. The cationic CNF had a maximum cationic charge content of 1.2mmolg(-1) and positive ζ-potential at various pH values. Sorption of negatively charged contaminants (fluoride, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate ions) and their selectivity onto cationic CNF have been evaluated. Maximum sorption of ∼0.6mmolg(-1) of these ions by CNF was achieved and selectivity adsorption studies showed that cationic CNF are more selective toward multivalent ions (PO4(3-) and SO4(2-)) than monovalent ions (F(-) and NO3(-)). In addition, we demonstrated that cationic CNF can be manufactured into permeable membranes capable of dynamic nitrate adsorption by utilizing a simple paper-making process.

  12. Engineering the hydrophobic residues of a GH11 xylanase impacts its adsorption onto lignin and its thermostability.

    PubMed

    Rakotoarivonina, Harivony; Hermant, Béatrice; Aubry, Nathalie; Rémond, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to characterise the parameters governing the non-specific adsorption of a xylanase from Thermobacillus xylanilyticus (Tx-Xyn11) onto lignin isolated from maize stems. Such adsorption may be due to hydrophobic interactions between Tx-Xyn11 and lignin. Our strategy was to mutate hydrophobic residues present on the surface of Tx- Xyn11 into non-hydrophobic residues. Three mutants (P1, P2, and P3) with altered hydrophobic regions were produced and characterised. The thermostability of the P1 mutant was largely decreased compared with the thermostable Tx-Xyn11. The rate of adsorbed enzyme onto lignin was reduced to a similar extent for the P1 and P2 mutants, whereas the adsorption of the P3 mutant was less affected compared with that of Tx-Xyn11. When considered separately, the hydrophobic residues did not affect xylanase adsorption onto lignin. The addition of Tween 20 also led to the decreased adsorption of Tx-Xyn11 onto lignin. These results suggest that hydrophobic interactions are a key parameter in the interaction of Tx-Xyn11 with isolated lignin.

  13. Comprehensive reuse of drinking water treatment residuals in coagulation and adsorption processes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Hwang, Min-Jin; Park, Dae-Seon; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-10-01

    While drinking water treatment residuals (DWTRs) inevitably lead to serious problems due to their huge amount of generation and limitation of landfill sites, their unique properties of containing Al or Fe contents make it possible to reuse them as a beneficial material for coagulant recovery and adsorbent. Hence, in the present study, to comprehensively handle and recycle DWTRs, coagulant recovery from DWTRs and reuse of coagulant recovered residuals (CRs) were investigated. In the first step, coagulant recovery from DWTRs was conducted using response surface methodology (RSM) for statistical optimization of independent variables (pH, solid content, and reaction time) on response variable (Al recovery). As a result, a highly acceptable Al recovery of 97.5 ± 0.4% was recorded, which corresponds to 99.5% of the predicted Al recovery. Comparison study of recovered and commercial coagulant from textile wastewater treatment indicated that recovered coagulant has reasonable potential for use in wastewater treatment, in which the performance efficiencies were 68.5 ± 2.1% COD, 97.2 ± 1.9% turbidity, and 64.3 ± 1.0% color removals at 50 mg Al/L. Subsequently, in a similar manner, RSM was also applied to optimize coagulation conditions (Al dosage, initial pH, and reaction time) for the maximization of real cotton textile wastewater treatment in terms of COD, turbidity, and color removal. Overall performance revealed that the initial pH had a remarkable effect on the removal performance compared to the effects of other independent variables. This is mainly due to the transformation of metal species form with increasing or decreasing pH conditions. Finally, a feasibility test of CRs as adsorbent for phosphate adsorption from aqueous solution was conducted. Adsorption equilibrium of phosphate at different temperatures (10-30 °C) and initial levels of pH (3-11) indicated that the main mechanisms of phosphate adsorption onto CRs are endothermic and chemical

  14. Kinetics, thermodynamics and surface heterogeneity assessment of uranium(VI) adsorption onto cation exchange resin derived from a lignocellulosic residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anirudhan, T. S.; Radhakrishnan, P. G.

    2009-02-01

    A new cation exchange resin (PGTFS-COOH) having a carboxylate functional group at the chain end was prepared by grafting poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) onto tamarind fruit shell, TFS (a lignocellulosic residue) using potassium peroxydisulphate-sodium thiosulphate redox initiator, and in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent, followed by functionalisation. The adsorbent was characterized with the help of FTIR, XRD, scanning electron micrographs (SEM), and potentiometric titrations. The kinetic and isotherm data, obtained at optimum pH value 6.0 at different temperatures could be fitted with pseudo-second-order equation and Sips isotherm model, respectively. An increase in temperature induces positive effect on the adsorption process. The calculated activation energy of adsorption ( Ea, 18.67 kJ/mol) indicates that U(VI) adsorption was largely due to diffusion-controlled process. The values of adsorption enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, and entropy were calculated using thermodynamic function relationships. The decrease in adsorption enthalpy with increasing U(VI) uploading on the adsorbent, reflects the surface energetic heterogeneity of the adsorbent. The isosteric heat of adsorption was quantitatively correlated with the fractional loading for the U(VI) ions adsorption onto PGTFS-COOH. The results showed that the PGTFS-COOH possessed heterogeneous surface with sorption sites having different activities.

  15. Activated carbon derived from carbon residue from biomass gasification and its application for dye adsorption: Kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Maneerung, Thawatchai; Liew, Johan; Dai, Yanjun; Kawi, Sibudjing; Chong, Clive; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    In this work, activated carbon (AC) as an effective and low-cost adsorbent was successfully prepared from carbon residue (or char, one of the by-products from woody biomass gasification) via physical activation. The surface area of char was significantly increased from 172.24 to 776.46m(2)/g after steam activation at 900°C. The obtained activated carbons were then employed for the adsorption of dye (Rhodamine B) and it was found that activated carbon obtained from steam activation exhibited the highest adsorption capability, which is mainly attributed to the higher surface area and the abundance of hydroxyl (-OH) and carboxyl (-COOH) groups on the activated carbon surface. Moreover, it was also found that the adsorption capability significantly increased under the basic condition, which can be attributed to the increased electrostatic interaction between the deprotonated (negatively charged) activated carbon and dye molecules. Furthermore, the equilibrium data were fitted into different adsorption isotherms and found to fit well with Langmuir model (indicating that dye molecules form monolayer coverage on activated carbon) with a maximum monolayer adsorption capability of 189.83mg/g, whereas the adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics.

  16. Adsorption of cesium from aqueous solution using agricultural residue--walnut shell: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dahu; Zhao, Yingxin; Yang, Shengjiong; Shi, Wansheng; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang; Yang, Yingnan

    2013-05-01

    A novel biosorbent derived from agricultural residue - walnut shell (WS) is reported to remove cesium from aqueous solution. Nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) was incorporated into this biosorbent, serving as a high selectivity trap agent for cesium. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) were utilized for the evaluation of the developed biosorbent. Determination of kinetic parameters for adsorption was carried out using pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order kinetic models and intra-particle diffusion models. Adsorption equilibrium was examined using Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherms. A satisfactory correlation coefficient and relatively low chi-square analysis parameter χ(2) between the experimental and predicted values of the Freundlich isotherm demonstrate that cesium adsorption by NiHCF-WS is a multilayer chemical adsorption. Thermodynamic studies were conducted under different reaction temperatures and results indicate that cesium adsorption by NiHCF-WS is an endothermic (ΔH° > 0) and spontaneous (ΔG° < 0) process.

  17. Isomer residual ratio of odd-odd isotope {sup 180}Ta in supernova nucleosynthsis

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, Takehito; Kajino, Toshitaka; Chiba, Satoshi; Mathews, Grant

    2010-06-01

    The nucleosynthesis of {sup 180}Ta has remained an unsolved problem and as its origin many nucleosynthesis mechanisms have been proposed. This isotope has the unique feature that the naturally occurring abundance of {sup 180}Ta is actually a meta-stable isomer (half-life of >=10{sup 15} yr), while the ground state is a 1{sup +} unstable state which beta-decays with a half-life of only 8.15 hr. We have made a new time-dependent calculation of {sup 180}Ta meta-stable isomer residual ratio after supernova neutrino-induced reactions. This residual isomer ratio is crucial for understanding the production and survival of this naturally occurring rare isotope. We have constructed a new model under temperature evolution after type II supernova explosion. We include the explicit linking between the isomer and all known excited states and found that the residual ratio is insensitive to astrophysical parameters such as neutrino energy spectrum, explosion energy, decay time constant. We find that the explicit time evolution of the synthesis of {sup 180}Ta avoids the overproduction relative to {sup 138}La for a neutrino process neutrino temperature of 4 MeV.

  18. Infiltration into cropped soils: effect of rain and sodium adsorption ratio-impacted irrigation water.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Donald L; Wood, James D; Lesch, Scott M

    2008-01-01

    The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and salinity criteria for water suitability for irrigation have been developed for conditions where irrigation water is the only water source. It is not clear that these criteria are applicable to environments where there is a combination of rain and irrigation during the growing season. The interaction of rainfall with irrigation water is expected to result in increased sodicity hazard because of the low electrical conductivity of rain. In this study we examined the effects of irrigation waters of SAR 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol(1/2) L(-1/2) and electrical conductivities of 1 and 2 dS m(-1) on the infiltration rate of two soils with alternating cycles of rain (simulated with a rainfall sprinkler) and irrigation water, separated by drying cycles. The infiltration rate of surface samples from two soils, Kobase silty clay (fine, smectitic, frigid, Torrertic Haplustept) and Glendive very fine sandy loam (coarse-loamy, mixed superactive, calcareous, frigid Aridic Ustifluvent) were evaluated under alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cropped conditions for over 140 d and under full canopy cover. Reductions in infiltration were observed for both soils for SAR above 2, and the reductions became more severe with increasing SAR. Saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements taken from undisturbed cores at the end of the experiment were highly variable, suggesting that in situ infiltration measurements may be preferred when evaluating SAR effects.

  19. Treatment of drinking water residuals: comparing sedimentation and dissolved air flotation performance with optimal cation ratios.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, J C; Walsh, M E; Gagnon, G A

    2004-03-01

    Spent filter backwash water (SFBW) and clarifier sludge generally comprise the majority of the waste residual volume generated and in relative terms, these can be collectively referred to as combined filter backwash water (CFBW). CFBW is essentially a low-solids wastewater with metal hydroxide flocs that are typically light and slow to settle. This study evaluates the impact of adding calcium and magnesium carbonates to CFBW in terms of assessing the impacts on the sedimentation and DAF separation processes. Representative CFBW samples were collected from two surface water treatment plants (WTP): Lake Major WTP (Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada) and Victoria Park WTP (Truro, Nova Scotia, Canada). Bench-scale results indicated that improvements in the CFBW settled water quality could be achieved through the addition of the divalent cations, thereby adjusting the monovalent to divalent (M:D) ratios of the wastewater. In general, the DAF process required slightly higher M:D ratios than the sedimentation process. The optimum M:D ratios for DAF and sedimentation were determined to be 1:1 and 0.33:1, respectively. It was concluded that the optimisation of the cation balance between monovalent cations (e.g., Na(+), K(+)) and added divalent cations (i.e., Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) aided in the settling mechanism through charge neutralisation-precipitation. The increase in divalent cation concentrations within the waste residual stream promoted destabilisation of the negatively charged colour molecules within the CFBW, thereby causing the colloidal content to become more hydrophobic.

  20. [Adsorption of methylene blue from water by the biochars generated from crop residues].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ren-Kou; Zhao, An-Zhen; Xiao, Shuang-Cheng; Yuan, Jin-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Biochars were prepared from straws of rice, peanut and soybean and rice hull using a low temperature pyrolysis method and adsorption of methylene blue by these biochars were investigated with batch and leaching experiments. Results indicated that biochars have high adsorption capacity for methylene blue and followed the order: rice straw char > soybean straw char > peanut straw char > rice hull char. This order is generally consistent with the amount of negative charge and specific surface area of these biochars. While methylene blue was mainly adsorbed specifically by the biochars, because the adsorption of methylene blue increased with the increase of ionic strength and the adsorption led to the shift of zeta potential of biochar particles to positive value direction. Langmuir equation fitted the adsorption isotherms well and can be used to describe the adsorption behaviors of methylene blue by the biochars. The maximum adsorption capacity of methylene blue predicted by langmuir equation was 196.1, 169.5, 129.9 and 89.3 mmol x kg(-1) for rice straw char, soybean straw char, peanut straw char and rice hull char, respectively. Leaching experiments show that rice hull char of 156 g can remove methylene blue from 30 L water containing 0.3 mmol x L(-1) of methylene blue completely and the cumulative amount of methylene blue absorbed by the biochar reaches 57.7 mmol x kg(-1). The biochars can be used as efficient adsorbents to remove methylene blue from waste water of dye.

  1. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics and aromatic contaminants adsorption behavior of magnetic biochar derived from pyrolysis oil distillation residue.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Mahyoub, Samah Awadh Ali; Liao, Wenjie; Xia, Shuqian; Zhao, Hechuan; Guo, Mengya; Ma, Peisheng

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic biochars were easily fabricated by thermal pyrolysis of Fe(NO3)3 and distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil at 400, 600 and 800°C. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics of magnetic biochars as well as adsorption capacity for aromatic contaminants (i.e., anisole, phenol and guaiacol) were investigated carefully. The degree of carbonization of magnetic biochars become higher as pyrolysis temperature increasing. The magnetic biochar reached the largest surface area and pore volume at the pyrolysis temperature of 600°C due to pores blocking in biochar during pyrolysis at 800°C. Based on batch adsorption experiments, the used adsorbent could be magnetically separated and the adsorption capacity of anisole on magnetic biochars was stronger than that of phenol and guaiacol. The properties of magnetic biochar, including surface area, pore volume, aromaticity, grapheme-like-structure and iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) particles, showed pronounced effects on the adsorption performance of aromatic contaminants.

  2. Relationship between the adsorption capacity of pesticides by wood residues and the properties of woods and pesticides.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Cruz, Sonia; Andrades, Maria S; Sanchez-Camazano, Maria; Sanchez-Martin, Maria J

    2007-05-15

    With the aim to explore the potential use of wood residues in technologies aimed at preventing the pollution of soil and water, we studied the adsorption of four non-ionic pesticides (linuron, alachlor, metalaxyl, and chlorpyrifos) and two ionic pesticides (dicamba and paraquat) with a Kow range of -4.5 to 4.7 by nine types of wood with lignin content in the 18.2-26.9% range. The Freundlich Kf values were considered as indicators of the adsorption capacity. A statistical study was carried out using simple and multiple correlations to establish the degree to which the different parameters of the woods and of the pesticides were involved in adsorption. In the case of the non-ionic pesticides, positive and negative significant correlations were observed between Kf and the lignin (r = 0.73-0.83, p < 0.05-0.01), and soluble C contents of the woods (r = 0.66-0.84), p < 0.1-0.01). For dicamba, a correlation between Kf and pH (r = -0.66, p < 0.1) of the woods was found, while for paraquat, this was seen between Kf and the cation exchange capacity (r = 0.71, p < 0.1) of the woods. No significant correlation was observed between Kf and the total C content of the woods. A highly significant correlation between Kf and Kow values (r > or = 0.93, p < 0.01) was found in the adsorption of the pesticides by the woods (with the exception of paraquat) showing that this parameter is very important in this adsorption process. The determination coefficient of the multiple correlation between Kf and the parameters Kow, soluble C, and lignin contents accounts for nearly 100% of the variability in adsorption for non-ionic pesticides. Based on the results of our study and of those of the literature related to the adsorption of aromatic hydrocarbons, we used the Kow values to define a predictive model of adsorption of hydrophobic organic compounds in general by the woods.

  3. Thermal conductivity in large residual resistance ratio MgB2 wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, A. L.; Tritt, T. M.; Canfield, P. C.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Liebenberg, D. H.

    2003-05-01

    We measured the thermal conductivity in MgB2 wires, with Tc=39.5 K, in both the superconducting and normal state regimes between 10-70 K. As expected, the thermal conductivity is increased for this sample, which has a residual resistance ratio (RRR) of about 32, as compared with earlier measurements on bulk samples with much lower RRR values. Over the measured temperature range, this more metallic material exhibits a temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity in the superconducting state that is different from that in previous reports and can be ascribed primarily to defect scattering. Unusual results are presented for the magnetic field dependence of the thermal conductivity around Tc for fields up to 9 T.

  4. Variation of transition temperatures and residual resistivity ratio in vapor-grown FeSe

    SciTech Connect

    Böhmer, A. E.; Taufour, V.; Straszheim, W. E.; Wolf, T.; Canfield, P. C.

    2016-07-29

    The study of the iron-based superconductor FeSe has blossomed with the availability of high-quality single crystals, obtained through flux/vapor-transport growth techniques below the structural transformation temperature of its tetragonal phase, T≈450°C. Here, we report on the variation of sample morphology and properties due to small modifications in the growth conditions. A considerable variation of the superconducting transition temperature Tc, from 8.8 K to 3 K, which cannot be correlated with the sample composition, is observed. Instead, we point out a clear correlation between Tc and disorder, as measured by the residual resistivity ratio. Notably, the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic structural transition is also found to be quite strongly disorder dependent (Ts≈72–90K) and linearly correlated with Tc.

  5. Variation of transition temperatures and residual resistivity ratio in vapor-grown FeSe

    DOE PAGES

    Böhmer, A. E.; Taufour, V.; Straszheim, W. E.; ...

    2016-07-29

    The study of the iron-based superconductor FeSe has blossomed with the availability of high-quality single crystals, obtained through flux/vapor-transport growth techniques below the structural transformation temperature of its tetragonal phase, T≈450°C. Here, we report on the variation of sample morphology and properties due to small modifications in the growth conditions. A considerable variation of the superconducting transition temperature Tc, from 8.8 K to 3 K, which cannot be correlated with the sample composition, is observed. Instead, we point out a clear correlation between Tc and disorder, as measured by the residual resistivity ratio. Notably, the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic structural transition is alsomore » found to be quite strongly disorder dependent (Ts≈72–90K) and linearly correlated with Tc.« less

  6. Adsorption and oxidation of SO₂in a fixed-bed reactor using activated carbon produced from oxytetracycline bacterial residue and impregnated with copper.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Baohua; Yu, Lei; Song, Hanning; Li, Yaqi; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Bin; Duan, Erhong

    2015-02-01

    The SO₂removal ability (including adsorption and oxidation ability) of activated carbon produced from oxytetracycline bacterial residue and impregnated with copper was investigated. The activated carbon produced from oxytetracycline bacterial residue and modified with copper was characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The effects of the catalysts, SO₂concentration, weight hourly space velocity, and temperature on the SO₂adsorption and oxidation activity were evaluated. Activated carbon produced from oxytetracycline bacterial residue and used as catalyst supports for copper oxide catalysts provided high catalytic activity for the adsorbing and oxidizing of SO₂from flue gases.

  7. The adsorption of chromium (VI) from industrial wastewater by acid and base-activated lignocellulosic residues.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Patricia; Blanco, Clara; Granda, Marcos

    2007-06-01

    This study deals with the adsorption of Cr(VI) from synthetic and industrial wastewater, produced by a sewage plant. The activated carbons were prepared from a lignocellulosic raw material by thermal treatment at 450 and 650 degrees C in the presence of acid (AlCl(3), HCl, H(3)PO(4) and H(2)SO(4)) and base (NaOH) agents. To optimize the adsorption of Cr(VI), the chemical modifications caused by each activating agent (related to the capability of Cr(VI) removal), and the optimal experimental conditions of the pH, Cr(VI) concentration, adsorbent dose and residence time, were studied. Thus, treatment with H(3)PO(4) gives rise to carbons with a high surface area and high efficiency for Cr(VI) removal at short equilibrium times. In contrast, the generation of active surface sites by means of NaOH requires longer equilibrium times, the adsorption being less effective than in the former case. The adsorption isotherms obey the Langmuir equation only in the first stages of the reaction but fit the Freundlich equations over the whole range studied, so the heat of adsorption can be easily calculated. The results also show that the activated carbons obtained can be recovered by filtration with an efficiency of 30% in the third cycle.

  8. Understanding the Nonproductive Enzyme Adsorption and Physicochemical Properties of Residual Lignins in Moso Bamboo Pretreated with Sulfuric Acid and Kraft Pulping.

    PubMed

    Huang, Caoxing; He, Juan; Min, Douyong; Lai, Chenhuan; Yong, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    In this work, to elucidate why the acid-pretreated bamboo shows disappointingly low enzymatic digestibility comparing to the alkali-pretreated bamboo, residual lignins in acid-pretreated and kraft pulped bamboo were isolated and analyzed by adsorption isotherm to evaluate their extents of nonproductive enzyme adsorption. Meanwhile, physicochemical properties of the isolated lignins were analyzed and a relationship was established with non-productive adsorption. Results showed that the adsorption affinity and binding strength of cellulase on acid-pretreated bamboo lignin (MWLa) was significantly higher than that on residual lignin in pulped bamboo (MWLp). The maximum adsorption capacity of cellulase on MWLp was 129.49 mg/g lignin, which was lower than that on MWLa (160.25 mg/g lignin). When isolated lignins were added into the Avicel hydrolysis solution, the inhibitory effect on enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of MWLa was found to be considerably stronger than that with MWLp. The cellulase adsorption on isolated lignins was correlated positively with hydrophobicity, phenolic hydroxyl group, and degree of condensation but negatively with surface charges and aliphatic hydroxyl group. These results suggest that the higher nonproductive cellulase adsorption and physicochemical properties of residual lignin in acid-pretreated bamboo may be responsible for its disappointingly low enzymatic digestibility.

  9. Relationship between residual feed intake and lymphocyte mitochondrial complex protein concentration and ratio in crossbred steers.

    PubMed

    Davis, M P; Brooks, M A; Kerley, M S

    2016-04-01

    Rate of oxygen uptake by muscle mitochondria and respiratory chain protein concentrations differed between high- and low-residual feed intake (RFI) animals. The hypothesis of this research was that complex I (CI), II (CII), and III (CIII) mitochondria protein concentrations in lymphocyte (blood) mitochondria were related to the RFI phenotype of beef steers. Daily feed intake (ADFI) was individually recorded for 92 Hereford-crossbreed steers over 63 d using GrowSafe individual feed intake system. Predicted ADFI was calculated as the regression of ADFI on ADG and midtest BW. Difference between ADFI and predicted ADFI was RFI. Lymphocytes were isolated from low-RFI (-1.32 ± 0.11 kg/d; = 10) and high-RFI (1.34 ± 0.18 kg/d; = 8) steers. Immunocapture of CI, CII, and CIII proteins from the lymphocyte was done using MitoProfile CI, CII, and CIII immunocapture kits (MitoSciences Inc., Eugene, OR). Protein concentrations of CI, CII, and CIII and total protein were quantified using bicinchoninic acid colorimetric procedures. Low-RFI steers consumed 30% less ( = 0.0004) feed and had a 40% improvement ( < 0.0001) in feed efficiency compared with high-RFI steers with similar growth ( = 0.78) and weight measurements ( > 0.65). High- and low-RFI steers did not differ in CI ( = 0.22), CII ( = 0.69), and CIII ( = 0.59) protein concentrations. The protein concentration ratios for CI to CII ( = 0.03) were 20% higher and the ratios of CI to CIII ( = 0.01) were 30% higher, but the ratios of CII to CIII ( = 0.89) did not differ when comparing low-RFI steers with high-RFI steers. The similar magnitude difference in feed intake, feed efficiency measurements, and CI-to-CIII ratio between RFI phenotypes provides a plausible explanation for differences between the phenotypes. We also concluded that mitochondria isolated from lymphocytes could be used to study respiratory chain differences among differing RFI phenotypes. Further research is needed to determine if lymphocyte mitochondrial

  10. Adsorption of charged protein residues on an inorganic nanosheet: Computer simulation of LDH interaction with ion channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukanov, Alexey A.; Psakhie, Sergey G.

    2016-08-01

    Quasi-two-dimensional and hybrid nanomaterials based on layered double hydroxides (LDH), cationic clays, layered oxyhydroxides and hydroxides of metals possess large specific surface area and strong electrostatic properties with permanent or pH-dependent electric charge. Such nanomaterials may impact cellular electrostatics, changing the ion balance, pH and membrane potential. Selective ion adsorption/exchange may alter the transmembrane electrochemical gradient, disrupting potential-dependent cellular processes. Cellular proteins as a rule have charged residues which can be effectively adsorbed on the surface of layered hydroxide based nanomaterials. The aim of this study is to attempt to shed some light on the possibility and mechanisms of protein "adhesion" an LDH nanosheet and to propose a new direction in anticancer medicine, based on physical impact and strong electrostatics. An unbiased molecular dynamics simulation was performed and the combined process free energy estimation (COPFEE) approach was used.

  11. Improved selective cholesterol adsorption by molecularly imprinted poly(methacrylic acid)/silica (PMAA-SiO₂) hybrid material synthesized with different molar ratios.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Débora Nobile; Pires, Igor Matheus Ruiz; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira

    2014-11-01

    The present paper describes the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer - poly(methacrylic acid)/silica and reports its performance feasibility with desired adsorption capacity and selectivity for cholesterol extraction. Two imprinted hybrid materials were synthesized at different methacrylic acid (MAA)/tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) molar ratios (6:1 and 1:5) and characterized by FT-IR, TGA, SEM and textural data. Cholesterol adsorption on hybrid materials took place preferably in apolar solvent medium, especially in chloroform. From the kinetic data, the equilibrium time was reached quickly, being 12 and 20 min for the polymers synthesized at MAA/TEOS molar ratio of 6:1 and 1:5, respectively. The pseudo-second-order model provided the best fit for cholesterol adsorption on polymers, confirming the chemical nature of the adsorption process, while the dual-site Langmuir-Freundlich equation presented the best fit to the experimental data, suggesting the existence of two kinds of adsorption sites on both polymers. The maximum adsorption capacities obtained for the polymers synthesized at MAA/TEOS molar ratios of 6:1 and 1:5 were found to be 214.8 and 166.4 mg g(-1), respectively. The results from isotherm data also indicated higher adsorption capacity for both imprinted polymers regarding to corresponding non-imprinted polymers. Nevertheless, taking into account the retention parameters and selectivity of cholesterol in the presence of structurally analogue compounds (5-α-cholestane and 7-dehydrocholesterol), it was observed that the polymer synthesized at the MAA/TEOS molar ratio of 6:1 was much more selective for cholesterol than the one prepared at the ratio of 1:5, thus suggesting that selective binding sites ascribed to the carboxyl group from MAA play a central role in the imprinting effect created on MIP.

  12. Biodegradation and adsorption of C1- and C2-phenanthrenes and C1- and C2-dibenzothiophenes in the presence of clay minerals: effect on forensic diagnostic ratios.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Head, Ian M; Manning, David A C

    2014-07-01

    The impact of modified montmorillonites on adsorption and biodegradation of crude oil C1-phenanthrenes, C1-dibenzothiophenes, C2-phenanthrenes and C2-dibenzothiophenes was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. Consequently, the effect on C1-dibenzothiophenes/C1-phenanthrenes, C2-dibenzothiophenes/C2-phenanthrenes, 2+3-methyldibenzothiophene/4-methyldibenzothiophene and 1-methyldibenzothiophene/4-methyldibenzothiophene ratios commonly used as diagnostic ratios for oil forensic studies was evaluated. The clay mineral samples were treated to produce acid activated montmorillonite, organomontmorillonite and homoionic montmorillonite which were used in this study. The different clay minerals (modified and unmodified) showed varied degrees of biodegradation and adsorption of the C1-phenanthrenes, C1-dibenzothiophenes, C2-phenanthrenes and C2-dibenzothiophenes. The study indicated that as opposed to biodegradation, adsorption has no effect on the diagnostic ratios. Among the diagnostic ratios reviewed, only C2-dibenzothiophenes/C2-phenanthrenes ratio was neither affected by adsorption nor biodegradation making this ratio very useful in forensic studies of oil spills and oil-oil correlation.

  13. Confidence intervals for the ratio of two median residual lifetimes with left-truncated and right-censored data.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Chi, Yunchan; Chang, Sheng-Mao

    2016-03-01

    The confidence intervals for the ratio of two median residual lifetimes are developed for left-truncated and right-censored data. The approach of Su and Wei (1993) is first extended by replacing the Kaplan-Meier survival estimator with the estimator of the conditional survival function (Lynden-Bell, 1971). This procedure does not involve a nonparametric estimation of the probability density function of the failure time. However, the Su and Wei type confidence intervals are very conservative even for larger sample size. Therefore, this article proposes an alternative confidence interval for the ratio of two median residual lifetimes, which is not only without nonparametric estimation of the density function of failure times but is also computationally simpler than the Su and Wei type confidence interval. A simulation study is conducted to examine the accuracy of these confidence intervals and the implementation of these confidence intervals to two real data sets is illustrated.

  14. Outstanding adsorption performance of high aspect ratio and super-hydrophobic carbon nanotubes for oil removal.

    PubMed

    Kayvani Fard, Ahmad; Mckay, Gordon; Manawi, Yehia; Malaibari, Zuhair; Hussien, Muataz A

    2016-12-01

    Oil removal from water is a highly important area due to the large production rate of emulsified oil in water, which is considered one of the major pollutants, having a negative effect on human health, environment and wildlife. In this study, we have reported the application of high quality carbon nanotube bundles produced by an injected vertical chemical vapor deposition (IV-CVD) reactor for oil removal. High quality, bundles, super hydrophobic, and high aspect ratio carbon nanotubes were produced. The average diameters of the produced CNTs ranged from 20 to 50 nm while their lengths ranged from 300 to 500 μm. Two types of CNTs namely, P-CNTs and C-CNTs, (Produced CNTs from the IV-CVD reactor and commercial CNTs) were used for oil removal from water. For the first time, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was conducted to measure maximum oil uptake using CNT and it was found that P-CNT can take oil up to 17 times their weight. The effect of adsorbent dosage, contact time, and agitation speed were examined on the oil spill clean-up efficiency using batch sorption experiments. Higher efficiency with almost 97% removal was achieved using P-CNTs compared to 87% removal using C-CNTs.

  15. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  16. Water-quality characteristics, including sodium-adsorption ratios, for four sites in the Powder River drainage basin, Wyoming and Montana, water years 2001-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Mason, Jon P.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, monitors streams throughout the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and parts of Montana for potential effects of coalbed natural gas development. Specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios may be larger in coalbed waters than in stream waters that may receive the discharge waters. Therefore, continuous water-quality instruments for specific conductance were installed and discrete water-quality samples were collected to characterize water quality during water years 2001-2004 at four sites in the Powder River drainage basin: Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming; Crazy Woman Creek near Arvada, Wyoming; Clear Creek near Arvada, Wyoming; and Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. During water years 2001-2004, the median specific conductance of 2,270 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (?S/cm) in discrete samples from the Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming, was larger than the median specific conductance of 1,930 ?S/cm in discrete samples collected downstream from the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. The median specific conductance was smallest in discrete samples from Clear Creek (1,180 ?S/cm), which has a dilution effect on the specific conductance for the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. The daily mean specific conductance from continuous water-quality instruments during the irrigation season showed the same spatial pattern as specific conductance values for the discrete samples. Dissolved sodium, sodium-adsorption ratios, and dissolved solids generally showed the same spatial pattern as specific conductance. The largest median sodium concentration (274 milligrams per liter) and the largest range of sodium-adsorption ratios (3.7 to 21) were measured in discrete samples from the Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming. Median concentrations of sodium and sodium-adsorption ratios were substantially smaller in Crazy Woman Creek and Clear Creek, which tend to

  17. Evaluation of critical current density and residual resistance ratio limits in powder in tube Nb3Sn conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal, Christopher; Tarantini, Chiara; Hawn Sung, Zu; Lee, Peter J.; Sailer, Bernd; Thoener, Manfred; Schlenga, Klaus; Ballarino, Amalia; Bottura, Luca; Bordini, Bernardo; Scheuerlein, Christian; Larbalestier, David C.

    2016-08-01

    High critical current density (J c) Nb3Sn A15 multifilamentary wires require a large volume fraction of small grain (SG), superconducting A15 phase, as well as Cu stabilizer with high Residual Resistance Ratio (RRR) to provide electromagnetic stabilization and protection. In powder-in-tube (PIT) wires the unreacted Nb7.5 wt%Ta outer layer of the tubular filaments acts as a diffusion barrier and protects the interfilamentary Cu stabilizer from Sn contamination. A high RRR requirement generally imposes a restricted A15 reaction heat treatment to prevent localized full reaction of the filament that could allow Sn to reach the Cu. In this study we investigate recent high quality PIT wires that achieve a J c (12 T, 4.2 K) up to ˜2500 A mm-2 and find that the minimum diffusion barrier thickness decreases as the filament aspect ratio increases from ˜1 in the inner rings of filaments to 1.3 in the outer filament rings. We found that just 2-3 diffusion barrier breaches can degrade RRR from 300 to 150 or less. Using progressive etching of the Cu we also found that the RRR degradation is localized near the external filaments where deformation is highest. Consequently minimizing filament distortion during strand fabrication is important for reducing RRR degradation. The additional challenge of developing the highest possible J c must be addressed by forming the maximum fraction of high J c SG A15 and minimizing low J c large-grain (LG) A15 morphologies. In one wire we found that 15% of the filaments had a significantly enhanced SG/LG A15 ratio and no residual A15 in the core, a feature that opens a path to substantial J c improvement.

  18. Evaluation of critical current density and residual resistance ratio limits in powder in tube Nb3Sn conductors

    DOE PAGES

    Segal, Christopher; Tarantini, Chiara; Sung, Zu Hawn; ...

    2016-06-10

    High critical current density (Jc) Nb3Sn A15 multifilamentary wires require a large volume fraction of small grain, superconducting A15 phase, as well as Cu stabilizer with high Residual Resistance Ratio (RRR) to provide electromagnetic stabilization and protection. In Powder-in-Tube (PIT) wires the unreacted Nb7.5wt.%Ta outer layer of the tubular filaments acts as a diffusion barrier and protects the interfilamentary Cu stabilizer from Sn contamination. A high RRR requirement generally imposes a restricted A15 reaction heat treatment (HT) to prevent localized full reaction of the filament that could allow Sn to reach the Cu. In this paper we investigate recent highmore » quality PIT wires that achieve a Jc(12 T, 4.2 K) up to ~2500 A/mm-2 and find that the minimum diffusion barrier thickness decreases as the filament aspect ratio increases from ~1 in the inner rings of filaments to 1.3 in the outer filament rings. We found that just 2-3 diffusion barrier breaches can degrade RRR from 300 to 150 or less. Using progressive etching of the Cu we also found that the RRR degradation is localized near the external filaments where deformation is highest. Consequently minimizing filament distortion during strand fabrication is important for reducing RRR degradation. The additional challenge of developing the highest possible Jc must be addressed by forming the maximum fraction of high Jc small-grain (SG) A15 and minimizing low Jc large-grain (LG) A15 morphologies. Finally, in one wire we found that 15% of the filaments had a significantly enhanced SG/LG A15 ratio and no residual A15 in the core, a feature that opens a path to substantial Jc improvement.« less

  19. Nanostructure of Poly(Acrylic Acid) Adsorption Layer on the Surface of Activated Carbon Obtained from Residue After Supercritical Extraction of Hops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiśniewska, M.; Nosal-Wiercińska, A.; Ostolska, I.; Sternik, D.; Nowicki, P.; Pietrzak, R.; Bazan-Wozniak, A.; Goncharuk, O.

    2017-01-01

    The nanostructure of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) adsorption layer on the surface of mesoporous-activated carbon HPA obtained by physical activation of residue after supercritical extraction of hops was characterized. This characterization has been done based on the analysis of determination of adsorbed polymer amount, surface charge density, and zeta potential of solid particles (without and in the PAA presence). The SEM, thermogravimetric, FTIR, and MS techniques have allowed one to examine the solid surface morphology and specify different kinds of HPA surface groups. The effects of solution pH, as well as polymer molecular weight and concentration, were studied. The obtained results indicated that the highest adsorption on the activated carbon surface was exhibited by PAA with lower molecular weight (i.e., 2000 Da) at pH 3. Under such conditions, polymeric adsorption layer is composed of nanosized PAA coils (slightly negatively charged) which are densely packed on the positive surface of HPA. Additionally, the adsorption of polymeric macromolecules into solid pores is possible.

  20. Nanostructure of Poly(Acrylic Acid) Adsorption Layer on the Surface of Activated Carbon Obtained from Residue After Supercritical Extraction of Hops.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, M; Nosal-Wiercińska, A; Ostolska, I; Sternik, D; Nowicki, P; Pietrzak, R; Bazan-Wozniak, A; Goncharuk, O

    2017-12-01

    The nanostructure of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) adsorption layer on the surface of mesoporous-activated carbon HPA obtained by physical activation of residue after supercritical extraction of hops was characterized. This characterization has been done based on the analysis of determination of adsorbed polymer amount, surface charge density, and zeta potential of solid particles (without and in the PAA presence). The SEM, thermogravimetric, FTIR, and MS techniques have allowed one to examine the solid surface morphology and specify different kinds of HPA surface groups. The effects of solution pH, as well as polymer molecular weight and concentration, were studied. The obtained results indicated that the highest adsorption on the activated carbon surface was exhibited by PAA with lower molecular weight (i.e., 2000 Da) at pH 3. Under such conditions, polymeric adsorption layer is composed of nanosized PAA coils (slightly negatively charged) which are densely packed on the positive surface of HPA. Additionally, the adsorption of polymeric macromolecules into solid pores is possible.

  1. Modelling soil sodium and potassium adsorption ratio (SPAR) in the immediate period after a grassland fire in Lithuania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Misiūnė, Ieva

    2015-04-01

    The soil sodium and potassium adsorption ratio (SPAR) is an index that measures the amount of sodium and potassium adsorbed onto clay and organic matter surfaces, in relation to calcium and magnesium. Assess the potential of soil dispersion or flocculation, a process which has implication in soil hydraulic properties and erosion (Sarah, 2004). Depending on severity and the type of ash produced, fire can changes in the immediate period the soil nutrient status (Bodi et al. 2014). Ash releases onto soil surface a large amount of cations, due the high pH. Previous works showed that SPAR from ash slurries is higher than solutions produced from litter (Pereira et al., 2014a). Normally the spatial distribution of topsoil nutrients in the immediate period after the fire is very heterogeneous, due to the different impacts of fire. Thus it is important to identify the most accurate interpolation method in order to identify with better precision the impacts of fire on soil properties. The objective of this work is to test several interpolation methods. The study area is located in near Vilnius (Lithuania) at 54° 42' N, 25° 08 E, 158 masl. Four days after the fire it was designed a plot in a burned area with near Vilnius (Lithuania) at 54° 42' N, 25° 08 E, 158 masl. Twenty five samples were collected from the topsoil. The SPAR index was calculated according to the formula: (Na++K+)/(Ca2++Mg2+)1/2 (Sarah, 2004). Data followed the normal distribution, thus no transformation was required previous to data modelling. Several well know interpolation models were tested, as Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) with the power of 1, 2, 3 and 4, Radial Basis Functions (RBF), Inverse Multiquadratic (IMT), Multilog (MTG), Multiquadratic (MTQ), Natural Cubic Spline (NCS) and Thin Plate Spline (TPS) and Local Polynomial (LP) with the power of 1 and 2 and Ordinary Kriging. The best interpolator was the one which had the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) (Pereira et al., 2014b). The

  2. Comparative net energy ratio analysis of pellet produced from steam pretreated biomass from agricultural residues and energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Shahrukh, Hassan; Oyedun, Adetoyese Olajire; Kumar, Amit; Ghiasi, Bahman; Kumar, Linoj; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2016-04-05

    Here, a process model was developed to determine the net energy ratio (NER) for production of pellets from steam pretreated agricultural residue (AR) and energy crop (i.e. switchgrass in this case). The NER is a ratio of the net energy output to the total net energy input from non-renewable energy sources into a system. Scenarios were developed to measure the effects of temperature and level of steam pretreatment on the NER of steam pretreated AR- and switch grass-based pellets. The NER for the base case at 6 kg h-1 is 1.76 and 1.37 for steam-pretreated AR- and switchgrass-based pellets, respectively. The reason behind the difference is that more energy is required to dry switchgrass pellets than AR pellets. The sensitivity analysis for the model shows that the optimum temperature for steam pretreatment is 160 C with 50% pretreatment (half the feedstock is pretreated, while the rest is undergoes regular pelletization). The uncertainty results for NER for steam pretreated AR and switch grass pellets are 1.62 ± 0.10 and 1.42 ± 0.11, respectively.

  3. Comparative net energy ratio analysis of pellet produced from steam pretreated biomass from agricultural residues and energy crops

    DOE PAGES

    Shahrukh, Hassan; Oyedun, Adetoyese Olajire; Kumar, Amit; ...

    2016-04-05

    Here, a process model was developed to determine the net energy ratio (NER) for production of pellets from steam pretreated agricultural residue (AR) and energy crop (i.e. switchgrass in this case). The NER is a ratio of the net energy output to the total net energy input from non-renewable energy sources into a system. Scenarios were developed to measure the effects of temperature and level of steam pretreatment on the NER of steam pretreated AR- and switch grass-based pellets. The NER for the base case at 6 kg h-1 is 1.76 and 1.37 for steam-pretreated AR- and switchgrass-based pellets, respectively.more » The reason behind the difference is that more energy is required to dry switchgrass pellets than AR pellets. The sensitivity analysis for the model shows that the optimum temperature for steam pretreatment is 160 C with 50% pretreatment (half the feedstock is pretreated, while the rest is undergoes regular pelletization). The uncertainty results for NER for steam pretreated AR and switch grass pellets are 1.62 ± 0.10 and 1.42 ± 0.11, respectively.« less

  4. Measured and Estimated Sodium-Adsorption Ratios for Tongue River and its Tributaries, Montana and Wyoming, 2004-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, M.R.; Nimick, David A.; Cleasby, Thomas E.; Kinsey, Stacy M.; Lambing, John H.

    2007-01-01

    The Tongue River drains an area of about 5,400 square miles and flows northward from its headwaters in the Bighorn National Forest of northeastern Wyoming to join the Yellowstone River at Miles City, Montana. Water from the Tongue River and its tributaries is extensively used for irrigation in both Wyoming and Montana. The Tongue River watershed contains vast coal deposits that are extracted at several surface mines. In some areas of the watershed, the coal beds also contain methane gas (coal-bed methane or natural gas), which has become the focus of intense exploration and development. Production of coal-bed methane requires the pumping of large volumes of ground water from the coal beds to reduce water pressure within the formation and release the stored gas. Water from the coal beds typically is high in sodium and low in calcium and magnesium, resulting in a high sodium-adsorption ratio (SAR). Disposal of ground water with high sodium concentrations into the Tongue River has the potential to increase salinity and SAR of water in the river, and potentially reduce the quality of water for irrigation purposes. This report documents SAR values measured in water samples collected at 12 monitoring sites in the Tongue River watershed and presents regression relations between specific conductance (SC) and SAR at each site for the years 2004-06. SAR in water samples was determined from laboratory-measured concentrations of sodium, calcium, and magnesium. The results of regression analysis indicated that SC and SAR were significantly related (p-values < 0.05) at most sites. The regression relations developed for most monitoring sites in the Tongue River watershed were used with continuous SC data to estimate daily SAR during the 2004 and 2005 irrigation seasons and to estimate 2006 provisional SAR values, which were displayed on the Web in real-time. Water samples were collected and analyzed from seven sites on the main stem of the Tongue River located at: (1) Monarch

  5. Biochars prepared from anaerobic digestion residue, palm bark, and eucalyptus for adsorption of cationic methylene blue dye: characterization, equilibrium, and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Wan, Shungang; Luo, Wensui

    2013-07-01

    Biochars prepared from anaerobic digestion residue (BC-R), palm bark (BC-PB) and eucalyptus (BC-E) were used as sorbents for removal of cationic methylene blue dye (MB). The FE-SEM images indicated that the biochars have a well-developed pore structure, and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas of BC-R, BC-PB, and BC-E were 7.60, 2.46, and 10.35 m(2)g(-1), respectively. The efficiencies of MB removal in the samples with initial concentrations of 5 mg L(-1) at pH 7.0 and 40°C by BC-R, BC-PB, and BC-E after 2h were 99.5%, 99.3%, and 86.1%, respectively. Pseudo-second-order kinetics was the most suitable model for describing the adsorption of MB onto the biochars. The experimental data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm model, with a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 9.50 mg g(-1) at 40°C for BC-R. The biochars produced from the three types of solid waste showed considerable potential for adsorption.

  6. Adsorptive removal of dye using biochar derived from residual algae after in-situ transesterification: Alternate use of waste of biodiesel industry.

    PubMed

    Nautiyal, Piyushi; Subramanian, K A; Dastidar, M G

    2016-11-01

    The primary aim of this present study was to utilize the residual biomass (DB) of Spirulina platensis algae, left after in-situ transesterification, for biochar preparation. This is a solid waste residue of biodiesel industry. The biochar (BC) prepared was examined for its capacity to adsorb congo red dye from the aqueous solution. The results were compared with other adsorbents used in the study such as commercial activated carbon (AC), original algae biomass (AB) and DB. The results of proximate analysis of BC showed the decrease in the percentage of volatile matter and an increase in fixed carbon content compared to DB. The physico-chemical properties of BC were studied using elemental analysis, SEM, FTIR and XRD techniques. The AC and BC adsorbents showed better performance in removing 85.4% and 82.6% of dye respectively from solution compared to AB (76.6%) and DB (78.1%). The effect of initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage and pH of solution on the adsorption phenomena was studied by conducting the batch adsorption experiments. The highest specific uptake for biochar was observed at acidic pH of 2 with 0.2 g/100 ml of adsorbent dosage and 90 mg/l of initial concentration. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted to three isotherms, namely Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin. Freundlich model proved to show the best suited results with value of correlation coefficient of 99.12%. Thus, the application of DB for production of biochar as potential adsorbent supports sustainability of algae biodiesel.

  7. Coating morphology and surface composition of acrylic terpolymers with pendant catechol, OEG and perfluoroalkyl groups in varying ratio and the effect on protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jun; Ji, Hua; Duan, Jiang; Tu, Haiyang; Zhang, Aidong

    2016-04-01

    This work aims at developing versatile low-biofouling polymeric coatings by using acrylic terpolymers (DOFs) that bear pendant catechol (D), oligo(ethylene glycol) (O), and perfluoroalkyl (F) groups in varying ratios. The polymers were endowed with the ability to form firmly coatings on virtually any surfaces and undergo surface microphase separation and self-assembly, as revealed by the surface enrichment of F pendants and the morphology variation from irregular solid domains to discrete crater-type aggregates of different size. The effect on protein adsorption was investigated using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and adhesive fibrinogen (Fib) as model proteins. The coating of DOF164 (low F content), which has morphology of discrete crater-type aggregates of ∼ 400 nm in size, adsorbed a least amount of protein but with a highest protein unit activity as determined by SPR and immunosorbent assay; whereas the coating of DOF1612 (high F content) showed a 12.3-fold higher adsorption capacity toward Fib. Interestingly, a 2.2-fold lower adsorption amount but with a 1.8-fold higher unit activity was found for Fib adsorbed on the DOF164 surface than on DOF250 (without F fraction), whose OEG segments being a widely recognized protein compatible material. The features of the DOF164 terpolymer presenting a robust coating ability and a minimal protein adsorption capacity while with a high protein unit activity suggest its potential application as a non-fouling surface-modifier for medical antifouling coatings and as a matrix material for selective protein immobilization and activity preservation in biosensor construction.

  8. The adsorption of Cs and residual gases on Ga0.5Al0.5As (0 0 1) β2 (2 × 4) surface: A first principles research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaohua; Du, Yujie; Chang, Benkang; Wang, Honggang; Wang, Meishan

    2014-01-01

    Using quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), the residual gases in the ultra-high vacuum system used for photocathodes activation are detected. The adsorption of Cs atom and residual gases molecules on Ga0.5Al0.5As β2 (2 × 4) surface are investigated by density functional theory. Results show that Cs lowers the work function while residual gases enhance the work function. The changes of the work function are caused by the electron offsets between the adsorbates and the surface. Cs atom improves the absorption properties while residual gases molecules harm the absorption properties.

  9. Determination of kinetic and equilibrium parameters of the batch adsorption of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution by black carrot (Daucus carota L.) residues.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Fuat; Yakut, Hakan; Topal, Giray

    2008-05-30

    In this study, the effect of temperature on the adsorption of Mn(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution by modified carrot residues (MCR) was investigated. The equilibrium contact times of adsorption process for each heavy metals-MCR systems were determined. Kinetic data obtained for each heavy metal by MCR at different temperatures were applied to the Lagergren equation, and adsorption rate constants (kads) at these temperatures were determined. These rate constants related to the adsorption of heavy metal by MCR were applied to the Arrhenius equation, and activation energies (Ea) were determined. In addition, the isotherms for adsorption of each heavy metal by MCR at different temperatures were also determined. These isothermal data were applied to linear forms of isotherm equations that they fit the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the Langmuir constants (qm and b) were calculated. b constants determined at different temperatures were applied to thermodynamic equations, and thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (Delta H), free energy (Delta G), and entropy (Delta S) were calculated and these values show that adsorption of heavy metal on MCR was an endothermic process and process of adsorption was favoured at high temperatures.

  10. Effect of Fe(II)/Ce(III) dosage ratio on the structure and anion adsorptive removal of hydrothermally precipitated composites: Insights from EXAFS/XANES, XRD and FTIR.

    PubMed

    Chubar, Natalia; Gerda, Vasyl; Banerjee, Dipanjan; Yablokova, Ganna

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we present material chemistry in the hydrothermal synthesis of new complex structure materials based on various dosage ratios of Fe and Ce (1:0, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 0:1), characterize them by the relevant methods that allow characterization of both crystalline and amorphous phases and correlate their structure/surface properties with the adsorptive performance of the five toxic anions. The applied synthesis conditions resulted in the formation of different compounds of Fe and Ce components. The Fe-component was dominated by various phases of Fe hydrous oxides, whereas the Ce-component was composed of various phases of Ce carbonates. The presence of two metal salts in raw materials resulted in the formation of a mesoporous structure and averaged the surface area compared to one metal-based material. The surface of all Fe-Ce composites was abundant in Fe component phases. Two-metal systems showed stronger anion removal performance than one-metal materials. The best adsorption was demonstrated by Fe-Ce based materials that had low crystallinity, that were rich in phases and that exhibited surfaces were abundant in greater number of surface functional groups. Notably, Fe extended fine structures simulated by EXAFS in these better adsorbents were rich from oscillations from both heavy and light atoms. This work provides new insights on the structure of composite inorganic materials useful to develop their applications in adsorption and catalysis. It also presents new inorganic anion exchangers with very high removal potential to fluoride and arsenate.

  11. Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) supported by natural and acid-activated sepiolites: the effect of the nZVI/support ratio on the composite properties and Cd(2+) adsorption.

    PubMed

    Habish, Amal Juma; Lazarević, Slavica; Janković-Častvan, Ivona; Jokić, Bojan; Kovač, Janez; Rogan, Jelena; Janaćković, Đorđe; Petrović, Rada

    2017-01-01

    Natural (SEP) and partially acid-activated (AAS) sepiolites were used to prepare composites with nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) at different (SEP or AAS)/nZVI ratios in order to achieve the best nZVI dispersibility and the highest adsorption capacity for Cd(2+). Despite the higher surface area and pore volume of AAS, better nZVI dispersibility was achieved by using SEP as the support. On the other hand, a lower oxidation degree was achieved during the synthesis using AAS. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the composite with the best nZVI dispersibility, before and after Cd(2+) adsorption, confirmed that the surface of the nZVI was composed of oxidized iron species. Metallic iron was not present on the surface, but it was detected in the subsurface region after sputtering. The content of zerovalent iron decreased after Cd(2+) adsorption as a result of iron oxidation during Cd(2+) adsorption. The XPS depth profile showed that cadmium was present not only at the surface of the composite but also in the subsurface region. The adsorption isotherms for Cd(2+) confirmed that the presence of SEP and AAS decreased the agglomeration of the nZVI particles in comparison to the pure nZVI, which provided a higher adsorption capacity. The results showed that the prevention of both aggregation and oxidation during the synthesis was necessary for obtaining an SEP/AAS-nZVI composite with a high adsorption capacity, but oxidation during adsorption was beneficial for Cd(2+) removal. The formation of strong bonds between Cd(2+) and the adsorbents sites of different energy until monolayer formation was proposed according to modeling of the adsorption isotherms.

  12. Effects of Zeolite Structure and Si/Al Ratio on Adsorption Thermodynamics and Intrinsic Kinetics of Monomolecular Cracking and Dehydrogenation of Alkanes over Bronsted Acid Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janda, Amber Leigh

    butene products. Theoretical calculations suggest that this effect originates from the adsorption of isobutene at channel intersections, indicating that dehydrogenation occurs with stronger preference for these locations than does cracking. In order to analyze the effects of zeolite structure on monomolecular alkane activation reactions, it is necessary to separate the contributions of the adsorption and reaction steps to observed kinetics. A method is developed in Chapter 3 for obtaining the enthalpy and entropy changes for adsorption of n-alkanes from the gas phase onto Bronsted protons (DeltaH ads·H+ and DeltaSads·H+) using configurational-bias Monte Carlo (CBMC) simulations. In Chapter 4 the effects of zeolite structural confinement on n-butane cracking and dehydrogenation are characterized for zeolites that differ predominately in the size and abundance of cavities. Values of DeltaHads·H+ and DeltaSads·H+ are obtained from CBMC simulations and used to extract intrinsic rates and activation parameters. As DeltaS ads·H+ (a proxy for confinement) becomes more negative, DeltaH ‡int and DeltaS‡int decrease for terminal cracking and dehydrogenation when the channel topology (e.g., straight, sinusoidal) is fixed. This observation, as well as positive values for DeltaS‡int, indicate that the transition states for these reactions resemble the products. Finally, in Chapter 5 the influence of channel and cage topology on n-alkane adsorption are characterized for zeolites and zeotypes with one-dimensional pore systems. When cages are not present, DeltaHads·H+ and DeltaSads·H+ at fixed pore-limiting diameter (PLD; the diameter of the largest sphere that can traverse the pores) decrease in magnitude as the ratio of the smallest to largest channel diameter decreases and the pore become less circular. The higher entropy of alkanes in non-circular pores is attributed to greater freedom of movement and can cause the free energy to be lower in these environments relative

  13. Membrane adsorption and binding, cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of cell-penetrating peptidomimetics with α-peptide/β-peptoid backbone: effects of hydrogen bonding and α-chirality in the β-peptoid residues.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xiaona; Yang, Mingjun; Kasimova, Marina R; Malmsten, Martin; Franzyk, Henrik; Jorgensen, Lene; Foged, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne M

    2012-11-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) provide a promising approach for enhancing intracellular delivery of therapeutic biomacromolecules by increasing transport through membrane barriers. Here, proteolytically stable cell-penetrating peptidomimetics with α-peptide/β-peptoid backbone were studied to evaluate the effect of α-chirality in the β-peptoid residues and the presence of guanidinium groups in the α-amino acid residues on membrane interaction. The molecular properties of the peptidomimetics in solution (surface and intramolecular hydrogen bonding, aqueous diffusion rate and molecular size) were studied along with their adsorption to lipid bilayers, cellular uptake, and toxicity. The surface hydrogen bonding ability of the peptidomimetics reflected their adsorbed amounts onto lipid bilayers as well as with their cellular uptake, indicating the importance of hydrogen bonding for their membrane interaction and cellular uptake. Ellipsometry studies further demonstrated that the presence of chiral centers in the β-peptoid residues promotes a higher adsorption to anionic lipid bilayers, whereas circular dichroism results showed that α-chirality influences their overall mean residue ellipticity. The presence of guanidinium groups and α-chiral β-peptoid residues was also found to have a significant positive effect on uptake in living cells. Together, the findings provide an improved understanding on the behavior of cell-penetrating peptidomimetics in the presence of lipid bilayers and live cells.

  14. Low-temperature adsorption/storage of hydrogen on FAU, MFI, and MOR zeolites with various Si/Al ratios: effect of electrostatic fields and pore structures.

    PubMed

    Jhung, Sung Hwa; Yoon, Ji Woong; Lee, Ji Sun; Chang, Jong-San

    2007-01-01

    Several zeolites, such as faujasite, mordenite, and ZSM-5, with various aluminum contents have been used to analyze the effect of aluminum or cation concentration (strength of electrostatic field) on hydrogen adsorption at low temperature. Irrespective of the zeolite structure, the adsorption capacity, isosteric heat of adsorption (-DeltaHads), surface coverage, and micropore occupancy increase with increasing aluminum content of a zeolite. Zeolites with a higher amount of aluminum favorably adsorb hydrogen at relatively low pressures. For zeolites with similar aluminum contents, the adsorption capacity, isosteric heat of adsorption, surface coverage, and micropore occupancy are in the order of mordenite>ZSM-5>faujasite, probably due to differing pore sizes and the presence or absence of pore intersections. This work demonstrates that zeolites with strong electrostatic fields and narrow pores without intersections are beneficial for high hydrogen uptake.

  15. Study of Pb²⁺, Cd²⁺ and Ni²⁺ adsorption onto activated carbons prepared from glycyrrhiza residue by KOH or H₃PO₄activation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunfang; Fan, Wei; Zhang, Jinbao; Shi, Yang; Feng, Ningchuan

    2015-01-01

    The activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from glycyrrhiza residue by KOH or H₃PO₄activation and were used for removing Pb²⁺, Cd²⁺ and Ni²⁺ from simulated wastewater. The changes of the physical structure and chemical properties of the glycyrrhiza residue before and after activation were characterized by using a variety of analytical instruments and methods. Kinetics and equilibrium isotherms were obtained and the effects of solution pH value and adsorbent dosage were studied in batch experiments. The results indicated that after activation, the surface structure of glycyrrhiza residue changes and surface area, micropore volume also increase accordingly. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order reaction. The Freundlich model fitted the equilibrium data better than the Langmuir isotherm. According to the Langmuir equation, the maximum adsorption capacities of ACs prepared from glycyrrhiza residue by KOH and H₃PO₄activation for Pb²⁺, Cd²⁺ and Ni²⁺ are 2.170 mmol/g, 2.617 mmol/g, 3.741 mmol/g and 2.654 mmol/g, 3.095 mmol/g, 3.076 mmol/g, respectively, which are much higher than ACs prepared from other raw materials.

  16. The Effects of Salinity and Sodium Adsorption Ratio on the Water Retention and Hydraulic Conductivity Curves of Soils From The Pampa del Tamarugal, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, M. S.; Munoz, J.; Suarez, F. I.; Fierro, V.; Moreno, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Pampa del Tamarugal is located in the Atacama Desert, the most arid desert of the world. It has important reserves of groundwater, which are probably fed by infiltration coming from the Andes Mountain, with groundwater levels fluctuating between 3 and 10-70 m below the land surface. In zones where shallow groundwater exists, the capillary rise allows to have a permanently moist vadose zone, which sustain native vegetation such as the Tamarugos (Prosopis tamarugo Phil.) and Algarrobos (Prosopis alba Griseb.). The native vegetation relies on the soil moisture and on the evaporative fluxes, which are controlled by the hydrodynamic characteristics of the soils. The soils associated to the salt flats of the Pampa del Tamarugal are a mixture of sands and clays, which have high levels of sulfates, chloride, carbonates, sodium, calcium, magnesium, and potassium, with high pH and electrical conductivity, and low organic matter and cationic exchange capacity. In this research, we are interested in evaluating the impact of salinity and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the soil, i.e., water retention and hydraulic conductivity curves. Soils were collected from the Pampa del Tamarugal and brought to the laboratory for characterization. The evaporation method (HYPROP, UMS) was used to determine the water retention curve and the hydraulic conductivity curve was estimated combining the evaporation method with direct measurements using a variable head permeameter (KSAT, UMS). It was found that higher sodium concentrations increase the water retention capacity and decrease the soiĺs hydraulic conductivity. These changes occur in the moist range of the hydrodynamic characteristics. The soil's hydraulic properties have significant impact on evaporation fluxes, which is the mayor component of the water balance. Thus, it is important to quantify them and incorporate salt precipitation/dissolution effect on the hydrodynamic properties to correctly

  17. Evaluation of critical current density and residual resistance ratio limits in powder in tube Nb3Sn conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, Christopher; Tarantini, Chiara; Sung, Zu Hawn; Lee, Peter J.; Sailer, Bernd; Thoener, Manfred; Schlenga, Klaus; Ballarino, Amalia; Bottura, Luca; Bordini, Bernardo; Scheuerlein, Christian; Larbalestier, David C.

    2016-06-10

    High critical current density (Jc) Nb3Sn A15 multifilamentary wires require a large volume fraction of small grain, superconducting A15 phase, as well as Cu stabilizer with high Residual Resistance Ratio (RRR) to provide electromagnetic stabilization and protection. In Powder-in-Tube (PIT) wires the unreacted Nb7.5wt.%Ta outer layer of the tubular filaments acts as a diffusion barrier and protects the interfilamentary Cu stabilizer from Sn contamination. A high RRR requirement generally imposes a restricted A15 reaction heat treatment (HT) to prevent localized full reaction of the filament that could allow Sn to reach the Cu. In this paper we investigate recent high quality PIT wires that achieve a Jc(12 T, 4.2 K) up to ~2500 A/mm-2 and find that the minimum diffusion barrier thickness decreases as the filament aspect ratio increases from ~1 in the inner rings of filaments to 1.3 in the outer filament rings. We found that just 2-3 diffusion barrier breaches can degrade RRR from 300 to 150 or less. Using progressive etching of the Cu we also found that the RRR degradation is localized near the external filaments where deformation is highest. Consequently minimizing filament distortion during strand fabrication is important for reducing RRR degradation. The additional challenge of developing the highest possible Jc must be addressed by forming the maximum fraction of high Jc small-grain (SG) A15 and minimizing low Jc large-grain (LG) A15 morphologies. Finally, in one wire we found that 15% of the filaments had a significantly enhanced SG/LG A15 ratio and no residual A15 in the core, a feature that opens a path to substantial Jc improvement.

  18. Analysis of household ignitable liquids and their post-combustion weathered residues using compound-specific gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Zeland; An, Yan; Konstantynova, Kateryna I; Jackson, Glen P

    2013-12-10

    The continuing rise in home and vehicular arson cases involving the use of ignitable liquids continues to be an area of concern for criminal and civil investigators. In this study, the compound-specific δ(13)C values of various components of four flammable household chemicals were measured using a single quadrupole mass spectrometer and an isotope ratio mass spectrometer as simultaneous detectors for a gas chromatograph. Whereas compound-specific carbon isotope ratios were able to discriminate between different sources of neat (pre-combustion) ignitable liquids, analyses of the post-combustion residues were problematic. Weathering caused by combustion resulted in a significant increase in the (13)C content of specific peaks relative to the neat liquids (i.e. less negative delta values) such that the isotopic comparison of pre- and post-combustion residues resulted in fractionation ranging from 0 to +10‰. Because of the current lack of understanding of isotopic fractionation during combustion, and because of problems encountered with co-elution in the more complex samples, compound-specific IRMS does not appear to be suitable for fire debris analysis. The comparison of non-combusted or non-weathered ignitable liquids is much more reliable, especially for relatively simple mixtures, and is best suited for exclusionary purposes until such time as a comprehensive database of samples is developed. Without a measure of the population variance, one cannot presently predict the false positive identification rate for the comparison of two ignitable liquids; i.e. the probability that two random ignitable liquid samples have indistinguishable isotope ratios.

  19. Emission ratio of carbonaceous aerosols observed near crop residual burning sources in a rural area of the Yangtze River Delta Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, X. L.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z. F.; Taketani, F.; Tanimoto, H.; Irie, H.; Takashima, H.; Inomata, S.

    2012-11-01

    Intensive open crop residue burning (OCRB) has a great impact on regional air quality and climate. A field observation campaign in a rural area of the Yangtze River Delta Region (YRDR) was performed during the harvest season, and Elemental carbon (ECa), organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BCe), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and PM2.5mass were concurrently measured. During the observation period, urban pollution and OCRB-impact episodes were classified. The emission ratio of ECa mass (defined as the ΔECa/ΔCO ratio) from OCRB was estimated to be 18.2 ± 4.6 ng/m3/ppbv, much higher than that (3.0 ± 0.3 ng/m3/ppbv) of urban pollution from the YRDR. A significant amount of OC was emitted from OCRB with ΔOC/ΔCO ratio of 101.3 ± 41.6 ng/m3/ppbv. The value found in the present study was near the upper limit of OC emission ratios in the literature, implying great impacts from combustion conditions, types of biomass burned and subsequent evolution. Regarding urban pollution episodes, the ΔOC/ΔCO ratio was found to be 23.7 ± 2.4 ng/m3/ppbv, and secondary organics accounted for the major fraction of OC mass. Combustions phases of OCRB were classified according to a modified combustion efficiency (MCE, defined as ΔCO2/(ΔCO + ΔCO2)). Our results support the view that ECa tend to be produced in flaming combustions (MCE > 0.95) than in smoldering combustions (MCE < 0.95), whereas OC is emitted preferentially from smoldering combustions. Based on our observed carbonaceous aerosol correlations, we estimate that the ECa and OC emissions from OCRB in East Asia might be underestimated by at least 50%.

  20. [Adsorption behavior of exogenous thorium on soil contaminated by rare earth industries].

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng-ran; Jia, Xiao-yu; Duan, Tai-cheng; Qiu, Rong-liang; Chen, Hang-ting

    2009-10-15

    The adsorption behavior of exogenous thorium on soil was studied to evaluate the contaminated risk on soil. The adsorption capacity, equilibrium time, distribution coefficient and desorption ability were investigated by the experiments of static adsorption. The strong adsorption ability of exogenous thorium on soil samples was observed by high adsorption ratio (> 92%) and low desorption ratio (< 5%) in equilibrium, and the biggest distribution coefficient was over 10(4). The adsorption capacity and equilibrium time were related to soil properties. According to the results of adsorption, Freundlich equation (r > or = 0.9167) and Elovich equation (R2 > or = 0.8980) were primely fit for describing the thermodynamics and kinetics of the adsorption of exogenous thorium on soil samples, respectively, which indicated that the adsorption was belonged to the nonlinear adsorption, and was affected by the diffusion of thorium on soil surface and in mineral interbed. Sequential extraction procedure was employed to evaluate the bound fractions of exogenous thorium adsorbed on soil samples. Based on the extracted results of thorium fractions, exogenous thorium was presented in the labile nonresidual fractions (over 58%) at the low initial concentration (10(-7) - 10(-6) mol x L(-1)), and nonresidual fractions enhanced with the increase of the initial amount, meanwhile more exogenous throium was transferred to the stable residual fractions.

  1. Influence of Protein – Micelle Ratios and Cysteine Residues on the Kinetic Stability and Unfolding Rates of Human Mitochondrial VDAC-2

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Svetlana Rajkumar; Mahalakshmi, Radhakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Delineating the kinetic and thermodynamic factors which contribute to the stability of transmembrane β-barrels is critical to gain an in-depth understanding of membrane protein behavior. Human mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel isoform 2 (hVDAC-2), one of the key anti-apoptotic eukaryotic β-barrel proteins, is of paramount importance, owing to its indispensable role in cell survival. We demonstrate here that the stability of hVDAC-2 bears a strong kinetic contribution that is dependent on the absolute micellar concentration used for barrel folding. The refolding efficiency and ensuing stability is sensitive to the lipid-to-protein (LPR) ratio, and displays a non-linear relationship, with both low and high micellar amounts being detrimental to hVDAC-2 structure. Unfolding and aggregation process are sequential events and show strong temperature dependence. We demonstrate that an optimal lipid-to-protein ratio of 2600∶1 – 13000∶1 offers the highest protection against thermal denaturation. Activation energies derived only for lower LPRs are ∼17 kcal mol−1 for full-length hVDAC-2 and ∼23 kcal mol−1 for the Cys-less mutant, suggesting that the nine cysteine residues of hVDAC-2 impart additional malleability to the barrel scaffold. Our studies reveal that cysteine residues play a key role in the kinetic stability of the protein, determine barrel rigidity and thereby give rise to strong micellar association of hVDAC-2. Non-linearity of the Arrhenius plot at high LPRs coupled with observation of protein aggregation upon thermal denaturation indicates that contributions from both kinetic and thermodynamic components stabilize the 19-stranded β-barrel. Lipid-protein interaction and the linked kinetic contribution to free energy of the folded protein are together expected to play a key role in hVDAC-2 recycling and the functional switch at the onset of apoptosis. PMID:24494036

  2. Comparative studies on adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions by biosorbent, bio-char and activated carbon obtained from low cost agro-residue.

    PubMed

    Kırbıyık, Çisem; Pütün, Ayşe Eren; Pütün, Ersan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Fe(III) and Cr(III) metal ion adsorption processes were carried out with three adsorbents in batch experiments and their adsorption performance was compared. These adsorbents were sesame stalk without pretreatment, bio-char derived from thermal decomposition of biomass, and activated carbon which was obtained from chemical activation of biomass. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform-infrared techniques were used for characterization of adsorbents. The optimum conditions for the adsorption process were obtained by observing the influences of solution pH, adsorbent dosage, initial solution concentration, contact time and temperature. The optimum adsorption efficiencies were determined at pH 2.8 and pH 4.0 for Fe(III) and Cr(III) metal ion solutions, respectively. The experimental data were modelled by different isotherm models and the equilibriums were well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order kinetic, intra-particle diffusion and Elovich models were applied to analyze the kinetic data and to evaluate rate constants. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model gave a better fit than the others. The thermodynamic parameters, such as Gibbs free energy change ΔG°, standard enthalpy change ΔH° and standard entropy change ΔS° were evaluated. The thermodynamic study showed the adsorption was a spontaneous endothermic process.

  3. Fractionation of residual Al in natural water treatment from reservoir with poly-aluminum-silicate-chloride (PASiC): effect of OH/Al, Si/Al molar ratios and initial pH.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhonglian; Gao, Baoyu; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Yaqin; Yue, Qinyan

    2012-01-01

    An aluminum fractionation study was conducted for a surface reservoir water treatment to understand the performance of poly-aluminum-silicate-chloride (PASiC) in terms of the residual Al fractions as a function of initial pH. The coagulation performance expressed as turbidity and organic matter removal was established as supporting data. Some extra data were evaluated in terms of the residual Al ratio of the composite PASiC coagulant. The main residual Al sources were the Al fractions derived from the use of PASiC. The turbidity and organic matter removal ability was optimal at initial pH 6.00-7.00, while the concentrations of various residual Al species and the residual Al ratio of PASiC were minimal at an initial pH range of 7.00-8.00. Under the conditions of OH/Al molar ratio = 2.00 and Si/Al molar ratio = 0.05, PASiC had superior coagulation performance and comparatively low residual Al concentrations. The Al fraction in the composite PASiC coagulant seldom remained under such conditions. Experimental data also indicated that the suspended (filterable) Al fraction was the dominant species, and organic-bound or organo-Al complex Al was considered to be the major species of dissolved Al in water treated by PASiC coagulation. Additionally, the dissolved inorganic monomeric Al species dominated the dissolved monomeric Al fraction.

  4. A study of some sorbents for adsorption of mancozeb residue from soil of tobacco fields of Mazandaran, Iran by analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Azizi, S N; Chaichi, M J; Asemi, N

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to accesses the efficiency of removal of pesticide Mancozeb (Dithiocarbamates family) using different sorbents (synthetic zeolite type A, Humic Acid (HA) extracted from soil of Noshahr jungle in the north of Iran and mixture of them). The adsorption efficiency of the adsorbents was evaluated by Freundlich isotherms to select the best sorbent. The main effective parameters such as the amount of sorbents, pH, agitating time and concentrations of Mancozeb were tested. The results for 1.6 ppm of pesticide at pH=5 shows the optimum values 2, 0.75, 0.5 g for HA, zeolite NaA and mixture of them, respectively. The adsorption capacity decreases as pH increases and the adsorption effect for 0.1 g of sorbents at pH=5 were obtained in the order: (mixture of sorbents) > (synthetic zeolite type A) > (extracted Humic Acid).

  5. Separation of soybean saponins from soybean meal by a technology of foam fractionation and resin adsorption.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianxing; Wu, Zhaoliang; Liu, Wei; Gao, Yanfei; Guo, Shenghao; Kang, Shufang

    2016-05-18

    Foam fractionation and resin adsorption were used to recover soybean saponins from the industrial residue of soybean meal. First, a two-stage foam fractionation technology was studied for concentrating soybean saponins from the leaching liquor. Subsequently, resin adsorption was used to purify soybean saponins from the foamate in foam fractionation. The results showed that the enrichment ratio, the recovery percentage, and the purity of soybean saponins by using the two-stage foam fractionation technology could reach 4.45, 74%, and 67%, respectively. After resin adsorption and desorption, the purity of soybean saponins in the freeze-dried powder from the desorption solution was 88.4%.

  6. Effect of OH-/Al3+ and Si/Al molar ratios on the coagulation performance and residual Al speciation during surface water treatment with poly-aluminum-silicate-chloride (PASiC).

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhonglian; Gao, Baoyu; Xu, Weiying; Cao, Baichuan; Yue, Qinyan

    2011-05-15

    Coagulation performance, mechanism of poly-aluminum-silicate-chloride (PASiC) and residual Al speciation in the effluent with respect to a specific surface water treatment in China were comprehensively investigated in this study. The impact of OH(-)/Al(3+) and Si/Al molar ratios on the coagulation performance, mechanism and residual Al speciation of PASiC in surface water treatment was discussed as a function of coagulant dosage. It was intended to provide an insight into the relationship between coagulation performance and residual Al. Experimental results revealed that when OH(-)/Al(3+) molar ratio = 2.00 and Si/Al molar ratio = 0.0500 in PASiC coagulant, PASiC exhibited beneficial coagulation property and relatively lower content of residual Al. Surface bridging and entrapment was more effective compared with charge neutralization during the specific surface water treatment. The majority of residual Al in the effluent existed in the form of insoluble suspended or particulate Al. Dissolved organically bound Al was almost the major speciation in dissolved Al and dissolved inorganically bound monomeric Al was the only component in dissolved monomeric Al. Al in PASiC remained abundant at lower dosages and residual Al concentration could be effectively reduced at the dosages of 12.0-15.0mg/L as Al.

  7. Probabilistic evidential assessment of gunshot residue particle evidence (Part I): likelihood ratio calculation and case pre-assessment using Bayesian networks.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, A; Bozza, S; Taroni, F

    2009-10-30

    Well developed experimental procedures currently exist for retrieving and analyzing particle evidence from hands of individuals suspected of being associated with the discharge of a firearm. Although analytical approaches (e.g. automated Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDS) microanalysis) allow the determination of the presence of elements typically found in gunshot residue (GSR) particles, such analyses provide no information about a given particle's actual source. Possible origins for which scientists may need to account for are a primary exposure to the discharge of a firearm or a secondary transfer due to a contaminated environment. In order to approach such sources of uncertainty in the context of evidential assessment, this paper studies the construction and practical implementation of graphical probability models (i.e. Bayesian networks). These can assist forensic scientists in making the issue tractable within a probabilistic perspective. The proposed models focus on likelihood ratio calculations at various levels of detail as well as case pre-assessment.

  8. Adsorptive removal of fluoride from aqueous medium using a fixed bed column packed with Zr(IV) loaded dried orange juice residue.

    PubMed

    Paudyal, Hari; Pangeni, Bimala; Inoue, Katsutoshi; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Ohto, Keisuke; Alam, Shafiq

    2013-10-01

    The potential of the adsorbent prepared from DOJR marketed as cattle food in Japan was identified as an efficient and low cost adsorbent for fluoride using fixed bed column. DOJR was loaded with Zr(IV) ions to develop active adsorption sites for fluoride. Fluoride adsorption performance of column packed with Zr(IV) loaded DOJR was assessed under variable operating conditions such as Zr(IV) loading temperature, initial fluoride concentration, bed depth, initial pH, and flow rate. Breakthrough curve modeling showed that Thomas and bed depth service time (BDST) models were in good agreement with the experimental data. Application of adsorbent investigated in this study to the treatment of actual waste plating solution containing fluoride ion showed successful removal below acceptable standard in Japan using a fixed bed column, hence, Zr(IV)-DOJR can be expected to be a promising candidate for the treatment waste water containing trace amount of fluoride ion in fixed bed column.

  9. Automated determination of pesticide residues in olive oil by on-line reversed-phase liquid chromatography-gas chromatography using the through oven transfer adsorption desorption interface with electron-capture and nitrogen-phosphorus detectors operating simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Plaza, Eva M; Cortés, Jose M; Vázquez, Ana; Villén, Jesús

    2007-12-07

    A rapid method for the multiresidue analysis of pesticides in olive oil is presented. Pesticides are analyzed by on-line coupling reversed-phase liquid chromatography-gas chromatography using the through oven transfer adsorption desorption (TOTAD) interface with subsequent simultaneous electron-capture and nitrogen-phosphorus detection by post-column splitter. An autosampler is employed and the olive oil is simply filtered before the chromatographic analysis. Organophosphorus, organochlorine and triazine pesticides are determined in one run. The limits of detection are below the required maximum residue levels and calibration curves are linear in the range tested. Repeatabilities (intra-day and inter-days) are good. The method was satisfactory applied to the routine analysis of numerous olive oil samples.

  10. Direct analysis of pesticide residues in olive oil by on-line reversed phase liquid chromatography-gas chromatography using an automated through oven transfer adsorption desorption (TOTAD) interface.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Raquel; Vázquez, Ana; Riquelme, David; Villén, Jesús

    2003-10-08

    A fully automated on-line reversed phase liquid chromatography-gas chromatography system is described. The system uses a prototype of the automated through oven transfer adsorption desorption interface. The system is demonstrated by presenting a new rapid method for the determination of pesticide residue in olive oil, which is injected directly with no sample pretreatment step other than filtration. Methanol:water is used as the eluent in the LC preseparation step, while the LC fraction containing the pesticide is automatically transferred to the gas chromatograph. Detection limits of pesticides varied from 0.18 to 0.44 mg/L when a flame ionization detector was used. As an example, relative standard deviation and linear calibration are presented for terbutryne.

  11. Random sequential adsorption on fractals.

    PubMed

    Ciesla, Michal; Barbasz, Jakub

    2012-07-28

    Irreversible adsorption of spheres on flat collectors having dimension d < 2 is studied. Molecules are adsorbed on Sierpinski's triangle and carpet-like fractals (1 < d < 2), and on general Cantor set (d < 1). Adsorption process is modeled numerically using random sequential adsorption (RSA) algorithm. The paper concentrates on measurement of fundamental properties of coverages, i.e., maximal random coverage ratio and density autocorrelation function, as well as RSA kinetics. Obtained results allow to improve phenomenological relation between maximal random coverage ratio and collector dimension. Moreover, simulations show that, in general, most of known dimensional properties of adsorbed monolayers are valid for non-integer dimensions.

  12. Surface Curvature Relation to Protein Adsorption for Carbon-based Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Zonglin; Yang, Zaixing; Chong, Yu; Ge, Cuicui; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Bell, David R.; Zhou, Ruhong

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of proteins onto carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) is dictated by hydrophobic and π-π interactions between aliphatic and aromatic residues and the conjugated CBN surface. Accordingly, protein adsorption is highly sensitive to topological constraints imposed by CBN surface structure; in particular, adsorption capacity is thought to increase as the incident surface curvature decreases. In this work, we couple Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations with fluorescence spectroscopy experiments to characterize this curvature dependence in detail for the model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). By studying BSA adsorption onto carbon nanotubes of increasing radius (featuring descending local curvatures) and a flat graphene sheet, we confirm that adsorption capacity is indeed enhanced on flatter surfaces. Naïve fluorescence experiments featuring multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), however, conform to an opposing trend. To reconcile these observations, we conduct additional MD simulations with MWCNTs that match those prepared in experiments; such simulations indicate that increased mass to surface area ratios in multi-walled systems explain the observed discrepancies. In reduction, our work substantiates the inverse relationship between protein adsorption capacity and surface curvature and further demonstrates the need for subtle consideration in experimental and simulation design. PMID:26041015

  13. Surface Curvature Relation to Protein Adsorption for Carbon-based Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zonglin; Yang, Zaixing; Chong, Yu; Ge, Cuicui; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Bell, David R.; Zhou, Ruhong

    2015-06-01

    The adsorption of proteins onto carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) is dictated by hydrophobic and π-π interactions between aliphatic and aromatic residues and the conjugated CBN surface. Accordingly, protein adsorption is highly sensitive to topological constraints imposed by CBN surface structure; in particular, adsorption capacity is thought to increase as the incident surface curvature decreases. In this work, we couple Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations with fluorescence spectroscopy experiments to characterize this curvature dependence in detail for the model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). By studying BSA adsorption onto carbon nanotubes of increasing radius (featuring descending local curvatures) and a flat graphene sheet, we confirm that adsorption capacity is indeed enhanced on flatter surfaces. Naïve fluorescence experiments featuring multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), however, conform to an opposing trend. To reconcile these observations, we conduct additional MD simulations with MWCNTs that match those prepared in experiments; such simulations indicate that increased mass to surface area ratios in multi-walled systems explain the observed discrepancies. In reduction, our work substantiates the inverse relationship between protein adsorption capacity and surface curvature and further demonstrates the need for subtle consideration in experimental and simulation design.

  14. New field-based agricultural biomass burning trace gas, PM2.5, and black carbon emission ratios and factors measured in situ at crop residue fires in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianran; Wooster, Martin J.; Green, David C.; Main, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    Despite policy attempts to limit or prevent agricultural burning, its use to remove crop residues either immediately after harvest (e.g. field burning of wheat stubble) or after subsequent crop processing (e.g. "bonfires" of rice straw and rapeseed residues) appears to remain widespread across parts of China. Emission factors for these types of small but highly numerous fire are therefore required to fully assess their impact on atmospheric composition and air pollution. Here we describe the design and deployment of a new smoke measurement system for the close-range sampling of key gases and particles within smoke from crop residue fires, using it to assess instantaneous mixing ratios of CO and CO2 and mass concentrations of black carbon (BC) and PM2.5 from wheat stubble, rice straw, and rapeseed residue fires. Using data of our new smoke sampling system, we find a strong linear correlation between the PM2.5 mass and BC, with very high PM2.5 to BC emission ratios found in the smouldering phase (up to 80.7 mg m-3.(mg m-3)-1) compared to the flaming phase (2.0 mg m-3.(mg m-3)-1). We conclude that the contribution of BC to PM2.5 mass was as high as 50% in the flaming phase of some burns, whilst during smouldering it sometimes decreased to little over one percent. A linear mixing model is used to quantify the relative contribution of each combustion phase to the overall measured smoke composition, and we find that flaming combustion dominated the total emission of most species assessed. Using time series of trace gas concentrations from different fire cases, we calculated 'fire integrated' trace gas emission factors (EFs) for wheat, rice and rapeseed residue burns as 1739 ± 19 g kg-1, 1761 ± 30 g kg-1and 1704 ± 27 g kg-1 respectively for CO2, and 60 ± 12 g kg-1, 47 ± 19 g kg-1 and 82 ± 17 g kg-1 respectively for CO. Where comparisons were possible, our EFs agreed well with those derived via a simultaneously-deployed open path Fourier transform infrared (OP

  15. Preparation of zeolite NaA for CO2 capture from nickel laterite residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Tao; Liu, Li-ying; Xiao, Penny; Che, Shuai; Wang, He-ming

    2014-08-01

    Zeolite NaA was successfully prepared from nickel laterite residue for the first time via a fusion-hydrothermal procedure. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized zeolite NaA were characterized with a range of experimental techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. It was revealed that the structures of the produced zeolites were dependent on the molar ratios of the reactants and hydrothermal reaction conditions, so the synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain pure zeolite NaA. Adsorption of nitrogen and carbon dioxide on the prepared zeolite NaA was also measured and analyzed. The results showed that zeolite NaA could be prepared with reasonable purity, it had physicochemical properties comparable with zeolite NaA made from other methods, and it had excellent gas adsorption properties, thus demonstrating that zeolite NaA could be prepared from nickel laterite residue.

  16. A biological oil adsorption filter.

    PubMed

    Pasila, Antti

    2004-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore.

  17. Microwave-assisted preparation and adsorption performance of activated carbon from biodiesel industry solid reside: influence of operational parameters.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2012-01-01

    Preparation of activated carbon has been attempted using KOH as activating agent by microwave heating from biodiesel industry solid residue, oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFBAC). The significance of chemical impregnation ratio (IR), microwave power and activation time on the properties of activated carbon were investigated. The optimum condition has been identified at the IR of 1.0, microwave power of 600 W and activation time of 7 min. EFBAC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption isotherm. The surface chemistry was examined by zeta potential measurement, determination of surface acidity/basicity, while the adsorptive property was quantified using methylene blue as dye model compound. The optimum conditions resulted in activated carbon with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 395.30 mg/g and carbon yield of 73.78%, while the BET surface area and total pore volume were corresponding to 1372 m2/g and 0.76 cm3/g, respectively.

  18. Conceptual adsorption models and open issues pertaining to performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.

    1991-10-01

    Recently several articles have been published that question the appropriateness of the distribution coefficient, Rd, concept to quantify radionuclide migration. Several distinct issues are raised by various critics. In this paper I provide some perspective on issues surrounding the modeling of nuclide retardation. The first section defines adsorption terminology and discusses various adsorption processes. The next section describes five commonly used adsorption conceptual models, specifically emphasizing what attributes that affect adsorption are explicitly accommodated in each model. I also review efforts to incorporate each adsorption model into performance assessment transport computer codes. The five adsorption conceptual models are (1) the constant Rd model, (2) the parametric Rd model, (3) isotherm adsorption models, (4) mass-action adsorption models, and (5) surface-complexation with electrostatics models. The final section discusses the adequacy of the distribution ratio concept, the adequacy of transport calculations that rely on constant retardation factors and the status of incorporating sophisticated adsorption models into transport codes.

  19. Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, Roddie R.; Burchell, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided.

  20. Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

    1999-06-15

    Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided. 5 figs.

  1. Modeling the adsorption of mixed gases based on pure gas adsorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzabar, N.; Holland, H. J.; Vermeer, C. H.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Sorption-based Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers usually operate with pure gases. A sorption-based compressor has many benefits; however, it is limited by the pressure ratios it can provide. Using a mixed-refrigerant (MR) instead of a pure refrigerant in JT cryocoolers allows working at much lower pressure ratios. Therefore, it is attractive using MRs in sorption- based cryocoolers in order to reduce one of its main limitations. The adsorption of mixed gases is usually investigated under steady-state conditions, mainly for storage and separation processes. However, the process in a sorption compressor goes through various temperatures, pressures and adsorption concentrations; therefore, it differs from the common mixed gases adsorption applications. In order to simulate the sorption process in a compressor a numerical analysis for mixed gases is developed, based on pure gas adsorption characteristics. The pure gas adsorption properties have been measured for four gases (nitrogen, methane, ethane, and propane) with Norit-RB2 activated carbon. A single adsorption model is desired to describe the adsorption of all four gases. This model is further developed to a mixed-gas adsorption model. In future work more adsorbents will be tested using these four gases and the adsorption model will be verified against experimental results of mixed-gas adsorption measurements.

  2. Adsorption of thorium from aqueous solutions by perlite.

    PubMed

    Talip, Z; Eral, M; Hiçsönmez, U

    2009-02-01

    The use of expanded perlite for the adsorption of thorium from aqueous solution by batch technique is presented. The effects of particle size, pH of the solution, initial thorium concentration, shaking time, V/m ratio and temperature were determined. It was found that the adsorption capacity increases by the increase in the pH of the suspensions. The rate of thorium adsorption on expanded perlite was observed to be fast in the first hour of the reaction time. Adsorption isotherms were expressed by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models and the adsorption experiments conducted at 30 +/- 1 degrees C showed that the adsorption isotherms correlated well with the Langmuir model. From the adsorption data, thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaG(o), DeltaH(o) and DeltaS(o) were calculated as a function of temperature.

  3. Factors affecting drug adsorption on beta zeolites.

    PubMed

    Pasti, Luisa; Sarti, Elena; Cavazzini, Alberto; Marchetti, Nicola; Dondi, Francesco; Martucci, Annalisa

    2013-05-01

    The adsorption behaviour of three commonly used drugs, namely ketoprofen, hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol, from diluted aqueous solutions on beta zeolites with different SiO2/Al2O3 ratio (i.e. 25, 38 and 360) was investigated by changing the ionic strength and the pH, before and after thermal treatment of the adsorbents. The selective adsorption of drugs was confirmed by thermogravimetry and X-ray diffraction. The adsorption capacity of beta zeolites was strongly dependent on both the solution pH and the alumina content of the adsorbent. Such a remarkable difference was interpreted as a function of the interactions between drug molecules and zeolite surface functional groups. Atenolol was readily adsorbed on the less hydrophobic zeolite, under pH conditions in which electrostatic interactions were predominant. On the other hand, ketoprofen adsorption was mainly driven by hydrophobic interactions. For undissociated molecules the adsorption capability increased with the increase of hydrophobicity.

  4. Adsorption properties and gaseous mercury transformation rate of natural biofilm.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinping; Zhao, Wenchang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Cheng; Liu, Caie; Wang, Wenhua

    2008-11-01

    Biofilms were developed on glass microscope slides in a natural aquatic environment and their mercury adsorption properties were evaluated. Results demonstrated that the biofilms contained a large number of bacterial cells and associated extracellular polymers. Mercury forms detected in the biofilms were mainly bound to residual matter and organic acids. The adsorption processes could be described by a Langmuir isotherm. The optimum conditions for adsorption of mercury to natural biofilm were an ionic strength of 0.1 mol/L, pH 6 and an optimum adsorption time of 40 min. The transformation rate was 0.79 microg gaseous mercury per gram of biofilm.

  5. BSA adsorption on bimodal PEO brushes.

    PubMed

    Bosker, W T E; Iakovlev, P A; Norde, W; Cohen Stuart, M A

    2005-06-15

    BSA adsorption onto bimodal PEO brushes at a solid surface was measured using optical reflectometry. Bimodal brushes consist of long (N=770) and short (N=48) PEO chains and were prepared on PS surfaces, applying mixtures of PS(29)-PEO(48) and PS(37)-PEO(770) block copolymers and using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Pi-A isotherms of (mixtures of) the block copolymers were measured to establish the brush regime. The isotherms of PS(29)-PEO(48) show hysteresis between compression and expansion cycles, indicating aggregation of the PS(29)-PEO(48) upon compression. Mixtures of PS(29)-PEO(48) and PS(37)-PEO(770) demonstrate a similar hysteresis effect, which eventually vanishes when the ratio of PS(37)-PEO(770) to PS(29)-PEO(48) is increased. The adsorption of BSA was determined at brushes for which the grafting density of the long PEO chains was varied, while the total grafting density was kept constant. BSA adsorption onto monomodal PEO(48) and PEO(770) brushes was determined for comparison. The BSA adsorption behavior of the bimodal brushes is similar to the adsorption of BSA at PEO(770) monomodal brushes. The maximum of BSA adsorption at low grafting density of PEO(770) can be explained by ternary adsorption, implying an attraction between BSA and PEO. The contribution of primary adsorption to the total adsorbed amount is negligible.

  6. Genetic associations of residual feed intake with serum insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin concentrations, meat quality, and carcass cross sectional fat area ratios in Duroc pigs.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M A; Katoh, K; Suzuki, K

    2009-10-01

    Genetic relationships of measures of residual feed intake and daily feed intake with serum IGF-I concentrations at 8 wk of age and at 105 kg of BW, serum leptin concentration at 105 kg of BW, meat quality, and different fat accumulation traits on 834 Duroc pigs in 7 generations were estimated. Two measures of residual feed intake were estimated from the differences between actual and predicted feed intake: phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI(phe)) and nutritional residual feed intake (RFI(nut)). Meat quality traits included drip loss, cooking loss, pork color score, pork lightness (L*), and pH, whereas fat accumulation traits were subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat, and total fat percent at 5-6th thoracic vertebra; subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat, abdominal fat, and total fat percent at one-half body length and at last thoracic vertebra, and seam fat score. The IGF-I concentrations at 8 wk of age and 105 kg of BW had weak genetic correlations with measures of residual feed intake and daily feed intake (absolute values ranging from 0.14 to 0.24). The genetic correlations between measures of residual feed intake and serum leptin concentration were strong and positive (r(g) with RFI(phe) and RFI(nut) were 0.74 and 0.80, respectively). Residual feed intake was moderately but negatively correlated with cooking loss (r(g) with RFI(phe) and RFI(nut) were -0.42 and -0.49, respectively), whereas daily feed intake was moderately and positively correlated with drip loss and pH (0.33 and 0.36, respectively). Daily feed intake was also moderately correlated with subcutaneous fat accumulations at the 5-6th thoracic vertebra (0.31) and one-half body length (0.31) regions and was strongly correlated with accumulations at the last thoracic vertebra region (0.57). The genetic correlations between daily feed intake and intermuscular fat accumulations at all of the carcass sites were strong (0.60, 0.76, and 0.56 for intermuscular fat at 5-6th thoracic vertebra, one-half body

  7. Fast, facile and ethidium bromide-free assay based on the use of adsorption indicator for the estimation of polyethylenimine to nucleic acid ratio of complete polyplex assembly for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Plianwong, Samarwadee; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak

    2013-10-15

    A new method was developed for the estimation of polyethylenimine (PEI) to nucleic acid ratio at which the polyplex was completely formed. The assay relied on the attraction of dichlorofluoresceinate dye to adsorb on self-assembling particles as counterions, as induced by the surface charge of the polyplex which became positive once PEI associated equivalently with nucleic acid. This phenomenon resulted in the appearance of pink colored pellets of the polyplex after centrifugation. By the other means, sodium hydroxide solution might be added to free the adsorbed dye into the solution, producing conspicuous green fluorescence under UV light (366 nm). The assay was well applied to the polyplex formulations of PEI and plasmid DNA or siRNA with satisfactory detectability and gave the results in agreement with those from gel retardation method and zeta potential analysis. Importantly, the proposed method required no sophisticated instruments, time-consuming gel electrophoresis, carcinogenic ethidium bromide as well as costly dyes and the analysis could be accomplished within less than 10 min. Hence, it was a fast, facile, cost-effective and safe-for-operator alternative method, suited for the investigation of the optimal PEI to nucleic acid ratio for gene delivery.

  8. Blast furnace residues for arsenic removal from mining-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Pedroza, Fco Raúl; Soria-Aguilar, Ma de Jesús; Martínez-Luevanos, Antonia; Narvaez-García, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    In this work, blast furnace (BF) residues were well characterized and then evaluated as an adsorbent material for arsenic removal from a mining-contaminated groundwater. The adsorption process was analysed using the theories of Freundlich and Langmuir. BF residues were found to be an effective sorbent for As (V) ions. The modelling of adsorption isotherms by empirical models shows that arsenate adsorption is fitted by the Langmuir model, suggesting a monolayer adsorption of arsenic onto adsorbents. Arsenate adsorption onto BF residue is explained by the charge density surface affinity and by the formation of Fe (II) and Fe (III) corrosion products onto BF residue particles. The results indicate that BF residues represent an attractive low-cost absorbent option for the removal of arsenic in wastewater treatment.

  9. Optimizing production of hydroxyapatite from alkaline residue for removal of Pb2+ from wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yubo; Wang, YanPeng; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Shen, Jinyou; Han, Weiqing; Liu, Xiaodong; Wang, Lianjun

    2014-10-01

    Alkaline residue, a common solid waste generated from the ammonia-soda process for the production of soda ash, has been converted into hydroxyapatite for Pb2+ removal from wastewater. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the preparation conditions which were Ca/P (molar ratio), reaction temperature and reaction time, with the Pb2+ removal percentage as targeted response. The optimum conditions were identified to be Ca/P of 1.29, reaction temperature of 165.87 °C and reaction time of 14.5 h. Batch tests were conducted to evaluate the adsorption performance of optimum adsorbent (O-HAP), and the adsorption data were analyzed with different kinetic and isotherm models. The results showed that the pseudo-second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model could best describe the adsorption of Pb2+ on O-HAP. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated from Langmuir equation was 1429 mg/g, which was greater than other familiar adsorbents. The MINTEQ results predicted that the formation of different Pb precipitates was the main mechanism in Pb2+ removal process, which was in good agreement with the kinetic and thermodynamic studies and were confirmed by the SEM-EDS and XRD analysis. In addition to aqueous medium, the O-HAP also could efficiently immobilize Pb2+ from contaminated soil.

  10. Adsorption Refrigeration System

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kai; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption refrigeration is an environmentally friendly cooling technology which could be driven by recovered waste heat or low-grade heat such as solar energy. In comparison with absorption system, an adsorption system has no problems such as corrosion at high temperature and salt crystallization. In comparison with vapor compression refrigeration system, it has the advantages of simple control, no moving parts and less noise. This paper introduces the basic theory of adsorption cycle as well as the advanced adsorption cycles such as heat and mass recovery cycle, thermal wave cycle and convection thermal wave cycle. The types, characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of different adsorbents used in adsorption refrigeration systems are also summarized. This article will increase the awareness of this emerging cooling technology among the HVAC engineers and help them select appropriate adsorption systems in energy-efficient building design.

  11. Preparative separation and purification of rebaudioside a from steviol glycosides using mixed-mode macroporous adsorption resins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongfeng; Di, Duolong; Bai, Qingqing; Li, Jintian; Chen, Zhenbin; Lou, Song; Ye, Helin

    2011-09-14

    Preparative separation and purification of rebaudioside A from steviol glycosides using mixed-mode macroporous adsorption resins (MARs) were systematically investigated. Mixed-mode MARs were prepared by a physical blending method. By evaluation of the adsorption/desorption ratio and adsorption/desorption capacity of mixed-mode MARs with different proportions toward RA and ST, the mixed-mode MAR 18 was chosen as the optimum strategy. On the basis of the static tests, it was found that the experimental data fitted best to the pseudosecond-order kinetics and Temkin-Pyzhev isotherm. Furthermore, the dynamic adsorption/desorption experiments were performed on the mini column packed with mixed-mode MAR 18. After one run treatment, the purity of rebaudioside A in purified product increased from 40.77 to 60.53%, with a yield rate of 38.73% (W/W), and that in residual product decreased from 40.77 to 36.17%, with a recovery yield of 57.61% (W/W). The total recovery yield reached 96.34% (W/W). The results showed that this method could be utilized in large-scale production of rebaudioside A from steviol glycosides in industry.

  12. Hydrogen Adsorption in Carbon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, A. L.; Rojas, S.; Dias-Droguett, D. E.; Bhuyan, H.; Aomoa, N.; Kakati, M.

    2013-03-01

    We have studied hydrogen adsorption in carbon nanoparticles using a quartz crystal microbalance. The carbon nanoparticles were synthesized from a thermal plasma jet at different pressure (15 - 263 torr) of the reactants and different current (50 - 250 A) to generate the plasma. The as-prepared carbon nanoparticles were directly deposited on top of the gold electrode of a quartz crystal and we monitored in-situ the changes in resonance frequency while the chamber was pressurized at different hydrogen pressures. These changes enabled determination of absorbed hydrogen mass in order to get H/C mass ratio curves as a function of H2 pressure. Adsorption curves obtained in some carbon nanoparticles indicated the formation of hydrogen monolayer inside the pores of the carbon nanoparticles. Using the value of the jump due to the formation of a H2\\ monolayer, a surface area was estimated between 40-60 m2/g for hydrogen adsorption. In other carbon samples, hydrogen uptake curves indicated that H2 was filling the sample's pores when pore volume was large. These observations will be discussed in detail for several carbon nanoparticles samples. Funds provided by VRI Puente 9/2012 and 10/2012

  13. Coulometric Study of Ethanol Adsorption at a Polycrystalline Platinum Electrode

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    value of the ratio Ian/Icalc: 1. The minimal ratio would be 1, corresponding to a one- electron oxidation of one-site attached CH3CH2O surface...Coulometric Study of Ethanol Adsorption at a Polycrystalline Platinum Electrode Sol Gilman Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL...noble metals and noble metal alloys that can provide what amounts to an adsorbed oxygen “valve” for initiating adsorption/reaction on a clean and

  14. A Simple Adsorption Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guirado, Gonzalo; Ayllon, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    The study of adsorption phenomenon is one of the most relevant and traditional physical chemistry experiments performed by chemistry undergraduate students in laboratory courses. In this article, we describe an easy, inexpensive, and straightforward way to experimentally determine adsorption isotherms using pieces of filter paper as the adsorbent…

  15. Single and binary adsorption of proteins on ion-exchange adsorbent: The effectiveness of isothermal models.

    PubMed

    Liang, Juan; Fieg, Georg; Shi, Qing-Hong; Sun, Yan

    2012-09-01

    Simultaneous and sequential adsorption equilibria of single and binary adsorption of bovine serum albumin and bovine hemoglobin on Q Sepharose FF were investigated in different buffer constituents and initial conditions. The results in simultaneous adsorption showed that both proteins underwent competitive adsorption onto the adsorbent following greatly by protein-surface interaction. Preferentially adsorbed albumin complied with the universal rule of ion-exchange adsorption whereas buffer had no marked influence on hemoglobin adsorption. Moreover, an increase in initial ratios of proteins was benefit to a growth of adsorption density. In sequential adsorption, hemoglobin had the same adsorption densities as single-component adsorption. It was attributed to the displacement of preadsorbed albumin and multiple layer adsorption of hemoglobin. Three isothermal models (i.e. extended Langmuir, steric mass-action, and statistical thermodynamic (ST) models) were introduced to describe the ion-exchange adsorption of albumin and hemoglobin mixtures. The results suggested that extended Langmuir model gave the lowest deviation in describing preferential adsorption of albumin at a given salt concentration while steric mass-action model could very well describe the salt effect in albumin adsorption. For weaker adsorbed hemoglobin, ST model was the preferred choice. In concert with breakthrough data, the research further revealed the complexity in ion-exchange adsorption of proteins.

  16. On tide-induced lagrangian residual current and residual transport: 1. Lagrangian residual current

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feng, Shizuo; Cheng, Ralph T.; Pangen, Xi

    1986-01-01

    Residual currents in tidal estuaries and coastal embayments have been recognized as fundamental factors which affect the long-term transport processes. It has been pointed out by previous studies that it is more relevant to use a Lagrangian mean velocity than an Eulerian mean velocity to determine the movements of water masses. Under weakly nonlinear approximation, the parameter k, which is the ratio of the net displacement of a labeled water mass in one tidal cycle to the tidal excursion, is assumed to be small. Solutions for tides, tidal current, and residual current have been considered for two-dimensional, barotropic estuaries and coastal seas. Particular attention has been paid to the distinction between the Lagrangian and Eulerian residual currents. When k is small, the first-order Lagrangian residual is shown to be the sum of the Eulerian residual current and the Stokes drift. The Lagrangian residual drift velocity or the second-order Lagrangian residual current has been shown to be dependent on the phase of tidal current. The Lagrangian drift velocity is induced by nonlinear interactions between tides, tidal currents, and the first-order residual currents, and it takes the form of an ellipse on a hodograph plane. Several examples are given to further demonstrate the unique properties of the Lagrangian residual current.

  17. Isotherms for Water Adsorption on Molecular Sieve 3A: Influence of Cation Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ronghong; Ladshaw, Austin; Nan, Yue; Liu, Jiuxu; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; DePaoli, David W.; Tavlarides, Lawrence L.

    2015-06-16

    This study is part of our continuing efforts to address engineering issues related to the removal of tritiated water from off-gases produced in used nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. In the current study, adsorption equilibrium of water on molecular sieve 3A beads was investigated. Adsorption isotherms for water on the UOP molecular sieve 3A were measured by a continuous-flow adsorption system at 298, 313, 333, and 353 K. Experimental data collected were analyzed by the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm model. The K+/Na+ molar ratio of this particular type of molecular sieve 3A was ~4:6. Our results showed that the GSTA isotherm model worked very well to describe the equilibrium behavior of water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A. The optimum number of parameters for the current experimental data was determined to be a set of four equilibrium parameters. This result suggests that the adsorbent crystals contain four energetically distinct adsorption sites. In addition, it was found that water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A follows a three-stage adsorption process. This three-stage adsorption process confirmed different water adsorption sites in molecular sieve crystals. In addition, the second adsorption stage is significantly affected by the K+/Na+ molar ratio. In this stage, the equilibrium adsorption capacity at a given water vapor pressure increases as the K+/Na+ molar ratio increases.

  18. Isotherms for Water Adsorption on Molecular Sieve 3A: Influence of Cation Composition

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Ronghong; Ladshaw, Austin; Nan, Yue; ...

    2015-06-16

    This study is part of our continuing efforts to address engineering issues related to the removal of tritiated water from off-gases produced in used nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. In the current study, adsorption equilibrium of water on molecular sieve 3A beads was investigated. Adsorption isotherms for water on the UOP molecular sieve 3A were measured by a continuous-flow adsorption system at 298, 313, 333, and 353 K. Experimental data collected were analyzed by the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm model. The K+/Na+ molar ratio of this particular type of molecular sieve 3A was ~4:6. Our results showed that themore » GSTA isotherm model worked very well to describe the equilibrium behavior of water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A. The optimum number of parameters for the current experimental data was determined to be a set of four equilibrium parameters. This result suggests that the adsorbent crystals contain four energetically distinct adsorption sites. In addition, it was found that water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A follows a three-stage adsorption process. This three-stage adsorption process confirmed different water adsorption sites in molecular sieve crystals. In addition, the second adsorption stage is significantly affected by the K+/Na+ molar ratio. In this stage, the equilibrium adsorption capacity at a given water vapor pressure increases as the K+/Na+ molar ratio increases.« less

  19. High adsorption capacity NaOH-activated carbon for dye removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng-Chin; Tseng, Ru-Ling

    2008-04-15

    In this study, the surface coverage ratio (Sc/Sp) and monolayer cover adsorption amount per unit surface area (qmon/Sp) were employed to investigate the adsorption isotherm equilibrium of the adsorption of dyes (AB74, BB1 and MB) on NaOH-activated carbons (FWNa2, FWNa3 and FWNa4); the adsorption rate of the Elovich equation (1/b) and the ratio of 1min adsorption amount of adsorbate to the monolayer cover amount of adsorbate (q1/qmon) were employed to investigate adsorption kinetics. The qmon/Sp of NaOH-activated carbons was better than that of KOH-activated carbons prepared from the same raw material (fir wood). The Sc/Sp values of the adsorption of all adsorbates on adsorbent FWNa3 in this study were found to be higher than those in related literature. Parameters 1/b and q1 of the adsorption of dyes on activated carbons in this study were higher than those on KOH-activated carbons; the q1/qmon value of FWNa3 was the highest. The pore structure and the TPD measurement of the surface oxide groups were employed to explain the superior adsorption performance of FWNa3. A high surface activated carbon (FWNa3) with excellent adsorption performance on dyes with relation to adsorption isotherm equilibrium and kinetics was obtained in this study. Several adsorption data processing methods were employed to describe the adsorption performance.

  20. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  1. Influence of post-harvest crop residue fires on surface ozone mixing ratios in the N.W. IGP analyzed using 2 years of continuous in situ trace gas measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.; Sinha, V.

    2016-04-01

    O3, CO, and NOx affect air quality and tropospheric chemistry but factors that control them in the densely populated N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) are poorly understood. This work presents the first simultaneous 2 year long in situ data set acquired from August 2011 to September 2013 at a N.W. IGP site (30.667°N, 76.729°E; 310 m asl). We investigate the impact of emissions and meteorology on the diel and seasonal variability of O3, CO, and NOx. Regional post-harvest crop residue fires contribute majorly to an enhancement of 19 ppb in hourly averaged ozone concentrations under similar meteorological conditions in summer and 7 ppb under conditions of lower radiation during the post monsoon. d[O3]/dt (from sunrise to daytime O3 maxima) was highest during periods influenced by post-harvest fires in post monsoon season (9.2 ppb h-1) and lowest during monsoon season (4.1 ppb h-1). Analysis of air mass clusters revealed that enhanced chemical formation of O3 and not transport was the driver of the summertime and post monsoon ambient O3 maxima. Despite having high daytime NOx (>12 ppb) and CO (>440 ppb) in winter, average daytime O3 was less than 40 ppb due to reduced photochemistry and fog. Average daytime O3 during the monsoon was less than 45 ppb due to washout of precursors and suppressed photochemistry due to cloud cover. The 8 h ambient air quality O3 standard was violated on 451 days in the period August 2011-September 2013. The results show that substantial mitigation efforts are required to reduce regional O3 pollution in the N.W. IGP.

  2. Sub-ambient carbon dioxide adsorption properties of nitrogen doped graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Tamilarasan, P.; Ramaprabhu, Sundara

    2015-04-14

    Carbon dioxide adsorption on carbon surface can be enhanced by doping the surface with heterogeneous atoms, which can increase local surface affinity. This study presents the carbon dioxide adsorption properties of nitrogen doped graphene at low pressures (<100 kPa). Graphene was exposed to nitrogen plasma, which dopes nitrogen atoms into carbon hexagonal lattice, mainly in pyridinic and pyrrolic forms. It is found that nitrogen doping significantly improves the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity at all temperatures, due to the enrichment of local Lewis basic sites. In general, isotherm and thermodynamic parameters suggest that doped nitrogen sites have nearly same adsorption energy of surface defects and residual functional groups. The isosteric heat of adsorption remains in physisorption range, which falls with surface coverage, suggesting the distribution of magnitude of adsorption energy. The absolute values of isosteric heat and entropy of adsorption are slightly increased upon nitrogen doping.

  3. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  4. Generalized random sequential adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarjus, G.; Schaaf, P.; Talbot, J.

    1990-12-01

    Adsorption of hard spherical particles onto a flat uniform surface is analyzed by using generalized random sequential adsorption (RSA) models. These models are defined by releasing the condition of immobility present in the usual RSA rules to allow for desorption or surface diffusion. Contrary to the simple RSA case, generalized RSA processes are no longer irreversible and the system formed by the adsorbed particles on the surface may reach an equilibrium state. We show by using a distribution function approach that the kinetics of such processes can be described by means of an exact infinite hierarchy of equations reminiscent of the Kirkwood-Salsburg hierarchy for systems at equilibrium. We illustrate the way in which the systems produced by adsorption/desorption and by adsorption/diffusion evolve between the two limits represented by ``simple RSA'' and ``equilibrium'' by considering approximate solutions in terms of truncated density expansions.

  5. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  6. Dry fermentation of agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, W. J.; Chandler, J. A.; Dellorto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Fast, S.; Jackson, D.; Kabrick, R. M.

    1981-09-01

    A dry fermentation process is discussed which converts agricultural residues to methane, using the residues in their as produced state. The process appears to simplify and enhance the possibilities for using crop residues as an energy source. The major process variables investigated include temperature, the amount and type of inoculum, buffer requirements, compaction, and pretreatment to control the initial available organic components that create pH problems. A pilot-scale reactor operation on corn stover at a temperature of 550 C, with 25 percent initial total solids, a seed-to-feed ratio of 2.5 percent, and a buffer-to-feed ratio of 8 percent achieved 33 percent total volatile solids destruction in 60 days. Volumetric biogas yields from this unit were greater than 1 vol/vol day for 12 days, and greater than 0.5 vol/vol day for 32 days, at a substrate density of 169 kg/m (3).

  7. Phosphorus Recovery Using Zirconium-Loaded Saponified Orange Juice Residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Mitsunori; Biswas, Biplob K.; Ohura, Seichirou; Inoue, Katsutoshi; Ishikawa, Susumu; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Ohto, Keisuke

    Zirconium was immobilized to orange juice residue, to investigate the feasibility of using zirconium-loaded saponified orange juice residue (Zr-SOJR) for phosphorus recovery from secondary effluent and the extraction solution from incinerated sewage sludge ash by using H2SO4 and HCl. These had phosphorus concentrations of 68.2 mg/dm3 and 5.9 mg/dm3, respectively. The phosphorus removal rate secondary effluent increased with an increasing solid/liquid ratio in batch experiments. The adsorption capacity of Zr-SOJR was also compared with those obtained using a synthetic phosphorus solution and using zirconium-loaded ferrite. The prepared absorbent was effective for phosphorus removal and exhibited a reasonably high sorption capacity, twice that of zirconium ferrite. Secondary effluent was treated by packed column, and this reached break-through after 300 bed volumes. The results from phosphorous extraction from the ash indicate that can be treated with acid to efficiently recover phosphorous and thus can be absorbed by Zr-SOJR.

  8. [Adsorption of perchlorate by calcined Mg/Zn/Al layered double hydroxides].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Yu; Liu, Yan

    2014-07-01

    The adsorption capacity of perchlorate by Mg/Zn/Al layered double hydroxides was investigated. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the adsorption isothermal model and dynamic model were discussed. The effect of calcination temperature, Mg/Zn/Al molar ratio, pH value of solution, adsorption time and dosage on the adsorption capacity of samples were studied. The experiment results showed that the removal ratio and adsorption capacity reached the highest and the pH value had good applicability when the molar ratio was Mg/Zn/Al = 2: 1 : 1. The adsorption of perchlorate basically conformed to the pseudo-second kinetics and Langmuir, Freundlich isotherm model.

  9. Adsorption of star polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halperin, A.; Joanny, J. F.

    1991-06-01

    The adsorption of star polymers on a flat solid surface is analyzed by means of scalling arguments based on the Daoud-Cotton blob model. For the adsorption of a single star, consisting of f arms comprising each N monomers, we distinguish three regimes determined by the adsorption energy of a monomer at the surface, δ kT. 1) Strong adsorption characterized by the full adsorption of all arms occurs for δ > (f/N)^{3/5}. 2) A “Sombrero” like structure comprising f_ads fully adsorbed arms and f{-}f_ads free arms is obtained for (f/N)^{3/5}> δ > f^{9/20}/N^{3/5}. 3) Weakly adsorbed stars retain, essentially, the structure of a free star. This regime occurs for δ < f^{9/20}/N^{3/5}. The weakly adsorbed structure may also exist as a metastable state if δ > f^{9/5}/N^{3/5}. Nous étudions l'adsorption de polymères en étoile sur une surface solide en utilisant une approche de lois d'échelles basée sur le modèle de blobs de Daoud et Cotton. Pour une étoile formée de f bras contenant chacun N monomères, nous distinguons trois régimes suivant la valeur de l'énergie d'adsorption d'un monomère sur la surface δ kT. 1) L'adsorption forte caractérisée par une adsorption complète de tous les bras se produit lorsque δ > (f/N)^{3/5}. 2) Une structure en “sombrero” avec f_ads bras adsorbés et f{-}f_ads bras libres est obtenue si f^{9/20}/N^{3/5}δ < (f/N)^{3/5}. 3) Les étoiles faiblement adsorbées gardent une structure très similaire à celle des étoiles libres en solution. Ce régime existe si δ < f^{9/20}/N^{3/5}. La structure correspondant aux étoiles faiblement adsorbées peut aussi exister comme un état métastable si δ > f^{9/5}/N^{3/5}.

  10. Possibility of using adsorption refrigeration unit in district heating network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzebielec, Andrzej; Rusowicz, Artur; Jaworski, Maciej; Laskowski, Rafał

    2015-09-01

    Adsorption refrigeration systems are able to work with heat sources of temperature starting with 50 °C. The aim of the article is to determine whether in terms of technical and economic issues adsorption refrigeration equipment can work as elements that produce cold using hot water from the district heating network. For this purpose, examined was the work of the adsorption air conditioning equipment cooperating with drycooler, and the opportunities offered by the district heating network in Warsaw during the summer. It turns out that the efficiency of the adsorption device from the economic perspective is not sufficient for production of cold even during the transitional period. The main problem is not the low temperature of the water supply, but the large difference between the coefficients of performance, COPs, of adsorption device and a traditional compressor air conditioning unit. When outside air temperature is 25 °C, the COP of the compressor type reaches a value of 4.49, whereas that of the adsorption device in the same conditions is 0.14. The ratio of the COPs is 32. At the same time ratio between the price of 1 kWh of electric power and 1 kWh of heat is only 2.85. Adsorption refrigeration equipment to be able to compete with compressor devices, should feature COPads efficiency to be greater than 1.52. At such a low driving temperature and even changing the drycooler into the evaporative cooler it is not currently possible to achieve.

  11. Comparison of the Adsorption of Original and Biosimilar Preparations of Filgrastim on Infusion Sets and the Inhibition of Adsorption by Polysorbate 80.

    PubMed

    Tange, Mio; Matsumoto, Akino; Yoshida, Miyako; Kojima, Honami; Haraguchi, Tamami; Uchida, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the adsorption of filgrastim on infusion sets (comprising infusion bag, line and filter) and to compare the adsorption of the original filgrastim preparation with biosimilar preparations using HPLC. The inhibitory effect of polysorbate 80 on this adsorption was also evaluated. Filgrastim was mixed with isotonic sodium chloride solution or 5% (w/v) glucose solution in the infusion fluid. Filgrastim adsorption on infusion sets was observed with all preparations and with both types of infusion solution. The adsorption ratio was about 30% in all circumstances. Filgrastim adsorption on all parts of the infusion set (bag, line and filter) was dramatically decreased by the addition of polysorbate 80 solution at concentrations at or over its critical micelle concentration (CMC). The filgrastim adsorption ratio was highest at a solution pH of 5.65, which is the isoelectric point (pI) of filgrastim. This study showed that the degree of filgrastim adsorption on infusion sets is similar for original and biosimilar preparations, but that the addition of polysorbate 80 to the infusion solution at concentrations at or above its CMC is effective in preventing filgrastim adsorption. The addition of a total-vitamin preparation with a polysorbate 80 concentration over its CMC may be an effective way of preventing filgrastim adsorption on infusion sets.

  12. Adsorption edge study about cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc adsorption by variable charge soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Mouta, E. R.; Soares, M. R.

    2009-04-01

    The improper discharge of industrial and urban residues and the inadvertent use of fertilizers and pesticides can result in soil and water pollution and improve the potential of trace metals to enter in the human food chain. Adsorption reactions occur at the solid/liquid interface and are the most important mechanisms for controlling the activity of metal ions in soil solution. In a complex system with amphoteric behavior, the comprehension of the mobility, availability and fate of pollutants in the soil system is crucial for the prediction of the environmental consequences and for development of prevention/remediation strategies. A comparative study of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) adsorption by highly weathered soils was carried out. Surface (0-0.2m) and subsoil (B horizon) samples were taken from a Rhodic Kandiudalf (RH), an Anionic "Xanthic" Acrudox (XA) and an Anionic "Rhodic" Acrudox (RA), located in brazilian humid tropical area. As the pH and the ionic strength are important environmental factors influencing the solution chemistry of heavy metals in variable charge systems, adsorption envelopes, in a batch adsorption experiment, were elaborated by reacting, for 24 h, soil samples with individual 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 aqueous solutions containing nitrate salts of the adsorptive heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) at the initial concentration of 5 mg L-1, with an increasing pH value from 3.0 to 8.0. pH50-100%, the difference between the pH of 100 and 50 percent metal adsorption was determined. A sharp increase of adsorption density (adsorption edge) was observed within a very narrow pH range, usually less than two pH units. Commonly, the relative affinity of a soil for a metal cation increases with the tendency of the cation to form inner-sphere surface complexes. This may be caused by differences in extent of hydrolysis of Cu ions and in affinity of adsorption sites for Cu. In general, subsurface samples showed low pH50

  13. [Effect of concomitant substances and addition order on the adsorption of Tween 80 on sand].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Zhao, Yong-sheng; Li, Sui; Dai, Ning

    2008-08-01

    Adsorption of Tween 80 on sand was investigated, and the effect of inorganic salts (CaCl2), anionic surfactant (SDS) and lignosulphonates (sodium lignosulphonate or ammonium lignosulphonate) on the adsorption of Tween 80 on sand were evaluated at 25 degrees C. The results show that saturated adsorption amount of Tween 80 on sand enhance when CaCl2 or SDS is added into flushing solution of Tween 80. And the adsorption of Tween 80 on sand increase with the increase of molar fraction of CaCl2 or SDS in mixed flushing solution. And adsorption amount of Tween 80 on sand also enhance when SDS is added into sand firstly. The effects of mixing ratios and addition order of lignosulphonates on adsorption of Tween 80 were considered. The results show that with the increase of molar fraction of lignosulphonates in mixing flushing solution, adsorption amount of Tween 80 on sand decrease. The adsorption amount of Tween 80 reduce 20%-75% due to the exist of ammonium lignosulphonate is superior to sodium lignosulphonate (10%-60%) when mix the lignosulphonates-Tween 80 at the total mass ratios of 1:10, while the adsorption amount of Tween 80 reduce 70%-90% at the total mass ratios of 1:2. Lignosulphonates added into sand firstly is more efficient than that together. Therefore,use of lignosulphonates as a preflush can reduce the adsorption of surfactants on sand and is a better method to applied in in situ flushing.

  14. Studies on adsorption of phenol from wastewater by agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Girish, C R; Ramachandramurty, V

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, preliminary investigation of various agricultural wastes-Rice mill residue (RM), Wheat mill reside (WM), Dall mill residue (DM) and the Banana peels (BM) was carried out to study their ability to be used as adsorbents for phenol-removal from wastewater. This study reports the feasibility of employing dal mill residue waste (DM) as an adsorbent for removing phenol from wastewater. The performance of DM was compared with the commercially available activated carbon (CAC). Batch mode experiments were conducted with activated DM to study the effects of initial concentration of phenol, pH and the temperature of aqueous solution on adsorption. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models and the isotherm data fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm with monolayer adsorption capacity of 6.189 mg/g. The kinetic data obtained at different concentrations were analyzed using a pseudo-first order and pseudo-second- order equation. The experimental data fitted very well with the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The FTIR analysis revealed that carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups were mainly responsible for the sorption of phenol. Finally, the DM was found to be a promising adsorbent for phenol adsorption as compared to activated carbon.

  15. The adsorption of HCl on volcanic ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Xochilt; Schiavi, Federica; Keppler, Hans

    2016-03-01

    data provided here, the gas compositions in equilibrium with the ash surfaces can be calculated. In particular, for dacitic composition, the molar ratio of S/Cl adsorbed to the ash surface is related to the molar S/Cl ratio in the gas phase according to the equation ln ⁡(S / Cl) adsorbed = 2855T-1 + 0.28 ln ⁡(S / Cl) gas - 11.14. Our data also show that adsorption on ash will significantly reduce the fraction of HCl reaching the stratosphere, only if the initial HCl content in the volcanic gas is low (<1 mol%). For higher initial HCl concentrations, adsorption on ash has only a minor effect. While HCl scavenging by hydrometeors may remove a considerable fraction of HCl from the eruption column, recent models suggest that this process is much less efficient than previously thought. Our experimental data therefore support the idea that the HCl loading from major explosive eruptions may indeed cause severe depletions of stratospheric ozone.

  16. Adsorption and desorption behavior of selected pesticides as influenced by decomposition of maize mulch.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Sohaib; Garnier, Patricia; Rumpel, Cornelia; Parent, Serge E; Benoit, Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Assessing pesticide fate in conservation agricultural systems requires a detailed understanding of their interaction with decomposing surface crop residues (mulch). Adsorption and desorption behavior of glyphosate, s-metolachlor and epoxiconazole was investigated on maize mulch residues decomposed under laboratory and field conditions. Our conceptual approach included characterization of chemical composition and hydrophobicity of mulch residues in order to generate parameters to predict sorption behavior. Adsorption of s-metolachlor and epoxiconazole greatly increased with mulch decomposition, whereas glyphosate adsorption was less affected but its desorption was increased. Mulch characteristics including aromaticity, hydrophobicity and polarity indices were strongly correlated to Koc of the non-ionic pesticides. A predictive model based on compositional data (CoDa) analysis revealed that the sorption capacity of decomposing mulch can be predicted from descriptors such as aromatic and alkyl C corresponding respectively to lignin and NDF biochemical fractions. The decomposition degree of mulch residues should be taken into account while predicting the fate of pesticides.

  17. New Adsorption Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankat, Phillip C.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses a simple method for following the movement of a solute in an adsorption or ion exchange system. This movement is used to study a variety of operational methods, including continuous flow and pulsed flow counter-current operations and simulated counter-current systems. Effect of changing thermodynamic variables is also considered. (JM)

  18. SEPARATION BY ADSORPTION

    DOEpatents

    Lowe, C.S.

    1959-06-16

    Separation of Pu from fission products by adsorption on hydrous aluminum silicate is described. The Pu in a HNO/sub 3/ solution is oxidized to the hexavalent state and contacted with the silicate which adsorbs fission products. (T.R.H.)

  19. Adsorption of ions on surfaces modified with brushes of polyampholytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borówko, M.; Sokołowski, S.; Staszewski, T.; Sokołowska, Z.; Ilnytskyi, J. M.

    2012-08-01

    We apply density functional theory to study adsorption of ions, treated in the framework of the restricted primitive model (RPM), on surfaces modified by tethered polyampholytes. The residual electrostatic contribution to the free energy functional is approximated by using the approach proposed by Wang et al. [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23, 175002 (2011)], 10.1088/0953-8984/23/17/175002 for simple nonuniform RPMs systems. Our research concentrates on the problems how the distribution of the charges within chains of polyampholytes changes the selectivity of adsorption of ions species, the structure of the surface layer, and its electric properties.

  20. Ibuprofen adsorption in four agricultural volcanic soils.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Esmeralda; Hernandez-Moreno, Jose Manuel; Fernandez-Vera, Juan Ramon; Palacios-Diaz, Maria Pino

    2014-01-15

    Ibuprofen (IB) is a high environmental risk drug and one of the most frequently prescribed in human medicine. Recently, IB has been detected in Gran Canaria in reclaimed water for irrigation and in groundwater. Adsorption was studied in four volcanic soils from three islands of the Canarian Archipelago. Once the biodegradation process has been excluded from the experimental conditions, a batch method was applied using initial concentrations of 1-5-10-20-50-100-200 mg L(-1) and two soil/water ratios (w/V): 1:5 (OECD, 2000) and 1:1. Non-linear and linearized Langmuir and Freundlich equations were well fitted. The wide IB range tested in our batch studies allowed us to measure experimental adsorption values close to the maximum adsorption capacity (S(max)) as estimated by Langmuir, making it possible thereby to validate the use of the Langmuir equation when there is a burst of contamination at high concentration. The distribution coefficient (Kd), S(max) and Retardation Factor (RF) varied from 0.04 to 0.5 kg L(-1), 4-200 mgk g(-1) and 1.2-1.9, respectively. The lowest S(max) and Kd values were found for the 1:1S/W ratio whereas most batch studies employ 1:5S/W ratios, thus obtaining higher adsorption parameters than when considering field conditions (1:1). Despite the high anion retention of andic soils, similar Kd and RF to those reported for other soils were obtained in 1:5, while high S(max) was found. Our results demonstrate that IB adsorption in volcanic areas responds not only to the soil properties commonly cited in adsorption studies, but also depends on andic properties, sorbent concentration and Dissolved Organic Carbon, the higher values of which are related to the lower Kd and S(max). The low RF and low detection frequency of the IB in groundwater suggests that a) reclaimed water irrigation is not the main source of IB, and b) the existence of some uncontrolled water disposal points in the zone.

  1. Advances in principal factors influencing carbon dioxide adsorption on zeolites

    PubMed Central

    Bonenfant, Danielle; Kharoune, Mourad; Niquette, Patrick; Mimeault, Murielle; Hausler, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We report the advances in the principal structural and experimental factors that might influence the carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites. The CO2 adsorption is principally govern by the inclusion of exchangeable cations (countercations) within the cavities of zeolites, which induce basicity and an electric field, two key parameters for CO2 adsorption. More specifically, these two parameters vary with diverse factors including the nature, distribution and number of exchangeable cations. The structure of framework also determines CO2 adsorption on zeolites by influencing the basicity and electric field in their cavities. In fact, the basicity and electric field usually vary inversely with the Si/Al ratio. Furthermore, the CO2 adsorption might be limited by the size of pores within zeolites and by the carbonates formation during the CO2 chemisorption. The polarity of molecules adsorbed on zeolites represents a very important factor that influences their interaction with the electric field. The adsorbates that have the most great quadrupole moment such as the CO2, might interact strongly with the electric field of zeolites and this favors their adsorption. The pressure, temperature and presence of water seem to be the most important experimental conditions that influence the adsorption of CO2. The CO2 adsorption increases with the gas phase pressure and decreases with the rise of temperature. The presence of water significantly decreases adsorption capacity of cationic zeolites by decreasing strength and heterogeneity of the electric field and by favoring the formation of bicarbonates. The optimization of the zeolites structural characteristics and the experimental conditions might enhance substantially their CO2 adsorption capacity and thereby might give rise to the excellent adsorbents that may be used to capturing the industrial emissions of CO2. PMID:27877925

  2. Phase 2 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Nick; Watson, Tony

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear fission produces fission products (FPs) and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the second phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during the second half of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014. Test results continue to show that methyl iodide adsorption using AgZ can achieve total iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) above 1,000, until breakthrough occurred. However, mass transfer zone depths are deeper for methyl iodide adsorption compared to diatomic iodine (I2) adsorption. Methyl iodide DFs for the Ag Aerogel test adsorption efficiencies were less than 1,000, and the methyl iodide mass transfer zone depth exceeded 8 inches. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption under various conditions specified in the methyl iodide test plan, and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  3. Conformational changes of bovine serum albumin upon its adsorption in dodecane-in-water emulsions as revealed by front-face steady-state fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Castelain, C; Genot, C

    1994-01-05

    Front-face fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterise dodecane-in-buffer (0.1 M phosphate buffer; pH = 7.6) emulsions stabilised by bovine serum albumin (BSA). A 15-nm blue-shift of the emission maximum of the adsorbed protein and a significant increase of its fluorescence quantum yield were observed. The contribution of tyrosyl residues to total fluorescence was tentatively evaluated from different spectra and an R ratio taking into account the stray-light interference; R increased upon BSA absorption but the Tyrosine contribution remained weak in all cases. Thus, conformational changes of the protein take place upon BSA adsorption onto the dodecane-water interface. They involve modifications in the environment of the protein aromatic amino acids especially of the tryptophanyl residues which are displaced to a more hydrophobic location. Moreover, the proportions of absorbed and non-adsorbed BSA in emulsions can be estimated from the position of the emission maximum.

  4. Chemistry of combined residual chlorination

    SciTech Connect

    Leao, S.F.; Selleck, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The decay of the combined chlorine residual was investigated in this work. Recent concerns about the formation of undesirable compounds such as chloroform with free residual chlorination have focused attention on the alternative use of combined residual chlorination. This work investigates the applicability of reactions proposed to describe the transformations and decay of the combined residual with time. Sodium hypochlorite was added to buffered solutions of ammonia with the chlorine residual being monitored over periods extending up to 10 days. The reaction was studied at four initial concentrations of hypochlorite of 100, 50, 25 and 10 mg/L as Cl/sub 2/ with molar application ratios of chlorine to ammonia, defined herein as M ratios, of 0.90, 0.50, 0.25 and 0.05 at each hypochlorite dose. Sixty-eight experiments were conducted at the pH of 6.6 and 7.2. The conclusions are: (1) in the absence of free chlorine, the concentration of NH/sub 3/ does not seem to affect the rate of disappearance of the residual other than through the formation of NHCl/sub 2/ by NH/sub 2/Cl hydrolysis; (2) the reaction between NHCl/sub 2/ and NH/sub 4//sup +/ to form NH/sub 2/Cl is either much slower than reported by Gray et. al. or the mechanism is different with a rate limiting step not involving NH/sub 3/ or NH/sub 4//sup +/; (3) a redox reaction in addition to the first-order decomposition of NHCl/sub 2/ appears necessary. Model simulation results indicated that a reaction of the type NH/sub 2/Cl + NHCl/sub 2/ ..-->.. P added to the first-order NHCl/sub 2/ decomposition can explain the results observed except at the higher chlorine doses.

  5. [Effect of SDS on the adsorption of Cd2+ onto amphoteric modified bentonites].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Tao; Meng, Zhao-Fu; Yang, Ya-Ti; Yang, Shu-Ying; Li, Bin; Xu, Shao-e

    2014-07-01

    Under different modified ratios, temperatures, pH and ionic strengths, the effect of sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) on the adsorption of Cd2+ onto bentonites which modified with amphoteric modifier dodecyl dimethyl betaine (BS-12) was studied by batch experiments, and the adsorption mechanism was also discussed. Results showed that the adsorption of Cd2+ on amphoteric bentonites can be enhanced significantly by SDS combined modification, Cd2+ adsorption decreases in the order: BS + 150SDS (BS-12 + 150% SDS) > BS + 100SDS (BS-12 + 100% SDS) > BS +50SDS(BS-12 + 50% SDS) > BS + 25SDS (BS-12 + 25% SDS) > BS (BS-12) > CK (unmodified soil). The adsorption isotherm can be described by the Langmuir equation. The change of temperature effect from positive on CK and amphoteric bentonites to negative on BS + 150SDS bentonites is observed with an increase of SDS modified ratio. The pH has little influence on Cd2+ adsorption on bentonites. The adsorption of Cd2+ on bentonites decreases with ionic strength rise, but the effect of ionic strength can be reduced with an increase of SDS modified ratio also. The adsorption thermodynamic parameters demonstrated that the adsorption of Cd2+ on modified bentonites was spontaneously controlled by entropy increment. When the SDS modified ratio is lower than 100% CEC, the adsorption of Cd2+ on modified bentonites is a process with characteristics of both enthalpy increment and entropy increment, while the SDS modified ratio is equal to or higher than 100% CEC, the adsorption of Cd2+ on modified bentonites becomes a process of enthalpy decrement and entropy increment.

  6. DISSOLUTION OF NEPTUNIUM OXIDE RESIDUES

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E

    2009-01-12

    This report describes the development of a dissolution flowsheet for neptunium (Np) oxide (NpO{sub 2}) residues (i.e., various NpO{sub 2} sources, HB-Line glovebox sweepings, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) thermogravimetric analysis samples). Samples of each type of materials proposed for processing were dissolved in a closed laboratory apparatus and the rate and total quantity of off-gas were measured. Samples of the off-gas were also analyzed. The quantity and type of solids remaining (when visible) were determined after post-dissolution filtration of the solution. Recommended conditions for dissolution of the NpO{sub 2} residues are: Solution Matrix and Loading: {approx}50 g Np/L (750 g Np in 15 L of dissolver solution), using 8 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 0.025 M potassium fluoride (KF) at greater than 100 C for at least 3 hours. Off-gas: Analysis of the off-gas indicated nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) as the only identified components. No hydrogen (H{sub 2}) was detected. The molar ratio of off-gas produced per mole of Np dissolved ranged from 0.25 to 0.4 moles of gas per mole of Np dissolved. A peak off-gas rate of {approx}0.1 scfm/kg bulk oxide was observed. Residual Solids: Pure NpO{sub 2} dissolved with little or no residue with the proposed flowsheet but the NpCo and both sweepings samples left visible solid residue after dissolution. For the NpCo and Part II Sweepings samples the residue amounted to {approx}1% of the initial material, but for the Part I Sweepings sample, the residue amounted to {approx}8 % of the initial material. These residues contained primarily aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) compounds that did not completely dissolve under the flowsheet conditions. The residues from both sweepings samples contained minor amounts of plutonium (Pu) particles. Overall, the undissolved Np and Pu particles in the residues were a very small fraction of the total solids.

  7. Adsorption of chloroacetanilide herbicides on soil and its components. III. Influence of clay acidity, humic acid coating and herbicide structure on acetanilide herbicide adsorption on homoionic clays.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-ping; Fang, Zhuo; Liu, Hui-jun; Yang, Wei-chun

    2002-04-01

    Adsorption of chloroacetanilide herbicides on homoionic montmorillonite, soil humic acid, and their mixtures was studied by coupling batch equilibration and FT-IR analysis. Adsorption isotherms of acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor and propachlor on Ca(2+)-, Mg(2+)-, Al(3+)- and Fe(3+)-saturated clays were well described by the Freundlich equation. Regardless of the type of exchange cations, Kf decreased in the order of metolachlor > acetolachlor > alachlor > propachlor on the same clay. FT-IR spectra showed that the carbonyl group of the herbicide molecule was involved in binding, probably via H-bond with water molecules in the clay interlayer. The type and position of substitutions around the carbonyl group may have affected the electronegativity of oxygen, thus influencing the relative adsorption of these herbicides. For the same herbicide, adsorption on clay increased in the order of Mg2+ < Ca2+ < Al3+ < or = Fe3+ which coincided with the increasing acidity of homoionic clays. Acidity of cations may have affected the protonation of water, and thus the strength of H-bond between the clay water and herbicide. Complexation of clay and humic acid resulted in less adsorption than that expected from independent adsorption by the individual constituents. The effect varied with herbicides, but the greatest decrease in adsorption occurred at a 60:40 clay-to-humic acid ratio for all the herbicides. Causes for the decreased adsorption need to be characterized to better understand adsorption mechanisms and predict adsorption from soil compositions.

  8. Regenerable adsorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roychoudhury, Subir (Inventor); Perry, Jay (Inventor); Walsh, Dennis (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method for regenerable adsorption includes providing a substrate that defines at least one layer of ultra short channel length mesh capable of conducting an electrical current therethrough, coating at least a portion of the substrate with a desired sorbent for trace contaminant control or CO.sub.2 sorption, resistively heating the substrate, and passing a flowstream through the substrate and in contact with the sorbent.

  9. [Adsorption characteristics of f2 bacteriophages by four substrates in constructed wetland].

    PubMed

    Chen, Di; Zheng, Xiang; Wei, Yuan-Song; Yang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Performance of f2 phages adsorption by four substrates including anthracite coal, steel slag, zeolite and forsterite was investigated through batch and dynamic experiments. Results of batch experiments showed that the removal efficiency of f2 phages by these four substrates was in the order of anthracite > steel slag > forsterite approximately zeolite. The adsorption of f2 phages by anthracite experienced fast, medium and slow stages, and the removal efficiency of f2 phages increased gradually with the increase of anthracite dosage, e. g. the optimized dosage of anthracite was 8.0 g at a solid/liquid ratio of 1:12.5 (m/V). The isothermal adsorption of all four substrates was described with Freundlich and Langmuir isothermal adsorption equation very well, and the adsorption of f2 phages by both anthracite and steel slag fitted pseudo-second order adsorption kinetics at their theoretical adsorption capacities of 3. 35 x 10(8) PFU.g-1 and 2.56 x 10(8) PFU.g-1, respectively, nearly the same as the equilibrium adsorption capacities obtained under the experiment conditions. And the liquid diffusion process was a rate-limiting step of the adsorption of f2 phage by both anthracite and steel slag, but not the only one. The results of dynamic adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption process of f2 phages in the three adsorption columns including anthracite, steel slag and zeolite experienced four stages of adaption, adsorption, pulse adsorption and adsorption equilibrium, and the total removal rates of f2 phages were more than 2. 55 Ig.

  10. Diffusion Influenced Adsorption Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Miura, Toshiaki; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-27

    When the kinetics of adsorption is influenced by the diffusive flow of solutes, the solute concentration at the surface is influenced by the surface coverage of solutes, which is given by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood adsorption equation. The diffusion equation with the boundary condition given by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood adsorption equation leads to the nonlinear integro-differential equation for the surface coverage. In this paper, we solved the nonlinear integro-differential equation using the Grünwald-Letnikov formula developed to solve fractional kinetics. Guided by the numerical results, analytical expressions for the upper and lower bounds of the exact numerical results were obtained. The upper and lower bounds were close to the exact numerical results in the diffusion- and reaction-controlled limits, respectively. We examined the validity of the two simple analytical expressions obtained in the diffusion-controlled limit. The results were generalized to include the effect of dispersive diffusion. We also investigated the effect of molecular rearrangement of anisotropic molecules on surface coverage.

  11. ZnCl2-activated biochar from biogas residue facilitates aqueous As(III) removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Dong; Tan, Fen; Zhang, Chuanpan; Jiang, Xiuli; Chen, Zheng; Li, Heng; Zheng, Yanmei; Li, Qingbiao; Wang, Yuanpeng

    2016-07-01

    Biochars prepared from biogas residue using different chemical activators were investigated for their As(III) adsorption properties. The results indicated that the original biochars did not exhibit significant As(III) adsorption. However, ZnCl2-activated biochar, which possessed the largest specific surface area, 516.67 cm2/g, and exhibited a perfectly porous texture, showed excellent performance in a 500 μgL-1 solution of As(III). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were utilized to identify the mechanism of As(III) adsorption by ZnCl2-activated biochar. Adsorption was found to occur mainly through ligand exchange of the hydroxyl in Zn-OH to form Zn-O-As(III), as well as through porous adsorption. As a low-cost adsorbent, the adsorption process was well fitted using a pseudo-second-order model, with an R2 > 0.993. The adsorption process was fast, requiring nearly 90 min to reach adsorption equilibrium. Batch adsorption experimental results indicated that ZnCl2-activated biochar has a maximum adsorption capacity of 27.67 mg/g at pH 7.0, and the adsorption process followed the Freundlich isotherm model well, with an R2 > 0.994. In addition, the current work demonstrated the efficiency of using ZnCl2-activated biochar adsorbent to treat As(III)-contaminated water.

  12. Detailed Study of BSA Adsorption on Micro- and Nanocrystalline Diamond/β-SiC Composite Gradient Films by Time-Resolved Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Handschuh-Wang, Stephan; Wang, Tao; Druzhinin, Sergey I; Wesner, Daniel; Jiang, Xin; Schönherr, Holger

    2017-01-24

    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on micro- and nanocrystalline diamond/β-SiC composite films synthesized using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique has been investigated by confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. BSA labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was employed as a probe. The BSA(FITC) conjugate was found to preferentially adsorb on both O-/OH-terminated microcrystalline and nanocrystalline diamond compared to the OH-terminated β-SiC, resulting in an increasing amount of BSA adsorbed to the gradient surfaces with an increasing diamond/β-SiC ratio. The different strength of adsorption (>30 times for diamond with a grain size of 570 nm) coincides with different surface energy parameters and differing conformational changes upon adsorption. Fluorescence data of the adsorbed BSA(FITC) on the gradient film with different diamond coverage show a four-exponential decay with decay times of 3.71, 2.54, 0.66, and 0.13 ns for a grain size of 570 nm. The different decay times are attributed to the fluorescence of thiourea fluorescein residuals of linked FITC distributed in BSA with different dye-dye and dye-surface distances. The longest decay time was found to correlate linearly with the diamond grain size. The fluorescence of BSA(FITC) undergoes external dynamic fluorescence quenching on the diamond surface by H- and/or sp(2)-defects and/or by amorphous carbon or graphite phases. An acceleration of the internal fluorescence concentration quenching in BSA(FITC) because of structural changes of albumin due to adsorption, is concluded to be a secondary contributor. These results suggest that the micro- and nanocrystalline diamond/β-SiC composite gradient films can be utilized to spatially control protein adsorption and diamond crystallite size, which facilitates systematic studies at these interesting (bio)interfaces.

  13. Screening of novel low-cost adsorbents from agricultural residues to remove ammonia nitrogen from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiwei; Dong, Yuanhua; Liu, Yun; Wang, Haiyun

    2010-06-15

    Most studies on ammonia adsorption from aqueous solution have been focused on mineral materials. However, a series of batch experiments were performed in this study to screen novel adsorbent materials from 80 agricultural residues, and to investigate the adsorption characteristics of six screened samples. The results showed that the ammonia adsorption efficiencies of 11 agricultural residues were comparable to those of minerals. The equilibrium data fitted well with both the Langmuir and Freundlich models, and the theoretical maximum monolayer adsorption capacities of strawberry leaves and stems, Boston ivy leaves and stems, southern magnolia leaves and poplar leaves were 6.71, 4.62, 6.07, 5.01, 6.22 and 6.25mg/g, respectively at 30 degrees C. The adsorptions reached equilibrium at about 18 h, and the kinetics were well described by the Logistic model. In conclusion, these agricultural residues could be used as adsorbent materials for ammonia removal.

  14. Temperature sensitivity of cellulase adsorption on lignin and its impact on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yingfu; Zhang, Songping; Miao, Shida; Su, Zhiguo; Wang, Ping

    2013-07-10

    Unproductive enzyme adsorption is an important factor in addition to steric hindrance of lignin that limits the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. While both are important factors, enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated biomass is most likely conducted in the presence of certain amount of lignin residues that may not necessarily present accessibility hindrance, but can competitively absorb the enzyme. This paper presents a study with purified lignin samples to elucidate the role of unproductive enzyme adsorption. It appeared that lignin adsorbed cellulase quickly at 4 °C with adsorption equilibrium reached within 1h, similar to that observed for crystalline cellulose. Increasing temperature to 50 °C (typical hydrolytic reaction condition) facilitated the rate of cellulase adsorption on cellulose with a peak of adsorption reached at 0.25 h; however, adsorption on lignin was surprisingly slower and took over 12h to reach equilibrium, which was accompanied with a 10-fold increase in adsorption capacity. Despite the high adsorption capacity of lignin (which is comparable to that of cellulose) at 50 °C, the presence of added lignin imposed only minimal impact on the enzyme apparent activity, most likely due to the slow adsorption kinetics of lignin.

  15. Mechanism of adsorption of anionic dye from aqueous solutions onto organobentonite.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianfeng; Cui, Bingying; Dai, Juan; Li, Dinglong

    2011-02-28

    Organobentonite is suggested as potential super-sorbents for the removal of dyes from wastewater. All kinds of organobentonites are synthesized to adsorb dyes; however, the mechanism of the adsorption is still unclear. In this paper, organobentonites were first modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide at various amounts to reveal the adsorption mechanism. Subsequently, four kinds of organobentonites were utilized to adsorb acid dyes. Results show that the main mechanism of the adsorption of acid dye is an anionic exchange. The counter-ion bromide in the organobentonite was replaced by the dye anion. The study reveals that the adsorption capacity of organobentonite is affected by the surfactant alkyl chain length. When the longer alkyl chain surfactant was modified, bentonite showed higher adsorption capacity. Specific surface areas had no effect on the adsorption. However, the XRD patterns show that interlamellar distance and lamellar distribution have some effects on the adsorption. High adsorption capacity and low residual concentration were obtained by the organobentonite adsorbents. The revelation of the adsorption mechanism makes it possible to obtain more novel and suitable organobentonite adsorbents for anionic dye removal from wastewater.

  16. Competitive adsorption of VOCs and BOM: The role of molecular oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Sorial, G.A.; Cerminara, P.; Papadimas, S.P.; Suidan, M.T. . Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering); Speth, T.F. )

    1994-03-01

    In this study, the presence of background organic matter (BOM) was seen to reduce the adsorptive capacity of carbon for chloroform, chlorobenzene, and dibromochloropropane. Adsorption of these compounds was further reduced under oxic conditions. This additional reduction in capacity was likely due to conglomeration of BOM on the carbon surface, which reduced the available surface area for the target volatile organic chemical (VOC). Adsorption isotherms conducted with constant initial concentration ratios of VOC to BOM showed similar behavior. The ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) was found to accurately describe anoxic adsorption isotherms for VOCs in water containing BOM but failed to predict this competition for data collected under oxic conditions.

  17. Adsorption of Cadmium, Nickel and Zinc in a Brazilian Oxisoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, José Carlos; Martins, Susian Christian; Soares, Marcio Roberto

    2010-05-01

    The adsorption reactions mechanisms provide the understanding of the pollutant fate metals and often control the bioavailability and transport of heavy metals ions in soil, indicating the preventive environmental control. The cadmium, nickel and zinc behavior in the soils are explained by the reactions of adsorption, influenced by pH and ionic strength. The objective of this work was to study the influence of those factors on cadmium, nickel and zinc adsorption in an oxisol. It was studied the Cd, Ni and Zn adsorption in soil samples of the State of São Paulo (Anionic "Xanthic" Acrudox), collected in surface and in depth and submitted to solutions of Ca(NO3)2 1,0; 0,1 and 0,01 mol L-1. The pH of the samples from 3,0 to 10,0 was varied adding NaOH or HCl 4 mol L-1 not surpassing 2% of the electrolyte volume. The soil samples received 5,0 mg dm-3 of cadmium, nickel and zinc, ratio 1:10 (2,0 g of soil: 20 solution ml) and were shacked for 24 hours. The cadmium, nickel and zinc adsorption increased with pH, reaching it picks at pH 7,0 for cadmium and approximately at pH 6,0 for nickel and zinc. This indicates that zinc and nickel have higher affinity than cadmium with the soil colloids, because it reached the maximum adsorption in a small pH value. In other words, the amount of negative charges necessary to promote the maximum adsorption was small for zinc. The influence of ionic strengths was small for cadmium, nickel and zinc adsorption, being similar from pH 3,0 to 10,0, in surface soil layer and in depth, demonstrating that competition with Ca2+ for the retention colloid sites of the soils didn't interfere in the adsorption. In that way, it is supposed that cadmium, nickel and zinc binding energy is high in a soil rich in Fe and Al oxides. Adsorption of cadmium, nickel and zinc was similar for the ionic strengths, not depending on PZSE. The cadmium, nickel and zinc adsorption increased with pH elevation, with small ionic strength influence. Nickel and zinc have

  18. ADSORPTION AND CATALYTIC DESTRUCTION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN HYDROPHOBIC ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several chromium exchanged ZSM-5 zeolites of varying SiO2/Al2O3 ratio were prepared and investigated for ambient (23 ?C) adsorption and subsequent oxidative destruction (250-400 ?C) of gaseous trichloroethylene (TCE, Cl2C=CHCl) in a humid air stream. With an increase in the SiO2...

  19. ENTRAINED-FLOW ADSORPTION OF MERCURY USING ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale experiments were conducted in a flow reactor to simulate entrained-flow capture of elemental mercury (Hg) by activated carbon. Adsorption of Hg by several commercial activated carbons was examined at different carbon-to-mercury (C:Hg) ratios (by weight) (600:1 - 29000...

  20. Multisite adsorption of cadmium on goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Venema, P.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1996-11-10

    Recently a new general ion adsorption model has been developed for ion binding to mineral surfaces (Hiemstra and van Riemsdijk, 1996). The model uses the Pauling concept of charge distribution (CD) and is an extension of the multi-site complexation (MUSIC) approach. In the CD-MUSIC model the charge of an adsorbing ion that forms an inner sphere complex is distributed over its ligands, which are present in two different electrostatic planes. In this paper the authors have applied the CD-MUSIC model to the adsorption of metal cations, using an extended data set for cadmium adsorbing on goethite. The adsorption of cadmium and the cadmium-proton exchange ratio were measured as function of metal ion concentration, pH, and ionic strength. The data could be described well, taking into account the surface heterogeneity resulting from the presence of two different crystal planes (the dominant 110 face and the minor 021 face). The surface species used in the model are consistent with recent EXAFS data. In accordance with the EXAFS results, high-affinity complexes at the 021 face were used in the model.

  1. Batch adsorption of phenol onto physiochemical-activated coconut shell.

    PubMed

    Mohd Din, Azam T; Hameed, B H; Ahmad, Abdul L

    2009-01-30

    The liquid-phase adsorption of phenol onto coconut shell-based activated carbon, CS850A was investigated for its equilibrium studies and kinetic modeling. Coconut shell was converted into high quality activated carbon through physiochemical activation at 850 degrees C under the influence of CO(2) flow. Beforehand, the coconut shell was carbonized at 700 degrees C and the resulted char was impregnated with KOH at 1:1 weight ratio. In order to evaluate the performance of CS850A, a series of batch adsorption experiments were conducted with initial phenol concentrations ranging from 100 to 500 mg l(-1), adsorbent loading of 0.2g and the adsorption process was maintained at 30+/-1 degrees C. The adsorption isotherms were in conformation to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Chemical reaction was found to be a rate-controlling parameter to this phenol-CS850A batch adsorption system due to strong agreement with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Adsorption capacity for CS850A was found to be 205.8 mg g(-1).

  2. Hydrogen adsorption in metal-decorated silicon carbide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ram Sevak; Solanki, Ankit

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen storage for fuel cell is an active area of research and appropriate materials with excellent hydrogen adsorption properties are highly demanded. Nanotubes, having high surface to volume ratio, are promising storage materials for hydrogen. Recently, silicon carbide nanotubes have been predicted as potential materials for future hydrogen storage application, and studies in this area are ongoing. Here, we report a systematic study on hydrogen adsorption properties in metal (Pt, Ni and Al) decorated silicon carbide nanotubes (SiCNTs) using first principles calculations based on density functional theory. The hydrogen adsorption properties are investigated by calculations of adsorption energy, electronic band structure, density of states (DOS) and Mulliken charge population analysis. Our findings show that hydrogen adsorptions on Pt, Ni and Al-decorated SiCNTs undergo spontaneous exothermic reactions with significant modulation of electronic structure of SiCNTs in all cases. Importantly, according to the Mulliken charge population analysis, dipole-dipole interaction causes chemisorptions of hydrogen in Pt, Ni and Al decorated SiCNTs with formation of chemical bonds. The study is a platform for the development of metal decorated SiCNTs for hydrogen adsorption or hydrogen storage application.

  3. Adsorption characterizations of fulvic acid fractions onto kaolinite.

    PubMed

    Li, Aimin; Xu, Minjuan; Li, Wenhui; Wang, Xuejun; Dai, Jingyu

    2008-01-01

    Fulvic acids extracted from a typical rice-production region near Taihu Lake of China were fractionated into three fractions including F4.8, F7.0 and F11.0 (eluted by pH 4.8 buffer, pH 7.0 buffer and pH 11.0 buffer, respectively). Sorption of fulvic acid (FA) fractions onto kaolinite was studied by batch adsorption experiments, and characterizations of kaolinite before and after adsorption were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Adsorption isotherms of kaolinite for three FA fractions fit well with the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption density of the three fractions was positively correlated with the ratio of the amount of the alkyl carbon to that of carboxyl and carbonyl carbon in FA fractions and followed an order of F11.0 > F7.0 > F4.8. Hydrophobic interaction was one of the control mechanisms for the sorption of FA fraction onto kaolinite. SEM images confirmed that compared to blank kaolinite samples, kaolinite samples coated by a FA fraction displayed an opener and more dispersed conformation resulting from the disruption of the floc structure in complex. Dispersion of kaolinite after adsorption was due to the repulsion between negatively charged FA-coated particles, which is closely related to the amount of FA fractions absorbed on kaolinite.

  4. Controlling the adsorption enthalpy of CO(2) in zeolites by framework topology and composition.

    PubMed

    Grajciar, Lukáš; Čejka, Jiří; Zukal, Arnošt; Otero Areán, Carlos; Turnes Palomino, Gemma; Nachtigall, Petr

    2012-10-01

    Zeolites are often investigated as potential adsorbents for CO(2) adsorption and separation. Depending on the zeolite topology and composition (Si/Al ratio and extra-framework cations), the CO(2) adsorption heats at low coverages vary from -20 to -60 kJ mol(-1), and with increasing surface coverage adsorption heats either stay approximately constant or they quickly drop down. Experimental adsorption heats obtained for purely siliceous porous solids and for ion-exchanged zeolites of the structural type MFI, FER, FAU, LTA, TUN, IMF, and -SVR are discussed in light of results of periodic density functional theory calculations corrected for the description of dispersion interactions. Key factors influencing the stability of CO(2) adsorption complexes are identified and discussed at the molecular level. A general model for CO(2) adsorption in zeolites and related materials is proposed and data reported in literature are evaluated with regard to the proposed model.

  5. Dynamic and static adsorption and desorption of Hg(II) ions on chitosan membranes and spheres.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Rodrigo S; Beppu, Marisa M

    2006-05-01

    The adsorption and desorption of Hg(II) ions was studied using static and dynamic methods, employing membranes and spheres of chitosan as the adsorbent. The quantity of adsorption was influenced by chitosan crosslinking and by the adsorbent shape. The Langmuir model was applied to fit the experimental equilibrium data. Glutaraldehyde-crosslinked membranes presented a lower desorption capacity, when compared to natural membranes, but could be regenerated for use in successive cycles. Dynamic adsorption experiments suggested that the adsorption capacity depended mainly on adsorbent geometry, due to differences between surface area to mass ratio and initial concentration of Hg(II) ions. The adsorption capacity determined by the dynamic method was 65% and 77% for membranes and spheres, respectively of the value obtained static method results. A process combining dynamic adsorption and static desorption can be used to concentrate the Hg(II) ions by a factor of nearly seven (7x), when compared to the initially treated volume.

  6. Carbon dioxide and nitrogen adsorption on cation-exchanged SSZ-13 zeolites.

    PubMed

    Pham, Trong D; Liu, Qingling; Lobo, Raul F

    2013-01-15

    Samples of high-silica SSZ-13, ion exchanged with protons and alkali-metal cations Li(+), Na(+), and K(+), were investigated using adsorption isotherms of CO(2) and N(2). The results show that Li-, Na-SSZ-13 have excellent CO(2) capacity at ambient temperature and pressure; in general, Li-SSZ-13 shows the highest capacity for N(2), CO(2) particularly in the low-pressure region. The effect of cation type and Si/Al ratio (6 and 12) on the adsorption properties was investigated through analysis of adsorption isotherms and heats of adsorption. The separation of CO(2) in a flue gas mixture was evaluated for these adsorbents in the pressure swing adsorption and vacuum pressure adsorption processes.

  7. Adsorption of phenanthrene by quaternary ammonium surfactant modified peat and the mechanism involved.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y B; Chen, L; Wang, X Q; Xu, Y X; Lu, J

    2012-01-01

    Removal of phenanthrene (PHE) from aqueous solution by adsorption onto quaternary ammonium surfactant modified peat was studied. The results show that surfactant modification enhanced the PHE adsorption capacity of peat. Low temperature and neutral pH favored PHE adsorption. Peat modified with long carbon chain surfactant performed better than peat modified with short carbon chain surfactant. The magnitude of PHE adsorption capacity followed the order of MP-HPB>MP-HTAB>MP-TBAB>RP, ranged from 924 to 1,228 μg g(-1). A negative trend between adsorption capacity (y) and (O+N)/C ratio of biosorbent (x) was observed (y = -1,369.6x + 2,176), which confirmed the negative effect of polarity on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) removal. The study provides a guide to modify raw materials to enhance adsorption of hydrophobic organics.

  8. Modification of porous starch for the adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaofei; Liu, Xueyuan; Anderson, Debbie P; Chang, Peter R

    2015-08-15

    Porous starch xanthate (PSX) and porous starch citrate (PSC) were prepared in anticipation of the attached xanthate and carboxylate groups respectively forming chelation and electrostatic interactions with heavy metal ions in the subsequent adsorption process. The lead(II) ion was selected as the model metal and its adsorption by PSX and PSC was characterized. The adsorption capacity was highly dependent on the carbon disulfide/starch and citric acid/starch mole ratios used during preparation. The adsorption behaviors of lead(II) ion on PSXs and PSCs fit both the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity from the Langmuir isotherm equation reached 109.1 and 57.6 mg/g for PSX and PSC when preparation conditions were optimized, and the adsorption times were just 20 and 60 min, respectively. PSX and PSC may be used as effective adsorbents for removal of heavy metals from contaminated liquid.

  9. Metal adsorption of carboxymethyl cellulose/carboxymethyl chitosan blend hydrogels prepared by Gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroki, A.; Tran, H. T.; Nagasawa, N.; Yagi, T.; Tamada, M.

    2009-12-01

    Blend hydrogels based on the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCts) were prepared by γ-irradiation of a high concentrated CMC/CMCts aqueous solution. Properties of the hydrogels, such as gel fraction, swelling ratio, gel strength, and metal adsorption for Pb and Au were investigated. The gel fraction increased with increasing dose, while the swelling ratio decreased with increasing it. The obtained blend hydrogels had high adsorption performance which was controlled by adjusting the composition of CMC/CMCts.

  10. EXCESS FIBRINOGEN ADSORPTION TO MONOLAYERS OF MIXED LIPIDS

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, V.; Britt, D.W.; Hlady, V.

    2010-01-01

    Adsorption of fibrinogen to the monolayers of mixed lipids, dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) and eicosylamine (EA) was measured at a surface pressure of 20 mN/m by an in situ surface plasmon resonance technique. Pressure-area isotherms of DPPC+EA mixtures on water and buffer subphases indicated good lipid miscibility and some contraction of the monolayers at intermediate and higher surface pressures. Surface electric potential of the DPPC+EA monolayers showed excess values for intermediate DPPC:EA ratios. Fibrinogen adsorption and its adsorption rates from a dilute solution (0.03 mg/ml) were proportional to the fraction of EA in the monolayer indicating that protein binding was primarily driven by electrostatic interactions between positive EA charges in the monolayer and a net negative protein charge. At a higher protein concentration (0.06 mg/ml) both the fibrinogen adsorbed amount and its maximum adsorption rate showed excess values relative to the pure EA for 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 DPPC+EA monolayers. This excess adsorption could be explained, in part, by the contraction of the monolayers with intermediate DPPC:EA ratios which resulted in an excess surface electric potential. PMID:20829000

  11. Synthesization, characterization and adsorption properties of sulfonic cellulose.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenjian; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Yuanzhang; Li, Liang; Yang, Qinlin

    2012-01-01

    The synthesization and characterization of a new environmental functional material-sulfonic cellulose - were studied in this paper. The preparation conditions were optimized through an orthogonal experiment. The modified cellulose was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The adsorption rules of cationic organic pollutants and heavy metal ions by this new material were discussed. Regeneration and recycling performances of the sulfonic cellulose were also investigated. At the temperature of 323 K, sulfonic cellulose was prepared by grafting 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) onto alkali-treated cellulose for 4 h with the employing of ceric ammonium nitrate as initiator. The mass ratio of AMPS to cellulose was 3:1 and the concentration of ceric ammonium nitrate was 63.8 mmol/L. The sulfur content of sulfonic cellulose was 7.32 wt%. The peaks of 1,303 and 1,159 cm⁻¹ in IR suggested the existence of the sulfonic group in sulfonic cellulose. The XRD and SEM results showed that the crystallinity decreased while the specific surface area increased after modification. Batch adsorption results showed that sulfonic cellulose had a favorable adsorption capacity for model contaminants at pH 6.0-7.0. The adsorption process was endothermic and reached equilibrium in 180 min. The adsorption rules of cationic organic pollutants and heavy metal ions indicated that sulfonic cellulose had high adsorption capacity for the cationic dyes with a coplanar macromolecule structure and organic compounds carrying the amino group. Under room temperature, 1.0 mol/L HCl can be used as a desorption solution and the equilibrium adsorption capacity had little decrease (less than 7%) after six adsorption-desorption cycles.

  12. [Modification of natural siderite and enhanced adsorption of arsenic].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kai; Guo, Hua-Ming; Li, Yuan; Ren, Yan

    2012-02-01

    Groundwater with high arsenic concentration has widely been found in China. More attention has been paid to economic and efficient arsenic removal technology. Natural siderite, which was abundant and relatively cheap, was used as the main raw material for arsenic adsorption by batch methods. Modified conditions of natural siderite, including temperature and time of calcination and adhesive addition, were carried out for arsenic removal. Results showed that the maximum removal efficiency was reached with the calcination temperature of 350 degrees C for 90 minutes and an adhesive dosage of 10 mg x g(-1). With the ratio of solid to liquid of 0.5 g: 50 mL and the initial concentration of 5 mg x L(-1) for either As(III) or As(V) at 25 degrees C, arsenic concentrations at equilibrium time were lower than 10 microg x L(-1). Characteristics of adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm on the optimal modified adsorbent were also evaluated. It was found that the arsenic adsorption kinetics fitted pseudo-second order kinetics equation, and the adsorption achieved equilibrium at about 12 h. The adsorption isotherm could be well described by Langmuir and Freundlich models. The maximum adsorption capacity was 1039 microg x g(-1) for As(III) and 1 026 microg x g(-1) for As(V). Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and BET method were used to investigate main mechanisms of arsenic removal. Results showed that modified adsorbent had higher specific surface area and contained the spherical coating of Fe(II) and Fe(III) on the surface, in comparison with pristine material, which were believed to contribute to the high adsorption capacity of the modified material. The modified natural siderite appears to be a promising adsorbent that is worthy of further studies and practical application for arsenic removal.

  13. A Comparative Study of the Adsorption of Water and Methanol in Zeolite BEA: A Molecular Simulation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Van T.; Nguyen, Phuong T.; Dang, Liem X.; Mei, Donghai; Wick, Collin D.; Do, Duong D.

    2014-09-15

    Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations were carried out to study the equilibrium adsorption concentration of methanol and water in all-silica zeolite BEA over the wide temperature and pressure ranges. For both water and methanol, their adsorptive capacity increases with increasing pressure and decreasing temperature. The onset of methanol adsorption occurs at much lower pressures than water adsorption at all temperatures. Our GCMC simulation results also indicate that the adsorption isotherms of methanol exhibit a gradual change with pressure while water adsorption shows a sharp first-order phase transition at low temperatures. To explore the effects of Si/Al ratio on adsorption, a series of GCMC simulations of water and methanol adsorption in zeolites HBEA with Si/Al=7, 15, 31, 63 were performed. As the Si/Al ratio decreases, the onsets of both water and methanol adsorption dramatically shift to lower pressures. The type V isotherm obtained for water adsorption in hydrophobic BEA progressively changes to type I isotherm with decreasing Si/Al ratio in hydrophilic HBEA. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  14. Liquid-Phase Adsorption Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, David O.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an experiment developed and used in the unit operations laboratory course at the University of Wyoming. Involves the liquid-phase adsorption of an organic compound from aqueous solution on activated carbon, and is relevant to adsorption processes in general. (TW)

  15. Adsorptive removal of methylene blue by CuO-acid modified sepiolite as effective adsorbent and its regeneration with high-temperature gas stream.

    PubMed

    Su, Chengyuan; Wang, Liang; Chen, Menglin; Huang, Zhi; Lin, Xiangfeng

    In this study, the dynamic adsorption of methylene blue dye onto CuO-acid modified sepiolite was investigated. Meanwhile, the equilibrium and kinetic data of the adsorption process were studied to understand the adsorption mechanism. Furthermore, a high-temperature gas stream was applied to regenerate the adsorbent. The results showed that the Langmuir isotherm model was applied to describe the adsorption process. The positive value of enthalpy change indicated that the adsorption process was endothermic in nature. In the dynamic adsorption process, the best adsorption performance was achieved when the ratio of column height to diameter was 2.56 and the treatment capacity was 6 BV/h. The optimal scenario for regeneration experiments was the regeneration temperature of 550-650 °C, the space velocity of 100 min(-1) and the regeneration time of 10 min. The effective adsorption of CuO-acid modified sepiolite was kept for 12 cycles of adsorption and regeneration.

  16. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2006-04-30

    During this reporting period, further fundamental studies were conducted to understand the mechanism of the interactions between surfactants and minerals with the aim of minimizing chemical loss by adsorption. The effects of pH and mixing ratio on the chemical loss by adsorption were investigated. Some preliminary modeling work has been done towards the aim of developing a guide book to design optimal polymer/surfactant formula based on the understanding of adsorption and orientation of surfactants and their aggregates at solid/liquid interfaces. The study of adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) was continued during this period. Based on the adsorption results, the effects of pH and mixing ratio on reagent loss were quantitatively evaluated. Adsorption of dodecyl maltoside showed a maximum at certain mixing ratio at low pH (3{approx}5), while adsorption of dodecyl maltoside steadily decreased with the increase in C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na. Analytical ultracentrifuge technique was employed to study the micellization of DM/C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na mixtures. Compositional changes of the aggregates were observed the mixing ratio of the components. Surfactant mixture micellization affects the conformation and orientation of adsorption layer at mineral/water interface and thus the wettability and as a result, the oil release efficiency of the chemical flooding processes. A preliminary term, Reagent Loss Index (RLI), has been proposed to represent the adsorption of all the surfactants in a standardized framework for the development of the models. Previously reported adsorption data have been analyzed using the theoretical framework for the preparation of a guidebook to help optimization of chemical combinations and selection of reagent scheme for enhanced oil recovery.

  17. Chromium adsorption by lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Lalvani, S.B.; Huebner, A.; Wiltowski, T.S.

    2000-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen, and its maximum contamination level in drinking water is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Chromium in the wastewaters from plating and metal finishing, tanning, and photographic industries poses environmental problems. A commercially available lignin was used for the removal of hexavalent as well as trivalent chromium from aqueous solution. It is known that hexavalent chromium is present as an anionic species in the solution. It was found that lignin can remove up to 63% hexavalent and 100% trivalent chromium from aqueous solutions. The removal of chromium ions was also investigated using a commercially available activated carbon. This absorbent facilitated very little hexavalent and almost complete trivalent chromium removal. Adsorption isotherms and kinetics data on the metal removal by lignin and activated carbon are presented and discussed.

  18. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-12-31

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with super-heated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200{degrees}C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220{degrees}C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: (1) At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. (2) There is no significant temperature effect. (3) Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. (4) Pores smaller than 15 {Angstrom} do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  19. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-01-24

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with superheated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200 °C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220 °C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: 1. At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. 2. There is no significant temperature effect. 3. Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. 4. Pores smaller than 15 Å do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  20. Characterization of air pollution control residues produced in a municipal solid waste incinerator in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Quina, Margarida J; Santos, Regina C; Bordado, João C; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2008-04-01

    This study is mainly related with the physical and chemical characterization of a solid waste, produced in a municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration process, which is usually referred as air pollution control (APC) residue. The moisture content, loss on ignition (LOI), particle size distribution, density, porosity, specific surface area and morphology were the physical properties addressed here. At the chemical level, total elemental content (TC), total availability (TA) and the leaching behaviour with compliance tests were determined, as well as the acid neutralization capacity (ANC). The main mineralogical crystalline phases were identified, and the thermal behaviour of the APC residues is also shown. The experimental work involves several techniques such as laser diffraction spectrometry, mercury porosimetry, helium pycnometry, gas adsorption, flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), ion chromatography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and simultaneous thermal analysis (STA). The results point out that the APC residues do not comply with regulations in force at the developed countries, and therefore the waste should be considered hazardous. Among the considered heavy metals, lead, zinc and chromium were identified as the most problematic ones, and their total elemental quantities are similar for several samples collected in an industrial plant at different times. Moreover, the high amount of soluble salts (NaCl, KCl, calcium compounds) may constitute a major problem and should be taken into account for all management strategies. The solubility in water is very high (more than 24% for a solid/liquid ratio of 10) and thus the possible utilizations of this residue are very limited, creating difficulties also in the ordinary treatments, such as in solidification/stabilization with binders.

  1. Galactose adsorption on Ru(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatalo, Matti; Puisto, Mikko

    2014-03-01

    In order to understand the valorisation of biomass, it is essential to study the behavior of sugar molecules on catalytic surfaces. We have studied the adsorption of galactose molecules on the Ru(0001) surface using first principles calculations. We present results for the fully relaxed configurations of the molecule at different adsorption sites. We also compare the effect of the inclusion of the van der Waals interactions on both the energetics of the free galactose molecule and the adsorption energy of galactose on Ru(0001). We compare our results, obtained using periodically repeated supercells, to those obtained with cluster calculations.

  2. Partitioning Residue-derived and Residue-induced Emissions of N2O Using 15N-labelled Crop Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, R. E.; Carverhill, J.; Lemke, R.; Knight, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of N2O emissions in Canada indicate that 17% of all agriculture-based emissions are associated with the decomposition of crop residues. However, research specific to the western Canadian prairies (including Saskatchewan) has shown that the N2O emission factor for N sources in this region typically ranges between 0.2 and 0.6%, which is well below the current IPCC default emission factor of 1.0%. Thus, it stands to reason that emissions from crop residues should also be lower than those calculated using the current IPCC emission factor. Current data indicates that residue decomposition, N mineralization and N2O production are affected by a number of factors such as C:N ratio and chemical composition of the residue, soil type, and soil water content; thus, a bench-scale incubation study was conducted to examine the effects of soil type and water content on N2O emissions associated with the decomposition of different crop residues. The study was carried out using soils from the Black, Dark Brown, Brown, and Gray soil zones and was conducted at both 50% and 70% water-filled pore space (WFPS); the soils were amended with 15N-labeled residues of wheat, pea, canola, and flax, or with an equivalent amount of 15N-labeled urea; 15N2O production was monitored using a Picarro G5101-i isotopic N2O analyzer. Crop residue additions to the soils resulted in both direct and indirect emissions of N2O, with residue derived emissions (RDE; measured as 15N2O) generally exceeding residue-induced emissions (RIE) at 50% WFPS—with RDEs ranging from 42% to 88% (mean = 58%) of the total N2O. Conversely, at 70% WFPS, RDEs were generally lower than RIEs—ranging from 21% to 83% (mean = 48%). Whereas both water content and soil type had an impact on N2O production, there was a clear and consistent trend in the emission factors for the residues; i.e., emissions were always greatest for the canola residue and lowest for the wheat residue and urea fertilizer; and intermediate for pea

  3. Protein Adsorption in Three Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, Erwin A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical work clarifying the physical chemistry of blood-protein adsorption from aqueous-buffer solution to various kinds of surfaces is reviewed and interpreted within the context of biomaterial applications, especially toward development of cardiovascular biomaterials. The importance of this subject in biomaterials surface science is emphasized by reducing the “protein-adsorption problem” to three core questions that require quantitative answer. An overview of the protein-adsorption literature identifies some of the sources of inconsistency among many investigators participating in more than five decades of focused research. A tutorial on the fundamental biophysical chemistry of protein adsorption sets the stage for a detailed discussion of the kinetics and thermodynamics of protein adsorption, including adsorption competition between two proteins for the same adsorbent immersed in a binary-protein mixture. Both kinetics and steady-state adsorption can be rationalized using a single interpretive paradigm asserting that protein molecules partition from solution into a three-dimensional (3D) interphase separating bulk solution from the physical-adsorbent surface. Adsorbed protein collects in one-or-more adsorbed layers, depending on protein size, solution concentration, and adsorbent surface energy (water wettability). The adsorption process begins with the hydration of an adsorbent surface brought into contact with an aqueous-protein solution. Surface hydration reactions instantaneously form a thin, pseudo-2D interface between the adsorbent and protein solution. Protein molecules rapidly diffuse into this newly-formed interface, creating a truly 3D interphase that inflates with arriving proteins and fills to capacity within milliseconds at mg/mL bulk-solution concentrations CB. This inflated interphase subsequently undergoes time-dependent (minutes-to-hours) decrease in volume VI by expulsion of either-or-both interphase water and

  4. [Thermodynamics adsorption and its influencing factors of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on the bentonite and humus].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Jun; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jin-Chi; Zai, De-Xin; Zhao, Rong

    2010-11-01

    The adsorption of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on bentonite and humus was investigated by using the equilibrium oscillometry. The adsorption capacity of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on humus was great higher than bentonite at the same concentration. Equilibrium data of Langmuir, Freundlich isotherms showed significant relationship to the adsorption of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on humus (chlorpyrifos: R2 0.996 4, 0.996 3; triazophos: R2 0.998 9, 0.992 4). Langmuir isotherm was the best for chlorpyrifos and triazophos on bentonite (chlorpyrifos: R2 = 0.995 7, triazophos: R2 = 0.998 9). The pH value, adsorption equilibrium time and temperature were the main factors affecting adsorption of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on bentonite and humus. The adsorption equilibrium time on mixed adsorbent was 12h for chlorpyrifos and 6h for triazophos respectively. The mass ratio of humus and bentonite was 12% and 14% respectively, the adsorption of chlorpyrifos and triazophos was the stronglest and tended to saturation. At different temperatures by calculating the thermodynamic parameters deltaG, deltaH and deltaS, confirmed that the adsorption reaction was a spontaneous exothermic process theoretically. The adsorption was the best when the pH value was 6.0 and the temperature was 15 degrees C.

  5. Bromide Adsorption by Reference Minerals and Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bromide, Br-, adsorption behavior was investigated on amorphous Al and Fe oxide, montmorillonite, kaolinite, and temperate and tropical soils. Bromide adsorption decreased with increasing solution pH with minimal adsorption occurring above pH 7. Bromide adsorption was higher for amorphous oxides t...

  6. Adsorption of cadmium ions on oxygen surface sites in activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Y.F.; Thomas, K.M.

    2000-02-08

    Various types of oxygen functional groups were introduced onto the surface of coconut shell derived activated carbon by oxidation using nitric acid. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), and selective neutralization were used to characterize the surface oxygen functional groups. The oxidized carbons were also heat treated to provide a suite of carbons where the oxygen functional groups of various thermal stabilities were varied progressively. The adsorption of cadmium ions was enhanced dramatically by oxidation of the carbon. The ratio of released protons to adsorbed cadmium ions on oxidized carbon was approximately 2, indicating cation exchange was involved in the process of adsorption. Na{sup +} exchange studies with the oxidized carbon gave a similar ratio. After heat treatment of the oxidized carbons to remove oxygen functional groups, the ratio of H{sup +} released to Cd{sup 2+} adsorbed and the adsorption capacity decreased significantly. Both reversible and irreversible processes were involved in cadmium ion adsorption with reversible adsorption having higher enthalpy. The irreversible adsorption resulted from cation exchange with carboxylic acid groups, whereas the reversible adsorption probably involved physisorption of the partially hydrated cadmium ion.

  7. Centrifugal Adsorption Cartridge System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Tsao, Yow-Min D.; Lee, Wenshan

    2004-01-01

    The centrifugal adsorption cartridge system (CACS) is an apparatus that recovers one or more bioproduct(s) from a dilute aqueous solution or suspension flowing from a bioreactor. The CACS can be used both on Earth in unit gravity and in space in low gravity. The CACS can be connected downstream from the bioreactor; alternatively, it can be connected into a flow loop that includes the bioreactor so that the liquid can be recycled. A centrifugal adsorption cartridge in the CACS (see figure) includes two concentric cylinders with a spiral ramp between them. The volume between the inner and outer cylinders, and between the turns of the spiral ramp is packed with an adsorbent material. The inner cylinder is a sieve tube covered with a gas-permeable, hydrophobic membrane. During operation, the liquid effluent from the bioreactor is introduced at one end of the spiral ramp, which then constrains the liquid to flow along the spiral path through the adsorbent material. The spiral ramp also makes the flow more nearly uniform than it would otherwise be, and it minimizes any channeling other than that of the spiral flow itself. The adsorbent material is formulated to selectively capture the bioproduct(s) of interest. The bioproduct(s) can then be stored in bound form in the cartridge or else eluted from the cartridge. The centrifugal effect of the spiral flow is utilized to remove gas bubbles from the liquid. The centrifugal effect forces the bubbles radially inward, toward and through the membrane of the inner cylinder. The gas-permeable, hydrophobic membrane allows the bubbles to enter the inner cylinder while keeping the liquid out. The bubbles that thus enter the cylinder are vented to the atmosphere. The spacing between the ramps determines rate of flow along the spiral, and thereby affects the air-bubble-removal efficiency. The spacing between the ramps also determines the length of the fluid path through the cartridge adsorbent, and thus affects the bioproduct

  8. Enhancing adsorption of U(VI) onto EDTA modified L. cylindrica using epichlorohydrin and ethylenediamine as a bridge

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shouzheng; Liu, Qi; Liu, Jingyuan; Zhang, Hongsen; Li, Rumin; Jing, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Benefiting from strong coordination ability and unique vascular structure, EDTA modified L. cylindrica opens up an alternative way for uranium recovery from seawater. However, limitations, such as poor adsorption capacity and slow adsorption rate due to low graft ratio of EDTA via one-step esterification block its practical application. Here, a strategy for increasing the graft ratio is proposed in order to improve the adsorption performance. The strategy initially involves immobilization of epichlorohydrin (EPI) onto L. cylindrica and then ethylenediamine (EDA) is introduced via facile ring-opening reaction. EPI and EDA serve as a bridge between L. cylindrica and EDTA. The graft ratio is promoted (15.01 to 21.44%) contributing to the smaller steric hindrance of EPI and EDA than EDTA and improvement in adsorption performance. In addition, the adsorbent prepared by the new strategy exhibits excellent adsorption properties in simulated seawater. PMID:28272435

  9. Enhancing adsorption of U(VI) onto EDTA modified L. cylindrica using epichlorohydrin and ethylenediamine as a bridge.

    PubMed

    Su, Shouzheng; Liu, Qi; Liu, Jingyuan; Zhang, Hongsen; Li, Rumin; Jing, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jun

    2017-03-08

    Benefiting from strong coordination ability and unique vascular structure, EDTA modified L. cylindrica opens up an alternative way for uranium recovery from seawater. However, limitations, such as poor adsorption capacity and slow adsorption rate due to low graft ratio of EDTA via one-step esterification block its practical application. Here, a strategy for increasing the graft ratio is proposed in order to improve the adsorption performance. The strategy initially involves immobilization of epichlorohydrin (EPI) onto L. cylindrica and then ethylenediamine (EDA) is introduced via facile ring-opening reaction. EPI and EDA serve as a bridge between L. cylindrica and EDTA. The graft ratio is promoted (15.01 to 21.44%) contributing to the smaller steric hindrance of EPI and EDA than EDTA and improvement in adsorption performance. In addition, the adsorbent prepared by the new strategy exhibits excellent adsorption properties in simulated seawater.

  10. Enhancing adsorption of U(VI) onto EDTA modified L. cylindrica using epichlorohydrin and ethylenediamine as a bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shouzheng; Liu, Qi; Liu, Jingyuan; Zhang, Hongsen; Li, Rumin; Jing, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Benefiting from strong coordination ability and unique vascular structure, EDTA modified L. cylindrica opens up an alternative way for uranium recovery from seawater. However, limitations, such as poor adsorption capacity and slow adsorption rate due to low graft ratio of EDTA via one-step esterification block its practical application. Here, a strategy for increasing the graft ratio is proposed in order to improve the adsorption performance. The strategy initially involves immobilization of epichlorohydrin (EPI) onto L. cylindrica and then ethylenediamine (EDA) is introduced via facile ring-opening reaction. EPI and EDA serve as a bridge between L. cylindrica and EDTA. The graft ratio is promoted (15.01 to 21.44%) contributing to the smaller steric hindrance of EPI and EDA than EDTA and improvement in adsorption performance. In addition, the adsorbent prepared by the new strategy exhibits excellent adsorption properties in simulated seawater.

  11. Multilayer adsorption on fractal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Vajda, Péter; Felinger, Attila

    2014-01-10

    Multilayer adsorption is often observed in liquid chromatography. The most frequently employed model for multilayer adsorption is the BET isotherm equation. In this study we introduce an interpretation of multilayer adsorption measured on liquid chromatographic stationary phases based on the fractal theory. The fractal BET isotherm model was successfully used to determine the apparent fractal dimension of the adsorbent surface. The nonlinear fitting of the fractal BET equation gives us the estimation of the adsorption equilibrium constants and the monolayer saturation capacity of the adsorbent as well. In our experiments, aniline and proline were used as test molecules on reversed phase and normal phase columns, respectively. Our results suggest an apparent fractal dimension 2.88-2.99 in the case of reversed phase adsorbents, in the contrast with a bare silica column with a fractal dimension of 2.54.

  12. The Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2004-01-01

    The Golden Ratio is sometimes called the "Golden Section" or the "Divine Proportion", in which three points: A, B, and C, divide a line in this proportion if AC/AB = AB/BC. "Donald in Mathmagicland" includes a section about the Golden Ratio and the ratios within a five-pointed star or pentagram. This article presents two computing exercises that…

  13. Robust design of binary countercurrent adsorption separation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Storti, G. ); Mazzotti, M.; Morbidelli, M.; Carra, S. )

    1993-03-01

    The separation of a binary mixture, using a third component having intermediate adsorptivity as desorbent, in a four section countercurrent adsorption separation unit is considered. A procedure for the optimal and robust design of the unit is developed in the frame of Equilibrium Theory, using a model where the adsorption equilibria are described through the constant selectivity stoichiometric model, while mass-transfer resistances and axial mixing are neglected. By requiring that the unit achieves complete separation, it is possible to identify a set of implicity constraints on the operating parameters, that is, the flow rate ratios in the four sections of the unit. From these constraints explicit bounds on the operating parameters are obtained, thus yielding a region in the operating parameters space, which can be drawn a priori in terms of the adsorption equilibrium constants and the feed composition. This result provides a very convenient tool to determine both optimal and robust operating conditions. The latter issue is addressed by first analyzing the various possible sources of disturbances, as well as their effect on the separation performance. Next, the criteria for the robust design of the unit are discussed. Finally, these theoretical findings are compared with a set of experimental results obtained in a six port simulated moving bed adsorption separation unit operated in the vapor phase.

  14. Residue-free wines: fate of some quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides in the winemaking process.

    PubMed

    Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; De Melo Abreu, Susana; Caboni, Pierluigi; Angioni, Alberto; Alves, Arminda; Cabras, Paolo

    2009-03-25

    The fate of three fungicide residues (fenamidone, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin) from vine to wine was studied to evaluate the decay ratio and the influence of the technological process. The aim of this work was to identify pesticides that can degrade rapidly or be eliminated together with byproduct (lees and cake) of the winemaking process to obtain wine free of residues. The disappearance rate on grapes was calculated as pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the half-life (t(1/2)) was in the range from 5.4 +/- 1.9 to 12.2 +/- 1.2 days. The mechanism of dissipation of the three quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides was studied using different model systems. It was observed that the main mechanism responsible for disappearance was photodegradation. For active ingredients (ai) the half-lives of fenamidone, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin were 10.2 +/- 0.8, 20.1 +/- 0.1, and 8.6 +/- 1.0 h, respectively, whereas for formulation higher half-lives were observed when epicuticular waxes were present (from 13.8 +/- 0.2 to 26.6 +/- 0.1 h). After winemaking, fenamidone, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin residues were not detected in the wine, but they were present in the cake and lees. This was due to the adsorption of pesticide residues to the solid parts, which are always eliminated at the end of the alcoholic fermentation. The data obtained in these experiments suggest that these three active ingredients could be used in a planning process to obtain residue-free wines.

  15. Short-Cycle Adsorption Refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, C. K.

    1988-01-01

    Modular adsorption/Joule-Thomson-effect refrigerator offers fast regeneration; adsorption/desorption cycle time expected to be 1 minute. Pressurized hydrogen generated by bank of compressor modules during heating phase passes through system of check valves and expands in Joule-Thomson junction as it enters refrigeration chamber. Hydrogen absorbs heat from load before it is sucked out by another bank of compressor modules in cooling phase.

  16. Adsorption hysteresis in nanopores

    PubMed

    Neimark; Ravikovitch; Vishnyakov

    2000-08-01

    Capillary condensation hysteresis in nanopores is studied by Monte Carlo simulations and the nonlocal density functional theory. Comparing the theoretical results with the experimental data on low temperature sorption of nitrogen and argon in cylindrical channels of mesoporous siliceous molecular sieves of MCM-41 type, we have revealed four qualitatively different sorption regimes depending on the temperature and pore size. As the pore size increases at a given temperature, or as the temperature decreases at a given pore size, the following regimes are consequently observed: volume filling without phase separation, reversible stepwise capillary condensation, irreversible capillary condensation with developing hysteresis, and capillary condensation with developed hysteresis. We show that, in the regime of developed hysteresis (pores wider than 5 nm in the case of nitrogen sorption at 77 K), condensation occurs spontaneously at the vaporlike spinodal while desorption takes place at the equilibrium. A quantitative agreement is found between the modeling results and the experimental hysteresis loops formed by the adsorption-desorption isotherms. The results obtained provide a better understanding of the general behavior of confined fluids and the specifics of sorption and phase transitions in nanomaterials.

  17. Volumetric interpretation of protein adsorption: Partition coefficients, interphase volumes, and free energies of adsorption to hydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hyeran; Vogler, Erwin A

    2006-12-01

    The solution-depletion method of measuring protein adsorption is implemented using SDS gel electrophoresis as a separation and quantification tool. Experimental method is demonstrated using lysozyme (15kDa), alpha-amylase (51kDa), human serum albumin (66kDa), prothrombin (72kDa), immunoglobulin G (160kDa), and fibrinogen (341kDa) adsorption from aqueous-buffer solution to hydrophobic octyl-sepharose and silanized-glass particles. Interpretive mass-balance equations are derived from a model premised on the idea that protein reversibly partitions from bulk solution into a three-dimensional (3D) interphase volume separating the physical-adsorbent surface from bulk solution. Theory both anticipated and accommodated adsorption of all proteins to the two test surfaces, suggesting that the underlying model is descriptive of the essential physical chemistry of protein adsorption. Application of mass balance equations to experimental data quantify partition coefficients P, interphase volumes V(I), and the number of hypothetical layers M occupied by protein adsorbed within V(I). Partition coefficients quantify protein-adsorption avidity through the equilibrium ratio of interphase and bulk-solution-phase w/v (mg/mL) concentrations W(I) and W(B), respectively, such that P identical withW(I)/W(B). Proteins are found to be weak biosurfactants with 45adsorption -6RT<(DeltaG(adsphobic)(0)=-RTlnP)<-4RT. These measurements corroborate independent estimates obtained from interfacial energetics of adsorption (tensiometry) and are in agreement with thermochemical measurements for related proteins by hydrophobic-interaction chromatography. Proteins with molecular weight MW<100kDa occupy a single layer at surface saturation whereas the larger proteins IgG and fibrinogen required two layers.

  18. Surfactant adsorption kinetics in microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Riechers, Birte; Maes, Florine; Akoury, Elias; Semin, Benoît; Gruner, Philipp; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions are metastable dispersions. Their lifetimes are directly related to the dynamics of surfactants. We design a microfluidic method to measure the kinetics of adsorption of surfactants to the droplet interface, a key process involved in foaming, emulsification, and droplet coarsening. The method is based on the pH decay in the droplet as a direct measurement of the adsorption of a carboxylic acid surfactant to the interface. From the kinetic measurement of the bulk equilibration of the pH, we fully determine the adsorption process of the surfactant. The small droplet size and the convection during the droplet flow ensure that the transport of surfactant through the bulk is not limiting the kinetics of adsorption. To validate our measurements, we show that the adsorption process determines the timescale required to stabilize droplets against coalescence, and we show that the interface should be covered at more than 90% to prevent coalescence. We therefore quantitatively link the process of adsorption/desorption, the stabilization of emulsions, and the kinetics of solute partitioning—here through ion exchange—unraveling the timescales governing these processes. Our method can be further generalized to other surfactants, including nonionic surfactants, by making use of fluorophore–surfactant interactions. PMID:27688765

  19. Surfactant adsorption kinetics in microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechers, Birte; Maes, Florine; Akoury, Elias; Semin, Benoît; Gruner, Philipp; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-10-01

    Emulsions are metastable dispersions. Their lifetimes are directly related to the dynamics of surfactants. We design a microfluidic method to measure the kinetics of adsorption of surfactants to the droplet interface, a key process involved in foaming, emulsification, and droplet coarsening. The method is based on the pH decay in the droplet as a direct measurement of the adsorption of a carboxylic acid surfactant to the interface. From the kinetic measurement of the bulk equilibration of the pH, we fully determine the adsorption process of the surfactant. The small droplet size and the convection during the droplet flow ensure that the transport of surfactant through the bulk is not limiting the kinetics of adsorption. To validate our measurements, we show that the adsorption process determines the timescale required to stabilize droplets against coalescence, and we show that the interface should be covered at more than 90% to prevent coalescence. We therefore quantitatively link the process of adsorption/desorption, the stabilization of emulsions, and the kinetics of solute partitioning—here through ion exchange—unraveling the timescales governing these processes. Our method can be further generalized to other surfactants, including nonionic surfactants, by making use of fluorophore-surfactant interactions.

  20. Numerical estimation of adsorption energy distributions from adsorption isotherm data with the expectation-maximization method

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, B.J.; Guiochon, G. |

    1993-08-01

    The expectation-maximization (EM) method of parameter estimation is used to calculate adsorption energy distributions of molecular probes from their adsorption isotherms. EM does not require prior knowledge of the distribution function or the isotherm, requires no smoothing of the isotherm data, and converges with high stability towards the maximum-likelihood estimate. The method is therefore robust and accurate at high iteration numbers. The EM algorithm is tested with simulated energy distributions corresponding to unimodal Gaussian, bimodal Gaussian, Poisson distributions, and the distributions resulting from Misra isotherms. Theoretical isotherms are generated from these distributions using the Langmuir model, and then chromatographic band profiles are computed using the ideal model of chromatography. Noise is then introduced in the theoretical band profiles comparable to those observed experimentally. The isotherm is then calculated using the elution-by-characteristic points method. The energy distribution given by the EM method is compared to the original one. Results are contrasted to those obtained with the House and Jaycock algorithm HILDA, and shown to be superior in terms of robustness, accuracy, and information theory. The effect of undersampling of the high-pressure/low-energy region of the adsorption is reported and discussed for the EM algorithm, as well as the effect of signal-to-noise ratio on the degree of heterogeneity that may be estimated experimentally.

  1. Copper adsorption with Pb and Cd in sand-bentonite liners under various pHs. Part II. Effect on adsorption sites.

    PubMed

    Kaoser, Saleh; Barrington, Suzelle; Elektorowicz, Maria; Wang, Li

    2004-01-01

    The project examined the effect of Pb and Cd on Cu adsorption using sand liners containing 0, 5, and 10% sodium bentonite and exposed to metal solutions at three pH levels (3.7, 5.5, and 7.5). Aliquots of 2 g of liner material were exposed in duplicate, for 14 days, to solutions containing Cu alone or Cu with either Pb or Cd. Selective sequential extraction (SSE) was used to quantity the Cu adsorbed by each liner particle adsorption site (exchangeable, carbonate and hydroxide, oxides and residual). The results indicated that two main factors affected liner material behavior in adsorbing Cu, besides Cd and Pb competition: pH either above or below 6.5; liner cation exchange capacity (CEC) greater or equal and greater than the solution cation equivalence. In general, the liner carbonate and hydroxide fractions precipitated the greatest amount of Cu, under all environmental conditions while the exchangeable, oxide and residual adsorbed more or less the same amount. Lead, and to a lesser extent Cd, significantly increase the mobility of Cu, by competing especially for the exchangeable sites. While Cd also competed against Cu for oxide adsorption, Pb competes for calcium and hydroxide precipitation. Lead, and to a lesser extent Cd, competed especially for the exchangeable site where the adsorption is more dynamic, and less for the more permanent adsorption sites, involving precipitation, and electrostatic bonding.

  2. Adsorption of B. Subtilis and P. Mendocina Onto Fe-Oxide Coated Quartz and Pure Quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ams, D.; Fein, J. B.

    2002-12-01

    Understanding the controls on bacterial adsorption onto mineral surfaces is crucial in order to model a range of processes, such as contaminant transport, mineral dissolution behavior, and bioremediation techniques. At present, little is known concerning the adsorption behavior of bacteria, even onto some of the most common mineral surfaces present in near-surface environments. In this study, we measured the adsorption of a Gram positive bacterial species (B. subtilis) and a Gram negative species (P. mendocina) onto a quartz sand, and onto an Fe-oxide coated quartz sand, both as functions of time, pH and bacteria:mineral mass ratio. The extent of adsorption was determined by measuring the concentration of free bacteria in the mineral-bacteria systems both before, and after, reaction, using a uv-vis spectrophotometric approach. pH and bacteria:mineral ratio exert strong controls on the extent of bacterial adsorption of both species onto Fe-coated quartz. The extent of adsorption of B. subtilis onto the Fe-coated quartz increases with decreasing pH from close to 0% at pH 10 to a plateau of approximately 80% adsorption between pH 6 and 4. Below pH 4, adsorption of B. subtilis decreases to 50% at pH 2. Adsorption of P. mendocina is similar to that observed for B. subtilis, only it is significantly less extensive under otherwise identical conditions. These adsorption behaviors are in marked contrast to that observed for both species onto the uncoated quartz. There is little to no adsorption of either species onto the uncoated quartz sand over most of the pH range studied. We use a thermodynamic approach to model the adsorption behavior of each species onto the Fe-coated quartz sand, determining equilibrium constants for the dominant adsorption reactions. Our results demonstrate that bacterial adsorption within geologic systems can be strongly dependent on mineralogy, fluid composition, and on the bacterial species present. However, our modeling approach enables the

  3. Microbial production of 2-chloro-alpha-methylbenzyl alcohol and its adsorptive recovery.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa; Adachi; Matsuno

    2000-08-01

    An adsorptive process was combined with yeast-mediated production of chiral 2-chloro-alpha-methylbenzyl alcohol (o-Cl-1-PA) for effective product recovery and reuse of the reaction medium. Low temperature was suitable for long-term reactor operation, and continuous production using a shallow-bed reactor was achieved for at least 22 days while maintaining a high conversion. The appropriate size of the adsorption column for product recovery from the reactor effluent was estimated through measurement of breakthrough curves of o-Cl-1-PA in a packed bed of the resin at various adsorbate concentrations and feed flow rates. Using the adsorption column, 98% of the product and the residual substrate were recovered from the reactor effluent, and the effluent from the adsorption column was successfully reused as the reaction medium after microfiltration to save the medium consumption.

  4. Adsorption-desorption properties and characterization of crosslinked Konjac glucomannan-graft-polyacrylamide-co-sodium xanthate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu-Feng; Duan, Jia-Cai; Miao, Wen-Hua; Zhang, Ruo-Jie; Pan, Si-Yi; Xu, Xiao-Yun

    2011-02-28

    A new flocculant, based on Konjac-graft-poly (acrylamide)-co-sodium xanthate (CKAX), was synthesized in aqueous solution using epichlorohydrin (ECH) as the cross-linker and ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as the initiator. X-ray diffraction indicated the existence of strong interaction between KGM and reactant, including intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Microscopy images exhibited the appropriate pore size and distribution, which might be related to a higher capacity of flocculation and adsorption. Thermo gravimetric analysis showed that the synthetic polymer could improve the thermo-stability of the natural polysaccharides, and there was a positive correlation between polymer residual weight and flocculation. The adsorption and desorption properties for copper ions indicated that the adsorption rate could be described by a pseudo-second-order rate model, and the Freundlich model provides the best fit for the resulting adsorption isotherm. The flocculant can be regenerated in HNO(3) solution.

  5. Coverage dependent adsorption and co-adsorption of CO and H₂ on the CdI₂-antitype metallic Mo₂C(001) surface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Tian, Xinxin; Yang, Yong; Li, Yong-Wang; Wang, Jianguo; Beller, Matthias; Jiao, Haijun

    2015-01-21

    The adsorption and co-adsorption of CO and H2 at different coverage on the CdI2-antitype metallic Mo2C(001) surface termination have been systematically computed at the level of periodic density functional theory. Only molecular CO adsorption is possible and the monolayer coverage (1 ML) can have 16CO adsorbed at the top sites. Dissociative H2 adsorption is favored thermodynamically and the monolayer coverage (1 ML) can have 16H adsorbed at the hollow sites. Since CO has much stronger adsorption energy than H2, pre-adsorption of CO is possible. CO pre-adsorption strongly affects atomic hydrogen co-adsorption at a high CO/H2 ratio, while hardly affects that at a low CO/H2 ratio. Under ultra-high vacuum conditions (200 K, 10(-12) atm and CO/H2 = 1/1), the most stable adsorbed surface state has CO/H2 = 15/1. Comparison among the metallic terminations of the CdI2-antitype Mo2C(001), eclipsed Mo2C(001) and orthorhombic Mo2C(100) surfaces shows their different CO and hydrogen adsorption as well as activation properties, which reveals that the CdI2-antitype Mo2C(001) surface is least active. These differences come from their surface bonding properties; the CdI2-antitype Mo2C(001) surface is saturated and less metallic, while the eclipsed Mo2C(001) and orthorhombic Mo2C(100) surfaces are unsaturated and more metallic.

  6. An active carbon catalyst prevents coke formation from asphaltenes during the hydrocracking of vacuum residue

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuyama, H.; Terai, S.

    2007-07-01

    Active carbons were prepared by the steam activation of a brown coal char. The active carbon with mesopores showed greater adsorption selectivity for asphaltenes. The active carbon was effective at suppressing coke formation, even with the high hydrocracking conversion of vacuum residue. The analysis of the change in the composition of saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes in the cracked residue with conversion demonstrated the ability of active carbon to restrict the transformation of asphaltenes to coke. The active carbon that was richer in mesopores was presumably more effective at providing adsorption sites for the hydrocarbon free-radicals generated initially during thermal cracking to prevent them from coupling and polycondensing.

  7. Electrokinetic investigation of surfactant adsorption.

    PubMed

    Bellmann, C; Synytska, A; Caspari, A; Drechsler, A; Grundke, K

    2007-05-15

    Fuerstenau [D.W. Fuerstenau, in: M.L. Hair (Ed.), Dekker, New York, 1971, p. 143] has already discussed the role of hydrocarbon chain of surfactants, the effect of alkyl chain length, chain structure and the pH of the solution on the adsorption process of surfactants. Later Kosmulski [M. Kosmulski, Chemical Properties of Material Surfaces, Surfactant Science Series, vol. 102, Dekker, New York, Basel, 2001] included the effect of surfactant concentration, equilibration time, temperature and electrolyte in his approaches. Certainly, the character of the head groups of the surfactant and the properties of the adsorbent surface are the basis for the adsorption process. Different surfactants and adsorbents cause different adsorption mechanisms described firstly by Rosen [M.J. Rosen, Surfactants and Interfacial Phenomena, second ed., Wiley, New York, 1989]. These adsorption mechanisms and their influencing factors were studied by electrokinetic investigations. Here only changes of the charges at the surfaces could be detected. To control the results of electrokinetic investigations they were compared with results from ellipsometric measurements. In the case of surfactant adsorption the chain length was vitally important. It could be shown by the adsorption of alkyl trimethyl ammonium bromides onto polymer films spin coated at wafer surfaces. The influence of the chain length depending on surface properties of the polymer film was studied. Streaming potential measurements were applied for these investigations. The obtained results enabled us to calculate the molar cohesive free energy per mol of CH2-group in the alkaline chain of the surfactant if all other specific adsorption effects were neglected.

  8. Model carcinogen adsorption dynamics of DNA gel.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Naoko; Naito, Daisuke; Rokugawa, Isamu; Yamamoto, Takao; Dobashi, Toshiaki

    2014-09-01

    We have derived theoretical equations describing the adsorption of carcinogen to gels in an immersion medium containing carcinogens. The theory was developed for a cylindrical boundary condition under the assumption of a carcinogen diffusion-limited process combined with the "moving boundary picture (Furusawa et al., 2007)". The time course of the adsorbed carcinogen layer thickness and that of the carcinogen concentration in an immersion medium were expressed by a set of scaled variables, and the asymptotic behavior in the initial stage was derived. Experiments based on the theory were performed using a DNA gel sandwiched between a set of coverglasses in a medium containing acridine orange (AO). The boundary between the AO-adsorbed gel layer and AO-nonadsorbed gel layer was traced during the immersion. The time courses of the AO-adsorbed gel layer thickness and the AO concentration in the immersion medium were well explained by the theory, and the number ratio of the total AO molecules to the adsorption sites in the DNA gel was determined.

  9. Arsenite Sorption by Drinking-Water Treatment Residuals: Redox Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makris, K. C.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.

    2005-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a major human carcinogen and could pose a serious human health risk at concentrations as low as 50 ppb in drinking water. Elevated As concentrations in soils currently used for residential purposes (located on former agricultural lands amended with arsenical pesticides) have increased the possibility of human contact with soil-As. Studies have shown that As bioavailability in the environment is primarily a function of its chemical speciation, which depends upon the redox potential. Arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity to living organisms is primarily due to exposure to the reduced species of As - arsenite, i.e., As(III), rather than the oxidized species - arsenate, i.e., As(V); the mobility of As(III) is much higher than As(V). One of the most promising methods to decrease the mobility of arsenite in the soil-water system is promoting its retention onto amorphous Fe/Al hydroxides. Drinking-Water Treatment Residuals (WTRs) are an inexpensive source of such Fe/Al hydroxides, which can be land-applied following the USEPA-regulated biosolids application rules. The WTRs are byproducts of drinking-water purification processes and generally contain sediment, organic carbon, and Al/Fe hydroxides. The hydroxides are typically amorphous and have tremendous affinity for oxyanions (e.g., arsenate). Preliminary work showed that WTRs are characterized by large internal surface area and porosity that partly explains their high affinity for As(V). The current study examines the potential of two WTRs (Fe-based and Al-based) to adsorb arsenite from solution. We hypothesize that As(III) adsorption onto the Fe-based WTR (whose stability is highly redox-sensitive) would be vastly different from the adsorption of As(III) onto the redox-insensitive Al-based WTR. Our main objective is to characterize As(III) sorption by both Fe- and Al-based WTRs by changing critical factors, such as the solid:solution ratio, contact time, and initial As(III) load. Results from this study

  10. Mutual influence of Tweens and dodecyl pyridinium chloride upon their joint adsorption on a surface of paraffin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streltsova, E. A.; Mazuryk, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    The mutual influence of Tweens (Tween-20, Tween-40, Tween-60, Tween-80) and dodecyl pyridinium chloride (DDPC) upon their joint adsorption on the paraffin surface is studied using different molar ratios of components in a bulk aqueous solution. It is shown that both synergistic and antagonistic effects are observed upon the adsorption of cationic and nonionic surfactants from the mixed solutions. The compositions of mixed adsorption layers and the parameters of intermolecular interaction between surfactants of different natures are calculated. A possible mechanism is proposed for the adsorption process.

  11. Adsorption of lanthanum to goethite in the presence of gluconate

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, Laurence C.; Sarah Pepper; Sue Clark

    2005-05-01

    Adsorption of Lanthanum to Goethite in the Presence of Gluconic Acid L. C. HULL,1 S. E. PEPPER2 AND S. B. CLARK2 1Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (hulllc@inel.gov) 2Washington State University, Pullman, WA (spepper@wsu.edu), (s_clark@wsu.edu) Lanthanide and trivalent-actinide elements in radioactive waste can pose risks to humans and ecological systems for many years. Organic complexing agents, from natural organic matter or the degradation of waste package components, can alter the mobility of these elements. We studied the effect of gluconic acid, as an analogue for cellulose degradation products, on the adsorption of lanthanum, representing lanthanide and trivalent-actinide elments, to goethite, representing natural iron minearals and degradation products of waste packages. Batch pH adsorption edge experiments were conducted with lanthanum alone, and with lanthanum and gluconate at a 1:1 mole ratio. Lanthanum concentrations studied were 0.1, 1, and 10 mM, covering a range from 10% to 1000% of the calculated available adsorption sites on goethite. In the absence of gluconate, lanthanum was primarily present in solution as free lanthanum ion. With gluconate present, free lanthanum concentration in solution decreased with increasing pH as step-wise deprotonation of the gluconate molecule increased the fraction lanthanum complexed with gluconate. Adsorption to the goethite surface was represented with the diffuse double-layer model. The number of adsorption sites and the intrinsic binding constants for the surface complexes were estimated from the pH adsorption edge data using the computer code FITEQL 4.0. Two surface reactions were used to fit the adsorption data in the absence of gluconate. A strong binding site with no proton release and a much higher concentration of weak binding sites with release of two protons per lanthanum adsorbed. The adsorption of lanthanum was not measurably affected by the presence of gluconate

  12. Adsorption of oxygen on W/100/ - Adsorption kinetics and structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, E.; Poppa, H.; Viswanath, Y.

    1976-01-01

    The adsorption of oxygen on W(100) single-crystal surfaces is studied by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), flash desorption, low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), and retarding-field work-function measurements. The AES results reveal stepwise changes in the sticking coefficients in the coverage range 0 to 1 and activated adsorption at higher coverages. Upon room-temperature adsorption, a series of complex LEED patterns is observed. In layers adsorbed at 1050 K and cooled to room temperature, the p(2 x 1) structure is the first ordered structure observed. This structure shows a reversible order-disorder transition between 700 and 1000 K and is characterized by a work function which is lower than that of the clean surface. Heating room-temperature adsorbates changes their structure irreversibly. At temperatures below 750 K, some new structures are observed.

  13. TENORM: Coal Combustion Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burning coal in boilers to create steam for power generation and industrial applications produces a number of combustion residuals. Naturally radioactive materials that were in the coal mostly end up in fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag.

  14. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2004-10-30

    Significant surfactant loss by adsorption or precipitation on reservoir minerals can cause chemical flooding processes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. This project is aimed towards an understanding of the role of reservoir minerals and their dissolved species in chemical loss by precipitation or adsorption of surfactants/polymers in enhanced oil recovery. Emphasis will be on the type and nature of different minerals in the oil reservoirs. Macroscopic adsorption, precipitation, wettability and nanoscopic orientation/conformation studies for aggregates of various surfactant/polymer mixtures on reservoir rocks systems is planned for exploring the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this reporting period, the minerals proposed in this study: sandstone, limestone, gypsum, kaolinite and pyrite, have been characterized to obtain their particle size distribution and surface area, which will be used in the analysis of adsorption and wettability data. The effect of surfactant mixing ratio on the adsorption of mixture of C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} Gemini surfactant (synthesized during last period) and sugar-based nonionic surfactant n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) has been studied. It was discovered that even trace amounts of Gemini in the mixture is sufficient to force significant adsorption of DM. DM adsorption on silica increased from relatively negligible levels to very high levels. It is clear form analysis of the results that desired adsorption of either surfactant component in the mixtures can be obtained by controlling the mixing ratio, the total mixture concentration, pH etc. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption of Gemini/DM mixtures were determined under relevant conditions to identify the nano-structure of the adsorbed layers. With increasing total surfactant adsorption, the silica mineral

  15. Adsorptive desulfurization by activated alumina.

    PubMed

    Srivastav, Ankur; Srivastava, Vimal Chandra

    2009-10-30

    This study reports usage of commercial grade activated alumina (aluminum oxide) as adsorbent for the removal of sulfur from model oil (dibenthiophene (DBT) dissolved in n-hexane). Bulk density of alumina was found to be 1177.77 kg/m(3). The BET surface area of alumina was found to decrease from 143.6 to 66.4 m(2)/g after the loading of DBT at optimum conditions. The carbon-oxygen functional groups present on the surface of alumina were found to be effective in the adsorption of DBT onto alumina. Optimum adsorbent dose was found to be 20 g/l. The adsorption of DBT on alumina was found to be gradual process, and quasi-equilibrium reached in 24 h. Langmuir isotherm best represented the equilibrium adsorption data. The heat of adsorption and change in entropy for DBT adsorption onto alumina was found to be 19.5 kJ/mol and 139.2 kJ/mol K, respectively.

  16. Reduced protein adsorption by osmolytes.

    PubMed

    Evers, Florian; Steitz, Roland; Tolan, Metin; Czeslik, Claus

    2011-06-07

    Osmolytes are substances that affect osmosis and are used by cells to adapt to environmental stress. Here, we report a neutron reflectivity study on the influence of some osmolytes on protein adsorption at solid-liquid interfaces. Bovine ribonuclease A (RNase) and bovine insulin were used as model proteins adsorbing at a hydrophilic silica and at a hydrophobic polystyrene surface. From the neutron reflectivity data, the adsorbed protein layers were characterized in terms of layer thickness, protein packing density, and adsorbed protein mass in the absence and presence of urea, trehalose, sucrose, and glycerol. All data point to the clear effect of these nonionic cosolvents on the degree of protein adsorption. For example, 1 M sucrose leads to a reduction of the adsorbed amount of RNase by 39% on a silica surface and by 71% on a polystyrene surface. Trehalose was found to exhibit activity similar to that of sucrose. The changes in adsorbed protein mass can be attributed to a decreased packing density of the proteins in the adsorbed layers. Moreover, we investigated insulin adsorption at a hydrophobic surface in the absence and presence of glycerol. The degree of insulin adsorption is decreased by even 80% in the presence of 4 M of glycerol. The results of this study demonstrate that nonionic cosolvents can be used to tune and control nonspecific protein adsorption at aqueous-solid interfaces, which might be relevant for biomedical applications.

  17. Biosynthesis of bifunctional iron oxyhydrosulfate by Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans and their application to coagulation and adsorption.

    PubMed

    Gan, Min; Song, Zibo; Jie, Shiqi; Zhu, Jianyu; Zhu, Yaowu; Liu, Xinxing

    2016-02-01

    Coagulation and adsorption are important environmental technologies, which were widely applied in water treatment. In this study, a type of villous iron oxyhydrosulfate with low crystallinity, high content iron, sulfate and hydroxyl was synthesized by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, which possessed coagulation and heavy metal adsorption ability simultaneously. The results showed that the Cu(II) adsorption capacity increased within a small range over the pH range of 3.0-5.0 but increased evidently over the range of 6.0-8.0. The maximal Cu(II) adsorption capacity of sample Af and Gf reached 50.97 and 46.08mg/g respectively. The optimum pH for Cr(VI) adsorption was 6.0, and the maximal adsorption capacity reached 51.32 and 59.57mg/g. The Langmuir isotherm can better describe the adsorption behavior of Cr(VI). Coagulation performance of the iron oxyhydrosulfate (Sh) has been significantly enhanced by polysilicic acid (PSA), which was mainly determined by PSA/Sh ratio, pH and coagulant dosage. Coagulation efficiency maintained approximately at 98% when the PSA/Sh ratio ranged from 0.4/0.1 to 1.0/0.1. Polysilicic acid worked efficiently in wide pH range extending, from 2 to 3.5. Coagulation performance improved significantly with the increasing of the coagulant dosage at lower dosage range, while, at higher dosage range, the improvement was not evident even with more coagulant addition.

  18. Adsorption of methylene blue and methyl red dyes from aqueous solutions onto modified zeolites.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Z; Karasavvidis, Ch; Dimirkou, A; Antoniadis, V

    2013-01-01

    Zeolite, hematite, modified zeolite and commercial activated charcoal were examined for their ability to remove methylene blue (MB) and methyl red (MR) from their aqueous solutions. Modified zeolite and hematite were produced according to the Schwertmann and Cornell method while zeolite and commercial activated charcoal were obtained from S&B and Fluka AG companies, respectively. Adsorption experiments were conducted at three different adsorbent-to-solution ratios, namely 8, 16 and 24 g/L under environmental conditions and continuous stirring. Equilibrium isotherms of MB and MR were studied at different initial concentrations (from 5 × 10(-4) to 5 × 10(-3) g/L). MB adsorption kinetics were also studied. The maximum adsorption of MB and MR from their aqueous solutions was achieved at 24 g/L (adsorbent-to-dye solution ratio) after 1 h and was equal to 100% (MB) on modified zeolite and 99% (MR) on commercial activated charcoal, respectively. All the other materials achieved intermediate values of dye adsorption. From the applied kinetic models, the pseudo-second-order equation best described the adsorption of MB and MR. Consequently, modified zeolite showed the highest adsorption capacity for MB, while commercial activated charcoal showed the highest adsorption capacity of MR. The studied adsorbents can be used as filters to remove dyes from wastewaters.

  19. Influence of activated carbon characteristics on toluene and hexane adsorption: Application of surface response methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo, Mª Teresa; de Yuso, Alicia Martínez; Valenciano, Raquel; Rubio, Begoña; Pino, Mª Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity of toluene and hexane over activated carbons prepared according an experimental design, considering as variables the activation temperature, the impregnation ratio and the activation time. The response surface methodology was applied to optimize the adsorption capacity of the carbons regarding the preparation conditions that determine the physicochemical characteristics of the activated carbons. The methodology of preparation produced activated carbons with surface areas and micropore volumes as high as 1128 m2/g and 0.52 cm3/g, respectively. Moreover, the activated carbons exhibit mesoporosity, ranging from 64.6% to 89.1% the percentage of microporosity. The surface chemistry was characterized by TPD, FTIR and acid-base titration obtaining different values of surface groups from the different techniques because the limitation of each technique, but obtaining similar trends for the activated carbons studied. The exhaustive characterization of the activated carbons allows to state that the measured surface area does not explain the adsorption capacity for either toluene or n-hexane. On the other hand, the surface chemistry does not explain the adsorption results either. A compromise between physical and chemical characteristics can be obtained from the appropriate activation conditions, and the response surface methodology gives the optimal activated carbon to maximize adsorption capacity. Low activation temperature, intermediate impregnation ratio lead to high toluene and n-hexane adsorption capacities depending on the activation time, which a determining factor to maximize toluene adsorption.

  20. Correlation and prediction of adsorption capacity and affinity of aromatic compounds on carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenhao; Yang, Kun; Chen, Wei; Wang, Wendi; Zhang, Jie; Lin, Daohui; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption of 22 nonpolar and polar aromatic compounds on 10 carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with various diameters, lengths and surface oxygen-containing group contents was investigated to develop predictive correlations for adsorption, using the isotherm fitting of Polanyi theory-based Dubinin-Ashtakhov (DA) model. Adsorption capacity of aromatic compounds on CNTs is negatively correlated with melting points of aromatic compounds, and surface oxygen-containing group contents and surface area ratios of mesopores to total pores of CNTs, but positively correlated with total surface area of CNTs. Adsorption affinity is positively correlated with solvatochromic parameters of aromatic compounds, independent of tube lengths and surface oxygen-containing group contents of CNTs, but negatively correlated with surface area ratios of mesopores to total pores of CNTs. The correlations of adsorption capacity and adsorption affinity with properties of both aromatic compounds and CNTs clearly have physical significance, can be used successfully with DA model to predict adsorption of aromatic compounds on CNTs from the well-known physiochemical properties of aromatic compounds (i.e., solvatochromic parameters, melting points) and CNTs (i.e., surface area and total acidic group contents), and thus can facilitate the environmental application of CNTs as sorbents and environmental risk assessment of both aromatic contaminants and CNTs.

  1. RESIDUAL ENERGY SPECTRUM OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C. H. K.; Bale, S. D.; Salem, C. S.; Maruca, B. A.

    2013-06-20

    It has long been known that the energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind is not in equipartition. In this paper, we present an analysis of 5 yr of Wind data at 1 AU to investigate the reason for this. The residual energy (difference between energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations) was calculated using both the standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) normalization for the magnetic field and a kinetic version, which includes temperature anisotropies and drifts between particle species. It was found that with the kinetic normalization, the fluctuations are closer to equipartition, with a mean normalized residual energy of {sigma}{sub r} = -0.19 and mean Alfven ratio of r{sub A} = 0.71. The spectrum of residual energy, in the kinetic normalization, was found to be steeper than both the velocity and magnetic field spectra, consistent with some recent MHD turbulence predictions and numerical simulations, having a spectral index close to -1.9. The local properties of residual energy and cross helicity were also investigated, showing that globally balanced intervals with small residual energy contain local patches of larger imbalance and larger residual energy at all scales, as expected for nonlinear turbulent interactions.

  2. Metal adsorption on mosses: Toward a universal adsorption model.

    PubMed

    González, A G; Pokrovsky, O S

    2014-02-01

    This study quantifies the adsorption of heavy metals on 4 typical moss species used for environmental monitoring in the moss bag technique. The adsorption of Cu(2+), Cd(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) onto Hypnum sp., Sphagnum sp., Pseudoscleropodium purum and Brachytecium rutabulum has been investigated using a batch reactor in a wide range of pH (1.3-11.0) and metal concentrations in solution (1.6μM-3.8mM). A Linear Programming Model (LPM) was applied for the experimental data to derive equilibrium constants and the number of surface binding sites. The surface acid-base titration performed for 4 mosses at a pH range of 3-10 in 0.1M NaNO3 demonstrated that Sphagnum sp. is the most efficient adsorbent as it has the maximal number of proton-binding sites on the surface (0.65mmol g(-1)). The pKa computed for all the moss species suggested the presence of 5 major functional groups: phosphodiester, carboxyl, phosphoryl, amine and polyphenols. The results of pH-edge experiments demonstrated that B. rutabulum exhibits the highest percentage of metal adsorption and has the highest number of available sites for most of the metals studied. However, according to the results of the constant pH "Langmuirian" isotherm, Sphagnum sp. can be considered as the strongest adsorbent, although the relative difference from other mosses is within 20%. The LPM was found to satisfactorily fit the experimental data in the full range of the studied solution parameters. The results of this study demonstrate a rather similar pattern of five metal adsorptions on mosses, both as a function of pH and as a metal concentration, which is further corroborated by similar values of adsorption constants. Therefore, despite the species and geographic differences between the mosses, a universal adsorption edge and constant pH adsorption isotherm can be recommended for 4 studied mosses. The quantitative comparison of metal adsorption with other common natural organic and inorganic materials demonstrates

  3. Mesoscopic coarse-grained simulations of lysozyme adsorption.

    PubMed

    Yu, Gaobo; Liu, Jie; Zhou, Jian

    2014-05-01

    Coarse-grained simulations are adopted to study the adsorption behavior of lysozyme on different (hydrophobic, neutral hydrophilic, zwitterionic, negatively charged, and positively charged) surfaces at the mesoscopic microsecond time scale (1.2 μs). Simulation results indicate the following: (i) the conformation change of lysozyme on the hydrophobic surface is bigger than any other studied surfaces; (ii) the active sites of lysozyme are faced to the hydrophobic surface with a "top end-on" orientation, while they are exposed to the liquid phase on the hydrophilic surface with a "back-on" orientation; (iii) the neutral hydrophilic surface can induce the adsorption of lysozyme, while the nonspecific protein adsorption can be resisted by the zwitterionic surface; (iv) when the solution ionic strength is low, lysozyme can anchor on the negatively charged surface easily but cannot adsorb on the positively charged surface; (v) when the solution ionic strength is high, the positively charged lysozyme can also adsorb on the like-charged surface; (vi) the major positive potential center of lysozyme, especially the residue ARG128, plays a vital role in leading the adsorption of lysozyme on charged surfaces; (vii) when the ionic strength is high, a counterion layer is formed above the positively charged surface, which is the key factor why lysozyme can adsorb on a like-charged surface. The coarse-grained method based on the MARTINI force field for proteins and the BMW water model could provide an efficient way to understand protein interfacial adsorption behavior at a greater length scale and time scale.

  4. Charcoal Regeneration - Part 3. Mechanism of RDX Adsorption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    larger pore volume, increased numbers of pore body diameters in the mesopore range, and an increase in the ratio of pore opening to pore body diameter...openings due to irreversible adsorption, the shape and widcene~s of trh, hysteresis loop will give a semiquantitatlye picture of the narrdwingw. A...tion side of the hysteresis loop is in equilibrium with menisci in the body of the pores, and therefore gives information about the pore body

  5. Modifying of gas adsorption on phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmankurt, Bahadır; Gürel, Hikmet Hakan

    2017-02-01

    After the discovery of Graphene, new two dimensional (2D) materials has been found out. Among them, Phosphorene, has a significant advantage over the semimetallic graphene and other typical 2D semiconductors. 2D materials are also usually good candidates for gas sensors thanks to their large surface-to-volume ratio and the associated charge transfer between gas molecules and the substrates. Theoretical efforts have been devoted to study the interactions of this 2D material with different molecules(CO, H2O, CH4 and NH3). But interactions of such molecules with blue phosphorene are lack. Thus, theoretical study based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) have been performed to investigate the molecules adsorption on phosphorene with Vander walls effect. It is also shown that how modify structural of the molecules on phosphorene by applied charging.

  6. Elimination of aromatic pollutants present in wastewater by adsorption over zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koubaissy, Bachar; Toufaily, Joumana; El-murr, Maya; Hamieh, Tayssir; Magnoux, Patrick; Joly, Guy

    Phenol and substituted phenols are toxic organic pollutants commonly present in industrial waste streams especially in industrial wastewater. Water treatment by activated carbon adsorption technique is very advantageous due to their high adsorption capacity and low cost of these materials but it is poorly regenerable In recent years, researchers have focused on class of interesting recyclable adsorbents based on hydrophobic zeolites (Si / Al ratio high) in the field of water treatment. The study on adsorption showed that the affinity of phenol drifts toward the FAU is dependent on the pH solution and on the pollutant solubility in water and finally their economic cost for regeneration after saturation.

  7. Adsorption of hazardous ions from radioactive waste on chelating cloth filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Sameh H.; Sohsah, Mustfa A.; Ghoneim, Mohammad M.; Sokkar, Hesham H.; Badawy, Sayed M.; El-Anadouli, Bahgat E.

    2006-02-01

    A cloth filter was synthesized by grafting of acrylonitrile/methacylic acid (AN/MAA ≈80%/20% molar ratio) onto cotton cloth using a radiation-induced technique followed by amidoximation reaction. The fate of adsorption of radionuclide (e.g. U(VI)) on chelating cloth filter (CCF) from radioactive waste was investigated. The adsorption ability of the CCF increases as pH increases from 6 to 10. The predominant composition of the resulting complex was determined. A chemical adsorption mechanism was confirmed by examining the relationships between the adsorbed amount of radionuclide and the contact time.

  8. Adsorption characteristics of metal ions on chitosan chemically modified by D-galactose

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Kazuo; Sumi, Hisaharu; Matsumoto, Michiaki

    1996-07-01

    The adsorption characteristics of metal ions on chitosan chemically modified by D-galactose were examined. The pH dependency on the distribution ratio was found to be affected by the valency of the metal ion, and the apparent adsorption equilibrium constants of the metal ions were determined. The order of adsorption of the metal ions is Ga > In > Nd > Eu for the trivalent metal ions and Cu > Ni > Co for the divalent metal ions. It is believed that amino and hydroxyl groups in the chitosan act as a chelating ligand.

  9. Adsorption of chemically synthesized mussel adhesive peptide sequences containing DOPA on stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Neha; Dimartino, Simone; Janmale, Tejraj; Gieseg, Steven P; Fee, Conan J

    2015-08-01

    The adsorption of proteins at solid-liquid interfaces is important in biosensor and biomaterial applications. Marine mussels affix themselves to surfaces using a highly cross-linked, protein-based adhesive containing a high proportion of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) residues. In this work, the effect of DOPA residues on protein adhesion on stainless steel surfaces was studied using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation system. The adsorption of two repetitive peptide motifs, KGYKYYGGSS and KGYKYY, from the mussel Mytilus edulis foot protein 5 on stainless steel was studied before and after chemo-enzymatic modification of tyrosine residues to DOPA using mushroom tyrosinase. Conversion from tyrosine to DOPA, evaluated by HPLC, was in the range 70-99%. DOPA-modified sequences showed fourfold greater adhesion than unmodified M. edulis foot protein 5 motifs.

  10. Direct gas-solid carbonation of serpentinite residues in the absence and presence of water vapor: a feasibility study for carbon dioxide sequestration.

    PubMed

    Veetil, Sanoopkumar Puthiya; Pasquier, Louis-César; Blais, Jean-François; Cecchi, Emmanuelle; Kentish, Sandra; Mercier, Guy

    2015-09-01

    Mineral carbonation of serpentinite mining residue offers an environmentally secure and permanent storage of carbon dioxide. The strategy of using readily available mining residue for the direct treatment of flue gas could improve the energy demand and economics of CO2 sequestration by avoiding the mineral extraction and separate CO2 capture steps. The present is a laboratory scale study to assess the possibility of CO2 fixation in serpentinite mining residues via direct gas-solid reaction. The degree of carbonation is measured both in the absence and presence of water vapor in a batch reactor. The gas used is a simulated gas mixture reproducing an average cement flue gas CO2 composition of 18 vol.% CO2. The reaction parameters considered are temperature, total gas pressure, time, and concentration of water vapor. In the absence of water vapor, the gas-solid carbonation of serpentinite mining residues is negligible, but the residues removed CO2 from the feed gas possibly due to reversible adsorption. The presence of small amount of water vapor enhances the gas-solid carbonation, but the measured rates are too low for practical application. The maximum CO2 fixation obtained is 0.07 g CO2 when reacting 1 g of residue at 200 °C and 25 barg (pCO2 ≈ 4.7) in a gas mixture containing 18 vol.% CO2 and 10 vol.% water vapor in 1 h. The fixation is likely surface limited and restricted due to poor gas-solid interaction. It was identified that both the relative humidity and carbon dioxide-water vapor ratio have a role in CO2 fixation regardless of the percentage of water vapor.

  11. Phosphate and ammonium adsorption of the modified biochar based on Phragmites australis after phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yu-Peng; Ni, Zhi-Yi; Xiong, Zhao-Zhao; Cheng, Li-Hua; Xu, Xin-Hua

    2017-02-04

    To effectively remove N and P from eutrophic water, the Phragmites australis after phytoremediation was harvested for preparation of modified biochar. The MgCl2-modified biochar (MPB) was successfully synthesized at 600 °C under N2 circumstance. The physiochemical characteristics, the adsorption capacity for N and P in the simulated solution, and their adsorption mechanism of MPB were then determined, followed by the treatment of eutrophic water of Tai lake and its inflow river from agricultural source. The results demonstrated that the MPB presented high adsorption capacity to both simulated NH4-N and PO4-P with the maximum adsorption capacity exceeding 30 and 100 mg g(-1), respectively. The entire ammonium adsorption process could be described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model whereas the phosphate adsorption process could be divided into three phases, as described by both intra-particle diffusion model and the pseudo-first-order kinetic. It was further found that the dominant mechanism for ammonium adsorption was Mg(2+) exchange instead of functional groups and surface areas and the Mg-P precipitation was the main mechanism for phosphate adsorption. The MPB also showed high removal ratio of practical TP which reached nearly 90% for both the water in Tai lake and its agricultural source. It suggested that MPB based on harvested P. australis was a promising composite for eutrophic water treatment and it could deliver multiple benefits. Graphic abstract.

  12. Removal of azo dye from water by magnetite adsorption-Fenton oxidation.

    PubMed

    Rongcheng, Wu; Jiuhui, Qu

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to highlight the possibility of using powder magnetite adsorption-Fenton oxidation as a method for removal of azo dye acid red B (ARB) from water. The adsorption properties of magnetite powder towards ARB were studied. The oxidation of adsorbed ARB and regeneration of magnetite adsorbent at the same time by Fenton reagent (hydrogen peroxide [H2O2] + iron (II) [Fe2+]) in another treatment unit with a smaller volume was also investigated. The efficiency of Fenton oxidation of ARB was compared for the reaction carried out in solution and on magnetite. The magnetic separation method was used to recover magnetite after adsorption or regeneration. The results indicated that the adsorption rate was fast. The capacity was strongly dependent on pH and inorganic anions, and pH 3.8 was optimal for the adsorption of ARB. The adsorption can be described well using the Langmuir model. The oxidation was more efficient for ARB adsorbed on magnetite than in solution. The adsorption capacity of magnetite increased significantly after regeneration, which was the result of an increase in surface area of the adsorbent and change of elemental ratio (oxygen:iron [O:Fe]) on the surface. The maximum adsorption capacity for ARB was 32.4 mg/g adsorbent.

  13. Adsorption characteristics of rocks from vapor-dominated geothermal reservoir at the Geysers, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Satik, Cengiz; Walters, Mark; Horne, Roland N.

    1996-01-24

    This paper reports on a continuing experimental effort to characterize the adsorption behavior of rocks from The Geysers steam field in California. We show adsorption results obtained for 36 rock samples. All of the adsorption isotherms plotted on the same graph exhibit an envelope of isotherms. The minimum and the maximum values of the slope (or rate of adsorption) and of the magnitude within this envelope of isotherms belonged to the UOC-1 (felsite) and NCPA B-5 (serpentine) samples. The values of surface area and porosity, and pore size distribution for 19 of the samples indicated a very weak correlation with adsorption. An interpretation of the pore size distributions and the liquid saturation isotherms suggests that the change in the slope and the magnitude of the adsorption isotherms within the envelope is controlled primarily by the physical adsorption mechanism instead of capillary condensation. Grain-size and framework grain to matrix ratio are found to be insufficient to characterize this adsorption behavior. An accurate identification of the mineralogy of the samples will be essential to complete this analysis.

  14. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  15. FY-2015 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Nicholas Ray; Watson, Tony Leroy

    2015-09-30

    Nuclear fission produces fission and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has continued in Fiscal Year 2015 according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. Updates to the deep-bed test system have also been performed to enable the inclusion of evaporated HNO3 and increased NO2 concentrations in future tests. This report summarizes the result of those activities. Test results showed that iodine adsorption from gaseous methyl iodide using reduced silver zeolite (AgZ) resulted in initial iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) under 1,000 for the conditions of the long-duration test performed this year (45 ppm CH3I, 1,000 ppm each NO and NO2, very low H2O levels [3 ppm] in balance air). The mass transfer zone depth exceeded the cumulative 5-inch depth of 4 bed segments, which is deeper than the 2-4 inch depth estimated for the mass transfer zone for adsorbing I2 using AgZ in prior deep-bed tests. The maximum iodine adsorption capacity for the AgZ under the conditions of this test was 6.2% (6.2 g adsorbed I per 100 g sorbent). The maximum Ag utilization was 51%. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  16. Non-contact analysis of the adsorptive ink capacity of nano silica pigments on a printing coating base.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Huang, Yu Dong

    2014-01-01

    Near infrared spectra combined with partial least squares were proposed as a means of non-contact analysis of the adsorptive ink capacity of recording coating materials in ink jet printing. First, the recording coating materials were prepared based on nano silica pigments. 80 samples of the recording coating materials were selected to develop the calibration of adsorptive ink capacity against ink adsorption (g/m2). The model developed predicted samples in the validation set with r2  = 0.80 and SEP = 1.108, analytical results showed that near infrared spectra had significant potential for the adsorption of ink capacity on the recording coating. The influence of factors such as recording coating thickness, mass ratio silica: binder-polyvinyl alcohol and the solution concentration on the adsorptive ink capacity were studied. With the help of the near infrared spectra, the adsorptive ink capacity of a recording coating material can be rapidly controlled.

  17. Self-healable, tough, and ultrastretchable nanocomposite hydrogels based on reversible polyacrylamide/montmorillonite adsorption.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guorong; Du, Gaolai; Sun, Yuanna; Fu, Jun

    2015-03-04

    Nanocomposite hydrogels with unprecedented stretchability, toughness, and self-healing have been developed by in situ polymerization of acrylamide with the presence of exfoliated montmorillonite (MMT) layers as noncovalent cross-linkers. The exfoliated MMT clay nanoplatelets with high aspect ratios, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, are well dispersed in the polyacrylamide matrix. Strong polymer/MMT interaction was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The effective cross-link densities of these hydrogels are estimated in the range of 2.2-5.7 mol m(-3). Uniaxial tensile tests showed a very high fracture elongation up to 11 800% and a fracture toughness up to 10.1 MJ m(-3). Cyclic loading-unloading tests showed remarkable hysteresis, which indicates energy dissipation upon deformation. Residual strain after cyclic loadings could be recovered under mild conditions, with the recovery extent depending on clay content. A mechanism based on reversible desorption/adsorption of polymer chains on clay platelets surface is discussed. Finally, these nanocomposite hydrogels are demonstrated to fully heal by dry-reswell treatments.

  18. Collagen/cellulose hydrogel beads reconstituted from ionic liquid solution for Cu(II) adsorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jilei; Wei, Ligang; Ma, Yingchong; Li, Kunlan; Li, Minghui; Yu, Yachen; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Huihui

    2013-10-15

    A novel adsorbent, biodegradable collagen/cellulose hydrogel beads (CCHBs), was prepared by reconstitution from a 1-butyl, 3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl) solution. The adsorption properties of the CCHBs for Cu(II) ion removal from aqueous solutions were investigated and compared with those of cellulose hydrogel beads (CHBs). The CCHBs have a three-dimensional macroporous structure whose amino groups are believed to be the main active binding sites of Cu(II) ions. The equilibrium adsorption capacity (qe) of the CCHBs is greatly influenced by the collagen/cellulose mass ratio, and steeply increases until the collagen/cellulose mass ratio exceeds 2/1. The maximum adsorption is obtained at pH 6. The qe of Cu(II) ions increases with increased initial concentration of the solution. Based on Langmuir isotherms, the maximum adsorption capacity (qm) of CCHB3 (collagen/cellulose mass ratio of 3/1) is 1.06 mmol/g. The CCHBs maintain good adsorption properties after the fourth cycle of adsorption-desorption.

  19. Sugarcane rice residue biochars and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sugarcane production in U.S. involves either pre-harvest burning or after-harvest burning of the residue. Approximately 70-90% of the dry matter of harvested sugarcane trash is lost through open field burning. This practice has caused considerable concerns over air quality and soil sustainability. We propose an alternative conservation approach to convert the sugarcane residue to biochar and used as soil amendment to conserve carbon and potentially improve soil fertility. In this study, fundamental properties of biochars made from sugarcane residue along with rice residues were tested for agronomic and environmental benefits. Sugarcane and rice harvest residues and milling processing byproducts bagasse and rice husk were converted to biochars at different pyrolysis temperatures and characterized. In general, sugarcane leave biochar contained more P, K, Ca and Mg than sugarcane bagasse biochar. Rice straw biochar had more S, K Ca but less P than rice husk biochar. Both biochars had higher available fraction of total P than that of total K. Sugarcane leave biochar converted at 450oC was dominated with various lignin derived phenols as well as non-specific aromatic compounds whereas bagasse biochar was with both lignin derived phenol and poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Rice straw char was dominated with non-specific aromatic compounds. At 750oC, charred material was dominated with aromatic ethers while losing the aromatic C=C structures. These molecular and surface property differences likely contributed to the difference in water holding capacities observed with these biochars. On the other hand, rice straw biochars produced at different pyrolysis temperatures had no significant effect on rice germination. Soils treated with sugarcane leave/trash biochar significantly enhanced sugarcane growth especially the root length. Treating soil with either sugarcane leave or bagasse char also enhanced soil adsorption capacity of atrazine; a common herbicide used in sugarcane

  20. Adsorption isotherms of charged nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Alexandre P; Bakhshandeh, Amin; Diehl, Alexandre; Levin, Yan

    2016-10-19

    We present theory and simulations which allow us to quantitatively calculate the amount of surface adsorption excess of charged nanoparticles onto a charged surface. The theory is very accurate for weakly charged nanoparticles and can be used at physiological concentrations of salt. We have also developed an efficient simulation algorithm which can be used for dilute suspensions of nanoparticles of any charge, even at very large salt concentrations. With the help of the new simulation method, we are able to efficiently calculate the adsorption isotherms of highly charged nanoparticles in suspensions containing multivalent ions, for which there are no accurate theoretical methods available.

  1. Thermodynamic features of dioxins' adsorption.

    PubMed

    Prisciandaro, Marina; Piemonte, Vincenzo; di Celso, Giuseppe Mazziotti; Ronconi, Silvia; Capocelli, Mauro

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, the six more poisonous species among all congeners of dioxin group are taken into account, and the P-T diagram for each of them is developed. Starting from the knowledge of vapour tensions and thermodynamic parameters, the theoretical adsorption isotherms are calculated according to the Langmuir's model. In particular, the Langmuir isotherm parameters (K and wmax) have been validated through the estimation of the adsorption heat (ΔHads), which varies in the range 20-24kJ/mol, in agreement with literature values. This result will allow to put the thermodynamical basis for a rational design of different process units devoted to dioxins removal.

  2. Counterion release and electrostatic adsorption

    PubMed

    Sens; Joanny

    2000-05-22

    The effective charge of a rigid polyelectrolyte (PE) approaching an oppositely charged surface is studied. The cases of a weak (annealed) and strongly charged PE with condensed counterions (such as DNA) are discussed. In the most interesting case of the adsorption onto a substrate of low dielectric constant (such as a lipid membrane or a mica sheet) the condensed counterions are not always released as the PE approaches the substrate, because of the major importance of the image-charge effect. For the adsorption onto a surface with freely moving charges, the image-charge effect becomes less important and full release is often expected.

  3. Evaluation of the adsorptive behavior of cesium and strontium on hydroxyapatite and zeolite for decontamination of radioactive substances.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, K; Aoki, H

    2016-08-12

    Removal of radioactive substances, such as cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr), has become an emerging issue after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. To assess the possibility that hydroxyapatite (HA) and zeolites can be used for removal of radioactive substances, the adsorption capacities of Cs and Sr on the HA and a zeolite were investigated. The influence of Fe ions on Cs and Sr adsorption on the HA and the zeolite was also evaluated, because Fe ions are the most effective inhibitor of Cs adsorption on the zeolite.In the Cs adsorption process on the HA and the zeolite, the zeolite showed a higher adsorption ratio than the HA, and the maximum sorption capacity of the zeolite was calculated as 196 mg/g, whereas the HA showed a higher Sr adsorption ratio than the zeolite. The maximum sorption capacity of Sr on the HA was 123 mg/g. Under coexistence with Fe, Cs adsorption on the zeolite decreased with increasing Fe concentration, reaching 2.0 ± 0.8% at 0.1 M Fe concentration. In contrast, Cs adsorption on the zeolite was improved by adding the HA. In the case of coexistence of the HA, the Cs adsorption on the mixture of the HA and the zeolite was 52.4% ± 3.6 % at 0.1 M Fe concentration, although Cs adsorption on the HA alone was quite low. In the Fe adsorption processes of the HA and the zeolite, the HA exhibited a maximum sorption capacity of 256 mg/g, which was much higher than that of the zeolite (111 mg/g). The high affinity of Fe on the HA contributes to the improvement of the deteriorated Cs adsorption on the zeolite due to Fe ions.

  4. A plankton-residue model to explain trace-element enrichments in oil-source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, D.Z.; Isaacs, C.M. )

    1996-01-01

    Sedimentary deposits enriched in organic matter commonly have high concentrations of many trace elements. In the past, trace-element enrichment was attributed to accumulation by precipitation/adsorption reactions under conditions of bottom-water sulfate reduction, or from a seawater that itself had an unusually high concentration of trace elements. Examination of the ancient and modern sediment record shows, however, that many trace elements in these deposits accumulated within an organic fraction whose composition closely approached that of modem plankton; their accumulation further required only a moderate rate of primary productivity. Specific examples are represented by the accumulation of Cu, Cd, Mo, Ni, and Zn in the California Borderland today and by their abundance in Quaternary sediment from the Japan Sea, Cretaceous sediment from the Atlantic Ocean, the Miocene Monterey Formation, and the Permian Phosphoria Formation. Accordingly, we propose that the elevated trace-element concentration of many oil-source rocks, above that contributed by the detrital fraction, is a residue from the diagenetic degradation of marine plankton. Recent studies have shown that the burial rate (accumulation rate) of organic matter can rep- resent less than 5% of its rain rate (depositional rate) onto the sea floor and as little as 1 % of primary productivity. By contrast, several of the trace elements, once deposited on the sea floor, can be largely retained. In the Japan Sea sediment, for example, Cu: and Zn: organic-matter ratios in the marine fraction of 9 sediment alone average 10 times their ratios in plankton, suggesting a 90% loss of the organic matter that rained onto the sea floor, but Zn: Cu ratios and other trace-element: Cu ratios in this and other deposits closely approach modern plankton values.

  5. A plankton-residue model to explain trace-element enrichments in oil-source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, D.Z.; Isaacs, C.M.

    1996-12-31

    Sedimentary deposits enriched in organic matter commonly have high concentrations of many trace elements. In the past, trace-element enrichment was attributed to accumulation by precipitation/adsorption reactions under conditions of bottom-water sulfate reduction, or from a seawater that itself had an unusually high concentration of trace elements. Examination of the ancient and modern sediment record shows, however, that many trace elements in these deposits accumulated within an organic fraction whose composition closely approached that of modem plankton; their accumulation further required only a moderate rate of primary productivity. Specific examples are represented by the accumulation of Cu, Cd, Mo, Ni, and Zn in the California Borderland today and by their abundance in Quaternary sediment from the Japan Sea, Cretaceous sediment from the Atlantic Ocean, the Miocene Monterey Formation, and the Permian Phosphoria Formation. Accordingly, we propose that the elevated trace-element concentration of many oil-source rocks, above that contributed by the detrital fraction, is a residue from the diagenetic degradation of marine plankton. Recent studies have shown that the burial rate (accumulation rate) of organic matter can rep- resent less than 5% of its rain rate (depositional rate) onto the sea floor and as little as 1 % of primary productivity. By contrast, several of the trace elements, once deposited on the sea floor, can be largely retained. In the Japan Sea sediment, for example, Cu: and Zn: organic-matter ratios in the marine fraction of 9 sediment alone average 10 times their ratios in plankton, suggesting a 90% loss of the organic matter that rained onto the sea floor, but Zn: Cu ratios and other trace-element: Cu ratios in this and other deposits closely approach modern plankton values.

  6. Influence of the nature and age of cover crop residues on the sorption of three pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassigneul, Ana; Alletto, Lionel; Chuette, Delphine; Le Gac, Anne-Laure; Hatier, Jules; Etievant, Veronique; Bergheaud, Valérie; Baumberger, Stéphanie; Méchin, Valérie; Justes, Eric; Benoit, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    In agricultural fields, soil and water quality preservation is strongly influenced by pesticides use and behavior. To limit the environmental impacts of agricultural activities, best management practices such as the use of cover crops are encouraged. Cover crops during the fallow period were found to be efficient in reducing nitrate leaching, controlling soil erosion, improving soil organic content and enhancing soil biological activity. This technique was also found to modify soil water dynamics in the following crop. According to these effects, modifications on pesticide behavior in soil, such as sorption, degradation and transport, are expected (Alletto et al., 2012 ; 2013). In this study, the impact of the nature and level of decomposition of cover crop was studied on the sorption characteristics of three pesticides. These pesticides differed in their physicochemical characteristics (hydrophobicity, solubility, persistence) and were two herbicides, S-metolachlor and glyphosate, which are largely used in maize production and predominantly found as pollutants in water; and one fungicide, epoxiconazole. Correlations between pesticide sorption and physicochemical characteristics of the cover crop residues were studied. Residues of oat, turnip rape, red clover and phacelia were collected in March 2011 and incubated at 28°C and at the water holding capacity during 0, 6, 28 or 56 days. For each date, adsorption of the three radiolabeled pesticides was measured in batch on the different cover crop residues, and their biochemical composition (Van Soest fractionation), hydrophobicity (contact angle measurement) and C/N ratio were determined. Results showed that the adsorption of the pesticides differed significantly according to (i) the pesticide, (ii) the nature of cover crop, (iii) the decomposition level of the cover crop and the interaction cover crop x decomposition time. Epoxiconazole was the most adsorbed molecule, with Kd values ranging from 161 ± 30 L/Kg (oat

  7. Activated carbon from vetiver roots: gas and liquid adsorption studies.

    PubMed

    Gaspard, S; Altenor, S; Dawson, E A; Barnes, P A; Ouensanga, A

    2007-06-01

    Large quantities of lignocellulosic residues result from the industrial production of essential oil from vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) roots. These residues could be used for the production of activated carbon. The yield of char obtained after vetiver roots pyrolysis follows an equation recently developed [A. Ouensanga, L. Largitte, M.A. Arsene, The dependence of char yield on the amounts of components in precursors for pyrolysed tropical fruit stones and seeds, Micropor. Mesopor. Mater. 59 (2003) 85-91]. The N(2) adsorption isotherm follows either the Freundlich law K(F)P(alpha) which is the small alpha equation limit of a Weibull shaped isotherm or the classical BET isotherm. The surface area of the activated carbons are determined using the BET method. The K(F) value is proportional to the BET surface area. The alpha value increases slightly when the burn-off increases and also when there is a clear increase in the micropore distribution width.

  8. Adsorption of Organics from Domestic Water Supplies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Michael J.; Suffet, Irwin H.

    1978-01-01

    This article discusses the current state of the art of organics removal by adsorption. Various theoretical explanations of the adsorption process are given, along with practical results from laboratory, pilot-scale, and full-scale applications. (CS)

  9. CONTAMINANT ADSORPTION AND OXIDATION VIA FENTON REACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A ground water treatment process is proposed involving two cgemical processes: adsorption and oxidation. Adsorption of an organic compound onto granulated activated carbon (GAC) containing iron conveniently results in immobilizing and concentrating contaminants from the ground w...

  10. [Preparation of surface molecularly imprinted polymers for penicilloic acid, and its adsorption properties].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Penglei; Luo, Zhimin; Chang, Ruimiao; Ge, Yanhui; Du, Wei; Chang, Chun; Fu, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    On account of the specificity and reproducibility for the determination of penicilloic acid in penicillin, this study aims to prepare penicilloic acid imprinted polymers (PEOA-MIPs) by surface polymerization method at the surface of modified silica particles by using penicilloic acid (PEOA) as the template molecule, methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate ( EGDMA) as the cross linker, and methanol/acetonitrile as the solvents. The synthesis conditions were optimized, and PEOA-MIPs had the best adsorption capacity when the molar ratio of template molecule/functional monomer was 1 :4, cross linking degree was 85% and the solvent ratio of methanol/acetonitrile was 1 :1 (v/v). The adsorption properties were evaluated by adsorption experiments, including the adsorption isotherms, kinetics and selectivity. The adsorption process between PEOA-MIPs and PEOA fitted the Langmuir adsorption isotherm with the maximum adsorption capacity of 122. 78 mg/g and the pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics with fast adsorption kinetics (the equilibrium time of 45 min). The as-synthesized PEOA-MIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicated that the MIPs layer has been successfully grafted on the surface of SiO2 microparticles and the PEOA-MIPs had the excellent thermal stability. The PEOA-MIPs showed the highest selective recognition for PEOA. The PEOA-MIPs possess a high adsorption capacity, rapid mass-transfer rate and high selectivity to PEOA when compared with non-imprinted polymers (PEOA-NIPs). The PEOA-MIPs was expected to be used as the solid phase extraction medium and this study provides the potential applications for fast recognition and analysis of the penicilloic acid in penicillin.

  11. High Aspect Ratio Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Crosby, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Buckling-induced surface undulations are widely found in living creatures, for instance, gut villi and the surface of flower petal cells. These undulations provide unique functionalities with their extremely high aspect ratios. For the synthetic systems, sinusoidal wrinkles that are induced by buckling a thin film attached on a soft substrate have been proposed to many applications. However, the impact of the synthetic wrinkles have been restricted by limited aspect ratios, ranging from 0 to 0.35. Within this range, wrinkle aspect ratio is known to increase with increasing compressive strain until a critical strain is reached, at which point wrinkles transition to localizations, such as folds or period doublings. Inspired by the living creatures, we propose that wrinkles can be stabilized in high aspect ratio by manipulating the strain energy in the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this idea by forming a secondary crosslinking network in the wrinkled surface and successfully achieve aspect ratio as large as 0.8. This work not only provides insights for the mechanism of high aspect ratio structures seen in living creatures, but also demonstrates significant promise for future wrinkle-based applications.

  12. Accelerating Gas Adsorption on 3D Percolating Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Wen, Chenyu; Zhang, Youwei; Wu, Dongping; Zhang, Shi-Li; Qiu, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    In the field of electronic gas sensing, low-dimensional semiconductors such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can offer high detection sensitivity owing to their unprecedentedly large surface-to-volume ratio. The sensitivity and responsivity can further improve by increasing their areal density. Here, an accelerated gas adsorption is demonstrated by exploiting volumetric effects via dispersion of SWCNTs into a percolating three-dimensional (3D) network in a semiconducting polymer. The resultant semiconducting composite film is evaluated as a sensing membrane in field effect transistor (FET) sensors. In order to attain reproducible characteristics of the FET sensors, a pulsed-gate-bias measurement technique is adopted to eliminate current hysteresis and drift of sensing baseline. The rate of gas adsorption follows the Langmuir-type isotherm as a function of gas concentration and scales with film thickness. This rate is up to 5 times higher in the composite than only with an SWCNT network in the transistor channel, which in turn results in a 7-fold shorter time constant of adsorption with the composite. The description of gas adsorption developed in the present work is generic for all semiconductors and the demonstrated composite with 3D percolating SWCNTs dispersed in functional polymer represents a promising new type of material for advanced gas sensors. PMID:26888337

  13. Accelerating Gas Adsorption on 3D Percolating Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Wen, Chenyu; Zhang, Youwei; Wu, Dongping; Zhang, Shi-Li; Qiu, Zhi-Jun

    2016-02-18

    In the field of electronic gas sensing, low-dimensional semiconductors such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can offer high detection sensitivity owing to their unprecedentedly large surface-to-volume ratio. The sensitivity and responsivity can further improve by increasing their areal density. Here, an accelerated gas adsorption is demonstrated by exploiting volumetric effects via dispersion of SWCNTs into a percolating three-dimensional (3D) network in a semiconducting polymer. The resultant semiconducting composite film is evaluated as a sensing membrane in field effect transistor (FET) sensors. In order to attain reproducible characteristics of the FET sensors, a pulsed-gate-bias measurement technique is adopted to eliminate current hysteresis and drift of sensing baseline. The rate of gas adsorption follows the Langmuir-type isotherm as a function of gas concentration and scales with film thickness. This rate is up to 5 times higher in the composite than only with an SWCNT network in the transistor channel, which in turn results in a 7-fold shorter time constant of adsorption with the composite. The description of gas adsorption developed in the present work is generic for all semiconductors and the demonstrated composite with 3D percolating SWCNTs dispersed in functional polymer represents a promising new type of material for advanced gas sensors.

  14. Accelerating Gas Adsorption on 3D Percolating Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Wen, Chenyu; Zhang, Youwei; Wu, Dongping; Zhang, Shi-Li; Qiu, Zhi-Jun

    2016-02-01

    In the field of electronic gas sensing, low-dimensional semiconductors such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can offer high detection sensitivity owing to their unprecedentedly large surface-to-volume ratio. The sensitivity and responsivity can further improve by increasing their areal density. Here, an accelerated gas adsorption is demonstrated by exploiting volumetric effects via dispersion of SWCNTs into a percolating three-dimensional (3D) network in a semiconducting polymer. The resultant semiconducting composite film is evaluated as a sensing membrane in field effect transistor (FET) sensors. In order to attain reproducible characteristics of the FET sensors, a pulsed-gate-bias measurement technique is adopted to eliminate current hysteresis and drift of sensing baseline. The rate of gas adsorption follows the Langmuir-type isotherm as a function of gas concentration and scales with film thickness. This rate is up to 5 times higher in the composite than only with an SWCNT network in the transistor channel, which in turn results in a 7-fold shorter time constant of adsorption with the composite. The description of gas adsorption developed in the present work is generic for all semiconductors and the demonstrated composite with 3D percolating SWCNTs dispersed in functional polymer represents a promising new type of material for advanced gas sensors.

  15. Fabrication and adsorption properties of hybrid fly ash composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Mengfan; Ma, Qingliang; Lin, Qingwen; Chang, Jiali; Ma, Hongzhu

    2017-02-01

    In order to realize the utilization of fly ash (FA) as industrial solid waste better, high-efficient inorganic/organic hybrid composite adsorbents derived from (Ca(OH)2/Na2FeO4) modified FA (MF) was fabricated. The hydrophilic cationic polymer (P(DMDAAC-co-AAM) or hydrophobic modifier (KH-570) were used. The prepared composites were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and contact angle test. The adsorption of cationic composites MF/P(DMDAAC-co-AAM) towards Orange II in wastewater was investigated. The results show that: adsorption amount of 24.8 mg/g with 2000 mg/L of composites, 50 mg/L Orange II, original pH (6-8), at 40 min and room temperature, was obtained. Meanwhile, oil adsorption ratio Q(g/g) of hydrophobic composites MF/KH-570 was also evaluated. The maximum Q of 17.2 g/g to kerosene was obtained at 40 min. The isotherm and kinetics of these two adsorption processes were also studied. The results showed that the fabricated MF composites modified with hydrophilic or hydrophobic group can be used to adsorb dye in wastewater or oil effectively.

  16. ADSORPTION OF SURFACTANT ON CLAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surfactants used to enhance remediation of soils by soil washing are often lost in the process. Neither the amount nor the cause of this loss is known. It is assumed that clays present in the soil are responsible for the loss of the surfactant. In this papere, adsorption prope...

  17. Adsorption of pesticides on resins.

    PubMed

    Kyriakopoulos, Grigorios; Hourdakis, Adamadia; Doulia, Danae

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the capability of organic hydrophobic polymeric resins Amberlite XAD-4 and XAD-7 to remove the pesticides alachlor and amitrole from water. The pesticides adsorption on the two different adsorbents was measured by batch equilibrium technique and isotherm types and parameters were estimated. Two theoretical models were applied based on a Freundlich and a Langmuir isotherms. The effect of pesticides chemical composition and structure as well as the nature of solid surface on the efficiency of adsorption was evaluated. The influence of pH also was studied. In low pH solutions adsorption of amitrole was higher upon the nonionic aliphatic acrylic ester copolymer XAD-7 in comparison to the nonionic, crosslinked macroreticular copolymer of styrene divinylbenzene XAD-4. In neutral and intermediate pH solutions the polar acrylic ester copolymer XAD-7 was more effective to the retention of alachlor. The acrylic ester copolymer showed at pH 3 the lower effectiveness in alachlor removal from water. The data of the adsorption isotherms of pesticides upon the examined polymeric resins seemed to conform to both the Freundlich and the Langmuir isotherm models.

  18. Engineering and Design: Adsorption Design Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    adsorptive media addressed in- clude granular activated carbon (GAC) and other alternative adsorption carbon media, such as powdered activated carbon (PAC... Adsorption Media. a. Activated Carbon . Activated carbon can be manufactured from carbonaceous material, in- cluding coal (bituminous, subbituminous...information contained in Corps of Engineers Guide Specification 11225: Downflow Liquid Granular Activated Carbon

  19. Adsorption and desorption of chlorpyrifos to soils and sediments.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Seyoum Yami; Beutel, Marc W; Yonge, David R; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B

    2012-01-01

    ,439 and 15,500 L/kg for sediipents. This variation may result from several factors, including various experimental artifacts, variation in quality of soil organic matter, and inconsistencies in experimental methodologies. Based on this review, there appears to be no definitive quantification of chlorpyrifos adsorption or desorption characteristics. Thus, it is difficult to predict its adsorptive behavior with certainty, without resorting to experimental methods specific to the soil or sediment of interest. This limitation should be recognized in the context of current efforts to predict the risk, fate, and transport of chlorpyrifos based upon published partition coefficients. Based on a comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed literature related to adsorption and desorption of chlorpyrifos, we propose the following key areas for future research. From this review, it becomes increasingly evident that pesticide partitioning cannot be fully accounted for by the fraction of soil or solid-matrix organic matter or carbon content. Therefore, research that probes the variation in the nature and quality of soil organic matter on pesticide adsorption is highly desirable. Pesticide persistence and bioavailability depend on insights into desorption capacity. Therefore, understanding the fate and environmental impact of hydrophobic pesticides is incomplete without new research being performed to improve insights into pesticide desorption from soils and sediments. There is also a need for greater attention and consistency in developing experimental methods aimed at estimating partition coefficients. Moreover, in such testing, choosing initial concentrations and liquid-solid ratios that are more representative of environmental conditions could improve usefulness and interpretation of data that are obtained. Future monitoring efforts should include the sampling and analysis of suspended particulates to account for suspended solid-phase CPF, a commonly underestimated fraction in surface

  20. The importance of surface adsorption on the washout of semivolatile organic compounds by rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simcik, Matt F.

    The washout of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) by rain is an important removal mechanism from the atmosphere and an important loading mechanism to terrestrial and aquatic systems. In this paper, the rain washout equation is modified to include gas-phase SOC adsorption to the surface of raindrops. The relative influence of gas adsorption is a function of the air-water interface adsorption constant, Kia, Henry's law CONSTANT, H, the fraction of the SOCs associated with particles, φ, and the diameter of the raindrop, dR. Theoretical gas-phase washout ratios were calculated assuming a rainfall intensity of 10 mm/h and spherical raindrops for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs). Results for PAHs indicate that gas-phase washout including surface adsorption exceed those calculated considering only Henry's law dissolution for low volatility PAHs. This shift in gas-phase partitioning being dominated by dissolution to the bulk water of the rain drop to being dominated by adsorption to the raindrop surface occurs at sub-cooled liquid saturated vapor pressures around 10 -5 Pa, corresponding to PAHs with greater than or equal to five aromatic rings. Similar calculations for PCBs indicate similar gas-phase washout ratios (10 to ˜10 4), and a similar shift from dissolution to adsorption in the range of sub-cooled liquid saturated vapor pressures of 10 -2.7 to 10 -1.4 Pa. Calculations for polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs) indicate that adsorption dominates all gas-phase washout of PCDDs. Kinetic calculations indicate that even the least volatile SOCs reach equilibrium with the rain within hundreds of meters of the bottom of a cloud, depending on rainfall rate. Given the theoretical domination of gas-phase adsorption to the surface of raindrops, traditional rain samplers may underestimate actual washout ratios and ultimately loadings to terrestrial and aquatic surfaces because of

  1. Adsorption of vapreotide on gold colloids studied by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, J. A.; Cabanzo, R.; Mejia Ospino, E.

    2016-02-01

    Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) has been used to investigate the somatostatin (SST) analogue Vapreotide (VAP) in gold colloids. The optimum conditions to detect SERS signals of VAP have been studied. The observed SERS bands correspond to different vibrational modes of the peptide; being the most dominant SERS signals the ones derived from the aromatic amino acids Tryptophan (Trp), Phenylalanine (Phe) and Tyrosine (Tyr). Changes in enhancement and wavenumber of the proper bands upon adsorption on gold colloid are consistent with VAP adsorption, primarily through Tryptophan residues.

  2. Zinc isotope fractionation during surface adsorption by bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafantaris, F. A.; Borrok, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    The cycling and transport of zinc (Zn) in natural waters is partly controlled by its adsorption and uptake by bacterial communities. These reactions are reflected in changes in the ratios of stable Zn isotopes; however, the magnitudes and directions of these changes are largely unconstrained. In the current work, we attempt to define Zn isotope fractionation factors for bacteria-Zn interactions by performing adsorption experiments with representative Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas mendocina) bacteria. Experiments included, (1) pH-dependent adsorption using differing bacteria:Zn ratios, (2) Zn loading at constant pH, and (3) kinetics and reversibility experiments. Results indicate that Zn adsorption is fully reversible for both bacterial species. Moreover, under the same experimental conditions both bacterial species adsorbed Zn to similar extents. Initial isotopic analysis (using a Nu Instruments MC-ICP-MS) demonstrates that, as the extent of adsorption increases, the heavier Zn isotopes are preferentially incorporated as bacterial-surface complexes. Under conditions of low bacteria:Zn ratio, the Δ66Znbacteria-solution was about 0.3% for both bacterial species. This separation factor is similar to that found in other studies involving the complexation of Zn with biologic or organic components. For example, the complexation of Zn with Purified Humic Acid (PHA) resulted in a Δ66ZnPHA-solution of +0.24% [1], and sorption of Zn onto two separate diatom species resulted in Δ66Znsolid-solution of +0.43% and +0.27%, respectively [2]. These results suggest that Zn complexation with functional groups common to bacteria and natural organic matter may be a process that universally incorporates the heavier Zn isotopes. Our current work is focused on quantifying Zn isotope fractionation during metabolic incorporation by separating this effect from surface adsorption reactions. [1] Jouvin et al., (2009) Environ. Sci. Technol., 43(15) 5747

  3. Adsorption induced enzyme denaturation: the role of protein surface in adsorption induced protein denaturation on allyl glycidyl ether (AGE)-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM) copolymers.

    PubMed

    Thudi, Lahari; Jasti, Lakshmi S; Swarnalatha, Y; Fadnavis, Nitin W; Mulani, Khudbudin; Deokar, Sarika; Ponrathnam, Surendra

    2012-02-01

    The effects of protein size on adsorption and adsorption-induced denaturation of proteins on copolymers of allyl glycidyl ether (AGE)-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM) have been studied. Different responses were observed for the amount of protein adsorbed and denatured on the polymer surface for different proteins (trypsin, alchol dehydrogenase from baker's yeast (YADH), glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) from Gluconobacter cerinus, and alkaline phosphates from calf intestinal mucosa (CIAP). Protein adsorption on the copolymer with 25% crosslink density (AGE-25) was dependent not only on the size of the protein but also on the presence of glycoside residues on the protein surface. Adsorption and denaturation of proteins follows the order YADH>trypsin>GDH>CIAP although the molecular weights of the proteins follow the order YADH>CIAP>GDH>trypsin. The lack of correlation between amount of adsorbed protein and its molecular weight was due to the presence of glycoside residues on CIAP and GDH which protect the enzyme surface from denaturation. Enzyme stabilities in aqueous solutions of 1-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CHP) correlate well with the trend in denaturation by the copolymer, strongly suggesting that hydrophobic interactions play a major role in protein binding and the mechanism of protein denaturation is similar to that for water-miscible organic solvents.

  4. Adsorption kinetics of azinphosmethyl from aqueous solution onto pyrolyzed Horseshoe sea crab shell from the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Gulen, J; Aroguz, A Z; Dalgin, D

    2005-07-01

    The adsorption behavior of azinphosmethyl on pyrolyzed Horseshoe Crab (Limulus polyphemus) outer shell, as a residue, from the Atlantic Ocean, collected along the Maine coast, USA, has been studied with regards to its kinetic and equilibrium conditions, taking into account adsorbate concentrations of 2 x 10(-3), 4 x 10(-3), 6 x 10(-3), and 8 x 10(-3), as well as temperatures of 30 degrees C, 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, and 60 degrees C. The yield of adsorption of azinphosmethyl from aqueous solution ranged from 56.1% to 61% with temperature increasing. Kinetic studies showed that adsorption rate decreased as the initial azinphosmethyl concentration increased. It was found, that the adsorption reaction obeyed first-order kinetics. The overall rate constants were estimated for different temperatures. The activation energy for adsorption was about 1.52 kJmol(-1), which implies that azinphosmethyl mainly adsorbed physically onto Horseshoe Crab outer shell. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were applied to the experimental data and isotherm constants were calculated. The thermodynamic parameters DeltaG0, DeltaH0 and DeltaS0 for the adsorption reaction were evaluated based on equilibrium data and in connection with this result the thermodynamic aspects of adsorption reaction were discussed. The adsorption was found to be endothermic in nature. The adsorbent used in this study proved highly efficient for the removal of azinphosmethyl.

  5. Thorough removal of inorganic and organic mercury from aqueous solutions by adsorption on Lemna minor powder.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun-Xing; Zheng, Feng-Ying; Yang, Huang; Ni, Jian-Cong

    2011-02-15

    The adsorption ability of duckweed (Lemna minor) powders for removing inorganic and organic mercury (methyl and ethyl mercury) has been studied using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimal adsorption conditions were: (a) the pH value of the solution 7.0 for inorganic and ethyl mercury, 9.0 for methyl mercury, and (b) equilibrium adsorption time 10, 20, and 40 min for inorganic mercury, methyl mercury, and ethyl mercury, respectively. After adsorption by L. minor powder for 40 min, when the initial concentrations of inorganic and organic mercury were under 12.0 μg L(-1) and 50.0 μg L(-1), respectively, the residual concentrations of mercury could meet the criterion of drinking water (1.0 μg L(-1)) and the permitted discharge limit of wastewater (10.0 μg L(-1)) set by China and USEPA, respectively. Thorough removal of both inorganic and organic mercury from aqueous solutions was reported for the first time. The significant adsorption sites were C-O-P and phosphate groups by the surface electrostatic interactions with aqueous inorganic and organic mercury cations, and then the selective adsorption was resulted from the strong chelating interaction between amine groups and mercury on the surface of L. minor cells.

  6. Avidity of influenza virus: model-based identification of adsorption kinetics from surface plasmon resonance experiments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjing; Wolff, Michael W; Reichl, Udo; Sundmacher, Kai

    2014-01-24

    Affinity chromatography and membrane adsorption are highly promising methods for the downstream processing of cell culture-derived influenza virus. For the optimization of this separation process, it is desirable to quantify the kinetics of virus adsorption. For this reason, the adsorption kinetics of the influenza A virus (Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1)) on a surface with the immobilized ligand Euronymus europaeus lectin (EEL) was investigated. The adsorption kinetics was experimentally monitored in a microfluidic flow cell by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. The boundary layer theory was applied to analyze the convective and diffusive mass transport of the virus particles in the SPR flow cell. A multi-site kinetic adsorption model was found to describe the experimentally recorded adsorption curves adequately. According to the proposed model, under the applied experimental conditions, the number of sites (galactose residuals) binding one single virus particle to the EEL surface is in the range of 300 to 460, which is in average about 4% of the total number of sites available on the virus surface. The avidity of individual virus particles to the EEL surface was estimated to be in the order of magnitude of 10(6)M(-1)s(-1).

  7. Genesis of ion-adsorption type REE ores in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanematsu, K.; Yoshiaki, K.; Watanabe, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Ion-adsorption type REE deposits, which have been economically mined only in southern China, are predominant supply sources for HREE in the world. The ore bodies consist of weathered granites called ion-adsorption ores. The majority of REE (>50 %) are electrostatically adsorbed onto weathering products in the ores and they can be extracted by ion exchange using an electrolyte solution (e.g., ammonium sulfate solution). Recently the occurrences of ion-adsorption ores have been reported in Indochina, SE Asia. In this study, we discuss geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of parent granites and weathered granites in Thailand in order to reveal the genesis of ion-adsorption ores. Permo-Triassic and Cretaceous-Paleogene granite plutons are distributed from northern Thailand to western Indonesia through eastern Myanmar and Peninsular Malaysia. They are mostly ilmenite-series calcalkaline biotite or hornblende-biotite granites. REE contents of the granites range from 60 to 600 ppm and they are relatively high in Peninsula Thailand. REE-bearing minerals consist mainly of apatite, zircon, allanite, titanite, monazite and xenotime. Some I-type granites contain REE fluorocarbonate (probably synchysite-(Ce)) in cavities and cracks in feldspars and it is the dominant source of REE for ion-adsorption ores because the fluorocarbonate is easily soluble during weathering. In contrast, insoluble monazite and xenotime are not preferable for ion-adsorption ores although they are common ore minerals of placer REE deposits. Weathered granites show REE contents ranging from 60 to 1100 ppm in Thailand because REE are relatively immobile compared with mobile elements (e.g., Na, K, Ca). In the weathered granites, REE are contained in residual minerals and secondary minerals and are adsorbed onto the surface of weathering products. A weathering profile of granite with ion-adsorption type mineralization can be divided into upper and lower parts based on REE enrichment and Ce

  8. Elemental quantification of large gunshot residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, A.; Silva, L. M.; de Souza, C. T.; Stori, E. M.; Boufleur, L. A.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J. F.

    2015-04-01

    In the present work we embarked on the evaluation of the Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba elemental ratios found in relatively large particles (of the order of 50-150 μm across) ejected in the forward direction when a gun is fired. These particles are commonly referred to as gunshot residues (GSR). The aim of this work is to compare the elemental ratios of the GSR with those found in the primer of pristine cartridges in order to check for possible correlations. To that end, the elemental concentration of gunshot residues and the respective ammunition were investigated through PIXE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission) and micro-PIXE techniques. The ammunition consisted of a .38 SPL caliber (ogival lead type) charged in a Taurus revolver. Pristine cartridges were taken apart for the PIXE measurements. The shooting sessions were carried out in a restricted area at the Forensic Institute at Porto Alegre. Residues ejected at forward directions were collected on a microporous tape. The PIXE experiments were carried out employing 2.0 MeV proton beams with a beam spot size of 1 mm2. For the micro-PIXE experiments, the samples were irradiated with 2.2 MeV proton beams of 2 × 2 μm2. The results found for the ratios of Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba do not correlate with those stemming from the analysis of the primer.

  9. Nitrogen deposition promotes the production of new fungal residues but retards the decomposition of old residues in forest soil fractions.

    PubMed

    Griepentrog, Marco; Bodé, Samuel; Boeckx, Pascal; Hagedorn, Frank; Heim, Alexander; Schmidt, Michael W I

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has frequently been observed to increase soil carbon (C) storage in forests, but the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. Changes in microbial community composition and substrate use are hypothesized to be one of the key mechanisms affected by N inputs. Here, we investigated the effects of N deposition on amino sugars, which are used as biomarkers for fungal- and bacterial-derived microbial residues in soil. We made use of a 4-year combined CO2 enrichment and N deposition experiment in model forest ecosystems, providing a distinct (13) C signal for 'new' and 'old' C in soil organic matter and microbial residues measured in density and particle-size fractions of soils. Our hypothesis was that N deposition decreases the amount of fungal residues in soils, with the new microbial residues being more strongly affected than old residues. The soil fractionation showed that organic matter and microbial residues are mainly stabilized by association with soil minerals in the heavy and fine fractions. Moreover, the bacterial residues are relatively enriched at mineral surfaces compared to fungal residues. The (13) C tracing indicated a greater formation of fungal residues compared to bacterial residues after 4 years of experiment. In contradiction to our hypotheses, N deposition significantly increased the amount of new fungal residues in bulk soil and decreased the decomposition of old microbial residues associated with soil minerals. The preservation of old microbial residues could be due to decreased N limitation of microorganisms and therefore a reduced dependence on organic N sources. This mechanism might be especially important in fine heavy fractions with low C/N ratios, where microbial residues are effectively protected from decomposition by association with soil minerals.

  10. Ratio imaging instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kenneth; Maxfield, Frederick R

    2003-01-01

    Using ratio imaging to obtain quantitative information from microscope images is a powerful tool that has been used successfully in numerous studies. Although ratio imaging reduces the effects of many parameters that can interfere with accurate measurements, it is not a panacea. In designing a ratio imaging experiment, all of the potential problems discussed in this chapter must be considered. Undoubtedly, other problems that were not discussed can also interfere with accurate and meaningful measurements. Many of the problems discussed here were observed in the authors' laboratories. In our experience there are no standard routines or methods that can foresee every problem before it has been encountered. Good experimental design can minimize problems, but the investigator must continue to be alert. Progress in instrumentation continues to overcome some of the difficulties encountered in ratio imaging. CCD cameras with 12- to 14-bit pixel depth are being used more frequently, and several confocal microscope manufacturers are now also using 12-bit digitization. The dramatic increase in the use of confocal microscopes over the past decade is now causing microscope manufacturers to more critically evaluate the effect of axial chromatic aberration in objectives, and recent designs to minimize this problem are being implemented. Other developments such as the use of AOTFs to attenuate laser lines extend the applicability of ratio imaging. Ratio imaging is clearly applicable to a wide range of cell biological problems beyond its widespread use for measuring ion concentrations. Imaginative but careful use of this technique should continue to provide novel insights into the properties of cells.

  11. Effectiveness and potential of straw- and wood-based biochars for adsorption of imidazolium-type ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Shi, Kaishun; Qiu, Yuping; Ben Li; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2016-08-01

    The growing industrial application of imidazolium-type ionic liquids (ITILs) is likely to result in their release to the environment. Water-soluble ITILs are difficult to remove from wastewaters using traditional adsorbents. In this work, we developed different biochars derived from straw and wood (named as SBB and WBB, respectively) to improve the adsorption effectiveness for removal of ITILs from wastewaters. SBB had high O/C element ratio (0.143), while WBB had high ratio of Vmicro/Vtotal (61.5%) compared with commercial activated carbon (AC). Both of them showed greater adsorption of ITILs than AC with different adsorption mechanisms. FTIR spectra revealed that electrostatic interactions were the dominant driving force in SBB adsorption, while high micropore volume promoted adsorption in WBB. The adsorption of [C2mim][BF4] on SBB and WBB was strongly enhanced by trivalent PO4(3-) anions, suggesting that PO4(3-) anions could be used as promoter to increase the removal efficiency of ITILs from wastewater. Using HCl solution (pH=0.5) as regenerant, SBB and WBB were regenerated with nearly 100% recovery of adsorption capacity over ten consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles. Straw-based biochar and wood-based biochar are efficient sorbents for removal of water-soluble ionic liquids from aqueous solutions.

  12. Phosphate adsorption on lanthanum loaded biochar.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanghong; Shen, Dekui; Shen, Fei; Li, Tianyu

    2016-05-01

    To attain a low-cost and high-efficient phosphate adsorbent, lanthanum (La) loaded biochar (La-BC) prepared by a chemical precipitation method was developed. La-BC and its pristine biochar (CK-BC) were comparatively characterized using zeta potential, BET surface area, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The adsorption ability and the mechanisms during adsorption process for the La-BC samples were also investigated. La loaded on the surface of biochar can be termed as La-composites (such as LaOOH, LaONO3 and La(OH)3), leading to the decrease of negative charge and surface area of biochar. La-BC exhibited the high adsorption capacity to phosphate compared to CK-BC. Adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetic studies showed that the Langmuir isotherm and second order model could well describe the adsorption process of La-BC, indicating that the adsorption was dominated by a homogeneous and chemical process. The calculated maximum adsorption capacity was as high as 46.37 mg g(-1) (computed in P). Thermodynamic analysis revealed that the adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. SEM, XRD, XPS and FT-IR analysis suggested that the multi-adsorption mechanisms including precipitation, ligand exchange and complexation interactions can be evidenced during the phosphate adsorption process by La-composites in La-BC.

  13. Adsorption of organic chemicals in soils.

    PubMed Central

    Calvet, R

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a review on adsorption of organic chemicals on soils sediments and their constituents. The first part of this review deals with adsorption from gas and liquid phases and gives a discussion on the physical meaning of the shape of adsorption isotherms. Results show that no general rules can be proposed to describe univocally the relation between the shape of isotherms and the nature of adsorbate-adsorbent system. Kinetics of adsorption is discussed through the description of various models. Theoretical developments exist both for the thermodynamics and the kinetics of adsorption, but there is a strong need for experimental results. Possible adsorption mechanisms are ion exchange, interaction with metallic cations, hydrogen bonds, charge transfers, and London-van der Waals dispersion forces/hydrophobic effect. However, direct proofs of a given mechanism are rare. Several factors influence adsorption behavior. Electronic structure of adsorbed molecules, properties of adsorbents, and characteristics of the liquid phase are discussed in relation to adsorption. Such properties as water solubility, organic carbon content of adsorbing materials, and the composition of the liquid phase are particularly important. Evaluation of adsorption can be obtained through either laboratory measurements or use of several correlations. Adsorption measurements must be interpreted, taking into account treatment of adsorbent materials, experimental conditions, and secondary phenomena such as degradations. Correlations between adsorption coefficients and water-octanol partition coefficient or water solubility are numerous. They may be useful tools for prediction purposes. Relations with transport, bioavailability, and degradation are described. PMID:2695323

  14. Adsorption modeling for macroscopic contaminant dispersal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Axley, J.W.

    1990-05-01

    Two families of macroscopic adsorption models are formulated, based on fundamental principles of adsorption science and technology, that may be used for macroscopic (such as whole-building) contaminant dispersal analysis. The first family of adsorption models - the Equilibrium Adsorption (EA) Models - are based upon the simple requirement of equilibrium between adsorbent and room air. The second family - the Boundary Layer Diffusion Controlled Adsorption (BLDC) Models - add to the equilibrium requirement a boundary layer model for diffusion of the adsorbate from the room air to the adsorbent surface. Two members of each of these families are explicitly discussed, one based on the linear adsorption isotherm model and the other on the Langmuir model. The linear variants of each family are applied to model the adsorption dynamics of formaldehyde in gypsum wall board and compared to measured data.

  15. First principles derived, transferable force fields for CO2 adsorption in Na-exchanged cationic zeolites.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hanjun; Kamakoti, Preeti; Ravikovitch, Peter I; Aronson, Matthew; Paur, Charanjit; Sholl, David S

    2013-08-21

    The development of accurate force fields is vital for predicting adsorption in porous materials. Previously, we introduced a first principles-based transferable force field for CO2 adsorption in siliceous zeolites (Fang et al., J. Phys. Chem. C, 2012, 116, 10692). In this study, we extend our approach to CO2 adsorption in cationic zeolites which possess more complex structures. Na-exchanged zeolites are chosen for demonstrating the approach. These methods account for several structural complexities including Al distribution, cation positions and cation mobility, all of which are important for predicting adsorption. The simulation results are validated with high-resolution experimental measurements of isotherms and microcalorimetric heats of adsorption on well-characterized materials. The choice of first-principles method has a significant influence on the ability of force fields to accurately describe CO2-zeolite interactions. The PBE-D2 derived force field, which performed well for CO2 adsorption in siliceous zeolites, does not do so for Na-exchanged zeolites; the PBE-D2 method overestimates CO2 adsorption energies on multi-cation sites that are common in cationic zeolites with low Si/Al ratios. In contrast, a force field derived from the DFT/CC method performed well. Agreement was obtained between simulation and experiment not only for LTA-4A on which the force field fitting is based, but for other two common adsorbents, NaX and NaY.

  16. Fluorine doping into diamond-like carbon coatings inhibits protein adsorption and platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, Terumitsu; Yohena, Satoshi; Kamijo, Aki; Okazaki, Yuko; Hotta, Atsushi; Takahashi, Koki; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2007-12-15

    The first major event when a medical device comes in contact with blood is the adsorption of plasma proteins. Protein adsorption on the material surface leads to the activation of the blood coagulation cascade and the inflammatory process, which impair the lifetime of the material. Various efforts have been made to minimize protein adsorption and platelet adhesion. Recently, diamond-like carbon (DLC) has received much attention because of their antithrombogenicity. We recently reported that coating silicon substrates with fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) drastically suppresses platelet adhesion and activation. Here, we evaluated the protein adsorption on the material surfaces and clarified the relationship between protein adsorption and platelet behaviors, using polycarbonate and DLC- or F-DLC-coated polycarbonate. The adsorption of albumin and fibrinogen were assessed using a colorimetric protein assay, and platelet adhesion and activation were examined using a differential interference contrast microscope. A higher ratio of albumin to fibrinogen adsorption was observed on F-DLC than on DLC and polycarbonate films, indicating that the F-DLC film should prevent thrombus formation. Platelet adhesion and activation on the F-DLC films were more strongly suppressed as the amount of fluorine doping was increased. These results show that the F-DLC coating may be useful for blood-contacting devices.

  17. Adsorption and desorption of atrazine and deethylatrazine by low organic carbon geologic materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roy, W.R.; Krapac, I.G.

    1994-01-01

    The adsorption and desorption of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6- isopropylamino-s-triazine) and a primary metabolite, deethylatrazine (2- amino-4-chloro-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine; DEA), by low organic C (??? 3.3 g kg-1) materials were measured by batch-equilibrium techniques. The adsorbents were samples of glacial outwash sand, till, and stream sediments. The adsorption of both atrazine and DEA conformed to linear isotherms. The adsorption of atrazine by most of the adsorbents yielded apparent K(oc) values that were in excess of those based on surface agricultural soils. Adsorption correlated with only the pH of the sand-water suspensions. The desorption of atrazine was hysteretic under the conditions of the measurement. DEA had a lower affinity for the same adsorbents; the mean ratio of K(d) values of DEA to those of atrazine was 0.37 ?? 0.20. DEA adsorption did not correlate with organic C, surface area, clay content of the adsorbents, or with the pH of the suspensions. DEA adsorption, unlike atrazine, tended to be reversible. There was a linear relationship between the adsorption constants of atrazine and those of DEA.

  18. Adsorption and desorption of atrazine and deethylatrazine by low organic carbon geologic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, W.R.; Krapac, I.G.

    1994-05-01

    The adsorption and desorption of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6- isopropylamino-s-triazine) and a primary metabolite, deethylatrazine (2-amino-4-chloro-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine; DEA), by low organic C ({le} 3.3 g kg{sup -1}) materials were measured by batch-equilibrium techniques. The adsorbents were samples of glacial outwash sand, till, and stream sediments. The adsorption of both atrazine and DEA conformed to linear isotherms. The adsorption of atrazine by most of the absorbents yielded apparent K, values that were in excess of those based on surface agricultural soils. Adsorption correlated with only the pH of the sand-water suspensions. The desorption of atrazine was hysteretic under the conditions of the measurement. DEA had a lower affinity for the same adsorbents; the mean ratio of Kd values of DEA to those of atrazine was 0.37 {+-} 0.20. DEA adsorption did not correlate with organic C, surface area, clay content of the adsorbents, or with the pH of the suspensions. DEA adsorption, unlike atrazine, tended to be reversible. There was a linear relationship between the adsorption constants of atrazine and those of DEA. 40 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Adsorption Behavior of Nonplanar Phthalocyanines: Competition of Different Adsorption Conformations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Using density functional theory augmented with state-of-the-art van der Waals corrections, we studied the geometric and electronic properties of nonplanar chlorogallium-phthalocyanine GaClPc molecules adsorbed on Cu(111). Comparing these results with published experimental data for adsorption heights, we found indications for breaking of the metal–halogen bond when the molecule is heated during or after the deposition process. Interestingly, the work-function change induced by this dissociated geometry is the same as that computed for an intact adsorbate layer in the “Cl-down” configuration, with both agreeing well with the experimental photoemission data. This is unexpected, as the chemical natures of the adsorbates and the adsorption distances are markedly different in the two cases. The observation is explained as a consequence of Fermi-level pinning due to fractional charge transfer at the interface. Our results show that rationalizing the adsorption configurations on the basis of electronic interface properties alone can be ambiguous and that additional insight from dispersion-corrected DFT simulations is desirable. PMID:27066160

  20. Granular bamboo-derived activated carbon for high CO(2) adsorption: the dominant role of narrow micropores.

    PubMed

    Wei, Haoran; Deng, Shubo; Hu, Bingyin; Chen, Zhenhe; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang

    2012-12-01

    Cost-effective biomass-derived activated carbons with a high CO(2) adsorption capacity are attractive for carbon capture. Bamboo was found to be a suitable precursor for activated carbon preparation through KOH activation. The bamboo size in the range of 10-200 mesh had little effect on CO(2) adsorption, whereas the KOH/C mass ratio and activation temperature had a significant impact on CO(2) adsorption. The bamboo-derived activated carbon had a high adsorption capacity and excellent selectivity for CO(2) , and also the adsorption process was highly reversible. The adsorbed amount of CO(2) on the granular activated carbon was up to 7.0 mmol g(-1) at 273 K and 1 bar, which was higher than almost all carbon materials. The pore characteristics of activated carbons responsible for high CO(2) adsorption were fully investigated. Based on the analysis of narrow micropore size distribution of several activated carbons prepared under different conditions, a more accurate micropore range contributing to CO(2) adsorption was proposed. The volume of micropores in the range of 0.33-0.82 nm had a good linear relationship with CO(2) adsorption at 273 K and 1 bar, and the narrow micropores of about 0.55 nm produced the major contribution, which could be used to evaluate CO(2) adsorption on activated carbons.

  1. The ASCE Residuals Transport Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Albertson, O.E.; Bizier, P.A.; Brown, J.; Koch, C.; Sadick, T.

    1999-07-01

    This presentation will highlight the ASCE Residuals Transport Manual, which has been published by ASCE this year. This document, which represents the state of the art in information on residuals transport, is designed to be used by both the active practitioner, as well as for instructional purposes. The authors will present the various chapters which cover the following topics: Conveyance of Water and Wastewater Residuals, Rheology, Sludge Characteristics, Quality and Quantity, Overview of Residuals Conveyance Devices, Pumping of Viscous Sludges and Slurries, Transport of Thickened Residuals, Conveyance of Dewatered Residuals, Transport of Granular and Compactable Residuals, and Case Studies. The Objective of the Transport Monograph is to summarize in one concise volume the general state of knowledge regarding residuals transport from both water and wastewater residuals. The presentation will cover each chapter and will review the pertinent information contained in the manual.

  2. An intrinsically shielded hydrogel for the adsorptive recovery of lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Rongsheng; Eisenthal, Robert; Hubble, John

    2006-07-01

    The present paper addresses the selective recovery of lysozyme from egg white using CM-dextran (carboxymethyldextran)-based hydrogels containing Cibacron Blue as an affinity ligand and co-immobilized BSA intended to act as a shielding agent to reduce non-specific adsorption. Initial studies using pure lysozyme were conducted that indicated that the adsorption capacity increased with ligand density and that adsorption was well described by a Langmuir-type isotherm. The inclusion of BSA as a putative shielding agent did not decrease the adsorption capacity for lysozyme in single-adsorbate experiments. To assess the effectiveness of the shielding strategy, subsequent experiments were conducted with both defined lysozyme/ovalbumin mixtures and hen's-egg white. From these studies, the optimal operating conditions for lysozyme recovery have been determined. These include: optimal initial egg-white concentration [a 10% (v/v) solution of native egg white in the chosen buffer], affinity-ligand density (1.86 mM) and ligand-to-shielding-agent ratio (4:1). The purity of lysozyme obtained from egg white was improved from 69% with a non-shielded hydrogel to 94% with an intrinsically shielded hydrogel. Finally, the possibility of using a protein, rather than dextran-backbone-based, hydrogel was investigated. It was found that BSA could take the place of CM-dextran as the gel backbone in a simplified synthesis, producing a gel which also proved effective for lysozyme recovery with a 30% lysozyme in egg-white solution purified to approx. 92% in a single adsorption-desorption cycle.

  3. Fractionation of humic acids upon adsorption on montmorillonite and palygorskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseeva, T. V.; Zolotareva, B. N.

    2013-06-01

    The adsorption of three humic acid (HA) preparations by clays—montmorillonite (Wyoming, USA) and palygorskite (Kolomenskoe district, Moscow oblast)—has been studied. The HA preparations were isolated from samples of the humus-accumulative horizons of a leached chernozem (Voronezh) and a chestnut soil (Volgograd), and a commercial preparation of sodium humate (Aldrich) was also used. The solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy revealed the selective adsorption of structural HA fragments (alkyls, O-alkyls (carbohydrates), and acetal groups) on these minerals. As a result, the aromaticity of the organic matter (OM) in the organic-mineral complexes (OMCs) and the degree of its humification have been found to be lower compared to the original HA preparations. The fractionation of HAs is controlled by the properties of the mineral surfaces. The predominant enrichment of OMCs with alkyls has been observed for montmorillonite, as well as an enrichment with O-alkyls (carbohydrates) for palygorskite. A decrease in the C : N ratio has been noted in the elemental composition of the OM in complexes, which reflected its more aromatic nature and (or) predominant sorption of N-containing structural components of HA molecules. The adsorption of HA preparations by montmorillonite predominantly occurs on the external surface of mineral particles, and the interaction of nonpolar alkyl groups of HAs with this mineral belongs to weak (van der Waals, hydrophobic) interactions. The adsorption of HA preparations by palygorskite is at least partly of chemical nature: Si-OH groups of minerals are involved in the adsorption process. The formation of strong bonds between the OM and palygorskite explains the long-term (over 300 million years) retention of fossil fulvate-type OM in its complex with palygorskite, which we revealed previously.

  4. Adsorption of phosphate on hydroxyaluminum- and hydroxyiron-montmorillonite complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mao-Xu; Ding, Kui-Ying; Xu, Shao-Hui; Jiang, Xin

    2009-06-15

    One hydroxyaluminum-montmorillonite complex (HyAl-Mt), two hydroxyiron-montmorillonite complexes (HyFe-Mts) with different iron contents, and three hydroxyiron/aluminum-montmorillonite complexes (HyFeAl-Mts) with various Fe:Al molar ratios were synthesized. Behavior and kinetics of phosphate (P) sorption on selected Mt-complexes mentioned above were investigated under acidic conditions. The results indicated that the intercalations of polymeric HyFe and/or HyAl ions in interlayers of Na-saturated montmorillonite (Na-Mt) caused significant changes in surface properties of the Na-Mt, such as cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, pH at zero point of charge. In pH range tested (3.0-6.5), P adsorption on the Mt-complexes decreased with increasing pH, whereas the effect became weaker with increasing Fe contents in the Mt-complexes. The adsorption capacities of the HyFeAl-Mts were greater than those of the HyAl-Mt and HyFe-Mt, which could be attributed to decreasing crystallinity of Fe and Al oxides in the HyFeAl-Mts. The equilibrium adsorption of P on the Mt-complexes could be well described using the Langmuir isotherm, and the kinetics of P adsorption could be well described by both the pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. An increase in Fe contents in the Mt-complexes could enhance the initial kinetic rate of P adsorption, as suggested by the Elovich models. It is inferred that a great number of Fe-related active sorption sites have been located on the outer surfaces of the HyFe-Mt, as indicated by extremely high alpha value in the Elovich model. Previous studies focusing mainly on P sorption on HyAl-Mt complexes might have underestimated the contributions of Mt-complexes to P retention in acidic soils high in Fe contents.

  5. Evaluating the influence of residual stresses on the magnetic properties of electrical steel

    SciTech Connect

    Korzunin, G.S.; Chistyakov, V.K.

    1995-04-01

    The method described for evaluating the influence of residual stresses on the magnetic properties of coiled cold-rolled electrical steel consists in measuring the ratio of the magnetic characteristics that are and are not sensitive to the effect of residual stresses. The evaluation is made from the value of the ratio, using the correlations between its value and the magnetic characteristics studied.

  6. Glucose oxidase adsorption performance of carbonaceous mesocellular foams prepared with different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fengjiao; Pu, Ximing; Luo, Dapeng; Yin, Guangfu; Zhuang, Kai; Liao, Xiaoming; Huang, Zhongbin; Chen, Xianchun; Yao, Yadong

    2015-07-01

    Several carbonaceous mesocellular foams (C-MCFs) were prepared with MCF-silica as template using the carbon precursors of sucrose, furfuryl alcohol and lab-made phenolic resin, and the corresponding C-MCFs were named as C-MCF-Suc, C-MCF-FA and C-MCF-PR, respectively. The results of SEM, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption and energy-dispersive X-ray measurements indicated that the C-MCFs prepared from different carbon source appeared morphologically with different degree of order and different pore distribution. The C-MCF-FA exhibited the highest ordered structure and the smallest pore distribution among the foams. The optimum conditions for adsorption of C-MCFs on glucose oxidase (GOD) were also studied, and the maximum adsorbance was determined. The adsorption of GOD on C-MCF-FA was performed at different pH with different GOD concentrations. The maximum adsorption (423.3 mg g(-1)) was observed near the isoelectric point of the GOD (pI ≈ 5.0) with a GOD concentration of 6.0 mg mL(-1), suggesting that the GOD adsorption on C-MCFs might be affected strongly by the electric repulsion between the GOD molecules. Moreover, GOD adsorption performances on different C-MCFs revealed that both the pore size and the pore volume played important roles in the adsorption process, and the window size of C-MCFs dominated the residual immobilized amounts of GOD. Compared to the other two C-MCFs, the C-MCF-FA with a smaller window pore (10 nm) and higher volume (1.40 cm(3) g(-1)) exhibited the highest GOD adsorption and catalytic activity. Furthermore, the immobilized GOD exhibited improved thermal and storable stabilities. Thus the C-MCF-FA could be served as the prospective GOD carrier material used in enzymatic fuel cells.

  7. Trace adsorption of positively charged proteins onto Sepharose FF and Sepharose FF-based anion exchangers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin-Ling; Sun, Yan

    2012-08-31

    Agarose-based matrices have been widely used in ion exchange chromatography (IEC). We have herein observed that positively charged proteins (lysozyme and cytochrome c) are adsorbed on the agarose-based anion-exchangers (Q and DEAE Sepharose FF gels) in a capacity of 10-40 μg/mL. In contrast, negatively charged protein (bovine serum albumin) is not adsorbed to Sepharose FF and SP Sepharose FF gels. Elemental analysis of the gel indicated that the residual anionic sulfate groups in agarose would have worked as the cation exchange groups for the positively charged proteins. The trace adsorption behavior of lysozyme onto Sepharose FF and Sepharose FF-based anion exchangers was studied and the effects of NaCl concentration and cation group density on the adsorption were examined for better understanding of the trace adsorption in chromatographic processes. At NaCl concentrations less than 0.05 mol/L, which is the normal adsorption condition in IEC, the trace adsorption kept at a high level, so this trace adsorption cannot be avoided in the ionic strength range of routine IEC operations. Grafting poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) chain of 60 kDa to a cation group density of 700 mmol/L could reduce the adsorption capacity to about 20 μg/mL, but further reduction was not possible by increasing the cation group density to 1200 mmol/L. Therefore, attentions need to be paid to the phenomenon in protein purification practice using agarose-based matrices. The research is expected to call attentions to the trace adsorption on agarose-based matrices and to the importance in the selection of the suitable solid matrices in the production of high-purity protein products in large-scale bioprocesses.

  8. Corn porous starch: preparation, characterization and adsorption property.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Cui, Dapeng; Liu, Mingzhu; Gong, Honghong; Huang, Yinjuan; Han, Fei

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to develop a new type of modified starch based on α-amylase and glucoamylase. The structural and chemical characteristics of the porous starch were determined by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The potential application of the porous starch as an adsorbent was evaluated using methyl violet as an adsorbed model. The adsorption capacity was optimized by investigating the reaction factors, including the mass ratio of α-amylase to glucoamylase (m(α-amylase)/m(glucoamylase)), the mass ratio of total amount of enzymes to starch (m(enzyme)/m(St)), the ratio of liquid volume to starch mass (V(H2O)/M(St)), pH value of the reaction solution, enzymatic reaction temperature, and enzymatic reaction time. The hydrolysis ratio of each sample was also determined to investigate the effect of different reaction conditions on the hydrolysis degree. The results suggest that the porous starch has a more excellent adsorption capacity than the native starch, and may be expected to have wide potential applications in many fields.

  9. Molecular diffusion between walls with adsorption and desorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, Maximilien; Bénichou, Olivier; Rotenberg, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The time dependency of the diffusion coefficient of particles in porous media is an efficient probe of their geometry. The analysis of this quantity, measured, e.g., by nuclear magnetic resonance, can provide rich information pertaining to porosity, pore size distribution, permeability, and surface-to-volume ratio of porous materials. Nevertheless, in numerous if not all practical situations, transport is confined by walls where adsorption and desorption processes may occur. In this article, we derive explicitly the expression of the time-dependent diffusion coefficient between two confining walls in the presence of adsorption and desorption. We show that they strongly modify the time-dependency of the diffusion coefficient, even in this simple geometry. We finally propose several applications, from sorption rates measurements to the use as a reference for numerical implementations for more complex geometries.

  10. Tunable and sizable band gap in silicene by surface adsorption

    PubMed Central

    Quhe, Ruge; Fei, Ruixiang; Liu, Qihang; Zheng, Jiaxin; Li, Hong; Xu, Chengyong; Ni, Zeyuan; Wang, Yangyang; Yu, Dapeng; Gao, Zhengxiang; Lu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Opening a sizable band gap without degrading its high carrier mobility is as vital for silicene as for graphene to its application as a high-performance field effect transistor (FET). Our density functional theory calculations predict that a band gap is opened in silicene by single-side adsorption of alkali atom as a result of sublattice or bond symmetry breaking. The band gap size is controllable by changing the adsorption coverage, with an impressive maximum band gap up to 0.50 eV. The ab initio quantum transport simulation of a bottom-gated FET based on a sodium-covered silicene reveals a transport gap, which is consistent with the band gap, and the resulting on/off current ratio is up to 108. Therefore, a way is paved for silicene as the channel of a high-performance FET. PMID:23152944

  11. Study on the preparation of straw activated carbon and its phenol adsorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liping

    2017-01-01

    Using sunflower straw as raw materials to manufacture straw activated carbon-modified by phosphoric acidand adsorption isotherm of phenol on straw activated carbon was studied in a batch reactor. The physical properties of the prepared straw activated carbons were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The effect of various parameters, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature, were studied on optimum conditions. The results have shown that the absorbent was efficient, the removal ratio of phenol up to 99.36% with an adsorbent dosage of 16 g·L-1, a pH of 6.0-8.0, at 25 °C. The experimental adsorption data fitted reasonably well to the Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity was 109.89 mg/g. The process of adsorption is a exothermic process.

  12. Metals on graphene: correlation between adatom adsorption behavior and growth morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaojie; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Hupalo, Myron; Lu, Wencai; Tringides, Michael C.; Yao, Yongxin; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2012-05-19

    We present a systematic study of metal adatom adsorption on graphene by ab initio calculations. The calculations cover alkali metals, sp-simple metals, 3d and group 10 transition metals, noble metals, as well as rare earth metals. The correlation between the adatom adsorption properties and the growth morphology of the metals on graphene is also investigated. We show that the growth morphology is related to the ratio of the metal adsorption energy to its bulk cohesive energy (E(a)/E(c)) and the diffusion barrier (ΔE) of the metal adatom on graphene. Charge transfer, electric dipole and magnetic moments, and graphene lattice distortion induced by metal adsorption would also affect the growth morphologies of the metal islands. We also show that most of the metal nanostructures on graphene would be thermally stable against coarsening.

  13. Digit ratio in birds.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Michael P; Thorpe, Patrick A; Brown, Barbara M; Sian, Katie

    2008-12-01

    The Homeobox (Hox) genes direct the development of tetrapod digits. The expression of Hox genes may be influenced by endogenous sex steroids during development. Manning (Digit ratio. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002) predicted that the ratio between the lengths of digits 2 (2D) and 4 (4D) should be sexually dimorphic because prenatal exposure to estrogens and androgens positively influence the lengths of 2D and 4D, respectively. We measured digits and other morphological traits of birds from three orders (Passeriformes, house sparrow, Passer domesticus; tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor; Pscittaciformes, budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulates; Galliformes, chicken, Gallus domesticus) to test this prediction. None were sexually dimorphic for 2D:4D and there were no associations between 2D:4D and other sexually dimorphic traits. When we pooled data from all four species after we averaged right and left side digits from each individual and z-transformed the resulting digit ratios, we found that males had significantly larger 2D:4D than did females. Tetrapods appear to be sexually dimorphic for 2D:4D with 2D:4D larger in males as in some birds and reptiles and 2D:4D smaller in males as in some mammals. The differences between the reptile and mammal lineages in the directionality of 2D:4D may be related to the differences between them in chromosomal sex determination. We suggest that (a) natural selection for a perching foot in the first birds may have overridden the effects of hormones on the development of digit ratio in this group of vertebrates and (b) caution be used in making inferences about prenatal exposure to hormones and digit ratio in birds.

  14. Molecular-level understanding of the adsorption mechanism of a graphite-binding peptide at the water/graphite interface.

    PubMed

    Penna, M J; Mijajlovic, M; Tamerler, C; Biggs, M J

    2015-07-14

    The association of proteins and peptides with inorganic material has vast technological potential. An understanding of the adsorption of peptides at liquid/solid interfaces on a molecular-level is fundamental to fully realising this potential. Combining our prior work along with the statistical analysis of 100+ molecular dynamics simulations of adsorption of an experimentally identified graphite binding peptide, GrBP5, at the water/graphite interface has been used here to propose a model for the adsorption of a peptide at a liquid/solid interface. This bottom-up model splits the adsorption process into three reversible phases: biased diffusion, anchoring and lockdown. Statistical analysis highlighted the distinct roles played by regions of the peptide studied here throughout the adsorption process: the hydrophobic domain plays a significant role in the biased diffusion and anchoring phases suggesting that the initial impetus for association between the peptide and the interface may be hydrophobic in origin; aromatic residues dominate the interaction between the peptide and the surface in the adsorbed state and the polar region in the middle of the peptide affords a high conformational flexibility allowing strongly interacting residues to maximise favourable interactions with the surface. Reversible adsorption was observed here, unlike in our prior work focused on a more strongly interacting surface. However, this reversibility is unlikely to be seen once the peptide-surface interaction exceeds 10 kcal mol(-1).

  15. An impedimetric chemical sensor for determination of detergents residues.

    PubMed

    Bratov, Andrey; Abramova, Natalia; Ipatov, Andrey; Merlos, Angel

    2013-03-15

    A new impedimetric sensor based on an interdigitated electrode array with electrode digits located at the bottom of microcapillaries formed in silicon dioxide is presented. Microcapillaries are opened at the top, so that in contact with an electrolyte solution the ac current flows close to the surface of the capillary wall from one electrode to another and is significantly affected by changes in the surface conductance at the SiO2/electrolyte interface. Adsorption of detergents on the sensor surface affects the charge distribution in the electrical double layer and thus the surface conductance. These changes are registered by measuring impedance. Effect of surface adsorption of ionic and non-ionic surfactants on the sensor impedance is studied. The sensor is shown to be able to measure commercial detergents residues in a tap water starting from 5 ppm even in solutions with high electrolyte conductivity.

  16. Characterization of cyclodextrin containing nanofilters for removal of pharmaceutical residues.

    PubMed

    Jurecska, Laura; Dobosy, Péter; Barkács, Katalin; Fenyvesi, Éva; Záray, Gyula

    2014-09-01

    Due to the increasing amount of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in general and pharmaceutical residues in particular in municipal wastewater, the efficiency of water treatment technologies should be improved. Following the biological treatment of wastewater nanofiltration offers a possible way for the removal of POPs. In this study β-cyclodextrin containing nanofilters having different chemical composition and thickness (1.5-3.5mm) were investigated. For their characterization, their adsorption capacity was determined applying ibuprofen containing model solution and total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer. It could be established that the regeneration of nanofilters with ethanol and the application of inorganic additives (NaCl, NaHCO3, NH4HCO3) increased the adsorption capacity of nanofilters. The best results were achieved with chemical composition of 30m/m% β-cyclodextrin polymer beads and 70m/m% ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene in the presence of 12mmol ammonium hydrogen carbonate/nanofilter.

  17. Limitations in the determination of maximum residue limits and highest residues of pesticides: Part I.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Zsuzsanna; Sali, Judit; Zentai, Andrea; Dorogházi, Enikő; Farkas, Zsuzsa; Kerekes, Kata; Ambrus, Árpád

    2014-01-01

    The pesticide usages are controlled by comparing residue concentrations in treated commodities to legally permitted maximum levels (MRLs) determined based on supervised trials designed to reflect likely maximum residues occurring in practice following authorised use. The number of trials available may significantly affect the accuracy of estimated maximum residues. We conducted a study with synthetic lognormal distributions with mean of 1 and standard deviations of 0.8 and 1.0, which reflect the residue distributions observed in practice. The likely residues in samples were modelled by drawing random samples of size 3, 5, 10 and 25 from the synthetic populations. The results indicate that the estimations of highest residues (HR), used for calculation of short-term intake, and the MRLs, serving as legal limits, are very uncertain based on 3-5 trials indicated by the calculated HR0.975/HR0.025 and MRL0.975/MRL0.025 ratios of 12 and 9, and 13 and 10, respectively, which question the suitability of such trials for the intended purpose. As the 95% range of HR and MRL rapidly decreases with number of trials, ideally ≥15 but minimum 6-8 trials should be used for estimation of HR and MRL according to the current typical practice of Codex Alimentarius.

  18. Estimators and characteristics of logging residue in California. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, J.O.; Bulgrin, J.K.

    1986-03-01

    Ratios are presented for estimating volume and characteristics of logging residue. The ratios relate cubic-foot volume of residue to thousand board feet of timber harvested and to acres harvested. Tables show gross and net volume of residue with and without bark, by diameter and length classes, by number of pieces per acre, by softwoods and hardwoods, by percent soundness, and by degree of slope and distance to roads.

  19. Residual stresses in material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kozaczek, K.J.; Watkins, T.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    1994-09-01

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then adresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X-ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  20. [Study on Kinetic of Hg2+ from Wastewater Absorbed by Lemon Residues].

    PubMed

    Shen, Wang-qing; Wang, Miao; Yang, Ting

    2016-03-01

    With low price and its superior adsorption performance after modification, currently agricultural waste is used as adsorbent of heavy metals in wastewater, which has become a hot research topic. To study on Hg2+ from wastewater absorbed by lemon residues that has been modified by 15% concentration of sulphuric acid. The pore volume, pore size and other properties of the adsorbent were test. The samples were characterized by differential thermal analysis, IR, electron microscopy and spectroscopy. The result showed that the adsorption rate was controlled by membrane diffusion kinetics that was viewed as the first order kinetics equation of the Lagergren, which was physically absorbed. The adsorption properties of modified lemon residues were improved greatly, and the pore size distribution mainly was medium. There were three losses-weight process. There was a endothermic peak around 66 degrees C and two exotherm near 316 degrees C and 494 degrees C. Basic framework of Lemon residues was not changed and structure of Lemon residues was amorphous; the surface of modified lemon residues loosen and many pores formed, and Hg2+ have been adsorbed effectively.

  1. Studies on Vapor Adsorption Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamsundar, N.; Ramotowski, M.

    1998-01-01

    The project consisted of performing experiments on single and dual bed vapor adsorption systems, thermodynamic cycle optimization, and thermal modeling. The work was described in a technical paper that appeared in conference proceedings and a Master's thesis, which were previously submitted to NASA. The present report describes some additional thermal modeling work done subsequently, and includes listings of computer codes developed during the project. Recommendations for future work are provided.

  2. Control of protein adsorption on functionalized electrospun fibers.

    PubMed

    Grafahrend, Dirk; Calvet, Julia Lleixa; Klinkhammer, Kristina; Salber, Jochen; Dalton, Paul D; Möller, Martin; Klee, Doris

    2008-10-15

    Electrospun fibers that are protein resistant and functionalized with bioactive signals were produced by solution electrospinning amphiphilic block copolymers. Poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly(D,L-lactide) (PEG-b-PDLLA) was synthesized in two steps, with a PEG segment of 10 kDa, while the PDLLA block ranged from 20 to 60 kDa. Depending on the PEG and PDLLA segment ratio, as well as solvent selection, the hydrophilicity and protein adsorption could be altered on the electrospun mesh. Furthermore, an alpha-acetal PEG-b-PDLLA was synthesized that allowed the conjugation of active molecules, resulting in surface functionalization of the electrospun fiber. Electrospun material with varying morphologies and diameter were electrospun from 10, 20, and 30 wt.% solutions. Sessile drop measurements showed a reduction in the contact angle from 120 degrees for pure poly(D,L-lactide) with increasing PEG/PDLLA ratio. All electrospun block PEG-b-PDLLA fibers had hydrophilic properties, with contact angles below 45 degrees . The fibers were collected onto six-arm star-poly(ethylene glycol) (star-PEG) coated silicon wafers and incubated with fluorescently labeled proteins. All PEG-b-PDLLA fibers showed no detectable adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) independent of their composition while a dependence between hydrophobic block length was observed for streptavidin adsorption. Fibers of block copolymers with PDLLA blocks smaller than 39 kDa showed no adsorption of BSA or streptavidin, indicating good non-fouling properties. Fibers were surface functionalized with N(epsilon)-(+)-biotinyl-L-lysine (biocytin) or RGD peptide by attaching the molecule to the PEG block during synthesis. Protein adsorption measurements, and the controlled interaction of biocytin with fluorescently labeled streptavidin, showed that the electrospun fibers were both resistant to protein adsorption and are functionalized. Fibroblast adhesion was contrasting between the unfunctionalized and RGD

  3. Preparation and characterization of zirconia-loaded lignocellulosic butanol residue as a biosorbent for phosphate removal from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Enmin; Liu, Xiaohuan; Jiang, Jinhua; Fu, Shenyuan; Chu, Fuxiang

    2016-11-01

    Zirconium(IV) loaded lignocellulosic butanol residue (LBR-Zr) used for the adsorption of phosphate (P) ions from aqueous solution was synthesized and evaluated. The adsorption isotherms were fitted well with the Freundlich and Temkin modes. Thermodynamic analyses indicated that phosphate adsorption on the LBR-Zr increased with increasing temperature from 298 to 338 K. The kinetic datas were described better by the pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetic rate model. Increasing pH suppressed phosphate adsorption. Coexisting anions study exhibited that the incorporation of CO32- anion had the largest influence on the phosphate adsorption capacity. The mechanism of adsorption process on LBR-Zr was analyzed by FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an EDX (energy dispersive X-ray) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technologies, respectively. The above results confirmed that surface hydroxyl groups on biosorbent LBR-Zr were replaced by phosphate. The LBR-Zr with good specific affinity towards phosphate was a promising biosorbent for phosphate removal from aqueous solution. The research would be beneficial for developing a promising, eco-friendly phosphate biosorbent from plentiful lignocellulosic butanol residue.

  4. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOEpatents

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  5. Location of. gamma. -carboxyglutamyl residues in partially carboxylated prothrombin preparations

    SciTech Connect

    Liska, D.J.; Suttie, J.W.

    1988-11-15

    Prothrombin contains 10-..gamma..-carboxylglutamyl (Gla) residues in the N-terminal (fragment 1) domain of the protein. Following anticoagulant administration, a spectrum of undercarboxylated, physiologically less active forms of prothrombin is secreted into bovine or human plasma. The sites of undercarboxylation in these prothrombin species have now been investigated. Plasma containing a mixture of partially carboxylated forms of prothombin was obtained from a dicoumarol-treated bovine, and three pools of partially carboxylated (four, six, or eight Gla) species were purified by adsorption onto barium citrate and barium oxalate, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and chromatography. Fragment 1 obtained from these variants was equilibrated with /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and heated in a dry state to decarboxylate Gla and incorporate /sup 3/H into the resulting Glu residues. This peptide was then sequenced by Edman degradation, and the specific radioactivity of PTH-Glu was determined for each potential Gla-containing site. Data obtained from normal prothrombin fragment 1 fit a linear model when the log of specific activity of PTH-Glu was plotted against the cycle number. Analysis of the 80% variant showed a decrease in carboxylation only in the last two Gla residues, while data obtained from the 60% variant indicated a general decrease in carboxylation from the most amino-terminal of the Gla residues. In the 40% Gla variant, all but the most amino-terminal of the Gla residues appeared to be undercarboxylated. These data indicate that the ..gamma..-carboxylation of glutamyl residues in prothrombin does not occur randomly but instead with preferential carboxylation of the most amino-terminal Gla residues. When carboxylation is limited, the impairment of carboxylation is more severe at the more carboxyl-terminal residues.

  6. Adsorption of anionic and nonionic surfactant mixtures from synthetic detergents on soils.

    PubMed

    Rao, Pinhua; He, Ming

    2006-05-01

    Adsorption of anionic surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, SDBS) and nonionic surfactant (an alcohol ethoxylates with 12 carbons and 9 oxyethyl groups, A12E9) mixtures, widely used as the major constituents of synthetic detergents in China and become the most common pollutants in the environment, on soils was conducted to investigate the behavior of mixed surfactants in soils. The effects of addition order and mixing ratios of two surfactants, associated with pH and ion strength in solutions, on adsorptions were considered. The results show that saturated adsorption amount of SDBS and A12E9 on soils decreased respectively when A12E9 was added into soils firstly compared with that secondly, possibly resulting from the screening of A12E9 to part adsorption sites on soils and the hydrocarbon chain-chain interactions between SDBS and A12E9. The adsorption of SDBS and A12E9 on soils was enhanced each other at pre-plateau region of isotherms. At plateau region of isotherms, the adsorption of SDBS on soils decreased with the increase of molar fraction of A12E9 in mixed surfactant solutions, while that of A12E9 increased except the molar ratio of SDBS to A12E9 0.0:1.0. With the increase of pH in mixed surfactant solutions, adsorption amount of SDBS and A12E9 on soils decreased, respectively. The reduction of ion strength in soils resulted in the decrease of adsorption amount of SDBS and A12E9 on soils, respectively.

  7. GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres as potential water adsorption material: Influence of initial silica concentration on adsorptive and physical/topological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Song, Ju-Sub; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Churl-Hee

    2016-03-01

    GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples were synthesized using seven different Si/Al ratios (5–11) of the hydrothermal reaction mixtures having chemical composition Al2O3:xSiO2:14Na2O:840H2O to study the impact of Si/Al molar ratio on the water vapour adsorption potential, phase purity, morphology and crystal size of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) observations reveal that Si/Al ratio does not affect the phase purity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples as high purity GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals were obtained from all Si/Al ratios. Contrary, Si/Al ratios have remarkable effect on the morphology, crystal size and porosity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) evaluations of individual GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere demonstrate the characteristic changes in the packaging/arrangement, shape and size of primary nano crystallites. Textural characterisation using water vapour adsorption/desorption, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption data of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite predicts the existence of mix-pores i.e., microporous as well as mesoporous character. High water storage capacity 1727.5 cm3 g‑1 (138.9 wt.%) has been found for as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere samples during water vapour adsorption studies. Further, the total water adsorption capacity values for P6 (1299.4 mg g‑1) and P7 (1388.8 mg g‑1) samples reveal that these two particular samples can absorb even more water than their own weights.

  8. GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres as potential water adsorption material: Influence of initial silica concentration on adsorptive and physical/topological properties.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Song, Ju-Sub; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Churl-Hee

    2016-03-11

    GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples were synthesized using seven different Si/Al ratios (5-11) of the hydrothermal reaction mixtures having chemical composition Al2O3:xSiO2:14Na2O:840H2O to study the impact of Si/Al molar ratio on the water vapour adsorption potential, phase purity, morphology and crystal size of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) observations reveal that Si/Al ratio does not affect the phase purity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples as high purity GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals were obtained from all Si/Al ratios. Contrary, Si/Al ratios have remarkable effect on the morphology, crystal size and porosity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) evaluations of individual GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere demonstrate the characteristic changes in the packaging/arrangement, shape and size of primary nano crystallites. Textural characterisation using water vapour adsorption/desorption, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption data of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite predicts the existence of mix-pores i.e., microporous as well as mesoporous character. High water storage capacity 1727.5 cm(3) g(-1) (138.9 wt.%) has been found for as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere samples during water vapour adsorption studies. Further, the total water adsorption capacity values for P6 (1299.4 mg g(-1)) and P7 (1388.8 mg g(-1)) samples reveal that these two particular samples can absorb even more water than their own weights.

  9. GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres as potential water adsorption material: Influence of initial silica concentration on adsorptive and physical/topological properties

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pankaj; Song, Ju-Sub; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Churl-Hee

    2016-01-01

    GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples were synthesized using seven different Si/Al ratios (5–11) of the hydrothermal reaction mixtures having chemical composition Al2O3:xSiO2:14Na2O:840H2O to study the impact of Si/Al molar ratio on the water vapour adsorption potential, phase purity, morphology and crystal size of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) observations reveal that Si/Al ratio does not affect the phase purity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples as high purity GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals were obtained from all Si/Al ratios. Contrary, Si/Al ratios have remarkable effect on the morphology, crystal size and porosity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) evaluations of individual GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere demonstrate the characteristic changes in the packaging/arrangement, shape and size of primary nano crystallites. Textural characterisation using water vapour adsorption/desorption, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption data of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite predicts the existence of mix-pores i.e., microporous as well as mesoporous character. High water storage capacity 1727.5 cm3 g−1 (138.9 wt.%) has been found for as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere samples during water vapour adsorption studies. Further, the total water adsorption capacity values for P6 (1299.4 mg g−1) and P7 (1388.8 mg g−1) samples reveal that these two particular samples can absorb even more water than their own weights. PMID:26964638

  10. The adsorption characteristics of heavy metals by various particle sizes of MSWI bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Shim, Young-Sook; Kim, Young-Keun; Kong, Sung-Ho; Rhee, Seung-Whee; Lee, Woo-Keun

    2003-01-01

    The incineration rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been increased because of difficulty in securing a proper disposal site for MSW in Korea. The advantage of incineration is reduction of the volume of waste; however, significant amounts of bottom ash and fly ash were generated in the incineration process. Their treatment has attracted growing interest because of the potential toxicity of hazardous heavy metals. Generally, heavy metals are less released from bottom ash than from fly ash. In this study the adsorption characteristics of heavy metals were investigated using various particle sizes of MSWI bottom ash. Since bottom ash has a broad particle size distribution, it was sieved to size classes of +20, -20, -48, -80, -100 mesh. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) was analyzed by the ammonium acetate method to evaluate the potential as an adsorbent. The CEC values and surface areas increase as the range of particle size becomes finer. The adsorption experiment was conducted using synthetic (Cu and Ni) and plating rinse water as a function of reaction time (10-180 min), liquid/solid ratio (2-100) and particle size (+20 to -100 mesh), respectively. The adsorption rate increased with decreasing particle size and with increasing liquid/solid ratio; however, the removal efficiency of Cu was higher than that of Ni. In the case of plating rinse water, the adsorption rate decreased sharply at high liquid/solid ratio, and it showed over 80% of adsorption rates for Cu and Ni at an initial pH of 3.

  11. Study of protein adsorption on indigo particles confirms the existence of enzyme--indigo interaction sites in cellulase molecules.

    PubMed

    Gusakov, A V; Sinitsyn, A P; Markov, A V; Sinitsyna, O A; Ankudimova, N V; Berlin, A G

    2001-04-27

    Adsorption of several crude and purified cellulases (from Trichoderma reesei, Penicillium verruculosum and Chrysosporium lucknowense) on indigo particles and Avicel cellulose was studied. Much higher amounts of protein were bound to indigo than to cellulose under similar conditions. For different purified enzymes, the quantity of bound protein per mg of adsorbent (indigo or cellulose) varied in the range of 57-111 and 0-62 microg x mg(-1), respectively. However, in general, the enzyme adsorption on indigo was less specific than the adsorption on cellulose. Three endoglucanases, having the highest indigo-binding ability, demonstrated the best washing performance in the process of enzymatic denim treatment. These data confirmed our previous findings that certain cellulases, which have indigo-binding sites (clusters of closely located aromatic and other non-polar residues) on the surface of their molecules, may remove indigo from the denim fabric better than cellulases with lower content of hydrophobic residues exposed to solvent.

  12. Adsorption of direct dye on palm ash: kinetic and equilibrium modeling.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, A A; Hameed, B H; Aziz, N

    2007-03-06

    Palm ash, an agriculture waste residue from palm-oil industry in Malaysia, was investigated as a replacement for the current expensive methods of removing direct blue 71 dye from an aqueous solution. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. Equilibrium data fitted well with Freundlich model in the range of 50-600mg/L. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of the palm ash was determined with the Langmuir equation and found to be 400.01mg dye per gram adsorbent at 30 degrees C. The rates of adsorption were found to conform to the pseudo-second-order kinetics with good correlation. The results indicate that the palm ash could be employed as a low-cost alternative to commercial activated carbon.

  13. Quantitative structure property relationships for the adsorption of pharmaceuticals onto activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Dickenson, E R V; Drewes, J E

    2010-01-01

    Isotherms were determined for the adsorption of five pharmaceutical residues, primidone, carbamazepine, ibuprofen, naproxen and diclofenac, to Calgon Filtrasorb 300 powdered activated carbon (PAC). The sorption behavior was examined in ultra-pure and wastewater effluent organic matter (EfOM) matrices, where more sorption was observed in the ultra-pure water for PAC doses greater than 10 mg/L suggesting the presence of EfOM hinders the sorption of the pharmaceuticals to the PAC. Adsorption behaviors were described by the Freundlich isotherm model. Quantitative structure property relationships (QSPRs) in the form of polyparameter linear solvation energy relationships were developed for simulating the Freundlich adsorption capacity in both ultra-pure and EfOM matrices. The significant 3D-based descriptors for the QSPRs were the molar volume, polarizability and hydrogen-bond donor parameters.

  14. Adsorption of Gemini surfactants onto clathrate hydrates.

    PubMed

    Salako, O; Lo, C; Couzis, A; Somasundaran, P; Lee, J W

    2013-12-15

    This work addresses the adsorption of two Gemini surfactants at the cyclopentane (CP) hydrate-water interface. The Gemini surfactants investigated here are Dowfax C6L and Dowfax 2A1 that have two anionic head groups and one hydrophobic tail group. The adsorption of these surfactants was quantified using adsorption isotherms and the adsorption isotherms were determined using liquid-liquid titrations. Even if the Gemini surfactant adsorption isotherms show multi-layer adsorption, they possess the first Langmuir layer with the second adsorption layer only evident in the 2A1 adsorption isotherm. Zeta potentials of CP hydrate particles in the surfactant solution of various concentrations of Dowfax C6L and Dowfax 2A1 were measured to further explain their adsorption behavior at the CP hydrate-water interface. Zeta potentials of alumina particles as a model particle system in different concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Dowfax C6L and Dowfax 2A1 were also measured to confirm the configuration of all the surfactants at the interface. The determination of the isotherms and zeta-potentials provides an understanding framework for the adsorption behavior of the two Gemini surfactants at the hydrate-water interface.

  15. Multi-ratio transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, J.C.

    1987-07-14

    A preselected multi-ratio power transmission is described comprising: input means for transmitting drive forces; output means; first, second and third friction clutch means each selectively engageable with the input means for accepting drive forces. First input gear means drivingly connects with the first friction clutch means; second input gear means drivingly connects with the second friction clutch means; third input gear means drivingly connects with the third clutch means; first output gear means drivingly connects with the first input gear means; second output gear means drivingly connects with the first and second input gear means; third output means drivingly connects between the third input gear means and the output means; and one double-acting synchronizer clutch for selectively engaging the first output gear means with the output means and alternately the second output gear means with the output means. The first friction clutch means and the one double-acting synchronizer clutch cooperates during engagement to establish two forward drive ratios between the input and output means. The second friction clutch means and the one double-acting synchronizer clutch cooperates during engagement to establish two other forward drive ratios between the input and output means. The third friction clutch means is engageable to provide another forward drive ratio between the input means and the output means; and the one double-acting synchronizer clutch is relieved of transmitting drive forces during the engagement of the third friction clutch means and being manipulable for alternate connection with either the first output gear or the second output gear while the third friction clutch means is engaged.

  16. Potential of biomass residue availability; The case of Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, S.C.; Shrestha, R.M.; Ngamkajornvivat, S. )

    1989-01-01

    An acute shortage of fuel wood and charcoal prevails in many developing countries. A logical approach to the problem places emphasis on the development of alternative energy sources, including use of biomass residues. An assessment of the potential of biomass residues for energy and other uses calls for an estimation of their annual production. Also, because the residues are normally bulky they should be utilized near their place of origin whenever possible to avoid high transportation costs. Thus knowledge of the total national generation of residues per year does not provide enough information for planning residue utilization. This article illustrates a method of residue estimation that takes the case of Thailand as an example. It presents the annual generation of nine agricultural resides (paddy husk, paddy straw, bagasse, cotton stalk, corn cob, groundnut shell, cassava stalk and coconut husk and shell) and one forestry residue (sawdust) in different agroeconomic zones and regions of Thailand. The methodology used for the investigation of crop-to-residue ratios is outlined. The annual generation figures for the different residues along with observations about their traditional uses are presented.

  17. The impact of coal combustion residue effluent on water resources: a North Carolina example.

    PubMed

    Ruhl, Laura; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary S; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Schwartz, Grace; Romanski, Autumn; Smith, S Daniel

    2012-11-06

    The combustion of coal to generate electricity produces about 130 million tons of coal combustion residues (CCRs) each year in the United States; yet their environmental implications are not well constrained. This study systematically documents the quality of effluents discharged from CCR settling ponds or cooling water at ten sites and the impact on associated waterways in North Carolina, compared to a reference lake. We measured the concentrations of major and trace elements in over 300 samples from CCR effluents, surface water from lakes and rivers at different downstream and upstream points, and pore water extracted from lake sediments. The data show that CCR effluents contain high levels of contaminants that in several cases exceed the U.S. EPA guidelines for drinking water and ecological effects. This investigation demonstrates the quality of receiving waters in North Carolina depends on (1) the ratio between effluent flux and freshwater resource volumes and (2) recycling of trace elements through adsorption on suspended particles and release to deep surface water or pore water in bottom sediments during periods of thermal water stratification and anoxic conditions. The impact of CCRs is long-term, which influences contaminant accumulation and the health of aquatic life in water associated with coal-fired power plants.

  18. Influence of temperature on the adsorption of α-tocopherol from ethanol solutions on acid-activated clinoptilolite tuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotova, D. L.; Vasilyeva, S. Yu.; Krysanova, T. A.

    2014-08-01

    Patterns in the adsorption of α-tocopherol on acid-activated clinoptilolite tuff at 283, 295, 305, and 333 K are established and explained. It is found that the selectivity of the sorbent toward the vitamin rises as the temperature of the process falls. The adsorption of α-tocopherol from dilute solutions is described in terms of the Langmuir adsorption theory. It is shown that the fixing of vitamin E monolayers in the structural matrix of clinoptilolite tuff is due to the formation of hydrogen bonds between isolated silanol groups of the adsorbent and oxygen atoms of the chromane ring and the phenol residue of α-tocopherol. The thermodynamic functions of monolayer adsorption of the vitamin are estimated. It is concluded that the formation of polymolecular layers in the form of associates is due to hydrophobic interactions between side substituents of α-tocopherol.

  19. Adsorption study of low-cost and locally available organic substances and a soil to remove pesticides from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Raquel; Morillo, José; Usero, José; Vanderlinden, Eva; El Bakouri, Hicham

    2015-01-01

    Sorption and desorption of chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos, simazine and trifluralin on sunflower seed shells, rice husk, composted sewage sludge and an agricultural soil was studied. Film diffusion and sorption pointed to be related with pesticide physicochemical characteristics. Trifluralin and chlorpyrifos were the pesticides which showed the fastest sorption kinetics and the best sorption capacities when sorbed on all organic wastes. Rice husk revealed as the best adsorbent for simazine. Chlorfenvinphos showed comparable adsorption levels for all sorbents. Koc and Kf values suggested that not only the organic matter content but also the nature of the organic matter and other factors, such as physicochemical characteristics of the surface could be play a significant role in pesticide adsorption. Low desorption percentages were detected; nevertheless Kfd and H values reveal a weak and reversible adsorption. The studied organic residues can be used as an effective and alternative adsorbent for removing pesticides, because of their high adsorption capacity, being natural and economic.

  20. Removal of chloramphenicol by macroporous adsorption resins in honey: a novel approach on reutilization of antibiotics contaminated honey.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ni; Gao, Hui; Deng, Jianjun; Wang, Bini; Xu, Ruihan; Cao, Wei

    2012-09-01

    The effects of different steps in honey production on chloramphenicol (CAP) levels and CAP removal from honey using macroporous adsorption resins (MARs) were investigated in this study. CAP residues in honey were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after each processing step including preheating, filtration, vacuum concentration and pasteurization. Vacuum concentration contributes the most reduction of CAP level (9.9%). Meanwhile, 5 types of MARs (including LSI-1, LSI-2, LSI-3, LS-803, and LS-903) were used in CAP adsorption. The results showed that LS-803 resin had higher adsorption rate of 86% than other resins in removing CAP from honey, and its optimal adsorption time and temperature were 40 min and 55 °C, respectively. The treated honey could be used as feed additive or biomass energy. Therefore, it would be a novel approach to reutilization of antibiotics contaminated honey.

  1. Residual Strength of Blast Damaged Reinforced Concrete Columns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    both reinforced concrete columns and shear walls during seismic investigations [14]. 4.2.3. Effect of longitudinal reinforcement ratio As the...Residual strength of blast damaged reinforced concrete columns Xiaoli Bao, Bing Li* School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Residual strength of blast damaged reinforced concrete columns 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  2. Differential spectroscopic imaging of particulate explosives residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Hô, Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    We present experimental results showing transmission and reflection imaging of approximately 100 μg quantities of particulate explosives residue using a commercial uncooled microbolometer infrared camera and CO II laser differential wavelength illumination. Fine particulates may be generated during bomb-making activities and these particulates can tenaciously adhere to packing material, as well as to the clothing or skin of the bomb maker and could be detectable during transportation. A rapid screening method that detects this residue can serve as a first-line screening method in conjunction with more sensitive, but invasive, approaches. Explosives exhibit absorption features in the mid-infrared molecular fingerprint region that spans 3 to 15 μm, which can be probed with many high-brightness sources such as fixed wavelength and tunable quantum cascade lasers, CO II, CO, and OPO lasers. Commercial uncooled microbolometer cameras typically have detection sensitivity from 7.5 to 13 μm, spanning an absorption region for explosives detection with adequate signal-to-noise ratio. By illuminating a target on and off its absorption wavelengths, ratio images of suspected residue can be obtained without any sample preparation or cooperation and contact with the target. Our proof-of-principle experiment employed tunable CO II lasers, with a tuning range from 9.2 to 10.6 μm, overlapping minor absorption features of RDX and Tetryl.

  3. DNA stickers promote polymer adsorption onto cellulose.

    PubMed

    Sato, Teruaki; Ali, Md Monsur; Pelton, Robert; Cranston, Emily D

    2012-10-08

    Adsorption of oligonucleotides onto model cellulose surfaces was investigated by comparing the Boese and Breaker's cellulose binding oligonucleotide (CBO) with a nonspecific oligonucleotide control (NSO). Measurements using the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technique confirmed that CBO adsorbed onto cellulose more than NSO, particularly at high ionic strengths (100 mM CaCl(2)). CBO showed a higher maximum adsorption on nanofibrillated and nanocrystalline cellulose than on regenerated cellulose, indicating a preference for the native cellulose I crystal structure under conditions that favored specific adsorption over calcium-mediated electrostatically driven adsorption. In addition, an anionic polyacrylamide (A-PAM) with grafted CBO also adsorbed onto the surface of cellulose in CaCl(2), whereas the unmodified A-PAM did not. This work shows that CBO performs as a "sticker", facilitating the adsorption of polyacrylamide onto cellulose, even under high ionic strength conditions where the adsorption of conventional polyelectrolytes is inhibited.

  4. Adsorption of goethite onto quartz and kaolinite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, M.C.; Weiner, Eugene R.; Boymel, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    The adsorption of colloidal goethite onto quartz and kaolinite substrates has been studied as a function of pH and NaCl concentration. Goethite adsorption was measured quantitatively by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results indicate that adsorption onto both substrates is due primarily to coulombic forces; however, the pH dependence of adsorption is very different for the two substrates. This is explained by the fact that the surface charge on quartz is entirely pH-dependent, while kaolinite has surface faces which carry a permanent negative charge. Adsorption of goethite on to kaolinite increases markedly with increasing NaCl concentration, while adsorption onto quartz is relatively independent of NaCl concentration. This can be explained by the influence of NaCl concentration upon the development of surface charge on the substrates. A method is described for separating surface-bound goethite from free goethite.

  5. Development of low-concentration mercury adsorbents from biohydrogen-generation agricultural residues using sulfur impregnation.

    PubMed

    Hsi, Hsing-Chengi; Tsai, Cheng-Yen; Kuo, Tien-Ho; Chiang, Cheng-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Mercury adsorbents were derived from waste biohydrogen-generation barley husk and rice husk via carbonization, steam activation, and sulfur impregnation at 300-650°C. The samples derived from agricultural residues showed a greater Hg(0) adsorption than that of a coal-based activated carbon, confirming the feasibility of resource recovery of these agricultural residuals for low-concentration gaseous Hg adsorption. Sulfur impregnation reduced both the surface area and pore volume of the samples, with lower temperature causing a greater decrease. Elevating the impregnation temperature increased the organic sulfur contents, suggesting that in addition to elemental sulfur, organic sulfur may also act as active sites to improve Hg(0) adsorption. Oxygen and sulfur functional groups accompanying the microporous structures may account for the enhancing Hg(0) adsorption of the raw and sulfur-treated samples, respectively. The pseudo-second-order model can best describe the chemisorption characteristics, implying that Hg(0) adsorption on the samples was in a bimolecular reaction form.

  6. Sedentary behavior and residual-specific mortality

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Edwards, Meghan K.; Sng, Eveleen; Addoh, Ovuokerie

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of accelerometer-assessed sedentary behavior and residual-specific mortality. Methods: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 5536), with follow-up through 2011. Sedentary behavior was objectively measured over 7 days via accelerometry. Results: When expressing sedentary behavior as a 60 min/day increase, the hazard ratio across the models ranged from 1.07-1.40 (P < 0.05). There was evidence of an interaction effect between sedentary behavior and total physical activity on residual-specific mortality (Hazard ratiointeraction [HR] = 0.9989; 95% CI: 0.9982-0.9997; P = 0.008). Conclusion: Sedentary behavior was independently associated with residual-specific mortality. However, there was evidence to suggest that residual-specific mortality risk was a function of sedentary behavior and total physical activity. These findings highlight the need for future work to not only examine the association between sedentary behavior and health independent of total physical activity, but evaluate whether there is a joint effect of these two parameters on health. PMID:27766237

  7. Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ adsorption from aqueous solutions by pyrite and synthetic iron sulphide.

    PubMed

    Ozverdi, Arzu; Erdem, Mehmet

    2006-09-01

    In this study, removal of Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto pyrite and synthetic iron sulphide (SIS) was investigated as a function of pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial metal concentration and temperature. It has been determined that the adsorption of metal ions onto both adsorbents is pH dependent and the adsorption capacities increase with the increasing temperature. The mechanisms governing the metal removal processes were determined as chemical precipitation at low pH (<3) due to H(2)S generation and adsorption at high pH (in the range of 3-6). The metal adsorption yields also increased with the increasing adsorbent dosage and contact time and reached to equilibrium for both adsorbents. The Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) adsorption capacities of both adsorbents decrease in the order of Pb(2+)>Cu(2+)>Cd(2+). Except for cadmium, little fraction of copper and lead in the solid adsorption residues was desorbed in acidic media.

  8. [Preparation, characterization and adsorption performance of mesoporous activated carbon with acidic groups].

    PubMed

    Li, Kun-Quan; Li, Ye; Zheng, Zheng; Zhang, Yu-Xuan

    2013-06-01

    Mesoporous activated carbons containing acidic groups were prepared with cotton stalk based fiber as raw materials and H3PO4 as activating agent by one step carbonization method. Effects of impregnation ratio, carbonization temperature and heat preservation time on the yield, elemental composition, oxygen-containing acid functional groups and adsorptive capacity of activated carbon were studied. The adsorption capacity of the prepared activated carbon AC-01 for p-nitroaniline and Pb(II) was studied, and the adsorption mechanism was also suggested according to the equilibrium experimental results. The maximum yield of activated carbons prepared from cotton stalk fiber reached 35.5% when the maximum mesoporous volume and BET surface area were 1.39 cm3 x g(-1) and 1 731 m2 x g(-1), respectively. The activated carbon AC-01 prepared under a H3 PO4/precursor ratio of 3:2 and activated at 900 degrees C for 90 min had a total pore volume of 1.02 cm3 x g(-1), a micoporous ratio of 31%, and a mesoporous ratio of 65%. The pore diameter of the mesoporous activated carbon was mainly distributed in the range of 2-5 nm. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of Pb(II) and p-nitroaniline on cotton stalk fiber activated carbon were 123 mg x g(-1) and 427 mg x g(-1), respectively, which were both higher than those for commercial activated carbon fiber ACF-CK. The equilibrium adsorption experimental data showed that mesopore and oxygen-containing acid functional groups played an important role in the adsorption.

  9. Adsorption properties of carbon materials produced by thermolysis of brown coal in the presence of alkali metal hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Tamarkina, Y.V.; Maslova, L.A.; Khabarova, T.V.; Kucherenko, V.A.

    2008-07-15

    Activated carbons produced by thermolysis of brown coal impregnated with an alkali metal hydroxide MOH (M = Li, Na, K) at an MOH/coal ratio R-MOH = 80 mol kg{sup -1} were studied. Dependences of the adsorption capacities for iodine and Methylene Blue dye, specific surface area, and yield of activated carbons on the ratio R-MOH were obtained.

  10. Adsorption and isotopic fractionation of Xe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical description of the mechanisms of isotopic fractionation arising during adsorption of noble gases in a Henry's Law pressure regime is given. Experimental data on the isotopic composition of Xe adsorbed on activated charcoal in the temperature range 220 K to 350 K are presented. Both theoretical considerations and the experimental data indicate that equilibrium adsorption does not significantly alter the isotopic structure of adsorbed structure of adsorbed noble gases. Therefore, if adsorption is responsible for the elemental noble gas pattern in meteorites and the earth, the heavy noble gas isotopic fractionation between them must have been produced prior to and by a different process than equilibrium adsorption.

  11. Adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Progress is reported on: adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks; theoretical investigation of adsorption; estimation of adsorption parameters from transient experiments; transient adsorption experiment -- salinity and noncondensible gas effects; the physics of injection of water into, transport and storage of fluids within, and production of vapor from geothermal reservoirs; injection optimization at the Geysers Geothermal Field; a model to test multiwell data interpretation for heterogeneous reservoirs; earth tide effects on downhole pressure measurements; and a finite-difference model for free surface gravity drainage well test analysis.

  12. Adsorption of acid dye onto organobentonite.

    PubMed

    Baskaralingam, P; Pulikesi, M; Elango, D; Ramamurthi, V; Sivanesan, S

    2006-02-06

    Removal of Acid Red 151 from aqueous solution at different dye concentrations, adsorbent doses and pH has been studied. The bentonite clay has been modified using cationic surfactants, which has been confirmed using XRD and FT-IR analyses. Experimental result has shown that the acidic pH favours the adsorption. The adsorption isotherms are described by means of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity has been found to be 357.14 and 416.66 mg g(-1) for the cetyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride-bentonite (CDBA-bent) and cetylpyridinium chloride-bentonite (CP-bent), respectively. Kinetic studies show that the adsorption followed second-order kinetics.

  13. Ozone adsorption on carbon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassard, Guillaume; Gosselin, Sylvie; Visez, Nicolas; Petitprez, Denis

    2014-05-01

    Carbonaceous particles produced by incomplete combustion or thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. On these particles are adsorbed hundreds of chemical species. Those of great concern to health are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). During atmospheric transport, particulate PAHs react with gaseous oxidants. The induced chemical transformations may change toxicity and hygroscopicity of these potentially inhalable particles. The interaction between ozone and carbon particles has been extensively investigated in literature. However ozone adsorption and surface reaction mechanisms are still ambiguous. Some studies described a fast catalytic decomposition of ozone initiated by an atomic oxygen chemisorption followed by a molecular oxygen release [1-3]. Others suggested a reversible ozone adsorption according to Langmuir-type behaviour [4,5]. The aim of this present study is a better understanding of ozone interaction with carbon surfaces. An aerosol of carbon nanoparticles was generated by flowing synthetic air in a glass tube containing pure carbon (primary particles < 50 nm), under magnetic stirring. The aerosol was then mixed with ozone in an aerosol flow tube. Ozone uptake experiments were performed with different particles concentrations with a fixed ozone concentration. The influence of several factors on kinetics was examined: initial ozone concentration, particle size (50 nm ≤ Dp ≤ 200 nm) and competitive adsorption (with probe molecule and water). The effect of initial ozone concentration was first studied. Accordingly to literature, it has been observed that the number of gas-phase ozone molecules lost per unit particle surface area tends towards a plateau for high ozone concentration suggesting a reversible ozone adsorption according to a Langmuir mechanism. We calculated the initial reaction probability between O3 and carbon particles.An initial uptake coefficient of 1.10-4 was obtained. Similar experiments were

  14. Effective Adsorption/Reduction of Cr(VI) Oxyanion by Halloysite@Polyaniline Hybrid Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tianzhu; Li, Cuiping; Jin, Huiling; Lian, Yangyang; Han, Wenmei

    2017-02-22

    Halloysite@polyaniline (HA@PANI) hybrid nanotubes are synthesized by the in situ chemical polymerization of aniline on halloysite clay nanotubes. By facilely tuning the dopant acid, pH, and apparent weight proportion for aniline (ANI) and halloysite (HA) nanotubes in the synthesis process, PANI with tuned oxidation state, doping extent, and content are in situ growing on halloysite nanotubes. The reaction system's acidity is tuned by dopant acid, such as HCl, H2SO4, HNO3, and H3PO4. The adsorption result shows the fabricated HA@PANI hybrid nanotubes can effectively adsorb Cr(VI) oxyanion and the adsorption ability changes according to the dopant acid, pH, and apparent weight proportion for ANI and HA in the synthesis process. Among them, the HA@PANI fabricated with HCl as dopant acid tuning the pH at 0.5 and 204% apparent weight proportion for ANI and HA (HP/0.5/204%-HCl) shows the highest adsorption capacity. The adsorption capacity is in accordance well with the doping extent of PANI in HA@PANI. Furthermore, when HP/0.5/204%-HCl is redoped with HNO3, H2SO4, and H3PO4, the adsorption capacity declines, implying the dopant acid in the process of redoping exhibits a marked effect on Cr(VI) oxyanion adsorption for the HA@PANI hybrid nanotubes. HP/0.5/204%-HCl and HP/0.5/204%-H3PO4 have demonstrated good regenerability with an above 80% removal ratio after four cycles. Moreover, the HA@PANI adsorbent has better sedimentation ability than that of pure PANI. The adsorption behavior is in good agreement with Langmuir and pseudo second-order equations, indicating the adsorption of HA@PANI for Cr(VI) oxyanion is chemical adsorption. FT-IR and XPS of HA@PANI after Cr(VI) oxyanion adsorption indicate that the doped amine/imine groups (-NH(+)/═N(+)- groups) are the main adsorption sites for the removal of Cr(VI) oxyanion by electrostatic adsorption and reduction of the adsorbed Cr (VI) oxyanion to Cr(III) simultaneously.

  15. Mineral-Surfactant Interaction for Minimum Reagents Precipitation and Adsorption for Improved Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2006-09-30

    In this project, fundamental studies were conducted to understand the mechanisms of the interactions between polymers/surfactants and minerals with the aim of minimizing chemical loss by adsorption. The effects of structures of the surface active molecules on critical solid/liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and surface tension in mineral/surfactant systems were investigated. The final aim is to build a guideline to design optimal polymer/surfactant formula based on the understanding of adsorption and orientation of surfactants and their aggregates at solid/liquid interfaces. During this period, the wettability of alumina was tested using two-phase extraction at different pHs. The results were explained using the adsorption data obtain previously. It was found that the wettability is determined by both the nano-structure of the hemimicelles and the surface coverage. It was found that pH plays a critical role in controlling the total adsorption and the mineral wettability. At pH 4, the alumina surface remains hydrophilic in the surfactant concentration range tested because of the low surface coverage, even though hemimicelles are formed. Adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on alumina and silica, the component minerals reservoir rocks, was conducted at different pHs. The adsorption of SDS on silica is negligible, while the adsorption on alumina is high due to the different charge of the latter. Tests of adsorption of a modified polymer S-19703-35HT on alumina were also conducted at different pHs. Adsorption density decreases with pH. The results suggest that alkaline pH range is more cost-effective for a SDS/polymer system because of the low adsorption density. A new term, reagent loss index (RLI), was used to analyze the adsorption data for different surfactants and minerals. It was shown that the chemical loss is very high in the case of SDS on gypsum and limestone, while it is low in the case of silica. The mixed Dodecyl maltoside

  16. Anion adsorption induced surface reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lei

    2005-11-01

    Surface stress plays an important role in the behavior of solid surfaces. Potential-controlled anion adsorption in electrolytes alters the surface stress of the electrode and results in morphology changes to the surfaces. With a combination of potential-induced surface stress measurement and in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), it is demonstrated that anion adsorption induces changes in structure of thin films and modifies the growth morphology and stress evolution in epitaxially grown films. Surface structural transitions in the heteroepitaxial system consisting of one to two gold monolayers on platinum substrates were observed. By increasing the potential, structural transitions, from (1 x 1), to a striped phase, to a hexagonal structure, occurred in the gold bilayer. This hexagonal structure was related to the formation of an ordered sulfate adlayer with a ( 3x7 ) structure. Such transitions were repeatable by cycling the potential. Furthermore, the transitions between various dislocation structures were affected by anion adsorption. The surface composition of the gold bilayer on Pt was measured by underpotential deposition of copper. By subtracting the contribution of a pure Pt surface from the gold bi-layer on Pt, a stress change of -2.4 N/m was observed, which agrees with the stress change of -2.46 N/m predicted to accompany formation of 1.5 MLs of coherent Au on Pt(111) from epitaxy theory. The Cu monolayer deposited on Au(111) from an acid sulfate electrolyte was found to be pseudomorphic while the Cu monolayer formed on Au(111) in vacuum was incoherent. The stress-thickness change associated with the coherent monolayer of copper on Au(111) in electrolyte was -0.6 N/m, while conventional epitaxy theories predict a value of +7.76 N/m. STM results elucidated the sulfate adsorption on the copper monolayer caused an expansion of the layer as evidenced by a Moire Structure. For the Cu monolayer on Au(111), the sulfate-induced expansion

  17. Charcoal/Nitrogen Adsorption Cryocooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bard, Steven

    1987-01-01

    Refrigerator with no wear-related moving parts produces 0.5 W of cooling at 118 K. When fully developed, refrigerator needs no electrical power, and life expectancy of more than 10 yr, operates unattended to cool sensitive infrared detectors for long periods. Only moving parts in adsorption cryocooler are check valves. As charcoal is cooled in canister, gas pressure drops, allowing inlet check valve to open and admit more nitrogen. When canister is heated, pressure rises, closing inlet valve and eventually opening outlet valve.

  18. Moisture adsorption in optical coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macleod, H. Angus

    1988-01-01

    The thin film filter is a very large aperture component which is exceedingly useful because of its small size, flexibility and ease of mounting. Thin film components, however, do have defects of performance and especially of stability which can cause problems in systems, particularly where long-term measurements are being made. Of all of the problems, those associated with moisture absorption are the most serious. Moisture absorption occurs in the pore-shaped voids inherent in the columnar structure of the layers. Ion-assisted deposition is a promising technique for substantially reducing moisture adsorption effects in thin film structures.

  19. Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-08-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millionstons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2-1.5 millionstons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50-70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered.

  20. Characterization and Fate of Gun and Rocket Propellant Residues on Testing and Training Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    burn rate, have long, thin strands or thin, narrow strips for propellant with high surface area to mass ratios . When a gun or rocket is fired, the...launcher. These residues will contain the constituents of the original propellant formulation, typically (but not al- ways) in the ratios of the unburned...small-volume propellant residues such as from the 40-mm tests, most NG will likely leach out quickly because of the high surface-to- volume ratio and the

  1. Fabrication of carbon/SiO2 composites from the hydrothermal carbonization process of polysaccharide and their adsorption performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinhui; Li, Kunyu; Su, Min; Ren, Yanmei; Li, Ying; Chen, Jianxin; Li, Liang

    2016-11-20

    In this work, carbon/SiO2 composites, using amylose and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as raw materials, were successfully prepared by a facial hydrothermal carbonization process. The carbon/SiO2 composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), N2 adsorption and Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. The composites, which were made up of amorphous SiO2 and amorphous carbon, were found to have hierarchical porous structures. The mass ratios of amylose and SiO2 and the hydrothermal carbonization time had significant effects on the morphology of the composites, which had three shapes including monodispersed spheres, porous pieces and the nano-fibers combined with nano-spheres structures. The adsorption performance of the composites was studied using Pb(2+) as simulated contaminants from water. When the mass ratio of amylose and SiO2 was 9/1, the hydrothermal time was 30h and the hydrothermal temperature was 180°C, the adsorption capacity of the composites achieved to 52mg/g. Experimental data show that adsorption kinetics of the carbon/SiO2 composites can be fitted well by the Elovich model, while the isothermal data can be perfectly described by the Langmuir adsorption model and Freundlich adsorption model. The maximum adsorption capacity of the carbon/SiO2 composites is 56.18mgg(-1).

  2. Mobilization and re-adsorption of arsenate on ferrihydrite and hematite in the presence of oxalate.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bo; Jia, Shao-Yi; Liu, Yong; Wu, Song-Hai; Han, Xu

    2013-11-15

    In this study, mobilization and re-adsorption of arsenate on 2-line ferrihydrite and hematite in the presence of oxalate was investigated. Our results showed that arsenate could be mobilized during the dissolution of ferrihydrite and hematite. After reaching the maximum values, the released arsenate could re-adsorb on the residual ferrihydrite, whereas such an observation was not significant in hematite system. More reactive sites exposed during the dissolution of ferrihydrite could contribute to the re-adsorption of the released arsenate at pH 3.0, while the insignificant re-adsorption of arsenate on hematite could be explained by the inhibitory adsorption effect of oxalate on arsenate. Although dissolution rates of iron oxides decreased with the increase of arsenate on both ferrihydrite and hematite, dissolution rate was mainly determined by the reactivity of iron oxides, and ferrihydrite showed a higher reactivity than hematite in the presence of oxalate. Mathematic model proposed in our study further indicated that arsenate loading showed a more significant effect on arsenate mobilization in hematite system, while it was more effective in arsenate re-adsorption in ferrihydrite system.

  3. Adsorption of the natural protein surfactant Rsn-2 onto liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Brandani, Giovanni B; Vance, Steven J; Schor, Marieke; Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W; Smith, Brian O; MacPhee, Cait E; Cheung, David L

    2017-03-22

    To stabilize foams, droplets and films at liquid interfaces a range of protein biosurfactants have evolved in nature. Compared to synthetic surfactants, these combine surface activity with biocompatibility and low solution aggregation. One recently studied example is Rsn-2, a component of the foam nest of the frog Engystomops pustulosus, which has been predicted to undergo a clamshell-like opening transition at the air-water interface. Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and surface tension measurements we study the adsorption of Rsn-2 onto air-water and cyclohexane-water interfaces. The protein adsorbs readily at both interfaces, with adsorption mediated by the hydrophobic N-terminus. At the cyclohexane-water interface the clamshell opens, due to the favourable interaction between hydrophobic residues and cyclohexane molecules and the penetration of cyclohexane molecules into the protein core. Simulations of deletion mutants showed that removal of the N-terminus inhibits interfacial adsorption, which is consistent with the surface tension measurements. Deletion of the hydrophilic C-terminus also affects adsorption, suggesting that this plays a role in orienting the protein at the interface. The characterisation of the interfacial behaviour gives insight into the factors that control the interfacial adsorption of proteins, which may inform new applications of this and similar proteins in areas including drug delivery and food technology and may also be used in the design of synthetic molecules showing similar changes in conformation at interfaces.

  4. Comparative study of the adsorption of acetaminophen on activated carbons in simulated gastric fluid.

    PubMed

    Rey-Mafull, Carlos A; Tacoronte, Juan E; Garcia, Raquel; Tobella, Jorge; Llópiz, Julio C; Iglesias, Alberto; Hotza, Dachamir

    2014-01-01

    Samples of commercial activated carbons (AC) obtained from different sources: Norit E Supra USP, Norit B Test EUR, and ML (Baracoa, Cuba) were investigated. The adsorption of acetaminophen, Co = 2500 mg/L, occured in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) at pH 1.2 in contact with activated carbon for 4 h at 310 K in water bath with stirring. Residual acetaminophen was monitored by UV visible. The results were converted to scale adsorption isotherms using alternative models: Langmuir TI and TII, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) and Temkin. Linearized forms of the characteristic parameters were obtained in each case. The models that best fit the experimental data were Langmuir TI and Temkin with R(2) ≥0.98. The regression best fits followed the sequence: Langmuir TI = Temkin > DR > LangmuirTII > Freundlich. The microporosity determined by adsorption of CO2 at 273 K with a single term DR regression presented R(2) > 0.98. The adsorption of acetaminophen may occur in specific sites and also in the basal region. It was determined that the adsorption process of acetaminophen on AC in SGF is spontaneous (ΔG <0) and exothermic (-ΔHads.). Moreover, the area occupied by the acetaminophen molecule was calculated with a relative error from 7.8 to 50%.

  5. Optimizing the lanthanum adsorption process onto chemically modified biomaterials using factorial and response surface design.

    PubMed

    Gabor, Andreea; Davidescu, Corneliu Mircea; Negrea, Adina; Ciopec, Mihaela; Grozav, Ion; Negrea, Petru; Duteanu, Narcis

    2017-01-29

    The rare metals' potential to pollute air, water, soil, and especially groundwater has received lot of attention recently. One of the most common rare earth group elements, lanthanum, is used in many industrial branches, and due to its toxicity, it needs to be eliminated from all residual aqueous solutions. The goal of this study was to evaluate the control of the adsorption process for lanthanum removal from aqueous solutions, using cellulose, a known biomaterial with high adsorbent properties, cheap, and environment friendly. The cellulose was chemically modified by functionalization with sodium β-glycerophosphate. The experimental results obtained after factorial design indicate optimum adsorption parameters as pH 6, contact time 60 min, and temperature 298 K, when the equilibrium concentration of lanthanum was 250 mg L(-1), and the experimental adsorption capacity obtained was 31.58 mg g(-1). Further refinement of the optimization of the adsorption process by response surface design indicates that at pH 6 and the initial concentration of 256 mg L(-1), the adsorption capacity has maximum values between 30.87 and 36.73 mg g(-1).

  6. Adsorption performance of salicylic acid on a novel resin with distinctive double pore structure.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Guqing; Wen, Ruiming; Liu, Aijiao; He, Guowen; Wu, Dan

    2017-05-05

    Two approaches were used to synthesize two resins with different pore structures. In one way, the CH2Cl groups in macroporous chloromethylated polystyrene resin were transformed to methylene bridges, and achieved a hypercrosslinked resin with plentiful micropores (denoted GQ-06). In the other way, 50% of the CH2Cl groups in chloromethylated polystyrene resin was used to produce micropores, while the residual 50% of the CH2Cl groups was reacted with 2-aminopyridine, and prepared another resin with double pore structure of hypercrosslinked resin and macroporous resin (denoted GQ-11). The adsorption of salicylic acid (SA) on GQ-11 was investigated using GQ-06 as the reference adsorbent. The effect of pH on the adsorption of SA on GQ-06 was consistent with the dissociation curve of SA. The maximum adsorption capacity of SA on GQ-11 was observed at the solution pH of 2.64. The greater adsorption rate of SA on GQ-11 than that of GQ-06 was attributed to its double pore structure. The multifunctional adsorption mechanism of anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction resulted in the larger equilibrium capacity of SA on GQ-11 than that of GQ-06. GQ-06 and GQ-11 could be regenerated by absolute alcohol and 80% of alcohol -0.5mol/L of sodium hydroxide aqueous solution, respectively.

  7. Spontaneous Membrane-Translocating Peptide Adsorption at Silica Surfaces: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous membrane-translocating peptides (SMTPs) have recently been shown to directly penetrate cell membranes. Adsorption of a SMTP, and some engineered extensions, at model silica surfaces is studied herein using fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations in order to assess their potential to construct novel drug delivery systems. The simulations are designed to reproduce the electric fields above single, siloxide-rich charged surfaces, and the trajectories indicate that the main driving force for adsorption is electrostatic. An increase in the salt concentration slows down but does not prevent adsorption of the SMTP to the surface; it also does not result in peptide desorption, suggesting additional binding via hydrophobic forces. The results are used to design extensions to the peptide sequence which we find enhance adsorption but do not affect the adsorbed conformation. We also investigate the effect of surface hydroxylation on the peptide adsorption. In all cases, the final adsorbed conformations are with the peptide flattened to the surface with arginine residues, which are key to the peptide’s function, anchoring it to the surface so that they are not exposed to solution. This conformation could impact their role in membrane translocation and thus has important implications for the design of future drug delivery vehicles. PMID:24176015

  8. Adsorption of thiophene on silica-supported Mo clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarneni, M.; Kadossov, E.; Justin, J.; Lu, M.; Burghaus, U.

    2010-07-01

    The adsorption/decomposition kinetics/dynamics of thiophene has been studied on silica-supported Mo and MoS x clusters. Two-dimensional cluster formation at small Mo exposures and three-dimensional cluster growth at larger exposures would be consistent with the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) data. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) indicates two reaction pathways. H 4C 4S desorbs molecularly at 190-400 K. Two TDS features were evident and could be assigned to molecularly on Mo sites, and S sites adsorbed thiophene. Assuming a standard preexponential factor (ν = 1 × 10 13/s) for first-order kinetics, the binding energies for adsorption on Mo (sulfur) sites amount to 90 (65) kJ/mol for 0.4 ML Mo exposure and 76 (63) kJ/mol for 2 ML Mo. Thus, smaller clusters are more reactive than larger clusters for molecular adsorption of H 4C 4S. The second reaction pathway, the decomposition of thiophene, starts at 250 K. Utilizing multimass TDS, H 2, H 2S, and mostly alkynes are detected in the gas phase as decomposition products. H 4C 4S bond activation results in partially sulfided Mo clusters as well as S and C residuals on the surface. S and C poison the catalyst. As a result, with an increasing number of H 4C 4S adsorption/desorption cycles, the uptake of molecular thiophene decreases as well as the H 2 and H 2S production ceases. Thus, silica-supported sulfided Mo clusters are less reactive than metallic clusters. The poisoned catalyst can be partially reactivated by annealing in O 2. However, Mo oxides also appear to form, which passivate the catalyst further. On the other hand, while annealing a used catalyst in H/H 2, it is poisoned even more (i.e., the S AES signal increases). By means of adsorption transients, the initial adsorption probability, S0, of C 4H 4S has been determined. At thermal impact energies ( Ei = 0.04 eV), S0 for molecular adsorption amounts to 0.43 ± 0.03 for a surface temperature of 200 K. S0 increases with Mo cluster size, obeying the

  9. Kinetics of a reactive dye adsorption onto dolomitic sorbents.

    PubMed

    Walker, G M; Hansen, L; Hanna, J-A; Allen, S J

    2003-05-01

    A novel wastewater treatment technique has been investigated, for reactive dye removal, in batch kinetic systems. These experimental studies have indicated that charred dolomite has the potential to act as an adsorbent for the removal of Brilliant Red reactive dye from aqueous solution. The effect of initial dye concentration, adsorbent mass:liquid volume ratio, and agitation speed on dye removal have been determined with the experimental data mathematically described using empirical external mass transfer and intra-particle diffusion models. The experimental data show conformity with an adsorption process, with the removal rate heavily dependent on both external mass transfer and intra-particle diffusion.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of pillared stevensites: application to chromate adsorption.

    PubMed

    Benhammou, A; Yaacoubi, A; Nibou, L; Bonnet, J P; Tanouti, B

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the synthesis of pillared interlayered clays from Moroccan stevensite called locally 'Ghassoul'. This clay has been intercalated with cetyltrimethylammonium surfactant (CTA-Stv) and aluminium hydroxypolycation (Al13-Stv). Characterization studies were performed using XRF, XRD, FTIR and DTA/TG analysis. Basal spacing values of Al13-Stv and CTA-Stv increased respectively from 13.5 A for natural stevensite to 17.5 and 17.6 A with increasing Al13(7+)/clay and CTA+/clay ratios. The DTA/TG results showed that Al13-Stv has a relatively high thermal stability compared with CTA-Stv. A quasi-irreversible intercalation by exchanging the interlayer inorganic cations with voluminous pillars Al13(7+) or CTA+ was observed. Batch adsorption of chromate anions from aqueous solutions was investigated and the results showed that both pillared clays had great affinity for the chromate compared with untreated stevensite. The Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich (DKR) model was selected to describe the adsorption isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacities for natural stevensite, Al13-Stv and CTA-Stv are 13.7, 75.4 and 195.6 mmol/kg, respectively.

  11. 2-Hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium xylan adsorption onto rod-like cellulose nanocrystal.

    PubMed

    Sim, Jae Hyun; Dong, Shuping; Röemhild, Katrin; Kaya, Abdulaziz; Sohn, Daewon; Tanaka, Keiji; Roman, Maren; Heinze, Thomas; Esker, Alan R

    2015-02-15

    Chemical incompatibility and relatively weak interaction between lignocellulosic fibers and synthetic polymers have made studies of wood fiber-thermoplastic composite more challenging. In this study, adsorption of 2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium xylans onto rod-like cellulose nanocrystals are investigated by zeta-potential measurements, and polarized and depolarized dynamic light scattering as a factor for better understanding of lignocellulosic fibers and cellulose nanocrystals. Zeta-potential measurements show xylan derivative adsorption onto cellulose nanocrystals. Decay time distributions of the ternary system and binary system from dynamic light scattering show that aggregates exist in the binary system and they disappear in the ternary system. At low 2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium xylan concentrations relative to that of cellulose nanocrystal, xylan derivatives adsorbed onto some of the cellulose nanocrystal. Hence, more xylan derivatives adsorbed onto cellulose nanocrystal increased with increasing xylan derivative concentration. Also, the concentration dependence of the ratio of the rotational diffusion coefficient to the translational diffusion coefficient revealed a strong adsorptive interaction between xylan derivatives and the cellulose nanocrystals.

  12. Thermodynamical and structural insights of orange II adsorption by Mg RAlNO 3 layered double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustapha Bouhent, Mohamed; Derriche, Zoubir; Denoyel, Renaud; Prevot, Vanessa; Forano, Claude

    2011-05-01

    [Mg 1- x Al x(OH) 2][(NO 3) x, nH 2O] Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) sorbents with variable Mg/Al molar ( R=(1- x)/ x) ratios were investigated for adsorption of azo dye, orange II (OII) at various pH and temperature conditions. Mg 2AlNO 3 displays the highest adsorption capacity with 3.611 mmol of OII per gram of Mg 2AlNO 3 at 40 °C. Adsorption isotherms have been fitted using the Langmuir model and free energy of adsorption (Δ G°), enthalpy (Δ H°) and entropy (Δ S°) were calculated. The experimental values for Δ G° in temperature range between 10 and 40 °C were found to be negative indicating that a spontaneous process occurred. Positive calculated enthalpy values, characteristic of an endothermic process were found. Characterization of solids (PXRD, FTIR, UV-vis, TGA/DTA, adsorption isotherm BET analysis, SEM and Zetametry) before and after adsorption showed that adsorption proceeds in two steps. First, adsorption occurs at the LDH surface, followed by intercalation via anion exchange.

  13. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  14. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  15. Adsorption of uranium by amidoximated chitosan-grafted polyacrylonitrile, using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Wang, Jingjing; Yang, Tilong; Chen, Xia; Liu, Xunyue; Ding, Xingcheng

    2015-05-05

    The amidoximated chitosan-grafted polyacrylonitrile (CTS-g-PAO) was prepared for the adsorption of uranium from water. The effects of pH, concentration of uranium and the solid-liquid ratio on the adsorption of uranium by CTS-g-PAO were optimized using Doehlert design of response surface methodology (RSM). The adsorption capacity and removal efficiency achieved 312.06 mg/g and 86.02%, respectively. The adsorption process attained equilibrium only in 120 min. More than 80% of the absorbed uranium could be desorbed by 0.1 mol/l HCl or EDTA-Na, and CTS-g-PAO could be reused at least 3 times. The CTS-g-PAO and U(VI) ions formed a chelate complex due to FTIR spectral analysis. The surface morphology of CTS-g-PAO was also investigated by SEM. The adsorption process was better described by Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second order kinetic model. Results obtained indicated that CTS-g-PAO was very promising in adsorption of uranium from water.

  16. Adsorption of phenanthrene on multilayer graphene as affected by surfactant and exfoliation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Qing; Xing, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    Surfactant mediated exfoliation of multilayer graphene and its effects on phenanthrene adsorption were investigated using a passive dosing technique. In the absence of surfactant (sodium cholate, NaC), multilayer graphene had higher adsorption capacity for phenanthrene than carbon nanotube and graphite due to the higher surface area and micropore volume. The observed desorption hysteresis is likely caused by the formation of closed interstitial spaces through folding and rearrangement of graphene sheets. In the presence of NaC (both 100 and 8000 mg/L), phenanthrene adsorption on graphene was decreased due to the direct competition of NaC molecules on the graphene surface. With the aid of sonication, multilayer graphene sheets were exfoliated by NaC, leading to better dispersion. The degree of dispersion depended on the graphene-NaC ratio in aqueous solution rather than critical micelle concentration of NaC, and the good dispersion occurred after reaching adsorption saturation of NaC molecules on graphene sheets. In addition, exfoliation weakened the competition between phenanthrene and NaC and enhanced the adsorption capacity of graphene for phenanthrene due to exposed new sites. The findings on exfoliation of graphene sheets and related adsorption properties highlight not only the potential applications of multilayer graphene as efficient adsorbent but also its possible environmental risk.

  17. Mesoporous-activated carbon prepared from chitosan flakes via single-step sodium hydroxide activation for the adsorption of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Marrakchi, F; Ahmed, M J; Khanday, W A; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2017-05-01

    In this work, mesoporous-activated carbon (CSAC) was prepared from chitosan flakes (CS) via single-step sodium hydroxide activation for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). CSAC was prepared using different impregnation ratios of NaOH:CS (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1) at 800°C for 90min. The adsorption performance of CSAC was evaluated for MB at different adsorption variables, such MB initial concentrations (25-400mg/L), solution pH (3-11), and temperature (30-50°C). The adsorption isotherm data of CSAC-MB were well fitted to Langmuir model with a maximum adsorption capacity 143.53mg/g at 50°C. Best representation of kinetic data was obtained by the pseudo-second order model. CSAC exhibited excellent adsorption uptake for MB and can potentially be used for other cationic dyes.

  18. Hydrogen adsorption on functionalized nanoporous activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X B; Xiao, B; Fletcher, A J; Thomas, K M

    2005-05-12

    There is considerable interest in hydrogen adsorption on carbon nanotubes and porous carbons as a method of storage for transport and related energy applications. This investigation has involved a systematic investigation of the role of functional groups and porous structure characteristics in determining the hydrogen adsorption characteristics of porous carbons. Suites of carbons were prepared with a wide range of nitrogen and oxygen contents and types of functional groups to investigate their effect on hydrogen adsorption. The porous structures of the carbons were characterized by nitrogen (77 K) and carbon dioxide (273 K) adsorption methods. Hydrogen adsorption isotherms were studied at 77 K and pressure up to 100 kPa. All the isotherms were Type I in the IUPAC classification scheme. Hydrogen isobars indicated that the adsorption of hydrogen is very temperature dependent with little or no hydrogen adsorption above 195 K. The isosteric enthalpies of adsorption at zero surface coverage were obtained using a virial equation, while the values at various surface coverages were obtained from the van't Hoff isochore. The values were in the range 3.9-5.2 kJ mol(-1) for the carbons studied. The thermodynamics of the adsorption process are discussed in relation to temperature limitations for hydrogen storage applications. The maximum amounts of hydrogen adsorbed correlated with the micropore volume obtained from extrapolation of the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation for carbon dioxide adsorption. Functional groups have a small detrimental effect on hydrogen adsorption, and this is related to decreased adsorbate-adsorbent and increased adsorbate-adsorbate interactions.

  19. Adsorption of amino acids (ALA, CYS, HIS, MET) on zeolites: fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy investigations.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Cristine E A; de Santana, Henrique; Casado, Clara; Coronas, Joaquin; Zaia, Dimas A M

    2011-06-01

    Minerals adsorb more amino acids with charged R-groups than amino acids with uncharged R-groups. Thus, the peptides that form from the condensation of amino acids on the surface of minerals should be composed of amino acid residues that are more charged than uncharged. However, most of the amino acids (74%) in today's proteins have an uncharged R-group. One mechanism with which to solve this paradox is the use of organophilic minerals such as zeolites. Over the range of pH (pH 2.66-4.50) used in these experiments, the R-group of histidine (His) is positively charged and neutral for alanine (Ala), cysteine (Cys), and methionine (Met). In acidic hydrothermal environments, the pH could be even lower than those used in this study. For the pH range studied, the zeolites were negatively charged, and the overall charge of all amino acids was positive. The conditions used here approximate those of prebiotic Earth. The most important finding of this work is that the relative concentrations of each amino acid (X=His, Met, Cys) to alanine (X/Ala) are close to 1.00. This is an important result with regard to prebiotic chemistry because it could be a solution for the paradox stated above. Pore size did not affect the adsorption of Cys and Met on zeolites, and the Si/Al ratio did not affect the adsorption of Cys, His, and Met. ZSM-5 could be used for the purification of Cys from other amino acids (Student-Newman-Keuls test, p<0.05), and mordenite could be used for separation of amino acids from each other (Student-Newman-Keuls test, p<0.05). As shown by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, Ala interacts with zeolites through the [Formula: see text] group, and methionine-zeolite interactions involve the COO, [Formula: see text], and CH(3) groups. FT-IR spectra show that the interaction between the zeolites and His is weak. Cys showed higher adsorption on all zeolites; however, the hydrophobic Van der Waals interaction between zeolites and Cys is too weak to produce any

  20. Adsorption of Amino Acids (Ala, Cys, His, Met) on Zeolites: Fourier Transform Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro, Cristine E. A.; de Santana, Henrique; Casado, Clara; Coronas, Joaquin; Zaia, Dimas A. M.

    2011-06-01

    Minerals adsorb more amino acids with charged R-groups than amino acids with uncharged R-groups. Thus, the peptides that form from the condensation of amino acids on the surface of minerals should be composed of amino acid residues that are more charged than uncharged. However, most of the amino acids (74%) in today's proteins have an uncharged R-group. One mechanism with which to solve this paradox is the use of organophilic minerals such as zeolites. Over the range of pH (pH 2.66-4.50) used in these experiments, the R-group of histidine (His) is positively charged and neutral for alanine (Ala), cysteine (Cys), and methionine (Met). In acidic hydrothermal environments, the pH could be even lower than those used in this study. For the pH range studied, the zeolites were negatively charged, and the overall charge of all amino acids was positive. The conditions used here approximate those of prebiotic Earth. The most important finding of this work is that the relative concentrations of each amino acid (X=His, Met, Cys) to alanine (X/Ala) are close to 1.00. This is an important result with regard to prebiotic chemistry because it could be a solution for the paradox stated above. Pore size did not affect the adsorption of Cys and Met on zeolites, and the Si/Al ratio did not affect the adsorption of Cys, His, and Met. ZSM-5 could be used for the purification of Cys from other amino acids (Student-Newman-Keuls test, p<0.05), and mordenite could be used for separation of amino acids from each other (Student-Newman-Keuls test, p<0.05). As shown by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, Ala interacts with zeolites through the group, and methionine-zeolite interactions involve the COO, , and CH3 groups. FT-IR spectra show that the interaction between the zeolites and His is weak. Cys showed higher adsorption on all zeolites; however, the hydrophobic Van der Waals interaction between zeolites and Cys is too weak to produce any structural changes in the Cys groups (amine

  1. Evidence for a pore-filling mechanism in the adsorption of aromatic hydrocarbons to a natural wood char.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh H; Cho, Hyun-Hee; Poster, Dianne L; Ball, William P

    2007-02-15

    Sorption isotherms for five aromatic hydrocarbons were obtained with a natural wood char (NC1) and its residue after solvent extraction (ENC1). Substantial isotherm nonlinearity was observed in all cases. ENC1 showed higher BET surface area, higher nitrogen-accessible micropore volume, and lower mass of extractable organic chemicals, including quantifiable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),while the two chars showed identical surface oxygen/ carbon (O/C) ratio. For two chlorinated benzenes that normally condense as liquids at the temperatures used, sorption isotherms with NC1 and ENC1 were found to be statistically identical. For the solid-phase compounds (1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) and two PAHs), sorption was statistically higher with ENC1, thus demonstrating sorption effects due to both (1) authigenic organic content in the sorbentand (2)the sorbate's condensed state. Polanyi-based isotherm modeling, pore size measurements, and comparisons with activated carbon showthe relative importance of adsorptive pore filling and help explain results. With both chars, maximum sorption increased in the order of decreasing molecular diameter: phenanthrene < naphthalene < 1,2-dichlorobenzene/1,2,4-trichlorobenzene < 1,4-DCB. Comparison of 1,4- and 1,2-DCB shows that the critical molecular diameter was apparently more important than the condensed state, suggesting that 1,4-DCB sorbed in the liquid state for ENC1.

  2. Surface properties and adsorption characteristics to methylene blue and iodine of adsorbents from sludge.

    PubMed

    Deng, L Y; Xu, G R; Li, G B

    2010-01-01

    Adsorbent materials created from wastewater sludge have unique surface characteristics and could be effective in adsorption applications. In this research, the sludge-adsorbents were generated by pyrolyzing mixtures of sewage sludge and H(2)SO(4). Scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) were used to analyze the properties of sludge-adsorbent. XPS results show that the adsorbent surface functional groups with high contents of oxygen-containing groups serve as active sites for the adsorption and affect the surface characteristics; the adsorption mechanism of methylene blue (MB) is mainly Brönsted acid-base reaction between the adsorbent surface and MB; and iodine atoms are bonded to the surface of the adsorbent mainly by dispersive interactions rather than by electrostatic interactions. The results also show that H(2)SO(4) level, pyrolysis temperature and sulfuric acid/sludge weight ratio actually affected the adsorption characteristics. Using the conditions (H(2)SO(4) level of 1-18 M, pyrolysis temperature of 650°C, and weight ratio of 0.8), the adsorption capacities for MB and iodine were 74.7-62.3 mg g(-1) and 169.5-209.3 mg g(-1), respectively.

  3. Adsorption and synergism of cellobiohydrolase I and II of Trichoderma reesei during hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Medve, J.; Tjerneld, F. . Dept. of Biochemistry); Staahlberg, J. . Dept. of Molecular Biology)

    1994-11-05

    Hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) by cellobiohydrolase I and II (CBH I and II) from Trichoderma reesei has been studied. Adsorption and synergism of the enzymes were investigated. Experiments were performed at different temperatures and enzyme/substrate ratios using CBH I and CBH II alone and in reconstituted equimolar mixtures. Fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) analysis was found to be an accurate and reproducible method to follow the enzyme adsorption. A linear correlation was found between the conversion and the amount of adsorbed enzyme when Avicel was hydrolyzed by increasing amounts of CBH I and/or CBH II. CBH I had lower specific activity compared to CBH II although, over a wide concentration range, more CBH I was adsorbed than CBH II. Synergism between the cellobiohydrolases during hydrolysis of the amorphous fraction of Avicel showed a maximum as a function of total enzyme concentration. Synergism measured as a function of bound enzyme showed a continuous increase, which indicates that by decreasing the distance between the two enzymes the synergism is enhanced. The adsorption process for both enzymes was slow. Depending on the enzyme/substrate ratio it took 30--90 min to reach 95% of the equilibrium binding. The amount of bound enzyme decreased with increasing temperature. The two enzymes compete for the adsorption sites but also bind to specific sites. Stronger competition for adsorption sites was shown by CBH I.

  4. Isotope microscopy visualization of the adsorption profile of 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin in powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yoshihiko; Sakamoto, Asuka; Nakao, Soichi; Taniguchi, Takuma; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2014-09-16

    Decreasing the particle size of powdered activated carbon may enhance its equilibrium adsorption capacity for small molecules and micropollutants, such as 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin, as well as for macromolecules and natural organic matter. Shell adsorption, in which adsorbates do not completely penetrate the adsorbent but instead preferentially adsorb near the outer surface of the adsorbent, may explain this enhancement in equilibrium adsorption capacity. Here, we used isotope microscopy and deuterium-doped MIB and geosmin to directly visualize the solid-phase adsorbate concentration profiles of MIB and geosmin in carbon particles. The deuterium/hydrogen ratio, which we used as an index of the solid-phase concentration of MIB and geosmin, was higher in the shell region than in the inner region of carbon particles. Solid-phase concentrations of MIB and geosmin obtained from the deuterium/hydrogen ratio roughly agreed with those predicted by shell adsorption model analyses of isotherm data. The direct visualization of the localization of micropollutant adsorbates in activated carbon particles provided direct evidence of shell adsorption.

  5. CO2 adsorption and separation from natural gason phosphorene surface: Combining DFT and GCMC calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yayun; Liu, Chao; Hao, Feng; Xiao, Hang; Zhang, Shiwei; Chen, Xi

    2017-03-01

    We have examined the performance of phosphorene-based material, phosphorene slit pores (PSP), in CO2 adsorption and separation from natural gas by using Density Function Theory (DFT) calculation and Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. First, the adsorption of CH4 and CO2molecules on phosphorene sheet were conducted by DFT study. Then, adsorption performances of natural gas components as well as their binary CO2/CH4 gas mixture were investigated at 300 K with the pressure up to 3.0 MPa. The effects of slit pore width, H, and mole ratio of CO2/CH4in the gas phase on the separation of CO2 from mixtures of CO2/CH4 were also investigated. Our DFT calculation results show that the CO2 moleculehas higher adsorption energy than that of CH4, which implies that it can be easily adsorbed to the phosphorene surface than CH4. Detailed GCMC simulations reveal that the phosphorene slit pore has a high performance in separating CO2fromnature gas and achieves the highest gas selectivity at H = 1.0 nm at pressures lower than 0.1 MPa. Moreover, the selectivity of CO2 overCO2/CH4gas mixture increases with increasing the mole ratio of CO2/CH4due to the enhanced adsorbate-adsorbent interactions for the favorable component. Therefore, it is suggested that the phosphorene is a promising candidate for natural gas purification and possessing practical potential applications in gas adsorption.

  6. Characterization of inorganic carbon-supported microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes by aqueous phenol adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Bialopiotrowicz, T.; Blanpain-Avet, P.; Lalande, M.

    1999-06-01

    The adsorption of phenol on inorganic carbon-supported microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes has been determined. Using the statistical Student`s t-test, it has been shown that phenol adsorption data are well fitted to the Langmuir and BET isotherm equations. It was thus concluded that the adsorption of phenol was monomolecular and that the specific surface area (SSA) calculated from these data was essential. M1 and M2 ultrafiltration membranes were found to have a higher SSA than microfiltration M14 and carbon support membranes. Assuming that a simple model of the porous structure consisted of a packed bed of spherical particles, it was possible to determine an apparent average pore diameter from SSA data using the Carman-Kozeny equation. The SSA determined from phenol adsorption was found to be close to that measured from mercury porosimetry for the microfiltration membrane and carbon support. Such a result is due to the fact that there is a common basis between the Carman-Kozeny equation employed in the adsorption method and the determination of the ratio 4 V/A (V = total porous volume, A = total pore area) in the mercury porosimetry method (as both methods consider a constant volume/surface ratio of the pores along the microporous membrane thickness).

  7. Gas-phase adsorption in dealuminated natural clinoptilolite and liquid-phase adsorption in commercial DAY zeolite and modified ammonium Y zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Hernandez, Alba Nydia

    The adsorption of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is a very important tool for the material characterization. On the other hand, in separation and recovery technology, the adsorption of the CO2 is important to reduce the concentration of this gas considered as one of the greenhouse gases. Natural zeolites, particularly clinoptilolite, are widely applied to eliminate some pollutants from the environment. One of the goals of this research is to study the structure, composition and morphology of one natural clinoptilolite dealuminated with ammonium hexafluorosilicate (AHFi) and with orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4). Each modified sample was characterized using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Carbon Dioxide adsorption at 0° C, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (SEM-EDAX). In addition, the surface chemistry of the modified clinoptilolites was analyzed with Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The adsorption measurements were also used to study of the interaction of CO2 molecule within the adsorption space of these modified clinoptilolites. It was concluded that one of the modified clinoptilolites, (CSW-HFSi-0.1M), showed a great quality as adsorbent and as catalytic comparable to commercial synthetic zeolites. As far as we know, the modification of clinoptilolite with HFSi to improve their adsorption properties had not been previously attempted. In the second part of this dissertation, the dynamic adsorption of three isomers of nitrophenols using as adsorbent a commercial DAY zeolite was investigated. Also, the dynamic adsorption of methanol in a less hydrophobic zeolite, Ammonium Y Zeolite was investigated. The obtained breakthrough curves showed that the commercial DAY zeolite could be a suitable adsorbent to the liquid-phase adsorption of the phenolic compounds. Notwithstanding the modified ammonium Y zeolite had a low Si/Al ratio (less hydrophobic) than commercial DAY zeolite; this

  8. Effect of organic acids on the adsorption of copper, lead, and zinc by goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, L. V.; Pinskiy, D. L.; Violante, A.

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption of Cu, Pb, and Zn by synthetic goethite was studied in the absence and presence of oxalic, citric, and glutamic acids at different pH values. It was shown that, in the absence of an acid, the content of adsorbed metals increased with the increasing pH. The content of adsorbed cations at constant pH values decreased in the sequence: Cu > Pb > Zn. The simultaneous addition of metal cations and organic acids to the goethite suspension increased the content of the adsorbed elements. The oxalic and citric acids had similar effects on the adsorption of copper and lead in the studied pH range. The metal: acid concentration ratios significantly affected the adsorption of the heavy metals by goethite. An increase in the metal adsorption was observed to a certain metal: acid ratio, which was followed by a gradual decrease. The adsorption of the metals by goethite also depended on the properties of the metal cations and the organic ligands. The observed tendencies were attributed to the complexation of heavy metals with organic acid anions and the simultaneous sorption of acids at positively charged sites on the goethite surface with the formation of mineral-organic compounds, which significantly modified the surface properties of the mineral. The study of the effect of increasing lead concentrations in the solution on the copper adsorption by goethite in the absence, in the presence, and at the addition of an oxalic acid solution to the goethite suspension one hour before the beginning of the experiment showed that lead decreased the adsorption of copper in all the treatments. The possible mechanisms of the processes occurring in the system were considered.

  9. Compression ratio effect on methane HCCI combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S. M.; Pitz, W.; Smith, J. R.; Westbrook, C.

    1998-09-29

    We have used the HCT (Hydrodynamics, Chemistry and Transport) chemical kinetics code to simulate HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) combustion of methane-air mixtures. HCT is applied to explore the ignition timing, bum duration, NOx production, gross indicated efficiency and gross IMEP of a supercharged engine (3 atm. Intake pressure) with 14:1, 16:l and 18:1 compression ratios at 1200 rpm. HCT has been modified to incorporate the effect of heat transfer and to calculate the temperature that results from mixing the recycled exhaust with the fresh mixture. This study uses a single control volume reaction zone that varies as a function of crank angle. The ignition process is controlled by adjusting the intake equivalence ratio and the residual gas trapping (RGT). RGT is internal exhaust gas recirculation which recycles both thermal energy and combustion product species. Adjustment of equivalence ratio and RGT is accomplished by varying the timing of the exhaust valve closure in either 2-stroke or 4-stroke engines. Inlet manifold temperature is held constant at 300 K. Results show that, for each compression ratio, there is a range of operational conditions that show promise of achieving the control necessary to vary power output while keeping indicated efficiency above 50% and NOx levels below 100 ppm. HCT results are also compared with a set of recent experimental data for natural gas.

  10. residue and shunting pinholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorji, Nima E.

    2014-09-01

    The present work considers two observable phenomena through the experimental fabrication and electrical characterization of the rf-sputtered CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells that extremely reduce the overall conversion efficiency of the device: CdCl2 residue on the surface of the semiconductor and shunting pinholes. The former happens through nonuniform treatment of the As-deposited solar cells before annealing at high temperature and the latter occurs by shunting pinholes when the cell surface is shunted by defects, wire-like pathways or scratches on the metallic back contact caused from the external contacts. Such physical problems may be quite common in the experimental activities and reduce the performance down to 4-5 % which leads to dismantle the device despite its precise fabrication. We present our electrical characterization on the samples that received wet CdCl2 surface treatment (uniform or nonuniform) and are damaged by the pinholes.

  11. Adsorption of Ba2+ by Ca-exchange clinoptilolite tuff and montmorillonite clay.

    PubMed

    Chávez, M L; de Pablo, L; García, T A

    2010-03-15

    The adsorption of barium by Ca-exchanged clinoptilolite and montmorillonite is presented. The kinetics of adsorption of Ba(2+) were evaluated contacting 1g portion of each adsorber with 100mL 0.1N BaCl(2) for 200 h. Adsorption by Ca-clinoptilolite is defined by second-order kinetics of rate constant K(v) 8.232 x 10(-2) g mg(-1)h(-1) and maximum removal of 71.885 mg g(-1). It is a two-stage process initiated by a rapid uptake of Ba(2+) followed by more moderate kinetics. The adsorption isotherms were determined contacting 0.2g of each adsorber with 10 mL 0.1-0.005N BaCl(2)+CaCl(2) solution, Ba(2+)/Ca(2+) ratio 1, for periods of 7 days for the tuff and 2 days for the clay. The equilibrium adsorption is described by the Langmuir model, of equilibrium constant K 0.0151 L mg(-1) and maximum adsorption of 15.29 mg g(-1). The adsorption of Ba(2+) by Ca-exchanged montmorillonite also follows a second-order reaction of rate constant K(v) 3.179 x 10(-2) g mg(-1)h(-1), and calculated separation of 36.74 mg g(-1); the Langmuir isotherm is defined by the constant K 0.034 L mg(-1) and maximum adsorption of 15.29 mg g(-1). X-ray diffraction shows that the exchange of Ba(2+) modifies the d(001) of Ca-montmorillonite from 15.4 to 12.4A.

  12. Surface structural ion adsorption modeling of competitive binding of oxyanions by metal (hydr)oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1999-02-01

    An important challenge in surface complexation models (SCM) is to connect the molecular microscopic reality to macroscopic adsorption phenomena. This study elucidates the primary factor controlling the adsorption process by analyzing the adsorption and competition of PO{sub 4}, AsO{sub 4}, and SeO{sub 3}. The authors show that the structure of the surface-complex acting in the dominant electrostatic field can be ascertained as the primary controlling adsorption factor. The surface species of arsenate are identical with those of phosphate and the adsorption behavior is very similar. On the basis of the selenite adsorption, The authors show that the commonly used 1pK models are incapable to incorporate in the adsorption modeling the correct bidentate binding mechanism found by spectroscopy. The use of the bidentate mechanism leads to a proton-oxyanion ratio and corresponding pH dependence that are too large. The inappropriate intrinsic charge attribution to the primary surface groups and the condensation of the inner sphere surface complex to a point charge are responsible for this behavior of commonly used 2pK models. Both key factors are differently defined in the charge distributed multi-site complexation (CD-MUSIC) model and are based in this model on a surface structural approach. The CD-MUSIC model can successfully describe the macroscopic adsorption phenomena using the surface speciation and binding mechanisms as found by spectroscopy. The model is also able to predict the anion competition well. The charge distribution in the interface is in agreement with the observed structure of surface complexes.

  13. Adsorption of Clostridium thermocellum cellulases onto pretreated mixed hardwood, avicel, and lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardez, T.D.; Lyford, K.; Hogsett, D.A.; Lynd, L.R. . Thayer School of Engineering)

    1993-09-20

    Adsorption of Avicel-hydrolyzing activity was examined with respect to: mixed hardwood flour pretreated with 1% sulfuric acid for 9 s at 220C (PTW220), lignin prepared from PTW220 by either acid or enzymatic hydrolysis, and Avicel. Experiments were conducted at 60C for all materials, and also at 25C for PTW220. Based on transient adsorption results and reaction rates, times were selected at which to characterize adsorption at 60C as follows: PTW220, 1 min; lignin, 30 min; and Avicel, 45 min. Similar results were obtained for adsorption of cellulase activity to PTW220 at 25 and 60C, and for lignin prepared by enzymatic and acid hydrolysis. For all materials, adsorption was described well by a Langmuir equation, although the reversibility of adsorption was not investigated. Langmuir affinity constants (L/g) were: PTW220, 109; lignin, 17.9; Avicel, 4.3; cellulose from PTW220, [ge]187. Langmuir capacity constants were 760 for PTW220 and 42 for Avicel; the cellulase binding capacity of lignin appeared to be very high under the conditions examined, and could not be determined. At low and moderate cellulase loadings at least, the majority of cellulase activity adsorbed to PTVV220 is bound to the cellulosic component. The results indicate that PTW220, and its cellulose component in particular, differ radically from Avicel with respect to adsorption. Avicel-hydrolyzing activity and CMC-hydrolyzing activities were found to bind to Avicel with a constant ratio of essentially one, consistent with adsorption of a multi-activity complex.

  14. Adsorption of divalent metals to metal oxide nanoparicles: Competitive and temperature effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Valerie Ann

    The presence of metals in natural waters is becoming a critical environmental and public health concern. Emerging nanotechnology and the use of metal oxide nanoparticles has been identified as a potential remediation technique in removing metals from water. However, practical applications are still being explored to determine how to apply their unique chemical and physical properties for full scale remediation projects. This thesis investigates the sorption properties of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) to hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in single- and binary-adsorbate systems. Competitive sorption was evaluated in 1L batch binary-metal systems with 0.05g/L nano-hematite at pH 8.0 and pH 6.0. Results indicate that the presence of a secondary metal can affect the sorption process depending upon the molar ratios, such as increased or reduced adsorption. Thermodynamic properties were also studied in order to better understand the effects of temperature on equilibrium and kinetic adsorption capabilities. Understanding the thermodynamic properties can also give insight to determine if the sorption process is a physical, chemical or ion exchange reaction. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (DeltaH), entropy (DeltaS), and Gibbs free energy (DeltaG) were evaluated as a function of temperature, pH, and metal concentration. Results indicate that Pb(II) and Cu(II) adsorption to nano-hematite was an endothermic and physical adsorption process, while Zn(II) and Cd(II) adsorption was dependent upon the adsorbed concentration evaluated. However, metal adsorptions to nano-titanium dioxide were all found to be endothermic and physical adsorption processes; the spontaneity of metal adsorption was temperature dependent for both metal oxide nanoparticles.

  15. Adsorption of beta blockers to environmental surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kibbey, Tohren C G; Paruchuri, Rajiv; Sabatini, David A; Chen, Lixia

    2007-08-01

    Beta-adrenergic blocking agents (beta blockers) are widely used pharmaceuticals which have been detected in the environment. Predicting the transport and ultimate fate of beta blockers in the environment requires understanding their adsorption to soils and sediments, something for which little information is currently available. The objective of this work was to examine the adsorption of three beta blockers, propranolol, metoprolol and nadolol, to a natural alluvial material, as well as to six minerals present as components of the alluvial material. Batch adsorption experiments indicate that, for most of the minerals studied, compound hydrophobicity is an important predictor of adsorption, with propranolol,the most hydrophobic compound studied, adsorbing to the greatest extent. Results further suggest that, for the minerals studied, electrostatic effects are not a good predictor of adsorption; adsorption extent was not well-predicted by either surface zeta potential or by the difference between experiment pH and point of zero charge, despite the cationic nature af the three beta blockers at experiment pH values. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), on adsorption. Results indicate that SDBS significantly increases the adsorption of propranolol to two different sorbents. This result is potentially important because surfactants such as SDBS are likely to be present in wastewater effluents with beta blockers and could influence their mobility in the environment.

  16. Polychelated cryogels: hemoglobin adsorption from human blood.

    PubMed

    Erol, Kadir

    2017-02-01

    The separation and purification methods are extremely important for the hemoglobin (Hb) which is a crucial biomolecule. The adsorption technique is popular among these methods and the cryogels have been used quite much due to their macropores and interconnected flow channels. In this study, the Hb adsorption onto the Cu(II) immobilized poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-glycidyl methacrylate), poly(HEMA-GMA)-Cu(II), cryogels was investigated under different conditions (pH, interaction time, initial Hb concentration, temperature and ionic strength) to optimize adsorption conditions. The swelling test, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), surface area (BET), elemental and ICP-OES analysis were performed for the characterization of cryogels. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) molecule was used as a Cu(II)-chelating ligand. The Hb adsorption capacity of cryogels was determined as 193.8 mg Hb/g cryogel. The isolation of Hb from human blood was also studied under optimum adsorption conditions determined and the Hb (124.5 mg/g cryogel) was isolated. The adsorption model was investigated in the light of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models and it was determined to be more appropriate to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model.

  17. Arsenate adsorption by unsaturated alluvial sediments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arsenate adsorption as a function of solution arsenic concentration and solution pH was investigated on five alluvial sediments from the Antelope Valley, Western Mojave Desert, California. Arsenate adsorption increased with increasing solution pH, exhibited a maximum around pH 4 to 5, and then decr...

  18. Ion Exchange and Adsorption of Inorganic Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the first part of the chapter, the fundamentals of ion exchange and adsorption processes are explained, with the goal of demonstrating how these principles influence process design for inorganic contaminant removal. In the second part, ion exchange and adsorption processes th...

  19. Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica for uranium adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Guo; Yurun, Feng; Li, Ma; Dezhi, Gao; Jie, Jing; Jincheng, Yu; Haibin, Sun; Hongyu, Gong; Yujun, Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica (TBP-SBA-15) was synthesized by modified mesoporous silica with γ-amino propyl triethoxy silane and tributyl phosphate. The obtained samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXRD), thermo-gravimetric/differential thermalanalyzer (TG/DTA), N2 adsorption-desorption (BET) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. Results showed that TBP-SBA-15 had large surface areas with ordered channel structure. Moreover, the effects of adsorption time, sorbent dose, solution pH, initial uranium concentration and temperature on the uranium adsorption behaviors were investigated. TBP-SBA-15 showed a high uranium adsorption capacity in a broad range of pH values. The U(VI) adsorption rate of TBP-SBA-15 was fast and nearly achieved completion in 10 min with the sorbent dose of 1 g/L. The U(VI) adsorption of TBP-SBA-15 followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model, indicating that the process was belonged to chemical adsorption. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG0, ΔH0 and ΔS0) confirmed that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous.

  20. High-Ratio Gear Train

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefever, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed arrangement of two connected planetary differentials results in gear ratio many times that obtainable in conventional series gear assembly of comparable size. Ratios of several thousand would present no special problems. Selection of many different ratios is available with substantially similar gear diameters. Very high gear ratios would be obtained from small mechanism.

  1. How Surface Heterogeneity Affects Protein Adsorption: Annealing of OTS Patterns and Albumin Adsorption Kinetics*

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkinson, Gerald N.; Hlady, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy and intensity histogram analysis techniques were used to monitor spatially-resolved albumin adsorption kinetics to model heterogeneous surfaces on sub-μm scales. Several distinct protein subpopulations were resolved, each represented by a normal distribution of adsorption densities on the adsorbent surface. Histogram analyses provided dynamic information of mean adsorption density, spread in adsorption density, and surface area coverage for each distinct protein subpopulation. A simple adsorption model is proposed in which individual protein binding events are predicted by the summation of multiple protein's surface sub-site interactions with different binding energy sub-sites on adsorbent surfaces. This model is predictive of the albumin adsorption on the patterns produced by one step μ-contact printing (μCP) of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) on glass but fails to describe adsorption once the same patterns are altered by a thermal annealing step. PMID:19746205

  2. Adsorption and desorption of reversible supramolecular polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweistra, Henk J. A.; Besseling, N. A. M.

    2006-08-01

    We report numerical mean-field results on the quasichemical level of approximation that describe adsorption of reversible supramolecular polymers at a flat interface. Emphasis is laid on the regime of strong adsorption from a dilute solution. There are two differences with respect to macromolecular polymer adsorption: (i) adsorption sets in at relatively high monomer concentrations of the surrounding solution, and (ii) the surface is filled within a much narrower concentration range. Contrary to macromolecular polymers, supramolecular polymers can therefore be desorbed by dilution of the equilibrium solution by solvent within an experimentally accessible concentration window. Based on simple thermodynamic arguments, we provide a quantitative explanation why supramolecular polymers adsorb at relatively high concentrations. Moreover, we discuss the (by comparison) narrow concentration window wherein filling of the surface occurs. This is attributed to the cooperative nature of supramolecular polymer adsorption. The degree of cooperativity is quantified by means of the Hill parameter n .

  3. Adsorption of xenon and krypton on shales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podosek, F. A.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Kramer, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    A method that uses a mass spectrometer as a manometer is employed in the measurement of Xe and Kr adsorption parameters on shales and related samples, where gas partial pressures were lower than 10 to the -11th atm, corresponding adsorption coverages are only small fractions of a monolayer, and Henry's Law behavior is expected and observed. Results show heats of adsorption in the 2-7 kcal/mol range, and Henry constants at 0-25 C of 1 cu cm STP/g per atmosphere are extrapolated. Although the adsorption properties obtained are variable by sample, the range obtained suggests that shales may be capable of an equilibrium adsorption with modern air high enough to account for a significant fraction of the atmospheric inventory of Xe, and perhaps even of Kr. This effect will nevertheless not account for the factor-of-25 defficiency of atmospheric Xe, in comparison with the planetary gas patterns observed in meteorites.

  4. Adsorption of heavy metals onto iron minerals in the presence of organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, L. V.; Perelomova, I. V.; Levkin, N. D.; Violante, A.

    2009-04-01

    Adsorption of Cu, Pb and Zn in the ternary model systems, consisting of iron (goethite or ferrihydrite) minerals, solution of the metal and low-molecular organic acid (oxalic, citric or glutamine) was studied as function of organic ligands concentrations and pH. The experiments were carried out at constant pH values ranging from 3 to 7 and acid/metal (or metals) molar ratios of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 10. At pH 4.5-5.0 the sorption isotherms of these heavy metals fitted the Langmuir equation (L-type). The order of decreasing relative affinities of metals without organic acids was Cu>Pb>Zn for goethite and Pb > Cu > Zn for ferrihydrite. The pH50 (the pH value at which 50% of the total sorption of the elements has occurred) was 4.90 and 5.90 for cupper and 5.20 and 4.40 for lead on goethite and ferrihydrite respectively. At pH 4.5 in the presence of oxalic acid an adsorption of Cu on the surfaces of goethite increased by increasing oxalate/metal molar ratio up to 4 and then slowly decreased. Vice versa, adsorption of Pb on the mineral increased up to an oxalate/Pb molar ratio of 6 and then slightly decreased by further increasing oxalate concentration. So, at these ratios the pH50 for Cu shifted to 3,9 and for Pb decreased to 4.8. Adsorption of lead by ferrihydrite increased up to molar ratio 6/1 and then was practically constant that may be attributed to the large surface area of this oxide. The effect of oxalic and citric acids on the adsorption of cupper and lead (ratio metal/acid 1/1) at all studied pH values was similar. There was same character of effect of citric acid increasing concentration on adsorption of Cu and Pb by goethite; however amount of adsorbed Pb in the presence of citric acid from the ratio acid/metal 4/1 was increased sufficiently. We have demonstrated that in the absence of organic acids the adsorption of each trace element was reduced by the presence of increasing concentrations of the other metal. However, at the studied low metals concentrations

  5. Materials recovery from shredder residues

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, E. J.; Jody, B. J.; Pomykala, J., Jr.

    2000-07-24

    Each year, about five (5) million ton of shredder residues are landfilled in the US. Similar quantities are landfilled in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Landfilling of these residues results in a cost to the existing recycling industry and also represents a loss of material resources that are otherwise recyclable. In this paper, the authors outline the resources recoverable from typical shredder residues and describe technology that they have developed to recover these resources.

  6. Compositions and sorptive properties of crop residue-derived chars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chun, Y.; Sheng, G.; Chiou, G.T.; Xing, B.

    2004-01-01

    Chars originating from the burning or pyrolysis of vegetation may significantly sorb neutral organic contaminants (NOCs). To evaluate the relationship between the char composition and NOC sorption, a series of char samples were generated by pyrolyzing a wheat residue (Triticum aestivum L) for 6 h at temperatures between 300 ??C and 700 ??C and analyzed for their elemental compositions, surface areas, and surface functional groups. The samples were then studied for their abilities to sorb benzene and nitrobenzene from water. A commercial activated carbon was used as a reference carbonaceous sample. The char samples produced at high pyrolytic temperatures (500-700 ??C) were well carbonized and exhibited a relatively high surface area (>300 m2/g), little organic matter (20% oxygen). The char samples exhibited a significant range of surface acidity/basicity because of their different surface polar-group contents, as characterized by the Boehm titration data and the NMR and FTIR spectra. The NOC sorption by high-temperature chars occurred almost exclusively by surface adsorption on carbonized surfaces, whereas the sorption by low-temperature chars resulted from the surface adsorption and the concurrent smaller partition into the residual organic-matter phase. The chars appeared to have a higher surface affinity for a polar solute (nitrobenzene) than for a nonpolar solute (benzene), the difference being related to the surface acidity/basicity of the char samples.

  7. Neptunium(V) Adsorption to Bacteria at Low and High Ionic Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ams, D.; Swanson, J. S.; Reed, D. T.

    2010-12-01

    Np(V) is expected to be the predominant oxidation state of neptunium in aerobic natural waters. Np(V), as the NpO2+ aquo and associated complexed species, is readily soluble, interacts weakly with geologic media, and has a high redox stability under a relatively wide range of subsurface conditions. These chemical properties, along with a long half-life make it a primary element of concern regarding long-term nuclear waste storage and subsurface containment. The fate and transport of neptunium in the environment may be influenced by adsorption onto bacterial surfaces. The adsorption of neptunium to bacterial surfaces ties the mobility of the contaminant to the mobility of the bacterium. In this study, the adsorption of the neptunyl (NpO2+) ion was evaluated at low ionic strength on a common soil bacterium and at high ionic strength on a halophilic bacterium isolated from a briny groundwater near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico. Adsorption experiments were performed in batch reactors as a function of pH, ionic strength, and bacteria/Np mass ratio. Np(V) adsorption was modeled using a surface complexation approach with the mathematical program FITEQL to determine functional group specific binding constants. The data from acid and base titrations of the bacteria used were also modeled to estimate the concentrations and deprotonation constants of discrete bacterial surface functional groups. Bacterial functional group characteristics and Np(V) adsorption behavior between the soil bacterium and the halophilic bacterium were compared. These results highlight key similarities and differences in actinide adsorption behavior in environments of significantly different ionic strength. The observed adsorption behavior may be linked to similarities and differences in the characteristics of the moieties between the cell walls of common gram-negative soil and halophilic bacteria. Moreover, differences in adsorption behavior may also reflect ionic

  8. Neptunium(V) adsorption to bacteria at low and high ionic strength

    SciTech Connect

    Ams, David A; Swanson, Juliet S; Reed, Donald T; Fein, Jeremy B

    2010-12-08

    Np(V) is expected to be the predominant oxidation state of neptunium in aerobic natural waters. Np(V), as the NpO{sub 2}{sup +} aquo and associated complexed species, is readily soluble, weakly interacting with geologic media, and has a high redox stability under a relatively wide range of subsurface conditions. These chemical properties, along with a long half-life make it a primary element of concern regarding long-term nuclear waste storage and subsurface contaminant. The fate and transport of neptunium in the environment may be influenced by adsorption onto bacterial surfaces. The adsorption of neptunium to bacterial surfaces ties the mobility of the contaminant to the mobility of the bacterium. In this study, the adsorption of the neptunyl (NpO{sub 2}{sup +}) ion was evaluated at low ionic strength on a common soil bacterium and at high ionic strength on a halophilic bacterium isolated from a briny groundwater near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico. Adsorption experiments were performed in batch reactors as a function of pH, ionic strength, and bacterialNp mass ratio. Np(V) adsorption was modeled using a surface complexation approach with the mathematical program FITEQL to determine functional group specific binding constants. The data from acid and base titrations of the bacteria were also modeled to estimate the concentrations and deprotonation constants of discrete bacterial surface functional groups. Bacterial functional group characteristics and Np(V) adsorption behavior between the soil bacterium and the halophilic bacterium were compared. These results highlight the key similarities and differences in actinide adsorption behavior in environments of significantly different ionic strength. Similarities in adsorption behavior may be linked to similarities in the characteristics of the moieties between all bacterial cell walls. Differences in adsorption behavior may reflect differences in ionic strength effects, rather than

  9. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2005-04-30

    The aim of this project is to delineate the role of mineralogy of reservoir rocks in determining interactions between reservoir minerals and externally added reagents (surfactants/polymers) and its effect on critical solid-liquid and liquid-liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension in systems relevant to reservoir conditions. Previous studies have suggested that significant surfactant loss by precipitation or adsorption on reservoir minerals can cause chemical schemes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. Both macroscopic adsorption, wettability and microscopic orientation and conformation studies for various surfactant/polymer mixtures/reservoir rocks systems were conducted to explore the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this period, the adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) has been studied. The effects of solution pH, surfactant mixing ratio and different salts on surfactant adsorption on alumina have been investigated in detail. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption of the mixtures were determined under relevant conditions to identify the nano-structure of the adsorbed layers. Solution properties of C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na/DM mixtures were also studied to identify surfactant interactions that affect the mixed aggregate formation in solution. Adsorption of SDS on gypsum and limestone suggested stronger surfactant/mineral interaction than on alumina, due to the precipitation of surfactant by dissolved calcium ions. The effects of different salts such as sodium nitrate, sodium sulfite and sodium chloride on DM adsorption on alumina have also been determined. As surfactant hemimicelles at interface and micelles in solution have drastic effects on oil recovery processes, their microstructures in

  10. Microwave emission and crop residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; O'Neill, Peggy E.

    1991-01-01

    A series of controlled experiments were conducted to determine the significance of crop residues or stubble in estimating the emission of the underlying soil. Observations using truck-mounted L and C band passive microwave radiometers showed that for dry wheat and soybeans the dry residue caused negligible attenuation of the background emission. Green residues, with water contents typical of standing crops, did have a significant effect on the background emission. Results for these green residues also indicated that extremes in plant structure, as created using parallel and perpendicular stalk orientations, can cause very large differences in the degree of attenuation.

  11. Comments on D/H ratios in chondritic organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. W.; Rigby, D.

    1981-06-01

    D/H ratios in chondritic organic matter are investigated. Demineralized organic residues obtained from previous experiments were dried in a quartz reaction vessel under vacuum for 60 minutes at 250-300 C and then combusted in oxygen for 20 minutes at 850 C. The apparatus is described and the results of the experiments such as D/H ratios in water and measurements on total carbon dioxide are given. Atomic H/C ratios calculated directly from the quantities of carbon dioxide and water recovered, are reported according to Standard Mean Ocean Water and Pee Dee Belemnite, using the customary notation.

  12. Rediscovering the Schulze-Hardy Rule in Competitive Adsorption to an Air-Water Interface

    PubMed Central

    Stenger, Patrick C.; Isbell, Stephen G.; Hillaire, Debra St.; Zasadzinski, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    The ratio of divalent to monovalent ion concentration necessary to displace the surface-active protein, albumin, by lung surfactant monolayers and multilayers at an air-water interface scales as 2−6, the same concentration dependence as the critical flocculation concentration (CFC) for colloids with a high surface potential. Confirming this analogy between competitive adsorption and colloid stability, polymer-induced depletion attraction and electrostatic potentials are additive in their effects; the range of the depletion attraction, twice the polymer radius of gyration, must be greater than the Debye length to have an effect on adsorption. PMID:19705897

  13. Characterizing the adsorption of peptides to TiO2 in aqueous solutions by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gertler, Golan; Fleminger, Gideon; Rapaport, Hanna

    2010-05-04

    The interactions between titanium oxide (TiO(2)) and flexible peptides, decorated by amine, carboxyl, and phosphoserine functional groups, were characterized using analytical liquid chromatography with various loading and eluting solutions. This approach enabled discernment of the type of intermolecular interactions generated between the peptides and the metal oxide surfaces in addition to unraveling more subtle effects, specific ions, and oxide phase may have on the adsorption. The peptide presenting Lys residues adsorbed to the oxide surface in the presence of Tris buffer and eluted under conditions that indicated its binding via electrostatic interactions at physiological pH values. Upon adsorption to the oxide in the presence of phosphate buffer, the same peptide exhibited stronger electrostatic interactions with the surface, mediated by the buffer phosphate ions. In Tris-buffered saline (TBS), pH 7.4, as the adsorption medium, the peptide with the phosphoserine residues exhibited affinity indicative of coordinative binding to the titanium oxide, whereas a similar peptide decorated by carboxylate groups failed to adsorb. On the basis of differences in the interactions of these peptides with the TiO(2), the efficient separation of the two peptides was demonstrated. A basic amphiphilic peptide, composed mostly of Lys and Leu residues, was found to strongly adsorb to TiO(2) while in helical conformation only, demonstrating the strong impact the secondary structure may have on adsorption to the surface. The methodology presented in this study allows the elucidation of in situ binding mechanism and relative strengths to titanium oxide surfaces at conditions which resemble biologically relevant environments.

  14. Predictive hydrogeochemical modelling of bauxite residue sand in field conditions.

    PubMed

    Wissmeier, Laurin; Barry, David A; Phillips, Ian R

    2011-07-15

    The suitability of residue sand (the coarse fraction remaining from Bayer's process of bauxite refining) for constructing the surface cover of closed bauxite residue storage areas was investigated. Specifically, its properties as a medium for plant growth are of interest to ensure residue sand can support a sustainable ecosystem following site closure. The geochemical evolution of the residue sand under field conditions, its plant nutrient status and soil moisture retention were studied by integrated modelling of geochemical and hydrological processes. For the parameterization of mineral reactions, amounts and reaction kinetics of the mineral phases natron, calcite, tricalcium aluminate, sodalite, muscovite and analcime were derived from measured acid neutralization curves. The effective exchange capacity for ion adsorption was measured using three independent exchange methods. The geochemical model, which accounts for mineral reactions, cation exchange and activity corrected solution speciation, was formulated in the geochemical modelling framework PHREEQC, and partially validated in a saturated-flow column experiment. For the integration of variably saturated flow with multi-component solute transport in heterogeneous 2D domains, a coupling of PHREEQC with the multi-purpose finite-element solver COMSOL was established. The integrated hydrogeochemical model was applied to predict water availability and quality in a vertical flow lysimeter and a cover design for a storage facility using measured time series of rainfall and evaporation from southwest Western Australia. In both scenarios the sand was fertigated and gypsum-amended. Results show poor long-term retention of fertilizer ions and buffering of the pH around 10 for more than 5 y of leaching. It was concluded that fertigation, gypsum amendment and rainfall leaching alone were insufficient to render the geochemical conditions of residue sand suitable for optimal plant growth within the given timeframe. The

  15. Temperature Swing Adsorption Compressor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, John E.; Mulloth, Lila M.; Affleck, Dave L.

    2001-01-01

    Closing the oxygen loop in an air revitalization system based on four-bed molecular sieve and Sabatier reactor technology requires a vacuum pump-compressor that can take the low-pressure CO, from the 4BMS and compress and store for use by a Sabatier reactor. NASA Ames Research Center proposed a solid-state temperature-swing adsorption (TSA) compressor that appears to meet performance requirements, be quiet and reliable, and consume less power than a comparable mechanical compressor/accumulator combination. Under this task, TSA compressor technology is being advanced through development of a complete prototype system. A liquid-cooled TSA compressor has been partially tested, and the rest of the system is being fabricated. An air-cooled TSA compressor is also being designed.

  16. Adsorption and desorption of arsenate on sandy sediments from contaminated and uncontaminated saturated zones: Kinetic and equilibrium modeling.

    PubMed

    Hafeznezami, Saeedreza; Zimmer-Faust, Amity G; Dunne, Aislinn; Tran, Tiffany; Yang, Chao; Lam, Jacquelyn R; Reynolds, Matthew D; Davis, James A; Jay, Jennifer A

    2016-08-01

    Application of empirical models to adsorption of contaminants on natural heterogeneous sorbents is often challenging due to the uncertainty associated with fitting experimental data and determining adjustable parameters. Sediment samples from contaminated and uncontaminated portions of a study site in Maine, USA were collected and investigated for adsorption of arsenate [As(V)]. Two kinetic models were used to describe the results of single solute batch adsorption experiments. Piecewise linear regression of data linearized to fit pseudo-first order kinetic model resulted in two distinct rates and a cutoff time point of 14-19 h delineating the biphasic behavior of solute adsorption. During the initial rapid adsorption stage, an average of 60-80% of the total adsorption took place. Pseudo-second order kinetic models provided the best fit to the experimental data (R(2) > 0.99) and were capable of describing the adsorption over the entire range of experiments. Both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms provided reasonable fits to the adsorption data at equilibrium. Langmuir-derived maximum adsorption capacity (St) of the studied sediments ranged between 29 and 97 mg/kg increasing from contaminated to uncontaminated sites. Solid phase As content of the sediments ranged from 3.8 to 10 mg/kg and the As/Fe ratios were highest in the amorphous phase. High-pH desorption experiments resulted in a greater percentage of solid phase As released into solution from experimentally-loaded sediments than from the unaltered samples suggesting that As(V) adsorption takes place on different reversible and irreversible surface sites.

  17. Predicting Adsorption in Natural Systems: Are We There Yet? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koretsky, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    Anthropogenic release of potentially toxic contaminants into near surface environmental systems has led to a pressing need for quantitative models that can accurately predict contaminant speciation under a variety of chemical conditions. Adsorption of solutes can play an important role in determining contaminant speciation, mobility and bioavailability. Thermodynamically-based surface complexation models (SCMs) offer an attractive, theoretically-sound option for describing such reactions. Unlike many empirical models used to describe adsorption, SCMs explicitly include reaction stoichiometries and typically also account for the presence of electrical double layers on sorbent surfaces. In theory, SCMs should be able to correctly describe changes in solute adsorption as a result of variations in pH, electrolyte composition, ionic strength, sorbate/sorbent ratios and in the presence of competing sorbates and sorbents or other chemical reactions (e.g. aqueous complexation, precipitation, dissolution). In spite of these advantageous features of the SCM approach, significant challenges remain in applying such models to natural sediments and soils. These include a lack of: (1) consistent thermodynamic data for a large suite of geologically-relevant sorbates and sorbents, (2) robust thermodynamic data derived using a broad range of solution conditions, (3) data describing solid-solid interactions, and (4) information regarding the role of natural organic matter in promoting or inhibiting adsorption. Difficulties also remain with respect to characterization of complex natural sediments and soils, including straightforward and accurate methods to assess constituent composition, surface areas of solids, solute flow paths and solute residence times. In spite of such challenges, recent work suggests that developing accurate predictive models of adsorption in natural systems is a reasonable and achievable goal. To do so, more thorough, internally-consistent thermodynamic

  18. Ratio of Fungi:Bacteria as an indicator of change in soil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The removal of corn residue from cropland is of interest for ethanol production. To fully understand the implications of this residue removal on soil quality multi-discipline research is required, including microbiological investigation. This study measured the ratio of fungi to bacteria in soils ...

  19. Adsorption of water vapor by poly(styrenesulfonic acid), sodium salt: isothermal and isobaric adsorption equilibria.

    PubMed

    Toribio, F; Bellat, J P; Nguyen, P H; Dupont, M

    2004-12-15

    Air conditioning and dehumidifying systems based on sorption on solids are of great interest, especially in humid climates, because they allow reduction of thermal loads and use of chlorofluorocarbons. Previous studies have shown that hydrophilic polymers such as sulfonic polymers can have very high performance in water adsorption from air. The aim of this study was to characterize the water vapor adsorption properties of fully sulfonated and monosulfonated poly(styrenesulfonic acid), sodium salt, and to elucidate the mechanism of adsorption on these materials. Adsorption isotherms have been determined by TGA between 298 and 317 K for pressures ranging from 0.1 to 45 hPa. They have type II of the IUPAC classification and a small hysteresis loop between adsorption and desorption processes was observed only for the monosulfonated sample. Water content is up to 80% weight at 80% relative humidity. Adsorption isotherms have been well fitted with the FHH model. Adsorption-desorption isobars have been determined by TGA under 37 hPa in the temperature range 298-373 K. They show that these polymers can be completely regenerated by heating at 313 K under humidified air. No degradation of the adsorption properties has been observed after several regenerations. Adsorption enthalpies and entropies have been deduced from the Clapeyron equation and from DSC measurements. A good agreement was found. A mechanism of adsorption is proposed considering two kinds of adsorbate: bounded water in electrostatic interaction with functional groups and free water resulting from condensation.

  20. Residual stresses in cross-ply composite tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, D.; Hyer, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    The residual thermal stresses in 4-layer cross-ply tubes are studied. The tubes considered has a small radius to wall-thickness ratios and so elasticity solutions were used. The residual thermal stress problem was considered to be axisymmetric and three elasticity solutions were derived and the results compared with the results using classical lamination theory. The comparison illustrates the limitations of classical lamination theory. The three elasticity solutions derived were: plane stress, plane strain, and generalized plane strain, the latter being the most realistic. Residual stresses in both the hoop and axial direction is significant. Stacking arrangement effects the residual stress to some extent, as do the material properties of the individual lamina. The benefits of hybrid construction are briefly discussed.

  1. Enhanced adsorption of puerarin onto a novel hydrophilic and polar modified post-crosslinked resin from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaowei; Chen, Hongbo; Zheng, Yi; Tao, Wei; Fan, Yunge; Huang, Laiqiang; Mei, Lin

    2012-11-01

    A novel of hydrophilic and polar N-vinylpyrrolidone modified post-crosslinked resin was synthesized and the adsorption behaviors toward puerarin from aqueous solution were investigated. The post-crosslinked adsorbent PNVP-DVBpc was prepared by Friedel-Crafts reaction of residual double bonds without external crosslinking agent. The specific surface area of precursor PNVP-DVB increased obviously after post-crosslinking modification. The synthesized adsorbents were characterized by BET surface area, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption behaviors of puerarin from aqueous solution onto precursor PNVP-DVB and post-crosslinked adsorbent PNVP-DVBpc were thoroughly researched. Commercial polymeric adsorbents Amberlite XAD-4 and AB-8 were chosen as the comparison. Among the four media, PNVP-DVBpc presented the largest adsorption capacity of puerarin, which resulted from the synergistic effect of high specific surface area and polar groups (amide groups) onto the adsorbent matrix. Experimental results showed that equilibrium isotherms could be fitted by Freundlich model and the kinetic data could be characterized by pseudo-second order model reasonably. Column adsorption experiments indicated that the puerarin could be completely desorbed by 4.0 BV industrial alcohol. Continuous column adsorption-regeneration cycles demonstrated the PNVP-DVBpc without any significant adsorption capacity loss during operation.

  2. [Coagulation and adsorption on treating the Yellow River and the impact on chlorine decay during chlorination process].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiao; Gao, Bao-yu; Liu, Bin; Xu, Chun-hua; Yue, Qin-yan

    2010-05-01

    Two types of inorganic polymer coagulants, polyferric chloride (PFC) and polyaluminum chloride (PAC), were chosen to treat the Yellow River water. Different dosages were investigated in order to investigate the turbidity, UV24, DOC and permanganate index removal efficiency and their coagulation mechanisms based on the Zeta potentials. The natural organic matter removal by the combination of coagulation and adsorption with powder activated carbon were analyzed based on different coagulant and adsorbent dosages and dosing orders. The effects of combination of coagulation and adsorption on the residual chlorine decay were analyzed. The results showed that the two coagulants had high turbidity removal efficiency ( > 90%). The UV254, DOC, permanganate index removal efficiency were 29.2%, 26.1% and 27.9% respectively for PAC coagulation and were 32.3%, 23.3% and 32.9% respectively for PFC. Electric neutralization played an important role in the PAC coagulation process while both adsorption bridging and electric neutralization performed when PFC was used. The removal percentage of organic matter increased with the increase coagulant and adsorbent. The adsorption after coagulation process gave the better UV254 and DOC removal efficiency than the coagulation after adsorption. The UV254 and DOC removal efficiency were 95.2% and 99.9% for PAC coagulation after adsorption and were 90.1% and 99.9% for PFC coagulation first. But adding powder activated carbon can improve floc settlement performance and maintained persistent disinfection effect.

  3. Arsenic Adsorption Equilibrium Concentration and Adsorption Rate of Activated Carbon Coated with Ferric-Aluminum Hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Oguma, T.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2015-12-01

    In some areas of developing countries, ground or well water contaminated with arsenic has been reluctantly used as drinking water. It is highly desirable that effective and inexpensive arsenic removal agents should be developed and provided to reduce the potential health risk. Previous studies demonstrated that activated carbon coated with ferric-aluminum hydroxides (Fe-Al-C) has high adsorptive potential for removal of arsenic. In this study, a series of experiments using Fe-Al-C were carried to discuss adsorption equilibrium time, adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorption rate of arsenic for Fe-Al-C. Fe-Al-C used in this study was provided by Astec Co., Ltd. Powder reagent of disodium hydrogen arsenate heptahydrate was dissolved into ion-exchanged water. The solution was then further diluted with ion-exchanged water to be 1 and 10 mg/L as arsenic concentration. The pH of the solution was adjusted to be around 7 by adding HCl and/or NaOH. The solution was used as artificial arsenic contaminated water in two types of experiments (arsenic adsorption equilibrium and arsenic adsorption rate tests). The results of the arsenic equilibrium tests were showed that a time period of about 3 days to reach apparent adsorption equilibrium for arsenic. The apparent adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorbed amount of arsenic on Fe-Al-C adsorbent could be estimated by application of various adsorption isotherms, but the distribution coefficient of arsenic between solid and liquid varies with experimental conditions such as initial concentration of arsenic and addition concentration of adsorbent. An adsorption rate equation that takes into account the reduction in the number of effective adsorption sites on the adsorbent caused by the arsenic adsorption reaction was derived based on the data obtained from the arsenic adsorption rate tests.

  4. The Relationship Between Pharyngeal Constriction and Post-swallow Residue.

    PubMed

    Stokely, Shauna L; Peladeau-Pigeon, Melanie; Leigh, Chelsea; Molfenter, Sonja M; Steele, Catriona M

    2015-06-01

    Pharyngeal constriction has been proposed as a parameter that may distinguish functional from impaired swallows. We employed anatomically normalized pixel-based measures of pharyngeal area at maximum constriction, and the ratio of this measure to area at rest, and explored the association between these measures and post-swallow residue using the normalized residue ratio scale (NRRS). Videofluoroscopy data for 5 ml boluses of 22 % (w/v) liquid barium were analyzed from 20 healthy young adults and 40 patients with suspected neurogenic dysphagia. The frames of maximum pharyngeal constriction and post-swallow hyoid rest were extracted. Pixel-based measures of pharyngeal area were made using ImageJ and size-normalized using the squared C2-C4 vertebral distance as a reference scalar. Post-swallow residue and the areas of the vallecular and pyriform sinus spaces were measured on the hyoid rest frame to calculate the NRRSv and NRRSp. The dataset was divided into swallows with residue within or exceeding the upper confidence interval boundary seen in the healthy participants. Mixed model repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare pharyngeal area (rest, constriction) and the pharyngeal constriction ratio, between individuals with and without residue. Measures of pharyngeal area at maximum constriction were significantly larger (i.e., less constricted, p = 0.000) in individuals with post-swallow residue in either the valleculae or the pyriform sinus. These results support the idea that interventions targeted toward improving pharyngeal constriction have the potential to be effective in reducing post-swallow residue.

  5. Vanadium removal and recovery from bauxite residue leachates by ion exchange.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Helena I; Jones, Ashley; Rogerson, Mike; Burke, Ian T; Mayes, William M

    2016-11-01

    Bauxite residue is an important by-product of the alumina industry, and current management practices do not allow their full valorisation, especially with regard to the recovery of critical metals. This work aims to test the efficiency of ion exchange resins for vanadium (V) removal and recovery from bauxite residue leachates at alkaline pH (11.5 and 13). As an environmental pollutant, removal of V from leachates may be an obligation of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDA) long-term management requirements. Vanadium removal from the leachate can be coupled with the recovery, and potentially can be used to offset long-term legacy treatment costs in legacy sites. Kinetics studies were performed to understand the adsorption process. The rate kinetics for the V adsorption was consistent with the pseudo-first-order kinetic model, with a higher adsorption rate for pH 11.5 (1.2 min(-1)). Adsorption isotherm data fitted better to Freundlich equations than to the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity (Langmuir value q max) was greatest for pH 13 (9.8 mg V g(-1) resin). In column tests, breakthrough was reached at 70 bed volumes with the red mud leachate at pH 13, while no breakthrough was achieved with the effluent at pH 11.5. In regeneration, 42 and 76 % of V were eluted from the resin with 2 M NaOH from the red mud leachate at pH 13 and 11.5, respectively. Further optimization will be needed to upscale the treatment.

  6. Monte Carlo simulations of Protein Adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sumit; Kumar, Sanat K.; Belfort, Georges

    2008-03-01

    Amyloidogenic diseases, such as, Alzheimer's are caused by adsorption and aggregation of partially unfolded proteins. Adsorption of proteins is a concern in design of biomedical devices, such as dialysis membranes. Protein adsorption is often accompanied by conformational rearrangements in protein molecules. Such conformational rearrangements are thought to affect many properties of adsorbed protein molecules such as their adhesion strength to the surface, biological activity, and aggregation tendency. It has been experimentally shown that many naturally occurring proteins, upon adsorption to hydrophobic surfaces, undergo a helix to sheet or random coil secondary structural rearrangement. However, to better understand the equilibrium structural complexities of this phenomenon, we have performed Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of adsorption of a four helix bundle, modeled as a lattice protein, and studied the adsorption behavior and equilibrium protein conformations at different temperatures and degrees of surface hydrophobicity. To study the free energy and entropic effects on adsorption, Canonical ensemble MC simulations have been combined with Weighted Histogram Analysis Method(WHAM). Conformational transitions of proteins on surfaces will be discussed as a function of surface hydrophobicity and compared to analogous bulk transitions.

  7. Functionalized SBA-15 materials for bilirubin adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tao; Zhao, Yanling; Xu, Yao; Wu, Dong; Xu, Jun; Deng, Feng

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the driving force for bilirubin adsorption on mesoporous materials, a comparative study was carried out between pure siliceous SBA-15 and three functionalized SBA-15 mesoporous materials: CH 3-SBA-15 (MS), NH 2-SBA-15 (AS), and CH 3/NH 2-SBA-15 (AMS) that were synthesized by one-pot method. The obtained materials exhibited large surface areas (553-810 m 2/g) and pore size (6.6-7.1 nm) demonstrated by XRD and N 2-ad/desorption analysis. The SEM images showed that the materials had similar fiberlike morphology. The functionalization extent was calculated according to 29Si MAS NMR spectra and it was close to the designed value (10%). The synthesized mesoporous materials were used as bilirubin adsorbents and showed higher bilirubin adsorption capacities than the commercial active carbon. The adsorption capacities of amine functionalized samples AMS and AS were larger than those of pure siliceous SBA-15 and MS, indicating that electrostatic interaction was the dominant driving force for bilirubin adsorption on mesoporous materials. Increasing the ionic strength of bilirubin solution by adding NaCl would decrease the bilirubin adsorption capacity of mesoporous material, which further demonstrated that the electrostatic interaction was the dominant driving force for bilirubin adsorption. In addition, the hydrophobic interaction provided by methyl groups could promote the bilirubin adsorption.

  8. Residue-based scattering factors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongliang

    2016-11-01

    A glob is defined as a group of atoms in the crystal which can be chosen in various ways. Globs themselves can be used as scattering elements in the theory of structure determination, just as atoms are used at present. In this paper, amino-acid residues are chosen to form globs and empirical formulas for residue-based scattering factors have been developed.

  9. Fluorescence of crop residue: postmortem analysis of crop conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurtrey, James E., III; Kim, Moon S.; Daughtry, Craig S. T.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Chappelle, Emmett W.

    1997-07-01

    Fluorescence of crop residues at the end of the growing season may provide an indicator of the past crop's vegetative condition. Different levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization were applied to field grown corn and wheat at Beltsville, Maryland. The N fertilizer treatments produce a range of physiological conditions, pigment concentrations, biomass levels, and grain yields that resulted in varying growth and stress conditions in the living crops. After normal harvesting procedures the crop residues remained. The fluorescence spectral characteristics of the plant residues from crops grown under different levels of N nutrition were analyzed. The blue-green fluorescence response of in-vitro residue biomass of the N treated field corn had different magnitudes. A blue-green- yellow algorithm, (460/525)*600 nm, gave the best separations between prior corn growth conditions at different N fertilization levels. Relationships between total dry biomass, the grain yield, and fluorescence properties in the 400 - 670 nm region of the spectrum were found in both corn and wheat residues. The wheat residue was analyzed to evaluate the constituents responsible for fluorescence. A ratio of the blue-green, 450/550 nm, images gave the best separation among wheat residues at different N fertilization levels. Fluorescence of extracts from wheat residues showed inverse fluorescence intensities as a function of N treatments compared to that of the intact wheat residue or ground residue samples. The extracts also had an additional fluorescence emission peak in the red, 670 nm. Single band fluorescence intensity in corn and wheat residues is due mostly to the quantity of the material on the soil surface. Ratios of fluorescence bands varied as a result of the growth conditions created by the N treatments and are thought to be indicative of the varying concentrations of the plant residues fluorescing constituents. Estimates of the amount and cost effectiveness of N fertilizers to satisfy

  10. Adsorption of amylase enzyme on ultrafiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Beier, Søren Prip; Enevoldsen, Ann Dorrit; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M; Hansen, Ernst B; Jonsson, Gunnar

    2007-08-28

    A method to measure the static adsorption on membrane surfaces has been developed and described. The static adsorption of amylase-F has been measured on two different ultrafiltration membranes, both with a cutoff value of 10 kDa (a PES membrane and the ETNA10PP membrane, which is a surface-modified PVDF membrane). The adsorption follows the Langmuir adsorption theory. Thus, the static adsorption consists of monolayer coverage and is expressed both as a permeability drop and an adsorption resistance. From the adsorption isotherms, the maximum static permeability drops and the maximum static adsorption resistances are determined. The maximum static permeability drop for the hydrophobic PES membrane is 75%, and the maximum static adsorption resistance is 0.014 m2.h.bar/L. The maximum static permeability drop for the hydrophilic surface-modified PVDF membrane (ETNA10PP) is 23%, and the maximum static adsorption resistance is 0.0046 m2.h.bar/L. The difference in maximum static adsorption, by a factor of around 3, affects the performance during the filtration of a 5 g/L amylase-F solution at 2 bar. The two membranes behave very similarly during filtration with almost equal fluxes and retentions even though the initial water permeability of the PES membrane is around 3 times larger than the initial water permeability of the ETNA10PP membrane. This is mainly attributed to the larger maximum static adsorption of the PES membrane. The permeability drop during filtration exceeds the maximum static permeability drop, indicating that the buildup layer on the membranes during filtration exceeds monolayer coverage, which is also seen by the increase in fouling resistance during filtration. The accumulated layer on the membrane surface can be described as a continually increasing cake-layer thickness, which is independent of the membrane type. At higher concentrations of enzyme, concentration polarization effects cannot be neglected. Therefore, stagnant film theory and the osmotic

  11. Apparatus for the study of macromolecular adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, C. S.; Hallock, R. B.

    1989-04-01

    A surface plasmon adsorbate monitor (SPAM) is described which allows the adsorption of macromolecules or other adsorbates to a metal surface to be monitored. Surface plasmons are employed and the apparatus has no moving parts. The kinetics of adsorption may be studied on a time scale of seconds rather than the more common time scale of minutes; a simple improvement in computer memory access should allow temporal studies in the millisecond range. As an illustration, the adsorption of carboxyl-terminated polystyrene from a solution with acetone onto a silver surface is measured.

  12. Adsorption of lead over graphite oxide.

    PubMed

    Olanipekun, Opeyemi; Oyefusi, Adebola; Neelgund, Gururaj M; Oki, Aderemi

    2014-01-24

    The adsorption efficiency and kinetics of removal of lead in presence of graphite oxide (GO) was determined using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The GO was prepared by the chemical oxidation of graphite and characterized using FTIR, SEM, TGA and XRD. The adsorption efficiency of GO for the solution containing 50, 100 and 150 ppm of Pb(2+) was found to be 98%, 91% and 71% respectively. The adsorption ability of GO was found to be higher than graphite. Therefore, the oxidation of activated carbon in removal of heavy metals may be a viable option to reduce pollution in portable water.

  13. The BAD project: data mining, database and prediction of protein adsorption on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Vasina, Elena N; Paszek, Ewa; Nicolau, Dan V; Nicolau, Dan V

    2009-04-07

    Protein adsorption at solid-liquid interfaces is critical to many applications, including biomaterials, protein microarrays and lab-on-a-chip devices. Despite this general interest, and a large amount of research in the last half a century, protein adsorption cannot be predicted with an engineering level, design-orientated accuracy. Here we describe a Biomolecular Adsorption Database (BAD), freely available online, which archives the published protein adsorption data. Piecewise linear regression with breakpoint applied to the data in the BAD suggests that the input variables to protein adsorption, i.e., protein concentration in solution; protein descriptors derived from primary structure (number of residues, global protein hydrophobicity and range of amino acid hydrophobicity, isoelectric point); surface descriptors (contact angle); and fluid environment descriptors (pH, ionic strength), correlate well with the output variable-the protein concentration on the surface. Furthermore, neural network analysis revealed that the size of the BAD makes it sufficiently representative, with a neural network-based predictive error of 5% or less. Interestingly, a consistently better fit is obtained if the BAD is divided in two separate sub-sets representing protein adsorption on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, respectively. Based on these findings, selected entries from the BAD have been used to construct neural network-based estimation routines, which predict the amount of adsorbed protein, the thickness of the adsorbed layer and the surface tension of the protein-covered surface. While the BAD is of general interest, the prediction of the thickness and the surface tension of the protein-covered layers are of particular relevance to the design of microfluidics devices.

  14. Radium Adsorption to Iron Bearing Minerals in Variable Salinity Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Radium is a common, naturally occurring radioactive metal found in many subsurface environments. Radium isotopes are a product of natural uranium and thorium decay, and are particularly abundant within groundwaters where minimal flux leads to accumulation within porewaters. Radium has been used as a natural tracer to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) [1], where the ratios of various radium isotopes are used to estimate total groundwater flux to and from the ocean [2]. Further, it represents a substantial hazard in waste water produced after hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction [3], resulting in a significant risk of environmental release and increased cost for water treatment or disposal. Adsorption to mineral surfaces represents a primary pathway of radium retention within subsurface environments. For SGD studies, it is important to understand adsorption processes to correctly estimate GW fluxes, while in hydraulic fracturing, radium adsorption to aquifer solids will mediate the activities of radium within produced water. While some studies of radium adsorption to various minerals have been performed [4], there is a limited understanding of the surface chemistry of radium adsorption, particularly to iron-bearing minerals such as pyrite, goethite and ferrihydrite. Accordingly, we present the results of sorption experiments of radium to a suite of iron-bearing minerals representative of those found within deep saline and near-surface (freshwater) aquifers, and evaluate impacts of varying salinity solutions through the use of artificial groundwater, seawater, and shale formation brine. Further, we explore the impacts of pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite transformation to other iron-bearing secondary minerals on the retention of radium. This work lays the groundwork for further study of radium use as a tracer for SGD, as well as understanding mechanisms of radium retention and release from deep aquifer materials following hydraulic fracturing

  15. Effects of advanced oxidation pretreatment on residual aluminum control in high humic acid water purification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wendong; Li, Hua; Ding, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xiaochang

    2011-01-01

    Due to the formation of disinfection by-products and high concentrations of Al residue in drinking water purification, humic substances are a major component of organic matter in natural waters and have therefore received a great deal of attention in recent years. We investigated the effects of advanced oxidation pretreatment methods usually applied for removing dissolved organic matters on residual Al control. Results showed that the presence of humic acid increased residual Al concentration notably. With 15 mg/L of humic acid in raw water, the concentrations of soluble aluminum and total aluminum in the treated water were close to the quantity of Al addition. After increasing coagulant dosage from 12 to 120 mg/L, the total-Al in the treated water was controlled to below 0.2 mg/L. Purification systems with ozonation, chlorination, or potassium permanganate oxidation pretreatment units had little effects on residual Al control; while UV radiation decreased Al concentration notably. Combined with ozonation, the effects of UV radiation were enhanced. Optimal dosages were 0.5 mg O3/mg C and 3 hr for raw water with 15 mg/L of humic acid. Under UV light radiation, the combined forces or bonds that existed among humic acid molecules were destroyed; adsorption sites increased positively with radiation time, which promoted adsorption of humic acid onto polymeric aluminum and Al(OH)3(s). This work provides a new solution for humic acid coagulation and residual Al control for raw water with humic acid purification.

  16. Residues of chlorantraniliprole in rice field ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Ming; Chai, Wei-Gang; Wu, Yin-Liang

    2012-04-01

    The fate of chlorantraniliprole was studied in rice field ecosystem, and a simple and reliable analytical method was developed for determination of chlorantraniliprole in soil, rice straw, paddy water and brown rice. Chlorantraniliprole residues were extracted from samples with acetonitrile. The extract was cleaned up with QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method, and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The average recoveries were 76.9-82.4% from soil, 83.6-89.3% from rice straw, 95.2-103.1% from paddy water and 84.9-87.7% from brown rice. The relative standard deviation was less than 15%. The limits of detection (LODs) of chlorantraniliprole calculated as a sample concentration (S/N ratio of 3) were 0.012 μg L(-1) for paddy water, 0.15 μg kg(-1) for soil, brown rice and rice straw. The results of the kinetics study of chlorantraniliprole residue showed that chlorantraniliprole degradation in soil, water and rice straw coincided with C=0.01939e(-0.0434t), C=0.01425e(-0.8111t), and C=1.171e(-0.198t), respectively; the half-lives were about 16.0 d, 0.85 d and 3.50 d, respectively. The degradation rate of chlorantraniliprole in water was the fastest, followed by rice straw. The final residues of chlorantraniliprole on brown rice were lower than maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.02 mg kg(-1) after 14 d Pre-Harvest Interval (PHI). Therefore, a dosage of 150 mL a.i.hm(-2) was recommended, which could be considered as safe to human beings and animals.

  17. Residual Viremia in Treated HIV+ Individuals

    DOE PAGES

    Conway, Jessica M.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2016-01-06

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectively controls HIV infection, suppressing HIV viral loads. However, some residual virus remains, below the level of detection, in HIV-infected patients on ART. Furthermore, the source of this viremia is an area of debate: does it derive primarily from activation of infected cells in the latent reservoir, or from ongoing viral replication? Our observations seem to be contradictory: there is evidence of short term evolution, implying that there must be ongoing viral replication, and viral strains should thus evolve. The phylogenetic analyses, and rare emergent drug resistance, suggest no long-term viral evolution, implying that virus derived frommore » activated latent cells must dominate. We use simple deterministic and stochastic models to gain insight into residual viremia dynamics in HIV-infected patients. Our modeling relies on two underlying assumptions for patients on suppressive ART: that latent cell activation drives viral dynamics and that the reproductive ratio of treated infection is less than 1. Nonetheless, the contribution of viral replication to residual viremia in patients on ART may be non-negligible. However, even if the portion of viremia attributable to viral replication is significant, our model predicts (1) that latent reservoir re-seeding remains negligible, and (2) some short-term viral evolution is permitted, but long-term evolution can still be limited: stochastic analysis of our model shows that de novo emergence of drug resistance is rare. Thus, our simple models reconcile the seemingly contradictory observations on residual viremia and, with relatively few parameters, recapitulates HIV viral dynamics observed in patients on suppressive therapy.« less

  18. Residual Viremia in Treated HIV+ Individuals

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, Jessica M.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2016-01-06

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectively controls HIV infection, suppressing HIV viral loads. However, some residual virus remains, below the level of detection, in HIV-infected patients on ART. Furthermore, the source of this viremia is an area of debate: does it derive primarily from activation of infected cells in the latent reservoir, or from ongoing viral replication? Our observations seem to be contradictory: there is evidence of short term evolution, implying that there must be ongoing viral replication, and viral strains should thus evolve. The phylogenetic analyses, and rare emergent drug resistance, suggest no long-term viral evolution, implying that virus derived from activated latent cells must dominate. We use simple deterministic and stochastic models to gain insight into residual viremia dynamics in HIV-infected patients. Our modeling relies on two underlying assumptions for patients on suppressive ART: that latent cell activation drives viral dynamics and that the reproductive ratio of treated infection is less than 1. Nonetheless, the contribution of viral replication to residual viremia in patients on ART may be non-negligible. However, even if the portion of viremia attributable to viral replication is significant, our model predicts (1) that latent reservoir re-seeding remains negligible, and (2) some short-term viral evolution is permitted, but long-term evolution can still be limited: stochastic analysis of our model shows that de novo emergence of drug resistance is rare. Thus, our simple models reconcile the seemingly contradictory observations on residual viremia and, with relatively few parameters, recapitulates HIV viral dynamics observed in patients on suppressive therapy.

  19. Copper (II) ion adsorption from aqueous solution onto fatty hydroxamic acid - Immobilized zeolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhsinun, Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Purwaningsih, Henny

    2017-01-01

    Separation of Cu (II) ion from a mixture containing Zn (II) ion was conducted by solid-liquid extraction method through column chromatography. The column was filled with FHA-ZEO resin. This resin is the result of immobilized fatty hydroxamic acid (FHA) into activated natural zeolite (ZEO) involving as solid phase. Parameters becoming variable were resin mass to concentration ratio and pH of Cu (II) ion solution. The research result shows that optimum condition of Cu (II) ion adsorption was 1 gram resin mass FHA-ZEO to ion Cu (II) solution concentration of 100 ppm with pH value of 5. This Cu (II) ion separation from its mixture containing Zn (II) ion gives Cu(II) ion adsorption capacity of 162.39 mg/g FHA-ZEO in that optimum condition, 4 times higher than Zn (II) ion adsorption with Cu (II) ion recovery of 93,88%.

  20. Mathematical evaluation of activated carbon adsorption for surfactant recovery in a soil washing process.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chi K; Lee, Min W; Lee, Dae S; Woo, Seung H; Park, Jong M

    2008-12-15

    The performances of various soil washing processes, including surfactant recovery by selective adsorption, were evaluated using a mathematical model for partitioning a target compound and surfactant in water/sorbent system. Phenanthrene was selected as a representative hazardous organic compound and Triton X-100 as a surfactant. Two activated carbons that differed in size (Darco 20-40 mesh and >100 mesh sizes) were used in adsorption experiments. The adsorption isotherms of the chemicals were used in model simulations for various washing scenarios. The optimal process conditions were suggested to minimize the dosage of activated carbon and surfactant and the number of washings. We estimated that the requirement of surfactant could be reduced to 33% of surfactant requirements (from 265 to 86.6g) with a reuse step using 9.1g activated carbon (>100 mesh) to achieve 90% removal of phenanthrene (initially 100mg kg-soil(-1)) with a water/soil ratio of 10.

  1. The removal of MO molecules from aqueous solution by the combination of ultrasound/adsorption/photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jihui; Mi, Caili; Li, Jing; Xu, Yang; Jia, Zhixin; Li, Mei

    2008-09-01

    Methyl orange (MO) molecules had been removed from aqueous solution by nano-TiO(2)/exfoliated graphite composites with the combination of ultrasound/adsorption/photocatalysis. The experimental results had showed that nano-TiO(2)/exfoliated graphite composites provided with the adsorptive capability of exfoliated graphite and the photocatalysis capability of nano-TiO(2) synchronously. It had been proved that the removal ratios related to the adsorption and photocatalysis capability of the composites and were influenced by US and UV irradiation, the reaction times, the reaction temperatures, the initial pH values, the dosages and the initial MO solution concentrations. Moreover, it had been illuminated that the combination was very effective and useful on removing MO molecules from aqueous solution.

  2. Influence of herbicide structure, clay acidity, and humic acid coating on acetanilide herbicide adsorption on homoionic clays.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiping; Gan, Jianying; Yates, Scott R

    2002-07-03

    Adsorption of chloroacetanilide herbicides on homoionic montmorillonite was studied by coupling batch equilibration and FT-IR analysis. Adsorption decreased in the order metolachlor > acetochlor > alachlor > propachlor on Ca(2+)- or Mg(2+)-saturated clays and in the order metolachlor > alachlor > acetachlor > propachlor on Al(3+)- or Fe(3+)-saturated clays. FT-IR spectra showed that the carbonyl group of the herbicide molecule was involved in bonding. For the same herbicide, adsorption of alachlor, acetachlor, and metolachlor on clay followed the order Ca(2+) approximately Mg(2+) < Al(3+) < or = Fe(3+), which coincided with the increasing acidity of homoionic clays. Adsorption of propachlor, however, showed an opposite dependence, suggesting a different governing interaction. In clay and humic acid mixtures, herbicide adsorption was less than that expected from independent additive adsorption by the individual constituents, and the deviation was dependent on the clay-to-humic acid ratio, with the greatest deviation consistently occurring at a 60:40 clay-to-humic acid ratio.

  3. Relationship between the adsorption species of cesium and radiocesium interception potential in soils and minerals: an EXAFS study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qiaohui; Yamaguchi, Noriko; Tanaka, Masato; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Yoshio

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the radiocesium (RCs) interception potential (RIP), cation exchange capacity (CEC), total organic carbon (TOC) content, and adsorption species in soils and minerals by using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The RIP related to Cs(+) adsorption by frayed-edge site (FES) has often been used to measure the mobility and bioavailability of RCs in the environment. This study found that the presence of organic matter (OM) can reduce RIP to a certain extent. The adsorption amount (=Q(T)) in soil was obviously correlated to RIP at a small [Cs(+)] region, whereas a linear relationship between Q(T) and CEC was observed at a large [Cs(+)] region. Both the inner-sphere (IS) and outer-sphere (OS) complexes of Cs(+) were observed through EXAFS at a molecular scale. The linear correlation between log (RIP/CEC) and the ratio of the coordination number (CN) of IS (=CNIS) and OS (=CNOS) complexes noted as CNIS/(CNIS + CNOS) suggested that the ratio of CN is very sensitive to Cs(+) adsorption species with variable RIP and CEC. The adsorption species of Cs(+) in soil was mainly dependent on the clay mineral content of soil. RIP was affected not only by FES but also by other strong adsorption sites, such as the interlayers and cavities identified as the IS complex in EXAFS analysis. Findings indicated that the EXAFS approach is a powerful and efficient tool to explore the behavior of Cs(+) in a given environment.

  4. Ratio estimation in SIMS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogliore, R. C.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.

    2011-09-01

    The determination of an isotope ratio by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) traditionally involves averaging a number of ratios collected over the course of a measurement. We show that this method leads to an additive positive bias in the expectation value of the estimated ratio that is approximately equal to the true ratio divided by the counts of the denominator isotope of an individual ratio. This bias does not decrease as the number of ratios used in the average increases. By summing all counts in the numerator isotope, then dividing by the sum of counts in the denominator isotope, the estimated ratio is less biased: the bias is approximately equal to the ratio divided by the summed counts of the denominator isotope over the entire measurement. We propose a third ratio estimator (Beale's estimator) that can be used when the bias from the summed counts is unacceptably large for the hypothesis being tested. We derive expressions for the variance of these ratio estimators as well as the conditions under which they are normally distributed. Finally, we investigate a SIMS dataset showing the effects of ratio bias, and discuss proper ratio estimation for SIMS analysis.

  5. Albumin (BSA) Adsorption over Graphene in Aqueous Environment: Influence of Orientation, Adsorption Protocol, and Solvent Treatment.

    PubMed

    Vilhena, J G; Rubio-Pereda, Pamela; Vellosillo, Perceval; Serena, P A; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-02-23

    We report 150 ns explicit solvent MD simulations of the adsorption on graphene of albumin (BSA) in two orientations and using two different adsorption protocols, i.e., free and forced adsorption. Our results show that free adsorption occurs with little structural rearrangements. Even taking adsorption to an extreme, by forcing it with a 5 nN downward force applied during the initial 20 ns, we show that along a particular orientation BSA is able to preserve the structural properties of the majority of its binding sites. Furthermore, in all the cases considered in this work, the ibuprofen binding site has shown a strong resilience to structural changes. Finally, we compare these results with implicit solvent simulations and find that the latter predicts an extreme protein unfolding upon adsorption. The origin of this discrepancy is attributed to a poor description of the water entropic forces at interfaces in the implicit solvent methods.

  6. Residue cover effects on soil erosion and the infiltration in black soil under simulated rainfall experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yan; Xie, Yun; Liu, Yuxin; Liu, Hongyuan; Ren, Xiaoyu

    2016-12-01

    Residue cover is widely used in the Northeastern China Black Soil Region for soil erosion control due to the large annual production of crop residues. Quantitative evaluations of the residue cover effects on preventing soil loss and on the cumulative infiltration amount are thus desirable. Herein, rainfall simulation experiments were conducted using simulators and soil flumes to study the effects of residue cover on soil erosion and infiltration under various rainfall events. Laboratory experiments were designed utilizing five levels of residue cover (bare, 15%, 35%, 55% and 75%), four rainfall intensities (30 mm/h, 60 mm/h, 90 mm/h and 120 mm/h), two soil moistures (dry and wet run) and a fixed slope of 7%. The results indicated that residue cover strongly affects runoff, soil loss and infiltration. Equations for predicting the soil loss ratio and infiltration ratio (the ratio of residue cover soil to bare soil) are herein proposed based on nonlinear curve regression. An empirical approach presented as the infiltration ratios multiplied Philip's equation derived from bare soil was established for estimating the cumulative infiltration amounts under various residue covers. The equation was demonstrated to be suitable for infiltration prediction for black soil by the root mean square error value and 1:1 line method. In addition, the relationship between the residue cover and biomass of corn residues was provided in order to enable accurate measurement of the residue coverage. These derived equations could be used for soil erosion and infiltration prediction under no-till and residue cover management conditions in the black soil region.

  7. Adsorption characteristics of siloxanes in landfill gas by the adsorption equilibrium test

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Sangchul; Namkoong, Wan; Kang, Jeong-Hee; Park, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Namhoon

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Equilibrium test was attempted to evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxane. • L2 had higher removal efficiency in carbon compared to noncarbon adsorbents. • Total adsorption capacity of siloxane was 300 mg/g by coal activated carbon. • Adsorption characteristics rely on size of siloxane molecule and adsorbent pore. • Conversion of siloxane was caused by adsorption of noncarbon adsorbents. - Abstract: Due to the increase in energy cost by constantly high oil prices and the obligation to reduce greenhouse effect gases, landfill gas is frequently used as an alternative energy source for producing heat and electricity. Most of landfill gas utility facilities, however, are experiencing problems controlling siloxanes from landfill gas as their catalytic oxidizers are becoming fouled by silicon dioxide dust. To evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxanes, an adsorption equilibrium test was conducted and parameters in the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were analyzed. Coconut activated carbon (CA1), coal activated carbon (CA2), impregnated activated carbon (CA3), silicagel (NCA1), and activated alumina (NCA2) were used for the adsorption of the mixed siloxane which contained hexamethyldisiloxane (L2), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5). L2 had higher removal efficiency in noncarbon adsorbents compared to carbon adsorbents. The application of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm demonstrated that coconut based CA1 and CA3 provided higher adsorption capacity on L2. And CA2 and NCA1 provided higher adsorption capacity on D4 and D5. Based on the experimental results, L2, D4, and D5 were converted by adsorption and desorption in noncarbon adsorbents. Adsorption affinity of siloxane is considered to be affect by the pore size distribution of the adsorbents and by the molecular size of each siloxane.

  8. Kinetics and mechanism of adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution by nitric-acid treated water-hyacinth.

    PubMed

    El-Khaiary, Mohammad I

    2007-08-17

    Kinetics adsorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the adsorption characteristics of a cationic dye (methylene blue, MB) onto nitric-acid treated water-hyacinth (N-WH). Results showed that N-WH can remove MB effectively from aqueous solution. The loading of MB onto N-WH was found to increase significantly with increasing the initial MB concentration, but the residual concentration of MB in solution also increased. A complete removal of MB from solution was only achieved at the lower range of initial MB concentration (less than 286 mg/L). Temperature had a slight effect on the amount adsorbed at equilibrium. The adsorption rate was fast and more than half of the adsorbed-MB was removed in the first 15 min at room temperature, which makes the process practical for industrial application. The adsorption kinetics at room temperature could be expressed by the pseudo second order model, while at higher temperatures (45-80 degrees C) and low MB concentration (97 mg/L) both Lagergren's model and the pseudo second order model can be used to predict the kinetics of adsorption. The overall rate of dye uptake was found to be controlled by external mass transfer at the beginning of adsorption, then gradually changed to intraparticle diffusion control at a later stage. The initial period where external mass transfer is the rate controlling step was found to increase with increasing initial MB concentration and decrease with increasing temperature. The increase in temperature was also found to increase the rate of adsorption and reduce the time required to reach equilibrium. The initial rate of adsorption, h(o), was calculated, it was found to increase with increasing temperature, while the increase in MB concentration decreased h(o) at the lower concentration range then increased h(o) again at high concentration. The value of the activation coefficient, E, was found to be 8.207 kJ/mol, which indicates a diffusion controlled process.

  9. Adsorption of aqueous metal ions on oxygen and nitrogen functionalized nanoporous activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Xiao, B; Thomas, K M

    2005-04-26

    In this study, the adsorption characteristics of two series of oxygen and nitrogen functionalized activated carbons were investigated. These series were a low nitrogen content (approximately 1 wt % daf) carbon series derived from coconut shell and a high nitrogen content (approximately 8 wt % daf) carbon series derived from polyacrylonitrile. In both series, the oxygen contents were varied over the range approximately 2-22 wt % daf. The porous structures of the functionalized activated carbons were characterized using N(2) (77 K) and CO(2) (273 K) adsorption. Only minor changes in the porous structure were observed in both series. This allowed the effect of changes in functional group concentrations on metal ion adsorption to be studied without major influences due to differences in porous structure characteristics. The surface group characteristics were examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, acid/base titrations, and measurement of the point of zero charge (pH(PZC)). The adsorption of aqueous metal ion species, M(2+)(aq), on acidic oxygen functional group sites mainly involves an ion exchange mechanism. The ratios of protons displaced to the amount of M(2+)(aq) metal species adsorbed have a linear relationship for the carbons with pH(PZC) < or = 4.15. Hydrolysis of metal species in solution may affect the adsorption of metal ion species and displacement of protons. In the case of basic carbons, both protons and metal ions are adsorbed on the carbons. The complex nature of competitive adsorption between the proton and metal ion species and the amphoteric character of carbon surfaces are discussed in relation to the mechanism of adsorption.

  10. Mechanism of Methylene Blue adsorption on hybrid laponite-multi-walled carbon nanotube particles.

    PubMed

    Manilo, Maryna; Lebovka, Nikolai; Barany, Sandor

    2016-04-01

    The kinetics of adsorption and parameters of equilibrium adsorption of Methylene Blue (MB) on hybrid laponite-multi-walled carbon nanotube (NT) particles in aqueous suspensions were determined. The laponite platelets were used in order to facilitate disaggregation of NTs in aqueous suspensions and enhance the adsorption capacity of hybrid particles for MB. Experiments were performed at room temperature (298 K), and the laponite/NT ratio (Xl) was varied in the range of 0-0.5. For elucidation of the mechanism of MB adsorption on hybrid particles, the electrical conductivity of the system as well as the electrokinetic potential of laponite-NT hybrid particles were measured. Three different stages in the kinetics of adsorption of MB on the surface of NTs or hybrid laponite-NT particles were discovered to be a fast initial stage I (adsorption time t=0-10 min), a slower intermediate stage II (up to t=120 min) and a long-lasting final stage III (up to t=24hr). The presence of these stages was explained accounting for different types of interactions between MB and adsorbent particles, as well as for the changes in the structure of aggregates of NT particles and the long-range processes of restructuring of laponite platelets on the surface of NTs. The analysis of experimental data on specific surface area versus the value of Xl evidenced in favor of the model with linear contacts between rigid laponite platelets and NTs. It was also concluded that electrostatic interactions control the first stage of adsorption at low MB concentrations.

  11. Adsorption of barium and calcium chloride onto negatively charged alpha-Fe(2)O(3) particles.

    PubMed

    Pochard, Isabelle; Denoyel, Renaud; Couchot, Pierre; Foissy, Alain

    2002-11-01

    Adsorption of cations (Na(+), Ca(2+), Ba(2+)) onto negatively charged (pH 10.4) hematite (alpha-Fe(2)O(3)) particles has been studied. The oxide material was carefully prepared in order to obtain monodisperse suspensions of well-crystallized, quasi-spherical particles (50 nm in diameter). The isoelectric point (IEP) is located at pH 8.5. Adsorption of barium ions onto oxide particles was carried out and the electrophoretic mobility was measured throughout the adsorption experiment. Comparison with calcium adsorption at full coverage reveals a higher uptake of Ba(2+). In both cases it shows also that chloride ions coadsorb with M(2) ions. Simultaneous uptake of the positive and negative ions explains why the electrophoretic mobility does not reverse to cationic migration. A theoretical study of the surface speciation has been carried out, using the MuSiC model. It reveals the presence of negative as well as positive sites on both sides of the point of zero charge (PZC) of the hematite particles, which may explain the coadsorption of Ba(2+) and Cl(-) at pH 10.4. The effective charge of the oxide particles, calculated from the electrophoretic mobility, is in very good agreement with the results found with the MuSiC modelization and the chloride/barium adsorption ratio. It also verifies the theory of ionic condensation. Calorimetric measurements gave a negative heat for the overall reaction occurring when Ba(2+)/Cl(-) ions adsorb onto hematite. Despite the fact that anions (Cl(-) and OH(-)) adsorption onto mineral oxides is an exothermic phenomenon, it is likely that barium and calcium adsorption is endothermic, denoting the formation of an inner-sphere complex as reported in the literature.

  12. Use of in situ solid-phase adsorption in microbial natural product fermentation development.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Thomas; Chase, Matthew; Wagner, Stephanie; Renzi, Chris; Powell, Marcella; DeAngelo, Joseph; Michels, Peter

    2013-05-01

    It has been half a century since investigators first began experimenting with adding ion exchange resins during the fermentation of microbial natural products. With the development of nonionic polymeric adsorbents in the 1970s, the application of in situ product adsorption in bioprocessing has grown slowly, but steadily. To date, in situ product adsorption strategies have been used in biotransformations, plant cell culture, the production of biofuels, and selected bulk chemicals, such as butanol and lactic acid, as well as in more traditional natural product fermentation within the pharmaceutical industry. Apart from the operational gains in efficiency from the integration of fermentation and primary recovery, the addition of adsorbents during fermentation has repeatedly demonstrated the capacity to significantly increase titers by sequestering the product and preventing or mitigating degradation, feedback inhibition and/or cytotoxic effects. Adoption of in situ product adsorption has been particularly valuable in the early stages of natural product-based drug discovery programs, where quickly and cost-effectively generating multigram quantities of a lead compound can be challenging when using a wild-type strain and fermentation conditions that have not been optimized. While much of the literature involving in situ adsorption describes its application early in the drug development process, this does not imply that the potential for scale-up is limited. To date, commercial-scale processes utilizing in situ product adsorption have reached batch sizes of at least 30,000 l. Here we present examples where in situ product adsorption has been used to improve product titers or alter the ratios among biosynthetically related natural products, examine some of the relevant variables to consider, and discuss the mechanisms by which in situ adsorption may impact the biosynthesis of microbial natural products.

  13. Cr-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, Adsorption Property, and Recyclability.

    PubMed

    Meng, Alan; Xing, Jing; Li, Zhenjiang; Li, Qingdang

    2015-12-16

    In this paper, a mild solvothermal method has been employed to successfully synthesize a series of Cr-doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with different Cr(3+) contents, which is a kind of novel and high-efficiency absorbent for the removal of acid dye methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solution. The as-prepared products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Brunauer, Emmet, and Teller (BET), and Zeta potential measurements. In accordance with the adsorption capacity of the products, the obtained optimal Cr/Zn molar ratio is 6%. The adsorption process of MO on Cr-doped ZnO was investigated by kinetics, thermodynamics, and isotherm technologies, which, respectively, indicated that the adsorption was fast (adsorption reached equilibrium in 2 h) and followed a pseudo-second-order model, that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic, and that it agreed well with the Langmuir isotherm with a maximum adsorption capacity of 310.56 mg g(-1). Moreover, a reasonable mechanism was proposed to elucidate the reasons for their adsorption behavior. In addition, a simple and low-cost chemical method was developed to separate and recycle ZnO and MO from the used adsorbent, effectively avoiding the secondary pollution. This work can not only describe efficient experimental approaches for obtaining novel adsorbents and recycling them but also offer valuable clues for the preparation and property study of other semiconductor adsorbents.

  14. Optimized synthesis and crystalline stability of γ-cyclodextrin metal-organic frameworks for drug adsorption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Botao; Li, Haiyan; Xu, Xiaonan; Li, Xue; Lv, Nana; Singh, Vikramjeet; Stoddart, J Fraser; York, Peter; Xu, Xu; Gref, Ruxandra; Zhang, Jiwen

    2016-11-30

    The biocompatible and renewable cyclodextrin metal-organic frameworks (CD-MOFs) have addressed a range of opportunities in molecular storage and separation sciences. The reported protocols for their synthesis, however, were carried out at room temperature over long time periods of time (24h), producing crystals of relatively poor uniformity. In this investigation, micron sized γ-CD-MOFs were synthesized by an optimized vapor diffusion method at elevated temperature (50°C) within 6h, after which the size control, crystalline stability and drug adsorption behavior were investigated in detail. In this manner, uniform cubic γ-CD-MOF crystals were obtained when the reaction temperature was raised to 50°C with pre-addition of the reaction solvent. The size of γ-CD-MOFs was adjusted efficiently by changing the reactant concentrations, temperatures, time, γ-CD ratios to KOH and surfactant concentrations, without influencing the porosity and crystallinity of the material markedly. Varing degrees of reduction in crystallinity and change in morphology were observed when the γ-CD-MOF crystals are treated under conditions of high temperature (100°C), high humidity (92.5%) and polar solvents (e.g., MeOH and DMF). In relation to drug adsorption by γ-CD-MOFs, most of the drug molecules containing carboxyl groups showed relatively high adsorption (>5%), while low adsorption (<5%) was found for drugs with nitrogen-containing heterocyclic rings. In addition, the adsorption kinetics of captopril to standard γ-CD-MOFs matched a pseudo-second-order model rather well, whilst captopril adsorption to the damaged γ-CD-MOFs only partially matched the pseudo-second-order model. In summary, based upon the optimized synthesis and size control of γ-CD-MOFs, the crystalline stability and drug adsorption characteristics of γ-CD-MOF crystals have been evaluated as a fundamental requirement of a potential vehicle for drug delivery.

  15. Optimized synthesis and crystalline stability of γ-cyclodextrin metal-organic frameworks for drug adsorption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Botao; Li, Haiyan; Xu, Xiaonan; Li, Xue; Lv, Nana; Singh, Vikramjeet; Stoddart, J Fraser; York, Peter; Xu, Xu; Gref, Ruxandra; Zhang, Jiwen

    2016-09-26

    The biocompatible and renewable cyclodextrin metal-organic frameworks (CD-MOFs) have addressed a range of opportunities in molecular storage and separation sciences. The reported protocols for their synthesis, however, were carried out at room temperature over long time periods of time (24h), producing crystals of relatively poor uniformity. In this investigation, micron sized γ-CD-MOFs were synthesized by an optimized vapor diffusion method at elevated temperature (50°C) within 6h, after which the size control, crystalline stability and drug adsorption behavior were investigated in detail. In this manner, uniform cubic γ-CD-MOF crystals were obtained when the reaction temperature was raised to 50°C with pre-addition of the reaction solvent. The size of γ-CD-MOFs was adjusted efficiently by changing the reactant concentrations, temperatures, time, γ-CD ratios to KOH and surfactant concentrations, without influencing the porosity and crystallinity of the material markedly. Varing degrees of reduction in crystallinity and change in morphology were observed when the γ-CD-MOF crystals are treated under conditions of high temperature (100°C), high humidity (92.5%) and polar solvents (e.g., MeOH and DMF). In relation to drug adsorption by γ-CD-MOFs, most of the drug molecules containing carboxyl groups showed relatively high adsorption (>5%), while low adsorption (<5%) was found for drugs with nitrogen-containing heterocyclic rings. In addition, the adsorption kinetics of captopril to standard γ-CD-MOFs matched a pseudo-second-order model rather well, whilst captopril adsorption to the damaged γ-CD-MOFs only partially matched the pseudo-second-order model. In summary, based upon the optimized synthesis and size control of γ-CD-MOFs, the crystalline stability and drug adsorption characteristics of γ-CD-MOF crystals have been evaluated as a fundamental requirement of a potential vehicle for drug delivery.

  16. [Preparation, characterization and adsorption performance of high surface area biomass-based activated carbons].

    PubMed

    Li, Kun-Quan; Li, Ye; Zheng, Zheng; Sang, Da-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    High surface area activated carbons were prepared with Spartina alterniflora and cotton stalk as raw materials and KOH as activating agent. Effects of materials type, impregnation ratio, activation temperature and heat preservation time on the yield, elemental composition and adsorptive capacity of activated carbon were studied. The properties and pore structure of the carbons were characterized with nitrogen adsorption, powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Main pore characteristics of activated carbons were analyzed by BET equation, Horvath-Kawazoe BET method and DFT method. The considerable preparation conditions are obtained as follows: impregnation ratio of 3: 1, an activation temperature of 800 degrees C and an activation time of 1.5 h. The BET surface area of activated carbon prepared from Spartina alterniflora reached 2 825 m2 x g(-1) when its total pore volume, yield, iodine number and methylene blue adsorption were 1.374 cm3 x g(-1), 16.36%, 1797 mg x g(-1) and 495 mg x g(-1) respectively under above conditions. The activated carbon from cotton stalk was prepared with BET surface area of 2 135 m2 x g(-1), total pore volume of 1.038 cm3 x g(-1), yield of 11.22%, methylene blue adsorption of 1 251 mg x g(-1), and iodine number of 478 mg x g(-1), respectively. The methylene blue adsorption and iodine number are much higher than the national first level for activated carbon. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of 2,4-dinitrophenol on the two carbons were 932 mg x g(-1) and 747 mg x g(-1), respectively, which are superior to ordinary activated carbon and activated carbon fiber.

  17. Adsorption behavior of lead on aquatic sediments contaminated with cerium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Fan, Xiulei; Wang, Peifang; Hou, Jun; Ao, Yanhui; Miao, Lingzhan

    2016-12-01

    Aquatic sediments serve as an important sink for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), such as metal oxide nanoparticles (MeO NPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Owing to their remarkable properties, ENMs demonstrate significant potential to disturb the adsorption behavior of other contaminants in aquatic sediments, thereby altering the bioavailability and toxicity of these contaminants. Thus far, most studies have investigated the effect of CNTs on the adsorption of other contaminants on sediments. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs), as one of the important MeO NPs, are also inevitably discharged into aquatic sediments because of their widespread use. In this study, we investigated the adsorption behavior of Pb(2+) on sediments spiked with CeO2 NPs at a weight ratio of 5.0%. The results showed that the adsorption rates at three stages occurring during adsorption clearly increase for sediments contaminated with CeO2 NPs. Moreover, the results obtained from the adsorption isotherms indicated that the Langmuir isotherm model best fits the isotherm data for both sediments and those contaminated with CeO2 NPs. After spiking the sediments with CeO2 NPs, the theoretical maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (Qmax) for Pb(2+) increased from 4.433 to 4.995 mg/g and the Langmuir isotherm coefficient (KL) decreased from 8.813 to 7.730 L/g. The effects of CeO2 NPs on the surface charge and pore surface properties of sediments were also studied as these properties affect the adsorption of several chemicals in sediments. The results showed that pHzpc, SBET, Sext, and average pore size of sediments clearly decrease for sediments contaminated with CeO2 NPs. Hence, the strong adsorption capacity of CeO2 NPs and the changes of sediment surface charge and pore surface properties caused by CeO2 NPs are important factors affecting the adsorption behavior of Pb(2+). The potential risk of Pb(2+) in aquatic environment may increase with CeO2 NPs buried in sediments.

  18. Mineral-Surfactant Interactions for Minimum Reagents Precipitation and Adsorption for Improved Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2008-09-20

    /conformation of the adsorbed layers), as well as precipitation/abstraction characteristics. (3) Investigation of the role of dissolved species, especially multivalent ions, on interactions between reservoir minerals and surfactants and/or polymers leading to surfactant precipitation or activated adsorption. (4) Solution behavior tests--surface tension, interaction, ultra filtration, and other tests. (5) Surfactant-mineral interactions relative to adsorption, wettability, and electrophoresis. (6) Work on the effects of multivalent ions, pH, temperature, salinity, and mixing ratio on the adsorption. Developments of adsorption models to explain interactions between surfactants/polymers/minerals. (7) General guidelines for the use of certain surfactants, polymers and their mixtures in micelle flooding processes.

  19. Zn(II) adsorption from synthetic solution and kaolin wastewater onto vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Jordão, Cláudio Pereira; Fernandes, Raphael Bragança Alves; de Lima Ribeiro, Kamilla; de Souza Nascimento, Bruna; de Barros, Priscila Martins

    2009-03-15

    The adsorption of Zn(II) from both synthetic solution and kaolin industry wastewater by cattle manure vermicompost was studied. The adsorption process was dependent on the various operating variables, viz., solution pH, particle size of the vermicompost, mass of vermicompost/volume of the Zn(II) solution ratio, contact time and temperature. The optimum conditions for Zn adsorption were pH 6.0, particle size of < or = 250 microm, 1 g per 10 mL adsorbent dose, contact time of 4h and temperature of 25 degrees C. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms fit well in the experimental data and their constants were evaluated, with R(2) values from 0.95 to 0.99. In synthetic solution, the maximum adsorption capacity of the vermicompost for Zn(2+) ions was 20.48 mg g(-1) at 25 degrees C when the vermicompost dose was 1 g 10 mL(-1) and the initial adjusted pH was 2. The batch adsorption studies of Zn(II) on vermicompost using kaolin wastewater have shown the maximum adsorption capacity was 2.49 mg g(-1) at pH 2 (natural pH of the wastewater). The small values of the constant related to the energy of adsorption (from 0.07 to 0.163 L mg(-1)) indicated that Zn(2+) ions were binded strongly to vermicompost. The values of the separation factor, R(L), which has been used to predict affinity between adsorbate and adsorbent were between 0 and 1, indicating that sorption was very favorable for Zn(II) in synthetic solution and kaolin wastewater. The thermodynamic parameter, the Gibbs free energy, was calculated for each system and the negative values obtained confirm that the adsorption processes are spontaneous. The DeltaG degrees values were -19.656 kJ mol(-1) and -16.849 kJ mol(-1) for Zn(II) adsorption on vermicompost in synthetic solution at pH 6 and 2, respectively, and -13.275 kJ mol(-1) in kaolin wastewater at pH 2.

  20. Fabrication of porous zeolite/chitosan monoliths and their applications for drug release and metal ions adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongli; Yan, Weiwei; Sun, Zhiming; Pan, Cheng; Mi, Xue; Zhao, Gang; Gao, Jianping

    2015-03-06

    Ordered porous zeolite/chitosan (Zel/Chi) monoliths were prepared by a unidirectional freeze-drying method, and their properties and structures were characterized by various instrumental methods. The metal ion adsorption and the drug release performance of the porous Zel/Chi monoliths were also studied. The release rate of cefalexin from drug-loaded Zel/Chi monoliths depended on the composition and porous structure of the monoliths. The metal ion adsorption capacity of the Zel/Chi monoliths was related to the concentration of the metal ions, the adsorption time and the Zel/Chi ratio. An experimentally maximum adsorption of 89 mg/g was achieved for Cu(2+) ions. The Zel/Chi monoliths with adsorbed Cu(2+) ions effectively catalyzed the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol and had good recyclability. They were easily recovered by simply removing them from the reaction system and rinsing them with water.

  1. Preparation of activated carbons from raw and biotreated agricultural residues for removal of volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Horng, Richard S; Pan, Tai-An; Lee, Shin-Ku

    2011-05-01

    Activated carbons with diverse physical and chemical properties were produced from four agriculture residues, including raw barley husk, biotreated barley husk, rice husk, and pistachio shell. Results showed that with adequate steam activation (30-90 min, 50% H2O(g),/50% N2), activated carbons with surface areas between 360 and 950 m2 g(-1) were developed. Further increases in the activation time destroyed the pore structure of activated carbons, which resulted in a decrease in the surface area and pore volume. Biotreated agricultural residues were found to be suitable precursors for producing mesoporous activated carbons. The oxygen content of activated carbons increased with increasing activation time. Results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy examination further suggested that H2O molecules react with the carbon surface, enhancing the deconvoluted peak area of carbonyl and carboxyl groups. Equilibrium adsorption of toluene indicated that the adsorption capacities increased with an increase in the inlet toluene concentration and a decrease in temperature. The adsorption isotherms were successfully fitted with Freundlich, Langmuir, and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations. Activated carbons derived from agricultural residues appear to be more applicable to adsorb volatile organic compounds at a low concentration and high-temperature environment.

  2. Adsorption Isotherms and Surface Reaction Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobo, L. S.; Bernardo, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    Explains an error that occurs in calculating the conditions for a maximum value of a rate expression for a bimolecular reaction. The rate expression is derived using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm to relate gas pressures and corresponding surface coverages. (GS)

  3. Capillary condensation and adsorption of binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, B; Darkrim-Lamari, F; Levesque, D

    2006-06-21

    The adsorption of equimolar binary mixtures of hydrogen-carbon dioxide, hydrogen-methane, and methane-carbon dioxide in porous material models is determined by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. The material models have an adsorbent surface similar to that of nanofibers with a herringbone structure. Our main result, which is relevant for hydrogen purification and carbon dioxide capture, is that the adsorption selectivities calculated for the mixtures can differ significantly from those deduced from simulations of the adsorption of pure gases, in particular, when one of the adsorbed gases presents a capillary condensation induced by confinement within the pore network. A comparison of our data is also made with theoretical models used in the literature for predicting the properties of the mixture adsorption.

  4. Fluorocarbon Adsorption in Hierarchical Porous Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Motkuri, Radha K.; Annapureddy, Harsha V.; Vijayakumar, M.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Martin, P F.; McGrail, B. Peter; Dang, Liem X.; Krishna, Rajamani; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2014-07-09

    The adsorption behavior of a series of fluorocarbon derivatives was examined on a set of microporous metal organic framework (MOF) sorbents and another set of hierarchical mesoporous MOFs. The microporous M-DOBDC (M = Ni, Co) showed a saturation uptake capacity for R12 of over 4 mmol/g at a very low relative saturation pressure (P/Po) of 0.02. In contrast, the mesoporous MOF MIL-101 showed an exceptionally high uptake capacity reaching over 14 mmol/g at P/Po of 0.4. Adsorption affinity in terms of mass loading and isosteric heats of adsorption were found to generally correlate with the polarizability of the refrigerant with R12 > R22 > R13 > R14 > methane. These results suggest the possibility of exploiting MOFs for separation of azeotropic mixtures of fluorocarbons and use in eco-friendly fluorocarbon-based adsorption cooling and refrigeration applications.

  5. Adsorption of nisin and pediocin on nanoclays.

    PubMed

    Meira, Stela Maris Meister; Jardim, Arthur Izé; Brandelli, Adriano

    2015-12-01

    Three different nanoclays (bentonite, octadecylamine-modified montmorillonite and halloysite) were studied as potential carriers for the antimicrobial peptides nisin and pediocin. Adsorption occurred from peptide solutions in contact with nanoclays at room temperature. Higher adsorption of nisin and pediocin was obtained on bentonite. The antimicrobial activity of the resultant bacteriocin-nanoclay systems was analyzed using skimmed milk agar as food simulant and the largest inhibition zones were observed against Gram-positive bacteria for halloysite samples. Bacteriocins were intercalated into the interlayer space of montmorillonites as deduced from the increase of the basal spacing measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) assay. Infrared spectroscopy suggested non-electrostatic interactions, such as hydrogen bonding between siloxane groups from clays and peptide molecules. Transmission electron microscopy did not show any alteration in morphologies after adsorption of antimicrobial peptides on bentonite and halloysite. These results indicate that nanoclays, especially halloysite, are suitable nanocarriers for nisin and pediocin adsorption.

  6. Ionic Adsorption and Desorption of CNT Nanoropes

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jun-Jun; Yang, Qing-Sheng; Yan, Xiao-Hui; He, Xiao-Qiao; Liew, Kim-Meow

    2016-01-01

    A nanorope is comprised of several carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with different chiralities. A molecular dynamic model is built to investigate the ionic adsorption and desorption of the CNT nanoropes. The charge distribution on the nanorope is obtained by using a modified gradient method based on classical electrostatic theory. The electrostatic interactions among charged carbon atoms are calculated by using the Coulomb law. It was found here that the charged nanorope can adsorb heavy metal ions, and the adsorption and desorption can be realized by controlling the strength of applied electric field. The distance between the ions and the nanorope as well as the amount of ions have an effect on the adsorption capacity of the nanorope. The desorption process takes less time than that of adsorption. The study indicates that the CNT nanorope can be used as a core element of devices for sewage treatment. PMID:28335306

  7. H2O Adsorption Kinetics on Smectites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Howard, J.; Quinn, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    The adsorptive equilibration of H2O with montomorillonite has been measured. At low temperatures and pressures equilibration can require many hours, effectively preventing smectites at the martian surface from responding to diurnal pressure and temperature variations.

  8. Argon adsorption and the lunar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.

    1991-01-01

    The results of Ar adsorption experiments on a terrestrial labradorite and lunar rock 15415 crushed in vacuo are reported. The experiments were designed to test lunar atmosphere simulation models for the behavior of Ar on the lunar surface, as determined from the Apollo 17 mass spectrometer results. These models (Hodges, 1980, 1982) used a single adsorption potential to characterize the surfaces of lunar soil grains, with the result that high (6-7 kcal/mol) heats of adsorption were inferred. The present experimental results show that very high adsorption potentials are indeed associated with fresh mineral surfaces, but that these energetic surfaces occupy only small fractions of the total surface area. Nonetheless, these small fractions of surface, if they can be maintained in the lunar regolith in steady-state condition, could be sufficient to account for the Apollo 17 mass spectrometer observations.

  9. Krypton based adsorption type cryogenic refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Schember, Helene R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Krypton and a monolithic porous carbon such as Saran carbon are used respectively as the sorbate and sorbent of an adsorption type refrigerator to improve refrigeration efficiency and operational longevity.

  10. Methane Adsorption on Aggregates of Fullerenes: Site-Selective Storage Capacities and Adsorption Energies

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Alexander; Zöttl, Samuel; Bartl, Peter; Leidlmair, Christian; Mauracher, Andreas; Probst, Michael; Denifl, Stephan; Echt, Olof; Scheier, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Methane adsorption on positively charged aggregates of C60 is investigated by both mass spectrometry and computer simulations. Calculated adsorption energies of 118–281 meV are in the optimal range for high-density storage of natural gas. Groove sites, dimple sites, and the first complete adsorption shells are identified experimentally and confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations, using a newly developed force field for methane–methane and fullerene–methane interaction. The effects of corrugation and curvature are discussed and compared with data for adsorption on graphite, graphene, and carbon nanotubes. PMID:23744834

  11. Methane adsorption on aggregates of fullerenes: site-selective storage capacities and adsorption energies.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Alexander; Zöttl, Samuel; Bartl, Peter; Leidlmair, Christian; Mauracher, Andreas; Probst, Michael; Denifl, Stephan; Echt, Olof; Scheier, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Methane adsorption on positively charged aggregates of C60 is investigated by both mass spectrometry and computer simulations. Calculated adsorption energies of 118-281 meV are in the optimal range for high-density storage of natural gas. Groove sites, dimple sites, and the first complete adsorption shells are identified experimentally and confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations, using a newly developed force field for methane-methane and fullerene-methane interaction. The effects of corrugation and curvature are discussed and compared with data for adsorption on graphite, graphene, and carbon nanotubes.

  12. Silver impregnated carbon for adsorption and desorption of elemental mercury vapors.

    PubMed

    Karatza, Despina; Prisciandaro, Marina; Lancia, Amedeo; Musmarra, Dino

    2011-01-01

    The Hg(0) vapor adsorption experimental results on a novel sorbent obtained by impregnating a commercially available activated carbon (Darco G60 from BDH) with silver nitrate were reported. The study was performed by using a fundamental approach, in an apparatus at laboratory scale in which a synthetic flue gas, formed by Hg(0) vapors in a nitrogen gas stream, at a given temperature and mercury concentration, was flowed through a fixed bed of adsorbent material. Breakthrough curves and adsorption isotherms were obtained for bed temperatures of 90, 120 and 150 degrees C and for Hg(0) concentrations in the gas varying in the range of 0.8-5.0 mg/m3. The experimental gas-solid equilibrium data were used to evaluate the Langmuir parameters and the heat of adsorption. The experimental results showed that silver impregnated carbon was very effective to capture elemental mercury and the amount of mercury adsorbed by the carbon decreased as the bed temperature increased. In addition, to evaluate the possibility of adsorbent recovery, desorption was also studied. Desorption runs showed that both the adsorbing material and the mercury could be easily recovered, since at the end of desorption the residue on solid was almost negligible. The material balance on mercury and the constitutive equations of the adsorption phenomenon were integrated, leading to the evaluation of only one kinetic parameter which fits well both the experimentally determined breakthrough and desorption curves.

  13. Protein diffusion and long-term adsorption states at charged solid surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kubiak-Ossowska, Karina; Mulheran, Paul A

    2012-11-06

    The diffusion pathways of lysozyme adsorbed to a model charged ionic surface are studied using fully atomistic steered molecular dynamics simulation. The simulations start from existing protein adsorption trajectories, where it has been found that one particular residue, Arg128 at the N,C-terminal face, plays a crucial role in anchoring the lysozyme to the surface [Langmuir 2010 , 26 , 15954 - 15965]. We first investigate the desorption pathway for the protein by pulling the Arg128 side chain away from the surface in the normal direction, and its subsequent readsorption, before studying diffusion pathways by pulling the Arg128 side chain parallel to the surface. We find that the orientation of this side chain plays a decisive role in the diffusion process. Initially, it is oriented normal to the surface, aligning in the electrostatic field of the surface during the adsorption process, but after resorption it lies parallel to the surface, being unable to return to its original orientation due to geometric constraints arising from structured water layers at the surface. Diffusion from this alternative adsorption state has a lower energy barrier of ∼0.9 eV, associated with breaking hydrogen bonds along the pathway, in reasonable agreement with the barrier inferred from previous experimental observation of lysozyme surface clustering. These results show the importance of studying protein diffusion alongside adsorption to gain full insight into the formation of protein clusters and films, essential steps in the future development of functionalized surfaces.

  14. Adsorption of O-Phospho-L-Serine and L-Serine onto Poorly Crystalline Apatite.

    PubMed

    Benaziz, Lhaj; Barroug, Allal; Legrouri, Ahmed; Rey, Christian; Lebugle, Albert

    2001-06-01

    The adsorption of phosphoserine and serine was studied to determine the effect of amino acid functional groups on the surface reactivity of synthetic poorly crystalline apatite similar to bone mineral. The experimental results for phosphoserine and serine uptake agree respectively with the Langmuir and Freundlich models. Phosphoserine exhibits stronger adsorption capacity and a higher affinity constant for the surface crystals compared to serine molecules. The enhanced adsorption capacity noted for phosphoserine might be related to the presence of phosphate groups in the molecule, which are specific attachment sites. This observation suggests that the strength of phosphate bonds to the solid surface, especially to calcium ions, is higher than that of carboxyl and hydroxyl ones. Spectroscopic observations provide evidence of an adsorption mechanism involving the anionic species of the amino acids and the surface of the crystals. Thus, a change in the position of the band of carboxyl groups occurred for the adsorbed molecules compared to the native amino acids. This revealed that the molecular residues do interact with apatite surface calcium. The shift noted in the frequencies of the bands associated with carboxylate vibrations is more pronounced for phosphoserine, confirming the stronger interaction noted for this molecule. Based on these results, one can conclude that the sorbent and sorbate charged species play an important role in the mechanism of uptake of the amino acids onto crystal surfaces. This may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism by which phosphoproteins could influence mineralization processes and caries. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  15. Adsorption and Unfolding of Lysozyme at a Polarized Aqueous-Organic Liquid Interface.

    PubMed

    Arooj, Mahreen; Gandhi, Neha S; Kreck, Cara A; Arrigan, Damien W M; Mancera, Ricardo L

    2016-03-31

    The adsorption of proteins at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions has been found to be key to their bioelectroactivity at such interfaces. Combined with interfacial complexation of organic phase anions by cationic proteins, this adsorption process may be exploited to achieve nanomolar protein detection. In this study, replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to elucidate for the first time the molecular mechanism of adsorption and subsequent unfolding of hen egg white lysozyme at low pH at a polarized 1,2-dichloroethane/water interface. The unfolding of lysozyme was observed to occur as soon as it reaches the organic-aqueous interface, which resulted in a number of distinct orientations at the interface. In all cases, lysozyme interacted with the organic phase through regions rich in nonpolar amino acids, such that the side chains are directed toward the organic phase, whereas charged and polar residues were oriented toward the aqueous phase. By contrast, as expected, lysozyme in neat water at low pH does not exhibit significant structural changes. These findings demonstrate the key influence of the organic phase upon adsorption of lysozyme under the influence of an electric field, which results in the unfolding of its structure.

  16. Activated carbons prepared from wood particleboard wastes: characterisation and phenol adsorption capacities.

    PubMed

    Girods, P; Dufour, A; Fierro, V; Rogaume, Y; Rogaume, C; Zoulalian, A; Celzard, A

    2009-07-15

    The problems of valorisation of particleboard wastes on one hand, and contamination of aqueous effluents by phenolic compounds on the other hand, are simultaneously considered in this work. Preparation of activated carbons from a two steps thermo-chemical process, formerly designed for generating combustible gases, is suggested. The resultant carbonaceous residue is activated with steam at 800 degrees C. Depending on the preparation conditions, surface areas within the range 800-1300 m(2)/g are obtained, close to that of a commercial activated carbon (CAC) specially designed for water treatment and used as a reference material. The present work shows that particleboard waste-derived activated carbons (WAC) are efficient adsorbents for the removal of phenol from aqueous solutions, with maximum measured capacities close to 500 mg/g. However, most of times, the adsorption capacities are slightly lower than that of the commercial material in the same conditions, i.e., at equilibrium phenol concentrations below 300 ppm. Given the extremely low cost of activated carbons prepared from particleboard waste, it should not be a problem to use it in somewhat higher amounts than what is required with a more expensive commercial material. Phenol adsorption isotherms at 298 K were correctly fitted by various equations modelling type I and type II isotherms for CAC and WAC, respectively. Phenol adsorption isotherms of type II were justified by a 3-stages adsorption mechanism.

  17. Adsorption of HMF from water/DMSO solutions onto hydrophobic zeolites: experiment and simulation.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ruichang; León, Marta; Nikolakis, Vladimiros; Sandler, Stanley I; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), DMSO, and water from binary and ternary mixtures in hydrophobic silicalite-1 and dealuminated Y (DAY) zeolites at ambient conditions was studied by experiments and molecular modeling. HMF and DMSO adsorption isotherms were measured and compared to those calculated using a combination of grand canonical Monte Carlo and expanded ensemble (GCMC-EE) simulations. A method based on GCMC-EE simulations for dilute solutions combined with the Redlich-Kister (RK) expansion (GCMC-EE-RK) is introduced to calculate the isotherms over a wide range of concentrations. The simulations, using literature force fields, are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. In HMF/water binary mixtures, large-pore hydrophobic zeolites are much more effective for HMF adsorption but less selective because large pores allow water adsorption because of H2 O-HMF attraction. In ternary HMF/DMSO/water mixtures, HMF loading decreases with increasing DMSO fraction, rendering the separation of HMF from water/DMSO mixtures by adsorption difficult. The ratio of the energetic interaction in the zeolite to the solvation free energy is a key factor in controlling separation from liquid mixtures. Overall, our findings could have an impact on the separation and catalytic conversion of HMF and the rational design of nanoporous adsorbents for liquid-phase separations in biomass processing.

  18. Adsorption of etheramine on kaolinite: a cheap alternative for the treatment of mining effluents.

    PubMed

    Magriotis, Zuy M; Leal, Paulo V B; Sales, Priscila F; Papini, Rísia M; Viana, Paulo R M

    2010-12-15

    The results of laboratory experiments aimed at determining the influence of physicochemical parameters on the adsorption of etheramine (adsorbate) on white, pink and yellow kaolinites (adsorbent) are presented. The adsorption of etheramine was favoured at pH 10.0 under conditions where the initial concentration of etheramine was 200 mg l(-1) and the ratio of adsorbent to volume of etheramine solution was 1:100 g ml(-1). Equilibrium adsorption was attained within 30 min and the efficiencies of removal of etheramine by white, pink and yellow kaolinite were 77%, 80% and 69%, respectively. The adsorption isotherms of the kaolinites were determined under optimum conditions and with adsorbate in the concentration range of 0-4000 mg l(-1). The amounts of etheramine adsorbed per unit mass of adsorbent were 33.03, 34.32 and 23.11 mg g(-1) for white, pink and yellow kaolinites, respectively. The adsorption of etheramine on kaolinites was better fitted to the Langmuir rather than the Freundlich isotherm, and could be explained by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. It is concluded that kaolinites offer significant potential in the treatment of effluents originating from the processing of lower grade iron ores by froth flotation.

  19. Polypropylene nonwoven surface modified through introducing porous microspheres: Preparation, characterization and adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiao; Wei, Junfu; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Xiangyu; Dai, Danyang

    2016-01-01

    A new porous fabric adsorbent (PM/PP nonwoven) was prepared by hydrogen bonding self-assembly method, in which poly(divinylbenzene-co-4-vinylpyridine) microspheres were introduced onto the surface of PP-g-AA (polypropylene grafted acrylic acid) nonwoven. The effects of the main conditions for self-assembly reaction such as mass ratio of microsphere to nonwoven, pH and the grafting degree of acrylic acid were studied. In addition, the adsorption mechanisms and interactions for three VOCs (styrene, cyclohexane, acetone) were systematically elucidated. The resulting 28.2% PM/PP nonwoven obtained a higher adsorption amount (52.8 mg/g) of styrene vapor, which was 88 times greater than that of original PP nonwoven. Meanwhile, the kinetic studies suggested that the Yoon and Nelson model is suitable to describe the adsorption mechanism of styrene over the modified nonwovens. Adsorption and pressure drop data showed that PM/PP nonwoven had good adsorption ability and air permeability due to its abundant functional groups and porous structures. Taken together, it is expected that PM/PP nonwoven would be a promising adsorbent for removal of VOCs from the gas streams.

  20. Adsorption of CaCO3 Particles on Cationic Cellulose Graft Copolymers

    PubMed

    Halab-Kessira; Ricard

    1996-12-25

    The behavior of small inorganic particles at the fiber/water interface has been analyzed from the kinetics and isotherms of adsorption of CaCO3 particles onto cationic fibers. The introduction of cationic moieties onto cellulosic fibers leads to a copolymer that can easily adsorb negatively charged particles. At equilibrium, the adsorption ratio of CaCO3 particles on a cationic copolymer of cellulose and poly(2-acryloxyethyltrimethylammonium chloride) is related closely to the particle size, the temperature, the agitation, and the ionic strength of the suspension. Kinetic models have shown that the weakly charged copolymers present a high-affinity-type kinetics when the CaCO3 particle average diameter is small (20 to 30 μm). For an average particle diameter equal to 72 μm, the kinetics corresponds to an adsorption with a lower affinity. The rate constants are 6.6 x 10(-12), 2.9 x 10(-12), and 1.2 x 10(-12) m3/s for particles with average diameters of 20, 30, and 72 μm, respectively. We have also noted that the adsorption increases with agitation and reaches a plateau after 5 min. The ionic strength influences the electrostatic interactions between the positive sites of the graft and the anion of the adsorbate. Indeed a decreasing adsorption is observed when the ionic strength increases.

  1. Adsorption and degradation of model volatile organic compounds by a combined titania-montmorillonite-silica photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiangyao; Li, Guiying; He, Zhigui; An, Taicheng

    2011-06-15

    A series of adsorptive photocatalysts, combined titania-montmorillonite-silica were synthesized. The resultant photocatalysts consisted of more and more spherically agglomerated TiO(2) particles with increasing of TiO(2) content, and anatase was the only crystalline phase with nano-scale TiO(2) particles. With increasing of the cation exchange capacity to TiO(2) molar ratio, specific surface area and pore volume increased very slightly. In a fluidized bed photocatalytic reactor by choosing toluene, ethyl acetate and ethanethiol as model pollutants, all catalysts had relatively high adsorption capacities and preferred to adsorb higher polarity pollutants. Langmuir isotherm model better described equilibrium data compared to Freundlich model. Competitive adsorptions were observed for the mixed pollutants on the catalysts, leading to decrease adsorption capacity for each pollutant. The combined titania-montmorillonite-silica photocatalyst exhibited excellent photocatalytic removal ability to model pollutants of various components. Almost 100% of degradation efficiency was achieved within 120 min for each pollutant with about 500 ppb initial concentration, though the efficiencies of multi-component compounds slightly decreased. All photocatalytic reactions followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Degradation rate constants of multi-component systems were lower than those for single systems, following the order of tolueneadsorption capacities for different pollutants of various components.

  2. Synthesis of colloidal metal nanocrystals in droplet reactors: the pros and cons of interfacial adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yi; Tong, Limin; Xia, Younan

    2014-07-09

    Droplet reactors have received considerable attention in recent years as an alternative route to the synthesis and potentially high-volume production of colloidal metal nanocrystals. Interfacial adsorption will immediately become an important issue to address when one seeks to translate a nanocrystal synthesis from batch reactors to droplet reactors due to the involvement of higher surface-to-volume ratios for the droplets and the fact that nanocrystals tend to be concentrated at the water-oil interface. Here we report a systematic study to compare the pros and cons of interfacial adsorption of metal nanocrystals during their synthesis in droplet reactors. On the one hand, interfacial adsorption can be used to generate nanocrystals with asymmetric shapes or structures, including one-sixth-truncated Ag octahedra and Au-Ag nanocups. On the other hand, interfacial adsorption has to be mitigated to obtain nanocrystals with uniform sizes and controlled shapes. We confirmed that Triton X-100, a nonionic surfactant, could effectively alleviate interfacial adsorption while imposing no impact on the capping agent typically needed for a shape-controlled synthesis. With the introduction of a proper surfactant, droplet reactors offer an attractive platform for the continuous production of colloidal metal nanocrystals.

  3. Phosphate adsorption from sewage sludge filtrate using zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiang; Huang, Xinrui; Wang, Xingzu; Zhao, Bingqing; Chen, Aiyan; Sun, Dezhi

    2009-09-30

    A series of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with different metal cations were synthesized to remove phosphate in waste sludge filtrate from a municipal wastewater treatment plant for phosphorus recovery and to help control eutrophication. The highest phosphate adsorption capacity was obtained by using Zn-Al-2-300, that is LDHs with Zn/Al molar ratio of 2 and calcined at 300 degrees C for 4h. Circumneutral and mildly alkaline waters appeared suitable for the possible application of Zn-Al LDHs due to the amphoteric nature of aluminum hydroxide. Phosphate adsorption from the sludge filtrate by the LDHs followed pseudo-second-order kinetics, and the adsorption capacity at equilibrium was determined to be approximately 50 mg P/g. Adsorption isotherms showed that phosphate uptake in this study was an endothermic process and had a good fit with a Langmuir-type model. The absorbed phosphate can be effectively desorbed (more than 80%) from LDHs particles by a 5 wt% NaOH solution. The regeneration rate of used LDHs was approximately 60% after six cycles of adsorption-desorption-regeneration.

  4. ADSORPTION MECHANISMS AND TRANSPORT BEHAVIOR BETWEEN SELENATE AND SELENITE ON DIFFERENT SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Um, Wooyong

    2014-04-30

    Adsorption of different oxidation species of selenium (Se), selenate (SeO42-) and selenite (SeO32-), with varying pHs (2 - 10) and ionic strengths (I = 0.01 M, 0.1 M and 1.0 M NaNO3) was measured on quartz, aluminum oxide, and synthetic iron oxide (ferrihydrite) using batch reactors to obtain a more detailed understanding of the adsorption mechanisms (e.g., inner- and outer-sphere complex). In addition to the batch experiments with single minerals contained in native Hanford Site sediment, additional batch adsorption studies were conducted with native Hanford Site sediment and groundwater as a function of 1) total Se concentration (from 0.01 to 10 mg L-1) and 2) soil to solution ratios (1:20 and 1:2 grams per mL). Results from these batch studies were compared to a set of saturated column experiments that were conducted with natural Hanford sediment and groundwater spiked with either selenite or selenate to observe the transport behavior of these species. Both batch and column results indicated that selenite adsorption was consistently higher than that of selenate in all experimental conditions used. These different adsorption mechanisms between selenite and selenate result in the varying mobility of Se in the subsurface environment and explain the dependence on the oxidation species.

  5. Adsorption of binary mixtures of ethane and acetylene on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.V.; Huang, J.C.; Rothstein, D.; Madey, R.

    1984-01-01

    Dynamic measurement of the adsorption of binary mixtures of ethane and acetylene (and also of each gas alone) in a helium carrier gas were made on an (Columbia 4LXC 12/28) activated carbon adsorber bed at 25/sup 0/C. The adsorption capacities of the activated carbon for the pure gases and for each component in the mixtures are extracted from the transmission curves by the use of a mass balance equation. Transmission is the ratio of the concentration at the outlet of the adsorber bed to that at the inlet. The adsorption isotherms for pure ethane and acetylene can be presented by a modified Langmuir isotherm known as the Chakravarti-Dhar isotherm at gas concentrations up to at least 4.2 X 19/sup -7/ mol/cm/sup 3/ (viz., 7.8 mmHg). The gas-adsorbate equilibrium composition and the adsorption capacity of each component in the binary mixture of ethane and acetylene are estimated from the corresponding single-component isotherms by applying ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST). The fact that the estimated values of the adsorption capacities and the gas-adsorbate equilibrium compositions are in good agreement with those extracted from the measurements for the binary mixtures of ethane and acetylene confirms that the ethane-acetylene system forms an ideal adsorbed phase on activated carbon at a pressure of about 7.3 mmHg and a temperature of 25/sup 0/C. 20 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  6. Roles of histidine residues in plant vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yi Y; Van, Ru C; Hung, Shu H; Lin, Hsin H; Pan, Rong L

    2004-02-15

    Vacuolar proton pumping pyrophosphatase (H(+)-PPase; EC 3.6.1.1) plays a pivotal role in electrogenic translocation of protons from cytosol to the vacuolar lumen at the expense of PP(i) hydrolysis. Alignment analysis on amino acid sequence demonstrates that vacuolar H(+)-PPase of mung bean contains six highly conserved histidine residues. Previous evidence indicated possible involvement of histidine residue(s) in enzymatic activity and H(+)-translocation of vacuolar H(+)-PPase as determined by using histidine specific modifier, diethylpyrocarbonate [J. Protein Chem. 21 (2002) 51]. In this study, we further attempted to identify the roles of histidine residues in mung bean vacuolar H(+)-PPase by site-directed mutagenesis. A line of mutants with histidine residues singly replaced by alanine was constructed, over-expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and then used to determine their enzymatic activities and proton translocations. Among the mutants scrutinized, only the mutation of H716 significantly decreased the enzymatic activity, the proton transport, and the coupling ratio of vacuolar H(+)-PPase. The enzymatic activity of H716A is relatively resistant to inhibition by diethylpyrocarbonate as compared to wild-type and other mutants, indicating that H716 is probably the target residue for the attack by this modifier. The mutation at H716 of V-PPase shifted the optimum pH value but not the T(1/2) (pretreatment temperature at which half enzymatic activity is observed) for PP(i) hydrolytic activity. Mutation of histidine residues obviously induced conformational changes of vacuolar H(+)-PPase as determined by immunoblotting analysis after limited trypsin digestion. Furthermore, mutation of these histidine residues modified the inhibitory effects of F(-) and Na(+), but not that of Ca(2+). Single substitution of H704, H716 and H758 by alanine partially released the effect of K(+) stimulation, indicating possible location of K(+) binding in the vicinity of domains

  7. Removal of element mercury by medicine residue derived biochars in presence of various gas compositions.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoliang; Shen, Boxiong; Li, Yongwang; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Fumei; He, Chuan; Wang, Yinyin; Zhang, Min

    2015-11-15

    Pyrolyzed biochars from an industrial medicinal residue waste were modified by microwave activation and NH4Cl impregnation. Mercury adsorption of different modified biochars was investigated in a quartz fixed-bed reactor. The results indicated that both physisorption and chemisorption of Hg(0) occurred on the surface of M6WN5 which was modified both microwave and 5wt.% NH4Cl loading, and exothermic chemisorption process was a dominant route for Hg(0) removal. Microwave activation improved pore properties and NH4Cl impregnation introduced good active sites for biochars. The presence of NO and O2 increased Hg(0) adsorption whereas H2O inhibited Hg(0) adsorption greatly. A converse effect of SO2 was observed on Hg(0) removal, namely, low concentration of SO2 promoted Hg(0) removal obviously whereas high concentration of SO2 suppressed Hg(0) removal. The Hg(0) removal by M6WN5 was mainly due to the reaction of the C−Cl with Hg(0) to form HgCl2, and the active state of C−Cl(*) groups might be an intermediate group in this process. Thermodynamic analysis showed that mercury adsorption by the biochars was exothermic process and apparent adsorption energy was 43.3 kJ/mol in the range of chemisorption. In spite of low specific surface area, M6WN5 proved to be a promising Hg(0) sorbent in flue gas when compared with other sorbents.

  8. Biosorption of heavy metal ions onto agricultural residues buckwheat hulls functionalized with 1-hydroxylethylidenediphosphonic acid.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ping; Wang, Zengdi; Qu, Rongjun; Liu, Xiguang; Zhang, Jiang; Xu, Qiang

    2012-11-28

    Novel biosorbent materials obtained from agricultural residues buckwheat hulls (BH) were successfully developed through functionalization with 1-hydroxylethylidenediphosphonic acid (HEDP), and they were characterized. This paper reports the feasibility of using HEDP-BH for removal of heavy metals from stimulated wastewater, the experimental results revealed that the adsorption property of functionalized buckwheat hulls with 120 mesh 120-HEDP-BH for Au(III) was very excellent, and the monolayer maximum adsorption capacity for Au(III) calculated from the Langmuir isotherm models was up to 450.45 mg/g at 35 °C. The combined effect of initial solution pH, 120-HEDP-BH dosage, and initial Au(III) concentration was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM), and the result showed that biomass dosage exerted a stronger influence on Au(III) uptake than those of initial pH and initial Au(III) concentration. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the quadratic model demonstrated that the model was highly significant. Moreover, investigation on the adsorption selectivity showed that 120-HEDP-BH displayed strong affinity for gold in aqueous solutions and even exhibited 100% selectivity for Au(III) ions in the presence of Zn(II) and Co(II). Regeneration capacities of 120-HEDP-BH were studied using the eluent solutions of 0.0-5.0% thiourea in 0.1 mmol/L HCl, and it was found that the adsorption capability remains high after several cycles of adsorption-desorption process.

  9. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: MAGNETIC TAPE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Magnetic Tape Manufacturing source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Magnetic Tape Manufacturing source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  10. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  11. Sorption characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aluminum smelter residues

    SciTech Connect

    Gijs D. Breedveld; Emilien Pelletier; Richard St. Louis; Gerard Cornelissen

    2007-04-01

    High temperature carbon oxidation in primary aluminum smelters results in the release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) into the environment. The main source of PAH are the anodes, which are composed of petroleum coke (black carbon, BC) and coal tar pitch. To elucidate the dominant carbonaceous phase controlling the environmental fate of PAH in aluminum smelter residues (coke BC and/or coal tar), the sorptive behavior of PAHs has been determined, using passive samplers and infinite-sink desorption methods. Samples directly from the wet scrubber were studied as well as ones from an adjacent 20-year old storage lagoon and roof dust from the smelter. Carbon-normalized distribution coefficients of native PAHs were 2 orders of magnitude higher than expected based on amorphous organic carbon (AOC)/water partitioning, which is in the same order of magnitude as reported literature values for soots and charcoals. Sorption isotherms of laboratory-spiked deuterated phenanthrene showed strong (about 100 times stronger than AOC) but nonetheless linear sorption in both fresh and aged aluminum smelter residues. The absence of nonlinear behavior typical for adsorption to BC indicates that PAH sorption in aluminum smelter residues is dominated by absorption into the semi-solid coal tar pitch matrix. Desorption experiments using Tenax showed that fresh smelter residues had a relatively large rapidly desorbing fraction of PAH (35-50%), whereas this fraction was strongly reduced (11-16%) in the lagoon and roof dust material. Weathering of the coal tar residue and/or redistribution of PAH between coal tar and BC phases could explain the reduced availability in aged samples. 38 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Equilibrium and kinetic modeling of adsorption of reactive dye on cross-linked chitosan beads.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Ming Shen; Li, Hsing Ya

    2002-07-22

    The adsorption of reactive dye (Reactive Red 189) from aqueous solutions on cross-linked chitosan beads was studied in a batch system. The equilibrium isotherms at different particle sizes (2.3-2.5, 2.5-2.7 and 3.5-3.8mm) and the kinetics of adsorption with respect to the initial dye concentration (4320, 5760 and 7286 g/m(3)), temperature (30, 40 and 50 degrees C), pH (1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 9.0), and cross-linking ratio (cross-linking agent/chitosan weight ratio: 0.2, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0) were investigated. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the experimental isotherms and isotherm constants. Equilibrium data fitted very well to the Langmuir model in the entire saturation concentration range (0-1800 g/m(3)). The maximum monolayer adsorption capacities obtained from the Langmuir model are very large, which are 1936, 1686 and 1642 g/kg for small, mediumand large particle sizes, respectively, at pH 3.0, 30 degrees C, and the cross-linking ratio of 0.2. The pseudo first- and second-order kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic data, and the rate constants were evaluated. The experimental data fitted well to the second-order kinetic model, which indicates that the chemical sorption is the rate-limiting step, instead of mass transfer. The initial dye concentration and the solution pH both significantly affect the adsorption capacity, but the temperature and the cross-linking ratio are relatively minor factors. An increase in initial dye concentration results in the increase of adsorption capacity, which also increases with decreasing pH. The activation energy is 43.0 kJ/mol for the adsorption of the dye on the cross-linked chitosan beads at pH 3.0 and initial dye concentration 3768 g/m(3).

  13. Adsorption of emulsified oil from metalworking fluid on activated bleaching earth-chitosan-SDS composites: Optimization, kinetics, isotherms.

    PubMed

    Naowanat, Nitiya; Thouchprasitchai, Nutthavich; Pongstabodee, Sangobtip

    2016-03-15

    The adsorption of emulsified oil from metalworking fluid (MWF) on activated bleaching earth (BE)-chitosan-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) composites (BE/MCS) was investigated under a statistical design of experiments at a 95% confidence interval to identify the critical factors and to optimize the adsorption capacity. The BE/MCS adsorbents were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller adsorption/desorption isotherms, contact angle analysis (sessile drop technique) and their zeta potential. From the results of a full 2(5) factorial design with three center points, the adsorbent weight and initial pH of the MWF had a significant antagonistic effect on the adsorption capacity while the initial MWF concentration and BE:chitosan:SDS weight ratio had a synergistic influence. Temperature factor has no discernible effect on the capacity. From the FCCC-RSM design, the optimal capacity range of 2840-2922.5 mg g(-1) was achieved at sorbent weight of 1.6-1.9 g, pH of 5.5-6.5, initial MWF concentration of 52-55 g l(-1) and BE:chitosan:SDS (w/w/w) ratio of 4.7:1:1-6.2:1:1. To test the validation and sensitivity of RSM model, the results showed that the estimated adsorption capacity was close to the experimental capacity within an error range of ±3%, suggesting that the RSM model was acceptable and satisfied. From three kinetics models (pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order model and Avrami's equation) and two adsorption isotherms (Langmuir model and Freundlich model), assessed using an error function (Err) and the coefficient of determination (R(2)), Avrami's equation and Freundlich isotherm model provided a good fitting for the data, suggesting the presence of more than one reaction pathway in the MWF adsorption process and the heterogeneous surface adsorption of the BC/ABE-5.5 composite.

  14. Defluoridation of drinking water using adsorption processes.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kandasamy, Jaya; Naidu, Ravi

    2013-03-15

    Excessive intake of fluoride (F), mainly through drinking water, is a serious health hazard affecting humans worldwide. There are several methods used for the defluoridation of drinking water, of which adsorption processes are generally considered attractive because of their effectiveness, convenience, ease of operation, simplicity of design, and for economic and environmental reasons. In this paper, we present a comprehensive and a critical literature review on various adsorbents used for defluoridation, their relative effectiveness, mechanisms and thermodynamics of adsorption, and suggestions are made on choice of adsorbents for various circumstances. Effects of pH, temperature, kinetics and co-existing anions on F adsorption are also reviewed. Because the adsorption is very weak in extremely low or high pHs, depending on the adsorbent, acids or alkalis are used to desorb F and regenerate the adsorbents. However, adsorption capacity generally decreases with repeated use of the regenerated adsorbent. Future research needs to explore highly efficient, low cost adsorbents that can be easily regenerated for reuse over several cycles of operations without significant loss of adsorptive capacity and which have good hydraulic conductivity to prevent filter clogging during the fixed-bed treatment process.

  15. Gibbs adsorption and the compressibility equation

    SciTech Connect

    Aranovich, G.L.; Donohue, M.D.

    1995-08-08

    A new approach for deriving the equation of state is developed. It is shown that the integral in the compressibility equation is identical to the isotherm for Gibbs adsorption in radial coordinates. The Henry, Langmuir, and Frumkin adsorption isotherms are converted into equations of state. It is shown that using Henry`s law gives an expression for the second virial coefficient that is identical to the result from statistical mechanics. Using the Langmuir isotherm leads to a new analytic expression for the hard-sphere equation of state which can be explicit in either pressure or density. The Frumkin isotherm results in a new equation of state for the square-well potential fluid. Conversely, new adsorption isotherms can be derived from equations of state using the compressibility equation. It is shown that the van der Waals equation gives an adsorption isotherm equation that describes both polymolecular adsorption and the unusual adsorption behavior observed for supercritical fluids. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  16. Differential Heat of Adsorption and Isosteres.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yun; Wu, Jianzhong

    2017-01-31

    Heat of adsorption is a basic thermodynamic property extensively used not only for understanding thermal effects and heat management in industrial gas storage and separation processes but also for development and validation of adsorption models and materials force fields. Despite a long history of theoretical studies and a vast experimental literature, controversies often arise in the thermodynamic analysis of heat effects due to various assumptions used to describe gas adsorption and inconsistencies between direct calorimetric measurements and isosteric heat obtained from various adsorption isotherms. Here we present a rigorous theoretical procedure for predicting isosteric heat without any assumption about the geometry of porous adsorbents or operating conditions. Quantitative relations between the differential heat and various isosteres have been established with the grand-canonical Monte Carlo simulation for gas adsorption in amorphous as well as crystalline porous materials. The inconsistencies and practical issues with conventional methods for the analysis of the heat effect have been clarified in the context of the exact results for model systems. Via the resolution of a number of controversies about heat analysis, we hope that the new theoretical procedure will be adopted for both fundamental research and industrial applications of gas adsorption processes.

  17. Gas adsorption capacity of wood pellets

    DOE PAGES

    Yazdanpanah, F.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Lim, C. Jim; ...

    2016-02-03

    In this paper, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) analysis was used to measure and analyze the adsorption of off-gases and oxygen by wood pellets during storage. Such information on how these gases interact with the material helps in the understanding of the purging/stripping behavior of off-gases to develop effective ventilation strategies for wood pellets. Steam-exploded pellets showed the lowest carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake compared to the regular and torrefied pellets. The high CO2 adsorption capacity of the torrefied pellets could be attributed to their porous structure and therefore greater available surface area. Quantifying the uptake of carbon monoxide by pellets was challengingmore » due to chemical adsorption, which formed a strong bond between the material and carbon monoxide. The estimated energy of desorption for CO (97.8 kJ/mol) was very high relative to that for CO2 (7.24 kJ/mol), demonstrating the mechanism of chemical adsorption and physical adsorption for CO and CO2, respectively. As for oxygen, the strong bonds that formed between the material and oxygen verified the existence of chemical adsorption and formation of an intermediate material.« less

  18. Gas adsorption capacity of wood pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdanpanah, F.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Lim, C. Jim; Lau, A.; Bi, X. T.

    2016-02-03

    In this paper, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) analysis was used to measure and analyze the adsorption of off-gases and oxygen by wood pellets during storage. Such information on how these gases interact with the material helps in the understanding of the purging/stripping behavior of off-gases to develop effective ventilation strategies for wood pellets. Steam-exploded pellets showed the lowest carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake compared to the regular and torrefied pellets. The high CO2</