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Sample records for adult 4-h volunteer

  1. Adult 4-H Volunteer Empowerment in 4-H Youth Development Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine which factors related to adult 4-H volunteer empowerment in 4-H youth development settings. This study examined the relationship of adult 4-H volunteers' perceived leadership styles of Oregon 4-H Youth Development Educators (YDE) to the adult 4-H volunteer sense of empowerment. In addition,…

  2. Recruiting 4-H Volunteer Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Four-H Club Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The guide is intended to assist 4-H Club extension workers in recruiting volunteer adult and youth leaders. It discusses: why volunteers serve (organizational identity, desire to serve, involvement of other family members, future opportunities and obligations, community status, self interest, and public opinion); how to recruit (person-to-person…

  3. North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state…

  4. Relationships between 4-H Volunteer Leader Competencies and Skills Youth Learn in 4-H Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishna, Rama; Ewing, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This article examined the relationships between 4-H volunteer leader competencies and skills youth learn in 4-H. Using a descriptive-correlational research, the study reported found significant relationships between leadership competencies and skills youth learn in 4-H. Regression analysis revealed that two variables--skills and…

  5. A Phenomenological Look at 4-H Volunteer Motives for Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrock, Jessalyn; Kelsey, Kathleen D.

    2013-01-01

    Volunteers play a vital role in 4-H programs. Without their service, many programs would not be possible. Understanding volunteer motives provides Extension educators with tools for finding high-quality volunteers. The research reported here used McClelland's (1985) framework for motivation (affiliation, achievement, and power) and…

  6. New Jersey 4-H Goat Extravaganza: Efficiently Meeting the Educational Needs of 4-H Goat Project Members, Volunteers, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripberger, Chad

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Goat Extravaganza maximizes limited resources to help youth and adults develop knowledge and skills in goat care and management. It capitalizes on the talents and interests of volunteers to efficiently combine a goat-themed art show, team presentation contest, quiz bowl, skillathon, and adult workshop into 1 day. This article outlines the…

  7. Ohio 4-H Agents' and Volunteer Leaders' Perceptions of the Volunteer Leadership Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwarteng, Joseph A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This study found that six areas of volunteer leadership development are important to volunteers and 4-H agents. The areas are (1) recruiting, (2) training, (3) motivation, (4) recognition, (5) retention, and (6) supervision. (JOW)

  8. Adult volunteerism in Pennsylvania 4-H natural resources programs for youth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Sanford Sherrick

    2001-07-01

    Pennsylvania's 4-H Youth Development Program relies on adult volunteers to reach youth with educational information and opportunities. Finding adults willing to do this volunteer work is challenging. This study looks at the current status of adult volunteerism with natural resources 4-H projects, and seeks to understand potential volunteers. The literature has much to offer in regards to general volunteer trends, management, motivations, and task preferences; however, few studies focus on volunteers in natural resources or environmental education. A telephone survey conducted with county 4-H agents revealed that only 3.2% of Pennsylvania's 4-H volunteers work with natural resources projects in 56 out of 67 counties, and that very few volunteers have any formal background in natural resources. Semi-structured interviews with 41 adult volunteers currently working with natural resources projects explored volunteer demographics, history, program design preferences, and ideas for seeking more volunteers. Findings from the telephone survey and the semi-structured interviews were used to generate a mail survey with large, random samples from three population groups: (1) 4-H Volunteers, (2) 4-H Parents, and (3) Natural Resources Professionals. Confidence with youth and subject matter, and adult willingness to volunteer was explored for each of the groups in relation to background, demographic characteristics, motivational needs, past and present volunteer activity, personal interests, and program design importance. Natural resources subject matter confidence was shown to be the most significant variable determining willingness to volunteer for all three groups. The variables that contributed to subject matter and youth confidence varied for each population. Key variables effecting willingness to volunteer included outdoor activity level, personal interest in natural resources, the need to fulfill feelings of social responsibility, and confidence with youth. Program design

  9. Creating the Southern Region 4-H Volunteer Advisory Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Ken, III; Edwards, Harriett C.; Jordan, Jenny W.

    2014-01-01

    The SR4-HVAG combines the efforts of states to provide quality educational programming for volunteers and Extension professionals using an advisory group system. An advisory group rather than a council was created because the group provides programmatic input rather than sets policy. The purposes of the SR4-HVAG are to: provide a mechanism for…

  10. E-Learning for 4-H Volunteers: Who Uses It, and What Can We Learn from Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Kristy L.; Lesmeister, Marilyn K.; Lobley, Jennifer; Gross, Kerry M.

    2014-01-01

    Orienting and training 4-H volunteers are critical to individuals and the organization. The two-part study reported here re-establishes the profile of the 4-H volunteer and evaluates both the format and content of e-Learning for 4-H Volunteers modules launched in 2006. Volunteers from seven states perceived that online modules made learning more…

  11. Participant Comfort with and Application of Inquiry-Based Learning: Results from 4-H Volunteer Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugen, Heidi; Stevenson, Anne; Meyer, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how a one-time training designed to support learning transfer affected 4-H volunteers' comfort levels with the training content and how comfort levels, in turn, affected the volunteers' application of tools and techniques learned during the training. Results of a follow-up survey suggest that the training participants…

  12. A Partnership Model for Training Episodic Environmental Stewardship 4-H Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jane Chin; Alexander, Janice; Smith, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    The Marin Environmental Stewardship pilot project demonstrates the potential for a partnership model that brings together external and internal collaborators to recruit and train episodic 4-H volunteers to meet environmental education needs within a community. The clientele served by the volunteers trained through the project was at-risk, urban…

  13. Institutional Facilitation in Sustained Volunteering among Older Adult Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Songiee

    2009-01-01

    As more nonprofit organizations rely on older adult volunteers to provide services, it is important to retain volunteers for an extended period of time to ensure service quality and the beneficial outcomes of volunteering. Nonprofit organizations are positioned to facilitate older adult volunteers' role performance. Based on an institutional…

  14. Handbook for Volunteers: Adult Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, C. Russell

    Designed for volunteers in Olympic College's Adult Education Volunteer Classroom Assistant Project, this handbook discusses volunteer tutors' roles, characteristics of Adult Basic Education (ABE) and English as a Second Language (ESL) students, suggested teaching techniques, tips for working with instructors, and college policies and regulations.…

  15. Helping Leaders Help Youth. An Evaluation Report of a Program for Illinois Volunteer 4-H Leaders, 1973-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Conceived by the staff of the University of Illinois Cooperative Extension Service as a means of aiding County Extension Advisors in working with volunteer 4-H leaders in Illinois, "Helping Leaders Help Youth" employed a combination of vinyl sound sheets for home study and a leader development meeting series supported by audiovisual aids and…

  16. Cryptosporidium meleagridis: Infectivity in Healthy Adult Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Cynthia L.; Okhuysen, Pablo C.; Langer-Curry, Rebecca C.; Akiyoshi, Donna E.; Widmer, Giovanni; Tzipori, Saul

    2011-01-01

    Most Cryptosporidium infections in humans are caused by C. parvum or C. hominis. However, genotyping techniques have identified infections caused by unusual Cryptosporidium species. Cryptosporidium meleagridis has been identified in ≤ 1% of persons with diarrhea, although prevalence is higher in developing nations. We examined the infectivity of C. meleagridis in healthy adults. Five volunteers were challenged with 105 C. meleagridis oocysts and monitored six weeks for fecal oocysts and clinical manifestations. Four volunteers had diarrhea; three had detectable fecal oocysts; and one infected volunteer remained asymptomatic. Fecal DNA from two volunteers was amplified by using a polymerase chain reaction specific for the Cryptosporidium small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Nucleotide sequence of these amplicons was diagnostic for C. meleagridis. All infections were self-limited; oocysts were cleared within ≤ 12 days of challenge. These studies establish that healthy adults can be infected and become ill from ingestion of C. meleagridis oocysts. PMID:21813841

  17. Organizational Support and Volunteering Benefits for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Choi, Eunhee; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested a theoretical model of volunteering benefits and examined the mechanism through which volunteering benefits older adults. Design and Methods: This is a 2-wave study of 253 older adult volunteers serving in 10 volunteer programs. Older volunteers completed the mailed surveys in 2005 and 2006. Structural equation modeling…

  18. Ohio 4-H Agents' Perceptions of the Level of Importance and Frequency of Use of the Eighteen Components of the GEMS Model of Volunteer Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deppe, Catherine A.; Culp, Ken, III

    2001-01-01

    4-H youth development agents (n=81) identified the importance and frequency of use of the phases in the GEMS (Generate, Educate, Motivate, Sustain) model of volunteer administration. The greatest discrepancy between importance and frequency was in sustaining volunteer involvement. Areas for agents' professional development were identified.…

  19. Development and Evaluation of an On-Line Educational Module for Volunteer Leaders on Bio-Security in Washington State 4-H Livestock Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jill L.; Moore, Dale A.; Newman, Jerry; Schmidt, Janet L.; Smith, Sarah M.; Smith, Jean; Kerr, Susan; Wallace, Michael; BoyEs, Pat

    2011-01-01

    An on-line module on disease prevention was created for 4-H volunteer leaders who work with livestock projects in Washington to better prepare them to teach youth about bio-security and its importance in 4-H livestock projects. Evaluation of the module and usage statistics since the module's debut were collected and evaluated. The module increases…

  20. Development and Evaluation of an On-Line Educational Module for Volunteer Leaders on Bio-Security in Washington State 4-H Livestock Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jill L.; Moore, Dale A.; Newman, Jerry; Schmidt, Janet L.; Smith, Sarah M.; Smith, Jean; Kerr, Susan; Wallace, Michael; BoyEs, Pat

    2011-01-01

    A module on disease prevention was created for 4-H volunteer leaders who work with livestock projects in Washington to better prepare them to teach youth about bio-security and its importance in 4-H livestock projects. Evaluation of the module and usage statistics since the module's debut were collected and evaluated. The module increases…

  1. Adult Literacy Volunteers. Overview. ERIC Digest No. 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    Although volunteer tutors traditionally have formed the basis of the programs of Laubach Literacy Action and Literacy Volunteers of America, volunteers have begun to play a greater role in adult literacy instruction provided through community-based organizations, correctional institutions, churches, and federally funded adult basic education.…

  2. Assessing the Need for an On-Line Educational Module for Volunteer Leaders on Bio-Security in Washington State 4-H Livestock Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jill L.; Moore, Dale A.; Newman, Jerry; Schmidt, Janet L.; Smith, Sarah M.; Smith, Jean; Kerr, Susan; Wallace, Michael; BoyEs, Pat

    2011-01-01

    4-H livestock projects present disease transmission risks that can be reduced by the use of bio-security practices. The responsibility of teaching bio-security to youth belongs primarily to volunteer leaders, who may not be aware of the importance of these practices. A needs assessment for an online educational module about bio-security revealed…

  3. Volunteer drivers: their contributions to older adults and to themselves.

    PubMed

    Kerschner, Helen; Rousseau, Marie-Hélène

    2008-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005 the Beverly Foundation surveyed volunteer drivers in an effort to better understand how and why they support older adults. The sample comprised 714 volunteer drivers from 367 communities, representing 40 states, who responded to the survey. Their responses provided qualitative and quantitative information about who they are, why they volunteer, the challenges they face, and the satisfaction they receive from volunteering to drive. They also addressed current topics including mobility and transportation for older adults, volunteerism and civic engagement, and an innovative method of joining the two sides of aging--the "wellderly" and the elderly. The involvement of volunteer drivers and the organizations that enable them to provide transportation services may be one solution for today and a hope of the future for meeting the transportation needs of older adults. PMID:19064473

  4. Volunteer Drivers: Their Contributions to Older Adults and to Themselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerschner, Helen; Rousseau, Marie-Helene

    2008-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005 the Beverly Foundation surveyed volunteer drivers in an effort to better understand how and why they support older adults. The sample comprised 714 volunteer drivers from 367 communities, representing 40 states, who responded to the survey. Their responses provided qualitative and quantitative information about who they are, why…

  5. A Reconceptualized Analysis of the West Virginia 4-H Global Education Program: Attitudes of Agents, Specialists, and Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulai, Ahmed M.

    2009-01-01

    Global Education has been and continues to be an important aspect of American higher educational curriculum. Its importance is evidenced not only at the formal educational sector, but also within youth development programs like the West Virginia 4-H program. The author contends that, the importance of global education is more relevant in the…

  6. Adults Who Learn Differently: Help through a Volunteer Literacy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Louise; Gillespie, Phyllis; Balkam, Lynda

    1997-01-01

    Presents an overview of preservice volunteer training at READ/San Diego, an adult literacy program. It discusses the program's informal assessment procedures that help identify possible language/learning disabilities and provide valuable information for instructional planning. Also described are selected multisensory teaching techniques designed…

  7. Less May Be More: Rethinking Adult Literacy Volunteer Tutor Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belzer, Alisa

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzed the relation between volunteer tutor training and reading instruction in 4 adult literacy programs. The data focus on tutors' choices of reading materials and strategies for assisting in the development of comprehension and word identification skills. Tutor training did not always transfer to practice, and it did not always…

  8. Cryptosporidium muris: Infectivity and Illness in Healthy Adult Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Cynthia L.; Okhuysen, Pablo C.; Langer-Curry, Rebecca C.; Lupo, Philip J.; Widmer, Giovanni; Tzipori, Saul

    2015-01-01

    Although Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis cause the majority of human cryptosporidiosis cases, other Cryptosporidium species are also capable of infecting humans, particularly when individuals are immunocompromised. Ten C. muris cases have been reported, primarily in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive patients with diarrhea. However, asymptomatic cases were reported in two HIV-negative children, and in another case, age and immune status were not described. This study examines the infectivity of C. muris in six healthy adults. Volunteers were challenged with 105 C. muris oocysts and monitored for 6 weeks for infection and/or illness. All six patients became infected. Two patients experienced a self-limited diarrheal illness. Total oocysts shed during the study ranged from 6.7 × 106 to 4.1 × 108, and the number was slightly higher in volunteers with diarrhea (2.8 × 108) than asymptomatic shedders (4.4 × 107). C. muris-infected subjects shed oocysts longer than occurred with other species studied in healthy volunteers. Three volunteers shed oocysts for 7 months. Physical examinations were normal, with no reported recurrence of diarrhea or other gastrointestinal complaints. Two persistent shedders were treated with nitazoxanide, and the infection was resolved. Thus, healthy adults are susceptible to C. muris, which can cause mild diarrhea and result in persistent, asymptomatic infection. PMID:25311695

  9. Volunteering and Psychological Well-Being among Young-Old Adults: How Much Is Too Much?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor, Timothy D.; Anstey, Kaarin J.; Rodgers, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Research concerned with the relationship between volunteer activity and psychological well-being has typically reported higher levels of well-being among older adult volunteers relative to nonvolunteers. However, few studies have examined nonlinear associations between frequency of volunteer activity and well-being. We examined nonlinear…

  10. Reassessment of stiripentol pharmacokinetics in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Peigné, Sophie; Rey, Elisabeth; Le Guern, Marie-Emmanuelle; Dulac, Olivier; Chiron, Catherine; Pons, Gerard; Jullien, Vincent

    2014-07-01

    Because children who have been receiving stiripentol for the treatment of Dravet syndrome for more than 10 years are now becoming young adults, it is important to accurately characterize stiripentol pharmacokinetics in this age range. A double-blind placebo-controlled dose ranging study was therefore conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of stiripentol in 12 healthy volunteers. Each subject received 3 single doses of stiripentol (500, 1000, and 2000 mg) separated by a wash-out period of 1 week. Pharmacokinetics of stiripentol was analyzed for each dose by non-compartmental analysis. Median area under the curve (AUC), terminal elimination half-life (t1/2,z) and maximal concentration (Cmax) were calculated for between-dose comparison. Safety was evaluated based on both clinical and biological criteria. Oppositely to previous results, there was no concentration rebounds in the elimination phase, which could be the consequence of the food intake. A more than proportional increase in the AUC was observed, associated with a significant increase in the t1/2,z, for increasing doses (median AUC of 8.3, 31 and 88 mgh/L, and median t1/2,z of 2, 7.7 and 10h for the 500, 1000, and 2000 mg doses respectively), which confirmed the Michaelis-Menten pharmacokinetics of Stiripentol. However, dose-normalized Cmax did not significantly vary between doses. Median Michaelis-Menten parameters were 117 mg/h for Vmax and 1.9 mg/L for Km. No safety concern was observed during the study. The present study allowed a better characterization of the disposition phase of stiripentol and confirmed its non-linear pharmacokinetic behaviour. Further pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies would be useful to determine the optimal dose of stiripentol for the treatment of Dravet patients in adulthood. PMID:24725808

  11. Factors Affecting Volunteering among Older Rural and City Dwelling Adults in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Jeni; Stirling, Christine

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of large scale Australian studies of volunteering among older adults, this study compared the relevance of two theoretical approaches--social capital theory and sociostructural resources theory--to predict voluntary activity in relation to a large national database. The paper explores volunteering by older people (aged 55+) in order…

  12. Goals and Personal Resources that Contribute to the Development and Agency Attachment of Older Adult Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Alayna A.; Gottlieb, Benjamin H.; Maitland, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the volunteer service contribution of older adults (N = 100) to volunteer role development and agency attachment. Informed by a developmental regulation framework and socio-emotional selectivity theory, we tested a twofold hypothesis for the premise that greater role development and agency attachment would be experienced by (1) older…

  13. A Case Study of a Volunteer-Based Literacy Class with Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine participants' perspectives on how a volunteer-based adult literacy class supports the learning of adults with developmental/intellectual disabilities. Interviews were conducted with four tutors, three adult learners, and two coordinators and observations of the class occurred over a 6-month period…

  14. Development Strategies for Online Volunteer Training Modules: A Team Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robideau, Kari; Vogel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Volunteers are central to the delivery of 4-H programs, and providing quality, relevant training is key to volunteer success. Online, asynchronous modules are an enhancement to a training delivery menu for adult volunteers, providing consistent, accessible options traditionally delivered primarily face to face. This article describes how Minnesota…

  15. Diurnal variation in the quantitative EEG in healthy adult volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, L; Dane, A; Rhodes, J; Lynch, P; Hughes, A M

    2000-01-01

    Aims To define the change in power in standard waveband frequencies of quantitative cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) data over a 24 h period, in a drug free representative healthy volunteer population. Methods This was an open, non randomised study in which 18 volunteers (9 male and 9 female) were studied on 1 study day, over a 24 h period. Volunteers had a cortical EEG recording taken at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 and 24 h. Each recording lasted for 6 min (3 min eyes open, 3 min eyes closed). All EEG recordings were taken in a quietened ward environment with the curtains drawn round the bed and the volunteer supine. During the 3 min eyes open, volunteers were asked to look at a red circle on a screen at the foot of the bed, and refrain from talking. Results Plots produced of geometric mean power by time of the standard wave band frequencies gave some indication of a circadian rhythm over the 24 h period for θ (4.75–6.75 Hz), α1 (7.0–9.5 Hz) and β1 (12.75–18.50 Hz) wavebands. Mixed models were fitted to both the eyes open and eyes closed data which confirmed a change in mean waveband power with time with statistical significance at the conventional 5% level (P < 0.05). Conclusions These data indicate the presence of a diurnal variation in the cortical quantitative EEG. They support the use of a placebo control group when designing clinical trials which utilize quantitative EEG to screen for central nervous system (CNS) activity of pharmaceutical agents, to control for the confounding variable of time of day at which the EEG recordings were made. PMID:10886113

  16. 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program Supports At-Risk Youth and Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Connie L.; Miller, Lucinda B.

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program provides a partnership opportunity with Extension and the juvenile court system to positively impact lives of at-risk youth. At-risk youth are taught by 4-H PetPALS adult volunteer leaders and 4-H PetPALS members to value and respect the human-animal bond, as well as to understand and empathize with…

  17. An evaluation of diphtheria--tetanus (adult) vaccine in unselected human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Harcus, A W; Ward, A E; Roberts, J S; Bryett, K A

    1989-01-01

    One hundred unselected adult volunteers received an adult diphtheria (less than 2 Lf)-tetanus (greater than or equal to 40 IU) adsorbed vaccine without prior Schick testing. No volunteer had a moderate or severe reaction although 39% complained of a transient sore arm. Only 10% reported local erythema. Of the study group, 37/43 (86%) patients who were initially seronegative for diphtheria attained levels normally considered as seropositive. The results confirm the safety and efficacy of adult diphtheria-tetanus vaccine and allow its recommendation for use in 'at risk' individuals without the need for prior Schick testing. PMID:2767328

  18. The interplay of frequency of volunteering and prosocial motivation on purpose in life in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; Kim, Ga Young

    2016-01-01

    One developmental task in emerging adulthood is finding meaning and purpose in life. Volunteering has been touted as one role that fosters purpose in life. We examined whether the association between frequency of volunteering and purpose in life varies with pleasure-based prosocial motivation and pressure-based prosocial motivation in a sample of 576 undergraduates, ages 18-22 years old. In a regression analysis predicting purpose in life, the frequency of volunteering by pleasure-based prosocial motivation by pressure-based prosocial motivation interaction effect was significant (p = .042). Simple slopes analyses revealed that frequency of volunteering was not significantly (p = .478) related to purpose in life among college students who were low in both pleasure-based and pressure-based prosocial motivation. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of prosocial motivation for understanding whether emerging adults' purpose in life will be enhanced by volunteering. PMID:27064183

  19. Volunteer Client Adult Attachment, Memory for In-Session Emotion, and Mood Awareness: An Affect Regulation Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, Susan S.; Gelso, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined relations between volunteer client adult attachment and both (a) memory for negative affect occurring within the first session of therapy and (b) mood awareness (mood labeling and mood monitoring). Participants were 80 volunteer clients (students with a personal issue who volunteered to participate in the…

  20. Integrating Volunteering into the Adult Immigrant Second Language Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    For immigrants, the acquisition of language, specifically the ability to communicate effectively, is one prerequisite of full integration into the host society. For an adult immigrant second language (L2) learner in Canada, access to opportunities that may enhance communicative ability are often limited to the ESL classroom. However, while…

  1. Connecting Socially Isolated Older Rural Adults with Older Volunteers through Expressive Arts.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Ann; Skinner, Mark W; Wilkinson, Fay; Reid, Heather

    2016-03-01

    Employing a participatory arts-based research approach, we examined an innovative program from rural Ontario, Canada, designed to address social isolation among older people. Older socially isolated adults were matched to trained volunteers, where in dyads, the eight pairs created expressive art in their home setting over the course of 10 home visits. With thematic and narrative inquiry, we analysed the experiences and perceptions of the program leader, older participants, and older volunteers via their artistic creations, weekly logs, evaluations, and field notes. The findings reveal a successful intervention that positively influenced the well-being of older adult participants and older volunteers, especially in regards to relationships, personal development, and creating meaning as well as extending the intervention's impact beyond the program's duration. We also discuss opportunities for similar programs to inform policy and enable positive community-based health and social service responses to rural social isolation. PMID:26934547

  2. Motives and Determinants of Volunteering in Older Adults: An Integrated Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio; Zelli, Arnaldo; Violani, Cristiano

    2008-01-01

    The present study focused on changes in volunteering over time among Italian adults and examined a model in which motives from self-determination theory (SDT) were hypothesized to influence a series of social-cognitive processes including self-efficacy judgments and constructs from the theory of planned behavior (TPB). The study was conducted with…

  3. A One-to-One Programme for At-Risk Readers Delivered by Older Adult Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fives, Allyn; Kearns, Noreen; Devaney, Carmel; Canavan, John; Russell, Dan; Lyons, Rena; Eaton, Patricia; O'Brien, Aoife

    2013-01-01

    This paper is based on a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluation of a reading programme delivered by older adult volunteers for at-risk early readers. Wizards of Words (WoW) was targeted at socially disadvantaged children in first and second grade experiencing delays in reading but who were not eligible for formal literacy supports. The…

  4. Everyday Memory Function of Older Adults: The Impact of Intergenerational School Volunteer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sally; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Participants in an intergenerational school volunteer program (26 adults over 60) completed memory instruments at 3 time periods. The effect of program participating on actual and perceived memory function varied with age and educational level. Dramatic positive mood changes were noted for those over 70 and those who were college educated. (SK)

  5. A Community-based Education Project: Intertidal Surveys With Student and Adult Volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller-Parker, G.; Bingham, B. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Fidalgo Learning about the Intertidal Project (FLIP) brought together scientists, educators, students and adult volunteers (20-30 total individuals) to conduct studies of the intertidal zone of a section of Fidalgo Island, Wa. in 2003 and 2004. The project goals were to: 1) obtain basic data on diversity and abundance of intertidal species in different habitats, 2) promote public awareness and appreciation of the intertidal zone, and 3) develop a model program for volunteer participation in scientific surveys. The 2-week program began with 2 days of workshops on local intertidal organisms to teach the FLIP participants how to classify and identify the different organisms and substrates they were likely to encounter in the surveys. We provided general lectures on intertidal habitats and on the importance of the intertidal zone to coastal resources. The FLIP participants worked together on identifying organisms, practicing the use of quadrats and data collection before the surveys began. Following 4 days of field surveys, the participants signed up for workshops that included compilation and analysis of the data, photography, nature writing and algae pressing. The final activity was a public tour of the intertidal day held at a local park. 50-60 people of all ages participated. The goal was to educate the public in plant and animal identification and habitat variability as well as "beach etiquette." Successful model program elements included self-selected volunteers and attention to the composition of each survey team, with one scientist/leader per team and one adult and two students or two adults and one student per team (4-5 teams, each completing one transect per site). Program flexibility was also crucial; FLIP volunteers were not required to attend every single day and post-survey workshops were optional. Volunteers participated to different extents and for different lengths of time depending on their abilities and interests. Project ownership was important

  6. The Relationship between Ministry Satisfaction and Spiritual Maturity among Adult Church Volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian Church in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nho, Sung Hyun

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the relationship between ministry satisfaction and spiritual maturity among adult church volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian church in South Korea (Kosin). It also sought to investigate factors related to volunteers' job satisfaction and their spiritual maturity. Participants included 531 adult small group…

  7. Adult Volunteers. A Handbook for Teacher-Librarians in the Vancouver School Board to Provide Assistance to Teacher-Librarians Who Are Establishing Adult Volunteer Programs, [and] to Suggest Ideas for Teacher-Librarians Who Wish to Enlarge or Enhance Their Volunteer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vancouver School Board (British Columbia).

    Guidelines are presented for establishing, enhancing, and evaluating adult volunteer programs in school library resource centers, especially those in Vancouver, Canada. It is noted that in 1982 over 200 adults volunteered their time to work on a regular basis with teacher-librarians in Vancouver. Sections include: (1) a rationale for establishing…

  8. 4-H and Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue focuses on Iowa's role in the historical development of the 4-H youth program. "Roots in Iowa" and "Jessie Field Shambaugh: The Mother of 4-H" (J. Friedel) describes the rural Iowan roots of the 4-H program, which today is located in 80 different countries, and give the story of its founder. Jessie Shambaugh, a rural Iowa teacher and…

  9. Volunteering as a Pathway to Productive and Social Engagement among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Lee, Yung Soo; McCrary, Stacey; McBride, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Research on outcomes of volunteering in later life largely focuses on the health of volunteers. This is in contrast to studies of youth, where attention is directed toward the effects of volunteering on subsequent productive and citizen behaviors. In this study, we examined the effects of volunteering on subsequent social and civic…

  10. Marketing Public Health Through Older Adult Volunteering: Experience Corps as a Social Marketing Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Xue, Qian-Li; Rebok, George W.; Frick, Kevin D.; Carlson, Michelle C.; Wang, Tao; Piferi, Rachel L.; McGill, Sylvia; Whitfield, Keith E.; Fried, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We present a social marketing conceptual framework for Experience Corps Baltimore City (EC) in which the desired health outcome is not the promoted product or behavior. We also demonstrate the feasibility of a social marketing–based recruitment campaign for the first year of the Baltimore Experience Corps Trial (BECT), a randomized, controlled trial of the health benefits of EC participation for older adults. Methods. We recruited older adults from the Baltimore, MD, area. Participants randomized to the intervention were placed in public schools in volunteer roles designed to increase healthy behaviors. We examined the effectiveness of a recruitment message that appealed to generativity (i.e., to make a difference for the next generation), rather than potential health benefits. Results. Among the 155 participants recruited in the first year of the BECT, the average age was 69 years; 87% were women and 85% were African American. Participants reported primarily generative motives as their reason for interest in the BECT. Conclusions. Public health interventions embedded in civic engagement have the potential to engage older adults who might not respond to a direct appeal to improve their health. PMID:20167888

  11. From Threshers to Thrashers: In Montana, 4-H Takes a Modern Spin To Engage "Blue-Ribbon Kids."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linik, Joyce Riha

    2002-01-01

    A 4-H skateboard club in Bozeman, Montana offers kids community service and educational opportunities as well as something to do after school. Adult and college-student volunteers teach a skateboarding curriculum and help kids fix boards and design ramps. Club members have learned public speaking, fundraising, city planning, and civic involvement…

  12. To Make Their Journey Better: Research-Focused Aspirations for Preparing Adult Volunteers for Facilitating Positive Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Joshua Aaron

    2010-01-01

    This basic interpretive qualitative research study explored the personal and professional backgrounds, training experiences, perspectives, and perceptions held by adult volunteers serving as crew advisors in the Venturing program of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA). Venturing is the BSA's adventure oriented youth development program for coeds age…

  13. Nutrition Risk in Home-Bound Older Adults: Using Dietician-Trained and Supervised Nutrition Volunteers for Screening and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laforest, Sophie; Goldin, Benita; Nour, Kareen; Roy, Marie-Andree; Payette, Helene

    2007-01-01

    Nutrition screening and early intervention in home-bound older adults are key to preventing unfavourable health outcomes and functional decline. This pilot study's objectives were (a) to test the reliability of the Elderly Nutrition Screening Tool (ENS [C]) when administered by dietician-trained and supervised nutrition volunteers, and (b) to…

  14. 4-H Science Inquiry Video Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jeremy W.; Black, Lynette; Willis, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Studies support science inquiry as a positive method and approach for 4-H professionals and volunteers to use for teaching science-based practices to youth. The development of a science inquiry video series has yielded positive results as it relates to youth development education and science. The video series highlights how to conduct science-rich…

  15. Pharmacokinetics of experimental pentavalent antimony after intramuscular administration in adult volunteers*

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, Laura; Scorza Dagert, José V.; Scorza, José V.; Vicuña-Fernández, Nelson; de Peña, Yaneira Petit; López, Sabrina; Bendezú, Herminia; Rojas, Elina; Vásquez, Libia; Pérez, Belén

    2006-01-01

    Background: Pentavalent antimony (SbV) has demonstrated therapeuticeffectiveness against clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis, an infection caused by Leishmania, a genus of flagellate protozoa comprising parasites of worldwide distribution. Approximately 1.8 million new cases are reported annually. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of the investigational generic SbV, Ulamina (pentachloride of antimony + N-methylglucamine), in healthy adult volunteers. Methods: In this study, SbV was administered IM as a single 5-mg/kg dose.Blood samples were collected at 0.25, 0.75, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after administration; urine samples were collected at 6-hour intervals during the 24-hour postadministration period. Determination of trivalent antimony, SbV, and total antimony concentrations in blood and urine samples was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. Clinical history was reviewed and the subjects were monitored before and after administration of SbV using physical examination, weight, and hepatic- and renal-function studies. The pharmacokinetic parameters calculated were Cmax, Tmax, absorption constant (Ka), elimination constant (Kel), AUC2–24h, AUC0-∞, elimination phase (t½β), volume of distribution (Vd), and urinary excretion rate. Results: Five subjects (3 men, 2 women; mean age, 28 years [range, 18–34 years]) were included in the study. One hour after drug administration the following values were obtained: Cmax, 1.1 μg/mL; Tmax, 1.3 hours; Ka, 1.87 hours; Kel, 0.043 hours; AUC0–24h, 12.26 μg/mL · h; AUC0-∞, 19.84 μg/mL · h; t½β, 17.45 hours; Vd, 6.6 L/kg; and urinary excretion rate, 2.8 μg/h; these were mean values for the entire study group. The single dose was well tolerated by all subjects. Conclusions: The investigational generic SbV, Ulamina, was associated with linearelimination after IM administration of a single 5-mg/kg dose. A 2-compartment pharmacokinetic model was observed in

  16. A Perfect Fit: 4-H Involvement for Youth with Disabilities. A Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnepf, Greg W.; And Others

    This guide for 4-H leaders and volunteers offers information to help integrate youth with disabilities into various 4-H programs. After an introduction, a section on 4-H and mainstreaming reviews the mission of 4-H; considers what 4-H has to offer youth; defines mainstreaming; notes the benefits of mainstreaming; and distinguishes among the terms…

  17. Cortical activity evoked by an acute painful tissue-damaging stimulus in healthy adult volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gemma; Lee, Amy; Meek, Judith; Slater, Rebeccah; Olhede, Sofia; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Everyday painful experiences are usually single events accompanied by tissue damage, and yet most experimental studies of cutaneous nociceptive processing in the brain use repeated laser, thermal, or electrical stimulations that do not damage the skin. In this study the nociceptive activity in the brain evoked by tissue-damaging skin lance was analyzed with electroencephalography (EEG) in 20 healthy adult volunteers (13 men and 7 women) aged 21–40 yr. Time-frequency analysis of the evoked activity revealed a distinct late event-related vertex potential (lance event-related potential, LERP) at 100–300 ms consisting of a phase-locked energy increase between 1 and 20 Hz (delta-beta bands). A pairwise comparison between lance and sham control stimulation also revealed a period of ultralate stronger desynchronization after lance in the delta band (1–5 Hz). Skin application of mustard oil before lancing, which sensitizes a subpopulation of nociceptors expressing the cation channel TRPA1, did not affect the ultralate desynchronization but reduced the phase-locked energy increase in delta and beta bands, suggesting a central interaction between different modalities of nociceptive inputs. Verbal descriptor screening of individual pain experience revealed that lance pain is predominantly due to Aδ fiber activation, but when individuals describe lances as C fiber mediated, an ultralate delta band event-related desynchronization occurs in the brain-evoked activity. We conclude that pain evoked by acute tissue damage is associated with distinct Aδ and C fiber-mediated patterns of synchronization and desynchronization of EEG oscillations in the brain. PMID:23427303

  18. The pharmacokinetic profile of crocetin in healthy adult human volunteers after a single oral administration.

    PubMed

    Umigai, N; Murakami, K; Ulit, M V; Antonio, L S; Shirotori, M; Morikawa, H; Nakano, T

    2011-05-15

    Crocetin, a unique carotenoid with a short carbon chain length, is an active compound of saffron and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis used as traditional herbal medicine. The present study was undertaken to investigate the pharmacokinetic profiles of crocetin in healthy adult subjects. The study was conducted as an open-label, single dose escalation with 10 Filipino volunteers (5 men and 5 women). The subjects received a single dose of crocetin at three doses (7.5, 15 and 22.5 mg) in one week interval. Blood samples were collected from the brachial vein before and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 24 h after administration. Plasma concentrations of crocetin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Crocetin was rapidly absorbed and detected within an hour of administration with a mean time to reach maximum concentration (T(max)) of crocetin ranging from 4.0 to 4.8 h. The mean values of C(max) and AUC(0-24h) ranged from 100.9 to 279.7 ng/ml and 556.5 to 1720.8 ng. h/ml respectively. C(max) and AUC values increased with dose proportional manner. Crocetin was eliminated from human plasma with a mean elimination half life (T(½) of 6.1 to 7.5 h. In summary, there were no serious adverse events up to 22.5 mg dose of crocetin while crocetin was found to be absorbed more quickly than the other carotenoids such as β-carotene, lutein and lycopene. PMID:21112749

  19. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES): Evaluating the feasibility of using volunteers to deliver nutrition and food safety education to rural older adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getty, Morgan

    Due to their limited resources, rural, older adults in the United States are at risk for poor diet-related health outcomes. Nutrition education is a key component in improving health outcomes in older adults. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES) is a nine-lesson curriculum designed to teach rural, older adults culturally appropriate nutrition and food safety information. Funding to hire health professionals to deliver such a curriculum is limited, presenting the need to explore a less expensive mode of dissemination. In this community-based, participatory research study, a formative evaluation and feasibility study were conducted to examine the use of volunteers to deliver a nutrition and food safety curriculum to rural, older adults in South Carolina. Seven focus groups were conducted with members of the South Carolina Family and Community Leaders (SCFCL) and members of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) in the four regions of South Carolina to explore barriers and facilitators of volunteers delivering CHES (N=65 participants). The focus group findings informed the development of the volunteer training manual. A comparative case study method was used to examine the feasibility of a volunteer-based approach by observing and describing the delivery of CHES by two groups of volunteers in SC. The case study findings, including volunteer knowledge change, self-efficacy change, curriculum experience, program experience, and project team observations of volunteers indicated that using volunteers to deliver CHES is a plausible approach with the assistance of paid staff or project team members.

  20. Volunteers Help Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Isolde Chapin

    A discussion of ways in which both adult and young Americans are volunteering to aid in the positive development of young people is presented in this booklet. The wide variety of programs that are designed to use volunteers and the need for additional volunteers are described. These programs are discussed under the following topic headings: School…

  1. Life Satisfaction and Psychological Well-Being of Older Adults With Cancer Experience: The Role of Optimism and Volunteering.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinmoo; Chun, Sanghee; Lee, Sunwoo; Kim, Junhyoung

    2016-09-01

    Promoting health and well-being among individuals of advancing age is a significant issue due to increased incidence of cancer among older adults. This study demonstrates the benefits of expecting positive outcomes and participating in volunteer activities among older adults with cancer. We used a nationally representative sample of 2,670 individuals who have experienced cancer from the 2008 wave of the Health and Retirement Study. We constructed a structural equation model to explore the associations of optimism, volunteerism, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being. The level of optimism was a significant predictor of volunteerism, which in turn affected life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The level of engagement in volunteer activities was found to have significant path coefficients toward both life satisfaction and psychological well-being. Our study provides evidence that older adults who have experienced cancer and maintained a positive outlook on their lives and engaged in personally meaningful activities tended to experience psychological well-being and life satisfaction. PMID:27273518

  2. Community Based Learning and Civic Engagement: Informal Learning among Adult Volunteers in Community Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundel, Karsten; Schugurensky, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Many iterations of community based learning employ models, such as consciousness raising groups, cultural circles, and participatory action research. In all of them, learning is a deliberate part of an explicit educational activity. This article explores another realm of community learning: the informal learning that results from volunteering in…

  3. Changes in Social Participation and Volunteer Activity among Recently Widowed Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Elizabeth A.; Hinterlong, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Widowhood eliminates a key source of support that may trigger greater involvement in social activities and volunteer participation, which are related to better late-life health and functioning. We reexamine and build upon 2 recent studies exploring recent widowhood and social participation. Using different data, we perform a…

  4. Subacromial space in adult patients with thoracic hyperkyphosis and in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Gumina, Stefano; Di Giorgio, Giantony; Postacchini, Franco; Postacchini, Roberto

    2008-02-01

    The assumption that subacromial space decreases in patients with thoracic hyperkyphosis arises from sporadic and personal observations. The purpose of this study was to compare width of subacromial space calculated on radiographs and CT scans of a high number of patients with thoracic hyperkyphosis that registered on exams of healthy volunteers. We measured the subacromial space, using Petersson's method, on radiographs of 47 patients with idiopathic or acquired thoracic hyperkyphosis and of 175 healthy shoulder volunteers. Both groups were further distinguished considering gender and age. Females with hyperkyphosis were also divided in two subgroups: those with a kyphotic curve of less (24 patients) or more (19 patients) than 50 degrees , respectively. Subacromial space of all patients and of 21 volunteers was also evaluated using CT. Acromio-humeral space was less wide in patients with hyperkyphosis with respect to coeval volunteers of the same gender; in females and in subjects older than 60. Subacromial width of females with hyperkyphosis whose curve was more than 50 degrees was significantly narrower (p<0.05) than that measured on radiograms or CT scans of females with a less severe spinal deformity. Decrease of subacromial space may be attributed to less posterior tilting of the scapula and to dyskinesis of the scapular movement. Scapular malposition causes an anomalous orientation of the acromion that may contribute to subacromial impingement. Patients with thoracic hyperkyphosis greater than 50 degrees had a subacromial space narrower than that measured in patients with a less severe kyphosis. This suggests that subacromial width is directly related to severity of thoracic kyphosis. Because hyperkyphosis of patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures may worsen over the time, subacromial decompression could give only temporary shoulder pain relief. PMID:18320381

  5. The effect of titrated fentanyl on suppressed cough reflex in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kelly, H E; Shaw, G M; Brett, C N; Greenwood, F M; Huckabee, M L

    2016-05-01

    Cough suppression is part of the pharmacodynamic profile of opioids. We investigated the impact of clinical doses of fentanyl on suppressing the cough reflex. Thirteen volunteers received 2 μg.kg(-1) of fentanyl in a divided administration protocol. Three minutes after each administration and at 10 min intervals during washout, suppressed cough reflex testing with nebulised citric acid was performed and compared with fentanyl effect-site concentration. Mean (SD) citric acid concentration provoking cough increased from 0.5 (0.28) mol.l(-1) at baseline to 1.2 (0.50) mol.l(-1) after 2 μg.kg(-1) of fentanyl (p = 0.01). Mean (SD) fentanyl effect-site concentration after the final dose of fentanyl was 1.89 (0.05) ng.ml(-1) . A strong positive correlation was found between suppressed cough reflex thresholds and fentanyl effect-site concentrations during both fentanyl administration and washout phases of the study (r(2) = 0.79, p = 0.01). The mean (SD) length of time for return of suppressed cough response was 44.6 (18.8) min. Clinically relevant doses of fentanyl produced cough reflex suppression in healthy volunteers. PMID:26919658

  6. Cobalt whole blood concentrations in healthy adult male volunteers following two-weeks of ingesting a cobalt supplement.

    PubMed

    Tvermoes, Brooke E; Finley, Brent L; Unice, Kenneth M; Otani, Joanne M; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Galbraith, David A

    2013-03-01

    Recently, there has been an increase in the marketing and sales of dietary supplements, energy drinks, and other consumer products that may contain relatively high concentrations of essential elements. Cobalt-containing supplements are readily available in the U.S. and have been marketed to consumers as energy enhancers. However, little information is available regarding cobalt (Co) body burden and steady-state blood concentrations following the intake of Co dietary supplements. We assessed Co whole blood concentrations in four healthy adult male volunteers who ingested a commercially available Co supplement (0.4 mg Co/day) for 15 or 16 days. Pre-supplementation blood Co concentrations were less than the reporting limit of 0.5 μg/L, consistent with background concentrations reported to range between 0.1 and 0.4 μg/L. The mean whole blood Co concentration in the volunteers after 15 or 16 days of dosing was 3.6 μg Co/L and ranged from 1.8 to 5.1 μg Co/L. The mean observed concentration in the study group was approximately 9-36 times greater than background concentrations. Further studies of Co whole blood concentrations following supplementation over longer time periods with additional monitoring of physiological parameters may provide useful information for evaluating the health of persons who take various doses of Co. PMID:23207477

  7. Helping Adult ESOL Students Increase Speaking and Listening Skills by Serving as Volunteers in Authentic Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Edith Lynn

    This practicum paper documents a program that was developed and implemented to help adult, advanced English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students increase their speaking and listening skills and build self confidence with native English speakers. The objective was to increase group average exit test scores in speaking and listening by at least two…

  8. Improving Educational Opportunities for the Adult Basic Education Student with a Specific Learning Disability: One to One Volunteer Tutor Program. A 310 Special Demonstration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lois F.; Bell, Bernadette S.

    This manual describes the implementation of a demonstration project at Daytona Beach Community College (DBCC) to: (1) develop an individual education plan to enable adult students with a specific learning disability to reach an 8th grade level of proficiency; (2) recruit volunteers and train them as tutors; and (3) develop a series of in-service…

  9. Understanding the Knowledge and Use of Experiential Learning within Pennsylvania 4-H Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtel, Robyn; Ewing, John C.; Threeton, Mark; Mincemoyer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Experiential learning is incorporated into the National 4-H curriculum. However, the state 4-H staff in Pennsylvania is unsure of the current knowledge and use of experiential learning within the local 4-H clubs. An online survey was distributed to Extension educators and volunteer leaders within Pennsylvania to assess the current knowledge and…

  10. Developing an Older Adult Volunteer Program in a New York Chinese Community: An Evidence-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Mui, Ada C; Glajchen, Myra; Chen, Huajuan; Sun, Juanjuan

    2013-06-01

    This study reports the results of a pilot volunteer project for older Chinese immigrants and documents benefits for both volunteers and caregiver recipients. Using a social marketing approach, the volunteer project was designed as a social model to promote better health among older Chinese immigrants in New York City. The packaging of this health promotion project as a volunteer program was based on a strengths perspective. In the program, 18 older Chinese immigrants were trained to provide support and referral to family caregivers of ill relatives in the Chinese community. At 6 months, outcomes were evaluated for both volunteers and caregivers. The older volunteers perceived benefits associated with volunteering, specifically, a greater sense of well-being and satisfaction with life. In addition, the majority of volunteers felt empowered by training and volunteering (100 %), felt the skills they learned improved communication with their own families (90 %), and reported physical and emotional health benefits (61 %). At the same time, caregivers reported stress reduction following volunteer support. Findings suggest that a volunteer program model may be an effective health promotion intervention for older Chinese immigrants. PMID:23645945

  11. The Volunteer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Paul C., Ed.

    1973-01-01

    This journal answers several questions concerning the use of volunteers in the classroom. The contents include: "Editor's Page," which discusses the growth of volunteer programs; "An Overview: Volunteer Use in Public Schools," which discusses the general aims of a volunteer program (e.g., to teachers in providing a more individualized approach, to…

  12. Comparative fasting bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties of 2 formulations of glucosamine hydrochloride in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wu, H; Liu, M; Wang, S; Zhao, H; Yao, W; Feng, W; Yan, M; Tang, Y; Wei, M

    2012-08-01

    Glucosamine (CAS 66-84-2) hydrochloride is an amino monosaccharide indicated for the treatment of arthrosis, especially osteoarthritis of the knee joint. This study was conducted to assess and compare the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, bioavailability of a newly developed dispersible tablet formulation (test) of glucosamine hydrochloride with those of an established branded capsule formulation (reference) in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers.This single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study was conducted in 18 healthy Chinese adult male volunteers under fasting condition. Plasma samples were collected at pre-specified times over a 12-h period following administration in each period and analyzed the plasma glucosamine concentrations by Liquid Chromatography coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method. The mean (SD) PK parameters of Cmax, Tmax, AUC0-12, and AUC0-∞ after administration of the test and reference formulations were, respectively, as follows: Cmax, 907.01 (444.22) vs. 944.40 (429.89) ng/mL, Tmax, 3.03 (0.95) vs. 3.30 (0.99) hours, AUC0-12, 2891.41 (1352.30) vs. 2889.69 (925.48) ng/mL/h, and AUC0-∞, 3029.90 (1321.36) vs. 3091.87 (870.36) ng/mL/h. The mean (SD) t1/2 was 1.10 (0.52) hours for the test formulation and 1.50 (1.17) hours for the reference formulation. On ANOVA, neither period nor sequence effects were observed for any PK properties. The relative bioavailability of the test formulation was 98.3% assessed by AUC0-12. The 90% CIs of glucosamine for the log-transformed ratios of Cmax, AUC0-12, and AUC0-∞ were 78.4-113.9%, 80.8-108.5% and 80.8-105.8%, respectively, meeting the predetermined criteria for bioequivalence of SFDA. PMID:22791244

  13. Food-related behavior and intake of adult main meal preparers of 9-10 year-old children participating in iCook 4-H: A five-state childhood obesity prevention pilot study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ashley; Franzen-Castle, Lisa; Aguirre, Trina; Krehbiel, Michelle; Colby, Sarah; Kattelmann, Kendra; Olfert, Melissa D; Mathews, Douglas; White, Adrienne

    2016-06-01

    It is important to understand adult outcomes in childhood obesity prevention programs as parents and caregivers have a significant influence on the eating and physical activity habits of youth. Grounded in the social cognitive theory, the iCook 4-H study was centered on a dyad model (9-10 year-olds and their primary meal preparers) to teach healthy cooking skills, shopping and meal habits, and being active as a family. The program took place in five states and dyads (n = 54) were recruited through flyers, e-mails, and in-person contact. The focus of this article is to provide findings from adult program participants. Demographics and self-reported food intake, procurement, preparation and safety practices, feeding relationships, mealtime routines, and height and weight were collected through surveys at baseline and program completion, which spanned 3 months. Descriptive statistics including two-related samples tests and paired samples t tests were used to assess pre- and post-program survey data responses at p < 0.05 significance level. Most had a bachelor's degree (31%) or some college (29%), about half were white, 66% were married, about 30% of households participated in assistance programs, and 82% were female. At program conclusion, participants significantly improved meal planning, prioritizing healthy meal choices, shopping with a grocery list, and reading Nutrition Facts Labels. There were also significant, positive differences noted in cooking skill confidence (p = 0.015), desire to cook more meals at home, and fewer fast food meals. Adult-youth feeding interactions also significantly improved. There were also significant increases in fruit juice (100%), vegetable soup, and whole grain consumption. Based on results, adults reported improvements in meal planning, cooking, and purchasing skills that were taught in classes. PMID:26970294

  14. Oral T4-like phage cocktail application to healthy adult volunteers from Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Sarker, Shafiqul Alam; McCallin, Shawna; Barretto, Caroline; Berger, Bernard; Pittet, Anne-Cecile; Sultana, Shamima; Krause, Lutz; Huq, Sayeda; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Bruttin, Anne; Reuteler, Gloria; Bruessow, Harald

    2012-12-20

    The genomic diversity of 99 T4-like coliphages was investigated by sequencing an equimolar mixture with Illumina technology and screening them against different databases for horizontal gene transfer and undesired genes. A 9-phage cocktail was given to 15 healthy adults from Bangladesh at a dose of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} and 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} plaque-forming units and placebo respectively. Phages were detected in 64% of the stool samples when subjects were treated with higher titer phage, compared to 30% and 28% with lower-titer phage and placebo, respectively. No Escherichia coli was present in initial stool samples, and no amplification of phage was observed. One percent of the administered oral phage was recovered from the feces. No adverse events were observed by self-report, clinical examination, or from laboratory tests for liver, kidney, and hematology function. No impact of oral phage was seen on the fecal microbiota composition with respect to bacterial 16S rRNA from stool.

  15. Effect of formulation variables on oral grittiness and preferences of multiparticulate formulations in adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Felipe L; Bowles, Alexandra; Gul, Mine Orlu; Clapham, David; Ernest, Terry B; Tuleu, Catherine

    2016-09-20

    Multiparticulate formulations are composed of multiple solid dosage units which can be administered directly to the mouth or sprinkled on food. Oral grittiness (i.e. rough mouthfeel) may arise from the presence of particles in the mouth, limiting palatability. In this work, multiparticulate formulations were prepared by dispersion of spherical granules into orange flavoured vehicles thickened with hypromellose (HPMC) at different viscosities in order to assess oral perception of grittiness by a panel of thirty adults through direct scaling on a 100mm visual analogue scale. The effect of formulation factors such as particle size (90, 127, 263μm), amount of particles per 10ml (0.25, 0.50, 1.00g) and viscosity of the vehicle (0.08, 0.43, 2.80Pas) were investigated. Grittiness was increasingly perceived with increasing amount and size of particles. Increasing viscosity of the administration media had a masking effect on the perception of particles. Less gritty samples were generally regarded as 'more pleasant' by the participants of the study. However, samples dispersed in thickened vehicles seemed to be less preferred despite being less gritty; which could be ascribed to an unpleasant mouthfeel of the vehicle. In the design of multiparticulate formulations acceptable for a targeted patient group all these formulation factors will need to be considered and optimised. PMID:27402099

  16. Socialization of Youth: Role of the 4-H Professional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freebern, John Robert

    Many professional 4-H staff members lack a sufficient background in the social sciences, fail to understand the complexity of the socialization task, and are not aware of the changes made by other socialization agents in the community. This paper is designed to help the professional 4-H adult worker improve his role as a socialization agent.…

  17. Barriers to nutrition education for older adults, and nutrition and aging training opportunities for educators, healthcare providers,volunteers and caregivers.

    PubMed

    Meck Higgins, Mary; Barkley, Mary Clarke

    2004-01-01

    Literature citations of barriers to nutrition education found in those who teach and care for older adults, as well as within older adults themselves, are discussed. No attempt was made to compare educational barriers for learners of varying ages. These obstacles need to be addressed in order for nutrition to be taught or learned effectively so that nutrition practices and health improve. Barriers for healthcare professionals to providing nutrition education include misconceptions and stereotypes about older adults and about their nutritional concerns; lack of attention to and lack of funding for older adult educational programs; and difficulties recruiting older learners. Hindrances for older adults in responding to nutrition education can be categorized as attitudinal, motivational, environmental, and related to low literacy and poverty. Published examples of opportunities for education and training about nutrition and aging that are in place for health educators, healthcare providers, volunteers and caregivers regarding nutrition and aging are discussed. Suggestions are presented regarding future efforts to minimize educational barriers and to provide training for healthcare professionals, volunteers and caregivers. New research is needed in this field of study in order to realize the potential quality of life benefits and reduced healthcare costs associated with providing effective nutrition education to older adults. This is one of a series of reviews of recent literature on nutrition education for older adults. PMID:15149943

  18. Peer volunteers in an integrative pain management program for frail older adults with chronic pain: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is common among the older population. A literature review on pain management program showed that exercise, yoga, massage therapy, Tai Chi, and music therapy could significantly reduce pain. In spite of the proven benefits of pain management programs, these intervention programs were effective only in the short term, and older adults would resume their old habits. It has been suggested that interventions comprising some type of social support have great potential to increase the participation of older adults. Therefore, we propose the inclusion of peer volunteers in an integrated pain management program to relieve pain among frail older adults. This study aims to explore the effectiveness of an integrated pain management program supplemented with peer volunteers in improving pain intensity, functional mobility, physical activity, loneliness levels, happiness levels, and the use of non-pharmacological pain-relieving methods among frail older adults with chronic pain. Methods/Design We intend to recruit 30 nursing home residents and 30 peer volunteers from the Institute of Active Ageing in Hong Kong in a group trial for an 8-week group-based integrated pain management program. There will be 16 sessions, with two 1-hour sessions each week. The primary outcome will be pain levels, while secondary outcomes will be assessed according to functional mobility, physical activity, loneliness levels, happiness levels, the use of non-pharmacological pain-relieving methods, and through a questionnaire for volunteers. Discussion In view of the high prevalence of chronic pain among older adults and its adverse impacts, it is important to provide older adults with tools to control their pain. We propose the use of peer volunteers to enhance the effects of an integrated pain management program. It is expected that pain can be reduced and improvements can be achieved among older adults in the areas of physical activity, functional mobility, loneliness levels

  19. Reasons Why Canadian Seniors Volunteer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Prince, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    A study examined types of and reasons for volunteering among Canadian adults over 64 (n=1,569) and compared them with those given by adults aged 45-64 (n=5,563). Results indicate that the older group volunteers out of self-interest and are more likely to volunteer because of a feeling of obligation and social value than those aged 45-64. (JOW)

  20. 4-H Club Goat Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. Kipp

    This guide provides information for 4-H Club members who have decided on a club goat project. Topics include general information in the following areas: show rules; facilities and equipment (barns/sheds, fences, feeders, water containers, and equipment); selection (structural correctness, muscle, volume and capacity, style and balance, and growth…

  1. Intergenerational Panels at Centennial Events: Stimulating Discussion about Continuity and Change in the 4-H Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Matthew S.; Weikert, Ben; Scholl, Jan; Rushton, Mya

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an intergenerational strategy for organizations planning centennial celebratory events. The methods and findings from the 4-H through the Generations session conducted at the joint 4-H Leadership Conference and 4-H Leaders Forum to celebrate the Pennsylvania 4-H Centennial are reported. Youth and adult participants shared…

  2. The First Fifty Years of the 4-H Program (Part 1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Beth E.; Flanagan, Constance A.; Thomson, Joan S.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews achievements during the first 50 years of 4-H club work, including volunteer leadership development, funding support, and response to society's needs during the war years. Demonstrates how 4-H has changed to meet societal needs while remaining true to the original mission. (SK)

  3. Serum antibody response in adult volunteers elicited by injection of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 12F polysaccharide alone or conjugated to diphtheria toxoid.

    PubMed Central

    Fattom, A; Lue, C; Szu, S C; Mestecky, J; Schiffman, G; Bryla, D; Vann, W F; Watson, D; Kimzey, L M; Robbins, J B

    1990-01-01

    Conjugates of an uronic acid-containing capsular polysaccharide (CP), pneumococcous type 12F (Pn12F) bound to diphtheria toxoid (DT), were studied for safety and immunogenicity in adult volunteers. In mice, these conjugates, prepared with the same lot of DT and Pn12F-40234-006, a homogenous CP of high molecular weight, or Pn12-812408, a polydisperse CP with lower-molecular-weight material, were more immunogenic than the Pn12F alone and had T-cell dependent properties (A. Fattom, W. F. Vann, S.C. Szu, A. Sutton, X. Li, B. Bryla, G. Schiffman, J. B. Robbins, and R. Schneerson, Infect. Immun. 56:2292-2298, 1988). Adult volunteers, randomized into three groups, were injected either with one of these two conjugates or with Pnu-Imune, the 23 valent pneumococcus vaccine containing 25 micrograms of Pn12F as one of its components. Volunteers were injected two times, 4 weeks apart, with the Pn12F-DT conjugates and once with the Pnu-Imune. Side reactions following injection of the conjugates of Pnu-Imune were mild and short-lived. At 4 weeks and at 7 months after the first injection, higher levels of Pn12F antibodies were found in the volunteers injected with the conjugates than in the Pnu-Imune group (P less than 0.001). The conjugate prepared with the higher-molecular-weight Pn12F elicited higher levels of antibodies than the conjugate prepared with a lower-molecular-weight Pn12F preparation (P = 0.05). Both conjugates elicited about a 13-fold rise in DT antibodies. PMID:2365462

  4. School Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Service Bureau, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    Intended as a guide for school administrators, this publication describes and discusses "The Varying Role of the School Volunteer,""A Tutorial Program in Operation,""A Volunteer Resource Program in Operation,""An Inner-City Extended School-Day Program,""Essential Ingredients of a Successful Program," and "How to Recruit, Screen, and Retain."…

  5. APPALACHIAN VOLUNTEERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1964

    COLLEGE STUDENT VOLUNTEERS WORKING IN THE ISOLATED AREAS OF EASTERN KENTUCKY HAVE INSTITUTED A PROGRAM DESIGNED TO AID IN THE WAR ON POVERTY. THE APPALACHIAN VOLUNTEERS WERE INITIALLY SUPPORTED BY A GRANT FROM THE AREA REDEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS, FROM PRIVATE CORPORATIONS AND FOUNDATIONS, OF MONEY AND MATERIALS. GROUNDWORK…

  6. Managing Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geber, Beverly

    1991-01-01

    Discusses changing nature of volunteers in Peter Drucker's book "Managing the Nonprofit Corporation." Points out that most volunteers have full-time jobs, families, very little leisure; they are not willing to do such routine work as stuffing envelopes; they want carefully defined projects with beginning and end. Discusses real requirements for…

  7. Managing for Motivation: Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory and Its Application to 4-H Leadership. National Intern Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Walter J.

    A study examined the organizational factors contributing to the motivation of 4-H volunteer leaders. A modified form of Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory served as the research design of the study. A total of 149 4-H leaders were interviewed regarding thirteen job factors: recognition; personal growth; relationships with other 4-H leaders,…

  8. EDUCATION IN THE PEACE CORPS, EVOLVING CONCEPTS OF VOLUNTEER TRAINING. NOTES AND ESSAYS ON EDUCATION FOR ADULTS, 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PAGANO, JULES

    THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER TRAINING--TOTAL CULTURAL IMMERSION--IS ACHIEVED THROUGH DIRECT TEACHING AND FIELD EXPERIENCE. TRAINEES LEARN LANGUAGE (THROUGH INTENSIVE AUDIOLINGUAL METHODS, BRINGING LANGUAGE LEARNING INTO EVERY ASPECT OF LIFE AT THE TRAINING SITE), CUSTOMS (THROUGH ROLE PLAYING AND CROSS CULTURAL STUDIES), AND…

  9. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak…

  10. Engaging Library Partners in 4-H Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Nia Imani; Rafferty, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    When most people think about 4-H, they remember county fairs, livestock programs, and agricultural education. While these programs are still prominent, 4-H has grown in order to meet the growing demands of today's youth. The organization has expanded services and programs to serve rural, suburban, and urban youth in every state in the U.S. 4-H is…

  11. What About Waste? 4-H Leader's/Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonhotal, Jean F.; And Others

    This guide is designed for adult volunteer leaders, camp counselors, and teachers who want to explore the subject of waste disposal and management with youth. An introduction provides background on waste disposal problems and disposal options including reducing, reusing, recycling, and composting. Seven discussion questions are intended to…

  12. Composting: Wastes to Resources. 4-H Leader's/Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonhotal, Jean F.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    This guide is designed for adult volunteer leaders, camp counselors, and teachers who want to set up composting projects with youth. Five sections explore: (1) an introduction to composting with illustrated instructions for making compost; (2) different methods of composting and structures needed for various composting systems; (3) how to identify…

  13. Will Natural Resources Professionals Volunteer to Teach Youth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sanford S.; Finley, James C.; San Julian, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    A unique approach to volunteer marketing research involved a mail survey with natural resources professionals from across Pennsylvania. Previous work identified this group as a source of potential volunteers for the 4-H youth natural resources program. The results give insights into those most likely to volunteer to teach youth through 4-H…

  14. Trained Community Volunteers Improve Tuberculosis Knowledge and Attitudes Among Adults in a Periurban Community in Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Balogun, Mobolanle; Sekoni, Adekemi; Meloni, Seema Thakore; Odukoya, Oluwakemi; Onajole, Adebayo; Longe-Peters, Olukemi; Ogunsola, Folasade; Kanki, Phyllis J.

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria has the world's 10th largest tuberculosis (TB) burden. Targeted community-based interventions can potentially help reduce TB incidence. We designed an intervention in a periurban community where 10 community volunteers were trained to provide community TB education and also detect and refer TB suspects to a nearby clinic. To determine the effect of the intervention on knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices of TB, we compared results from a pre-intervention survey with those of a post-intervention survey. Pre-intervention, respondents had a mean knowledge score of 10.6 ± 7.0 of a possible 34, a mean attitude score of 5.8 ± 3.3 of a possible 10, and a mean practice score of 5.3 ± 1.4 of a possible 7. The intervention significantly increased the mean knowledge score to 16 ± 5.4 (P < 0.001) and mean attitude score to 7.0 ± 1.8 (P < 0.001); however, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean practice score. Eight TB suspects were referred to the clinic, and one suspect was subsequently diagnosed with TB. The use of trained community volunteers to share information on TB improved the overall knowledge and attitudes of respondents. Continued empowerment of the community should be encouraged to promote TB prevention and care. PMID:25510722

  15. Understanding paratyphoid infection: study protocol for the development of a human model of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A challenge in healthy adult volunteers

    PubMed Central

    McCullagh, David; Dobinson, Hazel C; Darton, Thomas; Campbell, Danielle; Jones, Claire; Snape, Matthew; Stevens, Zoe; Plested, Emma; Voysey, Merryn; Kerridge, Simon; Martin, Laura B; Angus, Brian; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study will develop the first human challenge model of paratyphoid infection which may then be taken forward to evaluate paratyphoid vaccine candidates. Salmonella Paratyphi A is believed to cause a quarter of the estimated 20 million cases of enteric fever annually. Epidemiological evidence also suggests that an increasing proportion of the enteric fever burden is attributable to S. Paratyphi infection meriting further attention and interest in vaccine development. Assessment of paratyphoid vaccine efficacy in preclinical studies is complicated by the lack of a small animal model and the human-restricted nature of the infection. The use of experimental human infection in healthy volunteers provides an opportunity to address these problems in a cost-effective manner. Methods and analysis Volunteers will ingest virulent S. Paratyphi A bacteria (NVGH308 strain) with a bicarbonate buffer solution to establish the infectious dose resulting in an ‘attack rate’ of 60–75%. Using an a priori decision-making algorithm, the challenge dose will be escalated or de-escalated to achieve the target attack rate, with the aim of reaching the study end point while exposing as few individuals as possible to infection. The attack rate will be determined by the proportion of paratyphoid infection in groups of 20 healthy adult volunteers, with infection being defined by one or more positive blood cultures (microbiological end point) and/or fever, defined as an oral temperature exceeding 38°C sustained for at least 12 h (clinical end point); 20–80 participants will be required. Challenge participants will start a 2-week course of an oral antibiotic on diagnosis of infection, or after 14 days follow-up. Ethics and dissemination The strict eligibility criterion aims to minimise risk to participants and their close contacts. Ethical approval has been obtained. The results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses

  16. An Experience with Volunteers in Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillsworth, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Offers examples of the use of volunteers in recreation and adult education programs. Describes Fanshawe College's local community advisory committees for continuing education centers. Identifies conditions for using volunteers effectively. Reviews Edison College's Talent Banking system which involves volunteers as visiting lecturers, career…

  17. The Training of Volunteer Adult Sunday School Teachers in the Wisconsin Jurisdictions of the Church of God in Christ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the methodological training needs of adult Sunday School teachers in the Church of God in Christ. Pastors and instructional leaders of two Wisconsin jurisdictions were utilized as participants in the study. Research methodology included a blended approach of quantitative and qualitative methods with the…

  18. Educational Quality Indicator Program (EQuIP). An Adult and Community Educator Training Manual for Administrators, Teachers and Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Workforce Development.

    This self-paced, individualized manual provides guidance in evaluating the quality of adult education programs. The manual contains state-adopted indicators of program quality for Florida. Each of the indicators requires from 1 to 1-1/2 hours of review; a sample checklist or evaluation sheet is provided at the end of each indicator to allow for…

  19. Project LOVE (Let Older Volunteers Educate).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Sally; Weinrich, Martin C.

    The effect of contact with older adult volunteers on the attitudes of elementary school students was investigated by twice administering questionnaires to all first-, third-, and fourth-grade students at Chapin Elementary School, Chapin, South Carolina. Teachers first administered the questionnaire before the older adults began volunteer work in…

  20. How can surgeonfish help pediatric surgeons? A pilot study investigating the antinociceptive effect of fish aquariums in adult volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Matthieu; Delpont, Marion; Bachy, Manon; Kabbaj, Reda; Annequin, Daniel; Vialle, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple distraction strategies have been proposed to reduce the incidence of anxiety and pain in children. Animal-assisted therapy is acknowledged and used in children as an adjunctive treatment with cognitive, physical, psychosocial and spiritual benefits. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of fish aquarium animal-assisted therapy (FA-AAT) on pain perception in a cohort of healthy volunteers. METHODS: Sixty-nine healthy subjects (mean age 27.3 years) were exposed to >20 different species of soft or hard corals and >25 fish in a 1000 L saltwater aquarium. Pain perception was assessed using an electrical stimulation device, the Pain Matcher (Cefar Medical AB, Sweden), after 5 min, 10 min, 20 min and 30 min of continuous aquarium viewing. The measurements were repeated 10 min after stopping aquarium viewing. RESULTS: A statistically significant pain perception threshold augmentation was observed after a 5 min aquarium viewing. This threshold augmentation was also increased after 10 min, 20 min and 30 min of FA-AAT. A remnant effect was noted up to 10 min after exposure. This short post-viewing time period could be useful in clinical practice to perform certain painful procedures in children, such as those involving needles, under improved conditions immediately after aquarium exposure. CONCLUSIONS: In the authors’ department, FA-AAT is now used as a nonpharmacological antinociceptive technique in association with a protocol of inhalated oxygen/nitrous oxide mixtures for needle-related procedures. Children and parents are invited to watch the aquarium during the 10 min to 20 min before venous punctures. PMID:25222572

  1. Eat, Grow, Lead 4-H: An Innovative Approach to Deliver Campus- Based Field Experiences to Pre-Entry Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Penny Pennington; Weeks, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Eat, Grow, Lead 4-H Club was created as a pilot program for college students seeking to gain experience as non-formal youth educators, specifically serving pre-entry level Extension educators through a university-based 4-H club. Seventeen student volunteers contributed an estimated 630 hours of service to the club during spring 2011. The club…

  2. Community Development: A 4-H Intern Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheneman, C. Stephen

    State progress reports on the 4-H/Community Development program, a 1973 nationwide Federally sponsored program facilitating youth in community decision-making processes, indicate that the program appears to be evolving into a viable and integral part of the total 4-H program. Although the report describes unique program features of various States,…

  3. Holding on to 4-H Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Glen

    1979-01-01

    Data from a survey of 4-H Club leaders in Saskatchewan, Canada, were used to determine the effect of attendance at leadership training events on leaders' decisions to re-enroll or discontinue. It was found that involvement in 4-H activities, supported by leadership training, increased leaders' satisfaction and likelihood of re-enrolling. (MF)

  4. Strengthening 4-H Program Communication through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robideau, Kari; Santl, Karyn

    2011-01-01

    Advances in technology are transforming how youth and parents interact with programs. The Strengthening 4-H Communication through Technology project was implemented in eight county 4-H programs in Northwest Minnesota. This article outlines the intentional process used to effectively implement technology in program planning. The project includes:…

  5. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of the histamine H3 receptor antagonist, ABT-288, in healthy young adults and elderly volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Ahmed A; Haig, George; Florian, Hana; Locke, Charles; Zhang, Jun; Dutta, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Aim The objective of this work was to characterize the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ABT-288, a highly selective histamine H3 receptor antagonist, in healthy young adults and elderly subjects following single and multiple dosing in a phase 1 setting. Methods Single doses (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 20 and 40 mg ABT-288) and multiple doses (0.5, 1.5, 3 and 6 mg ABT-288 once-daily for 14 days) were evaluated in young adults and multiple doses (0.5, 1.5, 3 and 5 mg ABT-288 once-daily for 12 days) were evaluated in elderly subjects using randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study designs. The effect of food on ABT-288 pharmacokinetics (5 mg single dose) was evaluated using an open label, randomized, crossover design. Results ABT-288 safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics were comparable in young and elderly subjects. Single doses up to 40 mg and multiple doses up to 3 mg once-daily were generally safe and well tolerated. The most frequently reported adverse events were hot flush, headache, abnormal dreams, insomnia, nausea and dizziness. ABT-288 exposure (AUC) was dose-proportional over the evaluated dose ranges. The mean elimination half-life ranged from 40 to 61 h across dose groups. Steady state was achieved by day 10 of once-daily dosing with 3.4- to 4.2-fold accumulation. Food did not have a clinically meaningful effect on ABT-288 exposure. Conclusions Based on the above results, 1 and 3 mg once-daily doses of ABT-288 were advanced to phase 2 evaluation in Alzheimer's patients. PMID:23016924

  6. Bioequivalence evaluation of two capsule formulations of amoxicillin in healthy adult male bangladeshi volunteers: A single-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Ashik; Azad, Mohammad Abul Kalam; Sultana, Rebeka; Akbor, Maruf Mohammad; Hasan, Ahasanul; Latif, Mahbub; Hasnat, Abul

    2008-01-01

    Background: Amoxicillin, a semisynthetic penicillin antibiotic, is widely prescribed in Bangladesh due to its extended spectrum and its rapid and extensive oral absorption with good tolerability. Although a number of generic oral formulations of amoxicillin are available in Bangladesh, a study of the bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic properties of these formulations has not yet been conducted in a Bangladeshi population. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetic properties and bioequivalence of 2 formulations of amoxicillin 500-mg capsules (test, SK-mox®; reference, Amoxil-Bencard®) using serum data. Methods: This single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study was conducted in healthy male subjects in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines. Subjects were assigned to receive the test or the reference drug as a single-dose, 500-mg capsule under fasting conditions after a 1-week washout period. After oral administration, blood samples were collected and analyzed for amoxicillin concentration using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a noncompartmental method. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the natural log-transformed ratios of pharmacokinetic parameters were within the predetermined equivalence range of 80% to 125%, according to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirement. Results: Twenty-four healthy adult male Bangladeshi volunteers (mean [SD] age, 26.92 [3.37] years; age range, 23–34 years; mean [SD] body mass index, 23.O9 [1.58] kg/m2) participated in the study. Using serum data, the values obtained for the test and reference formulations, respectively, were as follows: Cmax, 9.85 (2.73) and 10.63 (2.12) μg/mL; Tmax, 1.29 (0.58) and 1.33 (0.49) hours; and AUC0–12, 27.09 (7.62) and 28.56 (6.30) μg/mL · h−1. No period, sequence, or formulation effects

  7. Stakeholder Satisfaction with a 4-H Extension Program for Five- to Eight-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Scott D.; Lafontaine, Kenneth R.

    1999-01-01

    A 4-H K-2 program was evaluated by 277 parents, 144 volunteers, and 44 extension agents. These stakeholders believed the program was beneficial and effective in improving children's life skills (self-esteem, making friends, making choices, learning and physical skills). (SK)

  8. Middle Childhood: 4-H Child Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Connie M.

    Part of a series for 4-H members between 9 and 19 years of age, this age-graded guide to the development of 6-, 7-, and 8-year-olds aims to help 4-H members who are children and adolescents themselves: (1) understand the physical, mental, social, and emotional development of children in middle childhood; (2) learn to care for a child in middle…

  9. Dose response of A/Alaska/6/77 (H3N2) cold-adapted reassortant vaccine virus in adult volunteers: role of local antibody in resistance to infection with vaccine virus.

    PubMed Central

    Clements, M L; O'Donnell, S; Levine, M M; Chanock, R M; Murphy, B R

    1983-01-01

    An attenuated influenza A candidate vaccine virus, derived from the A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (H2N2) cold-adapted (ca) donor virus and the A/Alaska/6/77 (H3N2) wild-type virus, was evaluated in adult seronegative volunteers (serum hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titer, less than or equal to 1:8) for level of attenuation, infectivity, antigenicity, and genetic stability. Four groups with similar preinoculation mean titers of serum and nasal wash antibodies were inoculated intranasally with 10(4.5), 10(5.5), 10(6.5), or 10(7.5) 50% tissue culture infectious doses (TCID50) of the ca reassortant virus, and eight other seronegative adult volunteers received the wild-type virus. Only 2 of 66 vaccinees developed fever or mild and brief systemic or upper respiratory tract illness or both. Both volunteers with vaccine-related reactions received the highest dose (10(7.5) TCID50) of ca virus, which indicates that the vaccine retains some mild reactogenicity at a high dosage. In contrast, four of eight volunteers infected with the wild-type virus became ill. Each of the 54 isolates tested retained the temperature-sensitive phenotype of the vaccine virus. Thus, the ca reassortant was genetically stable and attenuated at 10(4.5) to 10(7.5) TCID50 for seronegative adults. The 50% human infective dose of ca virus was approximately 10(5.3) TCID50. Ten and one hundred 50% human infectious doses infected 73 and 83% of vaccinees, respectively, and approximately 75% developed an immunological response at these doses. The failure of the vaccine virus to infect some volunteers was correlated with the presence of pre-inoculation nasal wash immunoglobulin A hemagglutinin antibody. PMID:6852910

  10. 4-H's Influence on Advanced Training, Careers and Leadership Roles in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, S. Kay; And Others

    A study explored how adults felt their 4-H experience contributed to their selection of advanced education and/or a career and helped them with leadership skills in their occupations or community activities. To obtain data, a questionnaire was mailed to former 4-H members aged 25 to 35 in northeast Nebraska; 318 questionnaires were returned.…

  11. College Transition Study Shows 4-H Helps Youth Prepare for and Succeed in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratkos, Judy; Knollenberg, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Many young adults enter college without the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed. The purpose of the study reported here was to determine if 4-H helps develop life skills needed for the transition to college and overall college success. An online survey was sent to college-attending 4-H alumni and a comparison group, with a final sample size…

  12. Fitting the Framework: The STEM Institute and the 4-H Essential Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Jeff; Peek, Gina G.

    2014-01-01

    Extension and 4-H youth development programs are addressing a shortage of scientists, engineers, and other related professionals by promoting science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). This case study illustrates how the Oklahoma 4-H Youth Development program trained youth-adult teams to design and implement STEM projects. The STEM…

  13. Working with Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Virginia; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This special section features research concluding that volunteers find the time because they believe they have more time to help (Rowland); an extension program using volunteer master teachers (Feather); use of volunteer marketing professionals (Fromer); retaining volunteers through leadership training (Balliette, Smith); "problem" volunteers and…

  14. Volunteering and Volunteers: Benefit-Cost Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handy, Femida; Mook, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the phenomenon of volunteering from a benefit-cost perspective. Both the individual making a decision to volunteer and the organization making a decision to use volunteer labor face benefits and costs of their actions, yet these costs and benefits almost always remain unarticulated, perhaps because the common perception of…

  15. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of PTC124, a nonaminoglycoside nonsense mutation suppressor, following single- and multiple-dose administration to healthy male and female adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hirawat, Samit; Welch, Ellen M; Elfring, Gary L; Northcutt, Valerie J; Paushkin, Sergey; Hwang, Seongwoo; Leonard, Eileen M; Almstead, Neil G; Ju, William; Peltz, Stuart W; Miller, Langdon L

    2007-04-01

    Nonsense (premature stop codon) mutations are causative in 5% to 15% of patients with monogenetic inherited disorders. PTC124, a 284-Dalton 1,2,4-oxadiazole, promotes ribosomal readthrough of premature stop codons in mRNA and offers therapeutic potential for multiple genetic diseases. The authors conducted 2 phase I studies of PTC124 in 62 healthy adult volunteers. The initial, single-dose study evaluated doses of 3 to 200 mg/kg and assessed fed-fasting status on pharmacokinetics following a dose of 50 mg/kg. The subsequent multiple-dose study evaluated doses from 10 to 50 mg/kg/dose twice per day (bid) for up to 14 days. PTC124 administered orally as a liquid suspension was palatable and well tolerated through single doses of 100 mg/kg. At 150 and 200 mg/kg, PTC124 induced mild headache, dizziness, and gastrointestinal events. With repeated doses through 50 mg/kg/dose bid, reversible transaminase elevations <2 times the upper limit of normal were sometimes observed. Immunoblot analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cell extracts revealed no protein elongation due to nonspecific ribosomal readthrough of normal stop codons. PTC124 plasma concentrations exceeding the 2- to 10-microg/mL values associated with activity in preclinical genetic disease models were safely achieved. No sex-related differences in pharmacokinetics were seen. No drug accumulation with repeated dosing was apparent. Diurnal variation was observed, with greater PTC124 exposures after evening doses. PTC124 excretion in the urine was <2%. PTC124 pharmacokinetics were described by a 1-compartment model. Collectively, the data support initiation of phase II studies of PTC124 in patients with nonsense mutation-mediated cystic fibrosis and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:17389552

  16. Multi-state 4-H energy program

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, U.B.; Garthe, J.W.

    1983-06-01

    Through Agricultural Engineering 4-H Energy Programs, youth can be educated to gain knowledge, increase hands on skills, and incorporate energy-saving techniques into their lifestyle. In a pilot multi-state energy program tested by 13 states, youth increased their energy awareness.

  17. The Preschooler: 4-H Child Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Connie M.

    Intended for 4-H participants who plan and implement activities in the area of child development, this booklet provides a study guide to help young learners: (1) gain understanding of a preschool child's physical, mental, social, and emotional growth; (2) learn to care for a preschooler and promote preschoolers' feelings of security and safety;…

  18. Separates. 4-H Textile Science Advanced Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan F.

    This booklet, which was developed for use by 4-H club members in Pennsylvania, contains the information required to sew a two-piece nontailored outfit and/or a one-or two-piece dress. The following are among the topics covered: the difference between a fiber and a fabric; properties of different fibers and fabrics; common jacket, neckline, sleeve,…

  19. National 4-H Common Measures: Initial Evaluation from California 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Horrillo, Shannon J.; Widaman, Keith; Worker, Steven M.; Trzesniewski, Kali

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation is a key component to learning about the effectiveness of a program. This article provides descriptive statistics of the newly developed National 4-H Common Measures (science, healthy living, citizenship, and youth development) based on data from 721 California 4-H youth. The measures were evaluated for their reliability and validity of…

  20. Effectiveness of the 4-H Program as Perceived by Parents of 4-H Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishna, Rama; Foley, Caitlin; Ingram, Patreese; Ewing, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here examined the effectiveness of 4-H program as perceived by parents of program participants. Descriptive-correlational design was employed, with data collected using a mail survey. Parents perceived 4-H as an effective organization in teaching life skills to youth. Significant relationships were found between parents'…

  1. Baseline Morbidity in 2,990 Adult African Volunteers Recruited to Characterize Laboratory Reference Intervals for Future HIV Vaccine Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Wendy; Kamali, Anatoli; Karita, Etienne; Anzala, Omu; Sanders, Eduard J.; Jaoko, Walter; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Mulenga, Joseph; Dally, Len; Fast, Pat; Gilmour, Jill; Farah, Bashir; Birungi, Josephine; Hughes, Peter; Manigart, Olivier; Stevens, Gwynn; Yates, Sarah; Thomson, Helen; von Lieven, Andrea; Krebs, Marietta; Price, Matt A.; Stoll-Johnson, Lisa; Ketter, Nzeera

    2008-01-01

    Background An understanding of the health of potential volunteers in Africa is essential for the safe and efficient conduct of clinical trials, particularly for trials of preventive technologies such as vaccines that enroll healthy individuals. Clinical safety laboratory values used for screening, enrolment and follow-up of African clinical trial volunteers have largely been based on values derived from industrialized countries in Europe and North America. This report describes baseline morbidity during recruitment for a multi-center, African laboratory reference intervals study. Methods Asymptomatic persons, aged 18–60 years, were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study at seven sites (Kigali, Rwanda; Masaka and Entebbe, Uganda; Kangemi, Kenyatta National Hospital and Kilifi, Kenya; and Lusaka, Zambia). Gender equivalency was by design. Individuals who were acutely ill, pregnant, menstruating, or had significant clinical findings were not enrolled. Each volunteer provided blood for hematology, immunology, and biochemistry parameters and urine for urinalysis. Enrolled volunteers were excluded if found to be positive for HIV, syphilis or Hepatitis B and C. Laboratory assays were conducted under Good Clinical Laboratory Practices (GCLP). Results and Conclusions Of the 2990 volunteers who were screened, 2387 (80%) were enrolled, and 2107 (71%) were included in the analysis (52% men, 48% women). Major reasons for screening out volunteers included abnormal findings on physical examination (228/603, 38%), significant medical history (76, 13%) and inability to complete the informed consent process (73, 13%). Once enrolled, principle reasons for exclusion from analysis included detection of Hepatitis B surface antigen (106/280, 38%) and antibodies against Hepatitis C (95, 34%). This is the first large scale, multi-site study conducted to the standards of GCLP to describe African laboratory reference intervals applicable to potential volunteers in clinical

  2. When Volunteers Attack!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    Working with alumni volunteers shouldn't create horror and suspense. Following a few key steps can help maintain a smooth relationship between alumni volunteers and the alumni relations office staff. In this article, the author discusses how to manage volunteers and keep the alumni volunteer relationship on track.

  3. VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED C{sub 4}H

    SciTech Connect

    Cooksy, Andrew L.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Thaddeus, P.; Patel, Nimesh A.; Young, Ken H.; McCarthy, M. C.; Killian, T. C.

    2015-02-01

    Rotational spectra in four new excited vibrational levels of the linear carbon chain radical C{sub 4}H were observed in the millimeter band between 69 and 364 GHz in a low pressure glow discharge, and two of these were observed in a supersonic molecular beam between 19 and 38 GHz. All have rotational constants within 0.4% of the X{sup 2}Σ{sup +} ground vibrational state of C{sub 4}H and were assigned to new bending vibrational levels, two each with {sup 2}Σ and {sup 2}Π vibrational symmetry. The new levels are tentatively assigned to the 1ν{sub 6} and 1ν{sub 5} bending vibrational modes (both with {sup 2}Π symmetry), and the 1ν{sub 6}+1ν{sub 7} and 1ν{sub 5}+1ν{sub 6} combination levels ({sup 2}Σ symmetry) on the basis of the derived spectroscopic constants, relative intensities in our discharge source, and published laser spectroscopic and quantum calculations. Prior spectroscopic constants in the 1ν{sub 7} and 2ν{sub 7} levels were refined. Also presented are interferometric maps of the ground state and the 1ν{sub 7} level obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) near 257 GHz which show that C{sub 4}H is present near the central star in IRC+10216. We found no evidence with the SMA for the new vibrationally excited levels of C{sub 4}H at a peak flux density averaged over a 3{sup ′′} synthesized beam of ⩾0.15 Jy/beam in the 294–296 and 304–306 GHz range, but it is anticipated that rotational lines in the new levels might be observed in IRC+10216 when ALMA attains its full design capability.

  4. Learnings and Recommendations to Advance 4-H Science Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt-McQuitty, Lynn; Carlos, Ramona; Smith, Martin H.

    2014-01-01

    The case study investigation reported here assessed California 4-H professionals' understanding of the essential components of effective 4-H Science programming as established by the National 4-H Science Mission Mandate. Using the 4-H Science Checklist as the basis for defining 4-H Science Readiness, academic and program staff were surveyed…

  5. Identifying the Factors Influencing Professional Volunteer Leadership in the National Association of Extension 4-H Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Alexa; Nistler, Debbie; Stedman, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Many Extension professional associations have had trouble getting members to participate in national leadership opportunities. The study reported here examined the perception of members of a national Extension professional organization (NAE4-HA) regarding specific leadership actions. It found the single act of taking on a leadership position…

  6. Volunteering for College Credit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redfering, David L.; Biasco, Frank

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the literature in volunteering as it relates to a university credit course for students volunteering in human services agencies. Discusses the development of the program, along with the advantages to students, agencies, and the university. (Author/RC)

  7. Smart Use of Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vissing, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    Volunteers pose a special area of concern for child care centers. On one hand, they are indispensable as they donate countless hours of time, energy, and resources. On the other hand, there are challenges to coordinating the efforts of volunteering parents. The use of volunteers has incredible potential for benefit from the center, child, and…

  8. School Volunteer Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Public Television, Madison.

    This guide to implementing a school volunteer program was developed for the 1995 Wisconsin Volunteer-A-Thon project, which was intended to encourage individuals, schools, organizations, and corporations to volunteer time to youth and education. Part 1 contains a timeline for the implementation of the project, a description of how to participate,…

  9. Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge: Infusing Agricultural Science and Engineering Concepts into 4-H Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Joshua E.; Rugg, Bradley; Davis, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Youth involved in 4-H projects have been engaged in science-related endeavors for years. Since 2006, 4-H has invested considerable resources in the advancement of science learning. The new Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge program challenges 4-H youth to work together to identify agriculture-related issues in their communities and to…

  10. Diversity Inclusion in 4-H Youth Programs: Examining the Perceptions among West Virginia 4-H Youth Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVergne, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here sought to examine the perceptions of 4-H youth professionals towards diversity inclusion in 4-H youth programs. A majority of professionals positively reported that there are benefits for youth of color and youth with disabilities in 4-H youth programs. Respondents indicated that the lack of information about 4-H youth…

  11. Visual Display Study: National 4-H Center. A 4-H Intern Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farwell, Sanford W.

    An internship report cites ways in which the National 4-H Center could be more effective in a visual sense. The author suggests collecting the memorabilia already at the Center to form an historical museum and coordinating the historical items with present items. Impact areas, those with a lot of traffic, are discussed individually in terms of…

  12. A Mixed Method Study of Positional Leadership of North Dakota 4-H Ambassador and State FFA Officer Alumni

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Nels Milan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed method study was to determine the positional leadership of North Dakota 4-H and FFA leadership alumni. This study determined the influence of youth development programs on statewide leadership alumni (those who served from 1970 to 2000) and community leadership roles as adults. Former North Dakota 4-H Ambassador Alumni…

  13. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Energy Project. 4-H Member's E-Book, Unit 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This activity and record book is designed for unit 1 (ages 9-11) of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. In this project, members are required to: (1) use energy wisely by closing doors and turning off lights; (2) inspecting homes for energy use at least once; (3) judging the best use of lighting in a home; (4) sharing ideas about energy use in a…

  14. Endangered species: volunteers.

    PubMed

    Fitch, J J

    1994-11-01

    Volunteerism in America is changing. To continue to be an effective force in EMS, volunteers need to embrace rather than resist enhanced levels of care and other advances in providing service. Special care must be taken by medical directors to recognize the strengths and limitations of volunteer squads. In many suburban and rural areas, volunteers are strategically located to work with the EMS system and the medical director to bridge geographic or organizational service gaps. PMID:10137716

  15. CPR: Purposeful Action. Putting New Life into 4-H.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah A.; Smith, William C.

    1988-01-01

    In Ohio, 4-H professionals found that it is necessary to conduct market research to have an effective program. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training has been successful in strengthening the 4-H position in the marketplace. (JOW)

  16. Effects of rehydration and food consumption on salivary flow, pH and buffering capacity in young adult volunteers during ergometer exercise

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of rehydration and food consumption on salivary flow, pH, and buffering capacity during bicycle ergometer exercise in participants. Methods Ten healthy volunteers exercised on a bicycle ergometer at 80% of their maximal heart rate. These sessions lasted for two periods of 20 min separated by 5-min rest intervals. Volunteers were subjected to one of the following conditions: (1) no water (mineral water) or food consumption, (2) only water for rehydration, (3) water and food consumption, (4) a sports drink only for rehydration, and (5) rehydration with a sports drink and food. Statistical significance was assessed using one-way analysis of variance and Dunnett’s test (p < 0.05). Results The salivary pH decreased significantly during and after exercise in conditions 4 and 5. The salivary buffering capacity decreased significantly during exercise and/or after the exercise in conditions 1, 3, 4, and 5. Conclusions The results showed that salivary pH and buffering capacity decreased greatly depending on the combination of a sports drink and food. PMID:24160307

  17. Hamsters?! What Does 4-H Stand for, Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundeen, Brenda

    This paper briefly traces the history of 4-H youth development programs, explains what youth development is, and shows how the experiential learning model is used in 4-H. Begun over 75 years ago as a means of extending the learning of the land-grant university to rural youth, 4-H is part of the Cooperative Extension Service. The curriculum…

  18. Using Digital Classrooms to Conduct 4-H Club Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Patricia; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Morgan, A. Christian; Duncan, Dennis W.

    2012-01-01

    Using computer technology and digital classrooms to conduct 4-H Club meetings is an efficient way to continue delivering quality 4-H programming during times of limited resources and staff. Nineteen Junior and Senior 4-H'ers participated in seven digital classroom workshops using the Wimba Classroom application. These digital classroom…

  19. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  20. The 4-H Club Meeting: An Essential Youth Development Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassels, Alicia; Post, Liz; Nestor, Patrick I.

    2015-01-01

    The club meeting has served as a key delivery method for 4-H programming across the United States throughout its history. A survey of WV 4-H community club members reinforces the body of evidence that the 4-H club meeting is an effective vehicle for delivering positive youth learning opportunities within the umbrella of the Essential Elements of…

  1. Recycling: Mining Resources from Trash. 4-H Leader's/Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonhotal, Jean F.

    This guide is designed for adult volunteer leaders, camp counselors, and teachers who want to explore the subject of recycling with youth. An introduction explores the waste disposal options of reducing, reusing, and recycling, and reasons for recycling. Additional background information is provided on common solid waste and how it can be reused…

  2. Relative bioavailability of two 5-mg montelukast sodium chewable tablets: a single dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover comparison in healthy korean adult male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kim, H T; Song, Y-K; Lee, S D; Park, Y; Kim, C-K

    2012-03-01

    Montelukast sodium, cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 specific antagonist, has been marketed in Korea for the treatment of bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of a test and reference formulation of montelukast 5-mg chewable tablets in healthy Korean male volunteers to meet KFDA regulatory criteria for marketing of the new generic formulation. This study was designed as a single-dose, 2-treatment, and 2-period crossover trial with 32 healthy volunteers. Each subject was randomly assigned to receive the test (Dong-Kook Montelukast Sodium Chewable Tablet 5 mg®) or reference (Singulair Chewable Tablet 5 mg®) formulation. The tablet was chewed 20 times, and then swallowed with 240 mL of water. Plasma concentrations of montelukast up to 24 h after the dose were determined using a validated UPLC-MS/MS method, and the bioequivalence between the 2 formulations was assessed by statistical analysis of mean ratios of log-transformed AUC0-24 h and Cmax. No period or sequence effects were detected. The AUC0-24 h was 1 835 ng·h/mL for the test formulation, and 1 930 ng·h/mL for the reference formulation. The respective values of AUC0-∞ were 1 917 and 2 015 ng·h/mL. The Cmax of the test and reference products (247 and 283 ng/mL, respectively) reached at 2.25 and 2.72 h, respectively. Then, they gradually decreased with the mean terminal t1/2 of 5.25 and 5.30 h for the test and reference products, respectively. The 90% CIs for the ratio of log-transformed AUC0-24 h and Cmax for the test and reference formulations were 0.92-0.99 and 0.83-0.91, respectively. No adverse events were reported in this study. This single dose study found that the test and reference products met the regulatory criteria for bioequivalence in these fasting healthy Korean male volunteers. PMID:22407900

  3. College Students' Volunteering: Factors Related to Current Volunteering, Volunteer Settings, and Motives for Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Erin W.; Warta, Samantha; Erichsen, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Research has not explored the types of settings that college students prefer to volunteer for and how these settings might be influenced by personal factors (e.g., demographic, academic major, volunteering motivation, religiosity). Students from a Midwestern university (N = 406, 71.9% female) completed a survey that inquired about their…

  4. Recruiting Today's Volunteer Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paresky, Susan S.

    1994-01-01

    College and university development officers are encouraged to adjust their expectations of volunteers to the current reality of graduates' schedules and commitments. Five barriers to volunteering (economic, time and distance, language and cultural, environmental, and competitive) are identified, and techniques for overcoming them are offered. (MSE)

  5. Native Son. Vista Volunteer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urvant, Ellen; And Others

    The June issue of the Vista Volunteer is devoted to a presentation of the current plight of the American Indian emphasizing the injustice with which the Indian has been treated. Throughout the 5 articles the achievements and efforts of the Vista volunteers working with various Indian tribes are described. Statements by Indian leaders point up the…

  6. Committed Sport Event Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Keunsu; Quarterman, Jerome; Strigas, Ethan; Ha, Jaehyun; Lee, Seungbum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among selected demographic characteristics (income, education and age), motivation and commitment of volunteers at a sporting event. Three-hundred and five questionnaires were collected from volunteers in a marathon event and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on…

  7. Volunteer Shelter Bed Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Washington, DC.

    The volunteer shelter bed program development guidelines in this booklet are offered as a community-based alternative to the institutionalization of status offenders. The volunteer shelter bed program is described as a nonsecure residential alternative for status offenders, which can be implemented without the creation of new facilities or the…

  8. Effects of a wheat bran extract containing arabinoxylan oligosaccharides on gastrointestinal health parameters in healthy adult human volunteers: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    François, Isabelle E J A; Lescroart, Olivier; Veraverbeke, Wim S; Marzorati, Massimo; Possemiers, Sam; Evenepoel, Pieter; Hamer, Henrike; Houben, Els; Windey, Karen; Welling, Gjalt W; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M; Verbeke, Kristin; Broekaert, Willem F

    2012-12-28

    Wheat bran extract (WBE) is a food-grade soluble fibre preparation that is highly enriched in arabinoxylan oligosaccharides. In this placebo-controlled cross-over human intervention trial, tolerance and effects on colonic protein and carbohydrate fermentation were studied. After a 1-week run-in period, sixty-three healthy adult volunteers consumed 3, 10 and 0 g WBE/d for 3 weeks in a random order, with 2 weeks' washout between each treatment period. Fasting blood samples were collected at the end of the run-in period and at the end of each treatment period for analysis of haematological and clinical chemistry parameters. Additionally, subjects collected a stool sample for analysis of microbiota, SCFA and pH. A urine sample, collected over 48 h, was used for analysis of p-cresol and phenol content. Finally, the subjects completed questionnaires scoring occurrence frequency and distress severity of eighteen gastrointestinal symptoms. Urinary p-cresol excretion was significantly decreased after WBE consumption at 10 g/d. Faecal bifidobacteria levels were significantly increased after daily intake of 10 g WBE. Additionally, WBE intake at 10 g/d increased faecal SCFA concentrations and lowered faecal pH, indicating increased colonic fermentation of WBE into desired metabolites. At 10 g/d, WBE caused a mild increase in flatulence occurrence frequency and distress severity and a tendency for a mild decrease in constipation occurrence frequency. In conclusion, WBE is well tolerated at doses up to 10 g/d in healthy adults volunteers. Intake of 10 g WBE/d exerts beneficial effects on gut health parameters. PMID:22370444

  9. Who's in Charge Here? The Administrative Challenges of Being a Volunteer Board Member for a Community-Based Adult Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Marion

    2006-01-01

    A 2003 qualitative study examined the perspectives of 70 stakeholders in two adult literacy programs in Manitoba, Canada. Two stakeholders were Literacy Working Group (LWG) chairpersons, who held administrative positions akin to public school boards. Of particular significance to these administrators were issues related to program coordination,…

  10. Language Learning Strategies for Peace Corps Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleppegrell, Mary; Oxford, Rebecca

    The handbook, designed for Peace Corps volunteers but adaptable for other adult learners, offers ideas about how to improve one's own language learning through effective learning strategies. The handbook intended as a reference, not a text, for when the learner becomes discouraged with his rate of progress, is progressing well but looking for new…

  11. 28 CFR 115.32 - Volunteer and contractor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Volunteer and contractor training. 115.32 Section 115.32 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Training and Education § 115.32 Volunteer...

  12. 28 CFR 115.32 - Volunteer and contractor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Volunteer and contractor training. 115.32 Section 115.32 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Training and Education § 115.32 Volunteer...

  13. 28 CFR 115.32 - Volunteer and contractor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Volunteer and contractor training. 115.32 Section 115.32 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Training and Education § 115.32 Volunteer...

  14. Call to volunteer.

    PubMed

    Pati, Anita

    Volunteers can contribute a great deal to people receiving health or social care. Some of the quirky activities they offer are contact with owls and the provision of arts and crafts materials. PMID:19323106

  15. Measuring the Impacts of a Volunteer-Based Community Development Program in Developing Volunteers' Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Amy; Singletary, Loretta; Hill, George

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of an evaluation of the impacts of a community development program to develop leadership skills in its adult volunteers. The evaluation featured 20 questions about leadership skills learned as a result of volunteer experiences. Data analysis strategies beyond a simple means ranking resulted in evidence…

  16. Connecting Kids To The Universe: Partnering With 4-H Youth Development To Pilot 'Afterschool Universe' In New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaff, Nancy

    2008-05-01

    4-H Youth Development - as the youth program of the Cooperative Extension system associated with the land grant university in every state - is an ideal partner for statewide dissemination of EPO programs. With funding from a Chandra Cycle 9 EPO grant we are piloting `Afterschool Universe’ in five urban locations in New York State. `Afterschool Universe’ is an education/outreach effort sponsored by NASA's Beyond Einstein program and was developed in partnership with the Imagine the Universe EPO program. The program is targeted at middle school students in out-of-school-time settings and explores basic astronomy concepts focused on the Universe beyond the solar system. Consisting of 12 sessions of engaging hands-on activities, the flexibly structured program can be used in a variety of settings, including astronomy days, youth groups, summer camps, and afterschool programs. Partnering with 4-H Youth Development helps us reach large numbers of underserved and underrepresented minority youth and girls in widely dispersed areas of New York and fits ideally with the current national 4-H SET (science, engineering, and technology) initiative and emphasis on 4-H afterschool programming. The pilot program provides teaching kits and workshops for program leaders. Our 4-H county partners recruit afterschool program staff, science center staff, 4-H volunteers, 4-H teens, and other youth group leaders as workshop participants. The 4-H program will house and loan the kit to trained leaders. By providing kits and training in 2008, we are gearing up for International Year of Astronomy programs in 2009 in out-of-school settings. Based on pilot results, we will seek additional funding to expand the program. The poster will discuss kit development, 4-H partnership, workshops, participating organizations, target audiences, successes, and challenges.

  17. Why 4-H Members Leave: A Study of Discontinuance through Both Current 4-H Members and Former Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilek, Kevin Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    4-H members quit. It is part of every 4-H program, and according to the research, it is even part of growing up. If only we knew why they quit, we could possibly do something about it. To date, the reasons youth join 4-H have been more thoroughly researched than the reasons they quit. This study explores why youth choose to discontinue membership…

  18. Sewing Skills Progress Chart. 4-H Textile Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan F.

    This document, which was developed for use by Pennsylvania 4-H Club leaders and members, is a chart that can be used to help club members determine and document those sewing skills they already have and those they need to learn as they complete one or more 4-H Club sewing projects. The document begins with a note to club leaders and parents that…

  19. Council of Presidents: A Multifaceted Idea for 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torretta, Alayne

    2015-01-01

    Communication between 4-H professionals and the youth they work with is an important part of a successful 4-H program. By creating a Council of Presidents comprised of officers of all the clubs in your county, you can increase communication while assuring your program addresses all four essential elements. The Council is also as a vehicle for…

  20. 4-H Participation and Science Interest in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Katherine; Carlos, Ramona M.; Barnett, Cynthia; Smith, Martin H.

    2012-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the impacts of participation in 4-H on young people's interest and participation in science. Survey data were collected from relatively large and ethnically diverse samples of elementary and high school-aged students in California. Results indicated that although elementary-grade 4-H members are not more…

  1. Embracing Scientific and Engineering Practices in 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worker, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    The 4-H Science Initiative has renewed efforts to strengthen 4-H programmatic and evaluation efforts in science and engineering education. A fundamental component of this initiative is to provide opportunities to youth to aid in their development of science process skills; however, emerging research stresses the importance of engaging youth in…

  2. Camping with a Purpose...A 4-H Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, John H.; And Others

    The 4-H handbook focuses on factors to consider and things to be done when developing a camping program. Since the emphasis, structure, and administration of 4-H camping varies, the booklet is flexible enough to be adapted to different state, district, and county situations. Major topics are camping's importance to extension education,…

  3. Stabilization of 4H hexagonal phase in gold nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhanxi; Bosman, Michel; Huang, Xiao; Huang, Ding; Yu, Yi; Ong, Khuong P.; Akimov, Yuriy A.; Wu, Lin; Li, Bing; Wu, Jumiati; Huang, Ying; Liu, Qing; Eng Png, Ching; Lip Gan, Chee; Yang, Peidong; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Gold, silver, platinum and palladium typically crystallize with the face-centred cubic structure. Here we report the high-yield solution synthesis of gold nanoribbons in the 4H hexagonal polytype, a previously unreported metastable phase of gold. These gold nanoribbons undergo a phase transition from the original 4H hexagonal to face-centred cubic structure on ligand exchange under ambient conditions. Using monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy, the strong infrared plasmon absorption of single 4H gold nanoribbons is observed. Furthermore, the 4H hexagonal phases of silver, palladium and platinum can be readily stabilized through direct epitaxial growth of these metals on the 4H gold nanoribbon surface. Our findings may open up new strategies for the crystal phase-controlled synthesis of advanced noble metal nanomaterials. PMID:26216712

  4. Motivations of German Hospice Volunteers: How Do They Compare to Nonhospice Volunteers and US Hospice Volunteers?

    PubMed

    Stelzer, Eva-Maria; Lang, Frieder R

    2016-03-01

    We examined reasons of volunteering for hospice and nonhospice organizations in a study with 125 volunteers (22-93 years) from the United States and Germany. Motives of US and German hospice volunteers revealed similarities and few differences. Hospice volunteers are involved because they seek to help others, seek new learning experiences, seek social contacts, or seek personal growth. The US hospice volunteers reported motives related to altruistic concerns, enhancement, and social influence as more influential, while German hospice volunteers rated career expectations as being more important. Comparison of German hospice with nonhospice volunteers revealed stronger differences: German hospice volunteers scored higher on altruistic motives, while German nonhospice volunteers yielded higher scores on self-serving motives. Findings contribute to improved understanding of volunteering motivation and of activating or retaining hospice volunteers. PMID:25422517

  5. Texas 4-H Agents' Perceptions of Selected Competencies in the 4-H Professional Research, Knowledge, and Competencies Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Amy; Wingenbach, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    There are many competencies necessary for success as a 4-H agent. The 4-H Professional Research, Knowledge, and Competencies (PRKC) Model organizes competencies into six domains: (a) Youth Development, (b) Youth Program Development, (c) Volunteerism, (d) Partnerships, (e) Organizational Systems, and (f) Equity, Access and Opportunity (National 4-H…

  6. Vaccine adjuvant systems containing monophosphoryl lipid A and QS21 induce strong and persistent humoral and T cell responses against hepatitis B surface antigen in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Vandepapelière, Pierre; Horsmans, Yves; Moris, Philippe; Van Mechelen, Marcelle; Janssens, Michel; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Van Belle, Pascale; Clement, Frédéric; Hanon, Emmanuel; Wettendorff, Martine; Garçon, Nathalie; Leroux-Roels, Geert

    2008-03-01

    A randomised, double-blind study assessing the potential of four adjuvants in combination with recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen has been conducted to evaluate humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in healthy adults after three vaccine doses at months 0, 1 and 10. Three Adjuvant Systems (AS) contained 3-O-desacyl-4'-monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and QS21, formulated either with an oil-in-water emulsion (AS02B and AS02V) or with liposomes (AS01B). The fourth adjuvant was CpG oligonucleotide. High levels of antibodies were induced by all adjuvants, whereas cell-mediated immune responses, including cytolytic T cells and strong and persistent CD4(+) T cell response were mainly observed with the three MPL/QS21-containing Adjuvant Systems. The CD4(+) T cell response was characterised in vitro by vigorous lymphoproliferation, high IFN-gamma and moderate IL-5 production. Antigen-specific T cell immune response was further confirmed ex vivo by detection of IL-2- and IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+) T cells, and in vivo by measuring increased levels of IFN-gamma in the serum and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses. The CpG adjuvanted vaccine induced consistently lower immune responses for all parameters. All vaccine adjuvants were shown to be safe with acceptable reactogenicity profiles. The majority of subjects reported local reactions at the injection site after vaccination while general reactions were recorded less frequently. No vaccine-related serious adverse event was reported. Importantly, no increase in markers of auto-immunity and allergy was detected over the whole study course. In conclusion, the Adjuvant Systems containing MPL/QS21, in combination with hepatitis B surface antigen, induced very strong humoral and cellular immune responses in healthy adults. The AS01B-adjuvanted vaccine induced the strongest and most durable specific cellular immune responses after two doses. These Adjuvant Systems, when added to recombinant protein antigens, can be

  7. A randomized, crossover pharmacodynamic study of immediate-release omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate and delayed-release lansoprazole in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pratha, Vijayalakshmi S; McGraw, Thomas; Tobin, William

    2016-06-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) effectively block gastric acid secretion and are the treatment of choice for heartburn. PPIs differ, however, in onset of action and bioavailability. In this single-center, open-label, three-way crossover study, onset of action of immediate-release omeprazole 20 mg/sodium bicarbonate 1100 mg (IR-OME) and delayed-release (DR) lansoprazole 15 mg was evaluated in 63 healthy fasting adults. Subjects were randomized to once daily IR-OME, or DR-lansoprazole, or no treatment for 7 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was the earliest time where a statistically significant difference was observed between IR-OME and DR-lansoprazole in median intragastric pH scores for three consecutive 5-min intervals on day 7. Secondary endpoints compared effects of active treatments on days 1 and 7 (e.g., time to sustained inhibition, percentage of time with pH >4). A significant difference in median intragastric pH favoring IR-OME was observed on day 7 starting at the 10- to 15-min interval postdosing (P = 0.024) and sustaining through the 115- to 120-min interval (P = 0.017). On day 1, IR-OME achieved sustained inhibition of intragastric acidity significantly faster than DR-lansoprazole. IR-OME maintained pH >4 significantly longer than DR-lansoprazole over a 24-h period (P = 0.007) on day 7. Overall, results of this study demonstrate IR-OME is safe and well tolerated and that treatment with IR-OME results in significantly faster onset of action and better gastric acid suppression at steady state than DR-lansoprazole. PMID:27433347

  8. A Phase I Clinical Study of a Live Attenuated Bordetella pertussis Vaccine - BPZE1; A Single Centre, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Escalating Study of BPZE1 Given Intranasally to Healthy Adult Male Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Thorstensson, Rigmor; Trollfors, Birger; Al-Tawil, Nabil; Jahnmatz, Maja; Bergström, Jakob; Ljungman, Margaretha; Törner, Anna; Wehlin, Lena; Van Broekhoven, Annie; Bosman, Fons; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Mielcarek, Nathalie; Locht, Camille

    2014-01-01

    Background Acellular pertussis vaccines do not control pertussis. A new approach to offer protection to infants is necessary. BPZE1, a genetically modified Bordetella pertussis strain, was developed as a live attenuated nasal pertussis vaccine by genetically eliminating or detoxifying 3 toxins. Methods We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study of BPZE1 given intranasally for the first time to human volunteers, the first trial of a live attenuated bacterial vaccine specifically designed for the respiratory tract. 12 subjects per dose group received 103, 105 or 107 colony-forming units as droplets with half of the dose in each nostril. 12 controls received the diluent. Local and systemic safety and immune responses were assessed during 6 months, and nasopharyngeal colonization with BPZE1 was determined with repeated cultures during the first 4 weeks after vaccination. Results Colonization was seen in one subject in the low dose, one in the medium dose and five in the high dose group. Significant increases in immune responses against pertussis antigens were seen in all colonized subjects. There was one serious adverse event not related to the vaccine. Other adverse events were trivial and occurred with similar frequency in the placebo and vaccine groups. Conclusions BPZE1 is safe in healthy adults and able to transiently colonize the nasopharynx. It induces immune responses in all colonized individuals. BPZE1 can thus undergo further clinical development, including dose optimization and trials in younger age groups. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01188512 PMID:24421886

  9. Volunteers Supporting Children with Reading Difficulties in Schools: Motives and Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Danielle; Hornery, Samantha; Seaton, Marjorie; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2014-01-01

    Research on volunteer mentor programs has demonstrated mostly positive outcomes for mentees. As a result, many schools seek to attract and retain volunteers to assist children in need of support. The researchers interviewed 26 adult volunteers (from Australian companies) who help children with reading difficulties and examined intervention effects…

  10. Volunteers: A Challenge For Extension Workers: Developing Volunteer Leaders From Disadvantaged Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partin, Minerva O.; And Others

    A series of guidelines for use by Extension agents, as they involve socially and economically disadvantaged youth and adults in volunteer leadership roles in rural and urban Extension programs, is presented. Section headings are: Know Your Audience, Establish Rapport, Levels of Leadership, Leader Development, Leadership Roles, Volunteer…

  11. Volunteer Awareness and Educational Enabling: Staff Development Project for Volunteer Literacy Tutors. 353 Special Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford County Literacy Council, Meadville, PA.

    A project assisted volunteers and staff of the Crawford County (Pennsylvania) READ Program in increasing their personal awareness of and sensitivity to factors in the life of adult learners that may hinder or otherwise affect learning. The object was to help tutors and staff become aware of when help is needed and how to refer or provide that help…

  12. Volunteer Community Language Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Sigfrid S.; And Others

    Lake Charles, Louisiana established a language bank capable of providing interpreters for 20 foreign languages. All participants are volunteers who offer to help free of charge in case of emergencies arising because of the considerable numbers of foreign visitors in the area. Smooth operation of the language bank depends on the following: (1) an…

  13. UTAH VOLUNTEER MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Goal 1) Promote and coordinate stream monitoring efforts in Utah as an effective watershed educational tool. Task 1) Inventory and compile an annotated list of existing volunteer monitoring programs and related efforts in Utah. Task 2) Promote monitoring activities throughout the...

  14. Sodium diffusion in 4H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Linnarsson, M. K. Hallén, A.

    2014-09-01

    Sodium diffusion has been studied in p-type 4H-SiC. Heat treatments have been performed from 1200 °C to 1800 °C for 1 min to 4 h. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has been used to measure the sodium distribution. We show that sodium has a considerable mobility at 1200 °C in p-type 4H-SiC. On the other hand for sodium atoms trapped at suitable sites the mobility is limited up to 1800 °C. Trap limited diffusion kinetics is suggested and an effective diffusivity has been extracted with an activation energy of 4 eV for sodium diffusion in p-type 4H-SiC.

  15. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Safety and Immunogenicity Study of 4 Formulations of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Plus CPG 7909 (AV7909) in Healthy Adult Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Robert J.; Daczkowski, Nancy F.; Kaptur, Paulina E.; Muse, Derek; Sheldon, Eric; LaForce, Craig; Sari, Suha; Rudge, Thomas L.; Bernton, Edward

    2013-01-01

    A new anthrax vaccine that could accelerate the immune response and possibly reduce the number of injections needed for protection would be desirable in a post-exposure setting. This Phase 1 study compared the safety and immunogenicity of 2 IM doses (Days 0 and 14) of 4 formulations of AV7909 (AVA plus CPG 7909) with 2 IM doses of BioThrax® (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) and 2 IM doses of saline placebo administered on Days 0 and 14. A total of 105 healthy adults 18 to 50 years of age were randomized to 1 of 6 study groups: BioThrax (0.5 mL), AV7909 Formulation 1 (0.5 mL AVA + 0.5 mg CPG 7909), AV7909 Formulation 2 (0.5 mL AVA + 0.25 mg CPG 7909), AV7909 Formulation 3 (0.25 mL AVA + 0.5 mg CPG 7909), AV7909 Formulation 4 (0.25 mL AVA + 0.25 mg CPG 7909), or saline placebo (0.5 mL). All randomized subjects received at least 1 vaccination, and 100 subjects completed the trial. After 2 doses, mean peak normalized toxin neutralizing antibody responses (TNA NF50) in the AV7909 groups were higher than in the BioThrax group. Differences among the 4 AV7909 groups were not statistically significant. Subjects who received AV7909 reached peak titers on Day 28 vs. Day 35 in the BioThrax group. The most common adverse events (AEs) in the BioThrax and AV7909 groups assessed as related to vaccination were injection site reactions. Transient lymphopenia was observed after the first dose in each AV7909 group. Frequencies of injection site and systemic reactions recorded by subjects in diaries for 7 days after each injection were highest with AV7909 Formulation 1. No AEs of special interest (autoimmune events) were observed in the study. Further studies of doses and dosing regimens are planned to assess the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of AV7909. PMID:23701746

  16. Isomer Energy Differences for the C4H3 and C4H5 Isomers UsingDiffusion Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Domin, D.; Lester Jr., W.A.; Whitesides, R.; Frenklach, M.

    2007-12-01

    A new diffusion Monte Carlo study is performed on the isomers of C{sub 4}H{sub 3} and C{sub 4}H{sub 5} emulating the methodology of a previous study [Int. J. Chem. Kinetics 33, 808 (2001)]. Using the same trial wave function form of the previous study, substantially different isomerization energies were found owing to the use of larger walker populations in the present work. The energy differences between the E and I isomers of C{sub 4}H{sub 3} were found to be 10.5 {+-} 0.5 kcal/mol and for C{sub 4}H{sub 5}, 9.7 {+-} 0.6 kcal/mol. These results are in reasonable accord with recent MRCI and CCSD(T) findings.

  17. Enhancing Leadership Skills in Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett, Landry L.; Boyd, Barry

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how professionals leading volunteers can purposefully work toward developing the "leadership identity" of individual volunteers. These concepts and the application of them are presented in the context of Cooperative Extension volunteer groups. Specific methods of developing the leadership identity and capacity of individual…

  18. Perceptions of the Volunteer Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Wayne L.

    1987-01-01

    Examined questionnaire responses from 51 probation and parole line officers to determine staff perceptions of one Volunteers in Corrections program. Findings suggest that officers view volunteer role as involving several functions, including research, treatment, counseling, supervision, volunteer program operations, clerical, and investigation.…

  19. Human pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) after repeated doses taken 4 h apart Human pharmacology of MDMA after repeated doses taken 4 h apart.

    PubMed

    Farré, Magí; Tomillero, Angels; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Yubero, Samanta; Papaseit, Esther; Roset, Pere-Nolasc; Pujadas, Mitona; Torrens, Marta; Camí, Jordi; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is a popular psychostimulant, frequently associated with multiple administrations over a short period of time. Repeated administration of MDMA in experimental settings induces tolerance and metabolic inhibition. The aim is to determine the acute pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetics resulting from two consecutive 100mg doses of MDMA separated by 4h. Ten male volunteers participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial. The four conditions were placebo plus placebo, placebo plus MDMA, MDMA plus placebo, and MDMA plus MDMA. Outcome variables included pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetic parameters. After a second dose of MDMA, most effects were similar to those after a single dose, despite a doubling of MDMA concentrations (except for systolic blood pressure and reaction time). After repeated MDMA administration, a 2-fold increase was observed in MDMA plasma concentrations. For a simple dose accumulation MDMA and MDA concentrations were higher (+23.1% Cmax and +17.1% AUC for MDMA and +14.2% Cmax and +10.3% AUC for MDA) and HMMA and HMA concentrations lower (-43.3% Cmax and -39.9% AUC for HMMA and -33.2% Cmax and -35.1% AUC for HMA) than expected, probably related to MDMA metabolic autoinhibition. Although MDMA concentrations doubled after the second dose, most pharmacological effects were similar or slightly higher in comparison to the single administration, except for systolic blood pressure and reaction time which were greater than predicted. The pharmacokinetic-effects relationship suggests that when MDMA is administered at a 4h interval there exists a phenomenon of acute tolerance to its effects. PMID:26073279

  20. Evaluation of a one week intradermal regimen for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis: results of a randomized, open label, active-controlled trial in healthy adult volunteers in India.

    PubMed

    Sudarshan, Mysore Kalappa; Narayana, Doddabele Hanumanthaiah Ashwath; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Holla, Ramesh; Ashwin, Belludi Yajaman; Gangaboraiah, Bilagumba; Ravish, Haradanahalli S

    2012-08-01

    The currently recommended intradermal regimen for post-exposure prophylaxis spreads over a month period which many times lead to low compliance from the patients. There is a need to introduce and evaluate short course regimens to overcome this problem. This study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a "new one week intradermal regimen" for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. A total of 80 healthy adult volunteers were enrolled and allocated randomly either to purified chick embryo cell (PCECV) rabies vaccine or purified verocell rabies vaccine (PVRV), 40 in each group. Each subject received intradermally one of the vaccines , using the one week regimen (4-4-4). Blood samples were collected on Days 0, 7, 14, 28,180 and 365 for estimation of rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) concentration. The sera samples were analyzed by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). All subjects in both the groups had adequate RVNA concentration of  0.5 IU/mL from day 14 to till day 180 and the difference of geometric mean concentrations between the two groups was not significant (P > 0.606). Further to assess the immunological memory produced by this new regimen, a "single visit four site" intradermal booster vaccination was given to those who did not have adequate RVNA concentration on day 365. This resulted in a quick and enhanced RVNA concentration in these subjects thus denoting a successful anamnestic response. The incidence of adverse events was 8.3% in PCECV group and 1.6% in PVRV group (P=0.001) and the regimen was well tolerated without any dropouts. In conclusion, the new "one week intradermal regimen" is immunogenic and safe for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis and needs to be further evaluated in persons exposed to rabies. PMID:22699446

  1. Density Functional Exploration of C4H3N Isomers.

    PubMed

    Custer, Thomas; Szczepaniak, Urszula; Gronowski, Marcin; Fabisiewicz, Emilia; Couturier-Tamburelli, Isabelle; Kołos, Robert

    2016-07-28

    Molecules having C4H3N stoichiometry are of astrophysical interest. Two of these, methylcyanoacetylene (CH3C3N) and its structural isomer allenyl cyanide (H2CCCHN), have been observed in interstellar space, while several more have been examined in laboratories. Here we describe, for a broad range of C4H3N isomers, density functional calculations (B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ) of molecular parameters including the energetics, geometries, rotational constants, electric dipole moments, polarizabilities, vibrational IR frequencies, IR absorption intensities, and Raman activities. Singlet-triplet splittings as well as singlet vertical electronic excitation energies are given for selected species. The identification of less stable C4H3N molecules, generated in ongoing spectroscopic experiments, relies heavily on these quantum chemical predictions. PMID:27341606

  2. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Member Guide, Unit 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This activity and record book is designed for unit 2 (ages 12-14) of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. Aims, energy attitudes to be developed, and instructions are provided for each activity. Activities include: (1) a word search of energy-related words (with definitions provided); (2) determining fuel waste; (3) reading electric/gas meters and…

  3. Keys To The Kansas Environment. 4-H School Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. Extension Service.

    The 4-H Club packet for preschool and elementary school children contains nine "keys", or short learning exercises, designed to enrich science and environmental education both in and out of the classroom. Each "key" includes the purpose of the activity, the intended audience, the best time of the year for the activity, background information,…

  4. Marketing Strategies for Recruiting 4-H Members in West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Nestor, Cheryl; Lawrence, Layle D.; Gartin, Stacy A.; Woloshuk, Jean; Mulkeen, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    According to a survey of 174 West Virginia 4-H members aged 13-18, the Internet and word of mouth were most effective in recruiting new members. Active messages stressing camps, fun, and friendship had the most influence on retention. A statewide marketing plan was recommended. (SK)

  5. Self-Protection: A New Approach to 4-H Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sharon K. B.

    This document introduces the issue of self-protection as the Minnesota 4-H Youth Development response to self-destructive behavior among adolescents. It presents findings from a statewide survey of over 36,000 secondary school students using the Minnesota Adolescent Health Survey. Responses are given in the areas of health, school attitudes,…

  6. CONSERVING OUR NATURAL RESOURCES, A 4-H LEADER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AMICK, W. ROBERT; AND OTHERS

    AN EFFECTIVE 4-H CONSERVATION PROGRAM IS DEVELOPED AROUND THE FOLLOWING BASIC CONCEPTS--(1) MAN IS A PART OF THE NATURAL WORLD, IN WHICH THERE ARE MANY VALUABLE MATERIALS, (2) MAN HAS LEARNED TO USE MANY OF THOSE MATERIALS FOR HUMAN SUSTENANCE AND BETTERMENT, AND (3) MAN'S ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND GENERAL WELFARE IS LARGELY DEPENDENT UPON THE MANNER…

  7. "Ohio 4-H CARTEENS": Peer Intervention Safety Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropper, Rebecca J.

    1999-01-01

    Ohio 4-H's CARTEENS seeks to reduce juvenile traffic violations in a program designed and presented by teen peer educators with guidance and technical assistance from the state highway patrol. Teens examined court data to determine content, which includes defensive driving, rural road safety, and dealing with peer pressure. (SK)

  8. Effectiveness of the Indiana 4-H Tractor Program: Alumni Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrabba, James J., Jr.; Talbert, B. Allen; Field, William E.; Tormoehlen, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Responses from Indiana 4-H tractor driving contestants 1982-197 (n=139) showed that 74% were employed on farms; most felt the contests effectively taught tractor safety and made them generally aware of safety. However, many still engaged in risky behaviors such as not wearing seatbelts in tractors with rollover protective structures or allowing…

  9. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Member Guide, Unit 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This activity and record book is designed for unit 3 (ages 15-19) of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. Aims, energy attitudes to be developed, and instructions are provided for each activity. Activities include: (1) determining ways to reduce energy waste with hot water heaters; (2) making personal choices about using appliances; (3) conducting a…

  10. Minnesota 4-H Youth Program Quality Improvement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Margo; Grant, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Extension Center for Youth Development made an organizational decision in 2011 to invest in a system-wide approach to implement youth program quality into the 4-H program using the Youth Program Quality Assessment (YPQA) tool. This article describes the four key components to the Minnesota Youth Program Quality…

  11. The Evaluation Attitudes and Practices of 4-H Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekies, Kristi S.; Bennett, Amanda M.

    2011-01-01

    Extension educators are expected to conduct program evaluation. An Internet survey was sent to county 4-H educators in Ohio to examine their evaluation attitudes and practices, as well as barriers to conducting evaluation. Respondents indicated a range of attitudes about evaluation and limited use of different designs and methods. Having enough…

  12. Fashion Revue. 4-H Textile Science Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    This publication was developed to help students participating in Fashion Review, a 4-H event in which students model a clothing outfit and accessories and are judged on their modeling ability, their presentation, and how well the clothing and accessory choices complement the students' skin tones, hair color, figure or physique, personality, and…

  13. Water Worlds. 4-H Member's Guide M-5-18; 4-H Leaders Guide L-5-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Janet E.; And Others

    This pocket folder of materials is designed to provide children aged 9 to 12 with an opportunity to explore and observe aquatic environments. The package includes a 4-H Leader's guide, member's guide, and supplementary materials. The leader's guide contains safety considerations, tips and techniques, and additional activities for getting started…

  14. Starting and Maintaining a Marine Aquarium: 4-H Members Guide [and] 4-H Member's Project Record Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crenshaw, Neil

    The guide and the project record book included in this document are designed for 4-H members who would like to start a salt-water aquarium project. The guide includes the following topics: (1) general requirements for salt-water aquariums; (2) directions for making an aquarium; (3) suggestions for where to locate it; (4) pros and cons of using…

  15. Litter Control Achievement - Ohio 4-H Club Score Sheet [and] Activity Guides 1 through 7. 4-H Pilot Program 918.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Seven activity guides, evaluation sheet, and club scoresheet have been prepared for Ohio 4-H clubs' litter education program. Topics of the seven activity guides include: (1) general guidelines and types of activities; (2) little known facts about waste/litter; (3) guidelines for a walking tour; (4) fact sheet (questionnaire) related to garbage;…

  16. A first-in-human randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single- and multiple-ascending oral dose study of novel Imidazolopiperazine KAF156 to assess its safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Leong, F Joel; Zhao, Rong; Zeng, Shuqi; Magnusson, Baldur; Diagana, Thierry T; Pertel, Peter

    2014-11-01

    KAF156 belongs to a new class of antimalarial, the imidazolopiperazines, and is currently in clinical development for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. This first-in-human, single- and multiple-ascending-dose study in 70 healthy male volunteers determined the maximum oral dose of KAF156 tolerated by healthy adults and derived pharmacokinetic data (including preliminary food effect) to enable dose calculations for malaria patients. KAF156 was studied in single-dose cohorts (10 to 1,200 mg, including one 400-mg food effect cohort (4 to 10 subjects/cohort), and in multiple-dose cohorts (60 to 600 mg once daily for 3 days; 8 subjects/cohort). The follow-up period was 6 to 14 days after the last dose. KAF156 was tolerated, with self-limited mild to moderate gastrointestinal and neurological adverse events. In treated subjects after single doses, headache (n = 4; 11.1%), diarrhea (n = 3; 8.3%), dizziness (n = 3; 8.3%), and abdominal pain (n = 2; 5.6%) were the most common adverse events. Headache (n = 4; 16.7%), nausea (n = 3; 12.5%), upper respiratory tract infection (n = 3; 12.5%), and dizziness (n = 2; 8.3%) were the most common adverse events following multiple doses. KAF156 time to maximum concentration (Tmax) was between 1.0 and 6.0 h. Both the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) increased more than dose-proportionally in both single- and multiple-ascending-dose cohorts (terminal half-life, 42.5 to 70.7 h). There was no significant accumulation over 3-day repeated administration. The extent of absorption was not significantly affected by food at a single dose of 400 mg, while mean Cmax decreased from 778 ng/ml to 627 ng/ml and Tmax was delayed from a median of 3.0 h under fasting conditions to 6.0 h under fed conditions. Renal elimination is a minor route. PMID:25136017

  17. Phosphorus implantation into 4H-silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Capano, M.A.; Santhakumar, R.; Venugopal, R.; Melloch, M.R.; Cooper, J.A. Jr.

    2000-02-01

    Sheet resistances in nitrogen- and phosphorus-implanted 4H-SiC are measured to assess the time and temperature dependencies of this variable. In 4H-SiC implanted with 3 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}2} nitrogen ions to a depth of 2,800 {angstrom}, the minimum sheet resistance observed is 534 {Omega}/{open{underscore}square}, a record low value for any implanted element into any polytype of SiC. Time-independent sheet resistances are observed following anneals at 1,700 C for nitrogen and phosphorus samples. Lower temperature anneals produce sheet resistances which decrease monotonically with increasing time of anneal. Overall, sheet resistances from phosphorus-implanted 4H-SiC are an order of magnitude below those measured from nitrogen implanted samples. The response of phosphorus to low-temperature annealing is significant, and sheet resistances below 500 {Omega}/{open{underscore}square} are achieved at 1,200 C. Activation of phosphorus is attempted in an oxidizing atmosphere with and without prior argon annealing. A three-hour gate oxidation in wet O{sub 2} at 1,150 C, followed by a 30 min argon anneal, produced a sheet resistance of 1081 {Omega}/{open{underscore}square}. Oxidation after argon annealing caused sheet resistances to increase by about 20% compared to samples subjected solely to argon annealing. It is also found that oxide growth rates are much higher over phosphorus implanted than over unimplanted 4H-SiC. Reasons for the disparity in sheet resistances between nitrogen and phosphorus implants, and for the difference in oxide growth rates are suggested.

  18. Volunteering for charity: pride, respect, and the commitment of volunteers.

    PubMed

    Boezeman, Edwin J; Ellemers, Naomi

    2007-05-01

    This study builds upon and extends the social-identity-based model of cooperation with the organization (T. R. Tyler, 1999; T. R. Tyler & S. L. Blader, 2000) to examine commitment and cooperative intent among fundraising volunteers. In Study 1, structural equation modeling indicated that pride and respect related to the intent to remain a volunteer with an organization, and that this relation was mediated primarily by normative organizational commitment. In Study 2, structural equation modeling indicated that the perceived importance of volunteer work was related to pride, that perceived organizational support related to the experience of respect, and that pride and respect mediated the relation between perceived importance and support on the one hand and organizational commitment on the other. Overall, the results suggest that volunteer organizations may do well to implement pride and respect in their volunteer policy, for instance to address the reliability problem (J. L. Pearce, 1993). PMID:17484556

  19. Prison Volunteers: Profiles, Motivations, Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tewksbury, Richard; Dabney, Dean

    2004-01-01

    Large numbers of correctional institutions rely on volunteers to assist staff in various programs and tasks. At present there exists a paucity of literature describing these programs and/or subjecting them to systematic evaluation. The present study uses self-report data from a sample of active volunteers at a medium-security Southern prison to…

  20. Tools for Today's PTA Volunteer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children: The National PTA Magazine, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Becoming a PTA volunteer takes more than a willingness to serve; it takes knowing how to work effectively within the PTA and school community. This article describes what National PTA offers volunteers. When one trains with PTA resources, one has a chance to: (1) Participate in workshops and seminars with family-engagement experts; (2) Network…

  1. The Effective Use of Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Scott G.

    1980-01-01

    If volunteers are to be effective, they must perform needed tasks, have a clear job description, a sense of importance, a schedule for completion, and an understood term of office. Identifying, recruiting, and training fund-raising volunteers are discussed. Annual giving specialists are classified as leaders, personal solicitors, class agents,…

  2. Managing Library Volunteers, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driggers, Preston; Dumas, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers are essential to a successful library program--and at a time when deep budget cuts are the norm, there are many libraries that depend on the help of dedicated volunteers, who do everything from shelving books to covering the phones. Whether these are friends, trustees, or community members, managing them effectively is the key to…

  3. Volunteer Development. Practice Application Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Certain practices in volunteer development have proved successful to help organizations make the best use of their volunteers. Development should be a comprehensive, continuous process through which individuals can extend, update, and adapt their knowledge, skills, and abilities to enhance their performance and potential. A model for volunteer…

  4. 4-H Teen Community Emergency Response Team (CERT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Lynette; Powell, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    The Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) program is designed to train Americans to safely help themselves and their community in the event of a widespread disaster. This program is designed for adults. Despite youth increasingly becoming recognized as valuable resources, able to equally partner with adults in leadership and decision-making…

  5. Skynet Junior Scholars: From Idea to Enactment--Tales from the Trenches I. Implementation in 4-H settings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnside, Jason; Feldman, Lynn; Gurton, Suzanne; Heatherly, Sue Ann; Hoette, Vivian L.; Murray, Jenny; Zastrow, Ginger

    2016-01-01

    The creators of Skynet Junior Scholars were ambitious to say the least when they set out to:- Develop online tools that enable middle school and high school aged youth to use robotic optical and radio telescopes to do astronomy- Create an inquiry-based curriculum that promotes critical thinking and scientific habits of mind- Proactively incorporate Principles of Universal Design in all SJS development tasks to ensure access by blind/low vision and deaf/hard of hearing youth- Prepare 180 adult youth leaders from diverse backgrounds including museum educators, amateur astronomers, teachers 4-H leaders to facilitate SJS activities in a variety of settings.After 3 years of development SJS is in full implementation mode. As of August, 2015, 105 youth leaders and leader supervisors from 24 states have completed professional development and many have formed SJS youth groups. In this paper we describe what it takes for a successful implementation of Skynet Junior Scholars in a 4-H setting, from the viewpoint of adult leaders in the trenches who have created novel implementation models to make SJS work in diverse environments from monthly 4-H meetings to immersive residential camps.4-H is the nation's largest positive youth development organization, with a membership of more than six million young people in the U.S. In 2003 the national organization formed a strong commitment to STEM education with the goal to "to engage one million new youth in a dynamic process of discovery and exploration in science, engineering and technology to prepare them to meet the challenges of the 21st century". Skynet Junior Scholars has formed a strong and growing partnership with state 4-H agencies in West Virginia and Wisconsin, with a goal of establishing SJS as a national 4-H curriculum.Skynet Junior Scholars is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Numbers 1223687, 1223235 and 1223345.

  6. Trends Impacting Volunteer Administrators in the Next Ten Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Ken, III; Nolan, Mike

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 49 volunteer leadership development programs (39% response) and 704 professional association members (46% response) identified the top volunteer trends: virtual volunteering, corporate/workplace volunteers, episodic volunteering, and changing demographics of volunteers. (JOW)

  7. Mobilizing Volunteers for Community-Based Education and Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, J. Lin

    1979-01-01

    Using a case study approach, describes the efforts of three community organizers--a literacy worker and a medical doctor in the Phillipines, and an adult basic education supervisor in North Carolina--to develop and implement community-based volunteer programs. (DR)

  8. Episodic Volunteers: Reality for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macduff, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    Episodic volunteer opportunities allow for short-term services--either one-time or recurring. The organization using such volunteers must identify new jobs that can be performed on an episodic basis or redesign traditional volunteer jobs. (SK)

  9. Becoming Qualified to Teach Low-literate Refugees: A Case Study of One Volunteer Instructor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Kristen H.

    2013-01-01

    This case study investigates Carolyn, an effective volunteer ESL and literacy instructor of adult African refugees, in order to understand both what it means to be a qualified instructor, and also how community-based volunteer instructors may become more qualified. The study's findings suggest that Carolyn's qualifications are a…

  10. Experimental investigations of the hypernucleus Λ4H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achenbach, P.; Schulz, F.; Aulenbacher, S.; Beričič, J.; Bleser, S.; Böhm, R.; Bosnar, D.; Correa, L.; Distler, M. O.; Esser, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Friščić, I.; Fujii, Y.; Fujita, M.; Gogami, T.; Kanda, H.; Kaneta, M.; Kegel, S.; Kohl, Y.; Kusaka, W.; Margaryan, A.; Merkel, H.; Mihovilovič, M.; Müller, U.; Nagao, S.; Nakamura, S. N.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanchez Lorente, A.; Schlimme, B. S.; Schoth, M.; Sfienti, C.; Širca, S.; Steinen, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Tang, L.; Thiel, M.; Tsukada, K.; Tyukin, A.; Weber, A.

    2016-03-01

    Negatively charged pions from two-body decays of stopped Λ4H hypernuclei were studied in 2012 at the Mainz Microtron MAMI, Germany. The momenta of the decay-pions were measured with unprecedented precision by using high-resolution magnetic spectrometers. A challenge of the experiment was the tagging of kaons from associated K+∧ production off a Be target at very forward angles. In the year 2014, this experiment was continued with a better control of the systematic uncertainties, with better suppression of coincident and random background, improved particle identification, and with higher luminosities. Another key point of the progress was the improvement in the absolute momentum calibration of the magnetic spectrometers.

  11. 4H-SiC detectors for ultraviolet light monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzillo, M.; Sciuto, A.; Badalà, P.; Carbone, B.; Russo, A.; Coffa, S.

    2015-02-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) provides the unique property of near-perfect visible blindness and very high signal-to-noise ratio due to the high quantum efficiency and low dark current even at high temperature. These features make SiC the best available material for the manufacturing of visible blind semiconductor ultraviolet (UV) light detectors. Thanks to their properties, SiC detectors have been extensively used in fact for flame detection monitoring, UV sterilization and astronomy. Here we report on the electrical and optical performance of patterned thin metal film NiSi/4H-SiC vertical Schottky photodiodes with different semiconductor exposed area suitably designed for UV light monitoring.

  12. Extended defects in 4H-silicon carbide homoepitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuan

    The purpose of this thesis is to study the structure of extended defects in 4H-SIC homoepitaxial layers, and to identify their nucleation mechanisms. Characteristics of basal plane dislocations in 4H-SiC epilayers were investigated in a comprehensive manner, including their morphologies, Burgers' vectors, positions, and correlation with the extended defects propagating from the substrate. Plan-view transmission x-ray topography was the major characterization technique used in this study. Complementary data was obtained by KOH etching and optical microscopy. Trace of glide was detected on every basal plane dislocation in the entire 3-inch epilayer. In the center area of the epi-wafer, the glide can extend to macroscopic distance and form edge-type dislocations at the epilayer/surface interface. During the motion, dislocation half loop arrays were found to nucleate at the growth front. The magnitude of the resolved shear stress was estimated based on the radius of curvature of the dislocation lines. It surpassed the critical resolved shear stress at the epitaxial growth temperature. The stress was identified to be compressive in the epilayer. Its origin was studied. Nitrogen-doping-difference-induced misfit strain was excluded as the source of the stress. The structures of two morphological defects, 'carrots' and 'arrows', were studied. Cross-section x-ray topography was used to image the structure of carrot defect in whole. The defect was found to nucleate at the epilayer/substrate interface on a threading screw dislocation propagating from the substrate. Its structure was mainly composed of a prismatic stacking fault and a Frank-type basal plane stacking fault. The arrow defect was found to be produced by a spheroid shape inclusion in the volume of the epilayer. Zone axis diffraction pattern under transmission electron microscope identified the nature of the inclusion as 3C-SIC. It was determined to nucleate at the substrate surface contaminations.

  13. Adult Academy Tutor Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isserlis, Janet; And Others

    This handbook is for volunteer tutors, student interns, and VISTA volunteers working with adult basic education (ABE) and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners. The community-based handbook contains information about adult literacy and tutoring--what tutors do, who the learners are, and how the literacy learning process works. Introductory…

  14. Characterization of phosphorus implantation in 4H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Khemka, V.; Patel, R.; Ramungul, N.; Chow, T.P.; Ghezzo, M.; Kretchmer, J.

    1999-03-01

    Silicon carbide is expected to be a promising material for high-voltage semiconductor power devices. The authors report the characterization of phosphorus implantation in 4H-SiC. The implanted layers are characterized by analytical techniques (secondary ion mass spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy) as well as electrical and a sheet resistance value as low as 160 {Omega}/{open_square} has been measured. The authors have also studied the effect of annealing time and temperature on activation of phosphorus implants. It has been shown to be possible to obtain low sheet resistance ({approximately}260 {Omega}/{open_square}) by annealing at a temperature as low as 1,200 C. High-dose ({approximately} 4 {times} 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}2}) implants are found to have a higher sheet resistance than that on lower dose implants which is attributed to the near-surface depletion of the dopant during high temperature anneal. Different implantation dosages were utilized for the experiments and subsequently junction rectifiers were fabricated. Forward characteristics of these diodes are observed to obey a generalized Sah-Noyce-Shockly multiple level recombination model with four shallow levels and one deep level.

  15. Volunteering among High School Students. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2007-01-01

    This fact sheet explores volunteering among high school students, ages 16-18. Overall, volunteering among high school students was down slightly in 2006 as compared to 2005. Additional information includes types of volunteer organizations and activities, and ways that high school students become involved in these activities. Volunteer rate vary by…

  16. Nothing's Free: Calculating the Cost of Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingle, W. Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Most school district administrators recognize the benefits of using parent and community volunteers, including improved school-community relations. But volunteers are not cost free. At their best, volunteers can be a valuable resource for schools and districts. At their worst, volunteers can consume already limited resources. However, their use…

  17. Parallel Volunteer Learning during Youth Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesmeister, Marilyn K.; Green, Jeremy; Derby, Amy; Bothum, Candi

    2012-01-01

    Lack of time is a hindrance for volunteers to participate in educational opportunities, yet volunteer success in an organization is tied to the orientation and education they receive. Meeting diverse educational needs of volunteers can be a challenge for program managers. Scheduling a Volunteer Learning Track for chaperones that is parallel to a…

  18. Something Wonderful Happens When R.S.V.P. Comes into a School. Guide for R.S.V.P. Directors Interested in Involving Schools in Accepting Retired Senior Volunteers in Local School Systems, Grades K to 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Mildred G.

    RSVP (Retired Senior Volunteer Program) is one program of ACTION--The Agency for Volunteer Service. ACTION, created in 1971, is a Federal agency which administers a number of volunteer programs. Its purpose is to provide a recognized role in the community and a meaningful life in retirement for older adults through significant volunteer service.…

  19. Correlation of nasal geometry with aerosol deposition in human volunteers

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yung-Seng; Simpson, S.Q.; Cheng, Kuo-His; Swift, D.L.; Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Guilmette, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    The nasal airways act as the first filter in the respiratory tract to remove very large or small particles, that would otherwise penetrate to the lower airways. Aerosol deposition data obtained with human volunteers vary considerably under comparable experimental conditions. Reasons for the intersubject variations have been frequently attributed to the geometry of the nasal passages. Because there is no direct proof of this hypothesis, nasal deposition of ultrafine particles in human volunteers has been studied in our laboratory. Preliminary results obtained with four adult volunteers also vary considerably between subjects. The purpose of this part of the study was to establish a theoretical equation relating diffusional deposition in nasal airways to the geometrical dimensions of the individual nasal airways. This relationship was then applied to the experimental deposition data and measurement of airway morphometry for correlation.

  20. More than Volunteering: Active Citizenship through Youth Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This pack aims to provide materials to help all those involved in youth volunteering and post-16 citizenship education to ensure that there are some citizenship learning outcomes from these valuable experiences. The pack has been produced by the Post-16 Citizenship Support Programme to help the integration of citizenship education into post-16…

  1. 7 CFR 8.9 - Use in 4-H fund raising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use in 4-H fund raising. 8.9 Section 8.9 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.9 Use in 4-H fund raising. (a) Fund-raising programs using the 4-H Name or Emblem may be carried out for specific educational purposes. Such fund-raising programs and use of the...

  2. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  3. SADDLE HORSE AND OTHER LIVESTOCK ADVISORS' PERCEPTIONS OF 4-H CLUB WORK IN OHIO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROVES, ROBERT H.

    PERCEPTIONS AND UNDERSTANDINGS OF 4-H OBJECTIVES AND PROGRAMS OF 4-H SADDLE HORSE ADVISORS WERE COMPARED WITH THOSE OF OTHER LIVESTOCK ADVISORS IN NORTHEASTERN AND SOUTHWESTERN DISTRICTS OF OHIO. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY QUESTIONNAIRES FROM 90 SADDLE HORSE AND 133 OTHER LIVESTOCK ADVISORS. STATE 4-H STAFF AND SUPERVISORS PROVIDED CORRECT ANSWERS.…

  4. Using the Delphi Technique to Assess Educational Needs Related to Extension's 4-H Beef Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Chun; Gamon, Julia A.

    1997-01-01

    Delphi panels completing questionnaires included 32 parents of 4-H students, 16 extension beef specialists, 21 4-H field specialists, and 21 industry representatives. They identified 31 subject-matter and 30 life-skill topics useful for 4-H manuals. Emerging topics included consumer and environmental concerns. (SK)

  5. Perceptions of Missouri 4-H Youth Development Personnel Regarding Interorganizational Cooperative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Billy R.; Torres, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Perceptions of 4-H youth development personnel regarding interorganizational cooperation were studied between the perceived and desired levels of cooperative activities between 4-H youth development personnel and secondary agriculture teachers. Results indicated that 4-H youth development personnel wanted higher levels of coordinated efforts…

  6. Examination of Attitude and Interest Measures for 4-H Science Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Worker, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Science education research has demonstrated the influence of affect on learning. The National 4-H Science Logic Model outlines outcomes from youth participation in 4-H science programs, which includes attitude and interest outcomes. The associated measure, the National 4-H Science Common Measure, assesses these attitude constructs and not other…

  7. Perceptions of Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassadors on Career Development, Higher Education, and Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanolini, William F.; Rayfield, John; Ripley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Selected 4-H youth participated in the Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassador program. Forty-five youth participated in the 3-day program delivered by university professors and staff, Texas AgriLife Extension faculty and industry representatives. An instrument was developed and administered to the Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassadors at the end of their first…

  8. Relationship between Participation in 4-H and Community Leadership in Rural Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Allison; Frick, Martin; Steele, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the impact of 4-H on former members generally use alumni as one cohort. In rural states, such as Montana, it is important to understand the impact of 4-H on alumni in these rural areas and the role 4-H plays in community involvement. The study reported here sought to determine the perception of current community leaders in rural Montana…

  9. Expression analysis of kenaf cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) ortholog during developmental and stress responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to clone and analyze the expression pattern of a C4H gene encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). A full-length C4H ortholog was cloned using degenerate primers and the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method. The full-length C4H ortholog...

  10. Text to Speech: A 4-H Model of Accessibility and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jeremy W.

    2012-01-01

    4-H project manuals play an integral part in a youth's ability to achieve mastery in a specific project area. For youth who struggle with reading, written 4-H materials prove inadequate in addressing the needs of the learner. This article proposes a new delivery method of 4-H educational material designed to create a more inclusive and…

  11. Stewardship as a Means to Create Organizational Reform: A View into Minnesota 4-H Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuza, Jennifer A.; Freeman, Dorothy M.; Bremseth, Tamara J.; Doering, Shirley A.; Quinlan, Robert B.; Morreim, Patricia A.; Deidrick, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Minnesota 4-H Youth Development (MN 4-H) used stewardship as a means to create organizational reform to address the public use of the 4-H name and emblem in terms of risk management, real estate and equipment, and finances. A task force implemented a participatory process with colleagues and stakeholders to build and implement the reform effort.…

  12. The ultraviolet photochemistry of diacetylene - Direct detection of primary products of the metastable C4H2* + C4H2 reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandy, Ralph E.; Lakshminarayan, Chitra; Frost, Rex K.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    1993-01-01

    The products of diacetylene's ultraviolet photochemistry over the 245-220 nm region were directly determined in experiments where C4H2 was excited within a small reaction tube attached to a pulsed nozzle. The products formed in the collisions of C4H2* with C4H2 were subsequently ionized by vacuum UV radiation (at 118 nm) in the ion source of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. It was found that the reaction of C4H2* with C4H2 produces C6H2 (+C2H2), C8H2 (+2H,H2), and C8H3 (+H), confirming the results of Glicker and Okabe (1987). Under certain conditions, secondary products were observed. Mechanisms for the observed reactions are proposed.

  13. Density functional studies on the endohedral complex of fullerene C70 with tetrahedrane (C4H4): C4H4@C70.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiao-Yuan; Jiang, Cai-Ying

    2012-07-01

    B3LYP/6-31G(d) hybrid HF/DFT calculations were carried out to determine the structural and electronic properties of the endohedral complex of a C(70) cage with tetrahedrane (C(4)H(4)). It was demonstrated that the formation of the complex is endothermic, with a destabilization energy of 72.56 kcal mol(-1). C(4)H(4) is seated in the center of the C(70) cage and exists in molecular form inside the fullerene. C(4)H(4) endohedral doping slightly perturbs the molecular orbitals of C(70). The calculated HOMO-LUMO gaps, the electron affinity (EA), and the ionization potential (IP) indicate that C(4)H(4)@C(70) is more chemically reactive than C(70). The IR active modes and harmonic vibrational frequencies of C(4)H(4)@ C(70) are also discussed. PMID:22246288

  14. Fight Illiteracy with Volunteer Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozol, Jonathan

    1982-01-01

    Describes utilizing secondary students and college undergraduates of the United States to teach illiterate adults to read by returning their stories (oral history) to them in writing allowing literacy lessons on subjects known to the adult. (ERB)

  15. The GEMS Model of Volunteer Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Ken, III; Deppe, Catherine A.; Castillo, Jaime X.; Wells, Betty J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes GEMS, a spiral model that profiles volunteer administration. Components include Generate, Educate, Mobilize, and Sustain, four sets of processes that span volunteer recruitment and selection to retention or disengagement. (SK)

  16. 76 FR 29720 - Information Collection: Volunteer Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Farm Service Agency Information Collection: Volunteer Programs AGENCY: Farm Service Agency, USDA... an extension of a currently approved information collection associated with the Volunteer Programs... Desk Officer for Agriculture, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management...

  17. Respiratory effects of fine and ultrafine particles from indoor sources--a randomized sham-controlled exposure study of healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Soppa, Vanessa J; Schins, Roel P F; Hennig, Frauke; Hellack, Bryan; Quass, Ulrich; Kaminski, Heinz; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Hoffmann, Barbara; Weinmayr, Gudrun

    2014-07-01

    Particulate air pollution is linked to impaired respiratory health. We analyzed particle emissions from common indoor sources (candles burning (CB), toasting bread (TB), frying sausages (FS)) and lung function in 55 healthy volunteers (mean age 33.0 years) in a randomized cross-over controlled exposure study. Lung-deposited particle surface area concentration (PSC), size-specific particle number concentration (PNC) up to 10 µm, and particle mass concentration (PMC) of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were determined during exposure (2 h). FEV1, FVC and MEF25%-75% was measured before, 4 h and 24 h after exposure. Wilcoxon-rank sum tests (comparing exposure scenarios) and mixed linear regression using particle concentrations and adjusting for personal characteristics, travel time and transportation means before exposure sessions were performed. While no effect was seen comparing the exposure scenarios and in the unadjusted model, inverse associations were found for PMC from CB and FS in relation to FEV1 and MEF25%-75%. with a change in 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 from CB being associated with a change in FEV1 of -19 mL (95%-confidence interval:-43; 5) after 4 h. PMC from TB and PNC of UFP were not associated with lung function changes, but PSC from CB was. Elevated indoor fine particles from certain sources may be associated with small decreases in lung function in healthy adults. PMID:25000149

  18. Respiratory Effects of Fine and Ultrafine Particles from Indoor Sources—A Randomized Sham-Controlled Exposure Study of Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Soppa, Vanessa J.; Schins, Roel P. F.; Hennig, Frauke; Hellack, Bryan; Quass, Ulrich; Kaminski, Heinz; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A. J.; Hoffmann, Barbara; Weinmayr, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    Particulate air pollution is linked to impaired respiratory health. We analyzed particle emissions from common indoor sources (candles burning (CB), toasting bread (TB), frying sausages (FS)) and lung function in 55 healthy volunteers (mean age 33.0 years) in a randomized cross-over controlled exposure study. Lung-deposited particle surface area concentration (PSC), size-specific particle number concentration (PNC) up to 10 µm, and particle mass concentration (PMC) of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were determined during exposure (2 h). FEV1, FVC and MEF25%–75% was measured before, 4 h and 24 h after exposure. Wilcoxon-rank sum tests (comparing exposure scenarios) and mixed linear regression using particle concentrations and adjusting for personal characteristics, travel time and transportation means before exposure sessions were performed. While no effect was seen comparing the exposure scenarios and in the unadjusted model, inverse associations were found for PMC from CB and FS in relation to FEV1 and MEF25%–75%. with a change in 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 from CB being associated with a change in FEV1 of −19 mL (95%-confidence interval:−43; 5) after 4 h. PMC from TB and PNC of UFP were not associated with lung function changes, but PSC from CB was. Elevated indoor fine particles from certain sources may be associated with small decreases in lung function in healthy adults. PMID:25000149

  19. Not Just Helping: What and How Older Men Learn When They Volunteer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Kuang

    2016-01-01

    Participation or active engagement with life is advocated internationally and is the core for successful aging of individuals. Although participating in volunteering has been proven to benefit older adults' health and well-being, men participate less in volunteerism than do women. Experiences are considered the primary resources for adults' growth…

  20. Youth Sport Volunteering: Developing Social Capital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Tess; Bradbury, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the capacity of youth sport volunteering to contribute to the development of social capital. Following a review of the emergence of social capital as a key theme in UK sport policy, the paper focuses on the ability of a structured sports volunteering programme to equip young people with skills for effective volunteering, and…

  1. Volunteer Program Development Guide: Participant Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Alcohol Education, Arlington, VA.

    This guide is addressed to those individuals who are considering the development of a volunteer program in agencies that provide prevention of, and treatment and rehabilitation services for alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Specific steps for planning and implementing a volunteer program utilizing individual volunteers to extend and complement staff…

  2. Substitute or Complement?: Spousal Influence on Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotolo, Thomas; Wilson, John

    2006-01-01

    Social scientists have documented the influence of family statuses on volunteering, ignoring intrafamily effects. Using newly issued data from the Current Population Survey on the volunteer behavior of 19,626 American couples, we test two competing theories concerning spousal influences on volunteering. Substitution theory predicts that spouses…

  3. Volunteers: The Life-Line of Hospice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patchner, Michael A.; Finn, Mark B.

    1988-01-01

    Survey of 68 hospice volunteers found volunteers to be relatively young, well-educated, in good health, motivated by religious beliefs and personal experience, and prepared for jobs after training and some on-the-job experience. Volunteers were most satisfied when working in direct contact with patients and families and in the hospital.…

  4. The reinvestigation of the kinetics of the metathesis reactions t-C4H9• + HBr (HI) → i-C4H10 + Br• (I•) and of the t-C4H9• free radical thermochemistry.

    PubMed

    Leplat, N; Rossi, M J

    2014-07-17

    A reinvestigation of the absolute rate constant of the metathesis reactions t-C4H9• + HBr → i-C4H10 + Br• (1) and t-C4H9• + HI → i-C4H10 + I• (2) was performed thanks to a recently developed apparatus consisting of a Knudsen reactor coupled to detection based on single-photon (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry (SPIMS). It enables the generation of thermalized hydrocarbon free radicals owing to a source upstream of and external to the Knudsen reactor. The following Arrhenius expressions were obtained: k1 = 5.6(±1.4) × 10(–12) exp(−6.76(±0.94)/(RT)) and k2 = 2.0(±0.6) × 10(–11) exp(−8.48(±0.94)/(RT)) with R = 8.314 J mol(–1) K(–1) over the range 293 to 623 K. The mass balance of the reaction system based on closed shell product detection (CSPD) was checked in order to ensure the accuracy of the used reaction mechanism and as an independent check of k1 and k2. The wall-loss rate constants of the t-butyl free radical, kw(C4H9), were measured and found to be low compared with the corresponding escape rate constant, ke(C4H9), for effusion of t-C4H9• out of the Knudsen reactor. On the basis of the present results, the free radical standard heat of formation ΔfH298°(t-C4H9•) = 44.3 ± 1.7 kJ mol(–1) was obtained when combined with the kinetics of the inverse halogenation reaction taken from the literature and using S298°(t-C4H9•) = 322.2 J K(–1) mol(–1) following a “Third Law” evaluation method. The standard enthalpy for t-butyl free radical is consistent for both the bromination and iodination reactions within the stated uncertainties. PMID:24942181

  5. The Volunteers Speak: A World-Wide Survey of Peace Corps Volunteers. ACTION Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    A survey questionnaire was mailed to all active Peace Corps Volunteers (PCVs) in the summer of 1975. Based on an internal analysis of the 3,479 respondents (a 66% return), the following findings represent the manner in which PCVs perceive their volunteer experience. Perceived volunteer accomplishments and morale are very high. Volunteers believe…

  6. Volunteering and Giving among American Teenagers 14 to 17 Years of Age. Findings from a National Survey. 1990 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Virginia A.; Weitzman, Murray S.

    This survey was conducted by the Gallup organization on the volunteering and giving behavior of U.S. teenagers as a supplement to a national survey on giving and volunteering among U.S. adults. Information was obtained from in-home personal interviews with 301 teenagers from 14 to 17 years of age. Results indicated that 58 percent of teenagers…

  7. Giving Back and Staying Put: Volunteering as a Stabilizing Force in Relocation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huei-Wern; Perry, Tam E

    2014-01-01

    Relocation in older adulthood has been shown to have health-related and environmental triggering factors. This study explores the relationship between volunteering in a community and relocation. Using data from 2008 and 2010 Health and Retirement Study, which included 9,220 community-dwelling older individuals who were 65 years and older, our findings show that volunteering significantly reduces the likelihood of relocating out of the area, and such relationship is partially mediated by having friends nearby. This study is innovative because it identifies a stabilizing mechanism important for understanding "protective" factors, such as volunteering, as a way communities can retain older adults. PMID:25404786

  8. The pharmacokinetics of ciclazindol (Wy 23409) in human volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Swaisland, A J; Franklin, R A; Southgate, P J; Coleman, A J

    1977-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of ciclazindol, a potential anti-depressant drug, have been studied after oral administration of the compound to male and female volunteers. 2. The mean +/- S.E. mean maximum plasma concentration of the unchanged drug was 422 +/- 31 ng/ml. This level was seen between 2 and 4 h after dosing. 3. Elimination of the ciclazindol from plasma was apparently monexponential with a half-life of approximately 32 h. A large proportion of the drug-related substances in the plasma was unchanged drug. 4. Excretion of radioactivity took place predominantly via the renal route, less than 15% of the dose being recovered in the faeces. The urinary elimination process was apparently monoexponential with a half-life of 28 h. 5. Daily dosing with ciclazindol for 3 weeks did not appear to induce the enzymes of its own metabolism. PMID:843425

  9. Memory and psychomotor effects of oxcarbazepine in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Curran, H V; Java, R

    1993-01-01

    Cognitive and psychomotor impairments can be unwanted adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. The present double-blind, cross-over study with healthy volunteers was designed to assess the effects of two doses of oxcarbazepine (OXCZ) (150 mg b.i.d.; 300 mg b.i.d.) and a placebo, each given over a two week period. Twelve subjects completed a battery of tests before and 4 h after morning doses on days 1, 8 and 15. Results of objective tests indicated that OXCZ improved performance on a focussed attention task and increased manual writing speed. Subjective ratings showed OXCZ increased feelings of altertness, clear-headedness and quickwittedness. OXCZ had no effect on the range of long-term memory processes assessed in this study. It is concluded that at the doses employed, OXCZ has a slightly stimulant effect on some aspects of psychomotor functioning. PMID:8405007

  10. AB INITIO CHARACTERIZATION OF C{sup -}{sub 4}, C{sub 4}H, AND C{sub 4}H{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Senent, M. L.

    2010-01-10

    Using state-of-the-art theoretical methods, we investigate the stable isomers of C{sup -}{sub 4}, C{sub 4}H and C{sub 4}H{sup -}. Three of them are relevant for astrophysics and astrochemistry. These computations are performed using highly correlated ab initio methods and the aug-cc-pVXZ (X = T,Q) basis sets. In addition to the linear isomers, we predict the existence of several cyclic and branched forms for these molecules. For all the molecular species of interest here, sets of spectroscopic parameters are determined with perturbation theory, which compare quite well with experiment. For l - C{sub 4}H{sup -}(X {sup 1}SIGMA{sup +}), the quartic force field is computed at the coupled cluster level of theory. This force field is derived from full nine-dimensional potential energy surface generated close to the equilibrium geometry of this anion. Finally, we treat the thermochemistry of the hydrogen attachment and the electron attachment reactions that may lead to the formation of the C{sub 4}H{sup -} from either C{sup -}{sub 4} or C{sub 4}H.

  11. Challenges and opportunities in healthcare volunteer management: insights from volunteer administrators.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Sean E; Rogers, Carmen M; Boyd, Karen D

    2013-01-01

    Volunteer administrators from 105 hospitals in five states in the northeast and southern United States provided open-ended survey responses about what they perceived to be the most pressing challenges and opportunities facing healthcare volunteer management. Taken together, these 105 hospitals used a total of 39,008 volunteers and 5.3 million volunteer hours during a 12-month period between 2010 and 2011. A qualitative content analysis of administrator responses suggests that primary challenges include volunteer recruitment and retention, administrative issues, and operational difficulties brought about by the current economic crisis. Key opportunities include more explicitly linking the volunteer function to hospital outcomes and community impact, expanding volunteer recruitment pools and roles and jobs, and developing organizational support for volunteers and making the volunteer management function more efficient and effective. PMID:23822549

  12. Bringing Carnaval Drum and Dance Traditions into 4-H Programming for Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin-Ginop, Evelyn; Braverman, Marc T.; Caruso, Robyn; Bone, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    4-H Bloco Drum and Dance is an afterschool program that teaches adolescents drumming, dancing, and theater arts in the rich traditions of Brazilian Carnaval. Teens learn to express themselves in a variety of modalities and perform at community events. The program was developed by a community coalition that included 4-H, other youth programs, and…

  13. Birds in Your Backyard. 4-H Leaders Guide. L-5-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Janet E.; Held Phillips, Diane

    This pocket folder of instructional materials is designed to introduce youth aged 9 to 12 to ornithology, the study of birds. The package includes a 4-H member's guide and a Leader's guide. The illustrated 4-H member's guide contains information about attracting and feeding birds. It also includes activities for cooking for birds, making bird…

  14. 4-H Healthy Living Programs with Impact: A National Environmental Scan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Laura H.; Peterson, Donna J.; LeMenestrel, Suzanne; Leatherman, JoAnne; Lang, James

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H youth development program of the nation's 109 land-grant universities and the Cooperative Extension System is one of the largest youth development organization in the United States serving approximately six million youth. The 4-H Healthy Living initiative began in 2008 to promote achievement of optimal physical, social, and emotional…

  15. The Effects of Age, Gender, and 4-H Involvement on Life Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Bruce E.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here examined the effects of age, gender, and 4-H involvement in clubs on life skill development of youth ages eight to 18 over a 12-month period. Regression analyses found age, gender, and 4-H involvement significantly influenced life skill development. Results found that females have higher levels of competencies in life…

  16. Acquisition, Custody, and Storage of Firearms Used in 4-H Shooting Sports Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, David J.; Smith, Jedediah D.

    2014-01-01

    Shooting sports has been a 4-H program offering since the 1930's. Tragic events related to the use of firearms as weapons have caused public and private entities to evaluate and consider the appropriateness of youth access to and usage of firearms. 4-H educators have the primary responsibility for managing the risk associated with shooting…

  17. Characteristics and Perceptions of 4-H Participants: Gender and Age Differences across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartoszuk, Karin; Randall, Brandy A.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here examined 367 adolescent 4-H participants in terms of demographic, psychological, behavioral, and relational characteristics, as well as their perceptions and experiences in 4-H. Overall, participants scored high on all outcome variables except having a diverse population in their club. Older participants were more…

  18. Food Challenge: Serving Up 4-H to Non-Traditional Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Sara; Follmer-Reece, Holly E.; Kostina-Ritchey, Erin; Reyna, Roxanna

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a novel approach for introducing 4-H to non-traditional/diverse audiences using 4-H Food Challenge. Set in a low SES and minority-serving rural school, Food Challenge was presented during the school day to all 7th grade students, with almost half voluntarily participating in an after-school club component. Program design…

  19. 4-H Youth Development: The Past, the Present, and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Lynne M.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Hawkey, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Program within Cooperative Extension is more than 100 years old. As we celebrate 100 years of Cooperative Extension, the foundation built by the 4-H Program serves as grounds to meet the needs of today's youth. The diversity of the youth who participate continues to grow, families continue to become less traditional, potential…

  20. Global 4-H Network: Laying the Groundwork for Global Extension Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Jennifer; Miller, Rhonda

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive study examining 4-H programs in Africa, Asia, and Europe was conducted to provide understanding and direction in the establishment of a Global 4-H Network. Information regarding structure, organizational support, funding, and programming areas was gathered. Programs varied greatly by country, and many partnered with other 4-H…

  1. 4-H and Tech Ed Partnership Gets Students Geeked about STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Debra; Quam, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the 4-H Gateway Academies specifically designed to enhance science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) skills and knowledge in middle school youth. The innovative summer day camps partnered Project Lead the Way--trained teachers with county 4-H staff from University of Wisconsin-Extension (UW-Extension) Cooperative…

  2. 4-H and Forestry Afterschool Clubs: A Collaboration to Foster Stewardship Attitudes and Behaviors in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Angela S.; Grant, Samantha; Strauss, Andrea Lorek

    2012-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Extension's 4-H and Forestry Afterschool program combined the 4-H structure and various forestry curricula to foster positive attitudes towards the environment and stewardship-related behaviors as these may serve as precursors to later choices that benefit the environment. Evaluation of third through fifth grade…

  3. Achieving Adult Literacy. Fastback 330.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Pamela J.

    Leaders in business and industry are demanding workers who not only can read and write but can think creatively and critically and solve problems. Federal- and state-funded programs and volunteer organizations are involved with adult literacy. Increasingly, corporations are funding adult literacy projects. Adults read for different reasons than…

  4. Simple method for the growth of 4H silicon carbide on silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asghar, M.; Shahid, M. Y.; Iqbal, F.; Fatima, K.; Nawaz, Muhammad Asif; Arbi, H. M.; Tsu, R.

    2016-03-01

    In this study we report thermal evaporation technique as a simple method for the growth of 4H silicon carbide on p-type silicon substrate. A mixture of Si and C60 powder of high purity (99.99%) was evaporated from molybdenum boat. The as grown film was characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis Spectrophotometer and Hall Measurements. The XRD pattern displayed four peaks at 2Θ angles 28.550, 32.700, 36.100 and 58.900 related to Si (1 1 1), 4H-SiC (1 0 0), 4H-SiC (1 1 1) and 4H-SiC (2 2 2), respectively. FTIR, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and electrical properties further strengthened the 4H-SiC growth.

  5. Tertiary amine-catalyzed (4 + 2) annulations of δ-acetoxy allenoates: synthesis of multisubstituted 4H-pyran and 4H-chromene.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yiting; Li, Falin; Hu, Pengfei; Liao, Daohua; Tong, Xiaofeng

    2015-03-01

    The DABCO-catalyzed divergent (4 + 2) annulations of δ-acetoxy allenoates 1 are reported. The chemical behavior of 1 under DABCO catalyst was found to be substrate dependent. Allenoate 1 with an aromatic group at δC preferentially reacted with salicylaldehyde derivative 2, delivering 4H-chromenes 3. On the other hand, allenoates 1 with an alkyl group at δC readily underwent (4 + 2) annulations with oxo diene 4 to afford 4H-pyrans 5. PMID:25692476

  6. 20 CFR 10.730 - What are the conditions of coverage for Peace Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders injured...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders injured while serving outside the United States? 10.730 Section... Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders injured while serving outside the United States? (a) Any injury sustained by a volunteer or volunteer leader while he or she is located abroad shall be presumed to...

  7. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Methylphenidate Extended-Release Multiple Layer Beads Administered as Intact Capsule or Sprinkles Versus Methylphenidate Immediate-Release Tablets (Ritalin®) in Healthy Adult Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Teuscher, Nathan S.; Kupper, Robert J.; Chang, Wei-Wei; Greenhill, Laurence; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Connor, Daniel F.; Wigal, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative bioavailability and safety of a multilayer extended-release bead methylphenidate (MPH) hydrochloride 80 mg (MPH-MLR) capsule or sprinkles (37% immediate-release [IR]) versus MPH hydrochloride IR(Ritalin®) tablets, and to develop a pharmacokinetic (PK) model simulating MPH concentration-time data for different MPH-MLR dosage strengths. Methods: This was a single-center, randomized, open-label, three-period crossover study conducted in 26 fasted healthy adults (mean weight±standard deviation, 70.4±11.7 kg) assigned to single-dose oral MPH-MLR 80 mg capsule or sprinkles with applesauce, or Ritalin IR 25 mg (1×5 mg and 1×20 mg tablet) administered at 0, 4, and 8 hours. Results: MPH-MLR 80 mg capsule and sprinkles were bioequivalent; ratios for maximum concentration (Cmax), area under plasma drug concentration versus time curve (AUC)0-t, and AUC0-inf were 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI], 96.3–112.4), 0.99 (95% CI, 95.3–102.8), and 0.99 (95% CI, 95.4–103.0), respectively. MPH-MLR capsule/sprinkles produced highly comparable, biphasic profiles of plasma MPH concentrations characterized by rapid initial peak, followed by moderate decline until 5 hours postdose, and gradual increase until 7 hours postdose, culminating in an attenuated second peak. Based on 90% CIs, total systemic exposure to MPH-MLR 80 mg capsule/sprinkles was similar to that for Ritalin IR 25 mg three times daily, but marked differences in Cmax values indicated that MPH-MLR regimens were not bioequivalent to Ritalin. MPH Cmax and total systemic exposure over the first 4 hours postdose with MPH-MLR capsule/sprinkles was markedly higher than that associated with the first dose of Ritalin. All study drugs were safe and well tolerated. The PK modeling in adults suggested that differences in MPH pharmacokinetics between MPH-MLR and Ritalin are the result of dosage form design attributes and the associated

  8. Ultra high voltage MOS controlled 4H-SiC power switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, S.; Capell, C.; Van Brunt, E.; Jonas, C.; O'Loughlin, M.; Clayton, J.; Lam, K.; Pala, V.; Hull, B.; Lemma, Y.; Lichtenwalner, D.; Zhang, Q. J.; Richmond, J.; Butler, P.; Grider, D.; Casady, J.; Allen, S.; Palmour, J.; Hinojosa, M.; Tipton, C. W.; Scozzie, C.

    2015-08-01

    Ultra high voltage (UHV, >15 kV) 4H-silicon carbide (SiC) power devices have the potential to significantly improve the system performance, reliability, and cost of energy conversion systems by providing reduced part count, simplified circuit topology, and reduced switching losses. In this paper, we compare the two MOS based UHV 4H-SiC power switching devices; 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFETs and 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBTs. The 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFET shows a specific on-resistance of 204 mΩ cm2 at 25 °C, which increased to 570 mΩ cm2 at 150 °C. The 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFET provides low, temperature-independent, switching losses which makes the device more attractive for applications that require higher switching frequencies. The 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBT shows a significantly lower forward voltage drop (VF), along with reasonable switching performance, which make it a very attractive device for high voltage applications with lower switching frequency requirements. An electrothermal analysis showed that the 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBT outperforms the 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFET for applications with switching frequencies of less than 5 kHz. It was also shown that the use of a carrier storage layer (CSL) can significantly improve the conduction performance of the 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBTs.

  9. Investigations of 3C-SiC inclusions in 4H-SiC epilayers on 4H-SiC single crystal substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Si, W.; Dudley, M.; Kong, H.S.; Sumakeris, J.; Carter, C. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    Synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) and Nomarski optical microscopy (NOM) have been used to characterize 4H-SiC epilayers and to study the character of triangular inclusions therein. 4H-SiC substrates misoriented by a range of angles from (0001), as well as (1 1{bar 0}0) and (11 2{bar 0}) oriented substrates were used. No evidence was found for the nucleation of 3C-SiC inclusions at superscrew dislocations (along the [0001] axis) in the 4H-SiC substrates. Increasing the off-axis angle of the substrates from 3.5 to 6.5{degree} was found to greatly suppress the formation of the triangular inclusions. In the case of substrates misoriented by 8.0{degree} from (0001) toward [112{bar 0}], the triangular inclusions were virtually eliminated. The crystalline quality of 4H-SiC epilayers grown on the substrates misoriented by 8.0{degree} from (0001) was very good. For the (11{bar 0}0) and (112{bar 0}) samples, there is no indication of 3C-SiC inclusions in the epilayers. Possible formation mechanisms and the morphology of 3C-SiC inclusions are discussed. 17 refs., 13 figs.

  10. Wiggles and Wags: Dog 1--Fun Activities for You and Your Dog. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08166

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National 4-H Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    These guides are activity guides. Several fact-filled books about dogs are listed as resources on this guide. The activities are active, hands-on, and engaging and are guided by the 4-H motto: Learning by Doing. As youth explore a dog project topic of interest to them, they also practice essential life skills. Although a few dog project youth will…

  11. Using Multiple Youth Programming Delivery Modes to Drive the Development of Social Capital in 4-H Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsey, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on how 4-H youth participants are building social capital, or connections among individuals and community members, through their 4-H experiences. These experiences can be seen through the lens of such 4-H delivery modes as the traditional 4-H club, after-school programs, and school enrichment programs. In addition, other…

  12. Parent-Teacher Association, Soup Kitchen, Church, or the Local Civic Club? Life Stage Indicators of Volunteer Domain.

    PubMed

    Carr, Dawn C; King, Katherine; Matz-Costa, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Gaps in existing literature hinder our knowledge of how life stage-related identities (e.g., worker, parent, student, etc.) influence individuals' decisions about whether and how to get involved in community service. Interventions to increase volunteerism throughout the life course require a more nuanced understanding of this relationship. We use multinomial logistic models to analyze how life phase factors relate to involvement in different types of voluntary organizations across the adult life course in the Chicago Community Adult Health Study. Half of the adults did not volunteer. Those who did volunteer were categorized as charitable, youth-oriented, religious, civic, or multidomain volunteers. Age, employment, family structure, demographics, and self-rated health differentially predicted volunteering in specific domains. Findings from this study suggest that recruitment and retention efforts employed by different nonprofit organizations may be more effective if they take into consideration the life phase factors that enhance or detract from likelihood of engagement. PMID:26342022

  13. Synthesis and characterization of 4-aryl-4H-chromenes from H-cardanol.

    PubMed

    Rao, Hulluru Surya Prakash; Kamalraj, Mani

    2014-09-01

    We have synthesized and characterized a variety of fat-soluble, low-melting and medicinally useful 4-aryl-4H-chromenes from H-cardanol (side-chain perhydrogenated cardanol, 3-pentadecylphenol), a renewable and low-cost product from locally grown cashew nut trees (Anacardium occidentale L.). We incorporated H-cardanol into the aromatic rings of either 4H-chromene or phenol, or both. Substitution of C4SMe in N-methyl-4-(methylthio)-3-nitro-4H-chromene-2-amines with H-cardanol was regio-specific at the C6 position. PMID:25918806

  14. Leadership and Management of Volunteer Programs: A Guide for Volunteer Administrators. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, James C.; Cole, Kathleen M.

    Based on the Association for Volunteer Administration (AVA) Certification Competencies, this book describes the knowledge, skills, and abilities required of professional managers to involve volunteers effectively in the work of organizations. Chapter 1 examines the leadership and management roles of volunteer administrators. Chapters 2 and 3 focus…

  15. Volunteer map data collection at the USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eric, B. Wolf; Poore, Barbara S.; Caro, Holly K.; Matthews, Greg D.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1994, citizen volunteers have helped the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) improve its topographic maps. Through the Earth Science Corps program, citizens were able to "adopt a quad" and collect new information and update existing map features. Until its conclusion in 2001, as many as 300 volunteers annotated paper maps which were incorporated into the USGS topographic-map revision process.

  16. Training Volunteers for an AIDS Buddy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojanlatva, Ansa; And Others

    In 1986, the Baton Rouge Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Task Force began to implement an individual volunteer support program to provide support services through a companion, a buddy, whose functions would be either emotional support or assistance in daily activities, or both. In order to have trained volunteers, an education program…

  17. Meaningful Commitment: Finding Meaning in Volunteer Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnell, Tatjana; Hoof, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that volunteer work is associated with various aspects of meaning making by employing a multi-dimensional model of meaning operationalized by the "Sources of Meaning and Meaning in Life Questionnaire" ("SoMe"). An empirical study comparing 168 volunteers with a representative sample of the general population (N =…

  18. Training Shelter Volunteers to Teach Dog Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions…

  19. Non-Alumni Advisory Board Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagai, Judy; Nehls, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Advisory boards typically offer guidance, support, social, and financial capital to academic units within colleges and universities. They are generally comprised of prominent volunteers from the community and appropriate industries or businesses. The results of this exploratory study found that non-alumni advisory board volunteers developed…

  20. Volunteers in College and Career Information (VICCI)!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    The Volunteers in College and Career Information (VICCI) is an innovative attempt to improve guidance services within San Francisco High Schools. To insure that the volunteers receive proper training and supervision, the program was placed under the direction of a credentialed counselor or project director. Three major results have been…

  1. Tutoring ESL: A Handbook for Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Deborah L.; And Others

    This handbook is designed for use by Tacoma Community House volunteer tutors of English as a Second Language (ESL) as a supplement to basic volunteer training. The handbook includes detailed information in areas briefly covered during training and specific instructional ideas and class activities. A section on getting started discusses the…

  2. Skill Development for Volunteering in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Stirling, Christine; Orpin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the skills required of volunteers in the voluntary sector organisations that operate in three rural Tasmanian communities. It reports how volunteers acquire those skills and reveals the challenges faced by voluntary sector organisations in rural communities whose industries and, following from this, community members have a…

  3. School Volunteers: Hidden Benefits and Hidden Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, Brian O.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 68 schools shows that half of all volunteers have college degrees; most support classroom and tutoring activities. Volunteers are beneficial, despite costs associated with program administration, recruitment, interviewing, screening, orientation, training, performance assessment, motivation, recognition, record keeping, reporting,…

  4. Senior Volunteers: Helping Hands & Willing Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessely, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Volunteers and other community-based assistants can relieve some of the financial burden brought on by school-budget cutbacks. This publication describes how enlisting the help of senior volunteers and workers benefits both children and seniors, and it presents some guidelines for implementation of intergeneration programs. The programs provide…

  5. Handbook on Volunteers in Army Community Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    This handbook has been prepared for the purpose of offering guidance and assistance in the development and administration of a volunteer program within Army Community Service. It contains eight chapters. Chapter 1 is the Introduction. Chapter 2, Volunteers Are Partners and Team Members, considers the importance of attitudes, agreement on volunteer…

  6. Volunteers in the Child Development Center Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Development Services Bureau (DHEW/OCD), Washington, DC. Project Head Start.

    Suggestions for expanding and improving the volunteer participation in all local Head Start programs are provided in this manual. The primary aims of the volunteer programs are to: (1) provide additional staff in all areas of the program, thus increasing the effectiveness of the paid staff; (2) give interested local citizens, including parents of…

  7. Sterilization for Large Volunteer Temporary Clinics.

    PubMed

    Cuny, Eve

    2015-12-01

    Large portable clinics staffed by volunteers present many unique challenges, including establishing appropriate instrument processing services. This article explores many of the specific steps an organization can take to ensure a safe care environment for patients and a safe working environment for volunteers. PMID:26819989

  8. Evaluating Presentation Skills of Volunteer Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Donna K.

    A systematic method for evaluating the presentation skills of volunteer trainers would enable the discovery of hidden problems. It would also increase individual trainer skills and satisfaction and improve the overall effectiveness of the training program. A first step is to determine the general presentation skills a successful volunteer trainer…

  9. No Surprises: Controlling Risks in Volunteer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremper, Charles; Kostin, Gwynne

    This booklet provides general and specific advice to volunteer programs to help them manage physical, economic, legal, personnel, and public relations risks. It examines various myths about the risks that volunteer programs face and outlines a strategy for implementing a risk management process. This process can be used to identify and assess…

  10. 78 FR 24321 - National Volunteer Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-09867 Filed 4-23-13... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8960 of April 19, 2013 National Volunteer Week, 2013 By the President of the... accept certain obligations to one another. National Volunteer Week is a time to renew that...

  11. 76 FR 20215 - National Volunteer Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-8837 Filed 4-11-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195... Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation America's story has been... they see a need. During National Volunteer Week, we celebrate the profound impact of volunteers...

  12. A VNA-Organized Hospice Volunteer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorang, Edith S.

    1981-01-01

    Factors contributing to the success of a hospice volunteer program, organized by a visiting nurse association, include patient involvement in defining agency expectations of a volunteer, careful selection of candidates, a well-planned training program, contractual agreements, and record-keeping. (CT)

  13. Al4H7− is a resilient building block for aluminum hydrogen cluster materials

    PubMed Central

    Roach, P. J.; Reber, A. C.; Woodward, W. H.; Khanna, S. N.; Castleman, A. W.

    2007-01-01

    The formation and oxygen etching of AlnHm− clusters are characterized in a flow reactor experiment with first-principles theoretical investigations to demonstrate the exceptional stability of Al4H7−. The origin of the preponderance of Al4H7− in the mass spectra of hydrogenated aluminum anions and its resistance to O2 etching are discussed. Al4H7− is shown to have the ability to bond with ionic partners to form stable hydrides through addition of an alkali atom [XAl4H7 (X = Li-Cs)]. An intuitive model that can predict the existence of stable hydrogenated cluster species is proposed. The potential synthetic utility of the superatom assemblies built on these units is addressed. PMID:17823245

  14. Characterization of deep electron traps in 4H-SiC Junction Barrier Schottky rectifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelczuk, Ł.; Dąbrowska-Szata, M.; Sochacki, M.; Szmidt, J.

    2014-04-01

    Conventional deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique was used to study deep electron traps in 4H-SiC Junction Barrier Schottky (JBS) rectifiers. 4H-SiC epitaxial layers, doped with nitrogen and grown on standard n+-4H-SiC substrates were exposed to low-dose aluminum ion implantation process under the Schottky contact in order to form both JBS grid and junction termination extension (JTE), and assure good rectifying properties of the diodes. Several deep electron traps were revealed and attributed to impurities or intrinsic defects in 4H-SiC epitaxial layers, on the basis of comparison of their electrical parameters (i.e. activation energies, apparent capture cross sections and concentrations) with previously published results.

  15. Environmental Volunteering and Health Outcomes over a 20-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Pillemer, Karl; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Reid, M. C.; Wells, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that volunteering in environmental organizations in midlife is associated with greater physical activity and improved mental and physical health over a 20-year period.  Design and Methods: The study used data from two waves (1974 and 1994) of the Alameda County Study, a longitudinal study of health and mortality that has followed a cohort of 6,928 adults since 1965. Using logistic and multiple regression models, we examined the prospective association between environmental and other volunteerism and three outcomes (physical activity, self-reported health, and depression), with 1974 volunteerism predicting 1994 outcomes, controlling for a number of relevant covariates.  Results: Midlife environmental volunteering was significantly associated with physical activity, self-reported health, and depressive symptoms.  Implications: This population-based study offers the first epidemiological evidence for a significant positive relationship between environmental volunteering and health and well-being outcomes. Further research, including intervention studies, is needed to confirm and shed additional light on these initial findings. PMID:20172902

  16. Phosphorus doping of 4H SiC by liquid immersion excimer laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Akihiro; Nishi, Koji; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Asano, Tanemasa

    2013-02-04

    Phosphorus doping of 4H SiC is performed by KrF excimer laser irradiation of 4H SiC immersed in phosphoric acid. Phosphorus is incorporated to a depth of a few tens of nanometers at a concentration of over 10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} without generating significant crystal defects. Formation of a pn junction diode with an ideality factor of 1.06 is demonstrated.

  17. Ferromagnetism in proton irradiated 4H-SiC single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ren-Wei; Wang, Hua-Jie; Chen, Wei-Bin; Li, Fei; Liu, Xue-Chao Zhuo, Shi-Yi; Shi, Er-Wei

    2015-04-15

    Room-temperature ferromagnetism is observed in proton irradiated 4H-SiC single crystal. An initial increase in proton dose leads to pronounced ferromagnetism, accompanying with obvious increase in vacancy concentration. Further increase in irradiation dose lowers the saturation magnetization with the decrease in total vacancy defects due to the defects recombination. It is found that divacancies are the mainly defects in proton irradiated 4H-SiC and responsible for the observed ferromagnetism.

  18. Amino acid metabolism in leg muscle after an endotoxin injection in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Vesali, Rokhsareh F; Klaude, Maria; Rooyackers, Olav; Wernerman, Jan

    2005-02-01

    Decreased plasma amino acid concentrations and increased net release of amino acids from skeletal muscle, especially for glutamine, are common features in critically ill patients. A low dose of endotoxin administered to healthy volunteers was used as a human model for the initial phase of sepsis to study the early metabolic response to sepsis. Six healthy male volunteers were studied in the postabsorptive state. Blood samples from the forearm artery and femoral vein were taken during 4 h before and 4 h after an intravenous endotoxin injection (4 ng/kg body wt). In addition, muscle biopsies from the leg muscle were taken. Plasma concentration of the total sum of amino acids decreased by 19% (P = 0.001) and of glutamine by 25% (P = 0.004) the 3rd h after endotoxin administration. At the same time, muscle concentrations of the sum of amino acids and glutamine decreased by 11% (P = 0.05) and 9% (P = 0.09), respectively. In parallel, the efflux from the leg increased by 35% (P = 0.004) for the total sum of amino acids and by 43% (P = 0.05) for glutamine. In conclusion, intravenous endotoxin administration to healthy volunteers, used as a model for the initial phase of sepsis, resulted in a decrease in plasma amino acid concentrations. At the same time, amino acid concentrations in muscle tissue decreased, whereas the efflux of amino acids from leg skeletal muscle increased. PMID:15367399

  19. Fabrication of High-Q Nanobeam Photonic Crystals in Epitaxially Grown 4H-SiC.

    PubMed

    Bracher, David O; Hu, Evelyn L

    2015-09-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is an intriguing material due to the presence of spin-active point defects in several polytypes, including 4H-SiC. For many quantum information and sensing applications involving such point defects, it is important to couple their emission to high quality optical cavities. Here we present the fabrication of 1D nanobeam photonic crystal cavities (PCC) in 4H-SiC using a dopant-selective etch to undercut a homoepitaxially grown epilayer of p-type 4H-SiC. These are the first PCCs demonstrated in 4H-SiC and show high quality factors (Q) of up to ∼7000 as well as low modal volumes of <0.5 (λ/n)(3). We take advantage of the high device yield of this fabrication method to characterize hundreds of devices and determine which PCC geometries are optimal. Additionally, we demonstrate two methods to tune the resonant wavelengths of the PCCs over 5 nm without significant degradation of the Q. Lastly, we characterize nanobeam PCCs coupled to luminescence from silicon vacancy point defects (V1, V2) in 4H-SiC. The fundamental modes of two such PCCs are tuned into spectral overlap with the zero phonon line (ZPL) of the V2 center, resulting in an intensity increase of up to 3-fold. These results are important steps on the path to developing 4H-SiC as a platform for quantum information and sensing. PMID:26305122

  20. Key contribution of eIF4H-mediated translational control in tumor promotion

    PubMed Central

    Vaysse, Charlotte; Philippe, Céline; Martineau, Yvan; Quelen, Cathy; Hieblot, Corinne; Renaud, Claire; Nicaise, Yvan; Desquesnes, Aurore; Pannese, Maria; Filleron, Thomas; Escourrou, Ghislaine; Lawson, Malcolm; Rintoul, Robert C.; Delisle, Marie Bernadette; Pyronnet, Stéphane; Brousset, Pierre; Prats, Hervé; Touriol, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulated expression of translation initiation factors has been associated with carcinogenesis, but underlying mechanisms remains to be fully understood. Here we show that eIF4H (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4H), an activator of the RNA helicase eIF4A, is overexpressed in lung carcinomas and predictive of response to chemotherapy. In lung cancer cells, depletion of eIF4H enhances sensitization to chemotherapy, decreases cell migration and inhibits tumor growth in vivo, in association with reduced translation of mRNA encoding cell-proliferation (c-Myc, cyclin D1) angiogenic (FGF-2) and anti-apoptotic factors (CIAP-1, BCL-xL). Conversely, each isoform of eIF4H acts as an oncogene in NIH3T3 cells by stimulating transformation, invasion, tumor growth and resistance to drug-induced apoptosis together with increased translation of IRES-containing or structured 5′UTR mRNAs. These results demonstrate that eIF4H plays a crucial role in translational control and can promote cellular transformation by preferentially regulating the translation of potent growth and survival factor mRNAs, indicating that eIF4H is a promising new molecular target for cancer therapy. PMID:26498689

  1. Association analysis of the LTA4H gene polymorphisms and pulmonary tuberculosis in 9115 subjects

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, James; Kopanitsa, Liliya; Stebbings, Emma; Speirs, Arran; Ignatyeva, Olga; Balabanova, Yanina; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Hoffner, Sven; Horstmann, Rolf; Drobniewski, Francis; Nejentsev, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    Summary Immunoregulatory eicosanoids have been implicated in protection from mycobacterial infection in cell and animal models. Recently, a study of the zebrafish embryo demonstrated that mutants of the lta4h gene, which encodes the leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) enzyme of the eicosanoid pathway, have hypersusceptibility to Mycobacterium marinum infection. It also reported that heterozygosity at the two single nucleotide polymorphisms rs1978331 and rs2660898 located in introns of the LTA4H gene, a human homologue of lta4h, is associated with protection from pulmonary tuberculosis. To replicate this association we genotyped six LTA4H gene polymorphisms in samples from 3703 pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 5412 healthy controls collected in Russia. We found no evidence of the protective effect of heterozygosity at the polymorphisms rs1978331 and rs2660898 (P = 0.29 and 0.49) and no association of the alleles of any of the six polymorphisms (P = 0.13–0.81). These results suggest that common polymorphisms in the LTA4H gene do not play any major role in susceptibility to clinical pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:21112816

  2. National Retired Senior Volunteer Program Participant Impact Evaluation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booz Allen and Hamilton, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A study examined the long-term effects of participation in the Retired Senior Volunteer Program (RSVP) on participants from 20 RSVP projects nationwide. Three rounds of interviews were conducted. In Round 1, 750 volunteers were interviewed: 595 veteran volunteers and 155 new volunteers. In Round 2, 792 volunteers were intereviewed: 175 new…

  3. 20 CFR 10.731 - What is the pay rate of Peace Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders for compensation purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the pay rate of Peace Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders for compensation purposes? 10.731 Section 10.731 Employees' Benefits OFFICE... Volunteers § 10.731 What is the pay rate of Peace Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders for...

  4. 77 FR 4654 - Senior Community Service Employment Program; Final Rule, Additional Indicator on Volunteer Work

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... on September 1, 2010. 75 FR 53786. Previously, an interim final rule (IFR) on performance measures... an Additional Indicator for Volunteer Work, on November 23, 2010. 75 FR 71514. The additional... adult civic engagement, cited a report from the Corporation for National and Community...

  5. Process and Positive Development: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of University Student Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeela, Pádraig; Gannon, Niall

    2014-01-01

    Volunteering among university students is an important expression of civic engagement, but the impact of this experience on the development of emerging adults requires further contextualization. Adopting interpretative phenomenological analysis as a qualitative research approach, we carried out semistructured interviews with 10 students of one…

  6. 28 CFR 115.77 - Corrective action for contractors and volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Corrective action for contractors and volunteers. 115.77 Section 115.77 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Discipline § 115.77 Corrective...

  7. 28 CFR 115.77 - Corrective action for contractors and volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Corrective action for contractors and volunteers. 115.77 Section 115.77 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Discipline § 115.77 Corrective...

  8. 28 CFR 115.77 - Corrective action for contractors and volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Corrective action for contractors and volunteers. 115.77 Section 115.77 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Discipline § 115.77 Corrective...

  9. Wood Block and Toy Project. Designed for Diversely-Abled Senior Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugan, Willis E.

    This document describes a volunteer work project designed for nursing home and day-care center persons with minimal physical skills. Potential users of the project are cautioned to plan carefully for the host location where the project will be conducted, as the location must be easily accessible to older adults who may be handicapped and who may…

  10. Teens as Volunteers. Research-to-Results Fact Sheet. Publication #2006-19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theokas, Christina; Bloch, Margot

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents who volunteer do better in school, feel more positive about themselves, and avoid risky behaviors (for example, using drugs). Teens who participate in service activities also are more likely to vote, and to have a positive work ethic and a socially responsible attitude as adults. In addition to benefits for the individual, the…

  11. The Rewards and Restrictions of Recess: Reflections on Being a Playground Volunteer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Leigh M.

    Based on the experiences of a participant observer (weekly playground volunteer) over the course of one school year, this paper recounts the experiences of first through third graders during recess and discusses the importance of outdoor play for providing children an opportunity to speak and act unfettered by adult expectations, thereby promoting…

  12. Constructing Reading: Building Conceptions of Literacy in a Volunteer Read-Aloud Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Erika Thulin

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the interactions of three adult-child reading partnerships in a program that matches corporate volunteers with "at risk" students for weekly hour-long story reading sessions. Using discourse analysis within a sociocultural framework, the researcher identified variation in the way these partners were constructing the act and…

  13. AGU Committee Volunteers for 2010-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, Michael J.

    2010-08-01

    The success of AGU as a scientific society depends on dedicated volunteers who reflect the diverse interests of our international membership. To function effectively, we need a strong core of volunteers who generously devote time, talent, and energy to Union committee work. To our members who have stepped up and unselfishly volunteered to serve for 2010-2012, I say thank you for your commitment to AGU's mission and programs. It is through your leadership and example that we will achieve our goals as an organization.

  14. 28 CFR 551.60 - Volunteer community service projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Procedure (see 28 CFR part 542). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Volunteer community service projects. 551... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Volunteer Community Service Projects § 551.60 Volunteer community service...

  15. 28 CFR 551.60 - Volunteer community service projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedure (see 28 CFR part 542). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volunteer community service projects. 551... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Volunteer Community Service Projects § 551.60 Volunteer community service...

  16. 75 FR 56501 - Information Collection; Land Management Agency Volunteer Surveys

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Land Management Agency Volunteer Surveys... organizations on the new information collection, the Land Management Agency Volunteer Surveys. DATES: Comments... Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Land Management Agency Volunteer Surveys. OMB Number:...

  17. 32 CFR 1627.2 - Registration of volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VOLUNTEERS FOR INDUCTION § 1627.2 Registration of volunteers. (a) If a person who is required to be registered but who has failed to register volunteers for induction, he shall be registered. (b)...

  18. 28 CFR 551.60 - Volunteer community service projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Procedure (see 28 CFR part 542). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Volunteer community service projects. 551... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Volunteer Community Service Projects § 551.60 Volunteer community service...

  19. 28 CFR 551.60 - Volunteer community service projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Procedure (see 28 CFR part 542). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Volunteer community service projects. 551... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Volunteer Community Service Projects § 551.60 Volunteer community service...

  20. 28 CFR 551.60 - Volunteer community service projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Procedure (see 28 CFR part 542). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Volunteer community service projects. 551... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Volunteer Community Service Projects § 551.60 Volunteer community service...

  1. The role of prehealth student volunteers at a student-run free clinic in New York, United States

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The medical student-run Einstein Community Health Outreach Clinic provides free healthcare to the uninsured adult population of New York, the United States. During the summer, prehealth student volunteers are recruited to assist with clinic operations. Methods: We designed a survey study to identify the baseline characteristics of the volunteers between June and August of 2013 and 2014 in order to evaluate the influence of working in a medical student-run free clinic on their education, impressions, and career goals. Results: A total of 38 volunteers (response rate, 83%) participated in the study. The volunteers were demographically diverse and interested in primary care specialties and community service. Conclusion: After the Einstein Community Health Outreach program, the volunteers showed an improved understanding of the healthcare process and issues relevant to uninsured patients. They also developed favorable attitudes towards primary care medicine and an increased level of interest in pursuing careers in primary care. PMID:26582631

  2. CVD Growth of 3C-SiC on 4H/6H Mesas

    SciTech Connect

    Neudeck,P.; Trunek, A.; Spry, D.; Powell, J.; Du, H.; Skowronski, M.; Huang, X.; Dudley, M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes growth and characterization of the highest quality reproducible 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial films ever reported. By properly nucleating 3C-SiC growth on top of perfectly on-axis (0001) 4H-SiC mesa surfaces completely free of atomic scale steps and extended defects, growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms completely free of extended crystal defects can be achieved. In contrast, nucleation and growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms on top of 4H-SiC mesas with atomic-scale steps always results in numerous observable dislocations threading through the 3C-SiC epilayer. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and high resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HRXTEM) measurements indicate non-trivial, in-plane, lattice mismatch between the 3C and 4H layers. This mismatch is somewhat relieved in the step-free mesa case via misfit dislocations confined to the 3C/4H interfacial region without dislocations threading into the overlying 3C-SiC layer. These results indicate that the presence or absence of steps at the 3C/4H heteroepitaxial interface critically impacts the quality, defect structure, and relaxation mechanisms of single-crystal heteroepitaxial 3C-SiC films.

  3. Disruption of PF4/H multimolecular complex formation with a minimally anticoagulant heparin (ODSH)

    PubMed Central

    Joglekar, Manali V.; Quintana Diez, Pedro M.; Marcus, Stephen; Qi, Rui; Espinasse, Benjamin; Wiesner, Mark R.; Pempe, Elizabeth; Liu, Jian; Monroe, Dougald M.; Arepally, Gowthami M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent studies have shown that ultra-large complexes (ULCs) of platelet factor 4 (PF4) and heparin (H) play an essential role in the pathogenesis of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT), an immune-mediated disorder caused by PF4/H antibodies. Because antigenic PF4/H ULCs assemble through non-specific electrostatic interactions, we reasoned that disruption of charge-based interactions can modulate the immune response to antigen. We tested a minimally anticoagulant compound (2-O, 3-O desulfated heparin or ODSH) with preserved charge to disrupt PF4/H complex formation and immunogenicity. We show that ODSH disrupts complexes when added to pre-formed PF4/H ULCs and prevents ULC formation when incubated simultaneously with PF4 and UFH. In other studies, we show that excess ODSH reduces HIT antibody (Ab) binding in immunoassays and that PF4/ODSH complexes do not cross-react with HIT Abs. When ODSH and UFH are mixed at equimolar concentrations, we show that there is a negligible effect on amount of protamine required for heparin neutralization and reduced immunogenicity of PF4/UFH in the presence of ODSH. Taken together, these studies suggest that ODSH can be used concurrently with UFH to disrupt PF4/H charge interactions and provides a novel strategy to reduce antibody mediated complications in HIT. PMID:22318669

  4. Existence of {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H: A variational Monte Carlo search

    SciTech Connect

    Shoeb, Mohammad

    2005-02-01

    A variational Monte Carlo (VMC) calculation for the binding energy B{sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}} of the lightest hypernucleus {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H has been performed in the four-body {lambda}{lambda}pn model. A range of input {lambda}{lambda} potentials of moderate strength produce a particle-stable {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H for the simulated NSC97e and f {lambda}N potentials, whereas the phenomenological Minnesota {lambda}N potential needs a much stronger {lambda}{lambda} potential to bind. The VMC results for B{sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}} agree with the prediction of the stochastic variational model but contradict the recent Faddeev-Yakubovsky calculation. As reported earlier, B{sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}} is sensitive to the triplet {lambda}N channel for a given {lambda}{lambda} potential. The B{sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}} of {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H in the three-body {lambda}{lambda}d cluster model is consistent with but slightly lower than the Faddeev calculation. The VMC method predicts a stable {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H system in both models and thus offers the possibility of identifying {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H in a future extension of E906 or of a related experiment at KEK, provided the simulated potentials are true representations of realistic Nijmegen potentials.

  5. Self-assembly of C4H-type hydrogenated graphene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zilong; Xue, Qingzhong; Xing, Wei; Du, Yonggang; Han, Zhide

    2013-11-21

    We demonstrate by molecular dynamic (MD) simulations that patterned partially hydrogenated graphene (C4H) can self-assemble at room temperature. The main driving force of the self-assembly of C4H is due to the one-sided distribution of hydrogen and the corresponding asymmetric orientation of sp(3) bonding, there exists strong electrostatic repulsion between the relatively close H atoms. The simulations show that C4H can self-assemble into various carbon nanoscroll (CNS) structures, this is mainly controlled by its geometry (size and aspect ratio). And the carbon nanotube (CNT) is a good candidate to activate and guide C4H to form CNS, whose core size can be controlled. Meanwhile, a novel CNT/C4H core/shell composite nanostructure is also formed. The theoretical results shed important light on a feasible approach to fabricate high-quality CNS and other novel nanostructures including core/shell structures, which hold great potential applications in optics, optoelectronic devices, hydrogen storage, sensors, and energy storage in supercapacitors or batteries. PMID:24064528

  6. CFD Growth of 3C-SiC on 4H/6H Mesas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Trunek, Andrew J.; Spry, David J.; Powell, J. Anthony; Du, Hui; Skowronski, Marek; Huang, XianRong; Dudley, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This article describes growth and characterization of the highest quality reproducible 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial films ever reported. By properly nucleating 3C-SiC growth on top of perfectly on-axis (0001) 4H-SiC mesa surfaces completely free of atomic scale steps and extended defects, growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms completely free of extended crystal defects can be achieved. In contrast, nucleation and growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms on top of 4H-SiC mesas with atomic-scale steps always results in numerous observable dislocations threading through the 3C-SiC epilayer. High-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate non-trivial in-plane lattice mismatch between the 3C and 4H layers. This mismatch is somewhat relieved in the step-free mesa case via misfit dislocations confined to the 3C/4H interfacial region without dislocations threading into the overlying 3C-SiC layer. These results indicate that the presence or absence of steps at the 3C/4H heteroepitaxial interface critically impacts the quality, defect structure, and relaxation mechanisms of single-crystal heteroepitaxial 3C-SiC films.

  7. A Zen Approach to Volunteer Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Michael L.; Cahill, Gloria

    2002-01-01

    New York University's Zen approach to community service focuses on the principles of mindfulness, awareness, compassion, and engagement in the present moment. It enables a more holistic approach to the measurement of volunteer management objectives. (SK)

  8. Volunteers, Head Start Children, and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooden, Howard E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Investigated with 12 preschool children were whether IQ scores are a predictive indicator of potential learning disability and whether nonprofessional volunteers can remediate possible motor, perceptual, or verbal deficiencies with a concomitant increase in IQ score. (DB)

  9. Volunteering Internationally: Why, Where and How.

    PubMed

    Frost, David E; Kelly, Nancy A

    2015-12-01

    Oral health volunteers have an important role in addressing oral health care shortages around the world, but to be effective they need to understand and prepare for the challenges of working overseas. PMID:26819987

  10. Medical volunteers: guidelines for success and safety.

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Eddie L.; Cole-Hoover, Gwendolyn; Berry, Paula K.; Hoover, Evan T.; Harris, Betsy; Rageh, Deman; Weaver, W. Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Many African Americans from a variety of medical specialties are interested in satisfying a life-long dream of visiting Africa by volunteering their services to faith-based and private volunteer organizations doing missionary work on the continent. While this can be an extremely rewarding experience in which measurable good can be accomplished, this path can also be strewn with many obstacles that will affect both the success of the mission and the personal well-being of the volunteer. The American Medical Team for Africa is a nonprofit, tax-exempt, volunteer organization that has been doing medical missionary work in Africa since 1993. This manuscript is a compilation of this 10-year experience that has established some very useful guidelines for insuring a successful and safe mission if you are fortunate enough to have this opportunity. PMID:15719877

  11. A Mentoring Volunteer Program for Orthodox Jewish Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Robin Fran

    2012-01-01

    Prevocational and vocational training are interventions that are widely recognized as personally satisfying forms of occupation that can increase self-determination and employability while improving a person's health and well-being. In recent years a related intervention, structured peer mentoring, has been associated with increased community…

  12. Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  13. International Task Force on Volunteer Cleft Missions.

    PubMed

    Yeow, Vincent K L; Lee, Seng-Teik T; Lambrecht, Thomas J; Barnett, John; Gorney, Mark; Hardjowasito, Widanto; Lemperle, Gottfried; McComb, Harold; Natsume, Nagato; Stranc, Mirek; Wilson, Libby

    2002-01-01

    The International Task Force on Volunteer Cleft Missions was set up to provide a report to be presented at the Eighth International Congress of Cleft Palate and Associated Craniofacial Anomalies on September 12, 1997, in Singapore. The aim of the report was to provide data from a wide range of different international teams performing volunteer cleft missions and, thereafter, based on the collected data, to identify common goals and aims of such missions. Thirteen different groups actively participating in volunteer cleft missions worldwide were selected from the International Confederation of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery's list of teams actively participating in volunteer cleft missions. Because of the time frame within which the committee had to work, three groups that did not respond by the stipulated deadline were omitted from the committee. The represented members and their respective institutions have undertaken more than 50 volunteer cleft missions to underdeveloped nations worldwide within the last 3 years. They have visited over 20 different countries, treating more than 3,500 patients worldwide. Based on the data collected and by consensus, the committee outlined recommendations for future volunteer cleft missions based on 1) mission objectives, 2) organization, 3) personal health and liability, 4) funding, 5) trainees in volunteer cleft missions, and 6) public relations. The task force believed that all volunteer cleft missions should have well-defined objectives, preferably with long-term plans. The task force also decided that it was impossible to achieve a successful mission without good organization and close coordination. All efforts should be made, and care taken, to ensure that there is minimal morbidity and no mortality. Finally, as ambassadors of goodwill and humanitarian aid, the participants must make every effort to understand and respect local customs and protocol. The main aims are to provide top-quality surgical service, train local

  14. The lta4h Locus Modulates Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Infection in Zebrafish and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, David M.; Vary, Jay C.; Ray, John P.; Walsh, Gregory S.; Dunstan, Sarah J.; Bang, Nguyen D.; Hagge, Deanna A.; Khadge, Saraswoti; King, Mary-Claire; Hawn, Thomas R.; Moens, Cecilia B.; Ramakrishnan, Lalita

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces varied early outcomes, ranging from resistance to infection to progressive disease. Here we report results from a forward genetic screen in zebrafish larvae that identify multiple mutant classes with distinct patterns of innate susceptibility to Mycobacterium marinum. A hypersusceptible mutant maps to the lta4h locus encoding leukotriene A4 hydrolase, which catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a potent chemoattractant and proinflammatory eicosanoid. lta4h mutations confer hypersusceptibility independent of LTB4 reduction, by redirecting eicosanoid substrates to anti-inflammatory lipoxins. The resultant anti-inflammatory state permits increased mycobacterial proliferation by limiting production of tumor necrosis factor. In humans, we find that protection from both tuberculosis and multibacillary leprosy is associated with heterozygosity for LTA4H polymorphisms that have previously been correlated with differential LTB4 production. Our results suggest conserved roles for balanced eicosanoid production in vertebrate resistance to mycobacterial infection. PMID:20211140

  15. Synthesis, antifungal activity and docking study of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirjalili, BiBi Fatemeh; Zamani, Leila; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Khabnadideh, Soghra; Haghighijoo, Zahra; Malakotikhah, Zahra; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Khojasteh, Shaghayegh

    2016-07-01

    Pathogenic fungi are associated with diseases ranging from simple dermatosis to life-threatening infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. During the past two decades, resistance to established antifungal drugs has increased dramatically and has made it crucial to identify novel antimicrobial compounds. Here, we selected 12 new compounds of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile drivetives (C1-C12) for synthesis by using nano-TiCl4.SiO2 as efficient and green catalyst, then nine of synthetic compounds were evaluated against different species of fungi, positive gram and negative gram of bacteria. Standard and clinical strains of antibiotics sensitive and resistant fungi and bacteria were cultured in appropriate media. Biological activity of the 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives against fungi and bacteries were estimated by the broth micro-dilution method as recommended by clinical and laboratory standard institute (CLSI). In addition minimal fangicidal and bactericial concenteration of the compounds were also determined. Considering our results showed that compound 2-amino-4-(4-methyl benzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9) had the most antifungal activity against Aspergillus clavatus, Candida glabarata, Candida dubliniensis, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis at concentrations ranging from 8 to ≤128 μg/mL. Also compounds 2-amino-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C4) and 2-amino-4-(4-isopropylphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C3) had significant inhibitory activities against Epidermophyton floccosum following 2-amino-4-(4-methylbenzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9), respectively. Docking simulation was performed to insert compounds C3, C4 and C9 in to CYP51 active site to determine the probable binding model.

  16. Synthesis, antifungal activity and docking study of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirjalili, BiBi Fatemeh; Zamani, Leila; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Khabnadideh, Soghra; Haghighijoo, Zahra; Malakotikhah, Zahra; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Khojasteh, Shaghayegh

    2016-07-01

    Pathogenic fungi are associated with diseases ranging from simple dermatosis to life-threatening infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. During the past two decades, resistance to established antifungal drugs has increased dramatically and has made it crucial to identify novel antimicrobial compounds. Here, we selected 12 new compounds of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile drivetives (C1-C12) for synthesis by using nano-TiCl4.SiO2 as efficient and green catalyst, then nine of synthetic compounds were evaluated against different species of fungi, positive gram and negative gram of bacteria. Standard and clinical strains of antibiotics sensitive and resistant fungi and bacteria were cultured in appropriate media. Biological activity of the 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives against fungi and bacteries were estimated by the broth micro-dilution method as recommended by clinical and laboratory standard institute (CLSI). In addition minimal fangicidal and bactericial concenteration of the compounds were also determined. Considering our results showed that compound 2-amino-4-(4-methyl benzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9) had the most antifungal activity against Aspergillus clavatus, Candida glabarata, Candida dubliniensis, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis at concentrations ranging from 8 to ≤128 μg/mL. Also compounds 2-amino-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C4) and 2-amino-4-(4-isopropylphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C3) had significant inhibitory activities against Epidermophyton floccosum following 2-amino-4-(4-methylbenzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9), respectively. Docking simulation was performed to insert compounds C3, C4 and C9 in to CYP51 active site to determine the probable binding model.

  17. Transition metal swift heavy ion implantation on 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. Ashraf; Kumar, J.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Asokan, K.

    2016-03-01

    This work reports on the realization of Quantum Ring (QR) and Quantum Dot (QD) like structures on 4H-SiC through SHI implantation and on their Raman studies. 4H-SiC is SHI implanted with Transition Metal (TM) Ni ion at different fluences. It is observed that a vibrational mode emerges as the result of Ni ion implantation. The E2 (TO) and the A1 (LO) are suppressed as the fluence increases. In this paper Raman and AFM studies have been performed at room temperature and the queer anomalies are addressed so new devices can be fabricated.

  18. Crystal and molecular structure of 2,4,4-trisubstituted 5-amino-4 H-imidazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellanato, J.; Avendaño, C.; Ramos, M. T.; Smith-Verdier, P.; Florencio, F.; Garcia-Blanco, S.

    Three 5-amino-4 H-imidazole derivatives 2(2-pyridyl) and 2-ethoxycarbonyl-4,4-pentamethylene-5-amino-and 2(2-pyridyl)-4,4-dimethyl-5(2-pyridylamino)4 H-imidazoles have been studied by i.r. and Raman spectroscopy. The crystal structure of one has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The tautomeric amino-imino equilibrium in different working conditions is also studied from spectroscopic data. The amino and the unconjugated imino forms are characterized.

  19. Analysis of Surface Defects on the Reverse Characteristics of 4H-SiC JBS Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuno, Takashi; Watanabe, Yukihiko; Fujiwara, Hirokazu; Konishi, Masaki; Yamamoto, Takeo; Endo, Takeshi; Ishiko, Masayasu

    The good relations between the reverse characteristics of 4H-SiC JBS diodes and the surface defects were obtained. The reverse characteristics of 4H-SiC JBS diodes were categorized in three groups as follows: (A) low blocking voltage, (B) high leakage current and (C) low leakage current. The groups of (A) and (B) were caused by the existences of the micropipe and small particles, and the carrot-like defects on the SiC surfaces, respectively. In group (C), there was no defect on the surfaces observed by the optical microscope. The structure of carrot-like defect was analyzed by the cathode-luminescence and TEM.

  20. Profiles of Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Library, Springfield.

    Since January 1986, when the Illinois Secretary of State Literacy Grant Program began funding a wide variety of adult literacy programs, more than 30,000 students have sought help with reading. They have been matched with 25,000 tutors who have provided more than 2 million hours of volunteer instruction. The profiles in this booklet are stories of…

  1. Healthy Volunteer 2020: Comparing Peace Corps Volunteers' health metrics with Healthy People 2020 national objectives.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Susan J; Newman, Jeannette; Ferguson, Rennie W; Jung, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) provides a set of quantifiable objectives for improving the health and well-being of Americans. This study examines Peace Corps Volunteers' health metrics in comparison with the Leading Health Indicators (LHIs) in order to set baseline measures for Volunteers' health care and align our measurements with Healthy People 2020 standards. Health data from multiple internal Peace Corps datasets were compared with relevant LHIs and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Seventeen (65%) of the 26 LHIs were relevant to Peace Corps Volunteers. Of these, Volunteers' health measures met or were more favorable than the goals of 13 (76%) of the LHIs. There were no data available for 4 (24%) of the LHIs. The entire Volunteer population has full access to primary care, oral health, and reproductive health services. No suicides or homicides were reported among Volunteers during the analyzed time period. Utilizing the LHIs, we have identified high-priority public health issues relevant for the Peace Corps Volunteer population. We discuss the need for quality data to measure and monitor Volunteers' health progress and outcomes over time, and also to standardize our measurements with Healthy People 2020 benchmarks. This framework may foster greater collaboration to engage in health promotion and disease prevention activities driven by evidence-based information, which may, in turn, encourage healthy behavior among Volunteers. PMID:27413680

  2. Volunteerism, Health, and Civic Engagement among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Benjamin H.; Gillespie, Alayna A.

    2008-01-01

    In North America, 40-50 per cent of older adults are actively involved as formal volunteers in providing diverse health and human services. We review empirical studies concerning older adults' motivations for volunteering, as well as the health and morale benefits they derive from this expression of altruism. Knowledge of the exact nature and…

  3. Current Practices for Training Staff to Accommodate Youth with Special Health Care Needs in the 4-H Camp Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouton, Lauren; Bruce, Jacklyn

    2013-01-01

    The theory of inclusion is the foundation for the study reported here; inclusion is a focus not only of formal education, but also of nonformal educational settings such as 4-H. Ideally, 4-H camps are designed to serve youth of all backgrounds and abilities. By accommodating youth with special health care needs, 4-H camps are effectively meeting…

  4. Maine 4-H Afterschool Academy--A Professional Development Opportunity for Out-of-School-Time Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobley, Jennifer; Ouellette, Kristy L.

    2013-01-01

    The Maine 4-H Afterschool Academy trained 369 after-school and out of school time providers in 2011. This easy-to-adapt professional development opportunity used blended learning, a combination of in-person and Web-based opportunities. Providers successfully learned concepts and practical knowledge regarding 4-H, specifically 4-H Science. In…

  5. Increasing the 4-H Participation of Youth from High-Risk Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Beverly B.

    1999-01-01

    In the opinion of eight rural family-service consultants, positive community-based youth experiences are important; they try to connect youth with activities based on interests and needs and to follow up to ensure participation. Barriers included cost and transportation. Better information about available programs and volunteers to support and…

  6. Children and their 4-H animal projects: How children use science in agricultural activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emo, Kenneth Roy

    Many children are introduced to science through informal educational programs. 4-H, an educational youth program, has a history of introducing scientific practices into agriculture. The purpose of this ethnographically-driven case study is to examine how science informs the actions of children raising market animals in a 4-H project. For two years the researcher collected data on 4-H children with market animal projects. Observations, interviews, and artifacts gathered are interpreted using the framework of activity theory. This study provides evidence for how the context of an activity system influences individual actions. Rules developed by the organization guide the actions of children to incorporate physical and psychological tools of science into their project to achieve the object: producing animals of proper weight and quality to be competitive in the county fair. Children learn the necessary actions from a community of practitioners through which expertise is distributed. Children's learning is demonstrated by the way their participation in their project changes with time, from receiving assistance from others to developing expertise in which they provide assistance to others. The strength of this educational experience is how children apply specific tools of science in ways that provide meaning and relevancy to their 4-H activity.

  7. More than Cows & Cooking: Newest Research Shows the Impact of 4-H.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Haynes, George W.

    2002-01-01

    A Montana survey of 2,500 students' use of out-of-school time found that only 17% reported no involvement in out-of-school activities. 4-H participants were less likely to shoplift, steal, smoke cigarettes, ride with a drunk driver, or damage property. They were more likely to develop self-confidence and social competence, demonstrate leadership,…

  8. County Clustering for the California 4-H Youth Development Program: Impacts and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Aarti; Dasher, Harry Steve; Young, Jane Chin

    2012-01-01

    In response to budgetary constraints, a new staffing structure, the Pilot Leadership Plan, was proposed for California's 4-H Youth Development Program. County clusters were formed, each led by a coordinator. The plan was piloted for 2 years to provide insight into how county clustering could support Extension staff to increase and enhance…

  9. 4-H Horticulture Project Activity Guides. Leader's Guide and Units 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This document, concerning the 4-H horticulture project, includes a leader's guide and three youth activity guides. The leader's guide can be used to plan group project meetings that are both fun and educational. Activities can be adapted to various age groups. The leader's guide includes basic information for growing plants indoors and outdoors,…

  10. Promoting the Essential Elements of 4-H Youth Development through an Experiential Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Shelley; Jones, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the project reported here was to apply Experiential Learning Theory to a context involving middle and high school aged youth while assessing the four concepts (belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity) in relation to the 4-H youth development essential elements. The conclusions of the project's evaluation suggest…

  11. 4-H Chickquest: Connecting Agri-Science with STEM Standards in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Robert L.; Krieger, Jackie; Halasa, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    While young students are more capable of scientific inquiry than previously believed, elementary school teachers are often inexperienced in and lack confidence with teaching science. ChickQuest is a 4-H-created embryology curriculum for third-graders that meets Ohio state science standards, teaches STEM skills, and promotes ongoing interaction…

  12. Possession, Transportation, and Use of Firearms by Older Youth in 4-H Shooting Sports Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, David J.; Williver, S. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Thirty years ago we would think nothing of driving to school with a jackknife in our pocket or rifle in the gun rack. Since then, the practices of possessing, transporting, and using firearms have been limited by laws, rules, and public perception. Despite restrictions on youth, the Youth Handgun Safety Act does afford 4-H shooting sports members…

  13. 4-H Tractor Operator Program Teaches Employability Skills and Safety to Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Debra K.

    2013-01-01

    For Michigan State University Extension, the Berrien County 4-H Tractor Operator Program has provided tractor safety education to teens for over 30 years. The certification training satisfies current requirements for operation of a 20 PTO HP or greater agricultural tractor by 14- and 15-year-old youth employed on property "not" owned,…

  14. Performance statistics of the FORTRAN 4 /H/ library for the IBM system/360

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, N. A.; Cody, W. J., Jr.; Hillstrom, K. E.; Thieleker, E. A.

    1969-01-01

    Test procedures and results for accuracy and timing tests of the basic IBM 360/50 FORTRAN 4 /H/ subroutine library are reported. The testing was undertaken to verify performance capability and as a prelude to providing some replacement routines of improved performance.

  15. Life Skill Development Related to Participation in 4-H Animal Science Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Carol Knowlton

    1996-01-01

    Alumni of 4-H animal science programs in New Jersey were surveyed (n=52). Participation had a positive influence on life skill development, especially "accepting responsibility." Experience with shows and judging was beneficial to public speaking/job interview skills. Although many were not in animal science careers, they enjoyed related hobbies.…

  16. A Beach and Dune Community. 4-H Marine Science. Member's Guide. Activity I. MSp 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auburn Univ., AL. Cooperative Extension Service.

    The investigation in this booklet is designed to provide 4-H members with opportunities to identify common plants and animals found on beaches and sand dunes and to determine the role of the plants and animals in this community. Learners are provided with a picture of a hypothetical beach and sand dune and a list of organisms (included in the…

  17. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Leader's Guide for Units 2 & 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This leader's guide is designed for units 2 and 3 of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. The goals of the project are to: (1) help young people understand energy problems related to life styles; (2) use energy resources carefully; (3) guide members in choosing their own energy alternatives; and (4) to enjoy together the challenges and creativity of…

  18. CareerSmarts. 4-H Mentoring Program. Agent's Handbook. Mentor's Handbook. Protege's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locklear, Eddie L.

    The North Carolina 4-H CareerSmarts Program is designed to unite the public and private sectors to provide career education for young people. This packet contains three handbooks (for agents, proteges, and mentors) that explain the program and outline practical ways to conduct it. CareerSmarts consists of three phases. Phase one is conducted…

  19. Louisiana 4-H Seeds of Service School Gardens: A Descriptive View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cater, Melissa; Fox, Janet; Fletcher, Bobby Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Louisiana 4-H Seeds of Service School Gardens, a K-12 Learn and Serve Grant program, provides a descriptive view of how school gardens along with classroom instruction link curriculum to outdoor classrooms. The purpose of the process evaluation was to describe curriculum implementation fidelity, reach of the gardening program to participants, use…

  20. Bufexamac ameliorates LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice by targeting LTA4H.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qiang; Dong, Ningning; Yao, Xue; Wu, Dang; Lu, Yanli; Mao, Fei; Zhu, Jin; Li, Jian; Huang, Jin; Chen, Aifang; Huang, Lu; Wang, Xuehai; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan; Xu, Yong; Lu, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in the occurrence and development of acute lung injury (ALI). Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a hydrolysis product of epoxide leukotriene A4 (LTA4) catalyzed by LTA4 hydrolase (LTA4H), is one of the most potent chemoattractants for neutrophil. Bufexamac is a drug widely used as an anti-inflammatory agent on the skin, however, the mechanism of action is still not fully understood. In this study, we found bufexamac was capable of specifically inhibiting LTA4H enzymatic activity and revealed the mode of interaction of bufexamac and LTA4H using X-ray crystallography. Moreover, bufexamac significantly prevented the production of LTB4 in neutrophil and inhibited the fMLP-induced neutrophil migration through inhibition of LTA4H. Finally, bufexamac significantly attenuated lung inflammation as reflected by reduced LTB4 levels and weakened neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from a lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI mouse model. In summary, our study indicates that bufexamac acts as an inhibitor of LTB4 biosynthesis and may have potential clinical applications for the treatment of ALI. PMID:27126280

  1. Temperature Dependence of Attenuation of Coplanar Waveguide on 4H High Resistivity SIC Through 540C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, G. E.; Schwartz, Z.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Downey, A. N.; Freeman, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    For the first time, the temperature and frequency dependence of the attenuation of a Coplanar Waveguide (CPW) on 4H, High Resistivity Sic substrate is reported. The low frequency attenuation increases by 2 dB/cm at 500 C and the high frequency attenuation increases by 3.3 dB/cm at 500 C compared to room temperature.

  2. The Value of 4-H Judging Teams--Missouri Dairy Judging Alumni Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaver, Karla; Probert, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Former Missouri 4-H Dairy Judging Team members responded to a survey about life skills development and the value of the judging team experience. Results of the survey indicate that judging team experience was highly influential in the development of communication, public speaking, and presentation skills. Respondents also indicated that judging…

  3. Formation of low-temperature cirrus from H2SO4/H2O aerosol droplets.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, A; Molina, M J; Sassen, K; Kulmala, M

    2006-11-23

    We present experimental results obtained with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) that indicate the small ice particles in low-temperature cirrus clouds are not completely solid but rather coated with an unfrozen H2SO4/H2O overlayer. Our results provide a new look on the formation, development, and microphysical properties of low-temperature cirrus clouds. PMID:17107102

  4. Bufexamac ameliorates LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice by targeting LTA4H

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qiang; Dong, Ningning; Yao, Xue; Wu, Dang; Lu, Yanli; Mao, Fei; Zhu, Jin; Li, Jian; Huang, Jin; Chen, Aifang; Huang, Lu; Wang, Xuehai; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan; Xu, Yong; Lu, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in the occurrence and development of acute lung injury (ALI). Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a hydrolysis product of epoxide leukotriene A4 (LTA4) catalyzed by LTA4 hydrolase (LTA4H), is one of the most potent chemoattractants for neutrophil. Bufexamac is a drug widely used as an anti-inflammatory agent on the skin, however, the mechanism of action is still not fully understood. In this study, we found bufexamac was capable of specifically inhibiting LTA4H enzymatic activity and revealed the mode of interaction of bufexamac and LTA4H using X-ray crystallography. Moreover, bufexamac significantly prevented the production of LTB4 in neutrophil and inhibited the fMLP-induced neutrophil migration through inhibition of LTA4H. Finally, bufexamac significantly attenuated lung inflammation as reflected by reduced LTB4 levels and weakened neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from a lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI mouse model. In summary, our study indicates that bufexamac acts as an inhibitor of LTB4 biosynthesis and may have potential clinical applications for the treatment of ALI. PMID:27126280

  5. Bio-Security Proficiencies Project for Beginning Producers in 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Borba, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Improving bio-security practices among 4-H members who raise and show project animals is important. Bio-security measures can reduce the risk of disease spread and mitigate potential health and economic risks of disease outbreaks involving animal and zoonotic pathogens. Survey data provided statistical evidence that the Bio-Security Proficiencies…

  6. 4H-SiC photodiode model for DC SPICE circuit simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kociubiński, Andrzej; Duk, Mariusz; Korona, Mateusz; Muzyka, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Technology, characterization and in particularly modeling of 4H-SiC photodiode have been presented in this paper. Modeling and simulation has been performed using PSPICE environment. Comparison of simulation with real results for electrical characteristic (I-V) of circular SiC photodiodes has been also presented.

  7. Associated Factors in Recruitment and Retention of 4-H Members in West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Meighan, Terence; Lawrence, Layle D.; Gartin, Stacy A.; Woloshuk, Jean M.

    1999-01-01

    Extension agents and 4-H Club leaders (n=115) rated the following as effective recruitment techniques: an active club, word of mouth, interesting programs, and members' active role. Successful retention techniques included effective leaders; praise, motivation, and encouragement; and fun meetings, programs, and activities. (SK)

  8. An Evaluation of the 4-H "Health Rocks" Program: Implications for Program Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, Carlton; Morgan, A. Christian; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Navarro, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The National 4-H Council developed the Health Rocks substance abuse educational program to prevent youth from engaging in risky behaviors. The program was presented in 2010 to more than 8,000 middle school youth in Georgia. A post-then-pre evaluation was conducted with youth who completed 10 hours of instruction to determine if changes in youth…

  9. South Carolina's Model for Initiating Hispanic 4-H Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippert, Robert; Rembert, Kellye

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, through the initiative of several county Extension agents, South Carolina 4-H has established a successful model for bringing Hispanic youth into our program. We have found the most effective method is to initiate contact and establish partnerships with the principals and ESOL instructors in the local schools. Through this…

  10. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Leader's Guide [for Unit 1].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This guide is designed for leaders of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. The goals of the project are to: (1) help young people understand energy problems related to life styles; (2) use energy resources carefully; (3) guide members in choosing their own energy alternatives; and (4) enjoy together the challenges and creativity of finding energy…

  11. Using multiple youth programming delivery modes to drive the development of social capital in 4-H participants.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, Sharon

    2013-06-01

    This article focuses on how 4-H youth participants are building social capital, or connections among individuals and community members, through their 4-H experiences. These experiences can be seen through the lens of such 4-H delivery modes as the traditional 4-H club, after-school programs, and school enrichment programs. In addition, other experiences such as leadership camps and conferences or activities in the local community afford youth the opportunity to build the relationships, trust, and respect reflective of social capital. Examples are derived from 4-H program participants-urban, suburban and rural youth-in Camden County, New Jersey. PMID:23878086

  12. High efficiency 4H-SiC betavoltaic power sources using tritium radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christopher; Portnoff, Samuel; Spencer, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    Realization of an 18.6% efficient 4H-silicon carbide (4H-SiC) large area betavoltaic power source using the radioisotope tritium is reported. A 200 nm 4H-SiC P+N junction is used to collect high-energy electrons. The electron source is a titanium tritide (TiH3x) foil, or an integrated titanium tritide region formed by the diffusion of tritium into titanium. The specific activity of the source is directly measured. Dark current measured under short circuit conditions was less than 6.1 pA/cm2. Samples measured with an external tritium foil produced an open circuit voltage of 2.09 V, short circuit current of 75.47 nA/cm2, fill factor of 0.86, and power efficiency of 18.6%. Samples measured with an integrated source produced power efficiencies of 12%. Simulations were done to determine the beta spectrum (modified by self absorption) exiting the source and the electron hole pair generation function in the 4H-SiC. The electron-hole pair generation function in 4H-SiC was modeled as a Gaussian distribution, and a closed form solution of the continuity equation was used to analyze the cell performance. The effective surface recombination velocity in our samples was found to be 105-106 cm/s. Our analysis demonstrated that the surface recombination dominates the performance of a tritium betavoltaic device but that using a thin P+N junction structure can mitigate some of the negative effects.

  13. 45 CFR 1226.11 - Part time volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Part time volunteers. 1226.11 Section 1226.11... SERVICE PROHIBITIONS ON ELECTORAL AND LOBBYING ACTIVITIES Volunteer Activities § 1226.11 Part time volunteers. (a) The provisions in this section are applicable to part time volunteers, as defined in §...

  14. 45 CFR 1226.11 - Part time volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part time volunteers. 1226.11 Section 1226.11... SERVICE PROHIBITIONS ON ELECTORAL AND LOBBYING ACTIVITIES Volunteer Activities § 1226.11 Part time volunteers. (a) The provisions in this section are applicable to part time volunteers, as defined in §...

  15. Volunteer Programs: When Good Intentions Aren't Enough.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingley, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    With structure and support, volunteers can be a great resource for after-school programs. Program managers should train volunteers with specific information, provide appropriate teaching strategies and materials, put important information in writing, match volunteers appropriately, facilitate icebreaker activities, respect volunteers' time, stress…

  16. Above and Beyond: Secondary Activities for Peace Corps Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Judy; And Others

    This manual focuses on what prompts Peace Corps volunteers to get involved, activities that volunteers have tried while on assignment, and a series of guidelines volunteers can apply to secondary activity, which is organized during school recesses or at times when the Volunteer is otherwise unoccupied. The book is divided into three sections. Part…

  17. Liability Issues of Using Volunteers in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harshfield, James B.

    1996-01-01

    School districts must properly manage volunteers to protect children from negligent behavior. Districts can reduce the risk of using volunteers by developing volunteer-management policies and procedures; maintaining adequate liability insurance; developing descriptions of volunteer responsibilities; screening interested persons; and providing…

  18. Effect of volunteers on maize gene flow.

    PubMed

    Palaudelmàs, Montserrat; Peñas, Gisela; Melé, Enric; Serra, Joan; Salvia, Jordi; Pla, Maria; Nadal, Anna; Messeguer, Joaquima

    2009-08-01

    Regulatory approvals for deliberate release of GM maize events into the environment have lead to real situations of coexistence between GM and non-GM, with some fields being cultivated with GM and conventional varieties in successive seasons. Given the common presence of volunteer plants in maize fields in temperate areas, we investigated the real impact of GM volunteers on the yield of 12 non-GM agricultural fields. Volunteer density varied from residual to around 10% of plants in the field and was largely reduced using certain cultural practices. Plant vigour was low, they rarely had cobs and produced pollen that cross-fertilized neighbour plants only at low--but variable--levels. In the worst-case scenario, the estimated content of GMO was 0.16%. The influence of GM volunteers was not enough to reach the 0.9% adventitious GM threshold but it could potentially contribute to adventitious GM levels, especially at high initial densities (i.e. above 1,000 volunteers/ha). PMID:19225900

  19. 45 CFR 2551.72 - Is a written volunteer assignment plan required for each volunteer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is a written volunteer assignment plan required for each volunteer? 2551.72 Section 2551.72 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SENIOR COMPANION PROGRAM Senior Companion Placements and Assignments § 2551.72 Is a...

  20. Volunteer Management in Boards of Probation: Perceptions of Equity, Efficiency, and Reciprocity among Vermont Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesire, J. D.; Karp, David R.

    2007-01-01

    A statewide "Reparative Probation" intervention was evaluated in Vermont in which volunteers serve on local Boards and meet with probationers to negotiate a "reparative contract." Our sample (n = 229) was drawn from the universe of Vermont volunteers who completed a 54-question instrument measuring perceived equity, efficiency, and reciprocity in…

  1. A New Breed of Volunteer Calls for a New Volunteer Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    PTAs have always faced the challenge of competing for volunteer time. A PTA's primary volunteer base is made up of parents of public school children, and parents are being pulled in many directions, as their children are more engaged than ever in multiple extracurricular activities that may have their own specialized parent groups. Parents with…

  2. Pharmacokinetics and safety of oral almotriptan in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    McEwen, J; Salva, M; Jansat, J M; Cabarrocas, X

    2004-10-01

    Almotriptan (LAS 31416) is a new, oral, specific 5-hydroxytryptamine(1B/1D) receptor agonist for the treatment of migraine. The pharmacokinetics and safety of a range of oral doses were assessed in 23 healthy male volunteers. Peak plasma concentrations were reached between 1.5 and 4 h after dosing. The maximum plasma concentration and area under the curve showed dose proportionality over the dose range 5-200 mg. The elimination half-life was constant at approximately 3 h across all dose levels. A substantial proportion of the initial dose was excreted in urine (27%-39%) during 12 h post-dose and the main excretory product was unchanged drug. Three major urinary metabolites were detected, all of which were pharmacologically inactive. The most common events following almotriptan administration were headache, tiredness and mild nausea. Nine events (18%) were classed as probably related to almotriptan and these were all at the highest dose level of 200 mg. The maximum tolerated dose of almotriptan was, therefore, determined as 150 mg. In conclusion, almotriptan is well tolerated following single, oral doses up to 150 mg and has predictable pharmacokinetics. PMID:15386481

  3. Ivermectin distribution using community volunteers in Kabarole district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kipp, W; Burnham, G; Bamuhiiga, J; Weis, P; Büttner, D W

    1998-06-01

    Ivermectin mass distribution for the control of onchocerciasis in Uganda began in 1991. This report describes a community based ivermectin distribution programme covering two foci in the Kabarole district which have an estimated 32,000 persons infected and another 110,000 at risk. Through nodule palpation in adult males, 143 villages were identified where nodule prevalence exceeded 20%. Skin snips were also taken from a sample of the population to measure changes in community microfilarial load (CMFL) with treatment. The delivery programme was integrated into the district health management structure, and used community volunteers supervised by medical assistants from adjacent health facilities for annual ivermectin distribution campaigns. After initial efforts by the community to support distributors in-kind proved inadequate, ivermectin distributors earned money retailing condoms as part of the social marketing component of district STD/AIDS programme. Reduction in the CMFL ranged from 40-62% twelve months after the second ivermectin treatment in three villages, and from 69-84% six months after the fourth round of treatment in two villages. After four years of treatment, 85% of eligible persons were receiving ivermectin from community volunteers in each treatment cycle. Drop out rates among volunteers did not exceed 20% over the four years reported here. The direct cost of treatment was US $0.29 per person. Among the reasons for low per-person treatment costs were the strong supervisory structure, the presence of health centres in the foci and a well developed and capable district Primary Health Care management team. PMID:10180405

  4. Motivations for Youth Volunteer Participation: Types and Structure--An Analysis of Interviews with Twenty-Four Young Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luping, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Scholars who study volunteer activities are attaching ever greater importance to the motivations of volunteers who participate in volunteer activities. However, deficiencies are, on the whole, to be found in the empirical studies by scholars in China on the participating volunteers' motivations. To make up for the deficiencies in the research on…

  5. Volunteered Cloud Computing for Disaster Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. D.; Hao, W.; Chettri, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Disaster management relies increasingly on interpreting earth observations and running numerical models; which require significant computing capacity - usually on short notice and at irregular intervals. Peak computing demand during event detection, hazard assessment, or incident response may exceed agency budgets; however some of it can be met through volunteered computing, which distributes subtasks to participating computers via the Internet. This approach has enabled large projects in mathematics, basic science, and climate research to harness the slack computing capacity of thousands of desktop computers. This capacity is likely to diminish as desktops give way to battery-powered mobile devices (laptops, smartphones, tablets) in the consumer market; but as cloud computing becomes commonplace, it may offer significant slack capacity -- if its users are given an easy, trustworthy mechanism for participating. Such a "volunteered cloud computing" mechanism would also offer several advantages over traditional volunteered computing: tasks distributed within a cloud have fewer bandwidth limitations; granular billing mechanisms allow small slices of "interstitial" computing at no marginal cost; and virtual storage volumes allow in-depth, reversible machine reconfiguration. Volunteered cloud computing is especially suitable for "embarrassingly parallel" tasks, including ones requiring large data volumes: examples in disaster management include near-real-time image interpretation, pattern / trend detection, or large model ensembles. In the context of a major disaster, we estimate that cloud users (if suitably informed) might volunteer hundreds to thousands of CPU cores across a large provider such as Amazon Web Services. To explore this potential, we are building a volunteered cloud computing platform and targeting it to a disaster management context. Using a lightweight, fault-tolerant network protocol, this platform helps cloud users join parallel computing projects

  6. Cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions to freshwater cyanobacteria – human volunteer studies

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ian; Robertson, Ivan M; Webb, Penelope M; Schluter, Philip J; Shaw, Glen R

    2006-01-01

    Background Pruritic skin rashes associated with exposure to freshwater cyanobacteria are infrequently reported in the medical and scientific literature, mostly as anecdotal and case reports. Diagnostic dermatological investigations in humans are also infrequently described. We sought to conduct a pilot volunteer study to explore the potential for cyanobacteria to elicit hypersensitivity reactions. Methods A consecutive series of adult patients presenting for diagnostic skin patch testing at a hospital outpatient clinic were invited to participate. A convenience sample of volunteers matched for age and sex was also enrolled. Patches containing aqueous suspensions of various cyanobacteria at three concentrations were applied for 48 hours; dermatological assessment was made 48 hours and 96 hours after application. Results 20 outpatients and 19 reference subjects were recruited into the study. A single outpatient produced unequivocal reactions to several cyanobacteria suspensions; this subject was also the only one of the outpatient group with a diagnosis of atopic dermatitis. No subjects in the reference group developed clinically detectable skin reactions to cyanobacteria. Conclusion This preliminary clinical study demonstrates that hypersensitivity reactions to cyanobacteria appear to be infrequent in both the general and dermatological outpatient populations. As cyanobacteria are widely distributed in aquatic environments, a better appreciation of risk factors, particularly with respect to allergic predisposition, may help to refine health advice given to people engaging in recreational activities where nuisance cyanobacteria are a problem. PMID:16584576

  7. Pharmacokinetics of ambroxol and clenbuterol tablets in healthy Chinese volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong-Ge; Song, Li-Xue; Jiang, Nan; Xu, Xue-Ting; Di, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the pharmacokinetics of Ambroxol and Clenbuterol Tablets in Chinese healthy volunteers after a single or multiple dosages oral administration. Methods: A total of 9 healthy adult subjects were given Ambroxol and Clenbuterol Tablets in a single dosage or multiple dosages respectively. LC/MS/MS were used for the determination of Ambroxol and Clenbuterol of in plasma. The important pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0 software (compartment model). Results: Single and multiple dosage groups of Ambroxol and Clenbuterol were all fitted two-compartment model. The pharmacokinetics fitted first order kinetics process. No difference in pharmacokinetics of Ambroxol in single and multiple dosage groups volunteers was observed, Which showed no marked changes, suggesting that multiple dosing did not influence the velocity of drug metabolism. Moreover, parameters of Clenbuterol had significant difference between the single and multiple dosage groups (P<0.05), showing there was accumulation in the body. 9 subjects had completed single or multiple dosages oral administration test, with no adverse drug reactions appeared during the test. Conclusion: There was no obvious accumulation of Ambroxol after repeated dosing. But obvious accumulation of Clenbuterol was noted in multiple-dose administration. The established method is sensitive, accurate, reliable and specific, and it can meet the requirement of clinical pharmacokinetic trial. PMID:26770490

  8. Volunteer Losing Balance Wearing Inverted Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Brad McLain for the Space Biology Museum Network puts a volunteer back on balance as he tries to adjust to a world inverted by a special pair of glasses. This helps illustrate how dependent the human vestibular system is on visual cues. A volunteer is The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107.

  9. Meaning of Educating Science Volunteer Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Masa-aki; Hoshino, T.; Yoshimura, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Uchida, T.; Kawakatsu, H.

    2010-07-01

    We hold many science events for non-scientists such as primary school students and their parents in a year. We prepare and carry out these events with students who are mainly fast-track students belonging to our center. We encourage them to be instructors in some events, and they teach simple science experiments to children and their parents. While they have experiences to hold several events, they learn a lot of science knowledge and experiments gradually, and become so-called science volunteer leaders. In this article, we consider the meaning of educating science volunteer leaders such as them.

  10. Volunteers build Bay St. Louis playground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    More than 650 volunteers - many of them employees at NASA's Stennis Space Center - weathered rain and cold to transform Bay St. Louis' old City Park into a playground Dec. 17. Volunteers assembled and erected a slide, swing set, jungle gym, sand box and planter benches in an eight-hour time frame. The playground was the first new structure built in the town devastated by Hurricane Katrina and the first on the Gulf Coast after the storm. The project was financed and led by nonprofit organization KaBOOM!, whose vision is to create a great place to play within walking distance of every child in America.

  11. Synthesis and crystal and molecular structure of a tetranuclear cluster based on the rhenium(III)-bisorganohydrazino core: [Re(HNNC(4)H(3)N(2))(NNC(4)H(3)N(2))(OCH(3))(2)](4).

    PubMed

    Femia, Frank J; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Maresca, Kevin P; Babich, John W; Zubieta, Jon

    2000-09-01

    Reaction of NH(4)ReO(4) with excess 2-hydrazinopyrimidine in methanol yields [Re(eta(1)-NNC(4)H(3)N(2)H)(eta(2)-HNNC(4)H(3)N(2))Cl(3)] (1). Attempts to recrystallize 1 by slow diffusion of methanol into DMF after 8 months produced black crystals of [Re(HNNC(4)H(3)N(2))(NNC(4)H(3)N(2))(OCH(3))(2)](4) (2). The structure of 2 consists of isolated tetranuclear clusters, constructed from {Re(eta(2)-HNNC(4)H(3)N(2))(eta(1)-NNC(4)H(3)N(2))(OCH(3))(2)} units linked through the beta-nitrogen of the chelating organodiazene ligand of adjacent units into a box-like aggregate. PMID:20613968

  12. Solubility and diffusion of chromium in 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danno, Katsunori; Saito, Makoto; Seki, Akinori; Sato, Kazuaki; Bessho, Takeshi; Kimoto, Tsunenobu

    2016-06-01

    The solubility and diffusivity of Cr atoms in 4H-SiC epilayers are investigated. The formation energy of 4H-SiC containing Cr has been calculated by first-principles calculation. Si sites have been found to be more stable than C sites or interstitial sites for Cr atoms owing to the lower formation energy. The solubility estimated from the formation energy coincides with the saturated Cr concentration in SiC crystals grown by solution growth. The diffusivity of implanted Cr atoms (located at interstitial sites) was not affected by the charge states of Cr atoms and/or vacancies such as carbon vacancies and silicon vacancies, implying the interstitial diffusion of Cr atoms.

  13. Donor-acceptor-pair emission in fluorescent 4H-SiC grown by PVT method

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xi Zhuo, Shi-Yi; Gao, Pan; Huang, Wei; Yan, Cheng-Feng; Shi, Er-Wei

    2015-04-15

    Fluorescent SiC, which contains donor and acceptor impurities with optimum concentrations, can work as a phosphor for visible light emission by donor-acceptor-pair (DAP) recombination. In this work, 3 inch N-B-Al co-doped fluorescent 4H-SiC crystals are prepared by PVT method. The p-type fluorescent 4H-SiC with low aluminum doping concentration can show intensive yellow-green fluorescence at room temperature. N-B DAP peak wavelength shifts from 578nm to 525nm and weak N-Al DAP emission occurred 403/420 nm quenches, when the temperature increases from 4K to 298K. The aluminum doping induces higher defect concentration in the fluorescent crystal and decreases optical transmissivity of the crystal in the visible light range. It triggers more non-radiative recombination and light absorption losses in the crystal.

  14. A novel 4H-SiC MESFET with clival gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Hujun; Xing, Ding; Zhang, Hang; Pei, Xiaoyan; Sun, Zhelin; Yuan, Yingchun

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a novel 4H-SiC metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) with a clival gate structure (CG-MESFET) is proposed. The drain current (ID) and the breakdown voltage (VB) are simulated and compared to the traditional double-recessed gate 4H-SiC MESFET (DR-MESFET). The results indicate that the drain current (ID) of the CG-MESFET transforms with the change of end point of clival gate (EPCG), and it reaches to a maximum value about 545 mA when EPCG is at 1/2 of whole gate, thus, the drain current (ID) has a much greater increase than that of the DR-MESFET. The CG-MESFET has the advantages of high breakdown voltage (VB) that is increased by 15% and superior DC performances over the DR-MESFET.

  15. Structure determination of an amorphous compound AlB4H11.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xuenian; Zhang, Yongsheng; Wang, Yongli; Zhou, Wei; Knight, Douglas A; Yisgedu, Teshome; Huang, Zhenguo; Lingam, Hima; Billet, Beau; Udovic, Terrence J; Brown, Gilbert M; Shore, Sheldon; Wolverton, Christopher; Zhao, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of the amorphous aluminoborane compound AlB4H11 was identified through a collaborative study closely coupling a first-principles density functional based approach with experimental measurements using IR, NMR, and neutron vibrational spectroscopy (NVS). The AlB4H11 structure was found to contain distinct [BH4] and [B3H7] units without any [AlH4] units. It forms a [B3H7] Al(BH4) polymer chain with the [BH4] units twisted relative to each other perpendicular to the chain direction and bonded to Al, and a chain backbone consists of [B3H7] and Al where the [B3H7] unit exhibits a triangular boron configuration. The computed lowest energy structure shows good agreement with results of IR, NVS and NMR spectra; this agreement demonstrates the extended applicability of the structure prediction approach to the prediction of even amorphous compounds.

  16. Thermodynamic calculations in the system CH4-H2O and methane hydrate phase equilibria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Using the Gibbs function of reaction, equilibrium pressure, temperature conditions for the formation of methane clathrate hydrate have been calculated from the thermodynamic properties of phases in the system CH4-H 2O. The thermodynamic model accurately reproduces the published phase-equilibria data to within ??2 K of the observed equilibrium boundaries in the range 0.08-117 MPa and 190-307 K. The model also provides an estimate of the third-law entropy of methane hydrate at 273.15 K, 0.1 MPa of 56.2 J mol-1 K-1 for 1/n CH4??H 2O, where n is the hydrate number. Agreement between the calculated and published phase-equilibria data is optimized when the hydrate composition is fixed and independent of the pressure and temperature for the conditions modeled. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  17. Donor-acceptor-pair emission in fluorescent 4H-SiC grown by PVT method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xi; Zhuo, Shi-Yi; Gao, Pan; Huang, Wei; Yan, Cheng-Feng; Shi, Er-Wei

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescent SiC, which contains donor and acceptor impurities with optimum concentrations, can work as a phosphor for visible light emission by donor-acceptor-pair (DAP) recombination. In this work, 3 inch N-B-Al co-doped fluorescent 4H-SiC crystals are prepared by PVT method. The p-type fluorescent 4H-SiC with low aluminum doping concentration can show intensive yellow-green fluorescence at room temperature. N-B DAP peak wavelength shifts from 578nm to 525nm and weak N-Al DAP emission occurred 403/420 nm quenches, when the temperature increases from 4K to 298K. The aluminum doping induces higher defect concentration in the fluorescent crystal and decreases optical transmissivity of the crystal in the visible light range. It triggers more non-radiative recombination and light absorption losses in the crystal.

  18. Monte Carlo Simulation of Electron Transport in 4H- and 6H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, C. C.; You, A. H.; Wong, E. K.

    2010-07-07

    The Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of electron transport properties at high electric field region in 4H- and 6H-SiC are presented. This MC model includes two non-parabolic conduction bands. Based on the material parameters, the electron scattering rates included polar optical phonon scattering, optical phonon scattering and acoustic phonon scattering are evaluated. The electron drift velocity, energy and free flight time are simulated as a function of applied electric field at an impurity concentration of 1x10{sup 18} cm{sup 3} in room temperature. The simulated drift velocity with electric field dependencies is in a good agreement with experimental results found in literature. The saturation velocities for both polytypes are close, but the scattering rates are much more pronounced for 6H-SiC. Our simulation model clearly shows complete electron transport properties in 4H- and 6H-SiC.

  19. The C4H radical and the diffuse interstellar bands. An ab initio study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolbuszewski, Marcin

    1994-01-01

    An ab initio study of the low-lying electronic states of C4H has been presented where the species studied has a chi(2)sigma(+) ground state and two low lying pi states. Based on the vertical and adiabatic excitation energies between those states it is suggested that the 4428 A diffuse interstellar band is not carried by C4H. The application of the particle in a box model shows strong coincidences between the strong DIB's and predicted wavelengths of pi-pi transitions in C(2n)H series. Based on those coincidences, it is suggested the C(2n)H species as good candidates for carriers of diffuse interstellar bands.

  20. Strain energy analysis of screw dislocations in 4H-SiC by molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Takahiro; Mizutani, Mitsutoshi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kakimoto, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    We simulated screw dislocations with the Burgers vector parallel to the [0001] direction in 4H-SiC by a classical molecular dynamics method. A stable structure of an extended dislocation generated by the dissociation of a screw dislocation was identified by calculating the strain energy caused by dislocation cores and stacking faults. As a result, we conclude that the most expected structure of the extended dislocation is made of partial dislocations with the Burgers vector b = 1/2c + 1/2c (c is equal to the thickness of one period in the c-axis direction of 4H-SiC) and the stacking fault that is parallel to the a-plane, and that the distance between the dislocation cores is less than about 44 Å.

  1. Free carrier absorption and lifetime mapping in 4H SiC epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Galeckas, A.; Grivickas, V.; Linnros, J.; Bleichner, H.

    1997-04-01

    Results of carrier lifetime studies in low-doped epitaxial 4H SiC layers are reported. The free carrier absorption (FCA) technique was applied to extract carrier lifetime parameters and their spatial distribution in a wide photoexcitation range. The FCA magnitude is shown to scale linearly with the photoinjected carrier concentration, while the absorption cross section increases according to a {lambda}{sup 4.4} law for near infrared wavelengths. High spatial resolution carrier lifetime mapping of large 4H SiC areas revealed features related to structural imperfections of epilayers. Finally, a density dependent fast lifetime component was observed at high injection levels and attributed to band-to-band Auger recombination. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Detection of minority carrier traps in p-type 4H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Alfieri, G.; Kimoto, T.

    2014-03-03

    Contrarily to the case of n-type 4H-SiC, very little is known about the presence of minority carrier traps in p-type epilayers. In this study, we performed the electrical characterization of as-grown, electron irradiated, and thermally oxidized p-type 4H-SiC, by using minority carrier transient spectroscopy. Four minority carrier traps are reported in 1.6–2.3 eV energy range above the valence band edge (E{sub V}). Particular emphasis is given to the mid-gap minority carrier trap (EH{sub 6∕7}) and to its correlation to an energetically close mid-gap majority carrier trap (HK4)

  3. Fabrication and characteristics of a 4H-SiC junction barrier Schottky diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fengping, Chen; Yuming, Zhang; Hongliang, Lü; Yimen, Zhang; Hui, Guo; Xin, Guo

    2011-06-01

    4H-SiC junction barrier Schottky (JBS) diodes with four kinds of design have been fabricated and characterized using two different processes in which one is fabricated by making the P-type ohmic contact of the anode independently, and the other is processed by depositing a Schottky metal multi-layer on the whole anode. The reverse performances are compared to find the influences of these factors. The results show that JBS diodes with field guard rings have a lower reverse current density and a higher breakdown voltage, and with independent P-type ohmic contact manufacturing, the reverse performance of 4H-SiC JBS diodes can be improved effectively. Furthermore, the P-type ohmic contact is studied in this work.

  4. Hall scattering factors in p-type 4H-SiC with various doping concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asada, Satoshi; Okuda, Takafumi; Kimoto, Tsunenobu; Suda, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The Hall scattering factor (γH) in p-type 4H-SiC with various aluminum doping concentrations of 5.8 × 1014-7.1 × 1018 cm-3 was investigated from 300 to 900 K. γH was determined by comparing the Hall coefficient with the theoretical carrier concentration derived from acceptor and donor concentrations obtained from secondary ion mass spectrometry and capacitance-voltage measurements. γH decreased with increasing temperature or doping concentration; γH = 1-0.4 for the doping concentration of 5.8 × 1014 cm-3 and γH = 0.5-0.2 for the doping concentration of 7.1 × 1018 cm-3. The dependence might be caused by the anisotropic and nonparabolic valence band structure of 4H-SiC.

  5. Crystal structure induced residue formation on 4H-SiC by reactive ion etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi-hong; Sun, Yu-jun; Zhao, Gao-jie; Liao, Li-ming; Wang, Tao; Chen, Zhi-zhan

    2016-06-01

    The (000 1 ¯) C face of 4H-SiC wafer was etched by reactive ion etching in SF6/O2 plasma. The effect of etching parameters, such as work pressure, SF6:O2 ratio and etching time, on the residue formation were systematically investigated. The residue morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The residues have spike shape and their facets are defined as { 1 1 ¯ 0 2 ¯ } crystal planes. They are formed at beginning of the etching and no new spikes are generated as prolonging etching time. Both work pressure and SF6:O2 ratio play significant role in the spike formation. The residues can be eliminated completely by increasing the SF6:O2 ratio and work pressure. On the basis of experimental results and of 4H-SiC crystal structure, the spike formation model is proposed.

  6. Nitrogen passivation of deposited oxides on n 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, G. Y.; Williams, J. R.; Isaacs-Smith, T.; Ren, F.; McDonald, K.; Feldman, L. C.

    2002-11-01

    Results for measurements of interface state density and breakdown field strength are reported for deposited oxides on n 4H-SiC following passivation with nitric oxide. Low-temperature oxides deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and high-temperature oxides deposited at 950 °C were investigated. Nitrogen passivation of deposited oxides on n 4H-SiC is found to produce interface state densities of 1-2×1012cm-2 eV-1 at Ec-E=0.1 eV, regardless of variations in oxide deposition procedures that affect the residual interfacial carbon concentration. Breakdown field strengths were higher for passivated high-temperature oxides compared to passivated low-temperature oxides at room temperature and 290 °C. We suggest that additional oxide growth during the NO passivation is the reason for the observed interface state densities.

  7. A 4H Silicon Carbide Gate Buffer for Integrated Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, N; Frank, S; Britton, C; Marlino, L; Ryu, SH; Grider, D; Mantooth, A; Francis, M; Lamichhane, R; Mudholkar, M; Shepherd, P; Glover, M; Valle-Mayorga, J; McNutt, T; Barkley, A; Whitaker, B; Cole, Z; Passmore, B; Lostetter, A

    2014-02-01

    A gate buffer fabricated in a 2-mu m 4H silicon carbide (SiC) process is presented. The circuit is composed of an input buffer stage with a push-pull output stage, and is fabricated using enhancement mode N-channel FETs in a process optimized for SiC power switching devices. Simulation and measurement results of the fabricated gate buffer are presented and compared for operation at various voltage supply levels, with a capacitive load of 2 nF. Details of the design including layout specifics, simulation results, and directions for future improvement of this buffer are presented. In addition, plans for its incorporation into an isolated high-side/low-side gate-driver architecture, fully integrated with power switching devices in a SiC process, are briefly discussed. This letter represents the first reported MOSFET-based gate buffer fabricated in 4H SiC.

  8. Plasmodium vivax Sporozoite Challenge in Malaria-Naïve and Semi-Immune Colombian Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Forero-Peña, David A.; Rubiano, Kelly; Gómez-Hincapie, José; Martínez, Nora L.; Lopez-Perez, Mary; Castellanos, Angélica; Céspedes, Nora; Palacios, Ricardo; Oñate, José Millán; Herrera, Sócrates

    2014-01-01

    Background Significant progress has been recently achieved in the development of Plasmodium vivax challenge infections in humans, which are essential for vaccine and drug testing. With the goal of accelerating clinical development of malaria vaccines, the outcome of infections experimentally induced in naïve and semi-immune volunteers by infected mosquito bites was compared. Methods Seven malaria-naïve and nine semi-immune Colombian adults (n = 16) were subjected to the bites of 2–4 P. vivax sporozoite-infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Parasitemia levels, malaria clinical manifestations, and immune responses were assessed and compared. Results All volunteers developed infections as confirmed by microscopy and RT-qPCR. No significant difference in the pre-patent period (mean 12.5 and 12.8 days for malaria-naïve and malaria-exposed, respectively) was observed but naïve volunteers developed classical malaria signs and symptoms, while semi-immune volunteers displayed minor or no symptoms at the day of diagnosis. A malaria-naïve volunteer developed a transient low submicroscopic parasitemia that cured spontaneously. Infection induced an increase in specific antibody levels in both groups. Conclusion Sporozoite infectious challenge was safe and reproducible in semi-immune and naïve volunteers. This model will provide information for simultaneous comparison of the protective efficacy of P. vivax vaccines in naïve and semi-immune volunteers under controlled conditions and would accelerate P. vivax vaccine development. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01585077 PMID:24963662

  9. Enantioselective synthesis of 4H-pyranonaphthoquinones via sequential squaramide and silver catalysis.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Uğur; Chauhan, Pankaj; Hack, Daniel; Deckers, Kristina; Puttreddy, Rakesh; Rissanen, Kari; Enders, Dieter

    2016-01-28

    An enantioselective one-pot Michael addition/hydroalkoxylation reaction between 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones and alkyne-tethered nitroalkenes catalyzed by a cinchona-derived squaramide and a silver(I) salt has been developed. The sequential protocol provides a direct access to 4H-pyranonaphthoquinones in moderate to very good yields and good to excellent enantioselectivities at a very low catalyst loading (0.5 mol%) of the squaramide. PMID:26660230

  10. Electric-field dependence of electron drift velocity in 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P. A.; Potapov, A. S.; Samsonova, T. P.; Grekhov, I. V.

    2016-09-01

    Room temperature isothermal forward current-voltage characteristics of mesa-epitaxial 4H-SiC Schottky diodes were measured at high electric fields (beyond 105 V/cm) in the 34-μm thick n-base doped at 1 × 1015 cm-3. The effect of diode self-heating on current was minimized when using single 4-ns pulses. The analytical formula was derived for the dependence of electron drift velocity on electric field along c-axis.

  11. Defect formation in 4H-SiC single crystal grown on the prismatic seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadeev, A. Yu; Lebedev, A. O.; Tairov, Yu M.

    2014-12-01

    The defect structure of 4H silicon carbide single crystals grown by PVT method on three prismatic seeds (10-10), (11-20) and (8.3.-11.0) is considered. The only defects existing in the grown ingots are stacking faults and basal plane dislocations. The type of stacking fault is studied. The dependence of stacking fault morphology on the seed orientation is analyzed.

  12. High Resolution Topography Analysis on Threading Edge Dislocations in 4H-SiC Epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kamata, I.; Nagano, M; Tsuchida, H; Chen, Y; Dudley, M

    2009-01-01

    Threading edge dislocations (TEDs) in a 4H-SiC epitaxial layer are investigated using high-resolution synchrotron topography. Six types of TED image are confirmed to correspond to the Burgers vector directions by a comparison of computer simulated images and observed topography images in crystal boundaries. Using a mapping method, a wide spatial distribution of the six types of TED is examined in a quarter section of a 2-inch wafer.

  13. Polarographic study of cadmium 5-hydroxy 2-(hydroxymethyl) 4H-pyran-4-one complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Ray F.; Daniels, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    A polarographic study was performed on the products formed in the interaction of cadmium (II) with a 5-hydroxy 2-(hydroxymethyl) 4H-Pyran-4-one, using varying conditions of pH, supporting electrolytes, and concentrations. Measurements using the differential pulse method show that cadmium (II) exhibits a molar combining ratio of complexing agents to cation ranging from 1 to 1 to 3 to 1 depending on the pH and the supporting electrolyte employed.

  14. Resistance of 4H-SiC Schottky barriers at high forward-current densities

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, P. A. Samsonova, T. P.; Il’inskaya, N. D.; Serebrennikova, O. Yu.; Kon’kov, O. I.; Potapov, A. S.

    2015-07-15

    The resistance of Schottky barriers based on 4H-SiC is experimentally determined at high forward-current densities. The measured resistance is found to be significantly higher than the resistance predicted by classical mechanisms of electron transport in Schottky contacts. An assumption concerning the crucial contribution of the tunnel-transparent intermediate oxide layer between the metal and semiconductor to the barrier resistance is proposed and partially justified.

  15. Bis(4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)disulfane

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongsheng; Xu, Yaping; Li, Xinfa; Ying, Shaoming; Chen, Wentong

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C4H4N6S2, was synthesized by the reaction of 3-mercapto-1H-1,2,4-triazole with sodium hydrox­ide in ethanol. The mol­ecule possesses a crystallographically imposed twofold axis. Inter­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into chains along the c axis. PMID:21200812

  16. Theoretical microwave spectral constants for C3H/+/ and C4H/+/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S.; Green, S.

    1980-01-01

    A number of linear conjugated carbon chain molecules have been observed in the interstellar gas. It has been suggested that ion molecule chemistry schemes may explain the formation of these compounds. In the present paper, theoretical bond lengths and rotation constants are obtained for C3H(+) and C4H(+). Calculations for C3 are used to assess the accuracy of the former. Recent results for C2H(+) are examined.

  17. Laboratory detection of the C3N an C4H free radicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, C. A.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Thaddeus, P.; Kawamura, H.

    1983-01-01

    The millimeter-wave spectra of the linear carbon chain free radicals C3N and C4H, first identified in IRC + 10216 and hitherto observed only in a few astronomical sources, have been detected with a Zeeman-modulated spectrometer in laboratory glow discharges through low pressure flowing mixtures of N2 + HC3N and He + HCCH, respectively. Four successive rotational transitions between 168 and 198 GHz have been measured for C3N, and five rotational transitions between 143 and 200 GHz for C4H; each is a well-resolved spin doublet owing to the unpaired electron present in both species. Precise values for the rotational, centrifugal distortion, and spin doubling constants have been obtained, which, with hyperfine constants derived from observations of the lower rotational transitions in the astronomical source TMC 1, allow all the rotational transitions of C3N and C4H at frequencies less than 300 GHz to be calculated to an absolute accuracy exceeding 1 ppm.

  18. Carbon-antisite vacancy defect in 4H silicon carbide for realizing solid state qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gali, Adam; Szász, Krisztián; Ivády, Viktor; Abrikosov, Igor; Bockstedte, Michel; Janzén, Erik

    2015-03-01

    Dopants in solids are promising candidates for implementations of quantum bits for quantum computing. Silicon carbide (SiC) with engineered point defects is considered as very promising material for the next generation devices, with applications ranging from electronics and photonics to quantum computing. Employing density functional theory and many body perturbation theory, we show that the neutral carbon antisite-vacancy pair (CAV) has high spin ground state, and that its spin may be coherently manipulated by optical excitation in n-type 4H SiC. As the positively charged CAV defect in 4H SiC has been recently engineered to act as single photon source, our finding brings a hope that optically addressed quantum bits can be realized by the neutral CAV defects in 4H SiC, and provide an additional target for researchers seeking for solid state single color centers for quantum information processes and metrology. The calculated zero-phonon line of the optically excited state is about 1550 nm (0.8 eV) which perfectly fits to the telecom wavelengths, that makes this qubit candidate very promising for integration of quantum optics devices with existing fiber optics technology. Lendület program of Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the Knut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Swedish Research Council, US DoE.

  19. Extended charge accumulation in ruthenium-4H-imidazole-based black absorbers: a theoretical design concept.

    PubMed

    Kupfer, Stephan

    2016-05-11

    A theoretical-guided design concept aiming to achieve highly efficient unidirectional charge transfer and multi-charge separation upon successive photoexcitation for light-harvesting dyes in the scope of supramolecular photocatalysts is presented. Four 4H-imidazole-ruthenium(ii) complexes incorporating a biimidazole-based electron-donating ligand sphere have been designed based on the well-known 4H-imidazole-ruthenium(ii) polypyridyl dyes. The quantum chemical evaluation, performed at the density functional and time-dependent density functional level of theory, revealed extraordinary unidirectional charge transfer bands from the near-infrared to the ultraviolet region of the absorption spectrum upon multi-photoexcitation. Spectro-electrochemical simulations modeling photoexcited intermediates determined the outstanding multi-electron storage capacity for this novel class of black dyes. These remarkable photochemical and photophysical properties are found to be preserved upon site-specific protonation rendering 4H-imidazole-ruthenium(ii) biimidazole dyes ideal for light-harvesting applications in the field of solar energy conversion. PMID:27121270

  20. Identification of the Amorphous AlB4H11 Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongli; Zhang, Yongsheng; Chen, Xuenian; Zhao, Ji-Cheng; Zhou, Wei; Udovic, Terrence; Wolverton, C.

    2012-02-01

    In recent experimental work, AlB4H11 has been identified as a potential hydrogen storage material with a good desorption temperature and partial reversibility. It is an amorphous, white solid at room temperature and its molecular structure is presently unknown. We combine experimental measurements (NMR, neutron vibrational spectra and IR) and a theoretical structure prediction method to identify the (local) structure of the amorphous AlB4H11 phase. The theoretical structure prediction method is a combination of the Monte-Carlo based prototype electrostatic ground state search (PEGS) method and first-principles calculation (DFT). The PEGS+DFT method has successfully predicted many crystalline solid structures, but has never been applied to the prediction of amorphous solid structures. The PEGS predictions of the AlB4H11 structure are quite successful: we find the calculated phonon density of states (pDOS) of our PEGS+DFT predicted structures is in close agreement with the experimental vibrational measurements. More broadly, our findings indicate that first-principles theoretical design of new amorphous materials for energy storage is now possible, paving a promising way for similar studies in the future.

  1. A remarkable activity of human leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) toward unnatural amino acids.

    PubMed

    Byzia, Anna; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Salvesen, Guy S; Drag, Marcin

    2014-05-01

    Leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H--EC 3.3.2.6) is a bifunctional zinc metalloenzyme, which processes LTA4 through an epoxide hydrolase activity and is also able to trim one amino acid at a time from N-terminal peptidic substrates via its aminopeptidase activity. In this report, we have utilized a library of 130 individual proteinogenic and unnatural amino acid fluorogenic substrates to determine the aminopeptidase specificity of this enzyme. We have found that the best proteinogenic amino acid recognized by LTA4H is arginine. However, we have also observed several unnatural amino acids, which were significantly better in terms of cleavage rate (k cat/K m values). Among them, the benzyl ester of aspartic acid exhibited a k cat/K m value that was more than two orders of magnitude higher (1.75 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)) as compared to L-Arg (1.5 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)). This information can be used for design of potent inhibitors of this enzyme, but may also suggest yet undiscovered functions or specificities of LTA4H. PMID:24573245

  2. Ab initio study of the O4H(+) novel species: spectroscopic fingerprints to aid its observation.

    PubMed

    Xavier, F George D; Hernández-Lamoneda, Rámon

    2015-06-28

    A detailed ab initio characterization of the structural, energetic and spectroscopic properties of the novel O4H(+) species is presented. The equilibrium structures and relative energies of all multiplet states have been determined systematically by analyzing static and dynamical correlation effects. The two and three body dissociation processes have been studied and indicate the presence of conical intersections in various states including the ground state. Comparison with available thermochemical data is very good, supporting the applied methodology. The reaction, H3(+) + O4→ O4H(+) + H2, was found to be exothermic ΔH = -19.4 kcal mol(-1) and therefore, it is proposed that the product in the singlet state could be formed in the interstellar medium (ISM) via collision processes. To aid in its laboratory or radioastronomy detection in the interstellar medium we determined spectroscopic fingerprints. It is estimated for the most stable geometry of O4H(+) dipole allowed electronic transitions in the visible region at 429 nm and 666 nm, an intense band at 1745 cm(-1) in the infrared and signals at 40.6, 81.2 and 139.2 GHz in the microwave region at 10, 50 and 150 K respectively, relevant for detection in the ISM. PMID:26028209

  3. Characterization of a n+3C/n-4H SiC heterojunction diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamisawa, R. A.; Mihaila, A.; Farkas, I.; Teodorescu, V. S.; Afanas'ev, V. V.; Hsu, C.-W.; Janzén, E.; Rahimo, M.

    2016-04-01

    We report on the fabrication of n + 3C/n-4H SiC heterojunction diodes (HJDs) potentially promising the ultimate thermal stability of the junction. The diodes were systematically analyzed by TEM, X-ray diffraction, AFM, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy, indicating the formation of epitaxial 3C-SiC crystal on top of 4H-SiC substrate with continuous interface, low surface roughness, and up to ˜7 × 1017 cm-3 dopant impurity concentration. The conduction band off-set is about 1 V as extracted from CV measurements, while the valence bands of both SiC polytypes are aligned. The HJDs feature opening voltage of 1.65 V, consistent with the barrier height of about 1.5 eV extracted from CV measurement. We finally compare the electrical results of the n + 3C/n-4H SiC heterojunction diodes with those featuring Si and Ge doped anodes in order to evaluate current challenges involved in the fabrication of such devices.

  4. Demonstration of the First 4H-SiC EUV Detector with Large Detection Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xin, Xiaobin; Yan, Feng; Koeth, Timothy W.; Hu, Jun; Zhao, Jian H.

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) and Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) detectors are very attractive in astronomy, photolithography and biochemical applications. For EUV applications, most of the semiconductor detectors based on PN or PIN structures suffer from the very short penetration depth. Most of the carries are absorbed at the surface and recombined there due to the high surface recombination before reach the depletion region, resulting very low quantum efficiency. On the other hand, for Schottky structures, the active region starts from the surface and carriers generated from the surface can be efficiently collected. 4H-Sic has a bandgap of 3.26eV and is immune to visible light background noise. Also, 4H-Sic detectors usually have very good radiation hardness and very low noise, which is very important for space applications where the signal is very weak. The E W photodiodes presented in this paper are based on Schottky structures. Platinum (Pt) and Nickel (Ni) are selected as the Schottky contact metals, which have the highest electron work functions (5.65eV and 5.15eV, respectively) among all the known metals on 4H-Sic.

  5. Differences in motivations of paid versus nonpaid volunteers.

    PubMed

    Gerstein, Lawrence H; Wilkeson, David A; Anderson, Heather

    2004-02-01

    143 AmeriCorps volunteers (30 men; 113 women) and 127 college student volunteers (43 men; 84 women) completed the Volunteer Functions Inventory to assess whether monetary compensation was associated with choice to volunteer to provide educational services, e.g., tutoring, mentoring. Based on Snyder's 1993 theory of functionalism, motives of paid (AmeriCorps participants) and nonpaid (college students) volunteers were expected to differ. It was also predicted that the motives of female and male volunteers would differ. Multivariate analysis of variance confirmed these assumptions. In general, paid male participants reported perceiving numerous benefits associated with volunteering and reported stronger beliefs about such benefits. Female participants reported motives for volunteering, in contrast, which were not linked with monetary compensation. The women reported recognizing the benefits of volunteering and engaging in this activity for egoistic reasons. Their reported motives had little relation to compensation. PMID:15077760

  6. International Volunteering: Employability, Leadership and More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Andrew; Charleston, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of individuals in transition between education and work during international volunteering expeditions. While it was expected that outcomes might include employability enhancement and skill development, the authors aimed to clarify what the main factors were, examine employability…

  7. Volunteer Development: Strengthening Your Literacy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gang, Bobbie; Buckley, Bonnie, Ed.

    This guide, prepared for a Nevada State literacy council, provides practical information and step-by-step planning for recruiting, training, using, retaining, documenting, and recognizing volunteers. The 11 sections of the guide cover the following topics: (1) establishing goals and objectives and writing a plan; (2) identifying jobs and writing…

  8. Volunteers in Wikipedia: Why the Community Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baytiyeh, Hoda; Pfaffman, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Wikipedia is a reliable encyclopedia with over seven million articles in several languages all contributed and maintained by volunteers. To learn more about what drives people to devote their time and expertise to building and maintaining this remarkable resource, surveys with Likert-scaled items measuring different types of motivations were…

  9. Personalized genomic disease risk of volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.; McGuire, Amy L.; Pereira, Stacey; Caskey, C. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is commonly used for researching the causes of genetic disorders. However, its usefulness in clinical practice for medical diagnosis is in early development. In this report, we demonstrate the value of NGS for genetic risk assessment and evaluate the limitations and barriers for the adoption of this technology into medical practice. We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on 81 volunteers, and for each volunteer, we requested personal medical histories, constructed a three-generation pedigree, and required their participation in a comprehensive educational program. We limited our clinical reporting to disease risks based on only rare damaging mutations and known pathogenic variations in genes previously reported to be associated with human disorders. We identified 271 recessive risk alleles (214 genes), 126 dominant risk alleles (101 genes), and 3 X-recessive risk alleles (3 genes). We linked personal disease histories with causative disease genes in 18 volunteers. Furthermore, by incorporating family histories into our genetic analyses, we identified an additional five heritable diseases. Traditional genetic counseling and disease education were provided in verbal and written reports to all volunteers. Our report demonstrates that when genome results are carefully interpreted and integrated with an individual’s medical records and pedigree data, NGS is a valuable diagnostic tool for genetic disease risk. PMID:24082139

  10. BOINC service for volunteer cloud computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høimyr, N.; Blomer, J.; Buncic, P.; Giovannozzi, M.; Gonzalez, A.; Harutyunyan, A.; Jones, P. L.; Karneyeu, A.; Marquina, M. A.; Mcintosh, E.; Segal, B.; Skands, P.; Grey, F.; Lombraña González, D.; Zacharov, I.

    2012-12-01

    Since a couple of years, a team at CERN and partners from the Citizen Cyberscience Centre (CCC) have been working on a project that enables general physics simulation programs to run in a virtual machine on volunteer PCs around the world. The project uses the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) framework. Based on CERNVM and the job management framework Co-Pilot, this project was made available for public beta-testing in August 2011 with Monte Carlo simulations of LHC physics under the name “LHC@home 2.0” and the BOINC project: “Test4Theory”. At the same time, CERN's efforts on Volunteer Computing for LHC machine studies have been intensified; this project has previously been known as LHC@home, and has been running the “Sixtrack” beam dynamics application for the LHC accelerator, using a classic BOINC framework without virtual machines. CERN-IT has set up a BOINC server cluster, and has provided and supported the BOINC infrastructure for both projects. CERN intends to evolve the setup into a generic BOINC application service that will allow scientists and engineers at CERN to profit from volunteer computing. This paper describes the experience with the two different approaches to volunteer computing as well as the status and outlook of a general BOINC service.

  11. Parent Volunteer Programs/Reading Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyer, Diane

    Designed to be an example of how elementary and secondary schools can involve parents in their children's education, this guide is a compilation of letters to parents, memos, newsletters, and general information concerning Parkway (Missouri) School District's Parent Volunteer program, focusing primarily on the reading program. The first of the…

  12. 20 CFR 628.540 - Volunteer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Volunteer program. 628.540 Section 628.540 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE II OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Program Design Requirements for Programs Under Title II of the...

  13. The Benefits of Volunteering for Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromnick, Rachel; Horowitz, Ava; Shepherd, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Within the current economic climate students are seen as needing more than a degree to succeed in securing graduate employment. One way that students chose to enhance their employability is through engaging in voluntary work. In this empirical study, undergraduate psychology students' reasons for volunteering are explored within the context of…

  14. Guidelines for Volunteer for Credit Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biasco, Frank

    The University of West Florida has developed a program in which students are able to serve as volunteers to agencies and schools of the community. The psychology department offers credit to any student donating so many clock hours of service per week for 10 weeks or a total or 30 hours per quarter. This paper presents a very brief course outline,…

  15. The Development of An Ecumenical Volunteer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tissington, Vickie I.; Steber, Linda T.

    In light of federal budget cuts limiting traditional social service agency offerings, Ecumenical Ministries, Inc. developed an ecumenical volunteer program in Baldwin County, Alabama, to enable trained church members to recognize and address some of the unmet needs of the poor. In its first year, the successful program researched community needs…

  16. 75 FR 20891 - National Volunteer Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-9415 Filed... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8500 of April 16, 2010 National Volunteer Week, 2010 By the President of the... country. This week, we recognize their enduring contributions and encourage more Americans, especially...

  17. 77 FR 22177 - National Volunteer Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-9017 Filed 4-11-12; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... April 12, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8797--National Volunteer Week, 2012 Proclamation 8798--Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2012 Proclamation 8799--National Former Prisoner of...

  18. NICKEL ABSORPTION AND KINETICS IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mathematical modelling was performed of the kinetics of nickel absorption, distribution and elimination in healthy human volunteers, who ingested NiS04 in drinking water or added food. ickel was analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry in serum, urine, and f...

  19. Volunteer Outreach Activities at ESO Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ESO-Chile Outreach Volunteer Team

    2012-06-01

    ESO staff in Chile are often asked to disseminate astronomical knowledge to schools and to the general public. A significant number of volunteers are now involved in these activities and the most recent projects in low-income schools and neighbourhoods are described and possible perspectives discussed.

  20. Physical Activity Program Delivery by Professionals versus Volunteers: the TEAM Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Cynthia M.; Pruitt, Leslie A.; Buman, Matthew P.; King, Abby C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Older adults have low rates of physical activity participation but respond positively to telephone-mediated support programs. Programs are often limited by reliance on professional staff. This study tested telephone-based physical activity advice delivered by professional staff versus trained volunteer peer mentors. Design A 12-month, randomized, controlled clinical trial was executed from 2003–2008. Setting/participants: Twelve volunteer peer mentors and 181 initially inactive adults ages 50 years and older were recruited from the San Francisco Bay Area. Intervention Participants were randomized to: (1) telephone-based physical activity advice delivered by professional staff, (2) telephone-based physical activity advice delivered by trained volunteer peers, or (3) an attention-control arm of staff-delivered telephone support for nutrition. Main Outcome Measures: Moderate-intensity or more vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months with the CHAMPS Questionnaire, with accelerometry validation (Actigraph) in a randomly selected subsample. Treatment fidelity was examined through analysis of quantity and quality of intervention delivery. Results At 6 and 12 months, both physical activity arms significantly increased MVPA relative to the control arm. Both physical activity arms were comparable in quantity of intervention delivery, but peers demonstrated more versatility and comprehensiveness in quality of intervention content. Conclusions This study demonstrates that trained peer volunteers can effectively promote physical activity increases through telephone-based advice. The results support a program delivery model with good dissemination potential for a variety of community settings. PMID:21553972

  1. Interfacial atomic site characterization by photoelectron diffraction for 4H-AlN/4H-SiC(11\\bar{2}0) heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maejima, Naoyuki; Horita, Masahiro; Matsui, Hirosuke; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Daimon, Hiroshi; Matsui, Fumihiko

    2016-08-01

    The interfacial atomic structure of an AlN thin film on a nonpolar 4H-SiC(11\\bar{2}0) substrate grown by atomic Al and N plasma deposition was studied by photoelectron diffraction and spectroscopy. The epitaxial growth of the thin film was confirmed by the comparison of element-specific photoelectron intensity angular distributions (PIADs). Depth profiles were analyzed by angle-resolved constant-final-state-mode X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS). No polar angular dependence was observed in Al 2p spectra, while an additional intermixing component was found in interface-sensitive N 1s spectra. The site-specific N 1s PIADs for the AlN film and an intermixing component were derived from two N 1s PIADs with different binding energies. We attributed the intermixing component to SiN interfacial layer sites. In order to prevent SiN growth at the interface, we deposited Al on the SiC(11\\bar{2}0) substrate prior to the AlN growth. A significant reduction in the amount of intermixing components at the AlN/SiC interface was confirmed by AR-XPS.

  2. Dose Proportionality of Fentanyl Buccal Tablet in Healthy Japanese Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Mona; Tempero, Kenneth; Jiang, John G; Thompson, Jeffrey; Simonson, Philip G

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to assess the dose proportionality, safety, and tolerability of fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) in Japanese volunteers. Methods Healthy, opioid-naive Japanese adults received single-dose FBT 100, 200, 400, and 800 µg in a randomized, open-label, crossover fashion. Naltrexone was given to minimize the opioid effects of fentanyl. Peak serum fentanyl concentration (Cmax), time to Cmax (tmax), area under the serum fentanyl concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to infinity (AUC0–∞), and AUC from 0 to the last quantifiable concentration (AUC0–last) were summarized using descriptive statistics. Dose proportionality was claimed if the ln-ln plots of Cmax, AUC0–∞, and AUC0–last vs. dose were linear and the 90% confidence intervals (CI) of the slopes were within 0.8927 and 1.1073. The safety population comprised volunteers who received ≥1 FBT. Results Twenty-five volunteers were enrolled, 23 were included in the safety population (mean age 35.3 years), and 19 completed the study. The assessment of dose proportionality did not meet the statistical criteria (slope [90% CI]: 0.9118 [0.8601, 0.9635] for Cmax, 1.0756 [1.0377, 1.1136] for AUC0–∞, and 1.0992 [1.0677, 1.1307] for AUC0–last). However, the increase in systemic exposure with dose appeared linear, and a post hoc analysis of partial AUCs from time 0 to 8, 12, 18, and 24 hours supported dose proportionality. Median tmax of 90 minutes (range 30–180 minutes) was independent of dose. Adverse events (AEs) were mild or moderate. The most frequent AEs were nausea (N = 9), dizziness (N = 8), headache (N = 6), somnolence (N = 6), dyspepsia (N = 5), and vomiting (N = 3). No application-site or serious AEs were reported. Conclusions Systemic exposure to FBT was approximately dose proportional across the range 100 µg to 800 µg in healthy Japanese adults. Adverse events were mild or moderate. PMID:19915713

  3. Ultra-High Voltage 4H-SiC Bi-Directional Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Sauvik

    4H- Silicon Carbide (4H-SiC) is an attractive material for power semiconductor devices due to its large bandgap, high critical electric field and high thermal conductivity compared to Silicon (Si). For ultra-high voltage applications (BV > 10 kV), 4H-SiC Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) are favored over unipolar transistors due to lower conduction losses. With improvements in SiC materials and processing technology, promising results have been demonstrated in the area of conventional unidirectional 4H-SiC IGBTs, with breakdown voltage ratings up to 27 kV. This research presents the experimental demonstration of the world's first high voltage bi-directional power transistors in 4H-SiC. Traditionally, four (two IGBTs and two diodes) or two (two reverse blocking IGBTs) semiconductor devices are necessary to yield a bidirectional switch. With a monolithically integrated bidirectional switch as presented here, the number of semiconductor devices is reduced to only one, which results in increased reliability and reduced cost of the overall system. Additionally, by using the unique dual gate operation of BD-IGBTs, switching losses can be reduced to a small fraction of that in conventional IGBTs, resulting in increased efficiency. First, the performance limits of SiC IGBTs are calculated by using analytical methods. The performance benefits of SiC IGBTs over SiC unipolar devices and Si IGBTs are quantified. Numerical simulations are used to optimize the unit cell and edge termination structures for a 15 kV SiC BD-IGBT. The effect of different device parameters on BD-IGBT static and switching performance are quantified. Second, the process technology necessary for the fabrication of high voltage SiC BD-IGBTs is optimized. The effect of different process steps on parameters such as breakdown voltage, carrier lifetime, gate oxide reliability, SiO2-SiC interface charge density is quantified. A carrier lifetime enhancement process has been optimized for lightly doped

  4. An evaluation of the amount of nonoxynol-9 remaining in the vagina up to 4 h after insertion of a vaginal contraceptive film (VCF) containing 70 mg nonoxynol-9.

    PubMed

    Mauck, C K; Allen, S; Baker, J M; Barr, S P; Abercrombie, T; Archer, D F

    1997-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the amount of nonoxynol-9 (N-9) remaining in the vagina 30 min and 1, 1.5, 2, and 4 h after vaginal insertion of a single sheet of VCF containing 70 mg N-9 and to compare these results to the manufacturer's instructions for use of this product. A new method of vaginal lavage was used to obtain samples for N-9 determination. This was an open-label, noncomparative, pharmacokinetic study in 12 healthy women volunteers not at risk for pregnancy. The study consisted of a screening visit followed by five test visits approximately 1 month apart and a final visit 1 week after all test visits were completed. At each test visit, the investigator inserted a single sheet of VCF in the vagina of the volunteer at midcycle. The volunteer remained in the clinic and underwent vaginal lavage with normal saline after one of five specified time intervals had elapsed. The sequence of the intervals completed by each volunteer was determined by randomization. When undissolved film was found in the vagina, it was removed prior to lavage and assayed for N-9 content separately from that recovered in lavage fluid. It was assumed that the N-9 in undissolved film would not contribute significantly to sperm immobilization. Between 18.5 and 28.5 mg of N-9 were recovered in lavage fluid after intervals of 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 h. These levels did not differ statistically (p > 0.05). The amount of N-9 recovered dropped significantly at 4 h to 11.0 mg. If it is assumed that an N-9 concentration of 0.100 mg/mL is required to immobilize sperm in vitro, this study suggests that the amount of N-9 remaining in the vagina in the form of dissolved film up to 4 h after insertion of VCF is sufficient to immobilize sperm. The lavage procedure may not have recovered all N-9 remaining in the vagina. However, intercourse did not take place between insertion and lavage; if it had, the proportion of the film remaining undissolved and the total amount N-9 remaining in

  5. Anharmonic vibrations of the dicarbon antisite defect in 4H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, F.; Devaty, R. P.; Choyke, W. J.; Gali, A.; Kimoto, T.; Ohshima, T.; Pensl, G.

    2012-03-26

    Dicarbon antisite defects were created by either electron irradiation or ion implantation into 4H-SiC. The no-phonon lines from the dicarbon antisite defect center were observed with their phonon replicas. The stretch frequencies of the defect were observed up to the fifth harmonic. The Morse potential model accounts for the anharmonicity quite well and gives a very good prediction of the vibration energies up to the fifth harmonic with an error of less than 1%. First principles calculations show that the model of a dicarbon antisite defect along with its four nearest neighboring carbon atoms can explain the observed anharmonicity.

  6. Light triggered 4H-SiC thyristors with an etched guard ring assisted JTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dheilly, Nicolas; Planson, Dominique; Pâques, Gontran; Scharnholz, Sigo

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, an original termination, the etched guard ring assisted junction termination extension (JTE), is demonstrated on 4H-SiC light triggered thyristors. The termination structure, designed with finite element simulations, is detailed and particular attention is paid to the sensitivity to etching depth uncertainties. The fabrication processes and the electrical characterization of the devices are described. A blocking voltage of 6.3 kV is attained, validating the principle of the termination. Switching and quasi static on-state measurements are also performed to investigate the functionality of the thyristors.

  7. Atomic oxidation of large area epitaxial graphene on 4H-SiC(0001)

    SciTech Connect

    Velez-Fort, E.; Ouerghi, A.; Silly, M. G.; Sirtti, F.; Eddrief, M.; Marangolo, M.; Shukla, A.

    2014-03-03

    Structural and electronic properties of epitaxial graphene on 4H-SiC were studied before and after an atomic oxidation process. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy indicates that oxygen penetrates into the substrate and decouples a part of the interface layer. Raman spectroscopy demonstrates the increase of defects due to the presence of oxygen. Interestingly, we observed on the near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra a splitting of the π* peak into two distinct resonances centered at 284.7 and 285.2 eV. This double structure smears out after the oxidation process and permits to probe the interface architecture between graphene and the substrate.

  8. Hydrogen Gas Sensors Fabricated on Atomically Flat 4H-SiC Webbed Cantilevers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Trunek, Andrew J.; Evans, Laura J.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Hunter, Gary W.; Androjna, Drago

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on initial results from the first device tested of a "second generation" Pt-SiC Schottky diode hydrogen gas sensor that: 1) resides on the top of atomically flat 4H-SiC webbed cantilevers, 2) has integrated heater resistor, and 3) is bonded and packaged. With proper selection of heater resistor and sensor diode biases, rapid detection of H2 down to concentrations of 20 ppm was achieved. A stable sensor current gain of 125 +/- 11 standard deviation was demonstrated during 250 hours of cyclic test exposures to 0.5% H2 and N2/air.

  9. Structural defects in electrically degraded 4H-SiC p+/n-/n+ diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, P. O. A.; Hultman, L.; Jacobson, H.; Bergman, J. P.; Janzen, E.; Molina-Aldareguia, J. M.; Clegg, W. J.; Tuomi, T.

    2002-06-01

    Triangular structural defects are occasionally generated during the long-term operation of 4H-SiC pin diodes and degrade the forward characteristics of the diode. We have used synchrotron white beam x-ray topography, scanning electron microscopy, in situ cathodo luminescence, and transmission electron microscopy to characterize the structure and formation of these defects. It is shown that the defects are stacking faults on the (0001) basal planes, bound by partial dislocations with Burgers vectors 1/3<1010> and 1/3<0110>. These partials are suggested to form by the dissociation of existing dislocations.

  10. Dynamic characteristics of 4H-SiC drift step recovery diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, P. A. Kon’kov, O. I.; Samsonova, T. P.; Potapov, A. S.; Grekhov, I. V.

    2015-11-15

    The dynamic characteristics of 4H-SiC p{sup +}–p–n{sub 0}–n{sup +} diodes are experimentally studied in the pulsed modes characteristic of the operation of drift step recovery diodes (DSRD-mode). The effect of the subnanosecond termination of the reverse current maintained by electron-hole plasma preliminarily pumped by a forward current pulse is analyzed in detail. The influence exerted on the DSRD effect by the amplitude of reverse-voltage pulses, the amplitude and duration of forward-current pulses, and the time delay between the forward and reverse pulses is demonstrated and accounted for.

  11. 4H SiC BJTs with current gain of 110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingchun (Jon); Agarwal, Anant; Burk, Al; Geil, Bruce; Scozzie, Charles

    2008-07-01

    4H-SiC BJTs with a common emitter current gain of 110 have been demonstrated. The high current gain was attributed to a thin base of 0.25 μm which reduces the carrier recombination in the base region. The device open base breakdown voltage (BVCEO) of 270 V was much less than the open emitter breakdown voltage (BVCBO) of 1560 V due to the emitter leakage current multiplication from the high current gain by "transistor action" of BJTs. The device has shown minimal gain degradation after electrical stress at high current density of >200 A/cm2up to 25 h.

  12. High quality interlayer dielectric for 4H SiC DMOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okayama, T.; Arthur, S. D.; Waldrab, P.; Rao, Mulpuri V.

    2007-11-01

    In this work useful weight percentages of boron and phosphorus in boro-phospho-silicate-glass (BPSG) interlayer dielectric (ILD) films to getter mobile ions effectively in 4H-SiC DMOSFET structures are developed, considering the limitations, such as the required low glass flow temperature, and the possible hygroscopic nature of the films and formation of crystalline BPO4 particles, which may occur for high B and P weight percentages. The B and P weight percentage viscous flow temperature contours and empirical inequalities representing the above-mentioned limitations are developed and discussed. Results of this work are useful for both silicon and compound semiconductor device technologies.

  13. Development of 10 kV 4H-SiC JBS diode with FGR termination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runhua, Huang; Yonghong, Tao; Pengfei, Cao; Ling, Wang; Gang, Chen; Song, Bai; Rui, Li; Yun, Li; Zhifei, Zhao

    2014-07-01

    The design, fabrication, and electrical characteristics of the 4H-SiC JBS diode with a breakdown voltage higher than 10 kV are presented. 60 floating guard rings have been used in the fabrication. Numerical simulations have been performed to select the doping level and thickness of the drift layer and the effectiveness of the edge termination technique. The n-type epilayer is 100 μm in thickness with a doping of 6 × 1014 cm-3. The on-state voltage was 2.7 V at JF = 13 A/cm2.

  14. 4H-SiC junction-barrier Schottky diodes with high forward current densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tone, Kiyoshi; Zhao, Jian H.; Weiner, Maurice; Pan, Menghan

    2001-07-01

    4H-SiC junction-barrier Schottky (JBS) diodes blocking 1000 V have been fabricated. I-V characteristics have been evaluated at room temperature and 255 °C in comparison with the Schottky barrier (SB) and pin diodes fabricated on the same wafer. While the low reverse leakage confirms the functioning of JBS, the high forward current densities of 630 and 210 A cm-2 at 4.0 V at room temperature and 255 °C, respectively, with only ~20% reduction from those of the SB diodes, clearly demonstrate that the SiC JBS diodes can be fabricated with acceptable sacrifice in the forward current capacities.

  15. 4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes for ultraviolet flame detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzillo, M.; Sciuto, A.

    2015-10-01

    In the last few years silicon carbide (SiC) has emerged as an appropriate material for the detection of very low ultraviolet photon fluxes even at elevated temperatures. In this paper we report on the electro-optical characteristics of large area interdigit Ni2Si/4H-SiC photodiodes in TO metal can package with a suitable molded cap quartz window with high transmission in the ultraviolet wavelength range. The detectors have been tested for the detection of the ultraviolet component of the yellow flame emitted by a small candle, showing good sensitivity for very weak photon fluxes notwithstanding the linear operation condition of the photodiodes.

  16. Improvements in Realizing 4H-SiC Thermal Neutron Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, F.; Vervisch, V.; Ottaviani, L.; Szalkai, D.; Vermeeren, L.; Lyoussi, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Lazar, M.; Klix, A.; Palais, O.; Hallén, A.

    2016-02-01

    In this work we presented two types of 4H-SiC semiconductor detectors (D1 and D2) both based on ion implantation of 10B inside the aluminum metallic contact. The first detector shows a high leakage current after the implantation and low signal to noise ratio. However, improvements concerning the implantation parameters and the distance between the implanted 10B thermal neutron converter layer and the active pn-junction have led to low leakage current and thus to higher signal to noise ratio. This proves the strength of this new method of realizing sensitive SiC-based thermal neutron detectors.

  17. Transient collector modulation of 4H-SiC BJTs during switch-on process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuferev, Valentin S.; Levinshtein, Michael E.; Ivanov, Pavel A.; Zhang, Jon Q.; Palmour, John W.

    2016-09-01

    Main physical features of the collector resistance modulation processes have been studied via a one-dimensional simulation for n+-p-n0-n+ 4H-SiC bipolar junction transistor. The motion dynamics of minority carriers (holes) across the n0 collector layer during the switch-on process is traced. It is demonstrated that the effective modulation of the collector resistance is only possible in the case of a rather fast transistor switch-on. A necessary condition for the fast switch-on is the large amplitude and short leading edge of the base current pulse.

  18. 4H-SiC JFET Multilayer Integrated Circuit Technologies Tested Up to 1000 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spry, D. J.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.; Chang, C. W.; Lukco, D.; Beheim, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Testing of semiconductor electronics at temperatures above their designed operating envelope is recognized as vital to qualification and lifetime prediction of circuits. This work describes the high temperature electrical testing of prototype 4H silicon carbide (SiC) junction field effect transistor (JFET) integrated circuits (ICs) technology implemented with multilayer interconnects; these ICs are intended for prolonged operation at temperatures up to 773K (500 C). A 50 mm diameter sapphire wafer was used in place of the standard NASA packaging for this experiment. Testing was carried out between 300K (27 C) and 1150K (877 C) with successful electrical operation of all devices observed up to 1000K (727 C).

  19. Stress and Burnout: Concerns for the Hospice Volunteer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, J. Conrad, Jr.; Hastings, Janice L.

    1992-01-01

    Sources of stress for hospice volunteers are environmental, ideological, and personal. Attention to volunteer stress and burnout involves defining job requirements and responsibilities, frequent communication and feedback, stress management techniques, flexibility in assignments, and opportunities to verbalize emotions. (SK)

  20. Pathways to the All-Volunteer Military

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Glen H.; Wang, Lin; Spence, Naomi J.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Brown, Tyson H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigates the role of a disadvantaged background, the lack of social connectedness, and behavioral problems in channeling young men to the opportunities of the all-volunteer military instead of to college and the labor market. Methods Data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in the United States. The analytic sample consists of 6,938 white, black, and other males. Results The greatest likelihood of military service versus college and the labor force occurs when young men of at least modest ability come from disadvantaged circumstances, experience minimal connectedness to others, and report a history of adolescent fighting. Discussion Findings suggest the importance of access to post-high school education and worklife opportunities as a military service incentive for less advantaged young men in the all volunteer era. PMID:21960728

  1. Defecography in normal volunteers: results and implications.

    PubMed Central

    Shorvon, P J; McHugh, S; Diamant, N E; Somers, S; Stevenson, G W

    1989-01-01

    Forty seven healthy young volunteers underwent defecographic examination to determine the range of normal findings. Normality was shown to encompass radiological features often considered pathological. These features included broad ranges of anorectal angle and pelvic floor descent which overlap with reported pathological states. Furthermore, the formation of rectocoeles during defecation was a very common finding in women. Finally, a subgroup of the volunteers had marginal anorectal function. The marginal anorectal function and certain radiological findings such as rectocoeles or intussusceptions may predispose to later problems, or contribute to clinical problems when combined with other factors such as dietary fibre deficiency. The radiological findings raise a number of questions with respect to different aspects of the functioning of the continence and defecation mechanisms. Images Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:2612988

  2. Complete genome sequence of the marine, cellulose and xylan degrading bacterium Glaciecola sp. 4H-3-7+YE-5

    SciTech Connect

    Klippel, Dr Barbara; Bruce, David; Davenport, Karen W.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, James; Han, Shunsheng; Land, Miriam L; Mikhailova, Natalia; Nolan, Matt; Pennacchio, Len; Pitluck, Sam; Tapia, Roxanne; Woyke, Tanja; Wiebusch, Sigrid; Basner, Alexander; Abe, Fumiyoshi; Horikoshi, Koki; Antranikian, Garabed

    2011-01-01

    Glaciecola sp. 4H-3-7+YE-5 was isolated from deep sea sediments at Suruga Bay in Japan and is capable of efficiently hydrolyzing cellulose and xylan. The complete genome sequence of Glaciecola sp. 4H-3-7+YE-5 revealed several genes encoding putatively novel glycoside hydrolases associated with plant biomass degradation.

  3. Characterization of the Minimum Energy Paths for the Ring Closure Reactions of C4H3 with Acetylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1995-01-01

    The ring closure reaction of C4H3 with acetylene to give phenyl radical is one proposed mechanism for the formation of the first aromatic ring in hydrocarbon combustion. There are two low-lying isomers of C4H3; 1-dehydro-buta-l-ene-3-yne (n-C4H3) and 2-dehydro-buta-l-ene-3-yne (iso-C4H3). It has been proposed that only n-C4H3 reacts with acetylene to give phenyl radical, and since iso-C4H3 is more stable than n-C4H3, formation of phenyl radical by this mechanism is unlikely. We report restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) plus singles and doubles configuration interaction calculations with a Davidson's correction (RHF+1+2+Q) using the Dunning correlation consistent polarized valence double zeta basis set (cc-pVDZ) for stationary point structures along the reaction pathway for the reactions of n-C4H3 and iso-C4H3 with acetylene. n-C4H3 plus acetylene (9.4) has a small entrance channel barrier (17.7) (all energetics in parentheses are in kcal/mol with respect to iso-C4H3 plus acetylene) and the subsequent closure steps leading to phenyl radical (-91.9) are downhill with respect to the entrance channel barrier. Iso-C4H3 Plus acetylene also has an entrance channel barrier (14.9) and there is a downhill pathway to 1-dehydro-fulvene (-55.0). 1-dehydro-fulvene can rearrange to 6-dehydro-fulvene (-60.3) by a 1,3-hydrogen shift over a barrier (4.0), which is still below the entrance channel barrier, from which rearrangement to phenyl radical can occur by a downhill pathway. Thus, both n-C4H3 and iso-C4H3 can react with acetylene to give phenyl radical with small barriers.

  4. Salvia lavandulaefolia (Spanish sage) enhances memory in healthy young volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tildesley, N T J; Kennedy, D O; Perry, E K; Ballard, C G; Savelev, S; Wesnes, K A; Scholey, A B

    2003-06-01

    Sage (Salvia) has a longstanding reputation in British herbal encyclopaedias as an agent that enhances memory, although there is little evidence regarding the efficacy of sage from systematized trials. Based on known pharmacokinetic and binding properties, it was hypothesised that acute administration of sage would enhance memory in young adult volunteers. Two experiments utilised a placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, crossover methodology. In Trial 1, 20 participants received 50, 100 and 150 microl of a standardised essential oil extract of Salvia lavandulaefolia and placebo. In Trial 2, 24 participants received 25 and 50 microl of a standardised essential oil extract of S. lavandulaefolia and placebo. Doses were separated by a 7-day washout period with treatment order determined by Latin squares. Assessment was undertaken using the Cognitive Drug Research computerised test battery prior to treatment and 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h thereafter. The primary outcome measures were immediate and delayed word recall. The 50 microl dose of Salvia essential oil significantly improved immediate word recall in both studies. These results represent the first systematic evidence that Salvia is capable of acute modulation of cognition in healthy young adults. PMID:12895685

  5. Measuring Engagement in Later Life Activities: Rasch-Based Scenario Scales for Work, Caregiving, Informal Helping, and Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Larry H.; Matz-Costa, Christina; Johnson, Clair; Brown, Melissa; Besen, Elyssa; James, Jacquelyn B.

    2014-01-01

    The development of Rasch-based "comparative engagement scenarios" based on Guttman's facet theory and sentence mapping procedures is described. The scenario scales measuring engagement in work, caregiving, informal helping, and volunteering illuminate the lived experiences of role involvement among older adults and offer multiple…

  6. Benefits and Dynamics of Learning Gained through Volunteering: A Qualitative Exploration Guided by Seniors' Self-Defined Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Kuang

    2016-01-01

    Social participation is an important strategy in promoting successful aging. Although participating in volunteering has been proven to benefit older adults' health and well-being, we often ignore its role as a process of learning while helping others. The purpose of this study was to use the self-defined successful aging concept of seniors to…

  7. STUDIES OF ECHOVIRUS-12 IN VOLUNTEERS: DETERMINATION OF MINIMAL INFECTIOUS DOSE AND THE EFFECT OF PREVIOUS INFECTION ON INFECTIOUS DOSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A two-part study of echovirus-12 was done in volunteers. In the first part the human infectious dose of the virus was determined in 149 healthy adults with undetectable serum antibody, each of whom drank 0-330,000 plaque-forming units (pfu) of virus in 100 ml of nonchlorinated wa...

  8. Neurobehavioral performance in volunteers after inhalation of white spirits with high and low aromatic content.

    PubMed

    Juran, S A; Johanson, G; Ernstgård, L; Iregren, A; van Thriel, C

    2014-05-01

    The content of aromatic hydrocarbons in solvent mixtures, such as white spirits (WS), has been assumed a major contributor to the neurotoxic effects of these compounds. Hence, dearomatized WS have been introduced to the market rapidly in the last decade. Studies investigating other aromatic hydrocarbons (toluene) and animal models have supported the aforementioned assumption, but the current study is the first one to compare acute neurobehavioral effects of exposure to aromatic and dearomatized WS (aWS, daWS) content in human volunteers at current occupational exposure limit values. In a pseudo-randomized crossover design, six female and six male healthy volunteers were exposed to aWS and daWS at two concentrations (100 and 300 mg/m(3)) and to clean air for 4 h at rest. During each of the five exposure conditions, volunteers performed five neurobehavioral tasks that were selected following a multidisciplinary approach that accounted for findings from the cognitive neurosciences and mechanisms of solvent toxicity. Two of the tasks indicated performance changes during aromatic WS exposure, the working memory (WM) and the response shifting task, but both effects are difficult to interpret due to low mean accuracy in the WM task and due to a lack of dose-response relationship in the response shifting task. Healthy human volunteers showed weak and inconsistent neurobehavioral impairment after 4-h exposures to 100 and 300 mg/m(3) aromatic or dearomatized WS. Our multidisciplinary approach of selecting neurobehavioral test methods may guide the test selection strategies in future studies. PMID:24714767

  9. Theoretical study of radiative electron attachment to CN, C2H, and C4H radicals.

    PubMed

    Douguet, Nicolas; Fonseca dos Santos, S; Raoult, Maurice; Dulieu, Olivier; Orel, Ann E; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav

    2015-06-21

    A first-principle theoretical approach to study the process of radiative electron attachment is developed and applied to the negative molecular ions CN(-), C4H(-), and C2H(-). Among these anions, the first two have already been observed in the interstellar space. Cross sections and rate coefficients for formation of these ions by direct radiative electron attachment to the corresponding neutral radicals are calculated. For the CN molecule, we also considered the indirect pathway, in which the electron is initially captured through non-Born-Oppenheimer coupling into a vibrationally resonant excited state of the anion, which then stabilizes by radiative decay. We have shown that the contribution of the indirect pathway to the formation of CN(-) is negligible in comparison to the direct mechanism. The obtained rate coefficients for the direct mechanism at 30 K are 7 × 10(-16) cm(3)/s for CN(-), 7 × 10(-17) cm(3)/s for C2H(-), and 2 × 10(-16) cm(3)/s for C4H(-). These rates weakly depend on temperature between 10 K and 100 K. The validity of our calculations is verified by comparing the present theoretical results with data from recent photodetachment experiments. PMID:26093561

  10. Effect of Doping Concentration Variations in PVT-Grown 4H-SiC Wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Guo, Jianqiu; Goue, Ouloide; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael; Chung, Gil; Sanchez, Edward; Quast, Jeff; Manning, Ian; Hansen, Darren

    2016-04-01

    Synchrotron white beam x-ray topography studies carried out on 4H-SiC wafers characterized by locally varying doping concentrations reveals the presence of overlapping Shockley stacking faults generated from residual surface scratches in regions of higher doping concentrations after the wafers have been subjected to heat treatment. The stacking faults are rhombus-shaped and bound by Shockley partial dislocations. The fault generation process is driven by the fact that in regions of higher doping concentrations, a faulted crystal containing double Shockley faults is more stable than a perfect 4H-SiC crystal at the high temperatures (>1000°C) that the wafers are subject to during heat treatment. We have developed a model for the formation mechanism of the rhombus-shaped stacking faults. Our studies show that during heat treatment of the wafer, such double Shockley faults can be generated in regions where dislocation sources are presents (e.g. scratches or low-angle boundaries) and when the nitrogen doping concentration exceeds a certain level.

  11. Characterization of V-shaped defects in 4H-SiC homoepitaxial layers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Lihua; Su, Dong; Kisslinger, Kim; Stach, Eric; Chung, Gil; Zhang, Jie; Thomas, Bernd; Sanchez, Edward K; Mueller, Stephan G.; Hansen, Darren; et al

    2014-12-04

    Synchrotron white beam x-ray topography images show that faint needle-like surface morphological features observed on the Si-face of 4H-SiC homoepitaxial layers using Nomarski optical microscopy are associated with V shaped stacking faults in the epilayer. KOH etching of the V shaped defect reveals small oval pits connected by a shallow line which corresponding to the surface intersections of two partial dislocations and the stacking fault connecting them. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens from regions containing the V shaped defects were prepared using focused ion beam milling, and stacking sequences of (85), (50) and (63) are observed at the faulted regionmore » with high resolution TEM. In order to study the formation mechanism of V shaped defect, low dislocation density 4H-SiC substrates were chosen for epitaxial growth, and the corresponding regions before and after epitaxy growth are compared in SWBXT images. It is found that no defects in the substrate are directly associated with the formation of the V shaped defect. Simulation results of the contrast from the two partial dislocations associated with V shaped defect in synchrotron monochromatic beam x-ray topography reveals the opposite sign nature of their Burgers vectors. Therefore, a mechanism of 2D nucleation during epitaxy growth is postulated for the formation of the V shaped defect, which requires elimination of non-sequential 1/4[0001] bilayers from the original structure to create the observed faulted stacking sequence.« less

  12. Characterization of V-shaped defects in 4H-SiC homoepitaxial layers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lihua; Su, Dong; Kisslinger, Kim; Stach, Eric; Chung, Gil; Zhang, Jie; Thomas, Bernd; Sanchez, Edward K; Mueller, Stephan G.; Hansen, Darren; Loboda, Mark J.; Wu, Fangzhen; Wang, Huanhuan; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael

    2014-12-04

    Synchrotron white beam x-ray topography images show that faint needle-like surface morphological features observed on the Si-face of 4H-SiC homoepitaxial layers using Nomarski optical microscopy are associated with V shaped stacking faults in the epilayer. KOH etching of the V shaped defect reveals small oval pits connected by a shallow line which corresponding to the surface intersections of two partial dislocations and the stacking fault connecting them. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens from regions containing the V shaped defects were prepared using focused ion beam milling, and stacking sequences of (85), (50) and (63) are observed at the faulted region with high resolution TEM. In order to study the formation mechanism of V shaped defect, low dislocation density 4H-SiC substrates were chosen for epitaxial growth, and the corresponding regions before and after epitaxy growth are compared in SWBXT images. It is found that no defects in the substrate are directly associated with the formation of the V shaped defect. Simulation results of the contrast from the two partial dislocations associated with V shaped defect in synchrotron monochromatic beam x-ray topography reveals the opposite sign nature of their Burgers vectors. Therefore, a mechanism of 2D nucleation during epitaxy growth is postulated for the formation of the V shaped defect, which requires elimination of non-sequential 1/4[0001] bilayers from the original structure to create the observed faulted stacking sequence.

  13. Point defects in 4H-SiC epilayers introduced by neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazdra, Pavel; Záhlava, Vít; Vobecký, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Electronic properties of radiation damage produced in 4H-SiC by neutron irradiation and its effect on electrical parameters of Junction Barrier Schottky (JBS) diodes were investigated. 4H-SiC N-epilayers, which formed the low-doped N-base of JBS power diodes, were irradiated with 1 MeV neutrons with fluences ranging from 1.3 × 1013 to 4.0 × 1014 cm-2. Radiation defects were then characterized by capacitance deep-level transient spectroscopy, I-V and C-V measurement. Results show that neutron irradiation introduces different point defects giving rise to acceptor levels lying 0.61/0.69, 0.88, 1.03, 1.08 and 1.55 eV below the SiC conduction band edge. Introduction rates of these centers are ranging from 0.64 to 4.0 cm-1. These defects have a negligible effect on blocking and dynamic characteristics of irradiated diodes. However, the acceptor character of introduced deep levels and their fast introduction deteriorate diode's ON-state resistance already at fluences exceeding 1 × 1014 cm-2.

  14. n-ZnO/p-4H-SiC diode: Structural, electrical, and photoresponse characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Guziewicz, M. Jung, W.

    2015-09-07

    Epitaxial n-type ZnO film has been grown, on a commercial 5 μm thick p-type 4H-SiC(00.1) Al doped epilayer, by atomic layer deposition. A full width at half maximum of the ZnO 00.2 diffraction peak rocking curve of 0.34°{sup  }± 0.02° has been measured. Diodes formed on the n-ZnO/p-4H-SiC heterostructure show rectifying behavior with a forward to reverse current ratio at the level of 10{sup 9} at ±4 V, a leakage current density of ∼6 × 10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2}, and a low ideality factor equal to 1.17 ± 0.04. In addition, the diodes exhibit selective photoresponse with a maximum at 367 nm, and with a current increase of ∼10{sup 3} under illuminations with respect to the dark value, which makes such devices prospective candidates for ultraviolet light sensors.

  15. Catalytic graphitization and Ohmic contact formation on 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Weijie; Mitchel, W. C.; Landis, G. R.; Crenshaw, T. R.; Collins, W. Eugene

    2003-05-01

    Electrical contact properties and graphitic structures of metal/carbon/4H-SiC structures are investigated. Metals studied include Ni, Co, Cr, NiCr, Ti, W, Mo, Al, and Au. Ohmic contacts are formed on Ni/C, Co/C, Cr/C, and NiCr/C films on 4H-SiC with n-type, C-face, and a doping concentration of 1.8×1019 cm-3 . Only Ni/C and Co/C films exhibit Ohmic contact behavior on SiC with n-type, Si-face, and a doping concentration of 1.6×1018 cm-3. Ni and Co are well known as excellent graphitization catalysts. Raman spectra show that the formation of graphitic carbon is related to the formation of Ohmic contacts in the annealed metal/carbon/SiC structures. Generally accepted catalytic graphitization mechanisms are applied to explain the scanning electron microscopy images, which demonstrate a relationship between the catalytically reacted morphology and Ohmic contact behavior. This study provides evidence that the metals with better catalytic graphitization activities form better Ohmic contacts on metal/carbon/SiC structures.

  16. Making the Most of Volunteers. P/PV Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Furano, Kathryn

    An examination of hundreds of studies on the use of volunteers in mentoring programs, service programs, and local community change initiatives highlight the importance of screening, training, and volunteer management. Each year, more than 90 million Americans contribute more than 20 billion volunteer hours. Personal benefits of volunteering…

  17. The impact of volunteering in hospice palliative care.

    PubMed

    Claxton-Oldfield, Stephen; Claxton-Oldfield, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of hospice palliative care work on volunteers' lives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 23 direct-patient care volunteers. More than half of the volunteers became involved in hospice palliative care because of their own experiences with family members and/or friends who have died. Most of the volunteers reported that they were different now or had changed in some way since they have been volunteering (e.g., they had grown in some way, have learned how to keep things in perspective). In addition, most of the volunteers felt that their outlook on life had changed since they started volunteering (e.g., they were more accepting of death, and they learned the importance of living one day at a time). Volunteers reported doing a number of different things to prevent compassion fatigue or burnout (e.g., reading a book, listening to music, talking to others, and taking time off from volunteering). Most of the volunteers said that they would tell anyone who might be thinking of volunteering in hospice palliative care that it is a very rewarding activity and/or that they should try it. Finally, many of the volunteers offered suggestions for doing things differently in their programs. PMID:17895491

  18. Volunteer Motivations at a National Special Olympics Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoo, Selina; Engelhorn, Rich

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the motivations for people to volunteer with the management and execution of major sporting events is important for the recruitment and retention of the volunteers. This research investigated volunteer motivations at the first National Special Olympics held in Ames, Iowa, USA in July 2006. A total of 289 participants completed the 28…

  19. 45 CFR 1220.2-2 - Part-time volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... eligible for representation under the Criminal Justice Act (18 U.S.C. 3006A). ... SERVICE PAYMENT OF VOLUNTEER LEGAL EXPENSES Criminal Proceedings § 1220.2-2 Part-time volunteers. (a) With... for the defense of the volunteer in Federal, state and local criminal proceedings,...

  20. 45 CFR 1220.2-2 - Part-time volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... eligible for representation under the Criminal Justice Act (18 U.S.C. 3006A). ... SERVICE PAYMENT OF VOLUNTEER LEGAL EXPENSES Criminal Proceedings § 1220.2-2 Part-time volunteers. (a) With... for the defense of the volunteer in Federal, state and local criminal proceedings,...

  1. 45 CFR 1220.2-2 - Part-time volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... eligible for representation under the Criminal Justice Act (18 U.S.C. 3006A). ... SERVICE PAYMENT OF VOLUNTEER LEGAL EXPENSES Criminal Proceedings § 1220.2-2 Part-time volunteers. (a) With... for the defense of the volunteer in Federal, state and local criminal proceedings,...

  2. 45 CFR 1220.2-2 - Part-time volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... eligible for representation under the Criminal Justice Act (18 U.S.C. 3006A). ... SERVICE PAYMENT OF VOLUNTEER LEGAL EXPENSES Criminal Proceedings § 1220.2-2 Part-time volunteers. (a) With... for the defense of the volunteer in Federal, state and local criminal proceedings,...

  3. Women Empower Women: Volunteers and Their Clients in Community Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Liat; Megidna, Hofit

    2011-01-01

    The study is aimed at examining the relationship between psychological empowerment of women volunteers and their clients in community volunteer projects in Israel. Based on an ecological approach, the study also aimed at examining whether the variables that explain empowerment of women who volunteer also explain empowerment of their clients. The…

  4. 32 CFR 1627.3 - Classification of volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification of volunteers. 1627.3 Section 1627.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM VOLUNTEERS FOR INDUCTION § 1627.3 Classification of volunteers. When a registrant who is eligible...

  5. Uncommon Human Resources: The Newberry Library Volunteer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyly, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Discusses issues in the management of volunteers in research libraries, outlining the benefits to volunteers and libraries, as well as potential hazards. The volunteer program at Chicago's Newberry Library is described, focusing on recruitment, job assignments, motivation, staff attitudes, retention and library benefits. (26 references) (EA)

  6. A New Competitive Edge. Volunteers from the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizza, Cynthia; And Others

    This book provides information on workplace volunteering and how employee volunteering programs operate in specific corporate cultures. Chapter 1 focuses on the rationale upon which corporate volunteer programs are constructed. The rationale's four basic components are discussed in detail: quality of life, worker participation, responding to…

  7. The Motivation to Volunteer: A Systemic Quality of Life Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shye, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    A new approach to volunteer motivation research is developed. Instead of asking what motivates the volunteer (accepting "any" conceptual category), we ask to what extent volunteering rewards the individual with each benefit taken from a complete set of possible benefits. As a "complete set of benefits" we use the 16 human functioning modes…

  8. 45 CFR 1210.3-10 - Reinstatement of Volunteer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reinstatement of Volunteer. 1210.3-10 Section 1210.3-10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-10 Reinstatement...

  9. Acting on Our Values: Do Social Workers Volunteer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibelman, Margaret; Sweifach, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Volunteer activity among social workers is explored in this article. Anecdotal evidence suggests social workers are not major contributors of volunteer time. The overriding research questions of this descriptive-exploratory study are to what extent do social workers engage in volunteer activities, what factors influence their decisions to…

  10. Affecting Community Change: Involving "Pro Bono" Professionals as Extension Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Diane T.; Culp, Ken, III

    2013-01-01

    "Pro bono" volunteers provide an effective means for Extension professionals to expand limited financial and human resources. Volunteers recruited from business settings can provide skills, abilities, expertise, leadership, and resources to Extension programs. Allowing professional volunteers to meet their desired leadership goals while…

  11. Motivations of Volunteer Leaders in an Extension Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Lisa T.; Cornell, Carol E.; Traywick, LaVona; Felix, Holly C.; Phillips, Martha

    2015-01-01

    This article describes findings from a qualitative study of volunteer leaders in the StrongWomen strength training program in Arkansas. The study explored reasons volunteers initially agreed to serve, perceptions of volunteer role, and motivations for continuing to lead strength training groups long-term. Findings suggest a combination of factors…

  12. Infrared spectrum of NH4+(H2O): Evidence for mode specific fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Pankewitz, Tobias; Lagutschenkov, Anita; Niedner-schatteburg, Gereon; Xantheas, Sotiris S; Lee, Yuan-Tseh

    2007-02-21

    The gas phase infrared spectrum (3250 to 3810 cm1) of the singly hydrated ammonium ion, NH4+(H2O), has been recorded by consequence spectroscopy of mass selected and isolated ions. The obtained four bands are assigned to N-H stretching modes and O-H stretching modes, respectively. The observed N-H stretching modes are blueshifted with respect to the corresponding modes of the free NH4+ ion, whereas a redshift is observed with respect to the modes of the free NH3 molecule. The observed O-H stretching modes are redshifted when compared to the free H2O molecule. The asymmetric stretching modes give rise to rotationally resolved perpendicular transitions. The K-type equidistant rotational spacings of 11.1(2) cm1 (NH4+) and 29(3) cm1 (H2O) deviate systematically from the corresponding values of the free molecules, a fact which is rationalized in terms of a symmetric top analysis. The recorded relative band intensities compare favorably with predictions of high level ab initio calculations except for the 3(H2O) band for which the observed value is about 20 times weaker than the calculated one. This long standing puzzle motivated us to examine the a 3(H2O)/1(H2O) intensity ratios from other published action spectra in other cationic complexes. These suggest that the 3(H2O) intensities become smaller the stronger the complexes are bound. The recorded ratios vary, in particular among the data collected from action spectra that were recorded with and without rare gas tagging. The calculated anharmonic coupling constants in NH4+(H2O) further suggested that the coupling of the 3(H2O) and 1(H2O) modes to other cluster modes indeed varies by orders of magnitude. These findings altogether render the picture of a mode specific fragmentation dynamic that modulates band intensities in action spectra with respect to absorption spectra. Additional high-level electronic structure calculations at the coupled-cluster single and double with perturbative treatment of triple excitations

  13. Design, fabrication, and characterization of 4H-silicon carbide rectifiers for power switching applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, David Charles

    Silicon Carbide has received a substantial increase in research interest over the past few years as a base material system for high-frequency and high-power semiconductor devices. Of the over 1200 polytypes, 4H-SiC is the most attractive polytype for power devices due to its wide band gap (3.2eV), excellent thermal conductivity (4.9 W/cm·K), and high critical field strength (˜2 x 106 V/cm). Important for power devices, the 10x increase in critical field strength of SiC allows high voltage blocking layers to be fabricated significantly thinner than for comparable Si devices. For power rectifiers, this reduces device on-resistance, while maintaining the same high voltage blocking capability. In this work, 4H-SiC Schottky, pn, and junction barrier Schottky (JBS) rectifiers for use in high voltage switching applications have been designed, fabricated, and extensively characterized. First, a detailed review of 4H-SiC material parameters was performed and SiC models were implemented into a standard Si drift-diffusion numerical simulator. Using these models, a SiC simulation methodology was developed in order to enable predictive SiC device design. A wide variety of rectifier and edge termination designs were investigated and optimized with respect to breakdown efficiency, area consumption, resistance to interface charge, and fabrication practicality. Simulated termination methods include: field plates, floating guard rings, and a variety of junction termination extensions (JTE). Using the device simulation results, both Schottky and JBS rectifiers were fabricated with a novel self-aligned edge termination design, and fabricated with process elements developed at the Alabama Microelectronics Science and Technology Center facility. These rectifiers exhibited near-ideal forward characteristics and had blocking voltages in excess of 2.5kV. The SiC diodes were subjected to inductive switching tests, and were found to have superior reverse recovery characteristics compared

  14. Experiences and benefits of volunteering in a community AIDS organization.

    PubMed

    Crook, Joan; Weir, Robin; Willms, Dennis; Egdorf, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the AIDS service organization-volunteer relationship from the volunteer's point of view. Factors that led to a relationship with an AIDS service organization included personal values and individual characteristics and needs. Volunteers reported many rewards from the work itself and the responses of others. Volunteers also encountered challenges that included role demands, role-ability fit, and stress/burnout concerns as well as limited organizational resources and structural obstacles. These results suggest that care must be taken to ensure that the volunteer role meets the needs, skills, and abilities of the individual volunteering. The need to ameliorate challenges is clear for AIDS service organizations seeking to retain volunteers. Some of the preventive strategies include goal-setting and feedback, individual-sensitive role redesign, opportunity to participate in decisions, and increased communication. PMID:16849088

  15. Pyrazolo[3,4-h]quinolines promising photosensitizing agents in the treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Spanò, Virginia; Parrino, Barbara; Carbone, Anna; Montalbano, Alessandra; Salvador, Alessia; Brun, Paola; Vedaldi, Daniela; Diana, Patrizia; Cirrincione, Girolamo; Barraja, Paola

    2015-09-18

    A new series of pyrazolo[3,4-h]quinolines, heteroanalogues of angelicin was conveniently prepared with a broad substitution pattern. A large number of derivatives was obtained and the cellular photocytotoxicity was evaluated in vitro against 5 different human tumor cell lines with GI50 values reaching the nanomolar level (14.52-0.04 μM). Selected compounds were able to photoinduce a massive cell death with the involvement of mitochondria. Their photodamage cellular targets were proteins and lipids and they did not cause any kind of DNA photodamage. This latter event is of considerable importance in the modulation of long term side effects, generally associated with the use of classical furocoumarins. PMID:26295175

  16. A complete analytical potential based solution for a 4H-SiC MOSFET in nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, M. K.; Pradhan, K. P.; Sahu, P. K.

    2016-06-01

    Analytical modeling with a verified simulation setup of surface potential, threshold voltage and electric field for a 4H-SiC MOSFET is presented to make enquiries about the short channel effects. The two-dimensional (2D) Poisson equation is used to achieve the model for surface potential. The 2D position equations have been solved by using four boundary conditions. The detail of the model is appraised by the various MOSFET parameters such as silicon carbide thickness, body doping concentration, and gate oxide influencing the electric field, channel potential and threshold voltage. The outcome shows that this model can reduce the short channel effects, drain induced barrier lowering and advance the sub-threshold fulfillment in nanoelectronic applications as compared to silicon MOSFETs. By comparing the model results with the 2D device simulations the veracity of the suggested 2D analytical model is proven.

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure and characterization of [C9H11N4] H2PO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chtourou, A.; Boujelbene, M.; Allouch, F.; Mhiri, T.

    2014-04-01

    Chemical preparation crystal structure and spectroscopic investigations are given for a new organic-cation dihydrogenomonophosphate (C9H11N4) H2PO4 in the solid state. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P 21 with the following unit cell parameters: a = 9.640 (5) Ǻ. b = 4.582 (5) Ǻ. c = 14.094 (5) Ǻ, β = 106.979 (5)°, Z = 2, V = 595.4 (7) Å3. Crystal structure was solved with a final R = 0.054 for 2077 independent reflections. The atomic arrangement can be described as inorganic layers of HPO4- anions between which are located the organic groups. Solid-state 13C and 31P MAS-NMR spectroscopies are in agreement with the X-ray structure. Ab initio calculations allow the attribution of the phosphorous and carbon signals to the independent crystallographic sites and to the various atoms of the organic groups.

  18. Evidence for near-infrared photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy centers in 4 H -SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zargaleh, S. A.; Eble, B.; Hameau, S.; Cantin, J.-L.; Legrand, L.; Bernard, M.; Margaillan, F.; Lauret, J.-S.; Roch, J.-F.; von Bardeleben, H. J.; Rauls, E.; Gerstmann, U.; Treussart, F.

    2016-08-01

    We present evidence of near-infrared photoluminescence (PL) signature of nitrogen vacancy centers (NCVSi) - in silicon carbide (SiC). This center exhibits an S =1 ground state spin similar to the NV- center in diamond. We have performed photoluminescence excitation measurements at cryogenic temperature and demonstrated efficient photoexcitation of distinct photoluminescence from (NCVSi)- in 4 H -SiC. Furthermore, by correlating the energies of measured zero phonon lines (ZPLs) with theoretical values derived from hybrid density functional theory each of the ZPLs has been associated to the respective occupation of hexagonal (h ) and quasicubic (k ) lattice sites in close analogy to neutral divacancy centers (VCVSi) 0 in the same material. Finally, with the appropriate choice of excitation energy we demonstrated the selective excitation of (NCVSi) - PL with no contamination by (VCVSi) 0 PL, thereby opening the way towards the optical detection of (NCVSi) - electron spin resonance.

  19. High mobility Single Layer Epitaxial Graphene on 4H-SiC (000-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yike; Guo, Zelei; Ruan, Ming; Hankinson, John; Palmer, James; Zhang, Baiqian; Dong, Rui; Kunc, Jan; Berger, Claire; Deheer, Walt

    2012-02-01

    Multi-layer Epitaxial Graphene on 4H-SiC (000-1) has demonstrated very high mobility up to˜27,000 cm^2/Vs [1]. Recently single layer graphene grown by the Confinement Control Growth method [2] exhibits mobility up to ˜ 25,000cm^2/V.s at 4K and 13,000 cm^2/V.s at 300K with p=3 x 10^12 cm-2 The relation between Raman G peak features (FWHM and position) and carrier density of Epitaxial Graphene on carbon face is revealed. Quantum Hall Effect [3] is observed both for p and n type carriers on top gated sample. This indicates that top gated single layer graphene can be produced on the Carbon face with high quality and high carrier mobility. [4pt] [1] Science 312, 1191 (2006) [0pt] [2] PNAS 108 (41) 16900 (2011) [0pt] [3] APL 95, 223108 (2009)

  20. Thermally induced twin polymerization of 4H-1,3,2-benzodioxasilines.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Patrick; Löschner, Tina; Auer, Alexander A; Seifert, Andreas; Cox, Gerhard; Spange, Stefan

    2014-06-23

    The twin monomer 2,2'-spirobi[4H-1,3,2-benzodioxasiline] (1) can be polymerized to nanostructured SiO2/phenolic-resin composite material by thermally induced twin polymerization. Thermally induced twin polymerization represents a way to produce nanocomposites simply by thermal induction of twin monomers. Besides 1, the thermal reaction of several related salicylic (2-oxybenzylic) silicon molecules has been investigated. The thermal cleavage of the molecules is studied by using several trapping reagents (e.g., vinyl compounds). A significant occurrence of quinone methide adducts indicates that the thermal mechanism proceeds not only by a ring opening at the oxymethylene position, but also with the ortho-quinone methide as a central or alternative intermediate. This is supported by product analyses of thermally initialized reactions of 1 and its substituted analogues as well as by quantum chemical calculations. PMID:24849004