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Sample records for adult abundance monitoring

  1. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-05-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control population under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has demonstrated the successful application of underwater video adult salmon abundance monitoring technology in Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999. Emphasis of the project in 2000 was to determine if the temporary fish counting station could be installed early enough to successfully estimate adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River (a larger stream). Snow pack in the drainage was 93% of the average during the winter of 1999/2000, providing an opportunity to test the temporary count station structure. The temporary fish counting station was not the appropriate technology to determine adult salmon spawner abundance in the Secesh River. Due to its temporary nature it could not be installed early enough, due to high stream discharge, to capture the first upstream migrating salmon. A more permanent structure used with underwater video, or other technology needs to be utilized for accurate salmon escapement monitoring in the Secesh River. A minimum of 813 adult chinook salmon spawners migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. Of these fish, more than 324 migrated upstream into Lake Creek. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River and Lake Creek sites prior to operation of the fish counting stations on June 22. This was 17 and 19 days earlier than the first fish arrival at Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999

  2. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave

    2002-12-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time- lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999 and 2001. The adult salmon spawner escapement estimate into Lake Creek in 2001 was 697 fish, the largest escapement since the project began. Jack salmon comprised 10% of the spring migration. Snow pack in the drainage was 38% of the average during the winter of 2000/2001. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 9, 19 days after installation of the fish counting station and two weeks earlier than previously reported. Peak net upstream movement of 52 adults occurred on June 22. Peak of total movement activity was July 3. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 6. Redd count expansion methods were compared to underwater video determined salmon spawner abundance in Lake Creek in 2001. Expanded index area redd count point estimates and intensive area redd counts in 2001, estimated from 1.3 percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers in Lake Creek have varied widely. In 2001 there were 2.07 fish per redd. In 1999, there were 3.58 fish per redd, and in 1998, with no jacks returning to spawn, there were 1.02 fish per redd. Migrating salmon in Lake Creek

  3. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul

    2003-11-01

    Underwater time- lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999, 2001 and 2002. The adult salmon spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 2002 was 410 fish. Jack salmon comprised 7.1 percent of the run. Estimated hatchery composition was 6.1 percent of the spawning run. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 26, 15 days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream movement of 41 adults occurred on July 8. Peak of total movement activity was August 18. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 2. Snow pack in the drainage was 91% of the average during the winter of 2001/2002. Video determined salmon spawner abundance was compared to redd count expansion method point estimates in Lake Creek in 2002. Expanded index area redd count and extensive area redd count point estimates in 2002, estimated from one percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion methods varied from two percent fewer to 55 percent greater in 2001, 11 to 46 percent fewer in 1999 and 104 to 214 percent greater in 1998. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers determined by video abundance and multiple pass redd counts of the larger extensive survey

  4. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring; Hydroacoustic Assessment of Chinook Salmon Escapement to the Secesh River, Idaho, 2002-2004 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Mueller, R.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate determination of adult salmon spawner abundance is key to the assessment of recovery actions for wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). As part of the Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Program, the Nez Perce Tribe operates an experimental project in the South Fork of the Salmon River subbasin. The project has involved noninvasive monitoring of Chinook salmon escapement on the Secesh River between 1997 and 2000 and on Lake Creek since 1998. The overall goal of this project is to accurately estimate adult Chinook salmon spawning escapement numbers to the Secesh River and Lake Creek. Using time-lapse underwater video technology in conjunction with their fish counting stations, Nez Perce researchers have successfully collected information on adult Chinook salmon spawner abundance, run timing, and fish-per-redd numbers on Lake Creek since 1998. However, the larger stream environment in the Secesh River prevented successful implementation of the underwater video technique to enumerate adult Chinook salmon abundance. High stream discharge and debris loads in the Secesh caused failure of the temporary fish counting station, preventing coverage of the early migrating portion of the spawning run. Accurate adult abundance information could not be obtained on the Secesh with the underwater video method. Consequently, the Nez Perce Tribe now is evaluating advanced technologies and methodologies for measuring adult Chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River. In 2003, the use of an acoustic camera for assessing spawner escapement was examined. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in a collaborative arrangement with the Nez Perce Tribe, provided the technical expertise to implement the acoustic camera component of the counting station on the Secesh River. This report documents the first year of a proposed three-year study to determine the

  5. Monitoring Butterfly Abundance: Beyond Pollard Walks

    PubMed Central

    Pellet, Jérôme; Bried, Jason T.; Parietti, David; Gander, Antoine; Heer, Patrick O.; Cherix, Daniel; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2012-01-01

    Most butterfly monitoring protocols rely on counts along transects (Pollard walks) to generate species abundance indices and track population trends. It is still too often ignored that a population count results from two processes: the biological process (true abundance) and the statistical process (our ability to properly quantify abundance). Because individual detectability tends to vary in space (e.g., among sites) and time (e.g., among years), it remains unclear whether index counts truly reflect population sizes and trends. This study compares capture-mark-recapture (absolute abundance) and count-index (relative abundance) monitoring methods in three species (Maculinea nausithous and Iolana iolas: Lycaenidae; Minois dryas: Satyridae) in contrasted habitat types. We demonstrate that intraspecific variability in individual detectability under standard monitoring conditions is probably the rule rather than the exception, which questions the reliability of count-based indices to estimate and compare specific population abundance. Our results suggest that the accuracy of count-based methods depends heavily on the ecology and behavior of the target species, as well as on the type of habitat in which surveys take place. Monitoring programs designed to assess the abundance and trends in butterfly populations should incorporate a measure of detectability. We discuss the relative advantages and inconveniences of current monitoring methods and analytical approaches with respect to the characteristics of the species under scrutiny and resources availability. PMID:22859980

  6. Influence of deer abundance on the abundance of questing adult Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.; Zhioua, E.

    1999-01-01

    Nymphal and adult Ixodes scapularis Say were sampled by flagging at 2 sites on a barrier island, Fire Island, NY, and at 2 sites on the nearby mainland. Nymphal densities did not differ consistently between island and mainland sites, but adult densities were consistently lower on the island. We tested whether lower adult densities on the island resulted from greater nymphal mortality on the island than the mainland, or whether adult ticks on the island were poorly sampled by flagging because they had attached abundantly to deer, which were common on Fire Island. Differential nymphal mortality on islands vs. mainland did not explain this difference in adult densities because survival of flat and engorged nymphs in enclosures was the same at island and mainland sites. Ticks were infected by parasitic wasps on the island and not the mainland, but the infection rate (4.3%) was too low to explain the difference in adult tick densities. In contrast, exclusion of deer by game fencing on Fire Island resulted in markedly increased numbers of adult ticks in flagging samples inside compared to samples taken outside the exclosures. Therefore, the scarcity of adult ticks in flagging samples on Fire Island resulted, at least in part, from the ticks being unavailable to flagging samples because they were on deer hosts. Differences in the densities of flagged ticks inside and outside the exclosures were used to estimate the percentage of questing adults on Fire Island that found deer hosts, excluding those that attached to other host species. Approximately 56% of these questing adult ticks found deer hosts in 1995 and 50% found deer hosts in 1996. Therefore, in areas where vertebrate hosts are highly abundant, large proportions of the questing tick population can find hosts. Moreover, comparisons of tick densities at different sites by flagging can potentially be biased by differences in host densities among sites.

  7. Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Peter G.; Moore, Charles J.; van Franeker, Jan A.; Moloney, Coleen L.

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris has significant environmental and economic impacts in marine systems. Monitoring is crucial to assess the efficacy of measures implemented to reduce the abundance of plastic debris, but it is complicated by large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and by our limited understanding of the pathways followed by plastic debris and its long-term fate. To date, most monitoring has focused on beach surveys of stranded plastics and other litter. Infrequent surveys of the standing stock of litter on beaches provide crude estimates of debris types and abundance, but are biased by differential removal of litter items by beachcombing, cleanups and beach dynamics. Monitoring the accumulation of stranded debris provides an index of debris trends in adjacent waters, but is costly to undertake. At-sea sampling requires large sample sizes for statistical power to detect changes in abundance, given the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Another approach is to monitor the impacts of plastics. Seabirds and other marine organisms that accumulate plastics in their stomachs offer a cost-effective way to monitor the abundance and composition of small plastic litter. Changes in entanglement rates are harder to interpret, as they are sensitive to changes in population sizes of affected species. Monitoring waste disposal on ships and plastic debris levels in rivers and storm-water runoff is useful because it identifies the main sources of plastic debris entering the sea and can direct mitigation efforts. Different monitoring approaches are required to answer different questions, but attempts should be made to standardize approaches internationally. PMID:19528052

  8. Can Occupancy–Abundance Models Be Used to Monitor Wolf Abundance?

    PubMed Central

    Latham, M. Cecilia; Latham, A. David M.; Webb, Nathan F.; Mccutchen, Nicole A.; Boutin, Stan

    2014-01-01

    Estimating the abundance of wild carnivores is of foremost importance for conservation and management. However, given their elusive habits, direct observations of these animals are difficult to obtain, so abundance is more commonly estimated from sign surveys or radio-marked individuals. These methods can be costly and difficult, particularly in large areas with heavy forest cover. As an alternative, recent research has suggested that wolf abundance can be estimated from occupancy–abundance curves derived from “virtual” surveys of simulated wolf track networks. Although potentially more cost-effective, the utility of this approach hinges on its robustness to violations of its assumptions. We assessed the sensitivity of the occupancy–abundance approach to four assumptions: variation in wolf movement rates, changes in pack cohesion, presence of lone wolves, and size of survey units. Our simulations showed that occupancy rates and wolf pack abundances were biased high if track surveys were conducted when wolves made long compared to short movements, wolf packs were moving as multiple hunting units as opposed to a cohesive pack, and lone wolves were moving throughout the surveyed landscape. We also found that larger survey units (400 and 576 km2) were more robust to changes in these factors than smaller survey units (36 and 144 km2). However, occupancy rates derived from large survey units rapidly reached an asymptote at 100% occupancy, suggesting that these large units are inappropriate for areas with moderate to high wolf densities (>15 wolves/1,000 km2). Virtually-derived occupancy–abundance relationships can be a useful method for monitoring wolves and other elusive wildlife if applied within certain constraints, in particular biological knowledge of the surveyed species needs to be incorporated into the design of the occupancy surveys. Further, we suggest that the applicability of this method could be extended by directly incorporating some of its

  9. Abundance of adult saugers across the Wind River watershed, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amadio, C.J.; Hubert, W.A.; Johnson, K.; Oberlie, D.; Dufek, D.

    2006-01-01

    The abundance of adult saugers Sander canadensis was estimated over 179 km of continuous lotic habitat across a watershed on the western periphery of their natural distribution in Wyoming. Three-pass depletions with raft-mounted electrofishing gear were conducted in 283 pools and runs among 19 representative reaches totaling 51 km during the late summer and fall of 2002. From 2 to 239 saugers were estimated to occur among the 19 reaches of 1.6-3.8 km in length. The estimates were extrapolated to a total population estimate (mean ?? 95% confidence interval) of 4,115 ?? 308 adult saugers over 179 km of lotie habitat. Substantial variation in mean density (range = 1.0-32.5 fish/ha) and mean biomass (range = 0.5-16.8 kg/ha) of adult saugers in pools and runs was observed among the study reaches. Mean density and biomass were highest in river reaches with pools and runs that had maximum depths of more than 1 m, mean daily summer water temperatures exceeding 20??C, and alkalinity exceeding 130 mg/L. No saugers were captured in the 39 pools or runs with maximum water depths of 0.6 m or less. Multiple-regression analysis and the information-theoretic approach were used to identify watershed-scale and instream habitat features accounting for the variation in biomass among the 244 pools and runs across the watershed with maximum depths greater than 0.6 m. Sauger biomass was greater in pools than in runs and increased as mean daily summer water temperature, maximum depth, and mean summer alkalinity increased and as dominant substrate size decreased. This study provides an estimate of adult sauger abundance and identifies habitat features associated with variation in their density and biomass across a watershed, factors important to the management of both populations and habitat. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  10. Temporal abundance of Aedes aegypti in Manaus, Brazil, measured by two trap types for adult mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Degener, Carolin Marlen; de Ázara, Tatiana Mingote Ferreira; Roque, Rosemary Aparecida; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Ohly, Jörg Johannes; Geier, Martin; Eiras, Álvaro Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted in Manaus, Brazil, to monitor changes of adult Aedes aegypti (L.) abundance. The objectives were to compare mosquito collections of two trap types, to characterise temporal changes of the mosquito population, to investigate the influence of meteorological variables on mosquito collections and to analyse the association between mosquito collections and dengue incidence. Mosquito monitoring was performed fortnightly using MosquiTRAPs (MQT) and BG-Sentinel (BGS) traps between December 2008-June 2010. The two traps revealed opposing temporal infestation patterns, with highest mosquito collections of MQTs during the dry season and highest collections of BGS during the rainy seasons. Several meteorological variables were significant predictors of mosquito collections in the BGS. The best predictor was the relative humidity, lagged two weeks (in a positive relationship). For MQT, only the number of rainy days in the previous week was significant (in a negative relationship). The correlation between monthly dengue incidence and mosquito abundance in BGS and MQT was moderately positive and negative, respectively. Catches of BGS traps reflected better the dynamic of dengue incidence. The findings help to understand the effects of meteorological variables on mosquito infestation indices of two different traps for adult dengue vectors in Manaus. PMID:25494470

  11. Spatial relationship between adult malaria vector abundance and environmental factors in western Kenya highlands.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guofa; Munga, Stephen; Minakawa, Noboru; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2007-07-01

    Information on the spatial relationships between disease vectors and environmental factors is fundamental to vector-borne disease control. Although it is well known that mosquito abundance is associated with the amount of rainfall and thus the number of larval breeding sites, the spatial relationship between larval habitat availability and adult mosquito abundance is not clear. We investigated the impact of environmental heterogeneity and larval habitats on the spatial distribution of Anopheles gambiae s. s. and An. funestus adult mosquitoes, the most important malaria vectors in the highlands of western Kenya. Mosquito sampling was conducted in May, August, and November 2002, and February 2003. Geographic information system layers of larval habitats, land use type, human population distribution, house structure, and hydrologic schemes were overlaid with adult mosquito abundance. Correlography was used to determine the spatial autocorrelation in adult mosquito abundance among houses and the cross-correlation between adult mosquito abundance and environmental factors. Getis' G(i)(*)(d) index was used to define focal adult mosquito abundance clusters. We found a significant autocorrelation in the vector population and a significant cross-correlation between the vector population and larval habitat availability. The threshold distances of both autocorrelation and cross-correlation were significantly varied among seasons. Focal clustering analysis revealed that the adult vector population was concentrated along the Yala River Valley where most larval habitats were found. Regression analysis found that distance of a house to the Yala River, age of the house, elevation, house structure, and tree canopy coverage significantly affected adult mosquito abundance. Our results suggest that vector control targeted at malaria transmission hotspots and supplemented by larval control may be an effective approach for epidemic malaria control in the western Kenya highlands.

  12. Capitalizing on opportunistic data for monitoring relative abundances of species.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Christophe; Calenge, Clément; Coron, Camille; Julliard, Romain

    2016-06-01

    With the internet, a massive amount of information on species abundance can be collected by citizen science programs. However, these data are often difficult to use directly in statistical inference, as their collection is generally opportunistic, and the distribution of the sampling effort is often not known. In this article, we develop a general statistical framework to combine such "opportunistic data" with data collected using schemes characterized by a known sampling effort. Under some structural assumptions regarding the sampling effort and detectability, our approach makes it possible to estimate the relative abundance of several species in different sites. It can be implemented through a simple generalized linear model. We illustrate the framework with typical bird datasets from the Aquitaine region in south-western France. We show that, under some assumptions, our approach provides estimates that are more precise than the ones obtained from the dataset with a known sampling effort alone. When the opportunistic data are abundant, the gain in precision may be considerable, especially for rare species. We also show that estimates can be obtained even for species recorded only in the opportunistic scheme. Opportunistic data combined with a relatively small amount of data collected with a known effort may thus provide access to accurate and precise estimates of quantitative changes in relative abundance over space and/or time. PMID:26496390

  13. Hydroacoustic estimates of fish abundance. Reservoir vital signs monitoring, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.K.

    1991-03-01

    Hydroacoustics, as defined in the context of this report, is the use of a scientific sonar system to determine fish densities with respect to numbers and biomass. These two parameters provide a method of monitoring reservoir fish populations and detecting gross changes in the ecosystem. With respect to southeastern reservoirs, hydroacoustic surveys represent a new method of sampling open water areas and the best technology available. The advantages of this technology are large amounts of data can be collected in a relatively short period of time allowing improved statistical interpretation and data comparison, the pelagic (open water) zone can be sampled efficiently regardless of depth, and sampling is nondestructive and noninvasive with neither injury to the fish nor alteration of the environment. Hydroacoustics cannot provide species identification and related information on species composition or length/weight relationships. Also, sampling is limited to a minimum depth of ten feet which precludes the use of this equipment for sampling shallow shoreline areas. The objective of this study is to use hydroacoustic techniques to estimate fish standing stocks (i.e., numbers and biomass) in several areas of selected Tennessee Valley Reservoirs as part of a base level monitoring program to assess long-term changes in reservoir water quality.

  14. Monitoring Whooping Crane Abundance Using Aerial Surveys: Influences on Detectability

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Bradley N; Butler, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    The whooping crane (Grus americana), an endangered species, has been counted on its winter grounds in Texas, USA, since 1950 using fixed-wing aircraft. Many shortcomings of the traditional survey technique have been identified, calling into question its efficacy, defensibility, repeatability, and usefulness into the future. To improve and standardize monitoring effort, we began investigating new survey techniques. Here we focus on efficacy of line transect-based distance sampling during aerial surveys. We conducted a preliminary test of distance sampling during winter 2010–2011 while flying the traditional survey, which indicated that detectability within 500 m of transects was 0.558 (SE = 0.031). We then used an experimental decoy survey to evaluate impacts of observer experience, sun position, distance from transect, and group size on detectability. Our results indicated decoy detectability increased with group size and exhibited a quadratic relationship with distance likely due to pontoons on the aircraft. We found that detectability was 2.704 times greater when the sun was overhead and 3.912 times greater when the sun was at the observer's back than when it was in the observer's eyes. We found that an inexperienced observer misclassified non-target objects more often than an experienced observer. During the decoy experiment we used marks on the struts to categorize distances into intervals, but we found that observers misclassified distances 46.7% of the time (95% CI = 37.0–56.6%). Also, we found that detectability of individuals within detected groups was affected by group size and distance from transect. We discuss how these results inform design and implementation of future whooping crane monitoring efforts. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:26388657

  15. Derivation of safety factors for setting harvest quotas on adult walleyes from past estimates of abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Staggs, Michael D.; Hoff, Michael H.

    1991-01-01

    Past population estimates of adult walleyes Stizostedion vitreum can be used to set harvest quotas, provided that temporal variability in abundance of adult walleyes is accounted for. We used a long-term data set from Escanaba Lake, Wisconsin, to evaluate the accuracy of past population estimates for setting current-year quotas for adult walleyes. The results from Escanaba Lake were corroborated by comparison with other lakes where adult walleye abundance was estimated in more than 1 year. The accuracy of estimates of adult walleye abundance declined over time from the year the estimate was obtained to the year it was used to set a harvest quota. We derived safety factors for application to past estimates of population size; these factors limit the occurrence of an exploitation rate exceeding the maximum sustainable rate (35%) to approximately 1 in 40. These safety factors declined from 35% for 1-year-old estimates to less than 20% for 10-year-old estimates.

  16. Biology and Seasonality of the Reemergent Pest Rhynchaenus pallicornis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Methods for Monitoring Its Abundance.

    PubMed

    Pote, John M; Nielsen, Anne L; Grieshop, Matthew J

    2016-08-01

    Rhynchaenus pallicornis (Say) is a pest of commercially grown apples in the upper Midwest. This historic pest has resurged and caused severe yield loss on farms using certified organic production practices. The life history and potential monitoring methods of R. pallicornis are presented. Seasonal abundance data were collected through beat and visual sampling. A phenological model was developed for R. pallicornis. The minimum developmental threshold of R. pallicornis was determined to be 3.5°C with a required degree-day accumulation of 125°D for first adult emergence. Larval damage was observed on >60% of leaves in unmanaged orchards and affected significantly fewer basal leaf clusters (near the trunk), than medially or apically located clusters. Of 2,900 R. pallicornis larval mines collected over two years at three different sites, 18.0% produced at least one adult parasitoid, but the targeted larval stage is unknown. Measurements of R. pallicornis larval head capsules and the simple frequency method were used to determine three larval instars of R. pallicornis The number of larval instars could also be accurately determined by observing the presence or absence of two sets of thoracic sclerites. Pyramid traps, yellow sticky cards baited with olfactory cues (pear essence, benzaldehyde, and an aggregation of adult R. pallicornis) were evaluated as R. pallicornis monitoring tools. None of the traps or lures tested significantly affected the number of adult R. pallicornis per trap. PMID:27288674

  17. Determining Adult Pacific Lamprey Abundance and Spawning Habitat in the Lower Deschutes River Sub-Basin, Oregon, 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Matt; Graham, Jennifer C.

    2009-04-30

    An adult Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) escapement estimate was generated in the lower Deschutes River during run year 2008. This included a mark-recapture study to determine adult abundance and a tribal subsistence creel. Fish measuring less than 10.5 cm received two marks for the mark-recapture estimate while those measuring greater than 10.5 cm were surgically implanted with radio transmitters to monitor migration upstream of Sherars Falls (rkm 70.4). Radio telemetry was used to determine habitat, focal spawning areas and spawn timing. All fish were collected at the Sherars Falls fish ladder from July-October 2008 using a long handled dip-net. Escapement was generated using a two event mark-recapture experiment. Adult lamprey populations were estimated at 3,471 (95% CI = 2,384-5,041; M = 101; C = 885 R = 25) using Chapman's modification of the Peterson estimate. The relative precision around the estimate was 31.42. Tribal harvest was approximately 806 adult lamprey (95% CI = +/- 74) with a total escapement of 2,669. Fourteen lamprey received radio tags and were released at Lower Blue Hole recreation site (rkm 77.3). Movement was recorded by mobile, fixed site and aerial telemetry methods. Upstream movements of lamprey were documented from July through December 2008 with most lamprey over-wintering in the mainstem Deschutes River.

  18. Monitoring temporal and spatial variability in sandeel (Ammodytes hexapterus) abundance with pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba) diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litzow, M.A.; Piatt, J.F.; Abookire, A.A.; Prichard, A.K.; Robards, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) as monitors of nearshore fish abundance and community composition during 1995-1999 at Kachemak Bay, Alaska. We studied the composition of chick diets at 10 colonies and simultaneously measured fish abundance around colonies with beach seines and bottom trawls. Sandeels (Ammodytes hexapterus) formed the majority of the diet at one group of colonies. Temporal variability in sandeel abundance explained 74% of inter-annual variability in diet composition at these colonies and 93% of seasonal variability. Diets at other colonies were dominated by demersal fish. Among these colonies, 81% of the variability in the proportion of sandeels in diets was explained by spatial differences in sanded abundance. Pigeon guillemots exhibited a non-linear functional response to sandeel abundance in the area where these fish were most abundant. Temporal and spatial variability in demersal fish abundance was not consistently reflected in diets. Spatial differences in the proportion of different demersal fishes in the diet may have been driven by differences in guillemot prey preference. Prey specialization by individual pigeon guillemots was common, and may operate at the colony level. Inter-annual variability in sandeel abundance may have been tracked more accurately because the magnitude of change (11-fold) was greater than that of demersal fish (three-fold). (C) 2000 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  19. Perspectives on Wellness Self-Monitoring Tools for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jina; Le, Thai; Reeder, Blaine; Thompson, Hilaire J.; Demiris, George

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Our purpose was to understand different stakeholder perceptions about the use of self-monitoring tools, specifically in the area of older adults’ personal wellness. In conjunction with the advent of personal health records, tracking personal health using self-monitoring technologies shows promising patient support opportunities. While clinicians’ tools for monitoring of older adults have been explored, we know little about how older adults may self-monitor their wellness and health and how their health care providers would perceive such use. Methods We conducted three focus groups with health care providers (n=10) and four focus groups with community-dwelling older adults (n=31). Results Older adult participants’ found the concept of self-monitoring unfamiliar and this influenced a narrowed interest in the use of wellness self-monitoring tools. On the other hand, health care provider participants showed open attitudes towards wellness monitoring tools for older adults and brainstormed about various stakeholders’ use cases. The two participant groups showed diverging perceptions in terms of: perceived uses, stakeholder interests, information ownership and control, and sharing of wellness monitoring tools. Conclusions Our paper provides implications and solutions for how older adults’ wellness self-monitoring tools can enhance patient-health care provider interaction, patient education, and improvement in overall wellness. PMID:24041452

  20. Adult Literacy: Monitoring and Evaluation for Practice and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    With the advent of the UN Literacy Decade launched in 2003, there is increased emphasis on monitoring and evaluation of adult literacy around the globe. The present paper presents an overview of the main approaches that have been taken to measure adult literacy within and across countries. A particular focus of the present review is to compare and…

  1. Monitoring great ape and elephant abundance at large spatial scales: measuring effectiveness of a conservation landscape.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Emma J; Strindberg, Samantha; Bakabana, Parfait C; Elkan, Paul W; Iyenguet, Fortuné C; Madzoké, Bola; Malanda, Guy Aimé F; Mowawa, Brice S; Moukoumbou, Calixte; Ouakabadio, Franck K; Rainey, Hugo J

    2010-01-01

    Protected areas are fundamental to biodiversity conservation, but there is growing recognition of the need to extend beyond protected areas to meet the ecological requirements of species at larger scales. Landscape-scale conservation requires an evaluation of management impact on biodiversity under different land-use strategies; this is challenging and there exist few empirical studies. In a conservation landscape in northern Republic of Congo we demonstrate the application of a large-scale monitoring program designed to evaluate the impact of conservation interventions on three globally threatened species: western gorillas, chimpanzees and forest elephants, under three land-use types: integral protection, commercial logging, and community-based natural resource management. We applied distance-sampling methods to examine species abundance across different land-use types under varying degrees of management and human disturbance. We found no clear trends in abundance between land-use types. However, units with interventions designed to reduce poaching and protect habitats--irrespective of land-use type--harboured all three species at consistently higher abundance than a neighbouring logging concession undergoing no wildlife management. We applied Generalized-Additive Models to evaluate a priori predictions of species response to different landscape processes. Our results indicate that, given adequate protection from poaching, elephants and gorillas can profit from herbaceous vegetation in recently logged forests and maintain access to ecologically important resources located outside of protected areas. However, proximity to the single integrally protected area in the landscape maintained an overriding positive influence on elephant abundance, and logging roads--even subject to anti-poaching controls--were exploited by elephant poachers and had a major negative influence on elephant distribution. Chimpanzees show a clear preference for unlogged or more mature forests

  2. Monitoring great ape and elephant abundance at large spatial scales: measuring effectiveness of a conservation landscape.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Emma J; Strindberg, Samantha; Bakabana, Parfait C; Elkan, Paul W; Iyenguet, Fortuné C; Madzoké, Bola; Malanda, Guy Aimé F; Mowawa, Brice S; Moukoumbou, Calixte; Ouakabadio, Franck K; Rainey, Hugo J

    2010-01-01

    Protected areas are fundamental to biodiversity conservation, but there is growing recognition of the need to extend beyond protected areas to meet the ecological requirements of species at larger scales. Landscape-scale conservation requires an evaluation of management impact on biodiversity under different land-use strategies; this is challenging and there exist few empirical studies. In a conservation landscape in northern Republic of Congo we demonstrate the application of a large-scale monitoring program designed to evaluate the impact of conservation interventions on three globally threatened species: western gorillas, chimpanzees and forest elephants, under three land-use types: integral protection, commercial logging, and community-based natural resource management. We applied distance-sampling methods to examine species abundance across different land-use types under varying degrees of management and human disturbance. We found no clear trends in abundance between land-use types. However, units with interventions designed to reduce poaching and protect habitats--irrespective of land-use type--harboured all three species at consistently higher abundance than a neighbouring logging concession undergoing no wildlife management. We applied Generalized-Additive Models to evaluate a priori predictions of species response to different landscape processes. Our results indicate that, given adequate protection from poaching, elephants and gorillas can profit from herbaceous vegetation in recently logged forests and maintain access to ecologically important resources located outside of protected areas. However, proximity to the single integrally protected area in the landscape maintained an overriding positive influence on elephant abundance, and logging roads--even subject to anti-poaching controls--were exploited by elephant poachers and had a major negative influence on elephant distribution. Chimpanzees show a clear preference for unlogged or more mature forests

  3. The abundance of fecal Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in relation to obesity and gender in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Tang, Huang; Li, Min; Pang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Linghua; Zhang, Menghui; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Shen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    The influence of gender and obesity on the abundance of human colonic Feacalibacterium prausnitzii is currently unclear. We collected fecal samples from 54 obese and 54 sex- and age-matched normal-weight Chinese adults and quantified the fecal F. prausnitzii as percentage of 16S rRNA gene copies of F. prausnitzii accounting to that of total gut bacteria with quantitative PCR. The fecal F. prausnitzii amount was not significantly different between obese and lean subjects. Men possessed significantly lower level of fecal F. prausnitzii than women, and the significant and positive correlation of fecal F. prausnitzii quantity with fasting glucose level was observed in men, not in women. Our results suggest that the gender effect, in addition to other factors including the geographic location, ethnicity, diet and gut transit times of study subjects, has to be considered when studying the relationship between gut F. prausnitzii and diseases.

  4. Effects of sampling design on the estimation of adult mosquito abundance.

    PubMed

    Reisen, W K; Lothrop, H D

    1999-06-01

    During 1994-5, Culex tarsalis comprised 75% of the 902,643 adult female mosquitoes collected by 63 dry-ice-baited Centers for Disease Control (CDC)-style traps operated biweekly in a uniform sampling grid that covered the southern Coachella Valley, Riverside County, California. The ln(y + 1) transformation successfully controlled the variance and normalized the distribution of catch size among trap nights. When tested by analysis of variance, abundance varied significantly among months, years, and trap sites. Although the trap by months interaction was not significant, female distribution changed seasonally as larval habitats shifted from wetlands along the Salton Sea to agriculture to managed duck marshes. Conditional simulations utilized subsets of trap sites to compare sampling designs that required no (uniform, random, and transect designs) or prior (best-estimate and stratified random designs) knowledge of mosquito spatial distribution. All designs provided similar information on population seasonal trends, but a stratified random design provided the most accurate and precise simulation. A uniform trap grid that employed every 2nd trap site subsequently was adopted by the Coachella Valley Mosquito and Vector Control District to provide information on focal changes in abundance indicative of missed or newly created larval habitats or control failures. PMID:10412106

  5. Population dynamics of some Pakistan mosquitoes: changes in adult relative abundance over time and space.

    PubMed

    Reisen, W K; Milby, M M

    1986-02-01

    Time series and spatial changes in the relative abundance of 14 mosquito species were described from weekly or biweekly collections at nine localities in Punjab province, Pakistan, from January 1976 to June 1980. Comparisons between indoor aspirator catches and outdoor mechanical sweeper collections enabled mosquito resting habits to be classified as: (1) endophilic (Anopheles culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, An. stephensi, An. subpictus); (2) partially exophilic (An. annularis, An. pulcherrimus, An. nigerrimus, Culex bitaeniorhynchus, Cx, pseudovishnui, Cx, quinquefasciatus, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus), or exophilic (Cx. fuscocephala, Aedes caspius, Mansonia uniformis). Temporal abundance patterns were grouped by seasonality, overwintering strategies and the magnitude of fluctuation. Seasonal patterns were: (1) unimodal-spring (Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. capius); (2) unimodal-monsoon (An. nigerrimus, An. subpictus, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. fuscocephala); (3) bimodal-spring dominant (An. annularis, An. culcifacies, An. stephensi), and (4) bimodal-monsoon/post-monsoon dominant (An. fluviatilis, An. pulcherrimus, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Ma. uniformis). Mosquito overwintering strategies included: (1) adults with slowed reproductive activity (An. annularis, An. culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, An. pulcherrimus, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus); (2) females with interrupted reproductive activity (An. nigerrimus, Cx. fuscocephala, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus); (3) immature stages (Ae. caspius, Ma. uniformis) and (4) annual extinction and re-introduction (An. subpictus). The magnitude of seasonal change was classified by the number of standard deviations from the overall mean exhibited by the annual maxima or minima: (1) stationary, less than 1 standard deviation (An. culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Ae. caspius), (2) fluctuating moderately, one to two standard deviations (An. annularis, An. nigerrimus, An. pulcherrimus, An

  6. Virus-specific CD4+ memory phenotype T cells are abundant in unexposed adults

    PubMed Central

    Su, Laura F.; Kidd, Brian A.; Han, Arnold; Kotzin, Jonathan J.; Davis, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    While T cell memory is generally thought to require direct antigen exposure, we find an abundance of memory phenotype cells (20–90%, averaging over 50%) of CD4+ T cells specific for viral antigens in adults that have never been infected. These cells express the appropriate memory markers and genes, rapidly produce cytokines, and have clonally expanded. This contrasts with newborns where the same T cell receptor (TCR) specificities are almost entirely naïve, which may explain the vulnerability of young children to infections. One mechanism for this phenomenon is TCR cross-reactivity to environmental antigens and in support of this we find extensive cross-recognition by HIV-1 and influenza-reactive T lymphocytes to other microbial peptides and the expansion of one of these following influenza vaccination. Thus the presence of these memory phenotype T cells has significant implications for immunity to novel pathogens, child and adult health, and the influence of pathogen-rich versus hygienic environments. PMID:23395677

  7. Time Monitoring and Executive Functioning in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantyla, Timo; Carelli, Maria Grazia; Forman, Helen

    2007-01-01

    This study examined time-based prospective memory performance in relation to individual and developmental differences in executive functioning. School-age children and young adults completed six experimental tasks that tapped three basic components of executive functioning: inhibition, updating, and mental shifting. Monitoring performance was…

  8. Breaking through: Engendering, Monitoring and Evaluation in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn, Ed.

    This document contains 14 papers that were developed for a 5-day international seminar-workshop at which representatives of multilateral agencies, governments, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), women's organizations, feminist groups, and universities discussed gender issues in monitoring and evaluation of adult education. The following papers…

  9. Adult Literacy: Monitoring and Evaluation for Practice and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Daniel A.

    2008-11-01

    With the advent of the UN Literacy Decade launched in 2003, there is increased emphasis on monitoring and evaluation of adult literacy around the globe. The present paper presents an overview of the main approaches that have been taken to measure adult literacy within and across countries. A particular focus of the present review is to compare and contrast three models of literacy assessment: (1) the "traditional" model based largely on census enumeration, which has been used over recent decades to collect national and regional rates of illiteracy; (2) the large-scale survey techniques employed with the International Adult Literacy Survey and similar models; and (3) an intermediate type of assessment that borrows from the previous two models, and attempts to "tailor" the size and complexity of the survey methodology to the policy questions needing answers (called the SQC model). The present paper suggests that there is no single model or set of methods that are universally appropriate to monitoring and measuring in adult literacy around the world, but that blending both programmatic and comparative models through the SQC approach may bring greater involvement in, and insight into, adult literacy evaluations.

  10. Abundance of gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses in adult Mosquitofish spinal cord neurons

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Velez, Jose L.; Rodriguez-Alvarado, Melanie; Torres-Vazquez, Irma I.; Fraser, Scott E.; Yasumura, Thomas; Vanderpool, Kimberly G.; Rash, John E.; Rosa-Molinar, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    “Dye-coupling”, whole-mount immunohistochemistry for gap junction channel protein connexin 35 (Cx35), and freeze-fracture replica immunogold labeling (FRIL) reveal an abundance of electrical synapses/gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses in the 14th spinal segment that innervates the adult male gonopodium of Western Mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis (Mosquitofish). To study gap junctions’ role in fast motor behavior, we used a minimally-invasive neural-tract-tracing technique to introduce gap junction-permeant or -impermeant dyes into deep muscles controlling the gonopodium of the adult male Mosquitofish, a teleost fish that rapidly transfers (complete in <20 mS) spermatozeugmata into the female reproductive tract. Dye-coupling in the 14th spinal segment controlling the gonopodium reveals coupling between motor neurons and a commissural primary ascending interneuron (CoPA IN) and shows that the 14th segment has an extensive and elaborate dendritic arbor and more gap junctions than do other segments. Whole-mount immunohistochemistry for Cx35 results confirm dye-coupling and show it occurs via gap junctions. Finally, FRIL shows that gap junctions are at mixed synapses and reveals that >50 of the 62 gap junctions at mixed synapses are in the 14th spinal segment. Our results support and extend studies showing gap junctions at mixed synapses in spinal cord segments involved in control of genital reflexes in rodents, and they suggest a link between mixed synapses and fast motor behavior. The findings provide a basis for studies of specific roles of spinal neurons in the generation/regulation of sex-specific behavior and for studies of gap junctions’ role in regulating fast motor behavior. Finally, the CoPA IN provides a novel candidate neuron for future studies of gap junctions and neural control of fast motor behaviors. PMID:25018700

  11. Monitoring species richness and abundance of shorebirds in the western Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warnock, N.; Haig, S.M.; Oring, L.W.

    1998-01-01

    Broad-scale avian surveys have been attempted within North America with mixed results. Arid regions, such as the Great Basin, are often poorly sampled because of the vastness of the region, inacessibilty of sites, and few ornithologist. In addition, extreme variability in wetland habitat conditions present special problems for conducting censuses of species inhabiting these areas. We examined these issues in assessing multi-scale shorebird (order: Charadriiformes) censuses conducted the western Great Basin from 1992-1997. On ground surveys, we recorded 31 species of shorebirds, but were unable to accurately estimate population size. Conversely, on aerial surveys we were able to estimate regional abundance of some shorebirds, but were unable to determined species diversity. Acrial surveys of three large alkali lakcs in Oregon (Goose, Summer, and abert Lakes) revealed > 300,000 shorebirds in one year of this study, of which 67% were American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and 30% phalaropes (Phalaropus spp.). These lakes clearly meet Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network guidelines for designation as important shorebirds sites. Based upon simulations of our monitoring effort and the magnitude and variation of numbers of American Avocets, detection of 5-10% negative declines in population of these birds would take a minimum of 7-23 years comparable effort. We conclude that a combination of ground and aerial surveys must be conducted at multiple sites and years and over a large region to obtain an accurate picture of the diversity, abundance, and trends of shorebirds in the western Great Basin.

  12. Monitoring species richness and abundance of shorebirds in the western Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warnock, N.; Haig, Susan M.; Oring, L.W.

    1998-01-01

    Broad-scale avian surveys have been attempted within North America with mixed results. Arid regions, such as the Great Basin, are often poorly sampled because of the vastness of the region, inaccessibility of sites, and few ornithologists. In addition, extreme variability in wetland habitat conditions present special problems for conducting censuses of species inhabiting these areas. We examined these issues in assessing multi-scale shorebird (order: Charadriiformes) censuses conducted in the western Great Basin from 1992-1997. On ground surveys, we recorded 31 species of shorebirds, but were unable to accurately estimate population size. Conversely, on aerial surveys we were able to estimate regional abundance of some shorebirds, but were unable to determine species diversity. Aerial surveys of three large alkali lakes in Oregon (Goose, Summer, and Abert Lakes) revealed > 300,000 shorebirds in one year of this study, of which 67% were American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and 30% phalaropes (Phalaropus spp.). These lakes clearly meet Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network guidelines for designation as important shorebird sites. Based upon simulations of our monitoring effort and the magnitude and variation of numbers of American Avocets, detection of S-10% negative declines in populations of these birds would take a minimum of 7-23 years of comparable effort. We conclude that a combination of ground and aerial surveys must be conducted at multiple sites and years and over a large region to obtain an accurate picture of the diversity, abundance, and trends of shorebirds in the western Great Basin.

  13. Evaluation of bottom trawls as compared to acoustics to assess adult Lake Herring (Coregonus artedi) abundance in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stockwell, J.D.; Yule, D.L.; Gorman, O.T.; Isaac, E.J.; Moore, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    We compared density estimates from day bottom trawl tows against night midwater trawl tows and acoustic gear to test the hypothesis that adult lake herring (≥250 mm) are underestimated by day bottom trawl tows during the annual USGS spring fish community survey in Lake Superior. We found average density at nine nearshore stations was significantly higher at night (21.3 adult fish/ha) compared to day (1.0 adult fish/ha; p = 0.0119). At nine offshore stations, no lake herring were captured during the day but density averaged 39.6 adult fish/ha at night. At a lakewide scale (n = 18 stations), precision (relative standard error) was much better using night midwater trawls and acoustic gear (37%) compared to day bottom trawls (100%). Moderate sample size increases using the former methodology would likely bring precision within recommended levels (≤30%) for stock-recruit data sets. Our results suggest that 1) population abundances of adult lake herring in Lake Superior are much higher than previously considered, 2) the annual spring fish community survey may not provide a relative index of abundance of adult lake herring, 3) night midwater trawls and acoustic gear are necessary for assessing adult lake herring abundance, and 4) previous studies using lake herring data from the annual spring fish community survey need to be re-evaluated in light of these results. Lake herring appear to become progressively more pelagic and less susceptible to bottom trawling as they mature. Day bottom trawls appear to be an adequate tool for estimating relative density of age-1 recruits, although this method still suffers from relatively poor precision.

  14. Influence of climatic conditions on the distribution, abundance and activity of Agriotes lineatus L. adults in sex pheromone traps in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kozina, Antonela; Čačija, Maja; Igrc Barčić, Jasminka; Bažok, Renata

    2013-07-01

    The aims of this work were: (i) to determine the distribution and abundance of Agriotes lineatus, (ii) correlate the abundance with the prevailing climatic conditions to establish how temperature and rainfall are influencing the dominance, and (iii) to determine the activity characteristics of the adults. Investigations were conducted in 17 fields grouped in four regions characterized by different climatic conditions. Using sex pheromone traps the most important Agriotes species (A. lineatus L., A. sputator L., A. obscurus L., A. brevis Cand. and A. ustulatus Schall.) were collected. The monitoring period for A. brevis, A. sputator, A. lineatus and A. obscurus was from the 18th to the 32nd, and for A. ustulatus from the 23rd to the 32nd week of the year. A total of 61,247 individuals Agriotes were captured, of which 24,916 individuals were A. lineatus. Abundance and dominance of A. lineatus were significantly higher in the region of Zagreb compared to other regions. Moving east, rainfall decreased and temperatures increased and associated with that the abundance and dominance indices were lower. It was determined that the abundance of A. lineatus was negatively correlated with average air temperature (r = -0.5201; p < 0.0001). Compared to earlier data from the region of Zagreb the dominance index decreased. This might be a result of climate change as established average yearly temperature in these regions increased for 1.04 °C compared to the average data for the period 1961-1990. Other potentially damaging Agriotes species (A. brevis and A. ustulatus) were also present in high abundances in some micro-regions. PMID:22886342

  15. Influence of climatic conditions on the distribution, abundance and activity of Agriotes lineatus L. adults in sex pheromone traps in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kozina, Antonela; Čačija, Maja; Igrc Barčić, Jasminka; Bažok, Renata

    2013-07-01

    The aims of this work were: (i) to determine the distribution and abundance of Agriotes lineatus, (ii) correlate the abundance with the prevailing climatic conditions to establish how temperature and rainfall are influencing the dominance, and (iii) to determine the activity characteristics of the adults. Investigations were conducted in 17 fields grouped in four regions characterized by different climatic conditions. Using sex pheromone traps the most important Agriotes species (A. lineatus L., A. sputator L., A. obscurus L., A. brevis Cand. and A. ustulatus Schall.) were collected. The monitoring period for A. brevis, A. sputator, A. lineatus and A. obscurus was from the 18th to the 32nd, and for A. ustulatus from the 23rd to the 32nd week of the year. A total of 61,247 individuals Agriotes were captured, of which 24,916 individuals were A. lineatus. Abundance and dominance of A. lineatus were significantly higher in the region of Zagreb compared to other regions. Moving east, rainfall decreased and temperatures increased and associated with that the abundance and dominance indices were lower. It was determined that the abundance of A. lineatus was negatively correlated with average air temperature (r = -0.5201; p < 0.0001). Compared to earlier data from the region of Zagreb the dominance index decreased. This might be a result of climate change as established average yearly temperature in these regions increased for 1.04 °C compared to the average data for the period 1961-1990. Other potentially damaging Agriotes species (A. brevis and A. ustulatus) were also present in high abundances in some micro-regions.

  16. Influence of climatic conditions on the distribution, abundance and activity of Agriotes lineatus L. adults in sex pheromone traps in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozina, Antonela; Čačija, Maja; Igrc Barčić, Jasminka; Bažok, Renata

    2013-07-01

    The aims of this work were: (i) to determine the distribution and abundance of Agriotes lineatus, (ii) correlate the abundance with the prevailing climatic conditions to establish how temperature and rainfall are influencing the dominance, and (iii) to determine the activity characteristics of the adults. Investigations were conducted in 17 fields grouped in four regions characterized by different climatic conditions. Using sex pheromone traps the most important Agriotes species ( A. lineatus L., A. sputator L., A. obscurus L., A. brevis Cand. and A. ustulatus Schall.) were collected. The monitoring period for A. brevis, A. sputator, A. lineatus and A. obscurus was from the 18th to the 32nd, and for A. ustulatus from the 23rd to the 32nd week of the year. A total of 61,247 individuals Agriotes were captured, of which 24,916 individuals were A. lineatus. Abundance and dominance of A. lineatus were significantly higher in the region of Zagreb compared to other regions. Moving east, rainfall decreased and temperatures increased and associated with that the abundance and dominance indices were lower. It was determined that the abundance of A. lineatus was negatively correlated with average air temperature ( r = -0.5201; p < 0.0001). Compared to earlier data from the region of Zagreb the dominance index decreased. This might be a result of climate change as established average yearly temperature in these regions increased for 1.04 °C compared to the average data for the period 1961-1990. Other potentially damaging Agriotes species ( A. brevis and A. ustulatus) were also present in high abundances in some micro-regions.

  17. Effects of Field History on Corn Root Injury and Adult Abundance of Northern and Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Mike W; O'Neal, Matthew E; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2016-10-01

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence, are major pests of corn (Zea mays L.). Corn producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are widely used to manage Diabrotica spp.; however, Bt resistance by D. v. virgifera has led to high levels of feeding injury in the field. We tested whether field history affected root injury and abundance of adult Diabrotica spp. In 2013 and 2014, four types of cornfields were sampled: 1) recently rotated fields, 2) continuous cornfields, 3) fields with a history of injury to Bt corn (past problem fields), and 4) fields with greater than one node of injury to Bt corn at the time of sampling (current problem fields). Data were collected on field history, root injury, and the abundance of adult Diabrotica spp. from each field. Root injury and the abundance of D. v. virgifera were significantly greater in current problem fields compared to the other field types, while D. barberi were significantly more abundant in recently rotated fields. Root injury and the abundance of D. v. virgifera did not differ among recently rotated fields, continuous cornfields, and past problem fields. Analysis of field history showed that recently rotated fields were characterized by significantly less Bt corn, soil-applied insecticides, and years planted to corn continuously. These results suggest that greater cropping practice diversity can reduce management inputs for Diabrotica spp.; however, its effects on resistance evolution remain undetermined.

  18. Testing methods for using high-resolution satellite imagery to monitor polar bear abundance and distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaRue, Michelle A.; Stapleton, Seth P.; Porter, Claire; Atkinson, Stephen N.; Atwood, Todd C.; Dyck, Markus; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution satellite imagery is a promising tool for providing coarse information about polar species abundance and distribution, but current applications are limited. With polar bears (Ursus maritimus), the technique has only proven effective on landscapes with little topographic relief that are devoid of snow and ice, and time-consuming manual review of imagery is required to identify bears. Here, we evaluated mechanisms to further develop methods for satellite imagery by examining data from Rowley Island, Canada. We attempted to automate and expedite detection via a supervised spectral classification and image differencing to expedite image review. We also assessed what proportion of a region should be sampled to obtain reliable estimates of density and abundance. Although the spectral signature of polar bears differed from nontarget objects, these differences were insufficient to yield useful results via a supervised classification process. Conversely, automated image differencing—or subtracting one image from another—correctly identified nearly 90% of polar bear locations. This technique, however, also yielded false positives, suggesting that manual review will still be required to confirm polar bear locations. On Rowley Island, bear distribution approximated a Poisson distribution across a range of plot sizes, and resampling suggests that sampling >50% of the site facilitates reliable estimation of density (CV <15%). Satellite imagery may be an effective monitoring tool in certain areas, but large-scale applications remain limited because of the challenges in automation and the limited environments in which the method can be effectively applied. Improvements in resolution may expand opportunities for its future uses.

  19. A unified strategy for monitoring changes in abundance of birds associated with North American tidal marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, C.J.; Droege, S.

    2006-01-01

    aspects of the survey protocols. We also provide sample data forms and an example of how to fill out a data form. These protocols build upon the Standardized North American Marsh-Bird Monitoring Protocols by encouraging those interested in saltmarsh passerines (and other saltmarsh birds) to conduct surveys using a standardized protocol similar to that being used for secretive marsh birds. Standardization of this sort will allow data from surveys focusing on saltmarsh passerines to be easily pooled with data from surveys focusing on secretive marsh birds. Implementing these standardized surveys in saltmarshes across North America will help document regional and continental patterns in distribution and abundance of all birds associated with tidal marshes.

  20. Monitoring change in the abundance and distribution of insects using butterflies and other indicator groups

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J.A

    2005-01-01

    Conservative estimates suggest that 50–90% of the existing insect species on Earth have still to be discovered, yet the named insects alone comprise more than half of all known species of organism. With such poor baseline knowledge, monitoring change in insect diversity poses a formidable challenge to scientists and most attempts to generalize involve large extrapolations from a few well-studied taxa. Butterflies are often the only group for which accurate measures of change can be obtained. Four schemes, used successfully to assess change in British butterflies, that are increasingly being applied across the world are described: Red Data Books (RDB) list the best judgements of experts of the conservation status of species in their field of expertise; mapping schemes plot the changing distributions of species at scales of 1–100 km2; transect monitoring schemes generate time series of changes in abundance in sample populations of species on fixed sites across the UK; and occasional surveys measure the number, boundaries and size of all populations of a (usually RDB) species at intervals of 10–30 years. All schemes describe consistent patterns of change, but if they are to be more generally useful, it is important to understand how well butterflies are representative of other taxa. Comparisons with similarly measured changes in native bird and plant species suggest that butterflies have declined more rapidly that these other groups in Britain; it should soon be possible to test whether this pattern exists elsewhere. It is also demonstrated that extinction rates in British butterflies are similar to those in a range of other insect groups over 100 years once recording bias is accounted for, although probably lower than in aquatic or parasitic taxa. It is concluded that butterflies represent adequate indicators of change for many terrestrial insect groups, but recommended that similar schemes be extended to other popular groups, especially dragonflies

  1. Chronic hypoxia and VEGF differentially modulate abundance and organization of myosin heavy chain isoforms in fetal and adult ovine arteries.

    PubMed

    Hubbell, Margaret C; Semotiuk, Andrew J; Thorpe, Richard B; Adeoye, Olayemi O; Butler, Stacy M; Williams, James M; Khorram, Omid; Pearce, William J

    2012-11-15

    Chronic hypoxia increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thereby promotes angiogenesis. The present study explores the hypothesis that hypoxic increases in VEGF also remodel artery wall structure and contractility through phenotypic transformation of smooth muscle. Pregnant and nonpregnant ewes were maintained at sea level (normoxia) or 3,820 m (hypoxia) for the final 110 days of gestation. Common carotid arteries harvested from term fetal lambs and nonpregnant adults were denuded of endothelium and studied in vitro. Stretch-dependent contractile stresses were 32 and 77% of normoxic values in hypoxic fetal and adult arteries. Hypoxic hypocontractility was coupled with increased abundance of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain (NM-MHC) in fetal (+37%) and adult (+119%) arteries. Conversely, hypoxia decreased smooth muscle MHC (SM-MHC) abundance by 40% in fetal arteries but increased it 123% in adult arteries. Hypoxia decreased colocalization of NM-MHC with smooth muscle α-actin (SM-αA) in fetal arteries and decreased colocalization of SM-MHC with SM-αA in adult arteries. Organ culture with physiological concentrations (3 ng/ml) of VEGF-A(165) similarly depressed stretch-dependent stresses to 37 and 49% of control fetal and adult values. The VEGF receptor antagonist vatalanib ablated VEGF's effects in adult but not fetal arteries, suggesting age-dependent VEGF receptor signaling. VEGF replicated hypoxic decreases in colocalization of NM-MHC with SM-αA in fetal arteries and decreases in colocalization of SM-MHC with SM-αA in adult arteries. These results suggest that hypoxic increases in VEGF not only promote angiogenesis but may also help mediate hypoxic arterial remodeling through age-dependent changes in smooth muscle phenotype and contractility. PMID:22992677

  2. Chronic hypoxia and VEGF differentially modulate abundance and organization of myosin heavy chain isoforms in fetal and adult ovine arteries.

    PubMed

    Hubbell, Margaret C; Semotiuk, Andrew J; Thorpe, Richard B; Adeoye, Olayemi O; Butler, Stacy M; Williams, James M; Khorram, Omid; Pearce, William J

    2012-11-15

    Chronic hypoxia increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thereby promotes angiogenesis. The present study explores the hypothesis that hypoxic increases in VEGF also remodel artery wall structure and contractility through phenotypic transformation of smooth muscle. Pregnant and nonpregnant ewes were maintained at sea level (normoxia) or 3,820 m (hypoxia) for the final 110 days of gestation. Common carotid arteries harvested from term fetal lambs and nonpregnant adults were denuded of endothelium and studied in vitro. Stretch-dependent contractile stresses were 32 and 77% of normoxic values in hypoxic fetal and adult arteries. Hypoxic hypocontractility was coupled with increased abundance of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain (NM-MHC) in fetal (+37%) and adult (+119%) arteries. Conversely, hypoxia decreased smooth muscle MHC (SM-MHC) abundance by 40% in fetal arteries but increased it 123% in adult arteries. Hypoxia decreased colocalization of NM-MHC with smooth muscle α-actin (SM-αA) in fetal arteries and decreased colocalization of SM-MHC with SM-αA in adult arteries. Organ culture with physiological concentrations (3 ng/ml) of VEGF-A(165) similarly depressed stretch-dependent stresses to 37 and 49% of control fetal and adult values. The VEGF receptor antagonist vatalanib ablated VEGF's effects in adult but not fetal arteries, suggesting age-dependent VEGF receptor signaling. VEGF replicated hypoxic decreases in colocalization of NM-MHC with SM-αA in fetal arteries and decreases in colocalization of SM-MHC with SM-αA in adult arteries. These results suggest that hypoxic increases in VEGF not only promote angiogenesis but may also help mediate hypoxic arterial remodeling through age-dependent changes in smooth muscle phenotype and contractility.

  3. A time-lapse photography method for monitoring salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) passage and abundance in streams.

    PubMed

    Deacy, William W; Leacock, William B; Eby, Lisa A; Stanford, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Accurately estimating population sizes is often a critical component of fisheries research and management. Although there is a growing appreciation of the importance of small-scale salmon population dynamics to the stability of salmon stock-complexes, our understanding of these populations is constrained by a lack of efficient and cost-effective monitoring tools for streams. Weirs are expensive, labor intensive, and can disrupt natural fish movements. While conventional video systems avoid some of these shortcomings, they are expensive and require excessive amounts of labor to review footage for data collection. Here, we present a novel method for quantifying salmon in small streams (<15 m wide, <1 m deep) that uses both time-lapse photography and video in a model-based double sampling scheme. This method produces an escapement estimate nearly as accurate as a video-only approach, but with substantially less labor, money, and effort. It requires servicing only every 14 days, detects salmon 24 h/day, is inexpensive, and produces escapement estimates with confidence intervals. In addition to escapement estimation, we present a method for estimating in-stream salmon abundance across time, data needed by researchers interested in predator--prey interactions or nutrient subsidies. We combined daily salmon passage estimates with stream specific estimates of daily mortality developed using previously published data. To demonstrate proof of concept for these methods, we present results from two streams in southwest Kodiak Island, Alaska in which high densities of sockeye salmon spawn. PMID:27326378

  4. A time-lapse photography method for monitoring salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) passage and abundance in streams.

    PubMed

    Deacy, William W; Leacock, William B; Eby, Lisa A; Stanford, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Accurately estimating population sizes is often a critical component of fisheries research and management. Although there is a growing appreciation of the importance of small-scale salmon population dynamics to the stability of salmon stock-complexes, our understanding of these populations is constrained by a lack of efficient and cost-effective monitoring tools for streams. Weirs are expensive, labor intensive, and can disrupt natural fish movements. While conventional video systems avoid some of these shortcomings, they are expensive and require excessive amounts of labor to review footage for data collection. Here, we present a novel method for quantifying salmon in small streams (<15 m wide, <1 m deep) that uses both time-lapse photography and video in a model-based double sampling scheme. This method produces an escapement estimate nearly as accurate as a video-only approach, but with substantially less labor, money, and effort. It requires servicing only every 14 days, detects salmon 24 h/day, is inexpensive, and produces escapement estimates with confidence intervals. In addition to escapement estimation, we present a method for estimating in-stream salmon abundance across time, data needed by researchers interested in predator--prey interactions or nutrient subsidies. We combined daily salmon passage estimates with stream specific estimates of daily mortality developed using previously published data. To demonstrate proof of concept for these methods, we present results from two streams in southwest Kodiak Island, Alaska in which high densities of sockeye salmon spawn.

  5. A time-lapse photography method for monitoring salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) passage and abundance in streams

    PubMed Central

    Leacock, William B.; Eby, Lisa A.; Stanford, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Accurately estimating population sizes is often a critical component of fisheries research and management. Although there is a growing appreciation of the importance of small-scale salmon population dynamics to the stability of salmon stock-complexes, our understanding of these populations is constrained by a lack of efficient and cost-effective monitoring tools for streams. Weirs are expensive, labor intensive, and can disrupt natural fish movements. While conventional video systems avoid some of these shortcomings, they are expensive and require excessive amounts of labor to review footage for data collection. Here, we present a novel method for quantifying salmon in small streams (<15 m wide, <1 m deep) that uses both time-lapse photography and video in a model-based double sampling scheme. This method produces an escapement estimate nearly as accurate as a video-only approach, but with substantially less labor, money, and effort. It requires servicing only every 14 days, detects salmon 24 h/day, is inexpensive, and produces escapement estimates with confidence intervals. In addition to escapement estimation, we present a method for estimating in-stream salmon abundance across time, data needed by researchers interested in predator--prey interactions or nutrient subsidies. We combined daily salmon passage estimates with stream specific estimates of daily mortality developed using previously published data. To demonstrate proof of concept for these methods, we present results from two streams in southwest Kodiak Island, Alaska in which high densities of sockeye salmon spawn. PMID:27326378

  6. Monitoring waterbird abundance in wetlands: The importance of controlling results for variation in water depth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolduc, F.; Afton, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Wetland use by waterbirds is highly dependent on water depth, and depth requirements generally vary among species. Furthermore, water depth within wetlands often varies greatly over time due to unpredictable hydrological events, making comparisons of waterbird abundance among wetlands difficult as effects of habitat variables and water depth are confounded. Species-specific relationships between bird abundance and water depth necessarily are non-linear; thus, we developed a methodology to correct waterbird abundance for variation in water depth, based on the non-parametric regression of these two variables. Accordingly, we used the difference between observed and predicted abundances from non-parametric regression (analogous to parametric residuals) as an estimate of bird abundance at equivalent water depths. We scaled this difference to levels of observed and predicted abundances using the formula: ((observed - predicted abundance)/(observed + predicted abundance)) ?? 100. This estimate also corresponds to the observed:predicted abundance ratio, which allows easy interpretation of results. We illustrated this methodology using two hypothetical species that differed in water depth and wetland preferences. Comparisons of wetlands, using both observed and relative corrected abundances, indicated that relative corrected abundance adequately separates the effect of water depth from the effect of wetlands. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  7. A Review of Carbon Dioxide Monitoring During Adult Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Pantazopoulos, Charalampos; Xanthos, Theodoros; Pantazopoulos, Ioannis; Papalois, Apostolos; Kouskouni, Evangelia; Iacovidou, Nicoletta

    2015-11-01

    Although high quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation is one of the most significant factors related to favourable outcome, its quality depends on many components, such as airway management, compression depth and chest recoil, hands-off time, and early defibrillation. The most common way of controlling the resuscitation efforts is monitoring of end-tidal carbon dioxide. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation suggests this method both for in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, despite the abundant human and animal studies supporting the usefulness of end-tidal carbon dioxide, its optimal values during cardiopulmonary resuscitation remain controversial. In this review, the advantages and effectiveness of end-tidal carbon dioxide during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are discussed and specific target values are suggested based on the available literature.

  8. Selected Reaction Monitoring to Determine Protein Abundance in Arabidopsis Using the Arabidopsis Proteotypic Predictor1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Nicolas L.; Fenske, Ricarda; Castleden, Ian; Tomaz, Tiago; Nelson, Clark J.; Millar, A. Harvey

    2014-01-01

    In reverse genetic knockout (KO) studies that aim to assign function to specific genes, confirming the reduction in abundance of the encoded protein will often aid the link between genotype and phenotype. However, measuring specific protein abundance is particularly difficult in plant research, where only a limited number of antibodies are available. This problem is enhanced when studying gene families or different proteins derived from the same gene (isoforms), as many antibodies cross react with more than one protein. We show that utilizing selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry allows researchers to confirm protein abundance in mutant lines, even when discrimination between very similar proteins is needed. Selecting the best peptides for SRM analysis to ensure that protein- or gene-specific information can be obtained requires a series of steps, aids, and interpretation. To enable this process in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we have built a Web-based tool, the Arabidopsis Proteotypic Predictor, to select candidate SRM transitions when no previous mass spectrometry evidence exists. We also provide an in-depth analysis of the theoretical Arabidopsis proteome and its use in selecting candidate SRM peptides to establish assays for use in determining protein abundance. To test the effectiveness of SRM mass spectrometry in determining protein abundance in mutant lines, we selected two enzymes with multiple isoforms, aconitase and malate dehydrogenase. Selected peptides were quantified to estimate the abundance of each of the two mitochondrial isoforms in wild-type, KO, double KO, and complemented plant lines. We show that SRM protein analysis is a sensitive and rapid approach to quantify protein abundance differences in Arabidopsis for specific and highly related enzyme isoforms. PMID:24296071

  9. Abundance of adult horseshoe crabs (Limulus polylphemus) in Delaware Bay estimated from a bay-wide mark-recapture study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Millard, M.J.; Eyler, S.

    2006-01-01

    Estimates of the abundance of American horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) are important to determine egg production and to manage populations for the energetic needs of shorebirds that feed on horseshoe crab eggs. In 2003, over 17,500 horseshoe crabs were tagged and released throughout Delaware Bay, and recaptured crabs came from spawning surveys that were conducted during peak spawning. We used two release cohorts to test for a temporary effect of tagging on spawning behavior and we adjusted the number of releases according to relocation rates from a telemetry study. The abundance estimate was 20 million horseshoe crabs (90% confidence interval: 13-28 million), of which 6.25 million (90% CI: 4.0-8.8 million) were females. The combined harvest rate for Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia, and Maryland in 2003 was 4% (90% CI: 3-6%) of the abundance estimate. Over-wintering of adults in Delaware Bay could explain, in part, differences in estimates from ocean-trawl surveys. Based on fecundity of 88,000 eggs per female, egg production was 5.5??1011 (90% CI: 3.5??1011, 7.7??1011), but egg availability for shorebirds also depended on overlap between horseshoe crab and shorebird migrations, density-dependent bioturbation, and wave-mediated vertical transport.

  10. Escapement Monitoring of Adult Chinook Salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-04-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology was used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in spawning areas in Lake Creek and the Secesh River, Idaho, in 1999. This technique is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. This was the third year of testing the remote application of this methodology in the Secesh River drainage. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild salmon spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. Adult chinook salmon spawner abundance was estimated in Lake Creek with the remote time-lapse video application. Adult spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 1999 was 67 salmon. Significant upstream and downstream spawner movement affected the ability to determine the number of fish that contributed to the spawning population. The first passage on Lake Creek was recorded on July 11, two days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement occurred at the Lake Creek site on July 20, peak of total movement activity was August 19 with the last fish observed on August 26. A minimum of 133 adult chinook salmon migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River site prior to the July 15 installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement at the Secesh River site occurred July 19, peak of total movement was August 15, 17 and 18 and the last fish passed on September 10. Migrating salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek exhibited two behaviorally distinct segments of fish movement. Mainly upstream only, movement characterized the first segment. The second segment consisted of upstream and downstream movement with very little net upstream movement. Estimated abundance was compared to single and multiple-pass redd count surveys within the drainage. There were

  11. Culicoides monitoring in Belgium in 2011: analysis of spatiotemporal abundance, species diversity and Schmallenberg virus detection.

    PubMed

    DE Regge, N; DE Deken, R; Fassotte, C; Losson, B; Deblauwe, I; Madder, M; Vantieghem, P; Tomme, M; Smeets, F; Cay, A B

    2015-09-01

    In 2011, Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 locations covering four regions of Belgium with Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute (OVI) traps and at two locations with Rothamsted suction traps (RSTs). Quantification of the collections and morphological identification showed important variations in abundance and species diversity between individual collection sites, even for sites located in the same region. However, consistently higher numbers of Culicoides midges were collected at some sites compared with others. When species abundance and diversity were analysed at regional level, between-site variation disappeared. Overall, species belonging to the subgenus Avaritia together with Culicoides pulicaris (subgenus Culicoides) were the most abundant, accounting for 80% and 96% of all midges collected with RSTs and OVI traps, respectively. Culicoides were present during most of the year, with Culicoides obsoletus complex midges found from 9 February until 27 December. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction screening for Schmallenberg virus in the heads of collected midges resulted in the first detection of the virus in August 2011 and identified C. obsoletus complex, Culicoides chiopterus and Culicoides dewulfi midges as putative vector species. At Libramont in the south of Belgium, no positive pools were identified. PMID:25761054

  12. Distribution and abundance of stream fishes in relation to barriers: implications for monitoring stream recovery after barrier removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.; Gardner, C.; Saunders, R.

    2011-01-01

    Dams are ubiquitous in coastal regions and have altered stream habitats and the distribution and abundance of stream fishes in those habitats by disrupting hydrology, temperature regime and habitat connectivity. Dam removal is a common restoration tool, but often the response of the fish assemblage is not monitored rigorously. Sedgeunkedunk Stream, a small tributary to the Penobscot River (Maine, USA), has been the focus of a restoration effort that includes the removal of two low-head dams. In this study, we quantified fish assemblage metrics along a longitudinal gradient in Sedgeunkedunk Stream and also in a nearby reference stream. By establishing pre-removal baseline conditions and associated variability and the conditions and variability immediately following removal, we can characterize future changes in the system associated with dam removal. Over 2 years prior to dam removal, species richness and abundance in Sedgeunkedunk Stream were highest downstream of the lowest dam, lowest immediately upstream of that dam and intermediate farther upstream; patterns were similar in the reference stream. Although seasonal and annual variation in metrics within each site was substantial, the overall upstream-to-downstream pattern along the stream gradient was remarkably consistent prior to dam removal. Immediately after dam removal, we saw significant decreases in richness and abundance downstream of the former dam site and a corresponding increase in fish abundance upstream of the former dam site. No such changes occurred in reference sites. Our results show that by quantifying baseline conditions in a small stream before restoration, the effects of stream restoration efforts on fish assemblages can be monitored successfully. These data set the stage for the long-term assessment of Sedgeunkedunk Stream and provide a simple methodology for assessment in other restoration projects.

  13. Determing Lamprey Species Composition, Larval Distribution, and Adult Abundance in the Deschutes River, Oregon, Subbasin; 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Jennifer C.; Brun, Christopher V.

    2006-05-01

    Information about lamprey species composition, distribution, life history, abundance, habitat requirements, and exploitation in the lower Deschutes River Subbasin is extremely limited. During 2002, we began a multi-year study to assess the status of lamprey in the Deschutes River subbasin. The objectives of this project are to determine ammocoete (larval lamprey) distribution and associated habitats; Lampretra species composition; numbers of emigrants; adult escapement and harvest rates at Sherars Falls. This report describes the preliminary results of data collected during 2005. We continued documenting ammocoete (larval) habitat selection by surveying four perennial eastside tributaries to the Deschutes River (Warm Springs River, Badger, Beaver and Shitike creeks) within the known ammocoete distribution. The results of 2003-2005 sampling indicate that positive relationships exist between: presence of wood (P = < 0.001), depositional area (P = < 0.001), flow (P = < 0.001), and fine substrate (P = < 0.001). Out-migrants numbers were not estimated during 2005 due to our inability to recapture marked larvae. In Shitike Creek, ammocoete and microphthalmia out-migration peaked during November 2005. In the Warm Spring River, out-migration peaked for ammocoetes in April 2006 and December 2005 for microphthalmia. Samples of ammocoetes from each stream were retained in a permanent collection of future analysis. An escapement estimate was generated for adult Pacific lamprey in the lower Deschutes River using a two event mark-recapture experiment during run year 2005. A modified Peterson model was used to estimate the adult population of Pacific lamprey at 3,895 with an estimated escapement of 2,881 during 2005 (95% CI= 2,847; M = 143; C = 1,027 R = 37). A tribal creel was also conducted from mid-June through August. We estimated tribal harvest to be approximately 1,015 adult lamprey during 2005 (95% CI= +/- 74).

  14. Monitoring Temporal Abundance and Spatial Distribution of Aedes polynesiensis Using BG-Sentinel Traps in Neighboring Habitats on Raiatea, Society Archipelago, French Polynesia

    PubMed Central

    MERCER, DAVID R.; BOSSIN, HERVE; SANG, MICHEL CHEONG; O’CONNOR, LINDA; DOBSON, STEPHEN L.

    2012-01-01

    Adult numbers and sizes of mosquitoes were monitored for 2 yr in neighboring habitats on the western coast of Raiatea (Society Archipelago) in anticipation of testing new vector control technologies. Aedes polynesiensis Marks females comprised the overwhelming majority (≈99%) of the three species of mosquitoes captured in Biogent Sentinel traps placed at fixed sites on three small satellite islands (motus) of the western lagoon and on the shoreline of Raiatea. Aedes polynesiensis males, Aedes aegypti (L.), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say rarely were collected. Numbers of Ae. polynesiensis females per collection differed among trapping dates and locations, with the majority of females captured on two motus, Horea and Toamaro. Shoreline and Horea females had significantly longer mean wing lengths than females from Tiano and Toamaro. Thus, wing lengths were influenced more by local developmental conditions than overall numbers of adults. Significantly more females were captured during the wet season than the dry season. Nonetheless, at least on the two highly productive motus, dry-season females had larger wing lengths than their wet season counterparts. Local weather patterns predicted about half the variation in mosquito numbers. Differences in vector abundance observed when comparing neighboring motus are likely because of differences in human activity and mosquito suppression. PMID:22308771

  15. Effects of canola-wheat intercrops on Delia spp. (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) oviposition, larval feeding damage, and adult abundance.

    PubMed

    Hummel, J D; Dosdall, L M; Clayton, G W; Harker, K N; O'Donovan, J T

    2009-02-01

    Reductions in oviposition and subsequent damage by root maggots (Diptera: Anthomyiidae, Delia spp.) to brassicaceous crops in the presence of nonhost plants has been demonstrated, but such investigations have not been conducted using intercrops of species commonly grown in the large-scale agricultural production systems of western Canada. A field experiment was conducted at three sites in Alberta, Canada, in 2005 and 2006 to determine interactions between root maggots and the various proportions of canola (Brassica napus L.) making up the total crop plant populations in intercrops with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The effect of a neonicotinoid seed treatment also was investigated. Root maggot damage to canola taproots decreased with increasing proportions of wheat in the intercrops. The presence of wheat in the intercrops had little effect on root maggot adult abundance in any single site-by-year combination or when data were combined over all sites and years, with different Delia species and sexes responding differently. Similarly, per plant root maggot egg populations were unaffected by intercropping, although egg populations were reduced on a per unit land area basis in intercrops compared with monocultures. Insecticidal seed treatment did not affect root maggot egg populations or canola root damage. Variable abundances and phenologies of the principal root maggot species infesting canola at different sites and years may influence their responses to canola-wheat intercrops. Intercropping canola and wheat may provide an opportunity for reducing crop damage from root maggot attack without compromising environmental sustainability.

  16. Cost-Effective Large-Scale Occupancy–Abundance Monitoring of Invasive Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus Vulpecula) on New Zealand’s Public Conservation Land

    PubMed Central

    Gormley, Andrew M.; Forsyth, David M.; Wright, Elaine F.; Lyall, John; Elliott, Mike; Martini, Mark; Kappers, Benno; Perry, Mike; McKay, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    There is interest in large-scale and unbiased monitoring of biodiversity status and trend, but there are few published examples of such monitoring being implemented. The New Zealand Department of Conservation is implementing a monitoring program that involves sampling selected biota at the vertices of an 8-km grid superimposed over the 8.6 million hectares of public conservation land that it manages. The introduced brushtail possum (Trichosurus Vulpecula) is a major threat to some biota and is one taxon that they wish to monitor and report on. A pilot study revealed that the traditional method of monitoring possums using leg-hold traps set for two nights, termed the Trap Catch Index, was a constraint on the cost and logistical feasibility of the monitoring program. A phased implementation of the monitoring program was therefore conducted to collect data for evaluating the trade-off between possum occupancy–abundance estimates and the costs of sampling for one night rather than two nights. Reducing trapping effort from two nights to one night along four trap-lines reduced the estimated costs of monitoring by 5.8% due to savings in labour, food and allowances; it had a negligible effect on estimated national possum occupancy but resulted in slightly higher and less precise estimates of relative possum abundance. Monitoring possums for one night rather than two nights would provide an annual saving of NZ$72,400, with 271 fewer field days required for sampling. Possums occupied 60% (95% credible interval; 53–68) of sampling locations on New Zealand’s public conservation land, with a mean relative abundance (Trap Catch Index) of 2.7% (2.0–3.5). Possum occupancy and abundance were higher in forest than in non-forest habitats. Our case study illustrates the need to evaluate relationships between sampling design, cost, and occupancy–abundance estimates when designing and implementing large-scale occupancy–abundance monitoring programs. PMID:26029890

  17. Cost-Effective Large-Scale Occupancy-Abundance Monitoring of Invasive Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus Vulpecula) on New Zealand's Public Conservation Land.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Andrew M; Forsyth, David M; Wright, Elaine F; Lyall, John; Elliott, Mike; Martini, Mark; Kappers, Benno; Perry, Mike; McKay, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    There is interest in large-scale and unbiased monitoring of biodiversity status and trend, but there are few published examples of such monitoring being implemented. The New Zealand Department of Conservation is implementing a monitoring program that involves sampling selected biota at the vertices of an 8-km grid superimposed over the 8.6 million hectares of public conservation land that it manages. The introduced brushtail possum (Trichosurus Vulpecula) is a major threat to some biota and is one taxon that they wish to monitor and report on. A pilot study revealed that the traditional method of monitoring possums using leg-hold traps set for two nights, termed the Trap Catch Index, was a constraint on the cost and logistical feasibility of the monitoring program. A phased implementation of the monitoring program was therefore conducted to collect data for evaluating the trade-off between possum occupancy-abundance estimates and the costs of sampling for one night rather than two nights. Reducing trapping effort from two nights to one night along four trap-lines reduced the estimated costs of monitoring by 5.8% due to savings in labour, food and allowances; it had a negligible effect on estimated national possum occupancy but resulted in slightly higher and less precise estimates of relative possum abundance. Monitoring possums for one night rather than two nights would provide an annual saving of NZ$72,400, with 271 fewer field days required for sampling. Possums occupied 60% (95% credible interval; 53-68) of sampling locations on New Zealand's public conservation land, with a mean relative abundance (Trap Catch Index) of 2.7% (2.0-3.5). Possum occupancy and abundance were higher in forest than in non-forest habitats. Our case study illustrates the need to evaluate relationships between sampling design, cost, and occupancy-abundance estimates when designing and implementing large-scale occupancy-abundance monitoring programs.

  18. Determining Lamprey Species Composition, Larval Distribution and Adult Abundance in the Deschutes River Subbasin, Oregon ; 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Matt; Graham, Jennifer C.

    2009-06-26

    We will report results of an ongoing project in the Deschutes River Subbasin to describe Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) life history. Project objectives were to determine adult lamprey escapement from Sherars Falls located at Rkm 70.4 and determine lamprey focal spawning areas, spawn timing and habitat through radio telemetry. A mark-recapture study and tribal creel was conducted to determine adult escapement. Lamprey were radio tagged and are currently being mobile, aerial and fixed site tracked to describe spawning. Adult lamprey were collected at Sherars Falls using a long-handled dip net from June-September 2007. The fate of lamprey collected at Sherars Falls was determined based on girth measurements. Fish measuring less than 10.5 cm received two markings for the mark-recapture estimation while those measuring 10.5 cm or greater were implanted with radio transmitters. Two-hundred and nine lamprey were marked during first event sampling, 2,501 lamprey inspected for marks and 64 recaptured during second event sampling. We estimate lamprey abundance to be 8,083 (6,352-10,279) with a relative precision of 19.8. Tribal harvest was 2,303 +/- 88. Escapement was estimated at 5,780 adult lamprey. Thirty-six lamprey received radio transmitters. Lamprey were transported upstream 6.3 Rkm for surgery, held to recover from anesthesia and released. Mobile tracking efforts started mid-July 2007 and are on-going. To date 35 of the 36 lamprey have been detected. Upon release, extensive ground-based tracking was conducted until fish became dormant in mid-October. Since, fixed site downloading and tracking have occurred weekly on the mainstem Deschutes River. Majority of lamprey (88%) are holding in the mainstem Deschutes River. Three lamprey moved upstream more than 70 Rkms into westside tributaries from August-December. Three moved approximately 18 Rkms downstream of the release site. Tracking will continue through the spawning season when redd characteristics will be

  19. Monitoring Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) with baited bottom board traps: occurrence and seasonal abundance in honey bee colonies in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Torto, Baldwyn; Fombong, Ayuka T; Arbogast, Richard T; Teal, Peter E A

    2010-12-01

    The population dynamics of the honey bee pest Aethina tumida Murray (small hive beetle) have been studied in the United States with flight and Langstroth hive bottom board traps baited with pollen dough inoculated with a yeast Kodamaea ohmeri associated with the beetle. However, little is known about the population dynamics of the beetle in its native host range. Similarly baited Langstroth hive bottom board traps were used to monitor the occurrence and seasonal abundance of the beetle in honey bee colonies at two beekeeping locations in Kenya. Trap captures indicated that the beetle was present in honey bee colonies in low numbers all year round, but it was most abundant during the rainy season, with over 80% trapped during this period. The survival of larvae was tested in field releases under dry and wet soil conditions, and predators of larvae were identified. The actvity and survival of the beetle were strongly influenced by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors. Larval survival was higher during wet (28%) than dry (1.1%) conditions, with pupation occurring mostly at 0-15 cm and 11-20 cm, respectively, beneath the surface soil during these periods. The ant Pheidole megacephala was identified as a key predator of larvae at this site, and more active during the dry than wet seasons. These observations imply that intensive trapping during the rainy season could reduce the population of beetles infesting hives in subsequent seasons especially in places where the beetle is a serious pest.

  20. Monitoring winter and summer abundance of cetaceans in the Pelagos Sanctuary (northwestern Mediterranean Sea) through aerial surveys.

    PubMed

    Panigada, Simone; Lauriano, Giancarlo; Burt, Louise; Pierantonio, Nino; Donovan, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Systematic long-term monitoring of abundance is essential to inform conservation measures and evaluate their effectiveness. To instigate such work in the Pelagos Sanctuary in the Mediterranean, two aerial surveys were conducted in winter and summer 2009. A total of 467 (131 in winter, 336 in summer) sightings of 7 species was made. Sample sizes were sufficient to estimate abundance of fin whales in summer (148; 95% CI = 87-254) and striped dolphins in winter (19,462; 95% CI = 12 939-29 273) and in summer (38 488; 95% CI = 27 447-53 968). Numbers of animals within the Sanctuary are significantly higher in summer, when human activities and thus potential population level impacts are highest. Comparisons with data from past shipboard surveys suggest an appreciable decrease in fin whales within the Sanctuary area and an appreciable increase in striped dolphins. Aerial surveys proved to be more efficient than ship surveys, allowing more robust estimates, with smaller CIs and CVs. These results provide essential baseline data for this marine protected area and continued regular surveys will allow the effectiveness of the MPA in terms of cetacean conservation to be evaluated and inform future management measures. The collected data may also be crucial in assessing whether ship strikes, one of the main causes of death for fin whales in the Mediterranean, are affecting the Mediterranean population. PMID:21829544

  1. Monitoring Winter and Summer Abundance of Cetaceans in the Pelagos Sanctuary (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea) Through Aerial Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Panigada, Simone; Lauriano, Giancarlo; Burt, Louise; Pierantonio, Nino; Donovan, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Systematic long-term monitoring of abundance is essential to inform conservation measures and evaluate their effectiveness. To instigate such work in the Pelagos Sanctuary in the Mediterranean, two aerial surveys were conducted in winter and summer 2009. A total of 467 (131 in winter, 336 in summer) sightings of 7 species was made. Sample sizes were sufficient to estimate abundance of fin whales in summer (148; 95% CI = 87–254) and striped dolphins in winter (19,462; 95% CI = 12 939–29 273) and in summer (38 488; 95% CI = 27 447–53 968). Numbers of animals within the Sanctuary are significantly higher in summer, when human activities and thus potential population level impacts are highest. Comparisons with data from past shipboard surveys suggest an appreciable decrease in fin whales within the Sanctuary area and an appreciable increase in striped dolphins. Aerial surveys proved to be more efficient than ship surveys, allowing more robust estimates, with smaller CIs and CVs. These results provide essential baseline data for this marine protected area and continued regular surveys will allow the effectiveness of the MPA in terms of cetacean conservation to be evaluated and inform future management measures. The collected data may also be crucial in assessing whether ship strikes, one of the main causes of death for fin whales in the Mediterranean, are affecting the Mediterranean population. PMID:21829544

  2. Higher sika deer density is associated with higher local abundance of Haemaphysalis longicornis nymphs and adults but not larvae in central Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Hideharu; Nakamura, Yoshio; Kamio, Tsugihiko; Inokuma, Hisashi; Hanafusa, Yasuko; Matsuda, Naoko; Maruyama, Tetsuya; Ohba, Takahiro; Nagata, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae) is one of the most common and important arthropod disease vectors in Japan, carrying Japanese spotted fever and bovine theileriosis. The recent expansion of sika deer (Cervus nippon, Artiodactyla: Cervidae) populations, the most common wild host of H. longicornis, has also caused concern about increasing the risk of vector-borne diseases in Japan. We used generalized linear mixed model analysis to determine the relative contribution of deer density and other biological and abiotic factors on the abundance of H. longicornis ticks questing at each developmental stage. A total of 6223 H. longicornis adults, nymphs, and larvae were collected from 70 sites in three regions of central Japan. The abundance of questing adult and nymphal ticks was associated with deer density and other biotic and abiotic factors. However, the abundance of questing larvae showed no association with deer density but did show an association with other biotic and abiotic factors. These findings show that a high density of deer along with other biotic and abiotic factors is associated with increased risk of vector-borne diseases through amplified local abundance of questing nymphal and adult H. longicornis. Further, questing larvae abundance is likely regulated by environmental conditions and is likely correlated with survival potential or the distribution of other host species. PMID:23702338

  3. Higher sika deer density is associated with higher local abundance of Haemaphysalis longicornis nymphs and adults but not larvae in central Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Hideharu; Nakamura, Yoshio; Kamio, Tsugihiko; Inokuma, Hisashi; Hanafusa, Yasuko; Matsuda, Naoko; Maruyama, Tetsuya; Ohba, Takahiro; Nagata, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae) is one of the most common and important arthropod disease vectors in Japan, carrying Japanese spotted fever and bovine theileriosis. The recent expansion of sika deer (Cervus nippon, Artiodactyla: Cervidae) populations, the most common wild host of H. longicornis, has also caused concern about increasing the risk of vector-borne diseases in Japan. We used generalized linear mixed model analysis to determine the relative contribution of deer density and other biological and abiotic factors on the abundance of H. longicornis ticks questing at each developmental stage. A total of 6223 H. longicornis adults, nymphs, and larvae were collected from 70 sites in three regions of central Japan. The abundance of questing adult and nymphal ticks was associated with deer density and other biotic and abiotic factors. However, the abundance of questing larvae showed no association with deer density but did show an association with other biotic and abiotic factors. These findings show that a high density of deer along with other biotic and abiotic factors is associated with increased risk of vector-borne diseases through amplified local abundance of questing nymphal and adult H. longicornis. Further, questing larvae abundance is likely regulated by environmental conditions and is likely correlated with survival potential or the distribution of other host species.

  4. Camera Traps on Wildlife Crossing Structures as a Tool in Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Management - Five-Years Monitoring of Wolf Abundance Trends in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Šver, Lidija; Bielen, Ana; Križan, Josip; Gužvica, Goran

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of gray wolf (Canis lupus) and its coexistence with humans presents a challenge and requires continuous monitoring and management efforts. One of the non-invasive methods that produces high-quality wolf monitoring datasets is camera trapping. We present a novel monitoring approach where camera traps are positioned on wildlife crossing structures that channel the animals, thereby increasing trapping success and increasing the cost-efficiency of the method. In this way we have followed abundance trends of five wolf packs whose home ranges are intersected by a motorway which spans throughout the wolf distribution range in Croatia. During the five-year monitoring of six green bridges we have recorded 28 250 camera-events, 132 with wolves. Four viaducts were monitored for two years, recording 4914 camera-events, 185 with wolves. We have detected a negative abundance trend of the monitored Croatian wolf packs since 2011, especially severe in the northern part of the study area. Further, we have pinpointed the legal cull as probable major negative influence on the wolf pack abundance trends (linear regression, r2 > 0.75, P < 0.05). Using the same approach we did not find evidence for a negative impact of wolves on the prey populations, both wild ungulates and livestock. We encourage strict protection of wolf in Croatia until there is more data proving population stability. In conclusion, quantitative methods, such as the one presented here, should be used as much as possible when assessing wolf abundance trends. PMID:27327498

  5. Camera Traps on Wildlife Crossing Structures as a Tool in Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Management - Five-Years Monitoring of Wolf Abundance Trends in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Križan, Josip; Gužvica, Goran

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of gray wolf (Canis lupus) and its coexistence with humans presents a challenge and requires continuous monitoring and management efforts. One of the non-invasive methods that produces high-quality wolf monitoring datasets is camera trapping. We present a novel monitoring approach where camera traps are positioned on wildlife crossing structures that channel the animals, thereby increasing trapping success and increasing the cost-efficiency of the method. In this way we have followed abundance trends of five wolf packs whose home ranges are intersected by a motorway which spans throughout the wolf distribution range in Croatia. During the five-year monitoring of six green bridges we have recorded 28 250 camera-events, 132 with wolves. Four viaducts were monitored for two years, recording 4914 camera-events, 185 with wolves. We have detected a negative abundance trend of the monitored Croatian wolf packs since 2011, especially severe in the northern part of the study area. Further, we have pinpointed the legal cull as probable major negative influence on the wolf pack abundance trends (linear regression, r2 > 0.75, P < 0.05). Using the same approach we did not find evidence for a negative impact of wolves on the prey populations, both wild ungulates and livestock. We encourage strict protection of wolf in Croatia until there is more data proving population stability. In conclusion, quantitative methods, such as the one presented here, should be used as much as possible when assessing wolf abundance trends. PMID:27327498

  6. Determing Lamprey Species Composition, Larval Distribution, and Adult Abundance in the Deschutes River, Oregon, Subbasin; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Jennifer C.; Brun, Christopher V.

    2003-05-01

    Information about lamprey species composition, distribution, life history, abundance, habitat requirements and exploitation in lower Deschutes River tributaries is extremely limited. To assess the status of lampreys in the Deschutes River subbasin, baseline information is needed. We operated to rotary screw traps in the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek to gain an understanding of species composition, migration time and production. We identified Pacific lampreys in two life stages, ammocoete and macropthalmia. It appears that Pacific lamprey macropthalmia out-migrate during winter in the Warm Springs River. We saw peak movements by ammocoetes in the spring in Shitike Creek and winter in the Warm Springs River. We found no relationship between stream discharge and the number of lamprey collected. Very few macropthalmia were collected in Shitike Creek. Ammocoete size in the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek were different. The ammocoetes in the Shitike Creek trap were close in size to the macropthalmia collected in the Warm Springs River trap. We also completed planning and preparation for larval and associated habitat data collection. This preparation included purchasing necessary field equipment, selecting and marking sampling areas and attending training with US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Confederated Tribes of Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). Because lamprey identification is difficult we met with US Geological Survey (USGS) to assist us with larval lamprey identification techniques. We have also been working in coordination with the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) to prepare and implement creel surveys and a mark-recapture study at Sherar's Falls to estimate adult lamprey escapement.

  7. Reality Monitoring and Metamemory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Rose A.; Plaisted-Grant, Kate C.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Simons, Jon S.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of reality monitoring (RM) often implicate medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in distinguishing internal and external information, a region linked to autism-related deficits in social and self-referential information processing, executive function, and memory. This study used two RM conditions (self-other; perceived-imagined) to investigate…

  8. Performance Monitoring Is Altered in Adult ADHD: A Familial Event-Related Potential Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Grainne; Albrecht, Bjoern; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert; Brandeis, Daniel; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2009-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that starts in childhood and frequently persists in adults. Electrophysiological studies in children with ADHD provide evidence for abnormal performance monitoring processes and familial association of these processes with ADHD. It is not yet known…

  9. How Stimulus and Task Complexity Affect Monitoring in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koolen, Sophieke; Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; Egger, Jos I. M.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to update and monitor working memory representations of visual input, and whether performance is influenced by stimulus and task complexity. 15 high-functioning adults with ASD and 15 controls were asked to allocate either elements of abstract figures or…

  10. Usefulness of a Perceived Exertion Scale for Monitoring Exercise Intensity in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Aucoin, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In order to gain physical fitness and health, exercise must be performed at a sufficient level of intensity. Exercise intensity can be monitored with rated perceived exertion (RPE) scales to promote safe and effective programming. The usefulness of the Children's OMNI Scale as a subjective measure of intensity for adults with intellectual…

  11. The Utility of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for Diagnosing White Coat Hypertension in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Kristi; Bowling, C Barrett; Sim, John J; Sridharan, Lakshmi; Harrison, Teresa N; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-11-01

    The beneficial effect of antihypertensive medication on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is supported by data from randomized controlled trials of older adults with hypertension. However, in clinical practice, overtreatment of hypertension in older adults may lead to side effects and an increased risk of falls. The diagnosis and treatment of hypertension is primarily based on blood pressure measurements obtained in the clinic setting. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) complements clinic blood pressure by measuring blood pressure in the out-of-clinic setting. ABPM can be used to identify white coat hypertension, defined as elevated clinic blood pressure and non-elevated ambulatory blood pressure. White coat hypertension is common in older adults but does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of CVD events among this population. Herein, we review the current literature on ABPM in the diagnoses of white coat hypertension in older adults, including its potential role in preventing overtreatment.

  12. The Utility of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for Diagnosing White Coat Hypertension in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Kristi; Bowling, C Barrett; Sim, John J; Sridharan, Lakshmi; Harrison, Teresa N; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-11-01

    The beneficial effect of antihypertensive medication on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is supported by data from randomized controlled trials of older adults with hypertension. However, in clinical practice, overtreatment of hypertension in older adults may lead to side effects and an increased risk of falls. The diagnosis and treatment of hypertension is primarily based on blood pressure measurements obtained in the clinic setting. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) complements clinic blood pressure by measuring blood pressure in the out-of-clinic setting. ABPM can be used to identify white coat hypertension, defined as elevated clinic blood pressure and non-elevated ambulatory blood pressure. White coat hypertension is common in older adults but does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of CVD events among this population. Herein, we review the current literature on ABPM in the diagnoses of white coat hypertension in older adults, including its potential role in preventing overtreatment. PMID:26400076

  13. A Tale of Two City Blocks: Differences in Immature and Adult Mosquito Abundances between Socioeconomically Different Urban Blocks in Baltimore (Maryland, USA)

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Brian; Leisnham, Paul T.; LaDeau, Shannon L.

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure degradation in many post-industrial cities has increased the availability of potential mosquito habitats, including container habitats that support infestations of invasive disease-vectors. This study is unique in examining both immature and adult mosquito abundance across the fine-scale variability in socio-economic condition that occurs block-to-block in many cities. We hypothesized that abundant garbage associated with infrastructure degradation would support greater mosquito production but instead, found more mosquito larvae and host-seeking adults (86%) in parcels across the higher socio-economic, low-decay block. Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens were 5.61 (p < 0.001) and 4.60 (p = 0.001) times more abundant, respectively. Most discarded (garbage) containers were dry during peak mosquito production, which occurred during the 5th hottest July on record. Containers associated with human residence were more likely to hold water and contain immature mosquitoes. We propose that mosquito production switches from rain-fed unmanaged containers early in the season to container habitats that are purposefully shaded or watered by mid-season. This study suggests that residents living in higher socioeconomic areas with low urban decay may be at greater risk of mosquito-borne disease during peak mosquito production when local container habitats are effectively decoupled from environmental constraints. PMID:24651396

  14. How Do Health Care Providers Perceive Technologies for Monitoring Older Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Hilaire J.; Thielke, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring and assistive technologies for the older adults, by sensing and recording activities and status, provide an objective record of a patient’s functioning within natural environments. Yet the data derived from these technologies do not directly address the clinical aims of health care providers. We conducted focus groups with health care providers who work with older adults to elicit their perspectives on monitoring technologies. Identified themes centered around the benefits and risks of technologies, patient needs, the clinical utility of information, and specific monitoring domains that might improve the health care of older adults. Providers highlighted the primary importance of involving families and caregivers, and of sustaining human interactions. They explored the difficulties with how to use information for clinical ends, and challenged the notion that more objective information would automatically improve their heath care. Designers, developers, and researchers might improve the utility and uptake of health-related technologies for older adults and their families by eliciting the viewpoints of clinical providers. PMID:19964352

  15. Neural correlates of error monitoring in an adult with Klinefelter's syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Pin

    2010-07-01

    Studies have indicated that individuals with Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) exhibit deficits in executive functions. However, little attention has been paid to investigate control mechanism of executive functions, i.e., error monitoring, in individuals with KS. Two event-related potential (ERP) components, i.e., error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) and error positivity (Pe), are the electrophysiological markers of error monitoring. This case report presents the findings of error monitoring from an adult with KS using the electrophysiological technique. This KS individual displayed small ERN and Pe amplitudes, suggesting that he may exhibit deficient error detection and reaction, a lack of conscious error recognition, and nonproficient adjustment after an error. The findings of this report should stimulate further study in error monitoring in individuals with KS. PMID:20722351

  16. Prey-capture efficiency between juveniles and adults, feeding habitat and abundance of Wattled Jacana foragers in northern Pantanal, Mato Grosso state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Forti, L R; Nóbrega, P F A

    2012-05-01

    The choice of foraging strategies implies an attempt at gaining energy by predators. Supposedly, the difference in employing the "sit and wait" or "active foraging" behavior lays in hunter skills, experience and the kind of prey consumed. With the hypothesis that "active foraging" demands no learning, in this study we compared the prey capture efficiency among Wattled Jacana juveniles and adults, and also present descriptive information about feeding habitat and the abundance variation of foragers throughout the day in the northern Pantanal. Prey capture efficiency did not differ significantly among juveniles and adults, corroborating our initial hypothesis that "active foraging" is an instinctive behavior and demands no experience to be effective. However, future work is necessary to compare the energetic quality of consumed items by juveniles and adults, searching for differences explained by adults' experience. Foraging individuals were found at an average distance of 14 m ranging from 2 to 42 m) from the margin of the sampled swamps, however 64% of the foragers were found closer to the margins. The average depth of foraging sites was 17 cm, ranging from 5 to 40 cm, although no preference for specific classes of depth was found (p > 0,05). Despite the accepted general pattern of birds being more active in the early morning, the largest number of individuals foraging was observed between 11:00 and 12:00 AM, but no significant difference was found in the abundance of foraging individuals among different periods of the day. Factors, which were not analyzed, such as food availability and presence of competitors and predators need to be studied to reveal the main factors of the spatial and temporal distribution of the Wattled Jacana.

  17. Fine scale spatial urban land cover factors associated with adult mosquito abundance and risk in Tucson, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Landau, Katheryn I; van Leeuwen, Willem J D

    2012-12-01

    It is currently unclear what role microhabitat land cover plays in determining the seasonal spatial distribution of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, disease vectors of dengue and West Nile Virus, respectively, in Tucson, AZ. We compared mosquito abundance to sixteen land cover variables derived from 2010 NAIP multispectral data and 2008 LiDAR height data. Mosquitoes were trapped with 30-9 traps from May to October of 2010 and 2011. Variables were extracted for five buffer zones (10-50 m radii at 10 m intervals) around trapping sites. Stepwise regression was performed to determine the best scale for observation and the influential land cover variables. The 30 m radius buffer was determined to be the best for observing the land cover-mosquito abundance relationship. Ae. aegypti presence was positively associated with structure and medium height trees and negatively associated with bare earth; Cx. quinquefasciatus presence was positively associated with pavement and medium height trees and negatively associated with shrubs. These findings emphasize vegetation, impervious surfaces, and soil influences on mosquito presence in an urban setting. Lastly, the land cover-mosquito abundance relationships were used to produce risk maps of seasonal presence that highlight high risk areas in Tucson, which may be useful for focusing mosquito control program actions. PMID:23181866

  18. Effect of sampling method on the species composition and abundance of adult mosquitoes in a Florida swamp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples of the adult mosquito populations in a Florida swamp (Sumter Co.) were obtained using suction traps and portable CDC light traps (augmented with CO2) and the results compared with mosquitoes captured by mechanical aspirator when landing on a human subject. Sixteen mosquito species total wer...

  19. Unchanged [3H]ouabain binding site content but reduced Na+-K+ pump α2-protein abundance in skeletal muscle in older adults.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Michael J; Perry, Ben D; Serpiello, Fabio R; Caldow, Marissa K; Levinger, Pazit; Cameron-Smith, David; Levinger, Itamar

    2012-11-01

    Aging is associated with reduced muscle mass, weakness, and increased fatigability. In skeletal muscle, the Na(+)-K(+) pump (NKA) is important in regulating Na(+)-K(+) gradients, membrane excitability, and thus contractility, but the effects of aging on muscle NKA are unclear. We investigated whether aging is linked with reduced muscle NKA by contrasting muscle NKA isoform gene expression and protein abundance, and NKA total content in 17 Elderly (66.8 ± 6.4 yr, mean ± SD) and 16 Young adults (23.9 ± 2.2 yr). Participants underwent peak oxygen consumption assessment and a vastus lateralis muscle biopsy, which was analyzed for NKA α(1)-, α(2)-, α(3)-, β(1)-, β(2)-, and β(3)-isoform gene expression (real-time RT-PCR), protein abundance (immunoblotting), and NKA total content ([(3)H]ouabain binding sites). The Elderly had lower peak oxygen consumption (-36.7%, P = 0.000), strength (-36.3%, P = 0.001), NKA α(2)- (-24.4%, 11.9 ± 4.4 vs. 9.0 ± 2.7 arbitrary units, P = 0.049), and NKA β(3)-protein abundance (-23.0%, P = 0.041) than Young. The β(3)-mRNA was higher in Elderly compared with Young (P = 0.011). No differences were observed between groups for other NKA isoform mRNA or protein abundance, or for [(3)H]ouabain binding site content. Thus skeletal muscle in elderly individuals was characterized by decreased NKA α(2)- and β(3)-protein abundance, but unchanged α(1) abundance and [(3)H]ouabain binding. The latter was likely caused by reduced α(2) abundance with aging, preventing an otherwise higher [(3)H]ouabain binding that might occur with a greater membrane density in smaller muscle fibers. Further study is required to verify reduced muscle NKA α(2) with aging and possible contributions to impaired exercise capability and daily living activities. PMID:22936730

  20. Effects of thermal discharges on the distribution and abundance of adult fishes in the Savannah River and selected tributaries: Annual report, November 1984-August 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Saul, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    A study of the juvenile and adult fish community in streams draining the SRP and in the Savannah River in the area of the SRP was conducted between September 1984 and September 1985. The major objectives were to examine the abundance and distribution of fishes near the Savannah River Plant in relation to thermal discharges into the river, creeks, and floodplain swamps and to determine the rate of impingement of adult and juvenile fishes on the intake screens at the SRP pumphouses. The most abundant fishes (excluding minnows) taken by electrofishing were the redbreast sunfish (41.6%), spotted sucker (8.8%), spotted sunfish (8.2%), largemouth bass (5.7%), bluegill (5.6%), and American eel (5.4%). The most abundant fishes taken by hoop netting were the flat bullhead (38.0%), channel catfish (11.9%), bluegill (9.4%), white catfish (7.9%), black crappie (6.5%), and redbreast sunfish (5.5%). Dominant species in the intake canals were the bluegill, redbreast sunfish, and black crappie. Dominant species in the nonthermal river were the redbreast sunfish, spotted sunfish, spotted sucker, largemouth bass, channel catfish, white catfish, and flat bullhead. Dominant species in the nonthermal creeks were fairly similar to river species except that the catfishes were not as well represented. The thermal river and creek habitats differed from the nonthermal habitats in having higher percentages (although often lower numbers) of channel catfish, white catfish, largemouth bass, and coastal shiner and a lower percentage of flat bullhead.

  1. Uptake of health monitoring and disease self-management in Australian adults with neurofibromatosis type 1: strategies to improve care.

    PubMed

    Crawford, H A; Barton, B; Wilson, M J; Berman, Y; McKelvey-Martin, V J; Morrison, P J; North, K N

    2016-03-01

    Lifelong health monitoring is recommended in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) because of the progressive and unpredictable range of disabling and potentially life-threatening symptoms that arise. In Australia, strategies for NF1 health surveillance are less well developed for adults than they are for children, resulting in inequalities between pediatric and adult care. The aims of this study were to determine the uptake of health monitoring and capacity of adults with NF1 to self-manage their health. Australian adults with NF1 (n = 94, 18-40 years) participated in a semi-structured interview. Almost half reported no regular health monitoring. Thematic analysis of interviews identified four main themes as to why: (i) did not know where to seek care, (ii) unaware of the need for regular monitoring, (iii) futility of health monitoring as nothing can be done for NF1, and (iv) feeling healthy, therefore monitoring unnecessary. Overall, there were low levels of patient activation, indicating that adults with NF1 lacked knowledge and confidence to manage their health and health care. Findings are discussed in the context of service provision for adults with NF1 in New South Wales, Australia.

  2. In situ monitoring of health in older adults: technologies and issues.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Gu; Mahoney, Diane F; Hoenig, Helen; Hirth, Victor A; Bonato, Paolo; Hajjar, Ihab; Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2010-08-01

    With the upcoming reform of the healthcare system and the greater emphasis on care in the home and other living environments, geriatric providers will need alternate ways of monitoring disease, activity, response to therapy, and patient safety. Current understanding of the dynamic nature of chronic illnesses, their effects on health over time, and the ability to manage them in the community are limited to measuring a set of variables at discrete points in time, which does not account for the dynamic interactions between physiological systems and the environments of daily life. Recent developments of sensors, data recorders, and communication networks allow the unprecedented measurements of physiological and sociological data for use in geriatrics care. This article identifies and discusses the important issues regarding the use of monitoring technologies in elderly patients. The goals are fourfold. First, some emerging technology that may improve the lives of older adults and improve care are highlighted. Second, the possible applications of technology in geriatrics settings are discussed, with a focus on acute falls, dementia, and cardiac conditions. Third, real and perceived concerns in using monitoring technology are identified and addressed, including technology adoption by elderly people; stigma; and the reduction in social contact; ethical concerns of privacy, autonomy, and consent; concerns of clinicians, including information overload, licensure, and liability; current reimbursement schemes for using technology; and the reliability and infrastructure needed for monitoring technology. Fourth, future approaches to make monitoring technology useful and available in geriatrics are recommended.

  3. Selection of colour of sticky trap for monitoring adult bean thrips, Caliothrips fasciatus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Harman, J Alex; Mao, Chang Xuan; Morse, Joseph G

    2007-02-01

    Adult bean thrips, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande), overwintering inside the navel of navel oranges shipped from California to Australia, are an actionable pest for the importing country, i.e. infested lots are fumigated with methyl bromide. Strict quarantine regulations regarding C. fasciatus prompted studies on the best colour sticky trap that might be used to monitor for bean thrips populations in the vicinity of California citrus groves prior to harvesting fruit for export. Preliminary experiments identified the most attractive trap of each of four colours (blue, green, white, yellow) commonly used to sample adult Thysanoptera. Three trials of a field study were conducted, comparing C. fasciatus capture on the best card of each colour using asparagus ferns naturally infested with high levels of this pest. Based on significantly higher catch on green sticky cards, this colour trap is recommended for potential use in California's bean thrips mitigation plan designed to reduce thrips levels on citrus exported to Australia.

  4. Population size and relative abundance of adult Alabama shad reaching jim woodruff lock and dam, Apalachicola River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Patrick C.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    We estimated the population size of migrating Alabama shad Alosa alabamae below Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam in the Apalachicola River (located in the central panhandle of northwestern Florida) using mark-recapture and relative abundance techniques. After adjustment for tag loss, emigration, and mortality, the population size was estimated as 25,935 (95% confidence interval, 17,715-39,535) in 2005, 2,767 (838-5,031) in 2006, and 8,511 (5,211-14,674) in 2007. The cumulative catch rate from boat electrofishing averaged 20.47 Alabama shad per hour in 2005, 6.10 per hour in 2006, and 13.17 per hour in 2007. The relationship between population size (N) and electrofishing catch per unit effort (CPUE) was modeled by the equation N = -9008.2 + (electrofishing CPUE X 1616.4). Additionally, in 2007 the hook-and-line catch rate averaged 1.94 Alabama shad per rod hour. A predictive model relating the population size and hook-and-line CPUE of spawning American shad A. sapidissima was applied to Alabama shad hook-and-line CPUE and produced satisfactory results. Recent spawning populations of Alabama shad in the Apalachicola River are low relative to American shad populations in other southeastern U.S. rivers. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  5. Plastic cup traps equipped with light-emitting diodes for monitoring adult Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Chu, Chang-Chi; Jackson, Charles G; Alexander, Patrick J; Karut, Kamil; Henneberry, Thomas J

    2003-06-01

    Equipping the standard plastic cup trap, also known as the CC trap, with lime-green light-emitting diodes (LED-plastic cup trap) increased its efficacy for catching Bemisia tabaci by 100%. Few Eretmocerus eremicus Rose and Zolnerowich and Encarsia formosa Gahan were caught in LED-plastic cup traps. The LED-plastic cup traps are less expensive than yellow sticky card traps for monitoring adult whiteflies in greenhouse crop production systems and are more compatible with whitefly parasitoids releases for Bemisia nymph control.

  6. Monitoring neurodegeneration in diabetes using adult neural stem cells derived from the olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Neurons have the intrinsic capacity to produce insulin, similar to pancreatic cells. Adult neural stem cells (NSCs), which give rise to functional neurons, can be established and cultured not only by intracerebral collection, which requires difficult surgery, but also by collection from the olfactory bulb (OB), which is relatively easy. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus (HPC) is significantly decreased in diabetes patients. As a result, learning and memory functions, for which the HPC is responsible, decrease. Methods In the present study, we compared the effect of diabetes on neurogenesis and insulin expression in adult NSCs. Adult NSCs were derived from the HPC or OB of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Comparative gene-expression analyses were carried out by using extracted tissues and established adult NSC cultures from the HPC or OB in diabetic rats. Results Diabetes progression influenced important genes that were required for insulin expression in both OB- and HPC-derived cells. Additionally, we found that the expression levels of several genes, such as voltage-gated sodium channels, glutamate transporters, and glutamate receptors, were significantly different in OB and HPC cells collected from diabetic rats. Conclusions By using identified diabetes-response genes, OB NSCs from diabetes patients can be used during diabetes progression to monitor processes that cause neurodegeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). Because hippocampal NSCs and OB NSCs exhibited similar gene-expression profiles during diabetes progression, OB NSCs, which are more easily collected and established than HPC NSCs, may potentially be used for screening of effective drugs for neurodegenerative disorders that cause malignant damage to CNS functions. PMID:23673084

  7. Beyond the prescription: medication monitoring and adverse drug events in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Steinman, Michael A.; Handler, Steven M.; Gurwitz, Jerry H.; Schiff, Gordon D.; Covinsky, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    Whether a given patient will suffer harm from a medication or how severe that harm will be is difficult to precisely predict. As a result, many adverse drug events (ADEs) occur in patients in whom it was reasonable to believe that the drug's benefits exceeded its risks. Improving safety and reducing the burden of ADEs in older adults requires addressing this uncertainty by focusing not only on the appropriateness of the initial prescribing decision but also on detecting and mitigating adverse events once they have started to occur. Such enhanced monitoring of signs, symptoms, and laboratory parameters can determine whether an adverse event has only mild and short-term impacts or major long-term effects on morbidity and mortality. While current medication monitoring practices are often suboptimal, several strategies can be leveraged to improve the quality and outcomes of monitoring. These strategies include using health information technology to link pharmacy and laboratory data, prospective delineation of risk, and patient outreach and activation, all within a framework of team-based approaches to patient management. While many of these strategies are theoretically possible now, they are poorly utilized and will be difficult to implement without a significant restructuring of medical practice. An enhanced focus on medication monitoring will also require a new conceptual framework to re-engineer the prescribing process. In this approach, prescribing quality hinges not on static attributes of the initial prescribing decision, but entails a dynamic process in which the benefits and harms of drugs are actively monitored, managed, and reassessed over time. PMID:21797831

  8. Transiently-Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions (teoaes) in Monitoring Adult Cis-Platin Patients.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribera, John Everett

    1995-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) reflect the integrity of cochlear outer hair cell (OHC) function. Cis-platin (CDDP) is a potent ototoxic chemotherapeutic agent that tends to destroy or disable OHCs. Therefore, this study was designed to answer the following questions: (1) Can TEOAEs be used in monitoring for ototoxicity in adult VA oncology patients receiving CDDP treatment? (2) If so, how sensitive are TEOAEs in detecting significant changes when compared to Audiometry in a VA population? and (3) Which of several TEOAE measures is the most sensitive to changes in hearing due to CDDP ototoxicity in a VA population?. In Experiment I, VA Medical Center patients were recruited (control group) and tested using a conventional audiometer and the ILO88 Otoacoustic Analyzer on three separate days. Data from this experiment were used to develop change criteria in each of four TEOAE measures (Reproducibility, Compare, 1 kHz Band Analysis, and OAE Response) for Experiment II. Experiment II was of similar design with the exception that the subjects (experimental group) were patients enrolled from the oncology ward and were administered CDDP after the first and second test sessions. Data from both groups and all test measures revealed (1) that there was no ear effect in any of the test conditions, (2) there was a group (drug) effect, and (3) there was a frequency effect at 2 kHz. Audiometry detected changes in 56% of the experimental subjects, while the number of changes varied among the TEOAE measures studied. Compare agreed with Audiometry more often and performed better than any other TEOAE measure in detecting change. Based on these findings, incorporation of Compare into an audiometric test battery to monitor for ototoxicity in the VA population is feasible. There is evidence to suggest that as measurement techniques are refined TEOAE analysis will become a valid test for monitoring of adult CDDP patients.

  9. Gaucher disease type 1: revised recommendations on evaluations and monitoring for adult patients.

    PubMed

    Weinreb, Neal J; Aggio, Mario C; Andersson, Hans C; Andria, Generoso; Charrow, Joel; Clarke, Joe T R; Erikson, Anders; Giraldo, Pilar; Goldblatt, Jack; Hollak, Carla; Ida, Hiroyuki; Kaplan, Paige; Kolodny, Edwin H; Mistry, Pramod; Pastores, Gregory M; Pires, Ricardo; Prakash-Cheng, Ainu; Prakesh-Cheng, Ainu; Rosenbloom, Barry E; Scott, C Ronald; Sobreira, Elisa; Tylki-Szymańska, Anna; Vellodi, Ashok; vom Dahl, Stephan; Wappner, Rebecca S; Zimran, Ari

    2004-10-01

    For patients with type 1 Gaucher disease, challenges to patient care posed by clinical heterogeneity, variable progression rates, and potential permanent disability that can result from untreated or suboptimally treated hematologic, skeletal, and visceral organ involvement dictate a need for comprehensive, serial monitoring. An updated consensus on minimum recommendations for effective monitoring of all adult patients with type 1 Gaucher disease has been developed by the International Collaborative Gaucher Group (ICGG) Registry coordinators. These recommendations provide a schedule for comprehensive and reproducible evaluation and monitoring of all clinically relevant aspects of this disease. The initial assessment should include confirmation of deficiency of beta-glucocerebrosidase, genotyping, and a complete family medical history. Other assessments to be performed initially and at regular intervals include a complete physical examination, patient-reported quality of life using the SF-36 survey, and assessment of hematologic (hemoglobin and platelet count), visceral, and skeletal involvement, and biomarkers. Specific radiologic imaging techniques are recommended for evaluating visceral and skeletal pathology. All patients should undergo comprehensive regular assessment, the frequency of which depends on treatment status and whether therapeutic goals have been achieved. Additionally, reassessment should be performed whenever enzyme therapy dose is altered, or in case of significant clinical complication. PMID:15468046

  10. Relative abundance, site fidelity, and survival of adult lake trout in Lake Michigan from 1999 to 2001: Implications for future restoration strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, C.R.; Holey, M.E.; Madenjian, C.P.; Jonas, J.L.; Claramunt, R.M.; McKee, P.C.; Toneys, M.L.; Ebener, M.P.; Breidert, B.; Fleischer, G.W.; Hess, R.; Martell, A.W.; Olsen, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    We compared the relative abundance of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush spawners in gill nets during fall 1999–2001 in Lake Michigan at 19 stocked spawning sites with that at 25 unstocked sites to evaluate how effective site-specific stocking was in recolonizing historically important spawning reefs. The abundance of adult fish was higher at stocked onshore and offshore sites than at unstocked sites. This suggests that site-specific stocking is more effective at establishing spawning aggregations than relying on the ability of hatchery-reared lake trout to find spawning reefs, especially those offshore. Spawner densities were generally too low and too young at most sites to expect significant natural reproduction. However, densities were sufficiently high at some sites for reproduction to occur and therefore the lack of recruitment was attributable to other factors. Less than 3% of all spawners could have been wild fish, which indicates that little natural reproduction occurred in past years. Wounding by sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus was generally lower for Seneca Lake strain fish and highest for strains from Lake Superior. Fish captured at offshore sites in southern Lake Michigan had the lowest probability of wounding, while fish at onshore sites in northern Lake Michigan had the highest probability. The relative survival of the Seneca Lake strain was higher than that of the Lewis Lake or the Marquette strains for the older year-classes examined. Survival differences among strains were less evident for younger year-classes. Recaptures of coded-wire-tagged fish of five strains indicated that most fish returned to their stocking site or to a nearby site and that dispersal from stocking sites during spawning was about 100 km. Restoration strategies should rely on site-specific stocking of lake trout strains with good survival at selected historically important offshore spawning sites to increase egg deposition and the probability of natural reproduction in Lake

  11. A practical anesthesia monitoring protocol for free-ranging adult African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Osofsky, S A

    1997-01-01

    Twenty free-ranging adult African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in northern Botswana were immobilized with a mean (+/- SD) of 9.5 +/- 0.5 mg etorphine hydrochloride and 2,000 IU hyaluronidase by intramuscular (IM) dart. The mean time to recumbency was 8.7 +/- 2.4 min. All animals were maintained in lateral recumbency. The anesthesia monitoring protocol included cardiothoracic auscultation; palpation of auricular pulse for quality and regularity; checking of rectal temperature, and monitoring of respiratory and heart rates. Results of basic physiologic measurements were similar to those of previous field studies of African elephants immobilized with etorphine or etorphine-hyaluronidase. In addition, continuous real-time pulse rate and percent oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SpO2) readings were obtained on 16 elephants with a portable pulse oximeter. Duration of pulse oximetry monitoring ranged from 3 to 24 min (mean +/- SD = 8.2 +/- 4.8 min). Differences between minimum and maximum SpO2 values for any given elephant ranged from 1 to 6 percentage points, evidence for relatively stable trends. The SpO2 readings ranged from 70% to 96% among the 16 elephants, with a mean of 87.3 +/- 2.8%. Fifteen of 16 elephants monitored with a pulse oximeter had mean SpO2 values > or = 81 +/- 2.4%, with 11 having mean SpO2 values > or = 85 +/- 1.5%. All 20 animals recovered uneventfully following reversal: diprenorphine at 23.3 +/- 1.5 mg intravenous (IV) with 11.7 +/- 0.5 mg IM, or 24 mg diprenorphine given all IV.

  12. Genetic effective size is three orders of magnitude smaller than adult census size in an abundant, Estuarine-dependent marine fish (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Turner, Thomas F; Wares, John P; Gold, John R

    2002-11-01

    Using eight microsatellite loci and a variety of analytical methods, we estimated genetic effective size (N(e)) of an abundant and long-lived marine fish species, the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Gulf). The ratio N(e)/N, where short-term variance N(e) was estimated via the temporal method from shifts in allele-frequency data over four cohorts and where N reflected a current estimate of adult census size in the northern Gulf, was approximately 0.001. In an idealized population, this ratio should approximate unity. The extraordinarily low value of N(e)/N appears to arise from high variance in individual reproductive success and perhaps more importantly from variance in productivity of critical spawning and nursery habitats located in spatially discrete bays and estuaries throughout the northern Gulf. An estimate of N(e) based on a coalescent approach, which measures long-term, inbreeding effective size, was four orders of magnitude lower than the estimate of current census size, suggesting that factors presently driving N(e)/N to low values among red drum in the northern Gulf may have operated similarly in the past. Models that predict N(e)/N exclusively from demographic and life-history features will seriously overestimate N(e) if variance in reproductive success and variance in productivity among spatially discrete demes is underestimated. Our results indicate that these variances, especially variance in productivity among demes, must be large for red drum. Moreover, our study indicates that vertebrate populations with enormous adult census numbers may still be at risk relative to decline and extinction from genetic factors.

  13. Genetic effective size is three orders of magnitude smaller than adult census size in an abundant, Estuarine-dependent marine fish (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Thomas F; Wares, John P; Gold, John R

    2002-01-01

    Using eight microsatellite loci and a variety of analytical methods, we estimated genetic effective size (N(e)) of an abundant and long-lived marine fish species, the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Gulf). The ratio N(e)/N, where short-term variance N(e) was estimated via the temporal method from shifts in allele-frequency data over four cohorts and where N reflected a current estimate of adult census size in the northern Gulf, was approximately 0.001. In an idealized population, this ratio should approximate unity. The extraordinarily low value of N(e)/N appears to arise from high variance in individual reproductive success and perhaps more importantly from variance in productivity of critical spawning and nursery habitats located in spatially discrete bays and estuaries throughout the northern Gulf. An estimate of N(e) based on a coalescent approach, which measures long-term, inbreeding effective size, was four orders of magnitude lower than the estimate of current census size, suggesting that factors presently driving N(e)/N to low values among red drum in the northern Gulf may have operated similarly in the past. Models that predict N(e)/N exclusively from demographic and life-history features will seriously overestimate N(e) if variance in reproductive success and variance in productivity among spatially discrete demes is underestimated. Our results indicate that these variances, especially variance in productivity among demes, must be large for red drum. Moreover, our study indicates that vertebrate populations with enormous adult census numbers may still be at risk relative to decline and extinction from genetic factors. PMID:12454077

  14. Safety of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in adults: background for pandemic influenza vaccine safety monitoring.

    PubMed

    Vellozzi, Claudia; Burwen, Dale R; Dobardzic, Azra; Ball, Robert; Walton, Kimp; Haber, Penina

    2009-03-26

    In preparation for pandemic vaccine safety monitoring, we assessed adverse events reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System following receipt of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines among adults from 1990 through 2005. We calculated reporting rates for nonserious, serious, and neurological adverse events. We reviewed reports of recurrent events and deaths, as well as reports identified through advanced signal detection. The most frequently reported events were local reactions and systemic symptoms. Guillain-Barré syndrome was the most frequently reported serious event (0.70 reports per million vaccinations). Adverse event reporting rates have been reasonably constant over time. No new safety concerns emerged after our review of 15 years of post-licensure surveillance data. These findings provide useful information if pandemic vaccine is rapidly distributed and pre-licensure data are limited.

  15. Monitoring Cognitive Functioning: Psychometric Properties of the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT)

    PubMed Central

    Lachman, Margie E.; Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Tun, Patricia A.; Weaver, Suzanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of cognitive functioning is an important component of telephone surveys of health. Previous cognitive telephone batteries have been limited in scope with a primary focus on dementia screening. The Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT) assesses multiple dimensions central for effective functioning across adulthood: episodic memory, working memory, reasoning, verbal fluency, and executive function. The BTACT is the first instrument which includes measures of processing speed, reaction time, and task switching/inhibitory control for use over the telephone. We administered the battery to a national sample (N = 4,268), aged 32 to 84, from the study of Midlife in the United States and examined age, education and sex differences, reliability, and factor structure. We found good evidence for construct validity with a subsample tested in person. Implications of the findings are considered for efficient neuropsychological assessment and monitoring changes in cognitive aging, for clinical and research applications by telephone or in person. PMID:24322011

  16. Random versus fixed-site sampling when monitoring relative abundance of fishes in headwater streams of the upper Colorado River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quist, M.C.; Gerow, K.G.; Bower, M.R.; Hubert, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Native fishes of the upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) have declined in distribution and abundance due to habitat degradation and interactions with normative fishes. Consequently, monitoring populations of both native and nonnative fishes is important for conservation of native species. We used data collected from Muddy Creek, Wyoming (2003-2004), to compare sample size estimates using a random and a fixed-site sampling design to monitor changes in catch per unit effort (CPUE) of native bluehead suckers Catostomus discobolus, flannelmouth suckers C. latipinnis, roundtail chub Gila robusta, and speckled dace Rhinichthys osculus, as well as nonnative creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus and white suckers C. commersonii. When one-pass backpack electrofishing was used, detection of 10% or 25% changes in CPUE (fish/100 m) at 60% statistical power required 50-1,000 randomly sampled reaches among species regardless of sampling design. However, use of a fixed-site sampling design with 25-50 reaches greatly enhanced the ability to detect changes in CPUE. The addition of seining did not appreciably reduce required effort. When detection of 25-50% changes in CPUE of native and nonnative fishes is acceptable, we recommend establishment of 25-50 fixed reaches sampled by one-pass electrofishing in Muddy Creek. Because Muddy Creek has habitat and fish assemblages characteristic of other headwater streams in the UCRB, our results are likely to apply to many other streams in the basin. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  17. Asotin Creek Instream Habitat Alteration Projects : Habitat Evaluation, Adult and Juvenile Habitat Utilization and Water Temperature Monitoring : 2001 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    Asotin Creek originates from a network of deeply incised streams on the slopes of the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. The watershed drains an area of 322 square miles that provides a mean annual flow of 74 cfs. The geomorphology of the watershed exerts a strong influence on biologic conditions for fish within the stream. Historic and contemporary land-use practices have had a profound impact on the kind, abundance, and distribution of anadromous salmonids in the watershed. Fish habitat in Asotin Creek and other local streams has been affected by agricultural development, grazing, tilling practices, logging, recreational activities and implementation of flood control structures (Neilson 1950). The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Master Plan was completed in 1994. The plan was developed by a landowner steering committee for the Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD), with technical support from various Federal, State and local entities. Actions identified within the plan to improve the Asotin Creek ecosystem fall into four main categories: (1) Stream and Riparian, (2) Forestland, (3) Rangeland, and (4) Cropland. Specific actions to be carried out within the stream and in the riparian area to improve fish habitat were: (1) create more pools, (2) increase the amount of large organic debris (LOD), (3) increase the riparian buffer zone through tree planting, and (4) increase fencing to limit livestock access. All of these actions, in combination with other activities identified in the Plan, are intended to stabilize the river channel, reduce sediment input, increase the amount of available fish habitat (adult and juvenile) and protect private property. Evaluation work described within this report was to document the success or failure of the program regarding the first two items listed (increasing pools and LOD). Beginning in 1996, the ACCD, with cooperation from local landowners and funding from Bonneville Power Administration began constructing instream

  18. Neighborhood epidemiological monitoring and adult mental health: European Quality of Life Survey, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-04-01

    Little is monitored on perceived neighborhood noise, quality of drinking water, air quality, rubbish, traffic, etc. at a continental scale. This study was aimed to examine the relationships of such neighborhood risks and mental health in adults and the very old in an international and population-based setting across Europe. Data were retrieved from the European Quality of Life Survey, 2007-2012 including demographics, living conditions, income and financial situation, housing and local environment, family, work, health, social participation and quality of social services. Adults aged 18 and above were included for statistical analysis (n = 79,270). Analysis included chi-square test, t test and logistic regression modeling. People who lived in town or city tended to indicate certain major problems for them such as noise (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.17-2.53, P < 0.001), air quality (OR 2.76, 95% CI 2.54-3.00, P < 0.001), low quality of drinking water (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.23-1.43, P < 0.001), crime and/or violence (OR 2.92, 95% CI 2.68-3.19, P < 0.001), rubbish (OR 3.68, 95% CI 3.41-3.97, P < 0.001) and traffic congestion (OR 2.64, 95% CI 2.45-2.85, P < 0.001). People who reported major problems on noise (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.96-2.45, P < 0.001), air quality (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.87-2.37, P < 0.001), low quality of drinking water (OR 2.40, 95% CI 2.14-2.68, P < 0.001), crime and/or violence (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.88-2.41, P < 0.001), rubbish (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.77-2.11, P < 0.001) and traffic congestion (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.34-1.68, P < 0.001) were also classified as having depression. Perceived neighborhood conditions were associated with adult mental health across Europe. Future neighborhood monitoring research moving from the etiological to neighborhood management would be suggested.

  19. Neighborhood epidemiological monitoring and adult mental health: European Quality of Life Survey, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-04-01

    Little is monitored on perceived neighborhood noise, quality of drinking water, air quality, rubbish, traffic, etc. at a continental scale. This study was aimed to examine the relationships of such neighborhood risks and mental health in adults and the very old in an international and population-based setting across Europe. Data were retrieved from the European Quality of Life Survey, 2007-2012 including demographics, living conditions, income and financial situation, housing and local environment, family, work, health, social participation and quality of social services. Adults aged 18 and above were included for statistical analysis (n = 79,270). Analysis included chi-square test, t test and logistic regression modeling. People who lived in town or city tended to indicate certain major problems for them such as noise (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.17-2.53, P < 0.001), air quality (OR 2.76, 95% CI 2.54-3.00, P < 0.001), low quality of drinking water (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.23-1.43, P < 0.001), crime and/or violence (OR 2.92, 95% CI 2.68-3.19, P < 0.001), rubbish (OR 3.68, 95% CI 3.41-3.97, P < 0.001) and traffic congestion (OR 2.64, 95% CI 2.45-2.85, P < 0.001). People who reported major problems on noise (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.96-2.45, P < 0.001), air quality (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.87-2.37, P < 0.001), low quality of drinking water (OR 2.40, 95% CI 2.14-2.68, P < 0.001), crime and/or violence (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.88-2.41, P < 0.001), rubbish (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.77-2.11, P < 0.001) and traffic congestion (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.34-1.68, P < 0.001) were also classified as having depression. Perceived neighborhood conditions were associated with adult mental health across Europe. Future neighborhood monitoring research moving from the etiological to neighborhood management would be suggested. PMID:25391235

  20. Two types of recollection-based monitoring in younger and older adults: Recall-to-reject and the distinctiveness heuristic.

    PubMed

    Gallo, David A; Bell, Deborah M; Beier, Jonathan S; Schacter, Daniel L

    2006-08-01

    People often use recollection to avoid false memories. At least two types of recollection-based monitoring processes can be identified in the literature. Recall-to-reject is based on the recall of logically inconsistent information (which disqualifies the false event from having occurred), whereas the distinctiveness heuristic is based on the failure to recall to-be-expected information (which is diagnostic of non-occurrence). We attempted to investigate these hypothetical monitoring processes in a single task, as a first step at delineating the functional relationship between them. By design, participants could reject familiar lures by (1) recalling them from a to-be-excluded list (recall-to-reject) or (2) realising the absence of expected picture recollections (the distinctiveness heuristic). Both manipulations reduced false recognition in young adults, suggesting that these two types of monitoring were deployed on the same test. In contrast, older adults had limited success in reducing false recognition with either manipulation, indicating deficits in recollection-based monitoring processes. Depending on how a retrieval task is structured, attempts to use one monitoring process might interfere with another, especially in older adults.

  1. ReadySteady: App for Accelerometer-based Activity Monitoring and Wellness-Motivation Feedback System for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vankipuram, Mithra; McMahon, Siobhan; Fleury, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Increased physical activity and exercise have been found to reduce falls and decrease mortality and age-related morbidity in older adults. However, a large percentage of this population fail to achieve the necessary levels of activity needed to support health living. In this work, we present a mobile app developed on the iOS platform that monitors activity levels using accelerometry. The data captured by the sensor is utilized to provide real-time motivational feedback to enable reinforcement of positive behaviors in older adults. Pilot experiments (conducted with younger adults) performed to assess validity of activity measurement showed that system accurately measures sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous activities in a controlled lab setting. Pilot tests (conducted with older adults) in the user setting showed that while the app is adept at capturing gross body activity (such as sitting, walking and jogging), additional sensors may be required to capture activities involving the extremities. PMID:23304368

  2. Application of remote sensing for the optimization of in-situ sampling for monitoring of phytoplankton abundance in a large lake.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Isabel; Odermatt, Daniel; Anneville, Orlane; Wüest, Alfred; Bouffard, Damien

    2015-09-15

    Directives and legislations worldwide aim at representatively and continuously monitoring the ecological status of surface waters. In many countries, chlorophyll-a concentrations (CHL) are used as an indicator of phytoplankton abundance and the trophic level of lakes or reservoirs. In-situ measurements of water quality parameters, however, are time-consuming, costly and of unknown but naturally limited spatial representativeness. In addition, the variety of the involved lab and field measurement methods and instruments complicates comparability and reproducibility. Taking Lake Geneva as an example, 1234 satellite images from the MERIS sensor on the Envisat satellite from 2002 to 2012 are used to quantify the spatial and temporal variations of CHL concentrations. Based on histograms of spring, summer and autumn CHL estimates, the spatial representativeness of two existing in-situ measurement locations is analysed. Appropriate sampling frequencies to capture CHL peaks are examined by means of statistical resampling. The approaches proposed allow determining optimal in-situ sampling locations and frequencies. Their generic nature allows for adaptation to other lakes, especially to establish new survey programmes where no previous records are available.

  3. Monitoring and Switching of First-line Antiretroviral Therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: Collaborative Analysis of Adult Treatment Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Andreas D.; Keiser, Olivia; Balestre, Eric; Brown, Steve; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Chimbetete, Cleophas; Dabis, François; Davies, Mary-Ann; Hoffmann, Christopher J.; Oyaro, Patrick; Parkes-Ratanshi, Rosalind; Reynolds, Steven J.; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Zannou, Djimon Marcel; Wandeler, Gilles; Egger, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV-1 viral load (VL) testing is recommended to monitor antiretroviral therapy (ART) but not universally available. We examined monitoring of first-line and switching to second-line ART in sub-Saharan Africa, 2004–2013. Methods Adult HIV-1 infected patients starting combination ART in 16 countries were included. Switching was defined as a change from a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimen to a protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimen, with a change of ≥1 NRTI. Virological and immunological failures were defined per World Health Organization criteria. We calculated cumulative probabilities of switching and hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing routine VL monitoring, targeted VL monitoring, CD4 cell monitoring and clinical monitoring, adjusted for programme and individual characteristics. Findings Of 297,825 eligible patients, 10,352 patients (3·5%) switched during 782,412 person-years of follow-up. Compared to CD4 monitoring hazard ratios for switching were 3·15 (95% CI 2·92–3·40) for routine VL, 1·21 (1·13–1·30) for targeted VL and 0·49 (0·43–0·56) for clinical monitoring. Overall 58.0% of patients with confirmed virological and 19·3% of patients with confirmed immunological failure switched within 2 years. Among patients who switched the percentage with evidence of treatment failure based on a single CD4 or VL measurement ranged from 32·1% with clinical to 84.3% with targeted VL monitoring. Median CD4 counts at switching were 215 cells/µl under routine VL monitoring but lower with other monitoring (114–133 cells/µl). Interpretation Overall few patients switched to second-line ART and switching occurred late in the absence of routine viral load monitoring. Switching was more common and occurred earlier with targeted or routine viral load testing. PMID:26423252

  4. Willingness of older adults to share data and privacy concerns after exposure to unobtrusive in-home monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Boise, Linda; Wild, Katherine; Mattek, Nora; Ruhl, Mary; Dodge, Hiroko H.; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Older adult participants in the Intelligent Systems for Assessment of Aging Changes study (ISAAC) carried out by the Oregon Center for Aging and Technology (ORCATECH) were surveyed regarding their attitudes about unobtrusive home monitoring and computer use at baseline and after one year (n=119). The survey was part of a longitudinal study using in-home sensor technology to detect cognitive changes and other health problems. Our primary objective was to measure willingness to share health or activity data with one’s doctor or family members and concerns about privacy or security of monitoring over one year of study participation. Differences in attitudes of participants with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) compared to those with normal cognition were also examined. A high proportion (over 72%) of participants reported acceptance of in-home and computer monitoring and willingness to have data shared with their doctor or family members. However, a majority (60%) reported concerns related to privacy or security; these concerns increased after one year of participation. Few differences between participants with MCI and those with normal cognition were identified. Findings suggest that involvement in this unobtrusive in-home monitoring study may have raised awareness about the potential privacy risks of technology. Still, results show high acceptance, stable over time, of sharing information from monitoring systems with family members and doctors. Our findings have important implications for the deployment of technologies among older adults in research studies as well as in the general community. PMID:23525351

  5. Multi-scale analysis of the associations among egg, larval and pupal surveys and the presence and abundance of adult female Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) in the city of Merida, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Manrique-Saide, P; Coleman, P; McCall, P J; Lenhart, A; Vázquez-Prokopec, G; Davies, C R

    2014-09-01

    Despite decades of research, there is still no agreement on which indices of Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) presence and abundance better quantify entomological risk for dengue. This study reports the results of a multi-scale, cross-sectional entomological survey carried out in 1160 households in the city of Merida, Mexico to establish: (a) the correlation between levels of Ae. aegypti presence and abundance detected with aspirators and ovitraps; (b) which immature and egg indices correlate with the presence and abundance of Ae. aegypti females, and (c) the correlations amongst traditional Aedes indices and their modifications for pupae at the household level and within medium-sized geographic areas used for vector surveillance. Our analyses show that ovitrap positivity was significantly associated with indoor adult Ae. aegypti presence [odds ratio (OR) = 1.50; P = 0.03], that the presence of pupae is associated with adult presence at the household level (OR = 2.27; P = 0.001), that classic Aedes indices are informative only when they account for pupae, and that window screens provide a significant level of protection against peridomestic Ae. aegypti (OR = 0.59; P = 0.02). Results reinforce the potential of using both positive collections in outdoor ovitraps and the presence of pupae as sensitive indicators of indoor adult female presence. PMID:24797405

  6. Multi-scale analysis of the associations among egg, larval and pupal surveys and the presence and abundance of adult female Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) in the city of Merida, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Manrique-Saide, P; Coleman, P; McCall, P J; Lenhart, A; Vázquez-Prokopec, G; Davies, C R

    2014-09-01

    Despite decades of research, there is still no agreement on which indices of Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) presence and abundance better quantify entomological risk for dengue. This study reports the results of a multi-scale, cross-sectional entomological survey carried out in 1160 households in the city of Merida, Mexico to establish: (a) the correlation between levels of Ae. aegypti presence and abundance detected with aspirators and ovitraps; (b) which immature and egg indices correlate with the presence and abundance of Ae. aegypti females, and (c) the correlations amongst traditional Aedes indices and their modifications for pupae at the household level and within medium-sized geographic areas used for vector surveillance. Our analyses show that ovitrap positivity was significantly associated with indoor adult Ae. aegypti presence [odds ratio (OR) = 1.50; P = 0.03], that the presence of pupae is associated with adult presence at the household level (OR = 2.27; P = 0.001), that classic Aedes indices are informative only when they account for pupae, and that window screens provide a significant level of protection against peridomestic Ae. aegypti (OR = 0.59; P = 0.02). Results reinforce the potential of using both positive collections in outdoor ovitraps and the presence of pupae as sensitive indicators of indoor adult female presence.

  7. A simple dietary assessment tool to monitor food intake of hospitalized adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Budiningsari, Dwi; Shahar, Suzana; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Susetyowati, Susetyowati

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives Monitoring food intake of patients during hospitalization using simple methods and minimal training is an ongoing problem in hospitals. Therefore, there is a need to develop and validate a simple, easy to use, and quick tool that enables staff to estimate dietary intake. Thus, this study aimed to develop and validate the Pictorial Dietary Assessment Tool (PDAT). Subjects and methods A total of 37 health care staff members consisting of dietitians, nurses, and serving assistants estimated 130 breakfast and lunch meals consumed by 67 patients using PDAT. PDAT was developed based on the hospital menu that consists of staple food (rice or porridge), animal source protein (chicken, meat, eggs, and fish), and non-animal source protein (tau fu and tempeh), with a total of six pictorials of food at each meal time. Weighed food intake was used as a gold standard to validate PDAT. Agreement between methods was analyzed using correlations, paired t-test, Bland–Altman plots, kappa statistics, and McNemar’s test. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic were calculated to identify whether patients who had an inadequate food intake were categorized as at risk by the PDAT, based on the food weighing method. Agreement between different backgrounds of health care staff was calculated by intraclass correlation coefficient and analysis of variance test. Results There was a significant correlation between the weighing food method and PDAT for energy (r=0.919, P<0.05), protein (r=0.843, P<0.05), carbohydrate (r=0.912, P<0.05), and fat (r=0.952; P<0.05). Nutrient intakes as assessed using PDAT and food weighing were rather similar (295±163 vs 292±158 kcal for energy; 13.9±7.8 vs 14.1±8.0 g for protein; 46.1±21.4 vs 46.7±22.3 g for carbohydrate; 7.4±3.1 vs 7.4±3.1 g for fat; P>0.05). The PDAT and food weighing method showed a satisfactory agreement beyond chance (k) (0.81 for staple food and animal source

  8. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2009. Volume II: College Students and Adults Ages 19-50. NIH Publication No. 10-7585

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF), now in its 35th year, has become one of the nation's most relied-upon sources of information on changes taking place in licit and illicit psychoactive drug use among American adolescents, college students, young adults, and more recently, middle-aged adults. During the last three and a half decades, the study has…

  9. Climatic, Edaphic Factors and Cropping History Help Predict Click Beetle (Coleoptera: Elateridae) (Agriotes spp.) Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Kozina, A.; Lemic, D.; Bazok, R.; Mikac, K. M.; Mclean, C. M.; Ivezić, M.; Igrc Barčić, J.

    2015-01-01

    It is assumed that the abundance of Agriotes wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) is affected by agro-ecological factors such as climatic and edaphic factors and the crop/previous crop grown at the sites investigated. The aim of this study, conducted in three different geographic counties in Croatia from 2007 to 2009, was to determine the factors that influence the abundance of adult click beetle of the species Agriotes brevis Cand., Agriotes lineatus (L.), Agriotes obscurus (L.), Agriotes sputator (L.), and Agriotes ustulatus Schall. The mean annual air temperature, total rainfall, percentage of coarse and fine sand, coarse and fine silt and clay, the soil pH, and humus were investigated as potential factors that may influence abundance. Adult click beetle emergence was monitored using sex pheromone traps (YATLORf and VARb3). Exploratory data analysis was preformed via regression tree models and regional differences in Agriotes species’ abundance were predicted based on the agro-ecological factors measured. It was found that the best overall predictor of A. brevis abundance was the previous crop grown. Conversely, the best predictor of A. lineatus abundance was the current crop being grown and the percentage of humus. The best predictor of A. obscurus abundance was soil pH in KCl. The best predictor of A. sputator abundance was rainfall. Finally, the best predictors of A. ustulatus abundance were soil pH in KCl and humus. These results may be useful in regional pest control programs or for predicting future outbreaks of these species. PMID:26175463

  10. A 2013 Survey on Pressure Monitoring in Adult Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuits: Modes and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rigg, Laura; Searles, Bruce; Darling, Edward Morse

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Pressure data acquired from multiple sites of extracorporeal circuits can be an important parameter to monitor for the safe conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Although previous surveys demonstrate that CPB circuit pressure monitoring is widely used, there are very little data cataloging specific applications of this practice. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to survey the perfusion community to catalog 1) primary CPB circuit site pressure monitoring locations; 2) type of manometers used; 3) pressure monitoring interface and servoregulation with pump console; and 4) the rationale and documentation associated with pressure monitoring during CPB. In June 2013, a validated 27-question online survey was sent directly through an e-mail link to the chief perfusionists in the northeast United States. Completed surveys were received from 75 of 117 surveys deployed yielding a 64% response rate. Arterial line pressure monitoring during CPB is reported by 99% with six distinct circuit site locations identified. Cardioplegia system pressure was monitored by 95% of the centers. For vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) users, the venous pressure was measured by 72% of the responding centers. Arterial line pressure servoregulation of the arterial pump was indicated by 61% of respondents and 75% of centers record arterial line pressure in their perfusion record. Most centers (77%) report the use of a transducer that is integrated into the pump console providing a digital pressure display, whereas 20% combine an aneroid gauge manometer with the integrated digital transducer. This study demonstrates that the practice of arterial line pressure monitoring during CPB is nearly universal. However, the selection of the pressure monitoring site on the circuit, modes of monitoring pressure, and their applications are highly variable across the perfusion community. PMID:26357797

  11. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in the Monitoring of Adult Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhangjie; Clancy, Michael T.; Lucas, Samuel J. E.; Dehghani, Hamid; Logan, Ann; Belli, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has long represented an exciting prospect for the noninvasive monitoring of cerebral tissue oxygenation and perfusion in the context of traumatic brain injury (TBI), although uncertainty still exists regarding the reliability of this technology specifically within this field. We have undertaken a review of the existing literature relating to the application of NIRS within TBI. We discuss current “state-of-the-art” NIRS monitoring, provide a brief background of the technology, and discuss the evidence regarding the ability of NIRS to substitute for established invasive monitoring in TBI. PMID:25603012

  12. Use of near infrared spectroscopy for the clinical monitoring of adult brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Peter J.; Smielewski, P.; Lam, J. M.; Al-Rawi, P.

    1996-10-01

    Adult near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a potential method for noninvasively assessing changes in cerebral oxygenation. Unlike neonatal NIRS, access of light to the adult rain requires penetration through thick extracranial tissues, and hence detection of changed in cerebral chromophore concentration can only be achieved by using NIRS in the reflectance mode. This adds variables that are difficult to control. They include the effects of a different intraoptode distance, intersubject anatomical variation, and the influence of a pathological extra- to intracranial collateral blood supply. Although studies showing movements of oxyhemoglobin concentration following specific cerebral stimuli have been published, the separation of changes occurring in the extracranial and intracranial compartments remains a challenge. Experience with NIRS in the three adult clinical scenarios of carotid endarterectomy, head injury, and carbon dioxide stress testing is presented. The influence of extracranial contamination is demonstrated, as are the methods adopted to help control for extracranial blood flow changes. Provisional experience with spatially responded spectroscopy technology is also discussed.

  13. Continuous EEG monitoring in adults in the intensive care unit (ICU).

    PubMed

    André-Obadia, N; Parain, D; Szurhaj, W

    2015-03-01

    Continuous EEG monitoring in the ICU is different from planned EEG due to the rather urgent nature of the indications, explaining the fact that recording is started in certain cases by the clinical team in charge of the patient's care. Close collaboration between neurophysiology teams and intensive care teams is essential. Continuous EEG monitoring can be facilitated by quantified analysis systems. This kind of analysis is based on certain signal characteristics, such as amplitude or frequency content, but raw EEG data should always be interpreted if possible, since artefacts can sometimes impair quantified EEG analysis. It is preferable to work within a tele-EEG network, so that the neurophysiologist has the possibility to give an interpretation on call. Continuous EEG monitoring is thus useful in the diagnosis of non-convulsive epileptic seizures or purely electrical discharges and in the monitoring of status epilepticus when consciousness disorders persist after initial treatment. A number of other indications are currently under evaluation.

  14. Continuous EEG monitoring in adults in the intensive care unit (ICU).

    PubMed

    André-Obadia, N; Parain, D; Szurhaj, W

    2015-03-01

    Continuous EEG monitoring in the ICU is different from planned EEG due to the rather urgent nature of the indications, explaining the fact that recording is started in certain cases by the clinical team in charge of the patient's care. Close collaboration between neurophysiology teams and intensive care teams is essential. Continuous EEG monitoring can be facilitated by quantified analysis systems. This kind of analysis is based on certain signal characteristics, such as amplitude or frequency content, but raw EEG data should always be interpreted if possible, since artefacts can sometimes impair quantified EEG analysis. It is preferable to work within a tele-EEG network, so that the neurophysiologist has the possibility to give an interpretation on call. Continuous EEG monitoring is thus useful in the diagnosis of non-convulsive epileptic seizures or purely electrical discharges and in the monitoring of status epilepticus when consciousness disorders persist after initial treatment. A number of other indications are currently under evaluation. PMID:25639999

  15. Physical Interventions for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Survey of Use, Policy, Training and Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deveau, Roy; McGill, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background: Perceived problems around the use of physical intervention (PI) to manage challenging behaviour have led to UK initiatives to encourage policy development and accredited training. However, information on PI use and the impact of these initiatives remains limited. Method: Adult residential services within an English region were sent a…

  16. Individuals with Psychiatric Disabilities in Adult Homes: Monitoring Changes over Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmerman, A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Residents (n=617) with psychiatric disabilities, living in 3 adult homes, were studied over 24 months to determine changes that occurred in population served, modes of intervention, and outcome measures. Residents showed stability in their rehospitalization rate, symptomatology, and social integration. A token economy reduced symptomatology and…

  17. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Copepod Abundance along the 20°S Monitoring Transect in the Northern Benguela Upwelling System from 2005 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Maya; Kreiner, Anja; van der Plas, Anja K.; Louw, Deon C.; Horaeb, Richard; Auel, Holger; Hagen, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Long-term data sets are essential to understand climate-induced variability in marine ecosystems. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of longer-term temporal and spatial variations in zooplankton abundance and copepod community structure in the northern Benguela upwelling system from 2005 to 2011. Samples were collected from the upper 200 m along a transect at 20°S perpendicular to the coast of Namibia to 70 nm offshore. Based on seasonal and interannual trends in surface temperature and salinity, three distinct time periods were discernible with stronger upwelling in spring and extensive warm-water intrusions in late summer, thus, high temperature amplitudes, in the years 2005/06 and 2010/11, and less intensive upwelling followed by weaker warm-water intrusions from 2008/09 to 2009/10. Zooplankton abundance reflected these changes with higher numbers in 2005/06 and 2010/11. In contrast, zooplankton density was lower in 2008/09 and 2009/10, when temperature gradients from spring to late summer were less pronounced. Spatially, copepod abundance tended to be highest between 30 and 60 nautical miles off the coast, coinciding with the shelf break and continental slope. The dominant larger calanoid copepods were Calanoides carinatus, Metridia lucens and Nannocalanus minor. On all three scales studied, i.e. spatially from the coast to offshore waters as well as temporally, both seasonally and interannually, maximum zooplankton abundance was not coupled to the coldest temperature regime, and hence strongest upwelling intensity. Pronounced temperature amplitudes, and therefore strong gradients within a year, were apparently important and resulted in higher zooplankton abundance. PMID:24844305

  18. Study of the flying ability of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) adults using a computer-monitored flight mill.

    PubMed

    Ávalos, J A; Martí-Campoy, A; Soto, A

    2014-08-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), native to tropical Asian regions, has become a serious threat to palm trees all over the world. Knowledge of its flight potential is vital to improving the preventive and curative measures currently used to manage this pest. As R. ferrugineus is a quarantine pest, it is difficult to study its flight potential in the field. A computer-monitored flight mill was adapted to analyse the flying ability of R. ferrugineus through the study of different flight parameters (number of flights, total distance flown, longest single flight, flight duration, and average and maximum speed) and the influence of the weevil's sex, age, and body size on these flight parameters. Despite significant differences in the adult body size (body weight and length) of males and females, the sex of R. ferrugineus adults did not have an influence on their flight potential. Neither adult body size nor age was found to affect the weevil's flying abilities, although there was a significantly higher percentage of individuals flying that were 8-23 days old than 1-7 days old. Compared to the longest single flight, 54% of the insects were classified as short-distance flyers (covering <100 m) and 36 and 10% were classified as medium- (100-5000 m) and long-distance (>5000 m), respectively. The results are compared with similar studies on different insect species under laboratory and field conditions. PMID:24739938

  19. Revisiting Marriage Effects on Substance Use among Young Adults. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper 68

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Jerald G.; Freedman-Doan, Peter; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John E.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2008-01-01

    A decade ago we published a book reporting an extensive analysis of nationwide panel data from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) project showing impacts of post-high school experiences on substance use (Bachman, Wadsworth, O'Malley, Johnston, & Schulenberg, 1997). One of the most important findings was that various categories of marital status,…

  20. Phoneme Monitoring in Silent Naming and Perception in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; De Nil, Luc F.

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated phonological encoding skills in persons who stutter (PWS). Participants were 10 PWS (M=31.8 years, S.D.=5.9) matched for age, gender, and handedness with 12 persons who do not stutter (PNS) (M=24.3 years, S.D.=4.3). The groups were compared in a phoneme monitoring task performed during silent picture naming. The…

  1. Hepatotoxicity associated with cyclosporine monitoring using C2 recommendations in adults renal recipients receiving ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Videla, C; Vega, J; Borja, H

    2005-04-01

    Following the change, in the way we monitored cyclosporine (CsA) levels in January 2000 namely from C0 to C2 concentrations, in renal "de novo" allograft recipients, some patients treated with concomitant ketoconazole experienced liver toxicity, a complication that had not been previously seen with CsA monitoring using C0. Therefore, we decided to compare the outcomes of patients transplanted using CsA levels monitored by C0 (1998 to 1999) who also had simultaneous C2 determinations (group A) with those of recipients transplanted after 2000 (group B). All received steroids, azathioprine, and CsA plus ketoconazole. Recipients were followed for at least a year after transplantation. Patients in group B showed higher CsA C2 levels, AUC concentrations, and drug doses during the immediate postsurgical period, and at 2 weeks as well as 4 and 6 months posttransplantation. Six group B patients (26%) but no group A recipients displayed, severe liver toxicity characterized by jaundice, elevated liver enzymes, with negative serological tests for CMV, HVC, and HVB. There was a correlation between the GOT and the C2 CsA levels; both normalized 15 to 55 days after CsA dose reduction. High C2 CsA levels, which have been recommended when the drug is used alone in renal transplantation, cannot be used in patients taking ketoconazole, because C2 neither represents nor correlates with AUC drug exposure. Thus high C2 levels may produce liver toxicity. PMID:15866677

  2. Self-Monitoring of Listening Abilities in Normal-Hearing Children, Normal-Hearing Adults, and Children with Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Rothpletz, Ann M.; Wightman, Frederic L.; Kistler, Doris J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring has been shown to be an essential skill for various aspects of our lives, including our health, education, and interpersonal relationships. Likewise, the ability to monitor one’s speech reception in noisy environments may be a fundamental skill for communication, particularly for those who are often confronted with challenging listening environments, such as students and children with hearing loss. Purpose The purpose of this project was to determine if normal-hearing children, normal-hearing adults, and children with cochlear implants can monitor their listening ability in noise and recognize when they are not able to perceive spoken messages. Research Design Participants were administered an Objective-Subjective listening task in which their subjective judgments of their ability to understand sentences from the Coordinate Response Measure corpus presented in speech spectrum noise were compared to their objective performance on the same task. Study Sample Participants included 41 normal-hearing children, 35 normal-hearing adults, and 10 children with cochlear implants. Data Collection and Analysis On the Objective-Subjective listening task, the level of the masker noise remained constant at 63 dB SPL, while the level of the target sentences varied over a 12 dB range in a block of trials. Psychometric functions, relating proportion correct (Objective condition) and proportion perceived as intelligible (Subjective condition) to target/masker ratio (T/M), were estimated for each participant. Thresholds were defined as the T/M required to produce 51% correct (Objective condition) and 51% perceived as intelligible (Subjective condition). Discrepancy scores between listeners’ threshold estimates in the Objective and Subjective conditions served as an index of self-monitoring ability. In addition, the normal-hearing children were administered tests of cognitive skills and academic achievement, and results from these measures were compared

  3. Mass trapping with MosquiTRAPs does not reduce Aedes aegypti abundance

    PubMed Central

    Degener, Carolin Marlen; de Ázara, Tatiana Mingote Ferreira; Roque, Rosemary Aparecida; Rösner, Susanne; Rocha, Eliseu Soares Oliveira; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Ohly, Jörg Johannes; Geier, Martin; Eiras, Álvaro Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Aedes aegypti mass trapping using the sticky trap MosquiTRAP (MQT) by performing a cluster randomised controlled trial in Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil. After an initial questionnaire and baseline monitoring of adult Ae. aegypti abundance with BG-Sentinel (BGS) traps in six clusters, three clusters were randomly assigned to the intervention arm where each participating household received three MQTs for mass trapping during 17 months. The remaining three clusters (control arm) did not receive traps. The effect of mass trapping on adult Ae. aegypti abundance was monitored fortnightly with BGS traps. During the last two months of the study, a serological survey was conducted. After the study, a second questionnaire was applied in the intervention arm. Entomological monitoring indicated that MQT mass trapping did not reduce adult Ae. aegypti abundance. The serological survey indicated that recent dengue infections were equally frequent in the intervention and the control arm. Most participants responded positively to questions concerning user satisfaction. According to the results, there is no evidence that mass trapping with MQTs can be used as a part of dengue control programs. The use of this sticky trap is only recommendable for dengue vector monitoring. PMID:25946154

  4. ROLE OF MINIMAL RESIDUAL DISEASE MONITORING IN ADULT AND PEDIATRIC ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Campana, Dario

    2009-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Assays that measure minimal residual disease (MRD) can determine the response to treatment in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) much more precisely than morphological screening of bone marrow smears. The clinical significance of MRD detected by flow cytometry or polymerase chain reaction-based methods in childhood ALL has been conclusively established. Hence, MRD is being used in several clinical trials to adjust treatment intensity. Similar findings have been gathered in adult patients with ALL, making MRD one of the most powerful and informative parameters to guide clinical management. This article discusses practical issues related to MRD methodologies and the evidence supporting the use of MRD for risk assignment in clinical trials. PMID:19825454

  5. The integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program : U.S. Forest Service Fish Abundance and Steelhead Redd Surveys Annual Report : January 1 - December 31, 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Call, Justin

    2008-12-08

    This contract report is one of a series of reports that document implementation components of the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) funded project: Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP - BPA project No.2003-017-00, Chris Jordan, NOAA-NWFSC project sponsor). Other components of the project are separately reported, as explained below. The ISEMP project has been created as a cost effective means of developing protocols and new technologies, novel indicators, sample designs, analytical data management, communication tools and skills, and restoration experiments that support the development of a region-wide Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation (RME) program to assess the status of anadromous salmonids populations, their tributary habitat and restoration and management actions. The most straightforward approach to developing a regional-scale monitoring and evaluation program would be to increase standardization among status and trend monitoring programs. However, the diversity of species and their habitat, as well as the overwhelming uncertainty surrounding indicators, metrics, and data interpretation methods requires the testing of multiple approaches. Thus, ISEMP has adopted an approach to develop a broad template that may differ in the details among subbasins, but one that will ultimately lead to the formation of a unified RME process for the management of anadromous salmonid populations and habitat across the Columbia River Basin. ISEMP has been initiated in three pilot areas, the Wenatchee/Entiat, John Day, and Salmon. To balance replicating experimental approaches with the goal of developing monitoring and evaluation tools that apply as broadly as possible across the Pacific Northwest, these subbasins were chosen as representative of a wide range of potential challenges and conditions, e.g., differing fish species composition and life histories, ecoregions, institutional settings, and existing data. ISEMP has constructed a framework

  6. A magnetic induction measurement system for adult vital sign monitoring: evaluation of capacitive and inductive effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdavi, H.; Rosell-Ferrer, J.

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic induction (MI) measurement technique could provide an unobtrusive contactless method for continuous monitoring of vital signs such as breathing and cardiac activity in bed. In this paper, we present a magnetic induction system to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring heart and lung activity and the preliminary measurement results. The excitation and detection coils are designed to be implemented in a single printed circuit board, allowing the use of the system in a bed with coils under the mattress. The electronic system is based on a 16 bit arbitrary waveform generator (PXI-5422, National instrument) operating at a sample rate of 200 MS/s for the excitation signal and the detected amplified signal is then, sampled at 100 MS/s by a 14 bit digitizer (PXI-5122, National Instruments). The preliminary results at 10 MHz show the ability of the system to detect solutions with different conductivities. However the capacitive effect is in the same order of magnitude as the inductive effect due to eddy currents. Safety of the system has been evaluated to be in accordance with the standards of human exposure to the magnetic fields.

  7. [Cardiorespiratory monitoring in the diagnosis and therapy of patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pilas, V; Bilić, A; Vranjković, S

    1989-01-01

    In thirty-six patients, meeting clinical criteria for the diagnosis of ARDS, findings of pulmonary functions and results of invasive hemodynamic monitoring have been separately evaluated and compared with normal values. The majority of patients presented with tachypnea having breathing frequency greater than 30/min, vital capacity less than 20 ml/kg body weight, effective pulmonary compliance less than 25 ml/cm H2O, VD/VT greater than 0.6 and D-L shunt greater than 20%. Pulmonary capillary pressure was normal in most patients and pulmonary artery mean pressure and pulmonary vasculary resistance increased. The authors believe that diagnosis of ARDS can be established with greater reliability by use of more complex pulmonary function testing and hemodynamic investigations. An invasive hemodynamic monitoring using a Swan-Ganz catheter gives irreplaceable data for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions in patients with ARDS. It enables an accurate hydration of patients, correct use of diuretics and vasoactive drugs and it is especially useful in controlled application of ventilators and PEEP. PMID:2770399

  8. Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  9. Guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and clinical monitoring of patients with juvenile and adult Pompe disease.

    PubMed

    Llerena Junior, Juan Clinton; Nascimento, Osvaldo Jm; Oliveira, Acary Souza B; Dourado Junior, Mario Emilio T; Marrone, Carlo D; Siqueira, Heloise Helena; Sobreira, Cláudia F R; Dias-Tosta, Elza; Werneck, Lineu Cesar

    2016-02-01

    Pompe disease (PD) is a potentially lethal illness involving irreversible muscle damage resulting from glycogen storage in muscle fiber and activation of autophagic pathways. A promising therapeutic perspective for PD is enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with the human recombinant enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase (Myozyme®). The need to organize a diagnostic flowchart, systematize clinical follow-up, and establish new therapeutic recommendations has become vital, as ERT ensures greater patient longevity. A task force of experienced clinicians outlined a protocol for diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, genetic counseling, and rehabilitation for PD patients. The study was conducted under the coordination of REBREPOM, the Brazilian Network for Studies of PD. The meeting of these experts took place in October 2013, at L'Hotel Port Bay in São Paulo, Brazil. In August 2014, the text was reassessed and updated. Given the rarity of PD and limited high-impact publications, experts submitted their views. PMID:26690841

  10. Monitoring malaria vector control interventions: effectiveness of five different adult mosquito sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Onyango, Shirley A; Kitron, Uriel; Mungai, Peter; Muchiri, Eric M; Kokwaro, Elizabeth; King, Charles H; Mutuku, Francis M

    2013-09-01

    Long-term success of ongoing malaria control efforts based on mosquito bed nets (long-lasting insecticidal net) and indoor residual spraying is dependent on continuous monitoring of mosquito vectors, and thus on effective mosquito sampling tools. The objective of our study was to identify the most efficient mosquito sampling tool(s) for routine vector surveillance for malaria and lymphatic filariasis transmission in coastal Kenya. We evaluated relative efficacy of five collection methods--light traps associated with a person sleeping under a net, pyrethrum spray catches, Prokopack aspirator, clay pots, and urine-baited traps--in four villages representing three ecological settings along the south coast of Kenya. Of the five methods, light traps were the most efficient for collecting female Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles funestus (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes, whereas the Prokopack aspirator was most efficient in collecting Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) and other culicines. With the low vector densities here, and across much of sub-Saharan Africa, wherever malaria interventions, long-lasting insecticidal nets, and/or indoor residual spraying are in place, the use of a single mosquito collection method will not be sufficient to achieve a representative sample of mosquito population structure. Light traps will remain a relevant tool for host-seeking mosquitoes, especially in the absence of human landing catches. For a fair representation of the indoor mosquito population, light traps will have to be supplemented with aspirator use, which has potential for routine monitoring of indoor resting mosquitoes, and can substitute the more labor-intensive and intrusive pyrethrum spray catches. There are still no sufficiently efficient mosquito collection methods for sampling outdoor mosquitoes, particularly those that are bloodfed.

  11. Building a better sticky trap: description of an easy-to-use trap and pole mount for quantifying the abundance of adult aquatic insects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joshua T.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Insect emergence is a fundamental process in freshwaters. It is a critical life-history stage for aquatic insects and provides an important prey resource for terrestrial and aquatic consumers. Sticky traps are increasingly being used to sample these insects. The most common design consists of an acetate sheet coated with a nondrying adhesive that is attached to a wire frame or cylinder. These traps must be prepared at the deployment site, a process that can be time consuming and difficult given the vagaries of field conditions. Our goals were to develop a sturdy, low-cost sticky trap that could be prepared in advance, rapidly deployed and recovered in the field, and used to estimate the flight direction of insects. We used 150-mm Petri dishes with lids. The dishes can be coated cleanly and consistently with Tangle-Trap® adhesive. Deploying traps is simple and requires only a pole set near the body of water being sampled. Four dishes can be attached to the pole using Velcro and aligned in 4 different directions to enable quantification of insect flight direction. After sampling, Petri dishes can be taped closed, packed in boxes, and stored indefinitely. Petri traps are comparable in price to standard acetate sheet traps at ∼US$0.50/directional deployment, but they require more space for storage than acetate sheet traps. However, a major benefit of Petri traps is that field deployment times are ⅓ those of acetate traps. Our study demonstrated that large Petri dishes are an ideal platform for sampling postemergent adult aquatic insects, particularly when the study design involves estimating flight direction and when rapid deployment and recovery of traps is critical.

  12. Current trends in the monitoring and treatment of diabetic retinopathy in young adults.

    PubMed

    Raczyńska, Dorota; Zorena, Katarzyna; Urban, Beata; Zalewski, Dominik; Skorek, Andrzej; Malukiewicz, Grażyna; Sikorski, Bartosz L

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in young adults have significantly improved in recent years. Research methods have widened significantly, for example, by introducing spectral optical tomography of the eye. Invasive diagnostics, for example, fluorescein angiography, are done less frequently. The early introduction of an insulin pump to improve the administration of insulin is likely to delay the development of diabetic retinopathy, which is particularly important for young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The first years of diabetes occurring during childhood and youth are the most appropriate to introduce proper therapeutic intervention before any irreversible changes in the eyes appear. The treatment of DR includes increased metabolic control, laserotherapy, pharmacological treatment (antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory treatment, enzymatic vitreolysis, and intravitreal injections), and surgery. This paper summarizes the up-to-date developments in the diagnostics and treatment of DR. In the literature search, authors used online databases, PubMed, and clinitrials.gov and browsed through individual ophthalmology journals, books, and leading pharmaceutical company websites. PMID:24688225

  13. HIV/AIDS: Risk & Protective Behaviors among American Young Adults, 2004-2008. Monitoring the Future. NIH Publication No. 10-7586

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. The study is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research…

  14. National Survey Results on Drug Use from the Monitoring the Future Study, 1975-1997. Volume 2: College Students and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    Data from the "Monitoring the Future" study follow-up studies on drug use of young adults post-high school are presented. An introduction, overview of key findings, and study design and procedures (including discussions of validity and representativeness) are provided. Follow-up procedures and sampling issues are discussed. This report is focused…

  15. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2001. Volume II: College Students & Adults Ages 19-40, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This is the second volume in a two volume set covering research conducted as part of the Monitoring the Future study of young adults. It presents the results of the 1977 through 2001 follow-up surveys of the graduating high school classes of 1976 through 2000 as these respondents have progressed from college into adulthood. In order for this…

  16. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2000. Volume II: College Students and Young Adults Ages 19-40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This is the second volume in a two volume set covering research conducted as part of the Monitoring the Future study of young adults. It presents the results of the 1977 through 2000 follow-up surveys of the graduating high school classes of 1976 through 1999 as these respondents have progressed into adulthood. In order for this volume to stand…

  17. Can we use accelerometry to monitor balance exercise performance in older adults?

    PubMed

    Tung, James Y; Ng, Helen; Moore, Cameron; Giangregorio, Lora

    2014-03-01

    While home-based balance exercises are recommended to reduce the risk of falling and fractures in older adults, adherence to exercise remains suboptimal. The long-term objective of this research is to advance body-worn sensor techniques to measure at-home exercise performance and promote adherence. In this study, a method of distinguishing 5 types of walking using hip- and ankle-worn accelerometers was developed and evaluated in a target clinical population. A secondary objective was to evaluate the method's sensitivity to sensor placement. Eighteen community-dwelling, older females (≥50 years) with low bone mass wore triaxial accelerometers at the left hip and each ankle while performing 5 walking tasks at home: 4 walking balance exercises (figure 8, heel-toe, sidestep, backwards) and straight-line walking. Sensor data were separated into low (0.5-2 Hz) and high (2-10 Hz) frequency bands, and root-mean-square values (energy) were computed for each sensor, axis, and band. These 18 energy estimates were used as inputs to a neural network classifier with 5 outputs, corresponding to each task. Using a leave-one-out cross-validation protocol, the neural network correctly classified 82/90 test instances (91% accuracy). Compared to random selection accuracy of 20% (i.e., 1 in 5), the results indicated excellent separation between tasks. Reducing the sensor set to one hip and one ankle resulted in 6.7-8.9% reduction in accuracy. Our findings can be used in the development of tools used to deliver exercise performance metrics (e.g., % completed) or recognize walking and balance exercise activities using body-worn accelerometers.

  18. Assessing Daily Physical Activity in Older Adults: Unraveling the Complexity of Monitors, Measures, and Methods.

    PubMed

    Schrack, Jennifer A; Cooper, Rachel; Koster, Annemarie; Shiroma, Eric J; Murabito, Joanne M; Rejeski, W Jack; Ferrucci, Luigi; Harris, Tamara B

    2016-08-01

    At the 67th Gerontological Society of America Annual Meeting, a preconference workshop was convened to discuss the challenges of accurately assessing physical activity in older populations. The advent of wearable technology (eg, accelerometers) to monitor physical activity has created unprecedented opportunities to observe, quantify, and define physical activity in the real-world setting. These devices enable researchers to better understand the associations of physical activity with aging, and subsequent health outcomes. However, a consensus on proper methodological use of these devices in older populations has not been established. To date, much of the validation research regarding device type, placement, and data interpretation has been performed in younger, healthier populations, and translation of these methods to older populations remains problematic. A better understanding of these devices, their measurement properties, and the data generated is imperative to furthering our understanding of daily physical activity, its effects on the aging process, and vice versa. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the highlights of the preconference workshop, including properties of the different types of accelerometers, the methodological challenges of employing accelerometers in older study populations, a brief summary of ongoing aging-related research projects that utilize different types of accelerometers, and recommendations for future research directions. PMID:26957472

  19. An analysis of a zooplankton sampling-gear change in the CalCOFI long-term monitoring program, with implications for copepod population abundance trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebstock, Ginger A.

    The California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) program has been systematically sampling zooplankton off the west coast of North America since 1949. In 1978, the 1-m diameter ring net used by the program was replaced with a bongo net, which consists of two 0.71-m diameter nets on a single frame. This study compares paired zooplankton samples taken with a ring net and a 0.71-m or 0.6-m bongo net to determine the relative performances of the two net types for catching calanoid copepods. Thirty-one species and stages were enumerated, along with the category ‘total female calanoids’. Twenty-one categories of calanoid copepods were abundant enough to test for effects of changes in net type. No significant differences between the nets were found after correcting for multiple testing. Statistical power was then estimated for a range of potential net effects equivalent to ratios of copepod densities between the nets of 1.1-3.0. The probability of detecting differences greater than a factor of 1.5-3.0 was high (≥80%) for total female calanoids, Metridia pacifica, Pleuromamma abdominalis edentata, P. borealis, Calanus pacificus, Eucalanus californicus and Rhincalanus nasutus. For these categories of copepods, any population changes greater than a factor of 1.5-3.0 that might be found from the CalCOFI data set can be assumed to be the result of factors other than the change in net type.

  20. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) as the reference standard for diagnosis of hypertension and assessment of vascular risk in adults.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Ramón C; Smolensky, Michael H; Ayala, Diana E; Portaluppi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    New information has become available since the ISC, AAMCC, and SECAC released their first extensive guidedelines to improve the diagnosis and treatment of adult arterial hypertension. A critical assessment of evidence and a comparison of what international guidelines now propose are the basis for the following statements, which update the recommendations first issued in 2013. Office blood pressure (BP) measurements should no longer be considered to be the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of hypertension and assessment of cardiovascular risk. Relying on office BP, even when supplemented with at-home wake-time self-measurements, to identify high-risk individuals, disregarding circadian BP patterning and asleep BP level, leads to potential misclassification of 50% of all evaluated persons. Accordingly, ambulatory BP monitoring is the recommended reference standard for the diagnosis of true hypertension and accurate assessment of cardiovascular risk in all adults ≥18 yrs of age, regardless of whether office BP is normal or elevated. Asleep systolic BP mean is the most significant independent predictor of cardiovascular events. The sleep-time relative SBP decline adds prognostic value to the statistical model that already includes the asleep systolic BP mean and corrected for relevant confounding variables. Accordingly, the asleep systolic BP mean is the recommended protocol to diagnose hypertension, assess cardiovascular risk, and predict cardiovascular event-free interval. In men, and in the absence of compelling clinical conditions, reference thresholds for diagnosing hypertension are 120/70 mmHg for the asleep systolic/diastolic BP means derived from ambulatory BP monitoring. However, in women, in the absence of complicating co-morbidities, the same thresholds are lower by 10/5 mmHg, i.e., 110/65 mmHg for the asleep means. In high-risk patients, including those diagnosed with diabetes or chronic kidney disease, and/or those having experienced past

  1. Abundance trends and status of the Little Colorado River population of humpback chub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coggins, L.G.; Pine, William E.; Walters, C.J.; Van Haverbeke, D. R.; Ward, D.; Johnstone, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    The abundance of the Little Colorado River population of federally listed humpback chub Gila cypha in Grand Canyon has been monitored since the late 1980s by means of catch rate indices and capture-recapture-based abundance estimators. Analyses of data from all sources using various methods are consistent and indicate that the adult population has declined since monitoring began. Intensive tagging led to a high proportion (>80%) of the adult population being marked by the mid-1990s. Analysis of these data using both closed and open abundance estimation models yields results that agree with catch rate indices about the extent of the decline. Survival rates for age-2 and older fish are age dependent but apparently not time dependent. Back-calculation of recruitment using the apparent 1990s population age structure implies periods of higher recruitment in the late 1970s to early 1980s than is now the case. Our analyses indicate that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recovery criterion of stable abundance is not being met for this population. Also, there is a critical need to develop new abundance indexing and tagging methods so that early, reliable, and rapid estimates of humpback chub recruitment can be obtained to evaluate population responses to management actions designed to facilitate the restoration of Colorado River native fish communities. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  2. Quantitative analysis of low-abundance serological proteins with peptide affinity-based enrichment and pseudo-multiple reaction monitoring by hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Hoe; Ahn, Yeong Hee; Ji, Eun Sun; Lee, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jin Young; An, Hyun Joo; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2015-07-01

    Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) is commonly used for the quantitative analysis of proteins during mass pectrometry (MS), and has excellent specificity and sensitivity for an analyte in a complex sample. In this study, a pseudo-MRM method for the quantitative analysis of low-abundance serological proteins was developed using hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (hybrid Q-TOF) MS and peptide affinity-based enrichment. First, a pseudo-MRM-based analysis using hybrid Q-TOF MS was performed for synthetic peptides selected as targets and spiked into tryptic digests of human serum. By integrating multiple transition signals corresponding to fragment ions in the full scan MS/MS spectrum of a precursor ion of the target peptide, a pseudo-MRM MS analysis of the target peptide showed an increased signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and sensitivity, as well as an improved reproducibility. The pseudo-MRM method was then used for the quantitative analysis of the tryptic peptides of two low-abundance serological proteins, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) and tissue-type protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa (PTPκ), which were prepared with peptide affinity-based enrichment from human serum. Finally, this method was used to detect femtomolar amounts of target peptides derived from TIMP1 and PTPκ, with good coefficients of variation (CV 2.7% and 9.8%, respectively), using a few microliters of human serum from colorectal cancer patients. The results suggest that pseudo-MRM using hybrid Q-TOF MS, combined with peptide affinity-based enrichment, could become a promising alternative for the quantitative analysis of low-abundance target proteins of interest in complex serum samples that avoids protein depletion.

  3. Assessment of a multi-layered diffuse correlation spectroscopy method for monitoring cerebral blood flow in adults

    PubMed Central

    Verdecchia, Kyle; Diop, Mamadou; Lee, Albert; Morrison, Laura B.; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is a promising technique for brain monitoring as it can provide a continuous signal that is directly related to cerebral blood flow (CBF); however, signal contamination from extracerebral tissue can cause flow underestimations. The goal of this study was to investigate whether a multi-layered (ML) model that accounts for light propagation through the different tissue layers could successfully separate scalp and brain flow when applied to DCS data acquired at multiple source-detector distances. The method was first validated with phantom experiments. Next, experiments were conducted in a pig model of the adult head with a mean extracerebral tissue thickness of 9.8 ± 0.4 mm. Reductions in CBF were measured by ML DCS and computed tomography perfusion for validation; excellent agreement was observed by a mean difference of 1.2 ± 4.6% (CI95%: −31.1 and 28.6) between the two modalities, which was not significantly different.

  4. Assessment of a multi-layered diffuse correlation spectroscopy method for monitoring cerebral blood flow in adults

    PubMed Central

    Verdecchia, Kyle; Diop, Mamadou; Lee, Albert; Morrison, Laura B.; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is a promising technique for brain monitoring as it can provide a continuous signal that is directly related to cerebral blood flow (CBF); however, signal contamination from extracerebral tissue can cause flow underestimations. The goal of this study was to investigate whether a multi-layered (ML) model that accounts for light propagation through the different tissue layers could successfully separate scalp and brain flow when applied to DCS data acquired at multiple source-detector distances. The method was first validated with phantom experiments. Next, experiments were conducted in a pig model of the adult head with a mean extracerebral tissue thickness of 9.8 ± 0.4 mm. Reductions in CBF were measured by ML DCS and computed tomography perfusion for validation; excellent agreement was observed by a mean difference of 1.2 ± 4.6% (CI95%: −31.1 and 28.6) between the two modalities, which was not significantly different. PMID:27699127

  5. Pharmacy Refill Adherence Compared with CD4 Count Changes for Monitoring HIV-Infected Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bisson, Gregory P; Gross, Robert; Bellamy, Scarlett; Chittams, Jesse; Hislop, Michael; Regensberg, Leon; Frank, Ian; Maartens, Gary; Nachega, Jean B

    2008-01-01

    Background World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for monitoring HIV-infected individuals taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in resource-limited settings recommend using CD4+ T cell (CD4) count changes to monitor treatment effectiveness. In practice, however, falling CD4 counts are a consequence, rather than a cause, of virologic failure. Adherence lapses precede virologic failure and, unlike CD4 counts, data on adherence are immediately available to all clinics dispensing cART. However, the accuracy of adherence assessments for predicting future or detecting current virologic failure has not been determined. The goal of this study therefore was to determine the accuracy of adherence assessments for predicting and detecting virologic failure and to compare the accuracy of adherence-based monitoring approaches with approaches monitoring CD4 count changes. Methodology and Findings We conducted an observational cohort study among 1,982 of 4,984 (40%) HIV-infected adults initiating non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based cART in the Aid for AIDS Disease Management Program, which serves nine countries in southern Africa. Pharmacy refill adherence was calculated as the number of months of cART claims submitted divided by the number of complete months between cART initiation and the last refill prior to the endpoint of interest, expressed as a percentage. The main outcome measure was virologic failure defined as a viral load > 1,000 copies/ml (1) at an initial assessment either 6 or 12 mo after cART initiation and (2) after a previous undetectable (i.e., < 400 copies/ml) viral load (breakthrough viremia). Adherence levels outperformed CD4 count changes when used to detect current virologic failure in the first year after cART initiation (area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curves [AUC] were 0.79 and 0.68 [difference = 0.11; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.16; χ2 = 20.1] respectively at 6 mo, and 0.85 and 0.75 [difference = 0.10; 95% CI

  6. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae) and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? - Implications of a Field Test.

    PubMed

    Lang, Andreas; Dolek, Matthias; Theißen, Bernhard; Zapp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI) has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating samples of bushes

  7. Global Free Tropospheric NO2 Abundances Derived Using a Cloud Slicing Technique Applied to Satellite Observations from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S.; Joiner, J.; Choi, Y.; Duncan, B. N.; Bucsela, E.

    2014-01-01

    We derive free-tropospheric NO2 volume mixing ratios (VMRs) and stratospheric column amounts of NO2 by applying a cloud slicing technique to data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite. In the cloud-slicing approach, the slope of the above-cloud NO2 column versus the cloud scene pressure is proportional to the NO2 VMR. In this work, we use a sample of nearby OMI pixel data from a single orbit for the linear fit. The OMI data include cloud scene pressures from the rotational-Raman algorithm and above-cloud NO2 vertical column density (VCD) (defined as the NO2 column from the cloud scene pressure to the top-of-the-atmosphere) from a differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) algorithm. Estimates of stratospheric column NO2 are obtained by extrapolating the linear fits to the tropopause. We compare OMI-derived NO2 VMRs with in situ aircraft profiles measured during the NASA Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign in 2006. The agreement is generally within the estimated uncertainties when appropriate data screening is applied. We then derive a global seasonal climatology of free-tropospheric NO2 VMR in cloudy conditions. Enhanced NO2 in the free troposphere commonly appears near polluted urban locations where NO2 produced in the boundary layer may be transported vertically out of the boundary layer and then horizontally away from the source. Signatures of lightning NO2 are also shown throughout low and middle latitude regions in summer months. A profile analysis of our cloud slicing data indicates signatures of uplifted and transported anthropogenic NO2 in the middle troposphere as well as lightning-generated NO2 in the upper troposphere. Comparison of the climatology with simulations from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) for cloudy conditions (cloud optical thicknesses > 10) shows similarities in the spatial patterns of continental pollution outflow. However, there are also some differences in

  8. Intracranial pressure monitoring in pediatric and adult patients with hydrocephalus and tentative shunt failure: a single-center experience over 10 years in 146 patients.

    PubMed

    Sæhle, Terje; Eide, Per Kristian

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT In patients with hydrocephalus and shunts, lasting symptoms such as headache and dizziness may be indicative of shunt failure, which may necessitate shunt revision. In cases of doubt, the authors monitor intracranial pressure (ICP) to determine the presence of over- or underdrainage of CSF to tailor management. In this study, the authors reviewed their experience of ICP monitoring in shunt failure. The aims of the study were to identify the complications and impact of ICP monitoring, as well as to determine the mean ICP and characteristics of the cardiac-induced ICP waves in pediatric versus adult over- and underdrainage. METHODS The study population included all pediatric and adult patients with hydrocephalus and shunts undergoing diagnostic ICP monitoring for tentative shunt failure during the 10-year period from 2002 to 2011. The patients were allocated into 3 groups depending on how they were managed following ICP monitoring: no drainage failure, overdrainage, or underdrainage. While patients with no drainage failure were managed conservatively without further actions, over- or underdrainage cases were managed with shunt revision or shunt valve adjustment. The ICP and ICP wave scores were determined from the continuous ICP waveforms. RESULTS The study population included 71 pediatric and 75 adult patients. There were no major complications related to ICP monitoring, but 1 patient was treated for a postoperative superficial wound infection and another experienced a minor bleed at the tip of the ICP sensor. Following ICP monitoring, shunt revision was performed in 74 (51%) of 146 patients, while valve adjustment was conducted in 17 (12%) and conservative measures without any actions in 55 (38%). Overdrainage was characterized by a higher percentage of episodes with negative mean ICP less than -5 to -10 mm Hg. The ICP wave scores, in particular the mean ICP wave amplitude (MWA), best differentiated underdrainage. Neither mean ICP nor MWA levels showed any

  9. Using a Dynamic Hydrology Model To Predict Mosquito Abundances in Flood and Swamp Water

    PubMed Central

    Stieglitz, Marc; Stark, Colin; Le Blancq, Sylvie; Cane, Mark

    2002-01-01

    We modeled surface wetness at high resolution, using a dynamic hydrology model, to predict flood and swamp water mosquito abundances. Historical meteorologic data, as well as topographic, soil, and vegetation data, were used to model surface wetness and identify potential fresh and swamp water breeding habitats in two northern New Jersey watersheds. Surface wetness was positively associated with the subsequent abundance of the dominant floodwater mosquito species, Aedes vexans, and the swamp water species, Anopheles walkeri. The subsequent abundance of Culex pipiens, a species that breeds in polluted, eutrophic waters, was negatively correlated with local modeled surface wetness. These associations permit real-time monitoring and forecasting of these floodwater and nonfloodwater species at high spatial and temporal resolution. These predictions will enable public health agencies to institute control measures before the mosquitoes emerge as adults, when their role as transmitters of disease comes into play. PMID:11749741

  10. Using a dynamic hydrology model to predict mosquito abundances in flood and swamp water.

    PubMed

    Shaman, Jeffrey; Stieglitz, Marc; Stark, Colin; Le Blancq, Sylvie; Cane, Mark

    2002-01-01

    We modeled surface wetness at high resolution, using a dynamic hydrology model, to predict flood and swamp water mosquito abundances. Historical meteorologic data, as well as topographic, soil, and vegetation data, were used to model surface wetness and identify potential fresh and swamp water breeding habitats in two northern New Jersey watersheds. Surface wetness was positively associated with the subsequent abundance of the dominant floodwater mosquito species, Aedes vexans, and the swamp water species, Anopheles walkeri. The subsequent abundance of Culex pipiens, a species that breeds in polluted, eutrophic waters, was negatively correlated with local modeled surface wetness. These associations permit real-time monitoring and forecasting of these floodwater and nonfloodwater species at high spatial and temporal resolution. These predictions will enable public health agencies to institute control measures before the mosquitoes emerge as adults, when their role as transmitters of disease comes into play.

  11. Solar abundance of osmium

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, George; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1976-01-01

    The abundance parameter, log gfA, where g is the statistical weight of the lower level, f is the oscillator strength, and A is the abundance (by numbers of atoms with respect to hydrogen), has been derived for three lines of osmium by a method of spectrum synthesis. An apparent discordance of the derived abundance with that found from the carbonaceous chondrites is probably to be attributed primarily to errors in the f-values, and blending with unknown contributors. PMID:16592314

  12. Design and Weighting Methods for a Nationally Representative Sample of HIV-infected Adults Receiving Medical Care in the United States-Medical Monitoring Project

    PubMed Central

    Iachan, Ronaldo; H. Johnson, Christopher; L. Harding, Richard; Kyle, Tonja; Saavedra, Pedro; L. Frazier, Emma; Beer, Linda; L. Mattson, Christine; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health surveys of the general US population are inadequate for monitoring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection because the relatively low prevalence of the disease (<0.5%) leads to small subpopulation sample sizes. Objective: To collect a nationally and locally representative probability sample of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care to monitor clinical and behavioral outcomes, supplementing the data in the National HIV Surveillance System. This paper describes the sample design and weighting methods for the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) and provides estimates of the size and characteristics of this population. Methods: To develop a method for obtaining valid, representative estimates of the in-care population, we implemented a cross-sectional, three-stage design that sampled 23 jurisdictions, then 691 facilities, then 9,344 HIV patients receiving medical care, using probability-proportional-to-size methods. The data weighting process followed standard methods, accounting for the probabilities of selection at each stage and adjusting for nonresponse and multiplicity. Nonresponse adjustments accounted for differing response at both facility and patient levels. Multiplicity adjustments accounted for visits to more than one HIV care facility. Results: MMP used a multistage stratified probability sampling design that was approximately self-weighting in each of the 23 project areas and nationally. The probability sample represents the estimated 421,186 HIV-infected adults receiving medical care during January through April 2009. Methods were efficient (i.e., induced small, unequal weighting effects and small standard errors for a range of weighted estimates). Conclusion: The information collected through MMP allows monitoring trends in clinical and behavioral outcomes and informs resource allocation for treatment and prevention activities. PMID:27651851

  13. Design and Weighting Methods for a Nationally Representative Sample of HIV-infected Adults Receiving Medical Care in the United States-Medical Monitoring Project

    PubMed Central

    Iachan, Ronaldo; H. Johnson, Christopher; L. Harding, Richard; Kyle, Tonja; Saavedra, Pedro; L. Frazier, Emma; Beer, Linda; L. Mattson, Christine; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health surveys of the general US population are inadequate for monitoring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection because the relatively low prevalence of the disease (<0.5%) leads to small subpopulation sample sizes. Objective: To collect a nationally and locally representative probability sample of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care to monitor clinical and behavioral outcomes, supplementing the data in the National HIV Surveillance System. This paper describes the sample design and weighting methods for the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) and provides estimates of the size and characteristics of this population. Methods: To develop a method for obtaining valid, representative estimates of the in-care population, we implemented a cross-sectional, three-stage design that sampled 23 jurisdictions, then 691 facilities, then 9,344 HIV patients receiving medical care, using probability-proportional-to-size methods. The data weighting process followed standard methods, accounting for the probabilities of selection at each stage and adjusting for nonresponse and multiplicity. Nonresponse adjustments accounted for differing response at both facility and patient levels. Multiplicity adjustments accounted for visits to more than one HIV care facility. Results: MMP used a multistage stratified probability sampling design that was approximately self-weighting in each of the 23 project areas and nationally. The probability sample represents the estimated 421,186 HIV-infected adults receiving medical care during January through April 2009. Methods were efficient (i.e., induced small, unequal weighting effects and small standard errors for a range of weighted estimates). Conclusion: The information collected through MMP allows monitoring trends in clinical and behavioral outcomes and informs resource allocation for treatment and prevention activities.

  14. Rainfall influences on ungulate population abundance in the Mara-Serengeti ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Ogutu, J O; Piepho, H-P; Dublin, H T; Bhola, N; Reid, R S

    2008-07-01

    demographic monitoring to reliably reveal rainfall influences on ungulate abundance in the Mara. 6. Strong relationships between abundance and rainfall suggest that rainfall underpins the dynamics of African savanna ungulates, and that changes in rainfall due to global warming may markedly alter the abundance and diversity of these mammals. Ungulates respond to rainfall fluctuations through movements, reproduction or survival, and the responses appear independent of breeding phenology and synchrony, dietary guild, or degree of water dependence. Newborns and adults have contrasting responses to rainfall. Males and females respond similarly to rainfall when age is ignored. PMID:18422558

  15. Bony skull development in the Argus monitor (Squamata, Varanidae, Varanus panoptes) with comments on developmental timing and adult anatomy.

    PubMed

    Werneburg, Ingmar; Polachowski, Katja M; Hutchinson, Mark N

    2015-08-01

    Varanids represent one of the most charismatic squamate clades and include the largest living lizards; however, little is known about their embryonic development and what it might reveal about the origin of their derived anatomy. In the present study, we describe external organogenesis and skull formation of Varanus panoptes in great detail. We compared timing of ossification with the patterns seen in other squamates, using three major hypotheses of squamate interrelationship as phylogenetic templates, and were able to detect heterochronic patterns in ossification that are associated with adult anatomy in each phylogeny. However, we refrain from preferring one topology given the current lack of congruence between molecular and morphological data sets. The rule of thumb that early appearance of developmental characters is correlated to larger prominence in adults is critically discussed and we conclude that such simple correlations are the exception rather than the rule. The entanglement of developmental processes detected herein highlights the non-independent formation of adult characters that are usually treated as independent in phylogenetic studies, which may bias the output of such studies. Our comprehensive descriptions of embryonic development may serve as a resource for future studies integrating the complex processes of embryogenesis into broad-scale phylogenetic analyses that are likely to show that change in embryonic timing is one of the major sources of morphological diversification.

  16. Bony skull development in the Argus monitor (Squamata, Varanidae, Varanus panoptes) with comments on developmental timing and adult anatomy.

    PubMed

    Werneburg, Ingmar; Polachowski, Katja M; Hutchinson, Mark N

    2015-08-01

    Varanids represent one of the most charismatic squamate clades and include the largest living lizards; however, little is known about their embryonic development and what it might reveal about the origin of their derived anatomy. In the present study, we describe external organogenesis and skull formation of Varanus panoptes in great detail. We compared timing of ossification with the patterns seen in other squamates, using three major hypotheses of squamate interrelationship as phylogenetic templates, and were able to detect heterochronic patterns in ossification that are associated with adult anatomy in each phylogeny. However, we refrain from preferring one topology given the current lack of congruence between molecular and morphological data sets. The rule of thumb that early appearance of developmental characters is correlated to larger prominence in adults is critically discussed and we conclude that such simple correlations are the exception rather than the rule. The entanglement of developmental processes detected herein highlights the non-independent formation of adult characters that are usually treated as independent in phylogenetic studies, which may bias the output of such studies. Our comprehensive descriptions of embryonic development may serve as a resource for future studies integrating the complex processes of embryogenesis into broad-scale phylogenetic analyses that are likely to show that change in embryonic timing is one of the major sources of morphological diversification. PMID:26051699

  17. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V. E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  18. Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, Ulysses J.; Meyer, David M.

    2001-06-01

    We evaluate the stellar abundances often used to represent the total (gas plus dust) composition of the interstellar medium. Published abundances for B stars, young later type (F and G) stars, and the Sun are compared to the modeled dust-phase and measured gas-phase compositions of the interstellar medium. This study uses abundances for the five most populous elements in dust grains-C, O, Mg, Si, and Fe-and the cosmically abundant element, N. We find that B stars have metal abundances that are too low to be considered valid representations of the interstellar medium. The commonly invoked interstellar standard that is two-thirds of the solar composition is also rejected by recent observations. Young (<=2 Gyr) F and G disk stars and the Sun, however, cannot be ruled out as reliable proxies for the total interstellar composition. If their abundances are valid representations of the interstellar medium, then the apparent underabundance of carbon with respect to that required by dust models, i.e., the carbon crisis, is substantially eased.

  19. Edge Effects Influence the Abundance of the Invasive Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Woody Plant Nurseries.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, P Dilip; Martinson, Holly M; Bergmann, Erik J; Shrewsbury, Paula M; Raupp, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), has caused severe economic losses in the United States and is also a major nuisance pest invading homes. In diverse woody plant nurseries, favored host plants may be attacked at different times of the season and in different locations in the field. Knowledge of factors influencing H. halys abundance and simple methods to predict where H. halys are found and cause damage are needed to develop effective management strategies. In this study, we examined H. halys abundance on plants in tree nurseries as a function of distance from field edges (edge and core samples) and documented the abundance in tree nurseries adjoining different habitat types (corn, soybean, residential areas, and production sod). We conducted timed counts for H. halys on 2,016 individual trees belonging to 146 unique woody plant cultivars at two commercial tree nurseries in Maryland. Across three years of sampling, we found that H. halys nymphs and adults were more abundant at field edges (0-5 m from edges) than in the core of fields (15-20 m from edges). Proximity of soybean fields was associated with high nymph and adult abundance. Results indicate that monitoring efforts and intervention tactics for this invasive pest could be restricted to field edges, especially those close to soybean fields. We show clearly that spatial factors, especially distance from edge, strongly influence H. halys abundance in nurseries. This information may greatly simplify the development of any future management strategies.

  20. Edge Effects Influence the Abundance of the Invasive Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Woody Plant Nurseries.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, P Dilip; Martinson, Holly M; Bergmann, Erik J; Shrewsbury, Paula M; Raupp, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), has caused severe economic losses in the United States and is also a major nuisance pest invading homes. In diverse woody plant nurseries, favored host plants may be attacked at different times of the season and in different locations in the field. Knowledge of factors influencing H. halys abundance and simple methods to predict where H. halys are found and cause damage are needed to develop effective management strategies. In this study, we examined H. halys abundance on plants in tree nurseries as a function of distance from field edges (edge and core samples) and documented the abundance in tree nurseries adjoining different habitat types (corn, soybean, residential areas, and production sod). We conducted timed counts for H. halys on 2,016 individual trees belonging to 146 unique woody plant cultivars at two commercial tree nurseries in Maryland. Across three years of sampling, we found that H. halys nymphs and adults were more abundant at field edges (0-5 m from edges) than in the core of fields (15-20 m from edges). Proximity of soybean fields was associated with high nymph and adult abundance. Results indicate that monitoring efforts and intervention tactics for this invasive pest could be restricted to field edges, especially those close to soybean fields. We show clearly that spatial factors, especially distance from edge, strongly influence H. halys abundance in nurseries. This information may greatly simplify the development of any future management strategies. PMID:26313952

  1. Acute effects of alcohol on brain perfusion monitored with arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging in young adults.

    PubMed

    Marxen, Michael; Gan, Gabriela; Schwarz, Daniel; Mennigen, Eva; Pilhatsch, Maximilian; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Guenther, Matthias; Smolka, Michael N

    2014-03-01

    While a number of studies have established that moderate doses of alcohol increase brain perfusion, the time course of such an increase as a function of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) has not yet been investigated, and studies differ about regional effects. Using arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated (1) the time course of the perfusion increase during a 15-minute linear increase of BrAC up to 0.6 g/kg followed by a steady exposure of 100 minutes, (2) the regional distribution, (3) a potential gender effect, and (4) the temporal stability of perfusion effects. In 48 young adults who participated in the Dresden longitudinal study on alcohol effects in young adults, we observed (1) a 7% increase of global perfusion as compared with placebo and that perfusion and BrAC are tightly coupled in time, (2) that the increase reaches significance in most regions of the brain, (3) that the effect is stronger in women than in men, and (4) that an acute tolerance effect is not observable on the time scale of 2 hours. Larger studies are needed to investigate the origin and the consequences of the effect, as well as the correlates of inter-subject variations.

  2. Keeping patient beds in a low position: an exploratory descriptive study to continuously monitor the height of patient beds in an adult acute surgical inpatient care setting.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Prakash, Atul; Brehob, Mark; Devecsery, David Andrew; Anderson, Allison; Yin, Chang-Yi

    2012-06-01

    This descriptive study was intended to measure the percentage of the time that patient beds were kept in high position in an adult acute inpatient surgical unit with medical overflow in a community hospital in Michigan, United States. The percentage of the time was calculated for morning, evening, and night shifts. The results showed that overall, occupied beds were in a high position 5.6% of the time: 5.40% in the day shift, 6.88% in the evening shift, and 4.38% in the night shift. It is recognized that this study was unable to differentiate whether those times patient beds being kept in a high position were appropriate for an elevated bed height (e.g., staff were working with the patient). Further research is warranted. Falls committees may conduct high-bed prevalence surveys in a regular basis as a proxy to monitor staff members' behaviors in keeping beds in a high position.

  3. Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Importance of Monitoring Survivors' Experiences of Family Functioning.

    PubMed

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Murayama, Shiho; Ozono, Shuichi; Sakamoto, Naoko; Iwai, Tsuyako; Asami, Keiko; Maeda, Naoko; Inada, Hiroko; Kakee, Naoko; Okamura, Jun; Horibe, Keizo; Ishida, Yasushi

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among Japanese long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCSs). Subjects comprised 185 adolescent and young adult (AYA) CCSs who completed anonymous self-report questionnaires. Attending physicians also completed an anonymous disease/treatment data sheet. Mean age of survivors was approximately 8 years at diagnosis and 23 years at participation. Multiple regression analysis showed that family functioning, satisfaction with social support, being female, and interactions between family functioning and gender and age at the time of diagnosis were associated with PTSS among survivors. This study revealed family functioning as the most predictive factor of PTSS among AYA CCSs in Japan. Even when the survivor may have unchangeable risk factors, family functioning can potentially moderate the effects on PTSS. Thus, it is crucial for health professionals to carefully monitor and attend to survivors' experiences of family functioning to mitigate PTSS. PMID:26442952

  4. Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Importance of Monitoring Survivors' Experiences of Family Functioning.

    PubMed

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Murayama, Shiho; Ozono, Shuichi; Sakamoto, Naoko; Iwai, Tsuyako; Asami, Keiko; Maeda, Naoko; Inada, Hiroko; Kakee, Naoko; Okamura, Jun; Horibe, Keizo; Ishida, Yasushi

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among Japanese long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCSs). Subjects comprised 185 adolescent and young adult (AYA) CCSs who completed anonymous self-report questionnaires. Attending physicians also completed an anonymous disease/treatment data sheet. Mean age of survivors was approximately 8 years at diagnosis and 23 years at participation. Multiple regression analysis showed that family functioning, satisfaction with social support, being female, and interactions between family functioning and gender and age at the time of diagnosis were associated with PTSS among survivors. This study revealed family functioning as the most predictive factor of PTSS among AYA CCSs in Japan. Even when the survivor may have unchangeable risk factors, family functioning can potentially moderate the effects on PTSS. Thus, it is crucial for health professionals to carefully monitor and attend to survivors' experiences of family functioning to mitigate PTSS.

  5. Solar abundance of platinum

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Harry; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1975-01-01

    Three lines of neutral platinum, located at λ 2997.98 Å, λ 3064.71 Å, and λ 3301.86 Å have been used to determine the solar platinum abundance by the method of spectral synthesis. On the scale, log A(H) = 12.00, the thus-derived solar platinum abundance is 1.75 ± 0.10, in fair accord with Cameron's value of log A(Pt) = 1.69 derived by Mason from carbonaceous chondrites and calculated on the assumption that log A(Si) = 7.55 in the sun. PMID:16592278

  6. Comparison of chimerism and minimal residual disease monitoring for relapse prediction after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Terwey, Theis Helge; Hemmati, Philipp Georg; Nagy, Marion; Pfeifer, Heike; Gökbuget, Nicola; Brüggemann, Monika; Le Duc, Tanja Melinh; le Coutre, Philipp; Dörken, Bernd; Arnold, Renate

    2014-10-01

    Little data are available on the relative merits of chimerism and minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring for relapse prediction after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). We performed a retrospective analysis of serial chimerism assessments in 101 adult HCT recipients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and of serial MRD assessments in a subgroup of 22 patients. All patients had received myeloablative conditioning. The cumulative incidence of relapse was significantly higher in the patients with increasing mixed chimerism (in-MC) compared with those with complete chimerism, low-level MC, and decreasing MC, but the sensitivity of in-MC detection with regard to relapse prediction was only modest. In contrast, MRD assessment was highly sensitive and specific. Patients with MRD positivity after HCT had the highest incidence of relapse among all prognostic groups analyzed. The median time from MRD positivity to relapse was longer than the median time from detection of in-MC, but in some cases in-MC preceded MRD positivity. We conclude that MRD assessment is a powerful prognostic tool that should be included in the routine post-transplantation monitoring of patients with ALL, but chimerism analysis may provide additional information in some cases. Integration of these tools and clinical judgment should allow optimal decision making with regard to post-transplantation therapeutic interventions.

  7. Abundances of light elements.

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, B E

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of abundances of light elements and their relevance to cosmological nucleosynthesis are briefly reviewed. The simplest model, based on standard cosmology and particle physics and assuming homogeneous baryon density at the relevant times, continues to stand up well. PMID:11607388

  8. Estimating adult mortality attributable to PM2.5 exposure in China with assimilated PM2.5 concentrations based on a ground monitoring network.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Han, Yiqun; Tang, Xiao; Zhu, Jiang; Zhu, Tong

    2016-10-15

    Estimates of mortality attributable to air pollution in China showed large differences among various studies, mainly arising from differences in exposure assessments and choice of the concentration-response function. The Chinese national monitoring network recently has included direct measurements of PM2.5 (particulates with aerodynamic diameter≤2.5μm), providing a potentially more reliable exposure assessment. We estimated adult premature mortalities due to PM2.5 across China in 2013 and mortality benefits for scenarios in which China meets the World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guidelines (AQG) and three interim targets (ITs) for PM2.5. Attributable adult mortalities were estimated with assimilated spatial PM2.5 concentrations across China based on direct PM2.5 measurements from 506 PM2.5 monitoring sites and a regional air quality model, and using the integrated exposure-response model. Our results show that in China, 83% of the population lived in areas where PM2.5 concentrations exceeded the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard of 35μgm(-3). Premature mortalities attributed to PM2.5 nationwide were 1.37 million in total, and 0.69, 0.38, 0.13, and 0.17 million for stroke, ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respectively. High population density areas exhibited the highest health risks attributed to air pollution. The mortality benefits will be 23%, 39%, 66%, and 83% of the total present premature mortalities (1.37 million mortalities) when PM2.5 concentrations in China meet the WHO IT-1, IT-2, IT-3, and AQG, respectively. Our study shows that integrating PM2.5 concentrations based on the national monitoring network with the regional air quality model provides an advanced exposure estimate method with potentials to further improve the accuracy for mortality estimate; much higher health benefits could be achieved if China adopted more stringent WHO guidelines for PM2.5. PMID:27266521

  9. Switching HIV Treatment in Adults Based on CD4 Count Versus Viral Load Monitoring: A Randomized, Non-Inferiority Trial in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Jourdain, Gonzague; Le Cœur, Sophie; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Traisathit, Patrinee; Cressey, Tim R.; Fregonese, Federica; Leurent, Baptiste; Collins, Intira J.; Techapornroong, Malee; Banchongkit, Sukit; Buranabanjasatean, Sudanee; Halue, Guttiga; Nilmanat, Ampaipith; Luekamlung, Nuananong; Klinbuayaem, Virat; Chutanunta, Apichat; Kantipong, Pacharee; Bowonwatanuwong, Chureeratana; Lertkoonalak, Rittha; Leenasirimakul, Prattana; Tansuphasawasdikul, Somboon; Sang-a-gad, Pensiriwan; Pathipvanich, Panita; Thongbuaban, Srisuda; Wittayapraparat, Pakorn; Eiamsirikit, Naree; Buranawanitchakorn, Yuwadee; Yutthakasemsunt, Naruepon; Winiyakul, Narong; Decker, Luc; Barbier, Sylvaine; Koetsawang, Suporn; Sirirungsi, Wasna; McIntosh, Kenneth; Thanprasertsuk, Sombat; Lallemant, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background Viral load (VL) is recommended for monitoring the response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) but is not routinely available in most low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of the study was to determine whether a CD4-based monitoring and switching strategy would provide a similar clinical outcome compared to the standard VL-based strategy in Thailand. Methods and Findings The Programs for HIV Prevention and Treatment (PHPT-3) non-inferiority randomized clinical trial compared a treatment switching strategy based on CD4-only (CD4) monitoring versus viral-load (VL). Consenting participants were antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected adults (CD4 count 50–250/mm3) initiating non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based therapy. Randomization, stratified by site (21 public hospitals), was performed centrally after enrollment. Clinicians were unaware of the VL values of patients randomized to the CD4 arm. Participants switched to second-line combination with confirmed CD4 decline >30% from peak (within 200 cells from baseline) in the CD4 arm, or confirmed VL >400 copies/ml in the VL arm. Primary endpoint was clinical failure at 3 years, defined as death, new AIDS-defining event, or CD4 <50 cells/mm3. The 3-year Kaplan-Meier cumulative risks of clinical failure were compared for non-inferiority with a margin of 7.4%. In the intent to treat analysis, data were censored at the date of death or at last visit. The secondary endpoints were difference in future-drug-option (FDO) score, a measure of resistance profiles, virologic and immunologic responses, and the safety and tolerance of HAART. 716 participants were randomized, 356 to VL monitoring and 360 to CD4 monitoring. At 3 years, 319 participants (90%) in VL and 326 (91%) in CD4 were alive and on follow-up. The cumulative risk of clinical failure was 8.0% (95% CI 5.6–11.4) in VL versus 7.4% (5.1–10.7) in CD4, and the upper-limit of the one-sided 95% CI of the difference was

  10. Some Conclusions from the Co-operation of 14 Development Projects. Studied in the Framework of Three Co-operative Monitoring Groups. The CDCC's Project No. 9: "Adult Education and Community Development."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Walter

    The reports are presented from three Cooperative Monitoring Groups of the Council for Cultural Cooperation. The groups studied 14 projects that contributed to local and regional development through their provision or encouragement of the provision by others of adult education and training as a component of that development. A brief introduction…

  11. Solar abundance of iridium

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Stephen; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1976-01-01

    By a method of spectrum synthesis, which yields log gfA, where g is the statistical weight of the lower level, f is the oscillator strength, and A is the abundance, an attempt is made to deduce the solar iridium abundance from one relatively unblended, but fairly weak IrI line, λ 3220.78 Å. If the Corliss-Bozman f-value for this line is adopted, we find log A(Ir) = 0.82 on the scale log A(H) = 12.00. The discordance with the value found from carbonaceous chondrites may arise from faulty f-values or from difficulties arising from line blending in this far ultraviolet domain of the solar spectrum. PMID:16578735

  12. Overcoming Clinical Inertia: A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Telehealth Remote Monitoring Intervention Using Paired Glucose Testing in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Blozis, Shelley A; Young, Heather M; Nesbitt, Thomas S; Quinn, Charlene C

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a worldwide challenge. Practice guidelines promote structured self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) for informing health care providers about glycemic control and providing patient feedback to increase knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior change. Paired glucose testing—pairs of glucose results obtained before and after a meal or physical activity—is a method of structured SMBG. However, frequent access to glucose data to interpret values and recommend actions is challenging. A complete feedback loop—data collection and interpretation combined with feedback to modify treatment—has been associated with improved outcomes, yet there remains limited integration of SMBG feedback in diabetes management. Incorporating telehealth remote monitoring and asynchronous electronic health record (EHR) feedback from certified diabetes educators (CDEs)—specialists in glucose pattern management—employ the complete feedback loop to improve outcomes. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate a telehealth remote monitoring intervention using paired glucose testing and asynchronous data analysis in adults with type 2 diabetes. The primary aim was change in glycated hemoglobin (A1c)—a measure of overall glucose management—between groups after 6 months. The secondary aims were change in self-reported Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA), Diabetes Empowerment Scale, and Diabetes Knowledge Test. Methods A 2-group randomized clinical trial was conducted comparing usual care to telehealth remote monitoring with paired glucose testing and asynchronous virtual visits. Participants were aged 30-70 years, not using insulin with A1c levels between 7.5% and 10.9% (58-96 mmol/mol). The telehealth remote monitoring tablet computer transmitted glucose data and facilitated a complete feedback loop to educate participants, analyze actionable glucose data, and provide feedback. Data from paired glucose testing were analyzed

  13. Using an eHealth Intervention to Stimulate Health Behavior for the Prevention of Cognitive Decline in Dutch Adults: A Study Protocol for the Brain Aging Monitor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Internet-delivered intervention programs are an effective way of changing health behavior in an aging population. The same population has an increasing number of people with cognitive decline or cognitive impairments. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors such as physical activity, nutrition, smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep, and stress all influence the probability of developing neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Objective This study aims to answer two questions: (1) Is the use of a self-motivated, complex eHealth intervention effective in changing multiple health behaviors related to cognitive aging in Dutch adults in the work force, especially those aged 40 and over? and (2) Does this health behavior change result in healthier cognitive aging patterns and contribute to preventing or delaying future onset of neurodegenerative syndromes? Methods The Brain Aging Monitor study uses a quasi-experimental 2-year pre-posttest design. The Brain Aging Monitor is an online, self-motivated lifestyle intervention program. Recruitment is done both in medium to large organizations and in the Dutch general population over the age of 40. The main outcome measure is the relationship between lifestyle change and cognitive aging. The program uses different strategies and modalities such as Web content, email, online newsletters, and online games to aid its users in behavior change. To build self-regulatory skills, the Brain Aging Monitor offers its users goal-setting activities, skill-building activities, and self-monitoring. Results Study results are expected to be published in early 2016. Conclusions This study will add to the body of evidence on the effectiveness of eHealth intervention programs with the combined use of state-of-the-art applied games and established behavior change techniques. This will lead to new insights on how to use behavior change techniques and theory in multidimensional lifestyle eHealth research, and how these techniques

  14. Effects of high-intensity interval exercise versus continuous moderate-intensity exercise on postprandial glycemic control assessed by continuous glucose monitoring in obese adults.

    PubMed

    Little, Jonathan P; Jung, Mary E; Wright, Amy E; Wright, Wendi; Manders, Ralph J F

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of acute high-intensity interval training (HIIT) compared with continuous moderate-intensity (CMI) exercise on postprandial hyperglycemia in overweight or obese adults. Ten inactive, overweight or obese adults (41 ± 11 yrs, BMI = 36 ± 7 kg/m(2)) performed an acute bout of HIIT (10 × 1 min at approximately 90% peak heart rate (HRpeak) with 1-min recovery periods) or matched work CMI (30 min at approximately 65% HRpeak) in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Exercise was performed 2 h after breakfast, and glucose control was assessed by continuous glucose monitoring under standardized dietary conditions over 24 h. Postprandial glucose (PPG) responses to lunch, dinner, and the following day's breakfast were analyzed and compared with a no-exercise control day. Exercise did not affect the PPG responses to lunch, but performing both HIIT and CMI in the morning significantly reduced the PPG incremental area under the curve (AUC) following dinner when compared with control (HIIT = 110 ± 35, CMI = 125 ± 34, control = 162 ± 46 mmol/L × 2 h, p < 0.05). The PPG AUC (HIIT = 125 ± 53, CMI = 186 ± 55, control = 194 ± 96 mmol/L × 2 h) and the PPG spike (HIIT = Δ2.1 ± 0.9, CMI = Δ3.0 ± 0.9, control = Δ3.0 ± 1.5 mmol/l) following breakfast on the following day were significantly lower following HIIT compared with both CMI and control (p < 0.05). Absolute AUC and absolute glucose spikes were not different between HIIT, CMI, or control for any meal (p > 0.05 for all). We conclude that a single session of HIIT has greater and more lasting effects on reducing incremental PPG when compared with CMI.

  15. Monitoring tigers with confidence.

    PubMed

    Linkie, Matthew; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Smith, Joseph; Rayan, D Mark

    2010-12-01

    With only 5% of the world's wild tigers (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758) remaining since the last century, conservationists urgently need to know whether or not the management strategies currently being employed are effectively protecting these tigers. This knowledge is contingent on the ability to reliably monitor tiger populations, or subsets, over space and time. In the this paper, we focus on the 2 seminal methodologies (camera trap and occupancy surveys) that have enabled the monitoring of tiger populations with greater confidence. Specifically, we: (i) describe their statistical theory and application in the field; (ii) discuss issues associated with their survey designs and state variable modeling; and, (iii) discuss their future directions. These methods have had an unprecedented influence on increasing statistical rigor within tiger surveys and, also, surveys of other carnivore species. Nevertheless, only 2 published camera trap studies have gone beyond single baseline assessments and actually monitored population trends. For low density tiger populations (e.g. <1 adult tiger/100 km(2)) obtaining sufficient precision for state variable estimates from camera trapping remains a challenge because of insufficient detection probabilities and/or sample sizes. Occupancy surveys have overcome this problem by redefining the sampling unit (e.g. grid cells and not individual tigers). Current research is focusing on developing spatially explicit capture-mark-recapture models and estimating abundance indices from landscape-scale occupancy surveys, as well as the use of genetic information for identifying and monitoring tigers. The widespread application of these monitoring methods in the field now enables complementary studies on the impact of the different threats to tiger populations and their response to varying management intervention.

  16. Monitoring tigers with confidence.

    PubMed

    Linkie, Matthew; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Smith, Joseph; Rayan, D Mark

    2010-12-01

    With only 5% of the world's wild tigers (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758) remaining since the last century, conservationists urgently need to know whether or not the management strategies currently being employed are effectively protecting these tigers. This knowledge is contingent on the ability to reliably monitor tiger populations, or subsets, over space and time. In the this paper, we focus on the 2 seminal methodologies (camera trap and occupancy surveys) that have enabled the monitoring of tiger populations with greater confidence. Specifically, we: (i) describe their statistical theory and application in the field; (ii) discuss issues associated with their survey designs and state variable modeling; and, (iii) discuss their future directions. These methods have had an unprecedented influence on increasing statistical rigor within tiger surveys and, also, surveys of other carnivore species. Nevertheless, only 2 published camera trap studies have gone beyond single baseline assessments and actually monitored population trends. For low density tiger populations (e.g. <1 adult tiger/100 km(2)) obtaining sufficient precision for state variable estimates from camera trapping remains a challenge because of insufficient detection probabilities and/or sample sizes. Occupancy surveys have overcome this problem by redefining the sampling unit (e.g. grid cells and not individual tigers). Current research is focusing on developing spatially explicit capture-mark-recapture models and estimating abundance indices from landscape-scale occupancy surveys, as well as the use of genetic information for identifying and monitoring tigers. The widespread application of these monitoring methods in the field now enables complementary studies on the impact of the different threats to tiger populations and their response to varying management intervention. PMID:21392352

  17. Monitoring of resistance or susceptibility of adults and larvae of Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) to synthetic acaricides in Goiás, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Edméia de Paula e Souza; Zapata, Marco Túlio Antônio Garcia; Fernandes, Fernando de Freitas

    2011-02-01

    Amblyomma cajennense or the Cayenne tick is a three-host ixodid tick species of low parasitic specificity that is the principal vector of Brazilian spotted fever. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the possible development of resistance by adult specimens of A. cajennense to deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide and the principal miticide/acaricide commercially available in the region. The second objective was to monitor the susceptibility and/or resistance of larvae of this species to 12 synthetic acaricide formulations selected from the principal pesticides available in Goiás for the control of ticks. Unfed male and female adult specimens of A. cajennense were collected from leaves of bushes along a nature trail in the municipality of Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brazil. They were submitted to immersion in the highest recommended dose of deltamethrin and subsequently, were placed in contact with filter paper impregnated with the substance. The toxicological effects caused by the insecticide were observed every 6 h over a 36 h period. To obtain larvae, engorged females of A. cajennense were collected from naturally infested horses that had been free of acaricidal residue for at least 45 days, in farms situated in five different municipalities in the state (Caldas Novas, Hidrolândia, Goiás, Terezópolis and Goiânia). The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of 12 commercially available acaricidal formulations using the larval packet test (LPT) method. The control groups were treated with distilled water alone. The bioassays were performed in quadruplicate at a temperature of 27 °C, relative air humidity > 80% and 12 h light/dark cycles. The mean percentage of mortality MX was 72.6% in the adult specimens after 24 h of exposure to the dose of deltamethrin recommended by the manufacturer, characterizing a status of resistance. MX of 82, 89, 89.6 and 90% of the larvae were obtained, respectively, for deltamethrin, cypermethrin

  18. Monitoring of resistance or susceptibility of adults and larvae of Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) to synthetic acaricides in Goiás, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Edméia de Paula e Souza; Zapata, Marco Túlio Antônio Garcia; Fernandes, Fernando de Freitas

    2011-02-01

    Amblyomma cajennense or the Cayenne tick is a three-host ixodid tick species of low parasitic specificity that is the principal vector of Brazilian spotted fever. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the possible development of resistance by adult specimens of A. cajennense to deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide and the principal miticide/acaricide commercially available in the region. The second objective was to monitor the susceptibility and/or resistance of larvae of this species to 12 synthetic acaricide formulations selected from the principal pesticides available in Goiás for the control of ticks. Unfed male and female adult specimens of A. cajennense were collected from leaves of bushes along a nature trail in the municipality of Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brazil. They were submitted to immersion in the highest recommended dose of deltamethrin and subsequently, were placed in contact with filter paper impregnated with the substance. The toxicological effects caused by the insecticide were observed every 6 h over a 36 h period. To obtain larvae, engorged females of A. cajennense were collected from naturally infested horses that had been free of acaricidal residue for at least 45 days, in farms situated in five different municipalities in the state (Caldas Novas, Hidrolândia, Goiás, Terezópolis and Goiânia). The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of 12 commercially available acaricidal formulations using the larval packet test (LPT) method. The control groups were treated with distilled water alone. The bioassays were performed in quadruplicate at a temperature of 27 °C, relative air humidity > 80% and 12 h light/dark cycles. The mean percentage of mortality MX was 72.6% in the adult specimens after 24 h of exposure to the dose of deltamethrin recommended by the manufacturer, characterizing a status of resistance. MX of 82, 89, 89.6 and 90% of the larvae were obtained, respectively, for deltamethrin, cypermethrin

  19. Abundance of field galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Karachentsev, Igor; Makarov, Dmitry; Nasonova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    We present new measurements of the abundance of galaxies with a given circular velocity in the Local Volume: a region centred on the Milky Way Galaxy and extending to distance ˜10 Mpc. The sample of ˜750 mostly dwarf galaxies provides a unique opportunity to study the abundance and properties of galaxies down to absolute magnitudes MB ≈ -10 and virial masses M_vir= 109{ M_{⊙}}. We find that the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model gives remarkably accurate estimates for the velocity function of galaxies with circular velocities V ≳ 70 kms-1 and corresponding virial masses M_vir≳ 5× 10^{10}{ M_{⊙}}, but it badly fails by overpredicting ˜5 times the abundance of large dwarfs with velocities V = 30-40 kms-1. The warm dark matter (WDM) models cannot explain the data either, regardless of mass of WDM particle. Just as in previous observational studies, we find a shallow asymptotic slope dN/dlog V ∝ Vα, α ≈ -1 of the velocity function, which is inconsistent with the standard ΛCDM model that predicts the slope α = -3. Though reminiscent to the known overabundance of satellite problem, the overabundance of field galaxies is a much more difficult problem. For the standard ΛCDM model to survive, in the 10 Mpc radius of the Milky Way there should be 1000 not yet detected galaxies with virial mass M_vir≈ 10^{10}{ M_{⊙}}, extremely low surface brightness and no detectable H I gas. So far none of this type of galaxies have been discovered.

  20. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins

    PubMed Central

    Olvera-Carrillo, Yadira; Reyes, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate at the onset of seed desiccation and in response to water deficit in vegetative plant tissues. The typical LEA proteins are highly hydrophilic and intrinsically unstructured. They have been classified in different families, each one showing distinctive conserved motifs. In this manuscript we present and discuss some of the recent findings regarding their role in plant adaptation to water deficit, as well as those concerning to their possible function, and how it can be related to their intrinsic structural flexibility. PMID:21447997

  1. Global Adult Tobacco Survey data as a tool to monitor the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) implementation: the Brazilian case.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Liz; Szklo, André; Sampaio, Mariana; Souza, Mirian; Martins, Luís Felipe; Szklo, Moysés; Malta, Deborah; Caixeta, Roberta

    2012-07-01

    The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Brazil to provide data on tobacco use in order to monitor the WHO FCTC implementation in the country. It was carried out in 2008 using an international standardized methodology. The instrument included questions about tobacco use prevalence, cessation, secondhand smoke, knowledge, attitudes, media and advertising. Weighted analysis was used to obtain estimates. A total of 39,425 interviews were conducted. The prevalence of current tobacco use was 17.5%, (22.0%, men; 13.3%, women). The majority of users were smokers (17.2%) and their percentage was higher in rural areas (20.4%) than in urban areas (16.6%). About 20% of individuals reported having been exposed to tobacco smoke in public places. Over 70% of respondents said they had noticed anti-smoking information in several media and around 65% of smokers said they had considered quitting because of warning labels. About 30% of respondents had noticed cigarette advertising at selling points and 96% recognized tobacco use as a risk factor for serious diseases. Data in this report can be used as baseline for evaluation of new tobacco control approaches in Brazil, vis-à-vis WHO FCTC demand reduction measures. PMID:22851957

  2. Global Adult Tobacco Survey Data as a Tool to Monitor the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) Implementation: The Brazilian Case

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Liz; Szklo, André; Sampaio, Mariana; Souza, Mirian; Martins, Luís Felipe; Szklo, Moysés; Malta, Deborah; Caixeta, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Brazil to provide data on tobacco use in order to monitor the WHO FCTC implementation in the country. It was carried out in 2008 using an international standardized methodology. The instrument included questions about tobacco use prevalence, cessation, secondhand smoke, knowledge, attitudes, media and advertising. Weighted analysis was used to obtain estimates. A total of 39,425 interviews were conducted. The prevalence of current tobacco use was 17.5%, (22.0%, men; 13.3%, women). The majority of users were smokers (17.2%) and their percentage was higher in rural areas (20.4%) than in urban areas (16.6%). About 20% of individuals reported having been exposed to tobacco smoke in public places. Over 70% of respondents said they had noticed anti-smoking information in several media and around 65% of smokers said they had considered quitting because of warning labels. About 30% of respondents had noticed cigarette advertising at selling points and 96% recognized tobacco use as a risk factor for serious diseases. Data in this report can be used as baseline for evaluation of new tobacco control approaches in Brazil, vis-à-vis WHO FCTC demand reduction measures. PMID:22851957

  3. Chemical abundance of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyckoff, Susan; Wehinger, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Observations of NH2, (OI) and molecular ion spectra in comets represent virtually all of the volatile fraction of a comet nucleus. Their study leads to the N2, NH3, H2O, CO2, CO content of the nucleus, and thus to important constraints on models of comet formation and chemical processing in the primitive solar nebula. The observations of Comet Halley provide the opportunity for the first comprehensive determination of the abundances in a comet nucleus. The carbon isotope abundance ratio 12 C/13 C = 65 plus or minus 8 has been determined for Comet Halley from resolved rotational line structure in the CN B-X (0,0) band. The ratio is approximately 30 pct lower than the solar system value, 89, indicating either an enhancement of 13CN or a depletion of 12CN in the comet. Scenarios consistent with the observed carbon isotope ratio are: (1) formation of the comet at the periphery of the solar nebula in a fractionation-enriched 13CN region, or hidden from 12CN enrichment sources, and (2) capture of an interestellar comet. Long-slit charge coupled device (CCD) spectra obtained at the time of the spacecraft encounter of Comet Halley have also been analyzed. Scale lengths, production rates and column densities of CH, CN, C2 and NH2 were determined.

  4. Flare Plasma Iron Abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Dan, Chau; Jain, Rajmal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    The equivalent width of the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV seen in flare X-ray spectra suggests that the iron abundance of the hottest plasma at temperatures >approx.10 MK may sometimes be significantly lower than the nominal coronal abundance of four times the photospheric value that is commonly assumed. This conclusion is based on X-ray spectral observations of several flares seen in common with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) on the second Indian geostationary satellite, GSAT-2. The implications of this will be discussed as it relates to the origin of the hot flare plasma - either plasma already in the corona that is directly heated during the flare energy release process or chromospheric plasma that is heated by flare-accelerated particles and driven up into the corona. Other possible explanations of lower-than-expected equivalent widths of the iron-line complex will also be discussed.

  5. "Capture" Me if You Can: Estimating Abundance of Dolphin Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jessica; Curran, Mary Carla; Cox, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Animal populations are monitored over time to assess the effects of environmental disaster and disease, as well as the efficacy of laws designed to protect them. Determining the abundance of a species within a defined area is one method of monitoring a population. In "Capture" Me if You Can, middle school students will use data collected…

  6. Abundances in Sagittarius Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, P.; Zaggia, S.; Sbordone, L.; Santin, P.; Monaco, L.; Monai, S.; Molaro, P.; Marconi, G.; Girardi, L.; Ferraro, F.; di Marcantonio, P.; Caffau, E.; Bellazzini, M.

    The Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal is a very complex galaxy, which has undergone prolonged star formation. From the very first high resolution chemical analysis of Sgr stars, conducted using spectra obtained during the commissioning of UVES at VLT, it was clear that the star had undergone a high level of chemical processing, at variance with most of the other Local Group dwarf spheroidals. Thanks to FLAMES at VLT we now have accurate metallicities and abundances of alpha-chain elements for about 150 stars, which provide the first reliable metallicity distribution for this galaxy. Besides the already known high metallicity tail the existence of a metal-poor population has also been highlighted, although an assessment of the fraction of Sgr stars which belong to this population requires a larger sample. From our data it is also obvious that Sagittarius is a nucleated galaxy and that the centre of the nucleus coincides with M54, as already shown by Monaco et al.

  7. Cerebral Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) Monitoring and Neurologic Outcomes in Adult Cardiac Surgery Patients and Neurologic Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fei; Sheinberg, Rosanne; Yee, May Sann; Ono, Masa; Zheng, Yueyging; Hogue, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Near-infrared spectroscopy is used during cardiac surgery to monitor the adequacy of cerebral perfusion. In this systematic review, we evaluated available data for adult patients to determine (1) whether decrements in cerebral oximetry during cardiac surgery are associated with stroke, postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), or delirium and (2) whether interventions aimed at correcting cerebral oximetry decrements improve neurologic outcomes. Methods We searched PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase databases from inception until January 31, 2012, without restriction on languages. Each article was examined for additional references. A publication was excluded if it did not include original data (e.g., review, commentary) or if it was not published as a full-length article in a peer-reviewed journal (e.g., abstract only). The identified abstracts were screened first, and full texts of eligible papers were reviewed independently by two investigators. For eligible publications, we recorded the number of subjects, type of surgery, and criteria for diagnosis of neurologic endpoints. Results We identified 13 case reports, 27 observational studies, and two prospectively randomized intervention trials that met our inclusion criteria. Case reports and two observational studies contained anecdotal evidence suggesting that regional cerebral O2 saturation (rScO2) monitoring could be used to identify cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) cannula malposition. Six of nine observational studies reported an association between acute rScO2 desaturation and POCD based on the Mini-Mental Status Examination (n=3 studies) or more detailed cognitive testing (n=6 studies). Two retrospective studies reported a relationship between rScO2 desaturation and stroke or type I and II neurologic injury after surgery. The observational studies had many limitations, including small sample size, assessments only during the immediate postoperative period, and failure to perform risk adjustments. Two

  8. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of actinide and light REE (LREE) abundances and of phosphate abundances in equilibrated ordinary chondrites were obtained and were used to define the Pu abundance in the solar system and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. The results were also used to compare directly the Pu/U ratio with the earlier obtained ratio determined indirectly, as (Pu/Nd)x(Nd/U), assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. The data, combined with high-accuracy isotope-dilution data from the literature, show that the degree of gram-scale variability of the Th, U, and LREE abundances for equilibrated ordinary chondrites is a factor of 2-3 for absolute abundances and up to 50 percent for relative abundances. The observed variations are interpreted as reflecting the differences in the compositions and/or proportions of solar nebula components accreted to ordinary chondrite parent bodies.

  9. Racial Differences in Abnormal Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Measures: Results From the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Cora E.; Diaz, Keith M.; Carson, April P.; Kim, Yongin; Calhoun, David; Yano, Yuichiro; Viera, Anthony J.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) measures have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk independent of clinic blood pressure (BP). African Americans have higher clinic BP compared with Whites but few data are available on racial differences in ABPM measures. METHODS We compared ABPM measures between African American (n = 178) and White (n = 103) participants at the Year 5 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study visit. BP was measured during a study visit and the second and third measurements were averaged. ABPM was conducted over the following 24 hours. RESULTS Mean ± SD age of participants was 29.8±3.8 years and 30.8±3.5 years for African Americans and Whites, respectively. Mean daytime systolic BP (SBP) was 3.90 (SD 1.18) mm Hg higher among African Americans compared with Whites (P < 0.001) after age–gender adjustment and 1.71 (SD 1.03) mm Hg higher after multivariable adjustment including mean clinic SBP (P = 0.10). After multivariable adjustment including mean clinic SBP, nighttime SBP was 4.83 (SD 1.11) mm Hg higher among African Americans compared with Whites (P < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, the African Americans were more likely than Whites to have nocturnal hypertension (prevalence ratio: 2.44, 95% CI: 0.99–6.05) and nondipping (prevalence ratio: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.39–4.48). The prevalence of masked hypertension among African Americans and Whites was 4.4% and 2.1%, respectively, (P = 0.49) and white coat hypertension was 3.3% and 3.9%, respectively (P = 0.99). Twenty-four hour BP variability on ABPM was higher among African Americans compared with Whites. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest racial differences in several ABPM measures exist. PMID:25376639

  10. Abundance models improve spatial and temporal prioritization of conservation resources.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Alison; Fink, Daniel; Reynolds, Mark D; Hochachka, Wesley M; Sullivan, Brian L; Bruns, Nicholas E; Hallstein, Eric; Merrifield, Matt S; Matsumoto, Sandi; Kelling, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Conservation prioritization requires knowledge about organism distribution and density. This information is often inferred from models that estimate the probability of species occurrence rather than from models that estimate species abundance, because abundance data are harder to obtain and model. However, occurrence and abundance may not display similar patterns and therefore development of robust, scalable, abundance models is critical to ensuring that scarce conservation resources are applied where they can have the greatest benefits. Motivated by a dynamic land conservation program, we develop and assess a general method for modeling relative abundance using citizen science monitoring data. Weekly estimates of relative abundance and occurrence were compared for prioritizing times and locations of conservation actions for migratory waterbird species in California, USA. We found that abundance estimates consistently provided better rankings of observed counts than occurrence estimates. Additionally, the relationship between abundance and occurrence was nonlinear and varied by species and season. Across species, locations prioritized by occurrence models had only 10-58% overlap with locations prioritized by abundance models, highlighting that occurrence models will not typically identify the locations of highest abundance that are vital for conservation of populations.

  11. Mosquito Surveillance Revealed Lagged Effects of Mosquito Abundance on Mosquito-Borne Disease Transmission: A Retrospective Study in Zhejiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song; Ling, Feng; Hou, Juan; Wang, Jinna; Fu, Guiming; Gong, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) are still threats to public health in Zhejiang. In this study, the associations between the time-lagged mosquito capture data and MBDs incidence over five years were used to examine the potential effects of mosquito abundance on patterns of MBDs epidemiology in Zhejiang during 2008–2012. Light traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes at 11 cities. Correlation tests with and without time lag were performed to investigate the correlations between MBDs incidence rates and mosquito abundance by month. Selected MBDs consisted of Japanese encephalitis (JE), dengue fever (DF) and malaria. A Poisson regression analysis was performed by using a generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach, and the most parsimonious model was selected based on the quasi-likelihood based information criterion (QICu). We identified five mosquito species and the constituent ratio of Culex pipiens pallens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis and Armigeres subalbatus was 66.73%, 21.47%, 6.72%, 2.83% and 2.25%, respectively. The correlation analysis without and with time lag showed that Culex mosquito abundance at a lag of 0 or 1 month was positively correlated with JE incidence during 2008–2012, Ae. albopictus abundance at a lag of 1 month was positively correlated with DF incidence in 2009, and An. sinensis abundance at a lag of 0–2 months was positively correlated with malaria incidence during 2008–2010. The Poisson regression analysis showed each 0.1 rise of monthly mosquito abundance corresponded to a positive increase of MBD cases for the period of 2008–2012. The rise of mosquito abundance with a lag of 0–2 months increased the risk of human MBDs infection in Zhejiang. Our study provides evidence that mosquito monitoring could be a useful early warning tool for the occurrence and transmission of MBDs. PMID:25393834

  12. Mosquito surveillance revealed lagged effects of mosquito abundance on mosquito-borne disease transmission: a retrospective study in Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Song; Ling, Feng; Hou, Juan; Wang, Jinna; Fu, Guiming; Gong, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) are still threats to public health in Zhejiang. In this study, the associations between the time-lagged mosquito capture data and MBDs incidence over five years were used to examine the potential effects of mosquito abundance on patterns of MBDs epidemiology in Zhejiang during 2008-2012. Light traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes at 11 cities. Correlation tests with and without time lag were performed to investigate the correlations between MBDs incidence rates and mosquito abundance by month. Selected MBDs consisted of Japanese encephalitis (JE), dengue fever (DF) and malaria. A Poisson regression analysis was performed by using a generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach, and the most parsimonious model was selected based on the quasi-likelihood based information criterion (QICu). We identified five mosquito species and the constituent ratio of Culex pipiens pallens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis and Armigeres subalbatus was 66.73%, 21.47%, 6.72%, 2.83% and 2.25%, respectively. The correlation analysis without and with time lag showed that Culex mosquito abundance at a lag of 0 or 1 month was positively correlated with JE incidence during 2008-2012, Ae. albopictus abundance at a lag of 1 month was positively correlated with DF incidence in 2009, and An. sinensis abundance at a lag of 0-2 months was positively correlated with malaria incidence during 2008-2010. The Poisson regression analysis showed each 0.1 rise of monthly mosquito abundance corresponded to a positive increase of MBD cases for the period of 2008-2012. The rise of mosquito abundance with a lag of 0-2 months increased the risk of human MBDs infection in Zhejiang. Our study provides evidence that mosquito monitoring could be a useful early warning tool for the occurrence and transmission of MBDs.

  13. A Preliminary Study to Forecast Japanese Encephalitis Vector Abundance in Paddy Growing Area, with the Aid of Radar Satellite Images.

    PubMed

    Raju, K Hari Kishan; Sabesan, Shanmugavelu; Rajavel, Aladu Ramakrishnan; Subramanian, Swaminathan; Natarajan, Ramalingam; Thenmozhi, Velayutham; Tyagi, Brij Kishore; Jambulingam, Purushothaman

    2016-02-01

    Vector mosquitoes of Japanese encephalitis (JE) breed mostly in rice fields, and human cases occur scattered over extended rural rice-growing areas. From this, one may surmise an ecological connection with the irrigation facilities and paddy cultivation. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that a particular stage of paddy growth is a premonitory sign that can lead to a markedly increased population of the vector mosquitoes. The present study aimed to forecast the vector abundance by monitoring the paddy growth using remote sensing and geographical information systems. The abundance of the JE vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus peaked when the paddy crop was at its heading stage and dipped when the crop reached the maturing stage. A significant positive correlation was observed between paddy growth and adult density (r = 0.73, p < 0.008). The sigma naught values (σ0) derived from satellite images of paddy fields ranged from -18.3 (during transplantation stage) to approximately -10 (during the noncultivation period). A significant positive correlation was observed between σ0 and paddy growth stages (r = 0.87, p < 0.05) and adult vector density (r = 0.74, p = 0.04). The σ0 value observed during the vegetative and flowering stages of paddy growth ranged from -17.6 to -17.16, at which period the vector density started building up. This could be the spectral signature that denotes the "risk," following which a high vector abundance is expected during heading stage of the paddy.

  14. Abundance coefficients, a new method for measuring microorganism relative abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forester, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A new method of measuring the relative abundance of microorganisms by using a set of interrelated coefficients, termed 'abundance coefficients' or 'AC', is proposed. These coefficients provide a means of recording abundance for geometric density categories, and each density measurement represents an approximation of the Poisson parameter ??t. The AC is the natural logarithm of a 'characteristic value,' which is a particular number for each geometric density category. The 'characteristic values' are based upon a probabilistic error statement derived from the Poisson formula, and they present evidence for separation of the geometric category boundaries by e = 2.71828. The proposed AC provide a means for recording species abundance in a manner suitable for arithmetic manipulation, for population structure studies, and for the determination of practical limits for defining the presence or absence of a species. Further, these coefficients provide for both intrasample and intersample abundance comparisons. ?? 1977 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  15. Tree dispersion, abundance, and diversity in a tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Hubbell, S P

    1979-03-30

    Patterns of tree abundance and dispersion in a tropical deciduous (dry) forest are summarized. The generalization that tropical trees have spaced adults did not hold. All species were either clumped or randomly dispersed, with rare species more clumped than common species. Breeding system was unrelated to species abundance or dispersion, but clumping was related to mode of seed dispersal. Juvenile densities decreased approximately exponentially away from adults. Rare species gave evidence of poor reproductive performance compared with their performance when common in nearby forests. Patterns of relative species abundance in the dry forest are compared with patterns in other forests, and are explained by a simple stochastic model based on random-walk immigration and extinction set in motion by periodic community disturbance.

  16. Erratum: Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, U. J.; Meyer, D. M.

    2001-09-01

    In the Letter ``Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited'' by U. J. Sofia and D. M. Meyer (ApJ, 554, L221 [2001]), Table 2 and its footnotes contain several typographical errors. The corrected table is shown below. We note that the solar reference standard now implies a positive abundance of nitrogen in halo dust.

  17. Absolute Quantification of Endogenous Ras Isoform Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Mageean, Craig J.; Griffiths, John R.; Smith, Duncan L.; Clague, Michael J.; Prior, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Ras proteins are important signalling hubs situated near the top of networks controlling cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Three almost identical isoforms, HRAS, KRAS and NRAS, are ubiquitously expressed yet have differing biological and oncogenic properties. In order to help understand the relative biological contributions of each isoform we have optimised a quantitative proteomics method for accurately measuring Ras isoform protein copy number per cell. The use of isotopic protein standards together with selected reaction monitoring for diagnostic peptides is sensitive, robust and suitable for application to sub-milligram quantities of lysates. We find that in a panel of isogenic SW48 colorectal cancer cells, endogenous Ras proteins are highly abundant with ≥260,000 total Ras protein copies per cell and the rank order of isoform abundance is KRAS>NRAS≥HRAS. A subset of oncogenic KRAS mutants exhibit increased total cellular Ras abundance and altered the ratio of mutant versus wild type KRAS protein. These data and methodology are significant because Ras protein copy number is required to parameterise models of signalling networks and informs interpretation of isoform-specific Ras functional data. PMID:26560143

  18. Influence of nursery microhabitats on the future abundance of a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Shaun K; Depczynski, Martial; Fulton, Christopher J; Holmes, Thomas H; Radford, Ben T; Tinkler, Paul

    2016-08-17

    Species habitat associations are often complex, making it difficult to assess their influence on populations. Among coral reef fishes, habitat requirements vary among species and with ontogeny, but the relative importance of nursery and adult-preferred habitats on future abundances remain unclear. Moreover, adult populations may be influenced by recruitment of juveniles and assessments of habitat importance should consider relative effects of juvenile abundance. We conducted surveys across 16 sites and 200 km of reef to identify the microhabitat preferences of juveniles, sub-adults and adults of the damselfish Pomacentrus moluccensis Microhabitat preferences at different life-history stages were then combined with 6 years of juvenile abundance and microhabitat availability data to show that the availability of preferred juvenile microhabitat (corymbose corals) at the time of settlement was a strong predictor of future sub-adult and adult abundance. However, the influence of nursery microhabitats on future population size differed spatially and at some locations abundance of juveniles and adult microhabitat (branching corals) were better predictors of local populations. Our results demonstrate that while juvenile microhabitats are important nurseries, the abundance of coral-dependent fishes is not solely dependent on these microhabitats, especially when microhabitats are readily available or following large influxes of juveniles.

  19. Influence of nursery microhabitats on the future abundance of a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Shaun K; Depczynski, Martial; Fulton, Christopher J; Holmes, Thomas H; Radford, Ben T; Tinkler, Paul

    2016-08-17

    Species habitat associations are often complex, making it difficult to assess their influence on populations. Among coral reef fishes, habitat requirements vary among species and with ontogeny, but the relative importance of nursery and adult-preferred habitats on future abundances remain unclear. Moreover, adult populations may be influenced by recruitment of juveniles and assessments of habitat importance should consider relative effects of juvenile abundance. We conducted surveys across 16 sites and 200 km of reef to identify the microhabitat preferences of juveniles, sub-adults and adults of the damselfish Pomacentrus moluccensis Microhabitat preferences at different life-history stages were then combined with 6 years of juvenile abundance and microhabitat availability data to show that the availability of preferred juvenile microhabitat (corymbose corals) at the time of settlement was a strong predictor of future sub-adult and adult abundance. However, the influence of nursery microhabitats on future population size differed spatially and at some locations abundance of juveniles and adult microhabitat (branching corals) were better predictors of local populations. Our results demonstrate that while juvenile microhabitats are important nurseries, the abundance of coral-dependent fishes is not solely dependent on these microhabitats, especially when microhabitats are readily available or following large influxes of juveniles. PMID:27534954

  20. Endogenous and exogenous factors controlling temporal abundance patterns of tropical mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Jing; Brook, Barry W; Whelan, Peter I; Cleland, Sam; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2008-12-01

    The growing demand for efficient and effective mosquito control requires a better understanding of vector population dynamics and how these are modified by endogenous and exogenous factors. A long-term (11-year) monitoring data set describing the relative abundance of the saltmarsh mosquito (Aedes vigilax) in the greater Darwin region, northern Australia, was examined in a suite of Gompertz-logistic (GL) models with and without hypothesized environmental correlates (high tide frequency, rainfall, and relative humidity). High tide frequency and humidity were hypothesized to influence saltmarsh mosquito abundance positively, and rainfall was hypothesized to correlate negatively by reducing the availability of suitable habitats (moist substrata) required by ovipositing adult female mosquitoes. We also examined whether environmental correlates explained the variance in seasonal carrying capacity (K) because environmental stochasticity is hypothesized to modify population growth rate (r), carrying capacity, or both. Current and lagged-time effects were tested by comparing alternative population dynamics models using three different information criteria (Akaike's Information Criterion [corrected; AIC(c)], Bayesian Information Criterion [BIC], and cross-validation [C-V]). The GL model with a two-month lag without environmental effects explained 31% of the deviance in population growth rate. This increased to > 70% under various model combinations of high tide frequency, rainfall, and relative humidity, of which, high tide frequency and rainfall had the highest contributions. Temporal variation in K was explained weakly by high tide frequency, and there was some evidence that the filling of depressions to reduce standing water availability has reduced Aedes vigilax carrying capacity over the study period. This study underscores the need to consider simultaneously both types of drivers (endogenous and exogenous) when predicting mosquito abundance and population growth

  1. Bull Trout Distribution and Abundance in the Waters on and Bordering the Warm Springs Reservation : 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, Christopher V.; Dodson, Rebekah

    2003-03-01

    The range of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Deschutes River basin has decreased from historic levels due to many factors including dam construction, habitat degradation, brook trout introduction and eradication efforts. While the bull trout population appears to be healthy in the Metolius River-Lake Billy Chinook system they have been largely extirpated from the upper Deschutes River (Buchanan et al. 1997). Little was known about bull trout in the lower Deschutes basin until BPA funded project No.9405400 began during 1998. In this progress report we describe the findings to date from this multi-year study aimed at determining the life history, habitat needs and limiting factors of bull trout in the lower Deschutes subbasin. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) relative abundance has been assessed in the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek since 1999. In the Warm Springs R. the relative densities of juvenile bull trout and brook trout were .003 fish/m{sup 2} and .001 fish/m{sup 2} respectively during 2002. These densities were the lowest recorded in the Warm Springs River during the period of study. In Shitike Cr. the relative densities of juvenile bull trout and brook trout were .025 fish/m{sup 2} and .01 fish/m{sup 2} respectively during 2002. The utility of using index reaches to monitor trends in juvenile bull trout and brook trout relative abundance in the Warm Springs R. has been assessed since 1999. During 2002 the mean relative densities of juvenile bull trout within the 2.4 km study area was higher than what was observed in four index reaches. However, the mean relative densities of brook trout was slightly higher in the index reaches than what was observed in the 2.4 km study area. Habitat use by both juvenile bull trout and brook trout was determined in the Warm Springs R. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout were most abundant in pools and glides. However pools and glides comprised less than 20% of the available habitat

  2. Adult Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Considers the differences between young adult and adult books and maintains that teachers must be familiar with young adults' tastes for both. Suggests that traffic between these publishing divisions is a two-way street, with young adults reading adult books and adults reading young adult books. (TB)

  3. Mineral Abundance Near Aristarchus Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Alison; Storrs, A.

    2007-12-01

    Mineral Abundance Near Aristarchus Crater Alison Bradford and Alex Storrs Towson University We analyze Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images to determine the abundance of minerals near Aristarchus crater. Following the calibration of Robinson et al. (2007) we present ratio maps of images obtained in August of 2005 showing the abundance of TiO2 and other minerals in this interesting area in the middle of Oceanus Procellarum. A prominent cleft (Schroter's Valley, presumably a collapsed lava tube) makes this region of special interest for analyzing the formation of mare basalts. Reference: Robinson, M.S., et al. (2007): "High resolution mapping of TiO2 abundances on the Moon using the Hubble Space Telescope", GRL 34, L13203

  4. The boron abundance of Procyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Michael; Lambert, David L.; Edvardsson, Bengt

    1993-01-01

    The B I 2496.8 A resonance line and HST/GHRS echelle spectra are used with model atmospheres and synthetic spectra to derive the B abundance of the F dwarfs Procyon (Alpha Canis Minoris), Theta Ursae Majoris, and Iota Pegasi. The B abundance of Theta UMa and Iota Peg is similar to that derived by Boesgaard and Heacox (1978) from the B II resonance line in spectra of A- and B-type stars. These two dwarfs show normal abundances of Li, Be, and B. Procyon, which is highly depleted in Li and Be, is depleted in B by a factor of at least 3. Comparison of the spectra of Procyon and the halo dwarf HD 140283 shows that the B abundance assigned by Duncan et al. (1992) to three halo dwarfs is not greatly overestimated as a result of contamination of the B I line by an unidentified line.

  5. Abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) after the complete removal of deer from an isolated offshore island, endemic for Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Rand, Peter W; Lubelczyk, Charles; Holman, Mary S; Lacombe, Eleanor H; Smith, Robert P

    2004-07-01

    Monhegan is an isolated 237-ha island lying 16 km off the coast of Maine. Introduced to the island in 1955, white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman, reached a density of approximately 37/km2 by the mid-1990s. Black-legged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, first noticed in the late 1980s, flourished thereafter. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout) on Monhegan are highly infected with Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmidt, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner, the agent of Lyme disease. By 1996, 13% of year-round residents had contracted the disease. The community's subsequent decision to eliminate deer from the island provided a unique opportunity to monitor the abundance of vector ticks in response to the complete and permanent removal of the primary hosts of their reproductive stage. With the exception of humans and their dogs and cats, there are no other potential hosts for adult I. scapularis on Monhegan. From November 1996 to March 1999, all deer were removed from the island. Previous annual fall flagging of vegetation from 1990 to 1998 produced 6-17 adult ticks/h, of which 24-41% were infected with the Lyme disease spirochete. During this same period, up to 18 larvae and 4 nymphs were removed per Norway rat live-trapped on the island each July. With the absence of deer in the fall of 1999, both the density of host-seeking adult ticks and infection prevalence rose substantially to 28/h and 75.0%, respectively. By the summer of 2003, however, no sub-adult ticks were found on rats, and that fall, only 0.67 adult ticks/h were flagged. Of the 68 adults collected from 2002 to 2003, 20 (29.4%) were infected. Over this same period, adult tick abundance on a deer-populated, reference island continued to gradually increase.

  6. Satellite-derived NDVI, LST, and climatic factors driving the distribution and abundance of Anopheles mosquitoes in a former malarious area in northwest Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dantur Juri, María Julia; Estallo, Elizabet; Almirón, Walter; Santana, Mirta; Sartor, Paolo; Lamfri, Mario; Zaidenberg, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Distribution and abundance of disease vectors are directly related to climatic conditions and environmental changes. Remote sensing data have been used for monitoring environmental conditions influencing spatial patterns of vector-borne diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and climatic factors (temperature, humidity, wind velocity, and accumulated rainfall) on the distribution and abundance of Anopheles species in northwestern Argentina using Poisson regression analyses. Samples were collected from December, 2001 to December, 2005 at three localities, Aguas Blancas, El Oculto and San Ramón de la Nueva Orán. We collected 11,206 adult Anopheles species, with the major abundance observed at El Oculto (59.11%), followed by Aguas Blancas (22.10%) and San Ramón de la Nueva Orán (18.79%). Anopheles pseudopunctipennis was the most abundant species at El Oculto, Anopheles argyritarsis predominated in Aguas Blancas, and Anopheles strodei in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán. Samples were collected throughout the sampling period, with the highest peaks during the spring seasons. LST and mean temperature appear to be the most important variables determining the distribution patterns and major abundance of An. pseudopunctipennis and An. argyritarsis within malarious areas. PMID:26047182

  7. Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies : Annual Progress Report 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, Timothy; Putnam, Scott

    2008-12-01

    The goal of Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies is to collect monitoring data to evaluate wild and natural steelhead populations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. During 2007, intensive population data were collected in Fish Creek (Lochsa River tributary) and Rapid River (Little Salmon River tributary); extensive data were collected in other selected spawning tributaries. Weirs were operated in Fish Creek and Rapid River to estimate adult escapement and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. Snorkel surveys were conducted in Fish Creek, Rapid River, and Boulder Creek (Little Salmon River tributary) to estimate parr density. Screw traps were operated in Fish Creek, Rapid River, Secesh River, and Big Creek to estimate juvenile emigrant abundance, to tag fish for survival estimation, and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. The estimated wild adult steelhead escapement in Fish Creek was 81 fish and in Rapid River was 32 fish. We estimate that juvenile emigration was 24,127 fish from Fish Creek; 5,632 fish from Rapid River; and 43,674 fish from Big Creek. The Secesh trap was pulled for an extended period due to wildfires, so we did not estimate emigrant abundance for that location. In cooperation with Idaho Supplementation Studies, trap tenders PIT tagged 25,618 steelhead juveniles at 18 screw trap sites in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. To estimate age composition, 143 adult steelhead and 5,082 juvenile steelhead scale samples were collected. At the time of this report, 114 adult and 1,642 juvenile samples have been aged. Project personnel collected genetic samples from 122 adults and 839 juveniles. We sent 678 genetic samples to the IDFG Eagle Fish Genetics Laboratory for analysis. Water temperature was recorded at 37 locations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages.

  8. Seasonal Abundance of Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan.

    PubMed

    Dutcher, James D; Karar, Haider; Abbas, Ghulam

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal occurrence of aphids and aphidophagous insects was monitored for six years (2006-2011) from full leaf expansion in May to leaf fall in October in "Desirable" variety pecan trees that were not treated with insecticides. Aphid outbreaks occurred two times per season, once in the spring and again in the late summer. Yellow pecan and blackmargined aphids exceeded the recommended treatment thresholds one time and black pecan aphids exceeded the recommended treatment levels three times over the six seasons. Increases in aphidophagous insect abundance coincided with aphid outbreaks in five of the six seasons. Among aphidophagous insects Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum were frequently collected in both the tree canopy and at the ground level, whereas, Coccinella septempunctata, Hippodamia convergens were rarely found in the tree canopy and commonly found at the ground level. Green lacewing abundance was higher in the ground level than in the tree canopy. Brown lacewings were more abundant in the tree canopy than at the ground level. Dolichopodid and syrphid fly abundance, at the ground level increased during peak aphid abundance in the tree canopy. Application of an aqueous solution of fermenting molasses to the pecan foliage during an aphid outbreak significantly increased the abundance of ladybeetles and lacewings and significantly reduced the abundance of yellow pecan, blackmargined and black pecan aphids. PMID:26466738

  9. Impact of warming on abundance and occurrence of flatfish populations in the Bay of Biscay (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermant, Marie; Lobry, Jeremy; Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Poulard, Jean-Charles; Le Pape, Olivier

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the influence of warming on flatfish populations in the Bay of Biscay. 17 autumn cruises conducted from 1987 to 2006 over the whole shelf of the Bay of Biscay provided data for the abundance and occurrence of adults for twenty flatfish species. Trends in flatfish abundance were analysed with regard to geographic range of populations and interannual fluctuations in abundance were related to seawater temperature. Results showed significant trends in abundance and occurrence for 55% of the flatfish species in the Bay of Biscay. The response to warming of seawater was correlated to geographic ranges of species. While the abundance of the northern temperate species decreased, that of southern ones increased. Moreover, for 40% of the species which densities have significantly changed, abundances were correlated to temperatures in their year of birth, positively for southern species and negatively for northern ones. Last, the abundance of flatfish adults over the Bay of Biscay was compared to previous data on juveniles in the Bay of Vilaine, one of the estuarine nursery ground in this area. For the northern species which have disappeared, the decline in juvenile abundances preceded that of adults by several years, indicating that the recruitment is the process affected. We concluded on a major impact of warming to explain changes in flatfish species abundances. Nevertheless, the impact of fishing interacts with that of climate change because the exploited species appeared to be the most negatively affected.

  10. Stream salamander species richness and abundance in relation to environmental factors in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, E.H.C.; Jung, R.E.; Rice, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    Stream salamanders are sensitive to acid mine drainage and may be sensitive to acidification and low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of a watershed. Streams in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, are subject to episodic acidification from precipitation events. We surveyed 25 m by 2 m transects located on the stream bank adjacent to the water channel in Shenandoah National Park for salamanders using a stratified random sampling design based on elevation, aspect and bedrock geology. We investigated the relationships of four species (Eurycea bislineata, Desmognathus fuscus, D. monticola and Gyrinophilus porphyriticus) to habitat and water quality variables. We did not find overwhelming evidence that stream salamanders are affected by the acid-base status of streams in Shenandoah National Park. Desmognathus fuscus and D. monticola abundance was greater both in streams that had a higher potential to neutralize acidification, and in higher elevation (>700 m) streams. Neither abundance of E. bislineata nor species richness were related to any of the habitat variables. Our sampling method preferentially detected the adult age class of the study species and did not allow us to estimate population sizes. We suggest that continued monitoring of stream salamander populations in SNP will determine the effects of stream acidification on these taxa.

  11. Nitrogen abundance in Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyckoff, Susan; Tegler, Stephen C.; Engel, Lisa

    1991-01-01

    Data on the nitrogen-containing compounds that observed spectroscopically in the coma of Comet Halley are summarized, and the elemental abundance of nitrogen in the Comet Halley nucleus is derived. It is found that 90 percent of elemental nitrogen is in the dust fraction of the coma, while in the gas fraction, most of the nitrogen is contained in NH3 and CN. The elemental nitrogen abundance in the ice component of the nucleus was found to be deficient by a factor of about 75, relative to the solar photosphere, indicating that the chemical partitioning of N2 into NH3 and other nitrogen compounds during the evolution of the solar nebula cannot account completely for the low abundance ratio N2/NH3 = 0.1, observed in the comet. It is suggested that the low N2/NH3 ratio in Comet Halley may be explained simply by physical fractionation and/or thermal diffusion.

  12. Solar and stellar photospheric abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    The determination of photospheric abundances in late-type stars from spectroscopic observations is a well-established field, built on solid theoretical foundations. Improving those foundations to refine the accuracy of the inferred abundances has proven challenging, but progress has been made. In parallel, developments on instrumentation, chiefly regarding multi-object spectroscopy, have been spectacular, and a number of projects are collecting large numbers of observations for stars across the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, promising important advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. After providing a brief description of the basic physics and input data involved in the analysis of stellar spectra, a review is made of the analysis steps, and the available tools to cope with large observational efforts. The paper closes with a quick overview of relevant ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, and highlights of recent research on photospheric abundances.

  13. Robust Abundance Estimation in Animal Abundance Surveys with Imperfect Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveys of animal abundance are central to the conservation and management of living natural resources. However, detection uncertainty complicates the sampling process of many species. One sampling method employed to deal with this problem is depletion (or removal) surveys in whi...

  14. Monitoring change in vertebrate abundance: the living planet index.

    PubMed

    Collen, Ben; Loh, Jonathan; Whitmee, Sarah; McRae, Louise; Amin, Rajan; Baillie, Jonathan E M

    2009-04-01

    The task of measuring the decline of global biodiversity and instituting changes to halt and reverse this downturn has been taken up in response to the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2010 target. It is an undertaking made more difficult by the complex nature of biodiversity and the consequent difficulty in accurately gauging its depletion. In the Living Planet Index, aggregated population trends among vertebrate species indicate the rate of change in the status of biodiversity, and this index can be used to address the question of whether or not the 2010 target has been achieved. We investigated the use of generalized additive models in aggregating large quantities of population trend data, evaluated potential bias that results from collation of existing trends, and explored the feasibility of disaggregating the data (e.g., geographically, taxonomically, regionally, and by thematic area). Our results show strengths in length and completeness of data, little evidence of bias toward threatened species, and the possibility of disaggregation into meaningful subsets. Limitations of the data set are still apparent, in particular the dominance of bird data and gaps in tropical-species population coverage. Population-trend data complement the longer-term, but more coarse-grained, perspectives gained by evaluating species-level extinction rates. To measure progress toward the 2010 target, indicators must be adapted and strategically supplemented with existing data to generate meaningful indicators in time. Beyond 2010, it is critical a strategy be set out for the future development of indicators that will deal with existing data gaps and that is intricately tied to the goals of future biodiversity targets.

  15. Coronal Abundances and Their Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1996-01-01

    This contract supported the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution soft X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study were a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This is the Final Report, summarizing the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred during the period of performance, June 1993 - December 1996.

  16. Chemical Abundances of Symbiotic Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałan, C.; Mikołajewska, J.; Hinkle, K. H.; Joyce, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution (R ˜ 50000), near-IR spectra were used to measure photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak for 24 symbiotic giants. Spectrum synthesis was employed using local thermal equilibrium and hydrostatic model atmospheres. The metallicities are distributed in a wide range with maximum around [Fe/H] ˜-0.4 - - 0.3 dex. Enrichment in 14N indicates that all the sample giants have experienced the first dredge-up. The relative abundance of [Ti/Fe] is generally large in red symbiotic systems.

  17. Coronal abundances and their variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1994-01-01

    This contract supports the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution soft x-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer (FCS) on the Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study are a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This report is a summation of the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred during the first ten months of the contract, 15 Jun. 1993 to 15 Apr. 1994.

  18. The solar abundance of beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    The solar abundance of beryllium is deduced from high-resolution Kitt Peak observations of the 3130.43- and 3131.08-A lines of Be II interpreted by the method of spectrum synthesis. The results are in good agreement with those previously obtained by Grevesse (1968) and by Hauge and Engvold (1968) and indicate that in the photospheric layers, beryllium is depleted below the chondritic value by a factor of about two. It is found that the beryllium abundance is equal to logN(Be)/N(H) + 12 = 1.08 plus or minus 0.05.

  19. SOLAR MODELS WITH REVISED ABUNDANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, S. L.; Li, T. D.; Yang, W. M.; Li, L. H.

    2011-04-20

    We present new solar models in which we use the latest low abundances and further include the effects of rotation, magnetic fields, and extra-mixing processes. We assume that the extra-element mixing can be treated as a diffusion process, with the diffusion coefficient depending mainly on the solar internal configuration of rotation and magnetic fields. We find that such models can well reproduce the observed solar rotation profile in the radiative region. Furthermore, the proposed models can match the seismic constraints better than the standard solar models, also when these include the latest abundances, but neglect the effects of rotation and magnetic fields.

  20. Obesity Among HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Medical Care in the United States: Data From the Cross-Sectional Medical Monitoring Project and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Paul, Angela M; Wei, Stanley C; Mattson, Christine L; Robertson, McKaylee; Hernandez-Romieu, Alfonso C; Bell, Tanvir K; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-07-01

    Our objective was to compare obesity prevalence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults receiving care and the U.S. general population and identify obesity correlates among HIV-infected men and women.Cross-sectional data was collected in 2009 to 2010 from 2 nationally representative surveys: Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).Weighted prevalence estimates of obesity, defined as body mass index ≥30.0 kg/m, were compared using prevalence ratios (PR, 95% confidence interval [CI]). Correlates of obesity in HIV-infected adults were examined using multivariable logistic regression.Demographic characteristics of the 4006 HIV-infected adults in MMP differed from the 5657 adults from the general U.S. population in NHANES, including more men (73.2% in MMP versus 49.4% in NHANES, respectively), black or African Americans (41.5% versus 11.6%), persons with annual incomes <$20,000 (64.5% versus 21.9%), and homosexuals or bisexuals (50.9% versus 3.9%). HIV-infected men were less likely to be obese (PR 0.5, CI 0.5-0.6) and HIV-infected women were more likely to be obese (PR1.2, CI 1.1-1.3) compared with men and women in the general population, respectively. Among HIV-infected women, younger age was associated with obesity (<40 versus >60 years). Among HIV-infected men, correlates of obesity included black or African American race/ethnicity, annual income >$20,000 and <$50,000, heterosexual orientation, and geometric mean CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count >200 cells/μL.Obesity is common, affecting 2 in 5 HIV-infected women and 1 in 5 HIV-infected men. Correlates of obesity differ for HIV-infected men and women; therefore, different strategies may be needed for the prevention and treatment. PMID:26166086

  1. Occupancy as a surrogate for abundance estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKenzie, D.I.; Nichols, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    In many monitoring programmes it may be prohibitively expensive to estimate the actual abundance of a bird species in a defined area, particularly at large spatial scales, or where birds occur at very low densities. Often it may be appropriate to consider the proportion of area occupied by the species as an alternative state variable. However, as with abundance estimation, issues of detectability must be taken into account in order to make accurate inferences: the non?detection of the species does not imply the species is genuinely absent. Here we review some recent modelling developments that permit unbiased estimation of the proportion of area occupied, colonization and local extinction probabilities. These methods allow for unequal sampling effort and enable covariate information on sampling locations to be incorporated. We also describe how these models could be extended to incorporate information from marked individuals, which would enable finer questions of population dynamics (such as turnover rate of nest sites by specific breeding pairs) to be addressed. We believe these models may be applicable to a wide range of bird species and may be useful for investigating various questions of ecological interest. For example, with respect to habitat quality, we might predict that a species is more likely to have higher local extinction probabilities, or higher turnover rates of specific breeding pairs, in poor quality habitats.

  2. Identifying the drivers of abundance and size of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in Northwestern Mediterranean lagoons.

    PubMed

    Delpy, Floriane; Albouy-Boyer, Séverine; Pagano, Marc; Thibault, Delphine; Blanchot, Jean; Guilhaumon, François; Molinero, Juan Carlos; Bonnet, Delphine

    2016-08-01

    Acknowledged as among the worst invasive marine species, Mnemiopsis leidyi has spread through European Seas since the mid-1980's. Here we report a bimonthly survey conducted in 2010-11 in three lagoons (Bages-Sigean, Thau and Berre) and at two adjacent coastal stations (Sète and SOMLIT-Marseille) along the French Mediterranean coast. M. leidyi was present only in Berre and Bages-Sigean with maximum abundances observed in late summer. M. leidyi adults were present year round in Berre with the largest organisms (∼6 cm) observed in April. In Bages-Sigean, they occurred in sufficient abundance to be recorded by fishermen between August and November. Multiple linear regressions highlighted that abundance in both lagoons was mainly influenced by direct effects of salinity and chlorophyll-a, and temperature to a lesser extent. While M. leidyi has not yet been recorded in Thau, the lagoon is continually monitored to detect the potential establishment of M. leidyi. PMID:27262669

  3. Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea).

    PubMed

    Case, Ashley E; Mayfield, Albert E; Clark, Stacy L; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Reynolds, Barbara C

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fagales: Fagaceae), Castanea mollissima Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), and four hybrid breeding generations were evaluated in 2012 for insect defoliation and C. castaneus abundance and frequency. Defoliation was visually assessed throughout the growing season at two sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee). C. castaneus abundance and frequency were monitored on trees using beat sheets and emergence was recorded from ground traps. Asiatic oak weevils were more abundant and more frequently collected on American chestnut (Ca. dentata) and its most closely related BC3F3 hybrid generation than on the Asian species Ca. mollissima. In most months, C. castaneus colonization of hybrid generations was not significantly different than colonization of parental species. Frequency data for C. castaneus suggested that adults were distributed relatively evenly throughout the study sites rather than in dense clusters. Emergence of C. castaneus was significantly higher under a canopy dominated by Quercus species than under non-Quercus species or open sky. C. castaneus emergence began in May and peaked in late June and early July. These results may be useful for resource managers trying to restore blight-resistant chestnut to the Southern Appalachians while minimizing herbivory by insect pests. PMID:27001964

  4. Increasing thiamine concentrations in lake trout eggs from Lakes Huron and Michigan coincide with low alewife abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Rinchard, Jacques; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Evans, Allison N.; Begnoche, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in the Laurentian Great Lakes suffer from thiamine deficiency as a result of adult lake trout consuming prey containing thiaminase, a thiamine-degrading enzyme. Sufficiently low egg thiamine concentrations result in direct mortality of or sublethal effects on newly hatched lake trout fry. To determine the prevalence and severity of low thiamine in lake trout eggs, we monitored thiamine concentrations in lake trout eggs from 15 sites in Lakes Huron and Michigan from 2001 to 2009. Lake trout egg thiamine concentrations at most sites in both lakes were initially low and increased over time at 11 of 15 sites, and the proportion of females with egg thiamine concentrations lower than the recommended management objective of 4 nmol/g decreased over time at eight sites. Egg thiamine concentrations at five of six sites in Lakes Huron and Michigan were significantly inversely related to site-specific estimates of mean abundance of alewives Alosa pseudoharengus, and successful natural reproduction of lake trout has been observed in Lake Huron since the alewife population crashed. These results support the hypothesis that low egg thiamine in Great Lakes lake trout is associated with increased alewife abundance and that low alewife abundance may currently be a prerequisite for successful reproduction by lake trout in the Great Lakes.

  5. Identifying the drivers of abundance and size of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in Northwestern Mediterranean lagoons.

    PubMed

    Delpy, Floriane; Albouy-Boyer, Séverine; Pagano, Marc; Thibault, Delphine; Blanchot, Jean; Guilhaumon, François; Molinero, Juan Carlos; Bonnet, Delphine

    2016-08-01

    Acknowledged as among the worst invasive marine species, Mnemiopsis leidyi has spread through European Seas since the mid-1980's. Here we report a bimonthly survey conducted in 2010-11 in three lagoons (Bages-Sigean, Thau and Berre) and at two adjacent coastal stations (Sète and SOMLIT-Marseille) along the French Mediterranean coast. M. leidyi was present only in Berre and Bages-Sigean with maximum abundances observed in late summer. M. leidyi adults were present year round in Berre with the largest organisms (∼6 cm) observed in April. In Bages-Sigean, they occurred in sufficient abundance to be recorded by fishermen between August and November. Multiple linear regressions highlighted that abundance in both lagoons was mainly influenced by direct effects of salinity and chlorophyll-a, and temperature to a lesser extent. While M. leidyi has not yet been recorded in Thau, the lagoon is continually monitored to detect the potential establishment of M. leidyi.

  6. Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea)

    PubMed Central

    Case, Ashley E.; Mayfield, Albert E.; Clark, Stacy L.; Schlarbaum, Scott E.; Reynolds, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fagales: Fagaceae), Castanea mollissima Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), and four hybrid breeding generations were evaluated in 2012 for insect defoliation and C. castaneus abundance and frequency. Defoliation was visually assessed throughout the growing season at two sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee). C. castaneus abundance and frequency were monitored on trees using beat sheets and emergence was recorded from ground traps. Asiatic oak weevils were more abundant and more frequently collected on American chestnut (Ca. dentata) and its most closely related BC3F3 hybrid generation than on the Asian species Ca. mollissima. In most months, C. castaneus colonization of hybrid generations was not significantly different than colonization of parental species. Frequency data for C. castaneus suggested that adults were distributed relatively evenly throughout the study sites rather than in dense clusters. Emergence of C. castaneus was significantly higher under a canopy dominated by Quercus species than under non-Quercus species or open sky. C. castaneus emergence began in May and peaked in late June and early July. These results may be useful for resource managers trying to restore blight-resistant chestnut to the Southern Appalachians while minimizing herbivory by insect pests. PMID:27001964

  7. Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea).

    PubMed

    Case, Ashley E; Mayfield, Albert E; Clark, Stacy L; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Reynolds, Barbara C

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fagales: Fagaceae), Castanea mollissima Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), and four hybrid breeding generations were evaluated in 2012 for insect defoliation and C. castaneus abundance and frequency. Defoliation was visually assessed throughout the growing season at two sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee). C. castaneus abundance and frequency were monitored on trees using beat sheets and emergence was recorded from ground traps. Asiatic oak weevils were more abundant and more frequently collected on American chestnut (Ca. dentata) and its most closely related BC3F3 hybrid generation than on the Asian species Ca. mollissima. In most months, C. castaneus colonization of hybrid generations was not significantly different than colonization of parental species. Frequency data for C. castaneus suggested that adults were distributed relatively evenly throughout the study sites rather than in dense clusters. Emergence of C. castaneus was significantly higher under a canopy dominated by Quercus species than under non-Quercus species or open sky. C. castaneus emergence began in May and peaked in late June and early July. These results may be useful for resource managers trying to restore blight-resistant chestnut to the Southern Appalachians while minimizing herbivory by insect pests.

  8. THE SOLAR FLARE IRON ABUNDANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Dennis, B. R. E-mail: Brian.R.Dennis@nasa.gov

    2012-03-20

    The abundance of iron is measured from emission line complexes at 6.65 keV (Fe line) and 8 keV (Fe/Ni line) in RHESSI X-ray spectra during solar flares. Spectra during long-duration flares with steady declines were selected, with an isothermal assumption and improved data analysis methods over previous work. Two spectral fitting models give comparable results, viz., an iron abundance that is lower than previous coronal values but higher than photospheric values. In the preferred method, the estimated Fe abundance is A(Fe) = 7.91 {+-} 0.10 (on a logarithmic scale, with A(H) = 12) or 2.6 {+-} 0.6 times the photospheric Fe abundance. Our estimate is based on a detailed analysis of 1898 spectra taken during 20 flares. No variation from flare to flare is indicated. This argues for a fractionation mechanism similar to quiet-Sun plasma. The new value of A(Fe) has important implications for radiation loss curves, which are estimated.

  9. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2010. Volume II, College Students & Adults Ages 19-50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF), which is now in its 36th year, is a research program conducted at the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research under a series of investigator-initiated research grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The study is comprised of several ongoing series of annual surveys of nationally representative…

  10. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-1999. Volume II: College Students and Adults Ages 19-40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This is the second volume in a two-volume set reporting the results of all surveys from the Monitoring the Future study of American secondary school students and college students. This volume presents the results of the 1977 through 1999 follow-up surveys of the graduating high school classes of 1976 through 1998, as the respondents progressed…

  11. Monitoring the Future. National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2009. Volume II, College Students & Adults Ages 19-50. NIH Publication Number 10-7585

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Now in its 35th year, Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term program of research conducted at the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research under a series of investigator-initiated research grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The study is comprised of several ongoing series of annual surveys of nationally…

  12. Abundance estimation and conservation biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; MacKenzie, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001). The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959) and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965) open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992), and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993). However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001). The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004) is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004) emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004) also suggest that our attention

  13. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T.J.; Podosek, F.A.; Johnson, M.L.; Burnett, D.S.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of 244Pu fission Xe, U, Th, and light REE (LREE) abundances, along with modal petrographic determinations of phosphate abundances, were carried out on equilibrated ordinary chondrites in order to define better the solar system Pu abundance and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. Our data permit comparison of the directly measured Pu/ U ratio with that determined indirectly as (Pu/Nd) ?? (Nd/U) assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. Except for Guaren??a, and perhaps H chondrites in general, Pu concentrations are similar to that determined previously for St. Se??verin, although less precise because of higher trapped Xe contents. Trapped 130Xe 136Xe ratios appear to vary from meteorite to meteorite, but, relative to AVCC, all are similar in the sense of having less of the interstellar heavy Xe found in carbonaceous chondrite acid residues. The Pu/U and Pu/Nd ratios are consistent with previous data for St. Se??verin, but both tend to be slightly higher than those inferred from previous data on Angra dos Reis. Although significant variations exist, the distribution of our Th/U ratios, along with other precise isotope dilution data for ordinary chondrites, is rather symmetric about the CI chondrite value; however, actinide/(LREE) ratios are systematically lower than the CI value. Variations in actinide or LREE absolute and relative abundances are interpreted as reflecting differences in the proportions and/or compositions of more primitive components (chondrules and CAI materials?) incorporated into different regions of the ordinary chondrite parent bodies. The observed variations of Th/U, Nd/U, or Ce/U suggest that measurements of Pu/U on any single equilibrated ordinary chondrite specimen, such as St. Se??verin, should statistically be within ??20-30% of the average solar system value, although it is also clear that anomalous samples exist. ?? 1990.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Hot Spots of Aedes albopictus Abundance inside and outside a South European Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Manica, Mattia; Filipponi, Federico; D'Alessandro, Antonello; Screti, Alessia; Neteler, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Solimini, Angelo; Della Torre, Alessandra; Caputo, Beniamino

    2016-06-01

    Aedes albopictus is a tropical invasive species which in the last decades spread worldwide, also colonizing temperate regions of Europe and US, where it has become a public health concern due to its ability to transmit exotic arboviruses, as well as severe nuisance problems due to its aggressive daytime outdoor biting behaviour. While several studies have been carried out in order to predict the potential limits of the species expansions based on eco-climatic parameters, few studies have so far focused on the specific effects of these variables in shaping its micro-geographic abundance and dynamics. The present study investigated eco-climatic factors affecting Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural sites in Rome (Italy), which was colonized in 1997 and is nowadays one of the most infested metropolitan areas in Southern Europe. To this aim, longitudinal adult monitoring was carried out along a 70 km-transect across and beyond the most urbanized and densely populated metropolitan area. Two fine scale spatiotemporal datasets (one with reference to a 20m circular buffer around sticky traps used to collect mosquitoes and the second to a 300m circular buffer within each sampling site) were exploited to analyze the effect of climatic and socio-environmental variables on Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics along the transect. Results showed an association between highly anthropized habitats and high adult abundance both in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural areas, with "small green islands" corresponding to hot spots of abundance in the metropolitan areas only, and a bimodal seasonal dynamics with a second peak of abundance in autumn, due to heavy rains occurring in the preceding weeks in association with permissive temperatures. The results provide useful indications to prioritize public mosquito control measures in temperate urban areas where nuisance, human-mosquito contact and risk of local arbovirus transmission are likely higher

  15. Spatial and Temporal Hot Spots of Aedes albopictus Abundance inside and outside a South European Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Manica, Mattia; Filipponi, Federico; D’Alessandro, Antonello; Screti, Alessia; Neteler, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Solimini, Angelo; della Torre, Alessandra; Caputo, Beniamino

    2016-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is a tropical invasive species which in the last decades spread worldwide, also colonizing temperate regions of Europe and US, where it has become a public health concern due to its ability to transmit exotic arboviruses, as well as severe nuisance problems due to its aggressive daytime outdoor biting behaviour. While several studies have been carried out in order to predict the potential limits of the species expansions based on eco-climatic parameters, few studies have so far focused on the specific effects of these variables in shaping its micro-geographic abundance and dynamics. The present study investigated eco-climatic factors affecting Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural sites in Rome (Italy), which was colonized in 1997 and is nowadays one of the most infested metropolitan areas in Southern Europe. To this aim, longitudinal adult monitoring was carried out along a 70 km-transect across and beyond the most urbanized and densely populated metropolitan area. Two fine scale spatiotemporal datasets (one with reference to a 20m circular buffer around sticky traps used to collect mosquitoes and the second to a 300m circular buffer within each sampling site) were exploited to analyze the effect of climatic and socio-environmental variables on Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics along the transect. Results showed an association between highly anthropized habitats and high adult abundance both in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural areas, with “small green islands” corresponding to hot spots of abundance in the metropolitan areas only, and a bimodal seasonal dynamics with a second peak of abundance in autumn, due to heavy rains occurring in the preceding weeks in association with permissive temperatures. The results provide useful indications to prioritize public mosquito control measures in temperate urban areas where nuisance, human-mosquito contact and risk of local arbovirus transmission are likely higher

  16. Abundance and survival of Pacific humpback whales in a proposed critical habitat area.

    PubMed

    Ashe, Erin; Wray, Janie; Picard, Christopher R; Williams, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) were hunted commercially in Canada's Pacific region until 1966. Depleted to an estimated 1,400 individuals throughout the North Pacific, humpback whales are listed as Threatened under Canada's Species at Risk Act (SARA) and Endangered under the US Endangered Species Act. We conducted an 8-year photo-identification study to monitor humpback whale usage of a coastal fjord system in British Columbia (BC), Canada that was recently proposed as candidate critical habitat for the species under SARA. This participatory research program built collaborations among First Nations, environmental non-governmental organizations and academics. The study site, including the territorial waters of Gitga'at First Nation, is an important summertime feeding destination for migratory humpback whales, but is small relative to the population's range. We estimated abundance and survivorship using mark-recapture methods using photographs of naturally marked individuals. Abundance of humpback whales in the region was large, relative to the site's size, and generally increased throughout the study period. The resulting estimate of adult survivorship (0.979, 95% CI: 0.914, 0.995) is at the high end of previously reported estimates. A high rate of resights provides new evidence for inter-annual site fidelity to these local waters. Habitat characteristics of our study area are considered ecologically significant and unique, and this should be considered as regulatory agencies consider proposals for high-volume crude oil and liquefied natural gas tanker traffic through the area. Monitoring population recovery of a highly mobile, migratory species is daunting for low-cost, community-led science. Focusing on a small, important subset of the animals' range can make this challenge more tractable. Given low statistical power and high variability, our community is considering simpler ecological indicators of population health, such as the number of individuals

  17. Abundance and survival of Pacific humpback whales in a proposed critical habitat area.

    PubMed

    Ashe, Erin; Wray, Janie; Picard, Christopher R; Williams, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) were hunted commercially in Canada's Pacific region until 1966. Depleted to an estimated 1,400 individuals throughout the North Pacific, humpback whales are listed as Threatened under Canada's Species at Risk Act (SARA) and Endangered under the US Endangered Species Act. We conducted an 8-year photo-identification study to monitor humpback whale usage of a coastal fjord system in British Columbia (BC), Canada that was recently proposed as candidate critical habitat for the species under SARA. This participatory research program built collaborations among First Nations, environmental non-governmental organizations and academics. The study site, including the territorial waters of Gitga'at First Nation, is an important summertime feeding destination for migratory humpback whales, but is small relative to the population's range. We estimated abundance and survivorship using mark-recapture methods using photographs of naturally marked individuals. Abundance of humpback whales in the region was large, relative to the site's size, and generally increased throughout the study period. The resulting estimate of adult survivorship (0.979, 95% CI: 0.914, 0.995) is at the high end of previously reported estimates. A high rate of resights provides new evidence for inter-annual site fidelity to these local waters. Habitat characteristics of our study area are considered ecologically significant and unique, and this should be considered as regulatory agencies consider proposals for high-volume crude oil and liquefied natural gas tanker traffic through the area. Monitoring population recovery of a highly mobile, migratory species is daunting for low-cost, community-led science. Focusing on a small, important subset of the animals' range can make this challenge more tractable. Given low statistical power and high variability, our community is considering simpler ecological indicators of population health, such as the number of individuals

  18. Abundance and Survival of Pacific Humpback Whales in a Proposed Critical Habitat Area

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Erin; Wray, Janie; Picard, Christopher R.; Williams, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) were hunted commercially in Canada's Pacific region until 1966. Depleted to an estimated 1,400 individuals throughout the North Pacific, humpback whales are listed as Threatened under Canada's Species at Risk Act (SARA) and Endangered under the US Endangered Species Act. We conducted an 8-year photo-identification study to monitor humpback whale usage of a coastal fjord system in British Columbia (BC), Canada that was recently proposed as candidate critical habitat for the species under SARA. This participatory research program built collaborations among First Nations, environmental non-governmental organizations and academics. The study site, including the territorial waters of Gitga'at First Nation, is an important summertime feeding destination for migratory humpback whales, but is small relative to the population's range. We estimated abundance and survivorship using mark-recapture methods using photographs of naturally marked individuals. Abundance of humpback whales in the region was large, relative to the site's size, and generally increased throughout the study period. The resulting estimate of adult survivorship (0.979, 95% CI: 0.914, 0.995) is at the high end of previously reported estimates. A high rate of resights provides new evidence for inter-annual site fidelity to these local waters. Habitat characteristics of our study area are considered ecologically significant and unique, and this should be considered as regulatory agencies consider proposals for high-volume crude oil and liquefied natural gas tanker traffic through the area. Monitoring population recovery of a highly mobile, migratory species is daunting for low-cost, community-led science. Focusing on a small, important subset of the animals' range can make this challenge more tractable. Given low statistical power and high variability, our community is considering simpler ecological indicators of population health, such as the number of individuals

  19. Coronal abundances and their variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1994-01-01

    This contract supports the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution software X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study are a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This report is a summation of the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred since the last report, submitted two months early, in April 1994, to facilitate evaluation of the first year's progress for contract renewal. Hence this report covers the period 15 April 1994 - 15 December 1994. A list of publications resulting from this research is included.

  20. The solar abundance of thulium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Consideration of one relatively unblended line of the solar spectrum, namely, the 3131.258-A line of Tm II, which yields a thulium abundance of 0.80 plus or minus 0.10 with the Corliss and Bozman (1962) f-value. The uncertainty of this figure is discussed in conjunction with the contradictory findings of some other investigators. The need for further detailed study of the lanthanides by the method of spectrum synthesis is pointed out.

  1. Chlorine Abundances in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, D.D.; Garrison, D.H.; Park, J.

    2009-01-01

    Chlorine measurements made in martian surface rocks by robotic spacecraft typically give Chlorine (Cl) abundances of approximately 0.1-0.8%. In contrast, Cl abundances in martian meteorites appear lower, although data is limited, and martian nakhlites were also subjected to Cl contamination by Mars surface brines. Chlorine abundances reported by one lab for whole rock (WR) samples of Shergotty, ALH77005, and EET79001 range 108-14 ppm, whereas Cl in nakhlites range 73-1900 ppm. Measurements of Cl in various martian weathering phases of nakhlites varied 0.04-4.7% and reveal significant concentration of Cl by martian brines Martian meteorites contain much lower Chlorine than those measured in martian surface rocks and give further confirmation that Cl in these surface rocks was introduced by brines and weathering. It has been argued that Cl is twice as effective as water in lowering the melting point and promoting melting at shallower martian depths, and that significant Cl in the shergottite source region would negate any need for significant water. However, this conclusion was based on experiments that utilized Cl concentrations more analogous to martian surface rocks than to shergottite meteorites, and may not be applicable to shergottites.

  2. The Bliss of Motor Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Latash, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Motor control is an area of natural science exploring how the nervous system interacts with other body parts and the environment to produce purposeful, coordinated actions. A central problem of motor control – the problem of motor redundancy – was formulated by Nikolai Bernstein as the problem of elimination of redundant degrees-of-freedom. Traditionally, this problem has been addressed using optimization methods based on a variety of cost functions. This review draws attention to a body of recent findings suggesting that the problem has been formulated incorrectly. An alternative view has been suggested as the principle of abundance, which considers the apparently redundant degrees-of-freedom as useful and even vital for many aspects of motor behavior. Over the past ten years, dozens of publications have provided support for this view based on the ideas of synergic control, computational apparatus of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, and the equilibrium-point (referent configuration) hypothesis. In particular, large amounts of “good variance” – variance in the space of elements that has no effect on the overall performance – have been documented across a variety of natural actions. “Good variance” helps an abundant system to deal with secondary tasks and unexpected perturbations; its amount shows adaptive modulation across a variety of conditions. These data support the view that there is no problem of motor redundancy; there is bliss of motor abundance. PMID:22246105

  3. The Abundance of Interstellar Fluorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauroesch, James T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the interstellar absorption lines of F I at 951 and 954 Angstroms to derive the abundance of fluorine toward the star HD 164816. The nucleosynthetic source(s) of fluorine are still a matter of debate - the present day abundance of fluorine can potentially constrain models for pulsationally driven dredge-up in asymptotic giant branch stars. An accurate measure for the depletion behavior of fluorine will determine whether it may be detectable in QSO absorption line systems - an unambiguous detection of fluorine at suitably high redshifts would provide the best evidence to date for the neutrino process in massive stars. Furthermore, due to its extreme reactivity, measurement of the gas-phase interstellar fluorine abundance is important for models of grain chemistry. Despite the importance of measuring the interstellar fluorine abundance, at the time of our proposal only one previous detection has been made due to the low relative abundance of fluorine, the lack of lines outside the far-UV, and the blending of the available F I transitions with lines of Hz. The star HD 164816 is associated with the Lagoon nebula (M8), and at a distance of approximately 1.5 kpc probes both distant and local gas. Beginning April 8th, 2004 FUSE FP-Split observations of the star HD 164816 were obtained for this program. This data became available in the FUSE data archive May 21, 2004, and these observations were then downloaded and we began our analysis. Our analysis procedure has involved (1) fitting stellar models to the FUSE spectra, (2) using the multiple lines of Hz and N I at other wavelengths in the FUSE bandpass to derive column densities for the lines of H2 and N I which are blended with the F I features at 951 and 954 angstroms (3) the measurement of the column densities of F I and the species O I and C1 I which are important species for the dis-entangling of dust and nucleosynthetic effects. As discussed in

  4. Abundance of Hepatic Transporters in Caucasians: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Howard J.; Riedmaier, Arian Emami; Harwood, Matthew D.; Crewe, H. Kim; Gill, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to derive quantitative abundance values for key hepatic transporters suitable for in vitro–in vivo extrapolation within a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling framework. A meta-analysis was performed whereby data on abundance measurements, sample preparation methods, and donor demography were collated from the literature. To define values for a healthy Caucasian population, a subdatabase was created whereby exclusion criteria were applied to remove samples from non-Caucasian individuals, those with underlying disease, or those with subcellular fractions other than crude membrane. Where a clinically relevant active genotype was known, only samples from individuals with an extensive transporter phenotype were included. Authors were contacted directly when additional information was required. After removing duplicated samples, the weighted mean, geometric mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and between-study homogeneity of transporter abundances were determined. From the complete database containing 24 transporters, suitable abundance data were available for 11 hepatic transporters from nine studies after exclusion criteria were applied. Organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 showed the highest population abundance in healthy adult Caucasians. For several transporters, the variability in abundance was reduced significantly once the exclusion criteria were applied. The highest variability was observed for OATP1B3 > OATP1B1 > multidrug resistance protein 2 > multidrug resistance gene 1. No relationship was found between transporter expression and donor age. To our knowledge, this study provides the first in-depth analysis of current quantitative abundance data for a wide range of hepatic transporters, with the aim of using these data for in vitro–in vivo extrapolation, and highlights the significance of investigating the background of tissue(s) used in quantitative transporter proteomic studies. Similar

  5. Abundance of Hepatic Transporters in Caucasians: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Burt, Howard J; Riedmaier, Arian Emami; Harwood, Matthew D; Crewe, H Kim; Gill, Katherine L; Neuhoff, Sibylle

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to derive quantitative abundance values for key hepatic transporters suitable for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation within a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling framework. A meta-analysis was performed whereby data on abundance measurements, sample preparation methods, and donor demography were collated from the literature. To define values for a healthy Caucasian population, a subdatabase was created whereby exclusion criteria were applied to remove samples from non-Caucasian individuals, those with underlying disease, or those with subcellular fractions other than crude membrane. Where a clinically relevant active genotype was known, only samples from individuals with an extensive transporter phenotype were included. Authors were contacted directly when additional information was required. After removing duplicated samples, the weighted mean, geometric mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and between-study homogeneity of transporter abundances were determined. From the complete database containing 24 transporters, suitable abundance data were available for 11 hepatic transporters from nine studies after exclusion criteria were applied. Organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 showed the highest population abundance in healthy adult Caucasians. For several transporters, the variability in abundance was reduced significantly once the exclusion criteria were applied. The highest variability was observed for OATP1B3 > OATP1B1 > multidrug resistance protein 2 > multidrug resistance gene 1. No relationship was found between transporter expression and donor age. To our knowledge, this study provides the first in-depth analysis of current quantitative abundance data for a wide range of hepatic transporters, with the aim of using these data for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation, and highlights the significance of investigating the background of tissue(s) used in quantitative transporter proteomic studies. Similar

  6. Species composition, abundance, and seasonal dynamics of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Minnesota soybean fields.

    PubMed

    Koch, Robert L; Pahs, Tiffany

    2014-08-01

    Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) have historically not been pests of soybean in Minnesota. In response to the invasion of Halyomorpha halys (Stål) and reports of increasing abundance of species native to North America, a state-wide survey of soybean was conducted over 3 yr in Minnesota to determine species composition, abundance, and seasonal dynamics of Pentatomidae associated with soybean. Fourteen species of Pentatomidae (12 herbivorous and two predatory) were collected from soybean. H. halys was not detected in this survey. Among the herbivorous species found, adults of Euschistus variolarius (Palisot de Beauvois) had the greatest relative abundance (60.51%) and frequency of detection (18.44%), followed by Euschistus servus euschistoides (Say) (19.37 and 3.04%, respectively) and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (5.50 and 1.69%, respectively). Abundance of herbivorous nymphs and adults exceeded an economic threshold (20 nymphs and adults per 100 sweeps) in 0.82% of fields in 2012 but not in 2011 or 2013. The frequency of detection of herbivorous species and ratio of nymphs to adults increased with increasing reproductive growth stage of soybean. In two of three years, herbivorous adults were more abundant in the edge compared with interior of fields. Two predatory Pentatomidae, Podisus maculiventris (Say) and Podisus placidus Uhler, comprised 5.95 and 1.62% of the pentatomid adults. Though the species composition of Pentatomidae in Minnesota soybean differs from that in eastern and southern states, the spatial (i.e., greater abundance near field edge) and seasonal dynamics (i.e., increasing abundance and reproduction with increasing reproductive maturity of soybean) in soybean appear similar.

  7. Nonrandom seedling establishment corresponds with distance-dependent decline in mycorrhizal abundance in two terrestrial orchids.

    PubMed

    Waud, Michael; Wiegand, Thorsten; Brys, Rein; Lievens, Bart; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2016-07-01

    In plant species that critically rely on mycorrhizal symbionts for germination and seedling establishment, distance-dependent decline of mycorrhizal fungi in the soil can be hypothesized to lead to significant spatial clustering as a result of nonrandom spatial patterns of seedling establishment. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the abundance and distribution of mycorrhizal fungi in the soil and how they relate to spatial patterns of adults and seedling recruitment in two related orchid species. We combined assessments of spatial variation in fungal abundance using quantitative PCR (qPCR) with spatial point pattern analyses based on long-term demographic data and cluster point process models. qPCR analyses showed that fungal abundance declined rapidly with distance from the adult host plants. Spatial point pattern analyses showed that successful recruitment in both species was clustered significantly around adult plants and that the decline in the neighborhood density of recruits around adults coincided with the decline of fungal abundance around adult plants. Overall, these results indicate that the distribution and abundance of fungal associates in the soil may have a strong impact on the aboveground distribution of its partner.

  8. The solar abundance of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevesse, N.

    2009-07-01

    With Martin Asplund (Max Planck Institute of Astrophysics, Garching) and Jacques Sauval (Observatoire Royal de Belgique, Brussels) I recently published detailed reviews on the solar chemical composition ({Asplund et al. 2005}, {Grevesse et al. 2007}). A new one, with Pat Scott (Stockholm University) as additional co-author, will appear in Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics ({Asplund et al. 2009}). Here we briefly analyze recent works on the solar abundance of Oxygen and recommend a value of 8.70 in the usual astronomical scale.

  9. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-01

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  10. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-09

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  11. Population dynamics in a cyclic environment: consequences of cyclic food abundance on tawny owl reproduction and survival.

    PubMed

    Karell, Patrik; Ahola, Kari; Karstinen, Teuvo; Zolei, Aniko; Brommer, Jon E

    2009-09-01

    1. Understanding which factors regulate population dynamics may help us to understand how a population would respond to environmental change, and why some populations are declining. 2. In southern Finland, vole abundance shows a three-phased cycle of low, increase and decrease phases, but these have been fading out in recent years. During five such cycles (1981-1995), all tawny owls Strix aluco were censused in a 250-km(2) study area, and their reproduction and survival were monitored. 3. Males and females showed similar dynamics, but experienced breeders recruited more offspring and had higher survival than first breeders. Offspring recruitment, but not survival of breeding individuals varied in accordance with vole abundance. 4. The population's numerical response to prey abundance was primarily due to first-breeding individuals entering the population in the increase phase when immigration was the highest. First-breeding birds were younger, but experienced breeders were older in more favourable vole years. 5. A stage-specific matrix population model integrating survival and fecundity showed that, despite obvious variation in fecundity between vole cycle phases, this variation had limited importance for overall tawny owl population dynamics, but that the survival of experienced breeders during the low phase is most important for population growth. 6. Model and data agreed that the vole cycle drives the dynamics of this avian predator by limiting the recruitment of new breeders during the low phase. Population dynamics hence differ not only from the classic example of the species in a more temperate region in the UK where the number of territories is stable across years, but also from the dynamics of other avian vole predators in Fennoscandia where the recurring crash in vole abundance drastically lowers adult survival thereby creating vacancies. PMID:19493132

  12. Emergence and Abundance of Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Bt Cornfields With Structured and Seed Blend Refuges.

    PubMed

    Hughson, Sarah A; Spencer, Joseph L

    2015-02-01

    To slow evolution of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) resistance to Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner) corn hybrids, non-Bt "refuges" must be planted within or adjacent to Bt cornfields, allowing susceptible insects to develop without exposure to Bt toxins. Bt-susceptible adults from refuges are expected to find and mate with resistant adults that have emerged from Bt corn, reducing the likelihood that Bt-resistant offspring are produced. The spatial and temporal distribution of adults in four refuge treatments (20, 5, and 0% structured refuges and 5% seed blend) and adjacent soybean fields was compared from 2010 to 2012. Adult emergence (adults/trap/day) from refuge corn in structured refuge treatments was greater than that from Bt corn, except during the post-pollination period of corn phenology when emergence from refuge and Bt plants was often the same. Abundance of free-moving adults was greatest in and near refuge rows in structured refuge treatments during vegetative and pollination periods. By post-pollination, adult abundance became evenly distributed. In contrast, adult abundance in 5% seed blends and 0% refuges was evenly distributed, or nearly so, across plots throughout the season. The persistent concentration of adults in refuge rows suggests that structured refuge configurations may not facilitate the expected mixing of adults from refuge and Bt corn. Seed blends produce uniform distributions of adults across the field that may facilitate mating between Bt and refuge adults and ultimately delay the evolution of Bt resistance. PMID:26470111

  13. Monitoring persistence of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae under simulated field conditions with the aim of controlling adult Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for use in integrated vector management, with recent emphasis aimed at developing adult mosquito control methods. Here we investigated the persistence of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae when tested against female A. aegypti under field conditions. Methods Black cotton cloths impregnated with M. anisopliae conidia, formulated in vegetable oil + isoparaffin, were maintained on a covered veranda for up to 30 days. At specific times, pieces of the cloths were removed, placed in Tween 80 and the resuspended conidia were sprayed directly onto mosquitoes. The persistence of conidia impregnated on black cloths using three different carriers was evaluated in test rooms. Fifty mosquitoes were released into each room and after a 5 day period, the surviving insects were captured. Another 50 insects were then released into each room. The capacity of the fungus at reducing mosquito survival was evaluated over a total of 35 days. Results Conidia extracted from cloths maintained on the veranda for 2 to 18 days remained virulent, with 28 to 60% mosquito survival observed. Mosquito survival following exposure to fungus impregnated cloths showed that fungus + Tween caused similar reductions to that of fungus + vegetable oil. Mosquitoes exposed to the formulation fungus + vegetable oil had survival rates of 36% over the first 5 days of the experiment. Following the release of the second cohort of mosquitoes (6-11days), survival increased to 50%. The survival of the 12–17 day cohort (78%) was statistically equal to that of the controls (84%). Formulation of the fungus in vegetable oil + isoparaffin increased the persistence of the fungus, with the 18–23 day cohort (64% survival) still showing statistical differences to that of the controls (87% survival). Conclusions The potential of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of adult A. aegypti was confirmed under field conditions. Vegetable oil + isoparaffin formulations of

  14. Evaluating noninvasive genetic sampling techniques to estimate large carnivore abundance.

    PubMed

    Mumma, Matthew A; Zieminski, Chris; Fuller, Todd K; Mahoney, Shane P; Waits, Lisette P

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring large carnivores is difficult because of intrinsically low densities and can be dangerous if physical capture is required. Noninvasive genetic sampling (NGS) is a safe and cost-effective alternative to physical capture. We evaluated the utility of two NGS methods (scat detection dogs and hair sampling) to obtain genetic samples for abundance estimation of coyotes, black bears and Canada lynx in three areas of Newfoundland, Canada. We calculated abundance estimates using program capwire, compared sampling costs, and the cost/sample for each method relative to species and study site, and performed simulations to determine the sampling intensity necessary to achieve abundance estimates with coefficients of variation (CV) of <10%. Scat sampling was effective for both coyotes and bears and hair snags effectively sampled bears in two of three study sites. Rub pads were ineffective in sampling coyotes and lynx. The precision of abundance estimates was dependent upon the number of captures/individual. Our simulations suggested that ~3.4 captures/individual will result in a < 10% CV for abundance estimates when populations are small (23-39), but fewer captures/individual may be sufficient for larger populations. We found scat sampling was more cost-effective for sampling multiple species, but suggest that hair sampling may be less expensive at study sites with limited road access for bears. Given the dependence of sampling scheme on species and study site, the optimal sampling scheme is likely to be study-specific warranting pilot studies in most circumstances.

  15. Modeling avian abundance from replicated counts using binomial mixture models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, M.; Royle, J. Andrew; Schmid, H.

    2005-01-01

    Abundance estimation in ecology is usually accomplished by capture-recapture, removal, or distance sampling methods. These may be hard to implement at large spatial scales. In contrast, binomial mixture models enable abundance estimation without individual identification, based simply on temporally and spatially replicated counts. Here, we evaluate mixture models using data from the national breeding bird monitoring program in Switzerland, where some 250 1-km(2) quadrats are surveyed using the territory mapping method three times during each breeding season. We chose eight species with contrasting distribution (wide-narrow), abundance (high-low), and detectability (easy-difficult). Abundance was modeled as a random effect with a Poisson or negative binomial distribution, with mean affected by forest cover, elevation, and route length. Detectability was a logit-linear function of survey date, survey date-by-elevation, and sampling effort (time per transect unit). Resulting covariate effects and parameter estimates were consistent with expectations. Detectability per territory (for three surveys) ranged from 0.66 to 0.94 (mean 0.84) for easy species, and from 0.16 to 0.83 (mean 0.53) for difficult species, depended on survey effort for two easy and all four difficult species, and changed seasonally for three easy and three difficult species. Abundance was positively related to route length in three high-abundance and one low-abundance (one easy and three difficult) species, and increased with forest cover in five forest species, decreased for two nonforest species, and was unaffected for a generalist species. Abundance estimates under the most parsimonious mixture models were between 1.1 and 8.9 (median 1.8) times greater than estimates based on territory mapping; hence, three surveys were insufficient to detect all territories for each species. We conclude that binomial mixture models are an important new approach for estimating abundance corrected for detectability

  16. Modeling avian abundance from replicated counts using binomial mixture models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, Marc; Royle, J. Andrew; Schmid, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Abundance estimation in ecology is usually accomplished by capture–recapture, removal, or distance sampling methods. These may be hard to implement at large spatial scales. In contrast, binomial mixture models enable abundance estimation without individual identification, based simply on temporally and spatially replicated counts. Here, we evaluate mixture models using data from the national breeding bird monitoring program in Switzerland, where some 250 1-km2 quadrats are surveyed using the territory mapping method three times during each breeding season. We chose eight species with contrasting distribution (wide–narrow), abundance (high–low), and detectability (easy–difficult). Abundance was modeled as a random effect with a Poisson or negative binomial distribution, with mean affected by forest cover, elevation, and route length. Detectability was a logit-linear function of survey date, survey date-by-elevation, and sampling effort (time per transect unit). Resulting covariate effects and parameter estimates were consistent with expectations. Detectability per territory (for three surveys) ranged from 0.66 to 0.94 (mean 0.84) for easy species, and from 0.16 to 0.83 (mean 0.53) for difficult species, depended on survey effort for two easy and all four difficult species, and changed seasonally for three easy and three difficult species. Abundance was positively related to route length in three high-abundance and one low-abundance (one easy and three difficult) species, and increased with forest cover in five forest species, decreased for two nonforest species, and was unaffected for a generalist species. Abundance estimates under the most parsimonious mixture models were between 1.1 and 8.9 (median 1.8) times greater than estimates based on territory mapping; hence, three surveys were insufficient to detect all territories for each species. We conclude that binomial mixture models are an important new approach for estimating abundance corrected for

  17. New aerial survey and hierarchical model to estimate manatee abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langimm, Cahterine A.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Stith, Bradley M.; Doyle, Terry J.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring the response of endangered and protected species to hydrological restoration is a major component of the adaptive management framework of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The endangered Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) lives at the marine-freshwater interface in southwest Florida and is likely to be affected by hydrologic restoration. To provide managers with prerestoration information on distribution and abundance for postrestoration comparison, we developed and implemented a new aerial survey design and hierarchical statistical model to estimate and map abundance of manatees as a function of patch-specific habitat characteristics, indicative of manatee requirements for offshore forage (seagrass), inland fresh drinking water, and warm-water winter refuge. We estimated the number of groups of manatees from dual-observer counts and estimated the number of individuals within groups by removal sampling. Our model is unique in that we jointly analyzed group and individual counts using assumptions that allow probabilities of group detection to depend on group size. Ours is the first analysis of manatee aerial surveys to model spatial and temporal abundance of manatees in association with habitat type while accounting for imperfect detection. We conducted the study in the Ten Thousand Islands area of southwestern Florida, USA, which was expected to be affected by the Picayune Strand Restoration Project to restore hydrology altered for a failed real-estate development. We conducted 11 surveys in 2006, spanning the cold, dry season and warm, wet season. To examine short-term and seasonal changes in distribution we flew paired surveys 1–2 days apart within a given month during the year. Manatees were sparsely distributed across the landscape in small groups. Probability of detection of a group increased with group size; the magnitude of the relationship between group size and detection probability varied among surveys. Probability

  18. Marine debris in central California: quantifying type and abundance of beach litter in Monterey Bay, CA.

    PubMed

    Rosevelt, C; Los Huertos, M; Garza, C; Nevins, H M

    2013-06-15

    Monitoring beach litter is essential for reducing ecological threats towards humans and wildlife. In Monterey Bay, CA information on seasonal and spatial patterns is understudied. Central California's coastal managers require reliable information on debris abundance, distribution, and type, to support policy aimed at reducing litter. We developed a survey method that allowed for trained citizen scientists to quantify the types and abundance of beach litter. Sampling occurred from July 2009-June 2010. Litter abundance ranged from 0.03 to 17.1 items m(-2). Using a mixed model approach, we found season and location have the greatest effect on litter abundance. Styrofoam, the most numerically abundant item, made up 41% of the total amount of litter. Unexpected items included fertilizer pellets. The results of this study provide a baseline on the types and abundance of litter on the central coast and have directly supported policy banning Styrofoam take out containers from local municipalities. PMID:23499538

  19. Adult immunization

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bharti; Chawla, Sumit; Kumar Dharma, Vijay; Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequel. The primary focus of vaccination programs has historically been directed to childhood immunizations. For adults, chronic diseases have been the primary focus of preventive and medical health care, though there has been increased emphasis on preventing infectious diseases. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most of the routinely recommended vaccines. Though adults are less susceptible to fall prey to traditional infectious agents, the probability of exposure to infectious agents has increased manifold owing to globalization and increasing travel opportunities both within and across the countries. Thus, there is an urgent need to address the problem of adult immunization. The adult immunization enterprise is more complex, encompassing a wide variety of vaccines and a very diverse target population. There is no coordinated public health infrastructure to support an adult immunization program as there is for children. Moreover, there is little coordination among adult healthcare providers in terms of vaccine provision. Substantial improvement in adult vaccination is needed to reduce the health consequences of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Routine assessment of adult patient vaccination needs, recommendation, and offer of needed vaccines for adults should be incorporated into routine clinical care of adults. PMID:24128707

  20. Early monitoring of the human polyomavirus BK replication and sequencing analysis in a cohort of adult kidney transplant patients treated with basiliximab

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nowadays, better immunosuppressors have decreased the rates of acute rejection in kidney transplantation, but have also led to the emergence of BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVAN). Therefore, we prospectively investigated BKV load in plasma and urine samples in a cohort of kidney transplants, receiving basiliximab combined with a mycophenolate mofetil-based triple immunotherapy, to evaluate the difference between BKV replication during the first 3 months post-transplantation, characterized by the non-depleting action of basiliximab, versus the second 3 months, in which the maintenance therapy acts alone. We also performed sequencing analysis to assess whether a particular BKV subtype/subgroup or transcriptional control region (TCR) variants were present. Methods We monitored BK viruria and viremia by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) at 12 hours (Tx), 1 (T1), 3 (T2) and 6 (T3) months post-transplantation among 60 kidney transplant patients. Sequencing analysis was performed by nested-PCR with specific primers for TCR and VP1 regions. Data were statistically analyzed using χ2 test and Student's t-test. Results BKV was detected at Tx in 4/60 urine and in 16/60 plasma, with median viral loads of 3,70 log GEq/mL and 3,79 log GEq/mL, respectively, followed by a significant increase of both BKV-positive transplants (32/60) and median values of viruria (5,78 log GEq/mL) and viremia (4,52 log GEq/mL) at T2. Conversely, a significantly decrease of patients with viruria and viremia (17/60) was observed at T3, together with a reduction of the median urinary and plasma viral loads (4,09 log GEq/mL and 4,00 log GEq/mL, respectively). BKV TCR sequence analysis always showed the presence of archetypal sequences, with a few single-nucleotide substitutions and one nucleotide insertion that, interestingly, were all representative of the particular subtypes/subgroups we identified by VP1 sequencing analysis: I/b-2 and IV/c-2. Conclusions Our results confirm

  1. Spatio-temporal variation in male white-tailed deer harvest rates in Pennsylvania: Implications for estimating abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, Andrew S.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Wallingford, Bret D.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of 2 popular methods that use age-at-harvest data to estimate abundance of white-tailed deer is contingent on assumptions about variation in estimates of subadult (1.5 yr old) and adult (≥2.5 yr old) male harvest rates. Auxiliary data (e.g., estimates of survival or harvest rates from radiocollared animals) can be used to relax some assumptions, but unless these population parameters exhibit limited temporal or spatial variation, these auxiliary data may not improve accuracy. Unfortunately maintaining sufficient sample sizes of radiocollared deer for parameter estimation in every wildlife management unit (WMU) is not feasible for most state agencies. We monitored the fates of 397 subadult and 225 adult male white-tailed deer across 4 WMUs from 2002 to 2008 using radio telemetry. We investigated spatial and temporal variation in harvest rates and investigated covariates related to the patterns observed. We found that most variation in harvest rates was explained spatially and that adult harvest rates (0.36–0.69) were more variable among study areas than subadult harvest rates (0.26–0.42). We found that hunter effort during the archery and firearms season best explained variation in harvest rates of adult males among WMUs, whereas hunter effort during only the firearms season best explained harvest rates for subadult males. From a population estimation perspective, it is advantageous that most variation was spatial and explained by a readily obtained covariate (hunter effort). However, harvest rates may vary if hunting regulations or hunter behavior change, requiring additional field studies to obtain accurate estimates of harvest rates. 

  2. [Effects of sewage discharge on abundance and biomass of meiofauna].

    PubMed

    Huang, De-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Shou; Lin, Ming-Xian; Chen, Huai-Pu; Wei, Lian-Ming; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Zhi-Nan

    2014-10-01

    In order to elucidate the effects of sewage discharge on abundance and biomass of meio- fauna, a seasonal survey was carried out on meiofauna at stations with different distances to a sewage outlet in the middle intertidal zone of No. 1 bathing beach in Huiquan Bay, Qingdao in spring (April), summer (August), autumn (October) and winter (December), 2011. The results showed that the annual average meiofaunal abundance was (1859.9 ± 705.1) ind · 10 cm(-2), with higher values of (2444.9 ± 1220.5) ind · 10 cm(-2) at Station S2 (20 m to the sewage outlet) and (2492.2 ± 1839.9) ind · 10 cm(-2) at Station S3 (40 m to the sewage outlet), while the lowest value of (327.9 ± 183.2) ind · 10 cm(-2) was observed at Station S1 (0 m to the sewage outlet) in terms of horizontal distribution. The annual average biomass was (1513.4 ± 372.7) μg · 10 cm(-2). Meiofaunal abundance and biomass varied seasonally with the highest values in spring and the lowest values in summer. A total of 11 meiofaunal groups were identified, including nematodes, copepods, polychaetes, oligochaetes, tardigrades, halacaroideans, planarians, ostracods, isopods, crustacean nauplii and others. Free-living marine nematodes were the dominant group constituting 83. 1% of the total abundance, followed by benthic copepods, accounting for 12. 8% of the total abundance. In terms of vertical distribution, most of the meiofauna concentrated in the top 0-2 cm, and the meiofauna abundance decreased with increasing the sediment depth. Meiofauna was also noted to migrate deeper into the sediment in the winter. Pearson correlation analysis showed that meiofaunal abundance and biomass had highly significant negative correlations with sediment median particle diameter and organic matter content. In addition, tourism-induced activities affected meiofaunal abundance and distribution. A comparison with historical data from similar studies was carried out, and the applicability of the ratio of abundance of nematodes

  3. Estimating Sonoran pronghorn abundance and survival with fecal DNA and capture-recapture methods.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Susannah P; Lukacs, Paul M; Christianson, David; Waits, Lisette P

    2016-10-01

    Population abundance estimates are important for management but can be challenging to determine in low-density, wide-ranging, and endangered species, such as Sonoran pronghorn (Antilocapra americana sonoriensis). The Sonoran pronghorn population has been increasing; however, population estimates are currently derived from a biennial aerial count that does not provide survival or recruitment estimates. We identified individuals through noninvasively collected fecal DNA and used robust-design capture-recapture to estimate abundance and survival for Sonoran pronghorn in the United States from 2013 to 2014. In 2014 we generated separate population estimates for pronghorn gathered near 13 different artificial water holes and for pronghorn not near water holes. The population using artificial water holes had 116 (95% CI 102-131) and 121 individuals (95% CI 112-132) in 2013 and 2014, respectively. For all locations, we estimated there were 144 individuals (95% CI 132-157). Adults had higher annual survival probabilities (0.83, 95% CI 0.69-0.92) than fawns (0.41, 95% CI 0.21-0.65). Our use of targeted noninvasive genetic sampling and capture-recapture with Sonoran pronghorn fecal DNA was an effective method for monitoring a large proportion of the population. Our results provided the first survival estimates for this population in over 2 decades and precise estimates of the population using artificial water holes. Our method could be used for targeted sampling of broadly distributed species in other systems, such as in African savanna ecosystems, where many species congregate at watering sites. PMID:26918820

  4. Estimating Sonoran pronghorn abundance and survival with fecal DNA and capture-recapture methods.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Susannah P; Lukacs, Paul M; Christianson, David; Waits, Lisette P

    2016-10-01

    Population abundance estimates are important for management but can be challenging to determine in low-density, wide-ranging, and endangered species, such as Sonoran pronghorn (Antilocapra americana sonoriensis). The Sonoran pronghorn population has been increasing; however, population estimates are currently derived from a biennial aerial count that does not provide survival or recruitment estimates. We identified individuals through noninvasively collected fecal DNA and used robust-design capture-recapture to estimate abundance and survival for Sonoran pronghorn in the United States from 2013 to 2014. In 2014 we generated separate population estimates for pronghorn gathered near 13 different artificial water holes and for pronghorn not near water holes. The population using artificial water holes had 116 (95% CI 102-131) and 121 individuals (95% CI 112-132) in 2013 and 2014, respectively. For all locations, we estimated there were 144 individuals (95% CI 132-157). Adults had higher annual survival probabilities (0.83, 95% CI 0.69-0.92) than fawns (0.41, 95% CI 0.21-0.65). Our use of targeted noninvasive genetic sampling and capture-recapture with Sonoran pronghorn fecal DNA was an effective method for monitoring a large proportion of the population. Our results provided the first survival estimates for this population in over 2 decades and precise estimates of the population using artificial water holes. Our method could be used for targeted sampling of broadly distributed species in other systems, such as in African savanna ecosystems, where many species congregate at watering sites.

  5. Lithium Abundance in Planet Search Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myles, Justin; Yale Exoplanets

    2016-01-01

    Since most lithium in the universe is primordial and is destroyed in stars, lithium abundance can be used as a stellar age indicator. Some research seems to show that planet formation may also affect lithium abundance in exoplanet host stars (EHS). However, small and heterogenous samples have made both of these phenomena unclear. Further study of lithium abundance in EHS is needed to better understand possible physical roles of lithium in planet formation theory. We use a large homogenous sample with accurate stellar parameters on which we will use equivalent width analysis to determine precise lithium abundances. From these abundance values we determine an age vs. abundance relation. Additionally, we aim to explore correlation between lithium abundance and planet formation.

  6. Population Dynamics of Aphthona whitfieldi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Pest of Jatropha curcas, and Environmental Factors Favoring Its Abundance in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Sawadogo, Alizèta; Nagalo, Estérer; Nacro, Souleymane; Rouamba, Mathurin; Kenis, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The flea beetle Aphthona whitfieldi Bryant (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is the main pest of the bioenergy crop Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) in Burkina Faso and several other West African countries. Adults severely defoliate plants, resulting in seedling mortality, poor growth, and low yields. To study the population dynamics of the pest in the Sissili Province of Burkina Faso, 12 sites were monitored weekly during a year and 31 sites were inspected for damage at the peak period of insect abundance. The effect of cropping systems (hedge, intercropping, and monoculture) and surrounding vegetation on population densities of A. whitfieldi was assessed. Beetles were rarely found in the dry season and peaked in the second half of the rainy season. The cropping system did not significantly influence the abundance and attack level. In contrast, the close vicinity of fallow lands seems to increase damage levels. Many aspects of the biology and ecology of A. whitfieldi remain to be investigated before sustainable control methods can be developed. However, this study already allows us to propose recommendations for further research on management. PMID:26206896

  7. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Paul S.; Schumer, Gregg; Blankenship, Scott; Campbell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American Green Sturgeon located in California’s Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods. PMID:27096433

  8. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Paul S; Schumer, Gregg; Blankenship, Scott; Campbell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American Green Sturgeon located in California's Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods. PMID:27096433

  9. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Paul S; Schumer, Gregg; Blankenship, Scott; Campbell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American Green Sturgeon located in California's Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods.

  10. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale.

    PubMed

    Serafy, Joseph E; Shideler, Geoffrey S; Araújo, Rafael J; Nagelkerken, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1) Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2) Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as "mangrove-dependent". Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year) citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation) and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1) focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2) consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3) quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i.e., the Wider

  11. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale

    PubMed Central

    Serafy, Joseph E.; Shideler, Geoffrey S.; Araújo, Rafael J.; Nagelkerken, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1) Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2) Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as “mangrove-dependent”. Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year) citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation) and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1) focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2) consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3) quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i.e., the Wider

  12. Hydroacoustic estimates of fish abundance

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.K.

    1991-03-01

    Hydroacoustics, as defined in the context of this report, is the use of a scientific sonar system to determine fish densities with respect to numbers and biomass. These two parameters provide a method of monitoring reservoir fish populations and detecting gross changes in the ecosystem. With respect to southeastern reservoirs, hydroacoustic surveys represent a new method of sampling open water areas and the best technology available. The advantages of this technology are large amounts of data can be collected in a relatively short period of time allowing improved statistical interpretation and data comparison, the pelagic (open water) zone can be sampled efficiently regardless of depth, and sampling is nondestructive and noninvasive with neither injury to the fish nor alteration of the environment. Hydroacoustics cannot provide species identification and related information on species composition or length/weight relationships. Also, sampling is limited to a minimum depth of ten feet which precludes the use of this equipment for sampling shallow shoreline areas. The objective of this study is to use hydroacoustic techniques to estimate fish standing stocks (i.e., numbers and biomass) in several areas of selected Tennessee Valley Reservoirs as part of a base level monitoring program to assess long-term changes in reservoir water quality.

  13. Observing chemical abundances in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delsemme, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    The atomic resonance lines of the major elements were observed in the atmospheres of a few comets, by using vacuum ultraviolet spectrographs on board rockets or orbiting observatories. Dust-to-gas ratios were also deduced for two comets through a Finson-Probstein's analysis of their dust-tail isophotes. The geometric albedo of the dust for the phase angle alpha of the observations is not accurately known but, the dust-to-gas ratio is not overly sensitive to the actual value of this albedo. Infrared observations of the dust head of some comets show that the bulk of cometary dust must be silicates, although a minor component (5-10 percent) of carbon compounds is rather likely, because of poor dielectric properties of the grains. This interpretation is confirmed by the fact that interplanetary dust probably of cometary origin, that was collected in the stratosphere by NASA-U2 Spacecraft, is chondritic in nature. Metal abundances in the head of a sungrazing comet support the chondritic hypothesis.

  14. Molecular Abundances in CRL 618

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, Juan R.; Cernicharo, José

    2007-01-01

    In previous works we have modeled the different gas regions of the proto-planetary nebula CRL 618 by studying the large number of lines from the cyanopolyynes detected in a millimeter-wave line survey of this object. In this work we retrieve the rotational temperatures (Tr) and abundance ratios R with respect to HC3N (used as reference) for all molecular species detected in the survey by running grids of models in the (R,Tr) space to find the minimum of a weighted χ2 defined for this analysis. This provides the best knowledge to date of the (polar) molecular composition of CRL 618 thanks to the uniform calibration of the whole survey and the large number of lines available from each species, allowing comparisons with predictions made by chemical models of C-rich post-AGB objects. A significantly lower value of the 12C/13C ratio has been revealed in the gas closest to central star with respect to the colder and outer envelope. It can be due to 13C-rich material, produced in a late CNO cycling occurred in the central star, being currently injected into this inner gas envelope.

  15. Peudomonas fluorescens diversity and abundance in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amina, Melinai; Ahmed, Bensoltane; Khaladi, Mederbel

    2010-05-01

    It is now over 30 years since that a several plant associated strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. are known to produce antimicrobial metabolites, playing a significant role in the biological control of a lot of plant diseases. For that, the interest in the use of these bacteria for biocontrol of plant pathogenic agents has increased. However, few comprehensive studies have described the abundance of this soil borne bacteria in the region of Mascara (Northern-Algerian West). In the connection of this problem, this work was done by monitoring the number of indigenous Pseudomonas fluorescens organisms in three stations characterizing different ecosystems, to document their abundance, diversity and investigate the relationship between P. fluorescens abundance and soil properties. Our quantitative plate counting results hence the conception of their ecology in the rhizosphere. Thus, quantitative results has confirmed that P. fluorescens are successful root colonizers with strong predominance and competed for many ecological niche, where their distribution were correlated significantly (P<0.05) with the majority of soil properties. Keywords: P. Fluorescens, Ecosystems, Abundance, Diversity, Correlated, Soil Properties.

  16. Identifying the factors affecting phytoplankton abundance dynamics in Shihmen Reservoir, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Chuang, Illy; Chu, Hone-Jay; Wu, Jiunn-Tzong; Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2013-04-01

    Investigations of multiple temporal distributions of phytoplankton dynamics through environmental variables in water bodies over extensive areas remain relatively scarce. This study focused on the determination of the key factors regulating temporal and spatial variations of phytoplankton abundance at three monitoring sites in Shihmen Reservoir within five years (2006-2010). Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a dimension-reduction technique, was designed to identify the underlying latent effects in multiple time series and interactions between explanatory variables (i.e., environmental variables) and the response variable (phytoplankton abundance). The optimal DFA model successfully described the dynamics of phytoplankton abundance in the Shihmen Reservoir. The results demonstrated that water temperature, water level, COD, BOD, and DO considerably affected phytoplankton abundance at most of the monitoring sites. Among them, water temperature, water level, and COD significantly affected phytoplankton abundance at all three sites, indicating that these variables contributed more to the long-term dynamics of phytoplankton abundance than other variables at the surface water of Shihmen Reservoir. The influx and efflux of Reservoir altering hydrological conditions in Shihmen Reservoir may attenuate the nutrients effects on phytoplankton abundance. In this study, BOD and DO are the other crucial water quality factors that control variations of phytoplankton. The explanatory variables mainly explain the dynamics of phytoplankton abundance than common trends do. In the future, the water manager may consider these variables to propose strategies to manage water quality in Shihmen Reservoir.

  17. Estimating abundance in the presence of species uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambert, Thierry A; Hossack, Blake R.; Fishback, LeeAnn; Davenport, Jon M.

    2016-01-01

    1.N-mixture models have become a popular method for estimating abundance of free-ranging animals that are not marked or identified individually. These models have been used on count data for single species that can be identified with certainty. However, co-occurring species often look similar during one or more life stages, making it difficult to assign species for all recorded captures. This uncertainty creates problems for estimating species-specific abundance and it can often limit life stages to which we can make inference. 2.We present a new extension of N-mixture models that accounts for species uncertainty. In addition to estimating site-specific abundances and detection probabilities, this model allows estimating probability of correct assignment of species identity. We implement this hierarchical model in a Bayesian framework and provide all code for running the model in BUGS-language programs. 3.We present an application of the model on count data from two sympatric freshwater fishes, the brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) and the ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius), ad illustrate implementation of covariate effects (habitat characteristics). In addition, we used a simulation study to validate the model and illustrate potential sample size issues. We also compared, for both real and simulated data, estimates provided by our model to those obtained by a simple N-mixture model when captures of unknown species identification were discarded. In the latter case, abundance estimates appeared highly biased and very imprecise, while our new model provided unbiased estimates with higher precision. 4.This extension of the N-mixture model should be useful for a wide variety of studies and taxa, as species uncertainty is a common issue. It should notably help improve investigation of abundance and vital rate characteristics of organisms’ early life stages, which are sometimes more difficult to identify than adults.

  18. Effect of Game Management on Wild Red-Legged Partridge Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Fernández, Silvia; Arroyo, Beatriz; Casas, Fabián; Martinez-Haro, Monica; Viñuela, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The reduction of game and fish populations has increased investment in management practices. Hunting and fishing managers use several tools to maximize harvest. Managers need to know the impact their management has on wild populations. This issue is especially important to improve management efficacy and biodiversity conservation. We used questionnaires and field bird surveys in 48 hunting estates to assess whether red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa young/adult ratio and summer abundance were related to the intensity of management (provision of supplementary food and water, predator control and releases of farm-bred partridges), harvest intensity or habitat in Central Spain. We hypothesized that partridge abundance would be higher where management practices were applied more intensively. Variation in young/adult ratio among estates was best explained by habitat, year and some management practices. Density of feeders and water points had a positive relationship with this ratio, while the density of partridges released and magpies controlled were negatively related to it. The variables with greatest relative importance were feeders, releases and year. Variations in post-breeding red-legged partridge abundance among estates were best explained by habitat, year, the same management variables that influenced young/adult ratio, and harvest intensity. Harvest intensity was negatively related to partridge abundance. The other management variables had the same type of relationship with abundance as with young/adult ratio, except magpie control. Variables with greatest relative importance were habitat, feeders, water points, releases and harvest intensity. Our study suggests that management had an overall important effect on post-breeding partridge abundance. However, this effect varied among tools, as some had the desired effect (increase in partridge abundance), whereas others did not or even had a negative relationship (such as release of farm-reared birds) and can be

  19. Changes in Abundance of Oral Microbiota Associated with Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Brian L.; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M.; Queiroz, Erica L. S.; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A. Ross; DeLacure, Mark D.; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B.; Albertson, Donna G.

    2014-01-01

    Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence. PMID:24887397

  20. Stardust Abundance Variations among Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nguyen, A. N.; Walker, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Presolar grain abundances reflect the degree of processing primitive materials have experienced. This is evidenced by the wide range of silicate stardust abundances among primitive meteorites (10 to 300 ppm) [1], attributable to parent body hydrothermal processing. Stardust abundance variations are also pronounced in anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (CPIDPs), that have not experienced parent body processing (300 to > 10,000 ppm) [2-4]. The large range in stardust abundances among CP IDPs thus reflect nebular processing. Here we present results of a systematic search for stardust among cluster CP IDPs. Our goals are to establish mineralogical trends among IDPs with different stardust abundances. This may shed light into the nature of isotopically normal presolar grains (GEMS grains?; 5) if their abundances vary similarly to that of isotopically exotic stardust grains.

  1. Species-abundance--seed-size patterns within a plant community affected by grazing disturbance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gao-lin; Shang, Zhan-huan; Zhu, Yuan-jun; Ding, Lu-ming; Wang, Dong

    2015-04-01

    Seed size has been advanced as a key factor that influences the dynamics of plant communities, but there are few empirical or theoretical predictions of how community dynamics progress based on seed size patterns. Information on the abundance of adults, seedlings, soil seed banks, seed rains, and the seed mass of 96 species was collected in alpine meadows of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (China), which had different levels of grazing disturbance. The relationships between seed-mass-abundance patterns for adults, seedlings, the soil seed bank, and seed rain in the plant community were evaluated using regression models. Results showed that grazing levels affected the relationship between seed size and abundance properties of adult species, seedlings, and the soil seed bank, suggesting that there is a shift in seed-size--species-abundance relationships as a response to the grazing gradient. Grazing had no effect on the pattern of seed-size-seed-rain-abundance at four grazing levels. Grazing also had little effect on the pattern of seed-size--species-abundance and pattern of seed-size--soil-seed-bank-abundance in meadows with no grazing, light grazing, and moderate grazing), but there was a significant negative effect in meadows with heavy grazing. Grazing had little effect on the pattern of seed-size--seedling-abundance with no grazing, but had significant negative effects with light, moderate, and heavy grazing, and the |r| values increased with grazing levels. This indicated that increasing grazing pressure enhanced the advantage of smaller-seeded species in terms of the abundances of adult species, seedlings, and soil seed banks, whereas only the light grazing level promoted the seed rain abundance of larger-seeded species in the plant communities. This study suggests that grazing disturbances are favorable for increasing the species abundance for smaller-seeded species but not for the larger-seeded species in an alpine meadow community. Hence, there is a clear

  2. Ammonia and nitrogen abundances in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyckoff, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Comets consist of pristine material preserved from an earlier galactic epoch. Determination of the molecular, elemental, and isotopic abundances in the dust and volatile components of comet nuclei produce vital clues to the chemical evolution of both interstellar and solar nebula matter. Here the abundances of nitrogen-containing molecules in comets are considered. The molecular abundances of NH3 in four comets are summarized (Tegler 1990, Wyckoff, Tegler, and Engel, 1990). From an inventory of nitrogen-containing compounds (Wyckoff, Engel, and Tegler 1990, Wyckoff, Engel, Womack, Ferro, Tegler and Peterson, 1990), an estimate of the elemental N abundance is also presented.

  3. Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Firn, Jennifer; Moore, Joslin L.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Harpole, W. Stanley; Cleland, Elsa E.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Farrell, Kelly A.; Bakker, John D.; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Adler, Peter B.; Collins, Scott L.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Hautier, Yann; Morgan, John W.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Kay, Adam; McCulley, Rebecca; Davies, Kendi F.; Stevens, Carly J.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Holl, Karen D.; Klein, Julia A.; Fay, Phillip A.; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Buckley, Yvonne M.

    2011-01-01

    Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous species at 39 sites, within eight countries, revealed that species abundances were similar at native (home) and introduced (away) sites - grass species were generally abundant home and away, while forbs were low in abundance, but more abundant at home. Sites with six or more of these species had similar community abundance hierarchies, suggesting that suites of introduced species are assembling similarly on different continents. Overall, we found that substantial changes to populations are not necessarily a pre-condition for invasion success and that increases in species abundance are unusual. Instead, abundance at home predicts abundance away, a potentially useful additional criterion for biosecurity programmes.

  4. [DEGS: German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults. A nationwide cross-sectional and longitudinal study within the framework of health monitoring conducted by the Robert Koch Institute].

    PubMed

    Gößwald, A; Lange, M; Kamtsiuris, P; Kurth, B-M

    2012-06-01

    The "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS) is a nationwide longitudinal study carried out by the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) within the framework of a continuous health monitoring programme. The aim of this study is to provide representative data on the health status of adults in Germany on a regular basis, to calculate trends in the development of health indicators and to gain insights into the development of health during the course of life. These aims are realised by choosing a sampling design which allows establishment and follow-up of a panel and to provide a representative sample in each new wave of data collection. DEGS produces information for comprehensive health reporting, serves as a basis for health policy decision-making and provides data for epidemiological research. The first wave of data collection (DEGS1) was carried out from November 2008 until Dezember 2011 and comprises health interviews and physical examinations as well as blood and urine sampling. Detailed information on health status, health-related behaviour, healthcare and living conditions was gathered. Furthermore the study focuses on chronic diseases, mental health and implications of demographic changes for health. In order to be able to analyse longitudinal data as soon as possible, participants of the National Health Survey 1998 (BGS98) were included in DEGS1. The examination programme carried out in BGS98, was maintained and appended in DEGS1. A total of 8152 persons participated in DEGS1 and of these 3959 were former participants of BGS98. The participants of DEGS1 constitute the baseline cohort for repeated health interviews and examinations in the future. In wave 2, which is planned to begin in the middle of 2014, study participants will be followed up by interviewing. Wave 3 planned to follow in 2017, will again comprise an interview and examination survey with a supplementary sample. First results and basic analyses of all main topics of DEGS1 will

  5. The relative abundance of desert tortoises on the Nevada Test Site within ecological landform units

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, R.; Rautenstrauch, K.R.; Hall, D.B.; Ostler, W.K.

    1998-09-01

    Sign-survey transects were sampled in 1996 to better determine the relative abundance of desert tortoises on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These transects were sampled within ecological land-form units (ELUs), which are small, ecologically homogeneous units of land. Two-hundred and six ELUs were sampled by walking 332 transects totaling 889 kilometers (km). These ELUs covered 528 km{sup 2}. Two-hundred and eight-one sign were counted. An average of 0.32 sign was found per km walked. Seventy percent of the area sampled had a very low abundance of tortoises, 29% had a low abundance, and 1% had a moderate abundance. A revised map of the relative abundance of desert tortoise on the NTS is presented. Within the 1,330 km{sup 2} of desert tortoise habitat on the NTS, 49% is classified as having no tortoises or a very low abundance, 18% has a low or moderate abundance, 12% is unclassified land being used by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, and the remaining 21% still has an unknown abundance of desert tortoises. Based on the results of this work, the amount of tortoise habitat previously classified as having an unknown or low-moderate abundance, and on which clearance surveys and on-site monitoring was required, has been reduced by 20%.

  6. The Relative Abundance of Desert Tortoises on the Nevada Test Site within Ecological Landform Units

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, Roy; Rautenstrauch, Kurt R.; Hall, Derek B.; Ostler, W. Kent

    1998-09-01

    Sign-survey transects were sampled in 1996 to better determine the relative abundance of desert tortoises on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These transects were sampled within ecological land-form units (ELUs), which are small, ecologically homogeneous units of land. Two-hundred and six ELUs were sampled by walking 332 transects totaling 889 kilometers (km) (552 miles [mi]). These ELUs covered 528 km{sup 2} (204 mi{sup 2}). Two-hundred and eighty-one sign were counted. An average of 0.32 sign was found per km walked. Seventy percent of the area sampled had a very low abundance of tortoises, 29 percent had a low abundance, and 1 percent had a moderate abundance. A revised map of the relative abundance of desert tortoise on the NTS is presented. Within the 1,330 km{sup 2} (514 mi{sup 2}) of desert tortoise habitat on the NTS, 49 percent is classified as having no tortoises or a very low abundance, 18 percent has a low or moderate abundance, 12 percent is unclassified land being used by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, and the remaining 21 percent still has an unknown abundance of desert tortoises. Based on the results of this work, the amount of tortoise habitat previously classified as having an unknown or low-moderate abundance, and on which clearance surveys and on-site monitoring was required, has been reduced by 20 percent.

  7. Evaluating noninvasive genetic sampling techniques to estimate large carnivore abundance.

    PubMed

    Mumma, Matthew A; Zieminski, Chris; Fuller, Todd K; Mahoney, Shane P; Waits, Lisette P

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring large carnivores is difficult because of intrinsically low densities and can be dangerous if physical capture is required. Noninvasive genetic sampling (NGS) is a safe and cost-effective alternative to physical capture. We evaluated the utility of two NGS methods (scat detection dogs and hair sampling) to obtain genetic samples for abundance estimation of coyotes, black bears and Canada lynx in three areas of Newfoundland, Canada. We calculated abundance estimates using program capwire, compared sampling costs, and the cost/sample for each method relative to species and study site, and performed simulations to determine the sampling intensity necessary to achieve abundance estimates with coefficients of variation (CV) of <10%. Scat sampling was effective for both coyotes and bears and hair snags effectively sampled bears in two of three study sites. Rub pads were ineffective in sampling coyotes and lynx. The precision of abundance estimates was dependent upon the number of captures/individual. Our simulations suggested that ~3.4 captures/individual will result in a < 10% CV for abundance estimates when populations are small (23-39), but fewer captures/individual may be sufficient for larger populations. We found scat sampling was more cost-effective for sampling multiple species, but suggest that hair sampling may be less expensive at study sites with limited road access for bears. Given the dependence of sampling scheme on species and study site, the optimal sampling scheme is likely to be study-specific warranting pilot studies in most circumstances. PMID:25693632

  8. Abundance and dispersal of Heteronychus arator (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in maize fields under different fertilizer treatments.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, M; Mwatawala, M W; Kudra, A B

    2016-01-01

    The invasive African black beetle Heteronychus arator F. is a serious pest of crops in Tropical and sub Tropical regions, including East Africa. Literature on ecology of this pest in Sub Saharan Africa is scarce. Dispersal and abundance of H. arator were determined in maize fields in Njombe Region, in the Southern highlands of Tanzania, from December 2013 to May 2014. Adults of H. arator were collected monthly by hand picking and pitfall traps. Results showed that larvae were present throughout the growing season, with low population at planting and peak period coinciding with optimum soil moisture. The abundance of adults varied with time, with high peaks recorded in January. Abundance of both larvae and adults were significantly affected by fertilizer type, with high populations in farmyard manure. The type of fertilizer significantly affected dispersal of H. arator. A high number of beetles moved significantly longer distances in farmyard and inorganic fertilizer compared to bioslurry a day after release. Abundance of of beetles was negatively correlated with rainfall but positively correlated with average temperature, while abundance of larvae was positively correlated with rainfall. The results provide useful input into management of H. arator under different fertilizer practices and weather conditions. PMID:27026875

  9. Urinary tract infection - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... to the hospital if you: Are an older adult Have kidney stones or changes in the anatomy ...

  10. Climate and local abundance in freshwater fishes

    PubMed Central

    Knouft, Jason H.; Anthony, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors regulating variation in numbers of individuals among populations across a species' distribution is a fundamental goal in ecology. A common prediction, often referred to as the abundant-centre hypothesis, suggests that abundance is highest near the centre of a species' range. However, because of the primary focus on the geographical position of a population, this framework provides little insight into the environmental factors regulating local abundance. While range-wide variation in population abundance associated with environmental conditions has been investigated in terrestrial species, the relationship between climate and local abundance in freshwater taxa across species' distributions is not well understood. We used GIS-based temperature and precipitation data to determine the relationships between climatic conditions and range-wide variation in local abundance for 19 species of North American freshwater fishes. Climate predicted a portion of the variation in local abundance among populations for 18 species. In addition, the relationship between climatic conditions and local abundance varied among species, which is expected as lineages partition the environment across geographical space. The influence of local habitat quality on species persistence is well documented; however, our results also indicate the importance of climate in regulating population sizes across a species geographical range, even in aquatic taxa. PMID:27429769

  11. Climate and local abundance in freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Knouft, Jason H; Anthony, Melissa M

    2016-06-01

    Identifying factors regulating variation in numbers of individuals among populations across a species' distribution is a fundamental goal in ecology. A common prediction, often referred to as the abundant-centre hypothesis, suggests that abundance is highest near the centre of a species' range. However, because of the primary focus on the geographical position of a population, this framework provides little insight into the environmental factors regulating local abundance. While range-wide variation in population abundance associated with environmental conditions has been investigated in terrestrial species, the relationship between climate and local abundance in freshwater taxa across species' distributions is not well understood. We used GIS-based temperature and precipitation data to determine the relationships between climatic conditions and range-wide variation in local abundance for 19 species of North American freshwater fishes. Climate predicted a portion of the variation in local abundance among populations for 18 species. In addition, the relationship between climatic conditions and local abundance varied among species, which is expected as lineages partition the environment across geographical space. The influence of local habitat quality on species persistence is well documented; however, our results also indicate the importance of climate in regulating population sizes across a species geographical range, even in aquatic taxa. PMID:27429769

  12. Population estimates and monitoring guidelines for endangered Laysan Teal, Anas Laysanensis, at Midway Atoll: Pilot study results 2008-2010.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Laniawe, Leona

    2011-01-01

    To improve the Laysan Teal population estimates, we recommend changes to the monitoring protocol. Additional years of data are needed to quantify inter-annual seasonal detection probabilities, which may allow the use of standardized direct counts as an unbiased index of population size. Survey protocols should be enhanced through frequent resights, regular survey intervals, and determining reliable standards to detect catastrophic declines and annual changes in adult abundance. In late 2009 to early 2010, 68% of the population was marked with unique color band combinations. This allowed for potentially accurate adult population estimates and survival estimates without the need to mark new birds in 2010, 2011, and possibly 2012. However, efforts should be made to replace worn or illegible bands so birds can be identified in future surveys. It would be valuable to develop more sophisticated population size and survival models using Program MARK, a state-of-the-art software package which uses likelihood models to analyze mark-recapture data. This would allow for more reliable adult population and survival estimates to compare with the ―source‖ Laysan Teal population on Laysan Island. These models will require additional years of resight data (> 1 year) and, in some cases, an intensive annual effort of marking and recapture. Because data indicate standardized all-wetland counts are a poor index of abundance, monitoring efforts could be improved by expanding resight surveys to include all wetlands, discontinuing the all-wetland counts, and reallocating some of the wetland count effort to collect additional opportunistic resights. Approximately two years of additional bimonthly surveys are needed to validate the direct count as an appropriate index of population abundance. Additional years of individual resight data will allow estimates of adult population size, as specified in recovery criteria, and to track species population dynamics at Midway Atoll.

  13. Monitoring materials

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques for effectively implementing alpha and/or beta and/or gamma monitoring of items or locations as desired. Indirect alpha monitoring by detecting ions generated by alpha emissions, in conjunction with beta and/or gamma monitoring is provided. The invention additionally provides for screening of items prior to alpha monitoring using beta and/or gamma monitoring, so as to ensure that the alpha monitoring apparatus is not contaminated by proceeding direct to alpha monitoring of a heavily contaminated item or location. The invention provides additional versatility in the emission forms which can be monitored, whilst maintaining accuracy and avoiding inadvertent contamination.

  14. Do top-down or bottom-up forces determine Stephanitis pyrioides abundance in urban landscapes?

    PubMed

    Shrewsbury, Paula M; Raupp, Michael J

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the influence of habitat structural complexity on the collective effects of top-down and bottom-up forces on herbivore abundance in urban landscapes. The persistence and varying complexity of urban landscapes set them apart from ephemeral agroecosystems and natural habitats where the majority of studies have been conducted. Using surveys and manipulative experiments. We explicitly tested the effect of natural enemies (enemies hypothesis), host plant quality, and herbivore movement on the abundance of the specialist insect herbivore, Stephanitis pyrioides, in landscapes of varying structural complexity. This herbivore was extremely abundant in simple landscapes and rare in complex ones. Natural enemies were the major force influencing abundance of S. pyrioides across habitat types. Generalist predators, particularly the spider Anyphaena celer, were more abundant in complex landscapes. Predator abundance was related to greater abundance of alternative prey in those landscapes. Stephanitis pyrioides survival was lower in complex habitats when exposed to endemic natural enemy populations. Laboratory feeding trials confirmed the more abundant predators consumed S. pyrioides. Host plant quality was not a strong force influencing patterns of S. pyrioides abundance. When predators were excluded, adult S. pyrioides survival was greater on azaleas grown in complex habitats, in opposition to the observed pattern of abundance. Similarly, complexity did not affect S. pyrioides immigration and emigration rates. The complexity of urban landscapes affects the strength of top-down forces on herbivorous insect populations by influencing alternative prey and generalist predator abundance. It is possible that habitats can be manipulated to promote the suppressive effects of generalist predators.

  15. Influence of Coronal Abundance Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D. (Technical Monitor); Kashyap, Vinay

    2005-01-01

    The PI of this project was Jeff Scargle of NASA/Ames. Co-I's were Alma Connors of Eureka Scientific/Wellesley, and myself. Part of the work was subcontracted to Eureka Scientific via SAO, with Vinay Kashyap as PI. This project was originally assigned grant number NCC2-1206, and was later changed to NCC2-1350 for administrative reasons. The goal of the project was to obtain, derive, and develop statistical and data analysis tools that would be of use in the analyses of high-resolution, high-sensitivity data that are becoming available with new instruments. This is envisioned as a cross-disciplinary effort with a number of "collaborators" including some at SA0 (Aneta Siemiginowska, Peter Freeman) and at the Harvard Statistics department (David van Dyk, Rostislav Protassov, Xiao-li Meng, Epaminondas Sourlas, et al). We have developed a new tool to reliably measure the metallicities of thermal plasma. It is unfeasible to obtain high-resolution grating spectra for most stars, and one must make the best possible determination based on lower-resolution, CCD-type spectra. It has been noticed that most analyses of such spectra have resulted in measured metallicities that were significantly lower than when compared with analyses of high- resolution grating data where available (see, e.g., Brickhouse et al., 2000, ApJ 530,387). Such results have led to the proposal of the existence of so-called Metal Abundance Deficient, or "MAD" stars (e.g., Drake, J.J., 1996, Cool Stars 9, ASP Conf.Ser. 109, 203). We however find that much of these analyses may be systematically underestimating the metallicities, and using a newly developed method to correctly treat the low-counts regime at the high-energy tail of the stellar spectra (van Dyk et al. 2001, ApJ 548,224), have found that the metallicities of these stars are generally comparable to their photospheric values. The results were reported at the AAS (Sourlas, Yu, van Dyk, Kashyap, and Drake, 2000, BAAS 196, v32, #54.02), and at the

  16. Monitoring the source monitoring.

    PubMed

    Luna, Karlos; Martín-Luengo, Beatriz

    2013-11-01

    The hypothesis that the retrieval of correct source memory cues, those leading to a correct source attribution, increases confidence, whereas the retrieval of incorrect source memory cues, those leading to a source misattribution, decreases confidence was tested. Four predictions were derived from this hypothesis: (1) confidence should be higher for correct than incorrect source attribution except; (2) when no source cues are retrieved; (3) only the source misattributions inferred from the retrieval of incorrect source cues will be rated with low confidence; and (4) the number of source cues retrieved, either correct or incorrect, will affect the confidence in the source attributions. To test these predictions, participants read two narratives from two witnesses to a bank robbery, a customer and a teller. Then, participants completed a source monitoring test with four alternatives, customer, teller, both, or neither, and rated their confidence in their source attribution. Results supported the first three predictions, but they also suggested that the number of correct source monitoring cues retrieved did not play a role in the monitoring of the accuracy of the source attributions. Attributions made from the recovery of incorrect source cues could be tagged as dubious or uncertain, thus leading to lowered confidence irrespective of the number of incorrect source cues or whether another correct source cue was also recovered. This research has potential applications for eyewitness memory because it shows that confidence can be an indicator of the accuracy of a source attribution. PMID:23553316

  17. On protein abundance distributions in complex mixtures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry, an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ionized atoms or molecules, dates back more than 100 years, and has both qualitative and quantitative uses for determining chemical and structural information. Quantitative proteomic mass spectrometry on biological samples focuses on identifying the proteins present in the samples, and establishing the relative abundances of those proteins. Such protein inventories create the opportunity to discover novel biomarkers and disease targets. We have previously introduced a normalized, label-free method for quantification of protein abundances under a shotgun proteomics platform (Griffin et al., 2010). The introduction of this method for quantifying and comparing protein levels leads naturally to the issue of modeling protein abundances in individual samples. We here report that protein abundance levels from two recent proteomics experiments conducted by the authors can be adequately represented by Sichel distributions. Mathematically, Sichel distributions are mixtures of Poisson distributions with a rather complex mixing distribution, and have been previously and successfully applied to linguistics and species abundance data. The Sichel model can provide a direct measure of the heterogeneity of protein abundances, and can reveal protein abundance differences that simpler models fail to show. PMID:23360617

  18. The abundance of sulfur dioxide below the clouds of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezard, Bruno; De Bergh, Catherine; Fegley, Bruce; Maillard, Jean-Pierre; Crisp, David; Owen, Tobias; Pollack, James B.; Grinspoon, David

    1993-01-01

    We present a new method for determining the abundance of sulfur dioxide below the clouds of Venus. Absorption by the 3nu3 band of SO2 near 2.45 microns has been detected in high-resolution spectra of the night side of Venus recorded at the Canada-France Hawaii telescope in 1989 and 1991. The inferred SO2 abundance is 130 +/- 40 ppm at all observed locations and pertains to the 35-45 km region. These values are comparable to those measured by the Pioneer Venus and Venera 11/12 entry probes in 1978. This stability stands in contrast to the apparent massive decrease in SO2 observed at the cloud tops since these space missions. These results are consistent with laboratory and modeling studies of the SO2 destruction rates in the lower atmosphere of Venus. The new spectroscopic technique presented here allows a remote monitoring of the SO2 abundance below the clouds, a likely tracer of Venusian volcanism.

  19. Oxygen abundance maps of CALIFA galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinchenko, I. A.; Pilyugin, L. S.; Grebel, E. K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Vílchez, J. M.

    2016-11-01

    We construct maps of the oxygen abundance distribution across the discs of 88 galaxies using Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey (CALIFA) Data Release 2 (DR2) spectra. The position of the centre of a galaxy (coordinates on the plate) was also taken from the CALIFA DR2. The galaxy inclination, the position angle of the major axis, and the optical radius were determined from the analysis of the surface brightnesses in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) g and r bands of the photometric maps of SDSS Data Release 9. We explore the global azimuthal abundance asymmetry in the discs of the CALIFA galaxies and the presence of a break in the radial oxygen abundance distribution. We found that there is no significant global azimuthal asymmetry for our sample of galaxies, i.e. the asymmetry is small, usually lower than 0.05 dex. The scatter in oxygen abundances around the abundance gradient has a comparable value, ≲0.05 dex. A significant (possibly dominant) fraction of the asymmetry can be attributed to the uncertainties in the geometrical parameters of these galaxies. There is evidence for a flattening of the radial abundance gradient in the central part of 18 galaxies. We also estimated the geometric parameters (coordinates of the centre, the galaxy inclination and the position angle of the major axis) of our galaxies from the analysis of the abundance map. The photometry-map-based and the abundance-map-based geometrical parameters are relatively close to each other for the majority of the galaxies but the discrepancy is large for a few galaxies with a flat radial abundance gradient.

  20. Predicting the Dynamics of Protein Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Ahmed M.; Patrick, Ralph; Bailey, Timothy L.; Bodén, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Protein synthesis is finely regulated across all organisms, from bacteria to humans, and its integrity underpins many important processes. Emerging evidence suggests that the dynamic range of protein abundance is greater than that observed at the transcript level. Technological breakthroughs now mean that sequencing-based measurement of mRNA levels is routine, but protocols for measuring protein abundance remain both complex and expensive. This paper introduces a Bayesian network that integrates transcriptomic and proteomic data to predict protein abundance and to model the effects of its determinants. We aim to use this model to follow a molecular response over time, from condition-specific data, in order to understand adaptation during processes such as the cell cycle. With microarray data now available for many conditions, the general utility of a protein abundance predictor is broad. Whereas most quantitative proteomics studies have focused on higher organisms, we developed a predictive model of protein abundance for both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe to explore the latitude at the protein level. Our predictor primarily relies on mRNA level, mRNA–protein interaction, mRNA folding energy and half-life, and tRNA adaptation. The combination of key features, allowing for the low certainty and uneven coverage of experimental observations, gives comparatively minor but robust prediction accuracy. The model substantially improved the analysis of protein regulation during the cell cycle: predicted protein abundance identified twice as many cell-cycle-associated proteins as experimental mRNA levels. Predicted protein abundance was more dynamic than observed mRNA expression, agreeing with experimental protein abundance from a human cell line. We illustrate how the same model can be used to predict the folding energy of mRNA when protein abundance is available, lending credence to the emerging view that mRNA folding affects translation

  1. Finding a Fox: An Evaluation of Survey Methods to Estimate Abundance of a Small Desert Carnivore

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, Steven J.; Gese, Eric M.; Kluever, Bryan M.

    2014-01-01

    The status of many carnivore species is a growing concern for wildlife agencies, conservation organizations, and the general public. Historically, kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) were classified as abundant and distributed in the desert and semi-arid regions of southwestern North America, but is now considered rare throughout its range. Survey methods have been evaluated for kit foxes, but often in populations where abundance is high and there is little consensus on which technique is best to monitor abundance. We conducted a 2-year study to evaluate four survey methods (scat deposition surveys, scent station surveys, spotlight survey, and trapping) for detecting kit foxes and measuring fox abundance. We determined the probability of detection for each method, and examined the correlation between the relative abundance as estimated by each survey method and the known minimum kit fox abundance as determined by radio-collared animals. All surveys were conducted on 15 5-km transects during the 3 biological seasons of the kit fox. Scat deposition surveys had both the highest detection probabilities (p = 0.88) and were most closely related to minimum known fox abundance (r2 = 0.50, P = 0.001). The next best method for kit fox detection was the scent station survey (p = 0.73), which had the second highest correlation to fox abundance (r2 = 0.46, P<0.001). For detecting kit foxes in a low density population we suggest using scat deposition transects during the breeding season. Scat deposition surveys have low costs, resilience to weather, low labor requirements, and pose no risk to the study animals. The breeding season was ideal for monitoring kit fox population size, as detections consisted of the resident population and had the highest detection probabilities. Using appropriate monitoring techniques will be critical for future conservation actions for this rare desert carnivore. PMID:25148102

  2. Red Supergiants as Cosmic Abundance Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, B.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Bergemann, M.; Evans, C.; Gazak, Z.; Lardo, C.; Patrick, L.; Plez, B.; Bastian, N.

    2015-09-01

    By studying a galaxy's present-day chemical abundances, we are effectively looking at its star-forming history. Cosmological simulations of galaxy evolution make predictions about the relative metal contents of galaxies as a function of their stellar mass, a trend known as the mass-metallicity relation. These predictions can be tested with observations of nearby galaxies. However, providing reliable, accurate abundance measurements at extragalactic distances is extremely challenging. In this project, we have developed a technique to extract abundance information from individual red supergiant stars at megaparsec distances. We are currently exploiting this technique using the unique capabilities of KMOS on the VLT.

  3. Interstellar Abundances Toward X Per, Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valencic, Lynne A.; Smith, Randall K.

    2012-01-01

    The nearby X-ray binary X Per (HD 24534) provides a useful beacon with which to measure elemental abundances in the local ISM. We examine absorption features of O, Mg, and Si along this line of sight using spectra from the Chandra Observatory's LETG/ACIS-S and XMM-Newton's RGS instruments. In general, we find that the abundances and their ratios are similar to those of young F and G stars and the most recent solar values. We compare our results with abundances required by dust grain models.

  4. Interstellar Abundances Toward X Per, Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valencic, Lynne A.; Smith, Randall K.

    2014-01-01

    The nearby X-ray binary X Per (HD 24534) provides a useful beacon with which to measure elemental abundances in the local ISM. We examine absorption features of 0, Mg, and Si along this line of sight using spectra from the Chandra Observatory's LETG/ ACIS-S and XMM-Newton's RGS instruments. In general, we find that the abundances and their ratios are similar to those of young F and G stars and the most recent solar values. We compare our results with abundances required by dust grain models.

  5. Rapid detection of microbial cell abundance in aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Andrea M; Yuan, Quan; Close, Dan M; O'Dell, Kaela B; Fortney, Julian L; Wu, Jayne; Hazen, Terry C

    2016-11-15

    The detection and quantification of naturally occurring microbial cellular densities is an essential component of environmental systems monitoring. While there are a number of commonly utilized approaches for monitoring microbial abundance, capacitance-based biosensors represent a promising approach because of their low-cost and label-free detection of microbial cells, but are not as well characterized as more traditional methods. Here, we investigate the applicability of enhanced alternating current electrokinetics (ACEK) capacitive sensing as a new application for rapidly detecting and quantifying microbial cellular densities in cultured and environmentally sourced aquatic samples. ACEK capacitive sensor performance was evaluated using two distinct and dynamic systems - the Great Australian Bight and groundwater from the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, TN. Results demonstrate that ACEK capacitance-based sensing can accurately determine microbial cell counts throughout cellular concentrations typically encountered in naturally occurring microbial communities (10(3)-10(6) cells/mL). A linear relationship was observed between cellular density and capacitance change correlations, allowing a simple linear curve fitting equation to be used for determining microbial abundances in unknown samples. This work provides a foundation for understanding the limits of capacitance-based sensing in natural environmental samples and supports future efforts focusing on evaluating the robustness ACEK capacitance-based within aquatic environments. PMID:27315516

  6. Distribution and Abundance of the Mariana Common Moorhen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takano, L.L.; Haig, Susan M.

    2004-01-01

    Island-wide surveys for the endangered Mariana subspecies of the Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus guami) were conducted on Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands from May through September 2001. Based on these counts, the total adult moorhen population is estimated to be 287, with 154, 41, 2, and 90 adult moorhens on Saipan, Tinian, Rota, and Guam, respectively. Results suggest an overall increase in birds on Saipan and Tinian, although moorhen numbers on Guam may be declining. High counts of moorhens on Lake Hagoi, Tinian, during the wet season suggested movement from Saipan to Tinian occurs at the onset of the wet season each year. Conservation efforts need to consider Saipan and Tinian moorhens as a single demographic unit. Further, monitoring of moorhens, invasive vegetation management, and predator and ungulate control on wetlands are critical for this small population.

  7. Identification of Empoasca onukii (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and Monitoring of its Populations in the Tea Plantations of South China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Long-Qing; Zeng, Zhao-Hua; Huang, Huo-Shui; Zhou, Yong-Mei; Vasseur, Liette; You, Min-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    Tea green leafhoppers (Empoasca spp.) are considered one of the major pests in tea plantations in Asia. They are, however, difficult to monitor due to their size and flying and jumping abilities. In this study, we clarified the identification of the leafhopper species encountered in our study plantations and examined the impacts of sampling methods in estimating population abundance and sex ratio. The natural sex ratio of eggs, nymphs, and adults of tea green leafhopper and the differences between male and female were tested. Despite previous reports that Empoasca vitis (Goethe) was the major leafhopper present in our study area, our results showed that only Empoasca onukii Matsuda was found. Variation in population size over time and bias in sex ratio depending on the sampling methods were found in our monitoring experiments. In general, adult males were more attracted to yellow sticky cards than females. We believe that because female leafhoppers should be the target in pest control, yellow sticky cards may not be the most suitable monitoring or effective control of tea green leafhopper. We demonstrate the importance of understanding the implications of sampling techniques for population estimation and sex ratio bias as well as how temporal variation may affect monitoring results. Precise monitoring should take into consideration the different life histories of male and female.

  8. Bull Trout Distribution and Abundance in the Waters on and Bordering the Warm Springs Indian Reservation, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, Christopher V.

    2002-01-01

    The range of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Deschutes River basin has decreased from historic levels due to many factors including dam construction, habitat degradation, brook trout introduction and eradication efforts. While the bull trout population appears to be stable in the Metolius River-Lake Billy Chinook system they have been largely extirpated from the upper Deschutes River (Buchanan et al. 1997). Little was known about bull trout in the lower Deschutes basin until BPA funded project No.9405400 began during 1998. In this progress report we describe the findings from the fourth year (2001) of the multi-year study aimed at determining the life history, habitat needs and limiting factors of bull trout in the lower Deschutes subbasin. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) relative abundance was assessed in the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek by night snorkeling. In the Warm Springs R. juvenile bull trout were slightly more numerous than brook trout, however, both were found in low densities. Relative densities of both species were the lowest observed since surveys began in 1999. Relative densities of juvenile bull trout and brook trout increased in Shitike Cr. Juvenile bull trout vastly out numbered brook trout in Shitike Cr. The utility of using index reaches to monitor trends in juvenile bull trout and brook trout relative abundance was assessed in the Warm Springs R. for the third year. Mean relative densities of juvenile bull trout within the index reaches was slightly higher than what was observed in the 2.4 km control reach. However, the mean relative density of brook trout in the 2.4 km control reach was slightly higher than what was observed in within the index reaches. Habitat use by both juvenile bull trout and brook trout was determined in the Warm Springs R. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout occupied pools more frequently than glides, riffles and rapids. However, pools accounted for only a small percentage

  9. Abundance, diversity, and feeding behavior of coral reef butterflyfishes at Lord Howe Island.

    PubMed

    Pratchett, Morgan S; Hoey, Andrew S; Cvitanovic, Christopher; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Fulton, Christopher J

    2014-09-01

    Endemic species are assumed to have a high risk of extinction because their restricted geographic range is often associated with low abundance and high ecological specialization. This study examines the abundance of Chaetodon butterflyfishes at Lord Howe Island in the south-west Pacific, and compares interspecific differences in local abundance to the feeding behavior and geographic range of these species. Contrary to expected correlations between abundance and geographic range, the single most abundant species of butterflyfish was Chaetodon tricinctus, which is endemic to Lord Howe Island and adjacent reefs; densities of C. tricinctus (14.1 ± 2.1 SE fish per 200m(2)) were >3 times higher than the next most abundant butterflyfish (Chaetodon melannotus), and even more abundant than many other geographically widespread species. Dietary breadth for the five dominant butterflyfishes at Lord Howe Island was weakly and generally negative correlated with abundance. The endemic C. tricinctus was a distinct outlier in this relationship, though our extensive feeding observations suggest some issues with the measurements of dietary breadth for this species. Field observations revealed that all bites taken on benthic substrates by C. tricinctus were from scleractinian corals, but adults rarely, if ever, took bites from the benthos, suggesting that they may be feeding nocturnally and/or using mid-water prey, such as plankton. Alternatively, the energetic demands of C. tricinctus may be fundamentally different to other coral-feeding butterflyfishes. Neither dietary specialization nor geographic range accounts for interspecific variation in abundance of coral reef butterflyfishes at Lord Howe Island, while much more work on the foraging behavior and population dynamics of C. tricinctus will be required to understand its' abundance at this location.

  10. Abundance, diversity, and feeding behavior of coral reef butterflyfishes at Lord Howe Island

    PubMed Central

    Pratchett, Morgan S; Hoey, Andrew S; Cvitanovic, Christopher; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Fulton, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Endemic species are assumed to have a high risk of extinction because their restricted geographic range is often associated with low abundance and high ecological specialization. This study examines the abundance of Chaetodon butterflyfishes at Lord Howe Island in the south-west Pacific, and compares interspecific differences in local abundance to the feeding behavior and geographic range of these species. Contrary to expected correlations between abundance and geographic range, the single most abundant species of butterflyfish was Chaetodon tricinctus, which is endemic to Lord Howe Island and adjacent reefs; densities of C. tricinctus (14.1 ± 2.1 SE fish per 200m2) were >3 times higher than the next most abundant butterflyfish (Chaetodon melannotus), and even more abundant than many other geographically widespread species. Dietary breadth for the five dominant butterflyfishes at Lord Howe Island was weakly and generally negative correlated with abundance. The endemic C. tricinctus was a distinct outlier in this relationship, though our extensive feeding observations suggest some issues with the measurements of dietary breadth for this species. Field observations revealed that all bites taken on benthic substrates by C. tricinctus were from scleractinian corals, but adults rarely, if ever, took bites from the benthos, suggesting that they may be feeding nocturnally and/or using mid-water prey, such as plankton. Alternatively, the energetic demands of C. tricinctus may be fundamentally different to other coral-feeding butterflyfishes. Neither dietary specialization nor geographic range accounts for interspecific variation in abundance of coral reef butterflyfishes at Lord Howe Island, while much more work on the foraging behavior and population dynamics of C. tricinctus will be required to understand its’ abundance at this location. PMID:25478152

  11. Coronal abundances determined from energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, D. V.

    1995-01-01

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) provide a measurement of coronal element abundances that is highly independent of the ionization states and temperature of the ions in the source plasma. The most complete measurements come from large 'gradual' events where ambient coronal plasma is swept up by the expanding shock wave from a coronal mass ejection. Particles from 'impulsive' flares have a pattern of acceleration-induced enhancements superimposed on the coronal abundances. Particles accelerated from high-speed solar wind streams at corotating shocks show a different abundance pattern corresponding to material from coronal holes. Large variations in He/O in coronal material are seen for both gradual and impulsive-flare events but other abundance ratios, such as Mg/Ne, are remarkably constant. SEP measurements now include hundreds of events spanning 15 years of high-quality measurement.

  12. Chemical abundances in Hg-Mn stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heacox, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    An abundance analysis has been conducted of 21 elements in 21 Hg-Mn, two Si-Cr, and six normal stars using model atmospheres and high-dispersion spectroscopy in the visible and UV. Manganese line strengths imply abundances that correlate well with stellar effective temperature. Within the studied sample of Hg-Mn stars there appears to be no correlation of abundances of any element with projected rotational velocity. Abundances in several Hg-Mn stars show patterns that are probably consistent with diffusion but difficult to reconcile with equilibrium nucleosynthesis. In general, no combination of gross stellar physical parameters is sufficient to characterize the patterns of line strengths observed in Hg-Mb Hg-Mn stars.

  13. Incorporating availability for detection in estimates of bird abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, D.R.; Marshall, M.R.; Mattice, J.A.; Brauning, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    Several bird-survey methods have been proposed that provide an estimated detection probability so that bird-count statistics can be used to estimate bird abundance. However, some of these estimators adjust counts of birds observed by the probability that a bird is detected and assume that all birds are available to be detected at the time of the survey. We marked male Henslow's Sparrows (Ammodramus henslowii) and Grasshopper Sparrows (A. savannarum) and monitored their behavior during May-July 2002 and 2003 to estimate the proportion of time they were available for detection. We found that the availability of Henslow's Sparrows declined in late June to <10% for 5- or 10-min point counts when a male had to sing and be visible to the observer; but during 20 May-19 June, males were available for detection 39.1% (SD = 27.3) of the time for 5-min point counts and 43.9% (SD = 28.9) of the time for 10-min point counts (n = 54). We detected no temporal changes in availability for Grasshopper Sparrows, but estimated availability to be much lower for 5-min point counts (10.3%, SD = 12.2) than for 10-min point counts (19.2%, SD = 22.3) when males had to be visible and sing during the sampling period (n = 80). For distance sampling, we estimated the availability of Henslow's Sparrows to be 44.2% (SD = 29.0) and the availability of Grasshopper Sparrows to be 20.6% (SD = 23.5). We show how our estimates of availability can be incorporated in the abundance and variance estimators for distance sampling and modify the abundance and variance estimators for the double-observer method. Methods that directly estimate availability from bird counts but also incorporate detection probabilities need further development and will be important for obtaining unbiased estimates of abundance for these species. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  14. The abundant elements in interstellar dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofia, Ulysses J.; Cardelli, Jason A.; Savage, Blair D.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the incorporation of the cosmically abundant species O, C, N, Mg, Si, Fe, and S into interstellar dust. Column densities based on Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph 3.5 km/s resolution measurements from the literature for eight individual absorbing regions toward five lines of sight are used. Corrections are applied as needed in order to account for recent improvements in oscillator strengths. In order to acquire the most accurate column densities, and check on the accuracy of the oscillator strengths, we compare column densities based on the very strong Lorentzian damped lines of C II, O I, N I, and Mg II with results for the weak lines of these species, and confirm the previously determined f-values for O I lambda 1335, C II lambda 2325, and N I lambda lambda 1159, 1160. New empirical f-values of 1.25 x 10(exp -3) and 6.25 x 10(exp -4), respectively, are derived for the Mg II weak doublet at 1239 and 1240 A. Assuming a cosmic reference abundance based on solar and B star values, we derive depletions and dust-phase abundances which suggest that more than 70% of the available Mg and Fe is incorporated into dust-grain cores, whereas only 35% of the silicon is. This implies that oxides are important constituents of the grain core population. Mg and Fe atoms are mantled onto grain cores in a ratio of 1.8 to 1, whereas approximately 4.0 Si atoms are in the mantle per Fe atom. Since Si is not expected to accrete onto silicate or graphite grains, other grain cores, perhaps oxides and/or metallic Fe, may provide mantling sites for this species. The abundances of Fe and Mg in mantles would imply that graphite grains must have a substantial coating unless oxides provide significant mantling sites for these species. The abundance of O and N in the dust phase as implied by the solar reference abundance values are difficult to reconcile with the fact that these elements are not expected to participate in mantle formation, and the 3.1 micrometer H2O ice feature is

  15. Species Abundance Patterns in Complex Evolutionary Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokita, Kei

    2004-10-01

    An analytic theory of species abundance patterns (SAPs) in biological networks is presented. The theory is based on multispecies replicator dynamics equivalent to the Lotka-Volterra equation, with diverse interspecies interactions. Various SAPs observed in nature are derived from a single parameter. The abundance distribution is formed like a widely observed left-skewed lognormal distribution. As the model has a general form, the result can be applied to similar patterns in other complex biological networks, e.g., gene expression.

  16. Elemental abundance determinations for meteors by spectroscopy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, G. A.

    1973-01-01

    Relative elemental abundance determinations for meteors by spectroscopy are discussed. Relative abundances of spectroscopically accessible elements of four major shower meteors and one sporadic meteor are presented. A sporadic meteor with dominant sodium radiation and an iron-deficient sporadic meteor are analyzed. Empirical and theoretical tests for self-absorption in optical meteor plasmas have been conducted. Both ionization and incomplete dissociation are found to severely deplete certain neutral atoms from meteor plasmas.

  17. Coronae of Stars with Supersolar Elemental Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peretz, Uria; Behar, Ehud; Drake, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Coronal elemental abundances are known to deviate from the photospheric values of their parent star, with the degree of deviation depending on the first ionization potential (FIP). This study focuses on the coronal composition of stars with supersolar photospheric abundances. We present the coronal abundances of six such stars: 11 LMi, iota Hor, HR 7291, tau Boo, and alpha Cen A and B. These stars all have high-statistics X-ray spectra, three of which are presented for the first time. The abundances we measured were obtained using the line-resolved spectra of the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) in conjunction with the higher throughput EPIC-pn camera spectra onboard the XMM-Newton observatory. A collisionally ionized plasma model with two or three temperature components is found to represent the spectra well. All elements are found to be consistently depleted in the coronae compared to their respective photospheres. For 11 LMi and tau Boo no FIP effect is present, while iota Hor, HR 7291, and alpha Cen A and B show a clear FIP trend. These conclusions hold whether the comparison is made with solar abundances or the individual stellar abundances. Unlike the solar corona, where low-FIP elements are enriched, in these stars the FIP effect is consistently due to a depletion of high-FIP elements with respect to actual photospheric abundances. A comparison with solar (instead of stellar) abundances yields the same fractionation trend as on the Sun. In both cases, a similar FIP bias is inferred, but different fractionation mechanisms need to be invoked.

  18. Composition and abundance of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in corn.

    PubMed

    Tillman, P Glynn

    2010-12-01

    The species composition and abundance of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in corn, Zea mays L., was determined in this on-farm study in Georgia. Seven species of phytophagous stink bugs were found on corn with the predominant species being Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus servus (Say). All developmental stages of these two pests were found, indicating they were developing on the corn crop. The remaining five species, Oebalus pugnax pugnax (F.), Euschistus quadrator (Rolston), Euschistus tristigmus (Say), Euschistus ictericus (L.), and Acrosternum hilare (Say), were found in relatively low numbers. Adult N. viridula were parasitized by the tachinid parasitoid Trichopoda pennipes (F.). There was a pronounced edge effect in distribution of stink bugs in corn. Population dynamics of N. viridula and E. servus were different on early and late-planted corn. Oviposition by females of both stink bug species occurred in mid-to-late-May and again mid-to-late-June in corn, regardless of planting date. In early planted fields, if stink bug females oviposited on corn in mid-July, the resulting nymphs did not survive to the adult stage in corn because ears were close to physiological maturity and leaves were senescing. Density of stink bug adults in early planted corn was relatively low throughout the growing season. In late-planted corn, females of both stink bug species consistently laid eggs in mid-to-late-July on corn with developing ears. This habitat favored continued nymph development, and the resulting adult population reached high levels. These results indicate that corn management practices play a key role in the ecology of stink bugs in corn agroecosystems and provide information for designing management strategies to suppress stink bugs in farmscapes with corn.

  19. Report on carbon and nitrogen abundance studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the proposal was to determine the nitrogen to carbon abundance ratios from transition layer lines in stars with different T(sub eff) and luminosities. The equations which give the surface emission line fluxes and the measured ratio of the NV to CIV emission line fluxes are presented and explained. The abundance results are compared with those of photospheric abundance studies for stars in common with the photospheric investigations. The results show that the analyses are at least as accurate as the photospheric determinations. These studies can be extended to F and early G stars for which photospheric abundance determinations for giants are hard to do because molecular bands become too weak. The abundance determination in the context of stellar evolution is addressed. The N/C abundance ratio increases steeply at the point of evolution for which the convection zone reaches deepest. Looking at the evolution of the rotation velocities v sin i, a steep decrease in v sin i is related to the increasing depth of the convection zone. It is concluded that the decrease in v sin i for T(sub eff) less than or approximately = 5800 K is most probably due to the rearrangement of the angular momentum in the stars due to deep convective mixing. It appears that the convection zone is rotating with nearly depth independent angular momentum. Other research results and ongoing projects are discussed.

  20. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  1. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  2. Zinc Abundances in Galactic Bulge Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, C. R.; Barbuy, B.

    2014-10-01

    Zinc is overabundant in metal-poor stars (Cayrel et al. 2004), being partially produced by neutron addition. It decreases with increasing metallicity, similarly to alpha-elements. In order to trace its abundance, the derivation of Zn abundance in different stellar populations, and varying metallicities, helps understanding its nucleosynthesis processes. Zn is also the main element of reference to derive the metallicity from absorption lines in quasars (QSOs), which allows to compare their evolution as a function of redshift and metallicity in metal-poor stars. In the present work, we derive Zn abundances for a sample of 56 bulge field stars, observed at high resolution with the FLAMES-UVES spectrograph. The mean wavelength coverage is 4800-6800 Å, at a resolution R ˜ 45000. The atmospheric parameters effective temperature, gravity and metallicity were derived in Zoccali et al. (2008) and Hill et al. (2011). Recently we have analysed the manganese abundances of this sample (Barbuy et al. 2013). To compute the Zn abundances we use spectrum synthesis, for the lines ZnI 4810.53 and 6362.34 Å. The analysis of our data shows that the abundance of [Zn/Fe] decreases with increasing metallicity, in agreement with the data obtained from the literature. The details of Zn behaviour for the metal-rich bulge stars of the present work are under analysis.

  3. The influence of weather and lemmings on spatiotemporal variation in the abundance of multiple avian guilds in the arctic.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Barry G; Franke, Alastair; Derocher, Andrew E

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is occurring more rapidly in the Arctic than other places in the world, which is likely to alter the distribution and abundance of migratory birds breeding there. A warming climate can provide benefits to birds by decreasing spring snow cover, but increases in the frequency of summer rainstorms, another product of climate change, may reduce foraging opportunities for insectivorous birds. Cyclic lemming populations in the Arctic also influence bird abundance because Arctic foxes begin consuming bird eggs when lemmings decline. The complex interaction between summer temperature, precipitation, and the lemming cycle hinder our ability to predict how Arctic-breeding birds will respond to climate change. The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between annual variation in weather, spring snow cover, lemming abundance and spatiotemporal variation in the abundance of multiple avian guilds in a tundra ecosystem in central Nunavut, Canada: songbirds, shorebirds, gulls, loons, and geese. We spatially stratified our study area based on vegetation productivity, terrain ruggedness, and freshwater abundance, and conducted distance sampling to estimate strata-specific densities of each guild during the summers of 2010-2012. We also monitored temperature, rainfall, spring snow cover, and lemming abundance each year. Spatial variation in bird abundance matched what was expected based on previous ecological knowledge, but weather and lemming abundance also significantly influenced the abundance of some guilds. In particular, songbirds were less abundant during the cool, wet summer with moderate snow cover, and shorebirds and gulls declined with lemming abundance. The abundance of geese did not vary over time, possibly because benefits created by moderate spring snow cover were offset by increased fox predation when lemmings were scarce. Our study provides an example of a simple way to monitor the correlation between weather, spring snow

  4. The Influence of Weather and Lemmings on Spatiotemporal Variation in the Abundance of Multiple Avian Guilds in the Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Barry G.; Franke, Alastair; Derocher, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is occurring more rapidly in the Arctic than other places in the world, which is likely to alter the distribution and abundance of migratory birds breeding there. A warming climate can provide benefits to birds by decreasing spring snow cover, but increases in the frequency of summer rainstorms, another product of climate change, may reduce foraging opportunities for insectivorous birds. Cyclic lemming populations in the Arctic also influence bird abundance because Arctic foxes begin consuming bird eggs when lemmings decline. The complex interaction between summer temperature, precipitation, and the lemming cycle hinder our ability to predict how Arctic-breeding birds will respond to climate change. The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between annual variation in weather, spring snow cover, lemming abundance and spatiotemporal variation in the abundance of multiple avian guilds in a tundra ecosystem in central Nunavut, Canada: songbirds, shorebirds, gulls, loons, and geese. We spatially stratified our study area based on vegetation productivity, terrain ruggedness, and freshwater abundance, and conducted distance sampling to estimate strata-specific densities of each guild during the summers of 2010–2012. We also monitored temperature, rainfall, spring snow cover, and lemming abundance each year. Spatial variation in bird abundance matched what was expected based on previous ecological knowledge, but weather and lemming abundance also significantly influenced the abundance of some guilds. In particular, songbirds were less abundant during the cool, wet summer with moderate snow cover, and shorebirds and gulls declined with lemming abundance. The abundance of geese did not vary over time, possibly because benefits created by moderate spring snow cover were offset by increased fox predation when lemmings were scarce. Our study provides an example of a simple way to monitor the correlation between weather, spring snow

  5. The influence of weather and lemmings on spatiotemporal variation in the abundance of multiple avian guilds in the arctic.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Barry G; Franke, Alastair; Derocher, Andrew E

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is occurring more rapidly in the Arctic than other places in the world, which is likely to alter the distribution and abundance of migratory birds breeding there. A warming climate can provide benefits to birds by decreasing spring snow cover, but increases in the frequency of summer rainstorms, another product of climate change, may reduce foraging opportunities for insectivorous birds. Cyclic lemming populations in the Arctic also influence bird abundance because Arctic foxes begin consuming bird eggs when lemmings decline. The complex interaction between summer temperature, precipitation, and the lemming cycle hinder our ability to predict how Arctic-breeding birds will respond to climate change. The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between annual variation in weather, spring snow cover, lemming abundance and spatiotemporal variation in the abundance of multiple avian guilds in a tundra ecosystem in central Nunavut, Canada: songbirds, shorebirds, gulls, loons, and geese. We spatially stratified our study area based on vegetation productivity, terrain ruggedness, and freshwater abundance, and conducted distance sampling to estimate strata-specific densities of each guild during the summers of 2010-2012. We also monitored temperature, rainfall, spring snow cover, and lemming abundance each year. Spatial variation in bird abundance matched what was expected based on previous ecological knowledge, but weather and lemming abundance also significantly influenced the abundance of some guilds. In particular, songbirds were less abundant during the cool, wet summer with moderate snow cover, and shorebirds and gulls declined with lemming abundance. The abundance of geese did not vary over time, possibly because benefits created by moderate spring snow cover were offset by increased fox predation when lemmings were scarce. Our study provides an example of a simple way to monitor the correlation between weather, spring snow

  6. Adult intussusception.

    PubMed Central

    Azar, T; Berger, D L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to review adult intussusception, its diagnosis, and its treatment. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Adult intussusception represents 1% of all bowel obstructions, 5% of all intussusceptions, and 0.003%-0.02% of all hospital admissions. Intussusception is a different entity in adults than it is in children. METHODS: The records of all patients 18 years and older with the postoperative diagnosis of intussusception at the Massachusetts General Hospital during the years 1964 through 1993 were reviewed retrospectively. The 58 patients were divided into those with benign enteric, malignant enteric, benign colonic, and malignant colonic lesions associated with their intussusception. The diagnosis and treatment of each were reviewed. RESULTS: In 30 years at the Massachusetts General Hospital, there are 58 cases of surgically proven adult intussusception. The patients' mean age was 54.4 years. Most patients presented with symptoms consistent with bowel obstruction. There were 44 enteric and 14 colonic intussusceptions. Ninety-three percent of the intussusceptions were associated with a pathologic lesion. Forty-eight percent of the enteric lesions were malignant and 52% were benign. Forty-three percent of the colonic lesions were malignant and 57% were benign. CONCLUSIONS: Intussusception occurs rarely in adults. It presents with a variety of acute, intermittent, and chronic symptoms, thus making its preoperative diagnosis difficult. Computed tomography scanning proved to be the most useful diagnostic radiologic method. The diagnosis and treatment of adult intussusception are surgical. Surgical resection of the intussusception without reduction is the preferred treatment in adults, as almost half of both colonic and enteric intussusceptions are associated with malignancy. PMID:9296505

  7. Identifying Differentially Abundant Metabolic Pathways in Metagenomic Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Pop, Mihai

    Enabled by rapid advances in sequencing technology, metagenomic studies aim to characterize entire communities of microbes bypassing the need for culturing individual bacterial members. One major goal of such studies is to identify specific functional adaptations of microbial communities to their habitats. Here we describe a powerful analytical method (MetaPath) that can identify differentially abundant pathways in metagenomic data-sets, relying on a combination of metagenomic sequence data and prior metabolic pathway knowledge. We show that MetaPath outperforms other common approaches when evaluated on simulated datasets. We also demonstrate the power of our methods in analyzing two, publicly available, metagenomic datasets: a comparison of the gut microbiome of obese and lean twins; and a comparison of the gut microbiome of infant and adult subjects. We demonstrate that the subpathways identified by our method provide valuable insights into the biological activities of the microbiome.

  8. Species Composition and Abundance of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Minnesota Field Corn.

    PubMed

    Koch, Robert L; Pahs, Tiffany

    2015-04-01

    In response to concerns of increasing significance of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in northern states, a survey was conducted over 2 yr in Minnesota to characterize the Pentatomidae associated with field corn, Zea mays L. Halyomorpha halys (Stål), an exotic species, was not detected in this survey, despite continued detection of this species as an invader of human-made structures in Minnesota. Five species of Pentatomidae (four herbivorous; one predatory) were collected from corn. Across years, Euschistus variolarius (Palisot de Beauvois) and Euschistus servus euschistoides (Vollenhoven) had the greatest relative abundances and frequencies of detection. In 2012, the abundance of herbivorous species exceeded 25 nymphs and adults per 100 plants (i.e., an economic threshold) in 0.48% of fields. However, the abundance of herbivorous species did not reach economic levels in any fields sampled in 2013. The frequency of detection of herbivorous species and ratio of nymphs to adults was highest during reproductive growth stages of corn. The predator species, Podisus maculiventris (Say), was detected in 0 to 0.32% of fields. These results provide baseline information on the species composition and abundance of Pentatomidae in Minnesota field corn, which will be necessary for documentation of changes to this fauna as a result of the invasion of H. halys and to determine if some native species continue to increase in abundance in field crops.

  9. Species Composition and Abundance of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Minnesota Field Corn.

    PubMed

    Koch, Robert L; Pahs, Tiffany

    2015-04-01

    In response to concerns of increasing significance of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in northern states, a survey was conducted over 2 yr in Minnesota to characterize the Pentatomidae associated with field corn, Zea mays L. Halyomorpha halys (Stål), an exotic species, was not detected in this survey, despite continued detection of this species as an invader of human-made structures in Minnesota. Five species of Pentatomidae (four herbivorous; one predatory) were collected from corn. Across years, Euschistus variolarius (Palisot de Beauvois) and Euschistus servus euschistoides (Vollenhoven) had the greatest relative abundances and frequencies of detection. In 2012, the abundance of herbivorous species exceeded 25 nymphs and adults per 100 plants (i.e., an economic threshold) in 0.48% of fields. However, the abundance of herbivorous species did not reach economic levels in any fields sampled in 2013. The frequency of detection of herbivorous species and ratio of nymphs to adults was highest during reproductive growth stages of corn. The predator species, Podisus maculiventris (Say), was detected in 0 to 0.32% of fields. These results provide baseline information on the species composition and abundance of Pentatomidae in Minnesota field corn, which will be necessary for documentation of changes to this fauna as a result of the invasion of H. halys and to determine if some native species continue to increase in abundance in field crops. PMID:26313176

  10. SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHILADELPHIA, PA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic molecular markers were measured in airborne particulate matter (PM10) from the City of Philadelphia North Broad Street air quality monitoring site to identify the seasonal abundances of key tracer compounds together with their dominant sources. Daily PM10...

  11. Clonal growth and plant species abundance

    PubMed Central

    Herben, Tomáš; Nováková, Zuzana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Both regional and local plant abundances are driven by species' dispersal capacities and their abilities to exploit new habitats and persist there. These processes are affected by clonal growth, which is difficult to evaluate and compare across large numbers of species. This study assessed the influence of clonal reproduction on local and regional abundances of a large set of species and compared the predictive power of morphologically defined traits of clonal growth with data on actual clonal growth from a botanical garden. The role of clonal growth was compared with the effects of seed reproduction, habitat requirements and growth, proxied both by LHS (leaf–height–seed) traits and by actual performance in the botanical garden. Methods Morphological parameters of clonal growth, actual clonal reproduction in the garden and LHS traits (leaf-specific area – height – seed mass) were used as predictors of species abundance, both regional (number of species records in the Czech Republic) and local (mean species cover in vegetation records) for 836 perennial herbaceous species. Species differences in habitat requirements were accounted for by classifying the dataset by habitat type and also by using Ellenberg indicator values as covariates. Key Results After habitat differences were accounted for, clonal growth parameters explained an important part of variation in species abundance, both at regional and at local levels. At both levels, both greater vegetative growth in cultivation and greater lateral expansion trait values were correlated with higher abundance. Seed reproduction had weaker effects, being positive at the regional level and negative at the local level. Conclusions Morphologically defined traits are predictive of species abundance, and it is concluded that simultaneous investigation of several such traits can help develop hypotheses on specific processes (e.g. avoidance of self-competition, support of offspring) potentially

  12. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis inversely correlates with microglia in conditions of voluntary running and aging

    PubMed Central

    Gebara, Elias; Sultan, Sebastien; Kocher-Braissant, Jacqueline; Toni, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis results in the formation of new neurons and is a process of brain plasticity involved in learning and memory. The proliferation of adult neural stem or progenitor cells is regulated by several extrinsic factors such as experience, disease or aging and intrinsic factors originating from the neurogenic niche. Microglia is very abundant in the dentate gyrus (DG) and increasing evidence indicates that these cells mediate the inflammation-induced reduction in neurogenesis. However, the role of microglia in neurogenesis in physiological conditions remains poorly understood. In this study, we monitored microglia and the proliferation of adult hippocampal stem/progenitor cells in physiological conditions known to increase or decrease adult neurogenesis, voluntary running and aging respectively. We found that the number of microglia in the DG was strongly inversely correlated with the number of stem/progenitor cells and cell proliferation in the granule cell layer. Accordingly, co-cultures of decreasing neural progenitor/glia ratio showed that microglia but not astroglia reduced the number of progenitor cells. Together, these results suggest that microglia inhibits the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells despite the absence of inflammatory stimulus. PMID:23970848

  13. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis inversely correlates with microglia in conditions of voluntary running and aging.

    PubMed

    Gebara, Elias; Sultan, Sebastien; Kocher-Braissant, Jacqueline; Toni, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis results in the formation of new neurons and is a process of brain plasticity involved in learning and memory. The proliferation of adult neural stem or progenitor cells is regulated by several extrinsic factors such as experience, disease or aging and intrinsic factors originating from the neurogenic niche. Microglia is very abundant in the dentate gyrus (DG) and increasing evidence indicates that these cells mediate the inflammation-induced reduction in neurogenesis. However, the role of microglia in neurogenesis in physiological conditions remains poorly understood. In this study, we monitored microglia and the proliferation of adult hippocampal stem/progenitor cells in physiological conditions known to increase or decrease adult neurogenesis, voluntary running and aging respectively. We found that the number of microglia in the DG was strongly inversely correlated with the number of stem/progenitor cells and cell proliferation in the granule cell layer. Accordingly, co-cultures of decreasing neural progenitor/glia ratio showed that microglia but not astroglia reduced the number of progenitor cells. Together, these results suggest that microglia inhibits the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells despite the absence of inflammatory stimulus.

  14. Monitoring pesticides in wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dustman, E.H.; Martin, W.E.; Heath, R.G.; Reichel, W.L.

    1971-01-01

    Early in the development of the wildlife monitoring program, certain criteria were recognized as being important in the selection of species of wild animals suitable for pesticide monitoring purposes. Ideally, the forms selected should be geographically well distributed, and they should be reasonably abundant and readily available for sampling. In addition, animals occurring near the top of food chains have the capacity to reflect residues in organisms occurring at lower levels in the same food chains. Based on these criteria, species chosen for monitoring include the starling (Sturnus vulgaris), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and black ducks (Anas rubripes), and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The black duck is substituted for the mallard in States where suitable numbers of mallards cannot be obtained. The Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife is held responsible for the execution of the wildlife portion of the National Pesticide Monitoring Program. The primary objective is to ascertain on a nationwide basis and independent of specific treatments the levels and trends of certain pesticidal chemicals and other pollutants in the bodies of selected forms of wildlife. The program was first described by Johnson et al. (4) in 1967. The purpose of this report is to update and redescribe the wildlife monitoring program and briefly review accomplishments.

  15. Impacts of Climatic Change and Fishing on Pacific Salmon Abundance Over the Past 300 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, Bruce P.; Gregory-Eaves, Irene; Sweetman, Jon; Douglas, Marianne S. V.; Smol, John P.

    2000-10-01

    The effects of climate variability on Pacific salmon abundance are uncertain because historical records are short and are complicated by commercial harvesting and habitat alteration. We use lake sediment records of δ15N and biological indicators to reconstruct sockeye salmon abundance in the Bristol Bay and Kodiak Island regions of Alaska over the past 300 years. Marked shifts in populations occurred over decades during this period, and some pronounced changes appear to be related to climatic change. Variations in salmon returns due to climate or harvesting can have strong impacts on sockeye nursery lake productivity in systems where adult salmon carcasses are important nutrient sources.

  16. Shrub clearing adversely affects the abundance of Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    PubMed

    Tack, Wesley; Madder, Maxime; Baeten, Lander; Vanhellemont, Margot; Verheyen, Kris

    2013-07-01

    In order to get a better understanding of the importance of vertical forest structure as a component of Ixodes ricinus tick habitat, an experiment was set up in a coniferous forest on sandy soils in northern Belgium. Ticks were sampled in six control and six treatment plots on various sampling occasions in 2008-2010. In the course of the study period, a moderate thinning was carried out in all plots and shrub clearing was performed in the treatment plots. Thinning had no effect on tick abundance, while shrub clearing had an adverse affect on the abundance of all three life stages (larva, nymph, adult) up to 2 years post-clearing. Our findings are especially relevant in the light of the ongoing efforts to improve vertical forest structure in Belgium and many other parts of Europe, which might create suitable habitats for ticks and change the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. Also, our results indicate that shrub clearing could be applied as a tick control measure in recreational areas where there is a high degree of human-tick contact.

  17. Monitoring bird population trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Slusher, John P.; Hinckley, Thomas M.

    1974-01-01

    The Breeding Bird Survey monitors annually the breeding populations of nearly 500 bird species by means of 2,000 random roadside counts of fifty 3-minute stops each. Results are computer-analyzed by State and Province, physiographic and geographic regions, and for the entire continent. Short- and long-term population changes are detected and maps showing distribution and relative abundance are prepared. A computerized bibliography of breeding bird censuses currently in preparation will permit retrieval of bird density data by bird species, plant community, and geographic location. These two programs will greatly facilitate management for nongame species.

  18. Why is Trichodesmium abundant in the Kuroshio?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozaki, T.; Takeda, S.; Itoh, S.; Kodama, T.; Liu, X.; Hashihama, F.; Furuya, K.

    2015-12-01

    The genus Trichodesmium is recognized as an abundant and major diazotroph in the Kuroshio, but the reason for this remains unclear. The present study investigated the abundance of Trichodesmium spp. and nitrogen fixation together with concentrations of dissolved iron and phosphate in the Kuroshio and its marginal seas. We performed the observations near the Miyako Islands, which form part of the Ryukyu Islands, situated along the Kuroshio, since our satellite analysis suggested that material transport could occur from the islands to the Kuroshio. Trichodesmium spp. bloomed (> 20 000 filaments L-1) near the Miyako Islands, abundance was high in the Kuroshio and the Kuroshio bifurcation region of the East China Sea, but was low in the Philippine Sea. The abundance of Trichodesmium spp. was significantly correlated with the total nitrogen fixation activity. The surface concentrations of dissolved iron (0.19-0.89 nM) and phosphate (< 3-36 nM) were similar for all of the study areas, indicating that the nutrient distribution could not explain the spatial differences in Trichodesmium spp. abundance and nitrogen fixation. Numerical particle-tracking experiments simulated the transportation of water around the Ryukyu Islands to the Kuroshio. Our results indicate that Trichodesmium growing around the Ryukyu Islands could be advected into the Kuroshio.

  19. Abundances in Eight M31 Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, Kerry G.; Kwitter, Karen B.; Corradi, Romano; Galera-Rosillo, R.; Balick, Bruce; Henry, Richard B. C.

    2014-06-01

    As part of a continuing project using planetary nebulae (PNe) to study the chemical evolution and formation history of M31 (see accompanying poster by Balick et al.), we obtained spectra of eight PNe in the fall of 2013 with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the GTC. All of these PNe are located outside M31’s inner disk and bulge. Spectral coverage extended from 3700-7800Å with a resolution of ~6 Å. Especially important in abundance determinations is the detection of the weak, temperature-sensitive auroral line of [O III], at 4363Å, which is often contaminated by Hg I 4358Å from streetlights; the remoteness of the GTC eliminated this difficulty. We reduced and measured the spectra using IRAF, and derived nebular diagnostics and abundances with ELSA, our in-house five-level-atom program. Here we report the chemical abundances determined from these spectra. The bottom line is that the oxygen abundances in these PNe are all within a factor of 2-3 of the solar value, (as are all the other M31 PNe our team has previously measured) despite the significant range of galactocentric distance. Future work will use these abundances to constrain models of the central star to estimate progenitor masses and ages. In particular we will use the results to investigate the hypothesis that these PNe might represent a population related to the encounter between M31 and M33 ~3 Gy ago. We gratefully acknowledge support from Williams College.

  20. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE MEASUREMENTS IN PLUMES AND INTERPLUMES

    SciTech Connect

    Guennou, C.; Hahn, M.; Savin, D. W.

    2015-07-10

    We present measurements of relative elemental abundances in plumes and interplumes. Plumes are bright, narrow structures in coronal holes that extend along open magnetic field lines far out into the corona. Previous work has found that in some coronal structures the abundances of elements with a low first ionization potential (FIP) <10 eV are enhanced relative to their photospheric abundances. This coronal-to-photospheric abundance ratio, commonly called the FIP bias, is typically 1 for elements with a high-FIP (>10 eV). We have used Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer observations made on 2007 March 13 and 14 over a ≈24 hr period to characterize abundance variations in plumes and interplumes. To assess their elemental composition, we used a differential emission measure analysis, which accounts for the thermal structure of the observed plasma. We used lines from ions of iron, silicon, and sulfur. From these we estimated the ratio of the iron and silicon FIP bias relative to that for sulfur. From the results, we have created FIP-bias-ratio maps. We find that the FIP-bias ratio is sometimes higher in plumes than in interplumes and that this enhancement can be time dependent. These results may help to identify whether plumes or interplumes contribute to the fast solar wind observed in situ and may also provide constraints on the formation and heating mechanisms of plumes.

  1. Abundance Analysis of 10 Kepler Planetary Hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Zachary A.; Schuler, Simon C.; Williams, Drake; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Smith, Verne V.; Ghezzi, Luan; Teske, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify possible connections between the detailed chemical abundances of stars and the existence of small planets discovered by NASA's Kepler spacecraft. We have analyzed high quality Keck/HIRES spectra of the planetary hosts Kepler-65, Kepler-93, Kepler-97, Kepler-98, Kepler-102, Kepler 128, Kepler-406, Kepler-408, Kepler-409, and Kepler-411 and derived the abundances of up to 17 elements for these stars. Results from previous studies have suggested that stellar abundance patterns or "signatures" may indicate the presence of planets, possibly terrestrial planets in particular. Should such patterns exist, they could be used to identify stars with small planets. Here we present the results of our abundance analysis of 10 stars with a variety of exoplanet systems discovered by Kepler and address the hypothesis that chemical abundance signatures can indicate the presence of small planets.This work is generously supported by NASA through a Kepler Participating Scientist grant to SCS (Grant #NNX13AH78G).

  2. MONITORING DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The monitoring design component of the overall Monitoring Framework provides answers to the questions: What site or environment will be monitored? What parameters will be measured at the site? Where will the measurements be taken? When and how frequently will the measurements be ...

  3. Abundance and size distribution dynamics of abyssal epibenthic megafauna in the northeast Pacific.

    PubMed

    Ruhl, Henry A

    2007-05-01

    The importance of interannual variation in deep-sea abundances is now becoming recognized. There is, however, relatively little known about what processes dominate the observed fluctuations. The abundance and size distribution of the megabenthos have been examined here using a towed camera system at a deep-sea station in the northeast Pacific (Station M) from 1989 to 2004. This 16-year study included 52 roughly seasonal transects averaging 1.2 km in length with over 35600 photographic frames analyzed. Mobile epibenthic megafauna at 4100 m depth have exhibited interannual scale changes in abundance from one to three orders of magnitude. Increases in abundance have now been significantly linked to decreases in mean body size, suggesting that accruals in abundance probably result from the recruitment of young individuals. Examinations of size-frequency histograms indicate several possible recruitment events. Shifts in size-frequency distributions were also used to make basic estimations of individual growth rates from 1 to 6 mm/month, depending on the taxon. Regional intensification in reproduction followed by recruitment within the study area could explain the majority of observed accruals in abundance. Although some adult migration is certainly probable in accounting for local variation in abundances, the slow movements of benthic life stages restrict regional migrations for most taxa. Negative competitive interactions and survivorship may explain the precipitous declines of some taxa. This and other studies have shown that abundances from protozoans to large benthic invertebrates and fishes all have undergone significant fluctuations in abundance at Station M over periods of weeks to years. PMID:17536411

  4. Space Weather monitoring with Neutron Monitor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigies, C. T.

    2012-12-01

    Space Weather affects many areas of the modern society, advance knowledge about space weather events is important to protect personnel and infrastructure. Cosmic Rays (CR) measurements by ground-based Neutron Monitors are influenced by Coronal Mass Ejections (CME), the intensity of the ever present Cosmic Rays is reduced in a Forbush decrease (Fd). In the case of very energetic CMEs, the measured intensity can be significantly increased in a Ground Level Enhancement (GLE). By detecting the anisotropy of the CR environment, a CME can be detected hours before it arrives at Earth. During a GLE the high-energy particles from the Sun can be detected before the more abundant lower energy particles arrive at Earth, thus allowing to take protective measures. Since the beginning of the Neutron Monitor Database (NMDB) project, which has been started in 2008 with funding from the European Commission, real-time data from Neutron Monitors around the world has been made available through one web-portal. We have more than doubled the number of stations providing data since the start of the project to now over 30 stations. The effectiveness of the ALERT applications which are based on NMDB data has been shown by the recent GLE71. We will present different applications through which the measurements and different data products are accessible.

  5. Effects of fly abundance on catch index of traps for Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Diptera: Glossinidae).

    PubMed

    Muhigwa, J B; Saini, R K; Hassanali, A

    1998-03-01

    The effect of fly abundance on the catch index of traps and that of rain as a source of variation in fly abundance were investigated for Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Newstead around Lake Victoria, western Kenya, using odor-baited and color-improved traps. There was a significant inverse relationship between the catch index of experimental traps and abundance of flies; the catch index being the ratio of catch in the experimental trap per catch in a reference trap. At low tsetse abundance (< 10 flies per trap per day) there was a 3-fold increase of the catch of females in the experimental trap compared with the control. Rainfall alone explained 22-87% of the total variation of fly abundance. It is suggested that fly abundance should be considered in evaluating baits for G. f. fuscipes or when using traps for monitoring. The relative depression of the catch index at high abundance may be related to avoidance of conspecifics. Flies entered standard traps in an inverse proportion to the number observed at the trap. Females approached traps in greater numbers when fewer decoys (dead flies) were placed on traps.

  6. Large brown seaweeds of the British Isles: Evidence of changes in abundance over four decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesson, Chris; Bush, Laura E.; Davies, Andrew J.; Maggs, Christine A.; Brodie, Juliet

    2015-03-01

    The large brown seaweeds (macroalgae) are keystone species in intertidal and shallow subtidal marine ecosystems and are harvested for food and other products. Recently, there have been sporadic, often anecdotal, reports of local abundance declines around the British Isles, but regional surveys have rarely revisited sites to determine possible changes. An assessment was undertaken of changes in the abundance of large brown seaweeds around the British Isles using historical survey data, and determination of whether any changes were linked with climate change. Data were analysed from multiple surveys for 14 habitat-forming and commercially important species of Phaeophyceae, covering orders Laminariales, Fucales and Tilopteridales. Changes in abundance were assessed for sites over the period 1974-2010. Trends in distribution were compared to summer and winter sea surface temperatures (SST). Results revealed regional patterns of both increase and decrease in abundance for multiple species, with significant declines in the south for kelp species and increases in northern and central areas for some kelp and wracks. Abundance patterns of 10 of the 14 species showed a significant association with SSTs, but there was a mixture of positive and negative responses. This is the first British Isles-wide observation of declining abundance of large brown seaweeds. Historical surveys provide useful data to examine trends in abundance, but the ad hoc nature of these studies limit the conclusions that can be drawn. Although the British Isles remains a stronghold for large brown algae, it is imperative that systematic surveys are undertaken to monitor changes.

  7. Status and trends of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hewitt, David A.; Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Harris, Alta C.

    2015-10-02

    Despite relatively high survival in most years, we conclude that both species have experienced substantial decreases in the abundance of spawning adults because losses from mortality have not been balanced by recruitment of new individuals. Although capture-recapture data indicate substantial recruitment of new individuals into the spawning populations for SNS and river spawning LRS in some years, size data do not corroborate these estimates. As a result, the status of the endangered sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake remains worrisome, especially for shortnose suckers. Our monitoring program provides a robust platform for estimating vital population parameters, evaluating the status of the populations, and assessing the effectiveness of conservation and recovery efforts.

  8. Challenges with Diagnosing and Managing Sepsis in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Kalin M; Dy-Boarman, Eliza A; Haase, Krystal K; Maxvill, Kristen; Pass, Steven E; Alvarez, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis in older adults has many challenges that affect rate of septic diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring parameters. Numerous age-related changes and comorbidities contribute to increased risk of infections in older adults, but also atypical symptomatology that delays diagnosis. Due to various pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic changes in the older adult, medications are absorbed, metabolized, and eliminated at different rates as compared to younger adults, which increases risk of adverse drug reactions due to use of drug therapy needed for sepsis management. This review provides information to aid in diagnosis and offers recommendations for monitoring and treating sepsis in the older adult population.

  9. Chemical Abundances of Compact Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ting-Hui; Shaw, Richard A.; Stanghellini, letizia; Riley, Ben

    2015-08-01

    We present preliminary results from an optical spectroscopic survey of compact planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Galactic disk. This is an ongoing optical+infrared spectral survey of 150 compact PNe to build a deep sample of PN chemical abundances. We obtained optical spectra of PNe with the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope and Goodman High-Throughput Spectrograph between 2012 and 2015. These data were used to calculate the nebulae diagnostics such as electron temperature and density for each PN, and to derive the elemental abundances of He, N, O Ne, S and Ar. These abundances are vital to understanding the nature of the PNe, and their low- to intermediate-mass progenitor stars.

  10. Abundance and chemistry of interstellar HOCO(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Brewer, M. K.; Irvine, W. M.; Friberg, P.; Johansson, L. E. B.

    1991-01-01

    Column densities of 10 to the 15th/sq cm toward the Galactic center and not more than 10 to the 12th/sq cm for cold dark clouds are derived from observations using an LVG model, and the chemical implications are discussed. The HOCO(+) 4(04)-3(03) line toward Sgr A is mapped. The fractional abundance of HOCO(+) in the Galactic center region was found to be three orders of magnitude larger than predicted by quiescent ion-molecule chemistry and an order of magnitude larger than predicted by an MHD shock model. It is suggested that the possibly high CO2 abundance, and consequently the observed HOCO(+) abundance in the Galactic center, may result from UV photolysis of grain mantles.

  11. Earth-Abundant Nanomaterials for Oxygen Reduction.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Mahmood, Asif; Liang, Zibin; Zou, Ruqiang; Guo, Shaojun

    2016-02-18

    Replacing the rare and precious platinum (Pt) electrocatalysts with earth-abundant materials for promoting the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of fuel cells is of great interest in developing high-performance sustainable energy devices. However, the challenging issues associated with non-Pt materials are still their low intrinsic catalytic activity, limited active sites, and the poor mass transport properties. Recent advances in material sciences and nanotechnology enable rational design of new earth-abundant materials with optimized composition and fine nanostructure, providing new opportunities for enhancing ORR performance at the molecular level. This Review highlights recent breakthroughs in engineering nanocatalysts based on the earth-abundant materials for boosting ORR.

  12. Rare-earth abundances in chondritic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evensen, N. M.; Hamilton, P. J.; Onions, R. K.

    1978-01-01

    Fifteen chondrites, including eight carbonaceous chondrites, were analyzed for rare earth element abundances by isotope dilution. Examination of REE for a large number of individual chondrites shows that only a small proportion of the analyses have flat unfractionated REE patterns within experimental error. While some of the remaining analyses are consistent with magmatic fractionation, many patterns, in particular those with positive Ce anomalies, can not be explained by known magmatic processes. Elemental abundance anomalies are found in all major chondrite classes. The persistence of anomalies in chondritic materials relatively removed from direct condensational processes implies that anomalous components are resistant to equilibrium or were introduced at a late stage of chondrite formation. Large-scale segregation of gas and condensate is implied, and bulk variations in REE abundances between planetary bodies is possible.

  13. Age-abundance relationships for neutral communities.

    PubMed

    Danino, Matan; Shnerb, Nadav M

    2015-10-01

    Neutral models for the dynamics of a system of competing species are often used to describe a wide variety of empirical communities. These models are used in many situations, ranging from population genetics and ecological biodiversity to macroevolution and cancer tumors. One of the main issues discussed within this framework is the relationships between the abundance of a species and its age. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of the age-abundance relationships for fixed-size and growing communities. Explicit formulas for the average and the most likely age of a species with abundance n are given, together with the full probability distribution function. We further discuss the universality of these results and their applicability to the tropical forest community. PMID:26565271

  14. Age-abundance relationships for neutral communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danino, Matan; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2015-10-01

    Neutral models for the dynamics of a system of competing species are often used to describe a wide variety of empirical communities. These models are used in many situations, ranging from population genetics and ecological biodiversity to macroevolution and cancer tumors. One of the main issues discussed within this framework is the relationships between the abundance of a species and its age. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of the age-abundance relationships for fixed-size and growing communities. Explicit formulas for the average and the most likely age of a species with abundance n are given, together with the full probability distribution function. We further discuss the universality of these results and their applicability to the tropical forest community.

  15. Size-sex variation in survival rates and abundance of pig frogs, Rana grylio, in northern Florida wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, K.V.; Nichols, J.D.; Percival, H.F.; Hines, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    During 1991-1993, we conducted capture-recapture studies on pig frogs, Rana grylio, in seven study locations in northcentral Florida. Resulting data were used to test hypotheses about variation in survival probability over different size-sex classes of pig frogs. We developed multistate capture-recapture models for the resulting data and used them to estimate survival rates and frog abundance. Tests provided strong evidence of survival differences among size-sex classes, with adult females showing the highest survival probabilities. Adult males and juvenile frogs had lower survival rates that were similar to each other. Adult females were more abundant than adult males in most locations at most sampling occasions. We recommended probabilistic capture-recapture models in general, and multistate models in particular, for robust estimation of demographic parameters in amphibian populations.

  16. Lincoln estimates of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) abundance in North America

    PubMed Central

    Alisauskas, Ray T; Arnold, Todd W; Leafloor, James O; Otis, David L; Sedinger, James S

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of range-wide abundance, harvest, and harvest rate are fundamental for sound inferences about the role of exploitation in the dynamics of free-ranging wildlife populations, but reliability of existing survey methods for abundance estimation is rarely assessed using alternative approaches. North American mallard populations have been surveyed each spring since 1955 using internationally coordinated aerial surveys, but population size can also be estimated with Lincoln's method using banding and harvest data. We estimated late summer population size of adult and juvenile male and female mallards in western, midcontinent, and eastern North America using Lincoln's method of dividing (i) total estimated harvest, , by estimated harvest rate, , calculated as (ii) direct band recovery rate, , divided by the (iii) band reporting rate, . Our goal was to compare estimates based on Lincoln's method with traditional estimates based on aerial surveys. Lincoln estimates of adult males and females alive in the period June–September were 4.0 (range: 2.5–5.9), 1.8 (range: 0.6–3.0), and 1.8 (range: 1.3–2.7) times larger than respective aerial survey estimates for the western, midcontinent, and eastern mallard populations, and the two population estimates were only modestly correlated with each other (western: r = 0.70, 1993–2011; midcontinent: r = 0.54, 1961–2011; eastern: r = 0.50, 1993–2011). Higher Lincoln estimates are predictable given that the geographic scope of inference from Lincoln estimates is the entire population range, whereas sampling frames for aerial surveys are incomplete. Although each estimation method has a number of important potential biases, our review suggests that underestimation of total population size by aerial surveys is the most likely explanation. In addition to providing measures of total abundance, Lincoln's method provides estimates of fecundity and population sex ratio and could be used in integrated population

  17. INTERSTELLAR ABUNDANCES TOWARD X Per, REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Valencic, Lynne A.; Smith, Randall K.

    2013-06-10

    The nearby X-ray binary X Per (HD 24534) provides a useful beacon with which to examine dust grain types and measure elemental abundances in the local interstellar medium (ISM). The absorption features of O, Fe, Mg, and Si along this line of sight were measured using spectra from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory's LETG/ACIS-S and XMM-Newton's RGS instruments, and the Spex software package. The spectra were fit with dust analogs measured in the laboratory. The O, Mg, and Si abundances were compared to those from standard references, and the O abundance was compared to that along lines of sight toward other X-ray binaries. The results are as follows. First, it was found that a combination of MgSiO{sub 3} (enstatite) and Mg{sub 1.6}Fe{sub 0.4}SiO{sub 4} (olivine) provided the best fit to the O K edge, with N(MgSiO{sub 3})/N(Mg{sub 1.6}Fe{sub 0.4}SiO{sub 4}) = 3.4. Second, the Fe L edge could be fit with models that included metallic iron, but it was not well described by the laboratory spectra currently available. Third, the total abundances of O, Mg, and Si were in very good agreement with that of recently re-analyzed B stars, suggesting that they are good indicators of abundances in the local ISM, and the depletions were also in agreement with expected values for the diffuse ISM. Finally, the O abundances found from X-ray binary absorption spectra show a similar correlation with Galactocentric distances as seen in other objects.

  18. Reliability of indicators of decline in abundance.

    PubMed

    Porszt, Erin J; Peterman, Randall M; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Cooper, Andrew B; Irvine, James R

    2012-10-01

    Although there are many indicators of endangerment (i.e., whether populations or species meet criteria that justify conservation action), their reliability has rarely been tested. Such indicators may fail to identify that a population or species meets criteria for conservation action (false negative) or may incorrectly show that such criteria have been met (false positive). To quantify the rate of both types of error for 20 commonly used indicators of declining abundance (threat indicators), we used receiver operating characteristic curves derived from historical (1938-2007) data for 18 sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations in the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada. We retrospectively determined each population's yearly status (reflected by change in abundance over time) on the basis of each indicator. We then compared that population's status in a given year with the status in subsequent years (determined by the magnitude of decline in abundance across those years). For each sockeye population, we calculated how often each indicator of past status matched subsequent status. No single threat indicator provided error-free estimates of status, but indicators that reflected the extent (i.e., magnitude) of past decline in abundance (through comparison of current abundance with some historical baseline abundance) tended to better reflect status in subsequent years than the rate of decline over the previous 3 generations (a widely used indicator). We recommend that when possible, the reliability of various threat indicators be evaluated with empirical analyses before such indicators are used to determine the need for conservation action. These indicators should include estimates from the entire data set to take into account a historical baseline. PMID:22741815

  19. OH vertical column abundance - Tropical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Clyde R.; Minschwaner, Kenneth R.; Burnett, Elizabeth B.

    1990-09-01

    Measurements of the vertical column abundance of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) have been made during the period 1987-1989 at the National Weather Service (NWS) station at Moen, Truk, Federated States of Micronesia (7 deg N, 152 deg E). A total of 384 independent data sets was obtained. Tropical OH abundance levels average about 22 percent above corresponding mid-latitude values, with OH levels during late winter and early spring up to 50 percent above those observed at 40 deg N. Stratospheric wind and temperature data obtained from the daily NWS radiosonde data are examined for correlations with the OH results.

  20. OH vertical column abundance - Tropical measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, Clyde R.; Minschwaner, Kenneth R.; Burnett, Elizabeth B.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the vertical column abundance of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) have been made during the period 1987-1989 at the National Weather Service (NWS) station at Moen, Truk, Federated States of Micronesia (7 deg N, 152 deg E). A total of 384 independent data sets was obtained. Tropical OH abundance levels average about 22 percent above corresponding mid-latitude values, with OH levels during late winter and early spring up to 50 percent above those observed at 40 deg N. Stratospheric wind and temperature data obtained from the daily NWS radiosonde data are examined for correlations with the OH results.

  1. Abundance and chemistry of interstellar HOCO+.

    PubMed

    Minh, Y C; Brewer, M K; Irvine, W M; Friberg, P; Johansson, L E

    1991-01-01

    We derive HOCO+ column densities approximately 10(15) cm-2 toward the Galactic center and < or = 10(12) cm-2 for cold dark clouds from observations and an LVG model. We mapped the HOCO+ 4(04)-3(03) line toward Sgr A. The fractional abundance of HOCO+ in the Galactic center region is three orders of magnitude larger than predicted by quiescent ion-molecule chemistry and an order of magnitude larger than predicted by a MHD shock model. If HOCO+ traces interstellar CO2, the implied high abundance ([CO2] approximately [CO]) in the Galactic center may result from UV photolysis of grain mantles.

  2. The evolution of abundances in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audouze, J.

    This very brief review of the evolution of the abundances in the Galaxy first recalls the main observational facts regarding such abundances. After having defined what are the crucial parameters which define such model, emphasis is given to two approaches: the first analyzed by Vangioni-Flam and Audouze (1988), and Andreani et al. (1988), in which the rate of star formation is allowed to vary with time; the second approach was favored by Matteucci and Francois (1989), who invoke a multizone galactic model with infall (inflow) of external gas into the galactic disk.

  3. Using linear models with correlated errors to analyze changes in abundance of Lake Michigan fishes: 1973-1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Raz, Jonathan; Bandekar, Ramanath R.

    2000-01-01

    We examined annual changes in relative abundance of Lake Michigan fishes using linear models with correlated errors in space and time. Abundance of bloater (Coregonus hoyi), deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) was monitored with bottom trawls at 10 discrete depths (between 18 and 110 m) off eight fixed ports from 1973 to 1992. The model describing abundance included fixed effects of year, port, depth, and interaction terms as well as quadratic and cubic effects of year and depth because changes in abundance were not strictly linear. Observed temporal trends in abundance varied with species and depth. Additionally, trends in alewife and slimy sculpin abundances depended on port. Cubic trends in the abundance of bloater and quadratic trends in deepwater sculpin and rainbow smelt abundances were similar among ports, permitting lakewide inferences for these species. Mean bloater abundance was low throughout the 1970s, increased during the 1980s, and reached high levels by 1990. Mean abundances of deepwater sculpin and rainbow smelt increased from 1973 to the mid-1980s and declined thereafter. The linear model with correlated errors can be readily applied to repeated-measures data from other fixed-station fishery surveys and is appropriate for data exhibiting spatial and temporal autocorrelations.

  4. Adult Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on adult children. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, dementia and Alzheimer's disease in the…

  5. Adult Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischof, Ledford J.

    This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,…

  6. Why the aphid Aphis spiraecola is more abundant on clementine tree than Aphis gossypii?

    PubMed

    Mostefaoui, Houda; Allal-Benfekih, Leila; Djazouli, Zahr-Eddine; Petit, Daniel; Saladin, Gaëlle

    2014-02-01

    Aphis spiraecola and Aphis gossypii cause harmful damages on clementine tree orchards. Weekly surveys measured the abundance of aphids (larvae, winged and wingless adults) as well as of auxiliary insects and parameters of energy metabolism. Correlatively, soluble carbohydrates, total free amino acids, free proline and condensed tannins were quantified in control and infested leaves. Both aphid species showed parallel temporal variations, but A. spiraecola was consistently more abundant regardless of the stage. Amino acids had a positive effect on both aphid species abundance, but neither condensed tannins nor auxiliary insects seemed to modulate aphid populations. Interestingly, the leaf carbohydrate content was positively correlated with the abundance of A. spiraecola, but not with that of A. gossypii. Moreover, A. gossypii's abundance was significantly down-regulated by high proline concentrations. Thus, the higher abundance of A. spiraecola could be explained by a better tolerance to high proline contents and a better conversion of foliar energy metabolites.

  7. Empirical oxygen abundances and physical conditions for relatively low abundance H II regions

    SciTech Connect

    Skillman, E.D. )

    1989-12-01

    The utility of the emission-line ratio (3727 + 4959 + 5007 A)/H-beta as an estimate of the total oxygen abundance in H II regions of low abundance (less than 10 percent of the solar value) is discussed. Using both observational data where the 4363A line is measured and model H II regions it is concluded that, for low abundance systems, total oxygen abundances can be determined with an accuracy of + or - 0.2 dex in the absence of a 4363A measurement. An attempt is made to study the average behavior of the stellar effective temperature (Teff) and ionization parameter (U) with changing abundance in low abundance systems. It is shown that some diagnostic methods which are viable for high abundance systems are not capable of uniquely determining Teff and U in low abundance systems. The most promising method of determining Teff and U requires measuring emission lines of forbidden O II, O III, S II, and S III. 53 refs.

  8. ABUNDANT OR RARE? A HYBRID APPROACH FOR DETERMINING SPECIES RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AT AN ECOREGOIONAL SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Everyone knows what abundant and rare species are, but quantifying the concept proves elusive. As part of an EPA/USGS project to assess near-coastal species vulnerability to climate change affects, we designed a hybrid approach to determine species relative abundance at an ecoreg...

  9. ABUNDANT OR RARE? A HYBRID APPROACH FOR DETERMINING SPECIES RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AT AN ECOREGOIONAL SCALE - 2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    Everyone knows what abundant and rare species are, but quantifying the concept proves elusive. As part of an EPA/USGS project to assess near-coastal species vulnerability to climate change affects, we designed a hybrid approach to determine species relative abundance at an ecoreg...

  10. Abundance Trends and Status of the Little Colorado River Population of Humpback Chub: An Update Considering 1989-2006 Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coggins,, Lewis G.

    2008-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In 1967, the humpback chub (Gila cypha) (HBC) was added to the federal list of endangered species and is today protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Only six populations of humpback chub are currently known to exist, five in the Colorado River Basin above Lees Ferry, Arizona, and one in Grand Canyon, Arizona. The majority of Grand Canyon humpback chub are found in the Little Colorado River (LCR)-the largest tributary to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon-and the Colorado River near its confluence with the Little Colorado River. Monitoring and research of the Grand Canyon humpback chub population is overseen by the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) under the auspices of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP), a Federal initiative to protect and improve resources downstream of Glen Canyon Dam. This report provides updated information on the status and trends of the LCR population in light of new information and refined assessment methodology. An earlier assessment of the LCR population (Coggins and others, 2006a) used data collected during 1989?2002; the assessment provided here includes that data and additional data collected through 2006. Catch-rate indices, closed population mark-recapture model abundance estimates, results from the original age-structured mark recapture (ASMR) model (Coggins and others, 2006b), and a newly refined ASMR model are presented. This report also seeks to (1) formally evaluate alternative stock assessment models using Pearson residual analyses and information theoretic procedures, (2) use mark-recapture data to estimate the relationship between HBC age and length, (3) translate uncertainty in the assignment of individual fish age to resulting estimates of recruitment and abundance from the ASMR model, and (4) evaluate past and present stock assessments considering the available data sources and analyses, recognizing the limitations

  11. Effects of wildlife and cattle on tick abundance in central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Keesing, Felicia; Allan, Brian F; Young, Truman P; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2013-09-01

    In African savannas, large mammals, both wild and domestic, support an abundant and diverse population of tick ectoparasites. Because of the density of ticks and the many pathogens that they vector, cattle in East Africa are often treated with acaricides. While acaricides are known to be effective at reducing tick burdens on cattle, their effects on the overall abundance and community composition of ticks in savanna ecosystems are less well understood. It is also not known how well tick populations can be maintained in the absence of large mammals. We evaluated the effects of wildlife and of acaricide-treated cattle on host-seeking tick populations in a long-term, exclusion experiment in central Kenya. Over seven years, we sampled larval, nymphal, and adult ticks monthly on replicated treatment plots that controlled for the presence of cattle and for the presence of two guilds of large wild mammals: megaherbivores (giraffes and elephants) and all other large wild herbivores (> 15 kg). Two species of ticks were found in this habitat; across all surveys, 93% were Rhipicephalus pulchellus and 7% were R. praetextatus. The presence of acaricide-treated cattle dramatically reduced the abundance of host-seeking nymphal and adult ticks but did not affect the abundance of host-seeking larval ticks. The abundance of larval ticks was determined by the presence of large wild mammals, which appear to import gravid female ticks into the experimental plots. On plots with no large mammals, either wild or domestic, larval and nymphal ticks were rare. Adult R. pulchellus were most abundant in plots that allowed wildlife but excluded cattle. Adult R. praetextatus were relatively abundant in plots without any large mammals. These differences suggest that these ticks utilize different members of the host community. The reduction in ticks that results from the presence of acaricide-treated cattle has potential health benefits for humans and wildlife, but these benefits must be weighed

  12. Effects of wildlife and cattle on tick abundance in central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Keesing, Felicia; Allan, Brian F; Young, Truman P; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2013-09-01

    In African savannas, large mammals, both wild and domestic, support an abundant and diverse population of tick ectoparasites. Because of the density of ticks and the many pathogens that they vector, cattle in East Africa are often treated with acaricides. While acaricides are known to be effective at reducing tick burdens on cattle, their effects on the overall abundance and community composition of ticks in savanna ecosystems are less well understood. It is also not known how well tick populations can be maintained in the absence of large mammals. We evaluated the effects of wildlife and of acaricide-treated cattle on host-seeking tick populations in a long-term, exclusion experiment in central Kenya. Over seven years, we sampled larval, nymphal, and adult ticks monthly on replicated treatment plots that controlled for the presence of cattle and for the presence of two guilds of large wild mammals: megaherbivores (giraffes and elephants) and all other large wild herbivores (> 15 kg). Two species of ticks were found in this habitat; across all surveys, 93% were Rhipicephalus pulchellus and 7% were R. praetextatus. The presence of acaricide-treated cattle dramatically reduced the abundance of host-seeking nymphal and adult ticks but did not affect the abundance of host-seeking larval ticks. The abundance of larval ticks was determined by the presence of large wild mammals, which appear to import gravid female ticks into the experimental plots. On plots with no large mammals, either wild or domestic, larval and nymphal ticks were rare. Adult R. pulchellus were most abundant in plots that allowed wildlife but excluded cattle. Adult R. praetextatus were relatively abundant in plots without any large mammals. These differences suggest that these ticks utilize different members of the host community. The reduction in ticks that results from the presence of acaricide-treated cattle has potential health benefits for humans and wildlife, but these benefits must be weighed

  13. Species richness, equitability, and abundance of ants in disturbed landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, J.H.; Krzysik, A.J.; Kovacic, D.A.; Duda, J.J.; Freeman, D.C.; Emlen, J.M.; Zak, J.C.; Long, W.R.; Wallace, M.P.; Chamberlin-Graham, C.; Nutter, J.P.; Balbach, H.E.

    2009-01-01

    Ants are used as indicators of environmental change in disturbed landscapes, often without adequate understanding of their response to disturbance. Ant communities in the southeastern United States displayed a hump-backed species richness curve against an index of landscape disturbance. Forty sites at Fort Benning, in west-central Georgia, covered a spectrum of habitat disturbance (military training and fire) in upland forest. Sites disturbed by military training had fewer trees, less canopy cover, more bare ground, and warmer, more compact soils with shallower A-horizons. We sampled ground-dwelling ants with pitfall traps, and measured 15 habitat variables related to vegetation and soil. Ant species richness was greatest with a relative disturbance of 43%, but equitability was greatest with no disturbance. Ant abundance was greatest with a relative disturbance of 85%. High species richness at intermediate disturbance was associated with greater within-site spatial heterogeneity. Species richness was also associated with intermediate values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a correlate of net primary productivity (NPP). Available NPP (the product of NDVI and the fraction of days that soil temperature exceeded 25 ??C), however, was positively correlated with species richness, though not with ant abundance. Species richness was unrelated to soil texture, total ground cover, and fire frequency. Ant species richness and equitability are potential state indicators of the soil arthropod community. Moreover, equitability can be used to monitor ecosystem change. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Estimates of brown bear abundance on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, V.G.; Smith, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    During 1987-94 we used capture-mark-resight (CMR) methodology and rates of observation (bears/hour and bears/100 km2) of unmarked brown bears (Ursus arctos middendorffi) during intensive aerial surveys (IAS) to estimate abundance of brown bears on Kodiak Island and to establish a baseline for monitoring population trends. CMR estimates were obtained on 3 study areas; density ranged from 216-234 bears/1,000 km2 for independent animals and 292-342 bears/1,000 km2 including dependent offspring. Rates of observation during IAS ranged from 1.4-5.4 independent bears/hour and 2.9-18.0 independent bears/100 km2. Density estimates for independent bears on each IAS area were obtained by dividing mean number of bears observed during replicate surveys by estimated sightability (based on CMR-derived sightability in areas with similar habitat. Brown bear abundance on 21 geographic units of Kodiak Island and 3 nearby islands was estimated by extrapolation from CMR and IAS data using comparisons of habitat characteristics and sport harvest information. Population estimates for independent and total bears were 1,800 and 2,600. The CMR and IAS procedures offer alternative means, depending on management objective and available resources, of measuring population trend of brown bears on Kodiak Island.

  15. Elemental abundances in meteoritic and terrestrial matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Major and trace element analyses of over 180 individual chondrules from 12 carbonaceous chondrites are reported, including individual analyses of 60 chondrules from Pueblito de Allende. Siderophile elements in most chondrules are depleted, compared to the whole chondrite. Correlations of Al-Ir and Ir-Sc among chondrules high in Ca and Al were observed. A Cu-Mn correlation was also found for chondrules from some meteorites. No correlation was observed between Au and other siderophile elements (Fe, Ni, Co and Ir). It is suggested that these elemental associations were present in the material from which the chondrules formed. Compositionally, chondrules appear to be a multicomponent mixture of remelted dust. One component displaying an Al-Ir correlation is identified as Allende-type white aggregates. The other components are a material chemically similar to the present matrix and sulfides-plus-metal material. Abundances of the REE (rare earth elements) were measured in ordinary Allende chondrules and were 50% higher than REE abundances in Mokoia chondrules; REE abundances in Ca-Al rich chondrules were similar to REE abundances in Ca-rich white aggregates.

  16. Neon and Oxygen Abundances in M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, N. R.; Garnett, D. R.; Massey, P.; Jacoby, G.

    2004-05-01

    We present new spectroscopic observations of 13 H II regions in the Local Group spiral galaxy M33. The regions observed range in distance between 1 and 7 kpc from the nucleus. Of the 13 H II regions observed, we were able to detect the [O III] 4363 Å line in six regions, and so were able to determine electron temperatures directly from the spectra using the 5007/4363 line ratio. Based on these temperature measurements we computed abundances for O and Ne for the six regions, and derived radial abundance gradients for both elements. We find that our new measurements lead to a shallower oxygen abundance gradient , --0.03±0.02 dex/kpc, than was derived by earlier studies. We attribute the difference partly to the use of uncertain extrapolations of O/H vs. ([O II] + [O III])/Hβ used in earlier studies to derive abundances for nebulae without measured electron temperatures. The shallower O/H gradient is in much better agreement with the Ne/H gradient derived from ISO spectra by Willner and Nelson-Patel, as expected from predictions of stellar nucleosynthesis. We also identify two new He II-emitting H II regions, the first to be discovered in M33.

  17. In Abundance: Networked Participatory Practices as Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Bonnie E.

    2015-01-01

    In an era of knowledge abundance, scholars have the capacity to distribute and share ideas and artifacts via digital networks, yet networked scholarship often remains unrecognized within institutional spheres of influence. Using ethnographic methods including participant observation, interviews, and document analysis, this study investigates…

  18. Heavy element abundances and massive star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Boqi; Silk, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    The determination of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) remains a great challenge in astronomy. In the solar neighborhood, the IMF is reasonable well determined for stellar masses from about 0.1 to 60 solar mass. However, outside the solar neighborhood, the IMF is poorly known. Among those frequently discussed arguments favoring a different IMF outside the solar neighborhood are the estimated time to consume the remaining gas in spiral galaxies, and the high rate of forming massive stars in starburst galaxies. An interesting question then is whether there may be an independent way of testing possible variations in the IMF. Indeed, the heavy elements in the interstellar medium are mostly synthesized in massive stars, so increasing, or decreasing, the fraction of massive stars naturally leads to a variation in the heavy element yield, and thus, the metallicity. The observed abundance should severely constrain any deviations of the IMF from the locally determined IMF. We focus on element oxygen, which is the most abundant heavy element in the interstellar medium. Oxygen is ejected only by massive stars that can become Type 1 supernovae, and the oxygen abundance is, therefore, a sensitive function of the fraction of massive stars in the IMF. Adopting oxygen enables us to avoid uncertainties in Type 1 supernovae. We use the nucleosynthesis results to calculate the oxygen yield for given IMF. We then calculate the oxygen abundance in the interstellar medium assuming instantaneous recycling of oxygen.

  19. The Abundance of Large Arcs From CLASH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bingxiao; Postman, Marc; Meneghetti, Massimo; Coe, Dan A.; Clash Team

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an automated arc-finding algorithm to perform a rigorous comparison of the observed and simulated abundance of large lensed background galaxies (a.k.a arcs). We use images from the CLASH program to derive our observed arc abundance. Simulated CLASH images are created by performing ray tracing through mock clusters generated by the N-body simulation calibrated tool -- MOKA, and N-body/hydrodynamic simulations -- MUSIC, over the same mass and redshift range as the CLASH X-ray selected sample. We derive a lensing efficiency of 15 ± 3 arcs per cluster for the X-ray selected CLASH sample and 4 ± 2 arcs per cluster for the simulated sample. The marginally significant difference (3.0 σ) between the results for the observations and the simulations can be explained by the systematically smaller area with magnification larger than 3 (by a factor of ˜4) in both MOKA and MUSIC mass models relative to those derived from the CLASH data. Accounting for this difference brings the observed and simulated arc statistics into full agreement. We find that the source redshift distribution does not have big impact on the arc abundance but the arc abundance is very sensitive to the concentration of the dark matter halos. Our results suggest that the solution to the "arc statistics problem" lies primarily in matching the cluster dark matter distribution.

  20. Will Abundant Natural Gas Solve Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McJeon, H. C.; Edmonds, J.; Bauer, N.; Leon, C.; Fisher, B.; Flannery, B.; Hilaire, J.; Krey, V.; Marangoni, G.; Mi, R.; Riahi, K.; Rogner, H.; Tavoni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid deployment of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies enabled the production of previously uneconomic shale gas resources in North America. Global deployment of these advanced gas production technologies could bring large influx of economically competitive unconventional gas resources to the energy system. It has been hoped that abundant natural gas substituting for coal could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which in turn could reduce climate forcing. Other researchers countered that the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas production make its lifecycle emissions higher than those of coal. In this study, we employ five state-of-the-art integrated assessment models (IAMs) of energy-economy-climate systems to assess the full impact of abundant gas on climate change. The models show large additional natural gas consumption up to +170% by 2050. The impact on CO2 emissions, however, is found to be much smaller (from -2% to +11%), and a majority of the models reported a small increase in climate forcing (from -0.3% to +7%) associated with the increased use of abundant gas. Our results show that while globally abundant gas may substantially change the future energy market equilibrium, it will not significantly mitigate climate change on its own in the absence of climate policies.

  1. Using counts to simultaneously estimate abundance and detection probabilities in a salamander community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, C.K.; Dorazio, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    A critical variable in both ecological and conservation field studies is determining how many individuals of a species are present within a defined sampling area. Labor intensive techniques such as capture-mark-recapture and removal sampling may provide estimates of abundance, but there are many logistical constraints to their widespread application. Many studies on terrestrial and aquatic salamanders use counts as an index of abundance, assuming that detection remains constant while sampling. If this constancy is violated, determination of detection probabilities is critical to the accurate estimation of abundance. Recently, a model was developed that provides a statistical approach that allows abundance and detection to be estimated simultaneously from spatially and temporally replicated counts. We adapted this model to estimate these parameters for salamanders sampled over a six vear period in area-constrained plots in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Estimates of salamander abundance varied among years, but annual changes in abundance did not vary uniformly among species. Except for one species, abundance estimates were not correlated with site covariates (elevation/soil and water pH, conductivity, air and water temperature). The uncertainty in the estimates was so large as to make correlations ineffectual in predicting which covariates might influence abundance. Detection probabilities also varied among species and sometimes among years for the six species examined. We found such a high degree of variation in our counts and in estimates of detection among species, sites, and years as to cast doubt upon the appropriateness of using count data to monitor population trends using a small number of area-constrained survey plots. Still, the model provided reasonable estimates of abundance that could make it useful in estimating population size from count surveys.

  2. Toward Reliable Estimates of Abundance: Comparing Index Methods to Assess the Abundance of a Mammalian Predator

    PubMed Central

    Güthlin, Denise; Storch, Ilse; Küchenhoff, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Due to time and financial constraints indices are often used to obtain landscape-scale estimates of relative species abundance. Using two different field methods and comparing the results can help to detect possible bias or a non monotonic relationship between the index and the true abundance, providing more reliable results. We used data obtained from camera traps and feces counts to independently estimate relative abundance of red foxes in the Black Forest, a forested landscape in southern Germany. Applying negative binomial regression models, we identified landscape parameters that influence red fox abundance, which we then used to predict relative red fox abundance. We compared the estimated regression coefficients of the landscape parameters and the predicted abundance of the two methods. Further, we compared the costs and the precision of the two field methods. The predicted relative abundances were similar between the two methods, suggesting that the two indices were closely related to the true abundance of red foxes. For both methods, landscape diversity and edge density best described differences in the indices and had positive estimated effects on the relative fox abundance. In our study the costs of each method were of similar magnitude, but the sample size obtained from the feces counts (262 transects) was larger than the camera trap sample size (88 camera locations). The precision of the camera traps was lower than the precision of the feces counts. The approach we applied can be used as a framework to compare and combine the results of two or more different field methods to estimate abundance and by this enhance the reliability of the result. PMID:24743565

  3. Toward reliable estimates of abundance: comparing index methods to assess the abundance of a Mammalian predator.

    PubMed

    Güthlin, Denise; Storch, Ilse; Küchenhoff, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Due to time and financial constraints indices are often used to obtain landscape-scale estimates of relative species abundance. Using two different field methods and comparing the results can help to detect possible bias or a non monotonic relationship between the index and the true abundance, providing more reliable results. We used data obtained from camera traps and feces counts to independently estimate relative abundance of red foxes in the Black Forest, a forested landscape in southern Germany. Applying negative binomial regression models, we identified landscape parameters that influence red fox abundance, which we then used to predict relative red fox abundance. We compared the estimated regression coefficients of the landscape parameters and the predicted abundance of the two methods. Further, we compared the costs and the precision of the two field methods. The predicted relative abundances were similar between the two methods, suggesting that the two indices were closely related to the true abundance of red foxes. For both methods, landscape diversity and edge density best described differences in the indices and had positive estimated effects on the relative fox abundance. In our study the costs of each method were of similar magnitude, but the sample size obtained from the feces counts (262 transects) was larger than the camera trap sample size (88 camera locations). The precision of the camera traps was lower than the precision of the feces counts. The approach we applied can be used as a framework to compare and combine the results of two or more different field methods to estimate abundance and by this enhance the reliability of the result. PMID:24743565

  4. Urbanized landscapes favored by fig-eating birds increase invasive but not native juvenile strangler fig abundance.

    PubMed

    Caughlin, Trevor; Wheeler, Jessica H; Jankowski, Jill; Lichstein, Jeremy W

    2012-07-01

    Propagule pressure can determine the success or failure of invasive plant range expansion. Range expansion takes place at large spatial scales, often encompassing many types of land cover, yet the effect of landscape context on propagule pressure remains largely unknown. Many studies have reported a positive correlation between invasive plant abundance and human land use; increased propagule pressure in these landscapes may be responsible for this correlation. We tested the hypothesis that increased rates of seed dispersal by fig-eating birds, which are more common in urban habitats, result in an increase in invasive strangler fig abundance in landscapes dominated by human land use. We quantified abundance of an invasive species (Ficus microcarpa) and a native species (F. aurea) of strangler fig in plots spanning the entire range of human land use in South Florida, USA, from urban parking lots to native forest. We then compared models that predicted juvenile fig abundance based on distance to adult fig seed sources and fig-eating bird habitat quality with models that lacked one or both of these terms. The best model for juvenile invasive fig abundance included both distance to adult and fig-eating bird habitat terms, suggesting that landscape effects on invasive fig abundance are mediated by seed-dispersing birds. In contrast, the best model for juvenile native fig abundance included only presence/absence of adults, suggesting that distance from individual adult trees may have less effect on seed limitation for a native species compared to an invasive species undergoing range expansion. However, models for both species included significant effects of adult seed sources, implying that juvenile abundance is limited by seed arrival. This result was corroborated by a seed addition experiment that indicated that both native and invasive strangler figs were strongly seed limited. Understanding how landscape context affects the mechanisms of plant invasion may lead to

  5. Depth-related distribution and abundance of seastars (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) in the Porcupine Seabight and Porcupine Abyssal Plain, N.E. Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Kerry L.; Billett, David S. M.; Tyler, Paul A.

    2002-10-01

    The depth-related distribution of seastar (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) species between 150 and 4950 m in the Porcupine Seabight and Porcupine Abyssal Plain is described. 47 species of asteroid were identified from ˜14,000 individuals collected. The bathymetric range of each species is recorded. What are considered quantitative data, from an acoustically monitored epibenthic sledge and supplementary data from otter trawls, are used to display the relative abundance of individuals within their bathymetric range. Asteroid species are found to have very narrow centres of distribution in which they are abundant, despite much wider total adult depth ranges. Centres of distribution may be skewed. This might result from competition for resources or be related to the occurrence of favourable habitats at particular depths. The bathymetric distributions of the juveniles of some species extend outside the adult depth ranges. There is a distinct pattern of zonation with two major regions of faunal change and six distinct zones. An upper slope zone ranges from 150 to ˜700 m depth, an upper bathyal zone between 700 and 1100 m, a mid-bathyal zone from 1100 to1700 m and a lower bathyal zone between 1700 and 2500 m. Below 2500 m the lower continental slope and continental rise have a characteristic asteroid fauna. The abyssal zone starts at about 2800 m. Regions of major faunal change are identified at the boundaries of both upper and mid-bathyal zones and at the transition of bathyal to abyssal fauna. Diversity is greatest at ˜1800 m, decreasing with depth to ˜2600 m before increasing again to high levels at ˜4700 m.

  6. ADULT EDUCATION OF MIGRANT ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEAL, CATHERINE; AND OTHERS

    UNITS ON MIGRANT ADULT EDUCATION, AND A UNIT ON ORGANIZING INFORMAL GROUPS OF MIGRANT WOMEN TO DISCUSS MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING THEIR TEMPORARY HOMES, ARE PRESENTED. THE GOALS OF THE UNIT ON EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT MEN ARE ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE, BETTER HEALTH AND WELL-BEING, AND BETTER HANDLING OF RESPONSIBILITIES. THE MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE…

  7. Thermal relics: Do we know their abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Turner, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    The relic abundance of a particle species that was once in thermal equilibrium in the expanding Universe depends upon a competition between the annihilation rate of the species and the expansion rate of the Universe. Assuming that the Universe is radiation dominated at early times the relic abundance is easy to compute and well known. At times earlier than about 1 sec after the bang there is little or no evidence that the Universe had to be radiation dominated, although that is the simplest and standard assumption. Because early-Universe relics are of such importance both to particle physics and to cosmology, three nonstandard possibilities are considered in detail for the Universe at the time a species' abundance froze in: energy density dominated by shear (i.e., anisotropic expansion), energy density dominated by some other nonrelativistic species, and energy density dominated by the kinetic energy of the scalar field that sets the gravitational constant in a Brans-Dicke-Jordan cosmological mode. In the second case the relic abundance is less than the standard value, while in the other two cases it can be enhanced by a significant factor. Two other more exotic possibilities for enhancing the relic abundance of a species are also mentioned--a larger value of Newton's constant at early times (e.g., as might occur in superstring or Kaluza-Klein theories) or a component of the energy density at early times with a very stiff equation of state (p greater than rho/3), e.g., a scalar field phi with potential V(phi) = Beta /phi/ (exp n) with n greater than 4. Results have implications for dark matter searches and searches for particle relics in general.

  8. Chemical abundances and kinematics of barium stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, D. B.; Pereira, C. B.; Roig, F.; Jilinski, E.; Drake, N. A.; Chavero, C.; Sales Silva, J. V.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present an homogeneous analysis of photospheric abundances based on high-resolution spectroscopy of a sample of 182 barium stars and candidates. We determined atmospheric parameters, spectroscopic distances, stellar masses, ages, luminosities and scaleheight, radial velocities, abundances of the Na, Al, α-elements, iron-peak elements, and s-process elements Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. We employed the local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. We found that the metallicities, the temperatures and the surface gravities for barium stars cannot be represented by a single Gaussian distribution. The abundances of α-elements and iron peak elements are similar to those of field giants with the same metallicity. Sodium presents some degree of enrichment in more evolved stars that could be attributed to the NeNa cycle. As expected, the barium stars show overabundance of the elements created by the s-process. By measuring the mean heavy-element abundance pattern as given by the ratio [s/Fe], we found that the barium stars present several degrees of enrichment. We also obtained the [hs/ls] ratio by measuring the photospheric abundances of the Ba-peak and the Zr-peak elements. Our results indicated that the [s/Fe] and the [hs/ls] ratios are strongly anticorrelated with the metallicity. Our kinematical analysis showed that 90 per cent of the barium stars belong to the thin disc population. Based on their luminosities, none of the barium stars are luminous enough to be an asymptotic giant branch star, nor to become self-enriched in the s-process elements. Finally, we determined that the barium stars also follow an age-metallicity relation.

  9. [Adult twins].

    PubMed

    Charlemaine, Christiane

    2006-12-31

    This paper explores the deep roots of closeness that twins share in their youngest age and their effect on their destiny at the adult age. Psychologists believe the bond between twins begins in utero and develops throughout the twins' lives. The four patterns of twinship described show that the twin bond is determined by the quality of parenting that twins receive in their infancy and early childhood. Common problems of adult twins bring about difficulties to adapt in a non-twin world. The nature versus nurture controversy has taken on new life focusing on inter-twin differences and the importance of parent-child interaction as fundamental to the growth and development of personality. PMID:17352324

  10. Comparison of Statistical Population Reconstruction Using Full and Pooled Adult Age-Class Data

    PubMed Central

    Skalski, John R.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Clawson, Michael V.

    2012-01-01

    Background Age-at-harvest data are among the most commonly collected, yet neglected, demographic data gathered by wildlife agencies. Statistical population construction techniques can use this information to estimate the abundance of wild populations over wide geographic areas and concurrently estimate recruitment, harvest, and natural survival rates. Although current reconstruction techniques use full age-class data (0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, … years), it is not always possible to determine an animal's age due to inaccuracy of the methods, expense, and logistics of sample collection. The ability to inventory wild populations would be greatly expanded if pooled adult age-class data (e.g., 0.5, 1.5, 2.5+ years) could be successfully used in statistical population reconstruction. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the performance of statistical population reconstruction models developed to analyze full age-class and pooled adult age-class data. We performed Monte Carlo simulations using a stochastic version of a Leslie matrix model, which generated data over a wide range of abundance levels, harvest rates, and natural survival probabilities, representing medium-to-big game species. Results of full age-class and pooled adult age-class population reconstructions were compared for accuracy and precision. No discernible difference in accuracy was detected, but precision was slightly reduced when using the pooled adult age-class reconstruction. On average, the coefficient of variation increased by 0.059 when the adult age-class data were pooled prior to analyses. The analyses and maximum likelihood model for pooled adult age-class reconstruction are illustrated for a black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus) population in Washington State. Conclusions/Significance Inventorying wild populations is one of the greatest challenges of wildlife agencies. These new statistical population reconstruction models should expand the demographic capabilities of wildlife agencies

  11. Bladder Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Diagnostic Ultrasound Corporation's Bladder Scan Monitor continuously records and monitors bladder fullness and alerts the wearer or caretaker when voiding is required. The sensor is held against the lower abdomen by a belt and connected to the monitor by a cable. The sensor obtains bladder volume data from sound waves reflecting off the bladder wall. The device was developed by Langley Research Center, the Ames Research Center and the NASA Technology Applications Team. It utilizes Langley's advanced ultrasound technology. It is licensed to the ARC for medical applications, and sublicensed to Diagnostics Ultrasound. Central monitoring systems are planned for the future.

  12. Distribution and abundance of the Japanese snail, Viviparus japonicus, and associated macrobenthos in Sandusky Bay, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfert, David R.; Hiltunen, Jarl K.

    1968-01-01

    A survey of the macrobenthos of Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie, in June, 1963, provided information on the abundance and distribution of the introduced Japanese snail, Viviparus japonicus, which has become a nuisance to commercial seine fishermen. The abundance and distribution varied considerably within the bay; at the time of the survey, most snails were found near the north-central shore. Environmental characteristics were nearly uniform and had no apparent effect on the distribution; concentrations in different areas at different times appeared to result from water movements induced by winds. The time of the study coincided with a period of reproduction; young-of-the-year snails were most abundant in areas where adults were most common. The frequency distributions of shell height and diameter suggested the presence of two age groups of adults in the population. Considerable natural mortality was seen, both at the time of the study and in other seasons. Only three other gastropods were observed in the bay; the most abundant was another viviparid, Campeloma decisum. Other mollusks present were four species of Sphaeriidae and 18 species of Unionidae. A summary of invertebrates found, other than the mollusks, is also presented.

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  14. Spatial patterns in the tropical forest reveal connections between negative feedback, aggregation and abundance.

    PubMed

    Seri, Efrat; Shnerb, Nadav

    2015-09-01

    The spatial arrangement of trees in a tropical forest reflects the interplay between aggregating processes, like dispersal limitation, and negative feedback that induces effective repulsion among individuals. Monitoring the variance-mean ratio for conspecific individuals along length-scales, we show that the effect of negative feedback is dominant at short scales, while aggregation characterizes the large-scale patterns. A comparison of different species indicates, surprisingly, that both aggregation and negative feedback scales are related to the overall abundance of the species. This suggests a bottom-up control mechanism, in which the negative feedback dictates the dispersal kernel and the overall abundance.

  15. Monitoring your baby before labor

    MedlinePlus

    Prenatal care - monitoring; Pregnancy care - monitoring; Non-stress test - monitoring; NST- monitoring; Contraction stress test - monitoring; CST- monitoring; Biophysical profile - monitoring; BPP - monitoring

  16. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guo-Chao; Liang, Yan-Chun; Spite, Monique; Chen, Yu-Qin; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Guo-Qing; Liu, Yu-Juan; Liu, Nian; Deng, Li-Cai; Spite, Francois; Hill, Vanessa; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures Teff, surface gravities log g, metallicity [Fe/H] and microturbulence velocity ξt) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants as indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their Na, Al, α- and iron-peak elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-capture) process elements relative to the Sun. Their median abundances of [Ba/Fe], [La/Fe] and [Eu/Fe] are 0.54, 0.65 and 0.40, respectively. The Y I and Zr I abundances are lower than Ba, La and Eu, but higher than the α- and iron-peak elements for the strong Ba stars and similar to the iron-peak elements for the mild stars. There exists a positive correlation between Ba intensity and [Ba/Fe]. For the n-capture elements (Y, Zr, Ba, La), there is an anti-correlation between their [X/Fe] and [Fe/H]. We identify nine of our sample stars as strong Ba stars with [Ba/Fe] >0.6 where seven of them have Ba intensity Ba=2-5, one has Ba=1.5 and another one has Ba=1.0. The remaining ten stars are classified as mild Ba stars with 0.17<[Ba/Fe] <0.54.

  17. Deuterium Abundance in Consciousness and Current Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, Elizabeth A.

    We utilize the deuterium-hydrogen abundances and their role in setting limits on the mass and other conditions of cosmogenesis and cosmological evolution. We calculate the dependence of a set of physical variables such as density, temperature, energy mass, entropy and other physical variable parameters through the evolution of the universe under the Schwarzschild conditions as a function from early to present time. Reconciliation with the 3°K and missing mass is made. We first examine the Schwarzschild condition; second, the geometrical constraints of a multidimensional Cartesian space on closed cosmologies, and third we will consider the cosmogenesis and evolution of the universe in a multidimensional Cartesian space, obeying the Schwarzschild condition. Implications of this model for matter creation are made. We also examine experimental evidence for closed versus open cosmologies; x-ray detection of the "missing mass" density. Also the interstellar deuterium abundance, along with the value of the Hubble constant set a general criterion on the value of the curvature constant, k. Once the value of the Hubble constant, H is determined, the deuterium abundance sets stringent restrictions on the value of the curvature constant k by an detailed discussion is presented. The experimental evidences for the determination of H and the primary set of coupled equations to determine D abundance is given. 'The value of k for an open, closed, or flat universe will be discussed in terms of the D abundance which will affect the interpretation of the Schwarzschild, black hole universe. We determine cosmology solutions to Einstein's field obeying the Schwarzschild solutions condition. With this model, we can form a reconciliation of the black hole, from galactic to cosmological scale. Continuous creation occurs at the dynamic blackhole plasma field. We term this new model the multiple big bang or "little whimper model". We utilize the deuteriumhydrogen abundances and their role in

  18. Dry years decrease abundance of American alligators in the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddle, J. Hardin; Brandt, Laura A.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    The Everglades has been greatly reduced and is threatened by land use change and altered hydrology. The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan calls for monitoring and assessment of key ecosystem attributes, one of which is abundance of American alligators. We examined 10 years of alligator night spotlight counts from Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge along two canals and in the interior marsh to determine trends and how dry years affect alligator abundance. Alligators showed population response to hydrologic conditions. In particular, there were declines in abundance after dry years followed by an apparent recovery in abundance in subsequent years. Increases in abundance were lower in the marsh than L-40 Canal. In addition, there was evidence that intensity of dry events affected population dynamics with greater declines observed in years with drier conditions. Results revealed that overall population of alligators increased from 2004 to 2013, but that increases varied by survey route. These results demonstrate that dry years cause a decline in alligator abundance proportional to the intensity of the dry event, and that it is important to make a distinction between canals and marsh when measuring alligator response to hydrology.

  19. Teaching Adults. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Alan

    The question of how adult educators can make their teaching of adults more effective is explored in the context of recent work on adult lifelong learning. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) modes of adult education and the shift in focus from adult education to lifelong learning; (2) the contract between adult student and adult…

  20. Calibrating abundance indices with population size estimators of red back salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in a New England forest

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Aaron M.; Jackson, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Herpetologists and conservation biologists frequently use convenient and cost-effective, but less accurate, abundance indices (e.g., number of individuals collected under artificial cover boards or during natural objects surveys) in lieu of more accurate, but costly and destructive, population size estimators to detect and monitor size, state, and trends of amphibian populations. Although there are advantages and disadvantages to each approach, reliable use of abundance indices requires that they be calibrated with accurate population estimators. Such calibrations, however, are rare. The red back salamander, Plethodon cinereus, is an ecologically useful indicator species of forest dynamics, and accurate calibration of indices of salamander abundance could increase the reliability of abundance indices used in monitoring programs. We calibrated abundance indices derived from surveys of P. cinereus under artificial cover boards or natural objects with a more accurate estimator of their population size in a New England forest. Average densities/m2 and capture probabilities of P. cinereus under natural objects or cover boards in independent, replicate sites at the Harvard Forest (Petersham, Massachusetts, USA) were similar in stands dominated by Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock) and deciduous hardwood species (predominantly Quercus rubra [red oak] and Acer rubrum [red maple]). The abundance index based on salamanders surveyed under natural objects was significantly associated with density estimates of P. cinereus derived from depletion (removal) surveys, but underestimated true density by 50%. In contrast, the abundance index based on cover-board surveys overestimated true density by a factor of 8 and the association between the cover-board index and the density estimates was not statistically significant. We conclude that when calibrated and used appropriately, some abundance indices may provide cost-effective and reliable measures of P. cinereus abundance that could

  1. Calibrating abundance indices with population size estimators of red back salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in a New England forest.

    PubMed

    Siddig, Ahmed A; Ellison, Aaron M; Jackson, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Herpetologists and conservation biologists frequently use convenient and cost-effective, but less accurate, abundance indices (e.g., number of individuals collected under artificial cover boards or during natural objects surveys) in lieu of more accurate, but costly and destructive, population size estimators to detect and monitor size, state, and trends of amphibian populations. Although there are advantages and disadvantages to each approach, reliable use of abundance indices requires that they be calibrated with accurate population estimators. Such calibrations, however, are rare. The red back salamander, Plethodon cinereus, is an ecologically useful indicator species of forest dynamics, and accurate calibration of indices of salamander abundance could increase the reliability of abundance indices used in monitoring programs. We calibrated abundance indices derived from surveys of P. cinereus under artificial cover boards or natural objects with a more accurate estimator of their population size in a New England forest. Average densities/m(2) and capture probabilities of P. cinereus under natural objects or cover boards in independent, replicate sites at the Harvard Forest (Petersham, Massachusetts, USA) were similar in stands dominated by Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock) and deciduous hardwood species (predominantly Quercus rubra [red oak] and Acer rubrum [red maple]). The abundance index based on salamanders surveyed under natural objects was significantly associated with density estimates of P. cinereus derived from depletion (removal) surveys, but underestimated true density by 50%. In contrast, the abundance index based on cover-board surveys overestimated true density by a factor of 8 and the association between the cover-board index and the density estimates was not statistically significant. We conclude that when calibrated and used appropriately, some abundance indices may provide cost-effective and reliable measures of P. cinereus abundance that

  2. Top consumer abundance influences lake methane efflux

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, Shawn P.; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Syväranta, Jari; Jones, Roger I.

    2015-01-01

    Lakes are important habitats for biogeochemical cycling of carbon. The organization and structure of aquatic communities influences the biogeochemical interactions between lakes and the atmosphere. Understanding how trophic structure regulates ecosystem functions and influences greenhouse gas efflux from lakes is critical to understanding global carbon cycling and climate change. With a whole-lake experiment in which a previously fishless lake was divided into two treatment basins where fish abundance was manipulated, we show how a trophic cascade from fish to microbes affects methane efflux to the atmosphere. Here, fish exert high grazing pressure and remove nearly all zooplankton. This reduction in zooplankton density increases the abundance of methanotrophic bacteria, which in turn reduce CH4 efflux rates by roughly 10 times. Given that globally there are millions of lakes emitting methane, an important greenhouse gas, our findings that aquatic trophic interactions significantly influence the biogeochemical cycle of methane has important implications. PMID:26531291

  3. Attenuation of species abundance distributions by sampling.

    PubMed

    Shimadzu, Hideyasu; Darnell, Ross

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying biodiversity aspects such as species presence/ absence, richness and abundance is an important challenge to answer scientific and resource management questions. In practice, biodiversity can only be assessed from biological material taken by surveys, a difficult task given limited time and resources. A type of random sampling, or often called sub-sampling, is a commonly used technique to reduce the amount of time and effort for investigating large quantities of biological samples. However, it is not immediately clear how (sub-)sampling affects the estimate of biodiversity aspects from a quantitative perspective. This paper specifies the effect of (sub-)sampling as attenuation of the species abundance distribution (SAD), and articulates how the sampling bias is induced to the SAD by random sampling. The framework presented also reveals some confusion in previous theoretical studies. PMID:26064626

  4. Attenuation of species abundance distributions by sampling

    PubMed Central

    Shimadzu, Hideyasu; Darnell, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying biodiversity aspects such as species presence/ absence, richness and abundance is an important challenge to answer scientific and resource management questions. In practice, biodiversity can only be assessed from biological material taken by surveys, a difficult task given limited time and resources. A type of random sampling, or often called sub-sampling, is a commonly used technique to reduce the amount of time and effort for investigating large quantities of biological samples. However, it is not immediately clear how (sub-)sampling affects the estimate of biodiversity aspects from a quantitative perspective. This paper specifies the effect of (sub-)sampling as attenuation of the species abundance distribution (SAD), and articulates how the sampling bias is induced to the SAD by random sampling. The framework presented also reveals some confusion in previous theoretical studies. PMID:26064626

  5. Element by Element Abundances in Spheroidal Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthey, Guy; Serven, Jedidiah

    2006-02-01

    Element-by-element abundances will be derived from high quality long slit KPNO 4m spectra of nearby elliptical galaxies that span the range of velocity dispersion. Analysis of these spectra will give the abundances of 18 individual elements to bring to extragalactic astronomy the same luxurious situation now enjoyed only by stellar spectroscopists. These spectra will reveal the basic element ratio behavior as a function of galaxy velocity dispersion. For example, [Mg/Fe] is seen to be enhanced in large galaxies, but not small ones. We propose to expand our purview from 2 elements (Mg and Fe) to 18 elements. This, in turn, will tie directly to chemical evolution and chemical enrichment mechanisms. As a byproduct, we also decrease the stellar population age uncertainty by about a factor of ten from today's Balmer-metal index diagram techniques.

  6. THE OXYGEN ABUNDANCE IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD

    SciTech Connect

    RodrIguez, Monica; Delgado-Inglada, Gloria E-mail: gloria@inaoep.mx

    2011-06-01

    We present a homogeneous analysis of the oxygen abundance in five H II regions and eight planetary nebulae (PNe) located at distances lower than 2 kpc and with available spectra of high quality. We find that both the collisionally excited lines (CELs) and recombination lines imply that the PNe are overabundant in oxygen by about 0.2 dex. An explanation that reconciles the oxygen abundances derived with CELs for H II regions and PNe with the values found for B stars, the Sun, and the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) requires the presence in H II regions of an organic refractory dust component that is not present in PNe. This dust component has already been invoked to explain the depletion of oxygen in molecular clouds and in the diffuse ISM.

  7. Top consumer abundance influences lake methane efflux.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Shawn P; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Syväranta, Jari; Jones, Roger I

    2015-01-01

    Lakes are important habitats for biogeochemical cycling of carbon. The organization and structure of aquatic communities influences the biogeochemical interactions between lakes and the atmosphere. Understanding how trophic structure regulates ecosystem functions and influences greenhouse gas efflux from lakes is critical to understanding global carbon cycling and climate change. With a whole-lake experiment in which a previously fishless lake was divided into two treatment basins where fish abundance was manipulated, we show how a trophic cascade from fish to microbes affects methane efflux to the atmosphere. Here, fish exert high grazing pressure and remove nearly all zooplankton. This reduction in zooplankton density increases the abundance of methanotrophic bacteria, which in turn reduce CH4 efflux rates by roughly 10 times. Given that globally there are millions of lakes emitting methane, an important greenhouse gas, our findings that aquatic trophic interactions significantly influence the biogeochemical cycle of methane has important implications. PMID:26531291

  8. Deuterium Abundance in the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferlet, R.; Gry, C.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

    1984-01-01

    The present situation of deuterium abundance evaluation in interstellar space is discussed, and it is shown that it should be or = .00001 by studying in more detail lambda the Sco line of sight and by observing two NaI interstellar components toward that star, it can be shown that the D/H evaluation made toward lambda Sco is in fact related to the local interstellar medium (less than 10 pc from the Sun). Because this evaluation is also or = .00001 it is in striking contrast with the one made toward alpha Aur (D/H or = .000018 confirming the fact that the deuterium abundance in the local interstellar medium varies by at least a factor of two over few parsecs.

  9. Occupancy and abundance of wintering birds in a dynamic agricultural landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.W.; Pearlstine, E.V.; Dorazio, R.M.; Mazzotti, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing wildlife management action requires monitoring populations, and abundance often is the parameter monitored. Recent methodological advances have enabled estimation of mean abundance within a habitat using presence-absence or count data obtained via repeated visits to a sample of sites. These methods assume populations are closed and intuitively assume habitats within sites change little during a field season. However, many habitats are highly variable over short periods. We developed a variation of existing occupancy and abundance models that allows for extreme spatio-temporal differences in habitat, and resulting changes in wildlife abundance, among sites and among visits to a site within a field season. We conducted our study in sugarcane habitat within the Everglades Agricultural Area southeast of Lake Okeechobee in south Florida. We counted wintering birds, primarily passerines, within 245 sites usually 5 times at each site during December 2006-March 2007. We estimated occupancy and mean abundance of birds in 6 vegetation states during the sugarcane harvest and allowed these parameters to vary temporally or spatially within a vegetation state. Occupancy and mean abundance of the common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) was affected by structure of sugarcane and uncultivated edge vegetation (occupancy = 1.00 [95%C?? = 0.96-1.00] and mean abundance = 7.9 [95%C?? = 3.2-19.5] in tall sugarcane with tall edge vegetation versus 0.20 [95%C?? = 0.04-0.71] and 0.22 [95%C?? = 0.04-1.2], respectively, in short sugarcane with short edge vegetation in one half of the study area). Occupancy and mean abundance of palm warblers (Dendroica palmarum) were constant (occupancy = 1.00, 95%C?? = 0.69-1.00; mean abundance = 18, 95%C?? = 1-270). Our model may enable wildlife managers to assess rigorously effects of future edge habitat management on avian distribution and abundance within agricultural landscapes during winter or the breeding season. The model may also help

  10. Occupancy and abundance of wintering birds in a dynamic agricultural landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mark W.; Pearlstine, Elise V.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing wildlife management action requires monitoring populations, and abundance often is the parameter monitored. Recent methodological advances have enabled estimation of mean abundance within a habitat using presence–absence or count data obtained via repeated visits to a sample of sites. These methods assume populations are closed and intuitively assume habitats within sites change little during a field season. However, many habitats are highly variable over short periods. We developed a variation of existing occupancy and abundance models that allows for extreme spatio-temporal differences in habitat, and resulting changes in wildlife abundance, among sites and among visits to a site within a field season. We conducted our study in sugarcane habitat within the Everglades Agricultural Area southeast of Lake Okeechobee in south Florida. We counted wintering birds, primarily passerines, within 245 sites usually 5 times at each site during December 2006–March 2007. We estimated occupancy and mean abundance of birds in 6 vegetation states during the sugarcane harvest and allowed these parameters to vary temporally or spatially within a vegetation state. Occupancy and mean abundance of the common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) was affected by structure of sugarcane and uncultivated edge vegetation (occupancy=1.00 [95%CĪ=0.96–1.00] and mean abundance=7.9 [95%CĪ=3.2–19.5] in tall sugarcane with tall edge vegetation versus 0.20 [95%CĪ=0.04–0.71] and 0.22 [95%CĪ=0.04–1.2], respectively, in short sugarcane with short edge vegetation in one half of the study area). Occupancy and mean abundance of palm warblers (Dendroica palmarum) were constant (occupancy=1.00, 95%CĪ=0.69–1.00; mean abundance=18, 95%CĪ=1–270). Our model may enable wildlife managers to assess rigorously effects of future edge habitat management on avian distribution and abundance within agricultural landscapes during winter or the breeding season. The model may also help

  11. Ion Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2003-11-18

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for significantly reducing capacitance effects in detector electrodes arising due to movement of the instrument relative to the item/location being monitored in ion detection based techniques. The capacitance variations are rendered less significant by placing an electrically conducting element between the detector electrodes and the monitored location/item. Improved sensitivity and reduced noise signals arise as a result. The technique also provides apparatus and method suitable for monitoring elongate items which are unsuited to complete enclosure in one go within a chamber. The items are monitored part by part as the pass through the instrument, so increasing the range of items or locations which can be successfully monitored.

  12. WIMP abundance and lepton (flavour) asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Stuke, Maik; Schwarz, Dominik J.; Starkman, Glenn E-mail: dschwarz@physik.uni-bielefeld.de

    2012-03-01

    We investigate how large lepton asymmetries affect the evolution of the early universe at times before big bang nucleosynthesis and in particular how they influence the relic density of WIMP dark matter. In comparison to the standard calculation of the relic WIMP abundance we find a decrease, depending on the lepton flavour asymmetry. We find an effect of up to 20 per cent for lepton flavour asymmetries l{sub f} = O(0.1)

  13. Revised Thorium Abundances for Lunar Red Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagerty, J. J.; Lawrence, D. J.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Hawke, B. R.

    2005-01-01

    Lunar red spots are features on the nearside of the Moon that are characterized by high albedo and by a strong absorption in the ultraviolet. These red spots include the Gruithuisen domes, the Mairan domes, Hansteen Alpha, the southern portion of Montes Riphaeus, Darney Chi and Tau, Helmet, and an area near the Lassell crater. It has been suggested that many of the red spots are extrusive, nonmare, volcanic features that could be composed of an evolved lithlogy enriched in thorium. In fact, Hawke et al. used morphological characteristics to show that Hansteen Alpha is a nonmare volcanic construct. However, because the apparent Th abundances (6 - 7 ppm) were lower than that expected for evolved rock types, Hawke et al. concluded that Hansteen Alpha was composed of an unknown rock type. Subsequent studies by Lawrence et al. used improved knowledge of the Th spatial distribution for small area features on the lunar surface to revisit the interpretation of Th abundances at the Hansteen Alpha red spot. As part of their study, Lawrence et al. used a forward modeling technique to show that the Th abundance at Hansteen Alpha is not 6 ppm, but is more likely closer to 25 ppm, a value consistent with evolved lithologies. This positive correlation between the morphology and composition of Hansteen Alpha provides support for the presence of evolved lithologies on the lunar surface. It is possible, however, that Hansteen Alpha represents an isolated occurrence of non-mare volcanism. That is why we have chosen to use the forward modeling technique of Lawrence et al. to investigate the Th abundances at other lunar red spots, starting with the Gruithuisen domes. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  14. Another look at abundance correlations among comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, Anita L.

    1987-01-01

    Abundance correlations among comets are examined using three different data sets. The C2 and C3 production rates prove to be well correlated with CN production rates, but large scatter exists. It is concluded that a 'normal' comet is one for which Q(C3)/Q(CN) = 0.19 + or - 0.13 and Q(C2)/Q(CN) = 1.46 + or 0.68.

  15. Peculair Abundances in the Crab Nebula's Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesen, Robert A.

    Investigations into the elemental abundances of supernova remnants can provide invaluable information concerning the properties of the progenitor star as well as details of stellar nucleosynthesis. In this regard, the Crab Nebula is especially useful, it being the youngest supernova remnant observable with IUE. Despite being fairly heavily reddened, UV emission-lines from its filaments have been successfully obtained many times early in the history of IUE. These UV spectra provided important and unique data for determining elemental composition of the filamentary ejecta, especially for C, N, and O. Analysis of these data by Davidson et al (1982) indicated nearly solar C/O and N/O ratios despite the large general enrichment of helium in the remnant. Although not realized at the time, there is considerable recent evidence which indicates that significant abundance variations do exist among the filaments. The strongest anomalies in composition are puzzlingly confined to a few relatively bright northern filaments which exhibit nearly solar He abundance yet show possibly large Ni enrichment. If we hope to understand the elemental composition of remnants in general and the Crab Nebula in particular, we then need to determine the composition of these peculiar filaments and to what extent they differ from the rest of the remnant. Towards that goal, we therefore propose to obtain IUE low dispersion SWP spectra on the brightest of these peculiar filaments where we have already obtained matching optical data. Analysis will follow that of Davidson el al but with much more detailed photoionization models for the Crab already developed by us. These data should help determine the true range of abundances present in the Crab's filamentary ejecta.

  16. Abundances of 23 field RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shu; Zhao, Gang; Chen, Yu-Qin; Takeda, Yoichi; Honda, Satoshi

    2013-11-01

    We present stellar parameters and abundances of 15 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Y and Ba) for 23 field RR Lyrae variables based on high-resolution (R ~ 60 000) and high signal-to-noise (S/N~ 200) spectra obtained using the High Dispersion Spectrograph on the Subaru Telescope. Six stars in the sample have more than one spectrum observed at different pulsation phases. The derived abundance ratios of [X/Fe] for 14 elements (except for Ba) do not vary during the pulsation cycle. An interesting curve of [Ba/Fe] versus phase is detected for the first time and it shows decreasing [Ba/Fe] with increasing temperature at a given metallicity. Combining with data in the literature, abundances of most RR Lyrae stars as a function of [Fe/H] follow the same trends as those of dwarf stars, but [Sc/Fe] and [Y/Fe] ratios of RR Lyrae stars at solar metallicity are lower than those of dwarf stars. The kinematics of RR Lyrae stars indicate that three comparatively metal-rich RR Lyrae stars might originate from the thick disk and they show higher [α/Fe] ratios than RR Lyrae stars with thin disk kinematics. Among 23 RR Lyrae stars, two special objects are found with abnormal abundances; TV Lib has high [α/Fe], [Sc/Fe], [Y/Fe] and [Ba/Fe] ratios while TW Her has solar [α/Fe] but significantly lower [Sc/Fe], [Y/Fe] and [Ba/Fe] ratios as compared with other RR Lyrae stars.

  17. Helium isotopic abundance variation in nature

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1993-08-01

    The isotopic abundance of helium in nature has been reviewed. This atomic weight value is based on the value of helium in the atmosphere, which is invariant around the world and up to a distance of 100,000 feet. Helium does vary in natural gas, volcanic rocks and gases, ocean floor sediments, waters of various types and in radioactive minerals and ores due to {alpha} particle decay of radioactive nuclides.

  18. Protocol for Monitoring Fish Assemblages in Pacific Northwest National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenkman, Samuel J.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Rivers and streams that drain from Olympic, Mount Rainier, and North Cascades National Parks are among the most protected corridors in the lower 48 States, and represent some of the largest tracts of contiguous, undisturbed habitat throughout the range of several key fish species of the Pacific Northwest. These watersheds are of high regional importance as freshwater habitat sanctuaries for native fish, where habitat conditions are characterized as having little to no disturbance from development, channelization, impervious surfaces, roads, diversions, or hydroelectric projects. Fishery resources are of high ecological and cultural importance in Pacific Northwest National Parks, and significantly contribute to economically important recreational, commercial, and tribal fisheries. This protocol describes procedures to monitor trends in fish assemblages, fish abundance, and water temperature in eight rivers and five wadeable streams in Olympic National Park during summer months, and is based on 4 years of field testing. Fish assemblages link freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. They also serve as focal resources of national parks and are excellent indicators of ecological conditions of rivers and streams. Despite the vital importance of native anadromous and resident fish populations, there is no existing monitoring program for fish assemblages in the North Coast and Cascades Network. Specific monitoring objectives of this protocol are to determine seasonal and annual trends in: (1) fish species composition, (2) timing of migration of adult fish, (3) relative abundance, (4) age and size structure, (5) extent of non-native and hatchery fish, and (6) water temperature. To detect seasonal and annual trends in fish assemblages in reference sites, we rely on repeated and consistent annual sampling at each monitoring site. The general rationale for the repeated sampling of reference sites is to ensure that we account for the high interannual variability in fish

  19. Environmental factors shaping ungulate abundances in Poland.

    PubMed

    Borowik, Tomasz; Cornulier, Thomas; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2013-01-01

    Population densities of large herbivores are determined by the diverse effects of density-dependent and independent environmental factors. In this study, we used the official 1998-2003 inventory data on ungulate numbers from 462 forest districts and 23 national parks across Poland to determine the roles of various environmental factors in shaping country-wide spatial patterns of ungulate abundances. Spatially explicit generalized additive mixed models showed that different sets of environmental variables explained 39 to 50 % of the variation in red deer Cervus elaphus, wild boar Sus scrofa, and roe deer Capreolus capreolus abundances. For all of the studied species, low forest cover and the mean January temperature were the most important factors limiting their numbers. Woodland cover above 40-50 % held the highest densities for these species. Wild boar and roe deer were more numerous in deciduous or mixed woodlands within a matrix of arable land. Furthermore, we found significant positive effects of marshes and water bodies on wild boar abundances. A juxtaposition of obtained results with ongoing environmental changes (global warming, increase in forest cover) may indicate future growth in ungulate distributions and numbers.

  20. How selection structures species abundance distributions

    PubMed Central

    Magurran, Anne E.; Henderson, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    How do species divide resources to produce the characteristic species abundance distributions seen in nature? One way to resolve this problem is to examine how the biomass (or capacity) of the spatial guilds that combine to produce an abundance distribution is allocated among species. Here we argue that selection on body size varies across guilds occupying spatially distinct habitats. Using an exceptionally well-characterized estuarine fish community, we show that biomass is concentrated in large bodied species in guilds where habitat structure provides protection from predators, but not in those guilds associated with open habitats and where safety in numbers is a mechanism for reducing predation risk. We further demonstrate that while there is temporal turnover in the abundances and identities of species that comprise these guilds, guild rank order is conserved across our 30-year time series. These results demonstrate that ecological communities are not randomly assembled but can be decomposed into guilds where capacity is predictably allocated among species. PMID:22787020

  1. Elemental abundances of solar sibling candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Ramírez, I.; Lambert, D. L.; Endl, M.; Cochran, W. D.; MacQueen, P. J.; Bajkova, A. T.; Bobylev, V. V.; Wittenmyer, R. A.

    2014-06-01

    Dynamical information along with survey data on metallicity and in some cases age have been used recently by some authors to search for candidates of stars that were born in the cluster where the Sun formed. We have acquired high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra for 30 of these objects to determine, using detailed elemental abundance analysis, if they could be true solar siblings. Only two of the candidates are found to have solar chemical composition. Updated modeling of the stars' past orbits in a realistic Galactic potential reveals that one of them, HD 162826, satisfies both chemical and dynamical conditions for being a sibling of the Sun. Measurements of rare-element abundances for this star further confirm its solar composition, with the only possible exception of Sm. Analysis of long-term high-precision radial velocity data rules out the presence of hot Jupiters and confirms that this star is not in a binary system. We find that chemical tagging does not necessarily benefit from studying as many elements as possible but instead from identifying and carefully measuring the abundances of those elements that show large star-to-star scatter at a given metallicity. Future searches employing data products from ongoing massive astrometric and spectroscopic surveys can be optimized by acknowledging this fact.

  2. Distribution and Abundance of Mars' Atmospheric Argon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, A. L.; Boynton, W. V.; Kerry, K. E.; Nelli, Steven; Murphy, Jim; Reedy, R. C.; Metzger, A. E.; Hunten, D. M.; Janes, K. D.; Crombie, M. K.

    2005-01-01

    One and one half Mars years (MY 26 and 27) of atmospheric Argon measurements are described and studied in the context of understanding how Argon, a minor constituent of Mars atmosphere that does not condense at Mars temperatures, can be used to study martian circulation and dynamics. Argon data are from the 2001 Mars Odyssey Gamma Subsystem (GS) of the suite of three instruments comprising the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS). A comprehensive data analysis including gamma-ray production and attenuation by the atmosphere is included. Of particular interest is the enhanced abundance of Ar over the observed Ar abundance at lower latitudes at south (up to a factor of 10) and north (up to a factor of 4) polar regions during winter. Calibration of the measurements to actual Ar abundance is possible because GS measurements cover the same latitude and season as measurements made by the gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) on Viking Landers 1 and 2 (VL1 and VL2). [2].

  3. The Abundance Ratio Pattern in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthey, Guy

    1995-12-01

    Non-solar abundance ratios in elliptical galaxies are readily detectable in a qualitative sense. The elements Mg, Na, and N appear overabundant compared to Ca and Fe. There is a probable variation of (Sc + V)/Ti. Abundance ratio effects are the single most serious barrier to the estimation of mean stellar ages: even more serious than the 35% model-to-model uncertainty. Isochrone grids allowing for the variation of many individual elements (He, O, C, and N at least, in addition to overall Z and alpha elements) are needed to quantitatively estimate the overabundances and mean ages of ellipticals. The tolerances for relative shifts in isochrone temperatures are tight: about 7 K if we hope for 5% accurate ages. The abundance pattern in elliptical galaxies matches neither the disk, nor the halo, nor the bulge our own Galaxy, although the bulge appears to provide the best match. This research was funded by NASA through grant HF-1066.01-94A from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  4. Aerial survey estimates of fallow deer abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gogan, Peter J.; Gates, Natalie B.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Pettit, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the distribution and abundance of an ungulate species is essential prior to establishing and implementing a management program. We used ground surveys to determine distribution and ground and aerial surveys and individually marked deer to estimate the abundance of fallow deer (Dama dama) in north-coastal California. Fallow deer had limited distribution and heterogeneous densities. Estimated post-rut densities across 4 annual surveys ranged from a low of 1.4 (SE=0.2) deer/km2 to a high of 3.3 (se=0.5) deer/km2 in a low density stratum and from 49.0 (SE=8.3) deer/km2 to 111.6 deer/km2 in a high density stratum. Sightability was positively influenced by the presence of white color-phase deer in a group and group size, and varied between airial and ground-based observers and by density strata. Our findings underscore the utility of double-observer surveys and aerial surveys with individually marked deer, both incorporating covariates to model sightability, to estimate deer abundance.

  5. The primordial helium abundance from updated emissivities

    SciTech Connect

    Aver, Erik; Olive, Keith A.; Skillman, Evan D.; Porter, R.L. E-mail: olive@umn.edu E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu

    2013-11-01

    Observations of metal-poor extragalactic H II regions allow the determination of the primordial helium abundance, Y{sub p}. The He I emissivities are the foundation of the model of the H II region's emission. Porter, Ferland, Storey, and Detisch (2012) have recently published updated He I emissivities based on improved photoionization cross-sections. We incorporate these new atomic data and update our recent Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of the dataset published by Izotov, Thuan, and Stasi'nska (2007). As before, cuts are made to promote quality and reliability, and only solutions which fit the data within 95% confidence level are used to determine the primordial He abundance. The previously qualifying dataset is almost entirely retained and with strong concordance between the physical parameters. Overall, an upward bias from the new emissivities leads to a decrease in Y{sub p}. In addition, we find a general trend to larger uncertainties in individual objects (due to changes in the emissivities) and an increased variance (due to additional objects included). From a regression to zero metallicity, we determine Y{sub p} = 0.2465 ± 0.0097, in good agreement with the BBN result, Y{sub p} = 0.2485 ± 0.0002, based on the Planck determination of the baryon density. In the future, a better understanding of why a large fraction of spectra are not well fit by the model will be crucial to achieving an increase in the precision of the primordial helium abundance determination.

  6. Visual Ability and Searching Behavior of Adult Laricobius nigrinus, a Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Predator

    PubMed Central

    Mausel, D.L.; Salom, S.M.; Kok, L.T.

    2011-01-01

    Very little is known about the searching behavior and sensory cues that Laricobius spp. (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) predators use to locate suitable habitats and prey, which limits our ability to collect and monitor them for classical biological control of adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). The aim of this study was to examine the visual ability and the searching behavior of newly emerged L. nigrinus Fender, a host-specific predator of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Phylloxeroidea: Adelgidae). In a laboratory bioassay, individual adults attempting to locate an uninfested eastern hemlock seedling under either light or dark conditions were observed in an arena. In another bioassay, individual adults searching for prey on hemlock seedlings (infested or uninfested) were continuously video-recorded. Beetles located and began climbing the seedling stem in light significantly more than in dark, indicating that vision is an important sensory modality. Our primary finding was that searching behavior of L. nigrinus, as in most species, was related to food abundance. Beetles did not fly in the presence of high A. tsugae densities and flew when A. tsugae was absent, which agrees with observed aggregations of beetles on heavily infested trees in the field. At close range of prey, slow crawling and frequent turning suggest the use of non-visual cues such as olfaction and contact chemoreception. Based on the beetles' visual ability to locate tree stems and their climbing behavior, a bole trap may be an effective collection and monitoring tool. PMID:22220637

  7. Abundant Solar Nebula Solids in Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nguyen, A. N.; Clemett, S.

    2016-01-01

    Comets have been proposed to consist of unprocessed interstellar materials together with a variable amount of thermally annealed interstellar grains. Recent studies of cometary solids in the laboratory have shown that comets instead consist of a wide range of materials from across the protoplanetary disk, in addition to a minor complement of interstellar materials. These advances were made possible by the return of direct samples of comet 81P/Wild 2 coma dust by the NASA Stardust mission and recent advances in microscale analytical techniques. Isotopic studies of 'cometary' chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) and comet 81P/Wild 2 Stardust samples show that preserved interstellar materials are more abundant in comets than in any class of meteorite. Identified interstellar materials include sub-micron-sized presolar silicates, oxides, and SiC dust grains and some fraction of the organic material that binds the samples together. Presolar grain abundances reach 1 weight percentage in the most stardust-rich CP-IDPs, 50 times greater than in meteorites. Yet, order of magnitude variations in presolar grain abundances among CP-IDPs suggest cometary solids experienced significant variations in the degree of processing in the solar nebula. Comets contain a surprisingly high abundance of nebular solids formed or altered at high temperatures. Comet 81P/Wild 2 samples include 10-40 micron-sized, refractory Ca- Al-rich inclusion (CAI)-, chondrule-, and ameboid olivine aggregate (AOA)-like materials. The O isotopic compositions of these refractory materials are remarkably similar to their meteoritic counterparts, ranging from 5 percent enrichments in (sup 16) O to near-terrestrial values. Comet 81P/Wild 2 and CP-IDPs also contain abundant Mg-Fe crystalline and amorphous silicates whose O isotopic compositions are also consistent with Solar System origins. Unlike meteorites, that are dominated by locally-produced materials, comets appear to be composed of

  8. Analysis of proteome changes in doxorubicin-treated adult rat cardiomyocyte

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Suresh N.; Konorev, Eugene A.; Aggarwal, Deepika; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2011-01-01

    Doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in cancer patients is well established. The proposed mechanism of cardiac damage includes generation of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Exposure of adult rat cardiomyocytes to low levels of DOX for 48 h induced apoptosis. Analysis of protein expression showed a differential regulation of several key proteins including the voltage dependent anion selective channel protein 2 and methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase. In comparison, proteomic evaluation of DOX-treated rat heart showed a slightly different set of protein changes that suggests nuclear accumulation of DOX. Using a new solubilization technique, changes in low abundant protein profiles were monitored. Altered protein expression, modification and function related to oxidative stress response may play an important role in DOX cardiotoxicity. PMID:21338723

  9. How climate warming impacts the distribution and abundance of two small flatfish species in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hal, Ralf; Smits, Kalle; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.

    2010-07-01

    Climate change, specifically temperature, affects the distribution and densities of species in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we looked at the effect of temperature during winter and spawning period on latitudinal range shifts and changes in abundance of two non-commercial North Sea fish species, solenette ( Buglossidium luteum) and scaldfish ( Arnoglossus laterna). Both species have increased in abundance and moved to the north since the late 1980s, coinciding with a series of mild winters. In 1996, following a very cold winter, the abundance of both species temporarily decreased as they retracted to the south. The shift in temperature affected adult habitat conditions, allowing them to immigrate into new areas where they subsequently reproduced successfully. We can conclude this because recruitment improved following the increase in abundance. The recruitment relates significantly to the higher adult stock and higher temperatures. The predictions of higher average temperatures and milder winters in the North Sea make it likely that these species will increase further in abundance and move northward. The observed increase in abundance of these small flatfish species will affect the North Sea food web and therefore commercial species, e.g. plaice, by predation on juveniles and competition for benthic food resources.

  10. Copepods attain high abundance, biomass and production in the absence of large predators but suffer cannibalistic loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uye, Shin-ichi; Liang, Dong

    1998-06-01

    Zooplankton samples were collected at intervals of 3-5 days for a year in Fukuyama Harbor, a eutrophic inlet of the Inland Sea of Japan, using a 62-μm-mesh plankton net. The copepod community, which consisted of twelve species, had a very high abundance, biomass and production rate. Acartia omorii, Centropages abdominalis, Oithona davisae and Paracalanus sp. were the most abundant species. The annual average abundance and biomass of adults and copepodites were 1.10×10 5 ind. m -3 and 39.1 mg C m -3, respectively, one of the highest values so far reported in coastal marine waters. The annual average production rate was 6.85 mg C m -3 d -1, of which Paracalanus sp., O. davisae, A. omorii and C. abdominalis accounted for 27, 26, 25 and 13%, respectively. The combination of an abundant food supply and scarce large predators, except for the ctenophore Bolinopsis mikado which was abundant only in mid-summer, allowed the high abundance, biomass and production of copepods. However, predation on copepod eggs and early nauplii by adults and late copepodites reduced the population recruitment rate and copepod production.

  11. The abundance of Ixodes ricinus ticks depends on tree species composition and shrub cover.

    PubMed

    Tack, W; Madder, M; Baeten, L; De Frenne, P; Verheyen, K

    2012-09-01

    The mainstream forestry policy in many European countries is to convert coniferous plantations into (semi-natural) deciduous woodlands. However, woodlands are the main habitat for Ixodes ricinus ticks. Therefore, assessing to what extent tick abundance and infection with Borrelia spirochetes are affected by forest composition and structure is a prerequisite for effective prevention of Lyme borreliosis. We selected a total of 25 pine and oak stands, both with and without an abundant shrub layer, in northern Belgium and estimated tick abundance between April and October 2008-2010. Additionally, the presence of deer beds was used as an indicator of relative deer habitat use. Borrelia infections in questing nymphs were determined by polymerase chain reactions. The abundance of larvae, nymphs, and adults was higher in oak stands compared to pine stands and increased with increasing shrub cover, most likely due to differences in habitat use by the ticks' main hosts. Whereas tick abundance was markedly higher in structure-rich oak stands compared to homogeneous pine stands, the Borrelia infection rates in nymphs did not differ significantly. Our results indicate that conversion towards structure-rich deciduous forests might create more suitable tick habitats, but we were unable to detect an effect on the infection rate.

  12. Space Weather monitoring with Neutron Monitor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, Athanasios; Mavromichalaki, Helen; Steigies, Christian T.

    2013-04-01

    Space Weather affects many areas of the modern society, advance knowledge about space weather events is important to protect personnel and infrastructure. Cosmic ray (CR) intensity measurements are routinely provided by the ground based Neutron Monitors. These measurements are influenced by the passage of the interplanetary counterparts of coronal mass ejections resulting into a significant reduction in the recorded intensity known as Forbush decreases. Furthermore, upon the release of high-energy particles at the Sun during a solar flare or a very energetic coronal mass ejection, the measured intensity can be significantly increased resulting into Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs). By detecting the anisotropy of the CR environment, a CME can be detected hours before it arrives at Earth. During a GLE the high-energy particles from the Sun can be detected before the more abundant lower energy particles arrive at Earth, thus allowing to take protective measures. Since the beginning of the Neutron Monitor Database (NMDB) project, which has been started in 2008 with funding from the European Commission, real-time data from Neutron Monitors around the world has been made available through one web-portal. We have more than doubled the number of stations providing data since the start of the project to now over 30 stations. The effectiveness of the GLE Alert Service application which is based on NMDB data has been validated in real-time by the recent GLE71 on 17 May 2012. We will present different applications through which the measurements and different data products are accessible.

  13. Beryllium and Boron abundances in population II stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The scientific focus of this program was to undertake UV spectroscopic abundance analyses of extremely metal poor stars with attention to determining abundances of light elements such as beryllium and boron. The abundances are likely to reflect primordial abundances within the early galaxy and help to constrain models for early galactic nucleosynthesis. The general metal abundances of these stars are also important for understanding stellar evolution.

  14. Electrostatic monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for more simply measuring alpha and/or beta emissions arising from items or locations. The technique uses indirect monitoring of the emissions by detecting ions generated by the emissions, the ions being attracted electrostatically to electrodes for discharge of collection. The apparatus and method employ a chamber which is sealed around the item or location during monitoring with no air being drawn into or expelled from the chamber during the monitoring process. A simplified structure and operations arises as a result, but without impairing the efficiency and accuracy of the detection technique.

  15. Predators reduce abundance and species richness of coral reef fish recruits via non-selective predation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinlein, J. M.; Stier, A. C.; Steele, M. A.

    2010-06-01

    Predators have important effects on coral reef fish populations, but their effects on community structure have only recently been investigated and are not yet well understood. Here, the effect of predation on the diversity and abundance of young coral reef fishes was experimentally examined in Moorea, French Polynesia. Effects of predators were quantified by monitoring recruitment of fishes onto standardized patch reefs in predator-exclosure cages or uncaged reefs. At the end of the 54-day experiment, recruits were 74% less abundant on reefs exposed to predators than on caged ones, and species richness was 42% lower on reefs exposed to predators. Effects of predators varied somewhat among families, however, rarefaction analysis indicated that predators foraged non-selectively among species. These results indicate that predation can alter diversity of reef fish communities by indiscriminately reducing the abundance of fishes soon after settlement, thereby reducing the number of species present on reefs.

  16. Do predators control prey species abundance? An experimental test with brown treesnakes on Guam.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Earl W; Adams, Amy A Yackel; Converse, Sarah J; Fritts, Thomas H; Rodda, Gordon H

    2012-05-01

    The effect of predators on the abundance of prey species is a topic of ongoing debate in ecology; the effect of snake predators on their prey has been less debated, as there exists a general consensus that snakes do not negatively influence the abundance of their prey. However, this viewpoint has not been adequately tested. We quantified the effect of brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) predation on the abundance and size of lizards on Guam by contrasting lizards in two 1-ha treatment plots of secondary forest from which snakes had been removed and excluded vs. two 1-ha control plots in which snakes were monitored but not removed or excluded. We removed resident snakes from the treatment plots with snake traps and hand capture, and snake immigration into these plots was precluded by electrified snake barriers. Lizards were sampled in all plots quarterly for a year following snake elimination in the treatment plots. Following the completion of this experiment, we used total removal sampling to census lizards on a 100-m2 subsample of each plot. Results of systematic lizard population monitoring before and after snake removal suggest that the abundance of the skink, Carlia ailanpalai, increased substantially and the abundance of two species of gekkonids, Lepidodactylus lugubris and Hemidactylus frenatus, also increased on snake-free plots. No treatment effect was observed for the skink Emoia caeruleocauda. Mean snout-vent length of all lizard species only increased following snake removal in the treatment plots. The general increase in prey density and mean size was unexpected in light of the literature consensus that snakes do not control the abundance of their prey species. Our findings show that, at least where alternate predators are lacking, snakes may indeed affect prey populations.

  17. Do predators control prey species abundance? An experimental test with brown treesnakes on Guam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Earl W.; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Converse, Sarah J.; Fritts, Thomas H.; Rodda, Gordon H.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of predators on the abundance of prey species is a topic of ongoing debate in ecology; the effect of snake predators on their prey has been less debated, as there exists a general consensus that snakes do not negatively influence the abundance of their prey. However, this viewpoint has not been adequately tested. We quantified the effect of brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) predation on the abundance and size of lizards on Guam by contrasting lizards in two 1-ha treatment plots of secondary forest from which snakes had been removed and excluded vs. two 1-ha control plots in which snakes were monitored but not removed or excluded. We removed resident snakes from the treatment plots with snake traps and hand capture, and snake immigration into these plots was precluded by electrified snake barriers. Lizards were sampled in all plots quarterly for a year following snake elimination in the treatment plots. Following the completion of this experiment, we used total removal sampling to census lizards on a 100-m2 subsample of each plot. Results of systematic lizard population monitoring before and after snake removal suggest that the abundance of the skink, Carlia ailanpalai, increased substantially and the abundance of two species of gekkonids, Lepidodactylus lugubris and Hemidactylus frenatus, also increased on snake-free plots. No treatment effect was observed for the skink Emoia caeruleocauda. Mean snout–vent length of all lizard species only increased following snake removal in the treatment plots. The general increase in prey density and mean size was unexpected in light of the literature consensus that snakes do not control the abundance of their prey species. Our findings show that, at least where alternate predators are lacking, snakes may indeed affect prey populations.

  18. Extravasation Injuries in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Benna, S.; O'Boyle, C.; Holley, J.

    2013-01-01

    Insertion of an intravascular catheter is one of the most common invasive procedures in hospitals worldwide. These intravascular lines are crucial in resuscitation, allow vital medication to be administered, and can be used to monitor the patients' real-time vital parameters. There is, however, growing recognition of potential risks to life and limb associated with their use. Medical literature is now replete with isolated case reports of complications succinctly described by Garden and Laussen (2004) as “An unending supply of “unusual” complications from central venous catheters.” This paper reviews complications of venous and arterial catheters and discusses treatment approaches and methods to prevent complications, based on current evidence and endeavours to provide information and guidance that will enable practitioners to prevent, recognise, and successfully treat extravasation injuries in adults. PMID:23738141

  19. Environment Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Viking landers touched down on Mars equipped with a variety of systems to conduct automated research, each carrying a compact but highly sophisticated instrument for analyzing Martian soil and atmosphere. Instrument called a Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) had to be small, lightweight, shock resistant, highly automated and extremely sensitive, yet require minimal electrical power. Viking Instruments Corporation commercialized this technology and targeted their primary market as environmental monitoring, especially toxic and hazardous waste site monitoring. Waste sites often contain chemicals in complex mixtures, and the conventional method of site characterization, taking samples on-site and sending them to a laboratory for analysis is time consuming and expensive. Other terrestrial applications are explosive detection in airports, drug detection, industrial air monitoring, medical metabolic monitoring and for military, chemical warfare agents.

  20. Effects of High-Flow Experiments from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lees Ferry Reach of the Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

    2010-01-01

    High-flow experiments (HFEs) from Glen Canyon Dam are primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River as it flows through Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. These experimental flows also have the potential to affect the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population in the Lees Ferry tailwater reach immediately below the dam, which supports a highly valued recreational fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Understanding how flow regimes affect the survival and growth of juvenile rainbow trout is critical to interpreting trends in adult abundance. This study reports on the effects of HFEs in 2004 and 2008 on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lees Ferry reach on the basis of monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance of the age-0 trout (fertilization to about 1 to 2 months from emergence) and their growth during a 7-year period between 2003 and 2009. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the March 2008 HFE resulted in a large increase in early survival rates of age-0 trout because of an improvement in habitat conditions. A stock-recruitment analysis demonstrated that age-0 abundance in July 2008 was more than fourfold higher than expected, given the number of viable eggs that produced these fish. A hatch-date analysis showed that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that hatched about 1 month after the 2008 HFE (about April 15, 2008) relative to those fish that hatched before this date. These cohorts, fertilized after the 2008 HFE, would have emerged into a benthic invertebrate community that had recovered, and was possibly enhanced by, the HFE. Interannual differences in growth of age-0 trout, determined on the basis of otolith microstructure, support this hypothesis. Growth rates in the summer and fall of 2008 (0.44 mm/day) were virtually the same as in 2006 (0.46 mm/day), the highest recorded during 6 years, even though

  1. Carbon and oxygen abundances in stellar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, P. E.; Chen, Y. Q.; Carigi, L.; Schuster, W. J.; Zhao, G.

    2014-08-01

    Context. Carbon and oxygen abundances in stars are important in many fields of astrophysics including nucleosynthesis, stellar structure, evolution of galaxies, and formation of planetary systems. Still, our knowledge of the abundances of these elements in different stellar populations is uncertain because of difficulties in observing and analyzing atomic and molecular lines of C and O. Aims: Abundances of C, O, and Fe are determined for F and G main-sequence stars in the solar neighborhood with metallicities in the range -1.6 < [Fe/H] < +0.4 in order to study trends and possible systematic differences in the C/Fe, O/Fe, and C/O ratios for thin- and thick-disk stars as well as high- and low-alpha halo stars. In addition, we investigate if there is any connection between C and O abundances in stellar atmospheres and the occurrence of planets. Methods: Carbon abundances are determined from the λλ 5052,5380 C i lines and oxygen abundances from the λ7774 O i triplet and the forbidden [O i] line at 6300 Å. MARCS model atmospheres are applied and non-LTE corrections for the O i triplet are included. Results: Systematic differences between high- and low-alpha halo stars and between thin- and thick-disk stars are seen in the trends of [C/Fe] and [O/Fe]. The two halo populations and thick-disk stars show the same trend of [C/O] versus [O/H], whereas the thin-disk stars are shifted to higher [C/O] values. Furthermore, we find some evidence of higher C/O and C/Fe ratios in stars hosting planets than in stars for which no planets have been detected. Conclusions: The results suggest that C and O in both high- and low-alpha halo stars and in thick-disk stars are made mainly in massive (M> 8 M⊙) stars, whereas thin-disk stars have an additional carbon contribution from low-mass AGB and massive stars of high metallicity causing a rising trend of the C/O ratio with increasing metallicity. However, at the highest metallicities investigated ([Fe/H] ≃ + 0.4), C/O does not

  2. Design for mosquito abundance, diversity, and phenology sampling within the National Ecological Observatory Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoekman, D.; Springer, Yuri P; Barker, C.M.; Barrera, R.; Blackmore, M.S.; Bradshaw, W.E.; Foley, D. H.; Ginsberg, Howard; Hayden, M. H.; Holzapfel, C. M.; Juliano, S. A.; Kramer, L. D.; LaDeau, S. L.; Livdahl, T. P.; Moore, C. G.; Nasci, R.S.; Reisen, W.K.; Savage, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) intends to monitor mosquito populations across its broad geographical range of sites because of their prevalence in food webs, sensitivity to abiotic factors and relevance for human health. We describe the design of mosquito population sampling in the context of NEON’s long term continental scale monitoring program, emphasizing the sampling design schedule, priorities and collection methods. Freely available NEON data and associated field and laboratory samples, will increase our understanding of how mosquito abundance, demography, diversity and phenology are responding to land use and climate change.

  3. Breeding chorus indices are weakly related to estimated abundance of boreal chorus frogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, P.S.; Muths, E.; Kissel, A.M.; Scherer, R. D.

    2011-01-01

    Call surveys used to monitor breeding choruses of anuran amphibians generate index values that are frequently used to represent the number of male frogs present, but few studies have quantified this relationship. We compared abundance of male Boreal Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris maculata), estimated using capture–recapture methods in two populations in Colorado, to call index values derived from automated recordings. Single index values, such as might result from large monitoring efforts, were unrelated to population size. A synthetic call saturation index (CSI), the daily proportion of the maximum possible sum of index values derived from multiple recordings, was greater in larger populations, but the relationship was not highly predictive.

  4. Clutch size of a vole-eating bird of prey as an indicator of vole abundance.

    PubMed

    Solonen, Tapio; Ahola, Kari; Karstinen, Teuvo

    2015-09-01

    Voles are often considered as harmful pests in agriculture and silviculture. Then, the knowledge of their abundance may be of considerable economical importance. Commonly used methods in the monitoring of vole abundances are relatively laborious, expensive, and spatially quite restricted. We demonstrate how the mean clutch size of the tawny owl Strix aluco may be cost-effectively used to predict relative densities of voles over large areas. Besides installing a number of suitable nest boxes, this vole monitoring system primarily includes only the inspection of the nest boxes and counting the number of tawny owl eggs found two times during a few weeks period in spring. Our results showed a considerable agreement between the fluctuations in the mean clutch size of tawny owls and the late spring abundance indices of small voles (Myodes, Microtus) in our study areas in southern Finland. The mean clutch size of the tawny owl reflected spring vole abundance over the spatial range examined, suggesting its suitability for general forecasting purposes. From the pest management point of view, an additional merit of the present method is that it may increase numbers of vole-eaters that provide biological control of vole populations. PMID:26307687

  5. Abundance anomalies in tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2016-05-01

    The ˜10 per cent of tidal disruption events (TDEs) due to stars more massive than M* ≳ M⊙ should show abundance anomalies due to stellar evolution in helium, carbon and nitrogen, but not oxygen. Helium is always enhanced, but only by up to ˜25 per cent on average because it becomes inaccessible once it is sequestered in the high-density core as the star leaves the main sequence. However, portions of the debris associated with the disrupted core of a main-sequence star can be enhanced in helium by factors of 2-3 for debris at a common orbital period. These helium abundance variations may be a contributor to the observed diversity of hydrogen and helium line strengths in TDEs. A still more striking anomaly is the rapid enhancement of nitrogen and the depletion of carbon due to the CNO cycle - stars with M* ≳ M⊙ quickly show an increase in their average N/C ratio by factors of 3-10. Because low-mass stars evolve slowly and high-mass stars are rare, TDEs showing high N/C will almost all be due to ˜1-2 M⊙ stars disrupted on the main sequence. Like helium, portions of the debris will show still larger changes in C and N, and the anomalies decline as the star leaves the main sequence. The enhanced [N/C] abundance ratio of these TDEs provides the first natural explanation for the rare, nitrogen-rich quasars and may also explain the strong nitrogen emission seen in ultraviolet spectra of ASASSN-14li.

  6. Abundance variations in the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Steiger, R.; Schweingruber, R. F. Wimmer; Geiss, J.; Gloeckler, G.

    1995-07-01

    The solar wind (SW) allows us to probe the solar material in situ, particularly its composition, without the need to fly a spacecraft to inhospitably small heliocentric distances. However, it turns out that this plasma source is biased with respect to the photosphere. Elements with a low first ionization potential (FIP) are overabundant by a factor of 3-5 relative to high-FIP elements in the slow SW, but only by a factor of 1.5-2 in the fast streams emanating from coronal holes. It is thus important to have a good understanding of this FIP fractionation effect, which operates between the photosphere and the corona. Such a theory may improve on our understanding of the solar atmosphere and SW acceleration. We present SW measurements, concentrating on results of the SWICS mass spectrometer on Ulysses, which is currently sampling the SW on a highly inclined orbit. IN 1992/93, Ulysses was traversing a recurrent high-speed stream once per solar rotation, alternating with slow SW, providing a unique opportunity to compare these two SW types. We find a strongly positive correlation for low- to high-FIP element ratios (such as Mg/O) with coronal temperature, which in turn is anticorrelated with the SW speed. The correlation of these three parameters -- one chromospheric, one coronal, and one from the SW -- points at a common cause for their variations, and provides a challenge to theorists to model these three domains in an unified approach. Further, abundance variations found in the SW from coronal streamers and in coronal mass ejections are presented and discussed. Finally, we address the question of abundance variations within the fast streams, looking for abundance gradients with heliographic latitude.

  7. Chemical abundances in cold, dark interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, William M.; Kaifu, Norio; Ohishi, Masatoshi

    1991-01-01

    Current tabulations are presented of the entire range of known interstellar molecules, giving attention to that subset which has been identified in the cold, dark interstellar clouds out of which the sun has been suggested to have formed. The molecular abundances of two such clouds, Taurus Molecular Cloud 1 and Lynd's 134N, exhibit prepossessing chemical differences despite considerable physical similarities. This discrepancy may be accounted for by the two clouds' differing evolutionary stages. Two novel classes of interstellar molecules are noted: sulfur-terminated carbon chains and silicon-terminated ones.

  8. Abundances of Planetary Nebula NGC 5315

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Beintema, D. A.; Koorneef, J.; Salas, J. Bernard; Feibelman, W. A.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The ISO and IUE spectra of the elliptical nebula NGC 5315 is presented. These spectra axe combined with the spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of the nebulae is then calculated and compared to previous determinations. The HST Nicmos observations of the nebula in 3 emission lines are also presented. These observations are used to determine the helium abundance as a function of position in the nebula. A discussion is given of possible evolutionary effects.

  9. Chemical abundances in cold, dark interstellar clouds.

    PubMed

    Irvine, W M; Ohishi, M; Kaifu, N

    1991-05-01

    The Sun may well have formed in the type of interstellar cloud currently referred to as a cold, dark cloud. We present current tabulations of the totality of known interstellar molecules and of the subset which have been identified in cold clouds. Molecular abundances are given for two such clouds which show interesting chemical differences in spite of strong physical similarities, Taurus Molecular Cloud 1 (TMC-1) and Lynd's 134N (L134N, also referred to as L183). These regions may be at different evolutionary stages.

  10. Primordial Li abundance and massive particles

    SciTech Connect

    Latin-Capital-Letter-Eth apo, H.

    2012-10-20

    The problem of the observed lithium abundance coming from the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is as of yet unsolved. One of the proposed solutions is including relic massive particles into the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We investigated the effects of such particles on {sup 4}HeX{sup -}+{sup 2}H{yields}{sup 6}Li+X{sup -}, where the X{sup -} is the negatively charged massive particle. We demonstrate the dominance of long-range part of the potential on the cross-section.

  11. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; Chronic bronchitis - adults - discharge; Emphysema - adults - ...

  12. Relationship of Course Woody Debris to Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Prey Diversity and Abundance

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, G.S.

    1999-09-03

    The abundance of diversity of prey commonly used by the red-cockaded woodpecker were monitored in experimental plots in which course woody debris was manipulated. In one treatment, all the woody debris over four inches was removed. In the second treatment, the natural amount of mortality remained intact. The overall diversity of prey was unaffected; however, wood roaches were significantly reduced by removal of woody debris. The latter suggests that intensive utilizations or harvesting practices may reduce foraging.

  13. Effects of Reservoir Characteristics on Malaria and its vector Abundance: A Case Study of the Bongo District of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofosu, E.; Awuah, E.; Annor, F. O.

    2009-04-01

    In the seven (7) administrative zones of the Bongo District of the Upper East Region of Ghana, the occurrences of malaria and relative abundance of the principal malaria vector, Anopheles species, were studied as a function of the presence and characteristics of reservoirs during the rainy season. Case studies in the sub-Sahara Africa indicate that malaria transmission may increase decrease or remain largely unchanged as a consequence of reservoir presence. Analysis made, shows that the distance from reservoir to settlement and surface area of reservoirs significantly affected adult Anopheles mosquito abundance. Percentage of inhabitants using insecticide treated nets, livestock population density, human population density and Anopheles mosquito abundance significantly affected the occurrence of malaria. The results suggest that vector control targeted at reservoir characteristics and larval control, and supplemented by high patronage of insecticide treated nets may be an effective approach for epidemic malaria control in the Bongo District. Key Words: Bongo District, Reservoir, Anopheles species, Malaria, Vector abundance.

  14. The Effects of Site Characterization Activities on the Abundance of Ravens (Corvus corax) in the Yucca Mountain Area

    SciTech Connect

    P.E. Lederle

    1998-05-08

    In response to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) developed and is implementing the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Raven abundance was measured from August 1991 through August 1995 along treatment and control routes to evaluate whether site characterization activities resulted in increased raven abundance at Yucca Mountain. This study fulfills the requirement set forth in the incidental take provisions of the Biological Opinion that DOE monitor the abundance of ravens at Yucca Mountain. Ravens were more abundant at Yucca Mountain than in the control area, and raven abundance in both areas increased over time. However, the magnitude of differences between Yucca Mountain and control surveys did not change over time, indicating that the increase in raven abundance observed during this study was not related to site characterization activities. Increases over time on both Yucca Mountain and control routes are consistent with increases in raven abundance in the Mojave Desert reported by the annual Breeding Bird Survey of the US. Fish and Wildlife Service. Evidence from the Desert Tortoise Monitoring Program at Yucca Mountain suggests that ravens are not a significant predator of small tortoises in this locale. Carcasses of small tortoises (less than 110 mm in length) collected during the study showed little evidence of raven predation, and 59 radiomarked hatchlings that were monitored on a regular basis were not preyed upon by ravens. Overall, no direct evidence of raven predation on tortoises was observed during this study. Small tortoises are probably encountered so infrequently by ravens that they are rarely exploited as a food source. This is likely due to the relatively low abundance of both desert tortoises and ravens in the Yucca Mountain area.

  15. Neon and Oxygen Abundances and Abundance Ratio in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, E.; Testa, P.

    2015-02-01

    In this work we determine the Ne/O abundance ratio from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) off-disk observations of quiescent streamers over the 1996-2008 period. We find that the Ne/O ratio is approximately constant over solar cycle 23 from 1996 to 2005, at a value of 0.099 ± 0.017 this value is lower than the transition region determinations from the quiet Sun used to infer the neon photospheric abundance from the oxygen photospheric abundance. Also, the Ne/O ratio we determined from SUMER is in excellent agreement with in situ determinations from ACE/SWICS. In 2005-2008, the Ne/O abundance ratio increased with time and reached 0.25 ± 0.05, following the same trend found in the slowest wind analyzed by ACE/SWICS. Further, we measure the absolute abundance in the corona for both oxygen and neon from the data set of 1996 November 22, obtaining A o = 8.99 ± 0.04 and A Ne = 7.92 ± 0.03, and we find that both elements are affected by the first ionization potential (FIP) effect, with oxygen being enhanced by a factor of 1.4-2.1 over its photospheric abundance, and neon being changed by a factor of 0.75-1.20. We conclude that the Ne/O ratio is not constant in the solar atmosphere, both in time and at different heights, and that it cannot be reliably used to infer the neon abundance in the photosphere. Also, we argue that the FIP effect was less effective during the minimum of solar cycle 24, and that the Ne/O = 0.25 ± 0.05 value measured at that time is closer to the true photospheric value, leading to a neon photospheric abundance larger than assumed by ≈40%. We discuss the implications of these results for the solar abundance problem, for the FIP effect, and for the identification of the source regions of the solar wind.

  16. Adult flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Toullec, E

    2015-02-01

    Adult flatfoot is defined as a flattening of the medial arch of the foot in weight-bearing and lack of a propulsive gait. The 3 lesion levels are the talonavicular, tibiotarsal and midfoot joints. The subtalar joint is damaged by the consequent rotational defects. Clinical examination determines deformity and reducibility, and assesses any posterior tibialis muscle deficit, the posterior tibialis tendon and spring ligament being frequently subject to degenerative lesions. Radiographic examination in 3 incidences in weight-bearing is essential, to determine the principal level of deformity. Tendon (posterior tibialis tendon) and ligamentous lesions (spring ligament and interosseous ligament) are analyzed on MRI or ultrasound. In fixed deformities, CT explores for arthritic evolution or specific etiologies. 3D CT reconstruction can analyze bone and joint morphology and contribute to the planning of any osteotomy. Medical management associates insoles and physiotherapy. Acute painful flatfoot requires strict cast immobilization. Surgical treatment associates numerous combinations of procedures, currently under assessment for supple flatfoot: for the hindfoot: medial slide calcaneal osteotomy, calcaneal lengthening osteotomy, or arthroereisis; for the midfoot: arthrodesis on one or several rays, or first cuneiform or first metatarsal osteotomy; for the ankle: medial collateral ligament repair with tendon transfer. Fixed deformities require arthrodesis of one or several joint-lines in the hindfoot; for the ankle, total replacement after realignment of the foot, or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion or ankle and hindfoot fusion; and, for the midfoot, cuneonavicular or cuneometatarsal fusion. Tendinous procedures are often associated. Specific etiologies may need individualized procedures. In conclusion, adult flatfoot tends to be diagnosed and managed too late, with consequent impact on the ankle, the management of which is complex and poorly codified.

  17. Adult flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Toullec, E

    2015-02-01

    Adult flatfoot is defined as a flattening of the medial arch of the foot in weight-bearing and lack of a propulsive gait. The 3 lesion levels are the talonavicular, tibiotarsal and midfoot joints. The subtalar joint is damaged by the consequent rotational defects. Clinical examination determines deformity and reducibility, and assesses any posterior tibialis muscle deficit, the posterior tibialis tendon and spring ligament being frequently subject to degenerative lesions. Radiographic examination in 3 incidences in weight-bearing is essential, to determine the principal level of deformity. Tendon (posterior tibialis tendon) and ligamentous lesions (spring ligament and interosseous ligament) are analyzed on MRI or ultrasound. In fixed deformities, CT explores for arthritic evolution or specific etiologies. 3D CT reconstruction can analyze bone and joint morphology and contribute to the planning of any osteotomy. Medical management associates insoles and physiotherapy. Acute painful flatfoot requires strict cast immobilization. Surgical treatment associates numerous combinations of procedures, currently under assessment for supple flatfoot: for the hindfoot: medial slide calcaneal osteotomy, calcaneal lengthening osteotomy, or arthroereisis; for the midfoot: arthrodesis on one or several rays, or first cuneiform or first metatarsal osteotomy; for the ankle: medial collateral ligament repair with tendon transfer. Fixed deformities require arthrodesis of one or several joint-lines in the hindfoot; for the ankle, total replacement after realignment of the foot, or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion or ankle and hindfoot fusion; and, for the midfoot, cuneonavicular or cuneometatarsal fusion. Tendinous procedures are often associated. Specific etiologies may need individualized procedures. In conclusion, adult flatfoot tends to be diagnosed and managed too late, with consequent impact on the ankle, the management of which is complex and poorly codified. PMID:25595429

  18. Non-Additive Effects of Genotypic Diversity Increase Floral Abundance and Abundance of Floral Visitors

    PubMed Central

    Genung, Mark A.; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Brown, Claire B.; Bunn, Windy A.; Cregger, Melissa A.; Reynolds, Wm. Nicholas; Felker-Quinn, Emmi; Stevenson, Mary L.; Hartley, Amanda S.; Crutsinger, Gregory M.; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; Bailey, Joseph K.

    2010-01-01

    Background In the emerging field of community and ecosystem genetics, genetic variation and diversity in dominant plant species have been shown to play fundamental roles in maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, the importance of intraspecific genetic variation and diversity to floral abundance and pollinator visitation has received little attention. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an experimental common garden that manipulated genotypic diversity (the number of distinct genotypes per plot) of Solidago altissima, we document that genotypic diversity of a dominant plant can indirectly influence flower visitor abundance. Across two years, we found that 1) plant genotype explained 45% and 92% of the variation in flower visitor abundance in 2007 and 2008, respectively; and 2) plant genotypic diversity had a positive and non-additive effect on floral abundance and the abundance of flower visitors, as plots established with multiple genotypes produced 25% more flowers and received 45% more flower visits than would be expected under an additive model. Conclusions/Significance These results provide evidence that declines in genotypic diversity may be an important but little considered factor for understanding plant-pollinator dynamics, with implications for the global decline in pollinators due to reduced plant diversity in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. PMID:20090850

  19. Estimating abundance of mountain lions from unstructured spatial sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, Robin E.; Royle, J. Andrew; Desimone, Richard; Schwartz, Michael K.; Edwards, Victoria L.; Pilgrim, Kristy P.; Mckelvey, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) are often difficult to monitor because of their low capture probabilities, extensive movements, and large territories. Methods for estimating the abundance of this species are needed to assess population status, determine harvest levels, evaluate the impacts of management actions on populations, and derive conservation and management strategies. Traditional mark–recapture methods do not explicitly account for differences in individual capture probabilities due to the spatial distribution of individuals in relation to survey effort (or trap locations). However, recent advances in the analysis of capture–recapture data have produced methods estimating abundance and density of animals from spatially explicit capture–recapture data that account for heterogeneity in capture probabilities due to the spatial organization of individuals and traps. We adapt recently developed spatial capture–recapture models to estimate density and abundance of mountain lions in western Montana. Volunteers and state agency personnel collected mountain lion DNA samples in portions of the Blackfoot drainage (7,908 km2) in west-central Montana using 2 methods: snow back-tracking mountain lion tracks to collect hair samples and biopsy darting treed mountain lions to obtain tissue samples. Overall, we recorded 72 individual capture events, including captures both with and without tissue sample collection and hair samples resulting in the identification of 50 individual mountain lions (30 females, 19 males, and 1 unknown sex individual). We estimated lion densities from 8 models containing effects of distance, sex, and survey effort on detection probability. Our population density estimates ranged from a minimum of 3.7 mountain lions/100 km2 (95% Cl 2.3–5.7) under the distance only model (including only an effect of distance on detection probability) to 6.7 (95% Cl 3.1–11.0) under the full model (including effects of distance, sex, survey effort, and

  20. Parameters and abundances in luminous stars

    SciTech Connect

    Earle Luck, R.

    2014-06-01

    Parameters and abundances for 451 stars of spectral types F, G, and K of luminosity classes I and II have been derived. Absolute magnitudes and E(B – V) have been derived for the warmer stars in order to investigate the galactic abundance gradient. The value found here: d[Fe/H]/dR ∼ –0.06 dex kpc{sup –1}, agrees well with previous determinations. Stellar evolution indicators have also been investigated with the derived C/O ratios indicating that standard CN processing has been operating. Perhaps the most surprising result found in these supposedly relatively young intermediate-mass stars is that both [O/Fe] and [C/Fe] show a correlation with [Fe/H] much the same as found in older populations. While the stars were selected based on luminosity class, there does exist a significant [Fe/H] range in the sample. The likely explanation of this is that there is a significant range in age in the sample; that is, some of the sample are low-mass red-giant stars with types that place them within the selection criteria.

  1. Fish abundance, distribution, and habitat use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Valdez, Richard A.; Speas, David W.

    The 1996 controlled flood in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, was designed, in part, to improve conditions for juvenile native fishes by reshaping habitat and displacing non-native fishes. We examined changes in abundance and distributions of native and non-native fishes immediately before and after the controlled flood and recovery of affected species 2.5 and 6 months after. Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) of humpback chub and flannelmouth sucker did not differ in pre- versus post-flood periods. CPUE of plains killifish, bluehead sucker and fathead minnow decreased following the flood, and CPUE of speckled dace and rainbow trout increased. Juvenile humpback chub remained primarily along talus shorelines at all discharges, while at higher discharges, speckled dace shifted from mid-channel riffles to debris fans and talus and fathead minnows used primarily vegetated shorelines. There was evidence of some downstream displacement of plains killifish, fathead minnows and rainbow trout. Catch rates of all species showed seasonal variation following the flood, with summer recruitment of young-of-the-year, particularly fathead minnows and plains killifish. Although short-term reductions in catch rates of fathead minnows and plains killifish occurred, these populations returned to pre-flood densities by 6 months after the flood. Catch rates of all species before and after the flood were similar to those recorded in previous years. We determined that the controlled flood did not significantly alter native fish distributions or abundances through Grand Canyon.

  2. Genomic Repeat Abundances Contain Phylogenetic Signal

    PubMed Central

    Dodsworth, Steven; Chase, Mark W.; Kelly, Laura J.; Leitch, Ilia J.; Macas, Jiří; Novák, Petr; Piednoël, Mathieu; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Leitch, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of genomic information, particularly repetitive elements, is usually ignored when researchers are using next-generation sequencing. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of this repetitive fraction in phylogenetic analyses, utilizing comparative graph-based clustering of next-generation sequence reads, which results in abundance estimates of different classes of genomic repeats. Phylogenetic trees are then inferred based on the genome-wide abundance of different repeat types treated as continuously varying characters; such repeats are scattered across chromosomes and in angiosperms can constitute a majority of nuclear genomic DNA. In six diverse examples, five angiosperms and one insect, this method provides generally well-supported relationships at interspecific and intergeneric levels that agree with results from more standard phylogenetic analyses of commonly used markers. We propose that this methodology may prove especially useful in groups where there is little genetic differentiation in standard phylogenetic markers. At the same time as providing data for phylogenetic inference, this method additionally yields a wealth of data for comparative studies of genome evolution. PMID:25261464

  3. Genomic repeat abundances contain phylogenetic signal.

    PubMed

    Dodsworth, Steven; Chase, Mark W; Kelly, Laura J; Leitch, Ilia J; Macas, Jiří; Novák, Petr; Piednoël, Mathieu; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Leitch, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of genomic information, particularly repetitive elements, is usually ignored when researchers are using next-generation sequencing. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of this repetitive fraction in phylogenetic analyses, utilizing comparative graph-based clustering of next-generation sequence reads, which results in abundance estimates of different classes of genomic repeats. Phylogenetic trees are then inferred based on the genome-wide abundance of different repeat types treated as continuously varying characters; such repeats are scattered across chromosomes and in angiosperms can constitute a majority of nuclear genomic DNA. In six diverse examples, five angiosperms and one insect, this method provides generally well-supported relationships at interspecific and intergeneric levels that agree with results from more standard phylogenetic analyses of commonly used markers. We propose that this methodology may prove especially useful in groups where there is little genetic differentiation in standard phylogenetic markers. At the same time as providing data for phylogenetic inference, this method additionally yields a wealth of data for comparative studies of genome evolution.

  4. Elemental Abundances of Mercury-Manganese Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.

    We propose to obtain a carefully planned set of multiple high dispersion exposures of three MercuryManganese stars in both the SWP and LWP cameras. These observations will be coadded to increase the S/N ratio so that accurate elemental abundances can be derived for these examples of HgMn stars, each of which represents some extreme class aspect. This will increase of sample of HgMn stars from four to seven. Of particular interest are the abundances of N and Co in which some HgMn stars have shown remarkable underabundances. Comparison of the UV and optical spectra features due to light elements such as N (and C and 0) provide an observational framework to test NLTE models such as those of Takada (1993). This work has already shed some light on some of earlier findings for normal stars. The ability to accurately determine the surface chemical composition of the late B stars through such studies will lead to better tests for theories purporting to explain the origin of the chemical peculiarities seen in this temperature domain.

  5. MEASUREMENTS OF ABSOLUTE ABUNDANCES IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Harry P.

    2014-05-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (f). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is f = 1.17 ± 0.22. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation occurs.

  6. L-Lake macroinvertebrates: L Lake/Steel Creek biological monitoring program: January 1986--December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hop, J.R.; Lauritsen, D.

    1988-03-01

    The macroinvertebrate community in L-Lake was monitored from January 1986 to December 1987 to assess the biological development within this new cooling reservoir. Benthic macroinvertebrates are effective indicators of environmental stress because they are sedentary and relatively long-lived. Habitat quality may be reflected in the taxonomic composition, abundance, and total biomass of the macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate sampling included quantitative sampling of benthic habitats with a Ponar grab and qualitative sampling of nearshore habitats with dip nets. Emergence traps were used to collect adult insects emerging from the lake, where they had spent the larval stage of their life cycle. Invertebrate meroplankton was sampled at night by vertical tows of a 0.5 m diameter net. Densities of the predatory dipteran Chaoborus punctipennis, both in meroplankton and benthos, have increased markedly in the two year period following the creation of L-Lake. Densities in 1987 were comparable to those found in other southeastern reservoirs, including Par Pond.

  7. Should managed populations be monitored every year?

    PubMed

    Hauser, Cindy E; Pople, Anthony R; Possingham, Hugh P

    2006-04-01

    We often need to estimate the size of wild populations to determine the appropriate management action, for example, to set a harvest quota. Monitoring is usually planned under the assumption that it must be carried out at fixed intervals in time, typically annually, before the harvest quota is set. However, monitoring can be very expensive, and we should weigh the cost of monitoring against the improvement that it makes in decision making. A less costly alternative to monitoring annually is to predict the population size using a population model and information from previous surveys. In this paper, the problem of monitoring frequency is posed within a decision-theory framework. We discover that a monitoring regime that varies according to the state of the system can outperform fixed-interval monitoring. This idea is illustrated using data for a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) population in South Australia. Whether or not one should monitor in a given year is dependent on the estimated population density in the previous year, the uncertainty in that population estimate, and past rainfall. We discover that monitoring is important when a model-based prediction of population density is very uncertain. This may occur if monitoring has not taken place for several years, or if rainfall has been above average. Monitoring is also important when prior information suggests that the population is near a critical threshold in population abundance. However, monitoring is less important when the optimal management action would not be altered by new information.

  8. Seasonal abundance of carrion-frequenting blow-flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in the Kruger National Park.

    PubMed

    Braack, L E; de Vos, V

    1987-12-01

    Monthly population fluctuations of carrion-frequenting blow-flies over a 24-month period were monitored using 2 carrion-baited traps in the southern Kruger National Park (KNP) and 3 in the northern KNP. All species displayed a clear seasonality. Chrysomyia marginalis and Chrysomyia albiceps were by far the most abundant. C. marginalis attained maximum abundance between November and March, with relatively low numbers present between May and September. C. albiceps maintained high population numbers between January and March in the northern KNP, with minimum numbers between May and August. In the southern KNP, C. albiceps became abundant from November to February, with low population levels between April and September. Although present only in relative low numbers, populations of Lucilia cuprina showed a clear increase in winter. Chrysomyia chloropyga, Chrysomyia putoria and Chrysomyia bezziana were trapped in significant numbers in the southern KNP, the latter 2 species reaching relative abundance in the warmer months, whereas C. chloropyga increased in cooler months from June to September. Graphic illustrations of monthly abundance are provided for all species.

  9. Abundance and distribution of feral pigs at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, 2010-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Leopold, Christina R.; Kendall, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Hakalau Forest Unit of the Big Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex has intensively managed feral pigs (Sus scrofa) and monitored feral pig presence with surveys of all managed areas since 1988. Results of all available data regarding pig management activities through 2004 were compiled and analyzed, but no further analyses had been conducted since then. The objective of this report was to analyze recent feral ungulate surveys at the Hakalau Forest Unit to determine current pig abundance and distribution. Activity indices for feral pigs, consisting of the presence of fresh or intermediate sign at 422 stations, each with approximately 20 sample plots, were compiled for years 2010–2013. A calibrated model based on the number of pigs removed from one management unit and concurrent activity surveys was applied to estimate pig abundance in other management units. Although point estimates appeared to decrease from 489.1 (±105.6) in 2010 to 407.6 (±88.0) in 2013, 95% confidence intervals overlapped, indicating no significant change in pig abundance within all management units. Nonetheless, there were significant declines in pig abundance over the four-year period within management units 1, 6, and 7. Areas where pig abundance remained high include the southern portion of Unit 2. Results of these surveys will be useful for directing management actions towards specific management units.

  10. Predicting the risk of toxic blooms of golden alga from cell abundance and environmental covariates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, Reynaldo; VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Denny, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) is a toxic haptophyte that has caused considerable ecological damage to marine and inland aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Studies focused primarily on laboratory cultures have indicated that toxicity is poorly correlated with the abundance of golden alga cells. This relationship, however, has not been rigorously evaluated in the field where environmental conditions are much different. The ability to predict toxicity using readily measured environmental variables and golden alga abundance would allow managers rapid assessments of ichthyotoxicity potential without laboratory bioassay confirmation, which requires additional resources to accomplish. To assess the potential utility of these relationships, several a priori models relating lethal levels of golden alga ichthyotoxicity to golden alga abundance and environmental covariates were constructed. Model parameters were estimated using archived data from four river basins in Texas and New Mexico (Colorado, Brazos, Red, Pecos). Model predictive ability was quantified using cross-validation, sensitivity, and specificity, and the relative ranking of environmental covariate models was determined by Akaike Information Criterion values and Akaike weights. Overall, abundance was a generally good predictor of ichthyotoxicity as cross validation of golden alga abundance-only models ranged from ∼ 80% to ∼ 90% (leave-one-out cross-validation). Environmental covariates improved predictions, especially the ability to predict lethally toxic events (i.e., increased sensitivity), and top-ranked environmental covariate models differed among the four basins. These associations may be useful for monitoring as well as understanding the abiotic factors that influence toxicity during blooms.

  11. Size-Based Hydroacoustic Measures of Within-Season Fish Abundance in a Boreal Freshwater Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Pollom, Riley A.; Rose, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Eleven sequential size-based hydroacoustic surveys conducted with a 200 kHz split-beam transducer during the summers of 2011 and 2012 were used to quantify seasonal declines in fish abundance in a boreal reservoir in Manitoba, Canada. Fish densities were sufficiently low to enable single target resolution and tracking. Target strengths converted to log2-based size-classes indicated that smaller fish were consistently more abundant than larger fish by a factor of approximately 3 for each halving of length. For all size classes, in both years, abundance (natural log) declined linearly over the summer at rates that varied from -0.067.day-1 for the smallest fish to -0.016.day-1 for the largest (R2 = 0.24–0.97). Inter-annual comparisons of size-based abundance suggested that for larger fish (>16 cm), mean winter decline rates were an order of magnitude lower (-0.001.day-1) and overall survival higher (71%) than in the main summer fishing season (mean loss rate -0.038.day-1; survival 33%). We conclude that size-based acoustic survey methods have the potential to assess within-season fish abundance dynamics, and may prove useful in long-term monitoring of productivity and hence management of boreal aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25875467

  12. Fruit removal rate depends on neighborhood fruit density, frugivore abundance, and spatial context.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam D; McWilliams, Scott R

    2014-03-01

    Fleshy-fruited plants depend fundamentally on interactions with frugivores for effective seed dispersal. Recent models of frugivory within spatially explicit networks make two general predictions regarding these interactions: rate of fruit removal increases (i.e., is facilitated) as densities of conspecific neighborhood fruits increase, and fruit removal rate varies positively with frugivore abundance. We conducted a field experiment that constitutes the first empirical and simultaneous test of these two primary predictions. We manipulated neighborhood abundances of arrowwood (Viburnum recognitum and Viburnum dentatum) fruits in southern New England's maritime shrub community and monitored removal rates by autumn-migrating birds. Focal arrowwood plants in neighborhoods with high conspecific fruit density sustained moderately decreased fruit removal rates (i.e., competition) relative to those in low-density neighborhoods, a result that agrees with most field research to date but contrasts with theoretical expectation. We suggest the spatial contexts that favor competition (i.e., high-abundance neighborhoods and highly aggregated landscapes) are considerably more common than the relatively uniform, low-aggregation fruiting landscapes that promote facilitation. Patterns of arrowwood removal by avian frugivores generally varied positively with, and apparently in response to, seasonal changes in migratory frugivore abundance. However, we suggest that dense stands of arrowwood concentrated frugivore activity at the neighborhood scale, thus counteracting geographic patterns of frugivore abundance. Our results underscore the importance of considering spatial context (e.g., fruit distribution and aggregation, frugivory hubs) in plant-avian frugivore interactions.

  13. Monitored natural attenuation.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Kirsten S; Salminen, Jani M; Björklöf, Katarina

    2010-01-01

    Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) is an in situ remediation technology that relies on naturally occurring and demonstrable processes in soil and groundwater which reduce the mass and concentration of the contaminants. Natural attenuation (NA) involves both aerobic and anaerobic degradation of the contaminants due to the fact that oxygen is used up near the core of the contaminant plume. The aerobic and anaerobic microbial processes can be assessed by microbial activity measurements and molecular biology methods in combination with chemical analyses. The sampling and knowledge on the site conditions are of major importance for the linkage of the results obtained to the conditions in situ. Rates obtained from activity measurements can, with certain limitations, be used in modeling of the fate of contaminants whereas most molecular methods mainly give qualitative information on the microbial community and gene abundances. However, molecular biology methods are fast and describe the in situ communities and avoid the biases inherent to activity assays requiring laboratory incubations.

  14. Using landscape ecology to test hypotheses about large-scale abundance patterns in migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flather, C.H.; Sauer, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The hypothesis that Neotropical migrant birds may be undergoing widespread declines due to land use activities on the breeding grounds has been examined primarily by synthesizing results from local studies. Growing concern for the cumulative influence of land use activities on ecological systems has heightened the need for large-scale studies to complement what has been observed at local scales. We investigated possible landscape effects on Neotropical migrant bird populations for the eastern United States by linking two large-scale inventories designed to monitor breeding-bird abundances and land use patterns. The null hypothesis of no relation between landscape structure and Neotropical migrant abundance was tested by correlating measures of landscape structure with bird abundance, while controlling for the geographic distance among samples. Neotropical migrants as a group were more 'sensitive' to landscape structure than either temperate migrants or permanent residents. Neotropical migrants tended to be more abundant in landscapes with a greater proportion of forest and wetland habitats, fewer edge habitats, large forest patches, and with forest habitats well dispersed throughout the scene. Permanent residents showed few correlations with landscape structure and temperate migrants were associated with habitat diversity and edge attributes rather than with the amount, size, and dispersion of forest habitats. The association between Neotropical migrant abundance and forest fragmentation differed among physiographic strata, suggesting that land-scape context affects observed relations between bird abundance and landscape structure. Finally, associations between landscape structure and temporal trends in Neotropical migrant abundance were negatively correlated with forest habitats. These results suggest that extrapolation of patterns observed in some landscapes is not likely to hold regionally, and that conservation policies must consider the variation in landscape

  15. ABUNDANCES OF GALACTIC ANTICENTER PLANETARY NEBULAE AND THE OXYGEN ABUNDANCE GRADIENT IN THE GALACTIC DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R. B. C.; Morrison, Michael A.; Kwitter, Karen B.; Jaskot, Anne E.; Balick, Bruce; Milingo, Jacquelynne B. E-mail: morrison@nhn.ou.ed E-mail: ajaskot@umich.ed E-mail: jmilingo@gettysburg.ed

    2010-11-20

    We have obtained spectrophotometric observations of 41 anticenter planetary nebulae (PNe) located in the disk of the Milky Way. Electron temperatures and densities, as well as chemical abundances for He, N, O, Ne, S, Cl, and Ar were determined. Incorporating these results into our existing database of PN abundances yielded a sample of 124 well-observed objects with homogeneously determined abundances extending from 0.9 to 21 kpc in galactocentric distance. We performed a detailed regression analysis which accounted for uncertainties in both oxygen abundances and radial distances in order to establish the metallicity gradient across the disk to be 12 + log(O/H) = (9.09 {+-} 0.05) - (0.058 {+-} 0.006) x R{sub g} , with R{sub g} in kpc. While we see some evidence that the gradient steepens at large galactocentric distances, more objects toward the anticenter need to be observed in order to confidently establish the true form of the metallicity gradient. We find no compelling evidence that the gradient differs between Peimbert Types I and II, nor is oxygen abundance related to the vertical distance from the galactic plane. Our gradient agrees well with analogous results for H II regions but is steeper than the one recently published by Stanghellini and Haywood over a similar range in galactocentric distance. A second analysis using PN distances from a different source implied a flatter gradient, and we suggest that we have reached a confusion limit which can only be resolved with greatly improved distance measurements and an understanding of the natural scatter in oxygen abundances.

  16. Climate change affects low trophic level marine consumers: warming decreases copepod size and abundance.

    PubMed

    Garzke, Jessica; Ismar, Stefanie M H; Sommer, Ulrich

    2015-03-01

    Concern about climate change has re-ignited interest in universal ecological responses to temperature variations: (1) biogeographical shifts, (2) phenology changes, and (3) size shifts. In this study we used copepods as model organisms to study size responses to temperature because of their central role in the pelagic food web and because of the ontogenetic length constancy between molts, which facilitates the definition of size of distinct developmental stages. In order to test the expected temperature-induced shifts towards smaller body size and lower abundances under warming conditions, a mesocosm experiment using plankton from the Baltic Sea at three temperature levels (ambient, ambient +4 °C, ambient -4 °C) was performed in summer 2010. Overall copepod and copepodit abundances, copepod size at all life stages, and adult copepod size in particular, showed significant temperature effects. As expected, zooplankton peak abundance was lower in warm than in ambient treatments. Copepod size-at-immature stage significantly increased in cold treatments, while adult size significantly decreased in warm treatments.

  17. Habitat partitioning by five congeneric and abundant Choerodon species (Labridae) in a large subtropical marine embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairclough, D. V.; Clarke, K. R.; Valesini, F. J.; Potter, I. C.

    2008-04-01

    The habitats occupied by the juveniles and adults of five morphologically similar, diurnally active and abundant Choerodon species in the large subtropical environment of Shark Bay, a "World Heritage Property" on the west coast of Australia, have been determined. The densities of the two life cycle stages of each Choerodon species in those habitats were used in various analyses to test the hypotheses that: (1) habitats are partitioned among these species and between their juveniles and adults; (2) such habitat partitioning is greatest in the case of the two Western Australian endemic species, i.e. Choerodon rubescens and Choerodon cauteroma; and (3) the extent of habitat partitioning between both of these two species and the only species that is widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific, i.e. Choerodon schoenleinii, will be less pronounced. Initially, catches of each of the five congeneric species, obtained during other studies in Shark Bay by angling, spearfishing and otter trawling, were collated to elucidate the broad distribution of these species in that embayment. Underwater visual census was then used to determine the densities of the juveniles and adults of each Choerodon species at sites representing the four habitat types in which one or more of these species had been caught, i.e. reefs in marine waters at the western boundary of the bay and seagrass, reefs and rocky shorelines in the two inner gulfs. The compositions of the Choerodon species over marine (entrance channel) reefs and in seagrass were significantly different and each differed significantly from those in both inner gulf reefs and rocky shorelines, which were, however, not significantly different. Choerodon rubescens was restricted to exposed marine reefs, and thus occupied a different habitat and location of the bay than C. cauteroma, the other endemic species, which was almost exclusively confined to habitats found in the inner gulfs. Choerodon cauteroma differed from other Choerodon

  18. Adult Still's disease

    MedlinePlus

    Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...

  19. SENSITIVITY OF ZOOPLANKTON INDICATORS IN REGIONAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study describes an approach for assessing and selecting ecological indicators for regional monitoring of northeastern US lakes. We analyze the components of variance for indicators of zooplankton richness and abundance in the context of the spatial and temporal sampling des...

  20. Monitoring technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, William A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for infrared spectroscopic monitoring of insitu compositional changes in a polymeric material comprises the steps of providing an elongated infrared radiation transmitting fiber that has a transmission portion and a sensor portion, embedding the sensor portion in the polymeric material to be monitored, subjecting the polymeric material to a processing sequence, applying a beam of infrared radiation to the fiber for transmission through the transmitting portion to the sensor portion for modification as a function of properties of the polymeric material, monitoring the modified infrared radiation s