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Sample records for adult adhd symptoms

  1. Exercise May Help Ease Adult ADHD Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... News) -- A burst of moderate exercise may improve motivation and energy in adults with symptoms of attention ... or movement. ADHD can also lead to low motivation and energy, poor performance at work and missed ...

  2. Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Adler, Lenard A.; Qiao, Meihua; Saylor, Keith E.; Brown, Thomas E.; Holdnack, James A.; Schuh, Kory J.; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Kelsey, Douglas K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) that measures aspects of ADHD in adults. Method: Psychometric properties of the AISRS total and AISRS subscales are analyzed and compared to the Conners' Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-Investigator Rated: Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV)…

  3. Associations between Sleep Characteristics, Seasonal Depressive Symptoms, Lifestyle, and ADHD Symptoms in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijlenga, Denise; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Breuk, Minda; van Someren, Eus J. W.; Lie, Maria E. H.; Boonstra, A. Marije; Swaab, Hanna J. T.; Kooij, J. J. Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored associations between ADHD symptoms, seasonal depressive symptoms, lifestyle, and health. Method: Adult ADHD patients ("n" = 202) and controls ("n" = 189) completed the ASESA questionnaire involving lifestyle, eating pattern, and physical and psychological health, and validated measures on ADHD…

  4. Hyperactive-Impulsive Symptoms Associated with Self-Reported Sleep Quality in Nonmedicated Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahajan, Neha; Hong, Nuong; Wigal, Timothy L.; Gehricke, Jean-G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with ADHD often report sleep problems. Though most studies on ADHD and sleep examined children or nonclinically diagnosed adults, the present study specifically examines nonmedicated adults with ADHD to determine whether inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms are associated with sleep problems. Method: A total of 22…

  5. Occupational Outcome in Adult ADHD: Impact of Symptom Profile, Comorbid Psychiatric Problems, and Treatment--A Cross-Sectional Study of 414 Clinically Diagnosed Adult ADHD Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halmoy, Anne; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Gillberg, Christopher; Haavik, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of symptom profile, comorbid psychiatric problems, and treatment on occupational outcome in adult ADHD patients. Method: Adult ADHD patients (N = 414) responded to questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, comorbid conditions, treatment history, and work status. Results: Of the patients, 24%…

  6. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive functioning in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms in relation to self-reported executive functioning deficits in emerging adults. College students (N = 421; ages 17-25; 73.1% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, anxiety, and executive functioning in a laboratory setting. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-reported executive functioning deficits were significantly related to all 3 symptom domains. Executive functioning deficits were most strongly related to inattention followed by hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety. Analyses based on clinical groups revealed that groups with ADHD and comorbid anxiety showed greater deficits on self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving than those with ADHD only or anxiety only. Groups with ADHD showed greater deficits with self-motivation and self-restraint than those with anxiety only. All clinical groups differed from a control group on executive functioning deficits. Overall, anxiety symptoms appear to be associated with college students' self-reported executive functioning deficits above and beyond relationships with ADHD symptomatology. Further, those with ADHD and anxiety appear to show increased difficulties with self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving, a domain which appears to overlap substantially with working memory. Future studies should seek to replicate our findings with a clinical population, utilize both report-based and laboratory task measures of executive functioning, and integrate both state and trait anxiety indices into study designs. Finally, future studies should seek to determine how executive functioning deficits can be best ameliorated in emerging adults with ADHD and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Reliability, Validity, and Utility of Instruments for Self-Report and Informant Report Concerning Symptoms of ADHD in Adult Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Boonstra, A. Marije; Swinkels, S. H. N.; Bekker, Evelijne M.; de Noord, Ineke; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between symptoms of ADHD in adults, obtained with different methods and from different sources. Method: Information was obtained from 120 adults with ADHD, their partners, and their parents, using the ADHD Rating Scale, the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS), the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale…

  8. Child maltreatment and ADHD symptoms in a sample of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sanderud, Karoline; Murphy, Siobhan; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated the relationship between different types of childhood maltreatment (emotional, sexual, overall abuse, and no abuse) and the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in young adulthood. Method Data were collected from a Danish national study conducted by The Danish National Centre for Social Research in 2008 and 2009. A sample of 4,718 young adults (24 years of age) were randomly selected using the total birth cohort of children born in 1984. Structured interviews were conducted with a response rate of 63%, equating to a total sample size of 2,980 participants. Results Chi-square analyses revealed significant relationships between child maltreatment groups and a probable diagnosis of ADHD using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the overall abuse class was more strongly associated with probable ADHD (OR=5.08), followed by emotional abuse (OR=3.09) and sexual abuse (OR=2.07). Conclusions The results showed that childhood maltreatment was associated with increased risk of ADHD symptoms in young adulthood. The findings of this study are discussed within the existing literature and suggestions for future research are outlined in order to replicate these findings in other adult populations. Highlights of the article Child maltreatment is associated with higher levels of ADHD symptoms in a nationally representative sample of young Danish adults. Co-occurring (multiple) types of maltreatment display stronger associations with ADHD symptoms with attenuated effects for sexual abuse. Males confer stronger associations with ADHD symptoms than females. Findings underscore the importance of exploring the role of childhood trauma in young adults with ADHD symptoms. PMID:27306866

  9. Perceptual abnormalities related to sensory gating deficit are core symptoms in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Lopez, Régis; Vaillant, Florence; Richieri, Raphaëlle; El-Kaim, Alexandre; Bioulac, Stéphanie; Philip, Pierre; Boyer, Laurent; Lancon, Christophe

    2015-12-15

    This study investigated and compared perceptual abnormalities related to sensory gating deficit in adult patients with Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (A-ADHD) and adult patients with schizophrenia. Subjects were evaluated with the Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI). We compared SGI scores between patients with A-ADHD, patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects. We also assessed the relationship between SGI scores and clinical symptoms, and evaluated the ability of the SGI to detect perceptual abnormalities in A-ADHD. Seventy adult patients with ADHD reported higher SGI scores than the 70 healthy subjects and the 70 patients with schizophrenia. The inattention factor of the ASRS correlated significantly with the overall SGI score. The ROC AUC for the overall SGI score in the A-ADHD group (versus the healthy group) illustrated good performance. The findings suggest that i) perceptual abnormalities are core symptoms of adult patients with ADHD and ii) the attention of patients with A-ADHD may be involuntarily drowned by many irrelevant environmental stimuli leading to their impaired attention on relevant stimuli. They also confirm that the SGI could be a useful self-report instrument to diagnose the clinical features of A-ADHD. PMID:26416589

  10. Polygenic scores associated with educational attainment in adults predict educational achievement and ADHD symptoms in children.

    PubMed

    de Zeeuw, Eveline L; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Glasner, Tina J; Bartels, M; Ehli, Erik A; Davies, Gareth E; Hudziak, James J; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; de Geus, Eco J C; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-09-01

    The American Psychiatric Association estimates that 3 to 7 per cent of all school aged children are diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Even after correcting for general cognitive ability, numerous studies report a negative association between ADHD and educational achievement. With polygenic scores we examined whether genetic variants that have a positive influence on educational attainment have a protective effect against ADHD. The effect sizes from a large GWA meta-analysis of educational attainment in adults were used to calculate polygenic scores in an independent sample of 12-year-old children from the Netherlands Twin Register. Linear mixed models showed that the polygenic scores significantly predicted educational achievement, school performance, ADHD symptoms and attention problems in children. These results confirm the genetic overlap between ADHD and educational achievement, indicating that one way to gain insight into genetic variants responsible for variation in ADHD is to include data on educational achievement, which are available at a larger scale.

  11. Working memory network alterations and associated symptoms in adults with ADHD and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ariel; Biederman, Joseph; Valera, Eve; Lomedico, Alexandra; Aleardi, Megan; Makris, Nikos; Seidman, Larry J.

    2012-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Bipolar Disorder (BPD) co-occur frequently and represent a particularly morbid clinical form of both disorders, however underlying neural circuitry contributing to the comorbidity remain understudied. Our aim was to investigate functional brain circuitry during working memory in a group of participants who meet criteria for both disorders (ADHD+BPD), and to explore the relationship of symptoms of each disorder to brain function. We used fMRI to image brain activity in 18 male adults with both ADHD and BPD, and 18 healthy control participants matched one-to-one on age, sex, and handedness, while they performed a sequential letter n-back task. We investigated differences in activation between these groups, and also correlations of brain activity during the task to symptoms of ADHD and BPD independently. We found significant hypoactivity in the subjects with ADHD+BPD vs. controls across frontal and parietal regions, and further, found that BPD and ADHD symptoms related to activity in anatomically distinct regions that were respectively characterized by activation and suppression during task. We conclude that comorbid ADHD+BPD is associated with alterations across anterior and posterior nodes of the working memory network, and symptoms of each disorder are related to anatomically and functionally distinct brain regions. PMID:22272986

  12. A new rating scale for adult ADHD based on the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90-R).

    PubMed

    Eich, Dominique; Angst, Jules; Frei, Anja; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Rössler, Wulf; Gamma, Alex

    2012-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is increasingly recognized as a clinically important syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric performance of a new scale for adult ADHD based on the widely used Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R). Scale performance was assessed in a clinical study including 100 ADHD patients and 65 opiate-dependent patient controls, and in the Zurich study, an epidemiological age cohort followed over 30 years of adult life. Assessments included a ROC analysis of sensitivity and specificity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, external validity and measurement invariance over nine testing occasions. The new scale showed a sensitivity and specificity of 75 and 54%, respectively, internal consistency over 0.8 (McDonald's omega, Cronbach's alpha), one-year test-retest reliabilities over 0.7, statistically significant and substantial correlations with two other validated self-rating scales of adult ADHD (R = 0.5 and 0.66, respectively), and an acceptable degree of longitudinal stability (i.e., measurement invariance). The proposed scale must be further evaluated, but these preliminary results indicate it could be a useful rating instrument for adult ADHD in situations where SCL-90-R data, but no specific ADHD assessment, are available, such as in retrospective data analysis or in prospective studies with limited methodical resources. PMID:22212725

  13. Untreated ADHD in Adults: Are There Sex Differences in Symptoms, Comorbidity, and Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; Levander, Sten

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze sex differences among adult, never-treated patients referred for central stimulant treatment of ADHD. Method: Data for 600 consecutive patients from northern Norway referred for evaluation by an expert team during 7 years were analyzed. General background information, diagnostic and social history, and symptom profiles were…

  14. Post-error adjustments and ADHD symptoms in adults: The effect of laterality and state regulation.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh M H; Börger, Norbert A; Geuze, Reint H; van der Meere, Jaap J

    2016-10-01

    Evidence is accumulating that individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) do not adjust their responses after committing errors. Post-error response adjustments are taken to reflect, among others, error monitoring that is essential for learning, flexible behavioural adaptation, and achieving future goals. Many behavioural studies have suggested that atypical lateral brain functions and difficulties in allocating effort to protect performance against stressors (i.e., state regulation) are key factors in ADHD. Whether these factors contribute to the absence of post-error response adjustments in ADHD is unknown. The aim of the present study is to investigate the contribution of the left and right hemispheres and the deficiency in effort allocation to deviant post-error processing in adults with high ADHD symptoms. From a pool of 87 university students, two groups were formed: a group with higher (n=30) and a group with lower (n=26) scores on the ADHD index subscale of the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales. The groups performed a lateralized lexical decision task with a fast and slower stimulus presentation rate. Post-error slowing and post-error response accuracy to stimuli presented in the left and right visual field were measured in each stimulus presentation rate. Results indicated that subjects with the lower ADHD scores slowed down and improved their response accuracy after errors, especially when stimuli were presented in the right visual field at the slower rate. In contrast, subjects with the higher ADHD scores showed no post-error adjustments. Results suggest that during lexical decision performance, impaired error processing in adults with ADHD is associated with affected ability of the left hemisphere to compensate for errors, especially when extra effort allocation is needed to meet task demands.

  15. Post-error adjustments and ADHD symptoms in adults: The effect of laterality and state regulation.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh M H; Börger, Norbert A; Geuze, Reint H; van der Meere, Jaap J

    2016-10-01

    Evidence is accumulating that individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) do not adjust their responses after committing errors. Post-error response adjustments are taken to reflect, among others, error monitoring that is essential for learning, flexible behavioural adaptation, and achieving future goals. Many behavioural studies have suggested that atypical lateral brain functions and difficulties in allocating effort to protect performance against stressors (i.e., state regulation) are key factors in ADHD. Whether these factors contribute to the absence of post-error response adjustments in ADHD is unknown. The aim of the present study is to investigate the contribution of the left and right hemispheres and the deficiency in effort allocation to deviant post-error processing in adults with high ADHD symptoms. From a pool of 87 university students, two groups were formed: a group with higher (n=30) and a group with lower (n=26) scores on the ADHD index subscale of the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales. The groups performed a lateralized lexical decision task with a fast and slower stimulus presentation rate. Post-error slowing and post-error response accuracy to stimuli presented in the left and right visual field were measured in each stimulus presentation rate. Results indicated that subjects with the lower ADHD scores slowed down and improved their response accuracy after errors, especially when stimuli were presented in the right visual field at the slower rate. In contrast, subjects with the higher ADHD scores showed no post-error adjustments. Results suggest that during lexical decision performance, impaired error processing in adults with ADHD is associated with affected ability of the left hemisphere to compensate for errors, especially when extra effort allocation is needed to meet task demands. PMID:27429094

  16. Compulsive buying: Earlier illicit drug use, impulse buying, depression, and adult ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2015-08-30

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant's earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB.

  17. Compulsive Buying: Earlier Illicit Drug Use, Impulse Buying, Depression, and Adult ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant’s earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. PMID:26165963

  18. Adolescent girls' ADHD symptoms and young adult driving: the role of perceived deviant peer affiliation.

    PubMed

    Cardoos, Stephanie L; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to examine the role of adolescent perceived deviant peer affiliation in mediating or moderating the association between adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and young adult driving risk in females with and without ADHD. The overall sample included 228 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls with or without a diagnosis of ADHD in childhood (Wave 1; 6-12 years) followed through adolescence (Wave 2; 11-18 years) and into young adulthood (Wave 3; 17-24 years). A subsample of 103 girls with a driving license by Wave 3 and with full data for all study variables was utilized in this investigation. In adolescence, mothers and teachers reported on ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity), and participants reported on perceived deviant peer affiliation. In young adulthood, participants reported on driving behavior and outcomes, including number of accidents, number of moving vehicle citations, and ever having driven illegally. Covariates included age and adolescent oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder. Inattention directly predicted citations. Perceived deviant peer affiliation mediated the association between inattention and (a) accidents and (b) citations. In addition, perceived deviant peer affiliation moderated the association between hyperactivity/impulsivity and accidents, with hyperactivity/impulsivity predicting accidents only for those with low perceived deviant peer affiliation. Perceived deviant peer affiliation appears to play an important role in the association between ADHD symptoms and driving outcomes. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that both ADHD symptoms and peer processes should be targeted in interventions that aim to prevent negative driving outcomes in young women with and without ADHD.

  19. Diagnosis of ADHD in Adults: What Is the Appropriate "DSM-5" Symptom Threshold for Hyperactivity-Impulsivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanto, Mary V.; Wasserstein, Jeanette; Marks, David J.; Mitchell, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To empirically identify the appropriate symptom threshold for hyperactivity-impulsivity for diagnosis of ADHD in adults. Method: Participants were 88 adults (M [SD] age = 41.69 [11.78] years, 66% female, 16% minority) meeting formal "DSM-IV" criteria for ADHD combined or predominantly inattentive subtypes based on a structured…

  20. Adolescent Girls' ADHD Symptoms and Young Adult Driving: The Role of Perceived Deviant Peer Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoos, Stephanie L.; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to examine the role of adolescent perceived deviant peer affiliation in mediating or moderating the association between adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and young adult driving risk in females with and without ADHD. The overall sample included 228 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls with…

  1. Agreement Rates between Parent and Self-Report on Past ADHD Symptoms in an Adult Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Gabriela; Mattos, Paulo; Coutinho, Gabriel; Segenreich, Daniel; Saboya, Eloisa; Ayrao, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate agreement rates between parent and self-report on childhood symptoms of ADHD. Method: Sixty-eight self-referred treatment-naive adults (33 men, 35 women) were interviewed with a modified version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Epidemiological Version (K-SADS-E) and asked about past ADHD…

  2. Understanding the Phenotypic Structure of Adult Retrospective ADHD Symptoms during Childhood in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranby, Krista W.; Boynton, Marcella H.; Kollins, Scott H.; McClernon, F. Joseph; Yang, Chongming; Fuemmeler, Bernard F.

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and the phenotypic structure comprising inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive type symptoms has been the focus of a growing body of recent research. Methodological studies are needed to better characterize phenotypes to advance research as well as clinical…

  3. Father Residency and Symptoms of ADHD: Adult Male Involvement as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; To, Yen M.; Davis, Tonya N.; Thomson, David

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between fathers' involvement and the presence of later symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. A community-based, nationally representative sample of children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort was utilised. Using a…

  4. Brain lateralization and self-reported symptoms of ADHD in a population sample of adults: a dimensional approach

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Saleh M. H.; Börger, Norbert A.; Geuze, Reint H.; van der Meere, Jaap J.

    2015-01-01

    Many clinical studies reported a compromised brain lateralization in patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) without being conclusive about whether the deficit existed in the left or right hemisphere. It is well-recognized that studying ADHD dimensionally is more controlled for comorbid problems and medication effects, and provides more accurate assessment of the symptoms. Therefore, the present study applied the dimensional approach to test the relationship between brain lateralization and self-reported ADHD symptoms in a population sample. Eighty-five right-handed university students filled in the Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scales and performed a lateralization reaction time task. The task consists of two matching conditions: one condition requires nominal identification for letters tapping left hemisphere specialization (Letter Name-Identity condition) and the other one requires physical and visuospatial identification for shapes tapping right hemisphere specialization (Shape Physical-Identity condition). The letters or shapes to be matched are presented in left or right visual field of a fixation cross. For both task conditions, brain lateralization was indexed as the difference in mean reaction time between left and right visual field. Linear regression analyses, controlled for mood symptoms reported by a depression, anxiety, and stress scale, showed no relationship between the variables. These findings from a population sample of adults do not support the dimensionality of lateralized information processing deficit in ADHD symptomatology. However, group comparison analyses showed that subjects with high level of inattention symptoms close to or above the clinical cut-off had a reduced right hemisphere processing in the Shape Physical-Identity condition. PMID:26441789

  5. Conceptual Structure of the Symptoms of Adult ADHD According to the "DSM-IV" and Retrospective Wender-Utah Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glockner-Rist, Angelika; Pedersen, Anya; Rist, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Adult "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; "DSM-IV") and retrospective childhood Wender-Utah ADHD criteria are implemented in self-report measures to assess adult ADHD and its required onset in childhood. Yet their dimensional structure and relationship to adult ADHD depressivity is still…

  6. Adults with ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Adults with ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Some ... as clear cut as symptoms seen in children. ADHD Research The expansion of knowledge in genetics, brain ...

  7. ADHD in Adults. [DVD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.

    2006-01-01

    From leading ADHD authority Dr. Russell A. Barkley, this instructive program integrates information about ADHD with the experiences of adults from different walks of life who suffer from the disorder. Including interviews with these individuals, their family members, and the clinicians who treat them, the program addresses such important topics as…

  8. ADHD Symptoms and Subtypes: Relationship between Childhood and Adolescent Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Taanila, Anja; Miettunen, Jouko; Smalley, Susan L.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Moilanen, Irma K.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) symptoms and subtypes in childhood and adolescence. The results conclude the persistence of ADHD from childhood to adolescence with specific symptoms contributing to persistent ADHD.

  9. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition system among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Li, Wendi; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Nie, Jia

    2016-09-30

    The aims of this study were to test the associations of the Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition systems among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adults with non-ADHD. A total of 146 adults aged between 19 and 33 years involved in this study. Participants were assessed with the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report scale (ASRS), the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the UCLA loneliness scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale). The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that impulsiveness, loneliness, and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictors of Internet addition among adults with ADHD. Higher loneliness was significantly associated with more severe Internet addition symptoms among the non-ADHD group. Adults with high impulsiveness, loneliness, and BIS should be treated with caution for preventing Internet addiction. In addition, adults with and without ADHD should be provided with different preventative strategies. PMID:27449004

  10. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition system among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Li, Wendi; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Nie, Jia

    2016-09-30

    The aims of this study were to test the associations of the Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition systems among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adults with non-ADHD. A total of 146 adults aged between 19 and 33 years involved in this study. Participants were assessed with the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report scale (ASRS), the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the UCLA loneliness scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale). The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that impulsiveness, loneliness, and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictors of Internet addition among adults with ADHD. Higher loneliness was significantly associated with more severe Internet addition symptoms among the non-ADHD group. Adults with high impulsiveness, loneliness, and BIS should be treated with caution for preventing Internet addiction. In addition, adults with and without ADHD should be provided with different preventative strategies.

  11. Retrospective Ratings of ADHD Symptoms Made at Young Adulthood by Clinic-Referred Boys with ADHD-Related Problems, Their Brothers without ADHD, and Control Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, Jan; Ledolter, Johannes; Kramer, John R.; Volpe, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Retrospective childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are required to diagnosis adult ADHD, but the validity of self-rated symptoms across time is questionable. Here, boys with ADHD-related problems, their brothers without ADHD, and former schoolmates rated themselves during young adulthood for ages 9, 14, and 19.…

  12. Item Response Theory Analyses of Adult Self-Ratings of the ADHD Symptoms in the Current Symptoms Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson

    2011-01-01

    The graded response model, which is based on item response theory, was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of adult self-ratings (N = 852) of the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity symptoms presented in the Current Symptoms Scale. This scale has four ordered response categories. The…

  13. Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimherr, Frederick W.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Olsen, John L.; Wender, Paul H.; Robison, Reid J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is the most common comorbid condition in childhood ADHD. This trial was prospectively designed to explore ODD symptoms in ADHD adults. Method: A total of 86 patients in this placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) were categorized based on the presence of ODD…

  14. Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Adult ADHD and Impact on Emotional and Oppositional Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Barrie K.; Reimherr, Frederick W.; Robison, Reid J.; Olsen, John L.; Kondo, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This trial evaluated the effect of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) on the full spectrum of adult symptoms (attention-disorganization, hyperactivity-impulsivity, emotional dysregulation [ED], and oppositional-defiant disorder [ODD]) found in this disorder. Method: This placebo-controlled, double-blind, flexible-dose, crossover…

  15. Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserstein, Jeanette; Wasserstein, Adella; Wolf, Lorraine E.

    This digest examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and symptoms of the disability. Pertinent adult problems include: (1) substance abuse, antisocial behaviors, and criminality, all of which can occur in adults with ADHD; (2) poor social skills or deficits in self-awareness are also frequent; (3) occurrence of ADHD with…

  16. Training Raters to Assess Adult ADHD: Reliability of Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas; Faraone, Stephen V.; Reimherr, Fred W.; Kelsey, Douglas; Michelson, David; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The standardization of ADHD ratings in adults is important given their differing symptom presentation. The authors investigated the agreement and reliability of rater standardization in a large-scale trial of atomoxetine in adults with ADHD. Training of 91 raters for the investigator-administered ADHD Rating Scale (ADHDRS-IV-Inv) occurred prior to…

  17. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  18. Medication Adherence in Psychopharmacologically Treated Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safren, Steven A.; Duran, Petra; Yovel, Iftah; Perlman, Carol A.; Sprich, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: One of the potential causes of residual symptoms of ADHD in adults can be difficulties with consistent adherence to medications. Method: This formative study examined self-reported medication adherence in adults with ADHD with clinically significant symptoms despite medication treatment. Results: Mean adherence for the two-week period…

  19. Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anholt, Gideon E.; Cath, Danielle C.; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2010-01-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and…

  20. Persistent Nonmedical Use of Prescription Stimulants among College Students: Possible Association with ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arria, Amelia M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible association between untreated ADHD symptoms (as measured by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale) and persistent nonmedical use of prescription stimulants. Method: Multinomial regression modeling was used to compare ADHD symptoms among three groups of college students enrolled in a longitudinal study over 4…

  1. Symptoms of ADHD and Academic Concerns in College Students with and without ADHD Diagnoses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Lawrence J.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Codding, Robin S.; Gordon, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has found ADHD symptoms to be common in the general population but has not compared endorsement of symptoms between ADHD and non-ADHD groups. This study examines self-reported ADHD symptoms and academic complaints in college students. Method: Students without (n = 496) and with ADHD (n = 38) completed a questionnaire…

  2. [Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): current issues].

    PubMed

    Bader, M; Perroud, N

    2012-09-19

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has prevalence between 3 and 7% in childhood and adolescence. As high as 60% of childhood cases continue to have clinically significant symptoms of ADHD as adults. Psychiatric comorbidities are often found in ADHD subjects including, in childhood, emotional, behavior and learning disorders. Psychiatric comorbidities in adolescents and adults suffering from ADHD include mood and substance use disorders. Although may one fear giving psychostimulants to ADHD patients with comorbidities, recent studies have shown the benefits of such treatment not only in the clinical but also in the educational and socioprofessional point of views. Psychotherapeutic approaches should ideally accompany pharmacological treatments.

  3. [Symptom variations in ADHD: importance of context, development and comorbidity].

    PubMed

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Wohl, M; Michel, G; Mouren, M C; Gorwood, P

    2004-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) is a common disorder in school-aged children and is associated with significant impairment in social and academic functioning. Its recognition is based on congruent information from different sources, because most ADHD children and adolescents are not completely aware of impairments caused by inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Fluctuations in symptom expression may complicate the diagnosis: during clinical examination or tests sessions, ADHD symptoms may be less severe than usual or completely absent. This review examines variations in ADHD symptoms due to environmental context, internal state, circadian factors, development, psychiatric comorbidity and discusses their clinical relevance. Generally, ADHD symptoms are pervasive and identified in different areas of functioning. Despite their chronicity, they show a relative context-dependency. An unfamiliar environment or situation may lessen symptoms. The same happens in dual relations or in calm settings, when the child receives attention and positive reinforcement from the adult. On the contrary, the classroom situation with its high stimulation level (noise, visual distractors, large class size) is likely to reveal or accentuate instability, impulsivity and inattention. Independently from objective symptom fluctuations, the impact of ADHD symptoms, and their consequences on self-esteem may also vary with the degree of environmental mismatch. Recent research in experimental psychology also draws attention to the motivational state of ADHD children: preference for immediate gratification and delay aversion may explain why most of them show satisfactory attentional capacities in certain activities (for instance video games or TV), while showing impairment in school work or in other effortful tasks. The diagnosis of the full ADHD syndrome requires significant impact on functioning in at least two areas. Some children with "situational" ADHD are impaired either in

  4. [Symptom variations in ADHD: importance of context, development and comorbidity].

    PubMed

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Wohl, M; Michel, G; Mouren, M C; Gorwood, P

    2004-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) is a common disorder in school-aged children and is associated with significant impairment in social and academic functioning. Its recognition is based on congruent information from different sources, because most ADHD children and adolescents are not completely aware of impairments caused by inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Fluctuations in symptom expression may complicate the diagnosis: during clinical examination or tests sessions, ADHD symptoms may be less severe than usual or completely absent. This review examines variations in ADHD symptoms due to environmental context, internal state, circadian factors, development, psychiatric comorbidity and discusses their clinical relevance. Generally, ADHD symptoms are pervasive and identified in different areas of functioning. Despite their chronicity, they show a relative context-dependency. An unfamiliar environment or situation may lessen symptoms. The same happens in dual relations or in calm settings, when the child receives attention and positive reinforcement from the adult. On the contrary, the classroom situation with its high stimulation level (noise, visual distractors, large class size) is likely to reveal or accentuate instability, impulsivity and inattention. Independently from objective symptom fluctuations, the impact of ADHD symptoms, and their consequences on self-esteem may also vary with the degree of environmental mismatch. Recent research in experimental psychology also draws attention to the motivational state of ADHD children: preference for immediate gratification and delay aversion may explain why most of them show satisfactory attentional capacities in certain activities (for instance video games or TV), while showing impairment in school work or in other effortful tasks. The diagnosis of the full ADHD syndrome requires significant impact on functioning in at least two areas. Some children with "situational" ADHD are impaired either in

  5. Modafinil treatment of amphetamine abuse in adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mann, N; Bitsios, P

    2009-06-01

    Substance abuse is a frequent co-morbid condition of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Treatment with conventional psychostimulants in adult ADHD with co-morbid stimulant abuse may be problematic. In this study, we report the case of a patient with adult ADHD with co-morbid amphetamine abuse who was treated successfully with the non-stimulant alertness-promoting drug modafinil. The drug resolved both the inattention/hyperactivity symptoms as well as the amphetamine abuse. Modafinil may be a suitable candidate treatment for adults with ADHD and stimulant abuse.

  6. The Reliability and Validity of Self- and Investigator Ratings of ADHD in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Michelson, David; Reimherr, Frederick W.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Little information is available comparing self- versus investigator ratings of symptoms in adult ADHD. The authors compared the reliability, validity, and utility in a sample of adults with ADHD and also as an index of clinical improvement during treatment of self- and investigator ratings of ADHD symptoms via the Conners Adult ADHD…

  7. Adult ADHD and comorbid depression: A consensus-derived diagnostic algorithm for ADHD

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Diane; Kutcher, Stan; Binder, Carin; Levitt, Anthony; Fallu, Angelo; Rosenbluth, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Many patients present to their physician with depression as their primary symptom. However, depression may mask other comorbid disorders. This article presents diagnostic criteria and treatment recommendations (and monitoring) pertaining to the diagnosis of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which may be missed in patients who present with depressive symptoms, or major depressive disorder (MDD). Other co-occurring conditions such as anxiety, substance use, and bipolar disorder are briefly discussed. Methods: A panel of psychiatrist-clinicians with expertise in the area of child and adolescent ADHD and mood disorders, adult mood disorders, and adult ADHD was convened. A literature search for recommendations on the diagnosis and treatment of co-occurring conditions (MDD, anxiety symptoms, and substance use) with adult ADHD was performed. Based on this, and the panel’s clinical expertise, the authors developed a diagnostic algorithm and recommendations for the treatment of adult ADHD with co-occurring MDD. Results: Little information exists to assist clinicians in diagnosing ADHD co-occurring with other disorders such as MDD. A three-step process was developed by the panel to aid in the screening and diagnosis of adult ADHD. In addition, comorbid MDD, bipolar disorder, anxiety symptoms, substance use and cardiovascular concerns regarding stimulant use are discussed. Conclusion: This article provides clinicians with a clinically relevant overview of the literature on comorbid ADHD and depression and offers a clinically useful diagnostic algorithm and treatment suggestions. PMID:19557108

  8. Anchoring ADHD Symptoms to Mental Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Callie; Dunham, Mardis; Patel, Samir H.; Contreras-Bloomdahl, Susana

    2016-01-01

    "The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)," requires that symptoms of ADHD must be "developmentally inappropriate" in order for an ADHD diagnosis to be considered. Because the DSM-5 does not specifically outline procedure for determining developmental inappropriateness of behaviors,…

  9. FACTOR STRUCTURE OF DSM-IV SYMPTOMS IN ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective: In up to 50% of clinic-referred samples of children, ADHD symptoms persist into adulthood,1-3 with the prevalence of adult ADHD currently estimated at 4.4%4. Similar to the pervasive impairments experienced by children with ADHD, adults with ADHD are less likely to com...

  10. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Print A A A ... doesn't involve hyperactivity. Symptoms and Signs of ADHD Because ADHD covers lots of different things — attention, ...

  11. Multitasking in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Merkt, Julia; Goossens-Merkt, Heinrich; Bodenburg, Sebastian; Wendt, Mike

    2011-09-01

    Adults with ADHD have problems in everyday multitasking situations presumably because of deficits in executive functions. The present study aims to find out (a) whether adults with ADHD show deficient multitasking performance in a standardized task, (b) how they perceive the multitasking situation, and (c) which task structure might be beneficial for them as compared with adults without ADHD. Therefore, we experimentally compared task performance, mood, and motivation in a group of 45 men with ADHD (M-age = 34.47, SD = 9.95) with a comparison group of 42 men without ADHD (M-age = 31.12, SD = 10.59) in three conditions: (a) a multitasking paradigm, (b) an interleaving condition in which tasks had to be performed without planning or monitoring, and (c) a non-interleaving condition. Our results showed no impaired multitasking performance in adults with ADHD. However, they showed better mood and more motivation in the non-interleaving condition.

  12. [Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Treatment of ADHD in Adults].

    PubMed

    Auclair, Vickie; Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background The international prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated at 2.5%. ADHD is associated with serious impairment in academic, occupational, social and emotional functioning. Despite the debilitating nature of this disorder, few individuals with ADHD receive appropriate help. Further, although psychopharmacology is considered the first-line treatment of adults with ADHD, it is now recognized that medication alone may be insufficient. Thus, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a promising approach.Objectives This study aimed to review literature and investigate the efficacy of CBT, in reducing ADHD symptoms and comorbid conditions such anxiety and depression for adults with ADHD, by several studies through a meta-analysis.Methods We searched the literature from 1946 through 2015 using especially MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO. We used a random-effects model, Odds Ratios (OR) and Hedge's g.Results Data from 12 randomized controlled studies were included, totaling 575 subjects. The results showed a significant reduction in ADHD symptoms (Hedge's g = 0.95) and comorbid anxiety (Hedge's g = 0.39) and depression (Hedge's g = 0.30) for the CBT group in comparison with controls. Following the end of treatment, ADHD symptoms continue to improve, but not the comorbid conditions.Conclusion In summary, in adults with ADHD, CBT appears to be a promising treatment. PMID:27570962

  13. The Relationship between Grey-Matter and ASD and ADHD Traits in Typical Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Scholte, H. Steven

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether in 85 healthy adults (18-29 years) there is a relationship between grey-matter (GM) volume and autism and ADHD symptom severity. The structural MRI findings and autism and ADHD self-reports revealed that autism and ADHD symptom severity was correlated with GM volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Autism symptom-severity was…

  14. Life Impairments in Adults with Medication-Treated ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safren, Steven A.; Sprich, Susan E.; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Knouse, Laura E.; Lerner, Jonathan A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In developing psychosocial approaches to augment outcomes for medication-treated adults with ADHD, it is important to understand what types of life-impairments are most affected by continued ADHD symptoms that occur despite medication treatment. This may assist in delineating targets for interventions, as well as assessments of…

  15. Evaluation of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramham, Jessica; Young, Susan; Bickerdike, Alison; Spain, Deborah; McCartan, Denise; Xenitidis, Kiriakos

    2009-01-01

    Objective: A brief cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention was designed to treat comorbid anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem and self-efficacy in adults with ADHD. It was hypothesised that participants would gain knowledge about ADHD, experience a reduction in comorbid symptoms, and benefit from the supportive aspect of group…

  16. Occupational issues of adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that persists into adulthood. Its symptoms cause impairments in a number of social domains, one of which is employment. We wish to produce a consensus statement on how ADHD affects employment. Methods This consensus development conference statement was developed as a result of a joint international meeting held in July 2010. The consensus committee was international in scope (United Kingdom, mainland Europe, United Arab Emirates) and consisted of individuals from a broad range of backgrounds (Psychiatry, Occupational Medicine, Health Economists, Disability Advisors). The objectives of the conference were to discuss some of the occupational impairments adults with ADHD may face and how to address these problems from an inclusive perspective. Furthermore the conference looked at influencing policy and decision making at a political level to address impaired occupational functioning in adults with ADHD and fears around employing people with disabilities in general. Results The consensus was that there were clear weaknesses in the current arrangements in the UK and internationally to address occupational difficulties. More so, Occupational Health was not wholly integrated and used as a means of making positive changes to the workplace, but rather as a superfluous last resort that employers tried to avoid. Furthermore the lack of cross professional collaboration on occupational functioning in adults with ADHD was a significant problem. Conclusions Future research needs to concentrate on further investigating occupational functioning in adults with ADHD and pilot exploratory initiatives and tools, leading to a better and more informed understanding of possible barriers to employment and potential schemes to put in place to address these problems. PMID:23414364

  17. Putative therapeutic targets for symptom subtypes of adult ADHD: D4 receptor agonism and COMT inhibition improve attention and response inhibition in a novel translational animal model.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Anneka; Grayson, Ben; Marsh, Samuel; Hayward, Andrew; Marshall, Kay M; Neill, Joanna C

    2015-04-01

    Prefrontal cortical dopamine plays an important role in cognitive control, specifically in attention and response inhibition; the core deficits in ADHD. We have previously shown that methylphenidate and atomoxetine differentially improve these deficits dependent on baseline performance. The present study extends this work to investigate the effects of putative therapeutic targets in our model. A selective dopamine D4 receptor agonist (A-412997) and the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) inhibitor; tolcapone, were investigated in the combined subtype of adult ADHD (ADHD-C). Adult female rats were trained to criterion in the 5C-CPT (5-Choice Continuous Performance Task) and then separated into subgroups according to baseline levels of sustained attention, vigilance, and response disinhibition. The subgroups included: high-attentive (HA) and low-attentive with high response disinhibition (ADHD-C). The ADHD-C subgroup was selected to represent the combined subtype of adult ADHD. Effects of tolcapone (3.0, 10.0, 15.0mg/kg) and A-412997 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0µmol/kg) were tested by increasing the variable inter-trial-interval (ITI) duration in the 5C-CPT. Tolcapone (15mg/kg) significantly increased sustained attention, vigilance and response inhibition in ADHD-C animals, and impaired attention in HA animals. A-412997 (1.0µmol/kg) significantly increased vigilance and response inhibition in ADHD-C animals only, with no effect in HA animals. This is the first study to use the translational 5C-CPT to model the adult ADHD-C subtype in rats and to study new targets in this model. Both tolcapone and A-412997 increased vigilance and response inhibition in the ADHD-C subgroup. D4 and COMT are emerging as important potential therapeutic targets in adult ADHD that warrant further investigation.

  18. Impact of the Impairment Criterion in the Diagnosis of Adult ADHD: 33-Year Follow-Up Study of Boys with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannuzza, Salvatore; Castellanos, Francisco X.; Roizen, Erica R.; Hutchison, Jesse A.; Lashua, Erin C.; Klein, Rachel G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between ADHD symptoms and impairment among adults diagnosed as having ADHD in childhood (ages 6-12). Method: Clinicians blindly interviewed 121 White males; the mean age was 41 years across the sample. "DSM-IV" adult ADHD behaviors were systematically rated, and impairment resulting from symptoms was…

  19. Autistic Traits, ADHD Symptoms, Neurological Soft Signs and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manouilenko, Irina; Pagani, Marco; Stone-Elander, Sharon; Odh, Richard; Brolin, Fredrik; Hatherly, Robert; Jacobsson, Hans; Larsson, Stig A.; Bejerot, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to co-occurring symptoms such as inattention, hyperactivity, neurological soft signs and motor problems have not yet been disclosed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study thirteen adults with ASD and ten matched neurotypical controls underwent PET. The scores of rating…

  20. The Relationship between ADHD Symptoms and Competence as Reported by Both Self and Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yuanyuan; Johnston, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the relative relationships of self- and other-reports of adult ADHD symptoms to important life competencies, and also investigates whether self- and other-reports of ADHD symptoms are differentially associated with interrater differences in reports of competence. Method: A total of 91 women completed a…

  1. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Symptoms and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Is it ADHD? Symptoms Checklist Fill out the symptoms checklist and ... more about other concerns and conditions . How is ADHD diagnosed? Healthcare professionals use the guidelines in the ...

  2. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  3. Not Always Hyperactive? Elevated Apathy Scores in Adolescents and Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrente, Fernando; Lischinsky, Alicia; Torralva, Teresa; Lopez, Pablo; Roca, Maria; Manes, Facundo

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the presence of apathy symptoms in adolescents and adults with ADHD as a behavioral manifestation of underlying motivational deficits and to determine whether apathy symptoms were associated with a specific neuropsychological profile. Method: A total of 38 ADHD participants (28 of the combined subtype [ADHD/C] and 10 of…

  4. Comorbid anxiety and depression in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and selfreported symptoms of ADHD, anxiety, and depression among parents of school-aged children with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    XIA, Weiping; SHEN, Lixiao; ZHANG, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children that can extend into adulthood and that is often associated with a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Aim Assess the comorbidity of ADHD with anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in school-aged children, and the relationship of the severity of ADHD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children who have ADHD with the severity of the corresponding symptoms in their parents. Methods A two-stage screening process identified children 7-10 years of age with and without ADHD treated at the Xin Hua Hospital in Shanghai. ADHD and other DSM-IV diagnoses were determined by a senior clinician using the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS-PL). One parent for each enrolled child completed three self-report scales: the ADHD Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In total 135 children with ADHD and 65 control group children without ADHD were enrolled; parents for 94 of the children with ADHD and 63 of the children without ADHD completed the parental assessment scales. Results Among the 135 children with ADHD, 27% had a comorbid anxiety disorder, 18% had a comorbid depressive disorder, and another 15% had both comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders. Parents of children with ADHD self-reported more severe ADHD inattention symptoms than parents of children without ADHD and were more likely to meet criteria for adult ADHD. Mothers (but not fathers) of children with ADHD had significantly more severe trait anxiety and depressive symptoms than mothers of children without ADHD. Among children with ADHD, the severity of ADHD symptoms was not significantly correlated with the severity of ADHD symptoms in parents, but depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in the children were significantly correlated with the corresponding symptoms in the parents

  5. Do Hyperactive Symptoms Matter in ADHD-I Restricted Phenotype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Marcelo; Ludwig, Henrique; Rohde, Luis A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate a proposed restrictive inattentive type of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by comparing clinical correlates among youths with ADHD inattentive type (ADHD-I) as a function of the number of hyperactivity symptoms presented (none vs. 3 or less) and controls (individuals without ADHD).…

  6. Atypical EEG Beta Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD1

    PubMed Central

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Walshaw, Patricia D.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Abnormal brain laterality (ABL) is well established in ADHD. However, its clinical specificity and association to cognitive and clinical symptoms is not yet understood. Previous studies indicate increased right hemisphere (RH) contribution in both ADHD and reading impaired samples. The current study investigates whether this ABL characteristic occurs in adults with ADHD absent comorbid language impairment. Methods EEG beta asymmetry was compared in 35 adult ADHD subjects and 104 controls during rest and active cognition. Group differences in beta asymmetry were then further evaluated for association to linguistic and attentional abilities, as well as association to beta asymmetry measures across different brain regions. Results Adults with ADHD showed pronounced rightward beta asymmetry (p = .00001) in inferior parietal regions (P8-P7) during a continuous performance task (CPT) that could not be attributed to linguistic ability. Among ADHD subjects only, greater rightward beta asymmetry at this measure was correlated with better CPT performance. Furthermore, this measure showed a lack of normal association (i.e., observed in controls) to left-biased processing in temporal-parietal (TP8-TP7) brain regions important for higher order language functions. Conclusion Adult ADHD involves abnormally increased right-biased contribution to CPT processing that could not be attributed to poor language ability. This appears to also involve abnormal recruitment of LH linguistic processing regions and represents an alternative, albeit less effective, CPT processing strategy. These findings suggest different pathophysiologic mechanisms likely underlie RH biased processing in ADHD and reading impaired samples. PMID:20705076

  7. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: The European Network Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. The evidence on persistence poses several difficulties for adult psychiatry considering the lack of expertise for diagnostic assessment, limited treatment options and patient facilities across Europe. Methods The European Network Adult ADHD, founded in 2003, aims to increase awareness of this disorder and improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. This Consensus Statement is one of the actions taken by the European Network Adult ADHD in order to support the clinician with research evidence and clinical experience from 18 European countries in which ADHD in adults is recognised and treated. Results Besides information on the genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed in this statement: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How can ADHD in adults be properly diagnosed? (3) How should ADHD in adults be effectively treated? Conclusions ADHD often presents as an impairing lifelong condition in adults, yet it is currently underdiagnosed and treated in many European countries, leading to ineffective treatment and higher costs of illness. Expertise in diagnostic assessment and treatment of ADHD in adults must increase in psychiatry. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available and appropriate treatments exist, although more research is needed in this age group. PMID:20815868

  8. Self-Reported ADHD Symptoms among College Students: Item Positioning Affects Symptom Endorsement Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John T.; Knouse, Laura E.; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Kwapil, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The effect of manipulating item positioning on self-reported ADHD symptoms was examined. We assessed whether listing DSM-IV ADHD symptoms serially or interspersed affected (a) the correlation between ADHD symptoms and (b) the rate of symptom endorsement. Method: In Study 1, an undergraduate sample (n = 102) completed a measure that…

  9. Decision Making in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montyla, Timo; Still, Johanna; Gullberg, Stina; Del Missier, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined decision-making competence in ADHD by using multiple decision tasks with varying demands on analytic versus affective processes. Methods: Adults with ADHD and healthy controls completed two tasks of analytic decision making, as measured by the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, and two affective…

  10. Social Adjustment among Taiwanese Children with Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and ADHD Comorbid with ODD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kawabata, Yoshito; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined social problems at school and relationships with peers, siblings, mothers, and fathers among children with ADHD only (n = 41), ODD only (n = 14), ADHD + ODD (n = 47), and normal controls (n = 204) from a school-based sample of 2,463 first to ninth graders in Taiwan. ADHD and ODD symptoms were determined by teacher and mother…

  11. Prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome in Adult ADHD and Its Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Snitselaar, Mark A; Smits, Marcel G; Spijker, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this observational cross-sectional study, 49 subjects were assessed for sleep disorders and for ADHD symptoms. Thirty-six received an ADHD diagnosis (29: combined type (ADHD-C); 7: inattentive type). An RLS and RLS symptoms prevalence of 34.5% was found, with a higher prevalence rate in the ADHD-C subgroup, although not significantly (p = 0.066). RLS symptoms were correlated with particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity (ρ = 0.742; p: 0.000). ADHD patients with positive RLS scores reported higher scores on the ADHD-Rating scale compared with patients with negative RLS scores (Z: -2.968, p = 0.003), mainly due to higher hyperactivity-impulsivity scores (Z: -3.145; p = 0.002). Our findings show that clinicians need to be aware of RLS among adult ADHD patients, particularly those with severe hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. PMID:26418664

  12. ADHD in context: Young adults' reports of the impact of occupational environment on the manifestation of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lasky, Arielle K; Weisner, Thomas S; Jensen, Peter S; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L Eugene; W Murray, Desiree; Swanson, James M

    2016-07-01

    Does changing context play a role in the decline in ADHD symptoms in adulthood? Insufficient research has explored the functioning of adults with ADHD. As adults, individuals with ADHD have significantly more latitude to control aspects of their day-to-day environments. Do the new contexts young adults find themselves in alter their experience of ADHD? Are there particular occupational or educational contexts in which young adults report functioning better than others? To examine this issue, we conducted semi-structured interviews at four North American sites in 2010-11 with 125 young adults, originally diagnosed with ADHD as children, regarding their work and post-secondary educational environments. Many subjects describe their symptoms as context-dependent. In some contexts, participants report feeling better able to focus; in others, their symptoms-such as high energy levels-become strengths rather than liabilities. Modal descriptions included tasks that were stressful and challenging, novel and required multitasking, busy and fast-paced, physically demanding or hands-on, and/or intrinsically interesting. Consistent with a developmental psychopathology framework, ADHD is experienced as arising from an interaction between our subjects and their environments. These findings demonstrate the need to account for the role of context in our understanding of ADHD as a psychiatric disorder, especially as it manifests in young adulthood.

  13. ADHD in context: Young adults' reports of the impact of occupational environment on the manifestation of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lasky, Arielle K; Weisner, Thomas S; Jensen, Peter S; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L Eugene; W Murray, Desiree; Swanson, James M

    2016-07-01

    Does changing context play a role in the decline in ADHD symptoms in adulthood? Insufficient research has explored the functioning of adults with ADHD. As adults, individuals with ADHD have significantly more latitude to control aspects of their day-to-day environments. Do the new contexts young adults find themselves in alter their experience of ADHD? Are there particular occupational or educational contexts in which young adults report functioning better than others? To examine this issue, we conducted semi-structured interviews at four North American sites in 2010-11 with 125 young adults, originally diagnosed with ADHD as children, regarding their work and post-secondary educational environments. Many subjects describe their symptoms as context-dependent. In some contexts, participants report feeling better able to focus; in others, their symptoms-such as high energy levels-become strengths rather than liabilities. Modal descriptions included tasks that were stressful and challenging, novel and required multitasking, busy and fast-paced, physically demanding or hands-on, and/or intrinsically interesting. Consistent with a developmental psychopathology framework, ADHD is experienced as arising from an interaction between our subjects and their environments. These findings demonstrate the need to account for the role of context in our understanding of ADHD as a psychiatric disorder, especially as it manifests in young adulthood. PMID:27299978

  14. Alternative pharmacological strategies for adult ADHD treatment: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Buoli, Massimiliano; Serati, Marta; Cahn, Wiepke

    2016-01-01

    Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition associated with high disability and frequent comorbidity. Current standard pharmacotherapy (methylphenidate and atomoxetine) improves ADHD symptoms in the short-term, but poor data were published about long-term treatment. In addition a number of patients present partial or no response to methylphenidate and atomoxetine. Research into the main database sources has been conducted to obtain an overview of alternative pharmacological approaches in adult ADHD patients. Among alternative compounds, amphetamines (mixed amphetamine salts and lisdexamfetamine) have the most robust evidence of efficacy, but they may be associated with serious side effects (e.g. psychotic symptoms or hypertension). Antidepressants, particularly those acting as noradrenaline or dopamine enhancers, have evidence of efficacy, but they should be avoided in patients with comorbid bipolar disorder. Finally metadoxine and lithium may be particularly suitable in case of comorbid alcohol misuse or bipolar disorder. PMID:26693882

  15. Validity of proposed DSM-5 ADHD impulsivity symptoms in children.

    PubMed

    Ünsel Bolat, Gül; Ercan, Eyüp Sabri; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Bilaç, Öznur; Massuti, Rafael; Uysal Özaslan, Taciser; Bolat, Hilmi; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2016-10-01

    The American Psychiatric Association (APA) working group on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) proposed the inclusion of four new impulsivity symptoms. However, they were not included in DSM-5 due to the lack of sufficient evidence. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of the proposed four ADHD impulsivity symptoms with respect to: (a) ADHD factor structure; (b) performance in predicting clinical impairment; (c) specificity for ADHD diagnosis and (d) best symptomatic threshold to predict clinical impairment. The sample comprised 416 children (31 ADHD subjects according to both DSM-IV and proposed DSM-5, 20 ADHD subjects according to just one diagnostic system and 365 controls) from 12 schools. Diagnoses were derived using semi-structured interviews and ADHD rating scales. Results from confirmatory factor analysis indicate that addition of the four new impulsivity items provided a slightly better factor structure if compared to models including only 18 items. Regression analyses showed that only one of the new impulsivity symptoms (impatient) was part of the list of best predictors of impairment. None of the four new impulsivity items was specifically associated with ADHD diagnosis. The best cutoff point in the hyperactivity/impulsivity dimension for predicting impairment did not change significantly. Overall, our findings suggest that the determination on how to best capture impulsivity dimension as part of the ADHD construct needs more investigation and that there is not enough evidence to include these four assessed impulsivity symptoms as part of the ADHD criteria.

  16. [Adult ADHD versus borderline personality disorder: criteria for differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Witt, O; Brücher, K; Biegel, G; Petermann, F; Schmidt, S

    2014-06-01

    The present study focuses on selected symptom criteria to distinguish between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and borderline personality disorder (BPD). A sample of n = 158 subjects was examined, consisting of BPD patients (n = 37), ADHD patients (n = 58), comorbid BPD/ADHD patients (n = 19), a clinical group of patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of a depressive disorder (DEP; n = 22) and a non-clinical control group (KG; n = 22). Selected symptom criteria were investigated by using the German scales "Skala zur Erfassung der Impulsivität und emotionalen Dysregulation der Borderline-Persönlichkeitsstörung" (IES-27), "ADHS-Screening für Erwachsene" (ADHS-LE), "Fragebogen zu dissoziativen Symptomen" (FDS) and a scale for the assessment of paranoid and dichotomous thinking (PADI). Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that BPD patients differed significantly with respect to self-mutilating behaviour, suicidality, dissociation, paranoia and dichotomy from all other groups. The same effect was found for affect regulation. Furthermore BPD patients differed significantly from ADHD patients by a more severe impulsiveness (IES-27), but not through disturbed impulse control and disinhibition overall. Regarding mean differences between ADHD and BPD patients for attentional control, ADHD patients revealed higher scores which just missed significance. For hyperactivity no significant group differences were found which is assumed to be influenced by symptom overlap like restlessness and aversive tension. The findings suggest that BPD-specific criteria, a stronger affective dysregulation and a higher tendency for autoaggressive impulsive reactions are more selective for differential diagnosis than the core symptoms of adult ADHD. Only attentional control might be a useful criterion for differential diagnosis, which should be examined in future studies.

  17. Sustained and Focused Attention Deficits in Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetta, Natalie D. J.; Hurks, Petra P. M.; De Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the specificity of deficits in focused attention and sustained attention in adults with ADHD and to evaluate the effect of comorbidity. Method: Twenty-eight adults with ADHD without comorbidity were compared with 28 ADHD outpatients with comorbidity. Two control groups were used: 68 adults referred for ADHD but with another…

  18. Substance use among ADHD adults: implications of late onset and subthreshold diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Faraone, Stephen V; Wilens, Timothy E; Petty, Carter; Antshel, Kevin; Spencer, Thomas; Biederman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosing ADHD in adults is difficult when the diagnostician cannot establish an onset prior to the DSM-IV criterion of age seven or if the number of symptoms does not achieve the DSM threshold for diagnosis. These diagnostic issues are an even larger concern for clinicians faced with adults with substance use disorders (SUD). The present study compared four groups of adults: full ADHD subjects who met all DSM-IV criteria for childhood onset ADHD, late onset ADHD subjects who met all criteria except the age at onset criterion, subthreshold ADHD subjects who did not meet full symptom criteria, and non-ADHD subjects who did not meet any of the above criteria. Diagnoses were by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and the Drug Use Severity Index (DUSI) was used for self-report of substance use. Cigarette and marijuana use was significantly greater in all ADHD groups relative to non-ADHD controls. Although usage rates of other drugs failed to reach significance, the ADHD groups were more likely to have used each drug (except alcohol) compared with the non-ADHD group. The late onset and full ADHD groups were more likely to have endorsed ever having a problem due to use of cigarettes, alcohol, or marijuana and reported more trouble resisting use of drugs or alcohol. The full ADHD group was more likely than the other groups to have reported "getting high" as their reason for using their preferred drug. Adults with ADHD have elevated rates of substance use and related impairment. Data about late onset ADHD provides further support for the idea that the DSM-IV age at onset criterion is too stringent. In contrast, subthreshold ADHD seems to be a milder form of the disorder, or perhaps a heterogeneous group of true ADHD cases and false positives.

  19. Physical fatty acid deficiency signs in children with ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sinn, N

    2007-08-01

    Fatty acid deficiency symptoms (FADS) of dry hair and skin, frequent thirst and urination have been observed to be higher in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Two studies investigated FADS in 7-12-year-old children; Study 1 in a general population (N=347) and Study 2 in children with ADHD symptoms (N=104). Correlations between FADS and ADHD-related symptoms were found at baseline in Study 1 but not Study 2. FADS did not improve after supplementation with omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) versus placebo after 15 weeks in Study 2, and were not related to improvements in ADHD symptoms in the PUFA groups. However, FADS did improve in all groups, possibly attributable to the linoleic acid present in both the PUFA and placebo (palm oil) supplements. FADS are not a reliable selection criterion for children with ADHD who might benefit from omega-3 PUFA supplementation.

  20. Is adult ADHD a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder? Evidence from a 4-decade longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Asherson, Philip; Belsky, Daniel W; Corcoran, David L; Hammerle, Maggie; Harrington, Honalee; Hogan, Sean; Meier, Madeline; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Poulton, Richie; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Caspi, Avshalom

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite a prevailing assumption that adult ADHD is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder, no prospective-longitudinal study has described the childhoods of the adult-ADHD population. We report follow-back analyses of ADHD cases diagnosed in adulthood, alongside follow-forward analyses of ADHD cases diagnosed in childhood, in one cohort. Method Participants belonged to a representative birth cohort of 1,037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972-73 and followed to age 38, with 95% retention. Symptoms of ADHD, associated clinical features, comorbid disorders, neuropsychological deficits, GWAS-derived polygenic risk, and life impairment indicators were assessed. Data sources were participants, parents, teachers, informants, neuropsychological testing, and administrative records. Adult ADHD diagnoses used DSM5 criteria, apart from onset-age and cross-setting corroboration, which were study outcomes. Results As expected, the childhood-ADHD group showed 6% prevalence, male excess, childhood comorbid disorders, neurocognitive deficits, polygenic risk, and, despite having outgrown their ADHD diagnosis, residual adult life impairment. As expected, the adult-ADHD group showed 3% prevalence, gender balance, adult substance dependence, adult life impairment, and treatment contact. Unexpectedly, the childhood-ADHD and adult-ADHD groups comprised virtually non-overlapping sets; 90% of adult-ADHD cases lacked a history of childhood ADHD. Also unexpectedly, the adult-ADHD group did not show tested neuropsychological deficits in childhood or adulthood, nor did they show polygenic risk for childhood ADHD. Conclusion Findings raise the possibility that adults presenting with the ADHD symptom picture may not have a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder. If this finding is replicated, then the disorder's place in the classification system must be reconsidered, and research must investigate the etiology of adult ADHD. PMID:25998281

  1. Inattentive Symptoms of ADHD Are Related to Evening Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caci, Herve; Bouchez, Jacques; Bayle, Franck J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Morningness is a stable characteristic of individuals, related to impulsivity and novelty seeking. The evening orientation is a risk factor for psychiatric conditions such as depression and personality disorders. The authors hypothesized that adults suspected of having ADHD are more evening oriented than adults without ADHD. Method:…

  2. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Niermann, Hannah C M; Scheres, Anouk

    2014-12-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom. Therefore, little is known about the role of procrastination in ADHD. We investigated the relation between procrastination and ADHD-related symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in 54 students with varying levels of self-reported ADHD-related behaviours. Various measures of procrastination were used, including questionnaires of academic, general procrastination and susceptibility to temptation as well as direct observation of academic procrastination while solving math problems. We expected a positive relation between severity of ADHD-related behaviours and procrastination, specifically for impulsivity. However, partial correlations (corrected for the other symptom domain of ADHD) indicated that only inattention was correlated with general procrastination. This specific and preliminary finding can stimulate future research in individuals diagnosed with ADHD. PMID:24992694

  3. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Niermann, Hannah C M; Scheres, Anouk

    2014-12-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom. Therefore, little is known about the role of procrastination in ADHD. We investigated the relation between procrastination and ADHD-related symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in 54 students with varying levels of self-reported ADHD-related behaviours. Various measures of procrastination were used, including questionnaires of academic, general procrastination and susceptibility to temptation as well as direct observation of academic procrastination while solving math problems. We expected a positive relation between severity of ADHD-related behaviours and procrastination, specifically for impulsivity. However, partial correlations (corrected for the other symptom domain of ADHD) indicated that only inattention was correlated with general procrastination. This specific and preliminary finding can stimulate future research in individuals diagnosed with ADHD.

  4. Growing out of ADHD: The Relationship between Functioning and Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The objective is to ascertain whether people in partial remission (IPR) or in full remission (IR) of their ADHD symptoms continue to have neuropsychological deficits and clinical and psychosocial problems. Method: IPR and IR groups are compared with fully symptomatic ADHD patients and normal controls. Results: The results show a decline…

  5. Distinct ADHD Symptom Clusters Differentially Associated with Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Ashley A.; Canu, Will H.; Schneider, H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: ADHD has been linked to various constructs, yet there is a lack of focus on how its symptom clusters differentially associate with personality, which this study addresses. Method: The current study examines the relationship between impulsive and inattentive ADHD traits and personality, indexed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory…

  6. The Relationship between Father Residency and a Child's ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulak, Tracey N.; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Frederick, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a commonly diagnosed neuropsychological disorder among school-aged children. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between father residency status and children's symptoms of ADHD using a large, nationally representative and community-based sample. To achieve this…

  7. Symptom Manifestation and Impairments in College Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Sarah A.; Fettes, Peter; Woltering, Steven; Mawjee, Karizma; Tannock, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the nature of impairment resulting from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for students in a post-secondary education (PSE) setting, the authors analyzed the symptoms and associated impairment of 135 students with a diagnosis of ADHD who were recruited via Student Disability Services in Canadian post-secondary…

  8. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Differential Symptom Functioning across Malaysian Malay and Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair

    2008-01-01

    This study examined differential symptom functioning (DSF) in ADHD symptoms across Malay and Chinese children in Malaysia. Malay (N = 571) and Chinese (N = 254) parents completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, which lists the DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. DSF was examined using the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) structural equation…

  9. Justice and rejection sensitivity in children and adolescents with ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bondü, Rebecca; Esser, Günter

    2015-02-01

    Justice sensitivity captures individual differences in the frequency with which injustice is perceived and the intensity of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral reactions to it. Persons with ADHD have been reported to show high justice sensitivity, and a recent study provided evidence for this notion in an adult sample. In 1,235 German 10-to 19-year olds, we measured ADHD symptoms, justice sensitivity from the victim, observer, and perpetrator perspective, the frequency of perceptions of injustice, anxious and angry rejection sensitivity, depressive symptoms, conduct problems, and self-esteem. Participants with ADHD symptoms reported significantly higher victim justice sensitivity, more perceptions of injustice, and higher anxious and angry rejection sensitivity, but significantly lower perpetrator justice sensitivity than controls. In latent path analyses, justice sensitivity as well as rejection sensitivity partially mediated the link between ADHD symptoms and comorbid problems when considered simultaneously. Thus, both justice sensitivity and rejection sensitivity may contribute to explaining the emergence and maintenance of problems typically associated with ADHD symptoms, and should therefore be considered in ADHD therapy.

  10. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--Review of Recent Findings.

    PubMed

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80% have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures.

  11. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--Review of Recent Findings.

    PubMed

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80% have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures. PMID:26893231

  12. Cross-cultural comparison of ADHD symptoms among Japanese and US university students.

    PubMed

    Davis, J Mark; Takahashi, Tomone; Shinoda, Haruo; Gregg, Noel

    2012-01-01

    Problems related to attention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness are known to impact social, academic, and vocational success. When the problems begin in childhood and lead to impaired functioning, the syndrome is identified as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Symptoms of the syndrome persist into adolescence and adulthood for many individuals, but less is known about characteristics of adults compared to children, especially adults attending university. Furthermore, there is little cross-national and cross-cultural research. This study compared DSM-IV-TR ADHD symptoms of US university students (N=271) to Japanese peers (N=712). Comparison of group means on a DSM-IV-TR-based checklist indicated that Japanese students reported more problems with inattention (and overall ADHD symptoms) but not hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. Although differences were statistically significant, effect sizes were small, indicating that for practical purposes, the students reported similar levels of symptoms. Japanese students reported higher rates of meeting or exceeding symptom counts that comprise diagnostic criteria for ADHD, but differences were quite small. Using DSM-IV-TR thresholds, 5.70% of US students and 6.27% of Japanese students reported enough symptoms to meet the cut-off for inattentive, hyperactive/impulsive, or combined type during childhood. With regard to recent problems, 2.66% of US students and 4.52% of Japanese students reported enough symptoms to meet the cut-off for one of the three subtypes. Comparisons using other methods of calculating rates are also provided. This research adds to the limited knowledge of ADHD symptoms in university students across countries and it supports the view that ADHD is not merely a cultural construct. This study is among the first to identify potential attention problems in Japanese university students. PMID:22081862

  13. Adult ADHD Medications and Their Cardiovascular Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, O.

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological disorder exhibited by difficulty maintaining attention, as well as hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are the first line of treatment for ADHD. With the increase in number of adults on CNS stimulants, the question that arises is how well do we understand the long-term cardiovascular effects of these drugs. There has been increasing concern that adults with ADHD are at greater risk for developing adverse cardiovascular events such as sudden death, myocardial infarction, and stroke as compared to pediatric population. Cardiovascular response attributed to ADHD medication has mainly been observed in heart rate and blood pressure elevations, while less is known about the etiology of rare cardiovascular events like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), arrhythmia, and cardiomyopathy and its long-term sequelae. We present a unique case of AMI in an adult taking Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts) and briefly discuss the literature relevant to the cardiovascular safety of CNS stimulants for adult ADHD. PMID:27579185

  14. Adult ADHD Medications and Their Cardiovascular Implications.

    PubMed

    Sinha, A; Lewis, O; Kumar, R; Yeruva, S L H; Curry, B H

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological disorder exhibited by difficulty maintaining attention, as well as hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are the first line of treatment for ADHD. With the increase in number of adults on CNS stimulants, the question that arises is how well do we understand the long-term cardiovascular effects of these drugs. There has been increasing concern that adults with ADHD are at greater risk for developing adverse cardiovascular events such as sudden death, myocardial infarction, and stroke as compared to pediatric population. Cardiovascular response attributed to ADHD medication has mainly been observed in heart rate and blood pressure elevations, while less is known about the etiology of rare cardiovascular events like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), arrhythmia, and cardiomyopathy and its long-term sequelae. We present a unique case of AMI in an adult taking Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts) and briefly discuss the literature relevant to the cardiovascular safety of CNS stimulants for adult ADHD. PMID:27579185

  15. Psychometric Properties of an Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jeffery N.; Kollins, Scott H.

    2006-01-01

    Although research has been conducted to support the psychometric properties of rating scales used to assess ADHD in adults, little work has been published examining semi-structured interviews to assess ADHD in adults. The present study examined the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Conners Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for…

  16. Expressive writing difficulties in children described as exhibiting ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Re, Anna Maria; Pedron, Martina; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2007-01-01

    Three groups of children of different ages who were considered by their teachers as showing symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and matched controls were tested in a series of expressive writing tasks, derived from a standardized writing test. In the first study, 24 sixth- and seventh-grade children with ADHD symptoms wrote a description of an image. The ADHD group's expressive writing was worse than that of the control group and associated with a higher number of errors, mainly concerning accents and geminates. The second study showed the generality of the effect by testing younger groups of children with ADHD symptoms and controls with another description task where a verbal description was substituted for the picture stimulus. The third study extended the previous observations with another type of writing task, the request of writing a narrative text. In all the three studies, children with ADHD symptoms scored lower than controls on four qualitative parameters (adequacy, structure, grammar, and lexicon), produced shorter texts, and made more errors. These studies show that children with ADHD symptoms have school difficulties also in writing-both in spelling and expression-and that these difficulties are extended to different tasks and ages.

  17. Cognitive Deficits in Adults with ADHD Go beyond Comorbidity Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Katiane L.; Guimaraes-da-Silva, Paula O.; Grevet, Eugenio H.; Victor, Marcelo M.; Salgado, Carlos A. I.; Vitola, Eduardo S.; Mota, Nina R.; Fischer, Aline G.; Contini, Veronica; Picon, Felipe A.; Karam, Rafael G.; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo; Rohde, Luis A.; Bau, Claiton H. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study addresses if deficits in cognitive, attention, and inhibitory control performance in adults with ADHD are better explained by the disorder itself or by comorbid conditions. Method Adult patients with ADHD ("n" = 352) and controls ("n" = 94) were evaluated in the ADHD program of a tertiary hospital. The…

  18. Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and ADHD Neuropsychological Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyden, Agneta; Niklasson, Lena; Stahlberg, Ola; Anckarsater, Henrik; Wentz, Elisabet; Rastam, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess which types of neuropsychological deficits appear to be most commonly associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. The effect of the combination of ASD with ADHD (ASD/ADHD) was also studied. One hundred and sixty-one adult individuals…

  19. Functional Impairment and Occupational Outcome in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjervan, Bjorn; Torgersen, Terje; Nordahl, Hans M.; Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is associated with poor functional outcomes. The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of functional impairment and occupational status in a clinically referred sample of adults with ADHD and explore factors predicting occupational outcome. Method: A sample of 149 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD participated in…

  20. Heterogeneity in ADHD: Neuropsychological Pathways, Comorbidity and Symptom Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstedt, Cecilia; Thorell, Lisa B.; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate different neuropsychological impairments and comorbid behavioral problems in relation to symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), studying the independent effects of different functions as well as specific relations to symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention. A…

  1. Symptoms of ADHD and Close Friendships in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship of ADHD symptoms to different aspects of close friendship quality as rated by both adolescents (target adolescent and a close friend) within a friendship dyad. Method: Participants were 41 same-sex friendship dyads who completed questionnaires about their friendship. Separate symptom dimensions of…

  2. [Standardised psychopathological rating scales for the diagnosis of ADHD in adults].

    PubMed

    Retz, W; Retz-Junginger, P; Römer, K; Rösler, M

    2013-07-01

    Ascertaining the diagnosis of ADHD in adults according to DSM-IV requires determination of the presence of symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity during both childhood and adulthood. Developmental changes of psychopathology, age-related comorbidity and functional and psychosocial problems associated with ADHD have to be taken into account during the diagnostic process. The use of standardised instruments might improve validity and reliability of the diagnosis. These diagnostic tools comprise self and expert ratings as well as observer ratings for the retrospective assessment of childhood and the evaluation of current ADHD symptoms. Here we give an overview of the standardised instruments that are available in German language and present data regarding the validity and reliability of a structured guide for the integrated diagnosis of adult ADHD (IDA) which has been constructed in order to provide a feasible tool for diagnosis of ADHD.

  3. Adults with ADHD and Sleep Complaints: A Pilot Study Identifying Sleep-Disordered Breathing Using Polysomnography and Sleep Quality Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surman, Craig B. H.; Thomas, Robert J.; Aleardi, Megan; Pagano, Christine; Biederman, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Objective: ADHD and sleep-disordered breathing are both prevalent in adulthood. Because both conditions may be responsible for similar symptoms of cognitive impairment, the authors investigate whether their presentation may overlap in adults diagnosed with ADHD. Method: Data are collected from six adults with sleep complaints who were diagnosed…

  4. The effects of a Self-Alert Training (SAT) program in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Salomone, Simona; Fleming, Grainne R; Shanahan, Jacqueline M; Castorina, Marco; Bramham, Jessica; O'Connell, Redmond G; Robertson, Ian H

    2015-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by attention and impulsivity problems, is one of the most common behavioral disorders. The first line of treatment for ADHD is psychostimulant medication, but this has limited effectiveness, particularly in adults, and is often associated with adverse side-effects. Thus, it is imperative that new non-pharmaceutical approaches to treatment are developed. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a non-pharmacological Self-Alert Training (SAT) intervention on ADHD symptom prevalence, psychological and cognitive functioning, and on everyday functional impairment in adults with ADHD. Fifty-one adult participants with a current diagnosis of ADHD were randomized to either SAT or a Control Training (CT) program. They were assessed at baseline, immediately following the 5-week training period, and after 3-months using ADHD symptoms scales, as well as a series of neuropsychological tests and psychological questionnaires. Subjective ratings of everyday life attention and memory problems were also collected. The SAT group showed significant improvements in ADHD inattentive and impulsive symptoms, depressive symptoms and in self-efficacy ratings compared to the CT group at both post-training and at the 3-month assessment. Pre-post improvements in SAT participants on untrained cognitive tasks measuring selective attention and executive functions were also observed. Finally, the SAT group reported improved subjective ratings of everyday life attention at both assessment points. This pattern of results suggests that SAT may be beneficial in treating ADHD symptoms as well as psychological and cognitive impairments in adult ADHD. A large-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) is needed. PMID:25713523

  5. The effects of a Self-Alert Training (SAT) program in adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Salomone, Simona; Fleming, Grainne R.; Shanahan, Jacqueline M.; Castorina, Marco; Bramham, Jessica; O’Connell, Redmond G.; Robertson, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by attention and impulsivity problems, is one of the most common behavioral disorders. The first line of treatment for ADHD is psychostimulant medication, but this has limited effectiveness, particularly in adults, and is often associated with adverse side-effects. Thus, it is imperative that new non-pharmaceutical approaches to treatment are developed. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a non-pharmacological Self-Alert Training (SAT) intervention on ADHD symptom prevalence, psychological and cognitive functioning, and on everyday functional impairment in adults with ADHD. Fifty-one adult participants with a current diagnosis of ADHD were randomized to either SAT or a Control Training (CT) program. They were assessed at baseline, immediately following the 5-week training period, and after 3-months using ADHD symptoms scales, as well as a series of neuropsychological tests and psychological questionnaires. Subjective ratings of everyday life attention and memory problems were also collected. The SAT group showed significant improvements in ADHD inattentive and impulsive symptoms, depressive symptoms and in self-efficacy ratings compared to the CT group at both post-training and at the 3-month assessment. Pre-post improvements in SAT participants on untrained cognitive tasks measuring selective attention and executive functions were also observed. Finally, the SAT group reported improved subjective ratings of everyday life attention at both assessment points. This pattern of results suggests that SAT may be beneficial in treating ADHD symptoms as well as psychological and cognitive impairments in adult ADHD. A large-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) is needed. PMID:25713523

  6. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of methylphenidate in the treatment of adult ADHD patients with comorbid cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Schubiner, Howard; Saules, Karen K; Arfken, Cynthia L; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Schuster, Charles R; Lockhart, Nancy; Edwards, Ann; Donlin, Judy; Pihlgren, Eric

    2002-08-01

    In this 12-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial of methylphenidate (MTP) versus placebo in 48 cocaine-dependent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) adults, the authors sought to determine whether MTP would be safe, control ADHD symptoms, and affect cocaine use. Efficacy indexes revealed significantly greater ADHD symptom relief in the MTP group. There were no group differences in self-reported cocaine use, urinalysis results, or cocaine craving. Because of the relatively small sample size, the results are preliminary. However, we found that MTP improved subjective reports of ADHD symptoms and did not worsen cocaine use while participants were in treatment.

  7. Types of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): baseline characteristics, initial response, and long-term response to treatment with methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Reimherr, Fred W; Marchant, Barrie K; Gift, Thomas E; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2015-06-01

    Much recent research describes the importance of emotional symptoms in ADHD. While there is no accepted system for including emotionality in diagnosing ADHD, the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS) provides a tool to facilitate this. It assesses a range of adult ADHD symptoms which load on two factors: inattentive and emotional dysregulation. The consistently high inattentive factor was used to define significant elevation on the more variable emotional dysregulation factor (which contains four WRAADDS domains: hyperactivity/restlessness, temper, affective lability, and emotional over-reactivity) allowing the definition of two ADHD diagnostic types. We compared these two types on a broad range of adult subject characteristics, including response to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment assessed during two clinical trials. Marked impairment in three of the four emotional domains reflected a symptom severity level equivalent to that of the inattentive factor. 59 % met this threshold, defining them as ADHD emotion dysregulation presentation, as opposed to 41 % with ADHD inattentive presentation. Cluster analysis validated these groups by generating similar clusters with 85 % agreement regarding membership. ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation subjects showed more childhood ADHD symptoms, adult symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, and evidence of personality disorder. Both types showed similar improvement during the double-blind MPH arm of the trials and during a 6-month open-label phase. Based on the presence of symptoms of emotional dysregulation, ADHD in adults can be conceptualized as two types. Impairment and comorbidity in adults with ADHD are largely concentrated in ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation patients.

  8. Self-Reported Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Report the distribution of scores from the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and estimate the prevalence of self-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as compared to clinical diagnoses. Participants: Participants were 1,080 college students, divided into 3 groups: (1) no ADHD diagnosis (n = 972), (2)…

  9. Motor regulation problems and pain in adults diagnosed with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most children who are diagnosed with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have moderate-to-severe motor problems using the Motor Function Neurological Assessment battery (MFNU). The MFNU focuses on specific muscle adjustment problems associated with ADHD, especially motor inhibition problems and high muscle tone. Here we investigated whether adults with ADHD/hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) have similar motor problems. In our clinical experience, adults with ADHD often complain about back, shoulder, hip, and leg pain. We also investigate reported pain in adults with ADHD. Methods Twenty-five adult outpatients diagnosed with ADHD/HKD who were responders to methylphenidate (MPH) were compared to 23 non-ADHD controls on 16 MFNU subtests and using a ‘total score’ (‘TS’) parameter. The MFNU test leader was blinded to group identity. The two groups were also compared using the Pain Drawing and Numerical Pain Rating Scale. Results The adult ADHD group had significantly (p < .001) more motor problems (higher TS) than controls. On the muscle regulation subtests, 36–96% of the ADHD group showed ‘moderate’ to ‘severe’ problems compared to 13–52% of the control group, and 80% of the ADHD group reported widespread pain. Highly significant differences were found between the ADHD and control groups for the variables ‘pain level’ (p < .001) and ‘pain location’ (p < .001). Significant correlations were found between TS and ‘pain location’ and between TS and ‘pain level’. Conclusions These findings suggest that similar to children with ADHD, adults diagnosed with ADHD also have motor inhibition problems and heightened muscle tone. The presence of significantly higher pain levels and more widespread pain in the ADHD group compared to non-ADHD controls might indicate that pain is a long-term secondary effect of heightened muscle tone and restricted movement that can be demonstrated in children and adults by the MFNU

  10. Atomoxetine Treatment for ADHD: Younger Adults Compared with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durell, Todd; Adler, Lenard; Wilens, Timothy; Paczkowski, Martin; Schuh, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant medication for treating child, adolescent, and adult ADHD. This meta-analysis compared the effects in younger and older adults. Method: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Data from patients aged 18-25 years were compared with data from…

  11. Motorsports Involvement among Adolescents and Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, Jee Won; McGinley, James S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Although children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined nonsubstance, use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent…

  12. Time out of Mind: Temporal Perspective in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carelli, Maria G.; Wiberg, Britt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is often associated with difficulties in planning and time management. In this study, the authors examined the hypothesis that these functional problems in ADHD reflect systematic biases in temporal orientation. Method: To test this hypothesis, adults with ADHD (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 60) completed the Swedish version of…

  13. Screening for ADHD in an Adult Social Phobia Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortberg, Ewa; Tilfors, Kerstin; Bejerot, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies have suggested a link between a primary anxiety disorder and ADHD. Method: A total of 39 participants with a primary diagnosis of social phobia were compared with 178 patients with ADHD and 88 patients with other psychiatric disorders on measures for childhood and adult ADHD (the Wender Utah Rating Scale and the Adult…

  14. Assessing the Concordance of Measures Used to Diagnose Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Raggi, Veronica L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Recent evidence suggests that ADHD persists into adulthood, but the best means of diagnosis and the concordance of measures used to diagnose adult ADHD are unknown. Method: The current study explores the relationships of these measures in a sample of 69 mothers of children with ADHD. Results: This study determines the concordance of (a)…

  15. Caudate asymmetry is related to attentional impulsivity and an objective measure of ADHD-like attentional problems in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Dang, Linh C; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Young, Jacob S; Cowan, Ronald L; Kessler, Robert M; Zald, David H

    2016-01-01

    Case-control studies comparing ADHD with typically developing individuals suggest that anatomical asymmetry of the caudate nucleus is a marker of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there is no consensus on whether the asymmetry favors the right or left caudate nucleus in ADHD, or whether the asymmetry is increased or decreased in ADHD. The current study aimed to clarify this relationship by applying a dimensional approach to assessing ADHD symptoms that, instead of relying on clinical classification, utilizes the natural behavioral continuum of traits related to ADHD. Structural T1-weighted MRI was collected from 71 adults between 18 and 35 years and analyzed for caudate asymmetry. ADHD-like attentional symptoms were assessed with an objective measure of attentional problems, the ADHD score from the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). Impulsivity, a core feature in ADHD, was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, a self-report measure that assesses attentional, non-planning, and motor features of impulsivity. We found that larger right relative to left caudate volumes correlated with both higher attentional impulsiveness and worse ADHD scores on the TOVA. Higher attentional impulsiveness also correlated with worse ADHD scores, establishing coherence between the objective measure and the self-report measure of attentional problems. These results suggest that a differential passage of information through frontal-striatal networks may produce instability leading to attentional problems. The findings also demonstrate the utility of a dimensional approach to understanding structural correlates of ADHD symptoms.

  16. ADHD Symptoms in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Wood, Nicky; Gringras, Paul; Chadwick, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether the nature and correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are different in subjects with mild intellectual disability (ID) compared to subjects with average ability. Method: From a general population sample of 2,726 12- to 15-year-olds, a stratified subsample was selected to enrich for…

  17. Equivalency for Father and Mother Ratings of the ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson

    2010-01-01

    The study used multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) procedures to examine the measurement and construct equivalencies for father and mother ratings of ADHD symptoms, recoded as binary scores. Fathers (N = 387) and mothers (N = 411) rated their primary school-aged children on the…

  18. Predicting Response of ADHD Symptoms to Methylphenidate Treatment Based on Comorbid Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, Brittany; Maddeaux, Cindy; Stanley Firestone, Jill; van Stralen, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this small pilot study, the association of comorbid anxiety with the treatment of ADHD is studied. Methods: Eighteen volunteers from a pediatric clinic are tested for ADHD and anxiety and assessed for behavioral and cognitive ADHD symptomology. Response to methylphenidate as treatment for ADHD symptoms is measured 2 to 3 weeks, and…

  19. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and psychosis: Epidemiological evidence from a population survey in England.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Steven; Thompson, Andrew; Bebbington, Paul; Singh, Swaran P; Freeman, Daniel; Winsper, Catherine; Broome, Matthew R

    2015-09-30

    Despite both having some shared features, evidence linking psychosis and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is sparse and inconsistent. Hypotheses tested were (1) adult ADHD symptoms are associated with auditory hallucinations, paranoid ideation and psychosis (2) links between ADHD symptoms and psychosis are mediated by prescribed ADHD medications, use of illicit drugs, and dysphoric mood. The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N=7403) provided data for regression and multiple mediation analyses. ADHD symptoms were coded from the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Higher ASRS total score was significantly associated with psychosis, paranoid ideation and auditory hallucinations despite controlling for socio-demographic variables, verbal IQ, autism spectrum disorder traits, childhood conduct problems, hypomanic and dysphoric mood. An ASRS score indicating probable ADHD diagnosis was also significantly associated with psychosis. The link between higher ADHD symptoms and psychosis, paranoia and auditory hallucinations was significantly mediated by dysphoric mood, but not by use of amphetamine, cocaine or cannabis. In conclusion, higher levels of adult ADHD symptoms and psychosis are linked and dysphoric mood may form part of the mechanism. Our analyses contradict the traditional clinical view that the main explanation for people with ADHD symptoms developing psychosis is illicit drugs. PMID:26235475

  20. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and psychosis: Epidemiological evidence from a population survey in England.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Steven; Thompson, Andrew; Bebbington, Paul; Singh, Swaran P; Freeman, Daniel; Winsper, Catherine; Broome, Matthew R

    2015-09-30

    Despite both having some shared features, evidence linking psychosis and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is sparse and inconsistent. Hypotheses tested were (1) adult ADHD symptoms are associated with auditory hallucinations, paranoid ideation and psychosis (2) links between ADHD symptoms and psychosis are mediated by prescribed ADHD medications, use of illicit drugs, and dysphoric mood. The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N=7403) provided data for regression and multiple mediation analyses. ADHD symptoms were coded from the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Higher ASRS total score was significantly associated with psychosis, paranoid ideation and auditory hallucinations despite controlling for socio-demographic variables, verbal IQ, autism spectrum disorder traits, childhood conduct problems, hypomanic and dysphoric mood. An ASRS score indicating probable ADHD diagnosis was also significantly associated with psychosis. The link between higher ADHD symptoms and psychosis, paranoia and auditory hallucinations was significantly mediated by dysphoric mood, but not by use of amphetamine, cocaine or cannabis. In conclusion, higher levels of adult ADHD symptoms and psychosis are linked and dysphoric mood may form part of the mechanism. Our analyses contradict the traditional clinical view that the main explanation for people with ADHD symptoms developing psychosis is illicit drugs.

  1. Physical exercise alleviates ADHD symptoms: regional deficits and development trajectory.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    2012-02-01

    The heterogeneous, chronic, and proliferating aspect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbidities covers heritability, cognitive, emotional, motor, and everyday behavioral domains that place individuals presenting the condition at some considerable disadvantage. Disruption of "typical developmental trajectories" in the manifestation of gene-environment interactive predispositions implies that ADHD children and adolescents may continue to perform at defective levels as adults with regard to academic achievement, occupational enterprises, and interpersonal relationships, despite the promise of pharmacotherapeutic treatments. Physical exercise provides a plethora of beneficial effects against stress, anxiety, depression, negative affect and behavior, poor impulse control, and compulsive behavior concomitant with improved executive functioning, working memory and positive affect, as well as improved conditions for relatives and care-givers. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential element in normal brain development that promotes health-associated behaviors and quality-of-life, though reduced in ADHD, is increased markedly by the intervention of regular physical exercise. Functional, regional, and biomarker deficits, as well as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal disruptions, have been improved through regular and carefully applied exercise programs. In view of the complications involving ADHD with co-morbidities, such as obesity, the influence of regular physical exercise has not been found negligible. Physical exercise bestows a propensity for eventual manifestation of "redifferentiated" developmental trajectories that may equip ADHD adults with a prognosis that is more adaptive functionally, independent of the applications of other therapeutic agents and treatments. PMID:21850535

  2. Physical exercise alleviates ADHD symptoms: regional deficits and development trajectory.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    2012-02-01

    The heterogeneous, chronic, and proliferating aspect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbidities covers heritability, cognitive, emotional, motor, and everyday behavioral domains that place individuals presenting the condition at some considerable disadvantage. Disruption of "typical developmental trajectories" in the manifestation of gene-environment interactive predispositions implies that ADHD children and adolescents may continue to perform at defective levels as adults with regard to academic achievement, occupational enterprises, and interpersonal relationships, despite the promise of pharmacotherapeutic treatments. Physical exercise provides a plethora of beneficial effects against stress, anxiety, depression, negative affect and behavior, poor impulse control, and compulsive behavior concomitant with improved executive functioning, working memory and positive affect, as well as improved conditions for relatives and care-givers. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential element in normal brain development that promotes health-associated behaviors and quality-of-life, though reduced in ADHD, is increased markedly by the intervention of regular physical exercise. Functional, regional, and biomarker deficits, as well as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal disruptions, have been improved through regular and carefully applied exercise programs. In view of the complications involving ADHD with co-morbidities, such as obesity, the influence of regular physical exercise has not been found negligible. Physical exercise bestows a propensity for eventual manifestation of "redifferentiated" developmental trajectories that may equip ADHD adults with a prognosis that is more adaptive functionally, independent of the applications of other therapeutic agents and treatments.

  3. Comparison of the burden of illness for adults with ADHD across seven countries: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to expand the understanding of the burden of illness experienced by adults with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) living in different countries and treated through different health care systems. Methods Fourteen focus groups and five telephone interviews were conducted in seven countries in North America and Europe, comprised of adults who had received a diagnosis of ADHD. The countries included Canada, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States (two focus groups in each country). There were 108 participants. The focus groups were designed to elicit narratives of the experience of ADHD in key domains of symptoms, daily life, and social relationships. Consonant with grounded theory, the transcripts were analyzed using descriptive coding and then themed into larger domains. Results Participants’ statements regarding the presentation of symptoms, childhood experience, impact of ADHD across the life course, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, relationships and psychological health impacts were similarly themed across all seven countries. These similarities were expressed through the domains of symptom presentation, childhood experience, medication treatment issues, impacts in adult life and across the life cycle, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, psychological and social impacts. Conclusions These data suggest that symptoms associated with adult ADHD affect individuals similarly in different countries and that the relevance of the diagnostic category for adults is not necessarily limited to certain countries and sociocultural milieus. PMID:22583562

  4. Parenting in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)☆

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Charlotte; Mash, Eric J.; Miller, Natalie; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    Although the validity of adult ADHD is well established and research has identified a variety of impairments associated with the condition in adults, study of how ADHD impacts an adult’s ability to parent has been relatively neglected. Parenting is a particularly important domain of functioning given the familial nature of the disorder and emerging evidence that parenting behaviors play a role in the development or maintenance of child ADHD symptoms, comorbid psychopathologies, and other associated difficulties. In this paper, we focus on three broad categories of cognitive dysfunction proposed across models of ADHD — cognitive processes (e.g., working memory, planning, and inhibitory control), self-regulation deficits (e.g., self-monitoring of performance to detect errors or the need for regulation of behavior and/or emotions), and motivational or arousal difficulties (e.g., response to incentives, delay aversion). We consider how these deficits may lead to impairments in the parenting behaviors of effective behavioral control and emotional responsiveness, and review the available evidence regarding parenting in adults with ADHD symptoms. We conclude by noting the limitations in existing studies, and argue for further research that is theoretically grounded in how core deficits of ADHD may be related to dimensions of parenting. The implications of an improved understanding of how ADHD impacts parenting for the development of early intervention or prevention programs are outlined. PMID:22459785

  5. Assessment of the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions and adult ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness.

    PubMed

    Strohmeier, Craig W; Rosenfield, Brad; DiTomasso, Robert A; Ramsay, J Russell

    2016-04-30

    The current chart review study examined the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and co-occurring symptoms of depression and anxiety in a clinical sample of adults diagnosed with ADHD. Thirty subjects completed inventories measuring cognitive distortions, ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness as part of the standard diagnostic evaluation protocol used in a university-based outpatient clinic specializing in adult ADHD. A series of correlational analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions, ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness. Results indicated a significant, positive correlation between self-reported cognitive distortions and ADHD. Responses to individual items on the measure of cognitive distortions were tabulated to identify the prevalence of specific cognitive distortion categories, with Perfectionism emerging as the most frequently endorsed. Further clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27086226

  6. Assessment of the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions and adult ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness.

    PubMed

    Strohmeier, Craig W; Rosenfield, Brad; DiTomasso, Robert A; Ramsay, J Russell

    2016-04-30

    The current chart review study examined the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and co-occurring symptoms of depression and anxiety in a clinical sample of adults diagnosed with ADHD. Thirty subjects completed inventories measuring cognitive distortions, ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness as part of the standard diagnostic evaluation protocol used in a university-based outpatient clinic specializing in adult ADHD. A series of correlational analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions, ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness. Results indicated a significant, positive correlation between self-reported cognitive distortions and ADHD. Responses to individual items on the measure of cognitive distortions were tabulated to identify the prevalence of specific cognitive distortion categories, with Perfectionism emerging as the most frequently endorsed. Further clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Autism spectrum disorder symptoms in children with ADHD: A community-based study.

    PubMed

    Green, Jessica Leigh; Rinehart, Nicole; Anderson, Vicki; Nicholson, Jan M; Jongeling, Brad; Sciberras, Emma

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in a community-based sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and non-ADHD controls. We also examined the relationship between ASD symptoms and ADHD subtype, ADHD symptom severity and child gender. Participants were 6-10-year-old children (164 ADHD; 198 non-ADHD control) attending 43 schools in Melbourne, Australia, who were participating in the Children's Attention Project. ADHD was assessed in two stages using the parent and teacher Conners' 3 ADHD index and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV (DISC-IV). ASD symptoms were identified using the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression examined continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively. Children with ADHD had more ASD symptoms than non-ADHD controls (adjusted mean difference=4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8; 5.3, p<0.001, effect size=0.7). Boys with ADHD had greater ASD symptom severity than girls with ADHD (adjusted mean difference=2.9, 95% CI 0.8; 5.2, p=0.01, effect size=0.4). Greater ADHD symptom severity was associated with greater ASD symptom severity (regression co-efficient=1.6, 95% CI 1.2; 2.0, p<0.001). No differences were observed by ADHD subtype. Greater hyperactive/impulsive symptoms were associated with greater ASD symptoms (regression coefficient=1.0; 95% CI 0.0; 2.0, p=0.04) however, this finding attenuated in adjusted analyses (p=0.45). ASD symptoms are common in children with ADHD. It is important for clinicians to assess for ASD symptoms to ensure appropriate intervention. PMID:26433184

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of ADHD Symptoms in the National Health Interview Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuffe, Steven P.; Moore, Charity G.; McKeown, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Study the prevalence and correlates of ADHD symptoms in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Methods: NHIS includes 10,367 children ages 4 to 17. Parents report lifetime diagnosis of ADHD and complete the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Prevalences of clinically significant ADHD and comorbid symptoms by race and…

  9. The SWAN Captures Variance at the Negative and Positive Ends of the ADHD Symptom Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Anne B.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Friend, Angela; Willcutt, Erik G.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior (SWAN) Rating Scale differs from previous parent reports of ADHD in that it was designed to also measure variability at the positive end of the symptom spectrum. Method: The psychometric properties of the SWAN were tested and compared with an established measure of ADHD,…

  10. Review of Pharmacotherapy Options for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-Like Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowles, Brieana M.; Findling, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental disorders such as subaverage intelligence, pervasive developmental disorders, and genetic syndromes are frequently associated with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD-like symptoms. While there are not pharmacological cures for these developmental disorders, coinciding ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms that…

  11. Correlation of a set of gene variants, life events and personality features on adult ADHD severity.

    PubMed

    Müller, Daniel J; Chiesa, Alberto; Mandelli, Laura; De Luca, Vincenzo; De Ronchi, Diana; Jain, Umesh; Serretti, Alessandro; Kennedy, James L

    2010-07-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could persist into adult life in a substantial proportion of cases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of (1) adverse events, (2) personality traits and (3) genetic variants chosen on the basis of previous findings and (4) their possible interactions on adult ADHD severity. One hundred and ten individuals diagnosed with adult ADHD were evaluated for occurrence of adverse events in childhood and adulthood, and personality traits by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Common polymorphisms within a set of nine important candidate genes (SLC6A3, DBH, DRD4, DRD5, HTR2A, CHRNA7, BDNF, PRKG1 and TAAR9) were genotyped for each subject. Life events, personality traits and genetic variations were analyzed in relationship to severity of current symptoms, according to the Brown Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS). Genetic variations were not significantly associated with severity of ADHD symptoms. Life stressors displayed only a minor effect as compared to personality traits. Indeed, symptoms' severity was significantly correlated with the temperamental trait of Harm avoidance and the character trait of Self directedness. The results of the present work are in line with previous evidence of a significant correlation between some personality traits and adult ADHD. However, several limitations such as the small sample size and the exclusion of patients with other severe comorbid psychiatric disorders could have influenced the significance of present findings.

  12. A Cluster Analysis of Personality Style in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Arthur L.; Tzelepis, Angela; Bedway, Marquita

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to use hierarchical linear cluster analysis to examine the normative personality styles of adults with ADHD. Method: A total of 311 adults with ADHD completed the Millon Index of Personality Styles, which consists of 24 scales assessing motivating aims, cognitive modes, and interpersonal behaviors. Results:…

  13. Functional Outcomes in the Treatment of Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Levine, Louise R.; Ramsey, Janet L.; Tamura, Roy; Kelsey, Douglas; Ball, Susan G.; Allen, Albert J.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is associated with significant functional impairment in adults. The present study examined functional outcomes following 6-month double-blind treatment with either atomoxetine or placebo. Method: Patients were 410 adults (58.5% male) with "DSM-IV"--defined ADHD. They were randomly assigned to receive either atomoxetine 40 mg/day to…

  14. ADHD Prevalence in Adult Outpatients with Nonpsychotic Psychiatric Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida Montes, Luis Guillermo; Hernandez Garcia, Ana Olivia; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of ADHD in the general adult population has been estimated to be about 4.4%. However, few studies exist in which the prevalence of ADHD in psychiatric adult outpatient samples has been estimated. These studies suggest that the prevalence is higher than in the general population. The objective of this study is to estimate…

  15. Development of a New Psychosocial Treatment for Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanto, Mary V.; Marks, David J.; Mitchell, Katherine J.; Wasserstein, Jeanette; Kofman, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a new manualized group Meta-Cognitive Therapy (MCT) for adults with ADHD that extends the principles and practices of cognitive-behavioral therapy to the development of executive self-management skills. Method: Thirty adults diagnosed with ADHD completed an 8- or 12-week…

  16. Executive Function Impairments in High IQ Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.; Reichel, Philipp C.; Quinlan, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate that high IQ adults diagnosed with ADHD suffer from executive function (EF) impairments that: a) can be identified with a combination of standardized measures and self-report data; and b) occur more commonly in this group than in the general population. Method: 157 ADHD adults with IQ greater than or equal to 120 were…

  17. Do Symptoms of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo in Children with ADHD Symptoms Represent Comorbid Internalizing Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Annie A.; Mrug, Sylvie; Hodgens, Bart; Patterson, Cryshelle

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Symptoms of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) are correlated with inattention and internalizing difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether symptoms of SCT reflect comorbid internalizing disorder with ADHD or a separate syndrome. Method: Using a clinical sample of youth evaluated for behavioral and learning…

  18. Variability of kinematic graphomotor fluency in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Duda, Thomas A; Casey, Joseph E; McNevin, Nancy

    2014-12-01

    Although graphomotor differences and variability of performance have been observed in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), no study has investigated whether this variability manifests in the kinematic graphomotor domain in adults with ADHD. Fourteen ADHD and 20 control participants wrote a novel grapheme and common word on a digitizing tablet 30 times each, with ADHD participants counterbalanced on and off stimulant medication. Variability of graphomotor fluency was significantly greater in ADHD versus control participants only in the novel writing task, both on, F(1,31)=5.988, p=.020, and off stimulant medication, F(1,32)=8.789, p=.006. Results suggest that motor control differences in ADHD are not limited to childhood and extend into adulthood. Given sufficient additional research, variability of kinematic graphomotor fluency may increase the sensitivity/specificity of differential diagnoses and/or represent a biomarker for ADHD.

  19. Longitudinal changes in individual symptoms across the preschool years in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I; Breaux, Rosanna P

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined trajectories of individual Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) across the preschool years in children with ADHD. It also evaluated whether preschool symptoms vary in their ability to discriminate children who later meet criteria for ADHD from typically developing children. ADHD and ODD symptoms were assessed annually in 75 ethnically diverse children (46 boys) who presented with behavior problems at age 3 and met criteria for ADHD 3 years later, and in 51 typically developing children (26 boys). Children with ADHD generally exhibited stable levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity but increases in several symptoms of inattention. Most ADHD symptoms showed at least fair utility in discriminating children with and without ADHD; however, 3 symptoms of inattention (carelessness, losing things, and forgetfulness) and 1 symptom of hyperactivity/impulsivity (blurting out answers) had relatively poor utility. These symptoms demonstrated only somewhat greater utility at age 4, but by the age of 5 were better able to classify children. Children with ADHD exhibited increases in several ODD symptoms, including symptoms related to negative affect. Although most symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity appear to extend well down to age 3, more developmentally appropriate symptoms of inattention may be required to develop more sensitive assessments for 3- and 4-year-old children. PMID:24697647

  20. Validation of DSM-5 age-of-onset criterion of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults: Comparison of life quality, functional impairment, and family function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lo, Kuan-Wu; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-12-01

    The newly published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) elevates the threshold of the ADHD age-of-onset criterion from 7 to 12 years. This study evaluated the quality of life and functional impairment of adults with ADHD who had symptoms onset by or after 7 years and examined the mediation effect of family function and anxiety/depression symptoms between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life and functional impairment. We assessed 189 adults with ADHD and 153 non-ADHD controls by psychiatric interview and self-administered reports on the Adult ADHD Quality of Life Scale, Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale, Family APGAR, and Adult Self Report Inventory-4. The ADHD group was divided into early-onset ADHD (onset <7 years, n=147) and late-onset ADHD (onset between 7 and 12 years, n=42). The mediation analysis was conducted to verify the mediating factors from ADHD to functional impairment and quality of life. The late-onset ADHD had more severe functional impairment at work and poorer family support than early-onset ADHD while they had comparable impairment at other domains. Less perceived family support and current anxiety/depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life/functional impairment both in early- and late-onset ADHD. Our data support decreased quality of life and increased functional impairment in adult ADHD, regardless of age of onset, and these adverse outcomes may be mediated by family support and anxiety/depression at adulthood. Our findings also imply that the new DSM-5 ADHD criteria do not over-include individuals without impairment.

  1. The Reciprocal Relationship of ASD, ADHD, Depressive Symptoms and Stress in Parents of Children with ASD and/or ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steijn, Daphne J.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the role of parental Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and depressive symptoms on parenting stress in 174 families with children with ASD and/or ADHD, using generalized linear models and structural equation models. Fathers and mothers reported more stress when parenting with…

  2. Relationship of DAT1 and adult ADHD to task-positive and task-negative working memory networks

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ariel Beth; Biederman, Joseph; Valera, Eve; Makris, Nikos; Doyle, Alysa; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas; Faraone, Stephen; Seidman, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Alterations in working memory, default-mode network (DMN), and dopamine transporter have all been proposed as endophenotypes for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity/Disorder (ADHD). Despite evidence that these systems are interrelated, their relationship to each other has never been studied in the context of ADHD. In order to understand the potential mediating effects of task-positive and task-negative networks between DAT1 and diagnosis, we tested effects of genotype and diagnosis on regions of positive and negative BOLD signal change (as measured with fMRI) in 53 adults with ADHD and 38 control subjects during a working memory task. We also examined the relationship of these responses to ADHD symptoms. Our results yielded four principal findings: 1) association of 9R with adult ADHD, 2) marginal DAT1 association with task-related suppression in left medial PFC, 3) marginal genotype × diagnosis interaction in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and 4) correlation of DMN suppression to ADHD symptoms. These findings replicate the association of the 9R allele with adult ADHD. Further, we show that DMN suppression is likely linked to DAT1 and to severity of inattention in ADHD. DMN may therefore be a target of DAT1 effects, and lie on the path between the gene and inattention in ADHD. PMID:21596533

  3. Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Altszuler, Amy R.; Page, Timothy F.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Coxe, Stefany; Arrieta, Alejandro; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N=517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhood. Young adults and their parents reported on financial outcomes and a number of predictor variables. Young adults with ADHD experienced greater financial dependence on family members (p<0.05) and the welfare system (p<0.01) and had lower earnings (p<0.05) than comparisons. ADHD diagnostic status, education attainment, and delinquency were significant predictors of financial outcomes. A projection of lifetime earnings indicated that ADHD group participants could expect to earn $543,000–$616,000 less over their lifetimes than comparisons. Due to the propensity of individuals with ADHD to underreport problems, the data are likely to be underestimates. These findings support the need for interventions to improve labor market outcomes as well as the development of interventions that target the management of personal finances for individuals with ADHD in young adulthood. PMID:26542688

  4. Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD.

    PubMed

    Altszuler, Amy R; Page, Timothy F; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Coxe, Stefany; Arrieta, Alejandro; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E

    2016-08-01

    This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N = 517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhood. Young adults and their parents reported on financial outcomes and a number of predictor variables. Young adults with ADHD experienced greater financial dependence on family members (p < 0.05) and the welfare system (p < 0.01) and had lower earnings (p < 0.05) than comparisons. ADHD diagnostic status, education attainment, and delinquency were significant predictors of financial outcomes. A projection of lifetime earnings indicated that ADHD group participants could expect to earn $543,000-$616,000 less over their lifetimes than comparisons. Due to the propensity of individuals with ADHD to underreport problems, the data are likely to be underestimates. These findings support the need for interventions to improve labor market outcomes as well as the development of interventions that target the management of personal finances for individuals with ADHD in young adulthood. PMID:26542688

  5. Characterising resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Jeanette C; Shumskaya, Elena; Mennes, Maarten; Onnink, A Marten H; Hoogman, Martine; Kan, Cornelis C; Arias Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Norris, David G

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood psychiatric disorder that often persists into adulthood. While several studies have identified altered functional connectivity in brain networks during rest in children with ADHD, few studies have been performed on adults with ADHD. Existing studies have generally investigated small samples. We therefore investigated aberrant functional connectivity in a large sample of adult patients with childhood-onset ADHD, using a data-driven, whole-brain approach. Adults with a clinical ADHD diagnosis (N=99) and healthy, adult comparison subjects (N=113) underwent a 9-minute resting-state fMRI session in a 1.5T MRI scanner. After elaborate preprocessing including a thorough head-motion correction procedure, group independent component analysis (ICA) was applied from which we identified six networks of interest: cerebellum, executive control, left and right frontoparietal and two default-mode networks. Participant-level network maps were obtained using dual-regression and tested for differences between patients with ADHD and controls using permutation testing. Patients showed significantly stronger connectivity in the anterior cingulate gyrus of the executive control network. Trends were also observed for stronger connectivity in the cerebellum network in ADHD patients compared to controls. However, there was considerable overlap in connectivity values between patients and controls, leading to relatively low effect sizes despite the large sample size. These effect sizes were slightly larger when testing for correlations between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms and connectivity strength in the executive control and cerebellum networks. This study provides important insights for studies on the neurobiology of adult ADHD; it shows that resting-state functional connectivity differences between adult patients and controls exist, but have smaller effect sizes than existing literature suggested.

  6. Altered response-preparation in patients with adult ADHD: A high-density ERP study.

    PubMed

    Kakuszi, Brigitta; Tombor, László; Papp, Szilvia; Bitter, István; Czobor, Pál

    2016-03-30

    Aberrations in early-developing bottom-up processes, such as stimulus-driven response preparation, are thought to play a critical role in the onset of ADHD, and in its persistence over time. Electrophysiology offers a unique tool to gain insight into response preparation, since response preparation has been associated with distinctive ERP changes, including negative potential-shifts which occur predominantly over frontal brain areas. We examined response-preceding negative potential shifts (RPNS) as a probe of response-preparation in adult ADHD patients by obtaining high-density event-related potentials from 33 ADHD and 29 matched healthy subjects during a Go/Nogo task using a 128-channel BioSemi recording-system. Compared to controls, ADHD patients showed enhancement of the RPNS in fronto-central brain regions in the Go condition during correct responses. This change was associated with poor performance in the Stroop incongruency-task: the greater the enhancement, the higher the proportion of errors. Moreover, the ERP-enhancement showed association with the severity of ADHD-symptoms; and with heightened response-variability. Thus, ADHD patients demonstrate neurophysiological alterations in response-preparation and response-preceding brain activity, suggestive of excessive activation of prefrontal neural circuits. Given the correlation with neuropsychological and psychopathological measures, these changes may constitute a pathway for core symptoms of ADHD, including premature and impaired response-preparation and motor-hyperactivity.

  7. Effectiveness of symptom validity measures in identifying cognitive and behavioral symptom exaggeration in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Paul; Schroeder, Ryan; O'Brien, Jeffrey; Fischer, Rebecca; Ries, Adam; Blesi, Brita; Barker, Jessica

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of symptom validity measures to detect suspect effort in cognitive testing and invalid completion of ADHD behavior rating scales in 268 adults referred for ADHD assessment. Patients were diagnosed with ADHD based on cognitive testing, behavior rating scales, and clinical interview. Suspect effort was diagnosed by at least two of the following: failure on embedded and free-standing SVT measures, a score > 2 SD below the ADD population average on tests, failure on an ADHD behavior rating scale validity scale, or a major discrepancy between reported and observed ADHD behaviors. A total of 22% of patients engaged in symptom exaggeration. The Word Memory test immediate recall and consistency score (both 64%), TOVA omission errors (63%) and reaction time variability (54%), CAT-A infrequency scale (58%), and b Test (47%) had good sensitivity as well as at least 90% specificity. Clearly, such measures should be used to help avoid making false positive diagnoses of ADHD.

  8. The WHO Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale: Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hae; Lee, Eun-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Objective A self-report scale of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the World Health Organization (WHO) Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) was developed and demonstrated good psychometric properties. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the psychometric properties of the ASRS in Korean samples. Methods The ASRS includes 18 questions regarding the frequency of recent DSM-IV Criterion A symptoms of adult ADHD. We examined the factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent validity of the ASRS in Korean samples. Results The ASRS demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Correlations between the ASRS and other adult ADHD measures were high, providing evidence of convergent validity. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis indicated that a two-factor solution provided the best fit. Conclusion It is expected that this scale would be helpful in clinical settings and research in Korea. PMID:23482673

  9. Associations of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Dimensions with Smoking Deprivation Effects in Adult Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Ameringer, Katherine J.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying relations of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptom dimensions to individual facets of the tobacco withdrawal syndrome could elucidate the mechanisms linking ADHD and regular smoking. This study examined the unique relations of inattention (IN) and hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptom dimensions of ADHD to a variety of tobacco withdrawal symptoms. 132 community-dwelling adult smokers recruited without regard to ADHD status completed a self-report measure of ADHD symptoms experienced over the past 6 months at a baseline visit. At two subsequent experimental sessions (one following overnight tobacco deprivation and one nondeprived; order counterbalanced), participants completed measures of tobacco withdrawal symptoms, mood, and desire to smoke. Preliminary analyses showed that higher levels of IN and HI symptoms were both associated with higher levels of negative affect and concentration difficulties during nondeprived (“baseline”) states (Ps < .01). Over and above nondeprived ratings, higher levels of HI symptoms were associated with larger deprivation-induced increases in negative affect, concentration problems, and desire to smoke, particularly for negative affect relief, during deprived states (Ps < .01). ADHD symptoms, particularly HI symptoms, are associated with more severe exacerbations in abstinence-induced withdrawal symptoms, which could be an important mechanism of ADHD-smoking comorbidity. These findings suggest the need for clinical studies examining the role of these unique and potentially more severe withdrawal profiles experienced by smokers with high-levels of ADHD symptoms in smoking reinstatement and cessation outcomes. PMID:24731115

  10. ADHD (ATTENTION DEFFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER)--A TROUBLING ENTITY, SOMETIMES PERPETUATING DURING ADULT LIFE.

    PubMed

    Amihăesei, Ioana Cristina; Zamfir, Carmen Lăcrămioara

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered a neurologic development disorder resulting in impairment of attention and inhibitory control, manifested as attention deficit, hyperactivity, impulsiveness; symptoms should develop between age six and twelve and have to persist for more than six months. Approximately 30-50% of the diagnosed cases are manifesting the disorder during adulthood and 2.5-5% of the adults are suffering of ADHD. Genetics are important factors in ADHD, being involved in 75% of the cases, as well in the persistence of ADHD during adult life. Three subtypes of ADHD are described--one in which is predominating the attention deficit, one with predominant hyperactivity and impulsiveness and a third combined subtype. Diagnosis criteria in ADHD are established by the American Psychiatric Association (DSM criteria) and by World Health Organization. Differential diagnosis is mainly considering bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. Management of ADHD is including behavioral therapies and medication, alone or combined. Stimulant medications such as amphetamine represent the therapy of choice, being effective in 80% of the cases. New data are underlying the need for following up of the cases during adulthood, since the risk for development of psychiatric conditions such as depression, anxiety, as well as the suicidal behavior is higher than in the general population.

  11. ADHD (ATTENTION DEFFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER)--A TROUBLING ENTITY, SOMETIMES PERPETUATING DURING ADULT LIFE.

    PubMed

    Amihăesei, Ioana Cristina; Zamfir, Carmen Lăcrămioara

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered a neurologic development disorder resulting in impairment of attention and inhibitory control, manifested as attention deficit, hyperactivity, impulsiveness; symptoms should develop between age six and twelve and have to persist for more than six months. Approximately 30-50% of the diagnosed cases are manifesting the disorder during adulthood and 2.5-5% of the adults are suffering of ADHD. Genetics are important factors in ADHD, being involved in 75% of the cases, as well in the persistence of ADHD during adult life. Three subtypes of ADHD are described--one in which is predominating the attention deficit, one with predominant hyperactivity and impulsiveness and a third combined subtype. Diagnosis criteria in ADHD are established by the American Psychiatric Association (DSM criteria) and by World Health Organization. Differential diagnosis is mainly considering bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. Management of ADHD is including behavioral therapies and medication, alone or combined. Stimulant medications such as amphetamine represent the therapy of choice, being effective in 80% of the cases. New data are underlying the need for following up of the cases during adulthood, since the risk for development of psychiatric conditions such as depression, anxiety, as well as the suicidal behavior is higher than in the general population. PMID:27125066

  12. Prediction of preschool aggression from DRD4 risk, parental ADHD symptoms, and home chaos.

    PubMed

    Farbiash, Tali; Berger, Andrea; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Auerbach, Judith G

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of a child's DRD4 risk, parental levels of ADHD symptoms, and the interactive influence of these factors on the development of preschool aggression. Additionally, the study investigated the role of home chaos as a mediator between parental ADHD symptoms and child aggression. The sample consisted of 84 4.5-year-old children and their parents. Children were genotyped for the DRD4 polymorphism. ADHD symptoms were self-reported by parents when the child was 2 to 6 months old. Parental reports of home chaos and the child's aggression were collected 4 years later. Child's DRD4 risk and parental ADHD symptoms significantly contributed to the prediction of preschool aggression. However, contrary to our hypotheses, no interactions were found between the child's DRD4 risk and the levels of parental ADHD symptoms. Home chaos played a mediating role in the relation between paternal ADHD symptoms and the child's aggression. The relation between maternal ADHD symptoms and the child's aggression was not significantly mediated through the level of home chaos. The current study emphasizes the importance of longitudinally investigating the contribution of parental ADHD symptoms to child aggression, while also exploring the differential contribution of maternal/paternal inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. Moreover, home chaos was found to be a significant environmental mechanism through which paternal ADHD symptoms affect children's aggression in the preschool years.

  13. Lack of Association of Handedness with Inattention and Hyperactivity Symptoms in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Findings about the association of left-handedness and ADHD are inconsistent. While abnormal brain laterality is reported in children with ADHD, it is unclear if hand preference is associated with ADHD, severity symptoms, age, gender, comorbid psychiatric problems, or parental characteristics. Method: Subjects were 520 boys and girls…

  14. Driving Anger and Driving Behavior in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Tracy L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Rosen, Lee A.; Barkley, Russell A.; Rodricks, Trisha

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether anger in the context of driving is associated with the negative driving outcomes experienced by individuals with ADHD. Method: ADHD adults (n = 56) complete measures of driving anger, driving anger expression, angry thoughts behind the wheel, and aggressive, risky, and crash-related behavior. Results are…

  15. Improvement with Duloxetine in an Adult ADHD Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourjman, Smadar Valerie; Bilodeau, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and disabling disorder among adults and is treated with stimulant and non stimulant medication. Objective: To report the case of a patient with ADHD showing good clinical response to duloxetine, a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI). Case…

  16. Sex Differences in the Manifestation of ADHD in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedele, David A.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.; Canu, Will H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Given the mixed literature in the area, the aim of the current study was to determine whether sex differences exist in inattention, hyperactivity, and impairment in college adults with ADHD. Method: Individuals from three universities were recruited for the study. Participants with (n = 164) and without ADHD (n = 710) completed on-line…

  17. Parenting Behavior Mediates the Intergenerational Association of Parent and Child Offspring ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Irene; Brammer, Whitney A.; Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

    2015-01-01

    Although there are likely to be multiple mechanisms underlying parent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as a key risk factor for offspring ADHD, potential explanatory factors have yet to be reliably identified. Given that parent ADHD symptoms independently predict parenting behavior and child ADHD symptoms, we tested whether individual differences in multiple dimensions of positive and negative parenting behavior (i.e., corporal punishment, inconsistent discipline, positive parenting behavior, observed negative talk, and observed praise) mediated the association between parental and offspring ADHD. We used a prospective design that featured predictors (i.e., parent ADHD symptoms) and mediators (i.e., parenting behavior) that temporally preceded the outcome (i.e., offspring ADHD symptoms). Using a well-characterized sample of 120 children with and without ADHD (ages 5–10 at Wave 1, 7–12 at Wave 2) and their biological parents, we examined multimethod (i.e., observed, self-report) measures of positive and negative parenting behavior as simultaneous mediators of the association of Wave 1 parent and Wave 2 offspring ADHD symptoms. Using a multiple mediation framework, consisting of rigorous bootstrapping procedures and controlling for parent depression, child’s baseline ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and child’s age, corporal punishment significantly and uniquely mediated the association of Wave 1 parent ADHD symptoms and Wave 2 offspring ADHD. We consider the role of parenting behavior in the intergenerational transmission of ADHD as well as implications of these findings for the intervention and prevention of childhood ADHD. PMID:24926775

  18. A Verbal Planning Impairment in Adult ADHD Indexed by Script Generation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Catherine; Scherzer, Peter; Braun, Claude M. J.; Godbout, Lucie; Poissant, Helene

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Though juvenile and adult ADHD cases are well known to have a nonverbal planning impairment, a verbal-planning impairment has been demonstrated only in juvenile ADHD. The purpose of this investigation is to determine whether a verbal planning impairment also characterizes adult ADHD. Methods: A cohort of 30 adult ADHD clients of a…

  19. The Marital and Family Functioning of Adults with ADHD and Their Spouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakin, L.; Minde, K.; Hechtman, L.; Ochs, E.; Krane, E.; Bouffard, R.; Greenfield, B.; Looper, K.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the family relationships of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the marital adjustment and family functioning of 33 married adults with ADHD and their spouses was compared to 26 non-ADHD control participants and their spouses. Results revealed that married adults with ADHD reported poorer…

  20. Peer dislike and victimisation in pathways from ADHD symptoms to depression.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arunima; Hartman, Catharina A; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2015-08-01

    The following hypotheses were tested in a longitudinal, population-based study: (1) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are associated with peer dislike and victimisation; (2) Peer dislike and victimisation increase the risk for subsequent depression; and (3) The effect of ADHD symptoms on depression is partly mediated through peer dislike and victimisation. Gender differences in mediating pathways through peer dislike and victimisation to depression were additionally explored. The Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), Youth Self Report (YSR) and Teacher's Checklist of Pathology (TCP) assessed ADHD symptoms in 728 adolescents. Peer nominations were used to assess peer dislike and victimisation. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to assess depression. Effects of peer dislike, victimisation, and ADHD symptoms on depression were modelled using Cox regression. ADHD symptoms were associated with peer dislike (rs = 0.17, p < 0.001) and victimisation (rs = 0.11, p = 0.001). Dislike, victimisation, and ADHD symptoms increased risk for depression. Risk for depression associated with victimisation and ADHD symptoms reduced with time. Dislike and victimisation mediated 7 % of the effect of ADHD symptoms on depression. Pathways through dislike and victimisation were present in girls but not in boys. Peer dislike and victimisation explain, to a limited extent, the prospective association between ADHD and depression, particularly in girls. PMID:25348085

  1. Social Skills in Adults with AD/HD

    MedlinePlus

    ... often struggle in social situations. Interacting successfully with peers and significant adults is one of the most ... percent of children with ADHD have difficulty with peer relationships. Over 25 percent of Americans experience chronic ...

  2. A longitudinal twin study of the direction of effects between ADHD symptoms and IQ.

    PubMed

    Rommel, Anna Sophie; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Greven, Corina U; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2015-01-01

    While the negative association between ADHD symptoms and IQ is well documented, our knowledge about the direction and aetiology of this association is limited. Here, we examine the association of ADHD symptoms with verbal and performance IQ longitudinally in a population-based sample of twins. In a population-based sample of 4,771 twin pairs, DSM-IV ADHD symptoms were obtained from the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised. Verbal (vocabulary) and performance (Raven's Progressive Matrices) IQ were assessed online. ADHD symptom ratings and IQ scores were obtained at ages 12, 14 and 16 years. Making use of the genetic sensitivity and time-ordered nature of our data, we use a cross-lagged model to examine the direction of effects, while modelling the aetiologies of the association between ADHD symptoms with vocabulary and Raven's scores over time. Although time-specific aetiological influences emerged for each trait at ages 14 and 16 years, the aetiological factors involved in the association between ADHD symptoms and IQ were stable over time. ADHD symptoms and IQ scores significantly predicted each other over time. ADHD symptoms at age 12 years were a significantly stronger predictor of vocabulary and Raven's scores at age 14 years than vice versa, whereas no differential predictive effects emerged from age 14 to 16 years. The results suggest that ADHD symptoms may put adolescents at risk for decreased IQ scores. Persistent genetic influences seem to underlie the association of ADHD symptoms and IQ over time. Early intervention is likely to be key to reducing ADHD symptoms and the associated risk for lower IQ. PMID:25875897

  3. A Longitudinal Twin Study of the Direction of Effects between ADHD Symptoms and IQ

    PubMed Central

    Rommel, Anna Sophie; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Greven, Corina U.; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2015-01-01

    While the negative association between ADHD symptoms and IQ is well documented, our knowledge about the direction and aetiology of this association is limited. Here, we examine the association of ADHD symptoms with verbal and performance IQ longitudinally in a population-based sample of twins. In a population-based sample of 4,771 twin pairs, DSM-IV ADHD symptoms were obtained from the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale-Revised. Verbal (vocabulary) and performance (Raven’s Progressive Matrices) IQ were assessed online. ADHD symptom ratings and IQ scores were obtained at ages 12, 14 and 16 years. Making use of the genetic sensitivity and time-ordered nature of our data, we use a cross-lagged model to examine the direction of effects, while modelling the aetiologies of the association between ADHD symptoms with vocabulary and Raven’s scores over time. Although time-specific aetiological influences emerged for each trait at ages 14 and 16 years, the aetiological factors involved in the association between ADHD symptoms and IQ were stable over time. ADHD symptoms and IQ scores significantly predicted each other over time. ADHD symptoms at age 12 years were a significantly stronger predictor of vocabulary and Raven’s scores at age 14 years than vice versa, whereas no differential predictive effects emerged from age 14 to 16 years. The results suggest that ADHD symptoms may put adolescents at risk for decreased IQ scores. Persistent genetic influences seem to underlie the association of ADHD symptoms and IQ over time. Early intervention is likely to be key to reducing ADHD symptoms and the associated risk for lower IQ. PMID:25875897

  4. [Awareness of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Greece].

    PubMed

    Pehlivanidis, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopment disorder of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. In adults, the clinical picture of ADHD is complex and comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders is the rule. The documentation that the disorder had a childhood onset and the various comorbid symptomatologies present both in childhood and adult life represent the most influential obstacles for the accurate clinical diagnosis of the disorder. In 75% of cases with adult ADHD there is at least one coexisting comorbid disorder, with anxiety and mood disorders as well as substance abuse and impulse control disorders being the most prevalent ones. Adult psychiatrists have limited experience in the diagnosis, treatment and overall management of the disorder. Greece is a member of the European Network Adult ADHD (ENAA), founded in 2003, aiming to increase awareness of the disorder and to improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. A clinic where diagnosis as well as treatment recommendations are given after a thorough assessment of adult ADHD patients, is hosted at the First Department of Psychiatry of the Athens National and Kapodistian University. The clinic is in close collaboration with ENAA. The diagnosis of ADHD is given after a detailed evaluation of the patient, based on history taken, self-administered questionnaires and a specific psychiatric interview. The reliable trace of the symptoms' onset back in early childhood, current symptomatology, as well as its impact on at least two major areas of functioning (school, home, work or personal relationships) are pivotal for the assessment procedure. Special attention should be paid in the distinction of symptoms often coexisting with the core symptoms of the ADHD, such as emotional liability, incessant mental activity, avoidance of situations like queuing, especially when there is also frustration, from those indicating a comorbid

  5. Investigating facets of personality in adult pathological gamblers with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Davtian, Margarit; Reid, Rory C; Fong, Timothy W

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The present study explored facets of personality in a sample of pathological gamblers with ADHD (n = 52) and without ADHD (n = 43). Participants were assessed for psychopathology and gambling disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Facets of personality were assessed using the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised. Group differences emerged across several facets of personality when analyzed using multivariate statistics. Although both groups experienced difficulties in several areas compared with norming data (e.g., greater depression, higher impulsivity, lower self-esteem and lower self-discipline), these facets of personality were more pronounced in pathological gamblers with ADHD. Most notable among these differences are tendencies for gamblers with ADHD to experience greater levels of emotional instability, interpersonal sensitivity and stress proneness. Pathological gamblers with ADHD also appear to experience lower self-esteem, greater difficulty being assertive and lower levels of self-discipline. Surprisingly, both groups were comparable on facets of impulsivity. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers diagnosed with adult ADHD may experience additional challenges compared with pathological gamblers without ADHD. PMID:22815658

  6. Comparing stimulant effects in youth with ADHD symptoms and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph; Hsin, Olivia; Gumlak, Sarah; Kimball, Kara; Rober, Ashley; Azeem, Muhammad W; Hickory, Meredith; Mrakotsky, Christine; Torres, Alcy; Mezzacappa, Enrico; Bourgeois, Blaise; Biederman, Joseph

    2014-07-01

    To retrospectively examine response to stimulant treatment in patients with epilepsy and ADHD symptoms as predicted by seizure freedom for six months, use of methylphenidate (MPH) versus amphetamine (AMP) preparations, cognitive level, and medical records were searched for patients under the age of 18 with epilepsy and ADHD symptoms treated with MPH or AMP (n=36, age=10.4 ± 3.5; male=67%). "Responders" had a CGI-improvement score of ≤ 2 and did not stop medication because of adverse effects. "Worsened" patients discontinued medication because of agitation/emotional lability. Seizure freedom did not predict treatment response. Lower cognitive level was associated with increased rate of worsening (p=0.048). No patients who were seizure-free at the start of the medication trial experienced an increase in seizures. Of the patients having seizures at the start of trial, one patient on MPH and two patients on AMP had increased seizures during the trial. Seizures returned to baseline frequency or less after stimulant discontinuation or anticonvulsant adjustment. Methylphenidate was associated with a higher response rate, with 12 of 19 given MPH (0.62 ± 0.28 mg/kg/day) compared with 4 of 17 given AMP (0.37 ± 0.26 mg/kg/day) responding (p=0.03). Methylphenidate treatment and higher cognitive level were associated with improved treatment outcome, while seizure freedom had no clear effect. Confidence in these findings is limited by the study's small, open-label, and uncontrolled design.

  7. Late Adolescent and Young Adult Outcomes of Girls Diagnosed with ADHD in Childhood: An Exploratory Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; MacLean, Michael G.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita; Robb, Jessica A.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The study aims to characterize the late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Method The study included 58 females from a larger longitudinal study of ADHD. Thirty-four (M=19.97 years old) met DSM criteria for ADHD in childhood, while the remaining 24 (M=19.83 years old) did not. Self- and parent-reports of psychopathology, delinquency, interpersonal relationships, academic achievement, job performance, and substance use were collected. Results The findings suggest that girls with ADHD experience difficulties in late adolescence and young adulthood, such as more conflict with their mothers, being involved in fewer romantic relationships, and experiencing more depressive symptoms than comparison women. However, differences did not emerge in all domains, such as job performance, substance use, and self-reported ADHD symptomatology. Conclusion The findings of this study add to the literature on the negative late adolescent and young adult outcomes associated with childhood ADHD in females. PMID:20562386

  8. Types of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): baseline characteristics, initial response, and long-term response to treatment with methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Reimherr, Fred W; Marchant, Barrie K; Gift, Thomas E; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2015-06-01

    Much recent research describes the importance of emotional symptoms in ADHD. While there is no accepted system for including emotionality in diagnosing ADHD, the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS) provides a tool to facilitate this. It assesses a range of adult ADHD symptoms which load on two factors: inattentive and emotional dysregulation. The consistently high inattentive factor was used to define significant elevation on the more variable emotional dysregulation factor (which contains four WRAADDS domains: hyperactivity/restlessness, temper, affective lability, and emotional over-reactivity) allowing the definition of two ADHD diagnostic types. We compared these two types on a broad range of adult subject characteristics, including response to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment assessed during two clinical trials. Marked impairment in three of the four emotional domains reflected a symptom severity level equivalent to that of the inattentive factor. 59 % met this threshold, defining them as ADHD emotion dysregulation presentation, as opposed to 41 % with ADHD inattentive presentation. Cluster analysis validated these groups by generating similar clusters with 85 % agreement regarding membership. ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation subjects showed more childhood ADHD symptoms, adult symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, and evidence of personality disorder. Both types showed similar improvement during the double-blind MPH arm of the trials and during a 6-month open-label phase. Based on the presence of symptoms of emotional dysregulation, ADHD in adults can be conceptualized as two types. Impairment and comorbidity in adults with ADHD are largely concentrated in ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation patients. PMID:25987323

  9. Regulation of sadness via acceptance or suppression in adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra; Lackner, Helmut Karl; Sadohara, Chiharu; Svaldi, Jennifer

    2014-12-15

    Emotion dysregulation is a recognized symptom of adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study is to induce sadness in adults suffering from ADHD and to investigate the impact of emotion regulation strategies on sadness intensity, and psychophysiological measures. Thirty-six adults diagnosed with ADHD were randomly assigned to either expressive suppression (SUPP) or acceptance (ACC) of emotion. Sadness was induced using a film clip. Participants estimated the intensity of sadness and the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion before (T1), immediately after (T2) and 2 min after the film (T3). Physiological measures were obtained. Sadness induction was effective in both conditions. The perception of being overwhelmed with emotion increased between T1 and T2 in both conditions, but persisted until T3 only in the expressive suppression condition whereas a decrease was observed in the acceptance condition. In ADHD expressive suppression of sadness seems to be associated to a prolonged recovery from the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion. Emotion-regulation via acceptance in contrast appears to allow faster recovery from the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify suppression as a critical mediator between an induced emotion and delayed recovery from emotional reactions in adult ADHD.

  10. Effects of smoking abstinence on impulsive behavior among smokers high and low in ADHD-like symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hawk, Larry W.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Impulsivity, a multifaceted construct that includes inhibitory control and heightened preference for immediate reward, is central to models of drug use and abuse. Within a self-medication framework, abstinence from smoking may lead to an increase in impulsive behavior and the likelihood of relapse, particularly among persons with disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD) and personality traits (e.g., impulsivity) linked to impulsive behavior. Objectives This study aimed to examine the effects of smoking abstinence on multiple measures of impulsivity among a non-clinical sample of adult smokers selected for high and low levels of ADHD symptoms. Methods In a within-subjects design, participants selected for high or low levels of self-reported ADHD symptoms (N=56) completed sessions following overnight abstinence and when smoking as usual (order counterbalanced). Measures of impulsive behavior included response inhibition (i.e., stop signal task), interference control (i.e., attentional modification of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle), and impulsive choice (i.e., hypothetical delay discounting). Results As hypothesized, abstinence decreased response inhibition and PPI. Although ADHD symptoms moderated abstinence effects on impulsive choice and response inhibition, the pattern was opposite to our predictions: the low-ADHD group responded more impulsively when abstinent, whereas the high-ADHD group was relatively unaffected by abstinence. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of utilizing multiple laboratory measures to examine a multifactorial construct such as impulsive behavior and raise questions about how best to assess symptoms of ADHD and impulsivity among non-abstinent smokers. PMID:21559802

  11. Core ADHD Symptom Improvement with Atomoxetine versus Methylphenidate: A Direct Comparison Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazell, Philip L.; Kohn, Michael R.; Dickson, Ruth; Walton, Richard J.; Granger, Renee E.; van Wyk, Gregory W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies comparing atomoxetine and methylphenidate to treat ADHD symptoms have been equivocal. This noninferiority meta-analysis compared core ADHD symptom response between atomoxetine and methylphenidate in children and adolescents. Method: Selection criteria included randomized, controlled design; duration 6 weeks; and…

  12. Atomoxetine Alone or Combined with Fluoxetine for Treating ADHD with Comorbid Depressive or Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Duesenberg, David; Emslie, Graham J.; Quintana, Humberto; Sarkis, Elias H.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Gao, Haitao; Michelson, David; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Symptoms of depression and anxiety are commonly comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The authors assessed the safety and effectiveness of atomoxetine monotherapy compared with combined atomoxetine/fluoxetine therapy in a population of children and adolescents with ADHD and concurrent symptoms of depression or…

  13. The Relationship between ADHD Symptoms, Mood Instability, and Self-Reported Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Adalsteinsson, Tomas F.; Young, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relative importance of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality disorder traits in predicting self-reported offending. Method: A total of 295 Icelandic students completed two scales of offending behavior and measures of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality traits. Results:…

  14. The Association of ADHD Symptoms and Reading Acquisition during Elementary School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehm, Jan-Henning; Kerner auch Koerner, Julia; Gawrilow, Caterina; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The present longitudinal study aimed to investigate the influence of ADHD symptoms on reading development in elementary schoolchildren. To this end, repeated assessments of ADHD symptoms (teacher ratings of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity) and reading achievement (standardized tests of decoding speed and text comprehension) were…

  15. Are Maternal Smoking and Stress during Pregnancy Related to ADHD Symptoms in Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2005-01-01

    Background: There are some indications that maternal lifestyle during pregnancy (smoking and stress) contributes to symptoms of ADHD in children. We prospectively studied whether prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and/or stress is associated with ADHD symptoms and diagnostic criteria (according to DSM-IV) in 7-year-olds. Methods: Nulliparous…

  16. ODD and ADHD Symptoms in Ukrainian Children: External Validators and Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine potential external validators for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficient/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a Ukrainian community-based sample of 600 children age 10 to 12 years old and evaluate the nature of co-occurring ODD and ADHD symptoms using mother- and teacher-defined groups. Method: In…

  17. Self-Reported Symptoms of ADHD among College Students in China and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norvilitis, Jill M.; Ingersoll, Travis; Zhang, Jie; Jia, Shuhua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined ADHD symptoms among college students in China and the United States. Method: A total of 283 (45%) American and 343 (55%) Chinese students completed the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and the Current Symptoms Scale (CSS), in addition to other measures. Results: Both of the ADHD measures appear to be reliable…

  18. Pharmacological interventions for adolescents and adults with ADHD: stimulant and nonstimulant medications and misuse of prescription stimulants.

    PubMed

    Weyandt, Lisa L; Oster, Danielle R; Marraccini, Marisa E; Gudmundsdottir, Bergljot Gyda; Munro, Bailey A; Zavras, Brynheld Martinez; Kuhar, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that cause functional impairment. Recent research indicates that symptoms persist into adulthood in the majority of cases, with prevalence estimates of approximately 5% in the school age population and 2.5%-4% in the adult population. Although students with ADHD are at greater risk for academic underachievement and psychosocial problems, increasing numbers of students with ADHD are graduating from high school and pursuing higher education. Stimulant medications are considered the first line of pharmacotherapy for individuals with ADHD, including college students. Although preliminary evidence indicates that prescription stimulants are safe and effective for college students with ADHD when used as prescribed, very few controlled studies have been conducted concerning the efficacy of prescription stimulants with college students. In addition, misuse of prescription stimulants has become a serious problem on college campuses across the US and has been recently documented in other countries as well. The purpose of the present systematic review was to investigate the efficacy of prescription stimulants for adolescents and young adults with ADHD and the nonmedical use and misuse of prescription stimulants. Results revealed that both prostimulant and stimulant medications, including lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, methylphenidate, amphetamines, and mixed-amphetamine salts, are effective at reducing ADHD symptoms in adolescents and adults with ADHD. Findings also suggest that individuals with ADHD may have higher rates of stimulant misuse than individuals without the disorder, and characteristics such as sex, race, use of illicit drugs, and academic performance are associated with misuse of stimulant medications. Results also indicate that individuals both with and without ADHD are more likely to misuse short-acting agents

  19. Pharmacological interventions for adolescents and adults with ADHD: stimulant and nonstimulant medications and misuse of prescription stimulants

    PubMed Central

    Weyandt, Lisa L; Oster, Danielle R; Marraccini, Marisa E; Gudmundsdottir, Bergljot Gyda; Munro, Bailey A; Zavras, Brynheld Martinez; Kuhar, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that cause functional impairment. Recent research indicates that symptoms persist into adulthood in the majority of cases, with prevalence estimates of approximately 5% in the school age population and 2.5%–4% in the adult population. Although students with ADHD are at greater risk for academic underachievement and psychosocial problems, increasing numbers of students with ADHD are graduating from high school and pursuing higher education. Stimulant medications are considered the first line of pharmacotherapy for individuals with ADHD, including college students. Although preliminary evidence indicates that prescription stimulants are safe and effective for college students with ADHD when used as prescribed, very few controlled studies have been conducted concerning the efficacy of prescription stimulants with college students. In addition, misuse of prescription stimulants has become a serious problem on college campuses across the US and has been recently documented in other countries as well. The purpose of the present systematic review was to investigate the efficacy of prescription stimulants for adolescents and young adults with ADHD and the nonmedical use and misuse of prescription stimulants. Results revealed that both prostimulant and stimulant medications, including lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, methylphenidate, amphetamines, and mixed-amphetamine salts, are effective at reducing ADHD symptoms in adolescents and adults with ADHD. Findings also suggest that individuals with ADHD may have higher rates of stimulant misuse than individuals without the disorder, and characteristics such as sex, race, use of illicit drugs, and academic performance are associated with misuse of stimulant medications. Results also indicate that individuals both with and without ADHD are more likely to misuse short-acting agents

  20. Does IQ influence Associations between ADHD Symptoms and other Cognitive Functions in young Preschoolers?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Working memory, inhibition, and expressive language are often impaired in ADHD and many children with ADHD have lower IQ-scores than typically developing children. The aim of this study was to test whether IQ-score influences associations between ADHD symptoms and verbal and nonverbal working memory, inhibition, and expressive language, respectively, in a nonclinical sample of preschool children. Methods In all, 1181 children recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were clinically assessed at the age of 36 to 46 months. IQ-score and working memory were assessed with subtasks from the Stanford Binet test battery, expressive language was reported by preschool teachers (Child Development Inventory), response inhibition was assessed with a subtask from the NEPSY test, and ADHD symptoms were assessed by parent interview (Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment). Results The results showed an interaction between ADHD symptoms and IQ-score on teacher-reported expressive language. In children with below median IQ-score, a larger number of ADHD symptoms were more likely to be accompanied by reports of lower expressive language skills, while the level of ADHD symptoms exerted a smaller effect on reported language skills in children with above median IQ-score. The associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were not influenced by IQ-score. Conclusions Level of IQ-score affected the relation between ADHD symptoms and teacher-reported expressive language, whereas associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were significant and of similar sizes regardless of IQ-score. Thus, in preschoolers, working memory and response inhibition should be considered during an ADHD assessment regardless of IQ-score, while language skills of young children are especially important to consider when IQ-scores are average or low. PMID:24884579

  1. Effects of Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and Cognitive Functioning on Social Acceptance and the Positive Illusory Bias in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholtens, Sara; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Tillman, Carin M.; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of symptoms of ADHD and ODD and cognitive functioning on social acceptance and positive bias in children. Method: The sample consisted of 86 children (49 girls) between 7 and 13 years old, recruited to reflect a wide range of ADHD symptoms. Parents and teachers reported on ADHD and ODD symptoms and social…

  2. Borderline typical symptoms in adult patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, Alexandra; Feige, Bernd; Hesslinger, Bernd; Scheel, Corinna; Ebert, Dieter; Matthies, Swantje; Limberger, Matthias F; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Bohus, Martin; Lieb, Klaus

    2009-05-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) share several clinical features, e.g. emotional lability and impulsivity. This study aimed to delineate differences and similarities between ADHD and BPD with respect to borderline typical symptomatology and gender specifics. Borderline symptomatology was assessed in 60 adult patients with ADHD with the borderline symptom list (BSL) and compared to both 60 gender- and age-matched BPD patients and control subjects. The BSL is a standardized instrument including 95 items on 7 subscales (self-perception, affect regulation, self-destruction, dysphoria, loneliness, intrusions and hostility). Adult ADHD patients showed significantly higher BSL total scores and all of the seven subscales compared to healthy controls (p < 0.001) but lower scores than BPD patients (p < 0.001). With respect to the seven subscales, the largest differences between ADHD and BPD patients were found with respect to self-destruction (d = 1.12) and affect dysregulation (d = 0.90), whereas the smallest difference was found with respect to loneliness (d = 0.36). In females, the BSL subscales "loneliness" and "hostility" did not differentiate between BPD and ADHD. Borderline typical symptoms are common in adult patients with ADHD but seem to be less pronounced than in patients with BPD. Females with ADHD and BPD share more clinical features than males. However, symptoms of self-destruction and affect dysregulation appear to be more severe in BPD patients.

  3. Parental monitoring in late adolescence: relations to ADHD symptoms and longitudinal predictors.

    PubMed

    Salari, Raziye; Thorell, Lisa B

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to replicate Stattin and Kerr's (2000) study on parental monitoring and adolescents' deviant behavior, to extend their findings to ADHD symptoms, and to examine the longitudinal predictors (8-18 years) of parental knowledge and child disclosure. Results showed that conduct problems were primarily associated with parental knowledge and child disclosure, but not with parental solicitation and control. A similar pattern was observed for ADHD symptoms. However, while the relations for conduct problems were generally independent of ADHD symptoms, the relations for ADHD symptoms were primarily non-significant after controlling for conduct problems. Moreover, early behavior problems, but not insecure/disorganized attachment, were associated with parental knowledge and child disclosure in adolescence. In conclusion, child disclosure is primarily associated with deviant behavior rather than ADHD, and early child problem behavior is a more important predictor of child disclosure (implicating reciprocal relations between these two constructs) than is insecure/disorganized attachment. PMID:25602918

  4. The association of ADHD symptoms and reading acquisition during elementary school years.

    PubMed

    Ehm, Jan-Henning; Kerner Auch Koerner, Julia; Gawrilow, Caterina; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-09-01

    The present longitudinal study aimed to investigate the influence of ADHD symptoms on reading development in elementary schoolchildren. To this end, repeated assessments of ADHD symptoms (teacher ratings of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity) and reading achievement (standardized tests of decoding speed and text comprehension) were examined in a sample comprising 2,014 elementary schoolchildren at the end of Grades 1, 2, 3, respectively, and in the middle of Grade 4. Latent change score models revealed that the level of ADHD symptoms was associated with lower levels and less growth in decoding speed and text comprehension. Furthermore, individual differences in changes in ADHD symptoms and reading performance were negatively associated. Together, these results indicate commonalities in the development of ADHD symptomatology and reading achievement throughout elementary school. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27570983

  5. The association of ADHD symptoms to self-harm behaviours: a systematic PRISMA review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-harm is a major public health issue in young people worldwide and there are many challenges to its management and prevention. Numerous studies have indicated that ADHD is associated with completed suicides and other suicidal behaviours (i.e., suicidal attempt and ideation). However, significantly less is known about the association between ADHD and self-harm. Method This is the first review of the association between ADHD and self-harm. A systematic PRISMA review was conducted. Two internet-based bibliographic databases (Medline and CINAHL) were searched to access studies which examined to any degree the association between, specifically, ADHD and self-harm. Results Only 15 studies were identified which investigated the association between ADHD and self-harm and found evidence to support that ADHD is a potential risk factor for self-harm. Conclusion This association raises the need for more awareness of self-harm in individuals with symptoms of ADHD. PMID:24884622

  6. COMPARING STIMULANT EFFECTS IN YOUTH WITH ADHD SYMPTOMS AND EPILEPSY

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph; Hsin, Olivia; Gumlak, Sarah; Kimball, Kara; Rober, Ashley; Azeem, Muhammad W.; Hickory, Meredith; Mrakotsky, Christine; Torres, Alcy; Mezzacappa, Enrico; Bourgeois, Blaise; Biederman, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    To retrospectively examine response to stimulant treatment in patients with epilepsy and ADHD symptoms as predicted by seizure freedom for six months, use of methylphenidate (MPH) versus amphetamine (AMP) preparations, and cognitive level, medical records were searched for patients under age 18 with epilepsy and ADHD symptoms treated with MPH or AMP (n = 36, age 10.4±3.5; 67% male). “Responders” had a CGI-Improvement score of ≤2 and did not stop medication due to adverse effects. “Worsened” patients discontinued medication due to agitation/emotional lability. Seizure freedom did not predict treatment response. Lower cognitive level was associated with increased rate of worsening (p=0.048). No patients who were seizure-free at start of the medication trial experienced an increase in seizures. Of the patients having seizures at the start of trial, one patient on MPH and two on AMP had increased seizures during the trial. Seizures returned to baseline frequency or less after stimulant discontinuation or anticonvulsant adjustment. MPH was associated with a higher response rate, with 12 of 19 given MPH 0.62±0.28mg/kg/day compared to 4 of 17 given AMP 0.37±0.26mg/kg/day responding (p=0.03). MPH treatment and higher cognitive level were associated with improved treatment outcome while seizure freedom had no clear effect. Confidence in these findings is limited by the study’s small, open label, and uncontrolled nature. PMID:24907495

  7. Comparing stimulant effects in youth with ADHD symptoms and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph; Hsin, Olivia; Gumlak, Sarah; Kimball, Kara; Rober, Ashley; Azeem, Muhammad W; Hickory, Meredith; Mrakotsky, Christine; Torres, Alcy; Mezzacappa, Enrico; Bourgeois, Blaise; Biederman, Joseph

    2014-07-01

    To retrospectively examine response to stimulant treatment in patients with epilepsy and ADHD symptoms as predicted by seizure freedom for six months, use of methylphenidate (MPH) versus amphetamine (AMP) preparations, cognitive level, and medical records were searched for patients under the age of 18 with epilepsy and ADHD symptoms treated with MPH or AMP (n=36, age=10.4 ± 3.5; male=67%). "Responders" had a CGI-improvement score of ≤ 2 and did not stop medication because of adverse effects. "Worsened" patients discontinued medication because of agitation/emotional lability. Seizure freedom did not predict treatment response. Lower cognitive level was associated with increased rate of worsening (p=0.048). No patients who were seizure-free at the start of the medication trial experienced an increase in seizures. Of the patients having seizures at the start of trial, one patient on MPH and two patients on AMP had increased seizures during the trial. Seizures returned to baseline frequency or less after stimulant discontinuation or anticonvulsant adjustment. Methylphenidate was associated with a higher response rate, with 12 of 19 given MPH (0.62 ± 0.28 mg/kg/day) compared with 4 of 17 given AMP (0.37 ± 0.26 mg/kg/day) responding (p=0.03). Methylphenidate treatment and higher cognitive level were associated with improved treatment outcome, while seizure freedom had no clear effect. Confidence in these findings is limited by the study's small, open-label, and uncontrolled design. PMID:24907495

  8. The role of maternal and child ADHD symptoms in shaping interpersonal relationships.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2011-04-01

    The current study investigated the influence of maternal ADHD symptoms on: (a) mothers' own social functioning; (b) their child's social functioning; and (c) parent-child interactions following a lab-based playgroup involving children and their peers. Participants were 103 biological mothers of children ages 6-10. Approximately half of the children had ADHD, and the remainder were comparison youth. After statistical control of children's ADHD diagnostic status and mothers' educational attainment, mothers' own inattentive ADHD symptoms predicted poorer self-reported social skills. Children with ADHD were reported to have more social problems by parents and teachers, as well as received fewer positive sociometric nominations from playgroup peers relative to children without ADHD. After control of child ADHD status, higher maternal inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity each predicted children having more parent-reported social problems; maternal inattention predicted children receiving more negative sociometric nominations from playgroup peers. There were interactions between maternal ADHD symptoms and children's ADHD diagnostic status in predicting some child behaviors and parent-child relationship measures. Specifically, maternal inattention was associated with decreased prosocial behavior for children without ADHD, but did not influence the prosocial behavior of children with ADHD. Maternal inattention was associated with mothers' decreased corrective feedback and, at a trend level, decreased irritability toward their children with ADHD, but there was no relationship between maternal inattention and maternal behaviors for children without ADHD. A similar pattern was observed for maternal hyperactivity/impulsivity and mothers' observed irritability towards their children. Treatment implications of findings are discussed. PMID:20931275

  9. Association of ADHD symptoms and social competence with cognitive status in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rosa; Freire, Carmen; Julvez, Jordi; Fernández, Mariana F; García-Esteban, Raquel; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi; Olea, Nicolás

    2013-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the association of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and social competence outcomes with cognitive status in preschool children. The study population was drawn from three birth cohorts belonging to the Spanish INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) project: Menorca (n = 289), Ribera d'Ebre (n = 60), and Granada (n = 108). Children were assessed at the age of 4 years for cognitive functions (McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, MSCA) by psychologists and for inattention and hyperactivity symptoms (ADHD Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, ADHD-DSM-IV) and social competence (California Preschool Social Competence Scale) by their teachers. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine potential associations between behavioral outcomes (ADHD symptoms and social competence) and MSCA cognitive outcomes, adjusting for confounders. The presence of general ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity, or both) and poorer social competence both showed negative associations with cognitive outcomes. When we compared children according to ADHD subtypes, those with inattention symptoms alone and those with both inattention and hyperactivity symptoms showed significantly lower cognitive function scores in comparison to children with no ADHD symptoms. Behavioral dysfunctions in preschoolers may be associated with impairment of cognitive functions.

  10. Long-term functional outcome in adult prison inmates with ADHD receiving OROS-methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Ylva; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Grann, Martin; Lindefors, Nils

    2012-12-01

    In a recent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we established a robust efficacy (Cohen's d = 2.17) of osmotic release oral system-methylphenidate (OROS-methylphenidate) delivered 72 mg daily for 5 weeks versus placebo on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, global severity and global functioning in 30 adult male prison inmates with ADHD and coexisting disorders. Outcomes continued to improve during the subsequent 47-week open-label extension with OROS-methylphenidate delivered at a flexible daily dosage of up to 1.3 mg/kg body weight. In the present study, we evaluated long-term effectiveness and maintenance of improvement over the cumulated 52-week trial on cognition, motor activity, institutional behaviour and quality of life. Post hoc, we explored the associations between investigators' and self-ratings of ADHD symptoms and between ratings of symptoms and functioning, respectively. Outcomes, calculated by repeated measures ANOVA, improved from baseline until week 16, with maintenance or further improvement until week 52. Both verbal and visuospatial working memory, and abstract verbal reasoning improved significantly over time, as well as several cognition-related measures and motor activity. No substance abuse was detected and a majority of participants took part in psychosocial treatment programmes. The quality of life domains of Learning, and Goals and values improved over time; the latter domain was at open-label endpoint significantly related to improvements in attention. Investigators' and self-ratings of ADHD symptoms, as well as global symptom severity related most significantly to global functioning at week 52. Finally, investigators' and self-ratings of ADHD symptoms associated significantly at baseline with increasing convergence over time.

  11. Attention-related EEG markers in adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Roland; Perroud, Nader; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Herrmann, François; Prada, Paco; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Deiber, Marie-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    ADHD status affects both bottom-up sensory processing and top-down attentional selection, impairing professional and social functioning. The objective of the study was to investigate the functional mechanisms of attention deficits in adult ADHD by examining the electrophysiological activities associated with bottom-up attentional cueing (temporal and spatial orienting of attention) and top-down control (conflict resolution). Continuous EEG was recorded in 21 adult ADHD patients (40.05±9.5 years) and 20 healthy adults (25.5±4 years) during performance of the Attention Network Test (ANT). We examined the cue and target-related P1, N1 and P3 components as well as the contingent negative variation (CNV) developing between cue and target. Oscillatory responses were analyzed in the alpha (8-13Hz) and beta (14-19Hz) frequency bands. ADHD patients performed similarly to controls but showed reduced P3 amplitude, larger early CNV decrementing over time, reduced preparatory activation in both alpha and beta bands, as well as flattened target-related posterior alpha and beta responses. As compared to controls, the inverted CNV pattern suggested peculiar preparatory processing in ADHD patients. The singular pattern of target-related beta response indicated increased inhibitory processes in the case of easier task resolution and more generally, the lack of association between conflict resolution speed and beta activity supported alternative executive processing in ADHD patients. Overall, the reduced activation of the functional networks devoted to bottom-up and top-down attention suggests that adult ADHD patients engage reduced cortical resources in this composite task, compatible with the cortical hypoarousal model. PMID:27178310

  12. Co-occurrence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms with other psychopathology in young adults: parenting style as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Ni, Hsing-Chang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-02-01

    The extent to which parenting styles can influence secondary psychiatric symptoms among young adults with ADHD symptoms is unknown. This issue was investigated in a sample of 2284 incoming college students (male, 50.6%), who completed standardized questionnaires about adult ADHD symptoms, other DSM-IV symptoms, and their parents' parenting styles before their ages of 16. Among them, 2.8% and 22.8% were classified as having ADHD symptoms and sub-threshold ADHD symptoms, respectively. Logistic regression was used to compare the comorbid rates of psychiatric symptoms among the ADHD, sub-threshold ADHD and non-ADHD groups while multiple linear regressions were used to examine the moderating role of gender and parenting styles over the associations between ADHD and other psychiatric symptoms. Both ADHD groups were significantly more likely than other incoming students to have other DSM-IV symptoms. Parental care was negatively associated and parental overprotection/control positively associated with these psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, significant interactions were found of parenting style with both threshold and sub-threshold ADHD in predicting wide-ranging comorbid symptoms. Specifically, the associations of ADHD with some externalizing symptoms were inversely related to level of paternal care, while associations of ADHD and sub-threshold ADHD with wide-ranging comorbid symptoms were positively related to level of maternal and paternal overprotection/control. These results suggest that parenting styles may modify the effects of ADHD on the risk of a wide range of temporally secondary DSM-IV symptoms among incoming college students, although other causal dynamics might be at work that need to be investigated in longitudinal studies. PMID:25465651

  13. Co-occurrence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms with other psychopathology in young adults: parenting style as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Ni, Hsing-Chang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-02-01

    The extent to which parenting styles can influence secondary psychiatric symptoms among young adults with ADHD symptoms is unknown. This issue was investigated in a sample of 2284 incoming college students (male, 50.6%), who completed standardized questionnaires about adult ADHD symptoms, other DSM-IV symptoms, and their parents' parenting styles before their ages of 16. Among them, 2.8% and 22.8% were classified as having ADHD symptoms and sub-threshold ADHD symptoms, respectively. Logistic regression was used to compare the comorbid rates of psychiatric symptoms among the ADHD, sub-threshold ADHD and non-ADHD groups while multiple linear regressions were used to examine the moderating role of gender and parenting styles over the associations between ADHD and other psychiatric symptoms. Both ADHD groups were significantly more likely than other incoming students to have other DSM-IV symptoms. Parental care was negatively associated and parental overprotection/control positively associated with these psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, significant interactions were found of parenting style with both threshold and sub-threshold ADHD in predicting wide-ranging comorbid symptoms. Specifically, the associations of ADHD with some externalizing symptoms were inversely related to level of paternal care, while associations of ADHD and sub-threshold ADHD with wide-ranging comorbid symptoms were positively related to level of maternal and paternal overprotection/control. These results suggest that parenting styles may modify the effects of ADHD on the risk of a wide range of temporally secondary DSM-IV symptoms among incoming college students, although other causal dynamics might be at work that need to be investigated in longitudinal studies.

  14. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ADHD FACT SHEET What is ADHD? Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood. It is sometimes referred to as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). It ...

  15. Detection of simulated ADHD and reading disorder using symptom validity measures.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Thomas W; Frazier, Allison R; Busch, Robyn M; Kerwood, Melissa A; Demaree, Heath A

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies have typically focused on the ability of cognitive symptom validity tests to identify cognitive symptom exaggeration in the context of head injury or memory loss. Few published studies have examined the detection of simulated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or reading disorder (RD). The present study examined the accuracy of symptom validity measures in the detection of simulated ADHD and RD. Results indicated that several commonly used symptom validity measures show good validity for detecting simulated ADHD and RD. Total Validity Indicator Profile (VIP) scores and hard item accuracy score from the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT) were the most accurate at distinguishing simulation of ADHD and RD from adequate effort. Percentages of control participants and participants in simulation conditions scoring below a specified cut score are provided to give clinicians an estimate of the simulator (true) positive and control (false) positive rates.

  16. The Effects of Childhood ADHD Symptoms on Early-Onset Substance Use: A Swedish Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Research has documented that children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of substance use problems. Few studies, however, have focused on early-onset substance use. This study therefore investigated how the two symptom dimensions of ADHD (hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention) are…

  17. The Relationship between Satisfaction with Life, ADHD Symptoms, and Associated Problems among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Eyjolfsdottir, Gudrun Agusta; Smari, Jakob; Young, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain whether ADHD symptoms, and associated problems, are negatively related to subjective well-being. Method: The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was completed by 369 university students, along with the Reasoning & Rehabilitation (R&R) ADHD Training Evaluation (RATE), the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental…

  18. Children's Perceptions of Their ADHD Symptoms: Positive Illusions, Attributions, and Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Judith; Malone, Molly; Varma, Angela; Markel, Clarisa; Biondic, Daniella; Tannock, Rosemary; Humphries, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) of their ADHD symptoms in terms of the positive illusory bias (PIB), their attributions for their problem behaviors, and their beliefs about whether their problem behaviors and disorder are stigmatizing. Participants were 152 9- to 14-year-old…

  19. Severity of Children's ADHD Symptoms and Parenting Stress: A Multiple Mediation Model of Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, Paulo A.; McNamara, Joseph P.; Geffken, Gary R.; Reid, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine the extent to which the perceived self-regulation deficits across behavioral, cognitive, and emotional domains seen in children with ADHD explain the association between the severity of ADHD symptoms and parenting stress. Participants for this study included 80 children (mean age = 10 years, 9 months)…

  20. Symptom Prevalence of ADHD and ODD in a Pediatric Population in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michanie, Claudio; Kunst, Gabriel; Margulies, Daniel S.; Yakhkind, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of DSM III-R symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in an outpatient pediatric population; to compare oppositional behavior and grade retention rates; and to establish local means and standard deviations (SD) for the ADHD rating scale. Method: 300…

  1. Time Perception, Phonological Skills and Executive Function in Children with Dyslexia and/or ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooch, Debbie; Snowling, Margaret; Hulme, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Background: Deficits in time perception (the ability to judge the duration of time intervals) have been found in children with both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyslexia. This paper investigates time perception, phonological skills and executive functions in children with dyslexia and/or ADHD symptoms (AS). Method: Children…

  2. Shared and Nonshared Symptoms in Youth-Onset Psychosis and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatekin, Canan; White, Tonya; Bingham, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We compared ratings of behavior and attention problems between youth-onset psychosis and ADHD, two disorders in which attentional impairments play a key role, and examined the effect of psychostimulant use on age of onset in psychosis. Method: Parent and teacher ratings of behavioral problems and ADHD symptoms were collected using the…

  3. Gender Differences in Consequences of ADHD Symptoms in a Community-Based Organization for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitulano, Michael L.; Fite, Paula J.; Wimsatt, Amber R.; Rathert, Jamie L.; Hatmaker, Rebecca S.

    2012-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been linked to disruptive behavior and disciplinary consequences; however, the variables involved in this process are largely unknown. The current study examined rule-breaking behavior as a mediator of the relation between ADHD symptoms and disciplinary actions 1 year later during after-school…

  4. Aggression among Children with ADHD, Anxiety, or Co-Occurring Symptoms: Competing Exacerbation and Attenuation Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Stephen P.; Luebbe, Aaron M.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani; Fite, Paula J.

    2012-01-01

    Competing hypotheses for explaining the role of anxiety in the relation between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and childhood aggression were evaluated. Two studies tested whether anxiety exacerbated, attenuated, or had no effect on the relation between ADHD and aggression subtypes among psychiatrically hospitalized…

  5. A Longitudinal Twin Study on the Association between ADHD Symptoms and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greven, Corina U.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Asherson, Philip; Plomin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disability commonly co-occur because of shared genetic risk factors. However, the stability and change of these genetic influences and the predictive relationships underlying this association longitudinally remain unclear. Methods: ADHD symptoms and reading were assessed as…

  6. Classification of Risk Status in ADHD Screening: A Comparison of Symptom Item Formats on Behavior Checklists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, John D.; Ashley, Donna M.; Bramlett, Ronald K.; Murphy, John J.

    This report presents a study that examined the effects of symptom item formats on estimates of risk status across alternative attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) behavior checklists for 38 referred children. The mean age of the children was 7 years 9 months. The study focused on ADHD risk as measured by two behavior checklists which…

  7. Parent-Child Hostility and Child ADHD Symptoms: A Genetically Sensitive and Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifford, Kate J.; Harold, Gordon T.; Thapar, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Background: Families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report higher rates of conflict within the family and more negative parent-child relationships. This study aimed to test whether negative parent-child relationships have a risk effect on ADHD symptoms using two complementary designs. Method: The first sample…

  8. Adults with ADHD Benefit from Cognitive-Behaviorally Oriented Group Rehabilitation: A Study of 29 Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virta, Maarit; Vedenpaa, Anita; Gronroos, Nina; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Vataja, Risto; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective nonpharmacological treatments of adult ADHD. The authors present results from a cognitive-behaviorally oriented psychological group rehabilitation for adult ADHD. Method: A total of 29 adults with ADHD participated. Rehabilitation consisted of 10 or 11 weekly sessions.…

  9. Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Problem Solving in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver; Sontag, Thomas A.; Stasik, Dorota; Laufkotter, Rainer; Lange, Klaus W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Two studies were performed to assess both divergent and convergent thinking in adults with ADHD. Method: The first study compared the problem-solving abilities of healthy participants (N = 144) and unmedicated adults with ADHD (N = 144). In the second study, problem-solving abilities of adults with diagnosed ADHD (N = 22) were examined…

  10. Description and Demonstration of CBT for ADHD in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprich, Susan E.; Knouse, Laura E.; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Burbridge, Jennifer; Safren, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    ADHD in adulthood is a valid, prevalent, distressing, and interfering condition. Although medications help treat this disorder, there are often residual symptoms after medication treatment, and, for some patients, they are contraindicated. Compared to other disorders, such as mood and anxiety disorders, there are few resources available for…

  11. Childhood ADHD Symptoms: Association with Parental Social Networks and Mental Health Service Use during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Meyer, Johanna; Zima, Bonnie T.; Mason, Dana M.; Gary, Faye A.; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the associations of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) risk status with subsequent parental social network characteristics and caregiver strain in adolescence; and examines predictors of adolescent mental health service use. Methods: Baseline ADHD screening identified children at high risk (n = 207) and low risk (n = 167) for ADHD. At eight-year follow-up, parents reported their social network characteristics, caregiver strain, adolescents’ psychopathology and mental health service utilization, whereas adolescents self-reported their emotional status and ADHD stigma perceptions. Analyses were conducted using ANOVAs and nested logistic regression modeling. Results: Parents of youth with childhood ADHD reported support networks consisting of fewer spouses but more healthcare professionals, and lower levels of support than control parents. Caregiver strain increased with adolescent age and psychopathology. Increased parental network support, youth ADHD symptoms, and caregiver strain, but lower youth stigma perceptions were independently associated with increased service use. Conclusions: Raising children with ADHD appears to significantly impact parental social network experiences. Reduced spousal support and overall lower network support levels may contribute to high caregiver strain commonly reported among parents of ADHD youth. Parental social network experiences influence adolescent ADHD service use. With advances in social networking technology, further research is needed to elucidate ways to enhance caregiver support during ADHD care. PMID:26402692

  12. Atypical Alpha Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha…

  13. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in Pediatric Narcolepsy: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lecendreux, Michel; Lavault, Sophie; Lopez, Régis; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Konofal, Eric; Cortese, Samuele; Franco, Patricia; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the frequency, severity, and associations of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with narcolepsy with and without cataplexy. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four French national reference centers for narcolepsy. Patients: One hundred eight consecutively referred children aged younger than 18 y with narcolepsy, with (NwC, n = 86) or without cataplexy (NwoC, n = 22), and 67 healthy controls. Interventions: The participants, their families, and sleep specialists completed a structured interview and questionnaires about sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ADHD symptoms (ADHD-rating scale based upon Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision [DSM-IV-TR] symptoms), and use of psychostimulants for the treatment of narcolepsy (administered in 68.2%). Polysomnographic measures were collected. Measurements and Results: Clinically significant levels of ADHD symptoms were found in 4.8% of controls compared with 35.3% in patients with NwoC (P < 0.001) and 19.7% in patients with NwC (P < 0.01). Total ADHD scores were 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5, 9.0) in controls compared with 14.2 (95% CI: 10.6, 18.9; P < 0.001), in patients with NwoC and 12.2 (95% CI: 9.8, 15.3; P < 0.01) in patients with NwC; subscores of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were also significantly higher in both narcolepsy groups compared with controls. No difference was found between the NwC and NwoC groups for any ADHD measure. ADHD symptom severity was associated with increased levels of sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia. Compared with the 34 untreated patients, the 73 patients treated with psychostimulants (modafinil in 91%) showed a trend toward lower narcolepsy symptoms but not lower ADHD symptoms. Conclusions: Pediatric patients with narcolepsy have high levels of treatment-resistant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. The optimal treatment for

  14. What Is the Prevalence of Adult ADHD? Results of a Population Screen of 966 Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To provide a better estimate of the prevalence of ADHD in adulthood, the authors complete a telephone survey of 966 randomly selected adults. They compute two diagnoses from the survey data. Participants meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for both childhood and adulthood are defined as narrow ADHD.…

  15. Resting state fMRI entropy probes complexity of brain activity in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Sokunbi, Moses O; Fung, Wilson; Sawlani, Vijay; Choppin, Sabine; Linden, David E J; Thome, Johannes

    2013-12-30

    In patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), quantitative neuroimaging techniques have revealed abnormalities in various brain regions, including the frontal cortex, striatum, cerebellum, and occipital cortex. Nonlinear signal processing techniques such as sample entropy have been used to probe the regularity of brain magnetoencephalography signals in patients with ADHD. In the present study, we extend this technique to analyse the complex output patterns of the 4 dimensional resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging signals in adult patients with ADHD. After adjusting for the effect of age, we found whole brain entropy differences (P=0.002) between groups and negative correlation (r=-0.45) between symptom scores and mean whole brain entropy values, indicating lower complexity in patients. In the regional analysis, patients showed reduced entropy in frontal and occipital regions bilaterally and a significant negative correlation between the symptom scores and the entropy maps at a family-wise error corrected cluster level of P<0.05 (P=0.001, initial threshold). Our findings support the hypothesis of abnormal frontal-striatal-cerebellar circuits in ADHD and the suggestion that sample entropy is a useful tool in revealing abnormalities in the brain dynamics of patients with psychiatric disorders.

  16. Does ADHD Predict Substance-Use Disorders? A 10-Year Follow-up Study of Young Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Martelon, MaryKate; Joshi, Gagan; Bateman, Clancey; Fried, Ronna; Petty, Carter; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: High rates of substance-use disorders (SUD) have been found in samples of adolescents and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Predictors of SUD in children with ADHD who are at risk for the development of SUDs remain understudied. The main aims of this study were to identify clinically meaningful characteristics…

  17. Attribution and Self-Evaluation of Continuous Performance Test Task Performance in Medicated and Unmedicated Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrilleaux, Katie; Advokat, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine if adults with ADHD differed from children with ADHD, in assessing their performance on the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Method: ADHD-diagnosed adults (n = 13) and adults without ADHD (n = 17) were tested twice on the CPT and then completed self-evaluation and attribution surveys. Results: Nonmedicated…

  18. Cognitive and Behavioral Indicators of ADHD Symptoms Prior to School Age

    PubMed Central

    Arnett, Anne Bernard; MacDonald, Beatriz; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research on the etiology of ADHD symptoms suggests that neuropsychological differences may be present as early as birth; however, the diagnosis is typically not given until school age. The current study aimed to 1) identify early behavioral and cognitive markers of later significant parent and/or teacher ratings of ADHD symptomology, 2) examine sex differences in these predictors, and 3) describe the developmental trajectories of comorbid symptoms in school aged children. Methods 1,106 children and at least one parent enrolled in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were followed from 1 month of age through 6th grade. Effect size calculations, discriminant function analysis, and growth curve analyses were conducted to address the three aims. Results Children with high- versus low-ADHD symptomology at 3rd grade could be distinguished using cognitive and behavioral measures as early as 15 months (females) and 24 months (males). Sensitivity and specificity were modest at 15, 24 and 26 months. Growth curves revealed significant differences between high- and low-ADHD groups in comorbid symptoms at Kindergarten, and significantly different slopes for externalizing, social skills and academic skills ratings across elementary school. There were few gender differences on cognitive and behavioral variables within the high-ADHD group. Conclusions Cognitive and behavioral markers of ADHD symptoms are present in children prior to entry into formal schooling, but current behavioral screeners are not developmentally sensitive to these differences in infancy and toddlerhood. PMID:23848372

  19. Biological and Rearing Mother Influences on Child ADHD Symptoms: Revisiting the Developmental Interface between Nature and Nurture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Barrett, Douglas; Elam, Kit; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David; Thapar, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report more negative family relationships than families of children without ADHD. Questions remain as to the role of genetic factors underlying associations between family relationships and children's ADHD symptoms, and the role of children's ADHD…

  20. Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Older Adults: A Review of the Evidence and its Implications for Clinical Care.

    PubMed

    Goodman, David W; Mitchell, Sara; Rhodewalt, Lauren; Surman, Craig B H

    2016-01-01

    Although previously considered a disorder of childhood, studies in the last decade have demonstrated that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continues to impair function into adulthood and responds to pharmacotherapy. Due to age-specific changes in roles and challenges, it is possible that presentation and response to intervention may differ between older and younger adults. A literature search for papers that identified older adults with ADHD, including papers describing its epidemiology, manifestation, and treatment, was the basis for this paper. There is a paucity of data on ADHD in older adults; however, small observational studies have characterized the presence, impact, and treatment of ADHD in adults over the age of 50 years, and larger epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that ADHD symptoms exist in older adulthood. Optimal criteria for diagnosis of ADHD and methods of treating ADHD in older individuals have not been systematically explored. In light of the limited data, this review discusses considerations for differential diagnosis and safe pharmacotherapy of ADHD in older adults.

  1. Biological and Rearing Mother Influences on Child ADHD Symptoms: Revisiting the Developmental Interface between Nature and Nurture

    PubMed Central

    Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Barrett, Douglas; Elam, Kit; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David; Thapar, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background Families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report more negative family relationships than families of children without ADHD. Questions remain as to the role of genetic factors underlying associations between family relationships and children’s ADHD symptoms, and the role of children’s ADHD symptoms as an evocative influence on the quality of relationships experienced within such families. Utilizing the attributes of two genetically sensitive research designs, the present study examined associations between biologically related and non-biologically related maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. The combined attributes of the study designs permit assessment of associations while controlling for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examining evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE); two relatively under examined confounds of past research in this area. Methods A cross-sectional adoption-at-conception design (Cardiff IVF Study; C-IVF) and a longitudinal adoption-at-birth design (Early Growth and Development Study; EGDS) were used. The C-IVF sample included 160 mothers and children (age 5–8 years). The EGDS sample included 320 linked sets of adopted children (age 6 years), adoptive-, and biologically-related mothers. Questionnaires were used to assess maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. A cross-rater approach was used across measures of maternal behavior (mother reports) and child ADHD symptoms (father reports). Results Significant associations were revealed between rearing mother ADHD symptoms, hostile parenting behavior, and child ADHD symptoms in both samples. Because both samples consisted of genetically-unrelated mothers and children, passive rGE was removed as a possible explanatory factor underlying these associations. Further, path analysis revealed evidence for

  2. Cognitive variability in adults with ADHD and AS: disentangling the roles of executive functions and social cognition.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Baez, Sandra; Torralva, Teresa; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Rattazzi, Alexia; Bein, Victoria; Rogg, Katharina; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2013-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Asperger's Syndrome (AS) share a heterogeneous cognitive profile. Studies assessing executive functions (EF) and social cognition in both groups have found preserved and impaired performances. These inconsistent findings would be partially explained by the cognitive variability reported in these disorders. First, the present study explored the inter-individual variability in EF and social cognition in both patient groups. Second, we compared differential characteristics and commonalities in the cognitive profiles of EF and social cognition between ADHD, AS and control adults. We assessed 22 patients with ADHD, 23 adults with AS and 21 matched typically developing subjects using different measures of EF (working memory, cognitive flexibility and multitasking) and social cognition (theory of mind and decision-making). Group comparisons and multiple case series analyses (MCSA) were conducted. The between-group comparisons showed an EF deficit in working memory in ADHD and a theory of mind (ToM) impairment in AS. The MCSA evidenced that, compared to controls, ADHD patients had a higher inter-individual variability in EF, while individuals with AS had a more heterogeneous profile in social cognition tasks compared to both groups. Finally, the AS and ADHD groups presented higher task-related variability compared to controls and shared a common heterogeneous profile in EF. This is the first study to compare variability in EF and social cognition profiles of ADHD and AS. We propose that heterogeneity in EF performance is a link between ADHD and AS which may explain the overlap of symptomatology between both diagnoses. In addition, patients with AS seem to show a unique heterogeneous profile in ToM which may explain the low probability of finding AS symptoms in patients with ADHD.

  3. Career Beliefs and Job Satisfaction in Adults with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Carol A.; Prevatt, Frances; Welles, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    The authors evaluated dysfunctional career beliefs and subsequent low job satisfaction in adults reporting significant symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants (N = 81) completed the Adult Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale (S. B. McCarney & P. D. Anderson, 1996), the Career Thoughts Inventory (J. P.…

  4. Could I Have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? Finding an Answer to ADHD as an Adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... education, social and family situations and relationships, employment, self-esteem, and emotional health. It is never too late ... tasks. It can also address feelings of low self-esteem and help adults with ADHD gain confidence, as ...

  5. The Prevalence of ADHD-Like Symptoms in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy; Elliott, Julian; Holmes, Joni

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore the prevalence of ADHD symptoms in a community sample of children in the United Kingdom. Method: There were 964 ten year olds (55% boys; M = 10.4 years; SD = 0.6) from mainstream schools in the United Kingdom in this study. The ADHD Rating Scale-IV, which provides ratings on the frequency of…

  6. A Population-Based Study of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Associated Impairment in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Das, Debjani; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J.; Easteal, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent childhood psychiatric condition. It frequently persists into adulthood and can have serious health and other adverse consequences. The majority of previous adult ADHD studies have focused on young adults so that relatively little is known about ADHD symptoms and their effects in mid and late life. In addition, effects of subclinical levels of attention deficit and hyperactivity have not been studied in detail. In this study we investigated ADHD symptoms and related impairment in a large population-based sample of middle-aged Australian adults (n = 2091; 47% male). Applying the WHO adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS) we observed that 6.2% of participants had scores that were previously associated with ADHD diagnosis. No significant gender difference in the distribution of ASRS scores was observed. Multiple regression analyses indicated strong positive correlations between symptoms of ADHD and depression/anxiety and significant negative associations (p<0.01) with employment, financial stress, relationship quality, health and well-being measures in this age group. Importantly, associations were highly significant even when few ADHD symptoms were reported. Compared to the hyperactivity component, the inattention trait was particularly strongly associated and remained significant after controlling for depression/anxiety symptoms. Our study confirms previous findings and significantly adds to existing literature especially for an age-group that has not been well-studied. Our results suggest that ADHD symptoms continue to be associated with ill-health and functional impairment in mid-life and are, therefore, likely to be a major, previously unrecognized source of late-life morbidity with associated social and economic costs. Thus, there is a compelling need for better understanding and development of age-appropriate approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in mid- to late-life. PMID

  7. The Genetic Association between ADHD Symptoms and Reading Difficulties: The Role of Inattentiveness and IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paloyelis, Yannis; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Wood, Alexis C.; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have documented the primarily genetic aetiology for the stronger phenotypic covariance between reading disability and ADHD inattention symptoms, compared to hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. In this study, we examined to what extent this covariation could be attributed to "generalist genes" shared with general cognitive ability…

  8. Neuropsychological Outcome in Adolescents/Young Adults with Childhood ADHD: Profiles of Persisters, Remitters and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Trampush, Joey W.; Miller, Carlin J.; Marks, David J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined neuropsychological functioning in a longitudinal sample of adolescents/young adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls as a function of the persistence of ADHD. We hypothesized that measures of executive processes would parallel adolescent clinical status, with ADHD-persisters, but not…

  9. Late Adolescent and Young Adult Outcomes of Girls Diagnosed with ADHD in Childhood: An Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; MacLean, Michael G.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita; Robb, Jessica A.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Method: The study included 58 women from a larger longitudinal study of ADHD. A total of 34 (M = 19.97 years old) met "DSM" criteria for ADHD in childhood, whereas the remaining 24 (M = 19.83 years old) did not. Self- and…

  10. Performance Monitoring Is Altered in Adult ADHD: A Familial Event-Related Potential Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Grainne; Albrecht, Bjoern; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert; Brandeis, Daniel; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2009-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that starts in childhood and frequently persists in adults. Electrophysiological studies in children with ADHD provide evidence for abnormal performance monitoring processes and familial association of these processes with ADHD. It is not yet known…

  11. Risk of Intimate Partner Violence among Young Adult Males with Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Brian; Molina, Brooke; Pelham, William; Cheong, JeeWon; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Belendiuk, Kat; Walther, Christine; Babinski, Dara; Waschbusch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research has clearly documented the social dysfunction of youth with ADHD. However, little is known about the interpersonal relationships of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, including rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study, analyses compared the level of IPV…

  12. When Diagnosing ADHD in Young Adults Emphasize Informant Reports, "DSM" Items, and Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Garefino, Allison C.; Babinski, Dara E.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined several questions about the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in young adults using data from a childhood-diagnosed sample of 200 individuals with ADHD (age M = 20.20 years) and 121 demographically similar non-ADHD controls (total N = 321). Method: We examined the use of self- versus…

  13. Do Delay Aversion and Executive Function Deficits Make Distinct Contributions to the Functional Impact of ADHD Symptoms? A Study of Early Academic Skill Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorell, Lisa B.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The present study examined the distinct properties of executive functioning in relation to ADHD symptoms, as well as functional outcomes associated with ADHD. In line with the dual-pathway model of ADHD, executive functioning and delay aversion were expected to show independent effects on ADHD symptoms. Furthermore, relations to early…

  14. Short cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive training for adults with ADHD - a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Virta, Maarit; Salakari, Anita; Antila, Mervi; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Kaski, Markus; Vataja, Risto; Kalska, Hely; Iivanainen, Matti

    2010-09-07

    In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective non-pharmacological treatments of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here, we present the results of a pilot study of 10 adults with ADHD participating in short-term individual cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT), 9 adults participating in cognitive training (CT), and 10 controls. Self-report questionnaires, independent evaluations, and computerized neurocognitive testing were collected before and after the treatments to evaluate change. There were distinctive pre-hypotheses regarding the treatments, and therefore the statistical comparisons were conducted in pairs: CBT vs control, CT vs control, and CBT vs CT. In a combined ADHD symptom score based on self-reports, 6 participants in CBT, 2 in CT and 2 controls improved. Using independent evaluations, improvement was found in 7 of the CBT participants, 2 of CT participants and 3 controls. There was no treatment-related improvement in cognitive performance. Thus, in the CBT group, some encouraging improvement was seen, although not as clearly as in previous research with longer interventions. In the CT group, there was improvement in the trained tasks but no generalization of the improvement to the tasks of the neurocognitive testing, the self- report questionnaires, or the independent evaluations. These preliminary results warrant further studies with more participants and with more elaborate cognitive testing.

  15. Pharmacological interventions for ADHD: how do adolescent and adult patient beliefs and attitudes impact treatment adherence?

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Adherence to medication can be problematic for patients, especially so for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Effective medications are available for the treatment of ADHD; however, nonadherence rates for ADHD medication range from 13.2%–64%. The reasons for nonadherence can be complex. This review aims to look at how the beliefs and attitudes of adolescents and adults impact ADHD treatment adherence. PMID:25284990

  16. Reading Performance of Young Adults With ADHD Diagnosed in Childhood: Relations With Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla

    2013-10-22

    Objective: To study reading performance of young adults with ADHD and its relation with executive functioning. Method: Thirty young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD and 30 with normal development (ND) were compared on reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Furthermore, ADHD with reading disabilities (ADHD+RD) and ADHD without reading disabilities (ADHD-RD) subgroups were compared using self-report and informant-report versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). Results: Adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the ND adults on reading speed, responses to literal questions, and a cloze test. Although the comparison of the ADHD+RD and ADHD-RD groups did not show significant differences on the BRIEF-A subscales, the ADHD+RD group surpassed the critical percentile (85) on more subscales, with working memory and metacognition especially affected. Conclusion: The findings point out that reading should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of their evaluation to design effective early interventions. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX).

  17. Reading Performance of Young Adults With ADHD Diagnosed in Childhood: Relations With Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla

    2013-10-22

    Objective: To study reading performance of young adults with ADHD and its relation with executive functioning. Method: Thirty young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD and 30 with normal development (ND) were compared on reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Furthermore, ADHD with reading disabilities (ADHD+RD) and ADHD without reading disabilities (ADHD-RD) subgroups were compared using self-report and informant-report versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). Results: Adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the ND adults on reading speed, responses to literal questions, and a cloze test. Although the comparison of the ADHD+RD and ADHD-RD groups did not show significant differences on the BRIEF-A subscales, the ADHD+RD group surpassed the critical percentile (85) on more subscales, with working memory and metacognition especially affected. Conclusion: The findings point out that reading should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of their evaluation to design effective early interventions. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24149941

  18. Severity of children's ADHD symptoms and parenting stress: a multiple mediation model of self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Paulo A; McNamara, Joseph P; Geffken, Gary R; Reid, Adam

    2011-10-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine the extent to which the perceived self-regulation deficits across behavioral, cognitive, and emotional domains seen in children with ADHD explain the association between the severity of ADHD symptoms and parenting stress. Participants for this study included 80 children (mean age = 10 years, 9 months) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD confirmed by a comprehensive clinical diagnostic assessment. Parents reported their own stress levels as well as the severity of their children's ADHD symptoms, aggression, emotional lability, and executive functioning difficulties. Results indicated that the severity of children's hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms but not their inattention related to parenting stress. Multiple mediational analyses indicated that the association between hyperactivity/impulsivity and parenting stress was explained by children's perceived comorbid aggression levels, emotional lability, and executive functioning difficulties. No significant differences in the strength of the mediators were found. The current study provides initial data showing that the perceived impairments in children's self-regulation across emotional, cognitive, and behavioral domains are what parents report as stressful, not simply the severity of ADHD symptoms. Due to the cross-sectional nature of this study and shared variance from relying solely on parent report, it will be critical for future research to replicate our findings using longitudinal and multi-informant data such as teacher reports and standardized assessments.

  19. How can Continuous Performance Test help to assess inattention when mood and ADHD symptoms coexist?

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Cintia; Nazar, Bruno P; Pinna, Camilla M S; Rabelo, Beatriz; Serra-Pinheiro, Maria Antonia; Sergeant, Joseph; Mattos, Paulo

    2016-09-30

    Depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are prevalent, and often comorbid, disorders, with varying severity levels among patients. Inattention is a symptom present in both disorders, which often makes their differential diagnosis difficult in clinical practice (depression only versus comorbidity). This study aimed to investigate the influence of depressive symptoms on attention performance using one of the most common tasks in clinical practice, the continuous performance test (CPT). Ninety-three college students (60 men, 33 women) with a mean age of 24 years old were investigated with self-reports and semi-structured interviews for ADHD; the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used for depression ratings. Attention measures were derived from the CPT. There was no correlation between depression and ADHD symptoms; in addition, depression was not correlated with any of the CPT scores; ADHD symptomatology was the only predictor of changes in those CPT variables (commission and omission errors and d prime). ADHD-associated impairment on the CPT was not augmented by the presence of depressive symptoms, making neuropsychological results on this test helpful for the differential diagnosis. When attention deficits are observed in individuals with mild or moderate depression, they are most likely not attributed to depression.

  20. How can Continuous Performance Test help to assess inattention when mood and ADHD symptoms coexist?

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Cintia; Nazar, Bruno P; Pinna, Camilla M S; Rabelo, Beatriz; Serra-Pinheiro, Maria Antonia; Sergeant, Joseph; Mattos, Paulo

    2016-09-30

    Depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are prevalent, and often comorbid, disorders, with varying severity levels among patients. Inattention is a symptom present in both disorders, which often makes their differential diagnosis difficult in clinical practice (depression only versus comorbidity). This study aimed to investigate the influence of depressive symptoms on attention performance using one of the most common tasks in clinical practice, the continuous performance test (CPT). Ninety-three college students (60 men, 33 women) with a mean age of 24 years old were investigated with self-reports and semi-structured interviews for ADHD; the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used for depression ratings. Attention measures were derived from the CPT. There was no correlation between depression and ADHD symptoms; in addition, depression was not correlated with any of the CPT scores; ADHD symptomatology was the only predictor of changes in those CPT variables (commission and omission errors and d prime). ADHD-associated impairment on the CPT was not augmented by the presence of depressive symptoms, making neuropsychological results on this test helpful for the differential diagnosis. When attention deficits are observed in individuals with mild or moderate depression, they are most likely not attributed to depression. PMID:27434202

  1. Detecting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults with intellectual disability The use of Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS).

    PubMed

    La Malfa, G; Lassi, S; Bertelli, M; Pallanti, S; Albertini, G

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. It is also thought that ADHD is more prevalent in the field of intellectual disability (ID) than in the general population, but there are not many experimental studies. Since ADHD diagnosis in adults is more difficult, specific rating scales correlated to the main diagnostic systems have been created but have not been applied to people with ID. This work presents an application of an ADHD screening rating scale, the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) screening version to 46 adults with ID. The resulting prevalence of "ADHD-positive" was 19.6%. These data are in accord with results reported in the general adult literature. Our data suggest that ID and attention disorders can co-occur. Therefore, not only can ADHD be a valid psychiatric diagnosis for a child with ID but for an adult with ID as well. The CAARS can be considered a useful clinical instrument to survey ADHD in ID. PMID:17416484

  2. A Pilot Study of the Effects of Atomoxetine on Driving Performance in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; Anderson, Deborah L.; Kruesi, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Objective: There is a high risk of vehicular crashes, traffic citations, and poorer driving performance in adults with ADHD. This pilot study examines the value of a new nonstimulant (atomoxetine) for improving the driving performance of adults with ADHD. Method: Atomoxetine (1.2 mg/kg daily for 3 weeks) and a placebo are studied on 18 adults with…

  3. The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms and self-employment.

    PubMed

    Verheul, Ingrid; Rietdijk, Wim; Block, Joern; Franken, Ingmar; Larsson, Henrik; Thurik, Roy

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms have been associated with the decision to become self-employed. Although these symptoms are generally regarded as disadvantageous, there may also be a bright side. To our knowledge, however, there has been no systematic, epidemiological evidence to support this claim. This paper examines the association between ADHD symptoms and self-employment in a population-based sample from the STAGE cohort of the Swedish Twin Registry (N = 7208). For replication, we used a sample of Dutch students who participated in the Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students' Survey (N = 13,112). In the Swedish sample, we found a positive association with self-employment for both general ADHD symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 1.13; 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 1.04-1.23] and hyperactivity symptoms [OR 1.19; 95 % CI 1.08-1.32], whereas no association was found for attention-deficit symptoms [OR 0.99; 95 % CI 0.89-1.10]. The positive association between hyperactivity and self-employment was replicated in the Dutch student sample [OR 1.09; 95 % CI 1.03-1.15]. Our results show that certain aspects of ADHD, in particular hyperactivity, can have a bright side, as they are positively associated with self-employment.

  4. The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms and self-employment.

    PubMed

    Verheul, Ingrid; Rietdijk, Wim; Block, Joern; Franken, Ingmar; Larsson, Henrik; Thurik, Roy

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms have been associated with the decision to become self-employed. Although these symptoms are generally regarded as disadvantageous, there may also be a bright side. To our knowledge, however, there has been no systematic, epidemiological evidence to support this claim. This paper examines the association between ADHD symptoms and self-employment in a population-based sample from the STAGE cohort of the Swedish Twin Registry (N = 7208). For replication, we used a sample of Dutch students who participated in the Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students' Survey (N = 13,112). In the Swedish sample, we found a positive association with self-employment for both general ADHD symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 1.13; 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 1.04-1.23] and hyperactivity symptoms [OR 1.19; 95 % CI 1.08-1.32], whereas no association was found for attention-deficit symptoms [OR 0.99; 95 % CI 0.89-1.10]. The positive association between hyperactivity and self-employment was replicated in the Dutch student sample [OR 1.09; 95 % CI 1.03-1.15]. Our results show that certain aspects of ADHD, in particular hyperactivity, can have a bright side, as they are positively associated with self-employment. PMID:27177909

  5. ADHD Symptoms Moderate the Relation between ASD Status and Internalizing Symptoms in 3-6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Manangan, Christen N.; Dauterman, Hayley A.; Davis, Heather N.

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to understand the relation between diagnostic status (autism spectrum disorders [ASD] versus typically developing) and internalizing problems in children with and without co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Participants were 88 children, ages 3:0-6:11, their parents and teachers. Findings…

  6. A Clinical Study of ADHD Symptoms with Relation to Symptoms of Learning Disorders in Schoolchildren in Bogota, Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talero-Gutierrez, Claudia; Van Meerbeke, Alberto Velez; Reyes, Rodrigo Gonzalez

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate possible relationships between symptoms of ADHD and of learning disorder (LD) in a population geographically, culturally, and linguistically distinct from previous studies. Method: The authors evaluated a cross section of 834 Colombian schoolchildren for childhood neurological pathologies on the basis of a medical…

  7. Behaviors that Discriminate ADHD in Children and Adolescents: Primary Symptoms, Symptoms of Comorbid Conditions, or Indicators of Functional Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Judith R.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Reynolds, Cecil R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether behaviors that differentiate children and adolescents with ADHD from those without are related to the primary diagnostic criteria (i.e., inattention and impulsivity--hyperactivity), symptoms of comorbid conditions, functional impairment, or a combination, and to determine whether…

  8. Efficacy of Atomoxetine in Children with Severe Autistic Disorders and Symptoms of ADHD: An Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charnsil, Chawanun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to examine the efficacy of atomoxetine in treating symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with severe autistic disorder. Method: Children with severe autistic disorder who had symptoms of ADHD were given atomoxetine for 10 weeks. The efficacy of atomoxetine was evaluated by using the…

  9. ADHD Symptoms and Associated Psychopathology in a Community Sample of Adolescents from the European North of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruchkin, Vladislav; Lorberg, Boris; Koposov, Roman; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of ADHD symptoms and their relationship to psychopathology in adolescents from the European North of Russia. Method: The prevalence of ADHD symptoms is assessed by teacher reports in 536 adolescents. Internalizing and externalizing problems are assessed by teacher ratings and student self-reports. Results:…

  10. Brief Report: The Impact of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms on Academic Performance in an Adolescent Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birchwood, James; Daley, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Less is understood about the relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in adolescents than the relationship in younger children. As such, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prospective relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in a community adolescent sample. Three hundred and twenty-four…

  11. Validation of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors Questionnaire in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Kelly Y. C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Luk, Ernest S. L.; Wong, Ann S. Y.; Law, Lawrence S. C.; Ho, Karen K. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Unlike rating scales that focus on the severity of ADHD symptoms, the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors (SWAN) rating scale is phrased in neutral or positive terms for carers to compare the index child's behaviors with that of their peers. This study explores its psychometric properties when applied to…

  12. Incautiously Optimistic: Positively-Valenced Cognitive Avoidance in Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Knouse, Laura E.; Mitchell, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians who conduct cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) targeting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood have noted that their patients sometimes verbalize overly positive automatic thoughts and set overly optimistic goals. These cognitions are frequently related to failure to engage in compensatory behavioral strategies emphasized in CBT. In this paper, we offer a functional analysis of this problematic pattern, positively-valenced cognitive avoidance, and suggest methods for addressing it within CBT for adult ADHD. We propose that maladaptive positive cognitions function to relieve aversive emotions in the short-term and are therefore negatively reinforced but that, in the long-term, they are associated with decreased likelihood of active coping and increased patterns of behavioral avoidance. Drawing on techniques from Behavioral Activation (BA), we offer a case example to illustrate these concepts and describe step-by-step methods for clinicians to help patients recognize avoidant patterns and engage in more active coping. PMID:25908901

  13. [The comorbidity of learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms in primary-school-age children].

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Fischbach, Anne; Balke-Melcher, Christina; Mähler, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Children having difficulties in acquiring early literacy and mathematical skills often show an increased rate of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This study provides data on the comorbidity rates of specific learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms. We analyzed the data of 273 children with learning difficulties despite an at least average IQ, 57 children with low IQ, and 270 children without learning difficulties and average IQ (comparison group). We assessed children’s IQ and school achievement using standardized achievement tests. ADHD symptoms were assessed via parents’ ratings. Our results showed that only 5 % of both the control group and the group with solely mathematical difficulties fulfilled the criteria of an ADHD subtype according to the DSM-IV based on parents’ ratings. In contrast, this was the case in even 20 % of the children with difficulties in reading/writing and of those with low IQ. Compared to girls, boys in the control group had a 150% higher risk for matching the criteria of one of the ADHD subtypes in parents’ ratings, whereas boys with learning difficulties and those with low IQ had an even 200% to 600% higher risk for it. The relationship between learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms can be found predominantly in the inattentive type. Possible reasons for the results are discussed. PMID:26098006

  14. [The comorbidity of learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms in primary-school-age children].

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Fischbach, Anne; Balke-Melcher, Christina; Mähler, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Children having difficulties in acquiring early literacy and mathematical skills often show an increased rate of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This study provides data on the comorbidity rates of specific learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms. We analyzed the data of 273 children with learning difficulties despite an at least average IQ, 57 children with low IQ, and 270 children without learning difficulties and average IQ (comparison group). We assessed children’s IQ and school achievement using standardized achievement tests. ADHD symptoms were assessed via parents’ ratings. Our results showed that only 5 % of both the control group and the group with solely mathematical difficulties fulfilled the criteria of an ADHD subtype according to the DSM-IV based on parents’ ratings. In contrast, this was the case in even 20 % of the children with difficulties in reading/writing and of those with low IQ. Compared to girls, boys in the control group had a 150% higher risk for matching the criteria of one of the ADHD subtypes in parents’ ratings, whereas boys with learning difficulties and those with low IQ had an even 200% to 600% higher risk for it. The relationship between learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms can be found predominantly in the inattentive type. Possible reasons for the results are discussed.

  15. Early development of comorbidity between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).

    PubMed

    Harvey, Elizabeth A; Breaux, Rosanna P; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2016-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are among the most common childhood disorders and frequently co-occur. The present study sought to advance our understanding of how comorbidity between ADHD and ODD develops during the preschool years by testing a cross-lagged model that integrates 2 prominent models: the developmental precursor model and the correlated risk factors model. Participants were 199 children (107 boys) who took part in a longitudinal study of preschoolers with behavior problems. Parent reports of ADHD and ODD symptoms were collected annually from ages 3 to 6 and a family history interview was administered at age 3. In support of the developmental precursors model, ADHD symptoms predicted later argumentative/defiant symptoms. In support of the correlated risk factors model, family histories of ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms were correlated risk factors that uniquely predicted ADHD and anger/irritable symptoms in children. Results suggest that the correlated risk factors model may best explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and anger/irritability, whereas the developmental precursors model may better explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and argumentative/defiance.

  16. The relation between working memory components and ADHD symptoms from a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Carin; Eninger, Lilianne; Forssman, Linda; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to examine the relations between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and four working memory (WM) components (short-term memory and central executive in verbal and visuospatial domains) in 284 6-16-year-old children from the general population. The results showed that verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and verbal central executive uniquely contributed to inattention symptoms. Age interacted with verbal short-term memory in predicting inattention, with the relation being stronger in older children. These findings support the notion of ADHD as a developmental disorder, with changes in associated neuropsychological deficits across time. The results further indicate ADHD-related deficits in several specific WM components. PMID:21347920

  17. Dietary sensitivities and ADHD symptoms: thirty-five years of research.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Laura J; Kuczek, Thomas; Burgess, John R; Hurt, Elizabeth; Arnold, L Eugene

    2011-04-01

    Artificial food colors (AFCs) have not been established as the main cause of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but accumulated evidence suggests that a subgroup shows significant symptom improvement when consuming an AFC-free diet and reacts with ADHD-type symptoms on challenge with AFCs. Of children with suspected sensitivities, 65% to 89% reacted when challenged with at least 100 mg of AFC. Oligoantigenic diet studies suggested that some children in addition to being sensitive to AFCs are also sensitive to common nonsalicylate foods (milk, chocolate, soy, eggs, wheat, corn, legumes) as well as salicylate-containing grapes, tomatoes, and orange. Some studies found "cosensitivity" to be more the rule than the exception. Recently, 2 large studies demonstrated behavioral sensitivity to AFCs and benzoate in children both with and without ADHD. A trial elimination diet is appropriate for children who have not responded satisfactorily to conventional treatment or whose parents wish to pursue a dietary investigation.

  18. The relation between working memory components and ADHD symptoms from a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Carin; Eninger, Lilianne; Forssman, Linda; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to examine the relations between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and four working memory (WM) components (short-term memory and central executive in verbal and visuospatial domains) in 284 6-16-year-old children from the general population. The results showed that verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and verbal central executive uniquely contributed to inattention symptoms. Age interacted with verbal short-term memory in predicting inattention, with the relation being stronger in older children. These findings support the notion of ADHD as a developmental disorder, with changes in associated neuropsychological deficits across time. The results further indicate ADHD-related deficits in several specific WM components.

  19. Developmental Trajectories of Aggression, Prosocial Behavior, and Social-Cognitive Problem Solving in Emerging Adolescents with Clinically Elevated ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kofler, Michael J.; Larsen, Ross; Sarver, Dustin E.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Middle school is a critical yet understudied period of social behavioral risks and opportunities that may be particularly difficult for emerging adolescents with ADHD given their childhood social difficulties. Although childhood ADHD has been associated with increased aggression and peer relational difficulties, relatively few ADHD studies have examined social behavior beyond the elementary years, or examined aspects of positive (prosocial) behavior. In addition, social-cognitive problem solving has been implicated in ADHD; however, its longitudinal impact on prosocial and aggressive behavior is unclear. The current study examined how middle school students with clinically elevated ADHD symptoms differ from their non-ADHD peers on baseline (sixth grade) and age-related changes in prosocial and aggressive behavior, and the extent to which social-cognitive problem solving strategies mediate these relations. Emerging adolescents with (n = 178) and without (n = 3,806) clinically elevated, teacher-reported ADHD inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms were compared longitudinally across sixth through eighth grades using parallel process latent growth curve modeling, accounting for student demographic characteristics, ODD symptoms, deviant peer association, school climate, and parental monitoring. Sixth graders with elevated ADHD symptoms engaged in somewhat fewer prosocial behaviors (d= −0.44) and more aggressive behavior (d= 0.20) relative to their peers. These small social behavioral deficits decreased but were not normalized across the middle school years. Contrary to hypotheses, social-cognitive problem solving was not impaired in the ADHD group, and did not mediate the association between ADHD and social behavior during the middle school years. ADHD and social-cognitive problem solving contributed independently to social behavior, both in sixth grade and across the middle school years; the influence of social-cognitive problem solving on social behavior was

  20. Missense dopamine transporter mutations associate with adult parkinsonism and ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Freja H.; Skjørringe, Tina; Yasmeen, Saiqa; Arends, Natascha V.; Sahai, Michelle A.; Erreger, Kevin; Andreassen, Thorvald F.; Holy, Marion; Hamilton, Peter J.; Neergheen, Viruna; Karlsborg, Merete; Newman, Amy H.; Pope, Simon; Heales, Simon J.R.; Friberg, Lars; Law, Ian; Pinborg, Lars H.; Sitte, Harald H.; Loland, Claus; Shi, Lei; Weinstein, Harel; Galli, Aurelio; Hjermind, Lena E.; Møller, Lisbeth B.; Gether, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Parkinsonism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are widespread brain disorders that involve disturbances of dopaminergic signaling. The sodium-coupled dopamine transporter (DAT) controls dopamine homeostasis, but its contribution to disease remains poorly understood. Here, we analyzed a cohort of patients with atypical movement disorder and identified 2 DAT coding variants, DAT-Ile312Phe and a presumed de novo mutant DAT-Asp421Asn, in an adult male with early-onset parkinsonism and ADHD. According to DAT single-photon emission computed tomography (DAT-SPECT) scans and a fluoro-deoxy-glucose-PET/MRI (FDG-PET/MRI) scan, the patient suffered from progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration. In heterologous cells, both DAT variants exhibited markedly reduced dopamine uptake capacity but preserved membrane targeting, consistent with impaired catalytic activity. Computational simulations and uptake experiments suggested that the disrupted function of the DAT-Asp421Asn mutant is the result of compromised sodium binding, in agreement with Asp421 coordinating sodium at the second sodium site. For DAT-Asp421Asn, substrate efflux experiments revealed a constitutive, anomalous efflux of dopamine, and electrophysiological analyses identified a large cation leak that might further perturb dopaminergic neurotransmission. Our results link specific DAT missense mutations to neurodegenerative early-onset parkinsonism. Moreover, the neuropsychiatric comorbidity provides additional support for the idea that DAT missense mutations are an ADHD risk factor and suggests that complex DAT genotype and phenotype correlations contribute to different dopaminergic pathologies. PMID:24911152

  1. Neuropsychological performance, impulsivity, ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking in compulsive buying disorder

    PubMed Central

    Black, Donald Wayne; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Bayless, John David; Allen, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We examined the neuropsychological performance of people with compulsive buying disorder (CBD) and control subjects, along with trait impulsivity, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and selected personality characteristics. Subjects received a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, depression and ADHD symptom assessment, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Persons with CBD (n=26) and controls (n=32) were comparable in terms of age, sex, and years of education. Subjects with CBD had a mean age of 36.3 years (S.D.=15.7) and an age at onset of 19.7 years (S.D.=7.0). Compulsive buyers had more lifetime mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. People with Compulsive buying performed significantly better on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Picture Completion task, a test of visual perception; otherwise, there were no consistent differences in neuropsychological measures. They also had elevated levels of self-reported depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. In conclusion, compulsive buyers have greater lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls, and higher levels of self-rated depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. The present study does not support the notion that there is a pattern of neuropsychological deficits associated with CBD. PMID:22766012

  2. Examining Alternative Explanations of the Covariation of ADHD and Anxiety Symptoms in Children: A Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Jennifer S.; Dadds, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is comorbid with a range of other disorders, including anxiety disorders. The aim was to examine different explanations for the covariation of these symptom domains in children according to the framework provided by (Lilienfeld, S. O. Comorbidity between and within childhood externalizing and…

  3. Pharmacological Management of a Youth with ADHD, Marijuana Use, and Mood Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Wilens, Timothy E.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with a 16-year-old boy who is referred by his parents to address his academic decline and mood symptoms. He was diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 7 years ago, but his parents had opted not to have it treated. The patient has prominent inattention and distractibility, with complaints of internal…

  4. Cognitive and Behavioral Indicators of ADHD Symptoms Prior to School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Anne Bernard; MacDonald, Beatriz; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research on the etiology of ADHD symptoms suggests that neuropsychological differences may be present as early as birth; however, the diagnosis is typically not given until school age. This study aimed to (a) identify early behavioral and cognitive markers of later significant parent and/or teacher ratings of ADHD…

  5. Evidence for Shared Genetic Risk between ADHD Symptoms and Reduced Mathematics Ability: A Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greven, Corina U.; Kovas, Yulia; Willcutt, Erik G.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and mathematics ability are associated, but little is known about the genetic and environmental influences underlying this association. Methods: Data came from more than 6,000 twelve-year-old twin pairs from the UK population-representative Twins Early Development Study. Parents…

  6. The Latent Classes of Subclinical ADHD Symptoms: Convergences of Multiple Informant Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobor, Andrea; Takacs, Adam; Urban, Robert; Csepe, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to conduct latent class analysis on the Hyperactivity scale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in order to identify distinct subgroups of subclinical ADHD in a multi-informant framework. We hypothesized a similar structure between teachers and parents, and differences in symptom severity across…

  7. Intensity of ADHD Symptoms and Subjective Feelings of Competence in School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanc, Tomasz; Brzezinska, Anna Izabela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess how different levels of intensity of ADHD symptoms influence the development of the subjective feeling of competence in school age children. The sample was comprised of 62 children age 11 to 13. For the purpose of estimation of the subjective feeling of competence, The Feeling of Competence Questionnaire…

  8. A Longitudinal Twin Study on the Association between Inattentive and Hyperactive-Impulsive ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greven, Corina U.; Asherson, Philip; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Plomin, Robert

    2011-01-01

    DSM-IV distinguishes two symptom domains of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): inattentiveness and hyperactivity-impulsivity. The present study examines the aetiologies and developmental relations underlying the associations between inattentiveness and hyperactivity-impulsivity over time, based on a representative population sample…

  9. Reliability of DSM-IV Symptom Ratings of ADHD: Implications for DSM-V

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanto, Mary V.; Alvir, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the intrarater reliability of "DSM-IV" ADHD symptoms. Method: Two-hundred-two children referred for attention problems and 49 comparison children (all 7-12 years) were rated by parents and teachers on the identical "DSM-IV" items presented in two different formats, the SNAP-IV and Conners'…

  10. Delay and Inhibition as Early Predictors of ADHD Symptoms in Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Susan B.; von Stauffenberg, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    We used data from a large, longitudinal study of children in the community, the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, to examine how well earlier measures of delay capacity, inhibitory control, planning, and attention predicted symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed in third grade. Children with…

  11. The Role of Maternal and Child ADHD Symptoms in Shaping Interpersonal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated the influence of maternal ADHD symptoms on: (a) mothers' own social functioning; (b) their child's social functioning; and (c) parent-child interactions following a lab-based playgroup involving children and their peers. Participants were 103 biological mothers of children ages 6-10. Approximately half of the…

  12. Is the Recall of Verbal-Spatial Information from Working Memory Affected by Symptoms of ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caterino, Linda C.; Verdi, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The Kulhavy model for text learning using organized spatial displays proposes that learning will be increased when participants view visual images prior to related text. In contrast to previous studies, this study also included students who exhibited symptoms of ADHD. Method: Participants were presented with either a map-text or…

  13. Measuring ADHD and ODD Symptoms and Impairment Using High School Teachers' Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Steven W.; Brady, Christine E.; Harrison, Judith R.; Bunford, Nora; Kern, Lee; State, Talida; Andrews, Christiana

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the results of high school teachers' ratings of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder, as well as school-related impairment of 875 adolescents. One hundred forty-three teachers at 19 high schools across 4 states each rated 6 students from their first-period classes according…

  14. Executive Functioning Deficits in Relation to Symptoms of ADHD and/or ODD in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorell, Lisa B.; Wahlstedt, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation between executive functioning and symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in children aged 4-6. A population-based sample (n = 201) was used and laboratory measures of inhibition, working memory and verbal fluency and teacher ratings of…

  15. Multilevel analysis of ADHD, anxiety and depression symptoms aggregation in families.

    PubMed

    Segenreich, Daniel; Paez, Marina Silva; Regalla, Maria Angélica; Fortes, Dídia; Faraone, Stephen V; Sergeant, Joseph; Mattos, Paulo

    2015-05-01

    A strong genetic role in the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been demonstrated by several studies using different methodologies. Shortcomings of genetic studies often include the lack of golden standard practices for diagnosis for ADHD, the use of categorical instead of a dimensional approach, and the disregard for assortative mating phenomenon in parents. The current study aimed to overcome these shortcomings and analyze data through a novel statistical approach, using multilevel analyses with Bayesian procedures and a specific mathematical model, which takes into account data with an elevated number of zero responses (expected in samples with few or no ADHD symptoms). Correlations of parental clinical variables (ADHD, anxiety and depression) to offspring psychopathology may vary according to gender and type of symptoms. We aimed to investigate how those variables interact within each other. One hundred families, comprising a proband child or adolescent with ADHD or a typically developing child or adolescent were included and all family members (both biological parents, the proband child or adolescent and their sibling) were examined through semi-structured interviews using DSM-IV criteria. Results indicated that: (a) maternal clinical variables (ADHD, anxiety and depression) were more correlated with offspring variables than paternal ones; (b) maternal inattention (but not hyperactivity) was correlated with both inattention and hyperactivity in the offspring; (c) maternal anxiety was correlated with offspring inattention; on the other hand, maternal inattention was correlated with anxiety in the offspring. Although a family study design limits the possibility of revealing causality and cannot disentangle genetic and environmental factors, our findings suggest that ADHD, anxiety and depression are variables that correlate in families and should be addressed together. Maternal variables significantly correlated with offspring

  16. The utility of IFS (INECO Frontal Screening) for the detection of executive dysfunction in adults with bipolar disorder and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Baez, Sandra; Ibanez, Agustin; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Perez, Ana; Roca, María; Manes, Facundo; Torralva, Teresa

    2014-05-15

    Bipolar disorder (BD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults share clinical symptoms. Both disorders present with executive functioning impairment. The detection of executive dysfunction usually requires the administration of an extensive neuropsychological battery. The Institute of Cognitive Neurology (INECO) Frontal Screening (IFS) is an efficient tool, which has been demonstrated to be useful for the detection of executive deficits in other diseases involving the prefrontal cortex. This study assessed the usefulness of the IFS in detecting the executive dysfunction of BD and ADHD adults, by means of a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis and a multigroup discriminant function analysis. Twenty-four BD, 25 ADHD patients and 25 controls were assessed with a battery that included the IFS and other measures of executive functioning. Our results showed that both patient groups performed significantly lower than controls on the IFS total score. Using a 27.5 point cut-off score, the IFS showed good sensitivity and acceptable specificity to detect executive impairments in BD and ADHD patients. The IFS discriminated between controls and each patient group more reliably than other executive functions measures. Our results suggest that this tool could be a useful instrument to assess executive functions in BD and ADHD patients.

  17. Literature Review: ADHD in Adults--A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Megan A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: ADHD presents significant challenges to adults. The current review's goals are (a) to critically examine the current state of knowledge regarding ADHD in adults and (b) to provide clinicians with practice-friendly information regarding assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. Method: Searches of PsycINFO and Medline were conducted, and…

  18. Differences in Feedback- and Inhibition-Related Neural Activity in Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibbets, Pauline; Evers, Lisbeth; Hurks, Petra; Marchetta, Natalie; Jolles, Jelle

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine response inhibition- and feedback-related neural activity in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using event-related functional MRI. Sixteen male adults with ADHD and 13 healthy/normal controls participated in this study and performed a modified Go/NoGo task. Behaviourally,…

  19. Reduced Capacity in a Dichotic Memory Test for Adult Patients with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dige, Niels; Maahr, Eija; Backenroth-Ohsako, Gunnel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether a dichotic memory test would reveal deficits in short-term working-memory recall and long-term memory recall in a group of adult patients with ADHD. Methods: A dichotic memory test with ipsilateral backward speech distraction in an adult ADHD group (n = 69) and a control group (n = 66) is used to compare performance…

  20. Morpho-Syntactic Load in Judging Adjective Plural Agreement: Comparing Adults with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Rachel; Ravid, Dorit; Gur, Adi

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the impact of two grammatical factors on marking Hebrew adjectives in agreement with plural nouns in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with peers without ADHD. Participants were 36 adult speakers of Hebrew, who were administered a judgment test of 144 sentences, each containing an adjective in…

  1. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS): utility in college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah; Woltering, Steven; Mawjee, Karizma; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background. The number of students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) enrolled in colleges and universities has increased markedly over the past few decades, giving rise to questions about how best to document symptoms and impairment in the post-secondary setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility and psychometric properties of a widely-used rating scale for adults with ADHD, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-V1.1), in a sample of post-secondary students with ADHD. Methods. A total of 135 college students (mean age = 24, 42% males) with ADHD were recruited from Student Disability Services in post-secondary institutions. We compared informant responses on the ASRS administered via different modalities. First, students' self-report was ascertained using the ASRS Screener administered via telephone interview, in which they were asked to provide real-life examples of behavior for each of the six items. Next, students self-reported symptoms on the 18-item paper version of the ASRS Symptom Checklist administered about 1-2 weeks later, and a collateral report using an online version of the 18-item ASRS Symptom Checklist. Students also completed self-report measures of everyday cognitive failure (CFQ) and executive functioning (BDEFS). Results. Results revealed moderate to good congruency between the 18-item ASRS-Self and ASRS-Collateral reports (correlation = .47), and between student self-report on the 6-item telephone-based and paper versions of the ASRS, with the paper version administered two weeks later (correlation = .66). The full ASRS self-report was related to impairment, such as in executive functioning (correlation = .63) and everyday cognitive failure (correlation = .74). Executive functioning was the only significant predictor of ASRS total scores. Discussion. Current findings suggest that the ASRS provides an easy-to-use, reliable, and cost-effective approach for gathering information about current symptoms of

  2. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Perceived Stress, and Well-Being: The Role of Early Maladaptive Schemata.

    PubMed

    Miklósi, Mónika; Máté, Orsolya; Somogyi, Klára; Szabó, Marianna

    2016-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent chronic neuropsychiatric disorders, severely affecting the emotional well-being of children as well as of adults. It has been suggested that individuals who experience symptoms of ADHD develop maladaptive schemata of failure, impaired self-discipline, social isolation, and shame. These schemata may then contribute to impaired emotional well-being by increasing unhelpful responses to stressful life events. However, to date, no empirical research has tested this theoretical proposition. In a sample of 204 nonclinical adults, we conducted a serial multiple mediator analysis, which supported the proposed model. More severe ADHD symptoms were associated with higher levels of perceived stress both directly and indirectly through stronger maladaptive schemata, which, in turn, were related to lower levels of emotional well-being. Results suggest that identifying and modifying maladaptive schemata may be an important addition to psychotherapy for adult ADHD patients. PMID:26825377

  3. Evidence for shared genetic risk between ADHD symptoms and reduced mathematics ability: a twin study

    PubMed Central

    Greven, Corina U.; Kovas, Yulia; Willcutt, Erik G.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and mathematics ability are associated, but little is known about the genetic and environmental influences underlying this association. Methods Data came from more than 6,000 12-year-old twin pairs from the U.K. population-representative Twins Early Development Study. Parents rated each twin’s behaviour using a DSM-IV-based 18-item questionnaire of inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms. Mathematics tests based on the U.K. National Curriculum were completed by each twin. The twins also completed standardised tests of reading and general cognitive ability. Multivariate twin model fitting was applied. Results Inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms were highly heritable (67% and 73%, respectively). Mathematics ability was moderately heritable (46%). Mathematics ability and inattentiveness showed a significantly greater phenotypic correlation (rp=−0.26) and genetic correlation (rA=−0.41) than mathematics ability and hyperactivity-impulsivity (rp=−0.18; rA=−0.22). The genetic correlation between inattentiveness and mathematics ability was largely independent from hyperactivity-impulsivity, and was only partially accounted for by genetic influences related to reading and general cognitive ability. Conclusions Results revealed the novel finding that mathematics ability shows significantly stronger phenotypic and genetic associations with inattentiveness than with hyperactivity-impulsivity. Genetic associations between inattentiveness and mathematics ability could only partially be accounted for by hyperactivity-impulsivity, reading and general cognitive ability. Results suggest that mathematics ability is associated with ADHD symptoms largely because it shares genetic risk factors with inattentiveness, and provide further evidence for considering inattentiveness and hyperactivity-impulsivity separately. DNA markers for ADHD symptoms (especially inattentiveness) may also

  4. Assessing the Validity of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire--Short Form in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas; Zhang, Huabin F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-QSF) in adults with ADHD. Method: One hundred fifty ADHD and 134 non-ADHD adults from a case-control study and 173 adults randomized to placebo or methylphenidate were assessed with the Q-LES-QSF and the…

  5. Oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in relation to psychopathic traits and aggression among psychiatrically hospitalized children: ADHD symptoms as a potential moderator.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Fite, Paula J; Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is associated with elevated rates of psychopathic traits and aggression. However, it remains unclear if attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms exacerbate these relations, particularly in samples of children who are severely clinically distressed. The purpose of the present study was to test ADHD symptoms as a potential moderator of the relations of ODD symptoms to psychopathic traits (i.e., callous-unemotional [CU] traits, narcissism) and to aggressive subtypes (i.e., proactive, reactive aggression) in a large sample of children in an acute psychiatric inpatient facility (n = 699; ages 6-12). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after controlling for child demographic variables, ADHD symptoms marginally exacerbated the relation between ODD symptoms and CU traits. Both ODD and ADHD symptoms had an additive, but not a multiplicative effect, in predicting narcissism. In addition, for a subset of the full sample for whom data were available (n =351), ADHD symptoms exacerbated the relation between ODD symptoms and both reactive and proactive aggression. These results suggest that ADHD symptoms tend to have a negative effect on the relation between ODD symptoms and markers of antisociality among children receiving acute psychiatric care.

  6. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and five-factor model traits in a clinical sample: a structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Knouse, Laura E; Traeger, Lara; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A

    2013-10-01

    Relationships among attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and adult personality traits have not been examined in larger clinically diagnosed samples. We collected multisource ADHD symptom and self-report NEO Five-Factor Inventory (Costa and McCrae [Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc, 1992) data from 117 adults with ADHD and tested symptom-trait associations using structural equation modeling. The final model fit the data. Inattention was positively associated with neuroticism and negatively associated with conscientiousness. On the basis of ADHD expression in adulthood, hyperactivity and impulsivity were estimated as separate constructs and showed differential relationships to extraversion and agreeableness. A significant positive relationship between hyperactivity and conscientiousness arose in the context of other pathways. ADHD symptoms are reliably associated with personality traits, suggesting a complex interplay across development that warrants prospective study into adulthood.

  7. Retrospective Reports of Childhood Trauma in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia J.; Brown, Deborah L.; Crawford, Susan; Kaplan, Bonnie J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although studies have documented higher prevalence of abuse in children with ADHD, no studies have investigated childhood reports of abuse in individuals identified with ADHD in adulthood. Method: Forty ADHD women, 17 ADHD males, 17 female controls, and 40 male controls complete the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and other measures of…

  8. Simple Identification of Complex ADHD Subtypes Using Current Symptom Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volk, Heather E.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Hay, David A.; Todd, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    The results of the assessment of the accuracy of simple rules based on symptom count for assigning youths to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes show that having six or more total symptoms and fewer than three hyperactive-impulsive symptoms is an accurate predictor for the latent class sever inattentive subtype.

  9. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Profiles in Medication-Treated Adults Entering a Psychosocial Treatment Program

    PubMed Central

    Knouse, Laura E.; Sprich, Susan; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Safren, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although medications are the most widely studied effective treatments for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), patients treated with medications often have significant residual symptoms that may be amenable to psychosocial intervention. Few studies, however, report on the structure and severity of specific residual ADHD symptoms in adult patients who have been treated with medications. This information may be important in identifying the most important psychosocial treatment targets for medicated adults with ADHD with residual symptoms. Objectives Identify which symptoms of ADHD are most frequent and severe for medication-treated adults. Identify meaningful factors underlying self-report and clinician ratings in this group. Methods Self-reported and clinician-rated ADHD symptom data from 105 adults in the community already receiving medication treatment who were entering cognitive behavioral therapy studies were examined. First, we examined the frequency and severity of each of the 18 ADHD symptoms that were present in the sample. Second, we conducted exploratory factor analyses of self-reported and clinician-rated ADHD symptoms to best describe the structure of residual symptoms in medication-treated adults, Lastly, we examined the association of the resulting factor scores with clinician-rated global ADHD severity (Clinical Global Impressions) and functional impairment (Global Assessment of Functioning) scales to determine which factors relate to overall severity. Results The 2 most frequent (self-reported and clinician-rated) residual symptoms were disorganization (85%–88%) and distractibility (74%–83%). Exploratory factor analyses for both self-reported and clinician-rated data yielded a 3-factor model: (1) Hyperactivity/Restlessness, (2) Impulsivity/Poor Prospective Memory, and (3) Inattention. Using multiple regression, the Inattention factor from self-reported and clinician-rated data was most strongly, consistently

  10. Integration of Symptom Ratings from Multiple Informants in ADHD Diagnosis: A Psychometric Model with Clinical Utility

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Michelle M.; Schimmack, Ulrich; Nikolas, Molly; Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder—Fifth Edition explicitly requires that Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms should be apparent across settings, taking into account reports from multiple informants. Yet, it provides no guidelines how information from different raters should be combined in ADHD diagnosis. We examined the validity of different approaches using structural equation modeling (SEM) for multiple-informant data. Participants were 725 children, 6 to 17 years old, and their primary caregivers and teachers, recruited from the community and completing a thorough research-based diagnostic assessment, including a clinician-administered diagnostic interview, parent and teacher standardized rating scales and cognitive testing. A best-estimate ADHD diagnosis was generated by a diagnostic team. An SEM model demonstrated convergent validity among raters. We found relatively weak symptom-specific agreement among raters, suggesting that a general average scoring algorithm is preferable to symptom-specific scoring algorithms such as the “or” and “and” algorithms. Finally, to illustrate the validity of this approach, we show that averaging makes it possible to reduce the number of items from 18 items to 8 items without a significant decrease in validity. In conclusion, information from multiple raters increases the validity of ADHD diagnosis, and averaging appears to be the optimal way to integrate information from multiple raters. PMID:25730162

  11. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and the Adult ADHD Brain: A Neuropsychotherapeutic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Katharina; Lam, Alexandra P; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a recognized serious mental disorder that often persists into adulthood. The symptoms and impairments associated with ADHD often cause significant mental suffering in affected individuals. ADHD has been associated with abnormal neuronal activity in various neuronal circuits, such as the dorsofrontostriatal, orbitofrontostriatal, and frontocerebellar circuits. Psychopharmacological treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride is recommended as the first-line treatment for ADHD. It is assumed that medication ameliorates ADHD symptoms by improving the functioning of the brain areas affected in the condition. However, side effects, contraindications, or non-response can limit the effectiveness of a psychopharmacological treatment for ADHD. It is therefore necessary to develop non-pharmacological interventions that target neuronal mechanisms associated with the condition in the same way as pharmacological treatment. We think that mindfulness meditation employed as a neuropsychotherapeutic intervention could help patients with ADHD to regulate impaired brain functioning and thereby reduce ADHD symptoms. In this paper, we highlight the mechanisms of such mindfulness meditation, and thus provide a rationale for further research and treatment development from a neuropsychotherapeutic perspective. We conclude that mindfulness meditation employed as a neuropsychotherapeutic intervention in therapy is a promising treatment approach in ADHD. PMID:27445873

  12. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and the Adult ADHD Brain: A Neuropsychotherapeutic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Katharina; Lam, Alexandra P.; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a recognized serious mental disorder that often persists into adulthood. The symptoms and impairments associated with ADHD often cause significant mental suffering in affected individuals. ADHD has been associated with abnormal neuronal activity in various neuronal circuits, such as the dorsofrontostriatal, orbitofrontostriatal, and frontocerebellar circuits. Psychopharmacological treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride is recommended as the first-line treatment for ADHD. It is assumed that medication ameliorates ADHD symptoms by improving the functioning of the brain areas affected in the condition. However, side effects, contraindications, or non-response can limit the effectiveness of a psychopharmacological treatment for ADHD. It is therefore necessary to develop non-pharmacological interventions that target neuronal mechanisms associated with the condition in the same way as pharmacological treatment. We think that mindfulness meditation employed as a neuropsychotherapeutic intervention could help patients with ADHD to regulate impaired brain functioning and thereby reduce ADHD symptoms. In this paper, we highlight the mechanisms of such mindfulness meditation, and thus provide a rationale for further research and treatment development from a neuropsychotherapeutic perspective. We conclude that mindfulness meditation employed as a neuropsychotherapeutic intervention in therapy is a promising treatment approach in ADHD. PMID:27445873

  13. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and the Adult ADHD Brain: A Neuropsychotherapeutic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Katharina; Lam, Alexandra P; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a recognized serious mental disorder that often persists into adulthood. The symptoms and impairments associated with ADHD often cause significant mental suffering in affected individuals. ADHD has been associated with abnormal neuronal activity in various neuronal circuits, such as the dorsofrontostriatal, orbitofrontostriatal, and frontocerebellar circuits. Psychopharmacological treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride is recommended as the first-line treatment for ADHD. It is assumed that medication ameliorates ADHD symptoms by improving the functioning of the brain areas affected in the condition. However, side effects, contraindications, or non-response can limit the effectiveness of a psychopharmacological treatment for ADHD. It is therefore necessary to develop non-pharmacological interventions that target neuronal mechanisms associated with the condition in the same way as pharmacological treatment. We think that mindfulness meditation employed as a neuropsychotherapeutic intervention could help patients with ADHD to regulate impaired brain functioning and thereby reduce ADHD symptoms. In this paper, we highlight the mechanisms of such mindfulness meditation, and thus provide a rationale for further research and treatment development from a neuropsychotherapeutic perspective. We conclude that mindfulness meditation employed as a neuropsychotherapeutic intervention in therapy is a promising treatment approach in ADHD.

  14. Objective assessment of ADHD core symptoms in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Infante, M Alejandra; Moore, Eileen M; Nguyen, Tanya T; Fourligas, Nikolaos; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P

    2015-09-01

    Attention deficits are often observed in children with prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly diagnosed in this population. This study used an objective assessment tool to examine differences between alcohol-exposed and non-exposed children on core symptoms of ADHD: inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Two groups of individuals, aged 7-14years, participated in the study: alcohol-exposed children (AE, n=43), and non-exposed children (CON, n=54). Subjects were evaluated with the Quotient ADHD System, which provides objective data on ADHD core symptoms by combining an infrared motion tracking system and a computerized continuous performance task. Twelve separate ANCOVAs controlling for the effects of age and sex, were conducted on attention and motion variables. Results revealed that in comparison to the CON group, the AE group was significantly (p's<.05) less accurate, made an increased number of omission errors, had longer response latencies, and increased variability in response time. Moreover, the AE group spent less time staying still, and made an increased number of head movements, which traveled a larger distance, covered a greater area, and demonstrated a less complex movement pattern. No significant group differences were observed on the number of commission errors and temporal scaling. Our findings provide further support for the notion that inattention is a core deficit in children prenatally exposed to alcohol. Results from this study are also consistent with parent reports of increased hyperactivity. The Quotient ADHD System may be a useful objective measure of ADHD symptomatology in children with FASD. PMID:25447751

  15. Objective Assessment of ADHD Core Symptoms in Children with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Infante, M. Alejandra; Moore, Eileen M.; Nguyen, Tanya T.; Fourligas, Nikolaos; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficits are often observed in children with prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly diagnosed in this population. This study used an objective assessment tool to examine differences between alcohol-exposed and non-exposed children on core symptoms of ADHD: inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Two groups of individuals, aged 7-14 years, participated in the study: alcohol-exposed children (AE, n = 43), and non-exposed children (CON, n = 54). Subjects were evaluated with the Quotient ADHD System, which provides objective data on ADHD core symptoms by combining an infrared motion tracking system and a computerized continuous performance task. Twelve separate ANCOVAs controlling for the effects of age and sex, were conducted on attention and motion variables. Results revealed that in comparison to the CON group, the AE group was significantly (p's < .05) less accurate, made an increased number of omission errors, and had longer response latencies and increased variability in response time; moreover, the AE group spent less time staying still, and made an increased number of head movements, which traveled a larger distance, covered a greater area, and demonstrated a less complex movement pattern. No significant group differences were observed on the number of commission errors and temporal scaling. Our findings provide further support for the notion that inattention is a core deficit in children prenatally exposed to alcohol. Results from this study are also consistent with parent reports of increased hyperactivity. The Quotient ADHD System may be a useful objective measure of ADHD symptomatology in children with FASD. PMID:25447751

  16. Match or Mismatch? Influence of Parental and Offspring ASD and ADHD Symptoms on the Parent-Child Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steijn, Daphne J.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the influence of parental ASD and ADHD symptoms in combination with child pathology on the parent- child relationship as perceived by the child. A sample of 132 families was recruited with one child with ASD (with/without ADHD), and one unaffected sibling. Affected children (regardless of diagnosis) reported lower…

  17. Two New Rating Scales for Assessment of ADHD Symptoms in Italian Preschool Children: A Comparison between Parent and Teacher Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Re, Anna Maria; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Two new rating scales are presented for the assessment of ADHD symptoms in Italian preschool children, and the agreement between parents and teachers on the presence of an ADHD profile is examined. Method: The scales were administered to parents and teachers of 180 children with a mean age of 5 years and 9 months, attending final year…

  18. Comparison of Mother, Father, and Teacher Reports of ADHD Core Symptoms in a Sample of Child Psychiatric Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sollie, Henrik; Larsson, Bo; Mørch, Willy-Tore

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of adding father ratings to mother and teacher ratings in the assessment of ADHD symptoms in children. Method: The ADHD Rating Scale-IV, the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Teacher Report Form were filled out by all three informants for a sample of 48 clinically referred children (79% boys) aged 6 to 15 (M…

  19. Effectiveness of Family, Child, and Family-Child Based Intervention on ADHD Symptoms of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malekpour, Mokhtar; Aghababaei, Sara; Hadi, Samira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effectiveness of family, child, and family-child based intervention on the rate of ADHD symptoms in third grade students. The population for this study was all of students with ADHD diagnoses in the city of Isfahan, Iran. The multistage random sampling method was used to select the 60…

  20. Parenting Mediates Symptoms and Impairment in Children with ADHD-Inattentive Type

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Lauren; Villodas, Miguel T.; McBurnett, Keith; Hinshaw, Stephen; Pfiffner, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates potential pathways between inattentive symptom severity, positive and negative parenting practices, and functional impairment (i.e., academic, social, and home impairment) in a sample of children diagnosed with ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Type (ADHD-I). Participants included 199 children and their parents and teachers enrolled in a randomized clinical trial investigating the efficacy of an integrated psychosocial intervention for children with ADHD-I. Boys constituted just over half the sample; children averaged 8.6 years of age (range 7–11) and were from varied ethnic/racial backgrounds. As part of the initial screening and assessment procedures, parents and teachers completed questionnaires assessing child behavior and parent/family functioning. Results supported both main effects of symptoms and parenting on impairment, as well as a mediational path between symptoms and impairment via parenting, as observed by parents in the home setting. Specifically, higher severity of inattention was associated with higher rates of homework, social, and home impairment. Negative parenting contributed to homework and home impairment, and positive and negative parenting contributed to social impairment, incrementally above and beyond the impact of inattention symptom severity alone. Negative parenting partially mediated the relationship between inattentive symptom severity and impairment, such that higher rates of inattention were associated with higher rates of negative parenting, which in turn was associated with higher rates of homework, social, and home impairment. Results provide support for underlying mechanisms for associations between symptoms and impairment in children with ADHD-I, and also identify potential intervention targets to improve impairment experienced by these children. PMID:25411896

  1. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between ADHD symptoms and internalizing problems: A Chinese twin study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian-Jiao; Ji, Cheng-Ye; Wang, Shang-Shang; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Chang, Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Several twin studies have investigated the overlap between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and externalizing problems; however, limited information is known regarding the genetic and environmental contribution to the overlap between ADHD and internalizing problems. This study examined the genetic and environmental influences on the variation in and covariation between ADHD symptoms and internalizing problems by using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We investigated 1,316 child and adolescent twins, including 780 monozygotic twins and 536 dizygotic twins, aged 6 years to 18 years from the Chinese Child and Adolescent Twin Registry. ADHD symptoms and internalizing problems were quantified through parent rating by using the Attention Problems Scale and other three scales, which include Anxious/Depressed, Withdrawn, and Somatic Complaints of CBCL. Genetic and environmental susceptibilities common to ADHD symptoms and internalizing problems were examined through bivariate twin modeling. Results showed that genetic factors substantially influenced the ADHD symptoms with a heritability of 72%. Modest genetic influences and substantial shared environmental influences (20-77%) were observed in the three internalizing problem scales. Common genetic and shared environmental influences were essential for the overlap between ADHD and the three internalizing problems respectively. Approximately one-fifth of the genetic variance of ADHD symptoms was shared with anxiety/depression. In conclusion, substantial genetic and shared environmental influences on ADHD symptoms and internalizing problems were observed in Chinese children and adolescents. Our finding supports a common etiology between ADHD and internalizing problems. This finding can also help explain the co-existence of these behavior problems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Neuropsychological Functioning in Adults With ADHD and Adults With Other Psychiatric Disorders: The Issue of Specificity.

    PubMed

    Holst, Ylva; Thorell, Lisa B

    2013-10-17

    Objective: The aim was to investigate how well neuropsychological measures can discriminate between adults with ADHD and those with other psychiatric disorders. Method: Adults with ADHD and a clinical control group (n = 110) were included. Neuropsychological functioning was investigated using measures of inhibition, working memory, set shifting, planning, fluency, reaction-time variability, and delay aversion. Results: Adults with ADHD performed more poorly compared with clinical controls with regard to all constructs. The effects of verbal memory, inhibition, set shifting, fluency, and delay aversion remained significant when controlling for IQ. However, when controlling for basic cognitive functions, only the effects of inhibition, fluency, and delay aversion were significant. Sensitivity ranged between 64% and 75%, and specificity between 66% and 81%. Conclusion: Neuropsychological tests have a relatively poor ability to discriminate between adults with ADHD and clinical controls, but they may be used to identify individuals at particularly high risk for poor daily functioning. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24134875

  3. Specialist adult ADHD clinics in East Anglia: service evaluation and audit of NICE guideline compliance†

    PubMed Central

    Magon, Rakesh Kumar; Latheesh, Beena; Müller, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method To measure compliance with National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommendations in two adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) clinics and to guide further service development. We audited the case notes of 150 patients referred to adult ADHD clinics in East Anglia in 2010-2011 against NICE standards using an adapted version of the ADHD audit support tool. Results We found good compliance with NICE standards for diagnosis, assessment and pharmacological treatment of adult ADHD. There was a failure in smooth transitional arrangements from child and adolescent mental health to adult ADHD services. Comprehensive treatment programmes addressing psychological, behavioural, educational and occupational needs were not well developed. Deficiencies were observed in conducting recommended physical examinations. Substance use was prevalent in almost half of ADHD patients. Clinical implications Greater attention is needed in delivering better transitional arrangements and comprehensive treatment programmes for adult ADHD. More structured training with emphasis on ADHD-specific psychological interventions, physical examination and treatment of complex cases, especially with comorbid substance misuse, should be offered to clinicians. PMID:26191453

  4. Neural correlates of inhibitory control in adult ADHD: Evidence from the Milwaukee longitudinal sample

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Richard C.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Fischer, Mariellen; Seidenberg, Michael; Rao, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Only a few studies have investigated the neural substrate of response inhibition in adult ADHD using Stop-Signal and Go/No-Go tasks. Inconsistencies and methodological limitations in the existing literature have resulted in limited conclusions regarding underlying pathophysiology. We examined the neural basis of response inhibition in a group of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and who continue to meet criteria for ADHD while addressing limitations present in earlier studies. Adults with ADHD (n=12) and controls (n=12) were recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study and were matched for age, IQ, and education. Individuals with comorbid conditions were excluded. Functional MRI was used to identify and compare the brain activation patterns during correct trials of a response inhibition task (Go/No-Go). Our results showed that the control group recruited a more extensive network of brain regions than the ADHD group during correct inhibition trials. Adults with ADHD showed reduced brain activation in the right frontal eye field, pre-supplementary motor area, left precentral gyrus, and the inferior parietal lobe bilaterally. During successful inhibition of an inappropriate response, adults with ADHD display reduced activation in fronto-parietal networks previously implicated in working memory, goal-oriented attention, and response selection. This profile of brain activation may be specifically associated with ADHD in adulthood. PMID:21937201

  5. Slow sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms are associated with poorer academic performance in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Leanne; Garner, Annie A; Loren, Richard E A; Epstein, Jeffery N; Vaughn, Aaron J; Ciesielski, Heather A; Becker, Stephen P

    2016-08-30

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms may confer risk for academic impairment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated SCT in relation to academic performance and impairment in 252 children (ages 6-12, 67% boys) with ADHD. Parents and teachers completed SCT and academic impairment ratings, and achievement in reading, math, and spelling was assessed. Simultaneous regressions controlling for IQ, ADHD, and comorbidities were conducted. Total SCT predicted parent-rated impairments in writing, mathematics, and overall school but not reading. Parent-rated SCT Slow predicted poorer reading and spelling, but not math achievement. Teacher-rated SCT Slow predicted poorer spelling and math, but not reading achievement. Parent-rated SCT Slow predicted greater academic impairment ratings across all domains, whereas teacher-rated SCT Slow predicted greater impairment in writing only. Age and gender did not moderate these relationships with the exception of math impairment; SCT slow predicted math impairment for younger but not older children. Parent and teacher SCT Sleepy and Daydreamy ratings were not significant predictors. SCT Slow appears to be uniquely related to academic problems in ADHD, and may be important to assess and potentially target in intervention. More work is needed to better understand the nature of SCT Slow symptoms in relation to inattention and amotivation.

  6. Slow sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms are associated with poorer academic performance in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Leanne; Garner, Annie A; Loren, Richard E A; Epstein, Jeffery N; Vaughn, Aaron J; Ciesielski, Heather A; Becker, Stephen P

    2016-08-30

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms may confer risk for academic impairment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated SCT in relation to academic performance and impairment in 252 children (ages 6-12, 67% boys) with ADHD. Parents and teachers completed SCT and academic impairment ratings, and achievement in reading, math, and spelling was assessed. Simultaneous regressions controlling for IQ, ADHD, and comorbidities were conducted. Total SCT predicted parent-rated impairments in writing, mathematics, and overall school but not reading. Parent-rated SCT Slow predicted poorer reading and spelling, but not math achievement. Teacher-rated SCT Slow predicted poorer spelling and math, but not reading achievement. Parent-rated SCT Slow predicted greater academic impairment ratings across all domains, whereas teacher-rated SCT Slow predicted greater impairment in writing only. Age and gender did not moderate these relationships with the exception of math impairment; SCT slow predicted math impairment for younger but not older children. Parent and teacher SCT Sleepy and Daydreamy ratings were not significant predictors. SCT Slow appears to be uniquely related to academic problems in ADHD, and may be important to assess and potentially target in intervention. More work is needed to better understand the nature of SCT Slow symptoms in relation to inattention and amotivation. PMID:27294799

  7. Verbal fluency in adults diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Georgia; Trott, Kate

    2013-12-01

    It has been increasingly believed that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with lifelong course associated with cognitive difficulties including among others, language production, verbal learning, and verbal fluency. However, research is limited to children and adolescents, and very few researchers have examined the impact of ADHD in adulthood on the cognitive domain. The aim of the present study is to examine the performance of adults, diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, on semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tasks. It is hypothesized that adults with ADHD will perform worse on both tasks than matched controls. Sixty university students (30 diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 30 matched controls) of mean age 20.5 participated in the study. They all completed two verbal fluency tasks. The ADHD group had statistically significant lower scores than the non-ADHD group on the phonemic, but not the semantic task. The study provides some evidence that ADHD in childhood has a negative impact on adults' phonemic verbal fluency. This finding could be probably explained by the fact that phonemic fluency is considered more cognitively demanding and impacting more on the frontal lobe functions, known to be impaired in ADHD, than semantic fluency.

  8. Electrophysiological correlates of reinforcement learning in young people with Tourette syndrome with and without co-occurring ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Elizabeth; Jackson, Georgina M; Groom, Madeleine J

    2016-06-01

    Altered reinforcement learning is implicated in the causes of Tourette syndrome (TS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). TS and ADHD frequently co-occur but how this affects reinforcement learning has not been investigated. We examined the ability of young people with TS (n=18), TS+ADHD (N=17), ADHD (n=13) and typically developing controls (n=20) to learn and reverse stimulus-response (S-R) associations based on positive and negative reinforcement feedback. We used a 2 (TS-yes, TS-no)×2 (ADHD-yes, ADHD-no) factorial design to assess the effects of TS, ADHD, and their interaction on behavioural (accuracy, RT) and event-related potential (stimulus-locked P3, feedback-locked P2, feedback-related negativity, FRN) indices of learning and reversing the S-R associations. TS was associated with intact learning and reversal performance and largely typical ERP amplitudes. ADHD was associated with lower accuracy during S-R learning and impaired reversal learning (significantly reduced accuracy and a trend for smaller P3 amplitude). The results indicate that co-occurring ADHD symptoms impair reversal learning in TS+ADHD. The implications of these findings for behavioural tic therapies are discussed. PMID:27103231

  9. Electrophysiological correlates of reinforcement learning in young people with Tourette syndrome with and without co-occurring ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Elizabeth; Jackson, Georgina M; Groom, Madeleine J

    2016-06-01

    Altered reinforcement learning is implicated in the causes of Tourette syndrome (TS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). TS and ADHD frequently co-occur but how this affects reinforcement learning has not been investigated. We examined the ability of young people with TS (n=18), TS+ADHD (N=17), ADHD (n=13) and typically developing controls (n=20) to learn and reverse stimulus-response (S-R) associations based on positive and negative reinforcement feedback. We used a 2 (TS-yes, TS-no)×2 (ADHD-yes, ADHD-no) factorial design to assess the effects of TS, ADHD, and their interaction on behavioural (accuracy, RT) and event-related potential (stimulus-locked P3, feedback-locked P2, feedback-related negativity, FRN) indices of learning and reversing the S-R associations. TS was associated with intact learning and reversal performance and largely typical ERP amplitudes. ADHD was associated with lower accuracy during S-R learning and impaired reversal learning (significantly reduced accuracy and a trend for smaller P3 amplitude). The results indicate that co-occurring ADHD symptoms impair reversal learning in TS+ADHD. The implications of these findings for behavioural tic therapies are discussed.

  10. The influence of components of diet on the symptoms of ADHD in children.

    PubMed

    Konikowska, Klaudia; Regulska-Ilow, Bozena; Rózańska, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    In most children with ADHD the cause of the disease is not exactly known, and its etiology is multifactorial. The conventional treatment is based on the combination of behavioral and psychological therapy and the pharmacotherapy. The pharmacotherapy has a high effectiveness in ADHD treatment, but it is often associated with undesirable side effects, such as: loss of appetite and weight, growth inhibition, abdominal pain, headaches, sleeping problems and increased blood pressure. In the recent years, much attention was devoted to the issue of an appropriate diet in this disease, especially when the standard pharmacotherapy is not effective. The diet of pregnant and lactating woman, and child may have an impact on the development and deepening of the hyperkinetic syndrome. There is much evidence to indicate that it is linked to nutritional factors. Chronic deficiencies of certain minerals such as zinc, iron, magnesium and iodine and insufficient dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may have a significant impact on the development and deepening of the symptoms of ADHD in children. A crucial role in the diet of pregnant and lactating women, and child plays also polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, mainly DHA, which are necessary for proper development and function of brain. Their chronic deficiency may contribute to increase risk of ADHD in children. The authors of several studies also demonstrated the positive impact of the elimination food products containing synthetic food additives, like artificial food dyes and preservatives on the behavior of children with ADHD. The beneficial effects brought also the elimination of food products, that are rich in salicylates. It was found that the intake of food products with a low glycemic index helps to reduce symptoms in some hyperactive children. Providing an appropriate supply of nutrients and minerals and elimination of certain food products from diet is especially important during intensive growth and

  11. The influence of components of diet on the symptoms of ADHD in children.

    PubMed

    Konikowska, Klaudia; Regulska-Ilow, Bozena; Rózańska, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    In most children with ADHD the cause of the disease is not exactly known, and its etiology is multifactorial. The conventional treatment is based on the combination of behavioral and psychological therapy and the pharmacotherapy. The pharmacotherapy has a high effectiveness in ADHD treatment, but it is often associated with undesirable side effects, such as: loss of appetite and weight, growth inhibition, abdominal pain, headaches, sleeping problems and increased blood pressure. In the recent years, much attention was devoted to the issue of an appropriate diet in this disease, especially when the standard pharmacotherapy is not effective. The diet of pregnant and lactating woman, and child may have an impact on the development and deepening of the hyperkinetic syndrome. There is much evidence to indicate that it is linked to nutritional factors. Chronic deficiencies of certain minerals such as zinc, iron, magnesium and iodine and insufficient dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may have a significant impact on the development and deepening of the symptoms of ADHD in children. A crucial role in the diet of pregnant and lactating women, and child plays also polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, mainly DHA, which are necessary for proper development and function of brain. Their chronic deficiency may contribute to increase risk of ADHD in children. The authors of several studies also demonstrated the positive impact of the elimination food products containing synthetic food additives, like artificial food dyes and preservatives on the behavior of children with ADHD. The beneficial effects brought also the elimination of food products, that are rich in salicylates. It was found that the intake of food products with a low glycemic index helps to reduce symptoms in some hyperactive children. Providing an appropriate supply of nutrients and minerals and elimination of certain food products from diet is especially important during intensive growth and

  12. Effect of training focused on executive functions (attention, inhibition, and working memory) in preschoolers exhibiting ADHD symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Re, Anna M.; Capodieci, Agnese; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    The development of early intervention strategies for children with symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is important because it provides an opportunity to prevent severe problems in the future. The main purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a group training for the control of attention, working memory and impulsive behaviors, involving 5-year-old children with ADHD symptoms. Twenty-six children with ADHD symptoms and 26 with typical development were randomly divided in two conditions. Thirteen children in each group were assigned to the training condition and the other to the business as usual condition (normal class activity). Children who participated in the intervention showed an improvement in the tasks measuring their control of attention, impulsive behavior, and working memory. Moreover, children with typical development who attended the training also improved their competencies. The results confirm the importance of an early intervention for preschool-age children with ADHD symptoms. PMID:26300836

  13. Effect of training focused on executive functions (attention, inhibition, and working memory) in preschoolers exhibiting ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Re, Anna M; Capodieci, Agnese; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    The development of early intervention strategies for children with symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is important because it provides an opportunity to prevent severe problems in the future. The main purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a group training for the control of attention, working memory and impulsive behaviors, involving 5-year-old children with ADHD symptoms. Twenty-six children with ADHD symptoms and 26 with typical development were randomly divided in two conditions. Thirteen children in each group were assigned to the training condition and the other to the business as usual condition (normal class activity). Children who participated in the intervention showed an improvement in the tasks measuring their control of attention, impulsive behavior, and working memory. Moreover, children with typical development who attended the training also improved their competencies. The results confirm the importance of an early intervention for preschool-age children with ADHD symptoms.

  14. Online Narratives by Adults with ADHD Who Were Diagnosed in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischmann, Amos; Miller, Erez C.

    2013-01-01

    This study systematically analyzed life stories of adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were diagnosed in adulthood, using an adapted version of Labov's textual-analysis method. These life stories provided an opportunity to examine the processes experienced by these individuals before and after the diagnosis of ADHD,…

  15. The Impact of Financial Reward Contingencies on Cognitive Function Profiles in Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Ivo; Höpcke, Cornelia; Berger, Christoph; Wandschneider, Roland; Herpertz, Sabine C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although it is well established that cognitive performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is affected by reward and that key deficits associated with the disorder may thereby be attenuated or even compensated, this phenomenon in adults with ADHD has thus far not been addressed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the motivating effect of financial reward on task performance in adults with ADHD by focusing on the domains of executive functioning, attention, time perception, and delay aversion. Methods We examined male and female adults aged 18–40 years with ADHD (n = 38) along with a matched control group (n = 40) using six well-established experimental paradigms. Results Impaired performance in the ADHD group was observed for stop-signal omission errors, n-back accuracy, reaction time variability in the continuous performance task, and time reproduction accuracy, and reward normalized time reproduction accuracy. Furthermore, when rewarded, subjects with ADHD exhibited longer reaction times and fewer false positives in the continuous performance task, which suggests the use of strategies to prevent impulsivity errors. Conclusions Taken together, our results support the existence of both cognitive and motivational mechanisms for the disorder, which is in line with current models of ADHD. Furthermore, our data suggest cognitive strategies of “stopping and thinking” as a possible underlying mechanism for task improvement that seems to be mediated by reward, which highlights the importance of the interaction between motivation and cognition in adult ADHD. PMID:23840573

  16. A laboratory driving simulation for assessment of driving behavior in adults with ADHD: a controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Biederman, Joseph; Fried, Ronna; Monuteaux, Michael C; Reimer, Bryan; Coughlin, Joseph F; Surman, Craig B; Aleardi, Megan; Dougherty, Meghan; Schoenfeld, Steven; Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V

    2007-01-01

    Background It is now estimated that attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) afflicts at least 4% of adults in the United States and is associated with high levels of morbidity and functional impairment. One key area of dysfunction associated with ADHD is impaired motor vehicle operation. Our goal was to examine the association between ADHD and specific driving outcomes in a sample of adults using a driving simulator. Methods Subjects were 20 adults with full DSM-IV ADHD and 21 controls without ADHD of equal gender distribution. However, the mean age of subjects with ADHD was somewhat older. All analyses were adjusted for age and gender. All subjects participated in a driving simulation that lasted for one hour and consisted of a short training period, a high stimulus segment and a low stimulus segment with two distinct monotonous periods. Results In the second monotonous period within the low stimulus environment, ADHD subjects were significantly more likely than controls to collide with an obstacle suddenly appearing from the periphery, adjusting for age and gender. Conclusion Adults with ADHD were more likely than controls to collide with an obstacle during a driving simulation suggesting that deficits in directed attention may underlie driving impairments in this population. PMID:17263888

  17. Project DyAdd: Implicit Learning in Adult Dyslexia and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Väre, Jenni; Oksanen-Hennah, Henna; Leppämäki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Harno, Hanna; Hokkanen, Laura; Pothos, Emmanuel; Cleeremans, Axel

    2014-01-01

    In this study of the project DyAdd, implicit learning was investigated through two paradigms in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n?=?36) or with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n?=?22) and in controls (n?=?35). In the serial reaction time (SRT) task, there were no group differences in learning. However, those with ADHD exhibited…

  18. New Insights into the Comorbidity between ADHD and Major Depression in Adolescent and Young Adult Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas J.; McCreary, Michelle; Cote, Michelle; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adult females is evaluated. Findings indicate that MD emerging in the context of ADHD is an impairing and severe comorbidity that needs to be considered further clinically and scientifically.

  19. The Efficacy of Computerized Cognitive Training in Adults With ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Stern, Adi; Malik, Elad; Pollak, Yehuda; Bonne, Omer; Maeir, Adina

    2014-04-22

    Objective: This is a randomized control trial examining the efficiency of computerized cognitive training (CCT) for adults with ADHD, comparing two training conditions with graded levels of executive cognitive demands. Method: Adults with ADHD (n = 60) were randomized into study (n = 34) and control (n = 26) groups. Training was conducted with the computerized AttenFocus program. Control group received a simple, non-hierarchical version with less executive demands. Results: Significant positive changes in symptoms ratings, ecological measures of executive functions, and occupational performance were found in both groups. No significant changes were found in variables of neurocognitive performance battery and quality of life. No significant time by group interaction effects were found. Conclusion: No benefits of the intervention were found relative to the control. Lack of interaction effects may be due to insufficient power, non-specific cognitive training or placebo effects. Results demonstrate some positive findings for general CCT, yet do not support the inclusion of specific higher level executive training. PMID:24756172

  20. The relationship between tics, OC, ADHD and autism symptoms: A cross- disorder symptom analysis in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome patients and family-members.

    PubMed

    Huisman-van Dijk, Hilde M; Schoot, Rens van de; Rijkeboer, Marleen M; Mathews, Carol A; Cath, Daniëlle C

    2016-03-30

    Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS) is a disorder in which obsessive-compulsive (OC), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism symptoms occur in up to 60% of patients, suggesting shared etiology. We explored the phenotypic structure of tic, OC, ADHD, and autism symptoms as measured by the YGTSS,Y-BOCS,CAARS and AQ, in 225 GTS patients and 371 family members. First, Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) were performed on the symptom structure of each separate symptom scale. Second, the symptom dimensions derived from each scale were combined in one model, and correlations between them were calculated. Using the correlation matrix, Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) were performed on the symptom dimensions across the scales. EFA revealed a five factor structure: tic/aggression/symmetry; OC symptoms/compulsive tics/ numbers and patterns; ADHD symptoms; autism symptoms; and hoarding/inattention symptoms. The results are partly in line with the traditional categorical boundaries of the symptom scales used, and partly reveal a symptom structure that cuts through the diagnostic categories. This phenotypic structure might more closely reflect underlying etiologies than a structure that classically describes GTS patients according to absence or presence of comorbid OCD, ADHD and autism, and might inform both future genetic and treatment studies.

  1. Young adult educational and vocational outcomes of children diagnosed with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kuriyan, Aparajita B; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Sibley, Margaret H; Babinski, Dara E; Walther, Christine; Cheong, Jeewon; Yu, Jihnhee; Kent, Kristine M

    2013-01-01

    Decreased success at work and educational attainment by adulthood are of concern for children with ADHD given their widely documented academic difficulties; however there are few studies that have examined this empirically and even fewer that have studied predictors and individual variability of these outcomes. The current study compares young adults with and without a childhood diagnosis of ADHD on educational and occupational outcomes and the predictors of these outcomes. Participants were from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a prospective study with yearly data collection. Significant group differences were found for nearly all variables such that educational and occupational attainment was lower for adults with compared to adults without histories of childhood ADHD. Despite the mean difference, educational functioning was wide-ranging. High school academic achievement significantly predicted enrollment in post-high school education and academic and disciplinary problems mediated the relationship between childhood ADHD and post-high school education. Interestingly, ADHD diagnosis and disciplinary problems negatively predicted occupational status while enrollment in post-high school education was a positive predictor. Job loss was positively predicted by a higher rate of academic problems and diagnosis of ADHD. This study supports the need for interventions that target the child and adolescent predictors of later educational and occupational outcomes in addition to continuing treatment of ADHD in young adulthood targeting developmentally appropriate milestones, such as completing post-high school education and gaining and maintaining stable employment.

  2. Parenting Mediates Symptoms and Impairment in Children With ADHD-Inattentive Type.

    PubMed

    Haack, Lauren M; Villodas, Miguel T; McBurnett, Keith; Hinshaw, Stephen; Pfiffner, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates potential pathways between inattentive symptom severity, positive and negative parenting practices, and functional impairment (i.e., academic, social, and home impairment) in a sample of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Type (ADHD-I). Participants included 199 children and their parents and teachers enrolled in a randomized clinical trial investigating the efficacy of an integrated psychosocial intervention for children with ADHD-I. Boys constituted slightly more than half the sample; children averaged 8.6 years of age (range = 7-11) and were from varied ethnic/racial backgrounds. As part of the initial screening and assessment procedures, parents and teachers completed questionnaires assessing child behavior and parent/family functioning. Results supported both main effects of symptoms and parenting on impairment, as well as a mediational path between symptoms and impairment via parenting, as observed by parents in the home setting. Specifically, higher severity of inattention was associated with higher rates of homework, social, and home impairment. Negative parenting contributed to homework and home impairment, and positive and negative parenting contributed to social impairment, incrementally above and beyond the impact of inattention symptom severity alone. Negative parenting partially mediated the relationship between inattentive symptom severity and impairment, such that higher rates of inattention were associated with higher rates of negative parenting, which in turn was associated with higher rates of homework, social, and home impairment. Results provide support for underlying mechanisms for associations between symptoms and impairment in children with ADHD-I and identify potential intervention targets to improve impairment experienced by these children. PMID:25411896

  3. Bifactor latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and first-order latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lee, SoYean; Burns, G Leonard; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Becker, Stephen P

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to determine if the latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms is best explained by a general disruptive behavior factor along with specific inattention (IN), hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), and ODD factors (a bifactor model) whereas the latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms is best explained by a first-order factor independent of the bifactor model of ADHD/ODD. Parents' (n = 703) and teachers' (n = 366) ratings of SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, and ODD symptoms on the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory (CADBI) in a community sample of children (ages 5-13; 55% girls) were used to evaluate 4 models of symptom organization. Results indicated that a bifactor model of ADHD/ODD symptoms, in conjunction with a separate first-order SCT factor, was the best model for both parent and teacher ratings. The first-order SCT factor showed discriminant validity with the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factors in the bifactor model. In addition, higher scores on the SCT factor predicted greater academic and social impairment, even after controlling for the general disruptive behavior and 3 specific factors. Consistent with predictions from the trait-impulsivity etiological model of externalizing liability, a single, general disruptive behavior factor accounted for nearly all common variance in ADHD/ODD symptoms, whereas SCT symptoms represented a factor different from the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factor. These results provide additional support for distinguishing between SCT and ADHD-IN. The study also demonstrates how etiological models can be used to predict specific latent structures of symptom organization. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Relationship between anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and conduct disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Bilgiç, Ayhan; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Ozcan, Ozlem; Tufan, Ali Evren; Yılmaz, Savaş; Yüksel, Tuğba

    2013-09-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with anxiety disorders and previous studies observed that anxiety could have an impact on the clinical course of ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavioral disorders (conduct disorders and oppositional-defiant disorders). Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a different concept from anxiety per se and it is believed to represent the constitutionally based sensitivity of individuals to anxiety and anxiety symptoms. We aimed to assess the associations between anxiety, AS and symptoms of disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD) in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample consisted of 274 treatment naive children with ADHD aged 8-17 years. The severity of ADHD symptoms and comorbid DBD were assessed via parent rated Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS). AS and severity of anxiety symptoms of children were evaluated by self-report inventories. The association between anxiety, AS, and DBD was evaluated using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed that AS social subscale scores negatively predicted symptoms of conduct disorder (CD) reported in T-DSM-IV-S. On the other hand, CD symptoms positively predicted severity of anxiety. No direct relationships were detected between anxiety, AS and oppositional-defiant behavior scores in any scales. These results may suggest a protective effect of AS social area on the development of conduct disorder in the presence of a diagnosis of ADHD, while the presence of symptoms of CD may be a vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  5. ADHD in girls and boys – gender differences in co-existing symptoms and executive function measures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ADHD is diagnosed and treated more often in males than in females. Research on gender differences suggests that girls may be consistently underidentified and underdiagnosed because of differences in the expression of the disorder among boys and girls. One aim of the present study was to assess in a clinical sample of medication naïve boys and girls with ADHD, whether there were significant gender x diagnosis interactions in co-existing symptom severity and executive function (EF) impairment. The second aim was to delineate specific symptom ratings and measures of EF that were most important in distinguishing ADHD from healthy controls (HC) of the same gender. Methods Thirty-seven females with ADHD, 43 males with ADHD, 18 HC females and 32 HC males between 8 and 17 years were included. Co-existing symptoms were assessed with self-report scales and parent ratings. EF was assessed with parent ratings of executive skills in everyday situations (BRIEF), and neuropsychological tests. The three measurement domains (co-existing symptoms, BRIEF, neuropsychological EF tests) were investigated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and random forest classification. Results ANOVAs revealed only one significant diagnosis x gender interaction, with higher rates of self-reported anxiety symptoms in females with ADHD. Random forest classification indicated that co-existing symptom ratings was substantially better in distinguishing subjects with ADHD from HC in females (93% accuracy) than in males (86% accuracy). The most important distinguishing variable was self-reported anxiety in females, and parent ratings of rule breaking in males. Parent ratings of EF skills were better in distinguishing subjects with ADHD from HC in males (96% accuracy) than in females (92% accuracy). Neuropsychological EF tests had only a modest ability to categorize subjects as ADHD or HC in males (73% accuracy) and females (79% accuracy). Conclusions Our findings emphasize the combination of

  6. Confirmation and Extension of Association of Blood Lead with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ADHD Symptom Domains at Population-Typical Exposure Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Nikolas, Molly; Mark Knottnerus, G.; Cavanagh, Kevin; Friderici, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested that child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its symptom domains are related to blood lead level, even at background exposure levels typical in western countries. However, recent studies disagreed as to whether lead was related to inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity within the ADHD…

  7. Adult ADHD patient experiences of impairment, service provision and clinical management in England: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence of the unmet needs and experiences of adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the published scientific literature. This study aimed to explore the experiences of adults in England with ADHD regarding access to diagnostic and treatment services, ADHD-related impairment and to compare experiences between patients diagnosed during adulthood and childhood. Methods In this qualitative study, 30 adults with ADHD were recruited through an ADHD charity (n = 17) and two hospital outpatient clinics for adults with ADHD in England (n = 13). Half of the participants were diagnosed with ADHD during childhood or adolescence and the remainder during adulthood. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and data was analysed using a thematic approach based on Grounded Theory principles. Results Analysis revealed five core themes: ‘An uphill struggle’: the challenge of accessing services, ‘Accumulated Psychosocial Burden and the Impact of ADHD’, ‘Weighing up Costs vs. Benefits of ADHD Pharmacological Treatment’, ‘Value of Non-pharmacological Treatment’ and ‘Barriers to Treatment Adherence’. Accessing services and the challenges associated with securing a definitive diagnosis of ADHD in adulthood was an ‘uphill struggle’, often due to sceptical and negative attitudes towards ADHD by healthcare professionals. ADHD-related impairment had an overwhelmingly chaotic impact on every aspect of patients’ lives and many felt ill equipped to cope. A persistent sense of failure and missed potential from living with the impact of ADHD impairment had led to an accumulated psychosocial burden, especially among those diagnosed from late adolescence onwards. In contrast, positive adjustment was facilitated by a younger age at diagnosis. Although medication was perceived as necessary in alleviating impairment, many felt strongly that by itself, it was inadequate. Additional support in the form of

  8. OROS-methylphenidate efficacy on specific executive functioning deficits in adults with ADHD: a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Bron, Tannetje I; Bijlenga, Denise; Boonstra, A Marije; Breuk, Minda; Pardoen, Willem F H; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Kooij, J J Sandra

    2014-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to impaired executive functioning (EF). This is the first study to objectively investigate the effects of a long-acting methylphenidate on neurocognitive test performance of adults with ADHD. Twenty-two adults with ADHD participated in a 6-weeks study examining the effect of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-mph) on continuous performance tests (CPTs; objective measures), and on the self-reported ADHD rating scale (subjective measure) using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design. OROS-mph significantly improved reaction time variability (RTV), commission errors (CE) and d-prime (DP) as compared to baseline (Cohen's d>.50), but did not affect hit reaction time (HRT) or omission errors (OE). Compared to placebo, OROS-mph only significantly influenced RTV on one of two CPTs (p<.050). Linear regression analyses showed predictive ability of more beneficial OROS-mph effects in ADHD patients with higher EF severity (RTV: β=.670, t=2.097, p=.042; omission errors (OE): β=-.098, t=-4.759, p<.001), and with more severe ADHD symptoms (RTV: F=6.363, p=.019; HRT: F=3.914, p=.061). Side effects rates were substantially but non-significantly greater for OROS-mph compared to placebo (77% vs. 46%, p=.063). OROS-mph effects indicated RTV as the most sensitive parameter for measuring both neuropsychological and behavioral deficits in adults with ADHD. These findings suggest RTV as an endophenotypic parameter for ADHD symptomatology, and propose CPTs as an objective method for monitoring methylphenidate titration. PMID:24508533

  9. Perinatal Risk Factors Interacting with Catechol O-Methyltransferase and the Serotonin Transporter Gene Predict ASD Symptoms in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Altink, Marieke E.; Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; Fliers, Ellen A.; Franke, Barbara; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Ormel, Johan; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Given the previously found familiality of ASD symptoms in children with ADHD, addressing these symptoms may be useful for genetic association studies, especially for candidate gene findings that have not been consistently…

  10. Associations of pineal volume, chronotype and symptom severity in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Bumb, Jan Malte; Mier, Daniela; Noelte, Ingo; Schredl, Michael; Kirsch, Peter; Hennig, Oliver; Liebrich, Luisa; Fenske, Sabrina; Alm, Barbara; Sauer, Carina; Leweke, Franz Markus; Sobanski, Esther

    2016-07-01

    The pineal gland, as part of the human epithalamus, is the main production site of peripheral melatonin, which promotes the modulation of sleep patterns, circadian rhythms and circadian preferences (morningness vs. eveningness). The present study analyses the pineal gland volume (PGV) and its association with circadian preferences and symptom severity in adult ADHD patients compared to healthy controls. PGV was determined manually using high-resolution 3T MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in medication free adult ADHD patients (N=74) compared to healthy controls (N=86). Moreover, the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), the ADHD Diagnostic Checklist and the Wender-Utah Rating Scale were conducted. PGV differed between both groups (patients: 59.9±33.8mm(3); healthy controls: 71.4±27.2mm(3), P=0.04). In ADHD patients, more eveningness types were revealed (patients: 29%; healthy controls: 17%; P=0.05) and sum scores of the MEQ were lower (patients: 45.8±11.5; healthy controls 67.2±10.1; P<0.001). Multiple regression analyses indicated a positive correlation of PGV and MEQ scores in ADHD (β=0.856, P=0.003) but not in healthy controls (β=0.054, P=0.688). Patients' MEQ scores (β=-0.473, P=0.003) were negatively correlated to ADHD symptoms. The present results suggest a linkage between the PGV and circadian preference in adults with ADHD and an association of the circadian preference to symptom severity. This may facilitate the development of new chronobiological treatment approaches for the add-on treatment in ADHD. PMID:27150337

  11. Short cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive training for adults with ADHD – a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Virta, Maarit; Salakari, Anita; Antila, Mervi; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Kaski, Markus; Vataja, Risto; Kalska, Hely; Iivanainen, Matti

    2010-01-01

    In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective non-pharmacological treatments of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here, we present the results of a pilot study of 10 adults with ADHD participating in short-term individual cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT), 9 adults participating in cognitive training (CT), and 10 controls. Self-report questionnaires, independent evaluations, and computerized neurocognitive testing were collected before and after the treatments to evaluate change. There were distinctive pre-hypotheses regarding the treatments, and therefore the statistical comparisons were conducted in pairs: CBT vs control, CT vs control, and CBT vs CT. In a combined ADHD symptom score based on self-reports, 6 participants in CBT, 2 in CT and 2 controls improved. Using independent evaluations, improvement was found in 7 of the CBT participants, 2 of CT participants and 3 controls. There was no treatment-related improvement in cognitive performance. Thus, in the CBT group, some encouraging improvement was seen, although not as clearly as in previous research with longer interventions. In the CT group, there was improvement in the trained tasks but no generalization of the improvement to the tasks of the neurocognitive testing, the self- report questionnaires, or the independent evaluations. These preliminary results warrant further studies with more participants and with more elaborate cognitive testing. PMID:20856608

  12. The Neuropsychological Profile of Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-02-24

    Objective: ADHD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often comorbid yet despite the increased comorbidity between the two disorders, to our knowledge, no data have been published regarding the neuropsychological profile of adults with comorbid ADHD and PTSD. Likewise, previous empirical studies of the neuropsychology of PTSD did not control for ADHD status. We sought to fill this gap in the literature and to assess the extent to which neuropsychological test performance predicted psychosocial functioning, and perceived quality of life. Method: Participants were 201 adults with ADHD attending an outpatient mental health clinic between 1998 and 2003 and 123 controls without ADHD. Participants completed a large battery of self-report measures and psychological tests. Diagnoses were made using data obtained from structured psychiatric interviews (i.e., Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version). Results: Differences emerged between control participants and participants with ADHD on multiple neuropsychological tests. Across all tests, control participants outperformed participants with ADHD. Differences between the two ADHD groups emerged on seven psychological subtests including multiple Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third edition and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test measures. These test differences did not account for self-reported quality of life differences between groups. Conclusion: The comorbidity with PTSD in adults with ADHD is associated with weaker cognitive performance on several tasks that appear related to spatial/perceptual abilities and fluency. Neuropsychological test performances may share variance with the quality of life variables yet are not mediators of the quality of life ratings. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24567364

  13. Psychological and cortisol reactivity to experimentally induced stress in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Raz, Sivan; Leykin, Dmitry

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with ADHD suffer from increased vulnerability to environmental and mental stressors and may be at increased risk for chronic stress in everyday life. The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical physiological system that mediates responses to stress. The present study seeks to examine test performance, test anxiety, self-reported psychological stress and cortisol reactivity to mental-cognitive stress in adults with ADHD when compared with healthy controls. Stress was induced by an arithmetic ability test. Psychological stress was assessed repeatedly throughout the experimental session. Salivary cortisol, an indicator of the HPA axis function, was evaluated immediately upon arrival, as well as 1 min and 20 min post-test completion. Results revealed higher levels of test anxiety and poorer performance on the test in the ADHD group. The ADHD and control groups showed no difference in base-line levels of subjective stress and in subjective stress levels 20 min after the test. In contrast, individuals with ADHD reported significantly higher levels of stress at the test anticipation phase and 1 min post-test completion. Cortisol response to stress differed according to group: in the ADHD group, 20 min post-test cortisol levels were significantly higher than base-line cortisol levels. This was not evident in the control group. These results suggest greater activation of the HPA axis in response to stress in adults with ADHD when compared with healthy controls. Adults with ADHD do not differ from controls in basal levels of subjective stress and cortisol, but do have stronger psychophysiological reactions in response to stressful challenges. The present findings are among the first to demonstrate significant alterations in cortisol reactivity to stress in adults with ADHD.

  14. Psychiatric Comorbidity at the Time of Diagnosis in Adults With ADHD: The CAT Study.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro-Dieguez, Benjamin; Balanzá-Martínez, Vicent; García-García, Pilar; Soler-López, Begoña

    2014-01-24

    Objective: The CAT (Comorbilidad en Adultos con TDAH) study aimed to quantify and characterize the psychiatric comorbidity at the time of diagnosis of ADHD in adult outpatients. Method: Cross-sectional, multicenter, observational register of adults with ADHD diagnosed for the first time. Results: In this large sample of adult ADHD (n = 367), psychiatric comorbidities were present in 66.2% of the sample, and were more prevalent in males and in the hyperactive-impulsive and combined subtypes. The most common comorbidities were substance use disorders (39.2%), anxiety disorders (23%), and mood disorders (18.1%). In all, 88.8% patients were prescribed pharmacological treatment for ADHD (in 93.4% of cases, modified release methylphenidate capsules 50:50). Conclusion: A high proportion of psychiatric comorbidity was observed when adult outpatients received a first-time diagnosis of ADHD. The systematic registering of patients and comorbidities in clinical practice may help to better understand and manage the prognostic determinants in adult ADHD. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX).

  15. Psychiatric Comorbidity at the Time of Diagnosis in Adults With ADHD: The CAT Study.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro-Dieguez, Benjamin; Balanzá-Martínez, Vicent; García-García, Pilar; Soler-López, Begoña

    2014-01-24

    Objective: The CAT (Comorbilidad en Adultos con TDAH) study aimed to quantify and characterize the psychiatric comorbidity at the time of diagnosis of ADHD in adult outpatients. Method: Cross-sectional, multicenter, observational register of adults with ADHD diagnosed for the first time. Results: In this large sample of adult ADHD (n = 367), psychiatric comorbidities were present in 66.2% of the sample, and were more prevalent in males and in the hyperactive-impulsive and combined subtypes. The most common comorbidities were substance use disorders (39.2%), anxiety disorders (23%), and mood disorders (18.1%). In all, 88.8% patients were prescribed pharmacological treatment for ADHD (in 93.4% of cases, modified release methylphenidate capsules 50:50). Conclusion: A high proportion of psychiatric comorbidity was observed when adult outpatients received a first-time diagnosis of ADHD. The systematic registering of patients and comorbidities in clinical practice may help to better understand and manage the prognostic determinants in adult ADHD. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24464326

  16. The role of ASTN2 variants in childhood and adult ADHD, comorbid disorders and associated personality traits.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Christine M; Lempp, Thomas; Nguyen, T Trang; Jacob, Christian P; Weissflog, Lena; Romanos, Marcel; Renner, Tobias J; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas; Rujescu, Dan; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Reif, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Previous linkage and genome wide association (GWA) studies in ADHD indicated astrotactin 2 (ASTN2) as a candidate gene for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ASTN2 plays a key role in glial-guided neuronal migration. To investigate whether common variants in ASTN2 contribute to ADHD disorder risk, we tested 63 SNPs spanning ASTN2 for association with ADHD and specific comorbid disorders in two samples: 171 families of children with ADHD and their parents (N = 592), and an adult sample comprising 604 adult ADHD cases and 974 controls. The C-allele of rs12376789 in ASTN2 nominally increased the risk for ADHD in the trio sample (p = 0.025). This was not observed in the adult case-control sample alone, but retained in the combined sample (nominal p = 0.030). Several other SNPs showed nominally significant association with comorbid disorders, especially anxiety disorder, in the childhood and adult ADHD samples. Some ASTN2 variants were nominally associated with personality traits in the adult ADHD sample and overlapped with risk alleles for comorbid disorders in childhood. None of the findings survived correction for multiple testing, thus, results do not support a major role of common variants in ASTN2 in the pathogenesis of ADHD, its comorbid disorders or ADHD associated personality traits. PMID:27138430

  17. Australian Parent and Teacher Ratings of the "DSM-IV" ADHD Symptoms: Differential Symptom Functioning and Parent-Teacher Agreement and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aims of the study were to examine differential symptom functioning (DSF) and agreement across parent and teacher ratings for the "DSM-IV" ADHD inattention (IA) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) symptoms, listed in the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale (DBRS). Method: DSF was examined using a parametric technique involving ordinal…

  18. Lifespan attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and borderline personality disorder symptoms in female patients: a latent class approach.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Fiona; Lappenschaar, Martijn; Kan, Cornelis; Verkes, Robbert-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan

    2011-12-30

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are frequently comorbid. To contribute to a better understanding of the associations regularly found between ADHD and BPD, on the one hand, and the developmental pathways for these disorders, on the other hand, latent class analyses (LCA) were undertaken to identify classes differing in profiles of childhood symptoms of ADHD and adult symptoms of ADHD and BPD. Diagnostic interviews with 103 female outpatients meeting the criteria for ADHD and/or BPD were used to assess current DSM-IV symptoms; childhood symptoms of ADHD were assessed in parent interviews. The latent classes were examined in relation to the DSM-IV conceptualizations of ADHD and BPD. And relations between childhood and adult classes were examined to hypothesize about developmental trajectories. LCA revealed an optimal solution with four distinct symptom profiles: only ADHD symptoms; BPD symptoms and only ADHD symptoms of hyperactivity; BPD symptoms and ADHD symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity; BPD symptoms and ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. All patients with BPD had some ADHD symptoms in both adulthood and childhood. Hyperactivity was least discriminative of adult classes. Adult hyperactivity was not always preceded by childhood hyperactivity; some cases of comorbid ADHD and BPD symptoms were not preceded by significant childhood ADHD symptoms; and some cases of predominantly BPD symptoms could be traced back to combined symptoms of ADHD in childhood. The results underline the importance of taking ADHD diagnoses into account with BPD. ADHD classification subtypes may not be permanent over time, and different developmental pathways to adult ADHD and BPD should therefore be investigated.

  19. A Brief "DSM-IV"-Referenced Teacher Rating Scale for Monitoring Behavioral Improvement in ADHD and Co-Occurring Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprafkin, Joyce; Mattison, Richard E.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Schneider, Jayne; Lavigne, John V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the 30-item teacher's version of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory Progress Monitor (CASI-PM-T), a "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale for monitoring change in ADHD and co-occurring symptoms in youths receiving behavioral or pharmacological interventions. Method: Three separate studies…

  20. Role of ADHD symptoms as a contributing factor to obesity in patients with MC4R mutations.

    PubMed

    Porfirio, Maria-Cristina; Giovinazzo, Silvia; Cortese, Samuele; Giana, Grazia; Lo-Castro, Adriana; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Curatolo, Paolo; Purper-Ouakil, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Besides the crucial role of genetic susceptibility in the development of early-onset obesity, it has been shown that feeding behavior could contribute to increased body weight. A significant association between obesity/overweight and ADHD has been reported, suggesting that these two conditions, despite their heterogeneity, might share common molecular pathways. Although the co-occurrence of obesity and ADHD is increasingly supported by empirical evidence, the complex pathogenetic link between these two conditions is still unclear. Here, we focus on the relationship between MC4R gene mutations and ADHD in children with early-onset obesity. Mutations in the gene MC4R lead to the most common form of monogenic obesity. We hypothesize that dysregulated eating behavior in a subset of patients with MC4R mutation might be due to comorbid ADHD symptoms, underpinned by abnormal reward mechanisms. Therefore, we speculate that it is possible to prevent obesity in a subset of patients with MC4R mutation, even if these patients are genetically programmed to "be fat", via an appropriate treatment of ADHD symptoms. We hope that our paper will stimulate further studies testing if the early screening for ADHD symptoms and their appropriate treatment may be an effective way to prevent obesity in a subset of children with MC4R mutation. PMID:25466298

  1. Hierarchy and Psychometric Properties of ADHD Symptoms in Spanish Children: An Application of the Graded Response Model

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Victor B.; Nuñez, Daniel E.; Martínez-Molina, Agustín; Ponce, Fernando P.; Arias, Benito

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic criteria assume that the 18 symptoms carry the same weight in an Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and bear the same discriminatory capacity. However, it is reasonable to think that symptoms may differ in terms of severity and even in the reliability with they represent the disorder. To test this hypothesis, the aim of this study was to calibrate in a sample of Spanish children (age 4–7; n = 784) a scale for assessing the symptoms of ADHD proposed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, IV-TR within the framework of Item Response Theory. Samejima’s Graded Response Model was used as a method for estimating the item difficulty and discrimination parameters. The results showed that ADHD subscales (Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity / Impulsivity) had good psychometric properties and had also a good fit to the model. However, relevant differences between symptoms were observed at the level of severity, informativeness and reliability for the assessment of ADHD. This finding suggests that it would be useful to identify the symptoms that are more important than the others with regard to diagnosing ADHD. PMID:27736911

  2. ADHD symptoms and attachment representations: considering the role of conduct problems, cognitive deficits and narrative responses in non-attachment-related story stems.

    PubMed

    Scholtens, Sara; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Bohlin, Gunilla; Thorell, Lisa B

    2014-08-01

    The overall aim of the present study was to investigate ADHD symptoms in relation to attachment representations. We used both attachment- and non-attachment-related story stems, which allowed us to investigate whether problems with narrative production can explain the relation between ADHD symptoms and attachment representations. We also investigated the role of cognitive deficits and conduct problems in these relations. The sample consisted of 89 children (27 % girls) between 6 and 10 years old, with an oversampling of children with high levels of ADHD symptoms. ADHD symptoms and conduct problems were rated by parents and teachers. Cognitive functioning was investigated using laboratory tests of inhibition, working memory and sustained attention. Attachment representations were coded as secure, organized insecure and disorganized categories. Narrative responses to non-attachment-related story stems were coded for incoherence and negative content. Results showed that children in the disorganized attachment category had significantly higher levels of ADHD symptoms compared to those in the secure category. Both ADHD symptoms and disorganized attachment were related to incoherence and negative content. Attachment representations were not associated with ADHD symptoms when controlling for negative content in response to non-attachment-related story stems. These results suggest that the associations between attachment security and ADHD are yet to be fully understood. Importantly, a propensity to envisage negative events seems to characterize children with high levels of ADHD symptoms. PMID:24562639

  3. EEG anomalies in adult ADHD subjects performing a working memory task.

    PubMed

    Missonnier, P; Hasler, R; Perroud, N; Herrmann, F R; Millet, P; Richiardi, J; Malafosse, A; Giannakopoulos, P; Baud, P

    2013-06-25

    Functional imaging studies have revealed differential brain activation patterns in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) adult patients performing working memory (WM) tasks. The existence of alterations in WM-related cortical circuits during childhood may precede executive dysfunctions in this disorder in adults. To date, there is no study exploring the electrophysiological activation of WM-related neural networks in ADHD. To address this issue, we carried out an electroencephalographic (EEG) activation study associated with time-frequency (TF) analysis in 15 adults with ADHD and 15 controls performing two visual N-back WM tasks, as well as oddball detection and passive fixation tasks. Frontal transient (phasic) theta event-related synchronization (ERS, 0-500 msec) was significantly reduced in ADHD as compared to control subjects. Such reduction was equally present in a task-independent manner. In contrast, the power of the later sustained (∼500-1200 msec) theta ERS for all tasks was comparable in ADHD and control groups. In active WM tasks, ADHD patients displayed lower alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD, ∼200-900 msec) and higher subsequent alpha ERS (∼900-2400 msec) compared to controls. The time course of alpha ERD/ERS cycle was modified in ADHD patients compared to controls, suggesting that they are able to use late compensatory mechanisms in order to perform this WM task. These findings support the idea of an ADHD-related dysfunction of neural generators sub-serving attention directed to the incoming visual information. ADHD cases may successfully face WM needs depending on the preservation of sustained theta ERS and prolonged increase of alpha ERS at later post-stimulus time points. PMID:23518223

  4. Moderator effects of working memory on the stability of ADHD symptoms by dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms during development.

    PubMed

    Trampush, Joey W; Jacobs, Michelle M; Hurd, Yasmin L; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2014-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that dopamine D1 and D2 receptor gene (DRD1 and DRD2, respectively) polymorphisms and the development of working memory skills can interact to influence symptom change over 10 years in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specifically, we examined whether improvements in working memory maintenance and manipulation from childhood to early adulthood predicted the reduction of ADHD symptoms as a function of allelic variation in DRD1 and DRD2. Participants were 76 7-11-year-old children with ADHD who were genotyped and prospectively followed for almost 10 years. ADHD symptoms were rated using the Attention Problems scale on the Child Behavior Checklist, and verbal working memory maintenance and manipulation, measured by Digit Span forward and backward, respectively, were assessed at baseline and follow-up. After correction for multiple testing, improvements in working memory manipulation, not maintenance, predicted reduction of symptomatology over development and was moderated by major allele homozygosity in two DRD1 polymorphisms (rs4532 and rs265978) previously linked with variation in D1 receptor expression. Depending on genetic background, developmental factors including age-dependent variation in DRD1 penetrance may facilitate the link between improvements in higher-order working memory and the remission of symptoms in individuals with childhood-diagnosed ADHD. Furthermore, the current findings suggest that DRD1 might contribute minimally to the emergence of symptoms and cognitive difficulties associated with ADHD in childhood, but may act as a modifier gene of these clinical features and outcome during later development for those with ADHD.

  5. Developmental progression to early adult binge drinking and marijuana use from worsening versus stable trajectories of adolescent ADHD and delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Andrea L.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Swanson, James M.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Harty, Seth C.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Hechtman, Lily; Stehli, Annamarie; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Wigal, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine the association between developmental trajectories of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and delinquency through childhood and adolescence (ages 8-16) and subsequent binge drinking and marijuana use in early adulthood (age 21). Design Prospective naturalistic follow-up of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) previously enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Treatment-phase assessments occurred at 3, 9, and 14 months after randomization; follow-up assessments occurred at 24 months, 36 months, and 6, 8, and 12 years after randomization. Setting Secondary analysis of data from the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD (MTA), a multi-site RCT comparing the effects of careful medication management, intensive behavior therapy, their combination, and referral to usual community care. Participants 579 children with DSM-IV ADHD combined type, aged 7.0 and 9.9 years old at baseline (M=8.5, SD=.80). Measurements Ratings of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and delinquency were collected from multiple informants at baseline and through the 8-year follow-up. Self-reports of binge drinking and marijuana use were collected at the 12-year follow-up (M age 21). Findings Trajectories of worsening inattention symptoms and delinquency (and less apparent improvement in hyperactivity-impulsivity) were associated with higher rates of early adult binge drinking and marijuana use, compared with trajectories of stable or improving symptoms and delinquency (of 24 comparisons, 22 p-values <.05), even when symptom levels in stable trajectories were high. Conclusions Worsening inattention symptoms and delinquency during adolescence are associated with increased-levels of early adult substance use; this pattern may reflect a developmental course of vulnerability to elevated substance use in early adulthood. PMID:25664657

  6. Self-reported symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: rate of endorsement and association with neuropsychological performance in an adult psychiatric sample.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Brooke C; Thoering, Teresa; Cludius, Barbara; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-05-01

    The lack of specificity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms represents a diagnostic challenge, especially when assessing psychiatric patients reporting a wide range of complaints. Rate of endorsement of ADHD symptoms, and their association with neuropsychological performance, was examined in a psychiatric sample of 71 adults, who had been referred for a neuropsychological evaluation. Patients completed two self-report measures of ADHD symptoms, the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ADHD-SR) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale-Short Form, as well as measures of attention, executive functioning, visuoconstructional ability, and verbal learning and memory. On the ADHD-SR, 74.6% of the sample met the cutoff for inattention or hyperactivity, while 81.7% met the cutoff for impulsivity. Neuropsychological performance was weakly associated with self-reported symptoms. Our results suggest that psychiatric patients commonly report symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Assessment utilizing multiple sources is necessary to confirm whether self-reported symptoms are indicative of ADHD or reflect other causes.

  7. The identification and management of ADHD offenders within the criminal justice system: a consensus statement from the UK Adult ADHD Network and criminal justice agencies.

    PubMed

    Young, Susan J; Adamou, Marios; Bolea, Blanca; Gudjonsson, Gisli; Müller, Ulrich; Pitts, Mark; Thome, Johannes; Asherson, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN) was founded by a group of mental health specialists who have experience delivering clinical services for adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) within the National Health Service (NHS). UKAAN aims to support mental health professionals in the development of services for adults with ADHD by the promotion of assessment and treatment protocols. One method of achieving these aims has been to sponsor conferences and workshops on adult ADHD.This consensus statement is the result of a Forensic Meeting held in November 2009, attended by senior representatives of the Department of Health (DoH), Forensic Mental Health, Prison, Probation, Courts and Metropolitan Police services. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss ways of raising awareness about adult ADHD, and its recognition, assessment, treatment and management within these respective services. Whilst the document draws on the UK experience, with some adaptations it can be used as a template for similar local actions in other countries. It was concluded that bringing together experts in adult ADHD and the Criminal Justice System (CJS) will be vital to raising awareness of the needs of ADHD offenders at every stage of the offender pathway. Joint working and commissioning within the CJS is needed to improve awareness and understanding of ADHD offenders to ensure that individuals are directed to appropriate care and rehabilitation. General Practitioners (GPs), whilst ideally placed for early intervention, should not be relied upon to provide this service as vulnerable offenders often have difficulty accessing primary care services. Moreover once this hurdle has been overcome and ADHD in offenders has been identified, a second challenge will be to provide treatment and ensure continuity of care. Future research must focus on proof of principle studies to demonstrate that identification and treatment confers health gain, safeguards individual's rights, improves

  8. The association between youth violence exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a sample of fifth-graders.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Terri; Schwebel, David C; Elliott, Marc N; Visser, Susanna N; Toomey, Sara L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Cuccaro, Paula; Tortolero Emery, Susan; Banspach, Stephen W; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between violence exposures (no exposure, witness or victim only, and both witness and victim) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, as well as the potential moderating role of gender. Data from 4,745 5th graders and their primary caregivers were drawn from the Healthy Passages study of adolescent health. Parent respondents completed the DISC Predictive Scales for ADHD, and youth provided information about exposure to violence. Results indicated that youth who reported both witnessing and victimization had more parent-reported ADHD symptoms and were more likely to meet predictive criteria for ADHD. Among those with both exposures, girls exhibited a steeper increase in ADHD symptoms and higher probability of meeting predictive criteria than did boys. Findings indicate that being both victim-of and witness-to violence is significantly associated with ADHD symptoms particularly among girls.

  9. The Association Between Youth Violence Exposure and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in a Sample of Fifth-Graders

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Terri; Elliott, Marc N.; Toomey, Sara L.; Cuccaro, Paula; Emery, Susan Tortolero; Schwebel, David C.; Visser, Susanna N.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between violence exposures (no exposure, witness or victim only, and both witness and victim) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, as well as the potential moderating role of gender. Data from 4,745 5th graders and their primary caregivers were drawn from the Healthy Passages study of adolescent health. Parent respondents completed the DISC Predictive Scales for ADHD, and youth provided information about exposure to violence. Results indicated that youth who reported both witnessing and victimization had more parent-reported ADHD symptoms and were more likely to meet predictive criteria for ADHD. Among those with both exposures, girls exhibited a steeper increase in ADHD symptoms and higher probability of meeting predictive criteria than did boys. Findings indicate that being both victim-of and witness-to violence is significantly associated with ADHD symptoms particularly among girls. PMID:26460708

  10. Unveiling the mystery about adult ADHD: one woman's journey.

    PubMed

    Waite, Roberta; Ivey, Nicole

    2009-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a neurobiological disorder, affects millions of individuals and can significantly impact an individual's life course. Research guidelines used in assessment, diagnosis, and treatment have focused primarily on Caucasian males generating, in part, the need to redress how gender and other contextual factors are considered. Consequently many women and persons from diverse cultural groups can be ignored or misdiagnosed. Undiagnosed and untreated women with ADHD are therefore limited in their potential to flourish socially, academically, interpersonally, and in their family roles. This case example of a 38-year-old African American woman illustrates how her life journey was affected by undiagnosed ADHD. PMID:19657868

  11. Stop and look! Evidence for a bias towards virtual navigation response strategies in children with ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Robaey, Philippe; McKenzie, Sam; Schachar, Russel; Boivin, Michel; Bohbot, Veronique D

    2016-02-01

    Studies in children show that the development of spatial competence emerges between seven and eight years of age. Multiple memory systems (hippocampus-dependent spatial and caudate nucleus-dependent response learning) are involved in parallel processing of information during navigation. As a hippocampus-dependent spatial strategy also relies on frontoparietal executive control and working memory networks that are impaired in ADHD, we predicted that children will be more likely to adopt a response strategy as they exhibit ADHD symptoms. We tested 285 healthy children on a virtual radial-arm maze paradigm in order to test this hypothesis. We found that children displaying at least one ADHD symptom were more likely to have a perfect performance on a probe trial, which suggests that they did not rely on environmental landmarks. Children with ADHD symptoms may primarily rely on caudate nucleus-dependent response learning strategies at the expense of hippocampus-dependent spatial strategies. Repetition and reward based learning strategies, which are hallmarks of response learning, may be most effective in children exhibiting ADHD symptoms. PMID:26310386

  12. An observational study of once-daily modified-release methylphenidate in ADHD: effectiveness on symptoms and impairment, and safety.

    PubMed

    Döpfner, Manfred; Görtz-Dorten, Anja; Breuer, Dieter; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2011-10-01

    ADHD affects over 5% of children worldwide. It is typically treated with stimulant medications, and methylphenidate (MPH) is the most commonly prescribed. This study investigated the effectiveness, on symptoms and impairment, and safety of Equasym XL(®), a combination of 30% immediate-release and 70% modified-release MPH, in the treatment of ADHD in daily clinical practice. This open-label, observational, post-marketing surveillance study was conducted in 169 centres in Germany. Eligible patients, aged 6-17 years, were diagnosed with ADHD and about to begin treatment with Equasym XL(®). Effectiveness was assessed by physicians using the clinical global impression (CGI) severity and improvement scales; teachers and parents completed questionnaires evaluating ADHD symptoms and behavioural problems (DAYAS, FBB-ADHD and SDQ-P). Assessments were carried out at baseline, after 1-3 and 6-12 weeks of treatment. Of 852 enrolled patients, 822 were evaluable; 25.30% were treatment naïve, 69.84% had previously received different MPH formulations, and 4.87% had received other medications. ADHD symptoms improved from baseline to last visit for the majority of patients for all outcome measures. According to physician ratings of core ADHD symptoms, 75.73% of patients showed improvements on the CGI-Improvement scale, 17.77% had no change, and 6.50% worsened. In teacher and parent ratings, the effectiveness of Equasym XL(®) was rated better than prior therapy at all measured time points across the day, particularly late morning (teachers) and early afternoon (parents). Equasym XL(®) was generally well tolerated; only 3.16% of patients permanently discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Equasym XL(®) is effective and well tolerated in daily clinical practice.

  13. Detection of Feigned ADHD in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sollman, Myriam J.; Ranseen, John D.; Berry, David T. R.

    2010-01-01

    Significant motivations and incentives exist for young-adult students to seek a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). With ADHD information readily accessible on the Internet, today's students are likely to be symptom educated prior to evaluation. This may result in false-positive diagnoses, particularly when students are…

  14. Attentional WM is not necessarily specifically related with fluid intelligence: the case of smart children with ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cornoldi, Cesare; Giofrè, David; Calgaro, Giovanni; Stupiggia, Chiara

    2013-07-01

    Executive functions and, in particular, Attentional (active) Working Memory (WM) have been associated with fluid intelligence. The association contrasts with the hypothesis that children with ADHD exhibit problems with WM tasks requiring controlled attention and may have a good fluid intelligence. This paper examines whether children who are intelligent but present ADHD symptoms fail in attentional WM tasks. The latter result would be problematic for theories assuming the generality of a strict relationship between intelligence and WM. To study these issues, a battery of tests was administered to a group of 58 children who all displayed symptoms of ADHD. All children were between the age of 8 and 11 years, and were described by their teachers as smart. Children were compared to a control group matched for age, schooling, and gender. The battery included a test of fluid intelligence (Raven's Coloured Matrices), and a series of visuospatial WM tasks. Results showed that children with ADHD were high in intelligence but significantly lower than the controls in WM tasks requiring high attentional control, whereas there was no difference in WM tasks requiring low attentional control. Furthermore, only high attentional control WM tasks were significantly related to Raven's performance in the control group, whereas all WM tasks were similarly related in the ADHD group. It is concluded that performance in high attentional control WM tasks may be related to fluid intelligence, but also to a specific control component that is independent of intelligence and is poor in children with ADHD.

  15. Effect of Atomoxetine on Executive Function Impairments in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.; Holdnack, James; Saylor, Keith; Adler, Lenard; Spencer, Thomas; Williams, David W.; Padival, Anoop K.; Schuh, Kory; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Kelsey, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of atomoxetine on ADHD-related executive functions over a 6-month period using the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS) for Adults, a normed, 40-item, self-report scale in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Method: In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, adults with ADHD…

  16. The Relation between Maternal ADHD Symptoms & Improvement in Child Behavior Following Brief Behavioral Parent Training Is Mediated by Change in Negative Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Brien, Kelly A.; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Raggi, Veronica L.; Rooney, Mary E.; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy…

  17. Personality Disorders and Clinical Syndromes in ADHD Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Wells, June; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this article is to investigate the type of personality disorders and clinical syndromes (CSs) that were best related to ADHD symptoms among prisoners. Method: The authors screened for childhood and adult ADHD symptoms and administered the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) to 196 serving prisoners.…

  18. Effectiveness of a focused, brief psychoeducation program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Guan-nan; Wang, Yu-feng; Yang, Li; Niu, Wen-yi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of a psychoeducation program for parents of children with ADHD in enhancing adherence to pharmacological treatment and improving clinical symptoms. Methods We developed a psychoeducation program based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Eighty-nine children with ADHD were cluster randomly assigned for their families to receive 3 months of well-structured psychoeducation (intervention group, n=44) or only general clinical counseling (control group, n=45). Parents in the intervention group were given an expert lecture (with slides and a parent manual), attended two expert-guided parent group sessions, and were invited to join a professional-guided online community. Measurement of parents’ knowledge about ADHD, components of the TPB model, and child ADHD symptoms were taken before and after intervention. Medication adherence was assessed thoroughly at the end of the first and third months. Satisfaction with the psychoeducation program was assessed only in the intervention group. Two-independent-samples t-test, ANOVA, and chi-square test were employed to compare differences between groups. Results Compared to the control group, medication adherence in the intervention group was significantly higher after 1 and 3 months (97.7% intervention vs 75.6% control, P=0.002, and 86.4% intervention vs 53.3% control, P=0.001, respectively). Accordingly, the ADHD rating scale scores were lower in the intervention group than the control group after intervention (33.7±5.4 vs 45.1±7.9, P=0.008). Greater improvements in parents’ knowledge about ADHD and many components of the TPB model were observed in the intervention group, especially increased intention to adhere to medication, compared to the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion This psychoeducation program had a positive impact on both medication adherence and clinical symptoms of ADHD children. It could be considered as a potential beneficial supplement to clinical practice. PMID

  19. Does adult ADHD interact with COMT val (158) met genotype to influence working memory performance?

    PubMed

    Biehl, Stefanie C; Gschwendtner, Kathrin M; Guhn, Anne; Müller, Laura D; Reichert, Susanne; Heupel, Julia; Reif, Andreas; Deckert, Jürgen; Herrmann, Martin J; Jacob, Christian P

    2015-03-01

    Both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype have been linked to altered dopaminergic transmission and possible impairment in frontal lobe functioning. This study offers an investigation of a possible interaction between ADHD diagnosis and COMT genotype on measures of working memory and executive function. Thirty-five adults with ADHD, who were recruited from the ADHD outpatient clinic at the Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University of Würzburg, and thirty-five matched healthy controls completed the Digit Span test and the Stroop Color Word Test. While there were no main effects of ADHD or COMT, the two factors interacted on both Digit Span subtests with the two groups' met/met carriers showing significantly different performance on the Digit Span Forward subtest and the val/val carriers showing significantly different performance on the Digit Span Backward subtest. Findings provide preliminary support for a differential impact of COMT genotype on working memory measures in adult patients with ADHD compared to healthy controls.

  20. Drinking to Distraction: Does Alcohol Increase Attentional Bias in Adults with ADHD?

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Walter; Fillmore, Mark T.; Milich, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that social drinkers continue to show attentional bias towards alcohol-related stimuli even after consuming a moderate dose of alcohol. In contrast, little is known about how alcohol acutely affects attentional bias in groups at risk to develop alcohol-related problems, such as adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such individuals may show increased attentional bias following alcohol relative to nonclinical controls. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining acute alcohol effects on attentional bias in 20 social drinkers with ADHD and 20 social drinkers with no history of ADHD. Participants performed a visual-probe task after receiving the following doses of alcohol: 0.64 g/kg, 0.32 g/kg, and 0.0 g/kg (placebo). Those in the ADHD group showed increased attentional bias under active alcohol doses, whereas attentional bias was similar across doses in the control group. Attentional bias predicted ad libitum alcohol consumption during a taste-rating session. This relation was observed only in the ADHD group. These findings indicate that an acute alcohol dose increases attentional bias in adults with ADHD. Further, attentional bias appears to be a predictor of ad libitum consumption in this group. PMID:22121850

  1. Drinking to distraction: does alcohol increase attentional bias in adults with ADHD?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Walter; Fillmore, Mark T; Milich, Richard

    2012-04-01

    Previous research has shown that social drinkers continue to show attentional bias toward alcohol-related stimuli even after consuming a moderate dose of alcohol. In contrast, little is known about how alcohol acutely affects attentional bias in groups at risk to develop alcohol-related problems, such as adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such individuals may show increased attentional bias following alcohol relative to nonclinical controls. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining acute alcohol effects on attentional bias in 20 social drinkers with ADHD and 20 social drinkers with no history of ADHD. Participants performed a visual-probe task after receiving the following doses of alcohol: 0.64 g/kg, 0.32 g/kg, and 0.0 g/kg (placebo). Those in the ADHD group showed increased attentional bias under active alcohol doses, whereas attentional bias was similar across doses in the control group. Attentional bias predicted ad libitum alcohol consumption during a taste-rating session. This relation was observed only in the ADHD group. These findings indicate that an acute alcohol dose increases attentional bias in adults with ADHD. Further, attentional bias appears to be a predictor of ad libitum consumption in this group.

  2. The reinforcing effects of nicotine and stimulant medication in the everyday lives of adult smokers with ADHD: A preliminary examination.

    PubMed

    Gehricke, Jean-G; Whalen, Carol K; Jamner, Larry D; Wigal, Tim L; Steinhoff, Kenneth

    2006-02-01

    Whereas the smoking prevalence rates in the general population are declining, rates among people diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continue to be elevated. Previous research has shown that nicotine may improve attention and mood, suggesting that nicotine may help ameliorate the attentional and emotional problems associated with ADHD. The present study examined the effects of nicotine with and without stimulant medication on ADHD symptoms, moods, and arousal in the everyday lives of smokers with ADHD. A total of 10 smokers with ADHD who were being treated with stimulant medication were asked to abstain from smoking while participating in the study. Participants underwent four conditions in randomized order: (a) Nicotine patch+stimulant medication, (b) nicotine patch only, (c) placebo patch+stimulant medication, and (d) placebo patch only. Each condition continued for 2 days, during which self-reports of ADHD symptoms and moods were obtained using electronic diaries. Lightweight ambulatory monitors recorded cardiovascular activity at each diary entry. Smoking abstinence was verified by expired carbon monoxide and salivary cotinine analysis. Results showed that nicotine patches and stimulant medication alone and in combination reduced difficulty concentrating and core ADHD symptoms compared with placebo patch only. Borderline improvement in impatience and self-control was seen with nicotine patch administration primarily on day 1. Nicotine patches also tended to elevate systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with placebo patch during day 2. The findings suggest that smokers with ADHD experience nicotine-related reductions in ADHD symptoms during their everyday lives.

  3. Exploring DRD4 and its interaction with SLC6A3 as possible risk factors for adult ADHD: a meta-analysis in four European populations.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Mora, Cristina; Ribasés, Marta; Casas, Miquel; Bayés, Mònica; Bosch, Rosa; Fernàndez-Castillo, Noelia; Brunso, Lucas; Jacobsen, Kaya K; Landaas, Elisabeth T; Lundervold, Astri J; Gross-Lesch, Silke; Kreiker, Susanne; Jacob, Christian P; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hoogman, Martine; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Kooij, J J Sandra; Mick, Eric; Asherson, Phil; Faraone, Stephen V; Franke, Barbara; Reif, Andreas; Johansson, Stefan; Haavik, Jan; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Cormand, Bru

    2011-07-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder affecting about 4-8% of children. ADHD persists into adulthood in around 65% of cases, either as the full condition or in partial remission with persistence of symptoms. Pharmacological, animal and molecular genetic studies support a role for genes of the dopaminergic system in ADHD due to its essential role in motor control, cognition, emotion, and reward. Based on these data, we analyzed two functional polymorphisms within the DRD4 gene (120 bp duplication in the promoter and 48 bp VNTR in exon 3) in a clinical sample of 1,608 adult ADHD patients and 2,352 controls of Caucasian origin from four European countries that had been recruited in the context of the International Multicentre persistent ADHD CollaboraTion (IMpACT). Single-marker analysis of the two polymorphisms did not reveal association with ADHD. In contrast, multiple-marker meta-analysis showed a nominal association (P = 0.02) of the L-4R haplotype (dup120bp-48bpVNTR) with adulthood ADHD, especially with the combined clinical subtype. Since we previously described association between adulthood ADHD and the dopamine transporter SLC6A3 9R-6R haplotype (3'UTR VNTR-intron 8 VNTR) in the same dataset, we further tested for gene × gene interaction between DRD4 and SLC6A3. However, we detected no epistatic effects but our results rather suggest additive effects of the DRD4 risk haplotype and the SLC6A3 gene. PMID:21595008

  4. A Randomized, Single-Blind, Substitution Study of OROS Methylphenidate (Concerta) in ADHD Adults Receiving Immediate Release Methylphenidate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Mick, Eric; Surman, Craig B. H.; Hammerness, Paul; Doyle, Robert; Aleardi, Megan; Kotarski, Meghan; Williams, Courtney G.; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to examine the efficacy, tolerability, and compliance of an extended-release formulation of methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) in adults with ADHD receiving immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH). Method: Participants were outpatient adults with ADHD who were stable on IR-MPH-administered TID. Participants…

  5. Go/No Go task performance predicts cortical thickness in the caudal inferior frontal gyrus in young adults with and without ADHD.

    PubMed

    Newman, Erik; Jernigan, Terry L; Lisdahl, Krista M; Tamm, Leanne; Tapert, Susan F; Potkin, Steven G; Mathalon, Daniel; Molina, Brooke; Bjork, James; Castellanos, F Xavier; Swanson, James; Kuperman, Joshua M; Bartsch, Hauke; Chen, Chi-Hua; Dale, Anders M; Epstein, Jeffery N; Group, Mta Neuroimaging

    2016-09-01

    Response inhibition deficits are widely believed to be at the core of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Several studies have examined neural architectural correlates of ADHD, but research directly examining structural correlates of response inhibition is lacking. Here we examine the relationship between response inhibition as measured by a Go/No Go task, and cortical surface area and thickness of the caudal inferior frontal gyrus (cIFG), a region implicated in functional imaging studies of response inhibition, in a sample of 114 young adults with and without ADHD diagnosed initially during childhood. We used multiple linear regression models to test the hypothesis that Go/No Go performance would be associated with cIFG surface area or thickness. Results showed that poorer Go/No Go performance was associated with thicker cIFG cortex, and this effect was not mediated by ADHD status or history of substance use. However, independent of Go/No Go performance, persistence of ADHD symptoms and more frequent cannabis use were associated with thinner cIFG. Go/No Go performance was not associated with cortical surface area. The association between poor inhibitory functioning and thicker cIFG suggests that maturation of this region may differ in low performing participants. An independent association of persistent ADHD symptoms and frequent cannabis use with thinner cIFG cortex suggests that distinct neural mechanisms within this region may play a role in inhibitory function, broader ADHD symptomatology, and cannabis use. These results contribute to Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) by revealing novel associations between neural architectural phenotypes and basic neurobehavioral processes measured dimensionally. PMID:26404018

  6. Abnormal Brain Connectivity Patterns in Adults with ADHD: A Coherence Study

    PubMed Central

    Sato, João Ricardo; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Castellanos, Xavier Francisco; Rohde, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the resting state have shown decreased functional connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and regions of the Default Mode Network (DMN) in adult patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) relative to subjects with typical development (TD). Most studies used Pearson correlation coefficients among the BOLD signals from different brain regions to quantify functional connectivity. Since the Pearson correlation analysis only provides a limited description of functional connectivity, we investigated functional connectivity between the dACC and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in three groups (adult patients with ADHD, n = 21; TD age-matched subjects, n = 21; young TD subjects, n = 21) using a more comprehensive analytical approach – unsupervised machine learning using a one-class support vector machine (OC-SVM) that quantifies an abnormality index for each individual. The median abnormality index for patients with ADHD was greater than for TD age-matched subjects (p = 0.014); the ADHD and young TD indices did not differ significantly (p = 0.480); the median abnormality index of young TD was greater than that of TD age-matched subjects (p = 0.016). Low frequencies below 0.05 Hz and around 0.20 Hz were the most relevant for discriminating between ADHD patients and TD age-matched controls and between the older and younger TD subjects. In addition, we validated our approach using the fMRI data of children publicly released by the ADHD-200 Competition, obtaining similar results. Our findings suggest that the abnormal coherence patterns observed in patients with ADHD in this study resemble the patterns observed in young typically developing subjects, which reinforces the hypothesis that ADHD is associated with brain maturation deficits. PMID:23049834

  7. Childhood Blood Lead Levels and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Cross-Sectional Study of Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Siying; Hu, Howard; Sánchez, Brisa N; Peterson, Karen E.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Schnaas, Lourdes; Mercado-García, Adriana; Wright, Robert O.; Basu, Niladri; Cantonwine, David E.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that blood lead levels are positively associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-symptoms in children. However, the associations between lead exposure and ADHD subtypes are inconsistent and understudied. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the association of low-level concurrent lead exposure with subtypes of ADHD symptoms in 578 Mexican children 6–13 years of age. Methods: We measured concurrent blood lead levels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). We administered the Conners’ Rating Scales-Revised (CRS-R) to mothers to evaluate their children’s ADHD symptoms. We used imputation to fill missing values in blood lead levels and used segmented regression models adjusted for relevant covariates to model the nonlinear relationship between blood lead and ADHD symptoms. Results: Mean ± SD blood lead levels were 3.4 ± 2.9 μg/dL. In adjusted models, a 1-μg/dL increase in blood lead was positively associated with Hyperactivity and Restless-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, but only in children with blood lead level ≤ 5 μg/dL. Blood lead was not associated with Inattentive symptoms or overall ADHD behavior. Conclusions: In this population of Mexican children, current blood lead level among children with low exposure (≤ 5 μg/dL) was positively associated with hyperactive/impulsive behaviors, but not with inattentiveness. These results add to the existing evidence of lead-associated neurodevelopmental deficits at low levels of exposure. Citation: Huang S, Hu H, Sánchez BN, Peterson KE, Ettinger AS, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Schnaas L, Mercado-García A, Wright RO, Basu N, Cantonwine DE, Hernández-Avila M, Téllez-Rojo MM. 2016. Childhood blood lead levels and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a

  8. Coaching for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin; Ratey, Nancy; Maynard, Sandy; Sussman, Susan; Wright, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    Despite limited scientific study on ADHD coaching as an intervention for adults with ADHD, the field of ADHD coaching has grown significantly and gained popularity in recent years. ADHD coaching is becoming a bona fide profession where one must advance through a rigorous training process, in order to be certified as a professional ADHD coach.…

  9. Examining Parents’ Preferences for Group and Individual Parent Training For Children with ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wymbs, Frances A.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Chen, Yvonne; Rimas, Heather M.; Deal, Ken; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Parent training (PT) programs have been found to reduce some behavioral impairment associated with children’s attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as improve parenting competence, but poor uptake and participation by parents are formidable barriers that affect service effectiveness. We used a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to examine how parent preferences for treatment format (i.e. group versus individual) might influence their participation in PT. Participants were 445 parents seeking mental health services for children with elevated symptoms of ADHD in Ontario, Canada. Parents completed a discrete-choice experiment (DCE) composed of 30 choice tasks used to gauge PT format preference. Results showed that 58.7% of parents preferred individual PT; these parents were most interested in interventions that would make them feel more informed about their child’s problems and in understanding—as opposed to solving—their child’s problems. A minority of parents (19.4 %) preferred group PT; these parents were most interested in active, skill-building services that would help them solve their child’s problems. About one-fifth of parents (21.9 %) preferred the Minimal Information alternative (i.e. receiving neither individual or group PT); these parents reported the highest levels of depression and the most severe mental health problems in their child. Results highlight the importance of considering parent preferences for format, and suggest that alternative formats to standard PT should be considered for multiply stressed families. PMID:25700219

  10. ADHD across cultures: is there evidence for a bidimensional organization of symptoms?

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José J; Canino, Glorisa; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Rohde, Luis A

    2010-01-01

    We examined the phenotypic expression of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across cultures by assessing the factor/latent class structure of its core symptoms. We conducted a systematic review of the literature published from January 1987 to November 2008 using Medline and PsycINFO. We systematically reviewed 2,511 article abstracts, and 48 of these abstracts were included in this review. Research with school-age children from 15 countries including different samples, informants, and rating instruments supported a two-factor ADHD model consisting of inattention and combined hyperactivity and impulsivity. This model was not supported for preschool children. Cross-cultural equivalence for the two-factor model was suggested in some studies. Latent class analyses using parental data and more recent approaches like factor mixture modeling are generally consistent with factor analyses. These findings argue in favor of a cross-cultural validity of the syndrome. The implications of these findings for further research and classificatory systems in mental health like the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) are discussed. PMID:20419577

  11. Underarousal in Adult ADHD: How Are Peripheral and Cortical Arousal Related?

    PubMed

    Mayer, Kerstin; Wyckoff, Sarah Nicole; Strehl, Ute

    2016-07-01

    In children and adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a general slowing of spontaneous electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activity and a decrease of event-related potential amplitudes such as the contingent negative variation (CNV) are observed. Additionally, some studies have reported decreased skin conductance level (SCL) in this clinical population leading to the hypothesis of a peripheral hypoarousal, which may be a target of biofeedback treatment in addition to or instead of neurofeedback. To our knowledge, the relationship between SCL and CNV has not been simultaneously investigated in one experiment. Using the theoretical background of the hypoarousal model, this article aims to gain more insight into the differences and correlations of cortical (CNV) and peripheral (SCL) arousal in adults with ADHD. A sample of 23 adults with ADHD and 22 healthy controls underwent an auditory Go-NoGo task with simultaneous 22-channel EEG and SCL recordings. Reaction time (RT) and reaction time variability (RTV) were also measured to assess task performance. Significantly decreased CNV amplitude and significantly higher RTV were observed in the ADHD group, reflecting cortical underarousal and problems with sustained attention. No significant correlation between peripheral underarousal and cortical underarousal was observed in the ADHD group or the control group. The observed cortical underarousal reflected in the decreased CNV supports the notion of a reduced CNV amplitude as a possible biomarker for ADHD. However, the connection between cortical and peripheral arousal is not as clear as is suggested in previous research investigating both separately. Implications of these results for new treatment options for ADHD such as biofeedback are discussed.

  12. ADHD Symptoms and Peer Relations of Children in a Community Sample: Examining Associated Problems, Self-Perceptions, and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Henricsson, Lisbeth; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2005-01-01

    This study examined children's peer relations in relation to gender, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), associated behaviour problems, prosociality, and self-perceptions, in a community sample. Six hundred and thirty-five 12-year-old children (314 girls) provided peer nominations and rated feelings of loneliness and…

  13. Early Concurrent and Longitudinal Symptoms of ADHD and ODD: Relations to Different Types of Inhibitory Control and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brocki, Karin C.; Nyberg, Lilianne; Thorell, Lisa B.; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate how three different types of inhibitory control--interference control within task, interference control outside task, and prepotent response inhibition--and two types of working memory--verbal and spatial--would relate to early symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  14. Comparison of Risperidone and Methylphenidate for Reducing ADHD Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Moderate Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filho, Alceu Gomes Correia; Bodanese, Rafael; Silva, Tatiana Laufer; Alvares, Julia Paglioza; Aman, Michael; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the short-term efficacy and tolerability of risperidone and methylphenidate for reducing symptoms related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents with moderate mental retardation. Method: In a 4-week, single-blind, parallel-group trial, 45 subjects with moderate mental retardation and…

  15. Moderator Effects of Working Memory on the Stability of ADHD Symptoms by Dopamine Receptor Gene Polymorphisms during Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trampush, Joey W.; Jacobs, Michelle M.; Hurd, Yasmin L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that dopamine D1 and D2 receptor gene (DRD1 and DRD2, respectively) polymorphisms and the development of working memory skills can interact to influence symptom change over 10 years in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specifically, we examined whether improvements in working memory maintenance…

  16. Donepezil in the Treatment of ADHD-Like Symptoms in Youths with Pervasive Developmental Disorder: A Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Robert L.; Frazier, Jean; Spencer, Thomas J.; Geller, Daniel; Biederman, Joseph; Wilens, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Background: Recent studies reported ADHD-like symptoms and cognitive deficits in pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). Because work in dementia documents improvement in executive function deficits with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil, the authors reason that similar benefits could be obtained in PDD. Method: The authors describe…

  17. Depressive Symptoms in Adults with Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Dicianno, Brad E.; Kinback, Nicholas; Bellin, Melissa; Chaikind, Laurie; Buhari, Alhaji; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Zabel, Andy; Donlan, Robert M.; Collins, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective To examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in adults with spina bifida and identify contributing factors for depressive symptomatology. Research Method/Design Retrospective Cohort Study. Data collection was conducted at a regional adult spina bifida clinic. A total of 190 charts from adult patients with spina bifida were included. The main outcome measures were the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the mobility domain of the Craig Handicap Assessment Reporting Technique Short Form (CHART-SF). Results Of the 190 participants, 49 (25.8%) had BDI-II scores (14+) indicative of depressive symptomatology. Sixty-nine (36.3%) of all participants were on antidepressants for the purpose of treating depressive symptoms, and 31 (63.3%) of those with clinical symptoms of depression were on antidepressants. The total number of participants with a history of depressive symptoms may be as high as 45.7% if both participants with BDI-II scores 14+ and those with antidepressant use specifically for the purposes of depression treatment are combined. In this population, lower CHART-SF mobility score, expressing “emotional concerns” as a reason for the visit on an intake sheet, and use of antidepressant medications were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusions/Implications Depressive symptomatology appears to be common and undertreated in this cohort of adults with spina bifida, which may warrant screening for emotional concerns in routine clinic appointments. Significant depressive symptoms are associated with fewer hours out of bed and fewer days leaving the house. Additional research is needed to assess the impact of interventions directed towards mobility on depression and in the treatment of depression in this patient population. PMID:26147238

  18. Computer Enabled Neuroplasticity Treatment: A Clinical Trial of a Novel Design for Neurofeedback Therapy in Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Cowley, Benjamin; Holmström, Édua; Juurmaa, Kristiina; Kovarskis, Levas; Krause, Christina M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We report a randomized controlled clinical trial of neurofeedback therapy intervention for ADHD/ADD in adults. We focus on internal mechanics of neurofeedback learning, to elucidate the primary role of cortical self-regulation in neurofeedback. We report initial results; more extensive analysis will follow. Methods: Trial has two phases: intervention and follow-up. The intervention consisted of neurofeedback treatment, including intake and outtake measurements, using a waiting-list control group. Treatment involved ~40 h-long sessions 2–5 times per week. Training involved either theta/beta or sensorimotor-rhythm regimes, adapted by adding a novel “inverse-training” condition to promote self-regulation. Follow-up (ongoing) will consist of self-report and executive function tests. Setting: Intake and outtake measurements were conducted at University of Helsinki. Treatment was administered at partner clinic Mental Capital Care, Helsinki. Randomization: We randomly allocated half the sample then adaptively allocated the remainder to minimize baseline differences in prognostic variables. Blinding: Waiting-list control design meant trial was not blinded. Participants: Fifty-four adult Finnish participants (mean age 36 years; 29 females) were recruited after screening by psychiatric review. Forty-four had ADHD diagnoses, 10 had ADD. Measurements: Symptoms were assessed by computerized attention test (T.O.V.A.) and self-report scales, at intake and outtake. Performance during neurofeedback trials was recorded. Results: Participants were recruited and completed intake measurements during summer 2012, before assignment to treatment and control, September 2012. Outtake measurements ran April-August 2013. After dropouts, 23 treatment and 21 waiting-list participants remained for analysis. Initial analysis showed that, compared to waiting-list control, neurofeedback promoted improvement of self-reported ADHD symptoms, but did not show transfer of learning to T

  19. The impact of distractions on young adult drivers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Fried, Ronna

    2010-05-01

    Young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk for being involved in automobile crashes. Although driving simulators have been used to identify and understand underlying behaviors, prior research has focused largely on single-task, non-distracted driving. However, in-vehicle infotainment and communications systems often vie for a driver's attention, potentially increasing the risk of collision. This paper explores the impact of secondary tasks on individuals with and without ADHD, a medical condition known to affect the regulation of attention. Data are drawn from a validated driving simulation representing periods before, during, and after participation in a secondary cognitive task. A hands-free phone task was employed in a high stimulus, urban setting and a working memory task during low stimulus, highway driving. Drivers with ADHD had more difficulty on the telephone task, yet did not show an increased decrement in driving performance greater than control participants. In contrast, participants with ADHD showed a larger decline in driving performance than controls during a secondary task in a low demand setting. The results suggest that the interaction of the nature of the driving context and the secondary task has a significant influence on how drivers with ADHD allocate attention and, in-turn, on the relative impact on driving performance. Drivers with ADHD appear particularly susceptible to distraction during periods of low stimulus driving.

  20. The Neural Basis of Sustained and Transient Attentional Control in Young Adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Banich, Marie T.; Burgess, Gregory C.; Depue, Brendan E.; Ruzic, Luka; Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Hitt-Laustsen, Sena; Du, Yiping P.; Willcutt, Erik G.

    2013-01-01

    Differences in neural activation during performance on an attentionally demanding Stroop task were examined between 23 young adults with ADHD carefully selected to not be co-morbid for other psychiatric disorders and 23 matched controls. A hybrid blocked/single-trial design allowed for examination of more sustained vs. more transient aspects of attentional control. Our results indicated neural dysregulation across a wide range of brain regions including those involved in overall arousal, top-down attentional control, late-stage and response selection and inhibition. Furthermore, this dysregulation was most notable in lateral regions of DLPFC for sustained attentional control and in medial areas for transient aspects of attentional control. Because of the careful selection and matching of our two groups, these results provide strong evidence that the neural systems of attentional control are dysregulated in young adults with ADHD and are similar to dysregulations seen in children and adolescents with ADHD. PMID:19619566

  1. Beyond symptom control for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): what can parents do to improve outcomes?

    PubMed

    Tarver, J; Daley, D; Sayal, K

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its associated behavioural manifestations develop and progress as the result of complex gene-environment interactions. Parents exert a substantial influence and play a major role in their child's social environment. Despite this, recent evidence has suggested that adapting the child's environment via parenting interventions has minimal effects on child ADHD symptoms when analysing data from informants who are probably blind to treatment allocation. However, adverse parenting and family environments may act as a source of environmental risk for a number of child outcomes beyond ADHD symptoms. This is a narrative review that critically discusses whether parenting interventions are beneficial for alternative functioning outcomes in ADHD including neuropsychological, academic and social functioning and disruptive behaviour and how parenting and familial environments may be associated with these outcomes. In addition, the review explores how parental depression and parenting efficacy impact on capacity for optimal parenting and whether parenting interventions benefit parents too. A review of the evidence suggests that with modification, parenting interventions are beneficial for a number of outcomes other than ADHD symptom reduction. Improving the parent-child relationship may have indirect benefits for disruptive behaviour. Furthermore, parenting behaviours may directly benefit child neuropsychological, academic and social functioning. Parenting interventions can have therapeutic benefits for parents as well as children, which is important as parent and child well-being is likely to have a transactional relationship. Evaluation of the clinical success of parenting interventions should focus on a wider range of outcomes in order to aid understanding of the multifaceted benefits that they may be able to offer. Parenting interventions should not be seen as a redundant adjunct to medication in multi-modal treatment

  2. Beyond symptom control for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): what can parents do to improve outcomes?

    PubMed

    Tarver, J; Daley, D; Sayal, K

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its associated behavioural manifestations develop and progress as the result of complex gene-environment interactions. Parents exert a substantial influence and play a major role in their child's social environment. Despite this, recent evidence has suggested that adapting the child's environment via parenting interventions has minimal effects on child ADHD symptoms when analysing data from informants who are probably blind to treatment allocation. However, adverse parenting and family environments may act as a source of environmental risk for a number of child outcomes beyond ADHD symptoms. This is a narrative review that critically discusses whether parenting interventions are beneficial for alternative functioning outcomes in ADHD including neuropsychological, academic and social functioning and disruptive behaviour and how parenting and familial environments may be associated with these outcomes. In addition, the review explores how parental depression and parenting efficacy impact on capacity for optimal parenting and whether parenting interventions benefit parents too. A review of the evidence suggests that with modification, parenting interventions are beneficial for a number of outcomes other than ADHD symptom reduction. Improving the parent-child relationship may have indirect benefits for disruptive behaviour. Furthermore, parenting behaviours may directly benefit child neuropsychological, academic and social functioning. Parenting interventions can have therapeutic benefits for parents as well as children, which is important as parent and child well-being is likely to have a transactional relationship. Evaluation of the clinical success of parenting interventions should focus on a wider range of outcomes in order to aid understanding of the multifaceted benefits that they may be able to offer. Parenting interventions should not be seen as a redundant adjunct to medication in multi-modal treatment

  3. The latent classes of subclinical ADHD symptoms: convergences of multiple informant reports.

    PubMed

    Kóbor, Andrea; Takács, Ádám; Urbán, Róbert; Csépe, Valéria

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to conduct latent class analysis on the Hyperactivity scale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in order to identify distinct subgroups of subclinical ADHD in a multi-informant framework. We hypothesized a similar structure between teachers and parents, and differences in symptom severity across latent classes. Data was collected from a non-referred sample of children aged 8-13 years. We performed latent class analyses on parent (n = 383) and teacher (n = 391) ratings of the Hyperactivity scale items from both versions of the questionnaire. Those children who had ratings from both informants (n = 272) were included in the cross-informant analyses, in which the similar or equivalent classes across raters were determined. A three-class solution for parent report and a five-class solution for teacher report emerged in the subsample of boys. For girls, a three-class structure for parents and a four-class structure for teachers were optimal. Besides non-symptomatic groups, mild and severe combined classes, mild inattentive-impulsive classes, and among boys, a mild hyperactive-impulsive class was obtained. The cross-informant analyses demonstrated that quite similar subgroups were detached regardless of informant; however, the teacher classes were somewhat more elaborated. The results are in line with the previous latent class analytic studies, and support the combination of dimensional and categorical approaches. The importance of milder symptoms and sub-threshold ADHD categories are emphasized for the fields of neuropsychology, neuroscience, and education, as well as for diagnosis and personalized treatment.

  4. Emotion Regulation Mediates the Relationship between ADHD and Depressive Symptoms in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Karen E.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; Stupica, Brandi; Owens, Kristian; Sacks, Talia

    2012-01-01

    A significant literature suggests that youth diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for later depression relative to youth without ADHD. Youth with co-occurring ADHD and depression experience more serious impairments and worse developmental outcomes than those with either disorder alone, including…

  5. Symptom Prevalence of ADHD in a Community Residential Substance Abuse Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAweeney, Mary; Rogers, Nikki L.; Huddleston, Carole; Moore, Dennis; Gentile, Julie P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is a common comorbid condition with substance use disorder. This study seeks to examine the discrepancy in the prevalence rate between those previously diagnosed with ADHD and those diagnosed while in treatment. It is hypothesized that clients with ADHD would have earlier unsuccessful terminations from treatment than non-ADHD…

  6. Attenuated Readiness Potential in the Absence of Executive Dysfunction in Adults With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Seo, Bo-Kyung; Sartory, Gudrun; Kis, Bernhard; Scherbaum, Norbert; Müller, Bernhard W

    2013-10-25

    Objective: Patients with ADHD display a decreased contingent negative variation in Go/NoGo tasks. It is unclear whether the attenuation is due to deficits of executive function or to disorder of motor planning. The readiness potential (RP) recorded during self-initiated movements could cast light on this question. Method: RP was recorded in 25 stably medicated adult ADHD patients and 21 healthy controls matched for age, education, and verbal IQ. Participants also completed neuropsychological tests of executive function. Results: Compared with healthy controls, ADHD patients showed significantly diminished RP peaks and also decreased negativity in preparation of the movement at frontal locations. There were no significant group differences with regard to tests of executive function. Conclusion: In adults with ADHD, deficits of motor organization are also manifest in situations not involving external stimulus processing. The attenuated RP occurred in the absence of executive dysfunction. Results are consistent with partial independence between motor and executive dysfunction in ADHD. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX).

  7. The consolidation of a motor skill in young adults with ADHD: Shorter practice can be better.

    PubMed

    Fox, Orly; Karni, Avi; Adi-Japha, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Practice on a given sequence of movements can lead to robust procedural memory (skill). In young adults, in addition to gains in performance accrued during practice, speed and accuracy can further improve overnight; the latter, delayed, 'offline', gains are thought to emerge when procedural memory consolidation processes are completed. A recent study suggested that female college students with ADHD show an atypical procedural memory consolidation phase, specifically, gaining speed but losing accuracy, overnight. Here, to test if this accuracy loss reflected a cost of overlong training in adults with ADHD, we compared the performance of female college students with (N=16) and without (N=16) ADHD, both groups given a shorter training protocol (80 rather than the standard 160 task repetitions). Speed and accuracy were recorded before training, immediately after, and at 24-h and 2 weeks post-training. The shortened practice session resulted in as robust within-session gains and additional overnight gains in speed at no costs in accuracy, in both groups. Moreover, individuals with ADHD showed as robust speed gains and retention as in the longer training session, but the costs in accuracy incurred in the latter were eliminated. The shortening of practice sessions may benefit motor skill acquisition in ADHD. PMID:26826465

  8. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    PubMed

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members. PMID:23564208

  9. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    PubMed

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members.

  10. Retrospective Assessment of ADHD Symptoms in Childhood: Discriminatory Validity of Finnish Translation of the Wender Utah Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivisaari, Sasa; Laasonen, Marja; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the discriminatory validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and its five suggested subscales (Conduct Problems, Impulsivity Problems, Mood Difficulties, Inattention/Anxiety, Academic Concerns) in a Finnish sample. Method: WURS was administered to 114 adults, aged 18 to 55 years. Participants with ADHD (n = 37) and…

  11. Open-Label Trial of Atomoxetine Hydrochloride in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mats; Cederlund, Mats; Rastam, Maria; Areskoug, Bjorn; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Background: While atomoxetine is an established treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children, few studies have examined its efficacy for adults. Methods: Open-label trial of atomoxetine in 20 individuals with ADHD, aged 19-47 years, for 10 weeks, and a total of one year for responders. Results: Ten patients met primary…

  12. The Neural Basis of Sustained and Transient Attentional Control in Young Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banich, Marie T.; Burgess, Gregory C.; Depue, Brendan E.; Ruzic, Luka; Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Hitt-Laustsen, Sena; Du, Yiping P.; Willcutt, Erik G.

    2009-01-01

    Differences in neural activation during performance on an attentionally demanding Stroop task were examined between 23 young adults with ADHD carefully selected to not be co-morbid for other psychiatric disorders and 23 matched controls. A hybrid blocked/single-trial design allowed for examination of more sustained vs. more transient aspects of…

  13. Project DyAdd: Visual Attention in Adult Dyslexia and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Salomaa, Jonna; Cousineau, Denis; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura; Dye, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    In this study of the project DyAdd, three aspects of visual attention were investigated in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n = 35) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n = 22), and in healthy controls (n = 35). Temporal characteristics of visual attention were assessed with Attentional Blink (AB), capacity of visual attention…

  14. Dose Response Effects of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Treatment in Adults with ADHD: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Kollins, Scott H.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Goodman, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore dose-response effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) treatment for ADHD. Method: This was a 4-week, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, forced-dose titration study in adult participants, aged 18 to 55 years, meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.)…

  15. Simulated Driving Changes in Young Adults with ADHD Receiving Mixed Amphetamine Salts Extended Release and Atomoxetine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Gary G.; Michaels, M. Alex; Pakull, Barton

    2009-01-01

    Background: Psychostimulant treatment may improve simulated driving performance in young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of simulated driving performance with mixed amphetamine salts--extended release (MAS XR) 50 mg/day (Cohort 1) and…

  16. Anterior Cingulate Volumetric Alterations in Treatment-Naive Adults with ADHD: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makris, Nikos; Seidman, Larry J.; Valera, Eve M.; Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kennedy, David N.; Caviness, Verne S., Jr.; Bush, George; Crum, Katherine; Brown, Ariel B.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We sought to examine preliminary results of brain alterations in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in treatment-naive adults with ADHD. The ACC is a central brain node for the integration of cognitive control and allocation of attention, affect and drive. Thus its anatomical alteration may give rise to impulsivity, hyperactivity and…

  17. Examining the Dimensionality of ADHD Symptomatology in Young Adults Using Factor Analysis and Outcome Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Tara E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Current diagnostic criteria specify that ADHD involves difficulties with inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Researchers using factor analysis have consistently found support for an inattention factor in both children and adults. Findings have been mixed regarding whether hyperactivity and impulsivity reflect one or two…

  18. Psychosocial treatments for ADHD in teens and adults: a practice-friendly review.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kevin

    2005-05-01

    Although stimulant medication is a cornerstone of treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), numerous nonpharmacological treatments can be employed in combination with medication to assist in the lifelong management of the disorder. A multimodal treatment combining psychoeducation, medication, psychotherapy, compensatory behavioral/self-management skills, technological tools and devices, coaching, advocacy, and reasonable school or workplace accommodations is probably the most comprehensive and effective. This article describes a variety of psychosocial treatments that are commonly used for adolescents and adults suffering from ADHD.

  19. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adulthood: Concordance and Differences between Self- and Informant Perspectives on Symptoms and Functional Impairment.

    PubMed

    Mörstedt, Beatrice; Corbisiero, Salvatore; Bitto, Hannes; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severe mental illness, associated with major impairment and a high comorbidity rate. Particularly undiagnosed ADHD in adulthood has serious consequences. Thus, a valid diagnosis is important. In adulthood, the diagnostic process for ADHD is complicated: symptoms may overlap with comorbid disorders, and the onset and progression of the disorder must be reconstructed retrospectively. Guidelines for the diagnostic process recommend the inclusion of additional informant ratings. Research into the relation between self- and informant ratings shows extremely heterogeneous results. The levels of agreement range from low to high. The focus of this study is the concordance and differences between self- and informant ratings on ADHD symptoms and impairments. In this regard, two possible influencing factors (gender and relationship type) are also examined. 114 people participated in this study, 77 with an ADHD diagnosis and 37 without a diagnosis. For all participants, either parents or partners also rated ADHD symptoms and impairments. Small to moderate concordance was found between self- and informant ratings, with females being slightly more concordant than males, particularly for ratings of problems with self-concept. Examination of the consistency within a particular perspective showed that people with ADHD seemed to be unaware of the causal relation between ADHD symptoms and their impairments. A close investigation found almost no influence of gender and relationship type on differences within perspectives. Based on these results, the implications for the diagnostic process are that additional informant information is clearly necessary and helpful.

  20. Invariance of Parent Ratings of the ADHD Symptoms in Australian and Malaysian, and North European Australian and Malay Malaysia Children: A Mean and Covariance Structures Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study used the mean and covariance structures analysis approach to examine the equality or invariance of ratings of the 18 ADHD symptoms. Method: 783 Australian and 928 Malaysian parents provided ratings for an ADHD rating scale. Invariance was tested across these groups (Comparison 1), and North European Australian (n = 623) and…

  1. Use of the Transcendental Meditation Technique to Reduce Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by Reducing Stress and Anxiety: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosswald, Sarina J.; Stixrud, William R.; Travis, Fred; Bateh, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study tested the feasibility of using the Transcendental Meditation[R] technique to reduce stress and anxiety as a means of reducing symptoms of ADHD. Students ages 11-14 were taught the technique, and practiced it twice daily in school. Common ADHD inventories and performance measures of executive function were administered at…

  2. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adulthood: Concordance and Differences between Self- and Informant Perspectives on Symptoms and Functional Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Mörstedt, Beatrice; Corbisiero, Salvatore; Bitto, Hannes; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severe mental illness, associated with major impairment and a high comorbidity rate. Particularly undiagnosed ADHD in adulthood has serious consequences. Thus, a valid diagnosis is important. In adulthood, the diagnostic process for ADHD is complicated: symptoms may overlap with comorbid disorders, and the onset and progression of the disorder must be reconstructed retrospectively. Guidelines for the diagnostic process recommend the inclusion of additional informant ratings. Research into the relation between self- and informant ratings shows extremely heterogeneous results. The levels of agreement range from low to high. The focus of this study is the concordance and differences between self- and informant ratings on ADHD symptoms and impairments. In this regard, two possible influencing factors (gender and relationship type) are also examined. 114 people participated in this study, 77 with an ADHD diagnosis and 37 without a diagnosis. For all participants, either parents or partners also rated ADHD symptoms and impairments. Small to moderate concordance was found between self- and informant ratings, with females being slightly more concordant than males, particularly for ratings of problems with self-concept. Examination of the consistency within a particular perspective showed that people with ADHD seemed to be unaware of the causal relation between ADHD symptoms and their impairments. A close investigation found almost no influence of gender and relationship type on differences within perspectives. Based on these results, the implications for the diagnostic process are that additional informant information is clearly necessary and helpful. PMID:26529403

  3. Working Memory and Response Inhibition as One Integral Phenotype of Adult ADHD? A Behavioral and Imaging Correlational Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schecklmann, Martin; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Plichta, Michael M.; Dresler, Thomas; Heine, Monika; Boreatti-Hummer, Andrea; Romanos, Marcel; Jacob, Christian; Pauli, Paul; Fallgatter, Andreas J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: It is an open question whether working memory (WM) and response inhibition (RI) constitute one integral phenotype in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The authors investigated 45 adult ADHD patients and 41 controls comparable for age, gender, intelligence, and education during a letter n-back and a stop-signal…

  4. The Impact of Childhood ADHD on Dropping out of High School in Urban Adolescents/Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trampush, Joey W.; Miller, Carlin J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine cognitive and psychosocial factors associated with high school dropout in urban adolescents with and without childhood ADHD. Method: In a longitudinal study, 49 adolescents/young adults with childhood ADHD and 44 controls who either dropped out or graduated from high school are included. Risk factors examined as potential…

  5. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Comparison of MK-0929 and Placebo in the Treatment of Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Anna; Alexander, Robert C.; Knighton, Jennifer; Hutson, Pete H.; Wang, Xiaojing J.; Snavely, Duane B.; Rosah, Thomas; Watt, Alan P.; Reimherr, Fred W.; Adler, Lenard A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Preclinical models, receptor localization, and genetic linkage data support the role of D4 receptors in the etiology of ADHD. This proof-of-concept study was designed to evaluate MK-0929, a selective D4 receptor antagonist as treatment for adult ADHD. Method: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted…

  6. Atypical Brain Activation during Simple & Complex Levels of Processing in Adult ADHD: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Bookheimer, Susan; McGough, James J.; Phillips, Joseph M.; McCracken, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Executive dysfunction in ADHD is well supported. However, recent studies suggest that more fundamental impairments may be contributing. We assessed brain function in adults with ADHD during simple and complex forms of processing. Method: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging with forward and backward digit spans to investigate…

  7. Meta-analysis of the DRD5 VNTR in persistent ADHD.

    PubMed

    Klein, Marieke; Berger, Stefanie; Hoogman, Martine; Dammers, Janneke; Makkinje, Remco; Heister, Angelien J G A M; Galesloot, Tessel E; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Weber, Heike; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Reif, Andreas; Ribasés, Marta; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Cormand, Bru; Zayats, Tetyana; Hegvik, Tor-Arne; Jacobsen, Kaya K; Johansson, Stefan; Haavik, Jan; Mota, Nina R; Bau, Claiton H D; Grevet, Eugenio H; Doyle, Alysa; Faraone, Stephen V; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with a complex genetic background. DRD5, the gene encoding the dopamine receptor D5, was recently confirmed as a candidate gene for ADHD in children through meta-analysis. In this study, we aimed at studying the association of the ADHD-associated variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism upstream of DRD5 with adult ADHD. We compiled data from six sites of the International Multicentre persistent ADHD CollaboraTion (IMpACT) and reached N=6979 (3344 cases and 3635 healthy participants), the largest sample investigated so far. We tested the association of the common DRD5 alleles with categorically defined ADHD and with inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptom counts. Our findings provide evidence that none of the common DRD5 alleles are associated with ADHD risk or ADHD symptom counts in adults. PMID:27480019

  8. Hyperactivity persists in male and female adults with ADHD and remains a highly discriminative feature of the disorder: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Symptoms of hyperactivity are believed to fade with age leaving ADHD adults mostly inattentive and impulsive. Our aim was to test this assertion using objective measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Method Participants were 40 subjects with ADHD (23M/17F; 35±10 yrs) and 60 healthy adults (28M/32F; 29±9 yrs) blindly assessed using Wender-Reimherr interview ratings, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders and DSM-IV criteria. Infrared motion capture systems tracked head and leg movements during performance of a No-4’s cognitive control task. Subjects also completed the Conners’ CPT-II. Results ADHD and controls differed significantly in activity and attention. Effect sizes for activity measures (d’ = 0.7–1.6) were, on average, two-fold larger than differences in attention or impulsivity, correlated more strongly with executive function ratings and were more discriminatory (ROC area = 0.83 for activity composite, 0.65 for No-4’s distraction composite, 0.63 for Conners’ CPT-II confidence index, 0.96 for the combined activity and attention diagnostic index). This finding was true for subjects with the predominantly inattentive subtype as well as subjects with combined or predominantly hyperactive/impulsive subtype. Males and females with ADHD were equally active. The superior accuracy of activity measures was confirmed using Random Forest and predictive modeling techniques. Conclusions Objectively measured hyperactivity persists in adults with ADHD and is a more discriminative feature of the disorder than computerized measures of inattention or impulsivity. This finding supports the hypothesis that a deficient ability to sit still remains a defining feature of the disorder in adults when it is measured objectively. PMID:23134619

  9. The latent structure of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in an adult sample.

    PubMed

    Marcus, David K; Norris, Alyssa L; Coccaro, Emil F

    2012-06-01

    The vast majority of studies that have examined the latent structure of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents have concluded that ADHD has a dimensional latent structure. In other words, ADHD symptomatology exists along a continuum and there is no natural boundary or qualitative distinction (i.e., taxon) separating youth with ADHD from those with subclinical inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity problems. Although adult ADHD appears to be less prevalent than ADHD in youth (which could suggest a more severe adult ADHD taxon), researchers have yet to examine the latent structure of ADHD in adults. The present study used a sample (N = 600) of adults who completed a self-report measure of ADHD symptoms. The taxometric analyses revealed a dimensional latent structure for inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and ADHD. These findings are consistent with previous taxometric studies that examined ADHD in children and adolescents, and with contemporary polygenic and multifactorial models of ADHD.

  10. Long-Term Effectiveness and Safety of Dexmethylphenidate Extended-Release Capsules in Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas; McGough, James J.; Jiang, Hai; Muniz, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluates dexmethylphenidate extended release (d-MPH-ER) in adults with ADHD. Method: Following a 5-week, randomized, controlled, fixed-dose study of d-MPH-ER 20 to 40 mg/d, 170 adults entered a 6-month open-label extension (OLE) to assess long-term safety, with flexible dosing of 20 to 40 mg/d. Exploratory effectiveness…

  11. Occurrence of ADHD in parents of ADHD children in a clinical sample

    PubMed Central

    Starck, Martina; Grünwald, Julia; Schlarb, Angelika A

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that there is a large amount of research on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment and an increasing amount of research on adult ADHD, little is known about the prevalence and influence of parental ADHD. Therefore, this study examined the frequency of parental ADHD in a clinical sample of German children suffering from ADHD. We also tried to find different levels of symptom severity for prognostic relevance. Furthermore, the association between subtypes of ADHD in children and their parents was investigated. Method In this study, parents of 79 ADHD children were screened for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition. The Wender Utah Rating Scale and the ADHS-Self-Report were given to 75 mothers and 49 fathers for retrospective and current symptoms. Frequency of ADHD symptoms and severity groups was calculated and relationship between parental and children’s ADHD was tested. Results ADHD occurrence for mothers of children with ADHD was 41.3%, for fathers 51.0%. About 16.0% of the mothers had a mixed type, 9.3% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 16.0% had an inattentive subtype. Of the fathers, 18.4% had a mixed type, 10.2% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 22.4% had an inattentive subtype; 61% of the mothers and 46.9% of the fathers had low symptom severity. Medium symptom severity was reported by 37.7% mothers and 46.9% fathers, while 1.3% of the mothers and 6.2% of the fathers showed severe symptoms. No significant correlation between parental and child diagnoses was observed. Conclusion As nearly half of the parents suffered from ADHD, these results are a matter of concern in families with ADHD children. Besides parent–child interactions, parental ADHD symptoms might influence parental education style and also effects parent training as well as the child’s therapy outcome. In the

  12. The relationship between childhood history of ADHD symptoms and DSM-IV borderline personality disorder features among personality disordered outpatients: the moderating role of gender and the mediating roles of emotion dysregulation and impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Andrea; Gratz, Kim L; Borroni, Serena; Maffei, Cesare; Somma, Antonella; Carlotta, Davide

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have reported data suggestive of a significant association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, the nature of this relation is not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate if the relation between retrospectively assessed ADHD symptoms and adult BPD features is moderated by participants' gender and mediated by emotion dysregulation and impulsivity. Two hundred seventeen outpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria for at least one personality disorder (PD) consecutively admitted to the Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy Unit of the Scientific Institute H San Raffaele of Milan, Italy, were administered Italian versions of the following instruments: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II), Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11). Moderation analyses revealed a significant association between ADHD and BPD symptoms among only female (vs. male) outpatients. Furthermore, in the female subsample, mediation analyses revealed that both impulsivity and emotion dysregulation fully mediated the relationship between retrospectively assessed ADHD symptoms and current BPD features.

  13. The relationship between childhood history of ADHD symptoms and DSM-IV borderline personality disorder features among personality disordered outpatients: the moderating role of gender and the mediating roles of emotion dysregulation and impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Andrea; Gratz, Kim L; Borroni, Serena; Maffei, Cesare; Somma, Antonella; Carlotta, Davide

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have reported data suggestive of a significant association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, the nature of this relation is not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate if the relation between retrospectively assessed ADHD symptoms and adult BPD features is moderated by participants' gender and mediated by emotion dysregulation and impulsivity. Two hundred seventeen outpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria for at least one personality disorder (PD) consecutively admitted to the Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy Unit of the Scientific Institute H San Raffaele of Milan, Italy, were administered Italian versions of the following instruments: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II), Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11). Moderation analyses revealed a significant association between ADHD and BPD symptoms among only female (vs. male) outpatients. Furthermore, in the female subsample, mediation analyses revealed that both impulsivity and emotion dysregulation fully mediated the relationship between retrospectively assessed ADHD symptoms and current BPD features. PMID:25446725

  14. A four-year follow-up controlled study of stress response and symptom persistence in Brazilian children and adolescents with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Palma, Sonia Maria Motta; Natale, Ana Carolina Motta Palma; Calil, Helena Maria

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Disorder andHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), reassessing them at a four-year follow-up. Their cortisol response to a stress stimulus was measured twice. ADHD symptom persistence, development of comorbidities, and psychostimulant usage were also reassessed. The initial sample consisted of 38 ADHD patients and 38 healthy controls, age ranging 6-14. At the follow-up, there were 37 ADHD patients and 22 healthy controls, age ranging 10-18. ADHD was classified as persistent if the patients fulfilled all DSM IV criteria for syndromic or subthreshold or had functional impairment. Salivary cortisol samples were collected prior to the application of a cognitive stressor (Continuous Performance Test - CPT), and at three time intervals afterwards at baseline and at the follow-up. Their reassessment showed that 75% had persistent symptoms, psychiatric comorbidities (oppositional defiant and behavioral disorders), functional and academic impairement. Only seven patients were on medication. The ADHD group's cortisol levels were lower than those measured four years earlier, but cortisol concentrations were similar for both ADHD and control groups at the four-year follow-up. The cortisol results suggest that HPA axis reactivity could be a marker differentiating ADHD from ADHD with comorbidities.

  15. A four-year follow-up controlled study of stress response and symptom persistence in Brazilian children and adolescents with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Palma, Sonia Maria Motta; Natale, Ana Carolina Motta Palma; Calil, Helena Maria

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Disorder andHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), reassessing them at a four-year follow-up. Their cortisol response to a stress stimulus was measured twice. ADHD symptom persistence, development of comorbidities, and psychostimulant usage were also reassessed. The initial sample consisted of 38 ADHD patients and 38 healthy controls, age ranging 6-14. At the follow-up, there were 37 ADHD patients and 22 healthy controls, age ranging 10-18. ADHD was classified as persistent if the patients fulfilled all DSM IV criteria for syndromic or subthreshold or had functional impairment. Salivary cortisol samples were collected prior to the application of a cognitive stressor (Continuous Performance Test - CPT), and at three time intervals afterwards at baseline and at the follow-up. Their reassessment showed that 75% had persistent symptoms, psychiatric comorbidities (oppositional defiant and behavioral disorders), functional and academic impairement. Only seven patients were on medication. The ADHD group's cortisol levels were lower than those measured four years earlier, but cortisol concentrations were similar for both ADHD and control groups at the four-year follow-up. The cortisol results suggest that HPA axis reactivity could be a marker differentiating ADHD from ADHD with comorbidities. PMID:26365689

  16. No Clear Association between Impaired Short-Term or Working Memory Storage and Time Reproduction Capacity in Adult ADHD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mette, Christian; Grabemann, Marco; Zimmermann, Marco; Strunz, Laura; Scherbaum, Norbert; Wiltfang, Jens; Kis, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Objective Altered time reproduction is exhibited by patients with adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It remains unclear whether memory capacity influences the ability of adults with ADHD to reproduce time intervals. Method We conducted a behavioral study on 30 ADHD patients who were medicated with methylphenidate, 29 unmedicated adult ADHD patients and 32 healthy controls (HCs). We assessed time reproduction using six time intervals (1 s, 4 s, 6 s, 10 s, 24 s and 60 s) and assessed memory performance using the Wechsler memory scale. Results The patients with ADHD exhibited lower memory performance scores than the HCs. No significant differences in the raw scores for any of the time intervals (p > .05), with the exception of the variability at the short time intervals (1 s, 4 s and 6 s) (p < .01), were found between the groups. The overall analyses failed to reveal any significant correlations between time reproduction at any of the time intervals examined in the time reproduction task and working memory performance (p > .05). Conclusion We detected no findings indicating that working memory might influence time reproduction in adult patients with ADHD. Therefore, further studies concerning time reproduction and memory capacity among adult patients with ADHD must be performed to verify and replicate the present findings. PMID:26221955

  17. Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Colin; Holland, Niamh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite a reported excess of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in individuals with intellectual disability, it has been argued that ADHD symptoms have been under diagnosed and inadequately treated in individuals with intellectual disability. Materials and methods: Published studies focussing on the level of ADHD…

  18. Effectiveness of one-year pharmacological treatment of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an open-label prospective study of time in treatment, dose, side-effects and comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen, Mats; Dahl, Alv A; Martinsen, Egil W; Klungsøyr, Ole; Haavik, Jan; Peleikis, Dawn E

    2014-12-01

    How to generalize from randomized placebo controlled trials of ADHD drug treatment in adults to 'real-world' clinical practice is intriguing. This open-labeled prospective observational study examined the effectiveness of long-term stimulant and non-stimulant medication in adult ADHD including dose, side-effects and comorbidity in a clinical setting. A specialized ADHD outpatient clinic gave previously non-medicated adults (n=250) with ADHD methylphenidate as first-line drug according to current guidelines. Patients who were non-tolerant or experiencing low efficacy were switched to amphetamine or atomoxetine. Primary outcomes were changes of ADHD-symptoms evaluated with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and overall severity by the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Secondary outcomes were measures of mental distress, and response on the Clinical-Global-Impressions-Improvement Scale. Data at baseline and follow-ups were compared in longitudinal mixed model analyses for time on-medication, dosage, comorbidity, and side-effects. As results, 232 patients (93%) completed examination at the 12 month endpoint, and 163 (70%) remained on medication. Compared with the patients who discontinued medication, those still on medication had greater percentage reduction in ASRS-scores (median 39%, versus 13%, P<0.001) and greater improvement of GAF (median 20% versus 4%, P<0.001) and secondary outcomes. Continued medication and higher cumulated doses showed significant associations to sustained improvement. Conversely, psychiatric comorbidity and side-effects were related to lower effectiveness and more frequent termination of medication. Taken together, one-year treatment with stimulants or atomoxetine was associated with a clinically significant reduction in ADHD symptoms and mental distress, and improvement of measured function. No serious adverse events were observed.

  19. ODD, ADHD, versus ODD+ADHD in Clinic and Community Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Sprafkin, Joyce; Schneider, Jayne; Nolan, Edith E.; Schwartz, Joseph; Weiss, Margaret D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To seek evidence for the validity of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as a behavioral syndrome in adults. Method: Two samples of adults, mental health outpatient clinic referrals (N = 490) and community controls (N = 900), completed a "Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders"--referenced rating scale and a brief…

  20. Social Network Analysis Reveals the Negative Effects of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms on Friend-Based Student Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Won; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Johanna Inhyang; Lee, Young Sik; Min, Kyung Joon; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Jaewon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Social network analysis has emerged as a promising tool in modern social psychology. This method can be used to examine friend-based social relationships in terms of network theory, with nodes representing individual students and ties representing relationships between students (e.g., friendships and kinships). Using social network analysis, we investigated whether greater severity of ADHD symptoms is correlated with weaker peer relationships among elementary school students. Methods A total of 562 sixth-graders from two elementary schools (300 males) provided the names of their best friends (maximum 10 names). Their teachers rated each student’s ADHD symptoms using an ADHD rating scale. Results The results showed that 10.2% of the students were at high risk for ADHD. Significant group differences were observed between the high-risk students and other students in two of the three network parameters (degree, centrality and closeness) used to assess friendship quality, with the high-risk group showing significantly lower values of degree and closeness compared to the other students. Moreover, negative correlations were found between the ADHD rating and two social network analysis parameters. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the severity of ADHD symptoms is strongly correlated with the quality of social and interpersonal relationships in students with ADHD symptoms. PMID:26562777

  1. ADHD and cannabis use in young adults examined using fMRI of a Go/NoGo task.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jerod; Casey, B J; van Erp, Theo G M; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Buss, Claudia; Bjork, James M; Molina, Brooke S G; Velanova, Katerina; Mathalon, Daniel H; Somerville, Leah; Swanson, James M; Wigal, Tim; Arnold, L Eugene; Potkin, Steven G

    2016-09-01

    Children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for substance abuse. Response inhibition is a hallmark of ADHD, yet the combined effects of ADHD and regular substance use on neural networks associated with response inhibition are unknown. Task-based functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data from young adults with childhood ADHD with (n = 25) and without (n = 25) cannabis use ≥ monthly in the past year were compared with a local normative comparison group (LNCG) with (n = 11) and without (n = 12) cannabis use. Go/NoGo behavioral and fMRI data were evaluated for main and interaction effects of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use. ADHD participants made significantly more commission errors on NoGo trials than controls. ADHD participants also had less frontoparietal and frontostriatal activity, independent of cannabis use. No main effects of cannabis use on response inhibition or functional brain activation were observed. An interaction of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use was found in the right hippocampus and cerebellar vermis, with increased recruitment of these regions in cannabis-using controls during correct response inhibition. ADHD participants had impaired response inhibition combined with less fronto-parietal/striatal activity, regardless of cannabis use history. Cannabis use did not impact behavioral response inhibition. Cannabis use was associated with hippocampal and cerebellar activation, areas rich in cannabinoid receptors, in LNCG but not ADHD participants. This may reflect recruitment of compensatory circuitry in cannabis using controls but not ADHD participants. Future studies targeting hippocampal and cerebellar-dependent function in these groups may provide further insight into how this circuitry is altered by ADHD and cannabis use. PMID:26489976

  2. ADHD and cannabis use in young adults examined using fMRI of a Go/NoGo task.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jerod; Casey, B J; van Erp, Theo G M; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Buss, Claudia; Bjork, James M; Molina, Brooke S G; Velanova, Katerina; Mathalon, Daniel H; Somerville, Leah; Swanson, James M; Wigal, Tim; Arnold, L Eugene; Potkin, Steven G

    2016-09-01

    Children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for substance abuse. Response inhibition is a hallmark of ADHD, yet the combined effects of ADHD and regular substance use on neural networks associated with response inhibition are unknown. Task-based functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data from young adults with childhood ADHD with (n = 25) and without (n = 25) cannabis use ≥ monthly in the past year were compared with a local normative comparison group (LNCG) with (n = 11) and without (n = 12) cannabis use. Go/NoGo behavioral and fMRI data were evaluated for main and interaction effects of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use. ADHD participants made significantly more commission errors on NoGo trials than controls. ADHD participants also had less frontoparietal and frontostriatal activity, independent of cannabis use. No main effects of cannabis use on response inhibition or functional brain activation were observed. An interaction of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use was found in the right hippocampus and cerebellar vermis, with increased recruitment of these regions in cannabis-using controls during correct response inhibition. ADHD participants had impaired response inhibition combined with less fronto-parietal/striatal activity, regardless of cannabis use history. Cannabis use did not impact behavioral response inhibition. Cannabis use was associated with hippocampal and cerebellar activation, areas rich in cannabinoid receptors, in LNCG but not ADHD participants. This may reflect recruitment of compensatory circuitry in cannabis using controls but not ADHD participants. Future studies targeting hippocampal and cerebellar-dependent function in these groups may provide further insight into how this circuitry is altered by ADHD and cannabis use.

  3. Shared Genetic Influences on ADHD Symptoms and Very Low-Frequency EEG Activity: A Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tye, Charlotte; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Greven, Corina U.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip; McLoughlin, Grainne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex aetiology. The identification of candidate intermediate phenotypes that are both heritable and genetically linked to ADHD may facilitate the detection of susceptibility genes and elucidate aetiological pathways.…

  4. A Preliminary Investigation of ADHD Symptoms in Persons with Celiac Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederhofer, Helmut; Pittschieler, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Several studies report a possible association of celiac disease (CD) with psychiatric and psychological disturbances, such as ADHD. Method: The authors assess 132 participants from 3 to 57 years of age (M = 19.3 years) affected by CD for the possibility of an associated ADHD-like symptomatology, using the Conner Scale Hypescheme, a…

  5. AD/HD Symptoms and Conduct Problems: Similarities and Differences in Maternal Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniadaki, Katerina; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Kakouros, Efthymios; Karaba, Rania

    2006-01-01

    Several theories attempt to explain the high co-occurrence of Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) and Conduct Problems (CP). A strong possibility is that AD/HD behaviours lead to the development of CP, due to family coercive interaction patterns, maintained through parental false beliefs regarding child problem behaviour. We compared…

  6. Semantic Language as a Mechanism Explaining the Association between ADHD Symptoms and Reading and Mathematics Underachievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gremillion, Monica L.; Martel, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    ADHD is associated with academic underachievement, but it remains unclear what mechanism accounts for this association. Semantic language is an underexplored mechanism that provides a developmental explanation for this association. The present study will examine whether semantic language deficits explain the association between ADHD and reading…

  7. Childhood Symptoms of ADHD Overrule Comorbidity in Relation to Psychosocial Outcome at Age 15: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Norén Selinus, Eva; Molero, Yasmina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larson, Tomas; Lundström, Sebastian; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs) may influence the transition from childhood to adolescence. Our aim was to study long-term psychosocial outcomes of NDPs, focusing on ADHD. Method Data was collected through a telephone interview with parents of twins at ages 9 or 12 years. NDP screen-positive children were clinically assessed at age 15; N = 450. Psychosocial outcome concerning peers, school, internalizing problems, antisocial behavior, alcohol misuse, drug misuse, and impaired daily functioning was examined. Results Even after controlling for other NDP comorbidity, screen-positivity for ADHD doubled or tripled the odds of later psychosocial problems. When controlling for parental education level, the significant effect of ADHD remained only for antisocial behavior and impaired daily functioning. Conclusions Signs of NDPs as well as other psychiatric diagnoses at ages 9 or 12 years are associated with a more problematic adolescence. However, despite the presence of comorbidity, early ADHD symptoms stand out as the most important risk factor for later antisocial development and impaired daily functioning. PMID:26360378

  8. Lack of kinase-independent activity of PI3Kγ in locus coeruleus induces ADHD symptoms through increased CREB signaling.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Ivana; Fardella, Valentina; Fardella, Stefania; Pallante, Fabio; Ghigo, Alessandra; Iacobucci, Roberta; Maffei, Angelo; Hirsch, Emilio; Lembo, Giuseppe; Carnevale, Daniela

    2015-04-16

    Although PI3Kγ has been extensively investigated in inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases, the exploration of its functions in the brain is just at dawning. It is known that PI3Kγ is present in neurons and that the lack of PI3Kγ in mice leads to impaired synaptic plasticity, suggestive of a role in behavioral flexibility. Several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), involve an impairment of behavioral flexibility. Here, we found a previously unreported expression of PI3Kγ throughout the noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC) in the brainstem, serving as a mechanism that regulates its activity of control on attention, locomotion and sociality. In particular, we show an unprecedented phenotype of PI3Kγ KO mice resembling ADHD symptoms. PI3Kγ KO mice exhibit deficits in the attentive and mnemonic domains, typical hyperactivity, as well as social dysfunctions. Moreover, we demonstrate that the ADHD phenotype depends on a dysregulation of CREB signaling exerted by a kinase-independent PI3Kγ-PDE4D interaction in the noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus, thus uncovering new tools for mechanistic and therapeutic research in ADHD.

  9. Pharmacogenetics of response to methylphenidate in adult patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Contini, Verônica; Rovaris, Diego L; Victor, Marcelo M; Grevet, Eugenio H; Rohde, Luis A; Bau, Claiton H D

    2013-06-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a first line option in the psychopharmacologic treatment of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, there is a considerable proportion of adult patients who do not respond to treatment with MPH or discontinue drug therapy. Since effects of genetic variants in the response to MPH treatment might explain these negative outcomes, we conducted an electronic systematic search of MEDLINE-indexed literature looking for articles containing information about pharmacogenetics of ADHD in adults published until January, 2012. The keywords used were 'ADHD', 'Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder' and 'gene' in combination with methylphenidate, amphetamine or atomoxetine. Only 5 pharmacogenetic studies on adult ADHD met inclusion criteria. The results evidenced that most findings obtained so far are negative, and all studies focused on MPH response. There is only one positive result, for a polymorphism at the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) gene. The current state of the art in adult ADHD implies that pharmacogenetic tests are far from routine clinical practice. However, the integration of these studies with neuroimaging and neuropsychological tests may help to understand mechanisms of drug action and the pathophysiology of ADHD.

  10. Recommendations for the transition of patients with ADHD from child to adult healthcare services: a consensus statement from the UK adult ADHD network.

    PubMed

    Young, Susan; Adamou, Marios; Asherson, Philip; Coghill, David; Colley, Bill; Gudjonsson, Gisli; Hollis, Chris; McCarthy, Jane; Müller, Ulrich; Paul, Moli; Pitts, Mark; Arif, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this consensus statement was to discuss transition of patients with ADHD from child to adult healthcare services, and formulate recommendations to facilitate successful transition. An expert workshop was convened in June 2012 by the UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN), attended by a multidisciplinary team of mental health professionals, allied professionals and patients. It was concluded that transitions must be planned through joint meetings involving referring/receiving services, patients and their families. Negotiation may be required to balance parental desire for continued involvement in their child's care, and the child's growing autonomy. Clear transition protocols can maintain standards of care, detailing relevant timeframes, responsibilities of agencies and preparing contingencies. Transition should be viewed as a process not an event, and should normally occur by the age of 18, however flexibility is required to accommodate individual needs. Transition is often poorly experienced, and adherence to clear recommendations is necessary to ensure effective transition and prevent drop-out from services. PMID:27561259

  11. Effects of Extended-Release Guanfacine on ADHD Symptoms and Sedation-Related Adverse Events in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Glatt, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Guanfacine extended release (GXR) is a selective alpha[subscript 2A]-adrenoceptor agonist that is shown to be an effective nonstimulant treatment for the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This report documents the time course and predictors of symptom efficacy and sedation-related adverse events (AEs) that emerge…

  12. A One Year Trial of Methylphenidate in the Treatment of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Paul H.; Reimherr, Frederick W.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Sanford, Mary Eve; Czajkowski, Laura A.; Tomb, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of long-term methylphenidate treatment on symptom severity and social adjustment in adult ADHD. Method: Adults (n = 116) meeting operational diagnostic criteria for ADHD (the "Utah Criteria") entered a randomized double-blind crossover trial of methylphenidate and placebo. Participants who improved on…

  13. Working memory deficits in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an examination of central executive and storage/rehearsal processes.

    PubMed

    Alderson, R Matt; Hudec, Kristen L; Patros, Connor H G; Kasper, Lisa J

    2013-05-01

    The current study was the first to use a regression approach to examine the unique contributions of central executive (CE) and storage/rehearsal processes to working memory (WM) deficits in adults with ADHD. Thirty-seven adults (ADHD = 21, HC = 16) completed phonological (PH) and visuospatial (VS) working memory tasks. While both groups performed significantly better during the PH task relative to the VS task, adults with ADHD exhibited significant deficits across both working memory modalities. Further, the ADHD group recalled disproportionately fewer PH and VS stimuli as set-size demands increased. Overall, the CE and PH storage/rehearsal processes of adults with ADHD were both significantly impaired relative to those of the healthy control adults; however, the magnitude of the CE effect size was much smaller compared to previous studies of children with the disorder. Collectively, results provide support for a lifelong trajectory of WM deficits in ADHD.

  14. The Impact of Hypnotic Suggestions on Reaction Times in Continuous Performance Test in Adults with ADHD and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Virta, Maarit; Hiltunen, Seppo; Mattsson, Markus; Kallio, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    Attention is one of the key factors in both hypnotic processes and patients with ADHD. In addition, the brain areas associated with hypnosis and ADHD overlap in many respects. However, the use of hypnosis in ADHD patients has still received only minor attention in research. The main purpose of the present work was to investigate whether hypnosis and hypnotic suggestions influence the performance of adult ADHD (n = 27) and control participants (n = 31) in the continuous performance test (CPT). The hypnotic susceptibility of the participants was measured by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A) and the attentional task was a three minute long auditory version of the CPT. The CPT task was administered four times: before hypnosis (CPT1), after a hypnotic induction (CPT2), after suggestions about speed and accuracy (CPT3), and after the termination of hypnosis (CPT4). The susceptibility of the groups measured by HGSHS:A did not differ. There was a statistically significant decrease in reaction times in both ADHD and control groups between CPT2 and CPT3. The differences between CPT1 and CPT2, even though non-significant, were different in the two groups: in the ADHD group reaction times decreased whereas in the control group they increased. Both groups made very few errors in the short CPT. This study indicates that hypnotic suggestions have an effect on reaction times in the sustained attention task both in adult ADHD patients and control subjects. The theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25962151

  15. ADHD and academic performance: why does ADHD impact on academic performance and what can be done to support ADHD children in the classroom?

    PubMed

    Daley, D; Birchwood, J

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and academic performance. First, the relationship at different developmental stages is examined, focusing on pre-schoolers, children, adolescents and adults. Second, the review examines the factors underpinning the relationship between ADHD and academic underperformance: the literature suggests that it is the symptoms of ADHD and underlying cognitive deficits not co-morbid conduct problems that are at the root of academic impairment. The review concludes with an overview of the literature examining strategies that are directed towards remediating the academic impairment of individuals with ADHD. PMID:20074251

  16. Culturally competent approaches to assessing ADHD in African American adults and overcoming cultural issues with patients and families.

    PubMed

    Waite, Roberta

    2015-03-01

    To better diagnose and treat African American patients with ADHD, clinicians should consider the mental health field from a cultural and historical perspective. This perspective can aid clinicians in assessing patients' culturally informed resistance or ambivalence toward ADHD treatment and in adopting strategies for communicating with patients about their diagnosis and treatment. Clinicians must learn to recognize and manage their own biases as well as their patients' biases. Using a culturally competent approach is critical to assessing ADHD in African American adults and overcoming cultural issues with patients and their families.

  17. Culturally competent approaches to assessing ADHD in African American adults and overcoming cultural issues with patients and families.

    PubMed

    Waite, Roberta

    2015-03-01

    To better diagnose and treat African American patients with ADHD, clinicians should consider the mental health field from a cultural and historical perspective. This perspective can aid clinicians in assessing patients' culturally informed resistance or ambivalence toward ADHD treatment and in adopting strategies for communicating with patients about their diagnosis and treatment. Clinicians must learn to recognize and manage their own biases as well as their patients' biases. Using a culturally competent approach is critical to assessing ADHD in African American adults and overcoming cultural issues with patients and their families. PMID:25830467

  18. Examining Executive Functioning in Boys with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codding, Robin S.; Lewandowski, Lawrence; Gordon, Michael

    This study examined executive functioning (EF) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) boys ages 6-12 on a parent-report measure from Barkley's model. Mothers of 40 boys (20 with ADHD-HI or ADHD-C, and 20 without ADHD) completed the ADHD Symptom Checklist (ADHD-SC4), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-P), School-Home Information Profile…

  19. ERP Correlates of Proactive and Reactive Cognitive Control in Treatment-Naïve Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Endestad, Tor; Aasen, Ida Emilia S.; Kropotov, Juri; Knight, Robert Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether treatment naïve adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 33; 19 female) differed from healthy controls (n = 31; 17 female) in behavioral performance, event-related potential (ERP) indices of preparatory attention (CueP3 and late CNV), and reactive response control (Go P3, NoGo N2, and NoGo P3) derived from a visual cued Go/NoGo task. On several critical measures, Cue P3, late CNV, and NoGo N2, there were no significant differences between the groups. This indicated normal preparatory processes and conflict monitoring in ADHD patients. However, the patients had attenuated Go P3 and NoGoP3 amplitudes relative to controls, suggesting reduced allocation of attentional resources to processes involved in response control. The patients also had a higher rate of Go signal omission errors, but no other performance decrements compared with controls. Reduced Go P3 and NoGo P3 amplitudes were associated with poorer task performance, particularly in the ADHD group. Notably, the ERPs were not associated with self-reported mood or anxiety. The results provide electrophysiological evidence for reduced effortful engagement of attentional resources to both Go and NoGo signals when reactive response control is needed. The absence of group differences in ERP components indexing proactive control points to impairments in specific aspects of cognitive processes in an untreated adult ADHD cohort. The associations between ERPs and task performance provided additional support for the altered electrophysiological responses. PMID:27448275

  20. Gender differences in the effects of oppositional behavior on teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, David A; King, Alan R

    2004-04-01

    H. Abikoff, M. Courtney, W. E. Pelham, and H. S. Koplewicz (1993) presented elementary school teachers with a videotape of a 4th-grade male child exhibiting behavior associated with either Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Comparisons with ratings generated from a control tape (same child exhibiting unremarkable behavior) suggested that oppositional tendencies inflated teacher ratings of ADHD for boys. The term "halo effect" has been used in the literature to refer to the impact of one class of behavior on the perception of another. This study replicated this procedure using identical scripts with both male and female child models. Oppositional behavior was associated with higher teacher ratings of hyperactivity and inattentiveness. Portrayals of behavior associated with ADHD generated higher teacher ratings of oppositional conduct. This bidirectional effect differed in magnitude as a function of child gender. The boy actor exhibiting oppositional behavior received teacher ratings of hyperactivity and inattention that were roughly half of those elicited by his portrayal of ADHD itself. The girl actor portraying ADHD generated oppositional defiant ratings that were roughly two thirds of those elicited from her performance as a child with ODD. These teacher rating tendencies could contribute to higher diagnostic rates of ADHD among boys and ODD among girls. Available epidemiologic data indicate a much higher rate of ADHD among boys and prevalence differentials for ODD (girls initially lower) that disappear by adolescence. Future research will be required to determine the extent to which these teacher response sets generalize to other evaluators such as parents, physicians and mental health professionals. PMID:15164862

  1. Impairment in occupational functioning and adult ADHD: the predictive utility of executive function (EF) ratings versus EF tests.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Russell A; Murphy, Kevin R

    2010-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with deficits in executive functioning (EF). ADHD in adults is also associated with impairments in major life activities, particularly occupational functioning. We investigated the extent to which EF deficits assessed by both tests and self-ratings contributed to the degree of impairment in 11 measures involving self-reported occupational problems, employer reported workplace adjustment, and clinician rated occupational adjustment. Three groups of adults were recruited as a function of their severity of ADHD: ADHD diagnosis (n = 146), clinical controls self-referring for ADHD but not diagnosed with it (n = 97), and community controls (n = 109). Groups were combined and regression analyses revealed that self-ratings of EF were significantly predictive of impairments in all 11 measures of occupational adjustment. Although several tests of EF also did so, they contributed substantially less than did the EF ratings, particularly when analyzed jointly with the ratings. We conclude that EF deficits contribute to the impairments in occupational functioning that occur in conjunction with adult ADHD. Ratings of EF in daily life contribute more to such impairments than do EF tests, perhaps because, as we hypothesize, each assesses a different level in the hierarchical organization of EF as a meta-construct.

  2. Children with ADHD symptoms have a higher risk for reading, spelling and math difficulties in the GINIplus and LISAplus cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Czamara, Darina; Tiesler, Carla M T; Kohlböck, Gabriele; Berdel, Dietrich; Hoffmann, Barbara; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Schaaf, Beate; Lehmann, Irina; Herbarth, Olf; von Berg, Andrea; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Heinrich, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyslexia belong to the most common neuro-behavioral childhood disorders with prevalences of around 5% in school-aged children. It is estimated that 20-60% of individuals affected with ADHD also present with learning disorders. We investigated the comorbidity between ADHD symptoms and reading/spelling and math difficulties in two on-going population-based birth cohort studies. Children with ADHD symptoms were at significantly higher risk of also showing reading/spelling difficulties or disorder (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.80, p = 6.59×10⁻¹³) as compared to children without ADHD symptoms. For math difficulties the association was similar (OR = 2.55, p = 3.63×10⁻⁰⁴). Our results strengthen the hypothesis that ADHD and learning disorders are comorbid and share, at least partially, the same underlying process. Up to date, it is not clear, on which exact functional processes this comorbidity is based. PMID:23724008

  3. Management of Influenza Symptoms in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rothberg, Michael B; He, Shunian; Rose, David N

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the cost-effectiveness of rapid diagnostic testing and empiric antiviral therapy for healthy adults with symptoms of influenza. DESIGN Cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision model based on previously published data. Outcome measures included costs and quality-adjusted life expectancy. SETTING Physician's office. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS Hypothetically healthy, working adults < 65 years of age presenting with cough and fever during the influenza season. INTERVENTIONS Rapid testing or clinical diagnosis followed by treatment with amantadine, rimantadine, oseltamivir, or zanamivir compared with no antiviral therapy. RESULTS Base-case analysis: not giving antiviral therapy is the most expensive and least effective strategy, costing $471 per patient, mostly owing to time lost from work. Amantadine treatment increases life expectancy by 0.0014 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) while saving $108 per patient relative to no antiviral therapy. Zanamivir is slightly more effective than amantadine, adding 0.0002 QALYs at an incremental cost of $31, or $133,000 per QALY saved. All other strategies, including testing strategies, are both less effective and more expensive. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS The model is sensitive to the probability of influenza infection, proportion of influenza caused by type B, the relative efficacy of the various drugs, and the value of a workday. At a clinical probability of influenza infection > 20%, antiviral therapy is favored. As the proportion of influenza B increases, zanamivir is favored over amantadine. Testing is rarely indicated. Ignoring the costs of lost workdays, amantadine treatment costs $1,200/QALY saved. CONCLUSIONS Antiviral therapy with either amantadine or zanamivir is cost-effective for healthy, young patients with influenza-like illness during the influenza season, depending on the prevalence of influenza B. PMID:14521643

  4. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    PubMed

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. PMID:27031593

  5. Cognitive-Behaviorally-Oriented Group Rehabilitation of Adults with ADHD: Results of a 6-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salakari, Anita; Virta, Maarit; Gronroos, Nina; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Vataja, Risto; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Recently, novel psychological treatments for adult ADHD have been reported with promising results. However, studies about long-term treatment effects are scanty. The authors study effects of cognitive-behaviorally-oriented group rehabilitation during a 6-month follow-up. Method: Participating in the rehabilitation were 29 adults, of…

  6. Antisocial behavior reduces the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use in a large population-based sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lövenhag, Sara; Larm, Peter; Åslund, Cecilia; Nilsson, Kent W

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of antisocial behavior on reducing the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity) and alcohol use. Boys and girls were analyzed separately using a population-based Swedish adolescent sample. A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was performed in secondary and upper secondary schools in Västmanland County during 2010. Participants were a population of 2,439 15-16 year-olds and 1,425 17-18 year-olds (1,947 girls and 1,917 boys). Psychosocial adversity, antisocial behaviors, symptoms of ADHD and alcohol use were assessed by questionnaires. Except for girls' inattention, subdimensions of ADHD symptoms were not associated with alcohol use when variance due to antisocial behavior was accounted for. Among boys, instead of an indirect effect of antisocial behavior on the association between impulsivity and alcohol use, a moderating effect was found. Among girls, the inattention component of ADHD was independently associated with alcohol use even when adjusted for antisocial behavior. The reduced associations between symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and alcohol use for boys and girls after adjusting for antisocial behavior suggest a considerable overlap between hyperactivity, impulsivity, and antisocial behavior. The direct pathway between inattention and alcohol use among girls suggests that girls with inattention symptoms are at risk of alcohol use regardless of antisocial behavior. Special attention should be given to these girls. Accounting for antisocial behavior reduced the relation between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use, and antisocial behaviors should therefore be screened for when symptoms of ADHD are present.

  7. The mixed amphetamine salt extended release (Adderall XR, Max-XR) as an adjunctive to SSRIS or SNRIS in the treatment of adult ADHD patients with comorbid partially responsive generalized anxiety: an open-label study.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Adel

    2010-06-01

    To examine the changes in partially responsive anxiety symptoms utilizing adjunctive treatment with the mixed amphetamine salt extended release (Adderall XR, MAX-XR) in the treatment of adult ADHD patients, with comorbid refractory anxiety. Consenting adult patients (n = 32) with confirmed diagnosis of generalized anxiety (GA) and comorbid (ADHD) participated in this open-label study. All patients had significant comorbid anxiety symptoms (HAM-A > 7) and failed to respond to 8-week trials of Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) or Norepinephrine Reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). All patients were treated with the "Mixed Amphetamine salts Extended Release Adderall XR, (MAS-XR), as adjunctive to SSRIs or to SNRIs and were followed for at least 12 weeks. The primary effectiveness measure was the Clinical Global Impression severity subscale (CGI-S). Other scales included the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A), the adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) symptom checklist, and Sheehan's disability scale. Baseline measures prior to the treatment with MAS-XR were compared to those at 4, 8, and at 12 weeks of treatment. Monitoring for pulse, blood pressure, and weight changes was carried out at baseline and at end point. All patients completed this open-label trial. There was significant and robust resolution of symptoms of all effectiveness measures, including the symptoms of anxiety, as shown by changes from baseline in HAM-A, ASRS-v1.1, and CGI at 8 weeks. Also there was significant reduction in the disability score at 12 weeks. Patients tolerated the treatment, and there were no significant cardiovascular changes at 12 weeks. There was decrease in mean weight at 12 weeks by 2.2 kg (P < .001). Mixed amphetamine salts MAS-XR can be used in adult patients with ADHD and comorbid anxiety symptoms. Larger controlled studies are needed to support the effectiveness of mixed amphetamine salts in patients with comorbid anxiety symptoms. Treatments need to include the targeting of the

  8. Lack of Association between a 3'UTR VNTR Polymorphism of Dopamine Transporter Gene (SLC6A3) and ADHD in a Brazilian Sample of Adult Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aperecida da Silva, Maria; Cordeiro, Quirino; Louza, Mario; Vallada, Homero

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a possible association between a 3'UTR VNTR polymorphism of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) and ADHD in a Brazilian sample of adult patients. Method: Study Case-control with 102 ADHD adult outpatients ("DSM-IV" criteria) and 479 healthy controls. The primers' sequence used were: 3'UTR-Forward: 5' TGT GGT GAT GGG…

  9. Effect of Micronutrients on Behavior and Mood in Adults with ADHD: Evidence from an 8-Week Open Label Trial with Natural Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia; Taylor, Mairin; Whitehead, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a 36-ingredient micronutrient formula consisting mainly of minerals and vitamins in the treatment of adults with both ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Method: 14 medication-free adults (9 men, 5 women; 18-55 years) with ADHD and SMD completed an 8-week open-label trial. Results: A minority reported…

  10. Children with ADHD Symptoms Are Less Susceptible to Gap-Filling Errors than Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirandola, C.; Paparella, G.; Re, A. M.; Ghetti, S.; Cornoldi, C.

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced semantic processing is associated with increased false recognition of items consistent with studied material, suggesting that children with poor semantic skills could produce fewer false memories. We examined whether memory errors differed in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and controls. Children viewed 18…

  11. Executive Functions in Girls with and without Childhood ADHD: Developmental Trajectories and Associations with Symptom Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Meghan; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 140) and a matched comparison sample (n = 88) from childhood through young adulthood to evaluate developmental trajectories of executive functions (EF) and associations between EF trajectories…

  12. Depressive symptoms and cognitive performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Park, Hyuntae; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Lee, Sangyoon; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-10-01

    Many longitudinal studies have found that older adults with depressive symptoms or depression have increased risk of cognitive impairment. We investigated the relationships between depressive symptoms or depression, cognitive function, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and volumetric MRI measurements in older adults. A total of 4352 individuals aged 65 years or older (mean age 72 years) participated in the study. We investigated medical history and geriatric depression scale-15 (GDS-15) items to determine depression and depressive symptoms. Cognitive tests included the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), story memory, word list memory, trail-making tests, and the symbol digit substitution task. Of the 4352 participants, 570 (13%) fulfilled the criteria for depressive symptoms (GDS-15: 6 + points) and 87 (2%) were diagnosed with depression. All cognitive tests showed significant differences between the 'no depressive symptoms', 'depressive symptoms', and 'depression' groups. The 'depressive symptoms' and 'depression' groups showed lower serum BDNF (p < 0.001) concentrations than the 'no depressive symptoms' group. The 'depressive symptoms' group exhibited greater atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe than did the 'no depressive symptoms' group (p = 0.023). These results suggest that memory, executive function, and processing speed examinations are useful to identify cognitive decline in older adults who have depressive symptoms and depression. Serum BDNF concentration and atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe may in part mediate the relationships between depressive symptoms and cognitive decline.

  13. Alternative treatments for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Arnold, L E

    2001-06-01

    A previous review of alternative treatments (Tx) of ADHD--those other than psychoactive medication and behavioral/psychosocial Tx--was supplemented with an additional literature search focused on adults with ADHD. Twenty-four alternative Tx were identified, ranging in scientific documentation from discrediting controlled studies through mere hypotheses to positive controlled double-blind clinical trials. Many of them are applicable only to a specific subgroup. Although oligoantigenic (few-foods) diets have convincing double-blind evidence of efficacy for a properly selected subgroup of children, they do not appear promising for adults. Enzyme-potentiated desensitization, relaxation/EMG biofeedback, and deleading also have controlled evidence of efficacy. Iron supplementation, magnesium supplementation, Chinese herbals, EEG biofeedback, massage, meditation, mirror feedback, channel-specific perceptual training, and vestibular stimulation all have promising prospective pilot data, many of these tests reasonably controlled. Single-vitamin megadosage has some intriguing pilot trial data. Zinc supplementation is hypothetically supported by systematic case-control data, but no systematic clinical trial. Laser acupuncture has promising unpublished pilot data and may be more applicable to adults than children. Essential fatty acid supplementation has promising systematic case-control data, but clinical trials are equivocal. RDA vitamin supplementation, non-Chinese herbals, homeopathic remedies, and antifungal therapy have no systematic data in ADHD. Megadose multivitamin combinations are probably ineffective for most patients and are possibly dangerous. Simple sugar restriction seems ineffective. Amino acid supplementation is mildly effective in the short term, but not beyond 2-3 months. Thyroid treatment is effective in the presence of documented thyroid abnormality. Some alternative Tx of ADHD are effective or probably effective, but mainly for certain patients. In some

  14. Therapy-relevant factors in adult ADHD from a cognitive behavioural perspective.

    PubMed

    Newark, Patricia Elizabeth; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2010-06-01

    Adult individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been suffering from this neurobiological and highly heritable disorder chronically since childhood. Resulting from their longstanding neuropsychological impairments, such as attentional problems, emotional instability, and disinhibition, they are familiar to a multiplicity of negative life outcomes and underachievement. Furthermore, a large part of this population suffers from psychiatric comorbidity. This accumulation of negative experiences has an impact on therapy-relevant factors such as the individual's self-esteem, self-efficacy, development of core beliefs/schemas, and coping strategies. Based on negative beliefs about the self, individuals confronted with difficult situations develop maladaptive coping strategies, for instance avoidance and procrastination. These strategies lead to maintenance and reinforcement of maladaptive beliefs, and as such they acquit themselves as schema-confirming. Captured in this vicious cycle, the individual sees her negative view of the self confirmed. The purpose of this paper is to illuminate these interactive factors that influence the aforementioned cycle in order to emphasize the cognitive behavioural interventions tailored to those factors on the basis of latest research. Furthermore, the authors want to attract notice to the resources people with ADHD are said to have, namely creativity and resilience. These postulated resources could be therapy-relevant by creating positive beliefs about the self, hence improving coping skills and breaking the vicious circle of negative appraisal. Taking into account personal resources and their fostering may be an important fundament for the treatment plan of adult ADHD. Information on the current state of research and theoretical approaches concerning the below-mentioned key words was gathered through MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PSYNDEXplus, and PubMed databases. PMID:21432591

  15. Project DyAdd: classical eyeblink conditioning in adults with dyslexia and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Laasonen, Marja; Kauppinen, Jenni; Leppämäki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Harno, Hanna; Hokkanen, Laura; Wikgren, Jan

    2012-11-01

    In this study of the project DyAdd (Adult Dyslexia and Attention Deficit Disorder in Finland), classical eyeblink conditioning (EBC) was investigated in both delay and trace paradigms in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n = 37), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 21), their comorbid combination (n = 8), and healthy controls (n = 35). In addition, the profiles of three participants with a rare autosomal dominant cerebellar disease were assessed (episodic ataxia type 2, EA-2). We found that participants with dyslexia were overall slower learners than controls in eyeblink conditioning. Further, they were the only group that had a reduced number of CRs in mediotemporal-dependent trace paradigm compared to the more cerebellum-dependent delay paradigm. Second, ADHD was found to be related to larger CR amplitude. Third, those with a comorbid condition learned faster and manifested CRs that were not well timed. Fourth, the cerebellar patients showed nearly no conditioning at all. Correlations between EBC and various neuropsychological domains (phonological processing, reading, spelling, arithmetic, executive functions, attention, and fine motor control) over all participants resulted in significant relations only for the delay paradigm: Increased amount of reading errors related with later peak latency and increased amount of self-corrections in fine motor control related with larger response magnitude. Within those who conditioned, relations emerged only for the trace paradigm: better spelling was related to larger response magnitude. These results do not lend support to the cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia. On the contrary, dyslexia in its pure form seems to be related to a relative dysfunction of a larger hippocampal-cerebellar network. Further, larger responses in the ADHD group are suggested to result from their lowered responding threshold.

  16. Symptoms and Symptom Clusters Identified by Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer Using a Symptom Heuristics App.

    PubMed

    Ameringer, Suzanne; Erickson, Jeanne M; Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Stegenga, Kristin; Linder, Lauri A

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer experience multiple distressing symptoms during treatment. Because the typical approach to symptom assessment does not easily reflect the symptom experience of individuals, alternative approaches to enhancing communication between the patient and provider are needed. We developed an iPad-based application that uses a heuristic approach to explore AYAs' cancer symptom experiences. In this mixed-methods descriptive study, 72 AYAs (13-29 years old) with cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy used the Computerized Symptom Capture Tool (C-SCAT) to create images of the symptoms and symptom clusters they experienced from a list of 30 symptoms. They answered open-ended questions within the C-SCAT about the causes of their symptoms and symptom clusters. The images generated through the C-SCAT and accompanying free-text data were analyzed using descriptive, content, and visual analyses. Most participants (n = 70) reported multiple symptoms (M = 8.14). The most frequently reported symptoms were nausea (65.3%), feeling drowsy (55.6%), lack of appetite (55.6%), and lack of energy (55.6%). Forty-six grouped their symptoms into one or more clusters. The most common symptom cluster was nausea/eating problems/appetite problems. Nausea was most frequently named as the priority symptom in a cluster and as a cause of other symptoms. Although common threads were present in the symptoms experienced by AYAs, the graphic images revealed unique perspectives and a range of complexity of symptom relationships, clusters, and causes. Results highlight the need for a tailored approach to symptom management based on how the AYA with cancer perceives his or her symptom experience. PMID:26455729

  17. A Critical Review of ADHD Diagnostic Criteria: What to Address in the "DSM-V"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Allison S.

    2011-01-01

    ADHD is an impairing psychological disorder that predominantly affects children, but also adults to a lesser extent. As a result, a considerable amount of research has been completed in recent years to better understand the nature of the disorder to best treat individuals experiencing symptoms of ADHD. Especially with the publication of the…

  18. Teens Who Intimidate Adults: Understanding Symptom Estrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Moor, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    This story gives a brief overview of the possibilities and opportunities of the Symptom Estrangement Reclaiming Intervention. It is the history of a three-year effort with a child caught in this self-defeating pattern of behaviour.

  19. Does Maternal Warmth Moderate the Effects of Birth Weight on Twins' Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms and Low IQ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Lucy A.; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Morgan, Julia

    2004-01-01

    The moderating effect of maternal warmth on the association between low birth weight and children's attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and low IQ was studied in 2,232 twins. Half of 5-year-old children had low birth weights, below 2,500 g. Maternal warmth, a component of expressed emotion, was coded from mothers' audiotaped…

  20. Efficacy of Atomoxetine for the Treatment of ADHD Symptoms in Patients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Prospective, Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Jaen, Alberto; Fernandez-Mayoralas, Daniel Martin; Calleja-Perez, Beatriz; Munoz-Jareno, Nuria; Campos Diaz, Maria del Rosario; Lopez-Arribas, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine's tolerance and efficacy were studied in 24 patients with pervasive developmental disorder and symptoms of ADHD. Method: Prospective, open-label, 16-week study was performed, using the variables of the Clinical Global Impression Scale and the Conners' Scale, among others. Results: A significant difference was found…

  1. An Epidemiological Study of ADHD Symptoms among Young Persons and the Relationship with Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Illicit Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cigarette smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use. Method: The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (ages 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires in…

  2. A Common Genetic Factor Explains the Covariation among ADHD ODD and CD Symptoms in 9-10 Year Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Zheng, Mo; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies examining the covariation among Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) have yielded inconsistent results. Some studies have concluded that the covariation among these symptoms is due to common genetic influences, whereas others have found a common…

  3. Internal Consistency and Discriminant Validity of a Delay-Discounting Task with an Adult Self-Reported ADHD Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Ruth M.; Kepley, Hayden O.; McCalla, Marjorie K.; Livermore, Melissa K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the reliability and discriminant validity of a behavioral task of impulsivity, the delay-discounting task. Method: Young adults were asked to report ADHD diagnostic status and to complete the delay-discounting task. The internal consistency of the task was determined, task performances of…

  4. Dissociative Symptoms and Mother's Marital Status in Young Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Bob, Petr; Selesova, Petra; Raboch, Jiri; Kukla, Lubomir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Current findings suggest that mother's marital status indicating father's absence or conflicting relationship to father may be specifically related to dissociation and other stress-related symptoms. We have assessed relationships of mother's marital status, dissociative symptoms, and other psychopathological manifestations in a sample of 19 years’ old young adults (N = 364) participating in European longitudinal study (European Longitudinal Study of Parenthood and Childhood). The results show clinically significant manifestations of dissociative symptoms in young adult men whose mothers were fatherless and in women whose mothers were re-married. Other psychopathological symptoms did not reach clinically significant manifestations. The results suggest that significant factor related to high level of dissociative symptoms in men growing in fatherless families might be linked with disturbed and conflicting attachment to a father's figure and pathological dependent attachment to mother. In women dissociative symptoms likely are linked to conflicting relationship between mother and daughter associated with stepfather’ presence in the family. PMID:25590849

  5. Psychiatric Symptoms in Adults with Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urv, Tiina K.; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Changes in psychiatric symptoms related to specific stages of dementia were investigated in 224 adults 45 years of age or older with Down syndrome. Findings indicate that psychiatric symptoms are a prevalent feature of dementia in the population with Down syndrome and that clinical presentation is qualitatively similar to that seen in Alzheimer's…

  6. Depressive symptoms in institutionalized older adults

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Lívia Maria; Mattos, Inês Echenique

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly individuals and to analyze factors associated with this condition. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study involving 462 individuals aged 60 or older, residents in long stay institutions in four Brazilian municipalities. The dependent variable was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Poisson’s regression was used to evaluate associations with co-variables. We investigated which variables were most relevant in terms of presence of depressive symptoms within the studied context through factor analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 48.7%. The variables associated with depressive symptoms were: regular/bad/very bad self-rated health; comorbidities; hospitalizations; and lack of friends in the institution. Five components accounted for 49.2% of total variance of the sample: functioning, social support, sensory deficiency, institutionalization and health conditions. In the factor analysis, functionality and social support were the components which explained a large part of observed variance. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depressive symptoms, with significant variation in distribution, was observed. Such results emphasize the importance of health conditions and functioning for institutionalized older individuals developing depression. They also point to the importance of providing opportunities for interaction among institutionalized individuals. PMID:24897042

  7. Vitamin-Mineral Treatment of ADHD in Adults: A 1-Year Naturalistic Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Rucklidge, Julia J; Frampton, Chris M; Gorman, Brigette; Boggis, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Objective: Despite widespread use, there is little data investigating the long-term impact of micronutrients on psychiatric disorders. This study investigated the naturalistic outcome 1-year post-baseline of a randomized controlled trials (RCT) that compared micronutrients with placebo in 80 adults with ADHD. Method: All participants were contacted and clinician-rated questionnaires completed. Results: A total of 72 (90%) of the sample participated; although there was significant regression in psychiatric functioning from the end-of-trial on all measures, outcomes remained significantly improved from baseline. Dominant treatment from the end-of-treatment to follow-up was investigated as a mediator of outcome; those staying on the micronutrients performed better than those who switched to medications or discontinued micronutrients. Cost was the most substantial reason why people stopped micronutrient treatment. Conclusion: For the small number of participants who stayed on micronutrients, the benefits conferred through the controlled trial were maintained. The results are limited by small sample, lack of blinding, expectation, and reliance on self-report of symptoms. PMID:24804687

  8. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Discriminate Autism Spectrum Disorder from ADHD in Adult Patients with and without Comorbid Substance Use Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sizoo, Bram B.; van den Brink, Wim; Gorissen-van Eenige, Marielle; Koeter, Maarten W.; van Wijngaarden-Cremers, Patricia J. M.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2009-01-01

    It is unknown whether the Autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) can discriminate between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with or without comorbid Substance Use Disorder (SUD). ANOVA's were used to analyse the mean AQ (sub)scores of 129 adults with ASD or ADHD. We applied receiver operating…

  9. Bulimia nervosa patient diagnosed with previously unsuspected ADHD in adulthood: clinical case report, literature review, and diagnostic challenges.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Serfontein, Jaco; Müller, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    There is increasing literature suggesting a link between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders (EDs), especially bulimia nervosa. ADHD is under-diagnosed in girls and children of high intelligence are typically missed. We identified a case of a 23-year-old woman suffering from severe bulimia nervosa and previously unsuspected ADHD in adulthood; we diagnosed and treated her with extended-release methylphenidate. We performed a literature review on the ADHD and bulimia nervosa comorbidity. We discuss the reasons why her ADHD remained undiagnosed and the difficulties in diagnosing ADHD in patients with EDs. We suggest that identifying comorbid ADHD is crucial for these patients and argue for the use of a structured interview, collateral history and investigation of onset of symptoms to establish a diagnosis of ADHD in adults with bulimia nervosa. Comorbidities and overlap of symptomatology need to be taken into account.

  10. Culturally competent approaches to diagnosing ADHD in Hispanic adults and overcoming cultural issues with patients and families.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Juan

    2015-05-01

    Hispanics in the United States are a diverse population with different countries of origin and a wide range of English language proficiency, socioeconomic and immigration status, values, and traditions. Clinicians must combine what they know about treating adult ADHD in general with a culturally competent understanding of the special needs of Hispanic patients in order to provide effective and accessible treatment. Strategies to treat Hispanic adults may include clear communication during the patient's interview, assessment of comorbid conditions, and affordable treatment options.

  11. Validating the measurement of executive functions in an occupational context for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Stern, Adi; Maeir, Adina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The objectives of this study were to better understand the cognitive profile of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), their occupational performance, and their quality of life (QoL) and to examine the validity of a cognitive-functional evaluation (CFE) battery for these adults. METHOD. Eighty-one adults with ADHD and 58 without ADHD completed ADHD symptom ratings, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version, and the Adult ADHD Quality-of-Life Scale. An occupational performance interview was administered to the ADHD group. RESULTS. A broad range of occupational concerns were reported. We found significant differences between groups on all measures. In the ADHD group, we found medium significant correlations among the measures. CONCLUSION. Adults with ADHD experience cognitive and functional difficulties in their daily lives associated with QoL. The results support the use of a CFE battery that has been shown to be sensitive and specific for these adults. PMID:25397767

  12. Validating the measurement of executive functions in an occupational context for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Stern, Adi; Maeir, Adina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The objectives of this study were to better understand the cognitive profile of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), their occupational performance, and their quality of life (QoL) and to examine the validity of a cognitive-functional evaluation (CFE) battery for these adults. METHOD. Eighty-one adults with ADHD and 58 without ADHD completed ADHD symptom ratings, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version, and the Adult ADHD Quality-of-Life Scale. An occupational performance interview was administered to the ADHD group. RESULTS. A broad range of occupational concerns were reported. We found significant differences between groups on all measures. In the ADHD group, we found medium significant correlations among the measures. CONCLUSION. Adults with ADHD experience cognitive and functional difficulties in their daily lives associated with QoL. The results support the use of a CFE battery that has been shown to be sensitive and specific for these adults.

  13. Osmotic Release Oral System Methylphenidate Prevents Weight Gain during a Smoking-Cessation Attempt in Adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Heffner, Jaimee L

    2013-01-01

    Background: Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for both cigarette smoking and being overweight or obese. Although smoking cessation tends to result in weight increase, potentially initiating or exacerbating weight problems, adults with ADHD who are treated with osmotic release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) tend to lose weight. It is unclear how the use of OROS-MPH during a smoking-cessation attempt might affect the typical weight gain that accompanies cessation. Method: We examined changes in weight and hunger during a smoking-cessation attempt in 215 adults with ADHD who completed a multisite, randomized, controlled trial and were randomized to either OROS-MPH (n = 107) or placebo (n = 108) (NCT #00253747). Both groups also received open-label transdermal nicotine replacement and counseling. Results: Participants who received OROS-MPH lost an average of 1.6% of their body weight during the 11-week study, whereas those who received placebo gained an average of 1.3% of their weight (p < .001). Hunger ratings were lower in the OROS-MPH group (M = 1.1, SD = 0.8) than in the placebo group (M = 1.6, SD = 0.9; p < .001). Conclusions: The use of OROS-MPH during a smoking-cessation attempt prevents weight gain in adults with ADHD who substantially reduce or quit smoking. The potential utility of OROS-MPH in individuals with ADHD who are attempting to quit smoking and for whom weight gain would be problematic warrants further research. PMID:22955246

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among longer-term prison inmates is a prevalent, persistent and disabling disorder

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background ADHD is a common and disabling disorder, with an increased risk for coexisting disorders, substance abuse and delinquency. In the present study, we aimed at exploring ADHD and criminality. We estimated the prevalence of ADHD among longer-term prison inmates, described symptoms and cognitive functioning, and compared findings with ADHD among psychiatric outpatients and healthy controls. Methods At Norrtälje Prison, we approached 315 male inmates for screening of childhood ADHD by the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-25) and for present ADHD by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Screener (ASRS-Screener). The response rate was 62%. Further, we assessed 34 inmates for ADHD and coexisting disorders. Finally, we compared findings with 20 adult males with ADHD, assessed at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and 18 healthy controls. Results The estimated prevalence of adult ADHD among longer-term inmates was 40%. Only 2 out of 30 prison inmates confirmed with ADHD had received a diagnosis of ADHD during childhood, despite most needed health services and educational support. All subjects reported lifetime substance use disorder (SUD) where amphetamine was the most common drug. Mood and anxiety disorders were present among half of subjects; autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among one fourth and psychopathy among one tenth. Personality disorders were common; almost all inmates presented conduct disorder (CD) before antisocial personality disorder (APD). Prison inmates reported more ADHD symptoms during both childhood and adulthood, compared with ADHD psychiatric outpatients. Further, analysis of executive functions after controlling for IQ showed both ADHD groups performed poorer than controls on working memory tests. Besides, on a continuous performance test, the ADHD prison group displayed poorer results compared with both other groups. Conclusions This study suggested ADHD to be present among 40% of adult male longer-term prison inmates. Further, ADHD and coexisting disorders

  15. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students.

    PubMed

    Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment.

  16. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students.

    PubMed

    Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment. PMID:25466366

  17. The prevalence and effects of Adult Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on the performance of workers: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    PubMed Central

    de Graaf, Ron; Kessler, Ronald C.; Fayyad, John; ten Have, Margreet; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Borges, Guilherme; Demyttenaere, Koen; Gasquet, Isabelle; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Jin, Robert; Karam, Elie G; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, José

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and workplace consequences of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Ann ADHD screen was administered to 18–44 year-old respondents in ten national surveys in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative (n = 7075 in paid or self employment; response rate 45.9–87.7% across countries). Blinded clinical reappraisal interviews were administered in the US to calibrate the screen. Days out of role were measured in the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS). Questions were also asked about ADHD treatment. Results An average of 3.5% of workers in the ten countries was estimated to meet DSM-IV criteria for adult ADHD (inter-quartile range: 1.3–4.9%). ADHD was more common among males than females and less common among professionals than other workers. ADHD was associated with a statistically significant 22.1 annual days of excess lost role performance compared to otherwise similar respondents without ADHD. No difference in the magnitude of this effect was found by occupation, education, age, gender, or partner status. This effect was most pronounced in Colombia, Italy, Lebanon, and the US. Although only a small minority of workers with ADHD ever received treatment for this condition, higher proportions were treated for comorbid mental-substance disorders. Conclusions ADHD is a relatively common condition among working people in the countries studied and is associated with high work impairment in these countries. This impairment, in conjunction with the low treatment rate and the availability of cost-effective therapies, suggests that ADHD would be a good candidate for targeted workplace screening and treatment programs. Main messages A high proportion of childhood ADHD persists into adulthood. An average of 3.5% of workers in nationally representative surveys carried out in 10 countries met criteria for current DSM-IV adult ADHD. Workers with ADHD have an average 8.4 excess sickness absence

  18. [The course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over the life span].

    PubMed

    Koumoula, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder, associated with the maturation of the nervous system and appearing on a standard proceeding with special cognitive impairments. For many years ADHD was concerned as a typical childhood disorder. Long-term studies though, showed that an important percentage of children with ADHD grew as adults with ADHD. The clinical picture varies with the developmental stage. In pre-school years (3-5 years) the clinical picture is characterized by excessive physical activity, difficulty in cooperation with peers and non-compliance to the recommendations of adults. In school age (6-12 years), apart from the nuclear symptoms of the disorder, as described in the classification systems, i.e. inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, oppositional behavior often occurs, conflicts with peers and academic problems. In adolescence hyperactivity lessens, conflicts with parents continue and high risk behaviors often appear. In adults physical activity usually decreases significantly, while inattention and impulsivity still remain. With the passing of time the number of symptoms are usually reduced, however the impact and impairment caused by the disorder remain. The diagnosis of ADHD in adults requires a retrospective diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. Since childhood, comorbid disorders are common, most times continuing until adult life. The Oppositional Defiant Disorder during childhood is related to the presenting of Antisocial Personality Disorder in adults. On the other hand, emotional disorders, which are also rather common in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD, can be due to either common biological mechanisms or the long-standing effect of psychosocial and environmental factors which follow people with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and substance abuse has been a subject of research, with the view of the existence of Conduct Disorder being necessary for a person to present a Substance Use Disorder

  19. [The course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over the life span].

    PubMed

    Koumoula, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder, associated with the maturation of the nervous system and appearing on a standard proceeding with special cognitive impairments. For many years ADHD was concerned as a typical childhood disorder. Long-term studies though, showed that an important percentage of children with ADHD grew as adults with ADHD. The clinical picture varies with the developmental stage. In pre-school years (3-5 years) the clinical picture is characterized by excessive physical activity, difficulty in cooperation with peers and non-compliance to the recommendations of adults. In school age (6-12 years), apart from the nuclear symptoms of the disorder, as described in the classification systems, i.e. inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, oppositional behavior often occurs, conflicts with peers and academic problems. In adolescence hyperactivity lessens, conflicts with parents continue and high risk behaviors often appear. In adults physical activity usually decreases significantly, while inattention and impulsivity still remain. With the passing of time the number of symptoms are usually reduced, however the impact and impairment caused by the disorder remain. The diagnosis of ADHD in adults requires a retrospective diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. Since childhood, comorbid disorders are common, most times continuing until adult life. The Oppositional Defiant Disorder during childhood is related to the presenting of Antisocial Personality Disorder in adults. On the other hand, emotional disorders, which are also rather common in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD, can be due to either common biological mechanisms or the long-standing effect of psychosocial and environmental factors which follow people with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and substance abuse has been a subject of research, with the view of the existence of Conduct Disorder being necessary for a person to present a Substance Use Disorder

  20. DISC Predictive Scales (DPS): Factor structure and uniform differential item functioning across gender and three racial/ethnic groups for ADHD, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael; Kanouse, David E; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    The factor structure and potential uniform differential item functioning (DIF) among gender and three racial/ethnic groups of adolescents (African American, Latino, White) were evaluated for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom scores of the DISC Predictive Scales (DPS; Leung et al., 2005; Lucas et al., 2001). Primary caregivers reported on DSM-IV ADHD, CD, and ODD symptoms for a probability sample of 4,491 children from three geographical regions who took part in the Healthy Passages study (mean age = 12.60 years, SD = 0.66). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the expected 3-factor structure was tenable for the data. Multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) modeling revealed uniform DIF for three ADHD and 9 ODD item scores, but not for any of the CD item scores. Uniform DIF was observed predominantly as a function of child race/ethnicity, but minimally as a function of child gender. On the positive side, uniform DIF had little impact on latent mean differences of ADHD, CD, and ODD symptomatology among gender and racial/ethnic groups. Implications of the findings for researchers and practitioners are discussed.

  1. Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Homeless Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Liu, Yihang; Leake, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent homelessness has received increasing attention due to its fast growth throughout the United States and the poor mental outcomes experienced by homeless young people. This cross-sectional study (N = 156) identified correlates of depressive symptomatology among homeless young adults and investigated how depressive symptoms are influenced by the coping strategies these young adults employ. The findings are based on analysis of baseline data collected for a hepatitis vaccination intervention pilot study conducted in partnership with a young adult’s drop-in center in Santa Monica, California. Standardized tools assessed drug use history, coping ability, and psychiatric symptomatology. Linear regression modeling was used to identify correlates of depressive symptom severity. Poor perceived physical health, recent crack cocaine use and recent use of tranquilizers were significantly associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. Self-destructive escape, non-disclosure/avoidance, passive problem-solving and thoughts of harming self were also associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:21131507

  2. Validating a Self-Report Screen for ADHD in Early Adulthood Using Childhood Parent and Teacher Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlie, E. B.; Lazare, Kim; Beitchman, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This article evaluates the diagnostic utility of a self-report screening tool for adults based on "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; "DSM-IV") ADHD criteria. Method: Children with speech/language (S/L) impairment and typically developing controls had ADHD symptoms rated by parents and teachers at ages 5…

  3. Underdiagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adult Patients: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Javier; Anand, Ernie; Casillas, Marta; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To raise awareness of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as an underdiagnosed, undertreated, often comorbid, and debilitating condition in adults. Data Sources: PubMed was searched using combinations of keywords, including ADHD, adult, diagnosis, identify, prevalence, and comorbid, to find articles published between 1976 and 2013. Study Selection: In total, 99 articles were selected for inclusion on the basis of their relevance to the objective and importance to and representation of ADHD research, including international guidelines for adults with ADHD. Results: In a large proportion of children with ADHD, symptoms persist into adulthood. However, although adults with ADHD often experience chaotic lifestyles, with impaired educational and vocational achievement and higher risks of substance abuse and imprisonment, many remain undiagnosed and/or untreated. ADHD is usually accompanied by other psychiatric comorbidities (such as major depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and alcohol abuse). Indeed, adults with ADHD are more likely to present to a psychiatric clinic for treatment of their comorbid disorders than for ADHD, and their ADHD symptoms are often mistaken for those of their comorbidities. Untreated ADHD in adults with psychiatric comorbidities leads to poor clinical and functional outcomes for the patient even if comorbidities are treated. Effective treatment of adults’ ADHD improves symptoms, emotional lability, and patient functioning, often leading to favorable outcomes (eg, safer driving, reduced criminality). A few medications have now been approved for use in adults with ADHD, while a multimodal approach involving psychotherapy has also shown promising results. Conclusions General psychiatrists should familiarize themselves with the symptoms of ADHD in adults in order to diagnose and manage ADHD and comorbidities appropriately in these patients. PMID:25317367

  4. Dimensions of depressive symptoms and cingulate volumes in older adults

    PubMed Central

    McLaren, M E; Szymkowicz, S M; O'Shea, A; Woods, A J; Anton, S D; Dotson, V M

    2016-01-01

    Clinical depression and subthreshold depressive symptoms in older adults have been linked to structural changes in the cingulate gyrus. The cingulate comprises functionally distinct subregions that may have distinct associations with different types, or symptom dimensions, of depression. This study examined the relationship between symptom dimensions of depression and gray matter volumes in the anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate and isthmus of the cingulate in a nonclinical sample. The study included 41 community-dwelling older adults between the ages of 55 and 81. Participants received a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan and completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Subscale scores for depressed mood, somatic symptoms and lack of positive affect were calculated, and Freesurfer was used to extract cingulate gray matter volumes. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and volumes of cingulate subregions while controlling for sex, age and estimated total intracranial volume. Higher scores on the depressed mood subscale were associated with larger volumes in the left posterior cingulate and smaller volumes in the isthmus cingulate. Higher scores on the somatic symptoms subscale were significantly related to smaller volumes in the posterior cingulate. A trend was observed for a positive relationship between higher scores on the lack of positive affect subscale and larger volumes in the anterior cingulate cortex. These results are consistent with previous findings of altered cingulate volumes with increased depressive symptomatology and suggest specific symptom dimensions of depression may differ in their relationship with subregions of the cingulate. PMID:27093070

  5. Feasibility of School-Based ADHD Interventions: A Mixed-Methods Study of Perceptions of Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Mason, Dana M.; Ellison, Anne; Noguchi, Kenji; Garvan, Cynthia W.; Albarracin, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Objective Little is known about perceptions surrounding academic interventions for ADHD that determine intervention feasibility. Method As part of a longitudinal mixed-methods research project, representative school district samples of 148 adolescents (54.8%), 161 parents (59.4%), 122 teachers (50.0%), 46 health care providers (53.5%), and 92 school health professionals (65.7%) completed a cross-sectional survey. They also answered open-ended questions addressing undesirable intervention effects, which were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Results Adolescents expressed significantly lower receptivity toward academic interventions than adult respondents. Stigma emerged as a significant threat to ADHD intervention feasibility, as did perceptions that individualized interventions foster inequality. Conclusion Findings suggest that adolescents’ viewpoints must be included in intervention development to enhance feasibility and avoid interventions acceptable to adults, but resisted by adolescents. PMID:24448222

  6. Methylphenidate does not influence smoking-reinforced responding or attentional performance in adult smokers with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Kollins, Scott H; Schoenfelder, Erin; English, Joseph S; McClernon, F Joseph; Dew, Rachel E; Lane, Scott D

    2013-10-01

    Individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) smoke cigarettes at rates higher than the general population and questions have been raised about how stimulant drugs-the frontline pharmacological treatment for ADHD-influence smoking risk and behavior in those with ADHD. In the present study adult regular smokers with (n = 16) and without (n = 17) ADHD participated in 3 experimental sessions in which they completed a Progressive Ratio (PR) task to measure the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking and money after oral administration of placebo and 2 active doses of methylphenidate (10 mg and 40 mg). We also measured attention and inhibitory control via a Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Methylphenidate had no effect on smoking-reinforced responding, attention, or inhibitory control in either group. Attention and inhibitory control were associated with smoking-reinforced responding, but unsystematically and only in the non-ADHD group. Several design features, such as the value of the monetary response option, the PR schedule, and the potential effects of smoking on attention and inhibitory control, could have contributed to the negative findings and are discussed as such. Although inconsistent with some previous human laboratory studies of stimulant drugs and smoking, results are consistent with recent trials of stimulant drugs as adjuncts for smoking cessation in adult smokers with ADHD. In general, methylphenidate at mild and moderate doses did not influence the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking in adults with and without ADHD.

  7. [Legal aspects of hyperkinetic disorders/ADHD].

    PubMed

    Hässler, F; Reis, O; Buchmann, J; Bohne-Suraj, S

    2008-07-01

    With a prevalence of 2-6%, hyperkinetic disorders (F 90, ICD-10) and disturbances of activity and attention (F 90.0, ADHD, ICD-10) are among the psychiatric disorders most commonly diagnosed in children, adolescents, and adults. Children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD suffer from hyperactivity and deficits in attention and impulse control. Adults usually have problems focusing on one goal, maintaining their attention, modulating emotions effectively, structuring their tasks, and controlling impulses and in executive functions. Legal implications derive from core symptoms and from treatment with stimulants governed by legislation on narcotics. This paper discusses juridical aspects of ADHD in connection with the administration of medication at school, trips abroad within and outside the Schengen area, driving, competitive sports, military service, the increased risk of delinquency, the individual capacity to incur criminal responsibility, developmental criteria for the ability to act responsibly, and modalities for withdrawal treatment or treatment during detention.

  8. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in older adults hospitalized for fall injury☆

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, Nimali; Sparks, Martha A.; Kato, Kaori; Wyka, Katarzyna; Wilbur, Kaitlyn; Chiaramonte, Gabrielle; Barie, Philip S.; Lachs, Mark S.; O'Dell, Michael; Evans, Arthur; Bruce, Martha L.; Difede, JoAnn

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although unintentional falls may pose a threat of death or injury, few studies have investigated their psychological impact on older adults. This study sought to gather data on early posttraumatic stress symptoms in older adults in the hospital setting after a fall. Method Participants in this study were 100 adults age 65 years or older admitted to a large urban hospital in New York City because of a fall. Men and women were represented approximately equally in the sample; most were interviewed within days of the fall event. The study's bedside interview included the Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Scale, which inquires about the presence and severity of 17 trauma-related symptoms. Results Twenty-seven participants reported substantial posttraumatic stress symptoms (moderate or higher severity). Exploratory bivariate analyses suggested an association between posttraumatic stress symptom severity and female gender, lower level of education, unemployment, number of medical conditions, and back/chest injury. Conclusions A significant percentage of older patients hospitalized after a fall suffer substantial posttraumatic stress. Future investigations are needed to assess the association between the psychiatric impact of a fall and short-term inpatient outcomes as well as longer-term functional outcomes. PMID:25213226

  9. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Generalized Partial Credit Model Analysis of Differential Item Functioning across Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Generalized partial credit model, which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to test differential item functioning (DIF) for the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.), inattention (IA), and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) symptoms across boys and girls. Method: To accomplish this, parents completed…

  10. Differential effects of theta/beta and SMR neurofeedback in ADHD on sleep onset latency.

    PubMed

    Arns, Martijn; Feddema, Ilse; Kenemans, J Leon

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest a role for sleep and sleep problems in the etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a recent model about the working mechanism of sensori-motor rhythm (SMR) neurofeedback, proposed that this intervention normalizes sleep and thus improves ADHD symptoms such as inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. In this study we compared adult ADHD patients (N = 19) to a control group (N = 28) and investigated if differences existed in sleep parameters such as Sleep Onset Latency (SOL), Sleep Duration (DUR) and overall reported sleep problems (PSQI) and if there is an association between sleep-parameters and ADHD symptoms. Secondly, in 37 ADHD patients we investigated the effects of SMR and Theta/Beta (TBR) neurofeedback on ADHD symptoms and sleep parameters and if these sleep parameters may mediate treatment outcome to SMR and TBR neurofeedback. In this study we found a clear continuous relationship between self-reported sleep problems (PSQI) and inattention in adults with- and without-ADHD. TBR neurofeedback resulted in a small reduction of SOL, this change in SOL did not correlate with the change in ADHD symptoms and the reduction in SOL only happened in the last half of treatment, suggesting this is an effect of symptom improvement not specifically related to TBR neurofeedback. SMR neurofeedback specifically reduced the SOL and PSQI score, and the change in SOL and change in PSQI correlated strongly with the change in inattention, and the reduction in SOL was achieved in the first half of treatment, suggesting the reduction in SOL mediated treatment response to SMR neurofeedback. Clinically, TBR and SMR neurofeedback had similar effects on symptom reduction in ADHD (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity). These results suggest differential effects and different working mechanisms for TBR and SMR neurofeedback in the treatment of ADHD. PMID:25566034

  11. The Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Adult Personality Disorder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Kelly E.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Price, Lawrence H.; Gagne, Gerard G.; Mello, Andrea F.; Mello, Marcelo F.; Tyrka, Audrey R.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed personality disorder symptomatology in a community sample of healthy adults without diagnosable DSM-IV-TR Axis I psychiatric disorders who reported a history of childhood abuse. Twenty-eight subjects with a history of moderate to severe physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse according to the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were compared to 33 subjects without an abuse history on symptoms of personality disorders. Subjects in the Abuse group were more likely to report subclinical symptoms of paranoid, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, obsessive compulsive, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorders. These findings link reports of childhood abuse with symptoms of personality disorders in the absence of Axis I psychiatric disorders in a community sample of healthy adults. PMID:17685839

  12. Psychiatric and Addictive Symptoms of Young Adult Female Indoor Tanners

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Darlow, Susan; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Manne, Sharon L.; Munshi, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Indoor tanning (IT) increases risk for melanoma and is particularly common among young adult women. IT has also been linked with some psychiatric symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction) associated with endorphin release during ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure. The objective of the current study was to investigate associations between IT, tanning dependence, and psychiatric and substance use symptoms in young adult women. Design Cross-sectional survey and psychiatric interview. Setting Online, except for the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) that was completed over the telephone. Subjects Participants were 306 female university students aged 18–25 years. Measures MINI, Seasonal Scale Index, tanning dependence scales, reporting ever having used a tanning bed or booth with tanning lamps (single item), reporting smoking a cigarette in the last 30 days (single item). Analysis Descriptive statistics, chi square analysis, multivariate logistic regression. Results Forty-six percent of the sample reported a history of IT, and 25% were classified as tanning dependent. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that IT was significantly associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders, generalized anxiety, and not having social anxiety. Tanning dependence was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders. Conclusion Tanning is of concern not only for its association with skin cancer but for its association with psychiatric and substance use symptoms. Young women with certain psychological problems may seek relief from their symptoms by IT. These findings suggest that indoor tanners may benefit from health behavior and other psychosocial interventions. PMID:23621780

  13. Gently restless: association of ADHD-like traits with response inhibition and interference control.

    PubMed

    Polner, Bertalan; Aichert, Désirée; Macare, Christine; Costa, Anna; Ettinger, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Impairment of inhibition-related functions is one of the most pronounced cognitive deficits found in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Compelling evidence from studies of unaffected relatives of patients with ADHD and of ADHD-like traits in healthy subjects suggest the continuous distribution of ADHD symptoms in the population. A more subtle inhibitory deficit can also be found in healthy relatives of patients and in subjects with high ADHD-like traits. Here, we examined the relationship between inhibitory performance and ADHD-like traits, for the first time, in a large sample of healthy adults by applying multiple, widely used tests of inhibition-related functions. ADHD-like traits, in general, were independently predicted by Stroop interference score and, at trend level, by go/no-go commission error rate while controlling for socio-demographic factors, verbal intelligence and neuroticism. Additionally, higher inattentive traits were related to worse Stroop performance at trend level, and higher hyperactive/impulsive traits were significantly associated with more go/no-go commission errors. ADHD-like traits were strongly related to neuroticism. The study shows that individual differences in ADHD-like traits are related to variance in fundamental inhibition-related functions over and above effects of negative affect regulation, but the relationships tend to be small. The results suggest the quasi-dimensionality of ADHD and raise further questions about the relationship between genetic factors and the deficit of inhibition-related functions in the ADHD spectrum. PMID:25209569

  14. Parent Report of ADHD Symptoms of Early Adolescents: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Finney, Sara J.; Evans, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    The Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) scale includes the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. This study examined only the ADHD items of the DBD scale. This scale is frequently used for assessing parent-…

  15. Cognitive Functioning and Family Risk Factors in Relation to Symptom Behaviors of ADHD and ODD in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forssman, Linda; Eninger, Lilianne; Tillman, Carin M.; Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the authors investigated whether ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors share associations with problems in cognitive functioning and/or family risk factors in adolescence. This was done by examining independent as well as specific associations of cognitive functioning and family risk factors with ADHD and…

  16. The Effects of Childhood ADHD on Adult Labor Market Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 18689

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jason

    2013-01-01

    While several types of mental illness, including substance abuse disorders, have been linked with poor labor market outcomes, no current research has been able to examine the effects of childhood ADHD. As ADHD has become one of the most prevalent childhood mental conditions, it is useful to understand the full set of consequences of the illness.…

  17. Characteristics of Adolescents and Young Adults with ADHD Who Divert or Misuse Their Prescribed Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Gignac, Martin; Swezey, Allison; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Biederman, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the risks and characteristics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients who misuse or divert their stimulant medications. As part of a 10-year longitudinal study of youths with ADHD, the authors evaluated medication diversion or misuse at the last follow-up period. Method: Structured psychiatric…

  18. Social Appraisal of Adult ADHD: Stigma and Influences of the Beholder's Big Five Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canu, Will H.; Newman, Matthew L.; Morrow, Tara L.; Pope, Daniel L. W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates social stigma associated with a diagnosis of ADHD in adulthood and whether Big Five personality traits predict appraisals of affected individuals. Method: A sample of 257 undergraduates rate the desirability of targets with ADHD, minor medical problems, and with no appreciable weakness, across several social…

  19. ADHD Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Medicines Print A ... Medicación para el tratamiento del TDAH (ADHD) Managing ADHD With Medicine Just about everyone has trouble concentrating ...

  20. Nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization in an adult rat model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Watterson, Elizabeth; Spitzer, Alexander; Watterson, Lucas R; Brackney, Ryan J; Zavala, Arturo R; Olive, M Foster; Sanabria, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased risk of tobacco dependence. Nicotine, the main psychoactive component of tobacco, appears to be implicated in ADHD-related tobacco dependence. However, the behavioral responsiveness to nicotine of the prevalent animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), is currently underinvestigated. The present study examined the activational effects of acute and chronic nicotine on the behavior of adult male SHRs, relative to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) controls. Experiment 1 verified baseline strain differences in open-field locomotor activity. Experiment 2 tested for baseline strain differences in rotational behavior using a Rotorat apparatus. Adult SHR and WKY rats were then exposed to a 7-day regimen of 0.6mg/kg/d s.c. nicotine, or saline, prior to each assessment. A separate group of SHRs underwent similar training, but was pre-treated with mecamylamine, a cholinergic antagonist. Nicotine sensitization, context conditioning, and mecamylamine effects were then tested. Baseline strain differences were observed in open-field performance and in the number of full rotations in the Rotorat apparatus, but not in the number of 90° rotations or direction changes. In these latter measures, SHRs displayed weaker nicotine-induced rotational suppression than WKYs. Both strains expressed nicotine-induced sensitization of rotational activity, but evidence for strain differences in sensitization was ambiguous; context conditioning was not observed. Mecamylamine reversed the effects of nicotine on SHR performance. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a reduced aversion to nicotine (expressed in rats as robust locomotion) may facilitate smoking among adults with ADHD.