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Sample records for adult african-american women

  1. Implementation of Evidence-Based HIV Interventions for Young Adult African American Women in Church Settings

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Design Mixed methods cross-sectional design. Setting African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. Participants 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Methods Mixed methods convergent parallel design. Results The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Conclusion Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. PMID:25139612

  2. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse.

  3. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. PMID:26374084

  4. Protective Parenting, Relationship Power Equity, and Condom Use Among Rural African American Emerging Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Chen, Yifu; Burwell, Stephanie; Brody, Gene H.

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections disproportionately affect African Americans, particularly young women. The influence of a set of interrelated protective parenting processes—instrumental and emotional support, sexual risk communication, and encouragement of goals for employment or education—on emerging adult women was examined. Parenting was hypothesized to affect consistent condom use through its association with women’s reports of power equity in their intimate relationships. Hypotheses were tested with 135 sexually active women 18 to 21 years of age living in rural southern communities. Structural equation modeling indicated that (a) parenting processes predicted women’s self-reported relationship power equity and consistent condom use, and (b) relationship power equity predicted consistent condom use. Limited support emerged for a mediational role of relationship power equity in explaining the influence of parenting on consistent condom use. Parental involvement and young women’s establishment of personal control in their intimate relationships are important goals for sexual risk reduction programs. PMID:23729949

  5. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  6. College graduation reduces vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American young adult women.

    PubMed

    Painter, Julia E; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Depadilla, Lara M; Simpson-Robinson, Lashun

    2012-01-01

    African-American women are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. The Theory of Gender and Power (TGP) posits that socioeconomic exposures, including educational attainment, place women at increased risk for STIs/HIV. This study examined the association between educational attainment and vulnerability to STIs/HIV, as well as potential TGP-driven mediators of this association, among African-American women. Baseline data were assessed from an STI/HIV prevention intervention for African-American women (n = 848) aged 18 to 29 recruited from three Kaiser Permanente Centers in Atlanta, Georgia. Data collection included a survey of demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures and self-collected, laboratory-confirmed vaginal swabs for STIs (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus). Multiple regression analyses and multivariate mediation analyses were used to examine the association between educational attainment with a laboratory-confirmed STI and potential TGP mediators. Controlling for age and receipt of public assistance, the odds of an STI diagnosis were 73% lower among participants with a college degree or greater compared with participants who had not completed high school. There were also significant associations between educational attainment and multiple TGP mediators from the sexual division of power and the structure of cathexis. TGP constructs did not mediate the association between educational attainment and laboratory-confirmed STI. The current study suggests that graduating from college may lead to a beneficial reduction in vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. Findings from this study support expanding structural-level interventions, emphasizing both high school and college graduation, as a means of reducing vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women.

  7. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners. PMID:22224965

  8. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  9. Heart Truth for African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    THE HEART TRUTH ® FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: AN ACTION PLAN When you hear the term “heart disease,” what’s your first reaction? Like many women, you may ... in four women dies of heart disease. For African American women, the risk of heart disease is especially ...

  10. Hair care practices in African American women.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Chemene R; Quinn, Timothy M; Kelly, A Paul

    2003-10-01

    Hair care in African American women is wrought with historical and cultural issues. Dermatologists need to improve their understanding of hair and scalp disorders in their African American patient population by being informed about the styling methods commonly used by and for these patients. The styling habits described in this article are intended to encompass the hairstyles adapted by a wide range of African American women with varying hair textures.

  11. Aerobic exercise attenuates blood pressure reactivity to cold pressor test in normotensive, young adult African-American women.

    PubMed

    Bond, V; Mills, R M; Caprarola, M; Vaccaro, P; Adams, R G; Blakely, R; Roltsch, M; Hatfield, B; Davis, G C; Franks, B D; Fairfax, J; Banks, M

    1999-01-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure reactivity to behavioral stress has been observed in the African-American population, and such a pressor response is believed to play a role in hypertension. Regular aerobic exercise has been shown to exert an anti-hypertensive effect, and this may alter the blood pressure hyperreactivity observed in African Americans. To test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise attenuates pressor reactivity in African Americans, we studied eight healthy aerobically-trained normotensive African-American females and five similar sedentary females. The stress stimuli consisted of the cold pressor test with the foot immersed in ice water for two minutes. The aerobic exercise training protocol consisted of six weeks of jogging at 60-70% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), three days/week for 35 min/exercise session. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow were measured. Manifestation of a training effect was illustrated by a 24.1 +/- 0.2% increase in VO2peak (26.9 +/- 1.2 mL x kg(-1) min(-1) vs 35.4 +/- 1.6 mL x kg(-1) min(-1)) (P<.05). Within the exercise-trained group there was a 6.3 +/- .15% decrease in systolic pressure (129 +/- 4.6 mm Hg vs. 121 +/- 5.4 mm Hg) (P<.05), and a 5.0 +/- .05% decrement in mean arterial blood pressure (99 +/- 3.3 mm Hg vs 94 +/- 3.6 mm Hg) (P<.05) during the cold pressor test. Pressor reactivity to cold stress did not change in the untrained group. Measures of heart rate, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow were unaltered during conditions of the cold pressor test. We conclude that aerobic exercise attenuates the blood pressure reactivity to behavioral stress in young, adult normotensive African-American females. A lifestyle change such as exercising may play a role in reducing the risk of hypertension in African-American women. PMID:10355479

  12. Anticipated HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Sexually Active African-American Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Julia; Cene-Kush, Clare; Conner, Alaina; Cwiak, Carrie; Haddad, Lisa; Mulligan, Mark; DiClemente, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    An HIV vaccine, once it becomes available, could reduce vulnerability to HIV among African-American women. The purpose of this study was to assess determinants of HIV vaccine acceptability among African-American women across hypothetical levels of vaccine efficacy. Participants were recruited from a hospital-based family planning clinic in Atlanta, GA serving low-income patients (N = 321). Data were collected from audio-computer assisted surveys administered in the clinic waiting room. Psychosocial survey items were guided by Risk Homeostasis Theory (RHT) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify determinants of acceptability for two hypothetical HIV vaccines with 50% and 90% efficacy. Overall, 63% of participants would accept a vaccine with 50% efficacy and 85% would accept a vaccine with 90% efficacy. In multivariate analyses, odds of acceptability for a vaccine with 50% efficacy were higher among participants with greater perceived HIV vaccine benefits (AOR = 1.13, p < 0.001) and lower among participants with more than high school education (AOR = 0.47, p = 0.033) and greater perceived costs of HIV vaccination (AOR = 0.95, p = 0.010). Odds of acceptability for a vaccine with 90% efficacy were higher among participants with greater perceived costs of unprotected sex (AOR = 1.08, p = 0.026), HIV vaccine benefits (AOR = 1.23, p < 0.001) and self-efficacy for sex refusal (AOR = 1.11, p = 0.044). HIV vaccine acceptability was high, particularly for a vaccine with 90% efficacy. Findings suggest that demographic and psychosocial factors may impact acceptability of an eventual HIV vaccine. Once an HIV vaccine is available, interventions to maximize uptake may benefit from using RHT and SCT constructs to target relevant psychosocial factors, such as perceived benefits and perceived costs of vaccination. PMID:26343960

  13. Substance abuse in African American women.

    PubMed

    Wingo, L K

    2001-01-01

    Substance abuse is a serious problem from which, regardless of sex or race, no one is immune. Each racial and gender group has specific etiological factors relating to the use of illicit drugs. Data regarding substance abuse in African American women has only recently begun to emerge in the literature. Issues such as socio-economic, racism, and sexism, place African American women at particular risk for substance abuse. Limited availability to treatment, a lack of appropriate treatment and poor social supports impact recovery and places these women at risk for relapse. This article provides an overview of the current literature regarding substance abuse, treatment and recovery in African American women.

  14. Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jayatta D.

    2012-01-01

    Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

  15. Health Conditions Common in African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Return to top Health conditions common in African-American women Asthma Breast cancer Cancer Cervical cancer Diabetes Glaucoma and cataracts Heart disease High blood pressure High cholesterol HIV/AIDS Infant death Kidney disease Lupus Mental health ...

  16. African American Women's Preparation for Childbirth From the Perspective of African American Health-Care Providers.

    PubMed

    Abbyad, Christine; Robertson, Trina Reed

    2011-01-01

    Preparation for birthing has focused primarily on Caucasian women. No studies have explored African American women's birth preparation. From the perceptions of 12 African American maternity health-care providers, this study elicited perceptions of the ways in which pregnant African American women prepare for childbirth. Focus group participants answered seven semistructured questions. Four themes emerged: connecting with nurturers, traversing an unresponsive system, the need to be strong, and childbirth classes not a priority. Recommendations for nurses and childbirth educators include: (a) self-awareness of attitudes toward African Americans, (b) empowering of clients for birthing, (c) recognition of the role that pregnant women's mothers play, (d) tailoring of childbirth classes for African American women, and (e) research on how racism influences pregnant African American women's preparation for birthing.

  17. Age and HIV Risk and Protective Behaviors among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corneille, Maya A.; Zyzniewski, Linda E.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2008-01-01

    Though HIV prevention efforts have focused on young adult women, women of all ages may engage in HIV risk behaviors and experience barriers to condom use. This article examines the effect of age on sexual risk and protective attitudes and behaviors among African American women. Unmarried heterosexual African American women between the ages of 18…

  18. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  19. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2011-01-01

    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  20. Perceptions of Domestic Violence: A Dialogue with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

    2004-01-01

    Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…

  1. Research with African Americans: Lessons Learned about Recruiting African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting African American research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of African American college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…

  2. Influences of Social and Style Variables on Adult Usage of African American English Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Holly K.; Grogger, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Method: Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20-30 years. The authors…

  3. Perspectives of African-American women on infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Glenna L

    2008-01-01

    Twice as many African-American infants die each year when compared to White infants. This study explores the lived experiences of African-American women to identify factors related to this racial gap in infant mortality. Thirteen African-American women from two Virginia towns participated in either a focus group or in-depth interviews. Content and interpretive analysis revealed several themes. Participants indicated that the experiences of stress and racism are constant factors in African-American women's lives and are inseparable from their pregnancy experiences. Participants noted the importance of social support and the health care provider-client relationship for positive pregnancy outcomes.

  4. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  5. Critical social theory and the domination of African American Women.

    PubMed

    Davis, S P

    1995-01-01

    This historical reconstruction of the experiences of African American women in America from slavery to the present exposes the prevailing and enduring system of White male domination. From White men having control of their reproductive choices, to conspiracy to withhold the right to vote, African American women were victims of both sexism and racism. Later, as a result of the myth conceived by White sociologists of the super African American woman, further divisiveness became apparent in the African American home. As African American women took advantage of educational opportunities only to find that there was a dearth of similarly educated African American males to marry, increasing numbers of African American men were reported as parties to violent acts, drugs or illness. All of these variables are conjectured as impacting on the African American woman's experience. Lastly, data were presented depicting the increasing trend of African American women marrying White men, and the emergence of a more diverse workforce. It was concluded that economics serve as a catalyst for this change in human relations.

  6. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended.

  7. Home Remedy Use Among African American and White Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Sara A; Sandberg, Joanne C; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Altizer, Kathryn P; Arcury, Thomas A

    2015-06-01

    Home remedy use is an often overlooked component of health self-management, with a rich tradition, particularly among African Americans and others who have experienced limited access to medical care or discrimination by the health care system. Home remedies can potentially interfere with biomedical treatments. This study documented the use of home remedies among older rural adults, and compared use by ethnicity (African American and white) and gender. A purposeful sample of 62 community-dwelling adults ages 65+ from rural North Carolina was selected. Each completed an in-depth interview, which probed current use of home remedies, including food and non-food remedies, and the symptoms or conditions for use. Systematic, computer-assisted analysis was used to identify usage patterns. Five food and five non-food remedies were used by a large proportion of older adults. African American elders reported greater use than white elders; women reported more use for a greater number of symptoms than men. Non-food remedies included long-available, over-the-counter remedies (e.g., Epsom salts) for which "offlabel" uses were reported. Use focused on alleviating common digestive, respiratory, skin, and musculoskeletal symptoms. Some were used for chronic conditions in lieu of prescription medications. Home remedy use continues to be a common feature of the health self-management of older adults, particularly among African Americans, though at lower levels than previously reported. While some use is likely helpful or benign, other use has the potential to interfere with medical management of disease. Health care providers should be aware of the use of remedies by their patients. PMID:26543255

  8. Home Remedy Use Among African American and White Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Home remedy use is an often overlooked component of health self-management, with a rich tradition, particularly among African Americans and others who have experienced limited access to medical care or discrimination by the health care system. Home remedies can potentially interfere with biomedical treatments. This study documented the use of home remedies among older rural adults, and compared use by ethnicity (African American and white) and gender. A purposeful sample of 62 community-dwelling adults ages 65+ from rural North Carolina was selected. Each completed an in-depth interview, which probed current use of home remedies, including food and non-food remedies, and the symptoms or conditions for use. Systematic, computer-assisted analysis was used to identify usage patterns. Five food and five non-food remedies were used by a large proportion of older adults. African American elders reported greater use than white elders; women reported more use for a greater number of symptoms than men. Non-food remedies included long-available, over-the-counter remedies (e.g., Epsom salts) for which “off-label” uses were reported. Use focused on alleviating common digestive, respiratory, skin, and musculoskeletal symptoms. Some were used for chronic conditions in lieu of prescription medications. Home remedy use continues to be a common feature of the health self-management of older adults, particularly among African Americans, though at lower levels than previously reported. While some use is likely helpful or benign, other use has the potential to interfere with medical management of disease. Health care providers should be aware of the use of remedies by their patients. PMID:26543255

  9. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  10. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  11. Culturally specific dance to reduce obesity in African American women.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye A

    2010-07-01

    This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women. PMID:19098267

  12. Culturally Specific Dance to Reduce Obesity in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Murrock, Carolyn J.; Gary, Faye A.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women. PMID:19098267

  13. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine social support needs of obese and over-weight African American women for weight loss. Methods Focus groups were conducted with over-weight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD=12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in receiving support from others focused on the health benefits of weight loss. Behaviors perceived as supportive include co-participating in exercise, providing nutrition education, using positive reinforcements, and avoiding criticism. Conclusions: African American women are interested in a program designed to increase social support for their weight loss. PMID:19182980

  14. Clustering of Risk Behaviours among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…

  15. Reaching rural African American women difficult. Researcher discusses chief issues.

    PubMed

    2005-06-01

    Poverty and inequality are among the major challenges faced by the rural African American women at risk for HIV infection, and they increase this population's potential for becoming infected, an expert says.

  16. The Lived Experience of the Adult African American Female Who Has Lived in Multiple Foster Care Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Avonda C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine and describe the lived experiences of the adult African American woman who had lived in multiple foster care placements. Eleven adult African American women ages 22-25 participated in semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to tell their stories and provide data of the memories of the experience. The…

  17. Advancing breast cancer survivorship among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary S; Smith, Selina A

    2015-09-01

    Advances have occurred in breast cancer survivorship but, for many African-American women, challenges and gaps in relevant information remain. This article identifies opportunities to address disparities in breast cancer survival and quality of life, and thereby to increase breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. For breast cancer survivors, common side effects, lasting for long periods after cancer treatment, include fatigue, loss of strength, difficulty sleeping, and sexual dysfunction. For addressing physical and mental health concerns, a variety of interventions have been evaluated, including exercise and weight training, dietary interventions, yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction, and support groups or group therapy. Obesity has been associated with breast cancer recurrence and poorer survival. Relative to white survivors, African-American breast cancer survivors are more likely to be obese and less likely to engage in physical activity, although exercise improves overall quality of life and cancer-related fatigue. Considerable information exists about the effectiveness of such interventions for alleviating distress and improving quality of life among breast cancer survivors, but few studies have focused specifically on African-American women with a breast cancer diagnosis. Studies have identified a number of personal factors that are associated with resilience, increased quality of life, and positive adaptation to a breast cancer diagnosis. There is a need for a better understanding of breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. Additional evaluations of interventions for improving the quality of life and survival of African-American breast cancer survivors are desirable. PMID:26303657

  18. African American women's breast memories, cancer beliefs, and screening behaviors.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Eileen C

    2004-01-01

    African American women experience higher breast cancer mortality and lower survival rates compared with white women of comparable age and cancer stage. The literature is lacking in studies that address the influence of past events on current health behaviors among women of diverse cultural groups. This qualitative exploratory study used participant narratives to examine associations between women's memories and feelings concerning their breasts and current breast cancer screening behaviors. Twelve professional African American women, aged 42 to 64 years, shared stories about memories and feelings regarding their breasts. Codes grouped together with related patterns and recurrences revealed categories that encompassed the language and culture of the participants. The categories identified were Seasons of Breast Awareness, Womanhood, Self-Portraits, Breast Cancer and Cancer Beliefs, Breast Cancer Screening Experiences, and Participants' Advice for Change. These categories provide direction for further exploration of barriers to health promotion practices among African American women and women in general.

  19. Ebony and Ivory: Relationship between African American Young Women's Skin Color and Ratings of Self and Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia; McFall-Roberts, Ebuni; Flowers, Claudia; Garrett, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Many individuals face discrimination because of their skin color; however, skin color of African American young adults has not been studied in detail. This study examines relationships between skin color and perceptions among African American college women. The study yielded a positive correlation between personal values and self-rated skin color …

  20. Depressive Symptoms in African-American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Michael K.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms in an African American female college student sample (n=78) using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI2) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). MMPI-2 was a more conservative scale than BDI in identifying depressive symptom levels. Discusses stress inoculation methods to assist…

  1. African American College Women's Suicide Buffers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…

  2. A Comparison of African-American and Caucasian Women Adult Children of Alcoholics and Non Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedigo, Shiela; McDermott, Diane

    Alcoholism is a disease that has been shown to affect not only the alcoholic but also the family of the alcoholic. The research on Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOA) reveals that the effects of parental alcoholism are not something that is eradicated once the child leaves home. This study examined the empirical evidence for characteristics of…

  3. African American Women and Eating Disturbances: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Shannon K.

    2003-01-01

    Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African…

  4. African-American Women's Perceptions and Experiences About Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Obeng, Cecilia S; Emetu, Roberta E; Curtis, Terry J

    2015-01-01

    There are health benefits to breastfeeding for both mothers and their children. The preventive health effects of breastfeeding continue into adulthood, lowering rate of various chronic illnesses. African-American women, especially of lower socioeconomic status, are less likely to breastfeed in comparison to their racial and ethnic counterparts. The purpose of this study is to explore how African-American women experience breastfeeding in the early stages of postpartum care. Two focus groups (N = 20, 10 in each group) were conducted with African-American mothers. Results revealed that participants felt that there were health benefits to breastfeeding, and organizations such as Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provided support. However, participants stated that lack of information, negative perceptions, and unforeseen circumstances were barriers to breastfeeding. This study proposes support and interventions for this group to increase breastfeeding among this population. PMID:26734597

  5. Health information-seeking behavior and older African American women.

    PubMed

    Gollop, C J

    1997-04-01

    This study explored the ways in which urban, older, African American women obtain health information and some of the factors that influence such activity. Among the possible determinants examined were self-perceived literacy, access to health information, and mobility. The findings suggest that respondents receive health information from their physicians, the mass media, and members of their social networks. The results of this research also indicated that members of this population have a highly positive perception of the public library, although only a small segment use the library regularly, and that it may be in the interest of the library to investigate the role it could play in providing health information to older adults. PMID:9160150

  6. Portraits of Outstanding African American Women. Grades 4-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Doris Hunter

    This resource book provides information and activity sheets on the achievements and contributions of exceptional African American women, past and present. The book contains six sections, thematically organized around the central issue(s) affecting the lives of the women featured. Introductory questions, biographical portraits and skill-building…

  7. Survival Strategies of African-American Women in Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Terri Lynn

    This qualitative dissertation examines the survival strategies of African-American women attending a community college. It identifies specific intervention strategies that will improve the quality of such women's collegiate experience and will facilitate persistence. A portraiture research methodology was used to collect data on 10 participants…

  8. Nursing's role in racism and African American women's health.

    PubMed

    Eliason, M J

    1999-01-01

    African American women's health has been neglected in the nursing and other health care literature, in spite of evidence that they are among the most vulnerable populations in the United States today. In this article, I highlight the health disparities between African American and European American women, discuss possible reasons for the disparities, and propose that nursing as a profession has been complicit in perpetuating the racism of health care and society. Although the focus is on nursing research and practice, it is likely that other health care disciplines perpetuate racism in similar ways.

  9. HIV/AIDS stigma and religiosity among African American women.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy; An, Soontae

    2010-06-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS compared with other ethnicities, accounting for two-thirds (67%) of all women diagnosed with HIV. Despite their increased risk of HIV infection, few studies have been conducted to understand culture-specific factors leading to their vulnerability. Given the central role of religious organizations in African American communities, this study explored whether and to what extent religiosity plays a role in stigma toward HIV/AIDS. Results of hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for key factors, religiosity was a significant factor predicting the level of religious stigma. Those with high religiosity displayed significantly higher stigma, associating HIV/AIDS with a curse or punishment from God. Verbatim responses to an open-ended question also revealed seemingly ingrained prejudice against HIV/AIDS from a religious perspective. The findings point to the important role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in addressing HIV/AIDS issues within African American communities.

  10. Factors Influencing Dating Experiences Among African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.; Lee, Anna K.; Witherspoon, Daphne D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined sociocultural factors that impact dating and sexual experiences of heterosexual African American undergraduate college students attending a historically Black institution in the Southeastern United States. Specifically, mate availability and relationship involvement were analyzed to document students’ experiences, and how these influences may be associated with sexual decision making and behavior. Data from nine focus groups (N = 57) were aggregated and four subthemes were identified: competition among women, acceptability of mates, high prevalence of casual relationships, and lowered expectations for commitment. Power dynamics emerged as a contributing factor to the types of relationship involvement, sexual decision-making, and behavior among participants. The importance of prevention programs focusing on situational and cultural variables is highlighted. Additionally, implications for professionals working with emerging adults to consider the impact of the gender ratio imbalance, and perceived power distributions on perceptions of dating relationships, and sexual decision making and behavior are addressed. PMID:25530924

  11. Exploring the Sexuality of African American Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Laganá, Luciana; White, Theresa; Bruzzone, Daniel E.; Bruzzone, Cristine E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To identify sexually-related themes of the sexuality of older African American women. Study Design Mixed method. Place and Duration of Study Department of Psychology, California State University Northridge, between July 2009 and June 2011. Methodology We included 13 African American older women (57 to 82 years of age), 11 of whom self-identified as heterosexual, one as bisexual, and one as lesbian. We used a semi-structured interview protocol through which we explored some aspects of the respondents’ sexuality (assessed at a superficial level, to be as tactful as possible). Moreover, we collected information on demographics and self-rated physical health. Two co-authors served as coders, and used content analysis to identify the most salient sexuality themes. Results Emerging themes were (in order from most to least endorsed): having sexual desire (often unfulfilled); engaging in less sexual activity in older age; experiencing changes in one’s sexual life as a function of absence of a spouse; and exercising control over how one’s sexual life is conducted. Motivated by the paucity of our sexuality data, we have also provided suggestions to scholars interested in conducting more in-depth further research on this topic with older African American women. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the common notion that older women are asexual is a myth, while lack of a suitable sexual partner is a problem reported by many African American older women who would otherwise enjoy sexual interaction. PMID:25632380

  12. Promoting African American women and sexual assertiveness in reducing HIV/AIDS: an analytical review of the research literature.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Bernice Roberts; Jenkins, Chalice C

    2011-01-01

    African American women, including adolescents and adults, are disproportionately affected by the transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV/AID is a health disparity issue for African American females in comparison to other ethnic groups. According to data acquired from 33 states in 2005, 64% of women who have HIV/ AIDS are African American women. It is estimated that during 2001-2004, 61% of African Americans under the age of 25 had been living with HIV/AIDS. This article is an analytical review of the literature emphasizing sexual assertiveness of African American women and the gap that exists in research literature on this population. The multifaceted model of HIV risk posits that an interpersonal predictor of risky sexual behavior is sexual assertiveness. The critical themes extracted from a review of the literature reveal the following: (a) sexual assertiveness is related to HIV risk in women, (b) sexual assertiveness and sexual communication are related, and (c) women with low sexual assertiveness are at increased risk of HIV As a result of this comprehensive literature, future research studies need to use models in validating sexual assertiveness interventions in reducing the risk of HIV/AIDS in African American women. HIV/AIDs prevention interventions or future studies need to target reducing the risk factors of HIV/AIDS of African Americans focusing on gender and culture-specific strategies.

  13. Race, Class, Gender and Community College Persistence among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walpole, MaryBeth; Chambers, Crystal Renee; Goss, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This inquiry is an exploration of the educational trajectories of African American women community college students. We compare the persistence of African American women to African American men and to all women college students using the 1996/2001 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Survey and the 1993/2003 Baccalaureate and Beyond…

  14. The Meaning of African American College Women's Experiences Attending a Predominantly White Institution: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Christine R.; Woodside, Marianne; Pollard, Brittany L.; Roman, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Because both race and gender are important to the development of African American women, student affairs professionals need to understand the unique experiences of African American women within the context of the college environment. In this phenomenological study, we examined African American women's lived experiences as college students at a…

  15. Resiliency in Physics: The Lived Experiences of African-American Women Who Completed Doctoral Physics Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnette, Samara Fleming

    2013-01-01

    Currently, little is known about African-American women with doctoral degrees in physics. This study examined the lived experiences of African-American women who completed doctoral programs in physics. Due to factors of race and gender, African-American women automatically enter a double-bind in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics…

  16. It's all sacred: African American women's perspectives on spirituality.

    PubMed

    Banks-Wallace, JoAnne; Parks, Lennette

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we examined the meaning and function of spirituality for a group of African American women. Participants had been recruited for a focus group study exploring the significance of mother-daughter-sister relationships to the well being and health behavior choices of women. Women developed individually defined concepts of spirituality by combining Judeo-Christian traditions and African cosmology. Spirituality was a cornerstone of many participants' daily lives. It influenced women's decision-making and behavior across many realms. For example, many women came to the conclusion that domestic violence was not part of God's plan for their lives. Spiritual-based strategies may provide a rich foundation for innovative and efficacious health promotion interventions targeting African American women. Clinicians can assist in the co-creation of sacred spaces where women can connect with themselves and each other.

  17. Placing the burden on the individual: overweight and obesity in African American and mainstream women's magazines.

    PubMed

    Campo, Shelly; Mastin, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    One third of all U.S. adult women, and more than 75% of African American women, are overweight or obese. This study examined overweight and obesity editorial content (N=406) in three mainstream and three African American women's magazines between 1984 and 2004. Content analysis was used to determine which strategies were suggested regarding diet, overweight, and obesity, which components of social cognitive theory were offered (behavior, person, or environment), and whether or not there were differences in the genres. The results suggest that although a wide range of strategies were being offered, the vast majority were behavioral changes with an individual solution focus. Although African American and mainstream magazines suggested many of the same strategies, nearly half more frequently appeared in one or the other genre. Mainstream magazines were twice as likely to offer the limiting or eliminating of fast food or junk food, eating more protein, eating lower-fat foods, and eating smaller portions. African American magazines were much more likely to cover fad diets and to suggest readers rely on God or faith in their diet plans. The average number of strategies offered per article was significantly higher in mainstream than in African American magazines.

  18. Race, Gender, and Critique: African-American Women, White Women, and Domestic Violence in the 1980s and 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois

    2001-01-01

    Focusing on young adult working class and poor African American women and white women, who currently live in a largely inhospitable economy, this paper examines where these women lodge social critique (where they place the cause and imagine the remedy for their troubles). Data from indepth interviews indicate that respondents see the world with a…

  19. African American Women Leaders in Academic Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epps, Sharon K.

    2008-01-01

    Effective leadership and increasing diversity are central concerns in the library profession. Using qualitative interviewing and research methods, this study identifies the attributes, knowledge, and skills that African American women need in order to be successful leaders in today's Association of Research Libraries (ARL). These findings indicate…

  20. African American Women's Sexual Objectification Experiences: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…

  1. African American Women's Self Esteem Workshop: Yalom Meets Karenga.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Denise; Murry, Sherri

    Yalom's group theory and Karenga's Afrocentric paradigm are integrated in a workshop for African American women via the topical themes of each workshop session, the developmental approach from a semistructured group to a process-oriented group, and the process of training a practicum student. A six-week, semi-structured self-esteem workshop was…

  2. Behavioural Precursors and HIV Testing Behaviour among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Davis, Kevin C.; Rupert, Doug; Fraze, Jami

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether there is an association between knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, reported intentions to get an HIV test, and reported HIV testing behaviour at a later date among a sample of African American women. Design: Secondary analysis of data collected from October 2007 through March 2008 for a randomized controlled experiment…

  3. Successful African American Women School Leaders in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron-Asuncion, Alma

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this basic qualitative study was to explore the lived experiences of Floridian African American women in secondary educational leadership positions. Using critical race theory and Black feminist standpoint theory as a theoretical framework, this narrative analysis serves to increase the understanding of leadership styles among a…

  4. Balm in Gilead: Spiritual Dimensions in Counseling African American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Williams, Carmen Braun; Green, Evelyn L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes African American cultural and spiritual traditions that are the bedrock for therapeutic work with this population. States women who present for counseling with emotional themes of isolation, devaluation, internalized oppression, and low self-esteem and quest for positive racial identity are especially receptive to interventions that…

  5. Racial and ethnic differences in HPV knowledge, attitudes, and vaccination rates among low-income African-American, Haitian, Latina and Caucasian young adult women

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jack A.; Mercilus, Glory; Wilbur, MaryAnn B.; Figaro, Jean; Perkins, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine facilitators and barriers to HPV vaccine uptake in African-American, Haitian, Latina, and White women ages 18–22 and to determine vaccination completion rates among participants over 5 years. Design Using semi-structured interviews and medical record review, we assessed HPV knowledge and attitudes towards HPV vaccination among young women. We then determined their subsequent HPV vaccination initiation and completion rates. We used constructs from the Health Belief Model and methods based in grounded theory and content analysis to identify attitudes towards HPV vaccination cues to initiate vaccination, perception of HPV, and how communication about issues of sexuality may impact vaccine uptake. Participants We enrolled 132 African-American, Haitian, Latina, and White women aged 18–22 years who visited an urban academic medical center and two affiliated community health centers between the years 2007 and 2012. Main Outcome Measures Intent to vaccinate and actual vaccination rates Results Of 132 participants, 116 (90%) stated that they were somewhat or very likely to accept HPV vaccination if offered by their physician, but only 51% initiated the vaccination over the next 5 years. Seventy-eight percent of those who initiated vaccination completed the 3 doses of the HPV vaccine series. Forty-five percent (45%, n=50) of the adolescents who started the series completed three doses over a five year period: forty-two percent African-American (n=16), thirty-three percent Haitian (n=13), sixty-three percent Latina (n=10), and sixty-five White young women (n=11) completed the three-dose series. Despite low knowledge, they reported high levels of trust in physicians and were willing to vaccinate if recommended by their physicians. Conclusion Desire for HPV vaccination is high among older adolescents, physician recommendation and use of every clinic visit opportunity may improve vaccine uptake in young women. More White young women completed the HPV

  6. Successful African American women in science: A narrative inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, Cailisha L.

    This study used narrative inquiry as a methodology to explore the lived experiences of five African American women in science across the academic spectrum, from doctoral candidate to full professor. The research questions guiding the inquiry included one overarching question and three sub-questions: What are the lifestories of successful African American women in science?; a) How do successful African American women in science define themselves?; b) What have been the facilitators and barriers encountered by successful African American women in science?; and c) What have been the systems of support for African American women in science? The study was theoretically positioned within the frameworks of Critical Race Theory and Black Feminist Thought. The two theories were used to guide all aspects of the study including methodology, data collection, and analysis. Data included eleven 40-60 minute semi-structured interview transcripts as well as the participants' Curriculum Vitae. The study design and data analysis were built upon Clandinin and Connelly's (2000) and Clandinin's (2006) model of narrative inquiry which explores narratives as a means to understand experience. Analysis and interpretation created three dominant narratives: Scientific Beginnings, An Unexpected Journey, and Lift as You Climb. Each narrative set explores multiple stories that describe storylines which aligned with the participants' goals of who they were and who they were becoming as scientists; and, storylines of tension which ran counter to the women's goals and aspirations. Barriers and support systems are revealed, as well as the meanings the participants made of their experiences and how it affected their lives.

  7. Patterns of resistance: African American mothers and adult children with HIV illness.

    PubMed

    Boyle, J S; Hodnicki, D R; Ferrell, J A

    1999-01-01

    Although the research on caregiving and caregivers has been extensive, there have been few studies on the cultural context and meaning of African American caregiving in relation to HIV illness. Many Black feminists have argued that African American women experience a world different from those who are not Black and that failure to take account of race, class, and gender is paramount in an attempt to authentically portray the lives of African American women. This study argues that rural African American culture and experiences of racism and discrimination in the rural South shaped the responses of mothers when their adult children developed HIV illness. The study employed the ethnographic techniques of participant observation and in-depth interviews with 14 rural, poor, African American mothers who cared for adult children with HIV illness. Analysis of the data identified patterns of resistance that mothers employed throughout the caregiving experience. Mothers resisted labels and other controlling images that they believed marginalized them and negated what was happening to their children. Mothers used culturally patterned behaviors to protect their families and resist the stigma of HIV/AIDS.

  8. Patterns of resistance: African American mothers and adult children with HIV illness.

    PubMed

    Boyle, J S; Hodnicki, D R; Ferrell, J A

    1999-01-01

    Although the research on caregiving and caregivers has been extensive, there have been few studies on the cultural context and meaning of African American caregiving in relation to HIV illness. Many Black feminists have argued that African American women experience a world different from those who are not Black and that failure to take account of race, class, and gender is paramount in an attempt to authentically portray the lives of African American women. This study argues that rural African American culture and experiences of racism and discrimination in the rural South shaped the responses of mothers when their adult children developed HIV illness. The study employed the ethnographic techniques of participant observation and in-depth interviews with 14 rural, poor, African American mothers who cared for adult children with HIV illness. Analysis of the data identified patterns of resistance that mothers employed throughout the caregiving experience. Mothers resisted labels and other controlling images that they believed marginalized them and negated what was happening to their children. Mothers used culturally patterned behaviors to protect their families and resist the stigma of HIV/AIDS. PMID:10530083

  9. A Case Study of the Development of African American Women Executives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks Greaux, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…

  10. African Americans in Adult Education: The Harlem Renaissance Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Bailey, Juanita

    2006-01-01

    This study examined a 25-year period of African Americans in adult education by accessing the archival holdings of three major data centers: the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, the Moorland-Spingarn Archives, and the Hollis Burke Frissell Library. The sociopolitical context of the data was analyzed using a Black feminist…

  11. Measuring African American women's trust in provider during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Peters, Rosalind M; Benkert, Ramona; Templin, Thomas N; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E

    2014-04-01

    Significant racial disparities exist in pregnancy outcomes, but few researchers have examined the relationship between trust in providers and pregnancy outcomes. The Trust in Physician Scale (TPS), the most widely used tool, has not been tested in pregnancy. We assessed the psychometric properties of the TPS and identified correlates of trust in 189 pregnant African American women. Evidence supports internal consistency reliability (>.85) and internal structure of the TPS (CFI = .97; RMSEA = .05; χ(2) (42) = 65.93, p = .001), but TPS scores did not predict pregnancy outcomes. African American women reported a high level of trust in obstetric providers. Trust did not differ by provider type (physician or midwife) but was related to the women's history of perceived racism and strength of ethnic identity.

  12. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  13. Blood Pressure Dipping and Urban Stressors in Young Adult African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Mellman, Thomas A.; Hall Brown, Tyish S.; Kobayashi, Ihori; Abu-Bader, Soleman H.; Lavela, Joseph; Altaee, Duaa; McLaughlin, Latesha; Randall, Otelio S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Blunted nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping is an early marker of cardiovascular risk that is prevalent among African Americans. Purpose We evaluated relationships of BP dipping to neighborhood and posttraumatic stress and sleep in urban residing young adult African Americans. Methods One hundred thirty six Black, predominately African American, men and women with a mean age of 22.9 (SD = 4.6) filled out surveys, were interviewed and had two, 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings. Results Thirty eight percent had BP dipping ratios < .10. Wake after sleep onset (WASO), neighborhood disorder and neighborhood poverty rates but not posttraumatic stress symptoms, and other sleep measures, correlated significantly with dipping ratios. Models with the neighborhood measures that also included WASO increased the explained variance. Conclusions Studies elucidating mechanisms underlying effects of neighborhoods on BP dipping and the role of disrupted sleep, and how they can be mitigated are important directions for future research. PMID:25623895

  14. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  15. African American women's coping with health care prejudice.

    PubMed

    Benkert, Ramona; Peters, Rosalind M

    2005-11-01

    African American clients have reported racism and prejudice in health care; yet there is limited documentation of the strategies used to cope with these experiences. This study describes African American women's perceptions of prejudice in health care and the strategies used to cope with the experiences. This qualitative study used the constructivist perspective of interpretive interactionism for paradigmatic and methodological guidance. Participants were 20 women ranging from age 26 to 74 years with 50% having a high school education. Individual interviews consisting of five areas were conducted with three instruments measuring ethnic identity, socioeconomic status, and general demographics. The analyses provide two themes: experience with the "White health care system" and strategies for coping with the prejudice, which included getting angry, learning to unlearn, being assertive, and walking away. Consistent with the discussions of race in the United States, racism in health care has become a subtle entity that infuses health care relationships.

  16. African American Women: The Face of HIV/AIDS in Washington, DC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amutah, Ndidiamaka N.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the estimated HIV and AIDS case rates among adult and adolescent African-American females in the United States was 60.6 per 100,000, as compared to 3.3 per 100,000 for adult and adolescent white American females. Women living with HIV or AIDS often face complex social problems that may inhibit them from accessing resources and healthcare…

  17. Attitudes and Beliefs Associated with Leisure-Time Physical Activity among African American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Affuso, Olivia; Cox, Tiffany L.; Durant, Nefertiti H.; Allison, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective More than 60% of African American adults do not meet recommendations for moderate physical activity. We sought to discover the extent to which health attitudes and beliefs are associated with leisure-time physical activity in this population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting African American adults were asked about their health attitudes and beliefs during a national survey. Participants Participants were 807 African American men and women aged 18 years and older. Random-digit dialing was employed, sampling telephone numbers by geographical region, area code, and population size. Main Outcome Measures Participants were asked six health belief questions on the importance of exercise and body weight in health. Logistic regression was used to determine which of these factors were associated with physical activity participation. Results The percent of respondents participating in some form of physical activity during the past month was 87.1% in men and 82.9% in women. Factors associated with previous month physical activity in men were perceived personal importance of exercise (p<0.001) and necessity of exercise for health (p=0.018). In women, perceived personal importance of exercise (p<0.001), necessity of exercise for health (p= 0.006), and having enough activity space (p=0.017) were associated with physical activity participation. Conclusion Though the direction of causation is unknown, having the attitude that it is important to exercise or be physically active for health predicts physical activity participation in both African American men and women. Creating a sense of importance of physical activity to relieve stress and foster good health may stimulate physical activity participation in African American adults. PMID:21462732

  18. Lifestyle management of cardiovascular risk factors in African American women.

    PubMed

    Brennen, Marlene; Williams, Christine L

    2013-01-01

    African American women have the highest prevalence of obesity in the nation when compared to Caucasian and Hispanic women. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effect of nutrition education and counseling on weight loss, blood pressure, self- efficacy and perception of power. The project was a 12 week community-based lifestyle intervention program designed to provide counseling and education on increasing physical activity, dietary intake of fruits and vegetables while, decreasing dietary intake salt and fat. The results showed that the women, who engaged in all aspects of the program, were able to lose weight and lower their blood pressure.

  19. HIV/AIDS stigma and religiosity among African American women.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy; An, Soontae

    2010-06-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS compared with other ethnicities, accounting for two-thirds (67%) of all women diagnosed with HIV. Despite their increased risk of HIV infection, few studies have been conducted to understand culture-specific factors leading to their vulnerability. Given the central role of religious organizations in African American communities, this study explored whether and to what extent religiosity plays a role in stigma toward HIV/AIDS. Results of hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for key factors, religiosity was a significant factor predicting the level of religious stigma. Those with high religiosity displayed significantly higher stigma, associating HIV/AIDS with a curse or punishment from God. Verbatim responses to an open-ended question also revealed seemingly ingrained prejudice against HIV/AIDS from a religious perspective. The findings point to the important role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in addressing HIV/AIDS issues within African American communities. PMID:20574877

  20. Abused African American women's processes of staying healthy.

    PubMed

    Laughon, Kathryn

    2007-04-01

    Fifteen African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV) were interviewed to examine (a) the ways in which poor, urban African American women stay healthy, and particularly how they protected themselves from sexually transmitted diseases and HIV while in abusive relationships; and (b) the roles of intersecting contextual factors such as lifetime experiences of violence, mental health symptoms, and substance use in women's processes of maintaining their health. Data were analyzed using a qualitative descriptive approach. Women were managing numerous, complex problems as they actively worked to maintain their mental and physical health and that of their children. The turning point at which women made substantial changes came when women were "tired" and believed that a new beginning was needed. Racism, poverty, multiple experiences of violence, and health and mental health problems influenced women's health care decisions. Women's health maintenance strategies were often not visible to health care providers and included some behaviors that may place women at greater risk of violence or disease from the point of view of the health care provider.

  1. An ecological approach to physical activity in African American women.

    PubMed

    Walcott-McQuigg, J A; Zerwic, J J; Dan, A; Kelley, M A

    2001-12-01

    Physical activity in women has assumed increasing significance as a policy issue as a result of the release of the 1996 Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health. This report revealed that women in the United States were less likely than men to adhere to the recommended guidelines for physical activity. African American women are less likely than white women to participate in leisure time physical activity across age, occupational, and income groups. The purpose of this study was to use the Ecological Model of Health Promotion to explore policy, environmental, and individual factors influencing physical activity of middle- to older-aged African American women in a mixed income community in a large midwestern city. Focus group discussions were held with 3 groups of women -- administrators/community leaders, exercisers, and nonexercisers. Thirty-three women between the ages of 40 and 78 participated in the study. The women identified 6 themes influencing physical activity: perceptions of physical activity and exercise; perceived barriers to exercise; perceived benefits of and motivators to exercise; past and present opportunities for exercise; factors that enhance the successful delivery of an exercise program; and coalition building to deliver an exercise program to women in the community. The results of this study reveal that to successfully increase physical activity in an ethnic urban community, researchers and other concerned individuals need to collaborate at multiple ecological levels, with an initial emphasis on establishing coalitions between institutions, community groups, policy makers, and individuals.

  2. Immigration, income, drinking and obesity in African American adults.

    PubMed

    Ade, Julius N; Rohrer, Jim; Rea, Nancy K

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between immigration status, income, drinking and overweight and obesity in African American adults residing in the United States using an internet web based survey. Data on 303 adult African American immigrants and non-immigrants was collected using a self-administered web based survey. Respondents were recruited using a snowball sampling technique to obtain a convenience sample. Multiple logistic regression analysis were used to test the independent effects of the immigration status while controlling for confounding effects of demographic, social and behavioral variables. The results of the study showed no significant difference between obesity and immigration status in black adults residing in the US (adjusted odds ration = 1.1095, P = 0.7489). Significance at the P < 0.05 level was demonstrated for obesity and two independent variables: age (OR = 1.0332, P = 0.0298) and days per month consumed more than 5 alcoholic beverages (OR = 1.7735, P = 0.0001). Adult African American immigrants in this study sample were not at risk of being obese due to their immigration status. However, age and days in a month in which more than 5 alcoholic beverages are consumed were significant risk factors for obesity. Primary care providers should be alert for obesity and alcohol consumption in this population.

  3. Health literacy, smoking, and health indicators in African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Diana W.; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Shete, Sanjay; Spears, Claire A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2015-01-01

    We examined cross-sectional associations of health literacy (HL) with smoking and other established health indicators among 1,467 African American adults. Data emanated from a longitudinal cohort study designed to investigate cancer risk factors among church-going African American adults. We conducted linear and logistic regression analyses to assess associations between HL and health indicators. HL was assessed using an established single-item screening question. Outcomes included indicators of poor physical (cigarette smoking, self-rated general and physical health) and mental health (self-rated mental health, depressive symptoms, perceived stress). Nearly 19% of participants had low HL. Low HL was significantly associated with current smoking, poorer self-rated general and physical health, and higher perceived stress (ps < .05) even after controlling for demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, relationship status) and indicators of socioeconomic status (i.e., education, income, insurance status). Low HL appears to be an independent risk factor for smoking and other indicators of poor physical and mental health in a large sample of African American adults. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26513028

  4. Beliefs about racism and health among African American women with diabetes: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie A; Osborn, Chandra Y; Mendenhall, Emily A; Budris, Lisa M; Belay, Sophia; Tennen, Howard A

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to racism has been linked to poor health outcomes. Little is known about the impact of racism on diabetes outcomes. This study explored African American women's beliefs about how racism interacts with their diabetes self-management and control. Four focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 28 adult African American women with type 2 diabetes who were recruited from a larger quantitative study on racism and diabetes. The focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by the authors. Women reported that exposure to racism was a common phenomenon, and their beliefs did in fact link racism to poor health. Specifically, women reported that exposure to racism caused physiological arousal including cardiovascular and metabolic perturbations. There was consensus that physiological arousal was generally detrimental to health. Women also described limited, and in some cases maladaptive, strategies to cope with racist events, including eating unhealthy food choices and portions. There was consensus that the subjective nature of perceiving racism and accompanying social prohibitions often made it impossible to address racism directly. Many women described anger in such situations and the tendency to internalize anger and other negative emotions, only to find that the negative emotions would be reactivated repeatedly with exposure to novel racial stressors, even long after the original racist event remitted. African American women in this study believed that racism affects their diabetes self-management and control. Health beliefs can exert powerful effects on health behaviors and may provide an opportunity for health promotion interventions in diabetes.

  5. Differences in Career and Life Planning between African American and Caucasian Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Caroline S.; Myers, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    Women, especially African American women, have traditionally been in low-paying careers. This exploratory study examined how career aspirations are affected by future career and family plans. Results revealed that African American undergraduate women had higher career aspirations than Caucasian undergraduate women and also planned for multiple…

  6. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  7. Leisure-time physical activity and aerobic fitness in African-American young adults.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, B E; Berry, C B; Schnyder, V N; Vickers, S R

    1992-11-01

    This cross-sectional study identified the leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and aerobic fitness levels of 189 African-American young adult college freshmen. LTPA was measured with the Lipid Research Clinics (LRC), Godin Leisure-Time Exercise, and the College Alumnus physical activity questionnaires. The Physical Activity Index (PAI), an index of walking, stair climbing, and recreational sports participation, was obtained from the College Alumnus questionnaire. Aerobic fitness was measured indirectly with the Cooper 12-Minute Walking/Running Test. More women (82%) than men (53%) were classified as inactive (strenuous exercise or labor < 3 days/week and much less active than peers) or low active (strenuous exercise or labor < 3 days/week and as active or more active than peers) on the LRC Questionnaire. The PAI scores were moderately low in men (1,521 +/- 1,634 kcal.week-1) and very low in women (706 +/- 868 kcal.week-1). The majority of men (71%) and women (82%) were classified as 'very poor' in aerobic fitness levels. Body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fatness, was classified as 'overweight' or 'obese' for 39% of men and 37% of women (BMI = 25.9 +/- 5.7 kg/m2), reflecting inactive LTPA habits. These findings are consistent with studies showing low LTPA in middle-age African-American adults. School and community-level interventions are recommended to increase LTPA and aerobic fitness in adolescent and young adult African-Americans.

  8. Self-care and mothering in African American women with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Shambley-Ebron, Donna Z; Boyle, Joyceen S

    2006-02-01

    African American women are the most rapidly growing group of people in the United States diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. The purpose of this study was to explore experiences of self-care and mothering among African American women with HIV/AIDS. It is important to recognize how culture affects illness management, childrearing, and daily living to design culturally appropriate nursing interventions for African American women. Critical ethnography was used to study 10 African American mothers from the rural Southeast who were HIV positive and mothered children who were HIV positive. Domains derived from the research were disabling relationships, strong mothering, and redefining self-care. The cultural theme was creating a life of meaning. African American mothers with HIV/AIDS in the rural Southeast used culturally specific self-care and mothering strategies reflective of cultural traditions. This study acknowledges strengths of African American women and generates theory that will enhance nursing care to this population. PMID:16676725

  9. Keloids and Ultrasound Detected Fibroids in Young African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Harmon, Quaker E.; Laughlin, Shannon K.; Baird, Donna D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Keloids and fibroids share a number of biologic and demographic similarities however there are no published reports of the association between them. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in a population of young African American women. Study Design The Study of Environment, Life-style & Fibroids (SELF), is a volunteer cohort of over 1600 African American women aged 23-34 years recruited in Detroit, Michigan. Enrollment occurred between December 2010 and December 2012. Data are available for the first 1196 participants. Participants self-reported a history of raised (hypertrophic) scars or scars extending beyond the limits of the original injury (keloid) and had an enrollment pelvic ultrasound examination to detect prevalent fibroids. Log linear regression was used to model the association between abnormal scars and prevalent fibroids controlling for possible covariates. Among women with fibroids, associations between particular fibroid characteristics (tumor location, size or number) and scarring were assessed using chi-square and Mann Whitney U-tests. Results Both abnormal scarring (keloids, 9.0%; hypertrophic scars, 28.3%) and fibroids (23.3%) were common in this cohort. There was no indication [adjusted Risk Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 0.7 (0.5-1.1)] of an association between self-reported keloids and prevalent fibroids. Nor was there any association with hypertrophic scars. Specific characteristics of the prevalent fibroids were not associated with abnormal scarring. Conclusion Despite similarly dysregulated extracellular matrices in keloids and fibroids, these conditions did not tend to co-occur in this young African American population. PMID:24386410

  10. An exploratory study of sexual assertiveness and characteristics of African American women in negotiating condom use at an HBCU.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Chalice C; Kennedy, Bernice Roberts

    2013-01-01

    The transmission of HIV/AIDS among African American women through heterosexual sex is an epidemic. Critical themes extracted from the HIV/AIDS sexual assertiveness literature revealed that: (a) sexual assertiveness is related to HIV risk, (b) sexual assertiveness is related to communication, and (c) women with low sexual assertiveness are at risk for HIV. This descriptive study sought to answer the following research question: What do young adult college attending African American women self-report about asking information about their partner's sexual history? The multifaceted model of HIV risk is the theoretical framework which guided this descriptive study. A basic tenet of the multifaceted model of HIV risk is that there is no single predictor of women's HIV risk behavior. Results revealed that 104 young adult college attending African American women who volunteered to attend a one day HIV prevention training overall scored high on a Sexual Assertive Scale on subscales of Information Communication, Refusal, and Pregnancy/STD Prevention Subscale, and scored in the medium range on the Initiation Subscales. The Information Communication and Pregnancy/ STD Prevention Subscale received the highest scores. More research is needed targeting diverse African American females with different socioeconomic status, various locations, and educated to determine their sexual assertiveness with partners which are essential in developing specific programs for diverse groups of African American females. PMID:24279130

  11. An exploratory study of sexual assertiveness and characteristics of African American women in negotiating condom use at an HBCU.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Chalice C; Kennedy, Bernice Roberts

    2013-01-01

    The transmission of HIV/AIDS among African American women through heterosexual sex is an epidemic. Critical themes extracted from the HIV/AIDS sexual assertiveness literature revealed that: (a) sexual assertiveness is related to HIV risk, (b) sexual assertiveness is related to communication, and (c) women with low sexual assertiveness are at risk for HIV. This descriptive study sought to answer the following research question: What do young adult college attending African American women self-report about asking information about their partner's sexual history? The multifaceted model of HIV risk is the theoretical framework which guided this descriptive study. A basic tenet of the multifaceted model of HIV risk is that there is no single predictor of women's HIV risk behavior. Results revealed that 104 young adult college attending African American women who volunteered to attend a one day HIV prevention training overall scored high on a Sexual Assertive Scale on subscales of Information Communication, Refusal, and Pregnancy/STD Prevention Subscale, and scored in the medium range on the Initiation Subscales. The Information Communication and Pregnancy/ STD Prevention Subscale received the highest scores. More research is needed targeting diverse African American females with different socioeconomic status, various locations, and educated to determine their sexual assertiveness with partners which are essential in developing specific programs for diverse groups of African American females.

  12. Locus of control and self-esteem in depressed, low-income African-American women.

    PubMed

    Goodman, S H; Cooley, E L; Sewell, D R; Leavitt, N

    1994-06-01

    Depressed, schizophrenic, and well low-income, African-American women were studied in an effort to extend previous hypotheses of the association between depression and the two personality constructs of low self-esteem and externality to this population. Subjects were 113 low income African-American women including 26 who had been diagnosed as depressed, 54 diagnosed as schizophrenic, and 33 well women. Locus of control was measured with the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale (Nowicki & Duke, 1974). Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). Contrary to predictions, a diagnosis of schizophrenia, but not depression, was associated with more external locus of control. For self-esteem, severity of disturbance, rather than diagnosis, seemed to be of primary importance. Also, lower self-esteem scores were correlated significantly with higher levels of externality for both depressed and schizophrenic women but not for well controls. The present study indicates that self-esteem and locus of control are related to depression differently in low socio-economic status (SES) African-American women than in previously studied middle SES depressed whites. The findings emphasize the need for more normative studies to clarify the complex relations among SES, race, emotional disturbance, self-esteem, and locus of control.

  13. Motivations for Sex among Low-Income African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S.; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J. Barry; Eyre, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing ("n" = 20),…

  14. Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…

  15. The Relationship between Maladaptive Eating Behaviors and Racial Identity among African American Women in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Kelci C.; Levesque, Maurice J.; Fischer, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Research on eating disorders has shown that European American women suffer from eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction more than African American women. However, recent meta-analyses suggest these differences may be decreasing and that some African American women may be particularly susceptible to body dissatisfaction and eating disorder…

  16. Health Behaviors and Breast Cancer: Experiences of Urban African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolley, Melinda R.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Wells, Anita M.; Simon, Nolanna; Schiffer, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Breast-cancer survival rates are lower among African American women compared to White women. Obesity may contribute to this disparity. More than 77% of African American women are overweight or obese. Adopting health behaviors that promote a healthy weight status may be beneficial because obesity increases risk for recurrence. Studies among White…

  17. From Crisis to Empowerment: African American Women in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…

  18. A Multilevel Understanding of HIV/AIDS Disease Burden among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, Bridgette M.

    2016-01-01

    Disproportionate HIV/AIDS rates among African American women have been examined extensively—primarily from an individually-centered focus. Beyond individual behaviors, factors such as the hyper-incarceration of African American men and geographically concentrated disadvantage may better explain inequitable disease burden. This paper proposes a conceptual model of individual, social, and structural factors that influence HIV transmission among African American women. The model can be used to develop comprehensive assessments and guide prevention programs in African American communities. PMID:25139057

  19. Video telehealth for weight maintenance of African-American women.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Ben S; Schiffer, Linda; Brown, Allison A; Berbaum, Michael L; Rimmer, James H; Braunschweig, Carol L; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated the effect of home telehealth on weight maintenance after a group-based weight loss programme. The home telehealth intervention comprised telephone counselling and home Internet-enabled digital video recorders (DVRs) with three channels of video programmes. The video content provided reinforcement and support to promote problem solving, prevent relapse and sustain motivation. Eighty-eight obese or overweight African-American women were randomized to receive monthly telephone counselling (control) or the home telehealth intervention. The weight change during maintenance was not significant in either group (0.6 kg in the intervention group, 0.0 kg in the control group), and there was no significant difference between them. Changes in diet, physical activity, social support and self-efficacy during the maintenance period did not differ significantly between groups. DVR use was low: during the intervention, the number of valid DVR viewings ranged from zero to 42 per person. DVR use was positively associated with previous attendance at the weight loss classes. Home video-based telehealth is a new method of delivering a weight loss maintenance intervention to African-American women. It had no effect on weight maintenance in the present study.

  20. Gender Ratio Imbalance Effects on HIV Risk Behaviors in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Valerie; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.

    2015-01-01

    Although literature suggests that African American women are no more likely to engage in risky sex than their White counterparts, they are more likely to have sex partners with higher HIV risk. Thus, it is not solely an individual’s behavior that determines their risk, but also the behavior of their partner and their position within a sexual network. For this reason, it is important to consider the dynamics of heterosexual relationships in the African American community. An important area of concern regarding African American heterosexual relationships is that of partner availability. A shortage of available African American men for potential partnerships exists and is reportedly due to poorer health and higher mortality rates. Some have argued that gender-ratio imbalance may be responsible for increased HIV vulnerability for African American women. This article reviews the literature on gender ratio imbalance and HIV risk in the African American community, and presents implications and suggestions for future research and intervention. PMID:23041754

  1. Alternative Methods for Measuring Obesity in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ashley E.; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi; Smith, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of body mass index (BMI) may not be the most appropriate measurement tool in determining obesity in diverse populations. We studied a convenience sample of 108 African American (AA) women to determine the best method for measuring obesity in this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to determine if percent body fat (PBF) and percent body water (PBW) could be used as alternatives to BMI in predicting obesity and risk for hypertension (HTN) among AA women. After accounting for age, BMI, and the use of anti-hypertensive medication, PBF (p = 0.0125) and PBW (p = 0.0297) were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, while BMI was not. Likewise, PBF (p = 0.0316) was significantly associated with diastolic blood pressure, while PBW and BMI were not. Thus, health care practitioners should consider alternative anthropometric measurements such as PBF when assessing obesity in AA women. PMID:23483836

  2. Success in Science among Young African American Women: The Role of Minority Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    A conceptual framework that integrates critical gender theory and a multicultural approach is used to examine young African American women's experiences in high school science. Research reveals considerable success for these young women. The multicultural approach suggests that the unique history and culture of African American families may play a…

  3. Fighting through Resistance: Challenges Faced by African American Women Principals in Predominately White School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Alicia D.

    2013-01-01

    African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…

  4. Womanist Spirituality as a Response to the Racism-Sexism Double Bind in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carmen Braun; Wiggins, Marsha I.

    2010-01-01

    Many African American women begin counseling stigmatized by race and gender and may be targets of additional discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, class, age, and other social variables. In this article, the authors discuss "womanist" spirituality as a means for African American women to cope with racism, sexism, and multiple social…

  5. Redefining Leadership: Examination of African American Women Serving as Presidents in Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausmer, Nicole M.

    2009-01-01

    There is an apparent dearth in the leadership literature of African American women when juxtaposed with race, gender and social class. This scarcity appears to be connected with the small percentage of African American women who hold the position of president in institutions of higher education. Additionally, recent reports have noted, that the…

  6. The Education of African American Girls and Women: Past to Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Veronica G.; Jackson, Janine A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the education of African American girls and women. It begins with a look at scholarship on African American girls and women published in "The Journal of Negro Education" from its inception in 1932 to the present. Subsequently, a historical overview of the long, hard-fought struggles of educating this population for…

  7. Testing a Culture-Specific Extension of Objectification Theory regarding African American Women's Body Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Taneisha S.; Fischer, Ann R.; Tokar, David M.; Yoder, Janice D.

    2008-01-01

    Objectification theory has emphasized objectification in terms of body shape and size. African American women may expect to be evaluated on additional physical attributes such as skin tone. Therefore, we extended previous research on objectification theory by adding separate measures of skin-tone concerns in a survey of 117 African American women.…

  8. African American Women Principals: Heeding the Call to Serve as Conduits for Transforming Urban School Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Whitney Sherman; Niemeyer, Arielle

    2015-01-01

    African American women leaders are often found in urban schools that have been exhausted of resources and lack support. However, due to their disproportionate representation in urban schools, African American women principals have become adept at uniting and engaging stakeholders in marginalized school settings into action. The intent for this…

  9. Mentoring 101: Advancing African-American Women Faculty and Doctoral Student Success in Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Cosette M.; Ghee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article is purposed with operationalizing the concept of mentoring as a nuanced approach and attempt to thwart the upward trajectories of African-American women in predominantly White institutions (PWIs). We struggled as African-American women to balance and decipher the various facets inherent in our respective roles--professor and doctoral…

  10. In Their Own Words: African American Women Narrate Their Experiences to Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choates, Ramelli

    2012-01-01

    This study employs a qualitative approach, using oral narratives to provide the life stories of five African American women administrators in higher education. The purpose of the study is to understand the impact of various influences, sources of support, and impact of mentorship on African American women who obtained senior administrative…

  11. Cardiac Assessment Risk Evaluation (Care Study) of African American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra C.; Geiselman, Paula J.; Copeland, Amy L.; Gordon, Carol; Dudley, Mary; Manogin, Toni; Backstedt, Carol; Pourciau, Cathi; Ghebretatios, Ghenet

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify physiological and psychosocial variables of young African American women that may serve as a risk factor for heart disease and to assess their health promotion programme preferences. Method: A descriptive design was used to assess the cardiovascular risk factors of 100 African American women ages 18 to 40 years, enrolled in…

  12. Career Commitment and African American Women in Undergraduate STEM Majors: The Role of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Felysha L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the odds, African American women are achieving some success in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). However, a dearth of empirical evidence exists on the mechanisms that contribute to their persistence. This study contributes to understanding how African American women are successful in obtaining baccalaureate degrees…

  13. The Perceived Undergraduate Classroom Experiences of African American Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Kimberly Monique

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation study was to explore African-American women's perceptions of undergraduate STEM classroom experiences, and the ways in which those experiences have supported or hindered their persistence in physics majors. The major research question guiding this study was: How do African-American women perceive the climate and…

  14. Developing Long-Term Physical Activity Participation: A Grounded Theory Study with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Amy E.; Buckworth, Janet; Katz, Mira L.; Willis, Sharla K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Heaney, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity is linked to a reduced risk of obesity and chronic disease. African American women bear a disproportionate burden from these conditions and many do not get the recommended amount of physical activity. Long-term success of interventions to initiate and maintain a physically active lifestyle among African American women has…

  15. Examining Individualism, Collectivism, and Self-Differentiation in African American College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gushue, George V.; Constantine, Madonna G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines aspects of individualism, collectivism, and self-differentiation in 123 African American women attending a predominantly White university. Results reveled that aspects of individualism and collectivism were differentially related to self-differentiation in African American college women. Implications of the findings are discussed.…

  16. Sociodemographic, Behavioral, and Psychological Correlates of Current Overweight and Obesity in Older, Urban African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patt, Madhavi Reddy; Yanek, Lisa R.; Moy, Taryn F.; Becker, Diane M.

    2004-01-01

    To better understand obesity and overweight among urban African American women, the authors examined sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychological factors within body mass index (BMI) categories. A total of 496 women were recruited for cardiovascular risk factor screening from 20 urban African American churches. Study participants had a mean age…

  17. The Black Arts Movement and African American Young Adult Literature: An Evaluation of Narrative Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Laretta

    2005-01-01

    In this article I question whether or not African American young adult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the young adult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the…

  18. The role of spirituality in the breast cancer experiences of African American women.

    PubMed

    Tate, Johnetta D

    2011-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer type among African American women. African American women often use spirituality to overcome the physical, psychological, and emotional burdens that accompany a breast cancer diagnosis. Spirituality has been used over the years by African American women to bring hope when dealing with hardships. This integrative review seeks to explore the importance of spirituality to African American women throughout the breast cancer experience. Thirteen qualitative and quantitative studies that discussed how spirituality was used to cope with breast cancer from initial diagnosis to survivorship were reviewed. Spirituality was found to be the main coping mechanism used during all phases of the cancer experience. To provide holistic nursing care, nurses must understand that spirituality is an important coping strategy used by most African American women with breast cancer. The implications for nursing that were identified include the incorporation of spiritual interventions and the utilization of culturally appropriate assessment tools.

  19. Disordered eating in African American and Caucasian women: the role of ethnic identity.

    PubMed

    Shuttlesworth, Mary E; Zotter, Deanne

    2011-01-01

    The influential roles of culture and ethnic identity are frequently cited in developing disordered eating and body dissatisfaction, constituting both protective and risk factors. For African American women, strongly identifying with African American cultural beauty ideals may protect against disordered eating to lose weight, but may actually increase risk in development of disordered eating directed at weight gain, such as binge eating. This study compares African American and Caucasian women on disordered eating measures, positing that African American women show greater risk for binge eating due to the impact of ethnic identity on body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate low levels of ethnic identity represent a risk factor for African American women, increasing the likelihood of showing greater binge eating and bulimic pathology. In Caucasian women, high levels of ethnic identity constitute a risk factor, leading to higher levels of both binge eating and global eating pathology. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:22073427

  20. Individual interviews with African-American women regarding condom use: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Teressa Sanders

    2010-07-01

    African-American women between 25 and 34 years of age are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Current prevention techniques, including education, have not had a significant influence on decreasing the rates of HIV and increasing safer sexual practices among some African-American women. This pilot study is one step towards increasing the understanding of this serious problem and developing effective interventions to stem the tide of HIV infection in African-American women. A grounded theory approach was used to address the process that unmarried, heterosexual, African-American women used to negotiate condom use with their sexual partner. Major concepts, connections between the categories, and theoretical codes are identified in this study and can be used to predict, speculate, explain, and understand the reported behavior of African-American women in negotiating condom use with their sexual partner.

  1. A Contextualized Approach to Faith-Based HIV Risk Reduction for African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.; Rogers, Christopher K.; Bellinger, Dawn; Thompson, Keitra

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has a devastating impact on African Americans (AA), particularly women and young adults. We sought to characterize risks, barriers, content and delivery needs for a faith-based intervention to reduce HIV risk among AA women ages 18–25. In a convergent parallel mixed methods study we conducted four focus groups (n=38) and surveyed 71 young adult women. Data were collected across 4 AA churches for a total of 109 participants. We found the majority of women in this sample were engaged in behaviors that put them at risk for contracting HIV, struggled with religiously based barriers and matters of sexuality, and had a desire to incorporate their intimate relationships, parenting and financial burdens into faith-based HIV risk reduction interventions (RRIs). Incorporating additional social context related factors into HIV RRIs for young AA women is critical to adapting and developing HIV interventions to reduce risk among young adult women in faith settings. PMID:26879828

  2. Results of a Culturally Adapted Internet-Enhanced Physical Activity Pilot Intervention for Overweight and Obese Young Adult African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Pekmezi, Dori; Dutton, Gareth R.; Cherrington, Andrea L.; Kim, Young-II; Allison, Jeroan J.; Durant, Nefertiti H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated a culturally relevant, social cognitive theory–based, Internet-enhanced physical activity (PA) pilot intervention developed for overweight/obese African American (AA) female college students. Design Using a 3-month, single group, pretest–posttest design, participants accessed a culturally relevant PA promotion website and engaged in four moderate-intensity PA sessions each week. Results Study completers (n = 25, mean age = 21.9 years) reported a decrease in sedentary screen time (p < .0001); however, no changes in moderate-to-vigorous PA were reported (p = .150). A significant increase in self-regulation for PA (p < .0001) and marginally significant increases in social support (p = .052) and outcome expectations (p = .057) for PA were observed. No changes in body mass index (p = .162), PA enjoyment (p = .151), or exercise self-efficacy (p = .086) were reported. Conclusions Findings of this exploratory study show some preliminary support for Internet-enhanced approaches to promote PA among overweight/obese AA women. Implications for Practice Future studies with larger samples are needed to further explore culturally relevant Internet-enhanced PA programs in this underserved population. PMID:24934566

  3. Gestational diabetes mellitus among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Roseman, J M; Go, R C; Perkins, L L; Barger, B D; Bell, D H; Goldenberg, R L; DuBard, M B; Huddleston, J F; Sedlacek, C M; Acton, R T

    1991-06-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased risk of poor outcomes for the pregnancy. It is a strong risk factor for subsequent diabetes. The epidemiology of GDM in African-American women is not well known. It has not been demonstrated that their risk factors are similar in character and weight to those among White women. There is considerable multicollinearity among GDM risk factors such as age, parity, obesity, hypertension, and family history of diabetes, and this needs to be sorted out. This review is based on the results of a nested case-control study to evaluate the frequency of, and the relationships of the known risk factors with, the onset of GDM among African-American women. All cases of GDM within a cohort of women seen at any of the county health department clinics in Jefferson County, Alabama from 1981 to 1987 were identified. The cohort represents approximately 63% of all African-American pregnancies in the county during the period. With few exceptions (5.1% based on fasting plasma glucose greater than or equal to 120 mg/dl), potential GDM cases (7.1%) were selected on the basis of a 2 h post 100 g carbohydrate meal screening plasma glucose measure at their second prenatal visit and again at 28-32 weeks greater than or equal to 115 mg/dl and diagnosed on the basis of the results of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) using the criteria of O'Sullivan and Mahan. Women with any prior history of diabetes (even in pregnancy), 1.6%, were excluded. The frequency of the new diagnosis of GDM among African-American women in this pregnancy in the cohort was 2.5% of pregnancies and 3.4% of women, which is similar to the values reported in the other studies. Controls were selected from women with negative screening tests who delivered after a GDM subject. The results reported in this paper reflect 358 cases (86% of all eligible GDM cases identified) and 273 controls. Cases were significantly older (28.3 vs. 21.7 years), of higher gravidity (2

  4. Low-income African American women's beliefs regarding exercise during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Krans, Elizabeth E; Chang, Judy C

    2012-08-01

    Exercise may decrease the incidence of obesity and obesity related complications during pregnancy including gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. African American women are at higher risk for obesity and physical inactivity during pregnancy when compared to other patient groups. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe in detail the unique beliefs and perspectives regarding exercise during pregnancy of African American women. A series of 6 focus groups discussions with pregnant African American women were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Focus group transcripts were qualitatively analyzed for major themes and independently coded for beliefs regarding exercise during pregnancy. A total of 34 pregnant, African American women participated in 6 focus group discussions. The majority of women were single (94%), had only a high school education (67%), received Medicaid (100%) and had a mean BMI of 33 kg/m(2). Three major themes emerged regarding our subjects' beliefs about exercise during pregnancy: (1) women had a broad definition of what types of activities constituted exercise, (2) women believed exercise was generally beneficial during pregnancy and (3) women believed certain types of activities or movements could cause problems with pregnancy. African American women overwhelmingly believe that exercise positively impacts pregnancy. A lack of knowledge concerning the benefits of exercise during pregnancy was not found to be a major contributor to inactivity in African American women. However, health care providers should be aware of cultural myths that prevent many African American women from performing certain activities during pregnancy.

  5. Yale Study: African-American Women Report More Menopause Symptoms than White Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A study of African-American women in menopause shows that while they experience many of the same symptoms as White women, they report more vasomotor symptoms such as dizziness and bloating, according to a study by a Yale School of Nursing researcher. The women reported symptoms common among White women in menopause--hot flashes, irregular…

  6. Social support among African-American adults with diabetes. Part 1: Theoretical framework.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, M. E.; Tilley, B. C.; McDonald, P. E.

    1998-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects African Americans in disproportionate numbers relative to whites. Proper management of this disease is critical because of the increased morbidity and mortality associated with poor diabetes management. The role of social support in promoting diabetes management and improved glycemic control among African Americans is a little-explored area. This article, the first in a two-part series, provides a theoretical framework for examining the relationship between social support and glycemic control among African-American adults. PMID:9640907

  7. Another Look at HIV in African American Women: The Impact of Psychosocial and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jipguep, Marie-Claude; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy; Cotton, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    This study tested a conceptual model that integrates structural and psychological determinants of HIV prevention for African American women. The sample consisted of African American mothers (N = 129) of children in Head Start programs. Higher levels of perceived stress were associated with higher levels of HIV risk; higher levels of perceived…

  8. Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

  9. Gender Distrust and Intimate Unions among Low-Income Hispanic and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income non-Hispanic African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican and non-Hispanic White women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. Hispanics' overall levels of distrust are found to be higher than levels for either African Americans or…

  10. Concepts of Healthful Food among Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane; Keim, Kathryn; Koneman, Sylvia A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Describe beliefs about what makes foods healthful among low-income African American women. Methods: In one-on-one interviews, 28 low-income African American mothers viewed 30 pairs of familiar foods and explained which food in the pair was more healthful and why. Responses were grouped into codes describing concepts of food…

  11. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian women: is beauty in the eyes of the observer?

    PubMed

    Davis, Dawnavan S; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups.

  12. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian Women: Is Beauty in the Eyes of the Observer?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Dawnavan S.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups. PMID:19962117

  13. New paradigms for transcultural nursing: frameworks for studying African American women.

    PubMed

    Shambley-Ebron, Donna Z; Boyle, Joyceen S

    2004-01-01

    African American women continue to experience disparities in health status when compared to their European American counterparts, yet, often their unique perspectives are not presented in the nursing literature. This article will discuss various theoretical frameworks arising from Black women's thought and reality that can be used to enhance and expand transcultural nursing knowledge. Historical, sociocultural, and literary perspectives will be used to illuminate the realities of African American women's lives. Selected frameworks arising from these realities will be discussed that recognize the impact of race, class, and gender on the lives of African American women and have the potential to guide nursing research and practice. PMID:14768411

  14. Overlooked role of African-American males' hypermasculinity in the epidemic of unintended pregnancies and HIV/AIDS cases with young African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, William A.

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at multiple lines of converging evidence relevant to the 72% unintended pregnancy rate, and recently emerged heterosexually-based HIV/AIDS epidemic with young African-American women. Evidence recently reveals a convergence of these epidemics, in a vulnerable subpopulation segment of African-American women. Overlooked, as a unique contributing factor in these epidemics is the hypermasculine behaviors of African-American males. Among the risky behaviors linked with this hypermasculinity are a greater tendency with African-American males to have more multiple sexual partners, and a stronger aversion to condom use than other male ethnic groups. As a contributing factor in these epidemics, African-American males' hypermasculinity has several implications for intervention strategies to reduce the epidemics, which are discussed. PMID:14527052

  15. Acculturation, alcohol consumption and AIDS-related risky sexual behavior among African American women.

    PubMed

    Hines, A M; Snowden, L R; Graves, K L

    1998-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between acculturation, alcohol consumption and AIDS-related risky sexual behavior in a national probability sample of 533 African American women. Results indicated that women who were the heaviest drinkers were also the least acculturated. However, women most likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, including having multiple partners, being nonmonogamous or in a nonmonogamous relationship, and being nonmonogamous or in a nonmonogamous relationship and not using a condom consistently, were high in acculturation rather than low. Alcohol use proved related to risky sexual behavior when considered in conjunction with respondents' level of acculturation. Women at risk for contracting AIDS were not low acculturated African American women who drank heavily, but high acculturated African American women. Findings from this study extend our understanding of risk and contain implications for research and prevention efforts in the area of alcohol use and AIDS-related sexual behavior among African American women.

  16. African American women's perceptions of cancer clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Godley, Paul; Dimartino, Lisa; White, Brandolyn; Odom, Janice; Richmond, Alan; Carpenter, William

    2014-01-01

    Cancer clinical trials are important for resolving cancer health disparities for several reasons; however, clinical trial participation among African Americans is significantly lower than Caucasians. This study engaged focus groups of 82 female African American cancer survivors or cancer caregivers, including those in better resourced, more urban areas and less resourced, more rural areas. Informed by an integrated conceptual model, the focus groups examined perceptions of cancer clinical trials and identified leverage points that future interventions may use to improve enrollment rates. Study findings highlight variation in community knowledge regarding cancer clinical trials, and the importance of community education regarding clinical trials and overcoming historical stigma associated with clinical research specifically and the health care system more generally. Study participants commented on the centrality of churches in their communities, and thus the promise of the church as loci of such education. Findings also suggested the value of informed community leaders as community information sources, including community members who have a previous diagnosis of cancer and clinical trial experience. The sample size and location of the focus groups may limit the generalizability of the results. Since the women in the focus groups were either cancer survivors or caregivers, they may have different experiences than nonparticipants who lack the close connection with cancer. Trust in the health system and in one's physician was seen as important factors associated with patient willingness to enroll in clinical trials, and participants suggested that physicians who were compassionate and who engaged and educated their patients would build important trust requisite for patient participation in clinical trials. PMID:24905181

  17. Psychometric properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale in African American and Black Caribbean US adults.

    PubMed

    Torres, Elisa

    2012-10-01

    A 12-item version of the 20-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) Scale was not validated in Black US adults but demonstrated strong psychometrics in other populations. Using data from the National Survey of American Life (n = 4,815), the psychometric properties of the scale were tested in African American and Black Caribbean adults. When compared with the DSM-IV-TR criteria for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Dysthymia, most items in the CES-D Scale focus on depressed mood, providing evidence for content validity. Construct validity was questionable in African American and Black Caribbean men. The CES-D scores of African American men who met the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000) criteria for Dysthymia were not significantly different than African American men who did not (t = 1.9, p = .109). The CES-D scores of Black Caribbean men who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for MDD were not significantly different than Black Caribbean men who did not (t = 1.6, p = .198), and none of the Black Caribbean men met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for Dysthymia. For the item, "I felt like everything I did was an effort," all groups had item-to-total correlations and inter-item correlations below .30. After eliminating this item, the alpha for the remaining 11 items was .80 and .76 in African American and Black Caribbean women, respectively. African American and Black Caribbean men also had item-to-total correlations and inter-item correlations below .30 for the item "I felt that I was just as good as other people." After eliminating these items, the alpha for the remaining 10 items was .73 in African American and Black Caribbean men. The cut-off score was 9 for the 11-item CES-D and 8 for the 10-item CES-D.

  18. Powerlessness, anger, and stress in African American women: implications for physical and emotional health.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Shirley A; González-Prendes, A Antonio

    2009-01-01

    African American women find themselves at a high risk of experiencing feelings of powerlessness associated with socioeconomic disparities rooted in a history of racism and sexism. The authors present a conceptual model that discusses powerlessness as a significant variable that contributes to the experience of anger and stress in African American women, and consequently to the adverse health consequences of such anger and stress. The authors review the current literature as well as census and health statistics to discern critical historical, social, and cognitive aspects of powerlessness and anger in African American women. Implications for practitioners are addressed.

  19. Sister Circles as a Culturally Relevant Intervention for Anxious African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Neal-Barnett, Angela; Stadulis, Robert; Murray, Marsheena; Payne, Margaret Ralston; Thomas, Anisha; Salley, Bernadette B.

    2011-01-01

    Research on anxiety treatment with African American women reveals a need to develop interventions that address factors relevant to their lives. Such factors include feelings of isolation, multiple roles undertaken by Black women, and faith. A recurrent theme across treatment studies is the importance of having support from other Black women. Sister circles are support groups that build upon existing friendships, fictive kin networks, and the sense of community found among African Americans females. Sister circles appear to offer many of the components Black women desire in an anxiety intervention. In this article, we explore sister circles as an intervention for anxious African American women. Culturally-infused aspects from our sister circle work with middle-class African American women are presented. Further research is needed. PMID:22081747

  20. Impaired fertility in African-American women: an investigation of behavioral risks.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Weeder, Susan

    2010-12-01

    African-American women are disproportionately affected by impaired fertility. The literature reflects a number of potential behavioral risks associated with fertility impairment. However, few researchers have investigated these risks in African-American women. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between behavioral factors and impaired fertility in African-American women. A secondary analysis of data was employed from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and multiple logistic regression techniques were used to develop an explanatory model of impaired fertility in a sample of 364 African-American women of childbearing age. Findings from this current study suggested that factors directly related to impaired fertility included increasing age, current smoking, self-reported health status, and a history of gynecologic problems. Protective effects were associated with previous condom use. Using the knowledge of behavioral threats to fertility, women's health-care providers can screen and assist women in modifying their fertility risks.

  1. Institutional Barriers to Participation in Adult Education among African Americans within Religious Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Paulette; Rowland, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Examined institutional deterrents to participation in adult education among African American Christian church members. Focus group interview data highlighted six categories of deterrents: lack of relevance, programmatic, communication, individual/personal, instructional techniques, and interpersonal. Results suggest that African American Christian…

  2. Anxiety Psychopathology in African American Adults: Literature Review and Development of an Empirically Informed Sociocultural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…

  3. Exercise economy in African American and European American women.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; McCarthy, John P; Bamman, Marcas M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Fisher, Gordon; Newcomer, Bradley R

    2011-08-01

    We have previously shown that Achilles tendon length is related to walking economy on the flat, presumably because of increased stretch-shortening cycle elastic energy savings. In addition, greater walking economy in African American (AA) women compared to European American (EA) women is explained by longer Achilles tendons in AA women. The purposes of this study were to determine whether economy while walking up a grade and during isometric plantar flexion, two tasks expected to produce proportionately less energy savings from elastic savings are different between AA and EA women. We evaluated walking economy at 4.8 km/h at 0 and 2.5% grade in 48 AA and 48 EA premenopausal women. Plantar flexor muscle metabolic economy (force/ATP) was also evaluated using (31) phosphate magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS). AA women walked on the flat more economically (net VO(2), AA 8.3 and EA 8.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1), P = 0.04). No significant ethnic differences were observed while walking up a 2.5% grade or in (31)P-MRS determined plantar flexor muscle metabolic economy. These data support our previous study's suggestion that AA women are more economical while walking on the flat. On the other hand, in activities in which stretch-shortening cycle elastic energy savings would be expected to be reduced (grade walking and isometric force production), no differences in economy during grade walking or isometric force production were observed suggesting that biomechanical, i.e. stretch-shortening cycle elastic energy savings differences rather biochemical differences contribute to the better flat walking economy observed in AA women.

  4. Exercise economy in African American and European American women

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, John P.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Fisher, Gordon; Newcomer, Bradley R.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that Achilles tendon length is related to walking economy on the flat, presumably because of increased stretch–shortening cycle elastic energy savings. In addition, greater walking economy in African American (AA) women compared to European American (EA) women is explained by longer Achilles tendons in AA women. The purposes of this study were to determine whether economy while walking up a grade and during isometric plantar flexion, two tasks expected to produce proportionately less energy savings from elastic savings are different between AA and EA women. We evaluated walking economy at 4.8 km/h at 0 and 2.5% grade in 48 AA and 48 EA premenopausal women. Plantar flexor muscle metabolic economy (force/ATP) was also evaluated using 31 phosphate magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS). AA women walked on the flat more economically (net VO2, AA 8.3 and EA 8.9 ml kg−1 min−1, P = 0.04). No significant ethnic differences were observed while walking up a 2.5% grade or in 31P-MRS determined plantar flexor muscle metabolic economy. These data support our previous study’s suggestion that AA women are more economical while walking on the flat. On the other hand, in activities in which stretch–shortening cycle elastic energy savings would be expected to be reduced (grade walking and isometric force production), no differences in economy during grade walking or isometric force production were observed suggesting that biomechanical, i.e. stretch–shortening cycle elastic energy savings differences rather biochemical differences contribute to the better flat walking economy observed in AA women. PMID:21229260

  5. Selected socio-cultural correlates of physical activity among African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Cogbill, Salimah A.; Sanders-Thompson, Vetta L.; Deshpande, Anjali D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have identified several factors to be associated with physical activity (PA) among African Americans, e.g., demographic and health-related characteristics. Formative studies suggest a link between socio-cultural factors and PA among ethnic minorities; yet, it is unclear whether these factors play a role in PA among African Americans. This paper explores the association of selected socio-cultural characteristics with self-reported PA by gender among African American adults, taking into account demographic and health-related characteristics. Design Data from the baseline survey of a colorectal cancer communication intervention trial was used. Participants included 446 African American men and women, aged 45 – 75 years. Self-report data was collected on demographics, health-related characteristics, selected socio-cultural constructs (e.g., ethnic identity, religiosity, collectivism, and medical mistrust), and PA. PA was categorized as meeting or not meeting recommended levels; recommended levels was defined as participating in vigorous PA for 20 minutes/day for at least three days/week or moderate PA for 30 minutes/day for at least five days/week or a minimum of 600 MET-minutes/week in at least five days. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression models were used to characterize the association between the selected socio-cultural constructs and PA among men and women, after adjusting for demographic and health-related characteristics. Results Most participants reported some PA but only 59% were found to be meeting recommended levels. Univariate analyses revealed that high collectivist attitudes was associated with meeting recommended PA (OR=1.74), particularly for women (OR=1.81). In multivariate analyses, high collectivist attitudes was significantly associated with meeting PA recommendations among men (OR=1.87); while high religiosity and high collectivism were significant among women (OR=1.87 and 1.85, respectively). Conclusions

  6. No resting place: African American women at the crossroads of violence.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Janette Y

    2005-12-01

    Seeking safe places after leaving abusive relationships is often an intricate process for African American women. Survivor-victims of gender violence frequently experience ongoing trauma because of race, ethnicity, class, sexual orientation, and other stigmatizing social identities. All too often, women of color must handle leaving the gender violence simultaneously with the ongoing threat of cultural violence. The intersection of gender and cultural violence (e.g., racism, discrimination) complicate African American women's ability to obtain and sustain safe environments. These intersections are critical crossroads in African American women's lives. The results of this womanist and Black feminist study are presented in an alternative way to highlight the primacy of respondents' voices. In addition, suggestions to inform the practice of research with African American women are included.

  7. Motivational interviewing to reduce cardiovascular risk in African American and Latina women.

    PubMed

    Witt, Dawn R; Lindquist, Ruth; Treat-Jacobson, Diane; Boucher, Jackie L; Konety, Suma H; Savik, Kay

    2013-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for women, and disproportionally so for African American and Latina women. CVD is largely preventable and many risks can be attributable to health behaviors, implementing and sustaining positive health behaviors is a challenge. Motivational interviewing is one promising intervention for initiating behavior change. The purpose of this review was to identify, synthesize, and critically analyze the existing literature on the use of motivational interviewing as a behavioral intervention to reduce CVD risk among African American and Latina women. Seven studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. Results of this review suggest that motivational interviewing has mixed results when used to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in African American and Latina women. More research using a standardized motivational interviewing approach is needed to definitively determine if it is an effective behavioral intervention to reduce CVD risk when used in populations of African American and Latina women.

  8. Neighborhood-Level Poverty at Menarche and Prepregnancy Obesity in African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Peters, Rosalind M; Burmeister, Charlotte; Bielak, Lawrence F; Johnson, Dayna A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Menarche is a critical time point in a woman's reproductive system development; exposures at menarche may influence maternal health. Living in a poorer neighborhood is associated with adult obesity; however, little is known if neighborhood factors at menarche are associated with prepregnancy obesity. Methods. We examined the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche with prepregnancy body mass index category in 144 pregnant African-American women. Address at menarche was geocoded to census tract (closest to year of menarche); neighborhood-level poverty was defined as the proportion of residents living under the federal poverty level. Cumulative logistic regression was used to examine the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche, in quartiles, with categorical prepregnancy BMI. Results. Before pregnancy, 59 (41%) women were obese. Compared to women in the lowest neighborhood-level poverty quartile, women in the highest quartile had 2.9 [1.2, 6.9] times higher odds of prepregnancy obesity; this was slightly attenuated after adjusting for age, marital status, education, and parity (odds ratio: 2.3 [0.9, 6.3]). Conclusions. Living in a higher poverty neighborhood at menarche is associated with prepregnancy obesity in African-American women. Future studies are needed to better understand the role of exposures in menarche on health in pregnancy. PMID:27418977

  9. Neighborhood-Level Poverty at Menarche and Prepregnancy Obesity in African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Rosalind M.; Burmeister, Charlotte; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Johnson, Dayna A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Menarche is a critical time point in a woman's reproductive system development; exposures at menarche may influence maternal health. Living in a poorer neighborhood is associated with adult obesity; however, little is known if neighborhood factors at menarche are associated with prepregnancy obesity. Methods. We examined the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche with prepregnancy body mass index category in 144 pregnant African-American women. Address at menarche was geocoded to census tract (closest to year of menarche); neighborhood-level poverty was defined as the proportion of residents living under the federal poverty level. Cumulative logistic regression was used to examine the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche, in quartiles, with categorical prepregnancy BMI. Results. Before pregnancy, 59 (41%) women were obese. Compared to women in the lowest neighborhood-level poverty quartile, women in the highest quartile had 2.9 [1.2, 6.9] times higher odds of prepregnancy obesity; this was slightly attenuated after adjusting for age, marital status, education, and parity (odds ratio: 2.3 [0.9, 6.3]). Conclusions. Living in a higher poverty neighborhood at menarche is associated with prepregnancy obesity in African-American women. Future studies are needed to better understand the role of exposures in menarche on health in pregnancy. PMID:27418977

  10. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  11. An intersectional approach to social determinants of stress for African American men: men's and women's perspectives.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Derek M; Ellis, Katrina R; Allen, Julie Ober

    2013-07-01

    Stress is a key factor that helps explain racial and gender differences in health, but few studies have examined gendered stressors that affect men. This study uses an intersectional approach to examine the sources of stress in African American men's lives from the perspectives of African American men and important women in their lives. Phenomenological analysis was used to examine data from 18 exploratory focus groups with 150 African American men, ages 30 years and older, and eight groups with 77 African American women. The two primary sources of stress identified were seeking to fulfill socially and culturally important gender roles and being an African American man in a racially stratified society. A central focus of African American men's daily lives was trying to navigate chronic stressors at home and at work and a lack of time to fulfill roles and responsibilities in different life domains that are traditionally the responsibility of men. Health was rarely mentioned by men as a source of stress, though women noted that men's aging and weathering bodies were a source of stress for men. Because of the intersection of racism and economic and social stressors, men and women reported that the stress that African American men experienced was shaped by the intersection of race, ethnicity, age, marital status, and other factors that combined in unique ways. The intersection of these identities and characteristics led to stressors that were perceived to be of greater quantity and qualitatively different than the stress experienced by men of other races.

  12. The African American Women and Mass Media Campaign: A CDC Breast Cancer Screening Project

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Ingrid J.; Rim, Sun Hee; Johnson-Turbes, C. Ashani; Vanderpool, Robin; Kamalu, Ngozi N.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, black radio has reached African American communities with relevant, culturally appropriate information, and it continues to be an ideal communication channel to use for contemporary health promotion. In an effort to combat excess breast cancer mortality rates and help eliminate cancer disparities among low-income African American women, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Division of Cancer Prevention and Control designed, implemented, and evaluated the African American Women and Mass Media (AAMM) pilot campaign. The AAMM campaign uses black radio, radio stations with broad African American listenership, as a platform for targeted, culturally competent health promotion and outreach to low-income, African American women. The AAMM campaign uses radio advertisements and print materials disseminated in predominantly African American neighborhoods to promote awareness of breast cancer, early detection, and the CDC’s National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). Evaluation of the AAMM campaign found that the campaign successfully reached its target audience of low-income, African American women and increased women’s awareness of breast cancer screening services through the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in Savannah and Macon, Georgia. PMID:23072329

  13. A Culturally-Specific Dance Intervention to Increase Functional Capacity in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Murrock, Carolyn J.; Gary, Faye A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined a culturally-specific dance intervention on functional capacity in African American women at three time points. The intervention was two times per week for 8 weeks using two African American churches randomly assigned to either the experimental or comparison group, had 126 participants, ages 36–82 years. Analysis of covariance revealed that both groups improved over time and the only significant difference between groups was at 18 weeks. The increase at 18 weeks in the experimental group remained when controlling for baseline covariates. This study supported culturally-specific dance as an intervention to improve functional capacity in African American women. PMID:19202718

  14. A culturally-specific dance intervention to increase functional capacity in African American women.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye A

    2008-01-01

    This study examined a culturally-specific dance intervention on functional capacity in African American women at three time points. The intervention was two times per week for 8 weeks using two African American churches randomly assigned to either the experimental or comparison group, had 126 participants, ages 36-82 years. Analysis of covariance revealed that both groups improved over time and the only significant difference between groups was at 18 weeks. The increase at 18 weeks in the experimental group remained when controlling for baseline covariates. This study supported culturally-specific dance as an intervention to improve functional capacity in African American women.

  15. Obesity, body fat distribution, and blood pressure in Nigerian and African-American men and women.

    PubMed Central

    Adams-Campbell, L. L.; Wing, R.; Ukoli, F. A.; Janney, C. A.; Nwankwo, M. U.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a study that assesses body fat distribution patterns in Nigerian and African-American males and females and determines the association between body fat distribution patterns and blood pressure in young adults of differing geographical and ethnic backgrounds. The study population was comprised of 275 African Americans (92 males and 183 females) and 282 Nigerians (219 males and 63 females). The mean ages for the African-American males and females were 18.7 and 18.9 years, respectively, compared with 21 and 19.2 years for the Nigerian males and females. African Americans were more likely to be obese and overweight compared with their Nigerian counterparts. However, there were no significant differences between the two ethnic groups within gender for body fat distribution patterns based on waist-to-hip ratio. Despite being leaner, the Nigerians had higher diastolic blood pressures than the African Americans. There were no significant associations observed between blood pressure and waist-to-hip ratio for either the Nigerian or the African-American males or females, and body mass index was associated consistently with blood pressure only among the African Americans. These findings suggest that body mass index, a general indicator of obesity, is a better correlate of blood pressure than the waist-to-hip ratio among African Americans. PMID:8151724

  16. Knowledge is (not) power: healthy eating and physical activity for African-American women.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Tracey Marie; Praetorius, Regina T

    2015-01-01

    African-American women are more likely to be overweight or obese as compared to other ethnic groups. The purpose of this Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) was to explore the experiences that African-American women encounter when trying to eat healthily and maintain physical activity to inform practice and research. The QIMS included studies from various disciplines to understand the experiences of African-American women with eating healthily and being physically active. Five themes were identified: family; structured support; translating knowledge into behavior modifications; barriers to physical activity; and God is my healer. These themes enhance understanding of what African-American women know, their support system(s), and how cultural barriers impact nutrition and physical activity.

  17. Knowledge is (not) power: healthy eating and physical activity for African-American women.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Tracey Marie; Praetorius, Regina T

    2015-01-01

    African-American women are more likely to be overweight or obese as compared to other ethnic groups. The purpose of this Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) was to explore the experiences that African-American women encounter when trying to eat healthily and maintain physical activity to inform practice and research. The QIMS included studies from various disciplines to understand the experiences of African-American women with eating healthily and being physically active. Five themes were identified: family; structured support; translating knowledge into behavior modifications; barriers to physical activity; and God is my healer. These themes enhance understanding of what African-American women know, their support system(s), and how cultural barriers impact nutrition and physical activity. PMID:25905767

  18. Using the health belief model to develop culturally appropriate weight-management materials for African-American women.

    PubMed

    James, Delores C S; Pobee, Joseph W; Oxidine, D'lauren; Brown, Latonya; Joshi, Gungeet

    2012-05-01

    African-American women have the highest prevalence of adult obesity in the United States. They are less likely to participate in weight-loss programs and tend to have a low success rate when they do so. The goal of this project was to explore the use of the Health Belief Model in developing culturally appropriate weight-management programs for African-American women. Seven focus groups were conducted with 50 African-American women. The Health Belief Model was used as the study's theoretical framework. Participants made a clear delineation between the terms healthy weight, overweight, and obese. Sexy, flirtatious words, such as thick, stacked, and curvy were often used to describe their extra weight. Participants accurately described the health risks of obesity. Most believed that culture and genetics made them more susceptible to obesity. The perceived benefits of losing weight included reduced risk for health problems, improved physical appearance, and living life to the fullest. Perceived barriers included a lack of motivation, reliable dieting information, and social support. Motivators to lose weight included being diagnosed with a health problem, physical appearance, and saving money on clothes. Self-efficacy was primarily affected by a frustrated history of dieting. The data themes suggest areas that should be addressed when developing culturally appropriate weight-loss messages, programs, and materials for African-American women. PMID:22709771

  19. Experiences of African American Young Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolo, Yovonda Ingram

    African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.

  20. Energy Expenditure and Adiposity in Nigerian and African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, Kara; Dugas, Lara; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A.; Adeyemo, Adebowale A.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Omotade, Olayemi O.; Brieger, William; Schoeller, Dale A.; Cooper, Richard S.; Luke, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a prevalent condition in industrialized societies and is increasing around the world. We sought to assess the relative importance of resting energy expenditure (REE) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) in two populations with different rates of obesity. Methods Women of African descent between 18 and 60 were recruited from rural Nigeria and from metropolitan Chicago. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using the doubly labeled water technique and REE by indirect calorimetry; AEE was calculated as the difference between TEE and the sum of REE plus a factor for the thermic effect of food. In the analyses all EE parameters were adjusted for body size using a regression method. Comparisons were made between the groups and associations between EE and adiposity examined. Results A total of 149 Nigerian and 172 African-American women completed the protocol. All body size measurements were lower in the Nigerian women. Adjusted TEE and REE were higher in the Nigerian cohort but adjusted AEE did not differ significantly. Adjustment for parity, seasonality and recent illness did not modify mean AEE or adiposity. In neither cohort was there a meaningful association between measures of AEE and adiposity. Conclusion In these cohorts of women from very different environments, AEE did not differ significantly nor was it associated cross-sectionally with adiposity. If generalizable, these findings suggest that reduction in AEE may have less of a role in the development of obesity than anticipated. The possibility remains that variation in type and duration of activity plays a role not captured by total AEE. PMID:19186335

  1. Marriage promotion and missing men: African American women in a demographic double bind.

    PubMed

    Lane, Sandra D; Keefe, Robert H; Rubinstein, Robert A; Levandowski, Brooke A; Freedman, Michael; Rosenthal, Alan; Cibula, Donald A; Czerwinski, Maria

    2004-12-01

    Since 1996, state legislators, members of the U.S. Congress, and more recently President George W. Bush, have called for the protection of monogamous, heterosexual marriage and the promotion of marriage among poor women. The thrust of this policy making is directed at African American families, among which female headship doubled between 1965 and 1990. This doubling is temporally associated with enacting the legislation directed toward the War on Drugs, which resulted in a tripling of the African American prison population. In Syracuse, New York, the swelling African American population behind bars has resulted in a skewed sex ratio, in which women significantly outnumber men. The authors use national, state, and local epidemiological, environmental, and ethnographic data to argue that the proliferation of marriage-promotion policies is heterosexist and blames African American women for demographic realities over which they have little control.

  2. Disability and Health: Exploring the Disablement Experience of Young Adult African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Tracie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to examine disablement as experienced by young adult African American men and women with permanent mobility impairment. Methods This study included a sample of 5 male and 5 female participants ranging in age from 22 to 39. An exploratory descriptive design and qualitative methods, including interviews and fieldnotes, were used. Interview data was analyzed using the process of inductive qualitative content analysis. Results Basic desires for independence, shared intimacy, and psychological and physical health were not diminished by physical limitations. The disablement experience of this group is reflected in the themes of “Cumulative Losses” and “Sustained Desires.” The findings of this study describe the high level of motivation that young adult African American men and women with disabilities have to improve levels of health and well-being within the context of their impairments. Conclusion This study provides a better understanding of the contextual factors and experiences that may contribute to the development of further disability and subsequent health-related problems over time. Increased knowledge of the disablement experience of these young men and women may assist health care entities and social service providers in improving health care and rehabilitation efforts targeting this group. PMID:23745770

  3. Palliative care and African American women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Rosanna F

    2010-08-01

    It is challenging to develop and assess skills in a classroom setting, for graduate students particularly, in the area of quality improvement project plans that are real, relevant, and sensitive in a unique health care context. Although understanding significant issues related to palliative care needs of U.S. citizens through the interpretation of those who publish in this area is extremely helpful to students, it does not allow for an experience uniquely situated in realities faced by those living with life-threatening and chronic illness or in a time frame that is current. Graduate students in a Health Resources and Services Administration-funded program of study completed a secondary data analysis of digitally recorded conversations of African American women living with human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immune deficiency syndrome to identify consumer-driven palliative care needs and create possible quality improvement program solutions. This exercise supports the World Health Organization's advice to become palliative care leaders through engagement in clients' realities.

  4. Differences in vaginal microbiome in African American women versus women of European ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Fettweis, Jennifer M.; Brooks, J. Paul; Serrano, Myrna G.; Sheth, Nihar U.; Girerd, Philippe H.; Edwards, David J.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Jefferson, Kimberly K.

    2014-01-01

    Women of European ancestry are more likely to harbour a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiome, whereas African American women are more likely to exhibit a diverse microbial profile. African American women are also twice as likely to be diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis and are twice as likely to experience preterm birth. The objective of this study was to further characterize and contrast the vaginal microbial profiles in African American versus European ancestry women. Through the Vaginal Human Microbiome Project at Virginia Commonwealth University, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was used to compare the microbiomes of vaginal samples from 1268 African American women and 416 women of European ancestry. The results confirmed significant differences in the vaginal microbiomes of the two groups and identified several taxa relevant to these differences. Major community types were dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis and the uncultivated bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium-1 (BVAB1) that were common among African Americans. Moreover, the prevalence of multiple bacterial taxa that are associated with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and preterm birth, including Mycoplasma, Gardnerella, Prevotella and Sneathia, differed between the two ethnic groups. We investigated the contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including pregnancy, body mass index, diet, smoking and alcohol use, number of sexual partners, and household income, to vaginal community composition. Ethnicity, pregnancy and alcohol use correlated significantly with the relative abundance of bacterial vaginosis-associated species. Trends between microbial profiles and smoking and number of sexual partners were observed; however, these associations were not statistically significant. These results support and extend previous findings that there are significant differences in the vaginal microbiome related to ethnicity and demonstrate that these differences are pronounced even in healthy women

  5. Differences in vaginal microbiome in African American women versus women of European ancestry.

    PubMed

    Fettweis, Jennifer M; Brooks, J Paul; Serrano, Myrna G; Sheth, Nihar U; Girerd, Philippe H; Edwards, David J; Strauss, Jerome F; Jefferson, Kimberly K; Buck, Gregory A

    2014-10-01

    Women of European ancestry are more likely to harbour a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiome, whereas African American women are more likely to exhibit a diverse microbial profile. African American women are also twice as likely to be diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis and are twice as likely to experience preterm birth. The objective of this study was to further characterize and contrast the vaginal microbial profiles in African American versus European ancestry women. Through the Vaginal Human Microbiome Project at Virginia Commonwealth University, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was used to compare the microbiomes of vaginal samples from 1268 African American women and 416 women of European ancestry. The results confirmed significant differences in the vaginal microbiomes of the two groups and identified several taxa relevant to these differences. Major community types were dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis and the uncultivated bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium-1 (BVAB1) that were common among African Americans. Moreover, the prevalence of multiple bacterial taxa that are associated with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and preterm birth, including Mycoplasma, Gardnerella, Prevotella and Sneathia, differed between the two ethnic groups. We investigated the contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including pregnancy, body mass index, diet, smoking and alcohol use, number of sexual partners, and household income, to vaginal community composition. Ethnicity, pregnancy and alcohol use correlated significantly with the relative abundance of bacterial vaginosis-associated species. Trends between microbial profiles and smoking and number of sexual partners were observed; however, these associations were not statistically significant. These results support and extend previous findings that there are significant differences in the vaginal microbiome related to ethnicity and demonstrate that these differences are pronounced even in healthy women

  6. Differences in vaginal microbiome in African American women versus women of European ancestry.

    PubMed

    Fettweis, Jennifer M; Brooks, J Paul; Serrano, Myrna G; Sheth, Nihar U; Girerd, Philippe H; Edwards, David J; Strauss, Jerome F; Jefferson, Kimberly K; Buck, Gregory A

    2014-10-01

    Women of European ancestry are more likely to harbour a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiome, whereas African American women are more likely to exhibit a diverse microbial profile. African American women are also twice as likely to be diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis and are twice as likely to experience preterm birth. The objective of this study was to further characterize and contrast the vaginal microbial profiles in African American versus European ancestry women. Through the Vaginal Human Microbiome Project at Virginia Commonwealth University, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was used to compare the microbiomes of vaginal samples from 1268 African American women and 416 women of European ancestry. The results confirmed significant differences in the vaginal microbiomes of the two groups and identified several taxa relevant to these differences. Major community types were dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis and the uncultivated bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium-1 (BVAB1) that were common among African Americans. Moreover, the prevalence of multiple bacterial taxa that are associated with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and preterm birth, including Mycoplasma, Gardnerella, Prevotella and Sneathia, differed between the two ethnic groups. We investigated the contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including pregnancy, body mass index, diet, smoking and alcohol use, number of sexual partners, and household income, to vaginal community composition. Ethnicity, pregnancy and alcohol use correlated significantly with the relative abundance of bacterial vaginosis-associated species. Trends between microbial profiles and smoking and number of sexual partners were observed; however, these associations were not statistically significant. These results support and extend previous findings that there are significant differences in the vaginal microbiome related to ethnicity and demonstrate that these differences are pronounced even in healthy women.

  7. African American women making race work in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Stephanie Nicole

    African American women maintain distinctive social locations at the intersection of race, gender, and class (Crenshaw, 1991; Collins, 1986; 2000; Wing, 2003). However, their voices, interpretation of experiences, and concern with the use of formal education as a mechanism for racial uplift have not been priorities in feminist movements (hooks, 1981; 1989; Perkins, 1993; Smith, 1998; Spitzack & Carter, 1987). Alternatively, Black feminist thought (Collins, 1990; 2000) is a theory constructed by and for African American women. Given the consequences of pursuing formal education in the histories of African American women and the paucity of African American women represented in STEM fields, the purpose of this study was to (a) reveal how African American women conducting research in STEM disciplines accomplished their professional goals, (b) learn how the women negotiated their multiple identities (i.e. race, gender, and class), (c) link the history of educational experiences among African Americans with agendas for social justice, (d) understand how African American women in STEM align their personal accomplishments with broader agendas for activism in higher education, and (e) discover whether there is a collective identity that successful African American women in STEM share. Using Black feminist thought (Collins, 1986; 2000) and narrative analysis of semi- interviews with eight African American women in STEM, the findings from this study revealed: (a) the women in this study described the challenges of pursuing a career in STEM from a feminist perspective, identifying gender as more significant than race; (b) the women in this study experienced more positive interactions with Black male, White female, and White male mentors than with Black female mentors; (c) the women in this study described the use of empowering strategies for overcoming obstacles in their academic pathways; and (d) their collective academic identities were formed by early interactions with

  8. WIC peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women with lower incomes

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Tyra T.; Powell, Rachel; Anderson, Alex K.; Hall, Jori; Davis, Marsha; Hilyard, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background African-American women have the lowest breastfeeding rates among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Peer counseling is an effective intervention in improving breastfeeding in this population. However, little is known on peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women. Objectives As part of a larger qualitative study, the goal of this study was to understand the contextual factors influencing breastfeeding decisions of low-income African-American women from the perspective of breastfeeding peer counselors (PCs). Methods Three focus groups were conducted with 23 PCs from the WIC program in a Southeastern state. All focus group discussions were audio-recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Bronfenbrenner’s socio-ecological model was used to group categories into themes. Results Of the sample, 48% were African-American, 78.2% were married, 56.5% had some college education. Five main themes emerged to describe factors at multiple-levels influencing breastfeeding in PCs’ low-income African-American clients: Individual, Microsystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, and Chronosystem. Novel findings included 1) having breast-pumps may give African-American women a “sense of security”, 2) cultural pressures to be a “strong black woman” can impede breastfeeding support, and 3) breastfeeding “generational gaps” have resulted from American “slavery” and when formula was “a sign of wealth”. Conclusions As PCs described, low-income African-American women breastfeeding decisions are impacted by numerous contextual factors. Findings from this study suggest a need to broaden public health approach to breastfeeding promotion in this population by moving beyond individual characteristics to examining historical and socio-cultural factors underlying breastfeeding practices in African-American women. PMID:25480019

  9. Disparities in Osteoporosis Screening Between At-Risk African-American and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Redonda G; Ashar, Bimal H; Cohen, Jennifer; Camp, Melissa; Coombs, Carmen; Johnson, Elizabeth; Schneyer, Christine R

    2005-01-01

    Background Despite a lower prevalence of osteoporosis in African-American women, they remain at risk and experience a greater mortality than white women after sustaining a hip fracture. Lack of recognition of risk factors may occur in African-American women, raising the possibility that disparities in screening practices may exist. Objective To determine whether there is a difference in physician screening for osteoporosis in postmenopausal, at-risk African-American and white women. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review at an urban academic hospital and a suburban community hospital. Subjects included 205 African-American and white women, age ≥65 years and weight ≤127 pounds, who were seen in Internal Medicine clinics. The main outcome was dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan referral. We investigated physician and patient factors associated with referral. Secondary outcomes included evidence of discussion of osteoporosis and prescription of medications to prevent osteoporosis. Results Significantly fewer African-American than white women were referred for a DXA scan (OR 0.39%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22 to 0.68). Physicians were also less likely to mention consideration of osteoporosis in medical records (0.27, 0.15 to 0.48) and to recommend calcium and vitamin D supplementation for this population (0.21, 0.11 to 0.37). If referred, African-American women had comparable DXA completion rates when compared with white women. No physician characteristics were significantly associated with DXA referral patterns. Conclusions Our study found a significant disparity in the recommendation for osteoporosis screening for African-American versus white women of similar risk, as well as evidence of disparate osteoporosis prevention and treatment, confirming results of other studies. Future educational and research initiatives should target this inequality. PMID:16117754

  10. The relationship between stress and weight-control behavior in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Walcott-McQuigg, J A

    1995-06-01

    Obesity is a problem for African-American women across all socioeconomic strata. Age-adjusted prevalence of overweight is 48.5% among African-American women compared with 21% among white women. An exploratory field was designed to examine selected psychosocial factors that influence the weight-control behavior of middle-income African-American women. A triangulation methodology was used in which both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. First, semistructured interviews were held with 36 African-American women between the ages of 25 and 75. Second, a Global Stress Scale was administered to measure perceived stress. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a positive correlation between body weight and stress in that women who were more overweight were experiencing more stress. Ethnographic analysis of the data showed that more than 50% of the women thought that stress negatively affected their weight-control behavior. Additionally, occupational stressors related to racism, sexism, and workload were major stressors for this group of women. Recognition of factors that influence weight-control health practices will enable health professionals to assist African-American women to manage their weight.

  11. The relationship between stress and weight-control behavior in African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Walcott-McQuigg, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Obesity is a problem for African-American women across all socioeconomic strata. Age-adjusted prevalence of overweight is 48.5% among African-American women compared with 21% among white women. An exploratory field was designed to examine selected psychosocial factors that influence the weight-control behavior of middle-income African-American women. A triangulation methodology was used in which both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. First, semistructured interviews were held with 36 African-American women between the ages of 25 and 75. Second, a Global Stress Scale was administered to measure perceived stress. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a positive correlation between body weight and stress in that women who were more overweight were experiencing more stress. Ethnographic analysis of the data showed that more than 50% of the women thought that stress negatively affected their weight-control behavior. Additionally, occupational stressors related to racism, sexism, and workload were major stressors for this group of women. Recognition of factors that influence weight-control health practices will enable health professionals to assist African-American women to manage their weight. PMID:7595965

  12. Direct and Indirect Messages African American Women Receive from Their Familial Networks about Intimate Relationships and Sex: The Intersecting Influence of Race, Gender, and Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grange, Christina M.; Brubaker, Sarah Jane; Corneille, Maya A.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the sexual socialization experienced by emerging adult, African American women, ages 18 to 26 years, who received services at a sexually transmitted infection clinic. Data obtained from in-depth interviews revealed that women received information about sex and relationships from three primary sources: women of the…

  13. HIV Risk Behaviors among African American Women with at-Risk Male Partners

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Keisha C.; Williams, John K.; Bolden, Sherica; Guzman, Yesenia; Harawa, Nina T.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV continues to impact African American women at alarming rates. Yet, few researchers have examined the relationship factors promoting unprotected sex within African American communities, especially instances in which women are aware that their male partners are engaging in high risk behaviors. This qualitative study explored the sexual behaviors, relationship characteristics, and HIV prevention strategies utilized by African American women in relationships with African American men at-risk for HIV. Method To understand the issues that should be addressed in a sexual risk-reduction intervention, data were collected from three, two-hour focus group discussions (n=24) comprised primarily of low-income African American women with histories of at-risk male sex partners. At-risk partners included specifically men who had sex with other men or with transgender individuals, used crack cocaine or injection drugs, had lengthy incarceration periods, or an unknown sexual history. Discussion questions examined external factors affecting sexual risk behaviors such as societal pressures, peer norms, and financial vulnerability. Discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using a consensual qualitative research approach. Results Five themes, including self-esteem, social influences on behavior, relationship fidelity, sexual risk behavior, and partners' sexual behaviors, were identified as placing women at increased risk for HIV. Reasons for inconsistent condom use included concern for maintaining the relationship and substance use before and during sex. African American women also believed that men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) were dishonest about their sexuality due to stigma towards homosexuality/bisexuality. Despite these challenges, participants indicated that African American women have a strong sense of pride that can positively impact behaviors in relationships. Conclusion The findings of this study support that social and contextual factor

  14. Family planning and contraceptive decision-making by economically disadvantaged, African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Eric J.; Collier, Charlene; Hayes, Laura; Curry, Leslie; Fraenkel, Liana

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant racial disparities exist in the US unplanned pregnancy rate. We conducted a qualitative study using the theory of planned behavior as a framework to describe how low-income, African-American women approach family planning. Study Design Structured focus groups were held with adult, low-income, non-pregnant, African-American women in Connecticut. Data were collected using a standardized discussion guide, and audio-taped and transcribed. Four, independent researchers coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method. Codes were organized into over-arching themes. Results Contraceptive knowledge was limited with formal education often occurring after sexual debut. Attitudes about contraception were overtly negative with method effectiveness being judged by the experience of side effects. Family and friends strongly influence contraceptive decisions while male partners are primarily seen as a barrier. Contraceptive pills are perceived as readily accessible although compliance is considered a barrier. Conclusions Contraception education should occur before sexual debut, should involve trusted family and community members, and should positively frame issues in terms of achieving life goals. PMID:23177266

  15. African-American women's perceptions of their most serious health problems.

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Escobar, Rita Paola; Ko, Celine Marie; White, Monique; Lee, Shianti; Neal, Tiffany; Gilpin, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    African Americans experience a disproportionate burden of illness. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), heart disease, cancer, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes are the most common causes of mortality among African Americans. Data were gathered from 1,055 African-American women to gain their perspectives of the most serious health problems affecting African-American women and their related knowledge, attitudes and health promoting behaviors. Women listed CDC's top four causes of mortality as their top four most serious health threats. Cancer was reported as a serious health threat by 81% of the participants, whereas heart disease, the most common cause of mortality and a disease amenable to prevention and early intervention, was mentioned by only 31% of the women. Diabetes was reported by 59% of the women and cerebrovascular disease by 52%. As the Health Belief and other theoretical models would predict, awareness of the seriousness of these four disease groups among African-American women was associated with a greater likelihood of adherence for several of the recommended behaviors. Many opportunities exist for raising women's awareness of these four diseases and linking women's growing health awareness with those health promoting behaviors known to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:15719869

  16. The bad taste of social ostracism: the effects of exclusion on the eating behaviors of African-American women.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Lenwood W; McIntyre, Rusty B; Abbey, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    African-American women experience disproportionately higher rates of obesity than do Caucasian women. The stress African-American women encounter from experiences of discrimination may influence their eating behaviours, which could contribute to weight gain. Emotional eating theory suggests some people increase their intake of high-calorie foods to cope with stressful experiences. We investigated the effects of social exclusion by other African-American women or by Caucasian women for African-American women's distress and food consumption using a laboratory paradigm. As hypothesised, there were main effects of ostracism and interactions between ostracism and race, although not all of the interactions took the expected form. As hypothesised, African-American women ate more potato crisps after being excluded by Caucasians than by African-Americans. Unexpectedly, African-American women who were excluded by other African-American women self-reported more emotional distress than did African-American women excluded by Caucasian women. These findings suggest that ostracism by both in-group and out-group members are disturbing, although people may respond to in-group and out-group exclusion in different ways. Directions for future research are suggested that could elucidate the circumstances under which different emotional and behavioural coping responses are employed. PMID:25403251

  17. The bad taste of social ostracism: the effects of exclusion on the eating behaviors of African-American women.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Lenwood W; McIntyre, Rusty B; Abbey, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    African-American women experience disproportionately higher rates of obesity than do Caucasian women. The stress African-American women encounter from experiences of discrimination may influence their eating behaviours, which could contribute to weight gain. Emotional eating theory suggests some people increase their intake of high-calorie foods to cope with stressful experiences. We investigated the effects of social exclusion by other African-American women or by Caucasian women for African-American women's distress and food consumption using a laboratory paradigm. As hypothesised, there were main effects of ostracism and interactions between ostracism and race, although not all of the interactions took the expected form. As hypothesised, African-American women ate more potato crisps after being excluded by Caucasians than by African-Americans. Unexpectedly, African-American women who were excluded by other African-American women self-reported more emotional distress than did African-American women excluded by Caucasian women. These findings suggest that ostracism by both in-group and out-group members are disturbing, although people may respond to in-group and out-group exclusion in different ways. Directions for future research are suggested that could elucidate the circumstances under which different emotional and behavioural coping responses are employed.

  18. In and out of love with hip-hop: saliency of sexual scripts for young adult African American women in hip-hop and Black-oriented television.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M Nicole; Butler, Ebony O; Long, Amanda M; Fisher, Felicia D

    2016-10-01

    Hip-hop media and Black-oriented reality television are powerful mechanisms for conveying and promoting stereotypes of Black women. Black women's sexuality is frequently presented as highly-salient in each medium. However, little is known about the impact of those images on Black women's sexuality and identity. The current study uses focus-group methodology to engage young adult Black in critical discussion of two predominant sexual scripts found in hip-hop music and Black-oriented reality television - the Freak and the Gold Digger. Analyses revealed shared and distinct aspects of each sexual script represented in both media and the impact of those scripts on participants' experiences. Implications for future research are discussed.

  19. In and out of love with hip-hop: saliency of sexual scripts for young adult African American women in hip-hop and Black-oriented television.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M Nicole; Butler, Ebony O; Long, Amanda M; Fisher, Felicia D

    2016-10-01

    Hip-hop media and Black-oriented reality television are powerful mechanisms for conveying and promoting stereotypes of Black women. Black women's sexuality is frequently presented as highly-salient in each medium. However, little is known about the impact of those images on Black women's sexuality and identity. The current study uses focus-group methodology to engage young adult Black in critical discussion of two predominant sexual scripts found in hip-hop music and Black-oriented reality television - the Freak and the Gold Digger. Analyses revealed shared and distinct aspects of each sexual script represented in both media and the impact of those scripts on participants' experiences. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:27188876

  20. Recognition accuracy and reaction time of vocal expressions of emotion by African-American and Euro-American college women.

    PubMed

    Weathers, Monica D; Kitsantas, Panagiota; Lever, Teresa; O'Brien, Patrick; Campbell, Stacy; Rastatter, Michael

    2004-10-01

    This study examined the relationship of racial group membership and vocal expressions of emotion. Recognition accuracy and reaction time were examined using the Diagnostic Assessment of Nonverbal Accuracy 2 Receptive Paralanguage subtests with 18 young Euro-American and African-American women. Participants listened to Euro-American children and adults speaking a neutral sentence, and identified the emotion as happy, sad, angry, or fearful. Analysis identified a significant effect for race on reaction time. Euro-American participants had faster mean RT than the African-American women for the recognition of vocal expression of emotion portrayed by Euro-Americans. However, no significant differences were found in mean accurate identification between the two groups. The finding of a significant difference in recognition RT but not in accuracy between the stimuli spoken by an adult and a child was unexpected. Both racial groups had faster mean RT in response to vocal expression of emotion by children. PMID:15560358

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in African American women who exclusively have sex with women.

    PubMed

    Muzny, Christina A; Kapil, Richa; Austin, Erika L; Brown, LaDraka; Hook, Edward W; Geisler, William M

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about whether Chlamydia trachomatis can be sexually transmitted between women or how often it occurs in women who have sex with women (WSW). We investigated Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and serum Chlamydia trachomatis-specific antibody responses among African American WSW who reported a lifetime history of sex only with women (exclusive WSW) (n = 21) vs. an age-matched group of women reporting sex with women and men (WSWM) (n = 42). Participants completed a survey, underwent a pelvic examination in which a cervical swab was collected for Chlamydia trachomatis nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), and had serum tested for anti-Chlamydia trachomatis IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies using a Chlamydia trachomatis elementary body-based ELISA. No exclusive WSW had a positive Chlamydia trachomatis NAAT vs. 5 (11.9%) WSWM having a positive Chlamydia trachomatis NAAT (p = 0.16). Compared with WSWM, WSW were significantly less likely to be Chlamydia trachomatis seropositive (7 [33.3%] vs. 29 [69%], p = 0.007). Among Chlamydia trachomatis seropositive women, all were seropositive by IgG1, and the magnitude of Chlamydia trachomatis-specific IgG1 responses did not differ in Chlamydia trachomatis-seropositive WSW vs. WSWM. In conclusion, Chlamydia trachomatis seropositivity was relatively common in exclusive African American WSW, though significantly less common than in African American WSWM.

  2. African American Child-Women: Nutrition Theory Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha

    2006-01-01

    Past research indicates a significantly higher prevalence of early sexual maturation in African American (AA) girls, which is associated with a number of psychological and behavioral problems as well as with health problems such as childhood obesity and diabetes. Both nutrition and body image perceptions have never before been empirically…

  3. Weight loss maintenance in African American women: a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention literature.

    PubMed

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Kong, Angela; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2013-01-01

    We performed a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention trials conducted in the United States published between 1990 and 2011 that included a maintenance phase of at least six months, to identify intervention features that promote weight loss maintenance in African American women. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, African American women lost less weight during the intensive weight loss phase and maintained a lower % of their weight loss compared to Caucasian women. The majority of studies failed to describe the specific strategies used in the delivery of the maintenance intervention, adherence to those strategies, and did not incorporate a maintenance phase process evaluation making it difficult to identify intervention characteristics associated with better weight loss maintenance. However, the inclusion of cultural adaptations, particularly in studies with a mixed ethnicity/race sample, resulted in less % weight regain for African American women. Studies with a formal maintenance intervention and weight management as the primary intervention focus reported more positive weight maintenance outcomes for African American women. Nonetheless, our results present both the difficulty in weight loss and maintenance experienced by African American women in behavioral lifestyle interventions.

  4. Motivations for sex among low-income African American young women.

    PubMed

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J Barry; Eyre, Stephen L

    2013-12-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing (n = 20), similarity assessment (n = 25), and focus groups (four groups), to elicit self-described motivations for sex among low-income African American young women (19-22 years). Analyses revealed six clusters: Love/Feelings, For Fun, Curiosity, Pressured, For Money, and For Material Things. Focus groups explored how African American women interpreted the clusters in light of condom use expectations. Participants expressed the importance of using condoms in risky situations, yet endorsed condom use during casual sexual encounters less than half the time. This study highlights the need for more effective intervention strategies to increase condom use expectations among low-income African American women, particularly in casual relationships where perceived risk is already high. PMID:23372029

  5. The Impact of Racism on the Sexual and Reproductive Health of African American Women.

    PubMed

    Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R; Marshall, Khiya J; Jeffries, William L

    2016-07-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women's sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women's sexual and reproductive health.

  6. The Impact of Racism on the Sexual and Reproductive Health of African American Women.

    PubMed

    Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R; Marshall, Khiya J; Jeffries, William L

    2016-07-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women's sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women's sexual and reproductive health. PMID:27227533

  7. What women want: understanding obesity and preferences for primary care weight reduction interventions among African-American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed Central

    Blixen, Carol E.; Singh, Anisha; Xu, Meng; Thacker, Holly; Mascha, Edward

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To explore attitudes and perceptions of obesity, and identify preferences for weight-management interventions by African-American and Caucasian women who were followed in general internal medicine clinics. PROCEDURE: Surveys exploring these issues were mailed to African-American (n=240) and Caucasian (n=240) women with a BMI of > or =30. MAIN FINDINGS: Caucasian women felt past weight-loss efforts were helped by weight-loss programs significantly more than African-American women (P<0.001); African-American women were more likely to feel that their cultural background contributed to their weight gain than did Caucasian women (P=0.001). African-American women expressed a higher need for one-on-one counseling with their physician (P<0.001) as well as group meetings with the dietician, physician and other women (P=0.004) than did Caucasian women. African-American women also felt it was more important for weight-loss programs to have information on food common to their culture than did Caucasian women (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in cultural background and preferences about weight loss interventions have important policy implications for how the U.S. healthcare system provides care to an ever-increasing multicultural population with a national epidemic such as obesity. PMID:16895288

  8. Normal Exercise Blood Pressure Response in African-American Women with Parental History of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Vernon; Millis, Richard M.; Adams, R.G.; Williams, Deborah; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Oke, Luc M.; Blakely, Raymond; Vaccaro, Paul; Franks, B. Don; Neita, Marguerite; Davis, Gwendolyn C.; Lewis-Jack, Ometha; Dotson, Charles O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Genetic and environmental hypotheses may explain why normotensive persons at high risk of developing hypertension often exhibit greater cardiovascular reactivity to stressors than those at low risk. Methods Pearson’s correlation was used to evaluate reproducibility and independent t test to compare the cardiovascular responses to 30 W of exercise of normotensive young adult African-American women with positive and negative parental histories (PH) of hypertension (PH+, n = 23; PH−, n = 20). Results Correlations were significant for duplicate measurements. The effects of PH on blood pressure measured at rest and during exercise were not statistically significant (P > 0.1). A nearly significant trend for greater resting V̇O2 (P = 0.08) was detected in the PH− than in the PH+ group (3.67 ± 0.18 versus 3.26 ± 0.14 mL/kg/min). Conclusion A hyper-reactive blood pressure response to exercise, characteristic of the evolution of hypertension, may not be present among the normotensive female offspring of hypertensive African Americans. The significance of an 11% intergroup difference in the mean resting V̇O2 observed in this study is unclear. PMID:15311165

  9. Coaching difference: a case study of 4 African American women student-athletes.

    PubMed

    Bruening, Jennifer E

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to describe the experiences of African American women student-athletes and the role that coaches play in those experiences. This study profiles 4 women who participated in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I cross-country, crew, track and field, and volleyball. Using data gathered through the qualitative methods of document analysis, background questionnaires, focus groups, grounded surveys, and in-depth individual interviews, the results of the study are focused on how coaches affect individual student-athletes and, most specifically, a particular segment of the athletic world that tends to be overlooked: the African American woman. Results are organized according to the following themes that emerged through the collection of data: (a) the involvement of coaches in African American women student-athletes' exposure to racism through stereotypes, (b) coaches as significant influences on African American women becoming involved and remaining involved in sport, and (c) power structures in sport and society affecting African American women as a form of institutional racism. A practical applications section follows the results.

  10. African American women's limited knowledge and experiences with genetic counseling for hereditary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Vanessa B; Graves, Kristi D; Christopher, Juleen; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Talley, Costellia; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2014-06-01

    Genetic counseling and testing for hereditary breast cancer have the potential benefit of early detection and early interventions in African American women. However, African American women have low use of these services compared to White women. We conducted two focus groups with African American women diagnosed with breast cancer (affected group, n = 13) and women with at least one first-degree relative with breast/ovarian cancer (unaffected group, n = 8). A content analysis approach was employed to analyze interview data. Breast cancer survivors had more knowledge about genetic counseling and testing than participants who were unaffected with cancer. However, knowledge about genetic counseling was limited in both groups. Barriers to pursuing genetic counseling and testing included poor understanding of the genetic counseling and testing process, fear of carrying the mutation, concerns about discrimination, and cost. Motivators to participate in genetic counseling and testing included desire to help family members, insurance coverage, and potential of benefiting the larger African American community. Education efforts are needed to increase genetic counseling and testing awareness in the African American community.

  11. African-American women who always use condoms: attitudes, knowledge about AIDS, and sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Hinkle, Y A; Johnson, E H; Gilbert, D; Jackson, L; Lollis, C M

    1992-01-01

    Given the alarming increase in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including AIDS, among African-American women, it is apparent that many people are engaging in sexual intercourse without using condoms. The current study examined the interrelationships among attitudes about condom use, knowledge about AIDS, sexual behavior, and drug use among 121 adult African-American women who varied in their intentions to use condoms: 21 (17%) were classified as Steady Users, 75 (62%) did not use condoms but they had High Intentions to, while 25 (21%) did not use condoms and had Low Intentions to use them. Results indicate that the three groups did not differ in their overall knowledge about AIDS or their attitudes toward using condoms as contraceptives. Significant group differences were noted for other scales that assessed attitudes about condoms. Attitudes about the use of condoms were very similar for the Steady Users and the women in the High Intentions group. However, these two groups were significantly (p < .01) different in their belief that condoms are uncomfortable and interrupt sex. Women with Low Intentions to use condoms had significantly (p < .05) more intense angry reactions regarding the negotiation of condom use and significantly more negative attitudes about the use of condoms than women in the other groups. The three groups were not differentiated by drug use, previous treatment for STDs, or their perceived risk for being exposed to AIDS. The present study is cross-sectional in nature and future research using better methodology is needed to establish causal relationships. PMID:1430737

  12. Osteoporosis screening is unjustifiably low in older African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Consuelo H.; Goldfeder, Jason S.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More than one million Americans suffer osteoporotic fractures yearly, resulting in a marked increase in morbidity and mortality. Despite a decrease in bone mineral density with increasing age in all ethnic groups and both genders, preventative and therapeutics efforts in osteoporosis have been focused on caucasian and Asian women. This study assesses the osteoporosis screening practices and the frequency of low bone density in a primarily African-American population of older women. METHODS: Medical records of 252 women at risk for osteoporosis were reviewed for the diagnosis of osteoporosis, prior osteoporosis screening, prior breast cancer screening, and the use of calcium, vitamin D or estrogen. Subsequently, 128 women were assessed for risk factors for osteoporosis, and their bone mineral density was measured using a peripheral bone densitometer. RESULTS: Osteoporosis screening had been performed in 11.5% of the subjects. Of the women evaluated by peripheral bone densitometry, 44.5% of all women, 40.4% of African-American women, and 53.3% of caucasian women had abnormally low bone density measurements. The frequency of abnormal bone density increased with both increasing age and decreasing body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Although few women in this population were previously screened for osteoporosis, low bone density occurred in African-American women at substantial rates. Increasing age and low body mass are important risk factors for low bone density in African-American women. Ethnicity should not be used as an exclusion criterion for screening for osteoporosis. PMID:15101666

  13. Experiences of Reentry and Nontraditional African American Women and Their Support Networks: A Journey in Pursuit of a College Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denson, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    This research study reports the findings of how support networks impact the success of African American women in completing their college degree. A phenomenological research methodology of 10 African American women participants of in-depth face-to-face interviews was used to collect the data. Fifty percent of the women completed their degree and…

  14. The Relationship among Alexithymia, Attachment Styles, and Racial Identity of African American Women in a Residential Substance Abuse Treatment Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Vickie Mecshell

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that substance abuse among African American women is occurring at an alarming rate that exceeds rates for White women. The heightened use of alcohol and drugs among African American women is a problem that resulted from their racial, historical, and structural position in American society. The literature reveals…

  15. Anxiety psychopathology in African American adults: literature review and development of an empirically informed sociocultural model.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B

    2010-03-01

    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other ethnoracial differences reported in the literature. Three specific beliefs or attitudes related to the sociocultural experience of African Americans are identified: awareness of racism, stigma of mental illness, and salience of physical illnesses. In our model, we propose that these psychological processes influence interpretations and behaviors relevant to the expression of nonpathological anxiety as well as features of diagnosable anxiety conditions. Moreover, differences in these processes may explain the differential assessed rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans. The model is discussed in the context of existing models of anxiety etiology. Specific follow-up research is also suggested, along with implications for clinical assessment, diagnosis, and treatment.

  16. African-American women in an alcohol intervention group: addressing personal and political problems.

    PubMed

    Saulnier, C F

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes a qualitative study in which African-American women met in a small group to discuss alcohol and drug problems. The goal was to expand the range of services available by creating an alternative intervention which provided a simultaneous focus on both the personal and the sociopolitical needs of Black women. Results suggest that the dual focus on individual and social issues, and the opportunity to simultaneously address racism, sexism, and classism in an African-American women-only alcohol recovery group was helpful.

  17. The Impact of Racism on the Sexual and Reproductive Health of African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R.; Marshall, Khiya J.; Jeffries, William L.

    2016-01-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women’s sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women’s sexual and reproductive health. PMID:27227533

  18. Ideological schisms about HIV/AIDS helping systems in the African American community, with an emphasis on women.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Colita Nichols

    2010-10-01

    This article is an initial exploration about the impact of ideological beliefs on helping services in the African American community. Newly infected HIV/AIDS cases place African Americans at 45% of such new cases, with African American women becoming infected at a rate 18 times that of Whites. Yet, helping services that are organic to African American women should be stronger through a discussion of cultural beliefs held in the community, where the genesis of helping services exists. Values and beliefs should be at the center of community partnerships, public media strategies, generalist-practice curricula in macro-level systems, and creating more space for relationship dialogue between African American men and women, which includes gender and racial distortions. Given the exponentially high numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in the African American community, a more earnest examination of values and beliefs is warranted. PMID:21082471

  19. Ideological schisms about HIV/AIDS helping systems in the African American community, with an emphasis on women.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Colita Nichols

    2010-10-01

    This article is an initial exploration about the impact of ideological beliefs on helping services in the African American community. Newly infected HIV/AIDS cases place African Americans at 45% of such new cases, with African American women becoming infected at a rate 18 times that of Whites. Yet, helping services that are organic to African American women should be stronger through a discussion of cultural beliefs held in the community, where the genesis of helping services exists. Values and beliefs should be at the center of community partnerships, public media strategies, generalist-practice curricula in macro-level systems, and creating more space for relationship dialogue between African American men and women, which includes gender and racial distortions. Given the exponentially high numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in the African American community, a more earnest examination of values and beliefs is warranted.

  20. Associations of body mass and body fat distribution with parity among African-American and Caucasian women: The CARDIA Study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C E; Smith, D E; Caveny, J L; Perkins, L L; Burke, G L; Bild, D E

    1994-11-01

    Associations of parity with body fat and its distribution are poorly understood; therefore, we examined the relationships between parity and obesity in young adult women. Body mass index (BMI), skin-folds, and waist-hip ratio were compared in 1452 African-American and 1268 Caucasian nonpregnant women aged 18 to 30, adjusting for age (where no age-parity interactions were present), education, physical activity (assessed by questionnaire) and fitness (assessed by graded exercise test), dietary fat intake, alcohol and smoking. Adjusted mean BMI was significantly higher in African-American women aged 25-30 years with three or more children (28.5 kg/m2) than in those with two (27.0 kg/m2), one (26.2 kg/m2), or no children (26.3 kg/m2). Similar trends were found in Caucasians (BMI = 23.3, 23.4, 23.7, 25.0 kg/m2 for parity = 0, 1, 2, > or = 3, respectively), but the mean BMI was significantly higher in African Americans in each parity group. The association between BMI and parity was not present among women 18-24 years of age. Skinfolds were directly associated with parity in African Americans only. Waist-hip ratios were generally lower among nulliparous than parous women in both ethnic groups; race differences were present only among nulliparas. In conclusion, parity was associated with BMI in women aged 25 to 30 years but did not explain ethnicity-related differences in body mass.

  1. Cancer Screening Behaviors of African American Women Enrolled in a Community-Based Cancer Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background African American women have increased mortality rates for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancers, yet not all receive the recommended screening tests for these cancers. We characterized the cancer screening behaviors of African American women enrolled in a community-based cancer prevention trial. Methods We examined cross-sectional data from 1123 African American customers aged ≥18 years from 37 beauty salons in North Carolina who completed the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project baseline survey. Mixed logistic regression models were used to identify correlates of receiving cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening tests within recommended screening guidelines. Results Overall, 94% (1026 of 1089) of women aged ≥18 years reported receiving a Pap smear test within the last 3 years, 70% (298 of 425) of women aged ≥40 years reported receiving a mammography within the last year, and 64% (116 of 180) of women aged ≥50 years were considered to be within recommended screening guidelines for colorectal cancer. Age was correlated with recent Pap smear testing and mammography. Women who reported receiving a recent Pap smear test were more likely to report a mammogram in the last year, and women with a recent mammogram were more likely to be within recommended screening guidelines for colorectal cancer. Many women reported multiple barriers to getting recommended cancer screening tests. Conclusions Almost all women reported receiving a Pap smear test within the last 3 years. Future interventions should focus on increasing breast and colorectal cancer screening among African American women. PMID:21332413

  2. Diabetic indicators are the strongest predictors for cardiovascular disease risk in African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Ashley N; Ralston, Penny A; Young-Clark, Iris; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2016-01-01

    African Americans have higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to other racial groups. Modifiable and non-modifiable factors play a role in the development of both diseases. This study assessed diabetes indicators in relation to other CVD risk factors taking into account confounders, among African American adults. This was a cross-sectional study in mid-life and older African Americans (≥45 years) who were recruited from the local churches. Fasting blood was collected and serum analyzed for diabetes indicators, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile. CVD risk scores were determined using the American Heart Association and Framingham Risk Score assessments. Homeostasis Model Assessments (HOMAs) were calculated using glucose and insulin concentrations. Confounding variables were assessed by questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 21, and p<0.05 was deemed significant. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze continuous variables. Frequencies and percentages were used to examine categorical variables. T-tests compared different groups while Pearson correlations provided preliminary relationships and determined variables for multiple regression analyses. A total of n=79 participants were evaluated (69% women), 59.3±9.2 years, BMI=34.7±8.3 (mean ± SD). As expected, AA men had higher fasting blood glucose than women (123.6±54.9 mg/dL versus 99.0±21.8 mg/dL), and AA women had higher insulin (11.8±13.1 mg/dL versus 7.6±6.0 mg/dL). Our study confirmed that it is likely for AA men to have significantly lower adiponectin concentrations in comparison to AA women. Based on the CVD risk assessments, men had a significantly higher risk of developing CVD than women, which has been shown previously. Apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile also negatively influenced the cardiovascular health outcomes in men. Dietary intake, probably by influencing participants’ weight

  3. Diabetic indicators are the strongest predictors for cardiovascular disease risk in African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Ashley N; Ralston, Penny A; Young-Clark, Iris; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2016-01-01

    African Americans have higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to other racial groups. Modifiable and non-modifiable factors play a role in the development of both diseases. This study assessed diabetes indicators in relation to other CVD risk factors taking into account confounders, among African American adults. This was a cross-sectional study in mid-life and older African Americans (≥45 years) who were recruited from the local churches. Fasting blood was collected and serum analyzed for diabetes indicators, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile. CVD risk scores were determined using the American Heart Association and Framingham Risk Score assessments. Homeostasis Model Assessments (HOMAs) were calculated using glucose and insulin concentrations. Confounding variables were assessed by questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 21, and p<0.05 was deemed significant. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze continuous variables. Frequencies and percentages were used to examine categorical variables. T-tests compared different groups while Pearson correlations provided preliminary relationships and determined variables for multiple regression analyses. A total of n=79 participants were evaluated (69% women), 59.3±9.2 years, BMI=34.7±8.3 (mean ± SD). As expected, AA men had higher fasting blood glucose than women (123.6±54.9 mg/dL versus 99.0±21.8 mg/dL), and AA women had higher insulin (11.8±13.1 mg/dL versus 7.6±6.0 mg/dL). Our study confirmed that it is likely for AA men to have significantly lower adiponectin concentrations in comparison to AA women. Based on the CVD risk assessments, men had a significantly higher risk of developing CVD than women, which has been shown previously. Apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile also negatively influenced the cardiovascular health outcomes in men. Dietary intake, probably by influencing participants’ weight

  4. Diabetic indicators are the strongest predictors for cardiovascular disease risk in African American adults.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ashley N; Ralston, Penny A; Young-Clark, Iris; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2016-01-01

    African Americans have higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to other racial groups. Modifiable and non-modifiable factors play a role in the development of both diseases. This study assessed diabetes indicators in relation to other CVD risk factors taking into account confounders, among African American adults. This was a cross-sectional study in mid-life and older African Americans (≥45 years) who were recruited from the local churches. Fasting blood was collected and serum analyzed for diabetes indicators, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile. CVD risk scores were determined using the American Heart Association and Framingham Risk Score assessments. Homeostasis Model Assessments (HOMAs) were calculated using glucose and insulin concentrations. Confounding variables were assessed by questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 21, and p<0.05 was deemed significant. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze continuous variables. Frequencies and percentages were used to examine categorical variables. T-tests compared different groups while Pearson correlations provided preliminary relationships and determined variables for multiple regression analyses. A total of n=79 participants were evaluated (69% women), 59.3±9.2 years, BMI=34.7±8.3 (mean ± SD). As expected, AA men had higher fasting blood glucose than women (123.6±54.9 mg/dL versus 99.0±21.8 mg/dL), and AA women had higher insulin (11.8±13.1 mg/dL versus 7.6±6.0 mg/dL). Our study confirmed that it is likely for AA men to have significantly lower adiponectin concentrations in comparison to AA women. Based on the CVD risk assessments, men had a significantly higher risk of developing CVD than women, which has been shown previously. Apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile also negatively influenced the cardiovascular health outcomes in men. Dietary intake, probably by influencing participants' weight/adiposity, contributed

  5. Diabetic indicators are the strongest predictors for cardiovascular disease risk in African American adults.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ashley N; Ralston, Penny A; Young-Clark, Iris; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2016-01-01

    African Americans have higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to other racial groups. Modifiable and non-modifiable factors play a role in the development of both diseases. This study assessed diabetes indicators in relation to other CVD risk factors taking into account confounders, among African American adults. This was a cross-sectional study in mid-life and older African Americans (≥45 years) who were recruited from the local churches. Fasting blood was collected and serum analyzed for diabetes indicators, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile. CVD risk scores were determined using the American Heart Association and Framingham Risk Score assessments. Homeostasis Model Assessments (HOMAs) were calculated using glucose and insulin concentrations. Confounding variables were assessed by questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 21, and p<0.05 was deemed significant. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze continuous variables. Frequencies and percentages were used to examine categorical variables. T-tests compared different groups while Pearson correlations provided preliminary relationships and determined variables for multiple regression analyses. A total of n=79 participants were evaluated (69% women), 59.3±9.2 years, BMI=34.7±8.3 (mean ± SD). As expected, AA men had higher fasting blood glucose than women (123.6±54.9 mg/dL versus 99.0±21.8 mg/dL), and AA women had higher insulin (11.8±13.1 mg/dL versus 7.6±6.0 mg/dL). Our study confirmed that it is likely for AA men to have significantly lower adiponectin concentrations in comparison to AA women. Based on the CVD risk assessments, men had a significantly higher risk of developing CVD than women, which has been shown previously. Apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile also negatively influenced the cardiovascular health outcomes in men. Dietary intake, probably by influencing participants' weight/adiposity, contributed

  6. Influences of Social and Style Variables on Adult Usage of African American English Features

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Holly K.; Grogger, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Method Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20–30 years. The authors used Rapid and Anonymous Survey (RAS) methods to collect responses to questions on informal situational and formal message-oriented topics in a short interview with an unacquainted interlocutor. Results Results revealed strong systematic effects for academic achievement, but not gender or employment status. Most features were used less frequently by participants with higher educational levels, but sharp declines in the usage of 5 specific features distinguished the participants differing in educational achievement. Strong systematic style effects were found for the 2 types of questions, but not race of addressee. The features that were most commonly used across participants—copula absence, variable subject–verb agreement, and appositive pronouns—were also the features that showed the greatest style shifting. Conclusions The findings lay a foundation with mature speakers for rate-based and feature inventory methods recently shown to be informative for the study of child AAE and demonstrate the benefits of the RAS. PMID:22361105

  7. African American Women's Beliefs, Coping Behaviors, and Barriers to Seeking Mental Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Earlise C.; Clark, Le Ondra; Heidrich, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about African American women's beliefs about mental illness. In this qualitative study we employed the Common Sense Model (CSM) to examine African American women's beliefs about mental illness, coping behaviors, barriers to treatment seeking, and variations in beliefs, coping, and barriers associated with aging. Fifteen community-dwelling African American women participated in individual interviews. Dimensional analysis, guided by the CSM, showed that participants believed general, culturally specific, and age-related factors can cause mental illness. They believed mental illness is chronic, with negative health outcomes. Participants endorsed the use of prayer and counseling as coping strategies, but were ambivalent about the use of medications. Treatment-seeking barriers included poor access to care, stigma, and lack of awareness of mental illness. Few age differences were found in beliefs, coping behaviors, and barriers. Practice and research implications are discussed. PMID:19843967

  8. Variables associated with obesity among African-American women in Omaha.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Shirley A

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a health disparity related to environmental, social, and physical health issues, including ethnicity, education, and gender. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among obesity, age, education, and socioeconomic status and the relationship between obesity and depression among African-American women living in Omaha, Nebraska. A convenience sample of 378 African-American women completed the African-American Female Health Survey, which included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Body mass index (BMI) was used to measure obesity. Results indicated that 87% of the women were overweight; mean BMI was 32.78 with high cardiovascular disease risks. There was a statistically significant and positive relationship between depression and BMI (r = .201, p < .01). Occupational therapists may provide primary, secondary, and tertiary intervention through culturally relevant and meaningful health education programs.

  9. The Impact of STORY on Depression and Fatigue in African-American Women with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Heiney, Sue P; Reavis, Karen; Tavakoli, Abbas S; Adams, Swann Arp; Hayne, Pearman D; Weinrich, Sally P

    2015-07-01

    The intervention Sisters Tell Others and Revive Yourself (STORY) is a teleconference intervention for African-American women with breast cancer that was studied with a randomized, non-blinded, intention-to-treat trial between 2006 and 2010 in the southeastern United States. This secondary data analysis research measured the impact of STORY on depression and fatigue in African-American women (N = 168) with breast cancer. The were no significant differences in depression or fatigue found between the intervention and control groups based on the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Further research is needed to develop effective interventions aimed at decreasing depression and fatigue in African-American women with breast cancer.

  10. Evaluation of Health Disparity in Bacterial Vaginosis and the Implications for HIV-1 Acquisition in African American Women.

    PubMed

    Alcendor, Donald J

    2016-08-01

    There is a health disparity for both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in African American women that may be linked. The evidence that BV predisposes women to higher risk for HIV infection is well documented. The underlying mechanisms to support the epidemiological connections will require further investigations. This review explores the risk factors for BV disease with implications for HIV-1 acquisition in the context of race as a potential driver of the 20-fold increase in HIV-1 acquisition for African American women compared to white women. Specifically, it explores (i) disparities for BV in African American women, (ii) racial disparity for HIV-1 acquisition in African American women, (iii) common factors associated with BV and HIV acquisition in African American women, and (iv) potential mechanisms of the enhancement of HIV-1 transmission by BV.

  11. Multiple Resistance Strategies: How African American Women Cope with Racism and Sexism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorter-Gooden, Kumea

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative study of a community sample of 196 African American women aimed to identify the coping strategies that Black women use to manage the stress of racism and sexism. The findings reveal that they use multiple resistance strategies: (a) three ongoing internal coping strategies (resting on faith--relying on prayer and spirituality;…

  12. Till Death Do Us Part: Lived Experiences of HIV-Positive Married African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lorece V.; Irving, Shalon M.; Hawkins, Anita S.

    2011-01-01

    HIV/AIDS disease continues to be an escalating health problem, particularly among women. However, African American women are among the leading demographic groups for HIV prevalence in the United States. The typical woman with HIV/AIDS is young, in her late twenties, economically challenged, and of childbearing age. Participants were recruited from…

  13. Body Dissatisfaction, Ethnic Identity, and Disordered Eating among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers Wood, Nikel A.; Petrie, Trent A.

    2010-01-01

    Initial research suggested that only European American women developed eating disorders (Garner, 1993), yet recent studies have shown that African American women do experience them (e.g., Lester & Petrie, 1998b; Mulholland & Mintz, 2001) and also may be negatively affected by similar sociocultural variables. In this study, we examined a…

  14. Pervasive and Persistent Risks: Factors Influencing African American Women's HIV/AIDS Vulnerability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Lily D.; Roberts, George W.

    1997-01-01

    Examined correlates and predictors of risk-taking behavior in a sample of 278 African American women to explore risk-taking related to HIV infection. Women in this sample engaged in risky behavior for HIV and other health risks, such as smoking and substance use, and risk was predicted by individual and peer-related factors. (SLD)

  15. Body Image and Quality of Life in a Group of African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks; Thomas, Dana-Marie; Ard, Jamy D.

    2010-01-01

    African American (AA) women's preference for a larger body size and underestimation of their body weight may affect the relationship between their body weight and weight-related quality of life (QOL). We wanted to examine the relationship between weight-related QOL and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of overweight AA women. Thirty-three…

  16. Kujichagalia! Self-Determination in Young African American Women with Disabilities during the Transition Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, La Tonya L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role that self-determination played in the transition process for young African American women with disabilities who exited high school with a special diploma and participated in a local transition program. Factors under study included the young women's autonomy, self-regulation, psychological…

  17. Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Irene, Ed.

    The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…

  18. Ring of Silence: African American Women's Experiences Related to Their Breasts and Breast Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore women's memories and feelings concerning their breasts and breast cancer screening experiences in relation to their current breast cancer screening behaviors. Twelve African American women shared stories that were generated in written narratives and individual interviews. Two core themes emerged from the…

  19. Feminist and Multicultural Collaboration in Counseling Supervision: Voices from Two African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Robbie J.; Phelps, Rosemary E.

    2004-01-01

    This article highlights 2 African-American women participants' unique experiences and perspectives in the Supervision and Training work group at the Division 17's Section for the Advancement of Women (SAW) Michigan conference. Differences between the authors' and White group members' experiences and perceptions are presented and discussed.

  20. Surviving the Storm: The Role of Social Support and Religious Coping in Sexual Assault Recovery of African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E.; Tsong, Yuying; Gobin, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    African American women are at high risk for sexual assault. In addition, many African American women endorse use of social support and religiosity to cope with life stressors. The current study investigates the relationship between these two coping strategies and post-trauma symptoms (depression and PTSD) in a sample of 413 African American female sexual assault survivors using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Findings indicated that African American assault survivors who have greater social support were less likely to endorse symptoms of depression and PTSD. Conversely, increased use of religious coping was related to greater endorsement of depression and PTSD symptoms. Counseling and research implications are explored. PMID:22410773

  1. Breast cancer and racial disparity between Caucasian and African American women, part 1 (BRCA-1).

    PubMed

    Tariq, Khurram; Latif, Naeem; Zaiden, Robert; Jasani, Nick; Rana, Fauzia

    2013-08-01

    Breast cancer is a commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among American women today. Despite the lower incidence of breast cancer among African American women, they are more likely to die from the disease each year than their white counterparts. We present a retrospective cohort study of the tumor registry data from electronic medical records of patients diagnosed with breast cancer at the University of Florida Health, Jacksonville from 2000 to 2005. A total of 907 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer; 445 patients with invasive breast cancer had complete medical records and were selected for this review. Much like previously published research, we found that African American patients presented with a more advanced stage and aggressive subtype of breast cancer than white patients, and were less likely to have health insurance. However, we have yet to determine if universal health care insurance can lead to improved health care access, better breast cancer awareness, and an enhanced attitude toward breast cancer screenings. Such factors would ultimately lead to an earlier diagnosis and better outcomes in both African American and white patients. We plan to investigate this critical issue in a follow-up study (BRCA-2; Breast Cancer and Racial Disparity Between Caucasian and African American Women, Part 2), which will begin a few years after the complete implementation of the universal health care law enacted by President Obama in 2010. The higher frequency of aggressive tumor subtypes in African American women warrants more attention. We suggest further research to determine whether decreasing the initial age for screening or increasing the frequency of mammograms in African American women would improve breast cancer outcomes. This study underscores the importance of identifying and preventing obstacles in routine breast cancer screening, as well as increasing breast cancer awareness.

  2. Sexual Risk Behavior among African American College Women: Understanding Socio-Cultural Factors in the Context of HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Maya A.

    2010-01-01

    African American women are at the center of the discussion on health disparities, specifically disparities regarding HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Though there has been substantial research examining sexual risk behavior among low income African American women, little has been done to understand sexual behavior…

  3. Stepped-Care, Community Clinic Interventions to Promote Mammography Use among Low-Income Rural African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Delia Smith; Greene, Paul; Pulley, LeaVonne; Kratt, Polly; Gore, Stacy; Weiss, Heidi; Siegfried, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated community clinic-based interventions to promote mammography screening among rural African American women. This study randomized older low-income rural African American women who had not participated in screening in the previous 2 years to a theory-based, personalized letter or usual care; no group differences in…

  4. Development and Implementation of an AIDS Prevention Program for African-American Women at a Child Care Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moten-Tolson, Paula

    This program was designed to provide Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevention education for African-American women of child bearing age at a child care center which serves low income high risk families. The primary goal was to reduce the risk of African-American women at the child care center for contracting the Human Immunodeficiency…

  5. Religion and Spirituality in the Meaning-Making and Coping Experiences of African American Women: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattis, Jacqueline S.

    2002-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the ways in which African American women use religion/spirituality to cope and to construct meaning in times of adversity. Content analysis of the narratives of a sample of African American women respondents (n = 23) revealed a set of eight nonoverlapping themes that explicate religiosity/spirituality's role in…

  6. Workforce Diversity in Higher Education: Career Support Factors Influencing Ascendancy of African American Women to Senior-Level Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackstone, Tondelaya K.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was how knowledge of the barriers to advancement for African American women (AAW) and key career support factors (KCSFs) influence the career advancement of African American women (AAW) to senior-level positions in higher education. The research method for this study consisted of the triangulation of evidence from multiple…

  7. Iron metabolism in African American women during the 2nd and 3rd trimester of a high-risk pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine iron metabolism during the 2nd and 3rd trimester in African American women classified as a high-risk pregnancy. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Large, university-based, urban Midwestern medical center. Participants: Convenience sample of 47 African American women classified a...

  8. Psychosocial Influences on Suboptimal Adjuvant Breast Cancer Treatment Adherence among African American Women: Implications for Education and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magai, Carol; Consedine, Nathan S.; Adjei, Brenda A.; Hershman, Dawn; Neugut, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    Despite lower incidence, African American women are at increased risk of dying from breast cancer relative to their European American counterparts. Although there are key differences in both screening behavior and tumor characteristics, an additional part of this mortality difference may lie in the fact that African American women receive…

  9. Weight loss maintenance in African-American women: a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention literature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African-American women are disproportionally burdened by obesity. Results from behavioral weight loss interventions report that African-American women lose less weight compared to other subgroups but, show improvement in their cardiometabolic risk profile. Unfortunately, the health benefits are not ...

  10. Breastfeeding among low income, African-American women: power, beliefs and decision making.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Margaret E; Dee, Deborah L; Jensen, Joan L

    2003-01-01

    Breastfeeding rates among African-American women lag behind all other ethnic groups. National data show that only 45% of African-American women reported ever breastfeeding compared to 66 and 68% of Hispanic and white women, respectively. Of African-American women who do choose to breastfeed, duration is short, with many discontinuing in the first days after birth. This report applies a social ecological framework to breastfeeding to investigate macrolevel-microlevel linkages. We posit that macrolevel factors, such as the media, aggressive marketing of breastmilk substitutes, welfare reform, hospital policy and breastfeeding legislation, interact with microlevel factors to influence a woman's decision to breastfeed. These microlevel factors include features of the community, neighborhoods, workplaces that support or discourage breastfeeding, social and personal networks and cultural norms and individual beliefs about breastfeeding. The report discusses how power operates at each level to influence women's choices and also emphasizes the value of ethnographic data in breastfeeding studies. Through a case study of a sample of low income, African-American women living in Baltimore, MD, where breastfeeding role models are few, beliefs that discourage breastfeeding are many, and where everyday life is full of danger and fear, it is understandable that breastfeeding is not considered practical. The narrative data provide important information that can be used to enhance intervention efforts. To reach the Surgeon General's Healthy People 2010 breastfeeding goals requires a shift in cultural norms and structures at all levels that will support breastfeeding for all women. PMID:12514315

  11. Knowledge, beliefs, and risk factors for osteoporosis among African-American and Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Geller, S E; Derman, R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and conduct a needs and risk instrument to assess knowledge of osteoporosis risk factors, identify beliefs and attitudes about this disease, and delineate the presence and/or absence of healthy behaviors associated with osteoporosis among African American and Hispanic women. The survey findings suggest that African-American and Hispanic women are not well-versed in behaviors that would promote and maintain optimal bone mass. Consequently, they are not practicing appropriate lifestyle and dietary habits to decrease their risk of osteoporosis. Such behaviors include inadequate physical activity, inadequate calcium intake, cigarette smoking, and long-term steroid use. Less than 10% of women in the study were getting adequate daily dietary calcium intake, with only 13% taking daily calcium supplements to augment this deficit and less than one-half of women exercising at a minimal level (20 minutes/3 times a week). Women in this study also had limited knowledge about osteoporosis, perceived this condition to be less of a health threat as compared to breast cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease, and very few had the perception that being Hispanic or African American was a factor to consider in assessing their risk of osteoporosis. Our findings suggest that osteoporosis education and prevention initiatives are needed, specifically for African-American and Hispanic women, to promote healthy behaviors, identify women at-risk, and encourage early diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Trichotillomania symptoms in African American women: are they related to anxiety and culture?

    PubMed

    Neal-Barnett, Angela; Statom, Deborah; Stadulis, Robert

    2011-08-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM) is a little understood disorder that has been underresearched in the African American community. Furthermore, the incorporation of cultural factors into TTM research has virtually been ignored. Existing data from an African American college student population suggest TTM is associated with high levels of anxiety. In this study, we explored anxiety symptoms and cultural hair messages in an African American female community sample with TTM symptoms. We predicted high levels of TTM severity and impairment would be associated with high level of anxiety symptoms. We also predicted that cultural messages about hair will influence both TTM and anxiety symptoms. In this telephone study, 41 African American females participated in interviews about their TTM. TTM impairment and severity was positively correlated with general anxiety symptoms as measured on the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL 90-R(®) ). Severity was also positively correlated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Given the significance of hair for African American women, we also explored the childhood cultural messages receive about hair. Over half the sample received at least one cultural message about hair. Although many women received the same message, the value they placed on the message differed. Messages received about hair were not associated with TTM severity or impairment. The association among obsessive-compulsive symptoms and hair messages approached significance. Results highlight the importance of assessing anxiety comorbidity and culture with African American TTM samples. Little is known about TTM in African American samples. Existing research indicates this population seeks TTM help from their hairdressers. Among college students, a significant correlation has been found for anxiety as measured on the Beck Anxiety Inventory and TTM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to examine cultural messages about hair in an African American sample. In addition

  13. African Americans and Self-Help Education: The Missing Link in Adult Education. ERIC Digest No. 222.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Michael L.

    Self-help education and self-help literature is important in the lives of African American adults, but the basic models of learning, development, and program planning in adult education have often been developed with little concern for the unique needs of African Americans. In addition, current theories of adult learning often lack understanding…

  14. Beliefs about Racism and Health among African American Women with Diabetes: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Julie A.; Osborn, Chandra Y.; Mendenhall, Emily A.; Budris, Lisa M.; Belay, Sophia; Tennen, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to racism has been linked to poor health outcomes. Little is known about the impact of racism on diabetes outcomes. This study explored African American (AA) women’s beliefs about how racism interacts with their diabetes self-management and control. Four focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 28 adult AA women with type 2 diabetes who were recruited from a larger quantitative study on racism and diabetes. The focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by the authors. Women reported that exposure to racism was a common phenomenon, and their beliefs did in fact link racism to poor health. Specifically, women reported that exposure to racism caused physiological arousal including cardiovascular and metabolic perturbations. There was consensus that physiological arousal was generally detrimental to health. Women also described limited, and in some cases maladaptive, strategies to cope with racist events including eating unhealthy food choices and portions. There was consensus that the subjective nature of perceiving racism and accompanying social prohibitions often made it impossible to address racism directly. Many women described anger in such situations, and the tendency to internalize anger and other negative emotions, only to find that the negative emotions would be reactivated repeatedly with exposure to novel racial stressors, even long after the original racist event remitted. AA women in this study believed that racism affects their diabetes self-management and control. Health beliefs can exert powerful effects on health behaviors and may provide an opportunity for health promotion interventions in diabetes. PMID:21528110

  15. Mental health, family function and obesity in African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Esa M.; Rovi, Sue; Johnson, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: African-American women are disproportionately affected by obesity and its related diseases. How psychological and psychosocial factors that affect this population differ across weight categories remains poorly understood. PURPOSE: To determine whether poor mental health and family functioning are associated with obesity in African-American women. METHODS: African-American women patients aged 21-65 years were interviewed at three primary care centers. Four well-established assessment tools were used to measure general mental and physical health status, family functioning, depressive symptoms and anxiety levels. Demographics, health behaviors and family and personal histories of overweight were assessed. RESULTS: Among 113 patients, after controlling for age and parity, obese women had significantly higher anxiety levels, poorer perception of their physical health, more often were overweight as a child, had overweight parents or siblings and experienced more psychosocial problems in their family growing up, compared to overweight and normal weight women. CONCLUSIONS: The observed findings of poor mental health, perception of physical health and family function in obese African-American women support a need for clinical attention and further study. PMID:15868768

  16. Residential Segregation and Overweight/Obesity Among African-American Adults: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope; Hall, Marla B; Bess, Jukelia J; Mills, Kevin R; Efird, Jimmy T

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults remains unclear. Elucidating that relationship is relevant to efforts to prevent and to reduce racial disparities in obesity. This article provides a critical review of the 11 empirical studies of segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults. Results revealed that most studies did not use a valid measure of segregation, many did not use a valid measure of overweight/obesity, and many did not control for neighborhood poverty. Only four (36% of the) studies used valid measures of both segregation and overweight/obesity and also controlled for area-poverty. Those four studies suggest that segregation contributes to overweight and obesity among African-American adults, but that conclusion cannot be drawn with certainty in light of the considerable methodologic problems in this area of research. Suggestions for improving research on this topic are provided. PMID:26191522

  17. Recommendations for a Culturally Relevant Internet-Based Tool to Promote Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women, Alabama, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Cherrington, Andrea; Cuffee, Yendelela; Knight, BernNadette; Lewis, Dwight; Allison, Jeroan J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Innovative approaches are needed to promote physical activity among young adult overweight and obese African American women. We sought to describe key elements that African American women desire in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool to promote physical activity among overweight and obese young adult African American women. Methods A mixed-method approach combining nominal group technique and traditional focus groups was used to elicit recommendations for the development of an Internet-based physical activity promotion tool. Participants, ages 19 to 30 years, were enrolled in a major university. Nominal group technique sessions were conducted to identify themes viewed as key features for inclusion in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool. Confirmatory focus groups were conducted to verify and elicit more in-depth information on the themes. Results Twenty-nine women participated in nominal group (n = 13) and traditional focus group sessions (n = 16). Features that emerged to be included in a culturally relevant Internet-based physical activity promotion tool were personalized website pages, diverse body images on websites and in videos, motivational stories about physical activity and women similar to themselves in size and body shape, tips on hair care maintenance during physical activity, and online social support through social media (eg, Facebook, Twitter). Conclusion Incorporating existing social media tools and motivational stories from young adult African American women in Internet-based tools may increase the feasibility, acceptability, and success of Internet-based physical activity programs in this high-risk, understudied population. PMID:24433625

  18. A community-based collaborative approach to improve breast cancer screening in underserved African American women.

    PubMed

    Karcher, Rachel; Fitzpatrick, Dawn C; Leonard, Dawn J; Weber, Scott

    2014-09-01

    Although African American women in the United States have a lower incidence of breast cancer compared with white women, those younger than 40 years actually have a higher incidence rate; additionally, African American women are more likely to die from breast cancer at every age compared with white women. Racial disparities in breast cancer mortality rates are especially significant in Maryland, which ranks fifth in the nation for breast cancer mortality, and in Baltimore City, which has the second highest annual death rate for African American women in Maryland. To address this disparity in care, Med-IQ, an accredited provider of CME, collaborated with Sisters Network Baltimore Metropolitan, Affiliate Chapter of Sisters Network® Inc., the only national African American breast cancer survivorship organization, to sponsor their community-based educational outreach initiative. The collaborative mission was to engage at-risk African American women, their families, local organizations, healthcare professionals, and clinics, with the goals of increasing awareness, addressing fears that affect timely care and diagnosis, and encouraging women to obtain regular mammograms. Intervention strategies included (1) a "Survivor Stories" video, (2) patient outreach consisting of neighborhood walks and an educational luncheon, and (3) a community outreach utilizing direct mailings to local businesses, community groups, and healthcare professionals. Trusted and well-known community resources were presented as mediums to promote the initiative, yielding achievement of broader and more effective outcomes. As a result of this patient-friendly initiative, two (2) of the women who sought screening were diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent treatment.

  19. Effects of Social Integration on Health: A Prospective Study of Community Engagement among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Robertson, Judy; Green, Kerry M.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that engagement in community organizations is positively associated with health, particularly among aging populations, yet few studies have examined in detail the influence of community engagement (CE) on later health among African Americans. This study provides a longitudinal assessment of the effects of CE over a 22-year period on physical and mental health among a population of urban African American women. Data were from the Woodlawn Study, a prospective study of children and their families from an African American community in Chicago. Mothers who were assessed in 1975 and in 1997 reported involvement in religious and secular organizations. These reports were combined to create a five-category construct: no CE, early CE only, late CE only, persistent CE (either type at both assessments), and diverse and persistent CE (both types at both assessments). Multivariate regression analyses with multiple imputation (for N=680) estimated the impact of CE on four measures of physical and mental health: SF-36 physical functioning, self-rated health, anxious mood, and depressed mood. Women with late-only, persistent, and diverse and persistent CE reported significantly better health compared to non-involved women. Persistently engaged women were less likely to report anxious or depressed mood than those with early CE only. Persistent and diverse CE was more highly associated with better physical functioning than was persistent CE. Results highlight the strong positive link between health and concurrent, persistent, and diverse CE among African American women. PMID:21131117

  20. Pleasing the Masses: Messages for Daily Life Management in African American Women's Popular Media Sources

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Using African American women's insights on their own health experiences, we explored how their daily life management was linked to the “strong Black woman” (SBW) script, and the health implications of that script. Methods. Using the search term “strong Black woman,” we identified 20 articles from African American women's magazines and 10 blog sites linked to the SBW script and analyzed their content. We created thematic categories (role management, coping, and self-care) and extracted issues relevant to African American women's health. Results. Adherence to the SBW script was linked to women's daily life management and health experiences. Themes such as self-sacrificial role management (“please the masses”), emotional suppression (“game face”), and postponement of self-care (“last on the list”) incited internal distress and evinced negative health consequences. Conclusions. Scientists, activists, and health care professionals would be aided in forming initiatives aimed at reducing health disparities among African American women by heeding the insights on their health experiences that they express in popular media sources. PMID:21088274

  1. Church Member Support Benefits Psychological Well-Being of Pregnant African American Women.

    PubMed

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women's experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15-25 weeks' gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women.

  2. Church Member Support Benefits Psychological Well-Being of Pregnant African American Women.

    PubMed

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women's experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15-25 weeks' gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803

  3. Motivational Interviewing at the Intersections of Depression and Intimate Partner Violence among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Stéphanie; Trimble, Jammie; Mejia, Angie; Mitchell, S. Renee; Thomas, Mary Jo; Timmons, Vanessa; Waters, A. Star; Raymaker, Dora; Nicolaidis, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on design, training, and delivery of a culturally-tailored, multi-faceted intervention which used motivational interviewing (MI) and case management to reduce depression severity among African American survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). We present the details of the intervention and discuss its implementation as a means of creating and providing culturally appropriate depression and violence services to African American women. We used a CBPR approach to develop and evaluate the multi-faceted intervention. As part of the evaluation, we collected process measures about the use of MI, assessed MI fidelity, and interviewed participants about their experiences with the program. PMID:24857557

  4. Civic Engagement in Relation to Outcome Expectations among African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, He Len; Probert, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined civic engagement--volunteering and political activism--among 129 African American young adults from an urban community. The proposed model considered factors that motivate young adults to participate in civic activities as well as barriers that might inhibit involvement. Drawing upon social cognitive theory, this study…

  5. Disparity in posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis among African American pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Seng, Julia S; Kohn-Wood, Laura P; McPherson, Melnee D; Sperlich, Mickey

    2011-08-01

    To determine whether African American women expecting their first infant carry a disproportionate burden of posttraumatic stress disorder morbidity, we conducted a comparative analysis of cross-sectional data from the initial psychiatric interview in a prospective cohort study of posttraumatic stress disorder effects on childbearing outcomes. Participants were recruited from maternity clinics in three health systems in the Midwestern USA. Eligibility criteria were being 18 years or older, able to speak English, expecting a first infant, and less than 28 weeks gestation. Telephone interview data was collected from 1,581 women prior to 28 weeks gestation; four declined to answer racial identity items (n = 1,577), 709 women self-identified as African American, 868 women did not. Measures included the Life Stressor Checklist, the National Women's Study Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Module, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and the Centers for Disease Control's Perinatal Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey. The 709 African American pregnant women had more trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and diagnosis, comorbidity and pregnancy substance use, and had less mental health treatment than 868 non-African Americans. Lifetime prevalence was 24.0% versus 17.1%, respectively (OR = 1.5, p = 0.001). Current prevalence was 13.4% versus 3.5% (OR = 4.3, p < 0.001). Current prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was four times higher among African American women. Their risk for PTSD did not differ by sociodemographic status, but was explained by greater trauma exposure. Traumatic stress may be an additional, addressable stress factor in birth outcome disparities.

  6. Separate and unsanitary: African American women railroad car cleaners and the Women's Service Section, 1918-1920.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Robin Dearmon

    2011-01-01

    The Women's Service Section (WSS) investigated federally controlled railroad stations and yards at the end of World War I. Few women worked in car cleaning before the war, and railroad management preferred to block women workers, especially African Americans, from gaining any kind of foothold in railroad work. African American women were the single largest group of railroad car cleaners during this period but they were routinely denied adequate facilities, including toilets, locker rooms, and dining facilities throughout the railroad system. By raising the issues of facilities, workers' rights, and public health, these women shaped federal policy and widened the agenda of the WSS to include a direct attack on segregated workplaces. This article argues that African American women car cleaners launched an industrial campaign that wove together concerns about racism, sexism, and health issues, and successfully removed barriers to women working in a predominately male industry.

  7. Homeless African American Women's Interpretations of Child Abuse as an Antecedent of Chemical Dependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trull, Loree A.; Carroll, Jane J.

    1999-01-01

    Examined how homeless African American women who have been professionally assessed and who self-report to be dependent on alcohol and other drugs make sense of their becoming chemically dependent. Found that interviewees perceived childhood physical, sexual, and psychological abuse and neglect to be among the antecedents to their chemical…

  8. Role Conflict and Career Advancement among African American Women in Nontraditional Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlew, A. Kathleen; Johnson, J. Lemar

    1992-01-01

    Investigated differences in career experiences of African-American women in traditional (n=85) and nontraditional (n=48) professions. Results indicated marriage was more of a barrier for nontraditionals than traditionals. Nontraditionals were more likely to report barriers to career success such as racial and gender discrimination, limited…

  9. Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Academic Adjustment among African American Women Attending Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…

  10. Social Risk and Protective Factors for Suicide Attempts in Low Income African American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Sherry, Alissa; Bethea, Kafi; Wyckoff, Sarah; Compton, Michael T.; Grall, Marnette Bender; Scholl, Larry; Price, Ann Webb; Kellermann, Arthur; Thompson, Nancy; Parker, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine a broad array of potential social risk and protective factors for suicide attempt among 200 African American men and women receiving care at a large, public, urban hospital. Specifically, we examined the effect of the following potential risk factors for suicide attempt: life hassles, partner abuse,…

  11. African-American Women in the Professoriate: Addressing Social Exclusion and Scholarly Marginalization through Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd-Jones, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    African-American women and other underrepresented faculty members often report experiences of social exclusion and scholarly marginalization in mainstream institutions of higher education. This lack of inclusion challenges their retention and hinders them from becoming productive members of the professoriate, positioning them at a disadvantage for…

  12. African Americans' Educational Expectations: Longitudinal Causal Models for Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trusty, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the long-term educational development of African American adolescents. The dependent variable was the highest level of education that participants ever expected to receive. Path models revealed differing processes for women and men. Overall, effects of early academic performance variables were strongest, followed by effects of family…

  13. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Nutrition Interventions for Weight Control in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asare, Matthew; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutrition related weight control interventions done with African American women that were published between 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard…

  14. "There Are Two Truths": African American Women's Critical, Creative Ruminations on Love through New Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Jeanine M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author explores what happens when a group of African American women came together to engage with popular culture narratives (PCNs) soon after 9/11. The author relies on Endarkened Feminist Epistemology to understand the development of raced and gendered meaning making and knowledge development within the inquiry. She also…

  15. African American Women Principals in Urban Schools: Realities, (Re)constructions, and Resolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Collette M.; Erlandson, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Using a naturalistic inquiry approach, analysis of indepth interviews reveals portraits of three African American women administrators emerging from their visible absences, illusionary opportunities, and imaginary schools with stories of strength, identity formation, and a collective consciousness in working for and with the black community in…

  16. The Influence of Spiritual Framing on African American Women's Mammography Intentions: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Best, Alicia L; Spencer, S Melinda; Friedman, Daniela B; Hall, Ingrid J; Billings, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Spiritual framing of breast cancer communication may provide a useful strategy for addressing disparate rates of breast cancer mortality among African American women. The efficacy of a spiritually framed breast cancer screening (BCS) message was compared with that of a traditional BCS message. Specifically, 200 African American women were randomly assigned to review either a spiritually framed or traditional BCS message and complete a self-administered survey, including a thought-listing form. Message efficacy was measured by number of thoughts generated (elaboration), ratio of positive to negative thoughts (polarity), and intention to obtain and/or recommend a mammogram. Multiple linear regression and structural equation modeling were used to assess direct and indirect (mediated) associations among variables. Spiritual framing was positively associated with greater elaboration (β = .265, SE = .36, p < .001) and more positive polarity (β = .237, SE = .04, p < .001) . Spiritual framing also had a significant indirect effect on mammography intentions through polarity (standardized indirect effect = .057, 95% confidence interval [.024, .106], p < .001). These results indicate that spiritual framing may improve the efficacy of BCS messages among African American women by eliciting more positive thoughts about screening. Interventions targeting African American women might consider the role of spirituality when tailoring messages to encourage regular mammography use. PMID:27142231

  17. African American Women Living with HIV/AIDS: Families as Sources of Support and Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    Presents findings from interviews conducted with 18 African American women living with HIV/AIDS. Presents their perceptions of ways in which their families function as a source of support and as a source of stress in their dealings with HIV/AIDS issues. Provides information on supportive aspects provided by family in emotional, concrete, and…

  18. Adapting a Comprehensive Approach to African American Women's Sexual Risk Taking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Gail E.; Tucker, M. Belinda; Romero, Gloria J.; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas; Newcomb, Michael D.; Wayment, Heidi A.; Loeb, Tamra Burns; Solis, Beatriz M.; Mitchell-Kernan, Claudia

    1997-01-01

    Examined factors predicting the context of HIV-related sexual behaviors in African American women. Surveys investigated demographics; sexual history, behavior, attitudes, risk, and communication; drug use; contraception; and risk reduction efforts since Magic Johnson's HIV disclosure. Demographics, sexual communication, and past sexual experiences…

  19. The Invisible Realities of Welfare Reform in Wisconsin: Perspectives of African American Women and Their Employers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the experiences of African American women as they transitioned from welfare to work and develop economic self-sufficiency. The barriers to self-sufficiency included the "work-first" philosophy and case management practices, labor market conditions and employment practices, and personal history. HRD can help minimize these…

  20. African American Women Scholars and International Research: Dr. Anna Julia Cooper's Legacy of Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2009-01-01

    EIn this article, the author presents a little-known but detailed history of Black women's tradition of study abroad. Specifically, she situates Dr. Anna Julia Cooper within the landscape of historic African American students who studied in Japan, Germany, Jamaica, England, Italy, Haiti, India, West Africa, and Thailand, in addition to France. The…

  1. A review of hair product use on breast cancer risk in African American women.

    PubMed

    Stiel, Laura; Adkins-Jackson, Paris B; Clark, Phyllis; Mitchell, Eudora; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    The incidence rate of breast cancer for African American women has recently converged with that of non-Hispanic White women in the United States, although African Americans have a higher mortality rate due to this disease. Although most research exploring health disparities associated with this phenomenon has focused on differences between women based on biology and behavior, both the academic and lay communities have begun to explore the potential role of environmental exposure to estrogen and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). This study reviews the current state of the science associating one such means of exposure, hair products containing EDCs, with breast cancer risk in African American women. We found a growing body of evidence linking: (1) environmental estrogen and EDC exposures to breast cancer risk, (2) the presence of such chemicals in personal care products, including hair products, and (3) the use of certain hair products with potential breast cancer risk in African Americans. At the same time, there is also increasing concern in the lay community about this risk. These results indicate the need for additional research, and the opportunity to benefit from strategic partnerships in community-collaborative approaches in order to better understand the potential "cost of beauty."

  2. A Mixed-Method Analysis of African-American Women's Attendance at an HIV Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, R. M.; McKay, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Grounded in a model of service utilization, this study conceptualizes attendance of African-American women at an HIV prevention intervention as associated with influences across three ecological domains--individual, service (program), and social network. First, the texts of responses to semistructured, open-ended elicitation interviews were…

  3. The College Choice Process of African American and Hispanic Women: Implications for College Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butner, Bonita; Caldera, Yvonne; Herrera, Patricia; Kennedy, Francesca; Frame, Mary; Childers, Chandra

    2001-01-01

    Qualitatively examined the college choice process for African American and Hispanic females at a large southwestern university. Identified, through the voices of these women, three major themes that support their decision to attend college: familial influences, the quintessential American dream, and striving to overcome. (EV)

  4. Utilization of Mammography Services among Elderly Rural and Urban African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agho, Augustine O; Mosley, Barbara W; Rivers, Patrick A; Parker, Shandowyn

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study was a two-year educational intervention and research project aimed at increasing the awareness of breast cancer and the utilization of Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) services and Self-Breast Examination (SBE) among elderly rural and urban African American women who are Medicare beneficiaries. Design: The study was…

  5. Voices from the Inside: African American Women's Perspectives on Healthy Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Jill

    2010-01-01

    The author of this study conducted focus groups with African American women to explore their perspectives on obesity, disease causation, and their ideas on the functionality of cultural, social, historical, environmental, and psychological forces in altering healthy eating habits. Reoccurring themes centered on four areas: (a) the definition of…

  6. Neighborhood Environment and Adherence to a Walking Intervention in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Wilbur, JoEllen; Wang, Edward; McDevitt, Judith; Oh, April; Block, Richard; McNeil, Sue; Savar, Nina

    2009-01-01

    This secondary analysis examined relationships between the environment and adherence to a walking intervention among 252 urban and suburban, midlife African American women. Participants received an enhanced or minimal behavioral intervention. Walking adherence was measured as the percentage of prescribed walks completed. Objective measures of the…

  7. The Outdoor Recreation Experience: Factors Affecting Participation of African American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nina S.; Drogin, Ellen B.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses factors contributing to the nonparticipation of African-American women in outdoor recreation activities including (1) historical oppression and racism; (2) stereotyping by race and gender; (3) lack of role models; (4) insufficient exposure to activity options; (5) limited accessibility to outdoor recreation areas; and (6) oppressive…

  8. A Phenomenological Study on the Leadership Development of African American Women Executives in Academia and Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Deanna Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the intersectionality of race and gender for African American women through their lived experiences of how they developed into leaders. This research study was designed to determine how the intersection of race and gender identities contributed to the elements of leadership…

  9. The Influence of Spiritual Framing on African American Women's Mammography Intentions: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Best, Alicia L; Spencer, S Melinda; Friedman, Daniela B; Hall, Ingrid J; Billings, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Spiritual framing of breast cancer communication may provide a useful strategy for addressing disparate rates of breast cancer mortality among African American women. The efficacy of a spiritually framed breast cancer screening (BCS) message was compared with that of a traditional BCS message. Specifically, 200 African American women were randomly assigned to review either a spiritually framed or traditional BCS message and complete a self-administered survey, including a thought-listing form. Message efficacy was measured by number of thoughts generated (elaboration), ratio of positive to negative thoughts (polarity), and intention to obtain and/or recommend a mammogram. Multiple linear regression and structural equation modeling were used to assess direct and indirect (mediated) associations among variables. Spiritual framing was positively associated with greater elaboration (β = .265, SE = .36, p < .001) and more positive polarity (β = .237, SE = .04, p < .001) . Spiritual framing also had a significant indirect effect on mammography intentions through polarity (standardized indirect effect = .057, 95% confidence interval [.024, .106], p < .001). These results indicate that spiritual framing may improve the efficacy of BCS messages among African American women by eliciting more positive thoughts about screening. Interventions targeting African American women might consider the role of spirituality when tailoring messages to encourage regular mammography use.

  10. A Community Health Advisor Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk among Rural African-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…

  11. Physical Activity among African American Women: Change and Ways of Knowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    2011-01-01

    Research has grown in the 21st century regarding the physical activity patterns of racial and ethnic minorities. Although more is now known about some groups, disparities in health have not diminished. The purpose of this paper is to further explore the research about physical activity for African American women and suggest ways that future…

  12. African American Women Making Race Work in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Stephanie Nicole

    2012-01-01

    African American women maintain distinctive social locations at the intersection of race, gender, and class (Crenshaw, 1991; Collins, 1986; 2000; Wing, 2003). However, their voices, interpretation of experiences, and concern with the use of formal education as a mechanism for racial uplift have not been priorities in feminist movements (hooks,…

  13. African American Faculty Women Experiences of Underrepresentation in Computer Technology Positions in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    African American women are underrepresented in computer technology disciplines in institutions of higher education throughout the United States. Although equitable gender representation is progressing in most fields, much less information is available on why institutions are still lagging in workforce diversity, a problem which can be lessened by…

  14. African American Women Principals' Reflections on Social Change, Community Othermothering, and Chicago Public School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loder, Tondra L.

    2005-01-01

    Emphasizing the salience of social and historical contexts in understanding contemporary urban school leadership, this article presents reflections from a subset of African American women principals who came of age during the Civil Rights era and assumed leadership subsequent to the enactment of the Chicago School Reform Act of 1988. The main…

  15. Intervention Approaches for Addressing Breast Cancer Disparities among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2014-01-01

    African American women in the U.S. have a higher mortality rate from breast cancer than white women. Black-white differences in survival persist even after accounting for disease stage and tumor characteristics suggesting that the higher rates of breast cancer mortality are due to social factors. Several factors may account for racial differences in breast cancer mortality including socioeconomic factors, access to screening mammography and timely treatment, and biological factors. Efforts to prevent deaths from breast cancer and to address breast cancer disparities have focused on early detection through routine mammography and timely referral for treatment. There is a need for culturally appropriate, tailored health messages for African American women to increase their knowledge and awareness of health behaviors for the early detection of breast cancer. Several promising intervention approaches are reviewed in this article including: 1) the use of cell phone text messaging and smart phone apps to increase breast cancer screening; 2) the use of radio stations that target African American audiences (“black radio”) for health promotion activities; and 3) church-based behavioral interventions to promote breast cancer screening among African American women. PMID:25568890

  16. The Lived Experiences of African American Women with Breast Cancer: Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, LaTasha K.

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative phenomenological methodology was used to explore the lived experiences of African American women diagnosed with breast cancer. Phenomenology focuses on the meaning of the lived experiences of individuals experiencing a concept, structure, or phenomenon (Creswell, 2007). The purpose of phenomenological research is to identify phenomena…

  17. Late life function and disability instrument in African American women: function component.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2011-07-22

    Obesity, age, and comorbidity can lead to limitations in physical function, especially in middle aged, community-dwelling, African American women. To determine the clinical implications of limitations in physical function, instruments that assess physical function need to be tested in this population. The purpose of the authors in this secondary analysis was to report the internal consistency and validity of the Physical Function component of the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument in middle-aged, community-dwelling, African American women. In 2006, 126 community-dwelling African American women completed the Physical Function component, the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, and the 6 Minute Walk Test at baseline. Results indicated Cronbach's alphas were excellent (all >.92) for the Physical Function component and the three subscales. The Physical Function component correlated directly with the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (r = .37, p < .01) and the 6 Minute Walk Test (r = .36, p < .01) but was inversely correlated with age (r = -.42, p < .01) and comorbidity (r = -.35, p < .01). However, obesity was not correlated (r = -.11, p > .05). A three-factor structure of the Physical Function component was confirmed. Thus, the Physical Function component was a reliable and valid measure to screen African American women who were at risk for function limitations. Future recommendations are discussed.

  18. Disparity in posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis among African American pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Kohn-Wood, Laura P.; McPherson, Melnee D.; Sperlich, Mickey

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether African American women expecting their first infant carry a disproportionate burden of posttraumatic stress disorder morbidity, we conducted a comparative analysis of cross-sectional data from the initial psychiatric interview in a prospective cohort study of posttraumatic stress disorder effects on childbearing outcomes. Participants were recruited from maternity clinics in three health systems in the Midwestern USA. Eligibility criteria were being 18 years or older, able to speak English, expecting a first infant, and less than 28 weeks gestation. Telephone interview data was collected from 1,581 women prior to 28 weeks gestation; four declined to answer racial identity items (n =1,577), 709 women self-identified as African American, 868 women did not. Measures included the Life Stressor Checklist, the National Women’s Study Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Module, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and the Centers for Disease Control’s Perinatal Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey. The 709 African American pregnant women had more trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and diagnosis, comorbidity and pregnancy substance use, and had less mental health treatment than 868 non-African Americans. Lifetime prevalence was 24.0% versus 17.1%, respectively (OR=1.5, p=0.001). Current prevalence was 13.4% versus 3.5% (OR=4.3, p< 0.001). Current prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was four times higher among African American women. Their risk for PTSD did not differ by sociodemographic status, but was explained by greater trauma exposure. Traumatic stress may be an additional, addressable stress factor in birth outcome disparities. PMID:21573930

  19. Exploring Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control as Risk Factors in Sexual Decision Making for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpleton, Asher M.

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases have reached epidemic proportions, especially among African Americans. However, African American women have emerged as being one of the hardest hit groups by the most fatal of sexually transmitted diseases--the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Although there has…

  20. An Exploration of the Leadership Style Preferences among African American Women Administrators of the 1890 Cooperative Extension System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Shelvy L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to identify and explore the leadership style preferences among current African American Administrators of the 1890 Land-Grant Cooperative Extension system. The population used in this study was African American women administrators from eighteen mostly southern states. The researcher used a "two-phase…

  1. Developing spiritually framed breast cancer screening messages in consultation with African American women.

    PubMed

    Best, Alicia L; Spencer, Mindi; Hall, Ingrid J; Friedman, Daniela B; Billings, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts to increase breast cancer screening (BCS) among African American women, disparities in breast cancer mortality persist. Culturally framed health communication may provide a useful strategy to address this issue. Spirituality not only represents an integral aspect of African American culture, but it has also been identified as a potential barrier to BCS among this population. Rather than continuing to focus on spirituality as a barrier, there is an opportunity to develop promotional messages that tap into the protective properties of spirituality among this population. The goals of this study were to engage a group of African American women to identify important spiritual elements to be included in health communication materials, and to subsequently develop a spiritually framed BCS message in response to their feedback. Three nominal group sessions were conducted with 15 African American women. Results revealed three important spiritual elements that can be incorporated into BCS health messages: (a) the body as a temple; (b) going to the doctor does not make you faithless; and (c) God did not give us the spirit of fear. These elements were used to draft a spiritually framed BCS message. Next, 20 face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted to help finalize the spiritually framed BCS message for use in a future study on culturally framed health communication.

  2. Yo-Yo Dieting in African American Women: Weight Cycling and Health

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Robyn L.; Forys, Kelly L.; Psota, Tricia L.; Sbrocco, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research on the effects of weight cycling on health is mixed, strife with inconsistent definitions and the exclusion of African Americans. This study examined weight cycling prevalence among African American women prior to enrolling in a weight management program. Associations of weight cycling with physical and psychological health were conducted. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting Community-based weight-management program. Participants 167 overweight or obese treatment-seeking African American women. Main Outcome Measures Weight cycling was examined in relation to physiological factors, including eating pathology, mood, self esteem, and physical health, specifically current weight, ideal weight, peak weight, and blood pressure. Results Weight cycling was prevalent (63%). Cyclers had higher current and peak weights (P<.01). Blood pressure did not differ between groups. Cyclers had higher drive for thinness, less body satisfaction, and less self-esteem for appearance (P<.05). Conclusion African American women are at risk for weight cycling and it may be associated with greater weight and poorer measures of psychological health. (Ethn Dis PMID:21942158

  3. Sexual protective strategies and condom use in middle-age African American women: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tanyka K.

    2015-01-01

    The heterosexual transmission of HIV has affected middle-age African American women at alarming rates; yet there is a paucity of research and interventions focused on this population. This study used a qualitative approach to understand middle-age urban African American women’s experiences with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and to identify the sexual protective strategies they employed to reduce their risk for HIV infection. Ten African American women, ages 45 to 56, were recruited from low-income neighborhoods in New York City. Data were collected using in-depth interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Investigator triangulation and member checking were used to ensure rigor. Five salient themes emerged that highlighted the individual, gender/relationship power factors, and the sociocultural elements that influenced sexual protection or risk-taking behavior. Findings provide new insight into the complexities of HIV sexual risk behavior and can guide future HIV prevention interventions for middle-age, African American, urban women. PMID:26194973

  4. Developing spiritually framed breast cancer screening messages in consultation with African American women.

    PubMed

    Best, Alicia L; Spencer, Mindi; Hall, Ingrid J; Friedman, Daniela B; Billings, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts to increase breast cancer screening (BCS) among African American women, disparities in breast cancer mortality persist. Culturally framed health communication may provide a useful strategy to address this issue. Spirituality not only represents an integral aspect of African American culture, but it has also been identified as a potential barrier to BCS among this population. Rather than continuing to focus on spirituality as a barrier, there is an opportunity to develop promotional messages that tap into the protective properties of spirituality among this population. The goals of this study were to engage a group of African American women to identify important spiritual elements to be included in health communication materials, and to subsequently develop a spiritually framed BCS message in response to their feedback. Three nominal group sessions were conducted with 15 African American women. Results revealed three important spiritual elements that can be incorporated into BCS health messages: (a) the body as a temple; (b) going to the doctor does not make you faithless; and (c) God did not give us the spirit of fear. These elements were used to draft a spiritually framed BCS message. Next, 20 face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted to help finalize the spiritually framed BCS message for use in a future study on culturally framed health communication. PMID:24837069

  5. Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviours Related to STD Risk, Prevention, and Screening among a Sample of African American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Friedman, Allison; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Forsythe, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Current data on sexually transmitted disease (STD) among African Americans show significant racial/ethnic disparities. The purpose of this study was to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours related to STD risk, prevention, and testing among African American adults to help inform the development of a health communication…

  6. Falls efficacy and self-rated health in older African American adults.

    PubMed

    Tiernan, Chad; Lysack, Cathy; Neufeld, Stewart; Goldberg, Allon; Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Fear of falling and mobility restrictions have a significant negative impact on the quality of life of older adults. Because older African American adults are at increased risk for various modifiable health problems, understanding potential constraints on their overall health and mobility is critical in this population. The current study investigated this issue by analyzing a dataset of 449 older African American adults (mean age=72.3 years) living in Detroit. We characterized and investigated the relationships among the following falls- and health-related variables: previous falls, falls efficacy, mobility, self-rated health (SRH), and depression and well-being. As a whole, participants reported moderate health and well-being, little depression, few mobility problems (mean=8.4/40), and very high falls efficacy (mean=94.9/100) despite the fact that a quarter of the sample experienced a fall within the past year. Correlation results indicated that previous falls, falls efficacy, mobility, SRH and depression and well-being were all inter-related. Regression analyses revealed that higher falls efficacy was more closely associated with better SRH than was having previously fallen. Findings suggest that improving falls efficacy in older African American adults may be beneficial to their mobility and overall health and well-being. Further, by asking a single-item SRH question, clinicians may be able to quickly identify older African American adults who have low falls efficacy and are at high risk for falling. PMID:24063870

  7. Racial discrimination and health-promoting vs damaging behaviors among African-American adults.

    PubMed

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope

    2012-11-01

    Studies have found relationships between racial discrimination and increased health-damaging behaviors among African-Americans, but have not examined possible concomitant decreased health-promoting behaviors. We explored the role of discrimination in two health-promoting behaviors, consuming ≥ 5 fruits/vegetables daily (FVC) and physical activity (PA), for the first time, and likewise examined discrimination's contribution to cigarette smoking, among a sample of N = 2118 African-American adults. Results revealed that discrimination contributed positively to smoking and to PA but was unrelated to FVC. These findings suggest that both adaptive and maladaptive health behaviors might be used to cope with the stress of discrimination.

  8. Perceived racial/ethnic harassment and tobacco use among African American young adults.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Gary G; Wolin, Kathleen Yaus; Robinson, Elwood L; Fowler, Sherrye; Edwards, Christopher L

    2005-02-01

    We examined the association between perceived racial/ethnic harassment and tobacco use in 2129 African American college students in North Carolina. Age-adjusted and multivariate analyses evaluated the effect of harassment on daily and less-than-daily tobacco use. Harassed participants were twice as likely to use tobacco daily (odds ratio = 2.01; 95% confidence interval=1.94, 2.08) compared with those with no reported harassment experiences. Experiences of racial/ethnic harassment may contribute to tobacco use behaviors among some African American young adults.

  9. Characterizing and explaining differences in cognitive test performance between African American and European American older adults

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Adrienne T. Aiken; Marsiske, Michael; Whitfield, Keith E.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined differences in cognitive performance of African American and European American older adults on cognitive and intellectual measures, and the extent to which literacy status or reading level was useful in explaining these group differences. African American elders performed more poorly than European American elders on twelve of thirteen cognitive tests administered, p < .05. After controlling for reading level achievement, differences in performance became non-significant for five of these twelve tests. Nonetheless, some differences persisted, suggesting that other potential mediators of race differences remain to be explored in future research. PMID:18189169

  10. African American parents' racial and emotion socialization profiles and young adults' emotional adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Angel S; Perry, Nicole B; Cavanaugh, Alyson M; Leerkes, Esther M

    2015-07-01

    The current study aimed to identify parents' profiles of racial and emotion socialization practices, to determine if these profiles vary as a function of family income and young adult child gender, and to examine their links with young adults' emotional adaptation. Participants included 192 African American young adults (70% women) who ranged in age from 18 to 24 years (M = 19.44 years). Four maternal profiles emerged: cultural-supportive (high cultural socialization and supportive responses to children's negative emotions), moderate bias preparation (moderate preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses to negative emotions), high bias preparation (high preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses), and low engaged (low across racial and socialization constructs). Three paternal profiles emerged: multifaceted (moderate across racial and emotion socialization constructs), high bias preparation, and low engaged. Men were more likely to have mothers in the high bias preparation and to have fathers in the multifaceted or high bias preparation profiles. Individuals with higher income were more likely to have mothers in the cultural-supportive profile and to have fathers in the multifaceted profile. Young adults whose mothers fit the cultural-supportive profile or the moderate bias preparation profile had lower levels of depressive symptoms than young adults whose mothers fit the high bias preparation profile. PMID:25090149

  11. The Contribution of Community and Family Contexts to African American Young Adults' Romantic Relationship Health: A Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.; Lei, Man-Kit; Grange, Christina R.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that African American men and women experience unique challenges in developing and maintaining stable, satisfying romantic relationships. Extant studies have linked relationship quality among African American couples to contemporaneous risk factors such as economic hardship and racial discrimination. Little research,…

  12. Solo status and self-construal: being distinctive influences racial self-construal and performance apprehension in African American women.

    PubMed

    Sekaquaptewa, Denise; Waldman, Andrew; Thompson, Mischa

    2007-10-01

    A preliminary study and main experiment tested the hypothesis that racial solo status (being the only member of one's race in a group) increases racial self-construal among African Americans. The preliminary study showed that African American men and women reported greater collectivist (i.e., group-based) over individualist self-construal under solo compared to nonsolo status, whereas Whites did not. The main experiment showed that the increased collectivism among African American solo women appears to be strongly reflected in racial identity becoming a salient aspect of self-construal. African American participants were also more likely than Whites to perceive that their anticipated performance would be generalized to their race, to feel like representatives of their race, and to show greater performance apprehension (indirectly evidenced by increased self-handicapping) when in racial solo status. The implications of solo status for African Americans in evaluative situations (such as academic testing sessions) are discussed.

  13. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Essien, E James; Meshack, Angela F; Peters, Ronald J; Ogungbade, GO; Osemene, Nora I

    2005-01-01

    Background African-American women are disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for 60% of all cases among women in the United States. Although their race is not a precursor for HIV, the socioeconomic and cultural disparities associated with being African American may increase their risk of infection. Prior research has shown that interventions designed to reduce HIV infection among African-American women must address the life demands and social problems they encounter. The present study used a qualitative exploratory design to elicit information about strategies to prevent HIV transmission among young, low-income African-American women. Methods Twenty five low income African American women, ages 18–29, participated in five focus groups of five women each conducted at a housing project in Houston, Texas, a large demographically diverse metropolitan area that is regarded as one of the HIV/AIDS epicenters in the United States. Each group was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using theme and domain analysis. Results The participants revealed that they had most frequently placed themselves at risk for HIV infection through drugs and drinking and they also reported drug and alcohol use as important barriers to practicing safer sex. The women also reported that the need for money and having sex for money to buy food or drugs had placed them at risk for HIV transmission. About one-third of the participants stated that a barrier to their practicing safe sex was their belief that there was no risk based on their being in a monogamous relationship and feeling no need to use protection, but later learning that their mate was unfaithful. Other reasons given were lack of concern, being unprepared, partner's refusal to use a condom, and lack of money to buy condoms. Finally, the women stated that they were motivated to practice safe sex because of fear of contracting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, desire not to become pregnant, and personal experience with

  14. The Role of Body Size in Mate Selection among African American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Leslie G.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    A profusion of studies have demonstrated that body size is a major factor in mate selection for both men and women. The particular role played by weight, however, has been subject to some debate, particularly with respect to the types of body sizes deemed most attractive, and scholars have questioned the degree to which body size preferences are constant across groups. In this paper, we drew from two perspectives on this issue, Sexual Strategies Theory and what we termed the cultural variability perspective, and used survey data to examine how body size was associated with both casual dating and serious romantic relationships. We used a United States sample of 386 African American adolescents and young adults between ages 16 and 21, living in the Midwest and Southeast, and who were enrolled in either high school or college. Results showed that overweight women were more likely to report casually dating than women in the thinnest weight category. Body size was not related to dating status among men. Among women, the results suggest stronger support for the cultural variability argument than for Sexual Strategies Theory. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed. PMID:26973377

  15. The Longitudinal Effect of Drug Use on Productivity Status of Nonmetropolitan African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roldós, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal effect of marijuana and heavy alcohol use on the productivity status of nonmetropolitan African American young adults. This analysis was based on secondary data from the Family and Community Health Study. For alcohol, the study evaluated the effects on productivity status for…

  16. Adult Social Behavioral Effects of Heavy Adolescent Marijuana Use among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kerry M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use on employment, marriage, and family formation and tested both dropping out of high school and adult marijuana use as potential mediators of these associations among a community sample of African Americans followed longitudinally from age 6 to age 32-33. They used propensity …

  17. Black Greek-Letter Organizations: A Legacy of African American Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Keiwana O'Neal

    2012-01-01

    The education of African American adults evolved in response to the changing social, economic, and political needs of the Black community. To address these needs, Black Greek-Letter Organizations (BGLOs) created and implemented initiatives at the local, national, and international levels using education as a catalyst to change aspects of African…

  18. Physiologic Responses to Racial Rejection Images among Young Adults from African-American Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Carlson, Erika N.; Lawson, Yolanda N.; Shell, J. Clark

    2009-01-01

    Physiologic reactivity to racially rejecting images was assessed in 35 young adults (10 males, 25 female) from African-American backgrounds using the startle probe paradigm. In a laboratory setting, participants viewed 16 images depicting racial rejection, racial acceptance, nonracial negative, and nonracial positive themes. While viewing these…

  19. Literacy and Identity: Reflections of Six African American Males in an Adult Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drayton, Brendaly Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This multiple case study explored how the literate experiences of six African American men influenced their perceptions of and engagement with a community-based adult basic education and literacy (ABEL) program in a large northeastern city. The theoretical framework included a social practices view of literacy and a constructivist view of…

  20. Buffering Effects of a Family-Based Intervention for African American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen; Brown, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the buffering effects of Adults in the Making (AIM), a family-centered preventive intervention, on the link between life stress and increases in risk behaviors among 347 rural, southern African Americans as they left high school. Of the families, 174 were assigned to the prevention condition and 173 to a control condition.…

  1. Concepts of Infidelity among African American Emerging Adults: Implications for HIV/STI Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyre, Stephen L.; Flythe, Michelle; Hoffman, Valerie; Fraser, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used an exploratory methodology to determine what cultural models African American emerging adults use to understand infidelity/cheating. Cultural models are defined as "cognitive schema[s] that [are] intersubjectively shared by a social group" (D'Andrade, 1987, p. 112). We interviewed 144 participants ages 19-22 from three…

  2. Inconsistencies in the Literature on Collegiate Adult Children of Alcoholics: Factors to Consider for African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodney, H. Elaine

    1996-01-01

    Several inconsistencies in literature on adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) were found. This paper emphasizes that clinicians and those developing prevention programs should stop believing that certain characteristics are typical of all ACOAs. It makes recommendations for factors to be considered in programs for African American collegiate…

  3. Determinants of breast cancer treatment delay differ for African American and White women

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Sasha A.; Durham, Danielle D.; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Millikan, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Timeliness of care may contribute to racial disparities in breast cancer mortality. African American women experience greater treatment delay than White women in most, but not all studies. Understanding these disparities is challenging since many studies lack patient-reported data and use administrative data sources that collect limited types of information. We used interview and medical record data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS) to identify determinants of delay and assess whether disparities exist between White and African American women (n=601). Methods The CBCS is a population-based study of North Carolina women. We investigated the association of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, healthcare access, clinical factors, and measures of emotional and functional well-being with treatment delay. The association of race and selected characteristics with delays of >30 days were assessed using logistic regression. Results Household size, losing a job due to one’s diagnosis, and immediate reconstruction were associated with delay in the overall population and among White women. Immediate reconstruction and treatment type were associated with delay among African American women. Racial disparities in treatment delay were not evident in the overall population. In the adjusted models, African American women experienced greater delay than White women for younger age groups: odds ratio (OR), 3.34; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07–10.38 for ages 20–39, and OR, 3.40; 95% CI, 1.76–6.54 for ages 40–49. Conclusions Determinants of treatment delay vary by race. Racial disparities in treatment delay exist among women <50 years old. Impact Specific populations need to be targeted when identifying and addressing determinants of treatment delay. PMID:23825306

  4. In the eye of the storm: resilience and vulnerability among African American women in the wake of Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Laditka, Sarah B; Murray, Louise M; Laditka, James N

    2010-11-01

    We reviewed 17 studies of experiences of African Americans following Hurricane Katrina, with an emphasis on women. We conducted a literature search using major computerized databases, and we crossed-checked references in articles identified. All of the studies were published in peer-reviewed journals between 2006 and 2010. African American women were more likely than others to report that the hurricane experience produced mental health disorders and stress, disrupted social relationships, and strengthened faith and appreciation of families. African American women emphasized the need to preserve cultural memories, and they advocated for support and recovery. We offer suggestions for practitioners, policymakers, and researchers.

  5. Intuitive Eating Practices Among African-American Women Living With Type 2 Diabetes: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Willig, Amanda L.; Richardson, Brittany S.; Agne, April; Cherrington, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Intuitive Eating programs that improve self-efficacy and dietary habits could enhance glycemic control in African-American women with type 2 diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate how current eating practices and beliefs of African-American women living with diabetes aligned with intuitive eating concepts. African-American women with type 2 diabetes referred for diabetes education class in 2009–2012 were recruited for a qualitative study using focus groups for data collection. Verbatim group transcriptions were analyzed by two independent reviewers for themes using a combined inductive-deductive approach. Participants (n=35) had an average age of 52±9 years, mean body mass index of 39±7, and mean time with a type 2 diabetes diagnosis of 10±10 years. Participants’ self-reported dietary practices were poorly aligned with intuitive eating concepts. The women reported a lack of self-control with food and regularly eating in the absence of hunger, yet stated that the determinant factor for when to stop eating was to recognize a feeling of fullness. Participants reported knowing they were full when they felt physically uncomfortable or actually became sick. Women frequently cited the belief that individuals with diabetes have to follow a different diet than that recommended for the general public. Many women also discussed diabetes-related stigma from family/friends, and often did not tell others about their diabetes diagnosis. These findings demonstrate that intuitive eating techniques are not currently applied by the women in this sample. Future studies should assess the impact of intuitive eating interventions on dietary habits among low-income African-American women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24699138

  6. Breast cancer treatment among African American women in north St. Louis, Missouri.

    PubMed

    Connors, Shahnjayla K; Goodman, Melody S; Noel, Lailea; Chavakula, Neeraja N; Butler, Dwayne; Kenkel, Sandi; Oliver, Cheryl; McCullough, Isaac; Gehlert, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    Similar to disparities seen at the national and state levels, African American women in St. Louis, Missouri have higher breast cancer mortality rates than their Caucasian counterparts. We examined breast cancer treatment (regimens and timing) in a sample of African American breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2008 while residing in a North St. Louis cluster (eight zip codes) of late stage at diagnosis. Data were obtained from medical record extractions of women participating in a mixed-method study of breast cancer treatment experiences. The median time between diagnosis and initiation of treatment was 27 days; 12.2% of the women had treatment delay over 60 days. These findings suggest that treatment delay and regimens are unlikely contributors to excess mortality rates for African American women diagnosed in early stages. Conflicting research findings on treatment delay may result from the inconsistent definitions of treatment delay and variations among study populations. Breast cancer treatment delay may reduce breast cancer survival; additional research is needed to better understand the points at which delays are most likely to occur and develop policies, programs, and interventions to address disparities in treatment delay. There may also be differences in treatment-related survivorship quality of life; approximately 54% of the women in this sample treated with mastectomies received breast reconstruction surgery. Despite the high reconstruction rates, most women did not receive definitive completion. African American women have higher reconstruction complication rates than Caucasian women; these data provide additional evidence to suggest a disparity in breast reconstruction outcomes by race.

  7. A qualitative study of factors affecting pregnancy weight gain in African American women.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Kara; Cregger, Mary; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong

    2013-04-01

    African Americans and overweight or obese women are at increased risk for excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention. Interventions are needed to promote healthy GWG in this population; however, research on exercise and nutritional barriers during pregnancy in African American women is limited. The objective of this qualitative study is to better inform intervention messages by eliciting information on perceptions of appropriate weight gain, barriers to and enablers of exercise and healthy eating, and other influences on healthy weight gain during pregnancy in overweight or obese African American women. In-depth interviews were conducted with 33 overweight or obese African American women in Columbia, South Carolina. Women were recruited in early to mid-pregnancy (8-23 weeks gestation, n = 10), mid to late pregnancy (24-36 weeks, n = 15), and early postpartum (6-12 weeks postpartum, n = 8). Interview questions and data analysis were informed using a social ecological framework. Over 50 % of women thought they should gain weight in excess of the range recommended by the Institute of Medicine. Participants were motivated to exercise for personal health benefits; however they also cited many barriers to exercise, including safety concerns for the fetus. Awareness of the maternal and fetal benefits of healthy eating was high. Commonly cited barriers to healthy eating include cravings and availability of unhealthy foods. The majority of women were motivated to engage in healthy behaviors during pregnancy. However, the interviews also uncovered a number of misconceptions and barriers that can serve as future intervention messages and strategies. PMID:22527762

  8. Community based participatory research of breastfeeding disparities in African American women

    PubMed Central

    Kulka, Tamar Ringel; Jensen, Elizabeth; McLaurin, Sue; Woods, Elizabeth; Kotch, Jonathan; Labbok, Miriam; Bowling, Mike; Dardess, Pamela; Baker, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective Lack of support for breastfeeding mothers has been consistently identified in the literature as a barrier for breastfeeding across racial and ethnic groups. Using a community-based participatory approach, academic and community-based partners conducted an iterative process to assess barriers, facilitators and potential mediating interventions for breastfeeding in the African-American community in Durham, North Carolina. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted with African-American mothers, fathers and grandmothers. Researchers transcribed and coded each focus group and analyzed using Atlas ti. 5.2. Patterns and themes that emerged informed the development of community stakeholder interviews; 41 interviews were conducted with community representatives. These findings informed the development of a support group pilot intervention. The pilot support groups were evaluated for increase in knowledge of attendees. Results Focus group and community interviews indicate that African Americans may disproportionately experience inadequate support for breastfeeding. This lack of support was reported in the home, the workplace, among peers, and from healthcare providers. The pilot support groups resulted in increased knowledge of breastfeeding among group participants OR=3.6 (95% CI: 2.5, 5.2). Conclusions The findings from this research underscore the importance of a multi-level approach to breastfeeding support for African American women to address breastfeeding disparities. PMID:23326622

  9. Ebony and Ivory?:Interracial Dating Intentions and Behaviors of Disadvantaged African American Women in Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Luke, David J.; Oser, Carrie B.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from 595 predominantly disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky, this study examines perceptions about racial/ethnic partner availability, cultural mistrust, and racism as correlates of interracial dating intentions and behaviors with both white and Hispanic men. Participants reported levels of dating intentions and behaviors were significantly higher with whites than Hispanics. The multivariate models indicate less cultural mistrust and believing it is easier to find a man of that racial/ethnic category were associated with higher interracial dating intentions. Women were more likely to have dated a white man if they believed it was easier to find a white man and had interracial dating intentions; however, interracial dating intentions was the only significant correlate of having dated a Hispanic man. Findings suggest a shrinking social distance between racial groups, broadening the MMPI for African American women; yet, the low levels of interracial relationships are likely driven by preferences of men. PMID:26188458

  10. African American women's beliefs about mental illness, stigma, and preferred coping behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ward, Earlise C; Heidrich, Susan M

    2009-10-01

    We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, including family-related stress and social stress due to racism, is cyclical, and has serious consequences but can be controlled by treatment. Participants endorsed low perceptions of stigma. Major preferred coping strategies included praying and seeking medical and mental health care. Age differences were found in all variables except stigma.

  11. Ebony and Ivory? Interracial dating intentions and behaviors of disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Luke, David J; Oser, Carrie B

    2015-09-01

    Using data from 595 predominantly disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky, this study examines perceptions about racial/ethnic partner availability, cultural mistrust, and racism as correlates of interracial dating intentions and behaviors with both white and Hispanic men. Participants reported levels of dating intentions and behaviors were significantly higher with whites than Hispanics. The multivariate models indicate less cultural mistrust and believing it is easier to find a man of that racial/ethnic category were associated with higher interracial dating intentions. Women were more likely to have dated a white man if they believed it was easier to find a white man and had interracial dating intentions; however, interracial dating intentions was the only significant correlate of having dated a Hispanic man. Findings suggest a shrinking social distance between racial groups, broadening the MMPI for African American women; yet, the low levels of interracial relationships are likely driven by preferences of men.

  12. African American Women's Beliefs About Mental Illness, Stigma, and Preferred Coping Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Heidrich, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, including family-related stress and social stress due to racism, is cyclical, and has serious consequences but can be controlled by treatment. Participants endorsed low perceptions of stigma. Major preferred coping strategies included praying and seeking medical and mental health care. Age differences were found in all variables except stigma. PMID:19650070

  13. Sociosexuality, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) susceptibility, and sexual behavior among African American women

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial correlation of risky sexual behavior is important for the design and implementation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related prevention and intervention studies. Sociosexuality (individual differences in endorsement of casual sexual behavior) and perceived susceptibility to HIV were examined for their relationship to each other, and in predicting risky sexual behavior among adult, heterosexual African American women using web-based and in-person surveys. This study included 275 geographically diverse women (mean age = 33.60 years), with 81% reported having at least a college degree, and over 50% reported incomes over $45,000. Results indicate that sociosexuality was significantly associated with perceived susceptibility, and both higher levels of sociosexuality and perceived susceptibility were significantly related to engagement in riskier sexual behavior. Age at first voluntary intercourse emerged as an important covariate in predicting risky sexual behavior among the participants. The need to include psychosocial variables associated with risky sexual behavior in sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV-related health promotion and intervention studies was discussed. PMID:25614851

  14. Critical consciousness, racial and gender discrimination, and HIV disease markers in African American women with HIV.

    PubMed

    Kelso, Gwendolyn A; Cohen, Mardge H; Weber, Kathleen M; Dale, Sannisha K; Cruise, Ruth C; Brody, Leslie R

    2014-07-01

    Critical consciousness, the awareness of social oppression, is important to investigate as a buffer against HIV disease progression in HIV-infected African American women in the context of experiences with discrimination. Critical consciousness comprises several dimensions, including social group identification, discontent with distribution of social power, rejection of social system legitimacy, and a collective action orientation. The current study investigated self-reported critical consciousness as a moderator of perceived gender and racial discrimination on HIV viral load and CD4+ cell count in 67 African American HIV-infected women. Higher critical consciousness was found to be related to higher likelihood of having CD4+ counts over 350 and lower likelihood of detectable viral load when perceived racial discrimination was high, as revealed by multiple logistic regressions that controlled for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence. Multiple linear regressions showed that at higher levels of perceived gender and racial discrimination, women endorsing high critical consciousness had a larger positive difference between nadir CD4+ (lowest pre-HAART) and current CD4+ count than women endorsing low critical consciousness. These findings suggest that raising awareness of social oppression to promote joining with others to enact social change may be an important intervention strategy to improve HIV outcomes in African American HIV-infected women who report experiencing high levels of gender and racial discrimination.

  15. Critical Consciousness, Racial and Gender Discrimination, and HIV Disease Markers in African American Women with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kelso, Gwendolyn A.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Dale, Sannisha K.; Cruise, Ruth C.; Brody, Leslie R.

    2014-01-01

    Critical consciousness, the awareness of social oppression, is important to investigate as a buffer against HIV disease progression in HIV-infected African American women in the context of experiences with discrimination. Critical consciousness comprises several dimensions, including social group identification, discontent with distribution of social power, rejection of social system legitimacy, and a collective action orientation. The current study investigated self-reported critical consciousness as a moderator of perceived gender and racial discrimination on HIV viral load and CD4+ cell count in 67 African American HIV-infected women. Higher critical consciousness was found to be related to higher likelihood of having CD4+ counts over 350 and lower likelihood of detectable viral load when perceived racial discrimination was high, as revealed by multiple logistic regressions that controlled for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence. Multiple linear regressions showed that at higher levels of perceived gender and racial discrimination, women endorsing high critical consciousness had a larger positive difference between nadir CD4+ (lowest pre-HAART) and current CD4+ count than women endorsing low critical consciousness. These findings suggest that raising awareness of social oppression to promote joining with others to enact social change may be an important intervention strategy to improve HIV outcomes in African American HIV-infected women who report experiencing high levels of gender and racial discrimination. PMID:24077930

  16. SNPs and breast cancer risk prediction for African American and Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Allman, Richard; Dite, Gillian S; Hopper, John L; Gordon, Ora; Starlard-Davenport, Athena; Chlebowski, Rowan; Kooperberg, Charles

    2015-12-01

    For African American or Hispanic women, the extent to which clinical breast cancer risk prediction models are improved by including information on susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is unknown, even though these women comprise increasing proportions of the US population and represent a large proportion of the world's population. We studied 7539 African American and 3363 Hispanic women from the Women's Health Initiative. The age-adjusted 5-year risks from the BCRAT and IBIS risk prediction models were measured and combined with a risk score based on >70 independent susceptibility SNPs. Logistic regression, adjusting for age group, was used to estimate risk associations with log-transformed age-adjusted 5-year risks. Discrimination was measured by the odds ratio (OR) per standard deviation (SD) and the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC). When considered alone, the ORs for African American women were 1.28 for BCRAT, and 1.04 for IBIS. When combined with the SNP risk score (OR 1.23), the corresponding ORs were 1.39 and 1.22. For Hispanic women the corresponding ORs were 1.25 for BCRAT, and 1.15 for IBIS. When combined with the SNP risk score (OR 1.39), the corresponding ORs were 1.48 and 1.42. There was no evidence that any of the combined models were not well calibrated. Including information on known breast cancer susceptibility loci provides approximately 10 and 19% improvement in risk prediction using BCRAT for African Americans and Hispanics, respectively. The corresponding figures for IBIS are approximately 18 and 26%, respectively.

  17. SNPs and breast cancer risk prediction for African American and Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Allman, Richard; Dite, Gillian S; Hopper, John L; Gordon, Ora; Starlard-Davenport, Athena; Chlebowski, Rowan; Kooperberg, Charles

    2015-12-01

    For African American or Hispanic women, the extent to which clinical breast cancer risk prediction models are improved by including information on susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is unknown, even though these women comprise increasing proportions of the US population and represent a large proportion of the world's population. We studied 7539 African American and 3363 Hispanic women from the Women's Health Initiative. The age-adjusted 5-year risks from the BCRAT and IBIS risk prediction models were measured and combined with a risk score based on >70 independent susceptibility SNPs. Logistic regression, adjusting for age group, was used to estimate risk associations with log-transformed age-adjusted 5-year risks. Discrimination was measured by the odds ratio (OR) per standard deviation (SD) and the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC). When considered alone, the ORs for African American women were 1.28 for BCRAT, and 1.04 for IBIS. When combined with the SNP risk score (OR 1.23), the corresponding ORs were 1.39 and 1.22. For Hispanic women the corresponding ORs were 1.25 for BCRAT, and 1.15 for IBIS. When combined with the SNP risk score (OR 1.39), the corresponding ORs were 1.48 and 1.42. There was no evidence that any of the combined models were not well calibrated. Including information on known breast cancer susceptibility loci provides approximately 10 and 19% improvement in risk prediction using BCRAT for African Americans and Hispanics, respectively. The corresponding figures for IBIS are approximately 18 and 26%, respectively. PMID:26589314

  18. Associating with Occupational Depictions: How African American College Women Are Influenced by the Portrayals of Women in Professional Careers on Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderlinden, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined ways portrayals of professional Black women on television influence the higher education and occupational choices of African American college women. The central research question of this study was: How do college age African American women make meaning of the portrayals of the people they see on television? Two analytic…

  19. Incremental impact of breast cancer SNP panel on risk classification in a screening population of white and African American women

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Anne Marie; Armstrong, Katrina; Handorf, Elizabeth; Jones, Marisa; Chen, Jinbo; Demeter, Mirar Bristol; McGuire, Erin; Conant, Emily F; Domchek, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer risk prediction remains imperfect, particularly among non-white populations. This study examines the impact of including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles in risk prediction for white and African American women undergoing screening mammogram. Using a prospective cohort study, standard risk information and buccal swabs were collected at the time of screening mammography. A 12 SNP panel was performed by deCODE Genetics. Five-year and lifetime risks incorporating SNPs were calculated by multiplying estimated Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) risk by the total genetic risk ratio. Concordance between the BCRAT and the Combined Model (BCRAT + SNPs) in identifying high-risk women was measured using the kappa statistic. SNP data were available for 813 women (39% African American, 55% white). The mean BCRAT 5-year risk was 1.70% for whites and 1.19% for African Americans. Mean genetic risk ratios were 1.10 in whites and 1.29 in African Americans. Among whites, three SNPs had higher frequencies, and among African Americans, seven SNPs had higher and four had lower high-risk allele frequencies than previously reported. Agreement between the BCRAT and the Combined Model was relatively low for identifying high-risk women (5-year κ=0.53, lifetime κ=0.37). Addition of SNPs had the greatest effect among African Americans, with 13% identified as having high 5-year risk by BCRAT, but 33% by the Combined Model. A greater proportion of African Americans were reclassified as having high 5-year risk than whites using the Combined Model (21% vs. 10%). The addition of SNPs to the BCRAT reclassifies the high-risk status of some women undergoing screening mammography, particularly African Americans. Further research is needed to determine the clinical validity and utility of the SNP panel for use in breast cancer risk prediction, particularly among African Americans for whom these risk alleles have generally not been validated. PMID:23474973

  20. Gender as a Moderator of the Relation between Race-Related Stress and Mental Health Symptoms for African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Tawanda M.; Laseter, Adrian; Asiamah, David

    2009-01-01

    The present study tested gender as a moderator of the relationship between race-related stress and mental health symptoms among African American adults. Because African American women are exposed to stressors associated with race and gender, we hypothesized that African American women would have higher levels of race-related stress and more severe…

  1. Racism and Illicit Drug Use Among African American Women: The Protective Effects of Ethnic Identity, Affirmation, and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Harp, Kathi L; Oser, Carrie B

    2012-11-01

    Though recent evidence indicates that rates of illicit drug use among African American women are now higher than the national average, little is known about the etiology of substance use in this population. In addition, the effects of racism and other cultural factors are understudied and may be unique amongst African American women. This cross-sectional study explores risk and protective factors for drug use among 204 African American women. More specifically, associations between racism experiences and drug use are investigated in the context of potential moderating influences (i.e., psychosocial resources, social safety net variables, and cultural identity and practices). Findings suggest that racism is associated with drug use, but that its effects diminish with age. In addition, results suggest that psychosocial resources, social safety net factors and culturally specific factors like ethnic community membership and engagement in cultural practices afford African American women some protection against the detrimental effects of racism.

  2. Education Desegregation and Cognitive Change in African American Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Sims, Regina C.; Allaire, Jason C.; Whitfield, Keith E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The present study examined the relationship between desegregated schooling and cognitive change in a sample of 420 community-dwelling African American elders (mean age = 68.6; SD = 9.1). Method. Participants were recruited for the Baltimore Study of Black Aging—Patterns of Cognitive Aging. Cognitive measures from six domains of function were administered at baseline and follow-up 33 months later. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted; the between subjects factors were schooling type and age cohort, and the within subjects factor was time. Analyses controlled for age, years of education, and sex, and follow-up univariate analyses were used to determine which individual cognitive scores drove the multivariate effects. Results. There were significant multivariate within-group, between-group, and interaction effects (p < .05). Univariate analyses indicated that the desegregated schooling group scored significantly better on Language and Perceptual Speed (p < .01), and the youngest age cohort (50- to 59-year-olds) performed better on measures of Perceptual Speed. There were no significant univariate interactions between schooling group or age cohort and cognitive change over time. Discussion. Overall, these findings suggest a slight advantage of desegregated schooling for cognitive performance, but no advantage of desegregated schooling on the rate of cognitive change over time in this sample. PMID:25361918

  3. Incorporating Communication into the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Condom Use Among African American Women.

    PubMed

    Guan, Mengfei; Coles, Valerie B; Samp, Jennifer A; Sales, Jessica McDermott; DiClemente, Ralph J; Monahan, Jennifer L

    2016-09-01

    The present research extends the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to investigate how communication-related variables influence condom use intention and behavior among African American women. According to the TPB, attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy are associated with behavioral intent, which predicts behavior. For women, it was argued that condom negotiation self-efficacy was more important than condom use self-efficacy in predicting consistent condom use. Moreover, an important environmental factor that affects condom use for African American women is fear or worry when negotiating condom use because the sex partners might leave, threaten, or abuse them. Fears associated with negotiating condom use were predicted to be negatively associated with attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. African American women (N = 560; M age = 20.58) completed assessments of TPB variables at baseline and condom use 3 months later. Condom negotiation self-efficacy was a significant indicator of behavioral intent, while condom use self-efficacy was not. Fear of condom negotiation was negatively associated with all TPB components, which was in turn significantly associated with behavioral intent and condom use. Implications for the TPB, safer sex literature, and sexually transmitted infection prevention intervention design are discussed.

  4. Incorporating Communication into the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Condom Use Among African American Women.

    PubMed

    Guan, Mengfei; Coles, Valerie B; Samp, Jennifer A; Sales, Jessica McDermott; DiClemente, Ralph J; Monahan, Jennifer L

    2016-09-01

    The present research extends the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to investigate how communication-related variables influence condom use intention and behavior among African American women. According to the TPB, attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy are associated with behavioral intent, which predicts behavior. For women, it was argued that condom negotiation self-efficacy was more important than condom use self-efficacy in predicting consistent condom use. Moreover, an important environmental factor that affects condom use for African American women is fear or worry when negotiating condom use because the sex partners might leave, threaten, or abuse them. Fears associated with negotiating condom use were predicted to be negatively associated with attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. African American women (N = 560; M age = 20.58) completed assessments of TPB variables at baseline and condom use 3 months later. Condom negotiation self-efficacy was a significant indicator of behavioral intent, while condom use self-efficacy was not. Fear of condom negotiation was negatively associated with all TPB components, which was in turn significantly associated with behavioral intent and condom use. Implications for the TPB, safer sex literature, and sexually transmitted infection prevention intervention design are discussed. PMID:27565192

  5. Assessing the Stages of Change Among African American Women in a Weight Management Program.

    PubMed

    Sbrocco, Tracy; Osborn, Robyn; Clark, Robert D; Hsiao, Chiao-Wen; Carter, Michele M

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between stage of change (SOC) and behavioral outcomes among African American women entering obesity treatment in two settings. Fifty-five overweight/obese (body mass index = 26.50-48.13), but otherwise healthy African American women, 23 to 56 years old, attended a 13-week weight loss-treatment program that took place at churches (n = 36) or a university (n = 19). Participants were weighed, completed SOC measures, and had a physical fitness test at pre- and posttreatment. Pretreatment measures of SOC placed 47% of the participants as actors, 31% as contemplators, and 22% as maintainers. Of the 45 women who reported posttreatment SOC, 7% regressed, 44% did not change, and 31% progressed in SOC. Pretreatment SOC predicted posttreatment weight loss in the church setting but not in the university setting. At churches, contemplators lost more weight than actors and maintainers. The church may be a more conducive setting for weight change behaviors for African American women who are categorized as contemplators in the SOC model.

  6. Obesity, weight gain, and ovarian cancer risk in African American women.

    PubMed

    Bandera, Elisa V; Qin, Bo; Moorman, Patricia G; Alberg, Anthony J; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Schildkraut, Joellen M

    2016-08-01

    Although there is growing evidence that higher adiposity increases ovarian cancer risk, little is known about its impact in African American (AA) women, the racial/ethnic group with the highest prevalence of obesity. We evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) 1 year before diagnosis and weight gain since age 18 years on ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in AA women in 11 geographical areas in the US. Cases (n = 492) and age and site matched controls (n = 696) were identified through rapid case ascertainment and random-digit-dialing, respectively. Information was collected on demographic and lifestyle factors, including self-reported height, weight at age 18 and weight 1 year before diagnosis/interview. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for potential covariates. Obese women had elevated ovarian cancer risk, particularly for BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2) compared to BMI <25 (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.12-2.66; p for trend: 0.03). There was also a strong association with weight gain since age 18 (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.07-2.16; p for trend: 0.02) comparing the highest to lowest quartile. In stratified analyses by menopausal status, the association with BMI and weight gain was limited to postmenopausal women, with a 15% (95% CI: 1.05-1.23) increase in risk per 5 kg/m(2) of BMI and 6% (95% CI: 1.01-1.10) increase in risk per 5 kg of weight gain. Excluding hormone therapy users essentially did not change results. Obesity and excessive adult weight gain may increase ovarian cancer risk in post-menopausal AA women.

  7. Neighborhood Environment and Adherence to a Walking Intervention in African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Wilbur, JoEllen; Wang, Edward; McDevitt, Judith; Oh, April; Block, Richard; McNeil, Sue; Savar, Nina

    2009-01-01

    This secondary analysis examined relationships between the environment and adherence to a walking intervention among 252 urban and suburban midlife African-American women. Participants received an enhanced or minimal behavioral intervention. Walking adherence was measured as the percentage of prescribed walks completed. Objective measures of the women’s neighborhoods included: walkability (land use mix, street intersection density, housing unit density, public transit stop density), aesthetics (physical deterioration, industrial land use), availability of outdoor (recreational open space) and indoor (recreation centers, shopping malls) walking facilities/spaces, and safety (violent crime incidents). Ordinary least squares regression estimated relationships. We found presence of one and especially both types of indoor walking facilities were associated with greater adherence. No associations were found between adherence and the other environmental variables. The effect of the enhanced intervention on adherence did not differ by environmental characteristics. Aspects of the environment may influence African-American women who want to be more active. PMID:18669878

  8. HPV Awareness, Knowledge and Attitudes among Older African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Kellie L.; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) awareness, knowledge, and attitudes among older, church-going African-American women. Methods Participants (N = 759), aged 40-80, answered survey questions about HPV awareness, knowledge, and attitudes toward vaccination of adolescent daughters. Associations between participant characteristics and HPV items were assessed using chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses. Results Younger age, higher education, a family history of cancer, and less spirituality were each associated with HPV awareness individually, and when considered jointly in a single model (p values ≤.038). Higher education was related to HPV knowledge (p = .006). Conclusions African-American women of older age, less education, no family history of cancer, and/or higher spirituality might benefit from targeted church-based HPV educational campaigns. PMID:25564833

  9. The state of measurement of self-esteem of African American women.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, Jennifer

    2007-07-01

    This article critically reviews the state of measurement of self-esteem in African American women. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory are three commonly used measures. However, their validity for African American women has not been adequately tested. Given the unique nature of the self-esteem of this group, related to experiences of racism and sexism, the accurate measurement of this construct is important. This review provided support for the internal consistency of each measure with alpha coefficients ranging from .74 to .87. However, the validity of the measures was not fully supported. Suggestions for further research specific to the unique needs of this population are discussed.

  10. Gendered racism, psychological distress, and coping styles of African American women.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Witherspoon, Karen M; Speight, Suzette L

    2008-10-01

    This study explores the relationship of the accumulative effect of gendered racism, the discrimination felt by African American women, on psychological distress. The study also explores whether coping serves as a mediating variable between gendered racism and psychological distress. Over 300 African American women participated in the study and were administered the Symptoms Checklist 90, a revised version of the Schedule of Sexist Events, and the Africultural Coping Styles Inventory. A positive significant relationship between global psychological distress was found with experiences of gendered racism. Regression analyses suggest some degree of partial mediation on the relationship between gendered racism and global psychological distress via cognitive-emotional coping styles, but no mediating effects with spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping. Suggestions for future research and implications are discussed.

  11. PTSD, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation in African American women: a mediated model.

    PubMed

    Carr, Erika R; Woods, Amanda M; Vahabzadeh, Arshya; Sutton, Carla; Wittenauer, Justine; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2013-03-01

    Although research has shown positive associations among post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation, the nature of these relations is unclear, especially in African American women. This study examined the associations among these comorbid psychological difficulties in a sample of 136 low-income, African American women. Specifically, the goal of this investigation was to ascertain if overall depressive symptoms, as well as both the cognitive-affective and somatic components of depression, mediated the PTSD-suicidal ideation link. Results from bootstrapping analyses revealed that overall depressive symptoms and the cognitive-affective components of depression, but not the somatic components, mediated the PTSD-suicidal ideation link. PMID:22802144

  12. Community Engagement: An Essential Component of Well-Being in Older African-American Adults*

    PubMed Central

    Tiernan, Chad; Lysack, Cathy; Neufeld, Stewart; Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Active engagement in life is a critical factor for successful aging. Research indicates that community engagement is strongly associated with health and well-being in late life. However, less is understood regarding the influence of neighborhood conditions on health and well-being, particularly in older African-American adults. The current study describes a convenience sample of older African Americans (N = 501, mean age = 70.7 [range 55-95] years) living in Detroit. The specific goal is to examine the relationships between their perceptions of neighborhood conditions, level of community engagement, and their health and well-being. Survey findings reveal a sample of highly engaged older African Americans in reasonable health who perceive their neighborhoods favorably. Regression analysis results indicate that community engagement is closely associated with both neighborhood perceptions and well-being in this sample. We propose that community engagement or “participation” mediates the relationship between neighborhood conditions and well-being for older African Americans living in Detroit. PMID:24340874

  13. A four-phase program to recruit African American women into breast cancer promotion programs.

    PubMed

    Gibson, L M

    2000-01-01

    The author discusses a successful, nurse-coordinated collaborative community-based breast health program that targeted older African American women from the state of South Carolina. Over 16 community organizations and health care partners supported the four-phase program that was funded by the South Carolina Breast and Cervical Risk Reduction Program and the South Carolina Chapter of the American Cancer Society. PMID:11760311

  14. Improvement of insulin sensitivity by short-term exercise training in hypertensive African American women.

    PubMed

    Brown, M D; Moore, G E; Korytkowski, M T; McCole, S D; Hagberg, J M

    1997-12-01

    African American women have a high prevalence of insulin resistance, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hypertension that may be linked to low levels of physical activity. We sought to determine whether 7 days of aerobic exercise improved glucose and insulin metabolism in 12 obese (body fat >35%), hypertensive (systolic blood pressure > or =140 and/or diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mmHg) African American women (mean age 51+/-8 years). Insulin-assisted frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed at baseline and 14 to 18 hours after the 7th exercise session. There was no significant change in maximal oxygen consumption, body composition, or body weight after the 7 days of aerobic exercise. The insulin sensitivity index increased (2.68+/-0.45 x 10[-5] to 4.23+/-0.10 x 10[-5] [min(-1)/pmol/L], P=.02). Fasting (73+/-9 to 50+/-9 pmol/L, P=.02) and glucose-stimulated (332+/-58 to 261+/-45 pmol/L, P=.05) plasma insulin levels decreased. Additional measures related to the insulin resistance syndrome also changed with the 7 days of exercise: basal plasma norepinephrine concentrations were reduced (2.46+/-0.27 to 1.81+/-0.27 nmol/L, P=.02) and sodium excretion rate increased from 100+/-13 to 137+/-7 mmol/d (P=.03); however, there was no change in potassium excretion or 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. We conclude that a short-term aerobic exercise program improves insulin sensitivity in African American hypertensive women independent of changes in fitness levels, body composition, or body weight. The present study indicates that short-term exercise can improve insulin resistance in hypertensive, obese, sedentary African American women and confirms previous reports that a portion of the exercise-induced improvements in glucose and insulin metabolism may be the result of recent exercise.

  15. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION OF AFRICAN AMERICAN AND HISPANIC GIRLS AND WOMEN IN RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Debra C.; Bartlett, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Recruiting women and girls into research studies, especially minority women, continues to be a major challenge that impacts health policy and delivery systems. This paper discusses various strategies to recruit and retain African American and Hispanic girls and women in studies. Strategies for successful recruitment focus on trust, familiarity and visibility, racial and ethnic similarities, environmental context, and convenience. Retention strategies include issues of transportation, language, literacy, cultural appropriateness, safety, flexibility, incentives, communication, and veracity. All strategies assist in meeting the challenge of engaging minority women in research to decrease health disparities. PMID:23452110

  16. Recruitment and retention of African American and Hispanic girls and women in research.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Debra C; Bartlett, Robin

    2013-03-01

    Recruiting women and girls into research studies, especially minority women, continues to be a major challenge that impacts health policy and delivery systems. This article discusses various strategies to recruit and retain African American and Hispanic girls and women in studies. Strategies for successful recruitment focus on trust, familiarity and visibility, racial and ethnic similarities, environmental context, and convenience. Retention strategies include issues of transportation, language, literacy, cultural appropriateness, safety, flexibility, incentives, communication, and veracity. All strategies assist in meeting the challenge of engaging minority women in research to decrease health disparities.

  17. Discrimination and Cumulative Disease Damage Among African American Women With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Drenkard, Cristina M.; Lewis, Tené T.; Lim, S. Sam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between unfair treatment, attributions of unfair treatment to racial discrimination, and cumulative disease damage among African American women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods. We used multivariable regression models to examine SLE damage among 578 African American women in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, recruited to the Georgians Organized Against Lupus cohort. Results. When we controlled for demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related covariates, reporting any unfair treatment was associated with greater SLE damage compared with reporting no unfair treatment (b = 0.55; 95% confidence interval = 0.14, 0.97). In general, unfair treatment attributed to nonracial factors was more strongly associated with SLE damage than was unfair treatment attributed to racial discrimination, although the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions. Unfair treatment may contribute to worse disease outcomes among African American women with SLE. Unfair treatment attributed to nonracial causes may have a more pronounced negative effect on SLE damage. Future research may further examine possible differences in the effect of unfair treatment by attribution. PMID:26270300

  18. Reconceptualizing access: a cultural competence approach to improving the mental health of African American women.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Valire Carr; Butler, James

    2007-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of mental illness among African American women, only a limited number of them seek or accept help from mental health service delivery systems. An extensive review of the literature revealed that (1) racism and discrimination, (2) socioeconomic status, (3) stress and well being, and (4) housing and neighborhood conditions must be considered in an assessment of the mental health status of African American women. These factors negatively affect their mental health and should be addressed in eliminating disparities in access to and utilization of mental health services. We recommend a process by which mental health providers reconceptualize access to mental health services using a socio-cultural framework. The knowledge gained in this process will result in increased provider cultural competence. This developmental process would be facilitated by the use of a socio-cultural conceptual model for treatment engagement. The model takes into consideration the barriers to mental health treatment services that, in part, have to be eliminated by mental health providers in order to decrease disparities and enhance both access to and utilization of mental health services by African American women.

  19. Beauty salon health intervention increases fruit and vegetable consumption in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Latasha T; Ralston, Penny A; Jones, Ethel

    2010-06-01

    African Americans, especially women, have low fruit and vegetable consumption, which is related to higher rates of obesity, morbidity, and mortality in comparison to whites. Community-based approaches are recommended to address this problem, including beauty salons, which are conducive environments for health information dissemination. The purpose of this pilot study, conducted in 2007, was to determine the effectiveness of a 6-week beauty salon-based health intervention, Steps for a New You, in improving diet, physical activity, and water consumption behaviors in African-American women using a quasiexperimental design. A random sample of 20 African-American women was selected from a list of regular clients at two beauty salons (n=10 each for treatment and comparison salons) located in a Southern rural community. The intervention included scripted motivational sessions between the cosmetologist and clients, information packets, and a starter kit of sample items. Data were collected using pre- and posttest questionnaires. The results showed that mean intake of fruit and vegetables was significantly higher at posttest for the treatment group but not for the comparison group. These findings suggest that the intervention may have had a positive effect on fruit and vegetable consumption by treatment group participants. However, further work is needed to refine the methodology, especially strengthening the intervention to increase physical activity and water consumption.

  20. Addressing multiple breast cancer risk factors in African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Stolley, Melinda R.; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Wells, Anita; Martinovich, Zoran

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study explored the acceptability and feasibility of and estimated the effectiveness of a weight loss/breast health intervention designed to reduce breast cancer risk in African-American women ages 35-65. The study had a one-group repeated-measures design and took place in a community setting. Forty-four African-American women were recruited, 35 completed the program, and 30 returned for the one-year follow-up. The pilot intervention was three weeks in duration and included twice-weekly exercise classes and weekly active learning seminars that addressed weight loss, breast health, healthy eating, and leading an active life. Measures included those of behavior related to diet, physical activity, and breast health. Satisfaction questionnaires and focus groups were also used to assess acceptability and cultural competency. Statistical analyses included Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed ranks tests. Significant results postintervention showed improved physical activity, dietary, and breast health behaviors. Results suggest the acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of this comprehensive weight/loss breast health program in reducing multiple breast cancer risk factors among African-American women. PMID:14746356

  1. Effects of a Culturally Informed Intervention on Abused, Suicidal African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Farah; Zhang, Huaiyu; Snead, Kara; Jones, Ashley D.; Blackmon, Brittane; Bryant, Rachel J.; Siegelman, Asher E.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined 1) the relative efficacy of a culturally-sensitive empowerment group intervention (Nia) aimed at increasing three protective factors—self-esteem, hopefulness, and effectiveness of obtaining resources—versus treatment as usual (TAU) for low-income, abused African American women who recently had attempted suicide and 2) the impact of participants’ readiness to change with regard to their abusive relationship and suicidal behavior on their levels of each protective factor in the two conditions. Methods The sample included 89 African American women who reported intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure and a recent suicide attempt. Results Multivariate general linear modeling revealed that those in Nia showed greater improvements in self-esteem, but not in hopefulness or effectiveness of obtaining resources. However, significant interactions emerged in which participants that were “less ready to change” (i.e., earlier in the stages of change process) their IPV situation and suicidal behavior endorsed greater levels of hopefulness and perceived effectiveness of obtaining resources, respectively, following Nia. Conclusion Findings suggest that abused, suicidal African American women who are more reluctant initially to changing their abusive situation and suicidal behavior may benefit from even a brief, culturally-informed intervention. PMID:25403027

  2. Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian College-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Andrea K.; Ford, M. Allison; Jones, Tamekia L.; Nahar, Vinayak K.; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) among African-American and Caucasian college-aged women are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race. Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50) and Caucasian (n=51) females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and Body Composition Laboratory. BMD was measured using DXA technology. Race, family history of osteoporosis, BMI, current physical activity, osteoporosis knowledge, length of time on oral contraceptives, age at menarche and calcium intake were included in the multiple regression analyses with spinal and femoral BMD as dependent variables. Results: Overall, 38.6% had low spinal BMD and 7.9% had low femoral BMD. BMI (β=0.073, R2 = .148, P = .001, 95% CI [0.030, 0.116]) and current physical activity (β=0.071, R2 = .148, P = .017, 95% CI [0.013, 0.129]) were the only variables that were statistically significant in predicting spinal BMD. BMI (β=0.056, R2 = .13, P = .010, 95% CI [0.014, 0.098]) and current physical activ-ity (β=0.078, R2 = .13, P = .007, 95% CI [0.022, 0.134]) were also the only varia-bles that were statistically significant in predicting femoral BMD. Race was not a significant predictor of spinal or femoral BMD. Conclusion: It is imperative for both African-American and Caucasian women to engage in osteoporosis-preventive behaviors. PMID:26000242

  3. Social network characteristics and HIV sexual risk behavior among urban African American women.

    PubMed

    Neblett, Robyn C; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa; Chander, Geetanjali; Latkin, Carl A

    2011-02-01

    HIV/AIDS has emerged as a significant health threat for African American women with well-documented disparities. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between social network characteristics and high-risk sexual behaviors among a sample of urban African American women at risk of heterosexually acquired HIV/STIs. We performed a cross-sectional study of baseline data collected from the CHAT study, a randomized HIV-prevention trial targeting urban HIV-at-risk women in Baltimore, MD. Our primary outcomes were risky sexual behaviors defined as either (a) two or more sexual partners or (b) having a risky sex partner within the past 90 days. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression examining the associations between individual and social network factors and our two outcomes of interest were conducted. The study population included 513 sexually active African American women with a mean age of 41.1 years. High levels of unemployment (89.5%), depressive symptoms (60.0%), and drug use (68.8%) were present among this high-risk urban cohort. Controlling for individual factors including participant drug use, age, and depression, having two or more sex partners within the past 90 days was associated with having a larger personal network (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 1.06 and 1.17); more network members who pitched in to help (OR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.04 and 1.44), provided financial support (OR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.11 and 1.60), or used heroin or cocaine (OR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.14 and 1.40). Having a risky sexual partner within the past 90 days was associated with having a larger social network (OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 1.00 and 1.12) and having more social networks who used heroin or cocaine (OR = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.14 and 1.49).In summary, social network characteristics are associated with HIV sexual risk behaviors among African American urban women. Social-network-based interventions that promote norms pertaining to HIV risk reduction and provide social support are needed for

  4. Initial Feasibility of a Woman-Focused Intervention for Pregnant African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Hendrée E.; Berkman, Nancy D.; Kline, Tracy L.; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt; Browne, Felicia A.; Poulton, Winona; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2011-01-01

    African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women were largely homeless, unemployed, practicing unsafe sex, and involved in violence. Results indicated marked reductions in homelessness, use of cocaine and illegal drugs, involvement in physical violence, and an increase in knowledge of HIV from baseline to 6-month followup for both conditions. Findings suggest that the Women's CoOp intervention could be successfully adapted to treat this hard-to-reach population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of the pregnancy-adapted Women's CoOp for women not enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. PMID:21541069

  5. Initial feasibility of a woman-focused intervention for pregnant african-american women.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hendrée E; Berkman, Nancy D; Kline, Tracy L; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt; Browne, Felicia A; Poulton, Winona; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2011-01-01

    African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women were largely homeless, unemployed, practicing unsafe sex, and involved in violence. Results indicated marked reductions in homelessness, use of cocaine and illegal drugs, involvement in physical violence, and an increase in knowledge of HIV from baseline to 6-month followup for both conditions. Findings suggest that the Women's CoOp intervention could be successfully adapted to treat this hard-to-reach population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of the pregnancy-adapted Women's CoOp for women not enrolled in drug-abuse treatment.

  6. The Gestational Vaginal Microbiome and Spontaneous Preterm Birth among Nulliparous African American Women.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Deborah B; Shin, Hakdong; Wu, Jingwei; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Early markers to identify pregnant women at high risk for spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) have not been established and preventive options are limited. Recent attention has focused on examining the importance of characterizing the vaginal microbiome to predict SPTB. Results We examined the diversity and structure of the vaginal microbiome in nulliparous African American women during early pregnancy and compared 13 women who delivered preterm and 27 women who delivered at term. Samples were taken at one of two points in gestation, before 16 weeks or between 20 and 24 weeks. Among women who delivered preterm, we found lower bacterial diversity with lower abundance of Coriobacteriaceae, Sneathia, Prevotella, and Aerococcus compared with women delivering at term (linear discriminant analysis score > 3.0). The Shannon diversity index was not significantly different between the groups (p-value = 0.239). Phylogenetic diversity and Chao1 suggested a lower diversity in the vaginal microbiota of women who delivered preterm compared with term, but these findings were not significantly different (p = 0.077 and p = 0.066, respectively). Conclusion These data suggest that the vaginal microbiome of women delivering preterm had lower diversity than women delivering after 37 weeks, although these findings need to be explored in a larger sample of nulliparous African American women.

  7. Retention of African American Women in a Lifestyle Physical Activity Program

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, Susan W.; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael E.; Fogg, Louis; Ingram, Diana M.; Miller, Arlene; Braun, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Using a cohort of African American women enrolled in a physical activity program, the purpose of the paper is to examine how well individual characteristics, neighborhood characteristics and intervention participation predict study retention and staff level of effort needed for retention. Secondary data analysis was conducted from a randomized clinical trial. Participants were 40–65 years without major signs/symptoms of cardiovascular disease. Assessments were conducted at community sites in/bordering African American communities. Study retention was 90%. Of those retained, 24% required moderate/high level of staff effort for retention. Retention was predicted by being older, having lower perceived neighborhood walkability, living in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage and crime, and having greater program participation. More staff effort was predicted by participants being younger, having more economic hardships, poorer health, or lower intervention participation. We may be able to identify people at baseline likely to require more staff effort to retain. PMID:26475680

  8. Faith and feminism: how African American women from a storefront church resist oppression in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Abrums, Mary

    2004-01-01

    It is well documented that racism in the US healthcare system, including the objectification and disparagement of women of color, contributes to disparities in health status. However, it is a mistaken notion to characterize women of color as unknowing victims. In this study, black feminist standpoint epistemology is used in methodological approach and analysis to understand how a small group of African American church-going women use religious beliefs to help them cope with and resist the racism and discriminatory objectification they encounter in healthcare encounters.

  9. Factors associated with work-family conflict stress among African American women.

    PubMed

    Cole, Portia L; Secret, Mary C

    2012-01-01

    Job demands and workplace culture variables associated with work-family conflict stress, in addition to workplace racial bias, were examined for a national sample of 607 African American women in 16 Fortune 1000 companies. Similar to other studies, women in this sample who had dependents were younger, had supervisory responsibilities, and experienced a less positive workplace culture, and those in professional job positions with high job demand were most likely to experience work-family stress. Married women who experienced a more subtle form of workplace racial bias reported more work-family conflict stress. Implications for social work policy, practice, and research are considered.

  10. Increased protein-coding mutations in the mitochondrial genome of African American women with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Ding, David; Scott, Nicole M; Thompson, Emma E; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Torres, Raul; Billstrand, Christine; Murray, Kathleen; Dexheimer, Phillip J; Ismail, Mahmoud; Kay, Helen; Levy, Shawn; Romero, Roberto; Lindheimer, Marshall D; Nicolae, Dan L; Ober, Carole

    2012-12-01

    Preeclampsia occurs more frequently in women of African ancestry. The cause of this hypertensive complication is unclear, but placental oxidative stress may play a role. Because mitochondria are the major sites of oxidative phosphorylation, we hypothesized that placentas of preeclamptic pregnancies harbor mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Next-generation sequencing of placental mtDNA in African American preeclamptics (N = 30) and controls (N = 38) from Chicago revealed significant excesses in preeclamptics of nonsynonymous substitutions in protein-coding genes and mitochondrially encoded nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 5 gene and an increase in the substitution rate (P = .0001). Moreover, 88% of preeclamptics and 53% of controls carried at least one nonsynonymous substitution (P = .005; odds ratio [OR] = 6.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-39.1). These results were not replicated in a sample of African American preeclamptics (N = 162) and controls (N = 171) from Detroit. Differences in study design and heterogeneity may account for this lack of replication. Nonsynonymous substitutions in mtDNA may be risk factors for preeclampsia in some African American women, but additional studies are required to establish this relationship. PMID:22902742

  11. Does knowledge influence pap test screening among young African-American women?

    PubMed

    Bynum, Shalanda A; Guillaume, Daphnee A; Brandt, Heather M; Fletcher, Faith E

    2014-09-01

    Pap test screening among African-American women has substantially increased. However, African-American women continue to bear the burden of cervical cancer as compared to White women. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of Pap test knowledge on cervical screening history among young African-American women. Between January and April 2009, 320 women from historically black colleges and universities located in the southeastern United States who met study inclusion criteria completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire to assess their awareness, knowledge, and behaviors related to human papillomavirus and cervical cancer prevention and control. Seventy-six percent of women reported ever having a Pap test, 54 % reported having a Pap test less than 1 year ago, and 25 % reported ever having an abnormal Pap test result. The overall mean score on the six-point Pap test knowledge scale was 4.46 ± 1.02. Women who reported having an abnormal Pap test (4.96 ± 0.82) had significantly higher Pap test knowledge compared to those never having an abnormal result (4.49 ± 1.04), p < 0.01. No other differences were found. Efforts to improve Pap test knowledge among all women, including those with no prior abnormal Pap test history, are critical to cervical cancer prevention and control over the life course. Such efforts should include creating information that is relevant to the population and enables informed decision making about cervical health.

  12. Perceptions of the food marketing environment among African American teen girls and adults.

    PubMed

    Bibeau, Wendy S; Saksvig, Brit I; Gittelsohn, Joel; Williams, Sonja; Jones, Lindsey; Young, Deborah Rohm

    2012-02-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects African American adolescents, particularly girls. While ethnically targeted marketing of unhealthful food products contributes to this disparity, it is not known how African Americans perceive the food marketing environment in their communities. Qualitative methods, specifically photovoice and group discussions, were used to understand perceptions of African American adults and teen girls regarding targeted food marketing to adolescent girls. An advisory committee of four students, two faculty, and two parents was formed, who recruited peers to photograph their environments and participate in group discussions to answer "what influences teen girls to eat what they do." Seven adults and nine teens (all female) participated in the study. Discussions were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS.ti to identify common and disparate themes among participants. Results indicated that adults and teens perceived the type of food products, availability of foods, and price to influence the girls' choices. The girls spoke about products that were highly convenient and tasty as being particularly attractive. The adults reported that advertisements and insufficient nutrition education were also influencers. The teens discussed that the places in which food products were available influenced their choices. Results suggest that the marketing of highly available, convenient food at low prices sell products to teen girls. Future work is needed to better understand the consumer's perspective on the food and beverage marketing strategies used.

  13. Text Messaging for Sexual Communication and Safety Among African American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Broaddus, Michelle R.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2014-01-01

    African American young adults are at high risk of HIV infection during their lifetimes, and the male condom remains the best method of prevention. Efforts to increase condom use should address the barrier of condom negotiation. We conducted a thematic analysis of qualitative, semi-structured interviews with African American young adults to examine their use of text messaging for requesting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and condom use within the larger context of general sexual communication using text messages. Text messaging gave participants a level of comfort and disinhibition to discuss sexual topics and negotiate sexual safety. Benefits of text messages included ease of communication, privacy, and increased ability to express condom desires. Difficulties reflected the potential relationship implications of suggesting HIV/STI testing and condom use. Condom negotiation strategies using text messages also mirrored those used found to be used in face-to-face communication. PMID:24045286

  14. Text messaging for sexual communication and safety among African American young adults.

    PubMed

    Broaddus, Michelle R; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2013-10-01

    African American young adults are at high risk of HIV infection during their lifetimes, and the male condom remains the best method of prevention. Efforts to increase condom use should address the barrier of condom negotiation. We conducted a thematic analysis of qualitative, semistructured interviews with African American young adults to examine their use of text messaging for requesting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and condom use within the larger context of general sexual communication using text messages. Text messaging gave participants a level of comfort and disinhibition to discuss sexual topics and negotiate sexual safety. Benefits of text messages included ease of communication, privacy, and increased ability to express condom desires. Difficulties reflected the potential relationship implications of suggesting HIV/STI testing and condom use. Condom negotiation strategies using text messages also mirrored those found to be used in face-to-face communication.

  15. Anxiety symptomatology and perceived health in African American adults: Moderating role of emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Sierra E.; Walker, Rheeda L.

    2014-01-01

    Though emotional health has been theoretically and empirically linked to physical health, the anxiety-physical health association in particular is not well understood for African American adults. This study examined anxiety as a specific correlate of perceived health in addition to testing the potential moderating role of emotion regulation, an index of how and when individuals modulate emotions, in the association for anxiety to perceived health. Study participants were 151 community-based African American adults who completed measures of anxiety symptomatology and emotion regulation in addition to responding to a self-report question of perceived health. Results showed that higher levels of anxiety symptomatology were associated with poorer health ratings for those who reported more limited access to emotion regulation strategies but not those who reported having more emotion regulation strategies. The findings suggest that anxiety-related distress and health problems may be interrelated when emotion regulation strategies are limited. PMID:25045943

  16. Dietary carbohydrate intake, glycaemic load, glycaemic index and ovarian cancer risk in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Qin, Bo; Moorman, Patricia G; Alberg, Anthony J; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Bandera, Elisa V

    2016-02-28

    Epidemiological evidence regarding the association between carbohydrate intake, glycaemic load (GL) and glycaemic index (GI) and risk of ovarian cancer has been mixed. Little is known about their impact on ovarian cancer risk in African-American women. Associations between carbohydrate quantity and quality and ovarian cancer risk were investigated among 406 cases and 609 controls using data from the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES). AACES is an ongoing population-based case-control study of ovarian cancer in African-Americans in the USA. Cases were identified through rapid case ascertainment and age- and site-matched controls were identified by random-digit dialling. Dietary information over the year preceding diagnosis or the reference date was obtained using a FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% CI adjusted for covariates. The OR comparing the highest quartile of total carbohydrate intake and total sugar intake v. the lowest quartile were 1·57 (95% CI 1·08, 2·28; P trend=0·03) and 1·61 (95% CI 1·12, 2·30; P trend<0·01), respectively. A suggestion of an inverse association was found for fibre intake. Higher GL was positively associated with the risk of ovarian cancer (OR 1·18 for each 10 units/4184 kJ (1000 kcal); 95% CI 1·04, 1·33). No associations were observed for starch or GI. Our findings suggest that high intake of total sugars and GL are associated with greater risk of ovarian cancer in African-American women.

  17. Perceived racism and suicide ideation: mediating role of depression but moderating role of religiosity among African American adults.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rheeda L; Salami, Temilola K; Carter, Sierra E; Flowers, Kelci

    2014-10-01

    Suicide is a public health problem for African Americans who are young and of working age. The purpose of this study was to examine mediated and moderated effects of perceived racism on suicide ideation in a community sample of 236 African American men and women. Measures of suicide ideation, depression symptoms, intrinsic/extrinsic religiosity, and perceived racism were administered. Perceived racial discrimination was directly and indirectly associated with suicide ideation. For participants who reported low levels of extrinsic religiosity, the mediated effect of perceived racism (via depression symptoms) was significant. These findings provide some insight into suicide vulnerability for specific subgroups of African Americans.

  18. Depression over the adult life course for African American men: toward a framework for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Daphne C

    2012-05-01

    Rarely are within-group differences among African American men explored in the context of mental health and well-being. Though current conceptual and empirical studies on depression among African American men exists, these studies do not offer a framework that considers how this disorder manifests over the adult life course for African American men. The purpose of this article is to examine the use of an adult life course perspective in understanding the complexity of depression for African American men. The proposed framework underscores six social determinants of depression (socioeconomic status, stressors, racial and masculine identity, kinship and social support, self-esteem and mastery, and access to quality health care) to initiate dialogue about the risk and protective factors that initiate, prolong, and exacerbate depression for African American men. The framework presented here is meant to stimulate discussion about the social determinants that influence depression for African American men to and through adulthood. Implications for the utility and applicability of the framework for researchers and health professionals who work with African American men are discussed.

  19. Social support, physical functioning, and cognitive functioning among older African American adults.

    PubMed

    Ayotte, Brian J; Allaire, Jason C; Whitfield, Keith E

    2013-01-01

    Social support and functional ability are related to a number of outcomes in later life among African Americans, including cognitive performance. This study examined how providing and receiving social support was related to fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities among aging African American adults after accounting for functional limitations, age, education, sex, income, and self-reported health. Data from 602 African American adults (M = 69.08, SD = 9.74; 25% male) were analyzed using latent variable modeling. Fluid ability was a second-order factor indicated by measures that assessed verbal memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and inductive reasoning. Crystallized ability was a first-order factor indicated by three measures that assessed vocabulary (Shipley Verbal Meaning Test and parts A and B of the ETS Vocabulary Test). Results indicated that the receipt of social support was negatively related to both fluid and crystallized abilities, while the provision of support was positively related to fluid and crystallized ability. Follow-up tests found that the receipt of support was more strongly related to fluid ability than crystallized ability. There was no significant difference regarding the relationship of provision of support with fluid ability compared to crystallized ability. Results discuss the importance of considering the social context of older adults when examining cognitive ability. PMID:23458286

  20. Health status attributes of older African-American adults with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Kenneth C

    2004-06-01

    This article describes a study that examined hearing loss and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) attributes of 71 African-American older adults ranging in age from 60 to 89 years. Demographic profiles were used to obtain pertinent case histories, audiometric testing was used to obtain estimates of peripheral hearing sensitivity, and middle-ear integrity was assessed via tympanometry. The health status (i.e., HRQoL) attributes were determined via self-report scores on the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results from bivariate analyses determined statistically significant correlations between hearing loss and lower SF-36 scores across subscales. Multivariate regression models revealed a statistically significant impact between hearing loss and lower SF-36 scores across subscales, even after controlling for experimental confounds. These findings suggest that hearing loss is capable of contributing to HRQoL deficits in African-American older adults. The importance of these data in terms of pre-existing attitudes of African-American older adults towards hearing healthcare services and long-term effects of untreated hearing loss are considered. PMID:15233487

  1. Provider Types Utilized and Recency of Mental Health Service Use among African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sha-Lai

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined factors associated with mental health service utilization among African American emerging adults, specifically, when services were used (recency) and the types of providers utilized (mental health/non-mental health). Methods Guided by the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations, secondary analysis of the National Survey of American Life (2001-2003) was conducted. A nationally representative sample of African American emerging adults, ages 18-29 (n=806), were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. “Evaluated need” was determined by endorsement for one of four DSM-IV diagnosis types (mood, anxiety, substance use, impulse control). Respondents who reported a need for services for emotional/substance use problems were considered to have a “perceived need”. Those who reported voluntary use of mental health/health services to address these problems were considered to have utilized services. Results 25%of the sample utilized services in their lifetime, while 9% utilized services in the past 12 months. Females were more likely than males to utilize services in three of the four service use categories (lifetime, mental health sector, and non-mental health sector).Respondents with an evaluated need for services were 2-12 times more likely to have utilized services compared to those without a need. Conclusions Little is known about why African American emerging adults underutilize mental health services. These findings indicate that being female and having an evaluated need for services were associated with greater odds of service use among this sample. This suggests the need for additional examination of gender differences in service utilization and greater mental health outreach/education among African American males. PMID:24981778

  2. Targeted Intervention Strategies to Increase and Maintain Mammography Utilization Among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, Edward; Dignan, Mark; Holt, Cheryl; Johnson, Rhoda; Nagy, Chris; Person, Sharina; Wynn, Theresa; Scarinci, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention designed to increase mammography screening among African American women in 8 underserved counties in Alabama. Methods. Using principles derived from the Stages of Change, Community Health Advisor, and Community Empowerment models, we developed strategies to increase mammography screening. Trained volunteers (N = 143) provided tailored messages to encourage adoption and maintenance of mammography screening. We collected baseline and follow-up data on 1513 women in the communities targeted for the intervention. Our goal was to decrease the number of women in stage 1 (never screened) while increasing the number of women in stage 2 (infrequently screened) and stage 3 (regularly screened). Results. At baseline, 14% (n = 211) of the women were in stage 1, 16% (n = 247) were in stage 2, and 70% (n = 1055) were in stage 3. After the 2-year intervention, 4% (n = 61) of the women remained in stage 1, 20% (n = 306) were in stage 2, and 76% (n = 1146) were in stage 3. Conclusions. Tailored motivational messages and peer support can increase mammography screening rates for African American women. PMID:21068422

  3. Effects of racist provocation and social support on cardiovascular reactivity in African American women.

    PubMed

    McNeilly, M D; Robinson, E L; Anderson, N B; Pieper, C F; Shah, A; Toth, P S; Martin, P; Jackson, D; Saulter, T D; White, C; Kuchibatla, M; Collado, S M; Gerin, W

    1995-01-01

    It has been speculated that exposure to the chronic stress of racism contributes to the high rates of hypertension among African Americans. Social support may buffer the effects of stress on cardiovascular (CV) health by attenuating stress-induced CV responses that have been linked to hypertension. In this study we investigated the effects of racism and social support on CV reactivity in African American women. Participants showed greater increases in CV and emotional responses while responding and listening to racist provocation. Augmented blood pressure (BP) persisted through recovery following racial stress. Participants receiving no support showed the greatest increases in anger during racist provocation. No significant effects were seen for support on CV reactivity. These results provide some of the first evidence that interactive confrontation with racism elicits significant increases in CV reactivity and emotional distress. Furthermore, individuals receiving less support may be at greater risk for the potentially health-damaging effects of racial stress. These findings may have significant implications for the health of African Americans.

  4. Enhancing Breastfeeding Rates Among African American Women: A Systematic Review of Current Psychosocial Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Angela; Kirk, Rosalind; Rosenblum, Katherine Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The goals of this article are to provide a review of key interventions and strategies that impact initiation and duration of breastfeeding with particular focus on low-income African American mothers' maternal psychological vulnerabilities during the early postpartum period using a social ecological perspective as a guiding framework. Although modest gains have been achieved in breastfeeding initiation rates in the United States, a projected gap remains between infant feeding practices and national Healthy People breastfeeding goals set for 2020, particularly among African Americans. These disparities raise concerns that socially disadvantaged mothers and babies may be at increased risk for poor postnatal outcomes because of poorer mental health and increased vulnerability to chronic health conditions. Breastfeeding can be a protective factor, strengthening the relationship between mother and baby and increasing infant health and resilience. Evidence suggests that no single intervention can sufficiently address the multiple breastfeeding barriers faced by mothers. Effective intervention strategies require a multilevel approach. A social ecological perspective highlights that individual knowledge, behavior, and attitudes are shaped by interactions between the individual woman, her friends and family, and her wider historical, social, political, economic, institutional, and community contexts, and therefore effective breastfeeding interventions must reflect all these aspects. Current breastfeeding interventions are disjointed and inadequately meet all African American women's social and psychological breastfeeding needs. Poor outcomes indicate a need for an integrative approach to address the complexity of interrelated breastfeeding barriers mothers' experience across layers of the social ecological system. PMID:25423601

  5. Appearance Self-Attitudes of African American and European American Women: Media Comparisons and Internalization of Beauty Ideals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Deana L.; Stake, Jayne E.

    2009-01-01

    African American (AA) women have reported less body image disturbance than European American (EA) women, but questions remain about the nature and extent of this difference. This study examined differences in the body image of 80 AA women and 89 EA women with an improved methodology that controlled for body size, distinguished between satisfaction…

  6. Women's Leadership: A Study of African American Female Principal Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, women's leadership has been overlooked and underappreciated by researchers and policymakers although this leadership has been vital to America's ultimate success and infrastructure. Simply stated, contributions of female leadership have been overshadowed by a system that primarily values patriarchal forms of leadership and oppresses…

  7. African-American Women Artists: An Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bontemps, Arna Alexander; Fonvielle-Bontemps, Jacqueline

    1987-01-01

    Black women artists--from the sculptor Edmonia Lewis (born 1843/5) through the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, to the Harlem Renaissance--have played a vital role in developing those forms of self-expression by which Black people in America have managed to survive centuries of racial oppression. (BJV)

  8. A proposed bio-panel to predict risk for spontaneous preterm birth among African American women.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Shannon L; Christian, Lisa M; Neal, Jeremy L

    2015-11-01

    Preterm birth (PTB), or birth prior to 37 weeks gestation, impacts 11.5% of U.S. deliveries. PTB results in significant morbidity and mortality among affected children and imposes a large societal financial burden. Racial disparities in PTB are alarming. African American women are at more than 1.5 times the risk for PTB than white women. Unfortunately, the medical community's ability to predict who is at risk for PTB is extremely limited. History of a prior PTB remains the strongest predictor during a singleton gestation. Cervical length and fetal fibronectin measurement are helpful tools. However, usefulness is limited, particularly among the 95% of U.S. women currently pregnant and lacking a history of PTB. Therefore, preventive therapies do not reach a great number of women who may benefit from them. This manuscript, in response to the pressing need for predictors of PTB risk and elimination of racial disparities in PTB, presents a proposed bio-panel for use in predicting risk for spontaneous PTB among African American women. This bio-panel, measured each trimester, includes stimulated production of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1 receptor antagonist (Ra), soluble(s) TNF receptor(R) 1, and sTNFR2, and cortisol responsiveness. We hypothesize that greater IL-1β and TNF-α production, decreased IL-1Ra, sTNFR1, and sTNFR2 production, and decreased cortisol responsiveness at each time point as well as a more expedient alignment with this unfavorable profile over time will be associated with PTB. The choice to focus on inflammatory parameters is supported by data highlighting a crucial role for inflammation in labor. Specific inflammatory mediators have been chosen due to their potential importance in preterm labor among African American women. The bio-panel also focuses on inflammatory regulation (i.e., cytokine production upon ex vivo stimulation), which is hypothesized to provide insight into potential in vivo leukocyte responses and

  9. A Cascade Model Connecting Life Stress to Risk Behavior Among Rural African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-wave cascade model linking life stress to increases in risk behavior was tested with 347 African American emerging adults living in the rural South. Data analyses using structural equation modeling and latent growth curve modeling demonstrated that life stress was linked to increases in risk behavior as African Americans transitioned out of secondary school. The cascade model indicated that life stress fostered increases in negative emotions. Negative emotions, in turn, were linked to increases in affiliations with deviant peers and romantic partners; this forecast increases in risk behavior. The findings supported a stress proliferation framework, in which primary stressors affect increases in secondary stressors that carry forward to influence changes in risk behaviors that can potentially compromise mental health. PMID:20576186

  10. Religious involvement and risk of major depression in a prospective nationwide study of African American adults.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Christopher G; Flannelly, Kevin J

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated the association between religious involvement and major depression in 607 African American adults, using longitudinal data from the National Survey of Black Americans. Logistic regression found that survey participants who reported receiving "a great deal" of guidance from religion in their day-to-day lives at Time 1 (1988-1989) were roughly half as likely (OR = 0.47, p < 0.01) to have major depression at Time 2 (1992), controlling for sociodemographic and psychological factors, and major depression at baseline. The odds of major depression were also lower for persons with high self-esteem (OR = 0.41, p < 0.01) and those who reported having satisfying relationships with friends and family members (OR = 0.51, p < 0.05) at baseline. No association was found between religious attendance or church support and major depression. The possible mechanisms through which religious involvement may protect against depression, especially among African Americans, are discussed.

  11. The experience of African American women living with HIV: creating a prevention film for teens.

    PubMed

    Norris, Anne E; DeMarco, Rosanna

    2005-01-01

    The personal and social costs of HIV are well documented. What remains unknown is the effect of public disclosure of HIV status on the individual who is doing the disclosing. This study describes the experience of four African American women living with HIV who participated in the development of an intergenerational education intervention for African American adolescent girls. These women suggested that they be filmed discussing the "dark side" of HIV in an effort to create an intergenerational education intervention that would alter the risk-taking behavior that they observed in young women in their community. After a rough cut of the film was completed, these women viewed the film and participated in a focus group during which they discussed what it was like to reveal and revisit their own painful experiences associated with becoming infected and then living with HIV. Findings from content analysis of transcribed dialogue included the following positive themes: (a) self-acceptance by telling one's own story and hearing the stories of the other women, (b) a sense of liberation by disclosing publicly one's image and message and letting go of others' judgments, (c) feeling supported by meeting other women who share the same experience, (d) value of using the film to impact or save young people from the pain one has experienced. A negative theme emerged related to personal pain in reliving the individual's history with HIV.

  12. Correlates of HIV Infection Among African American Women from 20 Cities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Isa; Le, Binh; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Little research has been conducted to investigate multiple levels of HIV risk—individual risk factors, sex partner characteristics, and socioeconomic factors—among African American women, who, in 2010, comprised 64 % of the estimated 9,500 new infections in women. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit and interview women in 20 cities with high AIDS prevalence in the United States through the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System. We assessed individual risk factors, sex partner characteristics, and socioeconomic characteristics associated with being HIV-positive but unaware of the infection among African American women. Among 3,868 women with no previous diagnosis of HIV, 68 % had high school education or more and 84 % lived at or below the poverty line. In multivariable analysis, women who were 35 years or older, homeless, received Medicaid, whose last sex partner ever used crack cocaine or was an exchange sex partner were more likely to be HIV-positive-unaware. Developing and implementing strategies that address socioeconomic factors, such as homelessness and living in poverty, as well as individual risk factors, can help to maximize the effectiveness of the public health response to the HIV epidemic. PMID:24077972

  13. Sexism and sexual harassment. Concerns of African American women of the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church.

    PubMed

    Whitson, M H

    1997-08-01

    This paper reports the findings of a research project that examined social issues identified by a select group of religiously active African American women. The research examines sexism and sexual harassment and its prevalence within the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church (CMEC). A total of 100 African American women from the CMEC participated in the focus group interviews. Findings suggest that the participants want the Church to acknowledge the existence of sexism and sexual harassment within is confines. Women participants perceived that their concern regarding the prevalence of sexism and sexual harassment within the Church had been subjugated in favor of those concerns more identifiable with males. Participants voiced the opinion that if the Church was indeed an agent concerned about societal issues that affect all its members, such issues should not be directed solely to the Women's Missionary Society but should be addressed at all levels of the Church. Furthermore, results from the focus group interviews suggest that women desire policy change in the Church before directing attention to policy change in the general community. Women professed the belief that because the CMEC has a hierarchical structure similar to the community and the criminal justice system, changes implemented within the Church are likely to be reflected in the behavior, attitudes, and policies of the community and the criminal justice system.

  14. Obesity in African-American Women--The Time Bomb is Ticking: An Urgent Call for Change.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Barbara A

    2015-12-01

    The "time bomb is ticking" because there is an obesity crisis associated with higher rates of chronic diseases such as stroke, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer in African-American women compared to White women. African-American women incur higher medical costs from hospitalizations, decreased productivity in the work setting, lost wages, the needfor medical benefits and pharmacy-associated costs, and more time away from family than White women. Numerous factors, such as the socio-cultural context of eating, acceptance of a larger weight status, the emotionally liberating effects offood, and preference for highfat and high caloric, sugary-content, and sodium-laden food influences the obesity crisis in African-American women. The interplay of poverty and lower socioeconomic status, residential segregation, health literacy, availability of fast foods and scarce produce in local convenience food marts, physical inactivity, and conflicting messages from social media public service announcements (PSAs) and ads in national magazines affect the obesity crisis in African-American women. There is an urgent call for sustainable, community-driven health policy initiatives that improve access to healthy foods in lower-income, minority communities. Furthermore, African-American women are challenged to modify their health behaviors by preparing healthy meals for themselves and theirfamilies, and by engaging in physical activity. PMID:27045156

  15. The Adults in the Making Program: Long-Term Protective Stabilizing Effects on Alcohol Use and Substance Use Problems for Rural African American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. Method: African American youths (M age, pretest =…

  16. Weight loss and African-American women: a systematic review of the behavioural weight loss intervention literature.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, M L; Tussing-Humphreys, L M; Porter, J S; Martin, I K; Odoms-Young, A; Sharp, L K

    2012-03-01

    The excess burden of obesity among African-American women is well documented. However, the behavioural weight loss intervention literature often does not report results by ethnic group or gender. The purpose of this article is to conduct a systematic review of all behavioural weight loss intervention trials published between 1990 and 2010 that included and reported results separately for African-American women. The criteria for inclusion included (i) participants age ≥18 years; (ii) a behavioural weight loss intervention; (iii) weight as an outcome variable; (iv) inclusion of African-American women; and (v) weight loss results reported separately by ethnicity and gender. The literature search identified 25 studies that met inclusion criteria. Our findings suggest that more intensive randomized behavioural weight loss trials with medically at-risk populations yield better results. Well-designed and more intensive multi-site trials with medically at-risk populations currently offer the most promising results for African-American women. Still, African-American women lose less weight than other subgroups in behavioural weight loss interventions. It is now critical to expand on individual-level approaches and incorporate the biological, social and environmental factors that influence obesity. This will help enable the adoption of healthier behaviours for this group of women disproportionately affected by obesity.

  17. Neighborhood Disorder, Spiritual Well-Being, and Parenting Stress in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Wilson, Christina K.; Tarantino, Nicholas; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2014-01-01

    Using a culturally-informed risk-protective framework, the purpose of this study was to examine spiritual well-being (existential, religious) as a moderator (protective factor) in the relation between neighborhood disorder (risk factor) and parenting stress in among a high risk sample of low-socioeconomic status (SES), African American women (N = 144). These women, who were primary caregivers of children aged between 8 and 12 reported on disorder in their existential and religious well-being, neighborhoods, and three types of parenting stress. Women who perceived more disorder in their neighborhood had more parenting stress, and women who reported more existential and religious well-being had less parenting stress. Existential (characterized by a sense of purpose in life), but not religious (characterized by a sense of life in relationship with God) well-being, moderated the relation between neighborhood disorder and all types of parenting stress such that women with medium or high levels of existential well-being had low levels of parenting stress at low levels of neighborhood disorder, but higher levels of parenting stress at higher levels of neighborhood disorder. No moderation effects were found at low levels of existential well-being. Results are framed in a context that emphasizes their relevance to incorporating family interventions that bolster culturally relevant resilience factors, such as spirituality, pertinent to low-SES African American families. PMID:24707802

  18. Comparison of abuse experiences of rural and urban African American women during perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F C; Richardson, Jeanita W; Kimeto, Pamela; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2015-07-01

    A subsample of 12 African American women (6 urban and 6 rural) were selected from a larger longitudinal, randomized control trial, Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation (DOVE-R01 900903 National Institute of Nursing Research [NINR]/National Institutes of Health [NIH]). All African American women were chosen to control for any racial- and/or race-related cultural differences that may exist among women across geographical areas. The experiences of abuse during the perinatal period are drawn from in-depth interviews conducted at five points in time during pregnancy and the post-partum period. The analysis describes three major themes that highlight the similarities and differences among rural and urban women. The main themes found were (1) types of abuse, (2) location of abuse, and (3) response to abuse. In addition, two sub-themes (a) defiance and compliance and (b) role of children were also identified. Implications for universal screening for women of reproductive age, safer gun laws, and the need for further research are discussed. PMID:25315478

  19. Neighborhood disorder, spiritual well-being, and parenting stress in African American women.

    PubMed

    Lamis, Dorian A; Wilson, Christina K; Tarantino, Nicholas; Lansford, Jennifer E; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2014-12-01

    Using a culturally informed risk-protective framework, the purpose of this study was to examine spiritual well-being (existential, religious) as a moderator (protective factor) in the relation between neighborhood disorder (risk factor) and parenting stress in a high-risk sample of low-socioeconomic status (SES) African American women (N = 144). These women, who were primary caregivers of children between 8 and 12 years old, reported on disorder in their existential and religious well-being, neighborhoods, and 3 types of parenting stress. Women who perceived more disorder in their neighborhood had more parenting stress, and women who reported more existential and religious well-being had less parenting stress. Existential (characterized by a sense of purpose in life), but not religious (characterized by a sense of life in relation with God) well-being moderated the relation between neighborhood disorder and all types of parenting stress, such that women with medium or high levels of existential well-being had low levels of parenting stress at low levels of neighborhood disorder, but higher levels of parenting stress at higher levels of neighborhood disorder. No moderation effects were found at low levels of existential well-being. Results are framed in a context that emphasizes their relevance to incorporating family interventions that bolster culturally relevant resilience factors, such as spirituality, pertinent to low-SES African American families. PMID:24707802

  20. Project Joy: faith based cardiovascular health promotion for African American women.

    PubMed Central

    Yanek, L. R.; Becker, D. M.; Moy, T. F.; Gittelsohn, J.; Koffman, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors tested the impact on cardiovascular risk profiles of African American women ages 40 years and older after one year of participation in one of three church-based nutrition and physical activity strategies: a standard behavioral group intervention, the standard intervention supplemented with spiritual strategies, or self-help strategies. METHODS: Women were screened at baseline and after one year of participation. The authors analyzed intention-to-treat within group and between groups using a generalized estimating equations adjustment for intra-church clustering. Because spiritual strategies were added to the standard intervention by participants themselves, the results from both active groups were similar and, thus, combined for comparisons with the self-help group. RESULTS: A total of 529 women from 16 churches enrolled. Intervention participants exhibited significant improvements in body weight (-1.1 lbs), waist circumference (-0.66 inches), systolic blood pressure (-1.6 mmHg), dietary energy (-117 kcal), dietary total fat (-8 g), and sodium intake (-145 mg). The self-help group did not. In the active intervention group, women in the top decile for weight loss at one year had even larger, clinically meaningful changes in risk outcomes (-19.8 lbs). CONCLUSIONS: Intervention participants achieved clinically important improvements in cardiovascular disease risk profiles one year after program initiation, which did not occur in the self-help group. Church-based interventions can significantly benefit the cardiovascular health of African American women. PMID:11889276

  1. Comparison of Abuse Experiences of Rural and Urban African American Women During Perinatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Richardson, Jeanita W.; Kimeto, Pamela; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2015-01-01

    A subsample of 12 African American women (6 urban and 6 rural) were selected from a larger longitudinal, randomized control trial, Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation (DOVE-R01 900903 National Institute of Nursing Research [NINR]/National Institutes of Health [NIH]). All African American women were chosen to control for any racial- and/or race-related cultural differences that may exist among women across geographical areas. The experiences of abuse during the perinatal period are drawn from in-depth interviews conducted at five points in time during pregnancy and the post-partum period. The analysis describes three major themes that highlight the similarities and differences among rural and urban women. The main themes found were (1) types of abuse, (2) location of abuse, and (3) response to abuse. In addition, two sub-themes (a) defiance and compliance and (b) role of children were also identified. Implications for universal screening for women of reproductive age, safer gun laws, and the need for further research are discussed. PMID:25315478

  2. African-American women: considering diverse identities and societal barriers in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Greene, B

    1996-06-18

    Effective psychotherapy with African-American women explicitly requires cultural literacy and competence of its practitioners. Cultural literacy includes understanding the collective social plight of African-American women and the individual client in the context of the prevailing reality of race, gender, and sexual orientation bias and the interpersonal and institutional barriers that result from that bias. Cultural literacy presumes a willingness on the part of the therapist to educate himself or herself about the clients cultural background and milieu and validate the client's accurate perceptions of discrimination and bias and their impact on the client's life. Cultural competence may be seen as the appropriate level of technical skill in applying those concepts to the understanding of the client and the conduct of the psychotherapeutic inquiry. The culturally literate practitioner will acknowledge and appreciate the wide range of diversity within African-American women as a group. The individual client's intrapsychic and familial endowments and personal relationship history as they are embedded in the aforementioned context should be carefully explored and understood as well as are all relevant social factors. Finally, therapists must be willing to scrutinize their own feelings and motivations for working with African-American women. What should follow is a careful analysis of the developmental interactions of these variables, how they promote an individual's view of the world, her perceptions of her options, her strategies for negotiating institutional barriers, her relationships with other persons, as well as any contributions she makes, consciously or unconsciously, to her own dilemma. A culturally literate and antiracist therapist must begin with an understanding of the role of multiple identities and oppressions in client's lives and must have or be willing to acquire a familiarity with the clients' cultural and ethnic heritage and the role of

  3. Patterns of family health history communication among older African American adults.

    PubMed

    Hovick, Shelly R; Yamasaki, Jill S; Burton-Chase, Allison M; Peterson, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined patterns of communication regarding family health history among older African American adults. The authors conducted 5 focus groups and 6 semi-structured interviews with African Americans aged 60 years and older (N = 28). The authors identified 4 distinct patterns of family health history communication: noncommunication, open communication, selective communication (communication restricted to certain people or topics), and one-way communication (communication not reciprocated by younger family members). In general, participants favored open family health history communication, often resulting from desires to change patterns of noncommunication in previous generations regarding personal and family health history. Some participants indicated that they were selective about what and with whom they shared health information in order to protect their privacy and not worry others. Others described family health history communication as one-way or unreciprocated by younger family members who appeared uninterested or unwilling to share personal and family health information. The communication patterns that the authors identified are consistent with communication privacy management theory and with findings from studies focused on genetic testing results for hereditary conditions, suggesting that individuals are consistent in their communication of health and genetic risk information. Findings may guide the development of health message strategies for African Americans to increase family health history communication.

  4. Patterns of Blunt Use Among Rural Young Adult African-American Men

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Catherine F.; Foushee, Herman R.; Pevear, Jesse S.; Scarinci, Isabel C.; Carroll, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Blunts are hollowed-out cigars or leaf tobacco filled with marijuana. Use of blunts has increased since the 1990s and, in 2005, 3.5% of all American youth were estimated to have used blunts in the past month. Blunt smokers may have greater odds of cannabis and tobacco dependency and are at risk of smoking-related diseases. Previous studies have suggested that blunt use is more common among blacks, older teens, and men. However, data pertaining to blunt use in non-adolescent African-American populations are scarce. Purpose (1) To assess patterns of blunt use among young adult African-American men aged 19–30 years residing in five rural Black Belt counties in Alabama; (2) To compare these data with those from tobacco cigarette smokers within the same study population. Methods Verbal, face-to-face interviewer-administered survey of 415 participants collected and analyzed between December 2008 and February 2011. Results 159 respondents (38.3%) smoked cigarettes and 45 smoked blunts (10.8%). Of blunt smokers, 33 also smoked cigarettes (73.3%). Use of blunts was prevalent among unemployed, single men, and occupational blunt use was uncommon. Factors important in the initiation, maintenance and cessation of product use were similar for blunt and cigarette smokers, especially product use and acceptance by friends. Legal concerns were an important factor facilitating blunt cessation. Conclusions Blunt use is relatively common among male African Americans aged 19–30 years and is frequently associated with concomitant cigarette use. Tobacco control efforts in this male African-American population should also address blunt usage. PMID:22176848

  5. Menopause Symptoms and Attitudes of African American Women: Closing the Knowledge Gap and Expanding Opportunities for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Shirley B.; Myers, Jane E.; Tingle, Lynne R.; Bond, Lloyd A.

    2005-01-01

    Menopause, a normal midlife transition for women, remains poorly understood, especially for minority women. A total of 226 African American midlife women completed the Menopause Symptoms List (J. M. Perz, 1997); Menopause Attitude Scale (C. Bowles, 1986); Attitudes Toward Menopause checklist (B. L. Neugarten, V. Wood, R. J. Kraines, & B. Loomes,…

  6. Salient beliefs about eating and buying dark green vegetables as told by Mid-western African-American women.

    PubMed

    Sheats, Jylana L; Middlestadt, Susan E

    2013-06-01

    Vegetables in the dark green group are the most nutritious, yet intake is low. Studies suggest that an increase in fruit and vegetables may improve diet-related health outcomes of African Americans. The aim of this exploratory study was to use the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) to qualitatively assess salient, top-of-the-mind, beliefs (consequences, circumstances and referents) about eating and buying more dark green leafy vegetables each week over the next 3months. Adult (n=30), Midwestern African-American women, who buy and prepare food for their household participated in a face-to-face salient belief elicitation. A content analysis of verbatim text and a descriptive analysis were conducted. Findings suggest that the RAA can be used to identify salient consequences, circumstances and referents about eating and buying more dark green leafy vegetables. The use of the RAA allowed for the extraction of specific beliefs that may aid in the development of nutrition education programs that consider the varying priorities, motivators and barriers that subgroups within the population have in regard to buying and consuming dark green leafy vegetables.

  7. "If you do nothing about stress, the next thing you know, you're shattered": Perspectives on African American men's stress, coping and health from African American men and key women in their lives.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Katrina R; Griffith, Derek M; Allen, Julie Ober; Thorpe, Roland J; Bruce, Marino A

    2015-08-01

    Stress has been implicated as a key contributor to poor health outcomes; however, few studies have examined how African American men and women explicitly describe the relationships among stress, coping, and African American men's health. In this paper, we explore strategies men use to cope with stress, and beliefs about the consequences of stress for African American men's health behaviors, morbidity and mortality from the perspectives of African American men and women. A phenomenological analytic approach was used to examine focus group data collected from 154 African American men (18 focus groups) and 77 African American women (8 focus groups). Women's perspectives were captured because women often observe men under stress and can provide support to men during stressful times. Our findings indicate that African American men in this study responded to stress by engaging in often identified coping behaviors (i.e., consumption of calorie dense food, exercise, spiritually-related activities). Men in our study, however, did not always view their responses to stress as explicit coping mechanisms. There was also some discordance between men's and women's perceptions of men's coping behaviors as there were occasions where they seemed to interpret the same behavior differently (e.g., resting vs. avoidance). Men and women believed that stress helped to explain why African American men had worse health than other groups. They identified mental, physical and social consequences of stress. We conclude by detailing implications for conceptualizing and measuring coping and we outline key considerations for interventions and further research about stress, coping and health. PMID:26183018

  8. Preventing excessive gestational weight gain among African American women: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Sharon J.; Cruice, Jane F.; Bennett, Gary G.; Rose, Marisa Z.; Davey, Adam; Foster, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evidence is lacking regarding effective weight control treatments in pregnancy for ethnic minority women with obesity. This study evaluated whether a technology-based, behavioral intervention could decrease the proportion of overweight or obese African American women who exceeded Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain. Methods We conducted a 2-arm pilot randomized clinical trial. Participants were 66 socioeconomically disadvantaged African American pregnant women (12.5 ± 3.7 weeks’ gestation; 36% overweight, 64% obese) recruited from 2 outpatient obstetric practices at Temple University between 2013 and 2014. We randomized participants to usual care (n = 33) or a behavioral intervention (n = 33) that promoted weight control in pregnancy. The intervention included: 1) empirically-supported behavior change goals; 2) interactive self-monitoring text messages; 3) biweekly health coach calls; and 4) skills training and support through Facebook. Results The intervention reduced the proportion of women who exceeded IOM guidelines compared to usual care (37% vs. 66%, p = 0.033). Intervention participants gained less weight during pregnancy (8.7 vs. 12.3 kg, adjusted mean difference −3.1 kg, 95% CI −6.2, −0.1). No group differences in neonatal or obstetric outcomes were found. Conclusions The intervention resulted in lower prevalence of excessive gestational weight gain. PMID:26592857

  9. Weight loss and weight loss maintenance in African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Walcott-McQuigg, Jacqueline A.; Chen, Shu-Pi; Davis, Kara; Stevenson, Ernestine; Choi, Aeree; Wangsrikhun, Suparat

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with weight loss and weight loss maintenance in 23 African American women participating in a 32-week lifestyle enhancement awareness program (LEAP), 16 weekly sessions on weight loss and 16 weekly sessions on weight loss maintenance. A pre-test, post-test one group design was used. Measures included dietary readiness to lose weight, bioelectrical impedance analysis, lipid levels, blood pressure, waist/hip ratio, weight, height, and activity level. Women who completed the weight loss phase of the program showed a reduction in weight; body mass index; percentage body fat; and waist/hip ratio; and an increase in physical activity and dietary readiness to control over-eating. Weight loss was significantly correlated with attendance and dietary readiness to decrease emotional eating. Women who continued on to complete the weight loss maintenance classes maintained a significant loss in body mass index, and increased their high-density lipoproteins and dietary readiness to monitor hunger and eating cues. African-American women who sustain weight loss and weight loss maintenance regimens reduce their risks for developing chronic diseases. PMID:12152924

  10. Ageism and Body Esteem: Associations With Psychological Well-Being Among Late Middle-Aged African American and European American Women

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Social expectancy theory posits that cultural values shape how individuals perceive and evaluate others, and this influences how others evaluate themselves. Based on this theory, ageism may shape older individuals’ self-evaluations. Given the cultural focus on beauty and youth, perceptions of age discrimination may be associated with lower body esteem, and this may be associated with poor psychological well-being. Because discrimination has been associated with poor health, and perceptions of health can affect body perceptions, subjective health status may also contribute to lower body esteem. Method. These associations are assessed in a structural equation model for 244 African American and European American women in their early 60s. Results. Perceptions of age discrimination and body esteem were associated with lower psychological well-being for both ethnic groups. Body esteem partially mediated the association between age discrimination and psychological well-being among European American women but not among African American women. Discussion. Age-related discrimination is one source of psychological distress for older adults, though ageism’s associations with body esteem, health, and psychological well-being vary significantly for European American and African American women. Examining body perceptions and health in the contexts of ageism and ethnicity is necessary when considering the psychological well-being of older women. PMID:24013801

  11. Too Much of a Good Thing? Psychosocial Resources, Gendered Racism, and Suicidal Ideation Among Low-SES African American Women.

    PubMed

    Perry, Brea L; Pullen, Erin; Oser, Carrie B

    2012-12-01

    Very few studies have examined predictors of suicidal ideation among African American women. Consequently, we have a poor understanding of the combinations of culturally-specific experiences and psychosocial processes that may constitute risk and protective factors for suicide in this population. Drawing on theories of social inequality, medical sociology, and the stress process, we explore the adverse impact of gendered racism experiences and potential moderating factors in a sample of 204 predominantly low-SES African American women. We find that African American women's risk for suicidal ideation is linked to stressors occurring as a function of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. In addition, we find that gendered racism has no effect on suicidal ideation among women with moderate levels of well-being, self-esteem, and active coping, but has a strong adverse influence in those with high and low levels of psychosocial resources.

  12. Challenging controlling images, oppression, poverty and other structural constraints: Survival strategies among African American women in distressed households

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Powerful controlling images perpetuate misguided messages about impoverished African American women that contribute to the oppression these women endure. These images inform policies and behavior that create and maintain structural barriers such as lack of access to education and meaningful employment further marginalizing oppressed individuals. This article uses in-depth interview data to analyze interlocking oppressions in the lived experience of impoverished African American women. The authentic women’s voices presented serve as a counter narrative of resistance. Our larger goal in writing this paper is to encourage the public, policy makers, service providers and impoverished African American women themselves to fight against controlling images by deconstructing personal biases, educating the public, and developing culturally congruent interventions to social problems. PMID:23555317

  13. Environmental, policy, and cultural factors related to physical activity in African American women.

    PubMed

    Richter, Donna L; Wilcox, Sara; Greaney, Mary L; Henderson, Karla A; Ainsworth, Barbara E

    2002-01-01

    Six focus groups were conducted in South Carolina with African American women (n = 42) aged 19-51 years to identify factors that influence physical activity. Transcripts were analyzed using NUD*IST. Cultural influences were seen as more important in determining the type of physical activity than its level. Barriers to and enablers of physical activity were identified in the social and physical environments, as were policy issues affecting physical activity in the community and at the work site. Potential community and work site interventions were suggested. Child care and monetary costs were frequently cited as barriers to physical activity. PMID:12487143

  14. Psychophysiology and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile in pregnant African-American women with trauma exposure

    PubMed Central

    Rothbaum, Alex O.; Corwin, Elizabeth; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J.; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    While female sex is a robust risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pregnant women are an understudied population in regards to PTSD symptom expression profiles. Because circulating hormones during pregnancy affect emotionality, we assessed whether pregnant women would have increased expression of the intermediate phenotypes of hyperarousal and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) compared to non-pregnant women. We examined PTSD symptom profiles in pregnant (n=207) and non-pregnant women (n= 370). In a second study, FPS responses were assessed in 15 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant women. All participants were recruited from the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at a public hospital serving a primarily African-American, low socioeconomic status, inner-city population. Our results indicate that overall PTSD symptoms were not different between the groups of women. However, pregnant women reported being more hypervigilant (p=0.036) than non-pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women showed increased FPS to a safety signal compared to non-pregnant women (p=0.024). FPS to a safety signal in pregnant women was significantly correlated with PTSD hyperarousal symptoms (r=0.731, p<0.001). Furthermore, discrimination between danger and safety signals was present in non-pregnant women (p=0.008), but not in pregnant women (p=0.895). Together, these data suggest that pregnant women show clinical and psychophysiological hyperarousal compared to non-pregnant women, and support screening for PTSD and assessment of PTSD risk in pregnant women. PMID:25278341

  15. Lipoprotein Profiles in Class III Obese Caucasian and African American Women with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Anna E; Kasim, Nader; Tamboli, Robyn A; Gonzalez, Raul S; Antoun, Joseph; Eckert, Emily A; Marks-Shulman, Pamela A; Dunn, Julia; Wattacheril, Julia; Wallen, Taylor; Abumrad, Naji N; Flynn, Charles Robb

    2015-01-01

    Triglyceride content in the liver is regulated by the uptake, production and elimination of lipoproteins, and derangements in these processes contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies show a direct relationship between intrahepatic fat and production of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) containing particles, VLDL and LDL, but little consensus exists regarding changes in lipoprotein production in the development of simple steatosis (SS) versus nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Further, ethnic variations in lipoproteins among SS and NASH are unknown as is how such variations might contribute to the differential prevalence of disease among Caucasians versus African Americans. In this study, we assessed plasma lipoprotein profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in 70 non-diabetic class III obese females recruited from the surgical weight loss clinic. Of these, 51 females were stratified by biopsy-staged NAFLD severity (histologically normal, SS, or NASH). NASH females displayed increased circulating triglycerides and increased VLDL particle number and size relative to those with histologically normal livers, while total and large LDL concentration decreased in SS versus NASH and correlated with increased insulin resistance (via HOMA2-IR). When Caucasian women were examined alone (n = 41), VLDL and triglycerides increased between normal and SS, while total LDL and apoB100 decreased between SS and NASH along with increased insulin resistance. Compared to Caucasians with SS, African American women with SS displayed reduced triglycerides, VLDL, and small LDL and a more favorable small to large HDL ratio despite having increased BMI and HOMA2-IR. These findings suggest that ApoB100 and lipoprotein subclass particle number and size can delineate steatosis from NASH in obese Caucasian females, but should be interpreted with caution in other ethnicities as African Americans with SS display relatively improved lipoprotein profiles

  16. Identifying Risk Factors for Disparities in Breast Cancer Mortality among African-American and Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Nancy; Goovaerts, Pierre; Zhan, F. Benjamin; Chow, T. Edwin; Wilson, J. Gaines

    2015-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the risk factors associated with racial disparities in female breast cancer mortality for African-American and Hispanic women at the census tract level in Texas from 1995 to 2005. Methods Data on female breast cancer cases were obtained from the Texas Cancer Registry. Socioeconomic and demographic data were collected from Census 2000. Network distance and driving times to mammography facilities were estimated using Geographic Information System techniques. Demographic, poverty and spatial accessibility factors were constructed using principal component analysis. Logistic regression models were developed to predict the census tracts with significant racial disparities in breast cancer mortality based on racial disparities in late-stage diagnosis and structured factors from the principal component analysis. Results Late-stage diagnosis, poverty factors, and demographic factors were found to be significant predictors of a census tract showing significant racial disparities in breast cancer mortality. Census tracts with higher poverty status were more likely to display significant racial disparities in breast cancer mortality for both African Americans (odds ratio [OR], 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.95–3.04) and Hispanics (OR, 5.30; 95% CI, 4.26–6.59). Spatial accessibility was not a consistent predictor of racial disparities in breast cancer mortality for African-American and Hispanic women. Conclusion Physical access to mammography facilities does not necessarily reflect a greater utilization of mammogram screening, possibly owing to financial constraints. Therefore, a metric measuring access to health care facilities is needed to capture all aspects of access to preventive care. Despite easier physical access to mammography facilities in metropolitan areas, great resources and efforts should also be devoted to these areas where racial disparities in breast cancer mortality are often found. PMID:22265181

  17. Lipoprotein Profiles in Class III Obese Caucasian and African American Women with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Anna E.; Kasim, Nader; Tamboli, Robyn A.; Gonzalez, Raul S.; Antoun, Joseph; Eckert, Emily A.; Marks-Shulman, Pamela A.; Dunn, Julia; Wattacheril, Julia; Wallen, Taylor; Abumrad, Naji N.; Flynn, Charles Robb

    2015-01-01

    Triglyceride content in the liver is regulated by the uptake, production and elimination of lipoproteins, and derangements in these processes contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies show a direct relationship between intrahepatic fat and production of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) containing particles, VLDL and LDL, but little consensus exists regarding changes in lipoprotein production in the development of simple steatosis (SS) versus nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Further, ethnic variations in lipoproteins among SS and NASH are unknown as is how such variations might contribute to the differential prevalence of disease among Caucasians versus African Americans. In this study, we assessed plasma lipoprotein profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in 70 non-diabetic class III obese females recruited from the surgical weight loss clinic. Of these, 51 females were stratified by biopsy-staged NAFLD severity (histologically normal, SS, or NASH). NASH females displayed increased circulating triglycerides and increased VLDL particle number and size relative to those with histologically normal livers, while total and large LDL concentration decreased in SS versus NASH and correlated with increased insulin resistance (via HOMA2-IR). When Caucasian women were examined alone (n = 41), VLDL and triglycerides increased between normal and SS, while total LDL and apoB100 decreased between SS and NASH along with increased insulin resistance. Compared to Caucasians with SS, African American women with SS displayed reduced triglycerides, VLDL, and small LDL and a more favorable small to large HDL ratio despite having increased BMI and HOMA2-IR. These findings suggest that ApoB100 and lipoprotein subclass particle number and size can delineate steatosis from NASH in obese Caucasian females, but should be interpreted with caution in other ethnicities as African Americans with SS display relatively improved lipoprotein profiles

  18. A study of the lived experiences of African American women STEM doctoral degree completers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Stephanie Michelle

    This study examined the lived experiences of African American women (AAW) who completed doctoral degrees in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline in the United States. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature by examining how AAW described and made meaning of lived STEM educational experiences during doctoral degree completion in the context of the intersection of being African American and a woman. This study utilized a theoretical perspective based upon three theories: (a) critical race theory as a framework to gather AAW's narratives about STEM doctorate education, (b) Black feminist thought as a framework to view the intersection of being African American and a woman in the United States, and (c) the science identity model as a framework to view how women of color successfully complete scientific graduate degrees. Participants revealed that being an African American and a woman in a STEM doctoral program often complicated an already difficult process of completing the doctoral degree. The participants described the educational experience as challenging, particularly the writing of the dissertation. The challenges that the participants faced were due to various factors such as difficult advisor/advisee relationships, tedious writing and revision processes, politics, and lack of information regarding the doctoral degree process. The findings suggested that AAW participants confronted intrinsic bias while completing STEM doctoral degrees, which led to isolation and feelings of being an impostor---or feelings of not belonging in scientific studies. The findings also indicated that the women in this study ascribed success in dissertation writing and degree completion to one or more of the following attributes: (a) having a clear plan, (b) taking ownership of the writing process, (c) having an engaged advisor, (d) learning the writing style of the advisor, (e) understanding the temperament of the advisor, (f) personal will

  19. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds.

    PubMed

    White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Among the country's 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655

  20. Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and betweenperson variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account timevarying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices. PMID:25239402

  1. Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women.

    PubMed

    Zenk, Shannon N; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and between-person variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account time-varying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices.

  2. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds.

    PubMed

    White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Among the country's 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis.

  3. Sexual assertiveness in low-income African American women: unwanted sex, survival, and HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Whyte Iv, James

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of social variables related to sexual relationships in African American women. The study used a quantitative descriptive design to gather data from a convenience sample of 524 African American women aged 18 to 49 who dwelled in the southeastern United States. The study utilized the HIV Risk Behavior Questionnaire to determine the participant's level of HIV risk. Results indicated substantial levels of sex in the women due to violence or fear of violence, relationship loss, lost shelter, and high levels of unwanted sex. There was a positive correlation between level of survival sex and high-risk behavior (R = .651, p < .01). Multiple correlations indicated associations between history of forced sex and sex due to fear of violence (R = .604, p < .01). Further correlations indicated a pattern of association between poverty, age, and sex out of fear of relationship loss or shelter loss. The study indicates a need for a broader definition of HIV-related risk in high-risk populations. PMID:17064233

  4. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds

    PubMed Central

    White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655

  5. Attitudes and program preferences of African-American urban young adults about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

    PubMed

    Smith, Dawn K; Toledo, Lauren; Smith, Donna Jo; Adams, Mary Anne; Rothenberg, Richard

    2012-10-01

    We elicited attitudes about, and service access preferences for, daily oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) from urban, African-American young men and women, ages 18-24 years, at risk for HIV transmission through their sexual and drug-related behaviors participating in eight mixed-gender and two MSM-only focus groups in Atlanta, Georgia. Participants reported substantial interest in PrEP associated with its perceived cost, effectiveness, and ease of accessing services and medication near to their homes or by public transportation. Frequent HIV testing was a perceived benefit. Participants differed about whether risk-reduction behaviors would change, and in which direction; and whether PrEP use would be associated with HIV stigma or would enhance the reputation for PrEP users. This provides the first information about the interests, concerns, and preferences of young adult African Americans that can be used to inform the introduction of PrEP services into HIV prevention efforts for this critical population group. PMID:23016502

  6. Ethnic Identity and Implicit Anti-fat Bias: Similarities and Differences between African American and Caucasian Women.

    PubMed

    Hart, Erica A; Sbrocco, Tracy; Carter, Michele M

    2016-01-01

    Research using self-report or explicit measures of body image suggests African American women have a more accepting view of larger figures than non-Hispanic White (NHW) women. However, increasing research indicates that explicit views may vary from those held at a deeper, implicit level. Our study examined whether African American women held an implicit negative bias toward overweight/fat individuals, despite a greater explicit acceptance of larger body size. Additionally, ethnic identity was measured to assess if strength of identity related to bias. Anti-fat bias was compared within and between ethnic groups using an Implicit Association Test (IAT), which measures the strength of automatic associations between two concepts. This online IAT measured spontaneous thoughts about figures of various body weights (underweight, overweight, obese) and positive and negative terms (eg, attractive and unattractive or healthy and unhealthy). A pervasive anti-fat bias was found in African American as well as NHW women. For both groups, this bias was related to ethnic identity when thinking about figure size and health. Specifically, African American women with lower ethnic identity were more negatively biased and NHW women with higher ethnic identity were more negatively biased. Findings from this study indicate that implicitly there are few differences in the way these two ethnicities classify heavy figures, and therefore African Americans may not be immune to weight stigma. Given the prevalence of obesity and the lack of research on weight stigma among African American women, there is need to address this issue and its impact on well-being. PMID:26843798

  7. Examining the Associations of Racism, Sexism, and Stressful Life Events on Psychological Distress among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B.

    2013-01-01

    African American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations between racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African American women, and are correlated both with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. PMID:25313434

  8. Examining the associations of racism, sexism, and stressful life events on psychological distress among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B

    2014-10-01

    African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed.

  9. Examining the associations of racism, sexism, and stressful life events on psychological distress among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B

    2014-10-01

    African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. PMID:25313434

  10. Health behavior change models and their socio-cultural relevance for breast cancer screening in African American women.

    PubMed

    Ashing-Giwa, K

    1999-01-01

    Models of health behavior provide the conceptual bases for most of the breast cancer screening intervention studies. These models were not designed for and have not been adequately tested with African American women. The models discussed in this paper are: The Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior, and the Transtheoretical Model. This paper will examine the socio-cultural relevance of these health behavior models, and discuss specific socio-cultural dimensions that are not accounted for by these paradigms. It is critical that researchers include socio-cultural dimensions, such as interconnectedness, health socialization, ecological factors and health care system factors into their intervention models with African American women. Comprehensive and socio-culturally based investigations are necessary to guide the scientific and policy challenge for reducing breast cancer mortality in African American women.

  11. Patients' cultural beliefs in patient-provider communication with African American women and Latinas diagnosed with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mott-Coles, Susan

    2014-08-01

    African American women and Latinas often experience suboptimal breast cancer care. This article describes providers' self-rated skills in communication practices when working with African American women and Latinas diagnosed with breast cancer. Current literature reveals how providers are lacking in the ability to communicate with these patients and often fail to incorporate cultural beliefs into breast cancer care and treatment. This poor communication and failure to acknowledge cultural beliefs can be correlated with poor patient outcomes. In a study of providers' perceptions of how they address the cultural beliefs of African American women and Latinas diagnosed with breast cancer, interviews with physicians, inpatient nurses, cancer clinic nurses, mammography technicians, and ultrasound technicians showed that they used the same approach for all patients, regardless of race, ethnicity, or culture but felt they practiced culturally sensitive care. Increased and improved cultural competence education is recommended for providers at all levels as a first step toward increasing culturally competent communications.

  12. Research issues in the study of very low birthweight and preterm delivery among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Rowley, D L

    1994-10-01

    Very low birthweight and preterm delivery explain two thirds of the excess deaths experienced by African-American infants. Although comprehensive, good quality services for all African-American women will help to reduce the twofold higher rate of infant mortality experienced by African-American infants compared with white infants, the infant mortality gap will not be closed until prevention research is conducted that incorporates the social, cultural, and political context of life for African-American women; the environmental stressors and the physiologic responses associated with stress; and the protective mechanisms available in the community for responding to stress. Discrimination may be an important stressor that influences a woman's susceptibility to a poor pregnancy outcome. Strategies already exist in the community to cope with discrimination and other environmental stressors. To capture the effects of discrimination and other environmental factors and the protective factors important for prevention, the research approach must involve African-American women and their communities as collaborators in the research. Such collaboration will help to avoid problems with scientific racism.

  13. On Deferred Dreams, Callings, and Revolving Doors of Opportunity: African-American Women's Reflections on Becoming Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loder, Tondra L.

    2005-01-01

    From a life course perspective, this article examines how an intergenerational sample of 20 African-American women in Chicago describe and make meaning out of their struggles and advancements to make inroads into the principalship. Being born on opposite sides of the Civil Rights Movement distinguishes markedly how these women perceive their…

  14. The Impact of Perceived Group Support on the Effectiveness of an HIV Prevention Intervention for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corneille, Maya; Hood, Kristina; Foster-Woodson, Julia; Fitzgerald, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The enormous HIV/AIDS disparity among African American women and women in other ethnic groups dictates the need to implement the most effective HIV prevention interventions. This study examined the impact of perceived group support on HIV protective behaviors (i.e., attitudes and behaviors related to condom use, alcohol, and drugs) of African…

  15. Stress Management-Augmented Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention for African American Women: A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Krukowski, Rebecca; Love, ShaRhonda J.; Eddings, Kenya; DiCarlo, Marisha; Chang, Jason Y.; Prewitt, T. Elaine; West, Delia Smith

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between chronic stress and weight management efforts may be a concern for African American (AA) women, who have a high prevalence of obesity, high stress levels, and modest response to obesity treatment. This pilot study randomly assigned 44 overweight/obese AA women with moderate to high stress levels to either a 12-week…

  16. Family Planning Knowledge: The Role of Social Networks and Primary Care Providers as Information Sources for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackstock, Oni J.; Mba-Jonas, Adamma; Sacajiu, Galit M.

    2010-01-01

    Disparities in the rates of unintended pregnancy have increased for low-income African American women as compared to other groups due, in part, to declining contraception use. Women obtain family planning information from diverse sources, which may ultimately influence contraceptive decision making. For this qualitative study, we conducted…

  17. Stressful Life Events and Behavior Change: A Qualitative Examination of African American Women's Participation in a Weight Loss Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks C.; Jefferson, Wendy K.; Ard, Jamy D.

    2011-01-01

    We qualitatively assessed how life stressors affected African American women's participation in a weight reduction program. A sample of 9 women, who completed a behavioral lifestyle intervention, participated in individual, structured, in-depth interviews. Life stressors, ranging from personal illness to changes in employment status, had varied…

  18. The Contribution of HBCUS to the Preparation of African American Women for STEM Careers: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura; Lundy-Wagner, Valerie; Drezner, Noah D.; Gasman, Marybeth; Yoon, Susan; Bose, Enakshi; Gary, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    This study uses case study analysis to explore the ways that Spelman College, a historically Black women's college, promotes the attainment of African American women in STEM fields. Although limited to one institution, the findings shed light on the ways that institutional characteristics, policies, and practices may mitigate the barriers that…

  19. A Qualitative Evaluation of a Faith-Based Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Berrios, Nerida; Darnell, Julie S.; Calhoun, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for African American women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N = 94) recruited from each church…

  20. Spicing It Up: Blending Perspectives of Leadership and Cultural Values from Hispanic American and African American Women Scholars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louque, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Report of a study of the dynamics of cultural values and leadership characteristics from the perspective of Hispanic American and African American women scholars. The results provide insight on "spicing" up definitions of leadership while stressing the importance of viewing women of color as leaders. (Contains 1 table and 24 references.)…

  1. Who We Are: (In)visible African American Women Setting Traditions of Excellence and Paving Paths for Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bryant, Camille

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this lecture is to provide the voice and visibility of African American women who have upheld the tradition of excellence set by Amy Morris Homans in the development of physical education in higher education for women and set pathways to transition our field to be more inclusive and diverse and have served as transformative leaders…

  2. Psychosocial Characteristics and Gestational Weight Change among Overweight, African American Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Wrotniak, Brian H; Paré, Emmanuelle; Sarwer, David B

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To describe psychosocial factors identified as contributors of weight gain in the general population and to examine the relationship between these factors and gestational weight gain among low socioeconomic status, African American, overweight pregnant women. Methods. African American women (n = 120) with a pregravid body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2) completed measures of eating, sleep, and depressed mood between 14 and 24 weeks of gestation. Weight was tracked. Descriptive statistics, correlations, and linear regression modeling were used to characterize the sample and examine predictors of gestational weight gain. Results. Four percent screened positive for night eating syndrome, with 32% consuming at least 25% of their daily caloric intake after dinner (evening hyperphagia). None met criteria for binge eating disorder; 4% reported occasional binge episodes. Cognitive restraint over eating was low. Participants slept 7.1 (SD = 1.9) h per night and reported 4.3 (SD = 3.6) awakenings per week; 18% reported some level of depressed mood. Night and binge eating were related to each other, sleep quality, and depressed mood. Eating due to cravings was the only psychosocial variable to predict gestational weight gain. Conclusions. Depressed mood, night eating, and nighttime awakenings were common in this cohort, while cognitive restraint over eating was low. Most psychosocial variables were not predictive of excess gestational weight gain.

  3. Affective states and racial identity among African-American women with trichotillomania.

    PubMed

    Neal-Barnett, Angela; Stadulis, Robert

    2006-05-01

    Affective correlates of hair pulling were investigated in a sample of 43 African-American women with trichotillomania. The relationship among affective correlates and dimensions of racial identity was also examined. Via phone interview, participants completed the hair-pulling survey on which they rated the intensity of 10 different affective states across three different points in the hair-pulling episode (before, during and after). Participants also completed the Multidimensional Inventory of Racial Identity, which assesses racial identity across the dimensions of centrality, regard and ideology. Univariate analyses identified the feelings of being bored, happy, anxious, guilty and relieved as reflecting a time difference. Negative correlations were found among the racial identity dimension of private regard and the affective correlates of happy and relief that were experienced during and after pulling. Negative correlations were found between the racial identity dimension of humanist ideology and relieved affect as well as humanist ideology and relieved affect during a pulling episode. In light of the results, the importance of understanding and assessing cultural factors in the affective experience of African-American women with trichotillomania is discussed. PMID:16749651

  4. Outcomes of an intervention to reduce uncertainty among African American women with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Amoako, Emelia; Skelly, Anne H; Rossen, Eileen K

    2008-12-01

    Poor adjustment to diabetes in older African American women may result from uncertainty, stemming from a lack of information about self-care activities, a complexity of self-care activities, comorbid conditions, and a lack of resources. This study evaluated a telephone intervention to reduce uncertainty (through problem-solving strategies, information, cognitive reframing, and improved patient-provider communication)--namely, to measure its effects on diabetes self-care and psychosocial adjustment. Sixty-eight older African American women were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group received the intervention for 4 weeks, and the control group received usual care. Psychosocial adjustment and self-care were measured in all participants at baseline and 6 weeks postbaseline. The experimental group reported increased participation in exercise (self-care component; p < .001) and improvement in psychosocial adjustment (p < .001). Thus, reducing the uncertainty related to diabetes self-care improves self-care exercise, as well as psychosocial adjustment.

  5. Barriers to smoking cessation in inner-city African American young adults.

    PubMed

    Stillman, Frances A; Bone, Lee; Avila-Tang, Erika; Smith, Katherine; Yancey, Norman; Street, Calvin; Owings, Kerry

    2007-08-01

    The prevalence of tobacco use among urban African American persons aged 18 to 24 years not enrolled in college is alarmingly high and a challenge for smoking cessation initiatives. Recent data from inner-city neighborhoods in Baltimore, Md, indicate that more than 60% of young adults smoke cigarettes. We sought to describe community-level factors contributing to this problem. Data from focus groups and surveys indicate that the sale and acquisition of "loosies" are ubiquitous and normative and may contribute to the high usage and low cessation rates.

  6. Reporting a health quality improvement project for reducing the disparity in screening mammograms among senior African-American women.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Edward R; Mannis, Cindy

    2003-01-01

    Despite intensive efforts by the established medical community to offer preventive health practices to minority populations, there remains a significant disparity in utilization of many of these services. Between African-American and Caucasian women there exists a significant disparity in the use of screening mammography. Under contract by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs) have been charged with reducing disparities in health care among identified minority populations within each state. Quality Insights of Delaware, the QIO for the state, has developed a project that utilizes a collaboration with African-American women and community resources in an effective outreach program to the targeted population. PMID:15704638

  7. Souls in Extremis: Enacting Processes of Recovery from Homelessness Among Older African American Women.

    PubMed

    Moxley, David P; Washington, Olivia G M

    2016-06-01

    In a midwestern city of the USA, the authors implemented the Leaving Homelessness Intervention Research Project-and its eight subprojects-to further understand homelessness as experienced by older minority women, develop intervention strategies to facilitate the movement of the participants out of homelessness, and illuminate the women's recovery process. After reviewing the social issue of homelessness among older African American women in the USA, and offering a framework on recovery and qualitative themes of recovery among participants involved in the Telling My Story subproject, the authors present a four-factor model of recovery-focused practice. The model reflects two recovery paradigms: one that is responsive to the negative consequences people experience as a result of their exposure to extreme situations, such as homelessness, and a proactive one in which assistance is designed to help people in recovery advance their own self-development and move forward their process of individuation. PMID:26781673

  8. Neighborhood Factors Influence Physical Activity among African American and Hispanic or Latina Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Medina, Ashley V.; Ho, Angela; Adamus, Heather J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between neighborhood street scale elements, such as traffic lights and crossing aids, and physical activity (PA) adoption and maintenance in African American and Hispanic or Latina women. Women (N=309) participated in a 6-month intervention and completed baseline and post-intervention assessments of PA. Trained field assessors completed the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan in participants’ neighborhoods. Adjusted linear regression models found attractiveness for bicycling significantly predicted post-intervention accelerometer-measured PA. Greater traffic control devices and crossing aids were associated with greater PA among women assigned to the PA intervention group, and greater street amenities were associated with greater PA among those in the comparison group. Neighborhood factors may interact favorably with behavioral interventions to promote PA adoption and maintenance, and should be considered in health promotion efforts. PMID:22243907

  9. Perceptions about breast cancer among African American women: do selected educational materials challenge them?

    PubMed

    Powe, Barbara D; Daniels, Elvan C; Finnie, Ramona; Thompson, Angela

    2005-02-01

    Despite the availability of factual information about breast cancer, there continues to be an abundance of misperceptions about the disease. This study, guided by the Patient/Provider/System Model for cancer screening, describes perceptions about breast cancer among African American women (N = 179) at primary care centers. Data were collected using the Breast Cancer Perceptions and Knowledge Survey and a demographic questionnaire. Breast cancer pamphlets available at the centers were evaluated (readability, extent they challenged misperceptions). The average age of the women was 34 years with an average educational level of 12 years. A number of misperceptions were prevalent. The majority viewed breast self-examination as a form of early detection and some viewed pain as an indicator of cancer. Pamphlets did not explicitly challenge the misperceptions and the SMOG reading level was high. Intervention studies are needed to identify the effective methods to challenge and correct misperceptions about breast cancer for these women. PMID:15653249

  10. Aiming for More Relevant HIV Risk Reduction: A Black Feminist Perspective for Enhancing HIV Intervention for Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Quinn M.; Elifson, Kirk; Sterk, Claire

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how various living conditions impact the context within which low-income African American women engage in a diverse range of high-risk behavior that increases their risk for HIV infection. The study, based on 2 years of ethnographic fieldwork, analyzed the living conditions of 45 African American women at…

  11. An Intersectional Social Capital Analysis of the Influence of Historically Black Sororities on African American Women's College Experiences at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greyerbiehl, Lindsay; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Research exploring the college experiences of African American women at predominantly White institutions (PWI) continues to be a necessity as African American women graduate at lower rates than their racial/ethnic peers. This qualitative study explored the influence historically Black sororities had on the college experiences of African American…

  12. The Underrepresentation of African American Women Faculty: A Phenomenological Study Exploring the Experiences of McKnight Doctoral Fellow Alumna Serving in the Professoriate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Dionne J.

    2013-01-01

    While African American women have been participating in higher education for more than a century, they remain significantly underrepresented among college and university professors in America. This study was pursued in an attempt to address the underrepresentation of African American women faculty at public and private universities within the…

  13. Sexuality, Sexual Practices, and HIV Risk among Incarcerated African-American Women in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Farel, Claire E.; Parker, Sharon D.; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Grodensky, Catherine A.; Jones, Chaunetta; Golin, Carol E.; Fogel, Catherine I.; Wohl, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Women who have been in prison carry a greater lifetime risk of HIV for reasons that are not well understood. This effect is amplified in the Southeastern United States, where HIV incidence and prevalence is especially high among African American (AA) women. The role of consensual sexual partnerships in the context of HIV risk, especially same-sex partnerships, merits further exploration. Methods We conducted digitally recorded qualitative interviews with 29 AA women (15 HIV-positive, 14 HIV-negative) within three months after entry into the state prison system. We explored potential pre-incarceration HIV risk factors, including personal sexual practices. Two researchers thematically coded interview transcripts and a consensus committee reviewed coding. Results Women reported complex sexual risk profiles during the six months prior to incarceration, including sex with women as well as prior sexual partnerships with both men and women. Condom use with primary male partners was low and a history of transactional sex work was prevalent. These behaviors were linked to substance use, particularly among HIV-positive women. Conclusions Although women may not formally identify as bisexual or lesbian, sex with women was an important component of this cohort’s sexuality. Addressing condom use, heterogeneity of sexual practices, and partner concurrency among at-risk women should be considered for reducing HIV acquisition and preventing forward transmission in women with a history of incarceration. PMID:24183410

  14. The Role of Social Capital in African-American Women's Use of Mammography

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Lorraine; Subramanian, SV; Williams, David R.; Armstrong, Katrina; Charles, Camille Zubrinsky; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Black/African-American women are more likely to get breast cancer at a young age and/or be diagnosed at a late disease stage, pointing to a greater need to promote mammography for Black women at earlier ages than are currently recommended. This study explores how perceived neighborhood social capital, that is, perceptions of how tight-knit a neighborhood is and what power that confers to neighborhood members, relates to use of mammography for Black women in Philadelphia. Living in a community with tight social ties (social cohesion) or that have a collective motivation for community change (collective efficacy) may increase the likelihood that an individual woman in that community will hear health messages from other community members and neighbors (diffusion of information) and will have access to health-related resources that allow them to engage in healthy behaviors. No prior studies have explored the role of social capital in decisions for mammography use. Using multilevel logistic regression, we analyzed self-report of mammography in the past year for 2,586, Black women over age 40 across 381 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania USA census tracts. Our study included individual demographic and aggregates of individual-level social capital data from the Public Health Management Corporation's 2004, 2006, and 2008 Community Health Database waves, and 2000 US Census sociodemographic characteristics. Individual perceptions that a Black woman's neighborhood had high social capital, specifically collective efficacy, had a positive and statistically significant association with mammography use (OR=1.40, CI: 1.05, 1.85). Our findings suggest that an individual woman's perception of greater neighborhood social capital may be related to increased mammography use. Although this analysis could not determine the direction of causality, it suggests that social capital may play a role in cancer preventive screening for African-American women in Philadelphia, which warrants further study

  15. The role of social capital in African-American women's use of mammography.

    PubMed

    Dean, Lorraine; Subramanian, S V; Williams, David R; Armstrong, Katrina; Charles, Camille Zubrinsky; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-03-01

    Black/African-American women are more likely to get breast cancer at a young age and/or be diagnosed at a late disease stage, pointing to a greater need to promote mammography for Black women at earlier ages than are currently recommended. This study explores how perceived neighborhood social capital, that is, perceptions of how tight-knit a neighborhood is and what power that confers to neighborhood members, relates to use of mammography for Black women in Philadelphia. Living in a community with tight social ties (social cohesion) or that have a collective motivation for community change (collective efficacy) may increase the likelihood that an individual woman in that community will hear health messages from other community members and neighbors (diffusion of information) and will have access to health-related resources that allow them to engage in healthy behaviors. No prior studies have explored the role of social capital in decisions for mammography use. Using multilevel logistic regression, we analyzed self-report of mammography in the past year for 2586, Black women over age 40 across 381 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania USA census tracts. Our study included individual demographic and aggregates of individual-level social capital data from the Public Health Management Corporation's 2004, 2006, and 2008 Community Health Database waves, and 2000 US Census sociodemographic characteristics. Individual perceptions that a Black woman's neighborhood had high social capital, specifically collective efficacy, had a positive and statistically significant association with mammography use (OR = 1.40, CI: 1.05, 1.85). Our findings suggest that an individual woman's perception of greater neighborhood social capital may be related to increased mammography use. Although this analysis could not determine the direction of causality, it suggests that social capital may play a role in cancer preventive screening for African-American women in Philadelphia, which warrants further

  16. Visual Representation of Body Shape in African-American and European American Women: Clinical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Capers, Patrice L.; Kinsey, Amber W.; Miskell, Edrika L.; Affuso, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Body mass index (BMI) has been used widely among clinicians to assess obesity in their patients due to its ease and availability. However, BMI has some diagnostic limitations and other measures related to health risks; in particular, body shape may be of greater relevance to health outcomes. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to illustrate the importance of body shape assessments above and beyond BMI and its relationship to health risk among a sample of African-American and European American women. METHODS African-American and European American women aged 19–78 years (n = 552) in Birmingham, Alabama, were recruited and stratified by menopausal status (ie, pre- or postmenopausal). Pictorial body shapes were derived from digital photographs, while body fat distribution defined by android–gynoid ratio (AGR) and body composition were obtained from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS Images of BMI and age-matched women illustrate variability in fat distribution. Among both menopausal status groups, more than 50% of women had a pear body shape (AGR < 1). An apple body shape was associated with higher odds of having diabetes (unadjusted odds ratio [OR]: 4.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–9.3), hypertension (unadjusted OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 2.0–4.7), and high cholesterol (unadjusted OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.8–5.1). CONCLUSION Use of visual cues alongside traditional methods of weight status assessment may help to facilitate weight management conversations between physicians and female patients. However, next steps should include the validation of visual assessments of body shape in women for use by physicians. PMID:27478392

  17. Structural and Sociocultural Factors Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening Among HIV-Infected African American Women in Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Moneyham, Linda; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Chamot, Eric; Scarinci, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract African American women have disproportionately high prevalence rates of HIV and cervical cancer. HIV-infected women are significantly less likely to obtain recommended cervical cancer screenings than HIV-uninfected women. The purpose of this study was to examine sociocultural and structural factors associated with cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected African American in Alabama. The PEN-3 Model and the Health Belief Model were used as theoretical frameworks. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty HIV-infected African American women to identify perceptions, enablers, and nurturers, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and perceived benefits related to cervical cancer and screening. The most common positive perceptions, enablers, and nurturers that contributed to cervical cancer screening included internal motivation and awareness of the importance of HIV-infected women getting Pap tests due to their weakened immune system. Negative perceptions, enablers, and nurturers included lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, and lack of perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of culturally relevant cervical cancer and screening education interventions aimed at increasing cervical cancer screening adherence among HIV-infected African American women. PMID:25514125

  18. Structural and sociocultural factors associated with cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected African American women in Alabama.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle; Moneyham, Linda; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Chamot, Eric; Scarinci, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    African American women have disproportionately high prevalence rates of HIV and cervical cancer. HIV-infected women are significantly less likely to obtain recommended cervical cancer screenings than HIV-uninfected women. The purpose of this study was to examine sociocultural and structural factors associated with cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected African American in Alabama. The PEN-3 Model and the Health Belief Model were used as theoretical frameworks. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty HIV-infected African American women to identify perceptions, enablers, and nurturers, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and perceived benefits related to cervical cancer and screening. The most common positive perceptions, enablers, and nurturers that contributed to cervical cancer screening included internal motivation and awareness of the importance of HIV-infected women getting Pap tests due to their weakened immune system. Negative perceptions, enablers, and nurturers included lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, and lack of perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of culturally relevant cervical cancer and screening education interventions aimed at increasing cervical cancer screening adherence among HIV-infected African American women.

  19. Increasing Tobacco Quitline Calls from Pregnant African American Women: The “One Tiny Reason to Quit” Social Marketing Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Genderson, Maureen Wilson; Sepulveda, Allison L.; Garland, Sheryl L.; Wilson, Diane Baer; Stith-Singleton, Rose; Dubuque, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Pregnant African American women are at disproportionately high risk of premature birth and infant mortality, outcomes associated with cigarette smoking. Telephone-based, individual smoking cessation counseling has been shown to result in successful quit attempts in the general population and among pregnant women, but “quitlines” are underutilized. A social marketing campaign called One Tiny Reason to Quit (OTRTQ) promoted calling a quitline (1-800-QUIT-NOW) to pregnant, African American women in Richmond, Virginia, in 2009 and was replicated there 2 years later. Methods The campaign disseminated messages via radio, interior bus ads, posters, newspaper ads, and billboards. Trained volunteers also delivered messages face-to-face and distributed branded give-away reminder items. The number of calls made from pregnant women in the Richmond area during summer 2009 was contrasted with (a) the number of calls during the seasons immediately before and after the campaign, and (b) the number of calls the previous summer. The replication used the same evaluation design. Results There were statistically significant spikes in calls from pregnant women during both campaign waves for both types of contrasts. A higher proportion of the calls from pregnant women were from African Americans during the campaign. Conclusion A multimodal quitline promotion like OTRTQ should be considered for geographic areas with sizable African American populations and high rates of infant mortality. PMID:23621745

  20. A case-control analysis of smoking and breast cancer in African American women: findings from the AMBER Consortium.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Yi; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Haiman, Christopher A; Bandera, Elisa V; Bethea, Traci N; Troester, Melissa A; Viscidi, Emma; Kolonel, Laurence N; Olshan, Andrew F; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2016-06-01

    Recent population studies suggest a role of smoking in the etiology of breast cancer, but few have been conducted among African American women. In a collaborative project of four large studies, we examined associations between smoking measures and breast cancer risk by menopause and hormone receptor status [estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), ER-negative (ER-) and triple-negative (ER-, PR-, HER2-)]. The study included 5791 African American women with breast cancer and 17376 African American controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for study and risk factors. Results differed by menopausal status. Among postmenopausal women, positive associations were observed for long duration and greater pack-years of smoking: relative to never smoking, fully adjusted ORs were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03-1.26) for duration ≥20 years and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.01-1.33) for ≥20 pack-years. By contrast, inverse associations were observed among premenopausal women, with ORs of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68-95) for current smoking and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.69-0.96) for former smoking, without trends by duration. Associations among postmenopausal women were somewhat stronger for ER+ breast cancer. The findings suggest that the relation of cigarette smoking to breast cancer risk in African American women may vary by menopausal status and breast cancer subtype. PMID:27207658

  1. Experiences of racist events are associated with negative health consequences for African American women.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B; Guevarra, Josephine S; Bovbjerg, Dana H

    2003-06-01

    This study investigated whether experiences of racist events were related to psychological distress, negative health behaviors, and health problems. Participants were 71 African American women (mean age 44.4) who were recruited from an urban cancer-screening clinic as part of a larger longitudinal study on familial risk of breast cancer. Participants completed three study assessments, approximately one month apart, and data were collected via self-report. Correlational analyses revealed that past year and lifetime racism were both related to psychological distress. Among smokers and drinkers, past year racism was positively correlated with number of cigarettes and drinks consumed. Lifetime racism was negatively related to perceived health, and positively related to lifetime history of physical disease and frequency of recent common colds. Analyses using a general linear model revealed that these relationships were largely unaccounted for by other variables. In addition, demographic variables such as income and education were not related to experiences of racism. The results suggest that racism can be detrimental to African American's well being and should be investigated in health disparities research.

  2. African American women's preventative care usage: the role of social support and racial experiences and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Pullen, Erin; Perry, Brea; Oser, Carrie

    2014-09-01

    Research suggests that African Americans are less likely to utilise preventative care services than Americans of European descent, and that these patterns may contribute to racial health disparities in the United States. Despite the persistence of inequalities in preventative care utilisation, culturally relevant factors influencing the use of these gateway health services have been understudied among marginalised groups. Using a stratified sample of 205 low-income African American women, this research examines the predictors of receiving a physical exam, with a particular emphasis on how differing levels of social support from friend and family networks and experiences of racial discrimination and cultural mistrust shape utilisation. The findings underscore the importance of traditional predictors of utilisation, including insurance status and having a usual physician. However, they also indicate that supportive ties to friendship networks are associated with higher predicted rates of having an annual physical exam, while social support from family and sentiments of cultural mistrust are associated with lower rates of utilisation. Broadly, the findings indicate that even as traditional predictors of help-seeking become less relevant, it will be critical to explore how variations in discrimination experiences and social relationships across marginalised groups drive patterns of preventative care utilisation.

  3. Experiences of racist events are associated with negative health consequences for African American women.

    PubMed Central

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A.; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B.; Guevarra, Josephine S.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated whether experiences of racist events were related to psychological distress, negative health behaviors, and health problems. Participants were 71 African American women (mean age 44.4) who were recruited from an urban cancer-screening clinic as part of a larger longitudinal study on familial risk of breast cancer. Participants completed three study assessments, approximately one month apart, and data were collected via self-report. Correlational analyses revealed that past year and lifetime racism were both related to psychological distress. Among smokers and drinkers, past year racism was positively correlated with number of cigarettes and drinks consumed. Lifetime racism was negatively related to perceived health, and positively related to lifetime history of physical disease and frequency of recent common colds. Analyses using a general linear model revealed that these relationships were largely unaccounted for by other variables. In addition, demographic variables such as income and education were not related to experiences of racism. The results suggest that racism can be detrimental to African American's well being and should be investigated in health disparities research. PMID:12856911

  4. Natural Mentoring Processes Deter Externalizing Problems Among Rural African American Emerging Adults: A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2011-01-01

    A 3-wave model linking natural mentoring relationships to externalizing behavior was tested with 345 rural African American emerging adults in their final year of high school. Structural equation models were executed linking multi-informant reports of mentor-emerging adult relationship quality with youths’ externalizing behavior 18 months later. Consistent with our primary hypotheses, emerging adults whose relationships with their natural mentors were characterized by instrumental and emotional support and affectively positive interactions reported lower levels of anger, rule-breaking behavior, and aggression. These effects emerged independent of the influences of family support and youth gender. Two intrapersonal processes, a future orientation and self-regulation, emerged as mediators of the influence of natural mentoring relationships. The influence of natural mentors was most pronounced for emerging adults experiencing high levels of life stress. PMID:21293917

  5. Natural mentoring processes deter externalizing problems among rural African American emerging adults: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu

    2011-12-01

    A 3-wave model linking natural mentoring relationships to externalizing behavior was tested with 345 rural African American emerging adults in their final year of high school. Structural equation models were executed linking multi-informant reports of mentor-emerging adult relationship quality with youths' externalizing behavior 18 months later. Consistent with our primary hypotheses, emerging adults whose relationships with their natural mentors were characterized by instrumental and emotional support and affectively positive interactions reported lower levels of anger, rule-breaking behavior, and aggression. These effects emerged independent of the influences of family support and youth gender. Two intrapersonal processes, a future orientation and self-regulation, emerged as mediators of the influence of natural mentoring relationships. The influence of natural mentors was most pronounced for emerging adults experiencing high levels of life stress. PMID:21293917

  6. Alcohol Use Problems and Sexual Risk Among Young Adult African American Mothers.

    PubMed

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2016-01-01

    Studies have documented high levels of alcohol use and sexual risk among young mothers. We examined parenting satisfaction and self-efficacy in relation to alcohol use problems and sexual risk among 346 young African American women enrolled in an HIV prevention trial, 41 % (n = 141) of whom were mothers. Among mothers, greater parenting satisfaction was associated with a reduced likelihood of problematic alcohol use, having multiple sex partners, and testing positive for Trichomonas vaginalis. Relative to non-parenting women, mothers reported lower condom use. Compared to non-parenting women, mothers with the highest parenting satisfaction reported fewer alcohol use problems; mothers with the lowest parenting satisfaction reported lower condom use and were more likely to have multiple partners and test positive for T. vaginalis. Parenting self-efficacy was not associated with the outcomes examined. Future research investigating relationships between parenting satisfaction, alcohol use and sexual risk may be useful for improving multiple maternal health outcomes. PMID:26499334

  7. "That feeling of not feeling": numbing the pain for substance-dependent African American women.

    PubMed

    Ehrmin, Joanne T

    2002-07-01

    Using ethnographic methodology, the author uncovered the meanings and expressions of recovery care for substance-dependent African American women residing in an inner-city transitional home for substance abuse. A convenience sample of 12 key and 18 general participants revealed emotional pain associated with negative life experiences, including overt and covert racism, primarily within society but also within their family networks; and physical, sexual, and emotional abuse from parents, siblings, and male relationships. The women described feelings of abandonment associated with the death of loved ones, particularly mothers. They had attempted to numb their emotional pain with alcohol and drugs. As they moved through treatment and recovery, they began to work through past and current painful life experiences without using alcohol and drugs.

  8. Engaged mothering: the transition to motherhood for a group of African American women.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, L M

    1999-01-01

    Using grounded theory methodology, 17 first-time African American mothers were interviewed to elicit their experiences of pregnancy and motherhood. Participants had a mean age of 30 years, were mostly married, employed, middle income, college educated, and all received adequate prenatal care. Engaged Mothering was identified as the core category, denoting the active, involved, and mutual process in which a woman prepares to be a mother, cares for herself and her infant, and dreams about and plans for the future to have a good life for her child. Strategies women used in this process included getting ready, dealing with the reality, settling in, and dreaming. Conditions of intentionality of the pregnancy and prior history of miscarriage or health problems of the mother affected the process. Women described the effects of racism on their daily lives and on the criteria they used to choose providers. Nursing interventions are proposed based on these results.

  9. “If you do nothing about stress, the next thing you know, you’re shattered”: Perspectives on African American men’s stress, coping and health from African American men and key women in their lives

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Katrina; Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Thorpe, Roland J.; Bruce, Marino A.

    2015-01-01

    Stress has been implicated as a key contributor to poor health outcomes; however, few studies have examined how African American men and women explicitly specify the relationships among stress, coping, and African American men’s health. In this paper, we explore strategies men use to cope with stress, and beliefs about the consequences of stress for African American men’s health behaviors, morbidity and mortality from the perspectives of African American men and women. A phenomenological analytic approach was used to examine focus group data collected from 154 African American men (18 focus groups) and 77 women (8 focus groups). Women’s perspectives were captured because women often observe men under stress and can provide support to men during stressful times. Our findings indicate that African American men in this study responded to stress by engaging in often identified coping behaviors (i.e., consumption of calorie dense food, exercise, spiritually-related activities). Men in our study, however, did not always view their responses to stress as explicit coping mechanisms. There was also some discordance between men’s and women’s perceptions of men’s coping behaviors as there were occasions where they seemed to interpret the same behavior differently (e.g., resting vs. avoidance). Men and women believed that stress helped to explain why African American men had worse health than other groups. They identified mental, physical and social consequences of stress. We conclude by detailing implications for conceptualizing and measuring coping and we outline key considerations for interventions and further research about stress, coping and health. PMID:26183018

  10. Prediction of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Disadvantaged African American Adults Using a Syndemic Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Nehl, Eric J; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E; Elifson, Kirk W

    2016-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on HIV sexual risk taking among a community-based sample of disadvantaged African American adults. The objective is to examine multiple factors associated with sexual HIV risk behaviors within a syndemic conceptual framework. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 1535 individuals in Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate analyses indicated a high level of relationships among the HIV sexual risks and other factors. Results from multivariate models indicated that gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, self-esteem, condom use self-efficacy, sex while the respondent was high, and sex while the partner was high were significant predictors of condomless sex. Additionally, a multivariate additive model of risk behaviors indicated that the number of health risks significantly increased the risk of condomless sex. This intersection of HIV sexual risk behaviors and their associations with various other behavioral, socio-demographic, and psychological functioning factors help explain HIV risk-taking among this sample of African American adults and highlights the need for research and practice that accounts for multiple health behaviors and problems. PMID:26188618

  11. Prediction of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Disadvantaged African American Adults Using a Syndemic Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Nehl, Eric J; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E; Elifson, Kirk W

    2016-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on HIV sexual risk taking among a community-based sample of disadvantaged African American adults. The objective is to examine multiple factors associated with sexual HIV risk behaviors within a syndemic conceptual framework. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 1535 individuals in Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate analyses indicated a high level of relationships among the HIV sexual risks and other factors. Results from multivariate models indicated that gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, self-esteem, condom use self-efficacy, sex while the respondent was high, and sex while the partner was high were significant predictors of condomless sex. Additionally, a multivariate additive model of risk behaviors indicated that the number of health risks significantly increased the risk of condomless sex. This intersection of HIV sexual risk behaviors and their associations with various other behavioral, socio-demographic, and psychological functioning factors help explain HIV risk-taking among this sample of African American adults and highlights the need for research and practice that accounts for multiple health behaviors and problems.

  12. A comprehensive examination of breast cancer risk loci in African American women.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Stram, Daniel O; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Millikan, Robert C; Ambrosone, Christine B; John, Esther M; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Olshan, Andrew F; Hu, Jennifer J; Ziegler, Regina G; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V; Ingles, Sue A; Press, Michael F; Deming, Sandra L; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Palmer, Julie R; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Huo, Dezheng; Adebamowo, Clement A; Ogundiran, Temidayo; Chen, Gary K; Stram, Alex; Park, Karen; Rand, Kristin A; Chanock, Stephen J; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N; Conti, David V; Easton, Douglas; Henderson, Brian E; Haiman, Christopher A

    2014-10-15

    Genome-wide association studies have identified 73 breast cancer risk variants mainly in European populations. Given considerable differences in linkage disequilibrium structure between populations of European and African ancestry, the known risk variants may not be informative for risk in African ancestry populations. In a previous fine-mapping investigation of 19 breast cancer loci, we were able to identify SNPs in four regions that better captured risk associations in African American women. In this study of breast cancer in African American women (3016 cases, 2745 controls), we tested an additional 54 novel breast cancer risk variants. Thirty-eight variants (70%) were found to have an association with breast cancer in the same direction as previously reported, with eight (15%) replicating at P < 0.05. Through fine-mapping, in three regions (1q32, 3p24, 10q25), we identified variants that better captured associations with overall breast cancer or estrogen receptor positive disease. We also observed suggestive associations with variants (at P < 5 × 10(-6)) in three separate regions (6q25, 14q13, 22q12) that may represent novel risk variants. Directional consistency of association observed for ∼65-70% of currently known genetic variants for breast cancer in women of African ancestry implies a shared functional common variant at most loci. To validate and enhance the spectrum of alleles that define associations at the known breast cancer risk loci, as well as genome-wide, will require even larger collaborative efforts in women of African ancestry.

  13. A comprehensive examination of breast cancer risk loci in African American women

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ye; Stram, Daniel O.; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; John, Esther M.; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Olshan, Andrew F.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V.; Ingles, Sue A.; Press, Michael F.; Deming, Sandra L.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Palmer, Julie R.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Huo, Dezheng; Adebamowo, Clement A.; Ogundiran, Temidayo; Chen, Gary K.; Stram, Alex; Park, Karen; Rand, Kristin A.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Conti, David V.; Easton, Douglas; Henderson, Brian E.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified 73 breast cancer risk variants mainly in European populations. Given considerable differences in linkage disequilibrium structure between populations of European and African ancestry, the known risk variants may not be informative for risk in African ancestry populations. In a previous fine-mapping investigation of 19 breast cancer loci, we were able to identify SNPs in four regions that better captured risk associations in African American women. In this study of breast cancer in African American women (3016 cases, 2745 controls), we tested an additional 54 novel breast cancer risk variants. Thirty-eight variants (70%) were found to have an association with breast cancer in the same direction as previously reported, with eight (15%) replicating at P < 0.05. Through fine-mapping, in three regions (1q32, 3p24, 10q25), we identified variants that better captured associations with overall breast cancer or estrogen receptor positive disease. We also observed suggestive associations with variants (at P < 5 × 10−6) in three separate regions (6q25, 14q13, 22q12) that may represent novel risk variants. Directional consistency of association observed for ∼65–70% of currently known genetic variants for breast cancer in women of African ancestry implies a shared functional common variant at most loci. To validate and enhance the spectrum of alleles that define associations at the known breast cancer risk loci, as well as genome-wide, will require even larger collaborative efforts in women of African ancestry. PMID:24852375

  14. The Impact of Nurse Case Management Home Visitation on Birth Outcomes in African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Natalie; Sbrocco, Tracy; Hsiao, Chiao-Wen; Hill, Lauren D.; Vaughn, Nicole A.; Lockley, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of the Navy, Department of Defense or the U. S. government. Dr. Wells is a military service member (employee of the U.S. government). This work was prepared as a part of her official duties. Title 17, USC §101 defines a U.S. government work as a work prepared by a military service member or employee of the U.S. government as part of the person’s official duties. Despite substantial reductions in U.S. infant mortality rates, racial disparities persist, with black Americans experiencing 2.4 times the rate of their white counterparts. Low birthweight and preterm delivery contribute to this disparity. Methods To examine the association between antepartum nurse case management home visitation and the occurrence of low birthweight and preterm deliveries in African-American women in Montgomery County, MD, a retrospective cohort study was conducted using existing data from 109 mothers who were enrolled in the Black Babies Start More Infants Living Equally Healthy (SMILE) program. Logistic regression analysis was used. Results Women who received antepartum home visits were 0.37 (CI 0.15–0.94) times less likely to experience preterm delivery than women who did not receive antepartum home visits. The effect of antepartum home visits on preterm delivery was independent of level of prenatal care, negative life events and number of prior live births. There was no significant association between antepartum home visits and low birthweight. Conclusion Antepartum home visits appeared to be protective against preterm delivery and could contribute to reducing racial disparities in infant mortality. Further study is needed to understand and replicate specific program components that may contribute to improved birth outcomes in African-American women. PMID:18507207

  15. Impact of Age and Comorbidity on Cervical and Breast Cancer Literacy of African Americans, Latina, and Arab Women.

    PubMed

    Talley, Costellia H; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between age, comorbidity, and breast and cervical cancer literacy in a sample of African American, Latina, and Arab women (N = 371) from Detroit, Michigan. The Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (ACC) was used characterize the impact of age and comorbidity on breast and cervical cancer literacy. The relationship between ACC and breast and cervical cancer screening, and group differences, were assessed. There was a statistically significant difference between breast cancer literacy scores. ACC had a greater impact on breast cancer literacy for African Americans.

  16. The association of individual and neighborhood social cohesion, stressors, and crime on smoking status among African-American women in southeastern US subsidized housing neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jeannette O; Mueller, Martina; Newman, Susan D; Magwood, Gayenell; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; White, Kellee; Tingen, Martha S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between individual and neighborhood social contextual factors and smoking prevalence among African-American women in subsidized neighborhoods. We randomly sampled 663 adult women in 17 subsidized neighborhoods in two Southeastern US states. The smoking prevalence among participants was 37.6%, with an estimated neighborhood household prevalence ranging from 30 to 68%. Smokers were more likely to be older, have lower incomes, have lower BMI, and live with other smokers. Women with high social cohesion were less likely to smoke, although living in neighborhoods with higher social cohesion was not associated with smoking prevalence. Women with higher social cohesion were more likely to be older and had lived in the neighborhood longer. Women with high stress (related to violence and disorder) and who lived in neighborhoods with higher stress were more likely to smoke. Younger women were more likely to have higher stress than older women. There were no statistically significant associations with objective neighborhood crime data in any model. This is the first study to examine both individual and neighborhood social contextual correlates among African-American women in subsidized neighborhoods. This study extends findings about smoking behaviors and neighborhood social contexts in this high-risk, urban population. Future research is needed to explore age and residential stability differences and perceptions of social cohesion, neighborhood disorder, and perceived violence in subsidized housing. Further research is also warranted on African-American women, subsidized housing, smoking, social context, health disparities' effective strategies to address these individual and contextual factors to better inform future ecological-based multilevel prevention, and cessation intervention strategies.

  17. Stress, self-esteem, and racism: relationships with low birth weight and preterm delivery in African American women.

    PubMed

    Murrell, N L

    1996-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is two times greater for African Americans than for Whites. Stress, self-esteem, and racism were proposed as correlates for LBW. A sample of African American women (N = 165) were interviewed in a prenatal HMO. Multiple regressions analyses run on the final sample (N = 147) demonstrated no significant relationship between stress, self-esteem, and racism with newborn birth weight or gestational age. A significant positive relationship, however, between racism and stress (p < .001) and a significant negative relationship between self-esteem and stress (p < .001) were demonstrated. Continued research on variables such as stress, self-esteem, and racism is necessary to understand their relationships to LBW in the African American childbearing family.

  18. Acceptability and Preliminary Outcomes of a Peer-Led Depression Prevention Intervention for African American Adolescents and Young Adults in Employment Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Darius; Mendelson, Tamar; Mance, GiShawn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the acceptability and preliminary outcomes from an open trial of a depression prevention intervention for low-income African American adolescents and young adults in employment training programs. The sample (N=42) consisted of predominately African American adolescents and young adults (mean age=19.1) exhibiting subclinical…

  19. Model for Using Hip-Hop Music for Small Group HIV/AIDS Prevention Counseling with African American Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Torrance; Braithwaite, Ronald L.; Taylor, Sandra E.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a HIV/AIDS preventive counseling protocol developed for use with African American young adults that makes use of hip-hop music. Contends that an increased understanding of the relationships that many African American young adults have with hip-hop music may be used by disease prevention personnel to educate these populations about…

  20. Energy expenditure does not predict weight change in either Nigerian or African American women123

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Amy; Dugas, Lara R; Ebersole, Kara; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Cao, Guichan; Schoeller, Dale A; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Brieger, William R; Cooper, Richard S

    2009-01-01

    Background: The relation between variation in interindividual levels of energy expenditure and weight gain remains controversial. Objective: To determine whether or not components of the energy budget predict weight change, we conducted an international comparative study in 2 cohorts of women from sociocultural environments that give rise to the extremes of obesity prevalence. Design: This was a prospective study with energy expenditure measured at baseline and weight measured annually for 3 y. Participants included 149 women from rural Nigeria and 172 African American women. The energy budget was determined by using respiratory gas exchange and doubly labeled water. Main outcomes included total, resting, and activity energy expenditure and physical activity level (ie, total energy expenditure/resting energy expenditure); baseline anthropometric measures; and annual weight change. Results: Mean body mass index (in kg/m2) was 23 among the Nigerians and 31 among the African Americans; the prevalences of obesity were 7% and 50%, respectively. After adjustment for body size, no differences in mean activity energy expenditure or physical activity level were observed between the 2 cohorts. In addition, in a mixed-effects, random-coefficient model, interindividual variation in activity energy expenditure at baseline was unrelated to the subsequent pattern of weight change. Conclusions: These data suggest that interindividual levels of energy expended during activity do not have a large influence on age-related trends in adiposity. In addition, contrary to expectations, these data suggest that mean activity energy expenditure does not vary substantially between contemporary social groups with low and high prevalences of obesity. PMID:19056567

  1. Walking Patterns in a Sample of African American, Native American, and Caucasian Women: The Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitt, Melicia C.; DuBose, Katrina D.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2004-01-01

    This analysis describes walking patterns among African American, Native American, and Caucasian women from South Carolina and New Mexico. Walking was assessed using pedometer and physical activity (PA) record data based on 4 consecutive days on either three (Study Phase 1) or two (Study Phase 2) occasions. Participants walked 5,429 [plus or minus]…

  2. "Let Me Count the Ways:" Fostering Reasons for Living among Low-Income, Suicidal, African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Lindsey M.; Davis, Telsie A.; Thompson, Martie P.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2011-01-01

    Protective factors for fostering reasons for living were examined among low-income, suicidal, African American women. Bivariate logistic regressions revealed that higher levels of optimism, spiritual well-being, and family social support predicted reasons for living. Multivariate logistic regressions indicated that spiritual well-being showed…

  3. Obesity and Body Ideals in the Media: Health and Fitness Practices of Young African-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Margaret Carlisle; Robinson, T. Tavita

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the female body ideal and its implications for health and fitness practices in African-American culture. Employing Patricia Hill Collins's (1986) notion of the "outsider-within," we analyze a focus group discussion on women's body ideals, exercise, and fitness. Our group comprises 9 young, college-educated African-American…

  4. Evaluation of a Structural Model of Objectification Theory and Eating Disorder Symptomatology among European American and African American Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Karen S.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated a structural equation model of objectification theory among European American (EA; n = 408) and African American women (AA; n = 233). Modeling results indicated a particularly strong association between thin-ideal internalization/body monitoring and eating disorder symptoms, with weaker relationships among body…

  5. Perceptions of Sexual Risks and Injection for HIV among African American Women Who Use Crack Cocaine in Nashville, Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMaster, Samuel A.; Rasch, Randolph F. R.; Kinzly, Mark L.; Cooper, R. Lyle; Adams, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Significant health disparities in the rates of HIV infection primarily affect African American women. Although research has demonstrated that for some individuals HIV is connected to preventable high-risk behaviors related to substance use, a further examination of how these risks are perceived by the individuals involved in these activities is…

  6. "I Worry about My Community": African American Women Utilizing Communal Notions of Citizenship in the Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickery, Amanda E.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative multiple case study utilizes a Black feminist ethic of caring (Collins, 2009; Thompson, 1998) to explore how three African American women social studies teachers draw on their personal and community knowledge to conceptualize and teach the construct of citizenship to their students of color. Instead of conveying traditional…

  7. Sailing against the Wind. African Americans and Women in U.S. Education. SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomotey, Kofi, Ed.

    This collection offer a much-needed and critical focus on African Americans and women in the United States. The politics of race, gender, and power influence education at every level as these chapters, written primarily from the perspectives of students, demonstrate. The following are included: (1) "What Does It Mean? Exploring the Myths of…

  8. A Faith-Based and Cultural Approach to Promoting Self-Efficacy and Regular Exercise in Older African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Mary Ellen; Guion, W. Kent

    2010-01-01

    The health benefits of regular exercise are well documented, yet there has been limited success in the promotion of regular exercise in older African American women. Based on theoretical and evidence-based findings, the authors recommend a behavioral self-efficacy approach to guide exercise interventions in this high-risk population. Interventions…

  9. African American Women Coping with the Lived Experiences of Limited Mental Healthcare Access in Rural North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesane, Everick S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of lived experiences among African American women with limited mental healthcare access in rural North Carolina. The research examined how those lived experiences-due to limited transportation, low socioeconomic status, and limited healthcare access-further exacerbate emotional challenges among African American…

  10. Exploring Leadership through Spiritual Practices and African Moral Virtues: Portraits of African American Women Principals in Urban Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sharon Irene

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the influences of spirituality on decisions made by African American women principals at the elementary school level in schools where children of color and poverty exist in significant numbers and to gain an understanding of how African moral virtues were evidenced in the day to day professional…

  11. Sisters Together: Move More, Eat Better: a community-based health awareness program for African-American women.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Leslie; Brown, Zaneta G; Gill, Jennifer E

    2008-12-01

    Statistics indicate that African-American women have the highest rate of obesity among all racial groups. In response, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) developed "Sisters Together: Move More, Eat Better," a national program that encourages African-American women to maintain a healthy weight by becoming more physically active and by eating healthier foods. "Sisters Together" programs are run locally by individuals or community groups in locations such as churches and health departments. The NIDDK offers culturally relevant materials and technical assistance to program leaders, including a recently updated program guide. The guide walks leaders through program planning, promotion, implementation, and evaluation. It is based on obesity, nutrition, and physical activity research; evidence-based programs for African-American women; and proven health communication strategies. The guide is consumer friendly, using clear language and real-life examples. "Sisters Together" programs encourage African-American women and their families to improve their eating habits and their physical activity habits. PMID:19397055

  12. Too Much of a Good Thing? Psychosocial Resources, Gendered Racism, and Suicidal Ideation among Low Socioeconomic Status African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Brea L.; Pullen, Erin L.; Oser, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Very few studies have examined predictors of suicidal ideation among African American women. Consequently, we have a poor understanding of the combinations of culturally specific experiences and psychosocial processes that may constitute risk and protective factors for suicide in this population. Drawing on theories of social inequality, medical…

  13. The Role of Literary Mentors in Writing Development: How African American Women's Literature Supported the Writings of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2015-01-01

    Coupling Royster's (2000) conceptual framework of "zamani" with Rosenblatt's (1978) reader response theory, the researcher explores the ways African American women's writings supported, nurtured, and "mentored" the writings of adolescent girls. Findings show that the mentor texts helped in generating ideas for writing, thinking…

  14. Recruitment and Retention Strategies among Older African American Women Enrolled in an Exercise Study at a PACE Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan-Marx, Eileen M.; Mangione, Kathleen K.; Ackerson, Theimann; Sidorov, Ingrid; Maislin, Greg; Volpe, Stella L.; Craik, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined employment of specific recruitment and retention strategies in a study evaluating outcomes of a moderate activity exercise program for older African American women with functional impairments attending a Program for All-Inclusive Care of Elders (PACE). Design and Methods: Recruitment and retention strategies focused on…

  15. Perfectionism and Bulimic Symptoms in African American College Women: Dimensions of Perfectionism and Their Interactions with Perceived Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Weishuhn, Amanda S.; Boyd, Clarissa A.

    2009-01-01

    This study had 2 primary aims: (a) to examine the unique relations between maladaptive and adaptive dimensions of perfectionism and bulimic symptoms and (b) to test an interactive model of perfectionism and perceived weight status for bulimic symptoms in a sample of African American female undergraduates. The sample consisted of 97 women at Time 1…

  16. Cultural Congruity, Womanist Identity Attitudes, and Life Satisfaction among African American College Women Attending Historically Black and Predominantly White Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Madonna G.; Watt, Sherry K.

    2002-01-01

    Examined cultural congruity, womanist identity attitudes, and life satisfaction among 165 African American women attending historically Black and predominantly White colleges and universities. Findings indicate that students at historically Black institutions reported higher levels of cultural congruity and life satisfaction. Womanist identity…

  17. Sex-Role Egalitarian Attitudes and Gender Role Socialization Experiences of African American Men and Women: A Mixed Methods Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heard, Courtney Christian Charisse

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sex-role egalitarian attitudes and gender role socialization experiences of African American men and women. A sequential mixed-methods design was employed to research this phenomenon. The Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale-Short Form BB (SRES-BB) was utilized to assess sex-role egalitarian attitudes (King…

  18. Polytobacco use and multiple-product smoking among a random community sample of African-American adults

    PubMed Central

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope; Simms, Denise Adams; Bess, Jukelia J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about polytobacco use among African-American adults. This study is the first to explore this among a random, statewide, community sample of African-American adults. Setting Community-based sampling obtained a random, household-probability sample of African-American adults from California, surveyed door to door in randomly selected census tracts statewide. Participants Participants were a statewide, random-household sample of N=2118 African-American adults from California who completed a survey on past 30-day smoking of cigarettes, blunts, bidis, kreteks, cigarillos, marijuana and cigars. Results Almost half (49.3%) of the African-American cigarette-smokers and 14.9% of the cigarette non-smokers had smoked at least one non-cigarette product in the past 30 days. Smokers had a substantial prevalence of smoking cigarillos (28.7%) and blunts (27.7%). Logistic regressions revealed that the odds of smoking most of the non-cigarette products were higher for cigarette smokers and men, inversely related to age, and unrelated to socioeconomic status. However, smoking of blunts, bidis and kreteks was not predicted by cigarette smoking. Conclusions Smoking of cigarillos (eg, Phillies, Black & Mild) and blunts may be prevalent among African-American cigarette-smokers and non-smokers alike, but such products are not examined in most population-level smoking research. Smoking of these products should be included in surveillance studies, in cancer prevention programmes and in healthcare provider-assessment of smoking, and addressed in smoking cessation programmes as well. PMID:24334154

  19. Exercise intensity and oxygen uptake kinetics in African-American and Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Nicola; Tolentino-Silva, Fatima; Nasca, Melita M.; Silva, Marco A.; Gladden, L. Bruce; Cabrera, Marco E.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of exercise intensity on the on- and off-transient kinetics of oxygen uptake (VO2) was investigated in African American (AA) and Caucasian (C) women. African American (n=7) and Caucasian (n=6) women of similar age, body mass index and weight, performed an incremental test and bouts of square-wave exercise at moderate, heavy and very heavy intensities on a cycle ergometer. Gas exchange threshold (LTGE) was lower in AA (13.6±2.3mL·kg−1min−1) than C (18.6±5.6mL·kg−1min−1). The dynamic exercise and recovery VO2 responses were characterized by mathematical models. There were no significant differences in 1) peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) between AA (28.5±5mL kg−1min−1) and C (31.1±6.6mL kg−1min−1) and 2) VO2 kinetics at any exercise intensity. At moderate exercise, the on- and off- VO2 kinetics was described by a mono-exponential function with similar time constants τ1,on (39.4±12.5s;38.8±15s) and τ1,off (52.7±10.1s;40.7±4.4s) for AA and C, respectively. At heavy and very heavy exercise, the VO2 kinetics was described by a double-exponential function. The parameter values for heavy and very heavy exercise in the AA group were respectively: τ1,on (47.0±10.8;44.3±10s), τ2,on (289±63;219±90s), τ1,off (45.9±6.2;50.7±10s), τ2,off (259±120;243±93s) while in the C group were respectively: τ1,on (41±12;43.2±15s); τ2,on(277±81;215±36s), τ1,off (40.2±3.4;42.3±7.2s), τ2,off (215±133;228±64s). The on- and off-transients were symmetrical with respect to model order and dependent on exercise intensity regardless of race. Despite similar VO2 kinetics, LTGE and gain of the VO2 on-kinetics at moderate intensity were lower in AA than C. However, generalization to the African American and Caucasian populations is constrained by the small subject numbers. PMID:21717119

  20. I Teach You the Way I See Us: Concepts of Self and Teaching of African-American Women Teachers Committed to Social Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauboeuf-Lafontant, Tamara

    This paper reports findings from a qualitative study of the nature of teachers' connections with their African American students. It is based on three rounds of interviews with six African American women teachers who had used the social justice curriculum "Facing History and Ourselves." The teachers ranged in age from the mid-twenties to the…

  1. Standing on a Strong Foundation of Servitude: The 1960's Civil Rights Movement, Septima Clark and Other South Carolina African American Women Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Iris Renell

    2012-01-01

    This research study examines nine African American women educators during the 1960s Civil Rights Movement in South Carolina. Additionally, the study conducts an analogous study of the lifeworks and contributions of Septima Clark, an African American woman educator who made significant community activist contributions during this period. For its…

  2. "Ain't Nobody Gonna Get Me down": An Examination of the Educational Experiences of Four African American Women Labeled with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Amy J.

    2009-01-01

    This study used qualitative research methods to explore the educational experiences of four African American women with disabilities, revealing how each participant developed a critical consciousness in response to the dominant ideology surrounding the discourses of African American, woman, and disabled. The development of a critical consciousness…

  3. Sociopsychological correlates of motivation to quit smoking among low-SES African American women.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, C; Lacey, L P; Warnecke, R; Petraitis, J

    1998-06-01

    This article examines correlates of desire and plans to quit smoking among 248 young, low-socioeconomic status African American women, using variables derived from the health belief model (HBM) and the theory of reasoned action. Consistent with these theoretical models, stronger concern about the effect of smoking on one's health and having close others who want the smoker to quit increased motivation to quit smoking. However, motivation was not associated with specific HBM components regarding lung cancer. Heavier smoking and stronger perceptions regarding the functional utility of smoking decreased motivation to quit, but not as much as expected in this study population. Consistent with a process of change approach to smoking cessation, the factors that moved smokers from not planning to planning to ever quit were different from factors associated with further motivation level among the smokers who did plan to ever quit. PMID:9615241

  4. Voices from the inside: African American women's perspectives on healthy lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Jill

    2010-12-01

    The author of this study conducted focus groups with African American women to explore their perspectives on obesity, disease causation, and their ideas on the functionality of cultural, social, historical, environmental, and psychological forces in altering healthy eating habits. Reoccurring themes centered on four areas: (a) the definition of health as a mind, body, and spiritual construct; (b) conceptualizations of cultural norms regarding healthy foods versus unhealthy foods; (c) the importance of eating and social rituals on food choices; and (d) the impact of the environment in sustaining healthy initiatives. Structural constraints that uphold legacies of disenfranchisement, environmental injustice, and segregation influence the food choices available in low-wealth communities. These factors continue to operate and are vital issues to consider when designing culturally relevant wellness programs. PMID:20980533

  5. Voices from the inside: African American women's perspectives on healthy lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Jill

    2010-12-01

    The author of this study conducted focus groups with African American women to explore their perspectives on obesity, disease causation, and their ideas on the functionality of cultural, social, historical, environmental, and psychological forces in altering healthy eating habits. Reoccurring themes centered on four areas: (a) the definition of health as a mind, body, and spiritual construct; (b) conceptualizations of cultural norms regarding healthy foods versus unhealthy foods; (c) the importance of eating and social rituals on food choices; and (d) the impact of the environment in sustaining healthy initiatives. Structural constraints that uphold legacies of disenfranchisement, environmental injustice, and segregation influence the food choices available in low-wealth communities. These factors continue to operate and are vital issues to consider when designing culturally relevant wellness programs.

  6. Experiences of HIV-positive African-American and African Caribbean childbearing women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Njie-Carr, Veronica; Sharps, Phyllis; Campbell, Doris; Callwood, Gloria

    2012-07-01

    This qualitative study examined the experiences of HIV-positive African-American and African Caribbean childbearing women related to decisions about HIV testing, status disclosure, adhering to treatment, decisions about childbearing, and experiences in violent intimate relationships. Twenty-three women completed a 60-minute in-depth interview. Six themes emerged: perceived vulnerability to HIV infection; feelings about getting tested for HIV; knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors after HIV diagnosis; disclosure of HIV status; living with HIV (positivity, strength, and prayer); and, experiences with physical and sexual violence. Three women (13%) reported perinatal abuse and 10 women (n = 23, 43.4%) reported lifetime abuse. Positive experiences and resilience were gained from faith and prayer. Most important to the women were the perceived benefits of protecting the health of their baby. Findings suggest that policies supporting early identification of HIV-positive childbearing women are critical in order to provide counseling and education in forming their decisions for safety precautions in violent intimate partner relationships.

  7. Diabetes Connect: African American Women's Perceptions of the Community Health Worker Model for Diabetes Care.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Brittany S; Willig, Amanda L; Agne, April A; Cherrington, Andrea L

    2015-10-01

    Community health worker (CHW) interventions have potential to improve diabetes outcomes and reduce health disparities. However, few studies have explored patient perspectives of peer-delivered diabetes programs. The purpose of this qualitative study is to investigate possible benefits as well as risks of CHW-delivered peer support for diabetes from the perspectives of African American women living with type 2 diabetes in Jefferson County, Alabama. Four ninety-minute focus groups were conducted by a trained moderator with a written guide to facilitate discussion on the topic of CHWs and diabetes management. Participants were recruited from the diabetes education database at a safety-net hospital. Two independent reviewers performed content analysis to identify major themes using a combined deductive-inductive approach. There were 25 participants. Mean years with diabetes was 11.2 (range 6 months to 42 years). Participants were knowledgeable about methods for self-management but reported limited resources and stress as major barriers. Preferred CHW roles included liaison to the healthcare system and easily accessible information source. Participants preferred that the CHW be knowledgeable and have personal experience managing their own diabetes or assisting a family member with diabetes. Concerns regarding the CHW-model were possible breaches of confidentiality and privacy. The self-management strategies and barriers to management identified by participants were reflected in their preferred CHW roles and traits. These results suggest that African American women with diabetes in Alabama would support peer-led diabetes education that is community-based and socially and emotionally supportive.

  8. Diabetes Connect: African American Women's Perceptions of the Community Health Worker Model for Diabetes Care.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Brittany S; Willig, Amanda L; Agne, April A; Cherrington, Andrea L

    2015-10-01

    Community health worker (CHW) interventions have potential to improve diabetes outcomes and reduce health disparities. However, few studies have explored patient perspectives of peer-delivered diabetes programs. The purpose of this qualitative study is to investigate possible benefits as well as risks of CHW-delivered peer support for diabetes from the perspectives of African American women living with type 2 diabetes in Jefferson County, Alabama. Four ninety-minute focus groups were conducted by a trained moderator with a written guide to facilitate discussion on the topic of CHWs and diabetes management. Participants were recruited from the diabetes education database at a safety-net hospital. Two independent reviewers performed content analysis to identify major themes using a combined deductive-inductive approach. There were 25 participants. Mean years with diabetes was 11.2 (range 6 months to 42 years). Participants were knowledgeable about methods for self-management but reported limited resources and stress as major barriers. Preferred CHW roles included liaison to the healthcare system and easily accessible information source. Participants preferred that the CHW be knowledgeable and have personal experience managing their own diabetes or assisting a family member with diabetes. Concerns regarding the CHW-model were possible breaches of confidentiality and privacy. The self-management strategies and barriers to management identified by participants were reflected in their preferred CHW roles and traits. These results suggest that African American women with diabetes in Alabama would support peer-led diabetes education that is community-based and socially and emotionally supportive. PMID:25773991

  9. Smoking abstinence-related expectancies among American Indians, African Americans, and women: potential mechanisms of tobacco-related disparities.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Peter S; Westmaas, J Lee; Ta Park, Van M; Thorne, Christopher B; Wood, Sabrina B; Baker, Majel R; Lawler, R Marsh; Webb Hooper, Monica; Delucchi, Kevin L; Hall, Sharon M

    2014-03-01

    Research has documented tobacco-related health disparities by race and gender. Prior research, however, has not examined expectancies about the smoking cessation process (i.e., abstinence-related expectancies) as potential contributors to tobacco-related disparities in special populations. This cross-sectional study compared abstinence-related expectancies between American Indian (n = 87), African American (n = 151), and White (n = 185) smokers, and between women (n = 231) and men (n = 270) smokers. Abstinence-related expectancies also were examined as mediators of race and gender relationships with motivation to quit and abstinence self efficacy. Results indicated that American Indians and African Americans were less likely than Whites to expect withdrawal effects, and more likely to expect that quitting would be unproblematic. African Americans also were less likely than Whites to expect smoking cessation interventions to be effective. Compared with men, women were more likely to expect withdrawal effects and weight gain. These expectancy differences mediated race and gender relationships with motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. Findings emphasize potential mechanisms underlying tobacco-related health disparities among American Indians, African Americans, and women and suggest a number of specific approaches for targeting tobacco dependence interventions to these populations. PMID:23528192

  10. Reducing Preconception Risks among African American Women with Conversational Agent Technology

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Brian; Bickmore, Timothy; Hempstead, Megan; Yinusa-Nyahkoon, Leanne; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Mitchell, Suzanne; Gardiner, Paula; Adigun, Fatima; Penti, Brian; Schulman, Daniel; Damus, Karla

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Preconception care (PCC) should be provided for all women capable of becoming pregnant to identify and treat existing risk factors for adverse perinatal outcomes for both the woman and her future baby. Additional tools are needed for providers and the public to screen for and address preconception health (PCH) risks, particularly for African American (AA) women given the national persistent health outcome and healthcare disparities. We developed and tested the “Gabby System,” featuring an online interactive conversational agent programmed to discuss women’s specific PCH risks and encourage behavioral change through evidence-based interventions. METHODS A 6-month randomized controlled trial of a purposeful, convenience sample of 100 non-gravid, primarily college-attending AA women 18–34 years of age was conducted. All participants were screened at enrollment for over 100 PCH risks and then randomized to the Gabby or control group. Controls were sent a letter listing identified PCH risks, suggesting they discuss these risks with a health care provider. The numbers, proportions, and types of risks identified and addressed were compared between groups. RESULTS Of the 100 women enrolled, 99 provided baseline data, 91 completed the online PCH risk assessment, and 80 completed the 6-month follow-up phone call. The mean participant age was 25.5 years and all had at least one PCH risk with a mean (sd) of 23.7 (5.9), range of 11 to 45 PCH risks. In 6 months the Gabby group had significantly greater reductions compared to controls in both the number of PCH risks (34% higher- 8.3 vs. 5.5, p<.05) and in the proportion of risks resolved (25% higher- 27.8% vs 20.5% p<0.01). Women in the Gabby group averaged 2.9 logins and 63.7 minutes of interaction time. The most common PCH risks triggered were nutrition, activity and infectious disease. The majority of women (78%) reported it “was easy to talk to Gabby” and that they had used information from Gabby to

  11. Comparative Effectiveness of a Faith-Based HIV Intervention for African American Women: Importance of Enhancing Religious Social Capital

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, LaShun R.; Braxton, Nikia D.; Er, Deja L.; Conner, Anita C.; Renfro, Tiffaney L.; Rubtsova, Anna A.; Hardin, James W.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effectiveness of P4 for Women, a faith-based HIV intervention. Methods. We used a 2-arm comparative effectiveness trial involving 134 African American women aged 18 to 34 years to compare the effectiveness of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–defined evidence-based Sisters Informing Sisters about Topics on AIDS (SISTA) HIV intervention with P4 for Women, an adapted faith-based version of SISTA. Participants were recruited from a large black church in Atlanta, Georgia, and completed assessments at baseline and follow-up. Results. Both SISTA and P4 for Women had statistically significant effects on this study’s primary outcome—consistent condom use in the past 90 days—as well as other sexual behaviors. However, P4 for Women also had statistically significant effects on the number of weeks women were abstinent, on all psychosocial mediators, and most noteworthy, on all measures of religious social capital. Results were achieved by enhancing structural social capital through ministry participation, religious values and norms, linking trust and by reducing negative religious coping. High intervention attendance may indicate the feasibility of conducting faith-based HIV prevention research for African American women. Conclusions. P4 for Women enhanced abstinence and safer sex practices as well as religious social capital, and was more acceptable than SISTA. Such efforts may assist faith leaders in responding to the HIV epidemic in African American women. PMID:24134367

  12. The moderating effects of skin color and ethnic identity affirmation on suicide risk among low-SES African American women.

    PubMed

    Perry, Brea L; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Oser, Carrie B

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the influence of concurrent racism and sexism experiences (i.e. gendered racism) on African American women's suicidal ideation and behavior in the context of disadvantaged socioeconomic status. Drawing on a stress process framework, the moderating effects of ethnic identity and skin color were explored using multiple regression analyses. Data were from 204 low-income African American women in the B-WISE (Black Women in a Study of Epidemics) project. Findings suggested that experiencing gendered racism significantly increased these women's risk for suicidal ideation or behavior, though only among women with medium or dark skin color. Also, having strong ethnic identity buffered the harmful effects of gendered racism. The moderating properties of skin color and ethnic identity affirmation likely operate through psychosocial pathways, blocking internalization of negative stereotypes and reducing the level of distress experienced in response to gendered racism.

  13. Culturally competent approaches to assessing ADHD in African American adults and overcoming cultural issues with patients and families.

    PubMed

    Waite, Roberta

    2015-03-01

    To better diagnose and treat African American patients with ADHD, clinicians should consider the mental health field from a cultural and historical perspective. This perspective can aid clinicians in assessing patients' culturally informed resistance or ambivalence toward ADHD treatment and in adopting strategies for communicating with patients about their diagnosis and treatment. Clinicians must learn to recognize and manage their own biases as well as their patients' biases. Using a culturally competent approach is critical to assessing ADHD in African American adults and overcoming cultural issues with patients and their families.

  14. Culturally competent approaches to assessing ADHD in African American adults and overcoming cultural issues with patients and families.

    PubMed

    Waite, Roberta

    2015-03-01

    To better diagnose and treat African American patients with ADHD, clinicians should consider the mental health field from a cultural and historical perspective. This perspective can aid clinicians in assessing patients' culturally informed resistance or ambivalence toward ADHD treatment and in adopting strategies for communicating with patients about their diagnosis and treatment. Clinicians must learn to recognize and manage their own biases as well as their patients' biases. Using a culturally competent approach is critical to assessing ADHD in African American adults and overcoming cultural issues with patients and their families. PMID:25830467

  15. The Meaning and Use of Spirituality Among African American Women Living With HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Dalmida, Safiya George; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; DiIorio, Colleen; Laderman, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the meaning and use of spirituality among African American (AA), predominantly Christian women with HIV. A nonrandom sample of 20 AA women from a large infectious disease clinic in Metro-Atlanta participated in the study. The study used focus groups and individual interviews to interview women about their lived spiritual experience. Content analysis and NUDIST software were used to analyze transcripts. The findings revealed the spiritual views and practices of AA women with HIV. The following themes (and subthemes) emerged: Spirituality is a process/journey or connection (connection to God, higher power, or spirit and HIV brought me closer to God), spiritual expression (religion/church attendance, prayer, helping others, having faith), and spiritual benefits (health/healing, spiritual support, inner peace/strength/ability to keep going, and here for a reason or purpose/a second chance). Findings highlight the importance of spirituality in health and well-being among AA women with HIV/AIDS. PMID:22566288

  16. Developing and testing lay literature about breast cancer screening for African American women.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Elizabeth Ann; Coon, Sharon; Mohrmann, Carolyn; Hardin, Susan; Stewart, Beth; Gibson, Regina Shoate; Cantrell, Mary; Lord, Janet; Heard, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Written materials about breast cancer screening for African American women with low literacy skills are needed. Available materials were not at or below third-grade reading levels, were not culturally sensitive, and were not accurate in illustrating correct breast self-examination (BSE) techniques. Focus groups representing the target population helped the authors design a pamphlet describing how to perform BSE and a motivational picture book to help women overcome barriers to screening. The authors chose a food theme for the cover of the pamphlet written at a third-grade level and suggested a photographic version. In the motivational book, two women address barriers to screening and replace myths and fears with facts and actions. Data from 162 women showed that they learned from both the photographic and illustrated versions. Women in the photographic group found significantly more lumps in the silicone models, so the authors chose that version to use in final testing. Finally, nurses pretested a group of patients before they reviewed the materials and post-tested another group after they reviewed them. The group who had reviewed the materials had greater knowledge of and intent to follow the guidelines and received higher scores on BSE techniques.

  17. Perceived Physical and Social Residential Environment and Preterm Delivery in African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Giurgescu, Carmen; Helmkamp, Laura; Misra, Dawn P.; Osypuk, Theresa L.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions of the residential environment may be associated with preterm delivery (PTD), though few studies exist. Data from the Life-course Influences on Fetal Environments (LIFE) Study (metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, 2009–2011) were used to examine whether perceptions of the current social and physical environment were associated with PTD rates among postpartum African-American women (n = 1,411). Perceptions of the following neighborhood characteristics were measured with validated multi-item scales: healthy food availability, walkability, safety, social cohesion, and social disorder. No significant associations between perceived residential environment and PTD were found in the total sample. However, education significantly modified 4 of the 5 associations (all interaction P's < 0.05). In women with ≤12 years of education, significant inverse associations were observed between PTD rates and perceptions of the following neighborhood characteristics: healthy food availability (unadjusted prevalence ratio (uPR) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68, 0.98), walkability (uPR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.95), and safety (uPR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.95). Women with ≤12 years of education also had higher PTD rates with higher social disorder (age-adjusted PR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.17). Null associations existed for women with >12 years of education. The PTD rates of women with lower education may be significantly affected by the physical and social residential environment. PMID:26163532

  18. Pathways to Adult Marijuana and Cocaine Use: A Prospective Study of African Americans from Age 6 to 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Green, Kerry M.; Robertson, Judith A.; Juon, Hee Soon

    2009-01-01

    This study examines pathways to adult marijuana and cocaine use in a cohort of African Americans from Woodlawn, an inner city community in Chicago. Assessments were conducted in first grade (age 6), adolescence (age 16), early adulthood (age 32), and in mid-adulthood (age 42). The "social adaptation life course" framework guided the focus on…

  19. Biopsychosocial Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder in Caucasian and African American Women with Obesity in Primary Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients.

  20. Biopsychosocial Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder in Caucasian and African American Women with Obesity in Primary Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients. PMID:26640009