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Sample records for adult albino rats

  1. Effect of cigarette smoke on body weight, food intake and reproductive organs in adult albino rats.

    PubMed

    Audi, Sumedha S; Abraham, Marjorie E; Borker, Abhaya S

    2006-07-01

    One hour daily exposure to cigarette smoke for two months significantly decreased the body weight and food intake in male and female albino rats. The latency for conception increased significantly and the litter size decreased. Mortality rate per litter increased and grayish discoloration of the skin in the experimental group was the only congenital anomaly seen. Testes and ovaries showed a significant decrease in weight. The stroma of the ovaries were occupied by very few Graafian follicles. Testes showed disruption of the normal orderly progression of the spermatogonia. The tubules showed only one layer of spermatogonia and very few germinal cells. The number of sperms was less in the testes. The results show that exposure to cigarette smoke is detrimental to the reproductivity in both, male and female albino rats.

  2. Effect of bisphenol A on morphology, apoptosis and proliferation in the resting mammary gland of the adult albino rat.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Elbakry, Reda H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a non-significant increase in ER-α expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer.

  3. Effect of bisphenol A on morphology, apoptosis and proliferation in the resting mammary gland of the adult albino rat.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Elbakry, Reda H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a non-significant increase in ER-α expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer. PMID:26877094

  4. Number and spatial distribution of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the adult albino rat.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Romero, C; Jiménez-López, M; García-Ayuso, D; Salinas-Navarro, M; Nadal-Nicolás, F M; Agudo-Barriuso, M; Villegas-Pérez, M P; Avilés-Trigueros, M; Vidal-Sanz, M

    2013-03-01

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) respond directly to light and are responsible of the synchronization of the circadian rhythm with the photic stimulus and for the pupillary light reflex. To quantify the total population of rat-ipRGCs and to assess their spatial distribution we have developed an automated routine and used neighbour maps. Moreover, in all analysed retinas we have studied the general population of RGCs - identified by their Brn3a expression - and the population of ipRGCs - identified by melanopsin immunodetection - thus allowing the co-analysis of their topography. Our results show that the total mean number ± standard deviation of ipRGCs in the albino rat is 2047 ± 309. Their distribution in the retina seems to be complementary to that of Brn3a(+)RGCs, being denser in the periphery, especially in the superior retina where their highest densities are found in the temporal quadrant, above the visual streak. In addition, by tracing the retinas from both superior colliculi, we have also determined that 90.62% of the ipRGC project to these central targets. PMID:23295345

  5. Influence of acrylamide on the gastric mucosa of adult albino rats and the possible protective role of rosemary.

    PubMed

    El-Mehi, Abeer E; El-Sherif, Neveen M

    2015-06-01

    Acrylamide is a common chemical found in heated starchy foods especially potato products. We investigated, for the first time, the effect of acrylamide, alone or with rosemary, on the structure of gastric mucosa of adult male albino rats. Stomach sections were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Quantitative immmunohistochemical assessments of the expression of caspase-3, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EPGR) were performed. Our results showed that acrylamide produced mucosal erosions and depletion of the protective surface mucus together with widespread inflammatory infiltration. In addition, there was significantly increased expression of caspase-3 and iNOS and weak expression of EPGR. Rosemary exerted a protective effect against acrylamide-induced gastric toxicity via reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation as well as accelerating the healing process. The results of this work add to the known toxic effects of acrylamide and provide a new insight into the possible use of rosemary to ameliorate these effects.

  6. Effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) extract on morphological and functional changes in adult male gonads of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Amar K; Choudhury, Shyamosree Roy; De, Neela; Sarkar, Mahitosh

    2011-09-01

    Green tea, prepared from the steamed and dried leaves of the shrub Camellia sinensis, is known for its antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects. However, its effects on male gonadal functions have not been explored adequately and the present investigation has been undertaken to evaluate the effect of green tea extract on gonads of adult male albino rats. Results of in vivo studies showed that green tea extract (GTE) at mild (1.25 g%, identical to 5 cups of tea/day), moderate (2.5 g%, identical to 10 cups of tea/day) and high (5.0 g%, identical to 20 cups of tea/day) doses, for a period of 26 days, altered morphology and histology of testis and accessory sex organs. A significant dose-dependent decrease in the sperm counts, inhibited activities of testicular delta(5)3beta-and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (delta5-3beta3-HSD and 17beta3-HSD respectively) and decreased serum testosterone level were noticed. Significant increase in serum LH level was observed after moderate and high doses; serum FSH level also increased but not significantly. Histopathological examination showed inhibition of spermatogenesis evidenced by preferential loss of matured and elongated spermatids. Results of this study showed that GTE at relatively high dose may cause impairment of both the morphological and normal functional status of testis in rodents and thus its consumption at relatively high doses raises concern on male reproductive function in spite of its other beneficial effects.

  7. Epithelial and stromal alterations in prostate after cypermethrin administration in adult albino rats (histological and biochemical study).

    PubMed

    Hashem, Hala E; Abd El-Haleem, Manal R; Abass, Marwa A

    2015-08-01

    Histological and biochemical alterations induced in prostate by cypermethrin insecticide exposure were investigated in adult albino rats. 60 mg/kg/day of cypermethrin were given orally to experimental group for 15 days then prostatic specimens were processed for light and electron microscopic examinations and for assessment of oxidative stress markers; prostatic glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GPx) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Masson's trichrome and anti-α-actin antibodies immunohistochemical staining were done. Blood samples were collected for measurement of total and prostatic acid phosphatase enzymes. Morphometric and statistical analyses were conducted. Cypermethrin treated group showed decrease in acinar epithelial height with detection of heterochromatic nuclei, cytoplasmic vacuolations and few apical microvilli. The stroma surrounding the acini was widened with significant increase in collagen fibers and significant decrease in smooth muscle cell α-actin immunoexpression. This was accompanied by a significant decrease of prostatic GSH level, activity of GPx enzyme with a significant increase in MDA level. Significant decrease in total and prostatic enzyme activities was also detected. In conclusion, cypermethrin induced epithelial degenerative changes in prostate which were accompanied by stromal alterations that seemed to be due to oxidative stress. More attention is required to the role of stromal microenvironment and oxidative stress markers in prostatic diseases.

  8. Effect of different doses of monosodium glutamate on the thyroid follicular cells of adult male albino rats: a histological study

    PubMed Central

    Khalaf, Hanaa A; Arafat, Eetmad A

    2015-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a major flavor enhancer used as a food additive. The present study investigates the effects of different doses of MSG on the morphometric and histological changes of the thyroid gland. 28 male albino rats were used. The rats were divided into four groups: group I control, group II, III and IV treated with MSG (0.25 g/kg, 3 g/kg, 6 g/kg daily for one month) respectively. The thyroid glands were dissected out and prepared for light and electron microscopic examination. Light microscopic examination of thyroid gland of group II revealed increase in follicular epithelial height. Groups III & IV showed decrease in the follicular diameter and irregularity in the shape of some follicles with discontinuity of basement membrane. Follicular hyperplasia was detected in some follicles with appearance of multiple pyknotic nuclei in follicular and interfollicular cells and multiple exfoliated cells in the colloid. In addition, areas of loss of follicular pattern were appeared in group IV. Immunohistochemical examination of BCL2 immunoexpression of the thyroid glands of groups III & IV reveals weak positive reaction in the follicular cells cytoplasm. Ultrathin sections examination of groups III & IV revealed follicular cells with irregular hyperchromatic nuclei, marked dilatation of rER and increased lysosomes with areas of short or lost apical microvilli. In addition, vacuolation of mitochondria was detected in group IV. The results displayed that MSG even at low doses is capable of producing alterations in the body weights and thyroid tissue function and histology. PMID:26884820

  9. Protective effect of curcumin against experimentally induced aflatoxicosis on the renal cortex of adult male albino rats: a histological and immunohisochemical study

    PubMed Central

    El-Mahalaway, Abeer M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxin contamination of foods is a worldwide problem. Chronic aflatoxin exposure is associated with kidney damage. Curcumin is a herbal agent, used in medicine with a wide range of beneficial therapeutic effects. Objective: to evaluate the effect of curcumin against experimentally induced aflatoxicosis on the renal cortex of adult male albino rats. Materials and methods: Forty adult male rats were included and they were divided equally into 4 groups (10 rats each): Group I (control group), group II (Curcumin group): The rats received curcumin (200 mg/kg b.w.) orally by gastric tube for 5 days/week, group III (Aflatoxin B1 group): The rats received aflatoxin B1 (250 μg/kg b.w./day) orally by gastric tube 5 days/week for 4 weeks, group IV (Aflatoxin B1 and Curcumin group): The rats received aflatoxin and curcumin orally by gastric tube 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Kidney specimens were prepared and sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson’s trichrome, Periodic acid Schiff, immunohistochemical detection of desmin and Bcl2. Results: The tubules of group III showed degenerative and necrotic changes with disruption of basal lamina. There was a significant decrease Bcl2 expression in the tubules, but the glomeruli showed an enlargement with dilation of their capillaries lumina in some areas, while the other areas showed glomerular atrophy with obliteration of their capillaries lumina. There was a significant increase in desmin expression in the glomerular cells. The interstitium showed hemorrhage and cellular infiltration. Group IV showed improvement of the histological and immunohistochemical changes described before. Conclusion: Aflatoxin B1 has deleterious effects of on the histological structure of the rat’s renal cortex and curcumin minimized these effects as it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic activities. We advise eating nutritious diets that contain sufficient amounts of curcumin and regulation must implement to

  10. Comparative study of the hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of praziquantel distocide & the natural myrrh extract Mirazid on adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Omar, Ahmed; Elmesallamy, Ghada El-Said; Eassa, Shereen

    2005-04-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is widely and effectively used in the control of bilharziasis which constitutes a major endemic health problem in Egypt. However, recent studies recommended that the drug must be re-evaluated because of its potential carcinogenicity and genotoxicity. Mirazid is a new natural anti-schistosomal drug formed of myrrh extract and considered to be a safe drug. This work was conducted to evaluate and compare hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of PZQ and Mirazid on adult male albino rats by assessment of serum levels of ALT, AST and bilirubin, histopathological study of the liver and cytogenetic study of bone marrow cells. 100 adult male albino rats were equally divided into 4 groups: (I): negative control, (II): control rats received distilled water, (III): received weekly single oral dose of PZQ (1500 mg/kg) for 6 weeks, (IV): received daily oral dose of Mirazid (500 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. At the end of the study 10 rats of each group were investigated by assessment of the levels of AST, ALT, & Bilirubin. After scarification, liver sections were examined by light microscopy. Another 10 rats of each group were submitted to cytogenetic examination. It was found that praziquantel induced a significant increase in the mean values of AST, ALT and bilirubin with areas of hyaline degeneration, fatty changes, dysplasia and necrosis in the liver sections. It also induced a significant increase in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations as polyploidy, fragment, deletion and ring chromosome as compared with control group. Mirazid induced a non significant increase in the mean values of AST, ALT and bilirubin, with a normal hepatic tissue, and a non significant increase in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations, as compared with the control group. On comparing both drugs, praziquantel induced a significant hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. It was concluded that, Praziquantel is considered to be a hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic

  11. Spontaneous Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2) Expression in the Cochlea of Adult Albino Rat and Its Up-Regulation after Cisplatin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Trinidad, Almudena; Ramil, Elvira; Sánchez-López, Antonio J.; Coronado, Maria José; Martínez-Martínez, Esther; García, José Miguel; García-Berrocal, José Ramón; Ramírez-Camacho, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    We provide evidence for the presence of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in some cellular types of the cochlea of the adult albino rat. Cannabinoids and their receptors are increasingly being studied because of their high potential for clinical use. As a hyperspecialized portion of the peripheral nervous system, study of the expression and function of cannabinoid receptors in the hearing organ is of high interest. Stria vascularis and inner hair cells express CB2 receptor, as well as neurites and cell bodies of the spiral ganglion. Cellular types such as supporting cells and outer hair cells, in which the expression of other types of functional receptors has been reported, do not significantly express CB2 receptors in this study. An up-regulation of CB2 gene expression was detected after an ototoxic event such as cisplatin treatment, probably due to pro-inflammatory events triggered by the drug. That fact suggests promising potential of CB2 receptor as a therapeutic target for new treatments to palliate cisplatin-induced hearing loss and other ototoxic events which triggers inflammatory pathways. PMID:27564061

  12. Spontaneous Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2) Expression in the Cochlea of Adult Albino Rat and Its Up-Regulation after Cisplatin Treatment.

    PubMed

    Martín-Saldaña, Sergio; Trinidad, Almudena; Ramil, Elvira; Sánchez-López, Antonio J; Coronado, Maria José; Martínez-Martínez, Esther; García, José Miguel; García-Berrocal, José Ramón; Ramírez-Camacho, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    We provide evidence for the presence of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in some cellular types of the cochlea of the adult albino rat. Cannabinoids and their receptors are increasingly being studied because of their high potential for clinical use. As a hyperspecialized portion of the peripheral nervous system, study of the expression and function of cannabinoid receptors in the hearing organ is of high interest. Stria vascularis and inner hair cells express CB2 receptor, as well as neurites and cell bodies of the spiral ganglion. Cellular types such as supporting cells and outer hair cells, in which the expression of other types of functional receptors has been reported, do not significantly express CB2 receptors in this study. An up-regulation of CB2 gene expression was detected after an ototoxic event such as cisplatin treatment, probably due to pro-inflammatory events triggered by the drug. That fact suggests promising potential of CB2 receptor as a therapeutic target for new treatments to palliate cisplatin-induced hearing loss and other ototoxic events which triggers inflammatory pathways. PMID:27564061

  13. Pulmonary toxicity of beryllium in albino rat

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, K.A.; Agrawal, V.P.; Garg, V.

    1980-01-01

    Arsenic compounds, if chronically exposed to human beings, significantly increase incidences of epidermoid carcinomas of the skin and lung. Nickel has been considered to be an important metallic carcinogen. Regarding beryllium, different opinions are held so far as its carcinogenic nature is concerned. While it is reported that there is an equivocal increase in the incidences of respiratory cancers in patients with chronic pulmonary berylliosis, investigation shows no increase in the incidence of respiratory cancer. Among experimental animals, intravenous injections of suspensions of beryllium salts to rabbits have been shown to induce osteogenic sarcomas. This abstract deals with the histopathological and enzymological study of lungs of albino rats after prolonged beryllium treatment.

  14. Effect of Potassium Bromate on the Liver of Adult Male Albino Rat and A Possible Protective Role of Vitamin C: Histological, Immunohistochemical, and Biochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Bayomy, Naglaa A; Soliman, Gehan M; Abdelaziz, Eman Z

    2016-09-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3 ) is a food additive which is used primarily as a maturing agent for flour. It is proved as a toxic agent with significant reduction in the activities of antioxidant capacity. The therapeutic efficacy of vitamin C as antioxidant may provide a possible solution to KBrO3 mediated oxidative damage. Twenty four adult male albino rats were used to evaluate the protective role of vitamin C against KBrO3 induced hepatotoxicity and divided into four groups; Group 1 (control), Group 2: received 30 mg/Kg/day vitamin C orally for 4 weeks, Group 3: received 20 mg/Kg/dose KBrO3 orally twice weekly for 4 weeks and Group 4: received both KBrO3 and vitamin C. Liver specimens were processed for histological study by light and electron microscopes and stained immunohistochemically to detect glial fibriller acidic protein (GFAP). Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were estimated as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in all dissected tissues were determined. KBrO3 induced histological alterations in the form of degeneration, cellular infiltration and significant increase in collagen deposition in portal tracts with a significant increase in immunoexpression of GFAP. Significant rise in serum levels of AST, ALT, and MDA in liver tissues were recorded. However, levels of GSH and SOD were significantly decreased. Most of these changes were improved by vitamin C treatment. In conclusion, vitamin C ameliorates the histological and biochemical alterations of the liver induced by KBrO3 . Anat Rec, 299:1256-1269, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of Potassium Bromate on the Liver of Adult Male Albino Rat and A Possible Protective Role of Vitamin C: Histological, Immunohistochemical, and Biochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Bayomy, Naglaa A; Soliman, Gehan M; Abdelaziz, Eman Z

    2016-09-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3 ) is a food additive which is used primarily as a maturing agent for flour. It is proved as a toxic agent with significant reduction in the activities of antioxidant capacity. The therapeutic efficacy of vitamin C as antioxidant may provide a possible solution to KBrO3 mediated oxidative damage. Twenty four adult male albino rats were used to evaluate the protective role of vitamin C against KBrO3 induced hepatotoxicity and divided into four groups; Group 1 (control), Group 2: received 30 mg/Kg/day vitamin C orally for 4 weeks, Group 3: received 20 mg/Kg/dose KBrO3 orally twice weekly for 4 weeks and Group 4: received both KBrO3 and vitamin C. Liver specimens were processed for histological study by light and electron microscopes and stained immunohistochemically to detect glial fibriller acidic protein (GFAP). Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were estimated as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in all dissected tissues were determined. KBrO3 induced histological alterations in the form of degeneration, cellular infiltration and significant increase in collagen deposition in portal tracts with a significant increase in immunoexpression of GFAP. Significant rise in serum levels of AST, ALT, and MDA in liver tissues were recorded. However, levels of GSH and SOD were significantly decreased. Most of these changes were improved by vitamin C treatment. In conclusion, vitamin C ameliorates the histological and biochemical alterations of the liver induced by KBrO3 . Anat Rec, 299:1256-1269, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27373450

  16. Lycopene supplementation prevents reactive oxygen species mediated apoptosis in Sertoli cells of adult albino rats exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Gunasekaran; Selvakumar, Kandaswamy; Venkataraman, Prabhu; Elumalai, Perumal

    2013-01-01

    Sertoli cell proliferation is attenuated before attaining puberty and the number is fixed in adult testes. Sertoli cells determine both testis size and daily sperm production by providing physical and metabolic support to spermatogenic cells. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exposure disrupts functions of Sertoli cells causing infertility with decreased sperm count. On the other hand, lycopene is improving sperm count and motility by reducing oxidative stress in humans and animals. Hence we hypothesized that PCBs-induced infertility might be due to Sertoli cell apoptosis mediated by oxidative stress and lycopene might prevent PCBs-induced apoptosis by acting against oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis, animals were treated with vehicle control, lycopene, PCBs and PCBs + lycopene for 30 days. After the experimental period, the testes and cauda epididymidis were removed for isolation of Sertoli cells and sperm, respectively. We observed increased levels of oxidative stress markers (H2O2 and LPO) levels, increased expression of apoptotic molecules (caspase-8, Bad, Bid, Bax, cytochrome C and caspase-3), decreased anti-apoptotic (Bcl2) molecule and elevated apoptotic marker activity (caspase-3) in Sertoli cells of PCBs-exposed animals. These results were associated with decreased sperm count and motility in PCBs exposed animals. On the other hand, lycopene prevented the elevation of Sertoli cellular apoptotic parameters and prevented the reduction of sperm parameters (count and motility). The data confirmed that lycopene as an antioxidant scavenged reactive oxygen substances, prevented apoptosis, maintained normal function in Sertoli cells and helped to provide physical and metabolic support for sperm production, thereby treating infertility in men. PMID:24179434

  17. Electroencephalographic changes in albino rats subjected to stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercier, J.; Assouline, G.; Fondarai, J.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty one albino Wistar rats were subjected to stress for 7 hours. There was a significant difference in the slopes of regression lines for 7 nonulcerous rats and those for 14 ulcerous rats. Nonulcerous rats subjected to stress showed greater EEG curve synchronization than did ulcerous rats. If curve synchronization can be equated to a relaxed state, it may therefore be possible to explain the protective action of hypnotics, tranquilizers and analgesics on ulcers.

  18. Effect of alpha lipoic acid co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical changes in subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult male albino rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation

    PubMed Central

    Mazroa, Shireen A; Asker, Samar A; Asker, Waleed; Abd Ellatif, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Polypropylene mesh is commonly used in the treatment of abdominal hernia. Different approaches were addressed to improve their tissue integration and consequently reduce long-term complications. This study aimed to investigate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical (IHC) changes in the subcutaneous tissues of the anterior abdominal wall of the adult rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into: group I (control), group II (receiving ALA), group III (polypropylene mesh implantation) and group IV (mesh implantation + ALA co-administration). After 4 weeks, subcutaneous tissue samples were prepared for light microscopy and IHC study of CD34 as a marker for angiogenesis. In groups I and II rats, positive CD34 expression was demonstrated by IHC reaction, localized to endothelial cells lining small blood vessels. Group III showed an excess inflammatory reaction, deposition of both regular and irregularly arranged collagen fibres around mesh pores and few elastic fibres. CD34-positive was detected not only in cells lining small blood vessels but also in other cells scattered in the connective tissue indicating angiogenesis. In group IV, ALA co-administration resulted in less inflammatory reaction, regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and a significant increase in CD34-positive cells and small blood vessels reflecting improved angiogenesis. ALA co-administration with polypropylene mesh implantation controlled the inflammatory reaction, helped regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and improved angiogenesis in the subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult albino rats, suggesting a possible role of ALA in optimizing mesh integration in subcutaneous tissue. PMID:25891652

  19. Effect of alpha lipoic acid co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical changes in subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult male albino rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation.

    PubMed

    Mazroa, Shireen A; Asker, Samar A; Asker, Waleed; Abd Ellatif, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Polypropylene mesh is commonly used in the treatment of abdominal hernia. Different approaches were addressed to improve their tissue integration and consequently reduce long-term complications. This study aimed to investigate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical (IHC) changes in the subcutaneous tissues of the anterior abdominal wall of the adult rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into: group I (control), group II (receiving ALA), group III (polypropylene mesh implantation) and group IV (mesh implantation + ALA co-administration). After 4 weeks, subcutaneous tissue samples were prepared for light microscopy and IHC study of CD34 as a marker for angiogenesis. In groups I and II rats, positive CD34 expression was demonstrated by IHC reaction, localized to endothelial cells lining small blood vessels. Group III showed an excess inflammatory reaction, deposition of both regular and irregularly arranged collagen fibres around mesh pores and few elastic fibres. CD34-positive was detected not only in cells lining small blood vessels but also in other cells scattered in the connective tissue indicating angiogenesis. In group IV, ALA co-administration resulted in less inflammatory reaction, regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and a significant increase in CD34-positive cells and small blood vessels reflecting improved angiogenesis. ALA co-administration with polypropylene mesh implantation controlled the inflammatory reaction, helped regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and improved angiogenesis in the subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult albino rats, suggesting a possible role of ALA in optimizing mesh integration in subcutaneous tissue.

  20. Image chorioretinal vasculature in albino rats using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qing; Liu, Tan; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhang, Hao F.

    2011-12-01

    We imaged the microvascular network in both the retina and the choroid in an albino rat eye using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy guided by optical coherence tomography. Relying on optical absorption and ultrasonic detection, photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy can image both retinal and choroidal vessel networks with high contrast.

  1. Effect of meclofenoxate on pentylenetetrazol kindling in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Lazarova, M; Georgiev, V; Markovska, V; Genkova, M; Petkov, V D

    1987-01-01

    The effects of a single and 5-day treatment of male albino rats with meclofenoxate in a dose of 100 mg/kg on the clonic-tonic convulsions during the kindling phenomenon, induced by multiple injection of a subconvulsive dose (40 mg/kg) pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) were tested. Its effects on convulsions, induced by a single convulsive dose of 100 mg/kg, were investigated for the sake of comparison. Meclofenoxate, introduced in a single dose of 100 mg/kg, lowered the intensity of the convulsions in PTZ-kindled rats. Meclofenoxate treatment for 5 days had an even more pronounced inhibitory effect on PTZ kindling. As regards the convulsions induced by a single injection of a convulsive PTZ dose, meclofenoxate only tends to decrease the percentage of rats with tonic convulsion and the lethality. On the basis of the results of earlier studies, the role of the serotoninergic neurotransmitter system for the observed inhibitory effect of meclofenoxate on PTZ kindling in albino rats is discussed.

  2. Displaced retinal ganglion cells in albino and pigmented rats

    PubMed Central

    Nadal-Nicolás, Francisco M.; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma; Villegas-Pérez, María P.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

    2014-01-01

    We have studied in parallel the population of displaced retinal ganglion cells (dRGCs) and normally placed (orthotopic RGCs, oRGCs) in albino and pigmented rats. Using retrograde tracing from the optic nerve, from both superior colliculi (SC) or from the ipsilateral SC in conjunction with Brn3 and melanopsin immunodetection, we report for the first time their total number and topography as well as the number and distribution of those dRGCs and oRGCs that project ipsi- or contralaterally and/or that express any of the three Brn3 isoforms or melanopsin. The total number of RGCs (oRGCs+dRGCs) is 84,706 ± 1249 in albino and 90,440 ± 2236 in pigmented, out of which 2383 and 2428 are melanopsin positive (m-RGCs), respectively. Regarding dRGCs: i/ albino rats have a significantly lower number of dRGCs than pigmented animals (0.5% of the total number of RGCs vs. 2.5%, respectively), ii/ dRGCs project massively to the contralateral SC, iii/ the percentage of ipsilaterality is higher for dRGCs than for oRGCs, iv/ a higher proportion of ipsilateral dRGCs is observed in albino than pigmented animals, v/ dRGC topography is very specific, they predominate in the equatorial temporal retina, being densest where the oRGCs are densest, vi/ Brn3a detects all dRGCs except half of the ipsilateral ones and those that express melanopsin, vii/ the proportion of dRGCs that express Brn3b or Brn3c is slightly lower than in the oRGC population, viii/ a higher percentage of dRGCs (13% albino, 9% pigmented) than oRGCs (2.6%) express melanopsin, ix/ few m-RGCs (displaced and orthotopic) project to the ipsilateral SC, x/ the topography of m-dRGCs does not resemble the general distribution of dRGCs, xi/ The soma size in m-oRGCs ranges from 10 to 21 μm and in m-dRGCs from 8 to 15 μm, xii/ oRGCs and dRGCs have the same susceptibility to axonal injury and ocular hypertension. Although the role of mammalian dRGCs remains to be determined, our data suggest that they are not misplaced by an

  3. Histopathology of kidney of albino rat poisoned with uranyl nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, K.A.; Garg, V.K.; Garg, V.

    1980-01-01

    Heavy metals input into the media either terrestrial or aquatic is an important aspect of environmental pollution. Heavy metals are known to produce toxic effects on the different tissues of various terrestrial and aquatic animals. Some of these are highly toxic at even very low concentrations and they alter the cellular architecture of many organs including the kidney. Little has been done on the effect of rare earth metals, particularly that of uranium on the kidney of animals. In the present paper histopathological changes produced by uranium on the kidney of albino rats are discussed.

  4. Recovery, growth and development of Macroorchis spinulosus in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Ho-Chun; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2003-01-01

    The developmental features, growth and organogenesis of Macroorchis spinulosus were observed in albino rats. Globular and thick walled metacercariae, possessed a stylet, Y-shaped excretory bladder and extracecal testes. In albino rats, M. spinulosus showed habitat shifting. The majority of M. spinulosus reside in the jejunum for the first four days post infection (p.i.) and migrate to the duodenum at the later stage of infection. M. spinulosus grew rapidly during the first four days and reached full maturity at 14 days p.i. and later reduced in size. The ovary was separated from the genital primodium at one day p.i. The seminal vesicle appeared on the third day and divided into two sacs on the fourth day p.i. and intrauterine eggs and sperm mass were produced on the fourth day. Organogenesis and enlargement of reproductive organs governed the growth of M. spinulosus. The similarity of related species of the genus Macroorchis to M. spinulosus was discussed in consideration to developmental features. PMID:12666727

  5. Effect of Stem Cell Therapy on Amiodarone Induced Fibrosing Interstitial Lung Disease in Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Zaglool, Somaya Saad; Zickri, Maha Baligh; Abd El Aziz, Dalia Hussein; Mabrouk, Doaa; Metwally, Hala Gabr

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The fibrosing forms of interstitial lung disease (ILD) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. ILD may be idiopathic, secondary to occupational, infection, complicate rheumatic diseases or drug induced. Efficacy of antifibrotic agents is as far as, limited and uncertain. No effective treatment was confirmed for pulmonary fibrosis except lung transplantation. The present study aimed at investigating the possible effect of human cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy on fibrosing ILD. This was accomplished by using amiodarone as a model of induced lung damage in albino rat. Methods and Results: Seventeen adult male albino rats were divided into 3 groups. Rats of amiodarone group were given 30 mg/kg of amiodarone orally 6 days/ week for 6 weeks. Rats of stem cell therapy group were injected with stem cells in the tail vein following confirmation of lung damage and left for 4 weeks before sacrifice. Obstructed bronchioles, thickened interalveolar septa and thickened wall of pulmonary vessels were found and proved morphometrically. Reduced type I pneumocytes and increased area% of collagen fibers were recorded. All findings regressed on stem cell therapy. Conclusions: Cord blood MSC therapy proved definite amelioration of fibrosing interstitial lung disease provided therapy starts early in the development of the pathogenesis. PMID:24298346

  6. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nabil M; Eweis, Esam A; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat's blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk. PMID:23569832

  7. Circadian rhythm of outside-nest activity in wild (WWCPS), albino and pigmented laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Stryjek, Rafał; Modlińska, Klaudia; Turlejski, Krzysztof; Pisula, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The domestication process of the laboratory rat has been going on for several hundred generations in stable environmental conditions, which may have affected their physiological and behavioural functions, including their circadian system. Rats tested in our ethological experiments were laboratory-bred wild Norway rats (WWCPS), two strains of pigmented laboratory rats (Brown Norway and Long Evans), and two strains of albino rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar). Rats were placed in purpose-built enclosures and their cycle of activity (time spent actively outside the nest) has been studied for one week in standard light conditions and for the next one in round-the-clock darkness. The analysis of circadian pattern of outside-nest activity revealed differences between wild, pigmented laboratory, and albino laboratory strains. During daytime, albino rats showed lower activity than pigmented rats, greater decrease in activity when the light was turned on and greater increase in activity when the light was switched off, than pigmented rats. Moreover albino rats presented higher activity during the night than wild rats. The magnitude of the change in activity between daytime and nighttime was also more pronounced in albino rats. Additionaly, they slept outside the nest more often during the night than during the day. These results can be interpreted in accordance with the proposition that intense light is an aversive stimulus for albino rats, due to lack of pigment in their iris and choroid, which reduces their ability to adapt to light. Pigmented laboratory rats were more active during lights on, not only in comparison to the albino, but also to the wild rats. Since the difference seems to be independent of light intensity, it is likely to be a result of the domestication process. Cosinor analysis revealed a high rhythmicity of circadian cycles in all groups.

  8. Antipyretic activity of Guduchi Ghrita formulations in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B; Prajapati, P K; Bhat, Savitha D

    2010-07-01

    The present pharmacological investigation was undertaken to study the anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations in albino rats against yeast induced pyrexia. Seven groups of six animals were used for the experiment. The yeast induced pyrexia method was standardized first by injecting 12.5% yeast suspension (s.c) followed by recording the rectal temperature at regular intervals. Then the evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations was carried out by using this standard procedure. Both the Guduchi ghrita samples including vehicle significantly attenuated the raise in temperature after three hours of yeast injection. After 6 and 9 hours of yeast injection also both the Guduchi ghrita samples attenuated the raise in temperature in a highly significant manner in comparison to both yeast control and vehicle control groups. The data generated during study shows that both the Guduchi ghrita formulations having significant anti-pyretic activity. PMID:22131741

  9. Antipyretic activity of Guduchi Ghrita formulations in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.; Prajapati, P. K.; Bhat, Savitha D.

    2010-01-01

    The present pharmacological investigation was undertaken to study the anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations in albino rats against yeast induced pyrexia. Seven groups of six animals were used for the experiment. The yeast induced pyrexia method was standardized first by injecting 12.5% yeast suspension (s.c) followed by recording the rectal temperature at regular intervals. Then the evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations was carried out by using this standard procedure. Both the Guduchi ghrita samples including vehicle significantly attenuated the raise in temperature after three hours of yeast injection. After 6 and 9 hours of yeast injection also both the Guduchi ghrita samples attenuated the raise in temperature in a highly significant manner in comparison to both yeast control and vehicle control groups. The data generated during study shows that both the Guduchi ghrita formulations having significant anti-pyretic activity. PMID:22131741

  10. Alterations in plasma sodium and potassium levels following chronic oral ingestion of lead, mercury and cadmium in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, R; Chansouria, J P

    1991-08-01

    Adult male albino rats were orally administered 0, 25, 50 and 100 ppm of lead nitrate, mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride for 60, 120 and 180 days. The plasma sodium levels were decreased in rats exposed to varying doses of lead and mercury up to 180 days, while animals which consumed cadmium chloride showed an increase in sodium levels. In lead and mercury treated animals, plasma potassium levels were increased up to 180 days. The levels were decreased in cadmium exposed rats. These observations suggest that chronic exposure to these heavy metals considerably influences plasma sodium and potassium levels depending on the dose and duration of exposure.

  11. Retinas from albino rats are more susceptible to ischaemic damage than age-matched pigmented animals.

    PubMed

    Safa, R; Osborne, N N

    2000-04-17

    Age- and sex-matched pigmented (Lister Hooded) and albino (Wistar) rats were used in this study. The retinas of the animals were subjected to pressure-induced ischaemia (35 min, 120 mmHg) and reperfusion (3 days) in precisely the same way. The b-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG) in the pigmented animals recovered to normal levels while those of the albino rats were reduced by more than 80%. Moreover, the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity associated with a sub-set of amacrine cells was almost completely obliterated in the retinas from the albino rats but unaffected in the retinas of the pigmented rats. Also, in certain areas of the retina from albino rats there was a suggestion that the calretinin-immunoreactivity was affected. This was never seen in the retinas of the pigmented animals. The GABA-immunoreactivity in the retina of both albino and pigmented rats appeared to be unaffected by ischaemia/reperfusion. The data presented show that retinas from albino rats are more susceptible to ischaemia/reperfusion than retinas from pigmented animals. The results also show that reduction of the b-wave of the ERG and changes in the nature of the ChAT immunoreactivity represent sensitive markers to detect the effect of ischaemia/reperfusion to the retina.

  12. Effect of noise stress on cardiovascular system in adult male albino rat: implication of stress hormones, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Said, Mona A; El-Gohary, Ola A

    2016-07-01

    Noise pollution has been realized as an environmental stressor associated with modern life style that affects our health without being consciously aware of it. The present study investigated the effect of acute, chronic intermittent and chronic continuous exposure to noise of intensity 80-100 dB on heart rate and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in rats and the possible underlying mechanisms. Noise stress causes significant increase in heart rate, mean systemic arterial blood pressure as well as significant increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline, endothelin-1, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde with significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and these values are significantly more worse in chronic continuous exposure to noise than acute or chronic intermittent exposure. These findings suggest that noise stress has many adverse effects on cardiovascular system via increasing plasma levels of stress hormones, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. These findings have major implication in the management of adverse cardiovascular reactions of people subjected to daily noise stress. PMID:27174896

  13. Effect of noise stress on cardiovascular system in adult male albino rat: implication of stress hormones, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Said, Mona A; El-Gohary, Ola A

    2016-07-01

    Noise pollution has been realized as an environmental stressor associated with modern life style that affects our health without being consciously aware of it. The present study investigated the effect of acute, chronic intermittent and chronic continuous exposure to noise of intensity 80-100 dB on heart rate and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in rats and the possible underlying mechanisms. Noise stress causes significant increase in heart rate, mean systemic arterial blood pressure as well as significant increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline, endothelin-1, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde with significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and these values are significantly more worse in chronic continuous exposure to noise than acute or chronic intermittent exposure. These findings suggest that noise stress has many adverse effects on cardiovascular system via increasing plasma levels of stress hormones, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. These findings have major implication in the management of adverse cardiovascular reactions of people subjected to daily noise stress.

  14. Effect of pycnogenol and spirulina on vancomycin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress, apoptosis, and autophagy in adult male albino rat.

    PubMed

    Bayomy, Naglaa A; Abdelaziz, Eman Z; Said, Mona A; Badawi, Marwa S; El-Bakary, Reda H

    2016-08-01

    Vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity has been reported to occur in 5%-25% of patients who were administered with it. Several natural antioxidants were found to be effective against drug-induced toxicity. We evaluated the possible protective effects of spirulina and pycnogenol alone or in combination on vancomycin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress. Forty-nine rats were randomly divided into 7 groups: group I, control; group II, received spirulina 1000 mg/kg per day; group III, received pycnogenol 200 mg/kg per day; group IV, received vancomycin 200 mg/kg per day every 12 h; group V, (spirulina + vancomycin); group VI, (pycnogenol + vancomycin); and group VII, (pycnogenol + spirulina + vancomycin). At the end of the experiment, kidney functions were estimated and then the kidneys were removed, weighed, and sampled for histopathological, immunohistochemistry, and biochemical studies. Administration of spirulina and pycnogenol alone or in combination decreased elevated serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, renal malondialdehyde, and immunoexpression of the proapoptotic protein (Bax), autophagic marker protein (LC3/B), and inducible nitric oxide synthase induced by vancomycin. They increased reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and immunoexpression of the antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2). They also ameliorated the morphological changes induced by vancomycin. The combination therapy of spirulina and pycnogenol showed better protective effects than the corresponding monotherapy. PMID:27203524

  15. Intrinsic innervation of the urinary bladder of kangaroo and albino rats.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, F A; Nassar, A M; MPAHRAN, Z Y; El-Mahallawi, M N

    1975-01-01

    A comparative study of the intrinsic innervation in desert rodents (kangaroo rats) and others (albino rats) was carried out in an attempt to understand the functional anatomy of the bladder in these animals which are known to sustain severe water restraint. The bladder of the albino rat was innervated by predominantly thin nerves, more numerous beaded endings and few ganglia. That of the kangaroo rat had more numerous thick nerves (pre-ganglionic), large verve trunks, and ganglia which were extensively distributed in the wall. These findings indicate that the bladder of the albino rat depends mainly on the intrinsic innervation and facilatory micturition reflexes, while that of the kangaroo rat is intrinsically regulated, depending on a short neuron system. It was concluded that all the structural differences found might be essential for constant urine retention.

  16. Sensory innervation of the suprarenal gland in the albino rat: a fluorescent tract tracer study.

    PubMed

    Sangari, S K; Khatri, K; Sengupta, P

    1998-01-01

    The afferent innervation of the suprarenal gland was studied by using a fluorescent tract tracer in the adult albino rat. The left suprarenal gland was injected slowly with 5 microl of 2% aqueous suspension of Fast blue. After a survival period of 4-5 days, the dorsal root ganglia were dissected out and 15-microm-thick plastic (JB 4) sections were examined under the fluorescent microscope. The labelled neurons were seen from the third thoracic to second lumbar dorsal root ganglia, ipsilateral to the site of injection with maximum concentration from T6 to T11. These primary sensory neurons were round to oval in shape, varied from 7 microm to 40 microm in size, and were distributed randomly in the dorsal root ganglia. The labelling of the primary sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia confirms the presence of sensory nerve endings in the suprarenal gland that may be responsible for the vascular distension and hormonal release.

  17. Cytotoxic effect of aspartame (diet sweet) on the histological and genetic structures of female albino rats and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Abd Elfatah, Azza A M; Ghaly, Inas S; Hanafy, Safaa M

    2012-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated), each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1) the gestation period (subgroup one), (2) the gestation period and three weeks after delivery (subgroup two) and (3) animals in the third subgroup treated as subgroup two then left till the end of the ninth week after delivery. Each pregnant rat in the treated subgroups was given a single daily dose of 1 mL aspartame solution (50.4 mg) by gastric gavage throughout the time intervals of experimental design. At the end of each experimental period for control and treated subgroups, the liver of half of both control and treated groups were subjected for histological study while the liver and bone marrow of the other halves were subjected for cytogenetic studies. Body weight of both groups were recorded individually twice weekly in the morning before offering the diet. The results revealed that the rats and their offspring in the subgroups of control animals showed increases in body weight, normal histological sections, low chromosomal aberration and low DNA fragmentation. The treated animals in the three subgroups rats and their offspring revealed decreases in body weight, high histological lesions, increases in the chromosomal aberration and DNA fragmentation compared with control groups. In conclusion, the consumption of aspartame leads to histopathological lesions in the liver and alterations of the genetic system in the liver and bone marrow of mother albino rats and their offspring. These toxicological changes were directly proportional to the duration of its administration and improved after its withdrawal.

  18. [Evaluation of the biological effects of chemical substances on albino rat offspring].

    PubMed

    Rukavishnikov, V S; Sosedova, L M; Kapustina, E A

    2011-01-01

    The paper provides the results of experimental studies of the impact of vinyl chloride or sublimate intoxication in male albino rats on the functional state of the nervous system of their offspring. Retarded sensorimotor development was revealed in the neonatal offspring. The pubertal offspring showed behavioral pattern disintegrity that was characterized by changes in motor activity and orientative-exploratory responses and by anxiety. There was abnormal impulse conduction in the neuromuscular apparatus of the hind legs of albino rats and morphological changes in the structure of nervous tissue. PMID:22250396

  19. Toxicity study of Lauha Bhasma (calcined iron) in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Namrata; Dash, Manoj Kumar; Dwivedi, Laxmikant; Khilnani, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lauha Bhasma (LB) is a complex herbomineral preparation widely used as an Ayurvedic hematinic agent. It is an effective remedy for chronic fever (jīrṇa jvara), phthisis (kṣaya), Breathlessness (śvāsa) etc., and possesses vitality enhancing (vājīkara), strength promoting and anti aging (rasāyana) properties. Objectives: The present work was conducted to establish the safety aspects of the use of Lauha bhasma. Setting and Design: LB was prepared by Ayurvedic procedures of purification (śodhana), sun drying (bhānupāka), sthālīpāka, followed by repeated calcination (māraṇa) and “nectarization” (amṛtīkaraṇa). The resultant product was subjected to acute and sub acute toxicity studies. Materials and Methods: Acute and subacute toxicity study of LB was conducted in albino rats. Criteria for assessment included ponderal changes, change in biochemical parameters viz., LFT and KFT and hematological parameters. Histopathological studies of different organs including liver, kidney, spleen, testis etc., were also conducted to observe pathological changes if any. Results: In the acute toxicity study, the animal group did not manifest any signs of toxicity and no mortality was observed up to 100 times the therapeutic dose (TD). Significant increase in blood urea (27.83%, P < 0.01), serum creatinine (30.92%, P < 0.05), Aspartate aminotransferase (15.09%, P < 0.05), and serum alkaline phosphatase (27.5%, P < 0.01) was evident in group IV (10 TD). A significant increase in serum total protein (6.04%, P < 0.05) level was observed in group III (5 TD). Histopathological examination of livers in group IV (10 TD) showed mild inflammation in terms of bile stasis, peri-portal hepatic inflammation and sinusoidal congestion; lymphocyte infiltration in kidney and intracellular deposits in the splenic tissue. Conclusion: Lauha Bhasma was found to be safe at the therapeutic dose and also at five times the therapeutic dose levels. However, alteration in

  20. Ameliorating effect of Allium Sativum on high-fat diet induced fatty liver in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Aisha; Usmani, Ambreen; Waqar, Humera; Siddiqui, Asma; Kumar, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the hepatoprotective effect provided by fresh garlic on fatty liver induced by high-fat diet. Methods: This experimental study was carried out at BMSI, JPMC from October to November 2008. Thirty adult albino rats, 200-240 gram weight, were divided into three groups. Group A received control diet, Group B received high-fat diet (20 mg butter/100 gm diet) and Group C received high-fat diet with fresh garlic (20 mg butter with 6 gm fresh garlic/100 gm diet). The groups were further divided on the basis of duration of treatment, four weeks and eight weeks respectively. The rats were sacrificed, liver removed, weighed and relative liver weight calculated. Hepatic tissue was processed and tissue slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Results: There was significant increase in relative liver weight in group B animals as compared to the control animals, which decreased significantly in group C. Haematoxylin and eosin stained sections revealed ballooned hepatocytes having vesicular appearance with pyknotic nuclei in high-fat group which were preserved to a great extent in group C animals. Conclusion: This study has shown that use of fresh garlic along with high-fat diet prevents its damaging effects on liver to a great extent. PMID:27182249

  1. Antilithiatic effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in male albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Christina, A J M; Ashok, K; Packialakshmi, M; Tobin, G C; Preethi, J; Murugesh, N

    2005-11-01

    The ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. was evaluated for its inhibitory potential on lithiasis (stone formation), induced by oral administration of 0.75% ethylene glycolated water to adult male albino Wistar rats for 28 days. The ionic chemistry of urine was altered by ethylene glycol, which elevated the urinary concentration of crucial ions viz. calcium, oxalate, and phosphate, thereby contributing to renal stone formation. The ethanolic extract, however, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the elevated level of these ions in urine. Also, it elevated the urinary concentration of magnesium, which is considered as one of the inhibitors of crystallization. The high serum creatinine level observed in ethylene glycol-treated rats was also reduced, following treatment with the extract. The histopathological findings also showed signs of improvement after treatment with the extract. All these observations provided the basis for the conclusion that this plant extract inhibits stone formation induced by ethylene glycol treatment.

  2. Antilithiatic effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in male albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Christina, A J M; Ashok, K; Packialakshmi, M; Tobin, G C; Preethi, J; Murugesh, N

    2005-11-01

    The ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. was evaluated for its inhibitory potential on lithiasis (stone formation), induced by oral administration of 0.75% ethylene glycolated water to adult male albino Wistar rats for 28 days. The ionic chemistry of urine was altered by ethylene glycol, which elevated the urinary concentration of crucial ions viz. calcium, oxalate, and phosphate, thereby contributing to renal stone formation. The ethanolic extract, however, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the elevated level of these ions in urine. Also, it elevated the urinary concentration of magnesium, which is considered as one of the inhibitors of crystallization. The high serum creatinine level observed in ethylene glycol-treated rats was also reduced, following treatment with the extract. The histopathological findings also showed signs of improvement after treatment with the extract. All these observations provided the basis for the conclusion that this plant extract inhibits stone formation induced by ethylene glycol treatment. PMID:16357948

  3. [Acid polysaccharides of the internal zone of the kidney medulla of albino rats under different conditions of maintainance].

    PubMed

    Dubynin, T L

    1976-10-01

    Water-deprived albino rats displayed a greater stability of reaction to acid mucopolysaccharides in the interstitium of the distal portion of the internal zone of the medulla of the kidneys in case of greater air humidity.

  4. Possible Therapeutic Effect of Stem Cell in Atherosclerosis in Albino Rats. A Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Kawi, Samraa H; Hashem, Khalid S

    2015-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death worldwide. there are no effective approaches to regressing atherosclerosis due to not fully understood mechanisms. Recently, stem cell-based therapies have held promises to various diseases, including vascular diseases. Aim The present study aimed at investigating the possible effect of cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy on atherosclerosis. Material and Methods Eighty adult male albino rats were divided into control group (I), atherogenic group (II): subjected to high cholesterol fed diet (200~300 mg/kg body weight) for 12 weeks and 1.8 million units of vitamin D / kg of diet for 6 weeks. Stem cell therapy group (III): injected with stem cells in the tail vein following confirmation of atherosclerosis. Histological, Immunohistochemical and morphometric studies were performed were conducted. Results Atherogenic group (II) showed increased aortic thickness, intimal proliferation, smooth muscle proliferation and migration. Increased area % of collagen fibers, iNOS and vimentin immunoreactions were recorded and proved morphometrically. All findings regressed on stem cell therapy. Conclusion A definite therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells was found on atherosclerosis. PMID:26634068

  5. Effect of chronic usage of tramadol on motor cerebral cortex and testicular tissues of adult male albino rats and the effect of its withdrawal: histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Khalaf, Hanaa A; Elsamanoudy, Ayman Z; Helaly, Ahmed N

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the histopathological and biochemical changes in rat cerebral cortex and testicles due to chronic usage of tramadol and the effect of withdrawal. Thirty adult male rats weighing 180-200 gm were classified into three groups; group I (control group) group II (10 rats received 50 mg/kg/day of tramadol intraperitoneally for 4 weeks) and group III (10 rats received the same dose as group II then kept 4 weeks later to study the effect of withdrawal). Histological and immunohistochemical examination of cerebral cortex and testicular specimens for Bax (apoptotic marker) were carried out. Testicular specimens were examined by electron microscopy. RT-PCR after RNA extraction from both specimens was done for the genes of some antioxidant enzymes .Also, malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured colourimetrically in tissues homogenizate. The results of this study demonstrated histological changes in testicular and brain tissues in group II compared to group I with increased apoptotic index proved by increased Bax expression. Moreover in this group increased MDA level with decreased gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes revealed oxidative stress. Group III showed signs of improvement but not returned completely normal. It could be concluded that administration of tramadol have histological abnormalities on both cerebral cortex and testicular tissues associated with oxidative stress in these organs. Also, there is increased apoptosis in both organs which regresses with withdrawal. These findings may provide a possible explanation for delayed fertility and psychological changes associated with tramadol abuse. PMID:25550769

  6. Antifertility screening of plants. 3. Effect of six indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vohora, S B; Garg, S K; Chaudhury, R R

    1969-05-01

    The effect of 6 indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats was tested by a screening procedure standardized in this laboratory. Pe troleum ether, alcoholic, and aqueous extracts of each plant were tested for antifertilizing, antizygotic, blastocystotoxic, antiimplantation, and early abortifacient activity. The aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves and alcoholic extract of Polygonum hydropiper Linn. roots showed encouraging results while the extracts of Abroma augusta Linn. roots, Calotropis gigantea Linn. flowers and leaves, Michaelia champaka Linn. unripe fruit, and Plumbago rosea Linn. roots did not show any antiimplantation activity. None of the rats delivered to experimental rats showed evidence of teratogenicity up to the age of 1 month. PMID:5820437

  7. Antifertility screening of plants. 3. Effect of six indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vohora, S B; Garg, S K; Chaudhury, R R

    1969-05-01

    The effect of 6 indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats was tested by a screening procedure standardized in this laboratory. Pe troleum ether, alcoholic, and aqueous extracts of each plant were tested for antifertilizing, antizygotic, blastocystotoxic, antiimplantation, and early abortifacient activity. The aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves and alcoholic extract of Polygonum hydropiper Linn. roots showed encouraging results while the extracts of Abroma augusta Linn. roots, Calotropis gigantea Linn. flowers and leaves, Michaelia champaka Linn. unripe fruit, and Plumbago rosea Linn. roots did not show any antiimplantation activity. None of the rats delivered to experimental rats showed evidence of teratogenicity up to the age of 1 month.

  8. Destructive and regenerative changes in the albino rat kidney during mercuric chloride necrotizing nephrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, V.P.

    1985-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a morphological analysis of destructive and regenerative changes observed during a study of serial semithin sections of the kidneys of albino rats with mercuric chloride necrotizing nephrosis. The results of this investigation indicate that injury to the epithelium of the urinary tubules by mercuric chloride is heterogenous in depth, and this has a substantial influence on the viability of the animals and on the subsequent process of repair of the damage.

  9. Diuretic activity of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum extract in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad; Jabeen, Qaiser; Abdul-Majid, Amin Malik-Shah; Atif, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum on urinary electrolytes, pH and diuretic activity in normal albino rats. Moreover, acute toxicity of the gum extract was assessed using mice. Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses of crude extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. The Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant diuretic, kaliuretic and natriuretic effects were observed in the treated groups in a dose dependent manner. Diuretic index showed good diuretic activity of the crude extract. Lipschitz values indicated that the crude extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, showed 44 % diuretic activity compared to the reference drug. No lethal effects were observed among albino mice even at the higher dose of 3000 mg/kg. It is concluded that aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata oleo gum, at the dose of 50 mg/kg showed significant effects on urinary volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes with no signs of toxicity. PMID:25362605

  10. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  11. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress.

  12. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Iyyaswamy, Ashok; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.

  13. Effects of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Maruthappan, V.; Shree, K. Sakthi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Hypercholesterolemia was induced in albino rats by administration of atherogenic diet for 2 weeks. Experimental rats were divided into different groups: normal, hypercholesterolemic control and P. reticulatus treated (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses for 45 days). After the treatment period of 45th day triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Results: The aqueous extract of P. reticulatus (250 mg and 500 mg/kg) produced significant reduction (P < 0.05) in triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) while increased HDL-cholesterol in atherogenic diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats at the end of the treatment period (45 days). However, the reduction in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic control. Thus, aqueous extract of P. reticulatus is effective in controlling TC, lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic animals. Conclusion: The results suggest the aqueous extract of P. reticulatus can be utilized for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients. PMID:21189912

  14. Evalution of Antiurolithic Activity of Alcoholic Extract of Roots of Cissampelos Pareira in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khanwelkar, Chitra C; Nimmagadda, Venkat Rao; Chavan, Vasant R; BH, Ramesh; S, Naveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: In ayurvedic system of medicine a vast number of medicinal plants are reported to possess with antiurolithic activity. Aim: To study the antiurolithic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira (AERCP) in chemicals induced urolithiasis in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Nine Groups of albino rats (n=6) were used to evaluate the antiurolithic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of C.Pareira. Group I received with rat chow diet, Group II with 2% Ammonium chloride (AC) and 0.75% Ethylene glycol (EG) Group III with EG plus AC and cystone (5 ml/kg), Groups IV, V, VI with low (100 mg/kg), medium (200 mg/kg), and high (400 mg/kg) doses of root extract, Groups VII, VIII, IX with EG plus AC and low (100 mg/kg), medium (200 mg/kg), and high (400 mg/kg) doses of root extract respectively for 10 days. Urolithiasis was induced by supplying drinking water mixed with 2% Ammonium chloride and 0.75% Ethylene glycol for 10 days. On 11th day three rats from each Group were kept in one metabolic cage and urine (pooled) collected for 24h was subjected for estimation of biochemical parameters like urinary calcium, uric acid and magnesium. Blood was collected on the same day and analysed for various parameters. Kidneys were observed for the histopathological changes. Results: The rats treated with alcoholic extract of roots of C. pareira at 03 different doses significantly (p≤ 0.05) reduced urinary calcium, uric acid and increased urinary magnesium levels, reduced serum calcium, creatinine and increased serum magnesium. Rats treated with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg doses revealed less tissue damage and the cytology of the nephrotic tissue was almost similar to normal control Group I rats. Conclusion: Results showed that alcoholic extract of roots of C. pareira has exhibited a significant antiurolithic effect against urolithiasis in experimental rats. PMID:25177580

  15. Effect of continuous irradiation with terahertz electromagnetic waves of the NO frequency range on behavioral reactions of male albino rats under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Kirichuk, V F; Antipova, O N; Krylova, Ya A

    2014-06-01

    We studied the effect of terahertz waves (NO frequency range, 150.176-150.664 GHz) on stress-induced variations in behavioral reactions of male albino rats during hypokinetic stress. THz irradiation was followed by partial or complete normalization of behavioral reactions of male albino rats after hypokinetic stress. The most significant effect was observed after continuous irradiation for 30 min.

  16. Haematological evaluation of ethanolic extract of Allium ascalonicum in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Owoyele, B V; Alabi, O T; Adebayo, J O; Soladoye, A O; Abioye, A I R; Jimoh, S A

    2004-06-01

    The haematological effect of ethanolic extract of Allium ascalonicum was evaluated in male albino rats during a 21 day administration at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w, orally. Parameters evaluated include the serum lipids, red and white cell indices. The results showed that the extract administered decreased most of the parameters relating to red cell and increased most of those parameters relating to white cells. It also decreased the total cholesterol (TCH), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) with no significant effect on the triglyceride levels.

  17. Biochemical and immunological changes on oral glutamate feeding in male albino rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.

    High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

  18. [Teratogenic effects of ammonium metavanadate on the CNS of the offspring of albino rats. A histological and histochemical study].

    PubMed

    Faría de Rodríguez, C; Villalobos, H; Nava de Leal, C

    1998-04-01

    The vanadium is a metallic oligoelement present in the majority of tissues. Its abnormal biological disposal environment can be related with its possible teratogenicity and alteration in the contents of glycosaminoglycans acids (GAGs), which participate in the morphological processes and the maturation of Central Nervous System (CNS). The proposal of the project is to analyze the teratogenic effect of ammonium metavanadate (AMV) and its action on the GAGs in the CNS of the litter of albino rats. The ammonium metavanadate was diluted in distilled water in concentration of 100 and 200 ppm, drunk by the rats since their birth and/or weaning to adult age, except during the matching and gestation. The animals control drunk water without this metal. The litter were analyzed to detect possible congenital malformations, then CNS were removed of descendents and were processed by light microscope, cuts of 6 u were stained with H/E; Alcian Blue pH 3.5 and 5.6, this last one concentrations of C12Mg from 0.05 M to until 1.0 M. Previously parallels sections were treated with testicular hyaluronidase. The macroscopic analysis of the new born rats that came from rats that received AMV in concentrations 100 and 200 ppm, resulted in congenital anomalies like unilateral hypoplasia of olfactory bulbs and cerebral hemisphere. The microscopic analysis revealed changes in the layers patron of olfactory bulbs and an increased of alcianophilia in the pH 5.6 to 0.2 M MgC12, in the extracellular matrix of CNS of rats descendents treated with AMV to the dose 200 ppm, sensibles to the testicular hyaluronidase, corresponding to hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin 4 and/or 6 sulphate (C4S or C6S) of low grade of sulphation. These results suggest that the AMV given to albino rats has a teratogenic result when it is used before the gestation and for long periods of animals life that alter the of GAGs of CNS contents during the development. PMID:9650461

  19. Contraceptive studies of isolated fractions of Cuminum cyminum in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Poonam; Gupta, Rajnish; Gupta, R S

    2015-01-01

    The contraceptive efficacy of Cuminum cyminum isolated fractions (CcFr) in male albino rats was investigated. Oral dose of CcFr at 50 mg/rat/day for 60 days revealed no significant changes in body weight, while marked abnormalities in spermatogenesis were observed with decreased counts (P ≤ 0.001) in round spermatids, preleptotene spermatocytes and secondary spermatocytes. Cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells as well as number of mature Leydig cell were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.001). Testicular as well as accessory sex organ biochemical parameters were significantly changed (P ≤ 0.001). Sperm motility, density and morphology were resulted in 100% negative fertility. Testosterone levels were declined significantly. In conclusion, Cuminum cyminum inhibited spermatogenesis in rats, indicating the possibility of developing an herbal male contraceptive.

  20. Analyzing LED-induced haemal fluorescent spectra on laboratory small albino rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shumei; Luo, Xiaosen; Lan, Xiufeng; Jiao, Fangxiang; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu; Xu, Jiaying; Lu, Shiyue; Shen, Jian; Liu, Jiangang

    2002-04-01

    Native fluorescence spectral characteristics of red blood cells were studied in the visible region in this paper. Blood samples were collected from normal small albino rats. Native fluorescence spectra of the erythrocyte were induced using Light Emitting Diode (LED) at yellow wavelength about 570+/- 16 nm ((Delta) (lambda) 0.5approximately equals 32nm). As the rat's erythrocyte content of in physiological water is increasing, the fluorescent primary emission peak is red shifted from 588 nm to above 615 nm. Furthermore, the fluorescence intensity at about 600 nm was found to be maximal while the rat's erythrocyte consistence is 1%. Moreover, it is shown in large numbers of experiments that LED-induced fluorescence spectra of the erythrocyte are similar with the whole blood. It may make sense for low- intensity light therapy.

  1. Effect of saccharin on albino rats' blood indices and the therapeutic action of vitamins C and E.

    PubMed

    Abdelaziz, Ismael; Ashour, Abd El Rahiem A

    2011-02-01

    The present work aimed to study some blood indices of rats as affected by saccharin and the therapeutic action of vitamins C and E. The used adult female Rattus norvegicus albino rats in the present study were weighing 100-120 g. Administration of saccharin at a dose of 35 mg kg⁻¹ body weight (b.wt.) day⁻¹ for 35 days significantly decreased serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein and albumin values. These decrements were by 20.16%, 22.76%, 44.92%, 20.16% and 40.44%, respectively, compared to control level (p value < 0.01). But it increased levels of kidney function indices. The effect of saccharin was more pronounced on creatinine. Activities of Alanine aminotranferease (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) increased significantly following saccharin treatment to rats. Concerning hematoligical parameters, the more obvious changes were observed in the increment of white blood cell (WBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and platelets (PLT) and the decrease in hematocrit, hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cells (RBCs) count in response to the administration of saccharin. In general, vitamin C or E (150 mg kg⁻¹ b.wt. day⁻¹ for 35 days) was able to reduce the effects of saccharin intake. Both vitamins, however, generally have beneficial effects in reducing the changes in the studied parameters.

  2. Antiarthritic effects of Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth. in acute and chronic models of arthritis in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Kaithwas, Gaurav; Gautam, Raju; Jachak, Sanjay M; Saklani, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antiarthritic activity of Ajuga bracteosa using albino rats. Methods The antiarthritic activity of 70% ethanolic extract of Ajuga bracteosa (EEAB) was evaluated against turpentine oil- and formaldehyde- induced acute non immunological and complete freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced chronic immunological arthritis in albino rats. Results EEAB showed a significant (P<0.05) and dose dependent inhibitory effect against acute and chronic models of arthritis. EEAB exhibited better antiarthritic activity than the standard aspirin. Conclusions EEAB exhibits a significant and promising antiarthritic activity against acute and chronic arthritis and supports the traditional use of Ajuga bracteosa for rheumatism and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:23569895

  3. Aspartame's effects on behavioral thermoregulation in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vitulli, W F; McAleer, J E; Rockwell, A C; Granade, C R; Parman, D L; Benoit, C; Quinn, J M

    1996-08-01

    Aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) was administered intraperitoneally to 9 Sprague-Dawley rats partitioned into 2 studies (4 in Study 1 and 5 for a replication in Study 2) over a two-year period using a within-subjects, repeated-measures reversal design. Behavioral thermoregulation was assessed in a cold Skinner Box using 5-sec. exposures of microwave radiation [Specific Absorption Rate = 0.34 Watts/kg/(mW/cm2)] as reinforcing stimuli under a fixed-interval 2-min. schedule of positive reinforcement. Two factorial analyses of variance [5 (doses) x 8 (hours)] indicated that the main effect for the doses of aspartame (2, 4, 8, 16 mg/kg, and saline control) was not significant; yet, the interaction (dose x hours) was significant (p < .05). Tentatively, aspartame should not cause an uncomfortable rise in body temperature (as sugar can do) when consumed in common substances such as soft drinks, yogurt, tea, coffee, etc., in doses commensurate with "hedonic" sweetness.

  4. Ulcerogenic and intestinal motility/transit stimulating actions of nevirapine in albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Umoren, Elizabeth Bassey; Obembe, Agona Odeh; Osim, Eme Effiom

    2013-09-01

    The antiretroviral is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of nevirapine (NVP) administration on gastric acid secretion, pepsin secretion, mucosal secretion, intestinal motility, and transit using apparently healthy albino Wistar rats. Eighty albino Wistar rats (50-125 g body weight) from the start of the experiment were used for the study. Rats in the control group were fed normal rodent chow, while the NVP group was fed by gavage NVP (0.4 mg/kg body weight) two times daily (07:00 and 18:00 hours) in addition to normal rodent chow for 12 weeks. All animals were allowed free access to clean drinking water. Mean basal gastric output and peak acid output following histamine administration in the NVP-treated group were significantly higher (p < 0.001, respectively) compared to the control. Following cimetidine administration, there was significant decrease (p < 0.001) in peak acid output in the NVP-treated group compared to the control. The concentration of gastric pepsin, adherent mucus secretion, and mean value for ulcer score were significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to their control group, respectively. There were significant increases (p < 0.05, respectively) in intestinal motility and basal contraction (p < 0.05) and increase in intestinal transit of the ileum of NVP-treated rats compared to their control, respectively. Results of the study suggest that NVP administration might provoke gastric ulceration in rats which may be caused by high pepsin, high basal acid output, and increased intestinal motility and transit. PMID:23536414

  5. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats.

  6. Hair growth promoting activity of Eclipta alba in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, R K; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, V K

    2008-08-01

    Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk. is a well-known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. In the reported work attempts were undertaken to evaluate petroleum ether and ethanol extract of E. alba Hassk. for their effect on promoting hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous cream (water in oil cream base) and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats. The time (in days) required for hair growth initiation as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control for comparison. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts, as compared to control animals. The time required for complete hair growth was also significantly reduced. Quantitative analysis of hair growth after treatment with petroleum ether extract (5%) exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase (69 +/- 4) which were higher as compared to control (47 +/- 13). The result of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were better than the positive control minoxidil 2% treatment. PMID:18478241

  7. Ameliorative effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, Saber Abdelruhman; Zoil, Mohamed El-said; El-shafey, Samraa Samy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ameliorative role of grapefruit juice on the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiarrythmic drug amiodarone in albino rats. Methods Animals were divided into four groups. Group I was considered as control. Group II was given grapefruit juice at a dose level of 27 mL/kg body weight. Group III was orally administered amiodarone (18 mg/kg body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed after 5 weeks of treatment. Bone marrow was collected from the femurs for analysis of chromosomal aberrations and mitotic indices. Testes were removed and stained with H&E for histological examination. Sperms were collected from epidedymis for detection of sperm head abnormalities. Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage. Results Amiodarone treatment caused a significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index and increased DNA damage. The testis showed many histopathological alterations, inhibition of spermatogenesis and morphometric changes. The number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice caused a reduction in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by amiodarone. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that grapefruit juice ameliorates the cytotoxicty and testicular alterations induced by amiodarone in albino rats and this is may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components. PMID:23836512

  8. Vitamin D3 May Ameliorate the Ketoconazole Induced Adrenal Injury: Histological and Immunohistochemical Studies on Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Mahmoud Salah

    2015-01-01

    Ketoconazole (KZ) is used widely for treating the superficial, systemic fungal activities and hyperandrogenemic states. Its uses are limited by its deleterious effect on histological structure and function of the adrenal cortex. This study investigates whether vitamin D3 supplement can ameliorate the morphological changes induced by KZ. Thirty four adult male albino rats were randomized into control group (Group I) which was subdivided into: control 1 (n=7) and control 2 (n=7): In control 1, rats were intraperitoneal (I.P) injected once with 1 ml of polyethylene glycol-400 for 15 consecutive days and control 2 rats were injected I.P with (1 μg/kg) of vitamin D3 for the same period. Group II (n=10): rats were I.P injected with KZ (10 mg/100 g of body weight) once daily for 15 days; Group III (n=10): rats were I.P concomitantly injected with KZ and vitamin D3 similar doses to animals in groups II and control 2 respectively. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma ACTH, corticosterone and aldosterone levels. The right adrenal specimens sections were stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin and Masson Trichrome for histological studies and treated with Bax, Ubiquitin and vitamin D receptors for immunohistochemical studies. KZ induced adrenal cortical morphological changes in forms of disturbed adrenocorticocyte cytological architecture, nuclear changes, and intracellular lipid accumulation. KZ also increased adrenal Bax and Ub but decreased the vitamin D receptors immunopositive staining expression, in addition to increased plasma ACTH as well as decreased corticosterone and aldosterone levels. These changes were ameliorated by supplementing with vitamin D3. PMID:26379312

  9. Effects of gamma radiation on hard dental tissues of albino rats using scanning electron microscope - Part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Faramawy, Nabil; Ameen, Reham; El-Haddad, Khaled; Maghraby, Ahmed; El-Zainy, Medhat

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, 40 adult male albino rats were used to study the effect of gamma radiation on the hard dental tissues (enamel surface, dentinal tubules and the cementum surface). The rats were irradiated at 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 Gy gamma doses. The effects of irradiated hard dental tissues samples were investigated using a scanning electron microscope. For doses up to 0.5 Gy, there was no evidence of the existence of cracks on the enamel surface. With 1 Gy irradiation dose, cracks were clearly observed with localized erosive areas. At 2 Gy irradiation dose, the enamel showed morphological alterations as disturbed prismatic and interprismatic areas. An increase in dentinal tubules diameter and a contemporary inter-tubular dentine volume decrease were observed with higher irradiation dose. Concerning cementum, low doses,<0.5 Gy, showed surface irregularities and with increase in the irradiation dose to≥1 Gy, noticeable surface irregularities and erosive areas with decrease in Sharpey's fiber sites were observed. These observations could shed light on the hazardous effects of irradiation fields to the functioning of the human teeth.

  10. Histopathological and functional effects of antimony on the renal cortex of growing albino rat.

    PubMed

    Rashedy, Ahmed H; Solimany, Adnan A; Ismail, Ayman K; Wahdan, Mohamed H; Saban, Khalid A

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with antimony compounds may affect human health through the persistent exposure to small doses over a long period. Sixty growing male albino rats, weighing 43-57 grams, utilized in this study. The animals were divided into 3 groups; each of 20 rats: animals of group I served as control, animals of group II received 6 mg/kg body weight antimony trisulfide daily for 8 weeks with drinking water, and those of group III received the same dose by the same route for 12 weeks. The Malpighian renal corpuscles showed distortion, destruction and congestion of glomerular tuft, vacuoles in the glomeruli, peritubular haemorrhage, obliteration of Bowman's space, and thickening with irregularity of Bowman's membrane. The proximal convoluted tubules demonstrated patchy loss of their brush border, thickening of the basement membrane with loss of its basal infoldings, disarrangement of the mitochondria, pleomorphic vacuoles in the cytoplasm, apical destruction of the cells, apical migration of the nuclei, and absence of microvilli. On the other hand, peri-tubular hemorrhage, apical vacuolation, small atrophic nuclei, swelling of mitochondria, obliteration of the lumina, destruction of cells, and presence of tissue debris in the lumina, were observed in the distal convoluted tubules. The present work demonstrated the hazardous effect of antimony on the renal function as evidenced by the significant increase of the level of blood urea, serum creatinine, and serum sodium and potassium. In conclusion, this study proposed that continuous oral administration of antimony for 8 and 12 weeks has hazardous toxic effect on the structure and function of the kidney in growing albino rat. Based on the results of the present study, it is recommended to avoid the use of any drinking water contaminated with antimony compounds and forbidden its use in infants and children foods.

  11. Long-term exposure to incense smoke alters metabolism in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Alokail, Majed S; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Alarifi, Saud A; Draz, Hossam M; Hussain, Tajamul; Yakout, Sobhy M

    2011-03-01

    The burning of incense is an important source of indoor air pollution in Asia. We assessed the effect of long-term exposure to incense smoke on the body weight and levels of circulating glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, insulin, adiponectin and leptin in Wistar albino rats. Two groups of rats were used. First group (n = 12) was exposed daily to incense smoke for 4 months at the rate of 4 g day(-1) in the exposure chamber. Another group of rats (n = 12), was used as non-exposed control. Blood samples were collected from all animals after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of exposure. Serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol insulin, adiponectin and leptin were measured. Our results showed that incense smoke exposure was associated with decreased weight gain and the adverse metabolic changes of increased triglycerides and decreased HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Exposure to incense was also associated with a transient increase of leptin levels. Taken together, these data suggest that incense smoke influences metabolism adversely in rats. The effect of incense smoke on human health and the underlying mechanisms need to be studied further.

  12. Effect of Drug Alprazolam on Restrained Stress Induced Alteration of Serum Cortisol and Antioxidant Vitamins (Vitamin C and E) in Male Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kori, Rohini Sharanappa; Aladakatti, Ravindranath H.; Desai, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stress can cause harmful effects in the body that induce a wide range of biochemical and behavioural changes. As anti-stress drugs are routinely used to combat stress hence study is needed to assess the contraindication of these drugs in the physiological systems. Aim To investigate the effect of alprazolam on restrained stress induced alteration of serum cortisol, and antioxidant vitamin levels in male albino rats. Materials and Methods Adult male albino rats (body weight 175-225g) were divided into four groups of six animals in each. Group I (control), kept undisturbed in the metabolic cage throughout the 42 days experimental period. Group II (stress) rats were kept in a wire mesh restrainer for 6 hr/day for 42 days. Group III (stress+ withdrawal) rats were stressed for 21 days and withdrawal of stress for remaining 21 days (total 42 days). Group IV (stress + alprazolam) rats were only stressed for 21 days and treated with drug alprazolam (5mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal) in continuation with stress for remaining 21 days (total period is 42 days). At the end of 42 days all the rats were sacrificed and serum cortisol, vitamin C and E levels were estimated. Results Group II (stressed) showed a significant increase in serum cortisol level with concomitant decrease of serum vitamin C and E levels. Group III (withdrawal) and Group IV (+alprazolam) rats showed significant reduction of serum cortisol along with subsequent increase of serum vitamin C and E concentrations. Conclusion Results indicate a possible antioxidant effect of alprazolam on restrained stress induced alteration of serum cortisol and antioxidant vitamin levels. PMID:27656428

  13. Anti-ulcer activity of ethanol extract of Terminaliapallida Brandis. in Swiss albino rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M; Mazumder, U K; Manikandan, L; Bhattacharya, S; Senthilkumar, G P; Suresh, R

    2005-02-28

    Ethanol extract of Terminalia pallida Brandis. (EETP) was evaluated for its anti-ulcer activity against various models of ulcers, such as drug-induced ulcers, histamine-induced ulcers and ethanol-induced ulcers in Swiss albino rats. The EETP at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg per os (p.o.) exhibited significant protection against ulcers produced by indomethacin, histamine and the effect was comparable to that of the reference drug famotidine (30 mg/kg b.w) orally. The extract also afforded significant protection against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. Meanwhile, EETP significantly lowered the elevated lipid peroxide level (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) and restored the altered glutathione level in ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. The present investigation revealed that the EETP exhibited significant anti-ulcer activity by enhancing antioxidant potential of the gastric mucosa, thereby reducing mucosal damage.

  14. Anti-ulcer activity of ethanol extract of Terminaliapallida Brandis. in Swiss albino rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M; Mazumder, U K; Manikandan, L; Bhattacharya, S; Senthilkumar, G P; Suresh, R

    2005-02-28

    Ethanol extract of Terminalia pallida Brandis. (EETP) was evaluated for its anti-ulcer activity against various models of ulcers, such as drug-induced ulcers, histamine-induced ulcers and ethanol-induced ulcers in Swiss albino rats. The EETP at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg per os (p.o.) exhibited significant protection against ulcers produced by indomethacin, histamine and the effect was comparable to that of the reference drug famotidine (30 mg/kg b.w) orally. The extract also afforded significant protection against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. Meanwhile, EETP significantly lowered the elevated lipid peroxide level (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) and restored the altered glutathione level in ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. The present investigation revealed that the EETP exhibited significant anti-ulcer activity by enhancing antioxidant potential of the gastric mucosa, thereby reducing mucosal damage. PMID:15707782

  15. Melanopsin changes in neonatal albino rat independent of rods and cones.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Jens; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells employ the photopigment melanopsin and provide light information to brain areas responsible for the regulation of circadian rhythms. The expression of melanopsin is regulated by environmental illumination, but it remains to be clarified whether the rods and cones are involved. Here, we examined the influence of 5 days of constant light and dark conditions on melanopsin mRNA and protein expression in newborn albino rats, in which functional rods and cones have not yet been developed. We found that the melanopsin mRNA level was unaffected, whereas the melanopsin protein level was more than two-fold higher in the darkness-adapted group than in pups raised in constant light. In pups raised during 12 : 12 h light/dark cycles, the melanopsin protein level was significantly higher during the day than at night. Our findings indicate that melanopsin protein changes are independent of input from the rods and cones.

  16. Antifertility screening of plants. VI. Effect of five indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Garg, S K; Saksena, S K; Chaudhury, R R

    1970-09-01

    The petroleum ether, alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Apium graveolens Linn., Butea monosperma Lam. Kuntz., and Gossypium herbaceum Linn., the aqueous extract of Aloe Barbadensis Mill.Syn., and the juice of unripe fruits of Ananas comosus were tested on albino rats by a method which detects any antizygotic, blastocystotoxic, antiimplantation, and early abortifacient activity. The extracts were administered for 1-7 days. The dosages for A. graveolens, B. monosperma, and G. herbaceum were 100 mg/kg. 50 ml of A. comosus juice was administered daily. Dosages of 100, 200, and 500 mg/kg of A. barbadensis were given. With the exception of A. comosus, none of the plants showed any antiimplantation activity. The juice of the unripe fruits of A. comosus demonstrated encouraging antiimplantation activity showing 40% of implants only.

  17. Development of spermatic granuloma in albino rats following administration of water extract of Heliotropium bacciferum Forssk

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Khalid; Alahmadi, Bassam A.; Alhimaidi, Ahmed; Abou-Tarboush, Faisal M.; Farah, Mohammad Abul; Mahmoud, Ahmed; Alfaifi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    A spermatic granuloma is a chronic inflammatory reaction produced in response to extravasated sperm within the intertubular connective tissue. The present study investigates the possible toxic effects of water extract of Heliotropium bacciferum on the reproductive system of male albino rats and the associated potential for the development of spermatic granulomas. H. bacciferum is a herbal plant used in traditional medicine and reported to have cytotoxic effects due to pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Histological examinations revealed no changes in the tissues of the testes, although, some changes were detected in the cauda epididymis, the most important of which was the development of small lesions of spermatic granulomas. Clear gaps were observed between the epithelial linings of the epididymal tubules. PMID:26858543

  18. Anti-pyretic activity of some plants in female albino rats: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Suresh, B; Dhanasekaran, S; Elango, K; Sethuraman, M; Rajan, S

    1995-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Ailanthus exceisa (AE). Toddalia asiatica (TA) and Araucaria bidwilli (AB) were screened by the anti-pyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermic test model in the laboratory. Dose of AE (100), TA (60) and AB (30) mg., equivalent of the plant material per kg. Body weight of the extracts were administered orally to the female albino rats. Acute toxicity and preliminary phytochemical screening were conducted for all the extracts. LD 50 values on oral administration of the extracts were found to be AE (1000), AB (350) and TA (250) mg. per kg. body weight respectively. Both the root and aerial part fractions of TA displayed a pronounced anti-pyretic activity comparable to the standard drug paracetamol. AB oleoresin fraction was also found to show anti-pyretic effect. These observations however, confirm the folk-medical practices still prevailing among the tribes. PMID:22556707

  19. Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Linn.) leaf against paracetamol intoxicated Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Selvam, N. Thamizh; Venkatakrishnan, V.; Dhamodharan, R.; Murugesan, S.; Kumar, S. Damodar

    2013-01-01

    Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Alston) (Linn.) leaves against Paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in Wistar albino rats was observed at two different doses, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The healthy control, disease control, and standard drug Silymarin-treated groups were also maintained for the comparison. The liver marker enzymes SGOT, SGPT, ALKP, Serum Bilirubin and other metabolic parameters like total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol were evaluated in all the experimental groups. The changes in liver function parameters were significant in comparison to disease control group and the observed efficacy was comparable to standard drug. The efficacy of the extract was found to be dose dependent. The histopathology study of liver also supports the presence of hepatoprotective activity in S. jambos by showing improved cytoarchitecture of liver cells in the treated groups. The results obtained in this study indicate necessity for further research on isolation and characterization of functional molecules from the extract. PMID:24501529

  20. Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Linn.) leaf against paracetamol intoxicated Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Selvam, N Thamizh; Venkatakrishnan, V; Dhamodharan, R; Murugesan, S; Kumar, S Damodar

    2013-07-01

    Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Alston) (Linn.) leaves against Paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in Wistar albino rats was observed at two different doses, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The healthy control, disease control, and standard drug Silymarin-treated groups were also maintained for the comparison. The liver marker enzymes SGOT, SGPT, ALKP, Serum Bilirubin and other metabolic parameters like total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol were evaluated in all the experimental groups. The changes in liver function parameters were significant in comparison to disease control group and the observed efficacy was comparable to standard drug. The efficacy of the extract was found to be dose dependent. The histopathology study of liver also supports the presence of hepatoprotective activity in S. jambos by showing improved cytoarchitecture of liver cells in the treated groups. The results obtained in this study indicate necessity for further research on isolation and characterization of functional molecules from the extract. PMID:24501529

  1. Antiulcer Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Salvadora indica (W.) Leaves on Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Priyadarshini, D.; Soundarya, G.; Kumar, Ch. Kishore; Rani, K. Usha

    2016-01-01

    Background Ulcer can be developed inside the inner lining of the stomach (gastric ulcer) or the small intestine (duodenal ulcer). Both the ulcers are also cumulatively referred as peptic ulcers. It affects nearly 10% of world population. Aim To investigate the antiulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Salvadora indica W. leaves (ESIL) on albino rats. Materials and Methods The present study was carried by pylorus ligation, ethanol and cysteamine induced ulcer models in albino rats. The antiulcer activity of ESIL (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg p.o. for 7 days) was compared with standard drugs (Ranitidine). In pyloric ligation induced ulcer model, the studied parameters were gastric volume, pH, total acidity, free acidity, and ulcer index whereas in ethanol and cysteamine induced ulcer model, the ulcer index was determined for severity of ulcers. The parameters studied were ulcer index, gastric juice volume, pH, free acidity and total acidity. Results In pyloric ligation model; the volume of gastric content, total/free acidity and pepsin activity was significantly decreased at p<0.05 and p<0.01 and pH of the gastric juice was significantly increased at p<0.05 and p<0.01 in ESIL treated groups as compared to control group. All the doses of ESIL showed dose dependent antiulcer effect as well as significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01) reduction in the ulcer index as compared to control group in all the experimental models. Conclusion The results of the study indicate that the ESIL have better potential against ulcer which supports the traditional claims in folklore medicine. PMID:27790462

  2. Zinc sulphate and vitamin E alleviate reproductive toxicity caused by aluminium sulphate in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Rawi, Sayed M; Seif Al Nassr, Fatma M

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the reproductive toxicity of aluminium sulphate and the therapeutic effects of administration of zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination against the toxic effect caused by aluminium (Al) in male albino rats. The animals were divided into five groups: group 1 received distilled water and served as control; group 2 received only aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)); group 3 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) plus zinc sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.); group 4 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) and vitamin E (15 mg/kg b.w.); group 5 received aluminium sulphate plus a combination of zinc sulphate and vitamin E in similar doses as above. Doses were administered orally once daily for 45 consecutive days. The results revealed that aluminium sulphate induced significant decrease in body weight gain and testis weight and significant increase in Al level in both serum and testes of male rats. Biochemical analysis showed significant decrease in serum total protein and phospholipids levels, while serum total lipid was significantly elevated post Al treatment. In addition, significant decrease in total protein, phospholipids and cholesterol levels in the testes of Al-treated rats was recorded. The data also showed significant decrease in the levels of serum testosterone, leutinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone and significant increase in the level of serum prolactin in Al-intoxicated rats. Moreover, histological examination showed that aluminium sulphate caused apparent alterations in the testicular structure of the treated animals. Treatment with zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination ameliorated the harmful effects of Al, which was proved histopathologically by the noticeable improvement in the testicular tissues. We can conclude that the tested dose of aluminium sulphate induced toxic effect on the reproductive system of male albino rats and the treatment with

  3. Effect of honey consumption on intestinal motility in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Alagwu, E A; Egwurugwu, J N; Nneli, R O; Oguike, F; Osim, E E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of honey on intestinal motility and transit using twenty (20) male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 210-220g. The rats were randomly grouped into control and honey-fed (test) groups of ten (10) rats each. The control group was fed on normal rat chow ( Pfizer Company, Nigeria ) and water while the test group was fed on rat feed, water and honey ( 1 ml of honey to every 10 ml initial drinking water daily) for twenty two (22) weeks after which the rats were starved over night before the experiment and sacrificed by stunning. Laparatomy was immediately performed, proximal and distal portions of the intestine identified, cut and put in aerated tyrode solution. Cut sections of the ileum (2-3cm) were mounted on organ bath instrument for motility experiment with varying concentrations of acetylcholine and carbachol. Contractions were recorded as well as the intestinal transit in each group and lengths of intestine with total mean values calculated. Results obtained showed that honey significantly decreased (p<0.01 ) intestinal transit in the test group (21.15±0.75 ) compared with the control group ( 35.96±1.15); decreased intestinal motility in the test group compared with the control and caused significant percentage reduction of intestinal motility with varied concentrations of acetylcholine and carbachol in the test group ( Ach-75.00±0.75%; Carbachol-79.00±0.28%) compared with the control group (Ach-62.00±0.39%; Carbachol-51.00±0.39%). In conclusion, unprocessed Nigerian honey decreased intestinal transit, caused intestinal smooth muscle inhibition and motility and reduced sensitivity of gastrointestinal tract to cholinergic agents. PMID:24937393

  4. Hepatoprotective effect of biherbal ethanolic extract against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Anantha, Krishna Chaitanya D.; Siva, Reddy Challa; Manohar, Reddy A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The combined hepatoprotective effect of Bi-herbal ethanolic extract (BHEE) was evaluated against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Liver function tests and biochemical parameters were estimated using standard kits. Livers were quickly removed and fixed in 10% formalin and subjected to histopathological studies. Results: Ethanolic extract from the leaves of Aerva lanata and leaves of Achyranthes aspera at a dose level of 200 mg/kg, 400mg/kg body weight was administered orally once for 3 days. Substantially elevated serum marker enzymes such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, due to paracetamol treatment were restored towards normal. Biochemical parameters like total protein, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea were also restored towards normal levels. In addition, BHEE significantly decreased the liver weight of paracetamol intoxicated rats. Silymarin at a dose level of 25 mg/kg used as a standard reference also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. Conclusion: The results of this study strongly indicate that BHEE has got a potent hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats. PMID:23326091

  5. Effect of Perilla frutescens Fixed Oil on Experimental Esophagitis in Albino Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Ekta; Saha, Sudipta; Saraf, Shubhini A.; Kaithwas, Gaurav

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of Perilla frutescens fixed oil on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. A group of rats (n = 6), treated with control vehicle (0.9% NaCl in double distilled water, 3 mL/kg, i.p.) and Perilla frutescens fixed oil (100%) (1, 2, and 3 mL/kg, i.p.), or pantoprazole (30 mg/kg, i.p.), were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 6 h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with fixed oil significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The oil also helped to restore the altered levels of oxidative stress parameters to normal. The present study also makes evident the in vitro antihistaminic and anticholinergic activity of alpha linolenic acid (ALA) (18 : 3, n − 3) on isolated rat ileum preparation. The lipoxygenase inhibitory, histamine antagonistic, antisecretory (anticholinergic), and antioxidant activity of the oil was attributed for its efficacy in reflux esophagitis. PMID:24027769

  6. Neuroprotective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium toxicity in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    El-Tarras, Adel El-Sayed; Attia, Hossam Fouad; Soliman, Mohammed Mohamed; El Awady, Mohammed Abdelhamid; Amin, Adnan Abelghani

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium toxicity can disturb brain chemistry leading to depression, anxiety, and weakened immunity. Cadmium disturbs the neurotransmitter dopamine, resulting in low energy, lack of motivation, and depression, which are predisposing factors for violence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the brain of 40 male albino rats after exposure to cadmium chloride (Cd) toxicity. The rats were separated into either the control group, the Cd group, the GSE group, or the GSE and Cd mixture (treated) group. The cerebrum showed evidence of degeneration of some nerve fibers and cells. Fibrosis, vacuolations, and congestion in the blood vessels were demonstrated. Satelletosis was located in the capsular cells. Immunohistochemical expression of Bax was strongly positive in the Cd group and decreased in the treated group. These histopathological changes were decreased in the brain tissue of the treated group, but a few blood vessels still had evidence of congestion. Cadmium administration increased the level of MDA and decreased MAO-A, acetylcholinesterase, and glutathione reductase (GR), while the treatment with GSE affected the alterations in these parameters. In addition, cadmium downregulated the mRNA expression levels of GST and GPx, while GSE treatment normalized the transcript levels. The expression of both dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter was downregulated in the rats administered cadmium and the addition of GSE normalized the expression of these aggression associated genes. PMID:27271977

  7. Comparative study on the effect of energy drinks on haematopoietic system in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Khayyat, Latifa I; Essawy, Amina E; Al Rawy, Maisaa M; Sorour, Jehan M

    2014-09-01

    Energy drinks have become popularized and the market value for these drinks is continually growing. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of three popular kinds of energy drinks (Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red) on certain hematological parameters and on the ultrastructure of blood cells in male Wistar albino rats. Animals were treated orally with Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red respectively for 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken after two and four weeks for determination of haematological indices. Ultrastructure examination of blood cells was carried only after 4 weeks of treatment. The results indicated significant reduction (P < 0.05) in red blood cell count, haemoglobin content, haematocrit value, blood platelets count and neutrophils in animals treated with Red Bull and Power Horse and these changes were time dependant. Insignificant changes were recorded in rats administered with Code Red. On the other hand, ultrastructural alterations, including both nucleus and cytoplasm of peripheral blood cells, were recorded in all treated animals but they were more pronounced in animals received Red Bull and Power Horse. It is concluded that energy drinks have serious detrimental impacts on haematopoietic system of male rats.

  8. Cognitive effects of acute restraint stress in male albino rats and the impact of pretreatment with quetiapine versus ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Amin, Shaimaa Nasr; Gamal, Sarah Mahmoud; Esmail, Reham Shehab El Nemr; Aziz, Tarek Mohamed Abdel; Rashed, Laila Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Stress is any condition that seriously affects the balance of the organism physiologically and psychologically. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) releasing glucocorticoid hormones that produce generalized effects on different body systems including the nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the effect of acute restraint stress (ARS) on cognitive performance by measuring spatial working memory in Y-maze, behavior (anxiety and exploratory behavior) in open field test, expression of synaptophysin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the hippocampus by immunohistochemistry, dopaminergic receptors (D2) in the basal ganglia by gene expression and comparing the effect of ghrelin and quetiapine on the previous parameters. 36 adult male albino rats constituted the animal model of this work and have been divided into six groups: control group, control group exposed to ARS, quetiapine group, quetiapine group exposed to ARS, ghrelin group and ghrelin group exposed to ARS. We demonstrated more neuroprotective effect for quetiapine compared to ghrelin on stress response, anxiety behavior and working spatial memory impairment due to ARS. PMID:25391717

  9. Atorvastatin improves Y-maze learning behaviour in nicotine treated male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Das S, Syam; Nair, Saritha S; Kavitha, S; Febi, John; Indira, M

    2015-11-01

    Nicotine is a parasympathomimetic alkaloid present in tobacco which can induce hyperlipidemia and has a direct effect on neural functions. Statins, competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxymethyl-3-glutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase, are cholesterol lowering drugs. It has some neuroprotective effects. Hence we analysed the combined effect of nicotine and statin on the learning behaviour of male albino rats. We employed Y-Maze conditional discrimination task. Rats were divided into 4 groups with six rats in each group. (1) Control, (2) Atorvastatin (10mg/kgb.wt), (3) Nicotine (0.6mg/kgb.wt) and (4) Atorvastatin (10mg/kgb.wt)+Nicotine (0.6mg/kgb.wt). After 30days of treatment rats from each group were selected for behavioural study and they were observed for 30days. At the end of the experimental period rats were sacrificed, and brain and liver were dissected out for further biochemical analysis. Nicotine treated group showed least performance in learning in comparison with control, atorvastatin and atorvastatin+nicotine treated groups. Co-administration of atorvastatin and nicotine improved learning behaviour compared to nicotine treated group. Reactive oxygen species level was significantly increased in nicotine group compared to control. The level of neurotransmitter serotonin which has a significant role in learning was found to be decreased in nicotine treated group compared to the control group. Activity of Na(+) K(+) ATPase, Ca(2+) ATPase and glutathione content was significantly reduced in nicotine treated group compared to control. The activity of acetylcholine esterase was significantly increased in the nicotine treated group. Expression studies showed significant decrease in N-methyl D-aspartate receptors and increase in mono amine oxidase-A and mono amine oxidase-B in nicotine treated group and was reversed in atorvastatin + nicotine treated group. It can be concluded that co-administration of nicotine with statin ameliorates the neural functional alterations caused

  10. Hazardous effects of fried potato chips on the development of retina in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayyad, Hassan I; Sakr, Saber A; Badawy, Gamal M; Afify, Hanaa S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the hazardous effects of fried potato chips upon the retina of two developmental stages of the albino rats aged 7 and 14 days from parturition. Methods Pregnant rats were arranged into two groups: control pregnant rats and consequently their delivered newborns until reaching 7 and 14 days old from parturition and fried potato chips group in which pregnant rats at the 6th day of gestation maintained on diet formed of fried potato chips supplied from the market mixed with standard diet at a concentration of 50% per each till 7 and 14 post-partum. Three fold integrated approaches were adopted, namely, histological, ultrastructural and proteomic analysis. Results Histological examination of the retina of the experimental offsprings revealed many histopathological changes, including massive degeneration, vacuolization and cell loss in the ganglion cell layer, as well as general reduction in retinal size. At the ultrastructural level, the retina of experimental offsprings exhibited number of deformities, including ill differentiated and degenerated nuclear layer, malformed and vacuolated pigment epithelium with vesiculated and fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, degenerated outer segment of photoreceptors, as well as swollen choriocapillaris and loss of neuronal cells. Proteomic analysis of retina of the two experimental developmental stages showed variations in the expressed proteins as a result of intoxication which illustrated the adverse toxic effects of fried potato chips upon the retina. Conclusions It can be concluded that the effect of fried potato chips on the development of retina in rats may be due to the presence of acrylamide or its metabolite. PMID:23569770

  11. Phytochemical and acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of Enantia chlorantha (oliv) stem bark in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Abatan, Mathew O.

    2013-01-01

    It is presumed that drugs sourced from herbs have lesser side effects than allopathic drugs. Enantia chlorantha is widely used in herbal medicine for the treatment of several ailments such as jaundice, malaria, fever, infective hepatitis, etc. However its toxicity profiles are not well documented. The effects of ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark on body weight changes, biochemical and haematological parameters as well as histology of vital organs (heart, kidneys and liver) were assessed. Also, the phytochemical constituent of the plant was analysed. Albino rats of both sexes were randomly divided into five groups (A–E) of five rats each and the ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark extract was administered by oral gavage in a single dose. Group A rats were administered 500 mg/kg of the extract, group B; 1000 mg/kg, group C; 2000 mg/kg, group D; 3000 mg/kg and group E rats received distilled water (10 ml/kg) and served as control. The extract caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in the levels of packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and red blood cell counts in a dose dependent manner. Further, significant alterations were not observed in the serum biochemical parameters analysed (AST, ALP, ALT, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, globulin and bilirubin). In addition, the extract at 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg caused congestion in the heart and kidney of experimental rats. These results suggest that oral administration of E. chlorantha may produce severe toxic effects at relatively high doses, thus caution should be exercised in its use. PMID:24678252

  12. Evaluation of Diuretic Activity of Alcoholic Extract of Roots of Cissampelos Pareira in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khanwelkar, Chitra C.; Nimmagadda, Venkat Rao; Dasi, Jeevan Mani Babu; Chavan, Vasant R.; Kutani, Aruna; Kotagiri, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Background: In congestive heart failure, nephritis, toxemia of pregnancy, premenstrual tension and hypertension associated with oedema diuretic compounds are much helpful to relieve these conditions. Aims: To study the diuretic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira by Lipschitz method in albino rats. Methods and Material: Five groups of Albino rats were used to evaluate the diuretic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira by using metabolic cages. The group I serves as normal control received vehicle (2% CMC in normal saline), group II with Furosemide (10 mg/Kg, p.o), Groups III, IV and V with low (100 mg/kg), medium (200 mg/kg), and high (400 mg/kg) doses of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira respectively. Immediately after the alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira treatment all the rats were hydrated with saline (15 ml/kg, p.o) and 2 animals placed in each metabolic cage, kept at 21°C±0.5°C. No food and water was made available to animals for 5 hour. The total volume of urine collected with each metabolic cage was measured at the end of 5 hour. Various parameters like total urine volume and concentration of different ions i.e.; Sodium, Potassium , Chloride in the urine were measured. Results: In this model when compared to control group the alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira treated groups at different dose levels (100,200 and 400 mg/kg) have noted with significant increase in the urine volume and also significantly enhanced the excretion of Sodium, Potassium and Chloride ions in urine. Conclusion: Results showed that single dose administration of standard Furosemide and alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira significantly (p<0.05*, p<0.01**, p<0.001***) increased the urine output along with an increase in elimination of Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride ions. Alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira 400 mg/Kg produced a comparable diuretic activity with

  13. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Nfambi, Joshua; Bbosa, Godfrey S.; Sembajwe, Lawrence Fred; Gakunga, James; Kasolo, Josephine N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, Moringa oleifera is used by different communities to treat various ailments including modulation of the immune system though with limited scientific evidence. Aim To study the immunomodulatory activity of M. oleifera methanolic leaf extract in Wistar albino rats. Methods An experimental laboratory-based study was done following standard methods and procedures. Nine experimental groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX) each comprising of six animals were used. Group I received normal saline. Groups II to IX received 200 mg/kg bwt cyclophosphamide at the beginning of the study. Group III received 50 mg/kg bwt of an immunostimulatory drug levamisole. Groups IV to IX were dosed daily for 14 days with extract at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg bwt, respectively, using an intragastric tube. Complete blood count (CBC), delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH), neutrophil adhesion test, and hemagglutination antibody titer were determined using standard methods and procedures. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad prism 5.0a Software. Results There was an increment in WBC, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts at a dose of 1000 mg/kg bwt similar to the levamisole-positive control group. The neutrophil adhesion was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) for treatment groups that received 1000 mg/kg bwt (29.94%) and 500 mg/kg bwt at 17.28%. The mean percentage increment in footpad thickness was highest (26.9%) after 8 h of injection of antigen in the footpad of rats dosed 500 mg/kg bwt and this later reduced to 25.6% after 24 h. There was a dose-dependent increment in the mean hemagglutination antibody titer to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) from 10.73±0.57 HA units/μL for the 250 mg/kg bwt to 26.22±1.70 HA units/μL for the 1000 mg/kg bwt. Conclusions Methanolic leaf extract of M. oleifera caused a significant immunostimulatory effect on both the cell-mediated and humoral immune systems in the Wistar albino rats. PMID:26103628

  14. Cold exposure impairs dark-pulse capacity to induce REM sleep in the albino rat.

    PubMed

    Baracchi, Francesca; Zamboni, Giovanni; Cerri, Matteo; Del Sindaco, Elide; Dentico, Daniela; Jones, Christine Ann; Luppi, Marco; Perez, Emanuele; Amici, Roberto

    2008-06-01

    In the albino rat, a REM sleep (REMS) onset can be induced with a high probability and a short latency when the light is suddenly turned off (dark pulse, DP) during non-REM sleep (NREMS). The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent DP delivery could overcome the integrative thermoregulatory mechanisms that depress REMS occurrence during exposure to low ambient temperature (Ta). To this aim, the efficiency of a non-rhythmical repetitive DP (3 min each) delivery during the first 6-h light period of a 12 h:12 h light-dark cycle in inducing REMS was studied in the rat, through the analysis of electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, hypothalamic temperature and motor activity at different Tas. The results showed that DP delivery triggers a transition from NREMS to REMS comparable to that which occurs spontaneously. However, the efficiency of DP delivery in inducing REMS was reduced during cold exposure to an extent comparable with that observed in spontaneous REMS occurrence. Such impairment was associated with low Delta activity and high sympathetic tone when DPs were delivered. Repetitive DP administration increased REMS amount during the delivery period and a subsequent negative REMS rebound was observed. In conclusion, DP delivery did not overcome the integrative thermoregulatory mechanisms that depress REMS in the cold. These results underline the crucial physiological meaning of the mutual exclusion of thermoregulatory activation and REMS occurrence, and support the hypothesis that the suspension of the central control of body temperature is a prerequisite for REMS occurrence.

  15. The acute lethal dose 50 (LD50) of caffeine in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Richard H

    2016-10-01

    An acute LD50 is a statistically derived amount of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of the animals when given by a specified route as a single dose and the animals observed for a specified time period. Although conducting routine acute toxicity testing in rodents has been criticized, it can serve useful functions and also have practical implications. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) will reflect the acute toxicity of a substance and may require workers to wear protective gear, if appropriate, based on the LD50. There is no information in the scientific published literature which calculates a mean LD50 and standard deviation for caffeine administered orally to rats, using studies performed under good laboratory practice (GLP) or equivalent. This report does that and should be useful to manufacturers, packagers, transporters and regulators of this material. Using data from studies that are reproducible and reliable, the most accurate estimate of the acute LD50 of caffeine administered orally in male albino rats is hereby reported to be 367/mg/kg.

  16. The acute lethal dose 50 (LD50) of caffeine in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Richard H

    2016-10-01

    An acute LD50 is a statistically derived amount of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of the animals when given by a specified route as a single dose and the animals observed for a specified time period. Although conducting routine acute toxicity testing in rodents has been criticized, it can serve useful functions and also have practical implications. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) will reflect the acute toxicity of a substance and may require workers to wear protective gear, if appropriate, based on the LD50. There is no information in the scientific published literature which calculates a mean LD50 and standard deviation for caffeine administered orally to rats, using studies performed under good laboratory practice (GLP) or equivalent. This report does that and should be useful to manufacturers, packagers, transporters and regulators of this material. Using data from studies that are reproducible and reliable, the most accurate estimate of the acute LD50 of caffeine administered orally in male albino rats is hereby reported to be 367/mg/kg. PMID:27461039

  17. EFFECTS OF BACTERIAL ENDOTOXIN ON WATER INTAKE, FOOD INTAKE, AND BODY TEMPERATURE IN THE ALBINO RAT.

    PubMed

    HOLMES, J E; MILLER, N E

    1963-10-01

    Intraperitoneal injections of Escherichia coli endotoxin in albino rats produces a decrease in food and water intake and a drop in body temperature. The drop in temperature and in water intake is probably proportional to the size of the dose. Using a behavioral test in which animals are trained to press a bar at a steady rate for intermittent food or water reward, it is possible to demonstrate the sudden onset of the toxin effect at 30 to 45 minutes after injection. In any group of rats, all of whom were presumably exposed to E. coli, three types of response to toxin can be found: (a) Sharp reduction in water intake 30 minutes after injection. (b) Little or no change in intake or rate of working for water reward. (c) Immediate depression of work rate. These three types of reaction appear related to previous experience with the toxin. The "normal" or "inexperienced" reaction a was seen in animals who had not been given toxin before. The "protected" reaction b, with little or no effect of toxin injection on response rate was frequently found 4 to 5 days after a previous injection. The "susceptible" reaction c was found in three animals after 14 or more days had passed since a previous injection. Injections of toxin into the lateral hypothalamic region of four animals through implanted cannulae had no effect on the rate of bar pressing for water. Control injections of lidocaine blocked response rate completely for brief periods in three animals.

  18. Behavioral effects of microwave reinforcement schedules and variations in microwave intensity on albino rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vitulli, W.F.; Lambert, J.K.; Brown, S.W.; Quinn, J.M.

    1987-12-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to determine the interactive effects of fixed-ratio scheduling of microwave reinforcement in tandem with changes in microwave intensity. Nine albino rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with microwave radiation while living in a Skinner (operant conditioning) Box in which the ambient temperature was about 27.13 degrees F at the beginning of the session. Each rat obtained a 6-sec. exposure of microwave radiation on a fixed-ratio schedule of MW reinforcement, the values of which varied from FR-1 to FR-30. Intensities of MW radiation were 62.5 W, 125 W, 250 W, and 437.5 W. Sessions lasted for 8 to 9 hr. over an approximate 13-mo. period. The effects of the intensity of microwave reinforcement varied as a function of the ratio value of the schedule used. Continuous reinforcement (FR-1) produced the lowest over-all rates, whereas FR-15, and FR-25 produced the highest over-all rates. Relatively higher thermal-behavior rates occurred under 62.5 W than under any of the other MW intensities for FR-1, FR-15, and FR-25, whereas FR-10 and FR-30 ratios produced intermediate rates of thermal responding which were constant for all values of MW intensity. These data are explained in terms of interactive effects between the local satiation or deprivation properties of the MW intensity and the ratio requirements of the schedule of MW reinforcement.

  19. [Histochemical detection of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans in the respiratory mucosa of albino rats during estrous cycle, pregnancy and puerperium].

    PubMed

    Pontes, P A; Simões, M J; Merzel, J

    1989-11-01

    In this work we attempted to detect, with histochemical methods, the possible modifications in the mucus of the respiratory mucosa of albino female rats during estral cycle, pregnancy and puerperium. Based on its results, it was possible to conclude that: a--There were no modifications in the nature of the epithelial and supraepithelial mucus during the studied periods: b--The Alcian Blue staining from lamina propria is absent during pregnancy and present during puerperium.

  20. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Roop, J K; Dhaliwal, P K; Guraya, S S

    2005-06-01

    The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 +/- 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group) after oral administration of polar (PF) and non-polar (NPF) fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35 degrees C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05) in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 +/- 0.33 and 4.67 +/- 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 +/- 1.67 and 1.00 +/- 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 +/- 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 +/- 0.40 and 1.80 +/- 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 +/- 7.02) and follicles in various stages (I-VII) of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05) the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 +/- 5.93 and 1.00 +/- 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 +/- 0.88 and 5.33 +/- 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF) and dharek (13.00 +/- 3.58 and 14.60 +/- 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF) treatments compared to control (216.00 +/- 15.72 and 222.20 +/- 19.52, respectively). Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and

  1. Effect of ethanolic fruit extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. on antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in urolithiasis induced wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, A.; Kokilavani, R; Gurusamy, K.; Teepa, K. S. Ananta; Sathya, M.

    2011-01-01

    Urolithiasis was induced using ethylene glycol in wistar albino rats, the formation of calcium stones in the kidney results with the damage of antioxidant system. Ethanolic extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb fruit of family Curcurbitaceae was used to treat urolithiasis. On this course, the extract also repairs the changes that happened in the enzymatic, non enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney of urolithiasis induced rats. The results obtained from the analysis were compared at 5% level of significance using one way ANOVA. The results show that the ethanolic fruit extract has repaired the levels of antioxidants and malondialdehyde to their normal levels. PMID:22736884

  2. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K.; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  3. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K

    2010-03-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  4. Pharmacological Investigation of the Wound Healing Activity of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Hemant Kumar; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Rajnish; Kurmi, Madan Lal; Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Ranawat, Mahendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was aimed at investigating the wound healing effect of ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) leaves (EECN) using excision and incision wound model. Methods. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated) considered as control, group II (ointment base treated) considered as negative control, group III treated with 5% (w/w) povidone iodine ointment (Intadine USP), which served as standard, group IV treated with EECN 2% (w/w) ointment, and group V treated with EECN 5% (w/w) ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. The wound healing effect was assessed by percentage wound contraction, epithelialization period, and histoarchitecture studies in excision wound model while breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the incision wound model. Result. Different concentration of EECN (2% and 5% w/w) ointment promoted the wound healing activity significantly in both the models studied. The high rate of wound contraction (P < 0.001), decrease in the period for epithelialization (P < 0.01), high skin breaking strength (P < 0.001), and elevated hydroxyproline content were observed in animal treated with EECN ointments when compared to the control and negative control group of animals. Histopathological studies of the EECN ointments treated groups also revealed the effectiveness in improved wound healing. Conclusions. Ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (EECN) leaves possesses a concentration dependent wound healing effect. PMID:27018126

  5. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surender; Nair, Vinod; Gupta, Yogendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. Results: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Conclusions: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males. PMID:22368416

  6. Effect of postweaning nutritional and environmental restrictions on discrimination learning in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, A K; Shukla, A P

    1997-12-01

    Charles Foster littermate albino rats (72) were randomized into 9 independent groups in a 3 x 3 factorial design by varying nutrition and environment each at three levels: normal nutrition, 25% nutritional restriction and 50% nutritional restriction; normal environment, 3-week environmental restriction and 6-week environmental restriction. The nutritional and environmental restrictions were imposed from the 30th day of life for 6 weeks. The animals were subsequently tested for black/white original learning followed by reversal discrimination learning in a T-maze. The results indicated significant main effects for nutrition and environment on indices of learning ability. However, the nutrition x environment interaction was not significant. Post hoc analysis revealed that moderate and severe nutritional restriction as well as long-term environmental restriction caused significant discrimination learning deficits. Short-term environmental restriction failed to produce significant effect on learning behaviour. The results are discussed in context of environmental stress effects, altered brain mechanisms and psychological changes such as increased drive level and emotionality of the animal. PMID:9567762

  7. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

  8. Pharmacological Investigation of the Wound Healing Activity of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nagar, Hemant Kumar; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Rajnish; Kurmi, Madan Lal; Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Ranawat, Mahendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was aimed at investigating the wound healing effect of ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) leaves (EECN) using excision and incision wound model. Methods. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated) considered as control, group II (ointment base treated) considered as negative control, group III treated with 5% (w/w) povidone iodine ointment (Intadine USP), which served as standard, group IV treated with EECN 2% (w/w) ointment, and group V treated with EECN 5% (w/w) ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. The wound healing effect was assessed by percentage wound contraction, epithelialization period, and histoarchitecture studies in excision wound model while breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the incision wound model. Result. Different concentration of EECN (2% and 5% w/w) ointment promoted the wound healing activity significantly in both the models studied. The high rate of wound contraction (P < 0.001), decrease in the period for epithelialization (P < 0.01), high skin breaking strength (P < 0.001), and elevated hydroxyproline content were observed in animal treated with EECN ointments when compared to the control and negative control group of animals. Histopathological studies of the EECN ointments treated groups also revealed the effectiveness in improved wound healing. Conclusions. Ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (EECN) leaves possesses a concentration dependent wound healing effect. PMID:27018126

  9. Trichosanthes dioica fruit ameliorates experimentally induced arsenic toxicity in male albino rats through the alleviation of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2012-08-01

    The present work was focused to evaluate the ameliorative property of aqueous extract of Trichosanthes dioica fruit (AQ T. dioica fruit) against arsenic-induced toxicity in male Wistar albino rats. AQ T. dioica fruit was administered orally to rats at 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for 20 consecutive days prior to oral administration of sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg) for 10 days. Then the rats were sacrificed for the evaluation of body weights, organ weights, hematological profile, serum biochemical profile, and hepatic and renal antioxidative parameters viz. lipid peroxidation, reduced and oxidized glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and DNA fragmentation. Pretreatment with AQ T. dioica fruit at both doses markedly and significantly normalized body weights, organ weights, hematological profiles, and serum biochemical profile in arsenic-treated animals. Further, AQ T. dioica fruit pretreatment significantly modulated all the aforesaid hepatic and renal biochemical perturbations and reduced DNA fragmentation in arsenic-intoxicated rats. Therefore, from the present findings, it can be concluded that T. dioica fruit possessed remarkable value in amelioration of arsenic-induced hepatic and renal toxicity, mediated by alleviation of arsenic-induced oxidative stress by multiple mechanisms in male albino rats.

  10. Effect of methanolic extract of Dendrophthoe falcata stem on reproductive function of male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R S; Kachhawa, J B S; Sharma, A

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the considerable development in contraceptive technology, search for male antifertility agents in plants continues to be a potential area of investigation. Many plants have been known to possess antifertility activity, but limited attempts have been made to scientifically evaluate these claims. Hence the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antifertility and reproductive toxicity potential of Dendrophthoe falcata (Loranthaceae) in male Wistar rats. An oral 70% methanolic extract of stem of D. falcata at a dose level of 100 mg/kg wt/day fed to male albino rats for 60 days did not decrease body weight, while the testes and epididymides were significantly reduced, and the seminal vesicles and ventral prostate also showed a significant reduction (P < 0.01). Treated animals showed a notable depression of spermatogenesis. As a result of 100 mg/kg extract feeding, the preleptotene spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, step-19 spermatids and the mature Leydig cells decreased by 74.36%, 80.03%, 79.87%, 32.37%, respectively. At this dose Leydig cell nuclear area and cytoplasmic area, as well as the cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells, were significantly reduced (P < 0.001) when compared to controls. The reduced sperm count and motility resulted in 100% negative fertility at 100 mg/kg dose level. A significant fall in the total protein and sialic acid content in the testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate, as well as in the glycogen content of testes was also observed. The level of serum protein, cholesterol, billirubin, SGOT, SGPT, blood urea, and hematological indices were unaltered. In conclusion, Dendrophthoe falcata brought about the inhibition of spermatogenesis.

  11. Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Haggag, Mohammad El-Sayed Yassin El-Sayed; Elsanhoty, Rafaat Mohamed; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. Methods The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. Results The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r: 0.743; P<0.001) and between blood MDA and liver MDA (r: 0.897; P<0.001). The results showed also negative correlations between blood MDA on one hand and SOD, GPx, vitamin E and TAC on the other hand. Conclusions The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage. PMID:24144131

  12. Effects of Different Concentrations of Fluoride in Oral Mucosal Cells in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, P.Ajay; Rao, T.Madhusudhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fluoride has been described to be physiologically essential for the normal development and growth of human beings. However, it is well known that excessive fluoride causes skeletal, nonskeletal and dental complications. Therefore, outlining the cytogenetic effects induced by fluorosis is necessary. Objectives To evaluate the cytomorphology of exfoliated oral mucosal cells among various concentrations of fluoride. Study design: Study group comprised of 12 Albino Wistar rats, categorized into A,B and C groups (fed with 25 ppm,50 ppm and 100 ppm concentration of NaF), each group consisting of 4 rats, with 4 controls (fed with 1ppm concentration of NaF in distilled water). Each group was fed for a period of 42 days. Materials and Methods Cytological smears were taken from the buccal mucosa of each group after 42 days of fluoride administration. The samples were stained with the papanicolaou method and assessed for Cytomorphometrical changes in maximum diameter of nucleus, minimum diameter of nucleus, perimeter of the nucleus, maximum diameter of the cell, minimum diameter of the cell and perimeter of the cell by image analysis software and the results were statistically analysed using SPSS software. Results Mean values of maximum diameter, minimum diameter and perimeter of the nucleus increased in fluoride induced study groups when compared to controls and the results showed that p-value was statistically significant (p-value: 0.000, 0.001). Mean value of maximum diameter, minimum diameter and perimeter of the cell decreased in fluoride induced subjects when compared with controls which were statistically not significant (p-value: 0.791, 0.600 & 0.719). A continuous increase in the nuclear size and decrease in the cell size was identified in fluoride induced groups as compared to controls. Conclusion The observations of our present study revealed that cellular changes occur with severity of fluorosis. These cellular morphological changes may possibly

  13. The effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the nonsteroidal antiandrogen flutamide on testis descent and morphology in the Albino Swiss rat

    PubMed Central

    KASSIM, NORMADIAH M.; McDONALD, S. W.; REID, O.; BENNETT, N. K.; GILMORE, D. P.; PAYNE, A. P.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure of male Albino Swiss rats to the nonsteroidal antiandrogen flutamide during the period from gestational day (d) 10 to birth resulted in feminisation of the external genitalia and the suppression of growth of the male reproductive tract. In adulthood, testes were found to be located in diverse positions. True cryptorchidism occurred in 10% of cases, whereas 50% of testes descended to the scrotum and 40% were located in a suprainguinal ectopic region. Varying degrees of tubule abnormality were seen in the testes of flutamide-treated animals, ranging from completely normal tubules with full spermatogenesis (and the expected frequency of the stages of spermatogenesis) to severely abnormal tubules lined with Sertoli cells only. For each individual testis, the overall severity of tubule damage was strongly correlated with its adult location, with intra-abdominal testes worst affected and scrotally-located testes least; only the latter contained normal tubules. Similarly, intra-abdominal testes were the smallest in weight and contained the least testosterone. By contrast, postnatal treatment of male rats with flutamide from birth to postnatal d 14 did not impair development of the external genitalia, the process of testicular descent or adult spermatogenesis. These findings confirm that androgen blockade during embryonic development interferes with testicular descent but also demonstrate that (1) prenatal flutamide treatment per se has a detrimental effect on adult testis morphology but (2) the degree of abnormality of the testes is strongly influenced by location. PMID:9183680

  14. Effect of alcohol and kolanut interaction on biochemical indices of neuronal gene expression in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Obochi, G O; Abara, A E; Malu, S P; Ekam, V S; Uboh, F U; Umoh, I B

    2007-01-01

    Effect of alcohol and kolanut interactions on biochemical indices of neuronal gene expression in Wistar albino rats was studied. Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups of five (5) rats per group. The control group (1) received via oral route a placebo (4 ml of distilled water). Groups 2-6 were treated for a period of 21-days with (10 % v/v) 50 mg/kg body weight of alcohol, 50 mg/kg body weight of kolanut, 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine, 50 mg/kg body weight of alcohol and 50 mg/kg body weight of kolanut, and 50 mg/kg body weight of alcohol and 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine in 4.0 ml of the vehicle via gastric intubation respectively. One day after the final exposure, the brain of each rat was harvested and processed to examine several biochemical parameters namely total protein, DNA, RNA and protein/RNA ratios. The status of neuronal gene expression was monitored through assessment of these parameters. The results showed that alcohol-kolanut co-administration decreased brain total protein, DNA, RNA levels and protein/RNA ratios, and inhibited gene expression. These effects, in turn, inhibited DNA transcription, MRNA splicing and protein synthesis, and polypeptide expression, which are necessary for the growth, development, differentiation and cell survival.

  15. Protective effects of ginger toward cadmium-induced testes and kidney lipid peroxidation and hematological impairment in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Onwuka, Frank C; Erhabor, Osaro; Eteng, M U; Umoh, I B

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral dietary supplementation with ginger on cadmium-induced toxic effects on biochemical, hematological, and pathophysiological indices of albino rats. The effect of cadmium and cadmium/ginger treatment on lipid peroxidation was measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in testes and kidney; serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzyme were investigated alongside hematological indices. The results showed that cadmium induces a significant increase in both testicular and kidney MDA, whereas cadmium/ginger treatment produced a significant reversal of the effect of lipid peroxidation (P=.004). Cadmium treatment induced 75%, 78%, and 22% increases in activities of ACP, PAP, and ALP, respectively, whereas the cadmium/ginger-treated group reversed these values for enzyme activities (P=.001). Results of organ weight and hematological indices analysis in the cadmium-treated rats showed a decrease in organ weight and distortion of the hemopoietic features, whereas the cadmium/ginger-treated rats showed an improvement in organ weight and hematological indices (P=.04 and .001, respectively). The reversal of the toxic effects of cadmium in the cadmium/ginger-treated albino rats heralds the antioxidant potency of ginger toward cadmium toxicity-associated oxidative stress. PMID:21476888

  16. Effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on sodium valporate induced cytogenetic and testicular alterations in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Saber A; Zowail, Mohamed E; Marzouk, Amera M

    2014-09-01

    The present study investigated the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiepileptic drug, sodium valporate (SVP) in albino rats and the effect of saffron aqueous extracts. Treating rats with SVP caused a significant increase in the chromosomal aberrations either structural or numerical and decreased the mitotic index. Besides, animals administered SVP showed DNA damage appeared in the single strand breaks (comet assay). Testis of SVP-treated rats showed many histopathological changes. A significant decrease in seminiferous tubules and their epithelial heights diameters and inhibition of spermatogenesis was recorded. In addition, the number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Biochemical results revealed an increase in malondialdhyde (MDA) which is lipid peroxidation marker and a significant decrease in the level of serum antioxidant enzyme, catalase (CAT) and reducing antioxidant power (RAP). Animals given SVP and saffron showed an improvement in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by SVP. Moreover, MDA decreased and CAT and RAP increased. It is concluded from the present results that the ameliorative effects of saffron extract against SVP-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats may be due to the presence of one or more antioxidant components of saffron.

  17. Evaluation of wound healing activity of cow urine ark in diabetic Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Hirapara, Hiren N.; Ghori, Vishal M.; Anovadiya, Ashish P.; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate wound healing activity of cow urine ark in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6). Three groups - diabetic control, active control (glibenclamide), and treatment (cow urine ark) were operated for excision wounds (EWs). Rats in these groups received distilled water 1 ml/day, glibenclamide 0.5 mg/kg body weight/day, and cow urine ark 5.5 ml/kg body weight/day orally till complete healing of the EWs. EWs were evaluated for wound contraction on 3rd, 7th, and 11th day and for reepithelization on 11th day. The other three groups were operated for incision wounds (IW) as well as dead space wounds (DW) in the same animal which received the above agents orally for 11 days. IWs were analyzed for wound breaking strength and DWs were analyzed for dry weight, hydroxyproline content, and histology of granulation tissue. Results: EWs showed significantly increased wound closure in the treatment group as compared to the diabetic as well as active control groups at 3rd (P < 0.001) and 11th (P < 0.05) post-wounding day and to the only diabetic control group at 7th (P < 0.01) post-wounding day. IWs showed significant improvement in wound breaking strength in the treatment as compared to diabetic (P < 0.001) and active control (P < 0.01) groups. DWs showed significant increase in hydroxyproline content of granulation tissue in the treatment as compared to diabetic control (P < 0.001) and active control (P < 0.001) groups. Wound breaking strength and hydroxyproline content also significantly increased in the active control group compared to diabetic control (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Granulation tissue dry weight was significantly increased in treatment and active control groups as compared to diabetic control (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Cow urine ark increases granulation tissue formation as well as collagen content. Wound contraction was also significantly

  18. Light and darkness regulate melanopsin in the retinal ganglion cells of the albino Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Jens; Georg, Birgitte; Hindersson, Peter; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are daily adjusted to the environmental day/night cycle by photic input via the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT). Recent studies indicate that melanopsin, a newly identified opsin-like molecule, is involved in the light responsiveness of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) constituting the RHT. In the present study, we examined the expression of melanopsin at the mRNA and protein level during a day/night cycle and during prolonged periods of light and darkness in the retina of albino Wistar rats. We observed a diurnal change in melanopsin, with mRNA level being highest at early subjective night and protein level highest at late subjective day. Prolonged exposure to darkness significantly increased melanopsin mRNA level as early as the first day, and the expression continued to increase during 5 d in darkness. The decrease in mRNA level during exposure to constant light was slower. After 48 h of light, the melanopsin mRNA level was significantly reduced, and an almost undetectable level was found after 5 d. The induction of melanopsin by darkness was even more pronounced if darkness was preceded by light suppression for 5 d. By use of immunohistochemistry, we showed that darkness increased the amount of protein in the dendritic processes, resulting in a dense network covering the entire retina. Constant light decreased melanopsin immunostaining time dependently, beginning in the distal dendrites and progressing to the proximal dendrites and the soma. Our observations suggest that the intrinsic light-responsive RGCs adapt their expression of the putative circadian photopigment melanopsin to environmental light and darkness.

  19. Metabolic response to optic centers to visual stimuli in the albino rat: anatomical and physiological considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Toga, A.W.; Collins, R.C.

    1981-07-10

    The functional organization of the visual system was studied in the albino rat. Metabolic differences were measured using the /sup 14/C-2-deoxyglucose (DG) autoradiographic technique during visual stimulation of one entire retina in unrestrained animals. All optic centers responded to changes in light intensity but to different degrees. The greatest change occurred in the superior colliculus, less in the lateral geniculate, and considerably less in second-order sites such as layer IV of visual cortex. These optic centers responded in particular to on/off stimuli, but showed no incremental change during pattern reversal or movement of orientation stimuli. Both the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate increased their metabolic rate as the frequency of stimulation increased, but the magnitude was twice as great in the colliculus. The histological pattern of metabolic change in the visual system was not homogenous. In the superior colliculus glucose utilization increased only in stratum griseum superficiale and was greatest in visuotopic regions representing the peripheral portions of the visual field. Similarly, in the lateral geniculate, only the dorsal nucleus showed an increased response to greater stimulus frequencies. Second-order regions of the visual system showed changes in metabolism in response to visual stimulation, but no incremental response specific for type or frequency of stimuli. To label proteins of axoplasmic transport to study the terminal fields of retinal projections /sup 14/C-amino acids were used. This was done to study how the differences in the magnitude of the metabolic response among optic centers were related to the relative quantity of retinofugal projections to these centers.

  20. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Ghanashyam Keshav; Mahajan, Raghunath Totaram; Mahajan, Arun Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of Ipomoea digitata (ID) based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P < 0.01) along with increase in the testis, and epididymes weight in neem-oil induced infertile rats treated with ID at both dose levels. This effect is vis-à-vis to serum hormonal levels. Presence of β-sitosterol in the root of ID likely to enhance the process of spermatogenesis as it is evident from histomorphological studies. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation reveal that ID is a good candidate for the management of male infertility. PMID:26401398

  1. Effects of monosodium-L-glutamate administration on serum levels of reproductive hormones and cholesterol, epididymal sperm reserves and testicular histomorphology of male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ochiogu, Izuchukwu S; Ogwu, David; Uchendu, Chukwuka N; Okoye, Chidozie N; Ihedioha, John I; Mbegbu, Edmund C

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of administration of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) on serum gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinising hormone (LH), testosterone and total cholesterol (TC), cauda epididymal sperm reserves (CESR) and testicular histomorphology of adult male albino rats. Eighty-four rats, randomly assigned to 7 groups of 12 rats each, were used for the study. Varying low doses (0.25, 0.50 or 1.00 g/kg body weight) of MSG were administered orally or subcutaneously at 48-h intervals for six weeks. Serum GnRH, LH, testosterone and TC, and CESR were evaluated on days 14, 28 and 42 of MSG administration. Testicular histomorphology was evaluated on day 42. The results showed that the mean serum GnRH, LH and testosterone levels, and the CESR of all the treated groups were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of the untreated control on days 14, 28 and 42 of MSG administration. The mean serum TC levels of all the treated groups were also significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of the control group on days 14 and 28. No lesions were observed on sections of the testes. It was concluded that MSG administration for 14, 28 and 42 days led to significantly lower serum levels of GnRH, LH, testosterone and TC, and significantly lower CESR. PMID:25655420

  2. Hypoglycaemic and Tissue-Protective Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Persea Americana Seeds on Alloxan-Induced Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    EZEJIOFOR, Anthonet Ndidi; OKORIE, Abednego; ORISAKWE, Orish Ebere

    2013-01-01

    Background: The tissue-protective potential of Persea americana necessitated a look into the histopathological effects of the plant extract on the pancreas, liver, and kidneys. This study was conceived and designed based on the gaps in the research that has been performed and what is known about the plant. The hypoglycaemic and tissue-protective effects of hot aqueous Persea americana (avocado pear) seed extracts on alloxan-induced albino rats were investigated. Methods: Persea americana seeds were extracted using hot water, and different concentrations of the extract were prepared. The effects of different concentrations (20, 30, 40 g/L) of the hot aqueous P. americana seed extract on alloxan-induced Wistar albino rats were compared with those of a reference drug, glibenclamide. The glucose level of the rats was measured daily, and the weight of the animal was monitored on a weekly basis for 21 days. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes, and the histopathologies of the liver, kidneys, and pancreas were investigated. Phytochemical analysis of P. americana seed extracts indicated the presence of glycosides, tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, and alkaloids. Results: The results showed that the extract possessed a significant hypoglycaemic (P < 0.05) effect and reversed the histopathological damage that occurred in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, comparable to the effects glibenclamide. The seeds of P. americana also had anti-diabetic and protective effects on some rat tissues such as the pancreas, kidneys, and liver. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study provides a pharmacological basis for the folkloric use of the hot-water extract of P. americana seeds in the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:24643349

  3. Antifertility effect of Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract in female albino rats.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Reshu; Dhaliwal, Patwant Kaur

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, the effect of oral administration of Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract on fertility index, uterine weight and various histological and biochemical parameters of uterus were studied in the adult cyclic Wistar rats. Average number of embryos and implantation losses in the pregnant animals treated with dharek seed extract was also studied. The extract was prepared using a flash evaporator at 35 degrees C and dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on per kg body weight basis. The results indicated a reduction in fertility index and average number of embryos in mated rats treated with the dharek extract. Pre-implantation, post-implantation and total prenatal mortalities were increased in rats treated with dharek seed extract during early (D1-D7) and late (D7-D18) stages of gestation period at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) body wt day(-1). Histological studies showed a significant reduction in myometrial thickness, uterine gland diameter, luminal diameter of uterine glands and luminal epithelial cell height in rats treated with dharek seed extract at 1mg kg(-1) body wt day(-1) for 18 days. Pits and folds in luminal epithelial, mitotic activity in luminal and glandular epithelial cells of uterus were observed to be absent. Biochemically, a significant increase in protein and glycogen contents was observed. Thus, in conclusion, the application of this plant extract in rodent control programme may help to elevate the socioeconomic status of the society. PMID:17948733

  4. Effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida Linn. on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Swarnamoni; Kanodia, Lalit; Mukherjee, Apurba; Hakim, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Paederia foetida (EEPF) was prepared by percolation method. Acute toxicity test was done by using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines. Albino rats were divided into four groups of five animals each. Groups A and B received 3% gum acacia. Groups C and D received EEPF 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 5-aminosalisylic acid 100 mg/kg BW respectively. Colitis was induced by transrectal administration of 4% acetic acid on 5th day. All animals were sacrificed after 48 h of colitis induction and distal 10 cm of the colon was dissected. Colon was weighed for disease activity index (DAI) and scored macroscopically and microscopically. Biochemical assessment of tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was done in colonic tissue homogenate and malondialdehyde (MDA) was estimated in serum. Results: P. foetida showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in DAI, macroscopic and microscopic lesion score as well as significant (P < 0.05) improvement in MPO, MDA, CAT, and SOD level as compared to Group B. Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of leaves of P. foetida showed significant amelioration of experimentally induced colitis, which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property. PMID:24130378

  5. Bisphenol A exposure and healing effects of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. plant extract (APE) in bisphenol A-induced reproductive toxicity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Balal; Amina; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Ruwei; Qadir, Abdul; Ali, Muhammad Ubaid; Kanwal, Qudsia; Munir, Bushra; Asmatullah; Abbas, Zaigham

    2016-06-01

    The current study presents the bisphenol A exposure and the ameliorative effects of Adiantum capillus-veneris on testicular toxicity induced by bisphenol A. Adult male albino rats were divided into five groups of five animals each: A (control), B (vehicle control), C (toxic), D (protective), and E (ameliorative) were served distilled water, olive oil, bisphenol A (BPA) at 100 mg/kg body weight, A. capillus-veneris plant extract at 25 mg/kg body weight, and BPA + A. capillus-veneris, respectively. All of the doses were administered orally for 15 days, and the rats were then sacrificed. Blood samples for the testosterone assay and both testes were collected for histological examination. The body weight, paired testes weight, relative tissue weight index, Johnsen scoring of tubules, and level of serum testosterone decreased in BPA-treated rats. Similarly, histological examination of the testes in BPA-treated animals revealed a lower number of Leydig cells, an irregular basement membrane, sloughing of germinal layers, vacuolization, a lower number of spermatocytes, and debris in the lumen. However, co-administration of A. capillus-veneris with BPA increased the total antioxidative capacity (330.82 ± 22.46 μmol/mg protein) of the testes and restored the serum testosterone level (1.70 ng/ml); histological features showed restoration in the stages of spermatogenesis. Conclusively, A. capillus-veneris plant extract overcomes the estrogenic effects of BPA on the reproductive system of rats and protects rats' testes against BPA-induced injury/damage via an antioxidative mechanism that appears to be conciliated. PMID:26936479

  6. Bisphenol A exposure and healing effects of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. plant extract (APE) in bisphenol A-induced reproductive toxicity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Balal; Amina; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Ruwei; Qadir, Abdul; Ali, Muhammad Ubaid; Kanwal, Qudsia; Munir, Bushra; Asmatullah; Abbas, Zaigham

    2016-06-01

    The current study presents the bisphenol A exposure and the ameliorative effects of Adiantum capillus-veneris on testicular toxicity induced by bisphenol A. Adult male albino rats were divided into five groups of five animals each: A (control), B (vehicle control), C (toxic), D (protective), and E (ameliorative) were served distilled water, olive oil, bisphenol A (BPA) at 100 mg/kg body weight, A. capillus-veneris plant extract at 25 mg/kg body weight, and BPA + A. capillus-veneris, respectively. All of the doses were administered orally for 15 days, and the rats were then sacrificed. Blood samples for the testosterone assay and both testes were collected for histological examination. The body weight, paired testes weight, relative tissue weight index, Johnsen scoring of tubules, and level of serum testosterone decreased in BPA-treated rats. Similarly, histological examination of the testes in BPA-treated animals revealed a lower number of Leydig cells, an irregular basement membrane, sloughing of germinal layers, vacuolization, a lower number of spermatocytes, and debris in the lumen. However, co-administration of A. capillus-veneris with BPA increased the total antioxidative capacity (330.82 ± 22.46 μmol/mg protein) of the testes and restored the serum testosterone level (1.70 ng/ml); histological features showed restoration in the stages of spermatogenesis. Conclusively, A. capillus-veneris plant extract overcomes the estrogenic effects of BPA on the reproductive system of rats and protects rats' testes against BPA-induced injury/damage via an antioxidative mechanism that appears to be conciliated.

  7. Immunopathological and antimicrobial effect of black pepper, ginger and thyme extracts on experimental model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Nassan, M A; Mohamed, E H

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed prominent antimicrobial activity of various plant extracts on certain pathogenic microorganisms, therefore we prepared crude aqueous extracts of black pepper, ginger and thyme and carried out an in vitro study by measuring antimicrobial activity of these extracts using the agar well diffusion method. An in vivo study was carried out on 50 adult healthy male albino rats which were divided into 5 groups, 10 rats each. Group 1: negative control group which received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 2: Positive control group, injected with mixed bacterial suspension of S.aureus and E.coli as a model of pyelonephritis, then received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 3: injected with the same dose of mixed bacterial suspension, then received 100 mg/kg/day black pepper extract intragastrically; Group 4: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day ginger extract intragastrically. Group 5: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day thyme extract intragastrically. All groups were sacrificed after either 1 or 4 weeks. Serum and blood samples were collected for lysozyme activity estimation using agarose lysoplate, measurement of nitric oxide production, and lymphocyte transformation test as well as for counting both total and differential leukocytes and erythrocytes. Kidney samples were tested histopathologically. Both in vivo and in vitro results confirm the efficacy of these extracts as natural antimicrobials and suggest the possibility of using them in treatment procedures. PMID:25572733

  8. Immunopathological and antimicrobial effect of black pepper, ginger and thyme extracts on experimental model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Nassan, M A; Mohamed, E H

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed prominent antimicrobial activity of various plant extracts on certain pathogenic microorganisms, therefore we prepared crude aqueous extracts of black pepper, ginger and thyme and carried out an in vitro study by measuring antimicrobial activity of these extracts using the agar well diffusion method. An in vivo study was carried out on 50 adult healthy male albino rats which were divided into 5 groups, 10 rats each. Group 1: negative control group which received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 2: Positive control group, injected with mixed bacterial suspension of S.aureus and E.coli as a model of pyelonephritis, then received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 3: injected with the same dose of mixed bacterial suspension, then received 100 mg/kg/day black pepper extract intragastrically; Group 4: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day ginger extract intragastrically. Group 5: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day thyme extract intragastrically. All groups were sacrificed after either 1 or 4 weeks. Serum and blood samples were collected for lysozyme activity estimation using agarose lysoplate, measurement of nitric oxide production, and lymphocyte transformation test as well as for counting both total and differential leukocytes and erythrocytes. Kidney samples were tested histopathologically. Both in vivo and in vitro results confirm the efficacy of these extracts as natural antimicrobials and suggest the possibility of using them in treatment procedures.

  9. Modulatory effect of whey proteins in some cytokines involved in wound healing in male diabetic albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Bahaa Kenawy Abuel-Hussien

    2014-10-01

    The anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necroses factor-alpha (TNF-α)) have important functions in wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with whey protein could enhance normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic rats. In this study, male albino rats were divided into a wounded control group, a wounded diabetic group, and a wounded diabetic group supplemented with whey protein orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Tested rats showed increasing wound closure in rats treated with whey protein. In addition, after 4 days of wound, modulation in IL-4, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were detected. Statistical analysis of data showed significant difference between the whey-protein-treated group and either control or diabetic groups (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with whey protein enhances the normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic rats by modulating the levels of some anti-inflammatory and inflammatory cytokines.

  10. Antiapoptotic and antioxidant effects of carvedilol and vitamin E protect against diabetic nephropathy and cardiomyopathy in diabetic Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Raheem, M H; Salim, S U; Mosad, E; Al-Rifaay, A; Salama, H S; Hasan-Ali, H

    2015-02-01

    Carvedilol is a novel β-adrenoreceptor blocker, with antioxidant properties inhibiting lipid peroxidation and preventing the depletion of endogenous antioxidants. Moreover, carvedilol was reported to enhance the expression of Bcl-2 gene, which has antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects. There are few researches testing the protective effect of carvedilol on the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy and nephropathy. In this study, we induced diabetes mellitus in male Wistar albino rats. We investigated carvedilol, as well as vitamin E, administrated in healthy and diabetic rats for 6 weeks to compare their effects on biochemical parameters and the expression of Bcl-2 protein in both myocardial and renal tissues by immunohistochemistry. The study showed that the diabetic rats not only had renal dysfunction and more myocardial damage, but also showed lower expression of Bcl-2 protein. Carvedilol and vitamin E treatments were associated with better renal function and less myocardial damage, lower blood glucose, and lipid peroxidation, higher antioxidant capacity, better serum lipids, and higher expression of Bcl-2 protein in diabetic rats. These results indicate that carvedilol and vitamin E treatments partly protect against myocardial and renal damage probably via their antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties in diabetic rats.

  11. Effect of different forms of acute stress in the generation of reactive oxygen species in albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Smitha, K K; Mukkadan, J K

    2014-01-01

    Stress is common for all organisms either in the form of eustress (beneficial) or as distress (harmful). Stress is highly diverse in present world and its effects in organisms are well studied. This study is a comparative effect of stress in the generation of reactive oxygen species in albino Wistar rats, which are seldom reported. Here animals were grouped into four and the test animals of each group were administered with any one of the following stress, namely forced swimming induced stress (FS), and noise induced stress (NS), immobilization stress (IS) and overcrowding stress (OS). After stress administration, serum cortisol was estimated as a bio marker of stress in the albino rats, and the liver homogenate were used to estimate superoxide dismutase (SOD) by using rat Elisa kit in the spectrophotometer. The data were processed with unpaired 't' test. The cortisol levels were found to be increased in a highly significant level (P < 0.001) in all the groups as compared to the normal control. And the stress level was found to be maximum in the FS group in comparison with other groups. The mean cortisol level in different stress groups such as FS, NS, IS and OS were found to be 4.15, 3.7, 3.63, 3.62 μ gm/dl respectively. Among all the stressed groups, the SOD level in the FS group were found to be increased in a highly significant level (P < 0.001) in comparison with normal control group. The SOD level in FS group was (30.75 U/mgm. protein) followed by OS (28.96), noise (28.88) and IS (28.77).

  12. Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress

    SciTech Connect

    Mel'nik, E.I.; Lupandin, A.V.; Timoshin, S.S.

    1985-05-01

    The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress.

  13. The effect of the aqueous extract of Kohautia grandiflora on paracetamol-induced liver damage in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Garba, S H; Sambo, N; Bala, U

    2009-06-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Kohautia grandiflora on paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. A total of 20 albino rats of the Wister strain weighing 120-180 g were used for the study. The animals were divided into 4 groups of 5-rats each [I-IV]. Groups I, II and III served as the normal, paracetamol and plant extract controls and were administered with normal saline, 500 mg/kg of paracetamol and 300 mg/kg of the plant extract respectively for 7 days while rats in group IV served as the treatment group and were pre-treated with 300 mg/kg of the plant extract respectively for 7 days before 500 mg/kg of paracetamol was administered on the 8th day. At the end of the experimental period, blood was obtained from each rat for the determination of serum levels of aspartate transaminase [AST], alanine transaminase [ALT], alkaline phosphatase [ALP], albumin and bilirubin. Biochemical analysis of the serum obtained showed a significant increase [P<0.05] in the levels of AST, ALT, ALP and albumin in rats administered with 500 mg/kg of paracetamol and 300 mg/kg of the extract respectively. Pre-treatment of the animals with the extract caused a decrease in the levels of these enzymes. Histopathological assessments of the liver sections of rats administered with 500 mg/kg of paracetamol and 300 mg/kg of the extract showed congestion of the venous sinusoids, necrosis, edema, mononuclear infiltration and cloudy swellings with the severity higher in the paracetamol treated group. Pre-treatment with 300 mg/kg of the extract revealed a slight hepatoprotection compared with the rats that were administered with paracetamol alone. This study has shown that the aqueous extract of Kohautia grandiflora possesses slight hepatoprotective property. PMID:19826460

  14. Effect of caffeine-coconut products interactions on induction of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abara, A E; Obochi, G O; Malu, S P; Obi-Abang, M; Ekam, V S; Uboh, F E

    2007-01-01

    Effect of caffeine-coconut products interactions on induction of drug-metabolizing enzyme in Wistar albino rats was studied. Twenty rats were randomly divided into four groups: The control group (1) received via oral route a placebo (4.0 ml of distilled water). Groups 2 to 4 were treated for a 14-day period with 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine, 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine and 50 mg/kg body weight of coconut water, and 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine and 50 mg/kg body weight of coconut milk in 4.0 ml of the vehicle via gastric intubation respectively. One day after the final exposure, the animals were anaesthetized by inhalation of an overdose of chloroform. The blood of each rat was collected by cardiac puncture while the liver of each rat was harvested and processed to examine several biochemical parameters, i.e., total protein and RNA levels, protein/RNA ratios, and activities of alanine and aspartate amino transferase (ALT and AST, respectively). The results showed that while ingestion of coconut milk and coconut water increased the values of protein and protein/RNA ratios, it decreased alanine and aspartate amino transferase (ALT and AST) activities. These effects, in turn, enhanced the induction of the metabolizing enzymes and a resultant faster clearance and elimination of the caffeine from the body, there by reducing the toxic effect on the liver. PMID:18379623

  15. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N

    2015-09-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and vLDL. Feeding on POME led to significant increase (p < 0.05) in cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL levels in brain tissues. Increased hepatic LDL level was also observed in POME fed rats. Except for hepatic triglyceride and tissues HDL level, a rather reduced level of the studied lipids was observed in the serum and tissues of palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.

  16. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N

    2015-09-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and vLDL. Feeding on POME led to significant increase (p < 0.05) in cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL levels in brain tissues. Increased hepatic LDL level was also observed in POME fed rats. Except for hepatic triglyceride and tissues HDL level, a rather reduced level of the studied lipids was observed in the serum and tissues of palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent. PMID:27441210

  17. Effect of caffeine-coconut products interactions on induction of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abara, A E; Obochi, G O; Malu, S P; Obi-Abang, M; Ekam, V S; Uboh, F E

    2007-01-01

    Effect of caffeine-coconut products interactions on induction of drug-metabolizing enzyme in Wistar albino rats was studied. Twenty rats were randomly divided into four groups: The control group (1) received via oral route a placebo (4.0 ml of distilled water). Groups 2 to 4 were treated for a 14-day period with 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine, 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine and 50 mg/kg body weight of coconut water, and 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine and 50 mg/kg body weight of coconut milk in 4.0 ml of the vehicle via gastric intubation respectively. One day after the final exposure, the animals were anaesthetized by inhalation of an overdose of chloroform. The blood of each rat was collected by cardiac puncture while the liver of each rat was harvested and processed to examine several biochemical parameters, i.e., total protein and RNA levels, protein/RNA ratios, and activities of alanine and aspartate amino transferase (ALT and AST, respectively). The results showed that while ingestion of coconut milk and coconut water increased the values of protein and protein/RNA ratios, it decreased alanine and aspartate amino transferase (ALT and AST) activities. These effects, in turn, enhanced the induction of the metabolizing enzymes and a resultant faster clearance and elimination of the caffeine from the body, there by reducing the toxic effect on the liver.

  18. Effects of lithium chloride on testicular steroidogenic and gametogenic functions in mature male albino rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, D.; Chaudhuri, A.; Biswas, N.M.; Ghosh, P.K. )

    1990-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of lithium, on steroidogenic and gametogenic functions of testis in the rat. Adult male rats of Wistar strain were injected with lithium chloride at the dose of 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg, and 0.4 mg/100 g body weight/day for 21 days. All the treated animals along with the vehicle treated controls were sacrificed 24 hours after the last injections. Testicular steroidogenic activity was evaluated by measuring the activities of two steroidogenic key enzymes, {Delta}{sup 5}-3{beta} hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase ({Delta}{sup 5} -3{beta}-HSD) and 17{beta} hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17{beta} -HSD). Gametogenic capacity was determined by counting the number of germ cells at stage VII of seminiferous cycle. Plasma levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Administration of lithium chloride at a dose of 0.1 mg/100g body wt. for 21 days led to insignificant changes of plasma FSH, LH, PRL and T along with unaltered activities of testicular {Delta}5 -3{beta}-HSD, 17 {beta}-HSD activities and gametogenesis.

  19. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma in healthy and hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    El-Newary, Samah A; Sulieman, A M; El-Attar, S R; Sitohy, M Z

    2016-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Hyperlipidemia increases the incidence of myocardial ischemia and cardiac events. This study evaluated the potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant action of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma ("CDNP extract"). In vivo studies were performed for 10 weeks on dietary hyperlipidemic and healthy Wistar albino rat models that received two dose levels of the CDNP extract (0.50 and 1.00 g/kg body weight). Serum lipid profiles were determined for the experimental animals. Dietary hyperlipidemic rats were characterized by an elevated lipid profile compared to the healthy control, i.e., increased levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and triglycerides (TG), although the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) was reduced. Levels of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), were significantly higher in the dietary hyperlipidemic rats than in the normal healthy ones, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly lower. Force-feeding hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats with the CDNP extract at two doses decreased TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and TG to normal levels. The risk ratio, which was as high as 870 % for the hyperlipidemic rats was decreased by the treatment to levels close to that calculated for the healthy control rats. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were very low in the hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats but increased significantly when CDNP extract was adminstered, attaining similar HDL-C levels to those of healthy control rats. Treatment with the CDNP extract also improved the levels of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, GPx, SOD, and CAT) in hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats. Thus, the CDNP extract improves the lipid

  20. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma in healthy and hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    El-Newary, Samah A; Sulieman, A M; El-Attar, S R; Sitohy, M Z

    2016-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Hyperlipidemia increases the incidence of myocardial ischemia and cardiac events. This study evaluated the potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant action of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma ("CDNP extract"). In vivo studies were performed for 10 weeks on dietary hyperlipidemic and healthy Wistar albino rat models that received two dose levels of the CDNP extract (0.50 and 1.00 g/kg body weight). Serum lipid profiles were determined for the experimental animals. Dietary hyperlipidemic rats were characterized by an elevated lipid profile compared to the healthy control, i.e., increased levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and triglycerides (TG), although the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) was reduced. Levels of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), were significantly higher in the dietary hyperlipidemic rats than in the normal healthy ones, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly lower. Force-feeding hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats with the CDNP extract at two doses decreased TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and TG to normal levels. The risk ratio, which was as high as 870 % for the hyperlipidemic rats was decreased by the treatment to levels close to that calculated for the healthy control rats. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were very low in the hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats but increased significantly when CDNP extract was adminstered, attaining similar HDL-C levels to those of healthy control rats. Treatment with the CDNP extract also improved the levels of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, GPx, SOD, and CAT) in hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats. Thus, the CDNP extract improves the lipid

  1. Garlic oil as a modulating agent for oxidative stress and neurotoxicity induced by sodium nitrite in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hanaa A; Hafez, Hani S; Zeghebar, Fawzia E

    2010-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the neurobiochemical alterations and oxidative stress induced by food preservative; sodium nitrite (NaNO2) as well as the role of the garlic oil in amelioration of the neurotoxicity in male albino rats. Serum and brain homogenates of the rats received NaNO2 (80 mg/kg body weight) for 3 months exhibited significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity as well as the levels of phospholipids, total protein and the endogenous antioxidant system (glutathione; GSH and superoxide dismutase; SOD). In contrast, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were significantly increased. On the other hand, the oral administration of garlic oil (5 ml/kg body weight) daily for 3 months significantly improved the neurobiochemical disorders and inhibited the oxidative stress induced by NaNO2 ingestion. So, this study reveals the neural toxic effects of NaNO2 by exerting oxidative stress and retrograde the endogenous antioxidant system. However, garlic oil has a promising role in attenuating the obtained hazard effects of sodium nitrite by its high antioxidant properties which may eventually be related with the preservation of SOD activity and primary mitochondrial role against nitrite-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

  2. Effect of vitamins a, C, and e supplementation in the treatment of metabolic syndrome in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Bilbis, L S; Muhammad, S A; Saidu, Y; Adamu, Y

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress seems to be involved in the path physiology of cardiovascular complications of metabolic syndrome. In this study we investigated the effects of vitamins A, C, and E in the management of metabolic syndrome traits condition in albino rats fed with high salt diet. The rats were placed on 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and then supplemented with these vitamins for additional 4 weeks in the presence of salt diet. Supplementation with vitamins significantly (P < 0.01 ) decreased blood pressure of the rats as compared with the control. Supplementation also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total antioxidant status as compared with untreated group. The percentage protection of the supplemented groups against atherogenesis indicated 55.50 ± 3.75%. Percentage weight gain indicated significant positive correlation with triglyceride, insulin resistance, and malondialdehyde while total antioxidant status and nitric oxide showed significant negative correlation. Salt diet significantly (P < 0.05) induced features of metabolic syndrome. The result, therefore, indicated strong relationship between obesity and metabolic syndrome and underscores the role of these vitamins in the management of metabolic syndrome. PMID:22953063

  3. Antioxidative Role of Hatikana (Leea macrophylla Roxb.) Partially Improves the Hepatic Damage Induced by CCl4 in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Samina; Rahman, Md. Atiar; Aklima, Jannatul; Hasan, Md. Rakibul; Hasan Chowdhury, J. M. Kamirul

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the protective role of Leea macrophylla extract on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla (Roxb.) crude extract were subjected to analysis for antioxidative effects. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as normal control, hepatic control, and reference control (silymarin) group and treatment group. Evaluations were made for the effects of the fractions on serum enzymes and biochemical parameters of CCl4-induced albino rat. Histopathological screening was also performed to evaluate the changes of liver tissue before and after treatment. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla showed very potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing effect, superoxide scavenging effect, and iron chelating effect. Carbon tetrachloride induction increased the level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and other biochemical parameters such as lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. In contrast, treatment of Leea macrophylla reduced the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities as well as biochemical parameters activities. L. macrophylla partially restored the lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. Histopathology showed the treated liver towards restoration. Results evidenced that L. macrophylla can be prospective source of hepatic management in liver injury. PMID:26221590

  4. Phytic Acid Exposure Alters AflatoxinB1-induced Reproductive and Oxidative Toxicity in Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Abu El-Saad, Abdelaziz S; Mahmoud, Hamada M

    2009-09-01

    The increased use of feed in Egypt's aquaculture and animal industries raises concerns about the possible presence of mycotoxins in feedstuffs. The use of alternative medicine, such as botanicals and nutritional supplements, has become popular with inflammatory cases. The present study aimed to testify the role played by phytic acid (IP6) in enhancing the reproductive and oxidative toxicity induced in aflatoxinB1 (AFB1) treated white male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) throughout treatment and withdrawal periods. One hundred and twenty white male albino rats were grouped into four groups. Group 1, was injected with 300 mug kg(-1) body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and left uninjected for another 15 days to study the withdrawal effect. Group 2, was injected with 300 mug kg(-1) body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and treated simultaneously with IP6 daily for another 15 days. Group 3, was treated daily with IP6 (40 mg kg(-1) body wt) for 15 days and with no treatment for other 15 days. Group 4, injected with equivalent volume of sterile phosphate buffer saline solution as a control group. Sera were taken at the experimental intervals and assayed for testosterone hormone, follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to determine the toxicological impact of AFB1 and the possibility of amelioration by phytic acid on the reproductive performance of the studied animal. The effects of AFB1 treatment on the absolute and relative weight of testis as well as its histopathologic effect on the testis and the possibility of amelioration by IP6 treatment were evaluated. The activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants, in addition to lipid peroxidation were measured in the testis' homogenate of AFB1-treated rats. A decrease in sex hormone levels, an increase in testicular lipid peroxidation product levels and a significant decrease in testicular glutathione content, catalase and total peroxidase and superoxide dismutase

  5. Optical properties of albino rat skin heated in vitro: comparison of photoacoustic and integrating sphere measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Sharon L.; Vijverberg, Helene; Jacques, Steven L.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    1994-08-01

    The optical properties represented by the absorption coefficient ((mu) a) and reduced scattering coefficient [(mu) s(1-g) or (mu) 's] at (lambda) equals 355 nm of thermally altered albino rat skin were measured in vitro by two methods: (1) a time-resolved stress detection (TRSD) technique which directly measured the effective attenuation coefficient ((mu) eff) and the absorption coefficient ((mu) a), and (2) the well-known integrating sphere technique which measured total transmittance (Tt) nd total diffuse reflectance (Rd). The skin pieces were wrapped in water-tight packets and heated for 20 minutes in a calibrated water bath (temperature range: 20 degree(s) - 90 degree(s)C) and the same skin samples were used for both measurement methods. The experimental data were analyzed to specify the absorption and the scattering properties. The results, which were in general agreement for both methods, indicated that denaturation of the rat skin caused a decrease in scattering due to melting of the collagen fibers. The decrease began at 55 degree(s)C and plateaued at 65 degree(s) - 70 degree(s)C and was essentially unchanged at higher temperatures. Absorption was not significantly affected by denaturation except for a transient rise at 50 degree(s) - 60 degree(s)C.

  6. Impact of an Energy Drink on the Structure of Stomach and Pancreas of Albino Rat: Can Omega-3 Provide a Protection?

    PubMed Central

    Ayuob, Nasra; ElBeshbeishy, Rana

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives A controversy developed between the benefits of energy drinks (EDs) versus the possible health threats since its revolution. Lack of information was a call to assess the effect of chronic consumption of Power Horse (PH) as one of the EDs, on the structure of pancreas and fundic mucosa of stomach in rats, and possible protective role of Omega-3. Materials and Methods Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups; control received group which only received a standard diet, Omega-3 group, PH group which given PH and PH plus Omega-3 group received both PH plus Omega-3 for 4 weeks. Biochemical assessment of blood glucose, serum insulin, gastrin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) was performed. The antioxidant activity and histopathological examination of both pancreatic tissue and fundic mucosa of stomach were assessed. Results Administration of PH significantly increased serum insulin and glucose levels while it significantly reduced serum gastrin level compared to control. PH also caused oxidants/antioxidants imbalance in both pancreas and fundic mucosa. The latter revealed degenerative changes and increased apoptosis which was evident by increased caspase-3 immunoexpression. Pancreas exhibited signs of β-cells overstimulation. Fundic mucosa showed reduced number of parietal cells, gastrin hormone expression compared to control group. Omega-3 administration could alleviate, to some extent, these changes. It significantly decreased TNF-α, iNOS and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as significantly increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities compared to the group which received PH alone. Conclusion Power Horse intake significantly injures islet cells, pancreatic acini as well as the glandular cells of the fundic mucosa. Omega-3 decreases these detrimental effects mostly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action. PMID

  7. Histological Study on Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy on Experimental Renal Injury Induced by Ischemia/Reperfusion in Male Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Eman Mostafa; Afifi, Noha Mohamed; Elfattah, Lamiaa Ibrahim Abd; Mohsen, Manal Ali Abd-El

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Acute kidney injury (AKI) represents a major clinical problem with high mortality and limited treatment protocols. This study was planned to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of bone marrow - derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) AKI. Methods and Results This study was carried out on thirty adult male albino rats. Animals were divided equally into three groups. Group I (control sham-operated group) (n=10), were subdivided equally into two subgroups; Ia and Ib. The experimental group (n=20) were all subjected to I/R injury by clamping both renal pedicles for 40 minutes. Half of the I/R animals did not receive MSC therapy (group II) [non-MSC treated group]. The other half of the I/R animals received single intravenous injection of PKH26 labelled BM-MSCs immediately after removal of the clamps and visual confirmation of reflow (group III) [MSC treated group]. Animals were sacrificed 24 hrs (subgroups IIa & IIIa) and 72 hrs (subgroups IIb & IIIb) after intervention. Serological measurements included serum urea and creatinine. Kidney specimens were processed for H&E, PAS and PCNA. Mean % of renal corpuscles with affected glomeruli, mean % of affected tubules, mean area % of PAS-positive reaction and mean area % of PCNA immunoreactivity were measured by histomorphometric studies and statistically compared. MSCs-treated group exhibited protection against renal injury serologically and histologically. Conclusions Results of the present study suggest a potential reno-protective capacity of MSCs which could be of considerable therapeutic promise for cell-based management of clinical AKI. PMID:24298374

  8. Enhancement of Hippocampal CA3 Neuronal Dendritic Arborization by Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract Treatment in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, Kosuri Kalyan; Avadhani, Ramakrishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) (family: Leguminosae) have been in clinical use for centuries. Aim: In the present study, we investigated the role of aqueous extract of root of Gg treatment on the dendritic morphology of hippocampal Cornu Ammonis area three (CA3) neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory, in 1- month- old male Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of root of Gg was administered orally in four doses (75, 150, 225 and 300 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. After the treatment period, all experimental animals were subjected to spatial learning (Morris water maze, Hebb-William's maze and elevated plus maze) tests. At the end of the spatial memory tests, the rats were deeply anesthetized with Pentobarbitone and killed their brains were removed rapidly and fixed in rapid Golgi fixative. Hippocampal CA3 neurons were traced using camera lucida, and dendritic arborization and intersections were quantified. These data were compared to those of age-matched control rats. Results: The aqueous root extract of Gg in the dose of 150 and 225 mg/kg/p.o showed a significant (P < 0.01) enhancement of dendritic arborization (dendritic branching points) and dendritic intersections along the length of both apical and basal dendrites in hippocampal (CA3) pyramidal neurons is comparable to control. Conclusion: Based on our results obtained, we conclude that constituents present in aqueous root extract of Gg have neuronal dendritic growth stimulating properties. PMID:24678192

  9. Modulatory effect of curcumin on methionine-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperhomocysteinemia in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Puneet; Ansari, M Nazam; Bhandari, Uma

    2008-07-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant effect of curcumin on methionine-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperhomocysteinemia in Wistar rats (200-250 g) of either sex. The vehicle control rats were treated with 1% Tween 80 in normal saline (2 ml/kg, po) for 30 days. Hyperlipidemia and hyperhomocysteinemia was induced by methionine administration (1 g/kg, po) for 30 days. A significant increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and homocysteine levels in serum and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in heart homogenates were observed with a concomitant decrease in serum high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) levels in pathogenic control (i.e. group II) rats, as compared to vehicle control (i.e. group I) rats. Further, curcumin (200 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment in methionine treated rats for 30 days significantly decreased the total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C and homocysteine levels in serum and TBARS levels in heart homogenates and increased serum HDL-C levels, as compared to pathogenic control (i.e. group II) rats. The results of biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of rat's aortic section. The results of test drug were comparable to that obtained with folic acid (100 mg/kg, p.o.). The results suggest that curcumin has significant antihyperlipidemic and antihyperhomocysteinemic effect against methionine-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperhomocysteinemia in rats.

  10. A high molecular weight protein Bengalin from the Indian black scorpion (Heterometrus bengalensis C.L. Koch) venom having antiosteoporosis activity in female albino rats.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Subhash; Das Gupta, Shubho; Gomes, Aparna; Giri, Biplab; Dasgupta, Subir Chandra; Biswas, Ajay; Mishra, Roshnara; Gomes, Antony

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the presence of a high molecular weight protein (Bengalin) from the Indian black scorpion (Heterometrus bengalensis) venom having antiosteoporosis activity in experimental osteoporosis developed in female albino Wister rats. Bengalin was purified through DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The molecular weight of the Bengalin was found to be 72kDa and the first 20 amino acid sequence was found to be G-P-L-T-I-L-H-I-N-D-V-H-A-A/R-F-E-Q/G-F/G-N-T. Bengalin exhibited significant antiosteoporosis activity in experimental female rats, which was confirmed through analysis of urine Ca(2+), PO(4)(3-), CRE & OH-P. Bengalin (3 microg and 5 microg/100g rat/i.p.) antagonized osteoporosis by restoring urinary Ca(2+), PO(4)(3-), CRE and OH-P, serum/plasma Ca(2+), PO(4)(3-), ALP, TRAP, PTH, T(3), TSH, Osteocalcin, IL1, IL6 and TNF alpha and bone minerals Ca(2+), P, Mg(2+), Zn(2+), Na(+), as compared with the sham operated control rats. Bone minerals density of osteoporosis female rats was improved due to Bengalin, observed through DEXA scan. Subacute toxicity studies in male albino mice, Bengalin showed cardiotoxicity. In vivo experiments, Bengalin showed cardiotoxicity on isolated guinea pig heart, guinea pig auricle, and neurotoxicity on isolated rat phrenic nerve diaphragm preparation. Further detail studies on the toxicity, antiosteoporosis and structural identity of Bengalin are warranted.

  11. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester protects 661W cells from H2O2-mediated cell death and enhances electroretinography response in dim-reared albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Tran, Julie-Thu A.; Anderson, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of honeybee propolis, has a wide range of beneficial properties. The purpose of this study was to test the protective role of CAPE in 661W cells (in vitro) against H2O2-mediated cell death and in albino rats (in vivo) against various light conditions. Methods The 661W cells were pretreated with CAPE and then stressed with H2O2. Cell death was measured with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay, and mRNA and proteins were analyzed. Sprague Dawley rats were raised on either a control or CAPE (0.02%) diet and exposed to various light conditions for short or long periods. Retinal histology, mRNA, protein, lipid composition, and retinal function by electroretinography (ERG) were measured at the end of feeding. Results Pretreatment of 661W cells with CAPE reduced H2O2-mediated cell death in a dose-dependent manner and induced expression of heme oxygenase-1 (Ho1). Albino rats fed with CAPE had greater expression of Ho1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (Icam1), less expression of FOS-like antigen (Fosl) and lipoxygenase 12 (Lox12) genes in the retina, less translocation of nuclear factor kappaB protein to the nucleus, and a lower molar ratio of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Further, the ERGs of the retinas of CAPE-fed rats were significantly higher than those of the control-fed rats when raised in dim light. Conclusions CAPE can activate the antioxidative gene expression pathway in retinal cells in vitro and in vivo. Feeding CAPE to albino rats can enhance ERG responses and change the lipid profile in the rats’ retinas. PMID:22690111

  12. A comparative anti-inflammatory activity of raw and processed Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) seeds on albino rats.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Kumar, Vijay; Ashok, Bk; Acharya, R N; Ravishankar, B

    2011-10-01

    Seeds of Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Kupeelu only after passing through specific purificatory procedures in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel) etc. Strychnos nux vomica seeds are extensively advocated for nervous debility, paralysis, and weakness of limbs, sexual weakness, dyspepsia, and dysentery and in rheumatism where it can be assumed that besides other properties, Kupeelu may have some sort of anti-inflammatory activity too. In the present study, the powder of raw and processed Kupeelu seeds (processed / purified with Kanji i.e sour gruel) as test drugs were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by employing Carrageenan and Formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema in Wistar strain albino rats at a dose of 22.5 mg/kg body weight orally. This study reveals that both raw and purified Kupeelu showed presence of highly significant anti-inflammatory activity against formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema, but did not have similar activity against Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema. PMID:23284209

  13. A comparative study on chronic administration of Go Ghrita (cow ghee) and Avika Ghrita (ewe ghee) in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Dipali J; Vyas, Hitesh A; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar; Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B

    2012-07-01

    Ghrita (ghee) is the foremost substance of Indian cuisine from centuries. Ayurvedic classics described eight kinds of ghee from eight different animal milk, among them ghee made from cow milk is said to be the superior and ghee of ewe milk is said to be the inferior and also detrimental to heart. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chronic administration of cow ghee (Go Ghrita) and ghee of ewe milk (Avika Ghrita) to experimental animals. Experiment was carried out on Wistar strain albino rats and study was done at two dose levels. The test drugs were administered orally for 45 consecutive days. Parameters, such as gross behavior, body weight, weight of important organs, total fecal fat content, electrocardiogram, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathology of different organs were studied. Both the test drugs did not alter the gross behavior, body weight, weight of organs, and cytoarchitecture of different organs to significant extent. Avika Ghrita at a low dose significantly decreased triglyceride content, significantly prolonged QTc and at both dose levels it significantly shortened the PR interval. This study shows chronic administration of Avika Ghrita and Go Ghrita has no marked differences between them except the QTc prolongation in Avika Ghrita. This may be the basis for the classics to categorize Avika Ghrita as Ahridya. PMID:23723655

  14. A comparative study on chronic administration of Go Ghrita (cow ghee) and Avika Ghrita (ewe ghee) in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Dipali J.; Vyas, Hitesh A.; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.

    2012-01-01

    Ghrita (ghee) is the foremost substance of Indian cuisine from centuries. Ayurvedic classics described eight kinds of ghee from eight different animal milk, among them ghee made from cow milk is said to be the superior and ghee of ewe milk is said to be the inferior and also detrimental to heart. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chronic administration of cow ghee (Go Ghrita) and ghee of ewe milk (Avika Ghrita) to experimental animals. Experiment was carried out on Wistar strain albino rats and study was done at two dose levels. The test drugs were administered orally for 45 consecutive days. Parameters, such as gross behavior, body weight, weight of important organs, total fecal fat content, electrocardiogram, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathology of different organs were studied. Both the test drugs did not alter the gross behavior, body weight, weight of organs, and cytoarchitecture of different organs to significant extent. Avika Ghrita at a low dose significantly decreased triglyceride content, significantly prolonged QTc and at both dose levels it significantly shortened the PR interval. This study shows chronic administration of Avika Ghrita and Go Ghrita has no marked differences between them except the QTc prolongation in Avika Ghrita. This may be the basis for the classics to categorize Avika Ghrita as Ahridya. PMID:23723655

  15. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Indigofera tinctoria on Chemically-Induced Seizures and Brain GABA Levels in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Garbhapu, Asuntha; Yalavarthi, Prasannaraju; Koganti, Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) Indigofera tinctoria Linn. of Fabaceae family is claimed to be useful to control epileptic seizures in the Indian system of folkore medicine. This study was designed to evaluate tinctoria and to verify the claim. Materials and Methods Seizures were induced in male albino rats with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). The test group animals were administered ethanolic extract of Indigofera tinctoria (EEIT) orally. The time of onset and duration of clonic convulsions were recorded. Maximal electroshock seizures (MES) were induced in animals. The duration of hind limb tonic extension (HLTE) was recorded. GABA levels and GABA transaminase activity in brain were estimated. Results In PTZ model, EEIT significantly (P< 0.01, P< 0.001) delayed the onset of convulsions and reduced the duration of seizures in a dose dependent manner. A significant (P< 0.05) reduction in the duration of HLTE at higher doses of EEIT was observed in MES model. Increase in brain GABA levels was observed on treatment with EEIT at 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses, suggested that the plant may be acting by facilitating GABAergic transmission. A significant reduction (P< 0.05) in the activity of brain GABA transaminase was observed at higher doses. No neurotoxic signs were observed with rotarod test, pentobarbital induced sleeping time, locomotor activity and haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of tinctoria was found to be useful to control and treat the variety of seizures. PMID:23493444

  16. Lipidomic Modulation in Stressed Albino Rats Is Altered by Yolk and Albumen of Quail (Coturnix japonica) Egg and Poultry Feed.

    PubMed

    Oluwafemi Ibukun, Emmanuel; Oludare Oladipo, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Cold and immobilization stressors can generate oxidative stress as well as skeletal muscle fatigue. Free radicals cause oxidative degradation of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates molecules, thereby compromising cell integrity and function. Quail egg had been described as being very functional biochemically, due to the essential biomolecules it contains in very regulated quantity. This study was aimed for evaluating the dietary effect of the egg on lipid profile parameters on selected tissues. The antilipidemic properties of the egg yolk and albumen and poultry (layers) feed were determined in selected tissues in male albino rats assaulted with cold immobilization stress induced on them at 4°C for 2 hours, while diazepam was used as standard antistress drug. Antilipidemic activities were evaluated by lipid profile modulation (HDL, LDL, TRIG., and T-CHOL.). Quantitative and qualitative analyses of fatty acids profile of the yolk hexane-extract were determined by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS). The ameliorative impacts of diazepam (2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL/kg BW), yolk (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), albumen (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), and the feed (5-10 mg/kg BW) were competitively (p < 0.05) specific for each of the tissues. The result of the study suggested yolk and albumen of quail egg and poultry feed as antistress agents as well as lipid modulators.

  17. Effects of Calendula Essential Oil-Based Cream on Biochemical Parameters of Skin of Albino Rats against Ultraviolet B Radiation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Arun K; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2012-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with special reference to 1,8-cineole and α-pinene. The results indicated that the treatment with creams containing 4% and 5% of Calendula essential oil caused a significant decrease in the malonyldialdehyde level, whereas the levels of catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, and the total protein level were significantly increased after 1 month of daily irradiation and treatment when compared to untreated control groups. The results suggest that the cutaneous application of the essential oil of Calendula prevents UV-B-induced alterations in the level of antioxidants in skin tissue.

  18. Carbendazim-induced testicular damage and oxidative stress in albino rats: ameliorative effect of licorice aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Saber A; Shalaby, Somaya Y

    2014-04-01

    Carbendazim is a broad spectrum carbamate fungicide used in the control of various fungal pathogens. Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) is one of the widely used medicinal plants in oriental nations. The present work studied the effect of licorice aqueous extract on carbendazim-induced testicular toxicity in albino rats. Administration of carbendazim induced significant decrease in testis weight, diameter, and germinal epithelial height of the seminiferous tubules. Histological results revealed degeneration of seminiferous tubules, loss of spermatogenic cells, and apoptosis. Moreover, carbendazim caused elevation of testicular malondialdehyde (MDA), marker of lipid peroxidation, and reduced the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Coadministration of licorice extract with carbendazim improved the histomorphological and histopathological changes observed in animals treated with carbendazim. In addition, licorice treatment leads to a significant decrease in the level of MDA and increase in the activities of SOD and CAT. According to the present results, it is concluded that licorice aqueous extract can improve the testicular toxicity of carbendazim and this effect may be attributed to antioxidant properties of one or more of its constituents.

  19. Effects of aqueous extracts of Acacia albida stem bark on Wistar albino rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Ndidi, Uche Samuel; Umar, Ismaila Alhaji; Mohammed, Aminu; Samuel, Cosmas; Oladeru, Amos Oladiran; Yakubu, Rahinat Nimma

    2015-01-01

    The effect of aqueous extract of Acacia albida stem bark was investigated in Wistar albino rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi. The extract showed highest reduction in parasitemia at the dose of 600 mg/kg body weight (bw). A dose of 300 mg/kg bw improved packed cell volume the most by 14.35%. The group treated with 150 and 600 mg/kg bw of the extract showed significant decrease (P < 0.05) in alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels which were lower than those of the group treated with diminazene aceturate. The group treated with 150 mg/kg bw of the extract showed the least urea, albumin and protein level and lowest relative organ weight. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the levels of catalase and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver and kidney of the animals in the infected-untreated group and the extracts-treated groups. The results of this study show that the extracts of A. albida have antitrypanosomal activity against T. evansi infection.

  20. Lipidomic Modulation in Stressed Albino Rats Is Altered by Yolk and Albumen of Quail (Coturnix japonica) Egg and Poultry Feed

    PubMed Central

    Oluwafemi Ibukun, Emmanuel; Oludare Oladipo, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Cold and immobilization stressors can generate oxidative stress as well as skeletal muscle fatigue. Free radicals cause oxidative degradation of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates molecules, thereby compromising cell integrity and function. Quail egg had been described as being very functional biochemically, due to the essential biomolecules it contains in very regulated quantity. This study was aimed for evaluating the dietary effect of the egg on lipid profile parameters on selected tissues. The antilipidemic properties of the egg yolk and albumen and poultry (layers) feed were determined in selected tissues in male albino rats assaulted with cold immobilization stress induced on them at 4°C for 2 hours, while diazepam was used as standard antistress drug. Antilipidemic activities were evaluated by lipid profile modulation (HDL, LDL, TRIG., and T-CHOL.). Quantitative and qualitative analyses of fatty acids profile of the yolk hexane-extract were determined by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS). The ameliorative impacts of diazepam (2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL/kg BW), yolk (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), albumen (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), and the feed (5–10 mg/kg BW) were competitively (p < 0.05) specific for each of the tissues. The result of the study suggested yolk and albumen of quail egg and poultry feed as antistress agents as well as lipid modulators. PMID:26942009

  1. Effect of topical application of silymarin (Silybum marianum) on excision wound healing in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Roya; Rastegar, Hossein; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad; Paknejad, Maliheh; Mehrabani Natanzi, Mahboobeh; Ghannadian, Naghmeh; Akbari, Minoo; Pasalar, Parvin

    2012-01-01

    Silymarin, an extract from Silybum marianum, has been shown to have antioxidant properties. However, there is no scientific report on wound healing activity of the silymarin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical administration of silymarin on excision wound healing in rats. Excision wounds were made on the back of rats. Rats were divided into three groups, as control, vehicle, and treatment. Vehicle and treatment groups received polyethylene glycol and silymarin dissolved in polyethylene glycol, respectively. The control group did not receive any treatment. The wound tissues were removed on 5th, 10th and 15th day for histopathological analysis and total collagen determination by hydroxyproline assay. Results showed that silymarin increased epithelialization and decreased inflammation but did not have any effect on percentage of wound contraction, collagenization and hydroxyproline levels. It was concluded that silymarin can significantly stimulate epithelialization and reduce inflammation in full-thickness wounds in rats.

  2. Antinociceptive and anti-pyretic activity of Benincasa hispida (thunb.) cogn. in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Qadrie, Zulfkar Latief; Hawisa, Najat Tayeb; Khan, Mohd Wajid Ali; Samuel, Moses; Anandan, R

    2009-07-01

    The seeds of Benincasa hispida (Thunb) COGN. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) was extracted with ethanol and was used to study acute toxicity, antinociceptive and anti-pyretic effects. Brewer's yeast (15%) was used to induce pyrexia in rats. The extract was non lethal to the rats up to the dose of 5000 mg/kg b.w. At doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, the extract significantly (P<0.05) increased the antinociceptive effective in a dose dependent manner in rats. Similarly, at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w the extract significantly (P<0.05) decreased yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. These results indicate that ethanolic extract of Benincasa hispida possesses potent antinociceptive and antipyretic effects and thus pharmacologically justifying its folkloric use in the management of fever and pain conditions. PMID:19553176

  3. Effect of Benincasa hispida fruits on testosterone-induced prostatic hypertrophy in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Nandecha, Chetan; Nahata, Alok; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Background: Benincasa hispida Cogn. has been used traditionally in India for the management of urinary disorders. The fruit of B hispida is used as a diuretic and the seeds have been reported to possess antiangiogenic effects in prostate cells. Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of petroleum ether extract, ethanolic extract, and B hispida seed oil on hyperplasia of the prostate induced by the subcutaneous administration of testosterone in rats. Methods: In vitro studies were performed to determine the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of the extracts. The results of those studies paved the way for the pharmacologic screening of the extracts to assess their potential against testosterone-induced hyperplasia in rats. Nine groups containing 10 rats per group were created for this study. Hyperplasia was induced by administration of testosterone (3 mg/kg SC) for 14 days in all the groups except the vehicle-treated group. Simultaneous administration of petroleum ether extract (100 or 200 mg/kg PO), ethanolic extract (100 or 200 mg/kg PO), and B hispida seed oil (20 or 40 mg/kg PO) was conducted. A standard 5α-reductase inhibitor (ie, finasteride) was used as a positive control. The weight of the rats was recorded on day 0 (ie, day 1 of the study) and on day 14, and the influence of testosterone and test extracts on the weight of the rats was determined. On day 14, rats were euthanized; prostates were dissected out, and weighed. The rats' prostate/body weight (P/BW) ratio was then determined. Histologic examinations were performed on prostates from each group. Results: The petroleum ether extract as well as B hispida seed oil exhibited inhibition of 5α-reductase activity in in vitro studies. Ethanolic extract did not exhibit significant inhibitory potential in vitro. Further in vivo study found that testosterone treatment significantly increased the rats' P/BW ratio in all the groups except the vehicle-treated rats, and this increase in

  4. Gender Difference in the Role of Posterodorsal Amygdala on the Regulation of Food Intake, Adiposity and Immunological Responses in Albino Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lalitha, Venugopal; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Pal, Pravati; Parija, Subash Chandra; Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu

    2016-01-01

    Lesion of posterodorsal amygdala (PDA) has been known to produce hyperphagia and obesity in animal models. However, the influence of gender on food intake (FI), body weight (BW) and immunological parameters following PDA lesion is not yet known. The present work was carried out to study the effect of gender on the regulation of FI, BW and immunological parameters following lesions of PDA in albino Wistar rats. Twenty-four albino Wistar rats were divided equally into 2 groups - PDA group and control group - with 6 male and 6 female rats in each. In the experimental group, bilateral electrolytic lesion of the respective nuclei was performed by stereotaxy and post-lesion parameters were recorded. In the control group, sham lesion was made. Male-female difference in each parameter was determined. Following PDA lesion, FI increased significantly in both male (p < 0.001) and female rats (p < 0.01) but the percentage increase in FI was significantly more in female rats (p < 0.001). BW also increased in both the sexes but the increase in BW was significant only in male rats (p < 0.05). Both male and female rats showed increase in the concentration of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), but the significant increase in CD4 concentration (p < 0.01) was seen only in male rats. CD8 concentration increased significantly in male rats (p < 0.05). The liver weight-BW ratio was significantly greater in female rats (p < 0.001) following PDA lesions. Lesion of PDA results in accentuation of FI and BW gain and activation of immunity. There is a gender difference in the inhibitory control of PDA on FI, BW and immunity. PMID:27536016

  5. Gender Difference in the Role of Posterodorsal Amygdala on the Regulation of Food Intake, Adiposity and Immunological Responses in Albino Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Lalitha, Venugopal; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Pal, Pravati; Parija, Subash Chandra; Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu

    2016-03-01

    Lesion of posterodorsal amygdala (PDA) has been known to produce hyperphagia and obesity in animal models. However, the influence of gender on food intake (FI), body weight (BW) and immunological parameters following PDA lesion is not yet known. The present work was carried out to study the effect of gender on the regulation of FI, BW and immunological parameters following lesions of PDA in albino Wistar rats. Twenty-four albino Wistar rats were divided equally into 2 groups - PDA group and control group - with 6 male and 6 female rats in each. In the experimental group, bilateral electrolytic lesion of the respective nuclei was performed by stereotaxy and post-lesion parameters were recorded. In the control group, sham lesion was made. Male-female difference in each parameter was determined. Following PDA lesion, FI increased significantly in both male (p < 0.001) and female rats (p < 0.01) but the percentage increase in FI was significantly more in female rats (p < 0.001). BW also increased in both the sexes but the increase in BW was significant only in male rats (p < 0.05). Both male and female rats showed increase in the concentration of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), but the significant increase in CD4 concentration (p < 0.01) was seen only in male rats. CD8 concentration increased significantly in male rats (p < 0.05). The liver weight-BW ratio was significantly greater in female rats (p < 0.001) following PDA lesions. Lesion of PDA results in accentuation of FI and BW gain and activation of immunity. There is a gender difference in the inhibitory control of PDA on FI, BW and immunity. PMID:27536016

  6. Protective effect of ellagic acid against cyclosporine A-induced histopathological, ultrastructural changes, oxidative stress, and cytogenotoxicity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Abdella, Ehab M; Galaly, Sanaa R; Ahmed, Rania H

    2016-01-01

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an immunosuppressor agent, which is most frequently used in transplant surgeries and in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of ellagic acid (EA) against CsA-induced testicular histopathology and ultrastructure changes, oxidative stress, and cytogenotoxicity in male albino rats. Rats were divided into six groups; the first group was used as a control, the second group received a subcutaneous injection of slightly alkaline solution, the third group received olive oil orally, the fourth group was injected subcutaneously with EA at a dose of 10 mg/kg b. wt./day, the fifth group was treated with CsA as oral solution at a dose of 15 mg/kg b. wt for 30 days, and the sixth group was treated with CsA simultaneously with EA. Treatment with EA simultaneously with CsA resulted in significant protection. The positive control animals taking CsA alone showed marked histopathological, ultrastructure, and genetic manifestations accompanied by an elevated content of lipid peroxidation and marked reduction of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (Px) activity, and glutathione concentration in the homogenate of testis tissues. The toxic side effects in testis and bone marrow tissues were greatly ablated with a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation level and elevation in CAT and Px activities and glutathione concentration when using EA. Thus, EA may be used in combination with CsA to improve the histopathological, oxidative stress, and cytogenotoxicity parameters of testicular toxicity induced by CsA due to its antioxidant effects. PMID:27430433

  7. Antiobesity, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Achyranthes aspera seed saponins in high cholesterol fed albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naveed; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; Reich, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numerous herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of different diseases. Achyranthes aspera, Linn. (Family: Amaranthaceae), popularly known as Charchitta or Pitpapra, is commonly used by traditional healers for the treatment of fever, malaria, dysentery, asthma, arterial hypertension, pneumonia, and diabetes. The root extract is well reputed for its insect molting hormonal activity. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of saponins from Achyranthes aspera seeds on the serum lipid profile of albino rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Material and methods Hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of these saponins were tested as described previously. To determine the mechanism underlying the observed effects, serum antioxidant status was assessed according to ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), superoxide dismutase and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays in saponin-treated hyperlipidemic animals. Liver enzyme levels were determined to reveal any possible hepatotoxicity. Results Four-week oral administration of A. aspera seed saponins produced a significant (p < 0.05) decrease of total cholesterol, total triglycerides and LDL-C and a significant increase of HDL-C level in hyperlipidemic rats. Treatment with A. aspera seed saponins also showed a significant (p < 0.01) improvement of serum antioxidant status in tested animals. No significant hepatotoxicity was produced by such treatment as the serum liver enzyme activity remained unaltered. Conclusions Saponins from A. aspera seeds possess antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties which might lead to improvement of serum lipid profile and blood antioxidant status. Our findings support the folkloric use of this indigenous plant in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. However, its exact mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. PMID:26788089

  8. Hematological effects of repeated graded doses of the methanol extract of Paullinia pinnata (Linn.) leaves in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemo-Salami, Oluwatoyin A.; Ewuola, Emmanuel O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Paullinia pinnata is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various diseases, including anemia in West Africa. Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of increasing doses of the methanolic leaves extract of P. pinnata on hematological parameters in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were grouped into six groups of six animals each. Five doses; 50,100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of the P. pinnata extract were administered separately to five groups. The sixth group served as a control and received only the vehicle (70% physiological saline: 30% Tween 80 [v/v]). Administration was done orally daily for 28 days at 24 h interval. On day 29, the animals were made inactive, blood was then collected from the heart and various hematological parameters were evaluated. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance was employed. Results: The packed cell volume and red blood cell count increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treatment groups except at 200 mg/kg dose. The hemoglobin concentration increased in all the treatment groups. The values for the neutrophils at 50, 100, 200 and 800 mg/kg doses were higher than that of the control. The white blood cell count increased significantly (P < 0.05) at 50 and 400 mg/kg doses compared to the control and exceeded the normal physiological range. Conclusion: The maximum tolerable dose is 200 mg/kg body weight of the methanolic leaves extract of P. pinnata and the extract has anti-anemic property with the ability to increase neutrophils count. PMID:26109785

  9. The Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Chitosan Gel on Full Thickness Skin Wound Healing in Albino Rats: Histological, Immunohistochemical and Fluorescent Study

    PubMed Central

    El Sadik, Abir O.; El Ghamrawy, Tarek A.; Abd El-Galil, Tarek I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Wound healing involves the integration of complex biological processes. Several studies examined numerous approaches to enhance wound healing and to minimize its related morbidity. Both chitosan and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were used in treating skin wounds. The aim of the current work was to compare MSCs versus chitosan in wound healing, evaluate the most efficient route of administration of MSCs, either intradermal or systemic injection, and elicit the mechanisms inducing epidermal and dermal cell regeneration using histological, immunohistochemical and fluorescent techniques. Material and Methods Forty adult male Sprague Dawley albino rats were divided into four equal groups (ten rats in each group): control group (Group I); full thickness surgical skin wound model, Group II: Wound and chitosan gel. Group III: Wound treated with systemic injection of MSCs and Group IV: Wound treated with intradermal injection of MSCs. The healing ulcer was examined on day 3, 5, 10 and 15 for gross morphological evaluation and on day 10 and 15 for histological, immunohistochemical and fluorescent studies. Results Chitosan was proved to promote wound healing more than the control group but none of their wound reached complete closure. Better and faster healing of wounds in MSCs treated groups were manifested more than the control or chitosan treated groups. It was found that the intradermal route of administration of stem cells enhanced the rate of healing of skin wounds better than the systemic administration to the extent that, by the end of the fifteenth day of the experiment, the wounds were completely healed in all rats of this group. Histologically, the wound areas of group IV were hardly demarcated from the adjacent normal skin and showed complete regeneration of the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis and underlying muscle fibers. Collagen fibers were arranged in many directions, with significant increase in their area percent, surrounding fully regenerated hair

  10. The potent effects of ginseng root extract and memantine on cognitive dysfunction in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Hazmi, Mansour A; Rawi, Sayed M; Arafa, Nadia Ms; Wagas, Abeer; Montasser, Ayat Os

    2015-06-01

    The study determined the maximum intraperitoneal (ip) scopolamine dose inducing memory impairment in rats (2 mg/kg) compared to 0.5 or 1 mg/kg dose. The effect reflected by significant increase from normal in the latency time required for rats to find the hidden platform in water maze task and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. The dose-related histopathological effect via the hemorrhage, vacuolation and gliosis in cortex and hippocampus is assessed. Then the study investigated the potency of Panax ginseng root extract on scopolamine cognitive dysfunction rat model compared to memantine hydrochloride as reference Food and Drug Administration approved. Ginseng extract was administered at dose 100 or 200 mg/kg/day and memantine at 20 mg/kg/day orally for 2 weeks. All treatments showed improvement in the water maze task, however, ginseng (200 mg/kg) group acquired the advantage without statistical difference control. Scopolamine (2 mg/kg ip) group showed significant increase in AChE reactivity and glutamate level and reduced monoamines (norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin) and γ-aminobutyric acid contents in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Ginseng extract in a dose-dependent manner appears effective as memantine and can improve memory impairment through the retrieved homeostasis via neurotransmitter levels and AChE activities in rat brain areas with partial effect on the histological feature of the brain tissue.

  11. Guanosine may increase absence epileptic activity by means of A2A adenosine receptors in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk rats.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Renáta Krisztina; Dobolyi, Árpád; Todorov, Mihail Ivilinov; Kékesi, Katalin A; Juhász, Gábor; Aleksza, Magdolna; Kovács, Zsolt

    2016-06-01

    The non-adenosine nucleoside guanosine (Guo) was demonstrated to decrease quinolinic acid(QA)-induced seizures, spontaneously emerged absence epileptic seizures and lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-evoked induction of absence epileptic seizures suggesting its antiepileptic potential. It was also described previously that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 20 and 50mg/kg Guo decreased the number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in a well investigated model of human absence epilepsy, the Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats during 4th (20mg/kg Guo) and 3rd as well as 4th (50mg/kg Guo) measuring hours. Guanosine can potentially decrease SWD number by means of its putative receptors but absence epileptic activity changing effects of Guo by means of increased extracellular adenosine (Ado) cannot be excluded. An increase in the dose of i.p. injected Guo is limited by its low solubility in saline, therefore, we addressed in the present study whether higher doses of Guo, diluted in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, have more potent antiepileptic effect in WAG/Rij rats. We confirmed that i.p. 50mg/kg Guo decreased but, surprisingly, i.p. 100mg/kg Guo enhanced the number of SWDs in WAG/Rij rats. Combined i.p. injection of a non-selective Ado receptor antagonist theophylline (5mg/kg) or a selective Ado A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonist SCH 58261 (7-(2-phenylethyl)-5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine) (1mg/kg) and a cyclooxygenase 1 and 2/COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor indomethacin (10mg/kg) with 100mg/kg Guo decreased the SWD number compared to i.p. 100mg/kg Guo alone. The results suggest that i.p. 100mg/kg Guo can increase SWD number by means of the adenosinergic system. PMID:27154620

  12. Humoral (immunological) responses in female albino rats during rotating magnetic field exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, K.; Falter, H.; Persinger, M. A.

    1991-12-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate the primary and secondary humoral responses to a rotating magnetic field configuration, which is known to evoke significant biobehavioral changes. Ten days after inoculation with human serum albumin and 10 days before a booster, female rats were exposed to eigher a 0.5 Hz rotating magnetic field (RMF) or to room conditions (control). The lighting schedule was either continuous or involved a light-dark cycle (LD) of 12:12h. A third group of rats served as colony room controls. Group differences of low statistical significance were found when females were exposed to continuous lighting rather than the LD 12:12 light-dark cycle. However, the effects were considered trivial and not sufficient to explain the previously reported biobehavioral changes evoked by this field configuration.

  13. Safety Evaluation of Unani Formulation: Capsule Shaqeeqa in Albino Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghazanfar, Khalid; Ahmad Dar, Showkat; Akbar, Seema; Nazir, Tazeen; Hamdani, Mariya; Siddiqui, Khalid M.; Kumar, Pawan; Masood, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Capsule Shaqeeqa, Unani formulation, is prescribed for the clinical treatment of diseases like sinusitis, headache, and migraine. The safety evaluation data of it is not available; in order to provide the safety data the present study was carried out. The study was carried out on four groups of rats (n = 5). Two groups (one male and one female group) as normal controls were orally given water while the other two groups were orally given daily doses of drug at the dose level of 150 mg/kg of body weight for duration of 90 days. Physiological parameters like body weight, feed consumption, water consumption, and clinical signs were regularly monitored and recorded. Organs were collected, examined, and weighed and specimens were taken for histopathological studies. The results showed that the drug did not alter the physiological parameters. There was no mortality or any morbidity found in drug treated rats. There was no statistical significant change found in any haematological or biochemical parameter of rats orally fed with Shaqeeqa. A statistically insignificant association verified that haematological and biochemical parameters were rendered unaffected by the drug. Moreover histological investigations of essential key organs demonstrated that the drug did not prompt any histopathological change. These observations demonstrate the safety of Capsule Shaqeeqa at the studied dosage levels. PMID:27190679

  14. Efficacy of turmeric on blood sugar and polyol pathway in diabetic albino rats.

    PubMed

    Arun, N; Nalini, N

    2002-01-01

    In the traditional system of medicine, Ayurveda, several spices and herbs are thought to possess medicinal properties. Among the spices, turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa. Linn.) are used as flavoring and coloring agents in the Indian diet everyday. In this research, we studied the effect of turmeric and its active principle, curcumin, on diabetes mellitus in a rat model. Alloxan was used to induce diabetes. Administration of turmeric or curcumin to diabetic rats reduced the blood sugar, Hb and glycosylated hemoglobin levels significantly. Turmeric and curcumin supplementation also reduced the oxidative stress encountered by the diabetic rats. This was demonstrated by the lower levels of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), which may have been due to the decreased influx of glucose into the polyol pathway leading to an increased NADPH/NADP ratio and elevated activity of the potent antioxdiant enzyme GPx. Moreover, the activity of SDH (sorbitol dehydrogenase), which catalyzes the conversion of sorbitol to fructose, was lowered significantly on treatment with turmeric or curcumin. These results also appeared to reveal that curcumin was more effective in attenuating diabetes mellitus related changes than turmeric. PMID:11855620

  15. Development of neurotransmitter parameters in lateral geniculate body, superior colliculus and visual cortex of the albino rat.

    PubMed

    Kvale, I; Fosse, V M; Fonnum, F

    1983-04-01

    The postnatal development of some neurotransmitter parameters was measured in lateral geniculate body, superior colliculus and visual cortex of the rat. The following parameters were studied: (i) high-affinity uptake of L-glutamate or D-aspartate as markers for glutamergic neurons; (ii) high-affinity uptake of GABA, which reflects both glial and neuronal uptake of GABA; (iii) HA beta-alanine uptake as a marker for accumulation of GABA in glial structures; (iv) activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase which reflects GABAergic neurons; and (v) activity of choline acetyltransferase as a cholinergic marker. Km and Vmax were determined for high-affinity uptake of glutamate and GABA in newborn and adult animals. The possible glial influence on the uptake during development is discussed. In lateral geniculate body and visual cortex the HA glutamate uptake showed increasing activity from birth to adulthood, whereas in superior colliculus, the uptake was higher at birth, reaching a small significant peak after 12 days of age, and was then reduced to adult level. Km showed no such change between neonatal and adult animals. At birth, high-affinity GABA-uptake was similar to the adult level in superior colliculus and lateral geniculate body. In visual cortex, the uptake of GABA was 50% of adults. However, on day 15, the GABA uptake showed 2 to 3-fold higher activity in all regions when compared to adult level. Km for GABA uptake in neonatals and adults differed only in lateral geniculate body. High affinity uptake of beta-alanine was 50-80% lower in adults than in newborn rats. Glutamate decarboxylase activity, however, increased continuously in all 3 regions examined. This was true also for choline acetyltransferase.

  16. Effects of aspartame on hsp70, bcl-2 and bax expression in immune organs of Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar; Devi, Rathinasamy Sheela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aspartame, a “first generation sweetener”, is widely used in a variety of foods, beverages, and medicine. The FDA has determined the acceptable daily intake (ADI) value of aspartame to be 50 mg/kg·day, while the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives) has set this value at 40 mg/kg of body weight/day. Safety issues have been raised about aspartame due to its metabolites, specifically toxicity from methanol and/or its systemic metabolites formaldehyde and formic acid. The immune system is now recognized as a target organ for many xenobiotics, such as drugs and chemicals, which are able to trigger unwanted apoptosis or to alter the regulation of apoptosis. Our previous studies has shown that oral administration of aspartame [40 mg/(kg·day)] or its metabolites for 90 days increased oxidative stress in immune organs of Wistar albino rats. In this present study, we aimed to clarify whether aspartame consumption over a longer period (90-days) has any effect on the expression of hsp70, bcl-2 and bax at both mRNA transcript and protein expression levels in immune organs. We observed that oral administration of aspartame for 90 days did not cause any apparent DNA fragmentation in immune organs of aspartame treated animals; however, there was a significant increase in hsp70 expression, apart from significant alteration in bcl-2 and bax at both mRNA transcript and protein expression level in the immune organs of aspartame treated animals compared to controls. Hence, the results indicated that hsp70 levels increased in response to oxidative injury induced by aspartame metabolites; however, these metabolites did not induce apoptosis in the immune organs. Furthermore, detailed analyses are needed to elucidate the precise molecular mechanisms involved in these changes.

  17. Immunological studies on Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin as food colouring agents in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Mohamed M; Atta, Attia H; Arbid, Mahmoud S; Nada, Somaia A; Asaad, Gihan Farag

    2010-06-01

    The use of food dyes is at least controversial because they are only of essential role. Moreover many of them have been related to health problems mainly in children that are considered a very vulnerable group. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral administration of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin for 4 weeks at doses of 47, 315 and 157.5 mg/kg b. wt. and after 2 weeks all animals were immunostimulated by intra peritoneal injection of sheep RBCs 10% (1 ml/rat). Body weight, relative body weight, total and differential leukocytes count, mononuclear cell count, delayed hypersensitivity, total protein and serum fractions were determined. Results revealed that oral administration of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin did not affect the body weight gain or the spleen weight. On the other hand Sunset Yellow and Curcumin significantly decreased the weight of thymus gland of the rats. Total leukocyte count were not affected while Amaranth and Curcumin-treated rats revealed a significant decrease in neutrophiles and monocytes and a compensatory increase in lymphocytes. Moreover, oral administration of Sunset Yellow revealed a significant decrease in monocyte percent. Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin significantly decreased the delayed hyper sensitivity. Total serum protein, albumin, total globulin and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio were not affected by administration of the colouring agents. Oral administration of Amaranth increases the density of albumin band. On the other hand oral administration of Curcumin decreases the density of the albumin band. Oral administration of any of the tested colouring agents did not change the density of globulin region as compared to control group. In conclusion we found that both synthetic (Amaranth and Sunset Yellow) and natural (Curcumin) colouring agents used at doses up to 10 times the acceptable daily intake exerted a depressing effect on the cellular but not humoral immune response.

  18. The influence of lactation on L-proline absorption from small intestine in the albino rat.

    PubMed

    Datta, U; Sharma, R K

    1985-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of L-proline was studied in control and lactating rats from jejunum and ileum by in vivo method and presented per unit dry weight and per unit length of the respective segment. L-proline absorption was found to be significantly reduced in lactating animals as compared to the virgin controls. The results were discussed in light of serosal to mucosal ratio. By in vitro method also jejunal and ileal uptake of L-proline were found to be significantly reduced in lactating animals as compared to the virgin controls.

  19. Evaluation of topical Matricaria chamomilla extract activity on linear incisional wound healing in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Jarrahi, Morteza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Taherian, Abbas Ali; Miladi, Hossein; Rashidi Pour, Ali

    2010-05-01

    In this investigation, the effect of Matricaria chamomilla extract on linear incisional wound healing was studied. Thirty male Wistar rats were subjected to a linear 3 cm incision made over the skin of the back. The animals were randomly divided into three experimental groups, as control, olive oil, and treatment. Control group did not receive any drug or cold cream. Olive oil group received topical olive oil once a day from beginning of experiments to complete wound closure. Treatment group were treated topically by M. chamomilla extract dissolved in olive oil at the same time. For computing the percentage of wound healing, the area of the wound measured at the beginning of experiments and the next 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, and 20 days. The percentage of wound healing was calculated by Walker formula after measurement of the wound area. Results showed that there were statistically significant differences between treatment and olive oil animals (p < 0.05) in most of the days. We conclude that the extract of M. chamomilla administered topically has wound healing potential in linear incisional wound model in rats.

  20. 90-day dermal toxicity study and neurotoxicity evaluation of nitromusks in the albino rat.

    PubMed

    Ford, R A; Api, A M; Newberne, P M

    1990-01-01

    Musk ketone, musk xylene, musk tibetene and moskene, synthetic musks used in fragrances, were applied dermally to rats in daily doses of 240 (musk ketone and musk xylene only), 75, 24 or 7.5 mg/kg body weight for 90 days. The chemically related musk ambrette, a known neurotoxin in rats, was used as a positive control. While musk ambrette was clearly neurotoxic and caused testicular atrophy, as had been previously reported, the other compounds tested caused neither effect. The only effects of application of these materials were some organ weight changes at the higher doses, but these were not associated with histopathological changes in any of the tissues. The no-effect levels were: musk ketone, 75 mg/kg for males and females; musk xylene, 75 mg/kg for males and 24 mg/kg for females; moskene, 24 mg/kg for males and 75 mg/kg (highest dose administered) for females; and musk tibetene, 75 mg/kg (highest dose) for males and females.

  1. Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Norfloxacin in Pregnant Female Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elbadawy, Mohamed; Soliman, Ahmed; El-Hewaity, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the possible developmental teratogenicity of norfloxacin in rats. Forty pregnant female rats were divided into four equal groups. Group A received norfloxacin in a dose of 500 mg/kg·b·wt/day orally from 6th to 15th day of gestation. Groups B and C received 1000 and 2000 mg/kg·b·wt/day orally for the same period, respectively; Group D behaved as control and received 0.5 mL distilled water orally for the same period. The dams were killed on 20th day of gestation and their fetuses were subjected to morphological, visceral, and skeletal examinations. Norfloxacin significantly decreased the number of viable fetuses, increased the number of resorbed fetuses, and induced retardation in growth of viable fetuses; some visceral and skeletal defects in these fetuses were seen and these effects were dose dependant. Conclusively, norfloxacin caused some fetal defects and abnormalities, so it is advisable to avoid using this drug during pregnancy. PMID:24639869

  2. Effect of antioxidant mineral elements supplementation in the treatment of hypertension in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, S A; Bilbis, L S; Saidu, Y; Adamu, Y

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic renal disease. The current work was designed with the aim of investigating the potentials of antioxidants copper, manganese, and zinc in the treatment of hypertension in Wistar rats. The rats were fed 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and treatment with supplements in the presence of the challenging agent for additional 4 weeks. The supplementation significantly decreased the blood pressure as compared with hypertensive control. The result also indicated significant decreased in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, insulin and increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total antioxidant activities, and nitric oxide of the supplemented groups relative to the hypertensive control. The average percentage protection against atherogenesis indicated 47.13 ± 9.60% for all the supplemented groups. The mean arterial blood pressure showed significant positive correlation with glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, insulin resistance and malondialdehyde while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and total antioxidant activities showed negative correlation. The result therefore indicated strong relationship between oxidative stress and hypertension and underscores the role of antioxidant minerals in reducing oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance associated with hypertension. PMID:22966412

  3. Changes in the Mother-Placenta-Fetus System Under the Effect of α-Tocopherol in Albino Rats with Normal Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A S; Peretyatko, L P; Sitnikova, O G; Nazarov, S B

    2015-08-01

    The effects of α-tocopherol on the function of the mother-placenta-fetus system and structural changes in the placenta in normal pregnancy were studied in albino rats. The results indicated that inhibition of free radical processes by injections of α-tocopherol in normal pregnancy led to disorders in the feto-maternal circulation, which was proven by morphological changes in the placenta. The disorders in the uteroplacental circulation manifested in the development of small-for-date fetuses and erythrocytosis.

  4. Changes in the Mother-Placenta-Fetus System Under the Effect of α-Tocopherol in Albino Rats with Normal Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A S; Peretyatko, L P; Sitnikova, O G; Nazarov, S B

    2015-08-01

    The effects of α-tocopherol on the function of the mother-placenta-fetus system and structural changes in the placenta in normal pregnancy were studied in albino rats. The results indicated that inhibition of free radical processes by injections of α-tocopherol in normal pregnancy led to disorders in the feto-maternal circulation, which was proven by morphological changes in the placenta. The disorders in the uteroplacental circulation manifested in the development of small-for-date fetuses and erythrocytosis. PMID:26395631

  5. [THE STATUS OF CERTAIN PHYSIOLOGICAL ADRENERGIC RESPONSES IN ALBINO RATS DURING DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL HYPERTHYROIDISM].

    PubMed

    Osman, Nizar Salim; Ismail, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigated the effects of thyroid hormones on the expression of physiological reactions during adrenergic stimulation (20 min at a dose of 2.0 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) during the development of experimental hyperthyroidism. Rats were divided into two groups. The animals in Group 1 were injected woth triiodothyronine. The duration of injection ranged from 1 to 12 days. Consequently, 12 subgroups were formed. The second group was the control group. It is shown that in the process of development of experimental hyperthyroidism all physiological responses vary in accordance with the law, which can be described by a parabola of general form with the value of the degree in the equation equal to three. PMID:26387161

  6. Efficacy of exogenous gonadotropins on the maintenance of spermatogenesis in pethidine treated albino rats.

    PubMed

    Patil, S R; Sonar, A; Londonkar, R; Patil, S R; Patil, S B

    1998-10-01

    An attempt is made to induce the pethidine suppressed gonadal activities by the administration of exogenous gonadotropins (hCG, PMSG, hCG + PMSG). Administration of 5 IU gonadotropins either separately or in combination to the rats treated with pethidine for 30 days resulted in the significant increase in the weight of testis, diameter of testis and seminiferous tubules. Gonadotropin(s) treatment stimulated the spermatogenic activity which was inhibited by pethidine. Therefore the number of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids in the seminiferous tubules and spermatozoa in cauda epididymis is increased significantly. Decreased testicular cholesterol, increased protein content and weight of accessory sex organs indicate the rejuvenation of steroidogenesis. Combination of both the gonadotropins is more effective in bringing all these activities.

  7. Acceleration of vertical migration of corneal epithelial cells in albino rats during chronic immobilization stress

    SciTech Connect

    Timoshin, S.S.; Berezhnova, N.I.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of chronic immobilization stress on the kinetics of corneal epithelial cells from the basal layer into higher layers. Experiments were carried out on 49 male rats. The animals were given an intraperitoneal injection of tritium-thymidine and an additional application of 5 microCi of tritium-thymidine was made to its surface because the cornea has no blood supply. The animals were killed and the cornea removed for investigation. Values of the index of labeled nuclei and intensity of thymidine labeling, characterizing DNA synthesis in the corneas of the control and experimental animals showed no significant change compared with their values in a pervious series of experiments. Chronic exposure to stress increased the velocity of vertical migration of the cells from the basal layer toward the outer layers of the cornea.

  8. Potassium Dichromate Toxicities: Protective Effect of Methanol Extract of Corchorus olitorius in Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Akinwumi, Kazeem A; Osifeso, Olabode O; Jubril, Afusat J; Adedoja, Ayobami W; Ogunbiyi, Elizabeth T; Adebo, Fumilayo M; Adesina, Idayat O; Odunola, Oyeronke A

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to hexavalent chromate compounds such as other human carcinogens is unavoidable in the developing countries of the world. Research efforts are being directed toward minimizing exposure to them, intercepting their activity in vivo, and/or prophylaxis. The present study therefore evaluates the effect of methanol extract of the leafy vegetable, Corchorus olitorius (MECO), against potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7)-induced toxicities. Negative control animals were fed distilled water, while the positive control rats received 12 mg/kg body weight K2Cr2O7 once a week for 6 weeks. Test rats were exposed daily to 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight MECO alone for 6 weeks and 12 mg/kg body weight of K2Cr2O7 once a week for 6 weeks before sacrifice. The frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (mPCEs) was monitored in bone marrow cells, while induction of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine levels, and hematological parameters were assessed in the plasma. The phytochemical analysis of MECO was also carried out. K2Cr2O7 significantly (P < .05) increased the levels of mPCEs, AST, ALT, creatinine, total white blood cells, and lymphocytes compared with the control. The percentage pack cell volume and neutrophils were, however, reduced. In contrast, MECO at different doses restored the markers toward the levels of the negative control. MECO is rich in flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinones, terpenoids, and phenols, and they might be responsible for the protective effect observed in this study. Our results suggest that MECO has a promising potential in the treatment/management of chromate-induced toxicities. PMID:27152977

  9. Measurement of glomerulus diameter and Bowman's space width of renal albino rats.

    PubMed

    Kotyk, Taras; Dey, Nilanjan; Ashour, Amira S; Balas-Timar, Dana; Chakraborty, Sayan; Ashour, Ahmed S; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2016-04-01

    Glomerulus diameter and Bowman's space width in renal microscopic images indicate various diseases. Therefore, the detection of the renal corpuscle and related objects is a key step in histopathological evaluation of renal microscopic images. However, the task of automatic glomeruli detection is challenging due to their wide intensity variation, besides the inconsistency in terms of shape and size of the glomeruli in the renal corpuscle. Here, a novel solution is proposed which includes the Particles Analyzer technique based on median filter for morphological image processing to detect the renal corpuscle objects. Afterwards, the glomerulus diameter and Bowman's space width are measured. The solution was tested with a dataset of 21 rats' renal corpuscle images acquired using light microscope. The experimental results proved that the proposed solution can detect the renal corpuscle and its objects efficiently. As well as, the proposed solution has the ability to manage any input images assuring its robustness to the deformations of the glomeruli even with the glomerular hypertrophy cases. Also, the results reported significant difference between the control and affected (due to ingested additional daily dose (14.6mg) of fructose) groups in terms of glomerulus diameter (97.40±19.02μm and 177.03±54.48μm, respectively). PMID:26796351

  10. Effect of lithium chloride on spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis in mature albino rats: Duration dependent response

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, P.K.; Biswas, N.M.; Ghosh, D. )

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of the different varieties of germ cells at stage VII of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, namely type-A spermatogonia (ASg), preleptotene spermatocytes (pLSc), midpachytene spermatocytes (mPSc) and step 7 spermatids (7 Sd) along with Leydig cell nuclear area (LCNA) and radioimmunoassay of plasma levels of gonadotrophins (FSH and LH), prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T), activities of testicular, {Delta}{sup 5}-3{beta} hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ({Delta}{sup 5}-3{beta}-HSD) and 17{beta}-hydroxyteroid dehydrogenase (17{beta}-HSD) were measured in mature rats of the Wistar strain following treatment with lithium chloride at a dose of 200 ug/100 g body wt/day for 7, 14 and 21 days. A remarkable reduction in plasma levels of FSH, LH, PRL and T along with significant diminution in the activities of testicular {Delta}{sup 5}-3{beta}-HSD and 17 {beta}-HSD were observed following lithium treatment for 14 and 21 days. 21 days of treatment also resulted in a marked degree of degeneration of ASg and 7Sd at stage VII but 14 days of treatment did not exhibit any significant effect on testicular gametogenesis. LCNA was decreased after lithium chloride treatment for 14 and 21 days. 7 days of treatment did not exert any notable result in the above parameters.

  11. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kaksha J.; Panchasara, Ashwin K.; Barvaliya, Manish J.; Purohit, Bhargav M.; Baxi, Seema N.; Vadgama, Vishal K.; Tripathi, C. B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with G. indica 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline 85 mg/kg on day 20 and 21. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 21 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers (serum troponin-I, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase-MB, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde level) and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract showed significant antioxidant property. Isoprenaline produced significant myocardial ischemia as compared to normal control group (P<0.05). Administration of G. indica in both the doses did not significantly recover the altered electrocardiogram, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological myocardial damage as compared to disease control group (P>0.05). The aqueous extract of G. indica was not found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury. Further study with more sample size and higher dose range may be required to evaluate its cardioprotective effect. PMID:26752987

  12. Functional and morphological effects of laser-induced ocular hypertension in retinas of adult albino Swiss mice

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Alarcón-Martínez, Luis; Valiente-Soriano, Francisco Javier; Ortín-Martínez, Arturo; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Avilés-Trigueros, Marcelino; Villegas-Pérez, María Paz; de la Villa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of laser photocoagulation (LP)-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) on the survival and retrograde axonal transport of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), as well as on the function of retinal layers. Methods Adult albino Swiss mice (35–45 g) received laser photocoagulation of limbal and episcleral veins in the left eye. Mice were sacrificed at 8, 17, 35, and 63 days. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in both eyes was measured with a Tono-Lab before LP and at various days after LP. Flash electroretinogram (ERG) scotopic threshold response (STR) and a- and b-wave amplitudes were recorded before LP and at various times after LP. RGCs were labeled with 10% hydroxystilbamidine methanesulfonate (OHSt) applied to both superior colliculi before sacrifice and in some mice, with dextran tetramethylrhodamine (DTMR) applied to the ocular stump of the intraorbitally transected optic nerve. Retinas were immunostained for RT97 or Brn3a. Retinas were prepared as whole-mounts and photographed under a fluorescence microscope. Labeled RGCs were counted using image analysis software, and an isodensity contour plot was generated for each retina. Results IOP increased to twice its basal values by 24 h and was maintained until day 5, after which IOP gradually declined to reach basal values by 1 wk. Similar IOP increases were observed in all groups. The mean total number of OHSt+ RGCs was 13,428±6,295 (n=12), 10,456±14,301 (n=13), 12,622±14,174 (n=21), and 10,451±13,949 (n=13) for groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively; these values represented 28%, 23%, 26%, and 22% of the values found in their contralateral fellow retinas. The mean total population of Brn3a+ RGCs was 24,343±5,739 (n=12) and 10,219±8,887 (n=9), respectively, for groups I and III; these values represented 49% and 20%, respectively, of the values found in their fellow eyes. OHT retinas showed an absence of OHSt+ and DTMR+ RGCs in both focal wedge-shaped and diffuse regions of the retina. By 1

  13. Hepatoprotective activity of bacoside A against N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced liver toxicity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Janani, Panneerselvam; Sivakumari, Kanakarajan; Parthasarathy, Chandrakesan

    2009-10-01

    N-Nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) is a notorious carcinogen, present in many environmental factors. DEN induces oxidative stress and cellular injury due to enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species; free radical scavengers protect the membranes from DEN-induced damage. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of bacoside A (the active principle isolated from Bacopa monniera Linn.) on carcinogen-induced damage in rat liver. Adult male albino rats were pretreated with 15 mg/kg body weight/day of bacoside A orally (for 14 days) and then intoxicated with single necrogenic dose of N-nitrosodiethylamine (200 mg/kg bodyweight, intraperitonially) and maintained for 7 days. The liver weight, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and activity of serum marker enzymes (aspartate transaminases, alanine transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) were markedly increased in carcinogen-administered rats, whereas the activities of marker enzymes were near normal in bacoside A-pretreated rats. Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutatione-S-transferase, and reduced glutathione) in liver also decreased in carcinogen-administered rats, which were significantly elevated in bacoside A-pretreated rats. It is concluded that pretreatment of bacoside A prevents the elevation of LPO and activity of serum marker enzymes and maintains the antioxidant system and thus protects the rats from DEN-induced hepatotoxicity.

  14. Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. against DEN and Fe NTA Induced Liver Necrosis in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tabernaemontana divaricata against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis in rats. Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tabernaemontana divaricata at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight and 5-fluorouracil (standard drug) was orally administered to male Wistar Albino rats once daily for 24 weeks, simultaneously treated with the carcinogen DEN and Fe NTA. In simultaneously treated animals, the plant extract significantly decreased the levels of uric acid, bilirubin, AST, ALT, and ALP in serum and increased the levels of liver marker enzymes in liver. Treatment with the extracts resulted in a significant increase in the levels of antioxidants accompanied by a marked reduction in the levels of malondialdehyde when compared to DEN and Fe NTA treated group. When compared with 200 mg/kg bw rats, 400 mg/kg bw rats and 5-fluorouracil treated rats showed better results in all the parameters. The histopathological studies confirmed the protective effects of extract against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis. Thus, it could be concluded that the use of Tabernaemontana divaricata extract in the treatment of carcinogen induced hepatic necrosis. PMID:25136566

  15. Effects of ionizing radiation and restraint stress on activity, avoidance conditioning, and stomach ulcers in albino rats. Final report October 1980-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Lanum, J.; Blick, D.W.; Campbell, M.E.; Wheeler, T.G.; Koger, S.A.

    1984-03-01

    In an experiment with albino rats, we have tried to model a nuclear attack scenario in which military personnel receiving 600 to 800 rads of ionizing radiation would be making a counterattack under the stress of an emergency situation. We used a dose of radiation that, though higher than the human exposure field, was estimated to be its physiological equivalent. Restraining the rat in an immobile position, a technique previously shown to have stressing qualities for rats, was chosen as an analogy to the stress of being in a war emergency. Activity and conditioned avoidance acquisition were chosen as test responses. Performance in the activity maze was affected only to a minor degree and in the direction of considering irradiation as activating. However, all irradiated groups showed retarded conditioned avoidance acquisition, which can be interpreted as decreased adaptability to a stressful situation. Further, our results support the expectation of performance decrements in the military scenario that could not be predicted by considering ionizing radiation in isolation. On the avoidance task, male rats in the combination stress-irradiation condition showed more failures to respond and longer response latencies than any other group. Female rats, on the other hand, showed shorter escape/avoidance latencies in the combined stress-irradiation condition than in the irradiation condition alone. This sex difference may be useful as a clue for investigating mechanisms of radiation resistance and interactions between stressors.

  16. Adverse effects on cardiovascular status and lipid levels of albino Wistar rats treated with cisplatin and oxaliplatin in combination with 5 Fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Najam, Rahila; Bano, Nusrat; Mirza, Talat; Hassan, Saba

    2014-09-01

    The study was designed to comparatively assess direct damages on cardiac tissues and aorta associated with abnormalities in lipid profile and cardiac biomarkers induced by two platinum cytotoxic compounds with and without 5FU (5Fluorouracil) in rats. Albino Wistar rats were treated with 5FU (15mg/kg), cisplatin (0.8mg/kg) and oxaliplatin (0.8mg/kg) in different dosing schedules. The changes in the lipid levels, CPK and Tropinin I levels, following treatment with single and combination schedules of CDDP, 5FU and Oxaliplatin were compared with the control group maintained on normal saline. Changes in LDL and cholesterol levels were highly significant in cisplatin and oxaliplatin treated rats. Myofibrillar loss and vascular wall thickening was seen in cisplatin treatment groups in the acute model of toxicity. The damages were mild but progressive. Tropinin I levels were raised well above diagnostic risk levels in the delayed model of toxicity in the rats treated with oxaliplatin in combination of 5FU, indicative of definite cardiotoxic potential of oxaliplatin in combination of 5FU mimicking the FOLFOX regimen.

  17. Teratogenic Effect of Crude Ethanolic Root Bark and Leaf Extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria (Apocynaceae) on Nissl Substances of Albino Wistar Rat Fetuses.

    PubMed

    Eluwa, Mokutima A; Ekanem, Theresa B; Udoh, Paul B; Ekong, Moses B; Asuquo, Olaitan R; Akpantah, Amabe O; Nwakanma, Agnes O

    2013-01-01

    Rauwolfia vomitoria is a plant used for the treatment of insanity. The possible adverse effects of crude ethanolic root bark and leaf extract of the plant on Nissl substances of albino Wistar rat fetuses were studied using 25 mature female Wistar rats. The animals were divided equally into 5 groups, labeled A, B, C, D, and E. Group A was the control, while groups B, C, D, and E were the experimental. The female rats were mated with the males overnight, and the sperm positive day was designated as day zero of pregnancy. Oral doses of 150 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg body weight of the root bark extract were administered to groups B and C animals, respectively, while groups D and E animals received 150 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg body weight of the leaf extract, respectively, from day 7 to 11 of gestation. On day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed, the fetuses brains extracted, and the cerebral cortices excised and routinely processed for Nissl substances using Cresyl fast violet staining method. Results showed reduced staining intensity of Nissl substances in the treated groups, especially those that received the root extract. Thus, the herbs may have adverse effects on protein synthesis within the cerebral cortex.

  18. Amelioration Effect of Zinc and Iron Supplementation on Selected Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Liver and Kidney of Cadmium-Treated Male Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Jamakala, Obaiah; Rani, Usha A.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic, nonessential heavy metal with many industrial uses that can contribute to a well-defined spectrum of diseases in animals as well as in humans. The present study examines the effect of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) supplementation on oxidative stress enzymes in Cd-treated rats. Wistar strain male albino rats were treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 1/10th LD50/48 h, that is, 22.5 mg/kg body weight for 7, 15, and 30 days (d) time intervals. The 15d Cd-treated rats were divided into three groups. The first group received Zn (12 mg/kg), second group Fe (40 mg/kg) alone, and third group supplemented with both Zn and Fe and observed for 7, 15, and 30d. After the specific time intervals, rats were decapitated and oxidative stress enzymes like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assayed in liver and kidney. Simultaneously lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were also measured. A significant elevation in LPO levels with decreased activity levels of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST were observed during Cd intoxication. With Zn and/or Fe supplementation, a significant reversal in the oxidative stress enzymes was observed. Our study reveals that combination of Zn and Fe supplementation is effective in detoxifying the Cd body burden from the test tissues. PMID:26862254

  19. Amelioration Effect of Zinc and Iron Supplementation on Selected Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Liver and Kidney of Cadmium-Treated Male Albino Rat.

    PubMed

    Jamakala, Obaiah; Rani, Usha A

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic, nonessential heavy metal with many industrial uses that can contribute to a well-defined spectrum of diseases in animals as well as in humans. The present study examines the effect of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) supplementation on oxidative stress enzymes in Cd-treated rats. Wistar strain male albino rats were treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 1/10(th) LD50/48 h, that is, 22.5 mg/kg body weight for 7, 15, and 30 days (d) time intervals. The 15d Cd-treated rats were divided into three groups. The first group received Zn (12 mg/kg), second group Fe (40 mg/kg) alone, and third group supplemented with both Zn and Fe and observed for 7, 15, and 30d. After the specific time intervals, rats were decapitated and oxidative stress enzymes like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assayed in liver and kidney. Simultaneously lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were also measured. A significant elevation in LPO levels with decreased activity levels of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST were observed during Cd intoxication. With Zn and/or Fe supplementation, a significant reversal in the oxidative stress enzymes was observed. Our study reveals that combination of Zn and Fe supplementation is effective in detoxifying the Cd body burden from the test tissues.

  20. Amelioration Effect of Zinc and Iron Supplementation on Selected Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Liver and Kidney of Cadmium-Treated Male Albino Rat.

    PubMed

    Jamakala, Obaiah; Rani, Usha A

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic, nonessential heavy metal with many industrial uses that can contribute to a well-defined spectrum of diseases in animals as well as in humans. The present study examines the effect of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) supplementation on oxidative stress enzymes in Cd-treated rats. Wistar strain male albino rats were treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 1/10(th) LD50/48 h, that is, 22.5 mg/kg body weight for 7, 15, and 30 days (d) time intervals. The 15d Cd-treated rats were divided into three groups. The first group received Zn (12 mg/kg), second group Fe (40 mg/kg) alone, and third group supplemented with both Zn and Fe and observed for 7, 15, and 30d. After the specific time intervals, rats were decapitated and oxidative stress enzymes like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assayed in liver and kidney. Simultaneously lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were also measured. A significant elevation in LPO levels with decreased activity levels of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST were observed during Cd intoxication. With Zn and/or Fe supplementation, a significant reversal in the oxidative stress enzymes was observed. Our study reveals that combination of Zn and Fe supplementation is effective in detoxifying the Cd body burden from the test tissues. PMID:26862254

  1. Effect of vasopressin on the expression of genes for key enzymes of hyaluronan turnover in Wistar Albino Glaxo and Brattleboro rat kidneys.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Lyudmila N; Babina, Alina V; Baturina, Galina S; Katkova, Lyubov E

    2013-11-01

    Hyaluronan (HA), the major glycosaminoglycan of the interstitial matrix, is heterogeneously distributed within the kidney. Using real-time RT-PCR, we tested the assumption that renal HA may be involved in the long-term effect of vasopressin on water reabsorption. The expression of the genes encoding hyaluronan synthase-2 (Has2), hyaluronidase-1 and hyaluronidase-2 (Hyal1 and Hyal2) was studied in the kidneys of Wistar Albino Glaxo (WAG) and homozygous vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats treated with the V2 receptor-selective vasopressin analogue dDAVP (100 μg (kg body wt)(-1), i.p., twice a day for 2 days). The Has2 mRNA content was the highest in the kidney papilla of the hydrated WAG and control Brattleboro rats, devoid of vasopressin. In WAG rats, dDAVP induced a considerable decrease in Has2 mRNA content in the papilla, with less pronounced changes in the cortex. The changes elicited by dDAVP in Brattleboro rats tended to be the same as in WAG rats, but weaker. In contrast to Has2, dDAVP treatment caused a significant increase in the Hyal1 and Hyal2 mRNA content in the renal papilla of WAG and Brattleboro rats. In rats of both strains, there was a good fit between Hyal1 and Hyal2 transcriptional levels and changes in hyaluronidase activity in the renal tissue. It is suggested that vasopressin is able to inhibit the synthesis of HA and concomitantly promote its degradation in the interstitium of the renal papilla, thereby facilitating water flow between elements of the renal countercurrent system. The implications for this effect are discussed in the context of the data in the literature.

  2. Morphofunctional state of the adrenal glands in albino rats under conditions of toxic stress caused by cadmium salt in winter and summer periods.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, S V; Kargina, M V; Kotelnikov, A V

    2011-06-01

    We studied the morphology and function of the adrenal glands in male and female albino rats in cadmium intoxication during winter and summer periods (January and July). In animals of the control group, sex-related differences in the total area of the adrenal glands and in the size of their zones were revealed. In females, zones of adrenal gland were larger than in males. In winter months, these differences were most pronounced. Analysis of seasonal differences in the area of the adrenal glands in males revealed no significant differences in winter and summer months. Irrespective of the season and gender, cadmium chloride treatment led to an increase in the size of the adrenal glands. Cadmium salts caused more pronounced functional strain in males in winter months and in females in summer.

  3. Exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration affects anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Shehu, Abubakar; Mohammed, Aliyu; Magaji, Rabiu Abdussalam; Muhammad, Mustapha Shehu

    2016-04-01

    Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in open arm duration in all the experimental groups when compared to the control. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) was also observed in catalase activity in group IV and V when compared to the control. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicates that 4 weeks exposure to electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats.

  4. Effect of palonosetron (5HT-3 antagonist) and pantoprazole (proton pump inhibitor) against surgical esophagitis induced by forestomach and pylorus ligation in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Gautam, S; Rawat, J K; Singh, M; Saraf, S A; Kaithwas, G

    2016-01-01

    This study was embarked upon to evaluate the effects of pantoprazole and palonosetron on experimental esophagitis in albino wistar rats. Groups of rats, fasted for 36 h, were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation, supervened by treatment with normal saline (3 ml/kg, po, sham control), esophagitis control (3 ml/kg, po), pantoprazole (30 mg/kg, po), palonosetron (0.5 mg/kg, po), and their combination. Animals were sacrificed after 12 h and appraised for the volume of gastric juices, total acidity, free acidity, and esophagitis index. Esophageal tissues were further figured out biochemically for markers of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators. The combination therapy comparably inhibited the esophagitis index (52.86%), gastric volume (66.04%), free acidity (43.76%), and total acidity (42.60%) in comparison with toxic control. The combination therapy also subsidized the biochemical and inflammatory markers to the purview less than toxic control. The morphological changes were scrutinized by scanning electron microscopy and were observed to demonstrate momentous protection by the amalgamation therapy. Combination therapy with pantoprazole and palonosetron flaunted sententious protection against experimental esophagitis.

  5. Comparison of the efficacy of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Nitasha Bhat, G. M.; Nayak, Nagendra; Vinodraj, K.; Chandralekha, N.; Mathai, Paul; Cherian, J.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of cardamom with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats. There were four groups of 6 rats each. First group received dexamethasone alone in a dose of 8 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 6 days to induce metabolic changes and considered as dexamethasone control. Second group received cardamom suspension 1 g/kg/10 mL of 2% gum acacia orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administration. Third group received pioglitazone 45 mg/kg orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administration. Fourth group did not receive any medication and was considered as normal control. Fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, blood sugar 2 h after glucose load, liver weight, liver volume were recorded, and histopathological analysis was done. The effects of cardamom were compared with that of pioglitazone. Dexamethasone caused hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. Both pioglitazone and cardamom significantly reduced hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia (P < 0.01). Reduction of blood sugar levels after glucose load was significant with pioglitazone in comparison to cardamom (P < 0.01). Cardamom has comparable efficacy to pioglitazone in preventing dexamethasone-induced hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia, and fasting hyperglycemia. PMID:26317079

  6. Comparison of the efficacy of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Nitasha Bhat, G M; Nayak, Nagendra; Vinodraj, K; Chandralekha, N; Mathai, Paul; Cherian, J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of cardamom with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats. There were four groups of 6 rats each. First group received dexamethasone alone in a dose of 8 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 6 days to induce metabolic changes and considered as dexamethasone control. Second group received cardamom suspension 1 g/kg/10 mL of 2% gum acacia orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administration. Third group received pioglitazone 45 mg/kg orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administration. Fourth group did not receive any medication and was considered as normal control. Fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, blood sugar 2 h after glucose load, liver weight, liver volume were recorded, and histopathological analysis was done. The effects of cardamom were compared with that of pioglitazone. Dexamethasone caused hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. Both pioglitazone and cardamom significantly reduced hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia (P < 0.01). Reduction of blood sugar levels after glucose load was significant with pioglitazone in comparison to cardamom (P < 0.01). Cardamom has comparable efficacy to pioglitazone in preventing dexamethasone-induced hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia, and fasting hyperglycemia.

  7. Comparison of the efficacy of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Nitasha Bhat, G M; Nayak, Nagendra; Vinodraj, K; Chandralekha, N; Mathai, Paul; Cherian, J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of cardamom with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats. There were four groups of 6 rats each. First group received dexamethasone alone in a dose of 8 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 6 days to induce metabolic changes and considered as dexamethasone control. Second group received cardamom suspension 1 g/kg/10 mL of 2% gum acacia orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administration. Third group received pioglitazone 45 mg/kg orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administration. Fourth group did not receive any medication and was considered as normal control. Fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, blood sugar 2 h after glucose load, liver weight, liver volume were recorded, and histopathological analysis was done. The effects of cardamom were compared with that of pioglitazone. Dexamethasone caused hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. Both pioglitazone and cardamom significantly reduced hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia (P < 0.01). Reduction of blood sugar levels after glucose load was significant with pioglitazone in comparison to cardamom (P < 0.01). Cardamom has comparable efficacy to pioglitazone in preventing dexamethasone-induced hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia, and fasting hyperglycemia. PMID:26317079

  8. Effects of opioid (tramadol) treatment on testicular functions in adult male rats: The role of nitric oxide and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Marwa A; Kurkar, Adel

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, tramadol hydrochloride is frequently used as a pain reliever, and for the treatment of premature ejaculation. Decreased semen quality was noted in chronic tramadol users. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of tramadol on the testicular functions of adult male rats. A total of 40 albino adult male rats were divided into control and tramadol groups, with 20 rats for each group. Rats of the tramadol group were subcutaneously injected with 40 mg/kg three times per week for 8 weeks. The control group received normal saline 0.9%. Blood samples from each animal were obtained. Plasma levels of different biochemical substances were determined. Nitric oxide was measured in testicular tissue samples. Those samples together with epididymal tissue samples were processed for histopathological examination. Tramadol significantly reduced plasma levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone and total cholesterol, but elevated prolactin and estradiol levels compared with the control group. In addition, tramadol increased the testicular levels of nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation, and decreased the anti-oxidant enzymes activities significantly compared with the control group. The tramadol group showed decreased sperm count and motility, and numbers of primary spermatocytes, rounded spermatid and Leydig cells. Immunohistochemical examinations showed that tramadol increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in testicular tissues. The present study showed that tramadol treatment affects the testicular function of adult male rats, and these effects might be through the overproduction of nitric oxide and oxidative stress induced by this drug.

  9. The possible counteractive effect of gold nanoparticles against streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in young male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Selim, Manar E; Hendi, Awatif A; Alfallaj, Ebtesam

    2016-05-01

    The current study was performed to study the effect of biologically synthesised gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to control hyperglycaemic conditions in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. In this study, the rats were divided into four groups: Group I normal control rats (non-diabetic, untreated); Group II diabetes-induced rats used as diabetic controls DC (diabetic, untreated). Group III diabetes-induced rats treated with AuNPs DT; Group IV normal rats treated with AuNPs NT. Diabetes was induced by administering an intraperitoneal injection of a freshly prepared solution of STZ (50mg/kg body weight (bw)). The glucose level was significantly increased in the diabetic control rats compared with the controls (P<0.001). Decreased liver function and kidney function were detected in the diabetic treated rats and normal treated rats after AuNP administration compared with the controls. The present study is the first to demonstrate that AuNPs significantly enhance antioxidant production in STZ-induced diabetic rats, a recognised model of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). PMID:27166528

  10. Bioefficacy of hydromethanolic extract of tuber of Chlorophytum borivilianum (Safed Musli) for the management of male infertility in cyproterone acetate-treated albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ray, S; Chatterjee, K; De, D; Ghosh, D

    2014-08-01

    Increase in male sexual dysfunction, and its treatment with conventional aphrodisiac drugs with side effects lead to investigate the spermatogenesis and androgenesis augmentative efficacy of hydromethanolic (40 : 60) extract of root of Chlorophytum borivilianum (family - Liliaceae) against cyproterone acetate-induced subfertility in Wistar strain male albino rat. For this purpose, experimental rats were divided into three treatment groups: vehicle (received distilled water), cyproterone acetate (gastric intubation at 250 mg kg(-1) twice daily for 35 days) and cyproterone acetate plus root extract of C. borivilianum (gastric intubation at 250 mg kg(-1) plus 400 mg kg(-1) with an interval of 20 min twice daily for 35 days). After 35-day treatment, all rats were euthanised. Reproductive deviations towards negative side were investigated by screening the spermatogenic and steroidogenic biosensors. Oxidative stress profile in reproductive organs and sperm pellet was evaluated by biochemical assessment of antioxidative enzyme activities and level of end products of the lipid peroxidation. Apoptosis profile was evaluated by Western blot study, TUNEL assay and DNA fragmentation study of testicular tissues. Evaluation of toxicity profile was included for experimental investigation. After cyproterone acetate treatment, the pituitary-testicular axis was deviated towards the negative side and its tuning system was affected by oxidative stress and apoptosis-mediated process, which reduced the quality of semen and finally led to subfertility. Co-administration of C. borivilianum root extract enhanced male reproductive potentiality and prevented the negative deviations after the treatment with cyproterone acetate by means of increasing oxidative defence and maintaining homeostasis in testicular apoptosis process.

  11. Genetic and developmental studies of albino chorus frogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Albino (amelanic) adult chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) occurred with frequencies of 7 percent in 1981 and 12 percent in 1982 in breeding aggregations at a pond in the foothills of the Colorado Front Range. Laboratory matings and examination of albino egg masses suggest that the absence of melanin is due to a recessive allele. The albino phenotype displayed no deficiencies in survival of embryos, rates of embryo or larval development, or rates of growth of juvenile frogs. The absence of abnormalities in development or growth suggests that the a allele in P. triseriata has an action different from albino alleles studied previously in anurans.

  12. A comparative pharmacological investigation of three samples of 'Guduchi ghrita' for adaptogenic activity against forced swimming induced gastric ulceration and hematological changes in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Savrikar, Shriram S; Dole, Vilas; Ravishankar, B; Shukla, Vinay J

    2010-04-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of formulation factors and adjuvants on the expression of biological activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. The adaptogenic effect of three samples of Guduchi ghrita, prepared using plain ghee (clarified butter) obtained from three different sources was studied in albino rats and compared with expressed juice of stem of Guduchi. The test preparations were evaluated against forced-swimming induced hypothermia, gastric ulceration and changes in the hematological parameters. The test drug given in the form of 'ghrita' produced better effect in comparison to the expressed juice. Among the three 'ghrita' preparations evaluated, only the 'Solapur Guduchi ghrita' (SGG) was found to produce significant inhibition of stress hypothermia and gastric ulceration. The other two preparations 'Nanded Guduchi ghrita' (NGG), and 'Wardha Guduchi ghrita' (WGG) could produce only a marginal effect. In hematological parameters 'Guduchi' juice produced better reversal of the stress-induced changes in comparison to the test 'ghrita' preparations. The present study provides evidence highlighting the importance of formulation factors for the expression of biological activity. PMID:20814518

  13. Development of safety profile evaluating pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicity of a combination of pioglitazone and olmesartan medoxomil in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Pinaki; Nandi, Utpal; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Pioglitazone (PIO), an antidiabetic drug and olmesartan medoxomil (OLM), an antihypertensive drug were administered orally alone and in combination to Wistar albino rats for evaluation of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity of individual drugs and their combination. Pharmacokinetic study was performed by orally administering PIO and OLM at single dose of 3 and 2mg/kg, respectively alone and in combination analyzing the plasma samples using LC-MS/MS. Antidiabetic activity evaluation was done in type-2 diabetes mellitus induced animals at same dose level as in pharmacokinetic study daily for 30 days. PIO and/or OLM were administered orally to animals at daily doses of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg for 28 days for toxicity study. There was no significant alteration in the pharmacokinetic parameters of either drug indicating absence of any pharmacokinetic interaction when co-administered. Positive pharmacodynamic interaction between PIO and OLM was established in this study. Two drugs in combination showed no evidence of potentiation of 28-day repeated dose toxicity in animals. Again, drugs, alone and in combination, caused only minor changes in clinical-laboratory tests and histopathological change was not found in the experiment performed. In conclusion, PIO and OLM combination can primarily be stated as safe in terms of present toxicity and pharmacokinetics findings.

  14. Ceria-containing uncoated and coated hydroxyapatite-based galantamine nanocomposites for formidable treatment of Alzheimer's disease in ovariectomized albino-rat model.

    PubMed

    Wahba, Sanaa M R; Darwish, Atef S; Kamal, Sara M

    2016-08-01

    This paper upraises delivery and therapeutic actions of galantamine drug (GAL) against Alzheimer's disease (AD) in rat brain through attaching GAL to ceria-containing hydroxyapatite (GAL@Ce-HAp) as well ceria-containing carboxymethyl chitosan-coated hydroxyapatite (GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC) nanocomposites. Physicochemical features of such nanocomposites were analyzed by XRD, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectrophotometer, N2-BET, DLS, zeta-potential measurements, SEM, and HR-TEM. Limited interactions were observed in GAL@Ce-HAp with prevailed existence of dispersed negatively charged rod-like particles conjugated with ceria nanodots. On contrary, GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC was well-structured developing aggregates of uncharged tetragonal-shaped particles laden with accession of ceria quantum dots. Such nanocomposites were i.p. injected into ovariectomized AD albino-rats at galantamine dose of 2.5mg/kg/day for one month, then brain tissues were collected for biochemical and histological tests. GAL@Ce-HAp adopted as a promising candidate for AD curativeness, whereas oxidative stress markers were successfully upregulated, degenerated neurons in hippocampal and cerebral tissues were wholly recovered and Aβ-plaques were vanished. Also, optimizable in-vitro release for GAL and nanoceria were displayed from GAL@Ce-HAp, while delayed in-vitro release for those species were developed from GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC. This proof of concept work allow futuristic omnipotency of rod-like hydroxyapatite particles for selective delivery of GAL and nanoceria to AD affected brain areas. PMID:27157738

  15. Efficacy of HCG and ovarian steroids in the maintenance/interruption of pregnancy in-albino rats.

    PubMed

    Nevagi, S A; Vani, V; Doddamani, L S

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) and ovarian steroids in the maintenance/interruption of pregnancy in normal pregnant rats. Holtzman's strain rats were laparotomized to observe the number of implantations. In this study, continuous administration of HCG (5 IU) to normal pregnant rats, from day 8 through days 14 or 19, interrupted gestation, resulting in fetal resorption with many placentomas and placental scars. By contrast, a single injection of HCG (5 IU or 1 IU) on day 8 had no deleterious effect on pregnancy, except that the percent fetal survival was slightly reduced, attributable to a slight hyperstimulation of the ovaries of the pregnant rats. One possibility is that prolonged treatment with HCG might have caused progesterone/luteal hormone deficiency with a concomitant increase in estrogen secretion, resulting in the interruption of pregnancy. Hence, here we tested whether progesterone (5 mg) or estradiol-17beta (1 microg) administered to HCG treated rats could compensate this deficiency and maintain pregnancy. The results indicate that these steroids cannot prevent the interruption of pregnancy induced by the continuous administration of HCG, possibly due to an overstimulation of the ovaries by gonadotrophin. PMID:16438394

  16. [Thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzymes in the regenerating liver of albino rats under different regimens of oxythiamine administration].

    PubMed

    Kravchuk, R I

    1985-01-01

    Activities of the thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzymes (pyruvate dehydrogenase, oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, transketolase) were increased in regenerating rat liver tissue as compared with their activities in the intact tissue. After administration of oxythiamine (20 mg/kg, within 10 days, subcutaneously) into the animals the enzymatic activity studied was decreased.

  17. Interactions between respiratory oscillators in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Huckstepp, Robert TR; Henderson, Lauren E; Cardoza, Kathryn P; Feldman, Jack L

    2016-01-01

    Breathing in mammals is hypothesized to result from the interaction of two distinct oscillators: the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) driving inspiration and the lateral parafacial region (pFL) driving active expiration. To understand the interactions between these oscillators, we independently altered their excitability in spontaneously breathing vagotomized urethane-anesthetized adult rats. Hyperpolarizing preBötC neurons decreased inspiratory activity and initiated active expiration, ultimately progressing to apnea, i.e., cessation of both inspiration and active expiration. Depolarizing pFL neurons produced active expiration at rest, but not when inspiratory activity was suppressed by hyperpolarizing preBötC neurons. We conclude that in anesthetized adult rats active expiration is driven by the pFL but requires an additional form of network excitation, i.e., ongoing rhythmic preBötC activity sufficient to drive inspiratory motor output or increased chemosensory drive. The organization of this coupled oscillator system, which is essential for life, may have implications for other neural networks that contain multiple rhythm/pattern generators. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14203.001 PMID:27300271

  18. Oral supplementation of Ocimum basilicum has the potential to improves the locomotory, exploratory, anxiolytic behavior and learning in adult male albino mice.

    PubMed

    Zahra, K; Khan, M A; Iqbal, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this project was to determine the effect of 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of Ocimum basilicum leaf extract on neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory, locomotory and short-term memory formation in male albino mice. Five weeks old, male albino mice were used as the experimental animals in order to demonstrate the effect of O. basilicum's extract on learning and memory. Each male albino mouse was weighted and orally treated either with 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of O. basilicum leaf extract or with commercially available saline solution (Otsuka, Pakistan) for 7 days. Behavioral observations were made by applying a series of neurological tests (Elevated plus maze, Light and dark box, Open field and Rota rod). Dose supplementation continued during neurological testing. It was observed that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract improves neuromuscular co-ordination and male albino mouse performance in open field, light dark box and during novel object test when compared with control group. We concluded that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract has the potential to improve neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory behavior, object recognition ability and transfer latency in male albino mice and can be safely administrated orally.

  19. [The pentose phosphate pathway and NADP-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in some tissues of albino rat].

    PubMed

    Glushankov, E P; Epifanova, Iu E; Kolotilova, A I

    1976-10-01

    The NADP-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in liver, heart and skeletal muscle of rat was studied. The activity is found when glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate or ribose-5-phosphate in the presence of ATP are taken as substrates. The data obtained confirm that NADP-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase exists in skeletal muscle and demonstrate that it is found in heart muscle as well.

  20. Evaluation of effects of T and N type calcium channel blockers on the electroencephalogram recordings in Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij rats, an absence epilepsy model

    PubMed Central

    Durmus, Nedim; Gültürk, Sefa; Kaya, Tijen; Demir, Tuncer; Parlak, Mesut; Altun, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: It is suggested that excessive calcium entry into neurons is the main triggering event in the initiation of epileptic discharges. We aimed to investigate the role of T and N type calcium channels in absence epilepsy experimental model. Materials and Methods: Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij (WAG/Rij) rats (12–16 weeks old) were randomly allocated into four groups; sham, mibefradil (T type calcium channel blocker), w-Conotoxin MVIIA (N type calcium channel blocker), and mibefradil + w-Conotoxin MVIIA. Beta, alpha, theta, and delta wave ratios of EEG recordings and frequency and duration of spike wave discharges (SWDs) were analyzed and compared between groups. Results: Beta and delta recording ratios in 1 μM/5 μl mibefradil group was significantly different from basal and other dose-injected groups. Beta, alpha, and theta recordings in 0.2 μM/5 μl w-Conotoxin MVIIA group was significantly different from basal and other dose-injected groups. In w-Conotoxin MVIIA after mibefradil group, beta, alpha, and theta recording ratios were significantly different from basal and mibefradil group. Mibefradil and w-Conotoxin MVIIA significantly decreased the frequency and duration of SWDs. The decrease of frequency and duration of SWDs in mibefradil group was significantly different from w-Conotoxin MVIIA group. The frequency and duration of SWDs significantly decreased in w-Conotoxin MVIIA after mibefradil group compared with basal, mibefradil, and w-Conotoxin MVIIA groups. Conclusions: We concluded that both T and L type calcium channels play activator roles in SWDs and have positive effects on frequency and duration of these discharges. These results are related with their central effects more than peripheral effects. PMID:25821308

  1. Evaluation of effect of dietary supplementation with Dacryodes edulis G.Don pulp oil on serum lipid parameters in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ezekwesili, C N; Eneh, F U

    2014-07-01

    The pulp of Dacryodes edulis G.Don which is rich in oils is commonly consumed in Nigeria when in season. The effect of diet supplementation with edulis fruit pulp oil on body lipid parameters was evaluated in male Wistar albino rats. D. edulis oil was extracted in n-hexane. The test diet was.compounded using the oil extract (10%), whereas the control animals were kept on control diet formulated with groundnut oil (10%). After six weeks, the animals were anaesthetized with chloroform and blood samples collected through cardiac puncture for the determination of serum lipid profile. Results revealed that D. edulis fruit pulp oil did not cause any significant (p > 0.05) alterations in serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol. The total amount of lipids present in the serum was increased by 33.3%, whereas the quantity of liver lipids decreased by the same factor (33.3%). Insignificant (p > 0.05) increases in the weights (g 100 g(-1) BW) of the liver (2.91 ± 0.17 to 3.38 ± 0.25), kidney (0.36 ± 0.06 to 0.40 ± 0.02) and heart (0.32 ± 0.02 to 0.33 ± 0.04) were observed in the test group. No significant change (p > 0.05) in the average body weight of the test animals was recorded. HPLC analysis of D. edulis oil showed that it contained palmitic acid (48.7%), linoleic acid (28.6%),oleic acid (12.9%), stearic acid (5.0%), lauric acid (2.2%), linolenic acid (1.7%) and myristic acid (0.9%). The peroxide value of the oil was 0.00. Prolonged intake of D. edulis fruit pulp oil may induce adverse effects on the body organs, even though the body lipid profile remains unaltered. PMID:26035940

  2. Design and development of ethosomal transdermal drug delivery system of valsartan with preclinical assessment in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Bhosale, Sagar S; Avachat, Amelia M

    2013-06-01

    Valsartan (VLT) is a highly selective and orally active antihypertensive drug. However, its oral administration is associated with drawbacks like low bioavailability. The objective of this study was to design and develop a transdermal delivery system for VLT using ethosomal carriers to investigate their enhanced transdermal delivery potential. VLT ethosomes were prepared by cold method. VLT ethosomes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The prepared ethanolic liposomes were characterized to be spherical having low polydispersity of nano-size range with good entrapment efficiency. ETC5 ethosomal suspension with 4% of phospholipon 90H and 40% of ethanol was found to have highest entrapment efficiency, i.e. 80.230 ± 0.8748%. The permeation study of ethosomes was evaluated by ex vivo diffusion study through rat abdominal skin using Franz's diffusion cells and ETC5 ethosomal suspension was found to have highest permeation with flux of 92.819 ± 1.539 µg/cm²/h, when compared to the permeation profiles of drug solutions either in water or in a water-ethanol mixture. Transdermal application of ethosomal VLT on Wistar rats showed better and prolonged antihypertensive activity in comparison to orally administered VLT suspension by virtue of transdermal permeation through Wistar rat skin. Histopathological study of skin applied with ETC5 showed intercellular permeation across skin by dissolving intercellular lipids in epidermis without causing any rigorous changes in the skin cellular structure. In conclusion, ethosomes enabled the transdermal permeation of VLT, which amply proves its superiority over oral administration for antihypertensive treatment. PMID:23324030

  3. Design and development of ethosomal transdermal drug delivery system of valsartan with preclinical assessment in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Bhosale, Sagar S; Avachat, Amelia M

    2013-06-01

    Valsartan (VLT) is a highly selective and orally active antihypertensive drug. However, its oral administration is associated with drawbacks like low bioavailability. The objective of this study was to design and develop a transdermal delivery system for VLT using ethosomal carriers to investigate their enhanced transdermal delivery potential. VLT ethosomes were prepared by cold method. VLT ethosomes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The prepared ethanolic liposomes were characterized to be spherical having low polydispersity of nano-size range with good entrapment efficiency. ETC5 ethosomal suspension with 4% of phospholipon 90H and 40% of ethanol was found to have highest entrapment efficiency, i.e. 80.230 ± 0.8748%. The permeation study of ethosomes was evaluated by ex vivo diffusion study through rat abdominal skin using Franz's diffusion cells and ETC5 ethosomal suspension was found to have highest permeation with flux of 92.819 ± 1.539 µg/cm²/h, when compared to the permeation profiles of drug solutions either in water or in a water-ethanol mixture. Transdermal application of ethosomal VLT on Wistar rats showed better and prolonged antihypertensive activity in comparison to orally administered VLT suspension by virtue of transdermal permeation through Wistar rat skin. Histopathological study of skin applied with ETC5 showed intercellular permeation across skin by dissolving intercellular lipids in epidermis without causing any rigorous changes in the skin cellular structure. In conclusion, ethosomes enabled the transdermal permeation of VLT, which amply proves its superiority over oral administration for antihypertensive treatment.

  4. Effect of prenatal and perinatal acrylamide on the biochemical and morphological changes in liver of developing albino rat.

    PubMed

    Allam, Ahmed Aly; El-Ghareeb, Abdel Whaab; Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Bakery, Ahlam El; Gad, Mammoun; Sabri, Mohammad

    2010-02-01

    Acrylamide has been employed as an experimental probe to investigate biochemical and morphological changes in developing rat liver following toxin administration in pregnant rats. Non-anesthetized pregnant rats were given acrylamide by gastric intubation at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day. The pups were divided into three groups: Group A, mothers were treated with saline (control group); Group B, mothers were treated with acrylamide from day D7 of gestation till birth (prenatal intoxication); Group C, mothers were treated with acrylamide from D7 of gestation to D28 after birth (perinatal intoxication). Acrylamide-induced biochemical changes (in liver and serum) and morphological changes (in liver) were studied in control and acrylamide-treated developing pups. Prenatally and perinatally administered acrylamide significantly increased lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione and total thiol levels in liver. Significant inhibition of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities was observed in liver tissue. Total lipids including cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased in the serum. Acrylamide treatment increased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity. Sodium and potassium concentrations were increased, but calcium, phosphorus and iron levels were significantly reduced in the serum. Acrylamide produced significant electrophoretic changes in serum proteins. The most noticeable change was splitting of beta-globulin into beta1- and beta2-globulins. Light microscopy showed acrylamide-induced fatty deposits, congested central vein, vacuolization and chromatolysis in hepatocytes. Ultrastructural studies revealed vacuolated cytoplasm, lipid droplets of variable size and mitochondria with damaged cristae and vacuolization. The nuclei in acrylamide-treated groups showed marked decrease in the staining of nuclear DNA. PMID:19862503

  5. Activation of cell division and nucleic acid synthesis in the corneal epithelium of albino rats by repeated stress

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhnova, N.I.; Timoshin, S.S.

    1985-05-01

    Adaption to unfavorable factors is accompanied by activation of nucleic acid and protein synthesis in systems responsible for adaption. The authors investigate the possibility of similar changes taking place in structures not actively participating in adaptation. The corneas of the dead male albin rats were preincubated with tritium-uridine for 1.5 hours. The mitotic index, the index of tritium-thymidine-labeled nuclei and the intensity of thymidine labeling were determined. The results indicate that after a single exposure to hypoxia, hyperthermia, and immobilization, mitotic index in the corneal epithelium decreased and DNA synthesis under these circumstances remained stable.

  6. Effect of N′-nitrosodimethylamine on red blood cell rheology and proteomic profiles of brain in male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Areeba; Fatima, Ravish; Maheshwari, Veena; Ahmad, Riaz

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of N'-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) induced toxicity on red blood cell rheology in male rats and identified bands in proteomic profiles of brain which can be used as novel markers. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) profiles exhibited constitutive as well as induced expression of the polypeptides. Remarkably, the molecular weight range of the polypeptides (8–150 kDa) corresponded to that of the family of heat shock proteins. Our results revealed significant changes in blood parameters and showed the presence of acanthocytes, tear drop cells, spicules and cobot rings in the treated categories. Lactate dehydrogenase and esterase zymograms displayed a shift to anaerobic metabolism generating hypoxia-like conditions. This study strongly suggests that NDMA treatment causes acute toxicity leading to cell membrane destruction and alters protein profiles in rats. It is therefore recommended that caution should be exercised in using NDMA to avoid risks, and if at all necessary strategies should be designed to combat such conditions. PMID:22058653

  7. Methoxychlor induced biochemical alterations and disruption of spermatogenesis in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Aly, Hamdy A A; Azhar, Ahmad S

    2013-09-01

    Adult male albino rats were treated orally with methoxychlor at doses of 0, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for 15 consecutive days. Testicular weight, sperm count and motility were significantly decreased. Methoxychlor at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly inhibited α-glucosidase activity, while plasma testosterone was significantly decrease by the three dose levels in a dose-related pattern. Testicular activities of 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD, SDH were significantly decreased, while ACP, ALP (except for 50 mg/kg), and LDH were significantly increased. H2O2 production and LPO were significantly increased while the enzymic (SOD, CAT and GPx) and non-enzymic antioxidants (thiol content) were significantly decreased. Caspase-3 activity was significantly increased in a dose related manner. The findings of this study indicate that methoxychlor induces oxidative stress associated with impairment of spermatogenesis, in addition to apoptosis. These data provide insight into the mode of action of methoxychlor-induced toxicity in the rat testis.

  8. Differences between brainstem gliomas in juvenile and adult rats

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YU; TIAN, YONGJI; WAN, HONG; LI, DEZHI; WU, WENHAO; YIN, LUXIN; JIANG, JIAN; WAN, WEIQING; ZHANG, LIWEI

    2013-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that gliomas of the brainstem behave differently in children and adults. The aim of the present study was to compare and analyze the differences between these gliomas in juvenile and adult rats with regard to tumor growth, survival, pathology and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A total of 25 juvenile and 25 adult Wistar rats were divided into groups A (15 juvenile rats), B (10 juvenile rats), C (15 adult rats) and D (10 adult rats). The rats of groups A and C (experimental) were injected with glioma cells, while groups B and D (control) were injected with a physiological saline solution. Rat neurological signs, survival time, tumor size, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemical staining for MMP-2, MMP-9 and β-catenin were compared. The survival time of group A was 19.47±2.232 days, whereas that of group C was 21.47±2.232 days (P<0.05). The tumor sizes were 4.55 and 4.62 mm (P>0.05) in groups A and C, respectively. HE and immunohistochemical staining revealed no differences between the groups. The results suggest that the growth patterns and invasiveness of brainstem gliomas may vary in children compared with adults due to the varied biological behaviors of the tumor cells. PMID:23946812

  9. Exploring the Potential Role of Chemopreventive Agent, Hesperetin Conjugated Pegylated Gold Nanoparticles in Diethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Gokuladhas, Krishnan; Jayakumar, Subramaniyan; Rajan, Balan; Elamaran, Ramasamy; Pramila, Chengalvarayan Subramani; Gopikrishnan, Mani; Tamilarasi, Sasivarman; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2016-04-01

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer and is still one of the leading causes of death world wide, due to food additives, alcohol, fungal toxins, air, toxic industrial chemicals, and water pollutants. Chemopreventive drugs play a potential role in liver cancer treatment. Obviously in the production of anticancer drugs, the factors like poor solubility, bioavailability, biocompatibility, limited chemical stability, large amount of dose etc., plays a major role. Against this backdrop, the idea of designing the chemopreventive nature of bio flavanoid hesperetin (HP) drug conjugated with pegylated gold nanoparticles to increasing the solubility, improve bioavailability and enhance the targeting capabilities of the drug during diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in male wistar albino rats. The dose fixation studies and the toxicity of pure HP and HP conjugated gold nanoparticles (Au-mPEG(5000)-S-HP) were analysed. After concluded the dose fixation and toxicity studies the experimental design were segregated in six groups for the anticancer analysis of DEN induced HCC for 16 weeks. After the experimental period the body weight, relative liver weight, number of nodules and size of nodules, the levels of tumor markers like CEA, AFP and the level of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were assessed. The administration of DEN to rats resulted in increased relative liver weight and serum marker enzymes aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase. The levels of lipid peroxides elevated (in both serum and tissue) with subsequent decrease in the final body weight and tissue antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidise, and glutathione reductase. HP supplementation (20 mg/kg b.wt) significantly attenuated these alterations, thereby showing potent anticancer effect in liver cancer and the

  10. Exploring the Potential Role of Chemopreventive Agent, Hesperetin Conjugated Pegylated Gold Nanoparticles in Diethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Gokuladhas, Krishnan; Jayakumar, Subramaniyan; Rajan, Balan; Elamaran, Ramasamy; Pramila, Chengalvarayan Subramani; Gopikrishnan, Mani; Tamilarasi, Sasivarman; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2016-04-01

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer and is still one of the leading causes of death world wide, due to food additives, alcohol, fungal toxins, air, toxic industrial chemicals, and water pollutants. Chemopreventive drugs play a potential role in liver cancer treatment. Obviously in the production of anticancer drugs, the factors like poor solubility, bioavailability, biocompatibility, limited chemical stability, large amount of dose etc., plays a major role. Against this backdrop, the idea of designing the chemopreventive nature of bio flavanoid hesperetin (HP) drug conjugated with pegylated gold nanoparticles to increasing the solubility, improve bioavailability and enhance the targeting capabilities of the drug during diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in male wistar albino rats. The dose fixation studies and the toxicity of pure HP and HP conjugated gold nanoparticles (Au-mPEG(5000)-S-HP) were analysed. After concluded the dose fixation and toxicity studies the experimental design were segregated in six groups for the anticancer analysis of DEN induced HCC for 16 weeks. After the experimental period the body weight, relative liver weight, number of nodules and size of nodules, the levels of tumor markers like CEA, AFP and the level of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were assessed. The administration of DEN to rats resulted in increased relative liver weight and serum marker enzymes aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase. The levels of lipid peroxides elevated (in both serum and tissue) with subsequent decrease in the final body weight and tissue antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidise, and glutathione reductase. HP supplementation (20 mg/kg b.wt) significantly attenuated these alterations, thereby showing potent anticancer effect in liver cancer and the

  11. Effect of Ocimum basilicum extract on cadmium-induced testicular histomorphometric and immunohistochemical alterations in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Saber A; Nooh, Hanna Z

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of Ocimum basilicum (basil) extract, a natural herb, with antioxidant properties, against testicular toxicity induced by cadmium (Cd), which is one of the most important toxic heavy metals. The intoxicated rats showed significant alterations in the testicular tissue including decreased seminiferous epithelium height and changes in the arrangement of spermatogenic layers. Hypospermatogensis with cytoplasmic vacuolization and pyknotic nuclei were observed. Intertubular hemorrahage and absence of spermatozoa were noted. Decreased cell proliferation was reflected by a decrease in Ki-67 expression, whereas the increase in apoptotic rate was associated with a decrease in the Bcl/Bax ratio. Concomitant treatment with aqueous basil extract led to an improvement in histological, morphometrical and immunohistochemical changes induced by Cd. The beneficial effects of basil extract could be attributed to its antioxidant properties.

  12. Effect of Ocimum basilicum extract on cadmium-induced testicular histomorphometric and immunohistochemical alterations in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Saber A; Nooh, Hanna Z

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of Ocimum basilicum (basil) extract, a natural herb, with antioxidant properties, against testicular toxicity induced by cadmium (Cd), which is one of the most important toxic heavy metals. The intoxicated rats showed significant alterations in the testicular tissue including decreased seminiferous epithelium height and changes in the arrangement of spermatogenic layers. Hypospermatogensis with cytoplasmic vacuolization and pyknotic nuclei were observed. Intertubular hemorrahage and absence of spermatozoa were noted. Decreased cell proliferation was reflected by a decrease in Ki-67 expression, whereas the increase in apoptotic rate was associated with a decrease in the Bcl/Bax ratio. Concomitant treatment with aqueous basil extract led to an improvement in histological, morphometrical and immunohistochemical changes induced by Cd. The beneficial effects of basil extract could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. PMID:23869259

  13. Protective role of Moringa oleifera (Sajina) seed on arsenic-induced hepatocellular degeneration in female albino rats.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Maiti, Smarajit; Maji, Gurupada; Deb, Bimal; Pan, Bappaditya; Ghosh, Debidas

    2011-08-01

    In an attempt to develop new herbal therapy, an aqueous extract of the seed of Moringa oleifera was used to screen the effect on arsenic-induced hepatic toxicity in female rat of Wistar strain. Subchronic exposure to sodium arsenite (0.4 ppm/100 g body weight/day via drinking water for a period of 24 days) significantly increased activities of hepatic and lipid function markers such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL along with a decrease in total protein and HDL. A notable distortion of hepatocellular histoarchitecture was prominent with a concomitant increase in DNA fragmentation following arsenic exposure. A marked elevation of lipid peroxidation in hepatic tissue was also evident from the hepatic accumulation of malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes along with suppressed activities in the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase. However, co-administration of aqueous seed extract of M. oleifera (500 mg/100 g body weight/day for a period of 24 days) was found to significantly prevent the arsenic-induced alteration of hepatic function markers and lipid profile. Moreover, the degeneration of histoarchitecture of liver found in arsenic-treated rats was protected along with partial but definite prevention against DNA fragmentation induction. Similarly, generation of reactive oxygen species and free radicals were found to be significantly less along with restored activities of antioxidant enzymes in M. oleifera co-administered group with comparison to arsenic alone treatment group. The present investigation offers strong evidence for the hepato-protective and antioxidative efficiencies of M. oleifera seed extract against oxidative stress induced by arsenic. PMID:20661662

  14. Alteration in Memory and Electroencephalogram Waves with Sub-acute Noise Stress in Albino Rats and Safeguarded by Scoparia dulcis

    PubMed Central

    Loganathan, Sundareswaran; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Noise stress has different effects on memory and novelty and the link between them with an electroencephalogram (EEG) has not yet been reported. Objective: To find the effect of sub-acute noise stress on the memory and novelty along with EEG and neurotransmitter changes. Materials and Methods: Eight-arm maze (EAM) and Y-maze to analyze the memory and novelty by novel object test. Four groups of rats were used: Control, control treated with Scoparia dulcis extract, noise exposed, and noise exposed which received Scoparia extract. Results: The results showed no marked difference observed between control and control treated with Scoparia extract on EAM, Y-maze, novel object test, and EEG in both prefrontal and occipital region, however, noise stress exposed rats showed significant increase in the reference memory and working memory error in EAM and latency delay, triad errors in Y-maze, and prefrontal and occipital EEG frequency rate with the corresponding increase in plasma corticosterone and epinephrine, and significant reduction in the novelty test, and significant reduction in the novelty test, amplitude of prefrontal, occipital EEG, and acetylcholine. Conclusion: These noise stress induced changes in EAM, Y-maze, novel object test, and neurotransmitters were significantly prevented when treated with Scoparia extract and these changes may be due to the normalizing action of Scoparia extract on the brain, which altered due to noise stress. SUMMARY Noise stress exposure causes EEG, behavior, and neurotransmitter alteration in the frontoparietal and occipital regions mainly involved in planning and recognition memoryOnly the noise stress exposed animals showed the significant alteration in the EEG, behavior, and neurotransmittersHowever, these noise stress induced changes in EEG behavior and neurotransmitters were significantly prevented when treated with Scoparia extractThese changes may be due to the normalizing action of Scoparia dulcis (adoptogen) on

  15. Dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) protects Wistar albino rats from adverse effects of whole body radiation.

    PubMed

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Okiti, Osume O; Farombi, E Olatunde

    2011-11-01

    The effect of dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) (XA) and vitamin C (VC) against γ-radiation-induced liver and kidney damage was studied in male Wistar rats. XA and VC were given orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg, orally for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after radiation (5 Gy). The rats were sacrificed after 1 and 8 weeks of single exposure to radiation. Results showed that all animals in un-irradiated group survived (100%), while 83.3% and 66.7% survived in XA- and VC-treated groups, respectively, and 50% survived in irradiated group. The levels of serum, liver and kidney lipid peroxidation (LPO) were elevated by 88%, 102% and 73% after 1 week of exposure, and by 152%, 221% and 178%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. Treatment with XA and VC significantly (p<0.05) decreased the levels of LPO in the irradiated animals. Also, γ-radiation caused significant decreases (p<0.05) in the levels of liver glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), kidney GSH and SOD by 41%, 60%, 81%, 79%, 72% and 58% after 1 week of exposure. Similarly, γ-radiation caused significant increases (p<0.05) in the levels of serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases (AST) after 8 weeks of exposure. Precisely, ALT and AST levels were increased by 69% and 82%, respectively. These changes were significantly (p<0.05) attenuated in irradiated animals treated with XA and VC. These results suggest that XA and VC could increase the antioxidant defence systems in the liver and kidney of irradiated animals, and may protect from adverse effects of whole body radiation.

  16. Influence of Vitamin C and Vitamin E on testicular zinc content and testicular toxicity in lead exposed albino rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Occupational and environmental exposures to lead remain a public health problem as lead alters physiological processes by inducing oxidative stress and mimicking divalent cations. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Vitamin C (VC) and Vitamin E (VE) on the reproductive function of lead exposed male rats. Experimental animals were exposed to oral doses of lead, VC and VE at 60 mg/kg body weight, 40 mg/kg body weight, and 150 mg/kg body weight respectively, while control animals received 0.9% saline solution. Oral administration spanned for six weeks after which changes in testicular redox status, lead deposition, testicular zinc content, serum androgen content, semen quality and testis histology were examined. Results There were significant (p < 0.05) increases in oxidative stress indices and testicular lead content. A significant (p < 0.05) depletion of zinc in the testis of lead exposed animals was also observed. Fluctuations were observed in androgen levels of lead treated animals with a significant increase (p < 0.05) in Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (TT) content, while there was no significant change in luteinizing hormone (LH) content. Testicular tissue showed an alteration in its normal histology with degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium accompanied by a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the number of luminal spermatozoa. A downgrade in the semen appearance and semen quality –sperm motility, morphology, and count was also observed after lead exposure. VC and VE treatment showed a significant (p < 0.05) reversal of the physiological alteration induced by lead. Conclusions Lead exposure resulted in a decline in the reproductive function of male rats by inducing oxidative stress, inhibiting enzymes and depleting testicular zinc contents. However, results clearly showed that VC and VE attenuated the deleterious impact of lead on the reproductive system. PMID:23241495

  17. Ameliorative effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on immunohistochemical and ultrastuctural changes of cerebellum of albino rats induced by aspartame.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Gallaly, Sanaa Rida

    2014-05-01

    The study aims to investigate the protective effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on aspartame (ASP) which resulted in cerebellar changes. The rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1: (control group): served as control animals. Group 2: control P. anisum oil received .5 mL/kg/d/b wt. once daily. Group 3 (ASP group): received daily 250 mg/kg/b wt. of ASP dissolved in distilled water and given orally to the animals by intra-gastric tube for 2 months. Group 4: received .5 mL/kg/b wt. of prophylactic P. anisum oil once daily, followed by ASP after 2 h for 2 months. The histopathological approach revealed marked changes in the Purkinje cells, myleinated nerve fibers and granular cells of ASP-treated animals. Some of these cells appeared with deeply stained cytoplasm. Ultrastructural examination showed Purkinje cells with dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and condensed mitochondria. Granular cells appeared with less c nuclei and surrounded by dissolution of most Mossy rosettes structures. Most myelinated nerve fibers showed thickening of myelinated sheath and others showed splitting of their myelin sheath. The histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural alterations were much less observed in concomitant use of P. anisum oil with ASP. Cerebellar cortex is considered target areas of ASP neurotoxicity, while P. anisum oil, when used in combination with ASP displays a protective action against neurotoxicity.

  18. Morphological aspects of the ectopic granule-like cellular populations in the albino rat hippocampal formation: a Golgi study.

    PubMed

    Martí-Subirana, A; Soriano, E; García-Verdugo, J M

    1986-02-01

    Rat hippocampal formation was examined by the Golgi impregnation method. Three different ectopic granule-like populations of cells were differentiated: (1) Ectopic granule-like cells of the regio inferior, located in the stratum radiatum; one or two dendrites arose from the cell body and ran towards either the molecular layer of the fascia dentata or the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of the hippocampus, where they branched into secondary and tertiary dendrites. (2) Ectopic granule-like cells of the hilar region; this cell population showed bipolar and monopolar types of dendritic tree. Unipolar cells had dendrites oriented towards the granular layer where they branched profusely. Dendritic arborisation of bipolar cells was confined to the hilus. (3) Ectopic granule-like cells of the molecular layer; they showed several structural appearances depending on their location within the layer. Axonal tracts of ectopic granule-like cells gave rise to numerous collaterals; the main branch ran to the CA4 and CA3 hippocampal subregions. Several 'en passant' and mossy-like boutons were shown along this path.

  19. Morphological aspects of the ectopic granule-like cellular populations in the albino rat hippocampal formation: a Golgi study.

    PubMed Central

    Martí-Subirana, A; Soriano, E; García-Verdugo, J M

    1986-01-01

    Rat hippocampal formation was examined by the Golgi impregnation method. Three different ectopic granule-like populations of cells were differentiated: (1) Ectopic granule-like cells of the regio inferior, located in the stratum radiatum; one or two dendrites arose from the cell body and ran towards either the molecular layer of the fascia dentata or the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of the hippocampus, where they branched into secondary and tertiary dendrites. (2) Ectopic granule-like cells of the hilar region; this cell population showed bipolar and monopolar types of dendritic tree. Unipolar cells had dendrites oriented towards the granular layer where they branched profusely. Dendritic arborisation of bipolar cells was confined to the hilus. (3) Ectopic granule-like cells of the molecular layer; they showed several structural appearances depending on their location within the layer. Axonal tracts of ectopic granule-like cells gave rise to numerous collaterals; the main branch ran to the CA4 and CA3 hippocampal subregions. Several 'en passant' and mossy-like boutons were shown along this path. Images Figs. 2-7 Figs. 9-12 Figs. 14-16 PMID:2447048

  20. Effects of leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum L. on arsenic-induced toxicity in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sharmila Banu, G; Kumar, G; Murugesan, A G

    2009-02-01

    Therapeutic efficacy of oral administration of Ocimum sanctum (200mg/kg, once daily) post arsenic exposure (100 ppm in drinking water for 4 months) was investigated in rats. Animals exposed to arsenic (III) showed a significant inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) level and an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in blood. On the other hand, a significant decrease in hepatic ALAD, and increase in delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase activity were noted after arsenic exposure. These changes were accompanied by an increase TBARS level in liver and kidney. Activities of liver, kidney and brain superoxide dismutase and catalase also showed a decrease on arsenic exposure. Administration of O. sanctum post arsenic exposure, exhibited significant recovery in blood ALAD activity while, it restored blood GSH and ROS levels. Other blood biochemical variables remained unchanged on O. sanctum supplementation. Interestingly, there was a marginal, but significant depletion of arsenic from blood, liver and kidneys. The results conclude that post arsenic administration of O. sanctum has significant role in protecting animals from arsenic-induced oxidative stress and in the depletion of arsenic concentration. Further studies thus can be recommended for determining the effect of co-administrating of O. sanctum during chelating therapy with a thiol chelator.

  1. [Mechanism of the membrane stabilizing action of vitamins K and E under conditions of chronic phenol poisoning in albino rats].

    PubMed

    Nazarov, P V; Lider, V A

    1996-01-01

    In experiment with white male-rats the influence of membranotropic phenol-poison on the qualitative composition of phospholipids of liver, kidneys, heart, skeletal muscles as well as biomembranes of erythrocytes and mitochondria of liver was investigates. Along with these investigations the possibility of preventing from supposed changes of qualitative composition of phospholipids has also been studied by additional injection K and K vitamins as minor lipid components. As the result of this research it was stated that when phenol (per, os) was repeatedly injected the content of lysophospholipids, phosphatidic acids in phospholipid composition increased and the content of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin simultaneous decreased. Additional injection E and K vitamins (50 mg/kg by weight and 20 mg/kg accordingly) prevented to a greater extent the changes of fractional composition of the lipid phase of biomembranes. The mechanism of protective action of K and E vitamins is probably connected with spatial screening of pi-bonds in the radicals of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipid composition from reoxidation and on the hand the competitive interrelations may exist between minor lipid components and on the other hand between the ethers of cholesterol. These conclusions agree with hypothesis that K and E vitamins are the natural modifiers of the membranes of different types of structure. PMID:8967049

  2. Phenolic Profiling and Evaluation of Contraceptive Effect of the Ethanolic Extract of Salsola imbricata Forssk. in Male Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shehab, Naglaa Gamil

    2014-01-01

    Reported researches dealing with either composition or bioactivity of Salsola imbricata are limited. This study was conducted aiming to investigate the phenolic composition of the plant and evaluate its efficacy as male contraceptive. Polyphenols, namely, phenolic acids and flavonoids, were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed by RP-HPLC in the hydrolysed methanol extract using two different wavelengths, 280 and 330 nm. The efficiency of different solvents in extracting the plant phenolics was assessed via spectrophotometric determination of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Acute toxicity study was carried out on the ethanolic extract to ascertain its safety prior to biological evaluation. The contraceptive effect was assessed, in male rats, by oral administration of the extract at two doses (250 and 500 mg/kg b. wt.), over a period of 65 days. HPLC analyses allowed the identification and quantification of a total of 13 and 8 components in the hydrolysed-methanol extract; the overall phenolic composition was dominated by quercitrin (12.692%) followed by coumaric acid (4.251%). Prolonged oral administration of the ethanolic extract caused slight reduction in the testis weight only. A significant decrease in the sperm count was observed (P < 0.01) in the two treated groups while significant decrease in the epididymal sperm motility was only observed in the high dose group. Morphological abnormalities were observed in sperms of treated animals. No distinct change in serum FSH, LH, and testosterone concentration was recorded. The histopathological findings supported to a high extent these results. The male contraceptive activity of Salsola imbricata could be ascribed to its phenolic components, especially quercitrin. PMID:25587346

  3. Exposure to difenoconazole, diclofop-methyl alone and combination alters oxidative stress and biochemical parameters in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Elhalwagy, Manal Ea; Kotb, Gamila Ahmed; Farid, Hoda; Farag, Ahmed Ag; Draz, Hossam M; Isa, Ahmed M; Sabico, S

    2014-01-01

    The herbicides diclofop-methyl and the fungicide difenoconazole are widely used in agriculture and may lead to serious toxicity risks. However, limited studies have been done to evaluate differences in the metabolic effects of these herbicides. Difenoconazole (10 mg/kg) and Diclofop-methyl (1 mg/kg) were orally administrated individually (Groups 1 and 2 respectively) as well as combined (G3) to rats for 28 days. In all treated groups, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and urea were significantly higher than the control group. Plasma creatinine was also significantly higher in groups G1 and G2 than control. Significant inhibition in gamma glutamyltransferase (γGT) was observed in all treated groups, in addition to significant inhibition of plasma acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) in G3 (p < 0.01). There was no effect in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and albumin. Total plasma triiodothy-ronine (T3) hormone was significantly higher in groups G2 and G3 (p < 0.01), but significantly lower in G1 group as compared to control. Thyroxin (T4) was significantly lower in all treated groups than control. Cholesterol level was significantly lower in G3 than control, and a total protein (TP) was significantly higher in all treated groups than control. No differences were observed in glucose levels. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), an oxidative stress biomarker, was significantly increased in all treated groups comparing to control. Sulphur containing protein (SH-protein) was significantly lower in G1 than control. No significant changes were observed for GST in all treatments. The significant differences in measured biomarkers after application of diclofop-methyl, difenoconazole individually and combined indicate that the investigated pesticides may have potentially harmful effects on humans and the surrounding environment. We suggest that larger studies be conducted to better understand the toxicity mechanisms of these pesticides. PMID:25419412

  4. Leucocyte responses to fighting in the adult male bandicoot rat.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, P R; Sahu, A; Maiti, B R

    1983-01-01

    The effect of fighting stress on blood leucocyte count was studied in the adult male bandicoot rat. Exposure to fighting stress for 3 h induced neutrophilia, eosinopenia, lymphopenia and monocytopenia. The changes were more significant in the subordinate rat than in the dominant animal. It is suggested that leucocyte responses to fighting are perhaps mediated by the adrenal gland in these animals.

  5. Differences in MITF gene expression and histology between albino and normal sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Heling; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Huan; Liu, Shilin; Wang, Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Albino Apostichopus japonicus occur both in the wild and in captivity. The offspring of albino A. japonicus also suffer from albinism. The formation of melanin in the melanocytes is dependant on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). To investigate the role of MITF in controlling albinism, we cloned the full-length MITF cDNA from A. japonicus and compared MITF mRNA expression in albino and normal A. japonicus. In addition, we used light and electron microscopy to compare histological samples of normal and albino A. japonicus. The body wall of albino adults was characterized by significantly lower levels of MITF expression and lower numbers of epidermal melanocytes, which also contained less melanin. In albino juvenile offspring, MITF expression levels were significantly lower 32 d after fertilization and there were fewer, and less developed, epidermal melanocytes. Thus, we conclude that albino A. japonicus have fewer melanocytes and a reduced ability to synthesize melanin, likely because of lower expression of MITF.

  6. A Transgenic Rat for Specifically Inhibiting Adult Neurogenesis123

    PubMed Central

    Grigereit, Laura; Pickel, James

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The growth of research on adult neurogenesis and the development of new models and tools have greatly advanced our understanding of the function of newborn neurons in recent years. However, there are still significant limitations in the ability to identify the functions of adult neurogenesis in available models. Here we report a transgenic rat (TK rat) that expresses herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase in GFAP+ cells. Upon treating TK rats with the antiviral drug valganciclovir, granule cell neurogenesis can be completely inhibited in adulthood, in both the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. Interestingly, neurogenesis in the glomerular and external plexiform layers of the olfactory bulb was only partially inhibited, suggesting that some adult-born neurons in these regions derive from a distinct precursor population that does not express GFAP. Within the hippocampus, blockade of neurogenesis was rapid and nearly complete within 1 week of starting treatment. Preliminary behavioral analyses indicate that general anxiety levels and patterns of exploration are generally unaffected in neurogenesis-deficient rats. However, neurogenesis-deficient TK rats showed reduced sucrose preference, suggesting deficits in reward-related behaviors. We expect that TK rats will facilitate structural, physiological, and behavioral studies that complement those possible in existing models, broadly enhancing understanding of the function of adult neurogenesis. PMID:27257630

  7. Histopathologycal findings in the ovaries and uterus of albino female rats promoted by co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici; Leite, Gabriel Adan Araújo; Pinto, Tiago; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

    2014-07-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids is often associated with the use of other substances, licit or not, such as nicotine present in the tobacco. The present study investigated for the first time the effects of co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine on the ovarian and uterine tissue and fertility of adult female rats. Animals were submitted to treatment groups (n=16/group): nandrolone decanoate (ND; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); testosterone mixture (T; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); nicotine (N; 2.0mg/kg BW/day), and co-administration of ND/N, T/N and ND/T/N. The control group received saline solution daily. The injections were administered subcutaneously for 30 consecutive days. Results demonstrated that all androgenized rats exhibited estral acyclicity and there was suppression of reproductive capacity due to notable ovarian and uterine histological changes. Treatments promoted decrease (p<0.05) in the ovarian weight. Uterine weight increased (p<0.05) in the T and T/N groups, in comparison to control group. ND or T co-administered or not to nicotine promoted intense follicular degeneration, with formation of cysts in the ovaries. High levels of circulating androgens in the ND/T/N group induced the presence of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors of Sertoli cell pattern. Androgenized females presented endometrial changes characterized by papilliferous or pleated luminal epithelium, oedematous and hemorrhagic stroma and presence of gland cysts. In conclusion, the co-administration of three drugs promoted atypical morphological pattern on the ovaries and uterus of female rats. PMID:24556002

  8. Physiological responses during whole body suspension of adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize responses of adult rats to one and two weeks of whole body suspension. Body weights and food and water intakes were initially reduced during suspension, but, while intake of food and water returned to presuspension levels, body weight remained depressed. Diuresis was evident, but only during week two. Hindlimb muscle responses were differential, with the soleus exhibiting the greatest atrophy and the EDL a relative hypertrophy. These findings suggest that adult rats respond qualitatively in a manner similar to juveniles during suspension.

  9. Experimental studies on the effect of (Lambda-Cyhalothrin) insecticide on lungs and the ameliorating effect of plant extracts (Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) on asthma development in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lambda-cyhalothrin (LTC) is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide for agricultural and public health applications. This study was to determine the pathological alterations of LTC in lungs, which has not previously been studied, and the ameliorating effects of plant extracts (ginseng and garlic) on the development of asthma in albino rats. Methods Four groups (gps) of albino rats, (n = 20, average body weight = 200 gm with an age of 4 months), were formed. Gp 1 was kept as control. Gp 2 was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with LTC at a dose of 1/6 LD50 that is 9.34 mg/kg body weight (w.t.) daily for 21 days (d). Gp 3 & 4 were injected (i.p.) with ginseng at the dose of 200 mg/kg b.wt and garlic (Allium sativum L.) at the dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt., respectively, one hour before being given LTC at a dose of 1/6 LD50 (9.34 mg/kg b.wt.) daily. Each groups were divided into two sacrificed, at 15 and 21 d p.i. Blood and lung samples were collected for hematological and histopathological examinations. Results Hematological findings showed that the animals in gps 2 and 3, which were treated for 21 days, showed a significant difference in RBC counts (P > .001), Hb (P > .007), PCV% (P > .004), (P > .008) in comparison with the control group. Signs of cough and nasal discharge were seen in gp 2, which became mild in gp 4. Grossly, the lungs showed congestion and consolidation in gp 2. Histopathologically, macroabscesses and interstitial alveolitis were seen in gp 2, which led to obstruction in the lumen of the bronchioles at 21 d p.i. Meanwhile, thickening in the interalveolar septa with mononuclear cells was seen in gps. 3 and 4 at 21d p.i. Conclusions The study shows 3 gps of rats injected with LHC alone or combined with garlic and ginseng extract, each group were divided into two sacrificed (15 and 21 d p.i.). Lambda cyhalothrin causes bronchial obstruction in the lungs of the rats (15 and 21 d p.i), which decreased into mild to

  10. Leptin inhibits testosterone secretion from adult rat testis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tena-Sempere, M; Pinilla, L; González, L C; Diéguez, C; Casanueva, F F; Aguilar, E

    1999-05-01

    Leptin, the product of the ob gene, has emerged recently as a pivotal signal in the regulation of fertility. Although the actions of leptin in the control of reproductive function are thought to be exerted mainly at the hypothalamic level, the potential direct effects of leptin at the pituitary and gonadal level have been poorly characterised. In the present study, we first assessed the ability of leptin to regulate testicular testosterone secretion in vitro. Secondly, we aimed to evaluate whether leptin can modulate basal gonadotrophin and prolactin (PRL) release by incubated hemi-pituitaries from fasted male rats. To attain the first goal, testicular slices from prepubertal and adult rats were incubated with increasing concentrations (10(-9)-10(-7) M) of recombinant leptin. Assuming that in vitro testicular responsiveness to leptin may be dependent on the background leptin levels, testicular tissue from both food-deprived and normally-fed animals was used. Furthermore, leptin modulation of stimulated testosterone secretion was evaluated by incubation of testicular samples with different doses of leptin in the presence of 10 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). In addition, analysis of leptin actions on pituitary function was carried out using hemi-pituitaries from fasted adult male rats incubated in the presence of increasing concentrations (10(-9)-10(-7) M) of recombinant leptin. Serum testosterone levels, and basal and hCG-stimulated testosterone secretion by incubated testicular tissue were significantly decreased by fasting in prepubertal and adult male rats. However, a significant reduction in circulating LH levels was only evident in adult fasted rats. Doses of 10(-9)-10(-7) M leptin had no effect on basal or hCG-stimulated testosterone secretion by testes from prepubertal rats, regardless of the nutritional state of the donor animal. In contrast, leptin significantly decreased basal and hCG-induced testosterone secretion by testes from fasted and fed

  11. Leptin inhibits testosterone secretion from adult rat testis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tena-Sempere, M; Pinilla, L; González, L C; Diéguez, C; Casanueva, F F; Aguilar, E

    1999-05-01

    Leptin, the product of the ob gene, has emerged recently as a pivotal signal in the regulation of fertility. Although the actions of leptin in the control of reproductive function are thought to be exerted mainly at the hypothalamic level, the potential direct effects of leptin at the pituitary and gonadal level have been poorly characterised. In the present study, we first assessed the ability of leptin to regulate testicular testosterone secretion in vitro. Secondly, we aimed to evaluate whether leptin can modulate basal gonadotrophin and prolactin (PRL) release by incubated hemi-pituitaries from fasted male rats. To attain the first goal, testicular slices from prepubertal and adult rats were incubated with increasing concentrations (10(-9)-10(-7) M) of recombinant leptin. Assuming that in vitro testicular responsiveness to leptin may be dependent on the background leptin levels, testicular tissue from both food-deprived and normally-fed animals was used. Furthermore, leptin modulation of stimulated testosterone secretion was evaluated by incubation of testicular samples with different doses of leptin in the presence of 10 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). In addition, analysis of leptin actions on pituitary function was carried out using hemi-pituitaries from fasted adult male rats incubated in the presence of increasing concentrations (10(-9)-10(-7) M) of recombinant leptin. Serum testosterone levels, and basal and hCG-stimulated testosterone secretion by incubated testicular tissue were significantly decreased by fasting in prepubertal and adult male rats. However, a significant reduction in circulating LH levels was only evident in adult fasted rats. Doses of 10(-9)-10(-7) M leptin had no effect on basal or hCG-stimulated testosterone secretion by testes from prepubertal rats, regardless of the nutritional state of the donor animal. In contrast, leptin significantly decreased basal and hCG-induced testosterone secretion by testes from fasted and fed

  12. Effect of green tea (camellia sinensis l.) leaf extract on reproductive system of adult male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Shyamal Kanti; Karmakar, Soumendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    Green tea leaf extract (GTLE), used in this experiment has shown great influence on male reproductive system functionally as well as morphologically. The extract was prepared according to the method of Wei. H. et al. The extract was given to two different experimental animal groups with two different doses during 26 consecutive days. After treatment it was found that, the weight of the testis was markedly reduced instead of normal weight gain of all the animals. The sperm count and motility were reduced for the treated groups as compared with control animal group. The enzymes like SGPT and SGOT were as usual and other blood parameters like glucose and protein were also as usual comparing with controlled group. Testosterone level was reduced in the treated groups. FSH and LH levels were also altered accordingly in treated groups. Histological examination showed inhibition of spermatogenesis as evidenced by disintegration of seminiferous tubules of testis. Result of this study showed that GTLE has potent castrative effect on male reproductive system in dose dependent manner. PMID:27073594

  13. Reproductive toxicity of DDT in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Ben Rhouma, K; Tébourbi, O; Krichah, R; Sakly, M

    2001-08-01

    The reproductive toxicity of DDT was investigated in adult male rats exposed to 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight (b.wt) day(-1) for 10 successive days. Compared with control animals, administration of DDT led to a dose-dependent reduction of testicular weight and the number as well as the percentage of motile spermatozoa in the epididymis. Testicular histological observations revealed also a marked loss of gametes in the lumen of seminiferous tubules. In DDT-treated rats, the seminal vesicles weights dropped significantly, resulting from a decrease of testosterone production by testes, whereas serum LH and FSH increased after pesticide exposure. This increase of gonadotrophin levels may be related to an impairment of the negative feedback exerted by the steroid on the hypothalamic--pituitary axis. It is concluded that DDT induced adverse effects on male rat fertility by acting directly on the testes and altering the neuroendocrine function.

  14. Toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles on adult male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Abbasalipourkabir, Roghayeh; Moradi, Hemen; Zarei, Sadegh; Asadi, Soheila; Salehzadeh, Aref; Ghafourikhosroshahi, Abolfazl; Mortazavi, Motahareh; Ziamajidi, Nasrin

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) on adult male Wistar rats. Thirty male Wistar rats divided into five groups of six animals each were used for this study. For ten days, Groups one to four continuously received 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg nZnO, respectively. Group five served as the control group. At the end of the study, the rats were sacrificed and histopathological study of the liver and renal tissue, sperm analysis, serum oxidative stress parameters and some liver enzymes were done. The results of this study showed that nZnO at concentration more than 50 mg/kg lead to significant changes in liver enzymes, oxidative stress, liver and renal tissue and sperm quality and quantity. In conclusion, the toxicity of nZnO is more significant when the concentration is increased; however, the use of low doses requires further investigation.

  15. Dissociation of feeding and hoarding after bilateral destruction of lateral septal nuclei in rats.

    PubMed

    Gogate, M G; Salgar, D C; Brid, S V; Wingkar, K C

    1989-01-01

    The interrelationship between Feeding and Hoarding of food pellets was observed to be disrupted following bilateral destruction of lateral septal nuclei in adult male albino rats. The significance of forebrain areas and neuro-endocrinal connection to hypothalamus is discussed. PMID:2737748

  16. Ketone-body utilization by homogenates of adult rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes-Cardozo, M.; Klein, W.

    1982-06-01

    The regulation of ketone-body metabolism and the quantitative importance of ketone bodies as lipid precursors in adult rat brain has been studied in vitro. Utilization of ketone bodies and of pyruvate by homogenates of adult rat brain was measured and the distribution of /sup 14/C from (3-/sup 14/C)ketone bodies among the metabolic products was analysed. The rate of ketone-body utilization was maximal in the presence of added Krebs-cycle intermediates and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. The consumption of acetoacetate was faster than that of D-3-hydroxybutyrate, whereas, pyruvate produced twice as much acetyl-CoA as acetoacetate under optimal conditions. Millimolar concentrations of ATP in the presence of uncoupler lowered the consumption of ketone bodies but not of pyruvate. Indirect evidence is presented suggesting that ATP interferes specifically with the mitochondrial uptake of ketone bodies. Interconversion of ketone bodies and the accumulation of acid-soluble intermediates (mainly citrate and glutamate) accounted for the major part of ketone-body utilization, whereas only a small part was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Ketone bodies were not incorporated into lipids or protein. We conclude that adult rat-brain homogenates use ketone bodies exclusively for oxidative purposes.

  17. Contextual fear conditioning differs for infant, adolescent, and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Esmorís-Arranz, Francisco J; Méndez, Cástor; Spear, Norman E

    2008-07-01

    Contextual fear conditioning was tested in infant, adolescent, and adult rats in terms of Pavlovian-conditioned suppression. When a discrete auditory-conditioned stimulus (CS) was paired with footshock (unconditioned stimulus, US) within the largely olfactory context, infants and adolescents conditioned to the context with substantial effectiveness, but adult rats did not. When unpaired presentations of the CS and US occurred within the context, contextual fear conditioning was strong for adults, weak for infants, but about as strong for adolescents as when pairings of CS and US occurred in the context. Nonreinforced presentations of either the CS or context markedly reduced contextual fear conditioning in infants, but, in adolescents, CS extinction had no effect on contextual fear conditioning, although context extinction significantly reduced it. Neither CS extinction nor context extinction affected responding to the CS-context compound in infants, suggesting striking discrimination between the compound and its components. Female adolescents showed the same lack of effect of component extinction on response to the compound as infants, but CS extinction reduced responding to the compound in adolescent males, a sex difference seen also in adults. Theoretical implications are discussed for the development of perceptual-cognitive processing and hippocampus role.

  18. Intestinal absorption of aspartame decomposition products in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lipton, W E; Li, Y N; Younoszai, M K; Stegink, L D

    1991-12-01

    The dipeptide sweetener aspartame (N-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine, 1-methyl ester; alpha-APM) is relatively stable in dry powder form. However, when exposed to elevated temperature, extremes of pH and/or moisture, alpha-APM is converted into a variety of products. In aqueous solution alpha-APM decomposes to yield methanol, two isomeric forms of L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine (Asp-Phe) [alpha-Asp-Phe and beta-Asp-Phe], and APM's diketopiperazine cyclo-Asp-Phe. Depending on beverage storage conditions, individuals drinking alpha-APM-sweetened beverages may consume small quantities of these three compounds. Relatively little has been published about the metabolism of beta-Asp-Phe and cyclo-Asp-Phe. We compared the absorption and metabolism of alpha-Asp-Phe, beta-Asp-Phe, and cyclo-Asp-Phe with that of L-phenylalanine (Phe) in adult rats. Steady-state perfusion studies of rat jejunum indicated rapid carrier-assisted uptake of Phe and alpha-Asp-Phe, but only slow passive diffusion of beta-Asp-Phe and cyclo-Asp-Phe from the lumen. Homogenates of rat intestinal mucosa, liver, and cecal contents, as well as homogenates of pure cultures of Escherichia coli B, catalyzed the hydrolysis of alpha-Asp-Phe, but not cyclo-Asp-Phe. Homogenates of E coli and rat cecal contents, but not homogenates of rat liver or intestinal mucosa catalyzed the hydrolysis of beta-Asp-Phe.

  19. Plexin a4 expression in adult rat cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Gutekunst, Claire-Anne; Gross, Robert E

    2014-11-01

    PlexinsA1-A4 participate in class 3 semaphorin signaling as co-receptors to neuropilin 1 and 2. PlexinA4 is the latest member of the PlexinA subfamily to be identified. In previous studies, we described the expression of PlexinA4 in the brain and spinal cord of the adult rat. Here, antibodies to PlexinA4 were used to reveal immunolabeling in most of the cranial nerve surveyed. Labeling was found in the olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, and hypoglossal nerves. This is the first detailed description of the cellular and subcellular distribution of PlexinA4 in the adult cranial nerves. The findings will set the basis for future studies on the potential role of PlexinA4 in regeneration and repair of the adult central and peripheral nervous system.

  20. Exploiting the phenomenal anti-ulcerogenic potential of Talinum portulacifolium ethanolic extract whole plant on Albino Rats: The therapeutic potential of Chinese Herb-mǎ chǐ xiàn kē (Portulacaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Gundamaraju, Rohit; Maheedhar, Kotla; Hwi, Kim Kah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ulcerations have been effecting humans and causing major damage in the gastro intestinal tract. A need for development of a flawless anti-ulcer medication was always in the agenda. Thus, the need to conduct a study was provoked. Objectives: The major objective of the present study is to screen the antiulcer activity of the ethanolic extract of Talinum portulacifolium (Forsk) plant. Materials and Methods: The antiulcer activity of the ethanolic extract of T.Z portulacifolium was performed on albino rats. Gastric ulcers were induced by ethanol, pylorus ligated aspirin and histamine induced ulcer models. Omeprazole was used as a standard drug for comparison. Results: Treatment with the T. portulacifolium plant extract significantly protected the ulceration induced by the three models. The gastric volume, pH of gastric juice, total acidity, free acidity and ulcer index were the parameters estimated and did show significant results. 800 mg/kg extracts of T. portulacifolium did show high significant results as that of standard drug. Percentage protection of 800 mg/kg was 79.9% and the standard drug-treated group did show 84%. So was with total acidity (38.1 + 1.45) and free acidity (16.5 + 0.76) Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of T. portulacifolium plant was found to possess a significant antiulcer activity. PMID:25002803

  1. Adult Rats Treated with Risperidone during Development Are Hyperactive

    PubMed Central

    Bardgett, Mark E.; Franks-Henry, Julie M.; Colemire, Kristin R.; Juneau, Kathleen R.; Stevens, Rachel M.; Marczinski, Cecile A.; Griffith, Molly S.

    2014-01-01

    Risperidone is an antipsychotic drug approved for use in children, but little is known about the long-term effects of early-life risperidone treatment. In animals, prolonged risperidone administration during development increases forebrain dopamine receptor expression immediately upon the cessation of treatment. A series of experiments was performed to ascertain whether early-life risperidone administration altered locomotor activity, a behavior sensitive to dopamine receptor function, in adult rats. One additional behavior modulated by forebrain dopamine function, spatial reversal learning, was also measured during adulthood. In each study, Long-Evans rats received daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle or one of two doses of risperidone (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg per day) from postnatal days 14 – 42. Weight gain during development was slightly yet significantly reduced in risperidone-treated rats. In the first two experiments, early-life risperidone administration was associated with increased locomotor activity at one week post-administration through approximately nine months of age, independent of changes in weight gain. In a separate experiment, it was found that the enhancing effect of early-life risperidone on locomotor activity occurred in males and female rats. A final experiment indicated that spatial reversal learning was unaffected in adult rats administered risperidone early in life. These results indicate that locomotor activity during adulthood is permanently modified by early-life risperidone treatment. The findings suggest that chronic antipsychotic drug use in pediatric populations (e.g., treatment for the symptoms of autism) could modify brain development and alter neural set-points for specific behaviors during adulthood. PMID:23750695

  2. Prenatal Ethanol Exposure Increases Brain Cholesterol Content in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn; Wold, Loren E.; Ren, Jun; Murphy, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most severe expression of the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Although alterations in fetal and neonate brain fatty acid composition and cholesterol content is known to change in animal models of FASD, the persistence of these alterations into adulthood is unknown. To address this question, we determined the effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on individual phospholipid class fatty acid composition, individual phospholipid class mass, and cholesterol mass in brains from 25-week-old rats that were exposed to ethanol during gestation beginning at gestational day 2. While total phospholipid mass was unaffected, phosphatidylinositol and cardiolipin mass was decreased 14 and 43%, respectively. Exposure to prenatal ethanol modestly altered brain phospholipid fatty acid composition, and the most consistent change was a significant 1.1-fold increase in total PUFA, in the n-3/n-6 ratio, and in the 22:6 n-3 content in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and in phosphatidylserine. In contrast, prenatal ethanol consumption significantly increased brain cholesterol mass 1.4-fold and the phospholipid to cholesterol ratio was significantly increased 1.3-fold. These results indicate that brain cholesterol mass was significantly increased in adult rats exposed prenatally to ethanol, but changes in phospholipid mass and phospholipid fatty acid composition were extremely limited. Importantly, suppression of post-natal ethanol consumption was not sufficient to reverse the large increase in cholesterol observed in the adult rats. PMID:23996454

  3. Pancreatic islet regeneration and some liver biochemical parameters of leaf extracts of Vitex doniana in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Oche, Okpe; Sani, Ibrahim; Chilaka, Njoku Godwin; Samuel, Ndidi Uche; Samuel, Atabo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test two water soluble extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) obtained from the leaves of Vitex doniana in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for their effects on pancreatic endocrine tissues and serum marker enzymes for a period of 21 d. Methods A total of 55 rats divided into 11 groups of 5 rats each were assigned into diabetic and non-diabetic groups and followed by a daily administration of ethanolic and aqueous extracts for 21 d. Group 1 was the normal control while group 7 was treated with standard drug. Results The histopathological studies of the diabetic rats indicated increase in the volume density of islets, percent of β-cells and size of islet in the groups that received the plant extracts, which suggested regeneration of β-cells along with β-cells repairs, as compared with the non-treated diabetic control which showed complete degeneration of the islet cells. There was significant reduction (P<0.05) in the serum activities of marker enzymes, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase in diabetes treated rats, whereas an insignificant increase (P>0.01) in the serum activities of marker enzymes was observed for non-diabetic treated rats. Results of total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin showed that diabetic control group was significantly higher (P<0.05) in total bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin compared with treated groups while non-diabetic treated groups showed no significant increase (P>0.01) in total bilirubin and direct bilirubin compared with the normal control. Conclusion This herbal therapy appears to bring about repair/regeneration of the endocrine pancreas and hepatic cells protection in the diabetic rat. PMID:25182283

  4. Effects of Adolescent Ethanol Exposure on Sleep in Adults Rats

    PubMed Central

    Criado, José R.; Wills, Derek N.; Walker, Brendan M.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2010-01-01

    Although adolescent ethanol (EtOH) exposure has been associated with long-lasting changes in brain function, little is known as to whether EtOH exposure during adolescence alters sleep and cortical arousal. This study examined protracted alterations in sleep in adult rats exposed to EtOH during adolescence. Adolescent male Wistar rats were exposed to EtOH vapor for 12 hr/day for five weeks. Cortical electroencephalograms (EEGs) were obtained during 4-hr recording sessions after five weeks of withdrawal from EtOH. Adolescent EtOH exposure significantly reduced the mean duration of slow-wave sleep (SWS) episodes and the total amount of time spent in SWS in EtOH-exposed rats, compared to controls. Spectral analysis revealed that adolescent EtOH exposure significantly increased cortical peak frequencies during SWS in the 2-4 Hz, 4-6 Hz and 6-8 Hz bands. Taken together, our findings suggest that chronic EtOH exposure in adolescent rats reduces measures of SWS, an effect also seen as part of normal aging. Although the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating the consequences of EtOH exposure on the aging process are not known, the similarities between adolescent EtOH exposure and aging merits further investigation. PMID:18922666

  5. Preproglucagon mRNA expression in adult rat submandibular glands.

    PubMed

    Egéa, J C; Hirtz, C; Deville de Périère, D

    2003-04-01

    Salivary glands of various animal species have been reported to contain and suggested to produce glucagon or glucagon-like material, but the origin and the nature of this salivary peptide are still doubtful. The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether the glucagon gene is expressed in rat submandibular glands and in an immortalized murine cell line derived from salivary glands (SCA-9 cell line). For this purpose, total RNA was isolated from submandibular glands or cultured cells and submitted to reverse transcription. The cDNAs obtained were amplified by a nested polymerase chain reaction using preproglucagon primers. The results showed that the preproglucagon mRNA was expressed in adult rat submandibular glands but not in the SCA-9 cell line. Determination of cyclic DNA (cDNA) sequence established identity with the coding regions of rat pancreatic pre-proglucagon gene. In conclusion, these results strongly support the idea that rat submandibular glands could represent a source of extrapancreatic glucagon or of its precursor's peptide.

  6. Maternal hyperthyroidism in rats impairs stress coping of adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Limei; Hernández, Vito S; Medina-Pizarro, Mauricio; Valle-Leija, Pablo; Vega-González, Arturo; Morales, Teresa

    2008-05-01

    Given the evidence that maternal hyperthyroidism (MH) compromises expression of neuronal cytoskeletal proteins in the late fetal brain by accelerated neuronal differentiation, we investigated possible consequences of MH for the emotional and cognitive functions of adult offspring during acute and subchronic stress coping. Experimental groups consisted of male rat offspring from mothers implanted with osmotic minipumps infusing either thyroxine (MH) or vehicle (Ctrl) during pregnancy. Body weight and T4 level were monitored during the first 3 postnatal months, and no differences were found with the controls. We analyzed hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons and dentate granular cell morphology during several postnatal stages and found increased dendritic arborization. On postnatal day 90 a modified subchronic mild stress (SCMS) protocol was applied to experimental subjects for 10 days. The Morris water maze was used before, during, and after application of the SCMS protocol to measure spatial learning. The tail suspension test (TST) and forced-swimming test (FST) were used to evaluate behavioral despair. The MH rats displayed normal locomotor activity and spatial memory prior to SCMS, but impaired spatial learning after acute and chronic stress. In both the FST and TST we found that MH rats spent significantly more time immobile than did controls. Serum corticosterone level was found to increase after 30 min of restraint stress, and corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity was found to be increased in the central nucleus of the amygdala. Our results suggest that MH in rats leads to the offspring being more vulnerable to stress in adulthood.

  7. [Average values of electrocardiograph parameters in healthy, adult Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Zaciragić, Asija; Nakas-ićindić, Emina; Hadzović, Almira; Avdagić, Nesina

    2004-01-01

    Average values of heart rate (HR) and the average duration of electrocardiograph parameters were investigated (RR interval, P wave, PQ interval, QRS complex and QT interval) in healthy, adult Wistar rats of both sexes (n=86). Electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded by Shiller Resting ECG, and for analysis of recordings SEMA-200 Vet computer program was used. Prior to registration animals were exposed to light ether anesthesia. Mean value of HR was 203.03+/-3.09 beats/min in whole sample. Observed differences in mean values of heart rate and duration of followed ECG parameters between sexes were not statistically significant. Results gathered in our study could serve as standard values for electrocardiograph parameters in future research where will be used Wistar rats in conditions of registration and analysis of ECG that are described in our paper.

  8. Mechanically induced orientation of adult rat cardiac myocytes in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuel, J.-L.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1990-01-01

    The present study describes the spatial orientation of a population of freshly isolated adult rat cardiac myocytes using a computerized mechanical cell stimulator device for tissue cultured cells. A continuous unidirectional stretch of the substratum at 60 to 400 microns/min for 120 to 30 min, respectively, during the cell attachment period in a serum-free medium was found to induce a significant threefold increase in the number of rod-shaped myocytes oriented parallel to the direction of movement. The myocytes orient less well with unidirectional substratum stretching after their adhesion to the substratum. Adult myocytes plated onto a substratum undergoing continuous 10-percent stretch-relaxation cycling show no significant change in the myocyte orientation or cytoskeletal organization. In addition to the type of mechanical activity, orientation of rod-shaped myocytes is dependent on the speed of the substratum, the final stretch amplitude, and the timing between initiation of substratum stretching and adhesion of myocytes to the substratum.

  9. Alcohol exposure in utero perturbs retinoid homeostasis in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youn-Kyung; Zuccaro, Michael V.; Zhang, Changqing; Sarkar, Dipak

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal alcohol exposure and adult alcohol intake have been shown to perturb the metabolism of various micro- and macro-nutrients, including vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoids). Therefore, it has been hypothesized that the well-known detrimental consequences of alcohol consumption may be due to deregulations of the metabolism of such nutrients rather than to a direct effect of alcohol. Alcohol exposure in utero also has long-term harmful consequences on the health of the offspring with mechanisms that have not been fully clarified. Disruption of tissue retinoid homeostasis has been linked not only to abnormal embryonic development, but also to various adult pathological conditions, including cancer, metabolic disorders and abnormal lung function. We hypothesized that prenatal alcohol exposure may permanently perturb tissue retinoid metabolism, predisposing the offspring to adult chronic diseases. Methods Serum and tissues (liver, lung and prostate from males; liver and lung from females) were collected from 60-75 day-old sprague dawley rats born from dams that were: (I) fed a liquid diet containing 6.7% alcohol between gestational day 7 and 21; or (II) pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diet during the same gestational window; or (III) fed ad libitum with regular rat chow diet throughout pregnancy. Serum and tissue retinoid levels were analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum retinol-binding protein (RBP) levels were measured by western blot analysis, and liver, lung and prostate mRNA levels of lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) were measured by qPCR. Results Retinyl ester levels were significantly reduced in the lung of both males and females, as well as in the liver and ventral prostate of males born from alcohol-fed dams. Tissue LRAT mRNA levels remained unchanged upon maternal alcohol treatment. Conclusions Prenatal alcohol exposure in rats affects retinoid metabolism in adult life, in a tissue- and sex

  10. Toxic effects of sub-chronic exposure of male albino rats to emamectin benzoate and possible ameliorative role of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, El-Sayed A; Galal, Azza A A

    2015-05-01

    Emamectin benzoate (EB) is an avermectin insecticide used extensively in pest control on vegetable and field crops. Few studies have been done for evaluating adverse effects of EB. In the current study, we evaluated the toxic effects of EB on male rats and the possible ameliorative role of fennel essential oil (FEO). Thirty two male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. All groups were treated orally with distilled water (control group), 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW (FEO group), 2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (EB group), and 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW+2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (FEO+EB group) for 28 days. The obtained results showed that EB treatment resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, body weight gain, RBC count, Hb concentration, % PCV, MCV and MCHC. Moreover, EB significantly decreased total leukocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet count but significantly increased granulocyte count. EB markedly decreased total protein, albumin, globulin, IgG and IgM concentrations with a significant increase in TNF-α secretion. EB had a negative impact on the liver as it significantly increased ALT, ALP, and MDA, while decreasing SOD activity. Regarding to the histopathological examination, EB treatment induced coagulative necrosis and blood vessels congestion of the liver in treated rats. Furthermore, it resulted in depletion and necrosis of the white pulp of the spleen in treated rats. The co-administration of FEO with EB, however, improved the majority of parameters studied, suggesting that FEO is an important substance in decreasing toxic effects of EB.

  11. Toxic effects of sub-chronic exposure of male albino rats to emamectin benzoate and possible ameliorative role of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, El-Sayed A; Galal, Azza A A

    2015-05-01

    Emamectin benzoate (EB) is an avermectin insecticide used extensively in pest control on vegetable and field crops. Few studies have been done for evaluating adverse effects of EB. In the current study, we evaluated the toxic effects of EB on male rats and the possible ameliorative role of fennel essential oil (FEO). Thirty two male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. All groups were treated orally with distilled water (control group), 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW (FEO group), 2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (EB group), and 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW+2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (FEO+EB group) for 28 days. The obtained results showed that EB treatment resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, body weight gain, RBC count, Hb concentration, % PCV, MCV and MCHC. Moreover, EB significantly decreased total leukocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet count but significantly increased granulocyte count. EB markedly decreased total protein, albumin, globulin, IgG and IgM concentrations with a significant increase in TNF-α secretion. EB had a negative impact on the liver as it significantly increased ALT, ALP, and MDA, while decreasing SOD activity. Regarding to the histopathological examination, EB treatment induced coagulative necrosis and blood vessels congestion of the liver in treated rats. Furthermore, it resulted in depletion and necrosis of the white pulp of the spleen in treated rats. The co-administration of FEO with EB, however, improved the majority of parameters studied, suggesting that FEO is an important substance in decreasing toxic effects of EB. PMID:25935540

  12. The protective effect of aged garlic extract on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastric inflammations in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Badr, Gehan Moustafa; Al-Mulhim, Jawaher Abdulaziz

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have long gained wide acceptance among the public and scientific community in the gastrointestinal ulcerative field. The present study explore the potential effects of aged garlic extract (AGE) on indomethacin-(IN-) induced gastric inflammation in male rats. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 8) control group, IN-induced gastric inflammation group via oral single dose (30 mg/kg to fasted rats) two AGE orally administered groups (100 and 200 mg/kg for 30 consecutive days) two AGE orally administered groups to rats pretreated with IN at the same aforementioned doses. The results declared the more potent effect of the higher AGE dose (200 mg/kg) as compared to that of the 100 mg/kg dose in the gastroprotective effects reflected by significant gastric mucosal healing of damage and reduction in the total microbial induced due to indomethacin administration. In addition to the significant effect to normalize the significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) values, and the significant decrease in the total glutathione (tGSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) values induced by indomethacin. The results support AGE antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial potency reflected by the healing of the gastric tissue damage induced by indomethacin.

  13. The Protective Effect of Aged Garlic Extract on Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Induced Gastric Inflammations in Male Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Gehan Moustafa; AL-Mulhim, Jawaher Abdulaziz

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have long gained wide acceptance among the public and scientific community in the gastrointestinal ulcerative field. The present study explore the potential effects of aged garlic extract (AGE) on indomethacin-(IN-) induced gastric inflammation in male rats. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 8) control group, IN-induced gastric inflammation group via oral single dose (30 mg/kg to fasted rats) two AGE orally administered groups (100 and 200 mg/kg for 30 consecutive days) two AGE orally administered groups to rats pretreated with IN at the same aforementioned doses. The results declared the more potent effect of the higher AGE dose (200 mg/kg) as compared to that of the 100 mg/kg dose in the gastroprotective effects reflected by significant gastric mucosal healing of damage and reduction in the total microbial induced due to indomethacin administration. In addition to the significant effect to normalize the significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) values, and the significant decrease in the total glutathione (tGSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) values induced by indomethacin. The results support AGE antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial potency reflected by the healing of the gastric tissue damage induced by indomethacin. PMID:24876878

  14. The protective effect of aged garlic extract on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastric inflammations in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Badr, Gehan Moustafa; Al-Mulhim, Jawaher Abdulaziz

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have long gained wide acceptance among the public and scientific community in the gastrointestinal ulcerative field. The present study explore the potential effects of aged garlic extract (AGE) on indomethacin-(IN-) induced gastric inflammation in male rats. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 8) control group, IN-induced gastric inflammation group via oral single dose (30 mg/kg to fasted rats) two AGE orally administered groups (100 and 200 mg/kg for 30 consecutive days) two AGE orally administered groups to rats pretreated with IN at the same aforementioned doses. The results declared the more potent effect of the higher AGE dose (200 mg/kg) as compared to that of the 100 mg/kg dose in the gastroprotective effects reflected by significant gastric mucosal healing of damage and reduction in the total microbial induced due to indomethacin administration. In addition to the significant effect to normalize the significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) values, and the significant decrease in the total glutathione (tGSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) values induced by indomethacin. The results support AGE antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial potency reflected by the healing of the gastric tissue damage induced by indomethacin. PMID:24876878

  15. Corrective role of Eugenia jambolana on testicular impairment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rat: an approach through genomic and proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A; Jana, K; Ali, K M; De, D; Chatterjee, K; Ghosh, D

    2014-04-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of hydro-methanolic (40 : 60) extract of seed of Eugenia jambolana on testicular impairment in diabetic rats. In this respect, biomarkers of oxidative stress, genomics and proteomics in testicular tissue were assessed. Side by side, glycated haemoglobin, serum testosterone, activities of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase in serum, epididymal sperm count including reproductive organosomatic indices were evaluated. Results indicate that a significant recovery (P < 0.05) in the levels of these parameters in fraction-treated diabetic group in comparison with diabetic control. A significant recovery was noted (P < 0.05) in the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 gene towards the control after the treatment of said fraction. Histological study also focused a significant recovery (P < 0.05) in the number of different generation of germ cells at stage VII of spermatogenesis in fraction-treated diabetic group. The said fraction treatment to diabetic rat can recover the activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase significantly towards the control (P < 0.05). Finally, it may be concluded that ethyl acetate fraction of seed of E. jambolana has a promiseable remedial effect on diabetes-induced testicular dysfunctions in male rat without inducing any metabolic toxicity.

  16. Myogenic regulatory factors during regeneration of skeletal muscle in young, adult, and old rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, D. R.; Criswell, D. S.; Carson, J. A.; Booth, F. W.

    1997-01-01

    Myogenic factor mRNA expression was examined during muscle regeneration after bupivacaine injection in Fischer 344/Brown Norway F1 rats aged 3, 18, and 31 mo of age (young, adult, and old, respectively). Mass of the tibialis anterior muscle in the young rats had recovered to control values by 21 days postbupivacaine injection but in adult and old rats remained 40% less than that of contralateral controls at 21 and 28 days of recovery. During muscle regeneration, myogenin mRNA was significantly increased in muscles of young, adult, and old rats 5 days after bupivacaine injection. Subsequently, myogenin mRNA levels in young rat muscle decreased to postinjection control values by day 21 but did not return to control values in 28-day regenerating muscles of adult and old rats. The expression of MyoD mRNA was also increased in muscles at day 5 of regeneration in young, adult, and old rats, decreased to control levels by day 14 in young and adult rats, and remained elevated in the old rats for 28 days. In summary, either a diminished ability to downregulate myogenin and MyoD mRNAs in regenerating muscle occurs in old rat muscles, or the continuing myogenic effort includes elevated expression of these mRNAs.

  17. Developmental Vitamin D3 deficiency alters the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Féron, F; Burne, T H J; Brown, J; Smith, E; McGrath, J J; Mackay-Sim, A; Eyles, D W

    2005-03-15

    There is growing evidence that Vitamin D(3) (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)) is involved in brain development. We have recently shown that the brains of newborn rats from Vitamin D(3) deficient dams were larger than controls, had increased cell proliferation, larger lateral ventricles, and reduced cortical thickness. Brains from these animals also had reduced expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. The aim of the current study was to examine if there were any permanent outcomes into adulthood when the offspring of Vitamin D(3) deficient dams were restored to a normal diet. The brains of adult rats were examined at 10 weeks of age after Vitamin D(3) deficiency until birth or weaning. Compared to controls animals that were exposed to transient early Vitamin D(3) deficiency had larger lateral ventricles, reduced NGF protein content, and reduced expression of a number genes involved in neuronal structure, i.e. neurofilament or MAP-2 or neurotransmission, i.e. GABA-A(alpha4). We conclude that transient early life hypovitaminosis D(3) not only disrupts brain development but leads to persistent changes in the adult brain. In light of the high incidence of hypovitaminosis D(3) in women of child-bearing age, the public health implications of these findings warrant attention. PMID:15763180

  18. Decline of taste sensitivity in protein deficient adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ohara, I; Tabuchi, R; Kimura, M; Itokawa, Y

    1995-05-01

    The influence of dietary protein levels on taste sensitivity was studied in adult rats. Low protein diets of 0.0, 2.5, or 5.0% purified egg protein (PEP) were fed to animals for 28 days. Two bottle choice preference tests between aqueous solutions of either 2, 9, 17, or 86 mM sodium chloride and deionized water were conducted in an ascending order on days 14, 16, 18, and 20. Urine samples were collected for zinc and creatinine analysis. Blood samples were also collected for measuring serum zinc and creatinine concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to observe rats' tongue epithelia. Protein free diet group showed significantly lower taste sensitivity and renal reabsorption rate than other protein containing diet groups, while serum zinc and creatinine concentrations, and creatinine clearance were not affected by dietary protein level. Degeneration of filiform papillae and imperforation of taste pore of fungiform papillae were observed in protein free diet group. This experiment implies at least 2.5% dietary protein is required to manifest normal taste function in the adult. PMID:7610145

  19. Decline of taste sensitivity in protein deficient adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ohara, I; Tabuchi, R; Kimura, M; Itokawa, Y

    1995-05-01

    The influence of dietary protein levels on taste sensitivity was studied in adult rats. Low protein diets of 0.0, 2.5, or 5.0% purified egg protein (PEP) were fed to animals for 28 days. Two bottle choice preference tests between aqueous solutions of either 2, 9, 17, or 86 mM sodium chloride and deionized water were conducted in an ascending order on days 14, 16, 18, and 20. Urine samples were collected for zinc and creatinine analysis. Blood samples were also collected for measuring serum zinc and creatinine concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to observe rats' tongue epithelia. Protein free diet group showed significantly lower taste sensitivity and renal reabsorption rate than other protein containing diet groups, while serum zinc and creatinine concentrations, and creatinine clearance were not affected by dietary protein level. Degeneration of filiform papillae and imperforation of taste pore of fungiform papillae were observed in protein free diet group. This experiment implies at least 2.5% dietary protein is required to manifest normal taste function in the adult.

  20. Acute behavioral toxicity of carbaryl and propoxur in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ruppert, P H; Cook, L L; Dean, K F; Reiter, L W

    1983-04-01

    Motor activity and neuromotor function were examined in adult CD rats exposed to either carbaryl or propoxur, and behavioral effects were compared with the time course of cholinesterase inhibition. Rats received an IP injection of either 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 mg/kg propoxur or 0, 4, 8, 16 or 28 mg/kg carbaryl in corn oil 20 min before testing. All doses of propoxur reduced 2 hr activity in a figure-eight maze, and crossovers and rears in an open field. For carbaryl, dosages of 8, 16 and 28 mg/kg decreased maze activity whereas 16 and 28 mg/kg reduced open field activity. In order to determine the time course of effects, rats received a single IP injection of either corn oil, 2 mg/kg propoxur or 16 mg/kg carbaryl, and were tested for 5 min in a figure-eight maze either 15, 30, 60, 120 or 240 min post-injection. Immediately after testing, animals were sacrificed and total cholinesterase was measured. Maximum effects of propoxur and carbaryl on blood and brain cholinesterase and motor activity were seen within 15 min. Maze activity had returned to control levels within 30 and 60 min whereas cholinesterase levels remained depressed for 120 and 240 min for propoxur and carbaryl, respectively. These results indicate that both carbamates decrease motor activity, but behavioral recovery occurs prior to that of cholinesterase following acute exposure.

  1. Effect of exposure to diazinon on adult rat's brain.

    PubMed

    Rashedinia, Marzieh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Lari, Parisa; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Abnous, Khalil

    2016-04-01

    Diazinon (DZN), a commonly used agricultural organophosphate insecticide, is one of the major concerns for human health. This study was planned to investigate neurotoxic effects of subacute exposure to DZN in adult male Wistar rats. Animals received corn oil as control and 15 and 30 mg/kg DZN orally by gastric gavage for 4 weeks. The cerebrum malondialdehyde and glutathione (GSH) contents were assessed as biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and nonenzyme antioxidants, respectively. Moreover, activated forms of caspase 3, -9, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratios were evaluated as key apoptotic proteins. Results of this study suggested that chronic administration of DZN did not change lipid peroxidation and GSH levels significantly in comparison with control. Also, the active forms of caspase 3 and caspase 9 were not significantly altered in DZN-treated rat groups. Moreover, no significant changes were observed in Bax and Bcl-2 ratios. This study indicated that generation of reactive oxygen species was probably modulated by intracellular antioxidant system. In conclusion, subacute oral administration of DZN did not alter lipid peroxidation. Moreover, apoptosis induction was not observed in rat brain.

  2. Effect of MPEP in Morris water maze in adult and old rats.

    PubMed

    Car, Halina; Stefaniuk, Radosław; Wiśniewska, Róza J

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation assessed the effects of 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) on acquisition and reference memory in the Morris water maze in young adult rats aged 3-month and old rats aged 26-month. MPEP reduced the swim speed of the young adult rats during acquisition, shortened the distance they covered and reduced their swim speed in the probe trial. The untreated old rats had impaired acquisition of spatial learning, shortened distance and a lower swim speed in the probe trial in comparison with young rats. MPEP did not influence the activity of the old rats in the water maze. In summary, MPEP did not influence acquisition of spatial learning and reference memory in the young adult and old rats.

  3. Protective Effects of Pinus halepensis L. Essential Oil on Aspirin-induced Acute Liver and Kidney Damage in Female Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Samout, Noura; Amani, Etaya; Mbarki, Sakhria; Tlili, Zied; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Talarmin, Hélène; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-08-01

    Aromatic and medicinal plants are sources of natural antioxidants thanks to their secondary metabolites. Administration of Pinus halepensis L. (Pinaceae family) in previous studies was found to alleviate deleterious effects of aspirin-induced damage on liver and kidney. The present study, carried out on female rats, evaluates the effects of P. halepensis L. essential oil (EOP) on aspirin (A)-induced damage to liver and kidney. The animals used in this study were rats (n=28) divided into 4 groups of 7 each: (1) a control group (C); (2) a group given NaCl for 56 days then treated with (A) (600 mg/kg) for 4 days (A); (3) a group fed with (EOP) for 56 days then (A) for 4 days; and a group fed with only (EOP) for 56 days and given NaCl for 4 days. Estimations of biochemical parameters in blood were determined using kit methods (Spinreact). Lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were determined. Histopathological study was done by immersing pieces of both organs in a fixative solution followed by paraffin embeddeding and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Under our experimental conditions, Aspirin at dose 600 mg/kg body weight induced an increase of serum biochemical parameters as well as an oxidative stress in both organs. An increase occurred in TBARS by 108% and 55%, a decrease in SOD by 78% and 53%, CAT by 53% and 78%, and GPx by 78% and 51% in liver and kidney, respectively, compared to control. Administration of EOP given to rats enabled correction in these parameters. It could be concluded that the treatment with P. halepensis L. essential oil inhibited aspirin-induced liver and kidney damage. PMID:27430382

  4. Purification and culture of adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Delree, P; Leprince, P; Schoenen, J; Moonen, G

    1989-06-01

    To study the trophic requirements of adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons (DRG) in vitro, we developed a purification procedure that yields highly enriched neuronal cultures. Forty to fifty ganglia are dissected from the spinal column of an adult rat. After enzymatic and mechanical dissociation of the ganglia, myelin debris are eliminated by centrifugation on a Percoll gradient. The resulting cell suspension is layered onto a nylon mesh with a pore size of 10 microns. Most of the neurons, the diameter of which ranged from 17 microns to greater than 100 microns, are retained on the upper surface of the sieve; most of the non-neuronal cells with a caliber of less than 10 microns after trypsinization go through it. Recovery of neurons is achieved by reversing the mesh onto a Petri dish containing culture medium. Neurons to non-neurons ratio is 1 to 10 in the initial cell suspension and 1 to 1 after separation. When these purified neurons are seeded at a density of 3,000 neurons/cm2 in 6 mm polyornithine-laminin (PORN-LAM) coated wells, neuronal survival (assessed by the ability to extend neurites), measured after 48 hr of culture, is very low (from 0 to 16%). Addition of nerve growth factor (NGF) does not improve neuronal survival. However, when neurons are cultured in the presence of medium conditioned (CM) by astrocytes or Schwann cells, 60-80% of the seeded, dye-excluding neurons survive. So, purified adult DRG neurons require for their short-term survival and regeneration in culture, a trophic support that is present in conditioned medium from PNS or CNS glia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Immature rat Leydig cells are intrinsically less sensitive than adult Leydig cells to ethane dimethanesulfonate.

    PubMed

    Kelce, W R; Zirkin, B R; Ewing, L L

    1991-11-01

    Leydig cells from immature rat testes appear to be insensitive to doses of ethane-1,2-dimethanesulfonate (EDS) which eliminate Leydig cells from adult rat testes. We sought to determine whether this differential response to EDS is intrinsic to the Leydig cell or mediated by other intra- or extratesticular differences between adult and immature rats. To differentiate among these possibilities, Leydig cells were exposed to EDS (1) in vivo, (2) through in vitro testicular perfusion, or (3) in highly purified Leydig cell primary cultures. Four days after ip injections of 85 mg EDS/kg body wt Leydig cells were eliminated from testes of adult, but not immature rats. Total androgen production by testes perfused in vitro with 94 micrograms EDS/ml was dramatically reduced in adult, but not immature rats. Highly purified adult, but not immature, rat Leydig cells were far more sensitive to the effects of EDS on luteinizing hormone-stimulated androgen production (functional effects; apparent EC50 = 94 for adult and 407 micrograms/ml for immature rat Leydig cells) and on [35S]methionine incorporation (cytotoxic effects; apparent EC50 = 140 for adult and 1000 micrograms/ml for immature rat Leydig cells). Finally, the in vitro effects of EDS were both cell type and chemical specific. Since the differential response of adult and immature rat Leydig cells to EDS was manifest in vivo, during in vitro testicular perfusion, and in highly purified Leydig cell primary cultures, we conclude that immature rat Leydig cells are intrinsically less sensitive to the specific cytotoxic effects of EDS than adult rat Leydig cells.

  6. Effect of Escitalopram on GABA level and anti-oxidant markers in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of chronic mild stress-exposed albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Amany; Kamal, Sahar

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a critical route of damage in various psychological stress-induced disorders, such as depression. Antidepressants are widely prescribed to treat these conditions; however, few animal studies have investigated the effect of these drugs on endogenous antioxidant status in the brain. The present study employed a 3 weeks chronic regimen of random exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS) to induce oxidative stress in brain, and behavioural aberrations (anhedonia), in rats. The sucrose preference test was used to identify depression-like phenotypes, and reversal in these indices indicated the effectiveness of treatment with escitalopram 2.5mg/kg daily orally following CMS. The level of superoxide dismutase enzyme(SOD) as an antioxidant markers in erythrocyte lysates was reduced in CMS control group while it was elevated in CMS group treated with escitalopram. Also escitalopram significantly reduce the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance(TBARS) levels in selected brain areas homogenates to a level comparable to control group. Catalase activity and GABA levels in these brain areas were also increase in escitlopram treated group. In conclusion, escitalopram is suggested to have antioxidant effect associated with an increase in GABA level in frontal cortices and nucleus accumbens homogenates from rats exposed to CMS. PMID:21383885

  7. Phytochemical Screening, Physicochemical Properties, Acute Toxicity Testing and Screening of Hypoglycaemic Activity of Extracts of Eremurus himalaicus Baker in Normoglycaemic Wistar Strain Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Ahlam; Akbar, Seema; Zargar, Mohammad A.; Wali, Adil F.; Malik, Akhtar H.; Dar, Mohammad Y.; Hamid, Rabia; Ganai, Bashir A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study EtOAc, MeOH, and aqueous extracts of Eremurus himalaicus were evaluated for hypoglycaemic effect in normal rats using both oral glucose tolerance test and 14-day oral administration study. Phytochemical and physicochemical screening was also done. In oral glucose tolerance test the aqueous and MeOH extracts of Eremurus himalaicus at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight prior to glucose load resulted in a significant fall in blood glucose level within 150 min. of glucose administration. The aqueous extract at a dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight also showed good hypoglycaemic response (P < 0.001); this was followed by MeOH extract at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight (P < 0.05), while MeOH extract at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and ethyl acetate extract at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight exhibited insignificant effect. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids. The results indicate that aqueous extract possess significant hypoglycaemic activity in normoglycaemic rats which may be attributed to the above-mentioned chemical constituents. PMID:24864262

  8. Identification of a tyrosinase (TYR) exon 4 deletion in albino ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Blaszczyk, W M; Distler, C; Dekomien, G; Arning, L; Hoffmann, K-P; Epplen, J T

    2007-08-01

    Albinism is due to a lack of pigmentation in hair, skin and eye, and has been shown to occur in several animal species. Mutations of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene account for albinism in domestic cats, rabbits, cattle, mice and rats. In this study, we demonstrate that a TYR mutation accounts for albinism in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo). The coding sequence of the five exons of TYR was determined in genomic DNA from wild-type pigmented 'sable' coloured and albino ferrets. It was not possible to amplify TYR exon 4 in albino ferrets originating from different breeds. The deletion of exon 4 in albino ferrets was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization of genomic DNA from albino and pigmented ferrets. This is the first report of a deletion of a TYR exon in a non-human mammal. PMID:17655555

  9. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A.; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  10. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  11. [Karyometric studies of the pancreas and adrenal glands of the albino-rat fed an unbalanced glucose diet or a glucose diet supplemented with thiamine].

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, R

    1975-01-01

    Karyometric measurements in rats which for 30 days had received a glucose diet or a glucose diet supplemented with thiamine showed the following decrease in nuclear size in contrast to no treated controls. (see article) In both experimental groups there was a 30% loss of weight during the course of the experiment. The different decreases in nuclear volume in the examined organs cannot be explained only by a relative state of hunger. The very large decrease in activity in the fasciculated zone of the adrenal cortex is explained as an adaptation mechanism favouring glucose oxidation by insulin, and the relative increase in activity in the adrenal medulla as an adaptation mechanism to accomplish an elevated lipolysis.

  12. Effect of pH of bupivacaine on duration of repeated sciatic nerve blocks in the albino rat. Local Anesthetics for Neuralgia Study Group.

    PubMed

    Baker, C E; Berry, R L; Elston, R C

    1991-06-01

    Tachyphylaxis has been ascribed to tissue acidification after repeated injections of acidic local anesthetic solutions. We studied the effect of pH on the duration of action of bupivacaine to determine the validity of this proposed mechanism of tachyphylaxis by injecting bupivacaine solutions adjusted to pH 4.2 or 6.8 into a surgically implanted system created to permit in vivo irrigation of rat sciatic nerves with local anesthetic. Tachyphylaxis developed at both pH values. The results fail to support the acidification hypothesis as there was no statistically significant effect of a 400-fold difference in hydrogen ion concentration on the development of tachyphylaxis or the duration of motor dysfunction.

  13. Polygonal networks, "geodomes", of adult rat hepatocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Y; Furukawa, K; Mitaka, T; Yokoi, T; Kodama, T

    1988-01-01

    Polygonal networks, "geodomes", in cultured hepatocytes of adult rats were examined by both light and electron microscopy. On light microscopical examinations of specimens stained with Coomassie blue after the treatment with Triton X-100, the networks were detected 5 days after culture, which consisted of triangles arranged mainly in hexagonal patterns. They surrounded main cell body, looking like a headband, or were occasionally situated over nuclei, looking like a geodesic dome. Scanning electron microscopical observations after Triton treatment revealed that these structures were located underneath surface membrane. Transmission electron microscopical investigations revealed that the connecting fibers of networks consisted of microfilaments which radiated in a compact bundle from electron-dense vertices. PMID:3396075

  14. Cysteamine reduces serum gonadotropin concentrations in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Badger, T M; Sagar, S M; Millard, W J; Martin, J B; Rosenblum, P

    1982-01-18

    We have examined the effects of cysteamine on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of the adult male rat. A single subcutaneous injection of cysteamine (300 mg/kg) reduces significantly (p less than or equal to 0.05 serum concentrations of LH, FSH and T. Cysteamine blocked LH secretion induced by castration and administration of naloxone and LHRH. Neither acute nor chronic treatment (7 days) altered the hypothalamic LHRH content. These results suggest that cysteamine acts to reduce pituitary responsiveness to LHRH, resulting in lower mean serum gonadotropin and testosterone concentrations. It is possible, however, that cysteamine acts also at the hypothalamus to reduce LHRH secretion and/or at the testes to reduce testosterone release.

  15. Respiratory autoresuscitation following severe acute hypoxemia in anesthetized adult rats.

    PubMed

    Krause, A; Nowak, Z; Srbu, R; Bell, H J

    2016-10-01

    In the present study we investigated the pattern and efficacy of respiratory autoresuscitation in spontaneously breathing adult male rats across three separate anesthetic backgrounds. Each animal was administered one of three injectable anesthetics to achieve a surgical plane of anesthesia: ketamine-xylazine (KET, n=10), pentobarbital (PEN, n=10), or urethane (URE, n=10). Animals were tracheostomized and equipped with a femoral artery catheter to record airflow and arterial pressures. In response to a bout of breathing anoxic air, none of the 10 URE animals were able to mount a successful autoresuscitation response. In contrast, all KET and PEN animals survived all four consecutive anoxic exposures, restoring eupneic breathing in all cases. Moreover, only 4/10 URE animals expressed gasping breaths following the onset of respiratory arrest, and these were temporally delayed (p<0.001) and much smaller in volume (P≤0.012) compared to KET and PEN animals. URE animals showed no clear aberrations in their cardiovascular responses to anoxia, with the exception of lower arterial pulse pressures compared to either KET or PEN animals at specific points following RA. Ketamine-xylazine and pentobarbital anesthesia can be reliably and effectively used to create models for the study of autoresuscitation in adult rats. In contrast, urethane causes catastrophic failure of respiratory autoresuscitation, by delaying or outright preventing the elaboration of gasping breaths following anoxia-induced respiratory arrest. The neuronal and synaptic alterations accompanying urethane anesthesia may therefore provide a means of understanding potential pathological alterations in rhythm generation that can predispose the respiratory control system to failed autoresuscitation following an episode of acute severe hypoxemia. PMID:27378495

  16. Astaxanthin reduces ischemic brain injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Kuo, Chi-Chung; Chou, Jenny; Delvolve, Alice; Jackson, Shelley N; Post, Jeremy; Woods, Amina S; Hoffer, Barry J; Wang, Yun; Harvey, Brandon K

    2009-06-01

    Astaxanthin (ATX) is a dietary carotenoid of crustaceans and fish that contributes to their coloration. Dietary ATX is important for development and survival of salmonids and crustaceans and has been shown to reduce cardiac ischemic injury in rodents. The purpose of this study was to examine whether ATX can protect against ischemic injury in the mammalian brain. Adult rats were injected intracerebroventricularly with ATX or vehicle prior to a 60-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). ATX was present in the infarction area at 70-75 min after onset of MCAo. Treatment with ATX, compared to vehicle, increased locomotor activity in stroke rats and reduced cerebral infarction at 2 d after MCAo. To evaluate the protective mechanisms of ATX against stroke, brain tissues were assayed for free radical damage, apoptosis, and excitoxicity. ATX antagonized ischemia-mediated loss of aconitase activity and reduced glutamate release, lipid peroxidation, translocation of cytochrome c, and TUNEL labeling in the ischemic cortex. ATX did not alter physiological parameters, such as body temperature, brain temperature, cerebral blood flow, blood gases, blood pressure, and pH. Collectively, our data suggest that ATX can reduce ischemia-related injury in brain tissue through the inhibition of oxidative stress, reduction of glutamate release, and antiapoptosis. ATX may be clinically useful for patients vulnerable or prone to ischemic events. PMID:19218497

  17. Astaxanthin reduces ischemic brain injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Kuo, Chi-Chung; Chou, Jenny; Delvolve, Alice; Jackson, Shelley N; Post, Jeremy; Woods, Amina S; Hoffer, Barry J; Wang, Yun; Harvey, Brandon K

    2009-06-01

    Astaxanthin (ATX) is a dietary carotenoid of crustaceans and fish that contributes to their coloration. Dietary ATX is important for development and survival of salmonids and crustaceans and has been shown to reduce cardiac ischemic injury in rodents. The purpose of this study was to examine whether ATX can protect against ischemic injury in the mammalian brain. Adult rats were injected intracerebroventricularly with ATX or vehicle prior to a 60-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). ATX was present in the infarction area at 70-75 min after onset of MCAo. Treatment with ATX, compared to vehicle, increased locomotor activity in stroke rats and reduced cerebral infarction at 2 d after MCAo. To evaluate the protective mechanisms of ATX against stroke, brain tissues were assayed for free radical damage, apoptosis, and excitoxicity. ATX antagonized ischemia-mediated loss of aconitase activity and reduced glutamate release, lipid peroxidation, translocation of cytochrome c, and TUNEL labeling in the ischemic cortex. ATX did not alter physiological parameters, such as body temperature, brain temperature, cerebral blood flow, blood gases, blood pressure, and pH. Collectively, our data suggest that ATX can reduce ischemia-related injury in brain tissue through the inhibition of oxidative stress, reduction of glutamate release, and antiapoptosis. ATX may be clinically useful for patients vulnerable or prone to ischemic events.

  18. Developmental effects of perinatal exposure to extremely weak 7 Hz magnetic fields and nitric oxide modulation in the Wistar albino rat.

    PubMed

    Whissell, P D; Persinger, M A

    2007-11-01

    Prenatal exposure of pregnant dams to oscillating magnetic fields can cause behavioural deficits in their offspring which persist into adulthood. These changes are waveform-specific and may involve nitric oxide. To investigate the interaction between nitric oxide modulation and perinatal magnetic fields, dams were exposed from 2 days before to 14 days after birth to one of six magnetic field conditions (1, 5, 10, 50 or 500 nT or sham) and given either water, 1g/L nitric oxide precursor l-arginine or 0.5 g/L nitric oxide synthase inhibitor n-methylarginine. At weaning (22d), their offspring were placed in the open field for observation. Rats given 50 nT field or 500 nT field+water were hyperactive and showed increased rearing and bodyweight. These strong effects were attenuated or absent in groups given 50 or 500 nT field+n-methylarginine. Groups given sham field+l-arginine were behaviourally similar to animals given 50 or 500 nT field+water. Higher intensity fields showed robust behavioural and physiological effects. In general, these effects were counteracted by co-administration of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor n-methylarginine, which had little effect on its own. Shams given NO precursor l-arginine were highly similar to those given any higher intensity magnetic field. Results support a critical developmental role of NO and the involvement of NO in magnetic field effects.

  19. Synthesis and migration of /sup 3/H-fucose-labeled glycoproteins in the retinal pigment epithelium of albino rats, as visualized by radioautography

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, A.; Bennett, G.

    1987-03-01

    /sup 3/H-fucose was injected into the vitreous body of the eye(s) of 250-gm rats, which were then killed by means of an intracardiac perfusion with glutaraldehyde after intervals of 10 min, 1 and 4 hr, and 1 and 7 days. The eyes were removed and further fixed, and pieces of retina were processed for light and electron microscope radioautography. Light microscope radioautography showed that the pigment epithelial cells actively incorporated /sup 3/H-fucose label. The intensity of reaction peaked at 4 hr after injection of the label and then slowly declined. Quantitative electron microscope radioautography revealed that, at 10 min after /sup 3/H-fucose injection, over 70% of the label was localized to the Golgi apparatus, indicating that fucose residues are added to newly synthesized glycoproteins principally at this site. With time the proportion of label associated with the Golgi apparatus decreased, but that assigned to the infolded basal plasma membrane, the apical microvilli, and various apical lysosomes increased. These results indicate that in retinal pigment epithelial cells newly synthesized glycoproteins continuously migrate from the Golgi apparatus to lysosomes and to various regions of the plasma membrane. In this case, the membrane glycoproteins may play specific roles in receptor functions of the basal plasma membrane or phagocytic activities at the apical surface. Very little label migrated to Bruch's membrane, indicating either a very slow turnover or a paucity of fucose-containing glycoproteins at this site.

  20. A structural study of the retinal photoreceptor, plexiform and ganglion cell layers following exposure to UV-B and UV-C radiation in the albino rat.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Miguel, Nadia Campos; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno; Allodi, Silvana

    2003-01-01

    Over the last two decades, ultraviolet radiation levels (UV), reaching the Earth's surface, have been increasing at a rate of 1.5% per each 1% loss of the ozone layer. Moreover, artificial UV-sources have also proliferated and contributed to the rising UV-stress that many organisms have to face. To assess how the vertebrate retina responds to an exposure of short wavelength UV, we focused our attention on the rat retina, observing photoreceptor (containing outer and inner segments of rods and cones), inner plexiform, and ganglion cell layers by light and transmission electron microscopy using conventional and cytochemical techniques. We analyzed how cells of the layers in question responded to a 30 min exposure to UV-C and UV-B radiation with doses of 7200 and 590 J/cm(2), respectively. The results show that there are significant changes in the nuclei and cytoplasmic organelles of the exposed retinae when compared with those of the unexposed controls. The changes include an increase in heterochromatin, distension of rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrial disruptions, and increases in the number of myelin bodies. The recorded morphological changes, especially those of the ganglion cells, are suggestive of apoptotic processes and show that the exposure of vertebrate retina to wavelengths ranging from 254 to 312 nm can produce alterations that are likely to impact negatively on the retina's proper functioning.

  1. Comparison of electroretinographic responses between two different age groups of adult Dark Agouti rats

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lin; Lo, Amy Cheuk Yin; Lai, Jimmy Shiu Ming; Shih, Kendrick Co

    2015-01-01

    AIM To describe and compare the differences in electroretinographic responses between two different age groups of adult Dark Agouti (DA) rats and to better understand the effect of age on retinal histology and function. METHODS The electroretinographic responses of two different age groups of adult DA rats were compared. Animals were divided into younger adult DA rats 10-12wk (n=8) and older adult DA rats 17-19wk (n=8). Full field electroretinography (ERG) was recorded simultaneously from both eyes after dark adaption and light adaption and parameters including the positive scotopic threshold response (pSTR), negative scotopic threshold response (nSTR), scotopic a-wave, b-wave, photopic a-wave, b-wave and photopic negative response (PhNR) were compared between groups. RESULTS The older adult rats displayed lower stimulation thresholds of the STRs (pSTR and nSTR) and higher amplitudes of pSTR, scotopic a-wave and b-wave, photopic b-wave and PhNR amplitudes, with shorter implicit times. Photopic a-wave amplitudes were however higher in the younger adult rats. CONCLUSION In summary, for the rod system, photoreceptor, bipolar cell and RGC activity was enhanced in the older adult rats. For the cone system, RGC and bipolar cell activity was enhanced, while photoreceptor activity was depressed in the older adult rats. Such age-related selective modification of retinal cell function needs to be considered when conducting ophthalmic research in adult rats. PMID:26558198

  2. Atrazine is primarily responsible for the toxicity of long-term exposure to a combination of atrazine and inorganic arsenic in the nigrostriatal system of the albino rat.

    PubMed

    Bardullas, Ulises; Giordano, Magda; Rodríguez, Verónica Mireya

    2013-01-01

    Chronic and simultaneous exposure to a variety of chemicals present in the environment is an unavoidable fact. However, given the complexity of studying chemical mixtures, most toxicological studies have focused on the effects of short-term exposure to single substances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on the nigrostriatal system of the chronic, simultaneous exposure to two widely distributed substances that have been identified as potential dopaminergic system toxicants, inorganic arsenic (iAs) and atrazine (ATR). Six groups of rats were treated daily for one year with atrazine (10mg ATR/kg), inorganic arsenic (0.5 or 50mgiAs/L of drinking water), or a combination of ATR+0.5mgiAs/L or ATR+50mgiAs/L. The 50mgiAs/L group showed locomotor hypoactivity, while all treatments decreased motor coordination in contrast no effects of treatment were found on the place and response learning tasks. Regarding markers for liver and muscle damage, there were no differences between groups in creatine kinase (CK) or aspartate transaminase (AST) activities, while decreases in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were found in some exposed groups. The striatal DA content was significantly reduced in ATR, 0.5mgiAs/L, ATR+0.5mgiAs/L, and ATR+50mgiAs/L groups, in comparison to the control group. The number of mesencephalic tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells decreased in the ATR and ATR+0.5mgiAs/L groups compared to the control. In contrast, immunoreactivity to cytochrome oxidase was reduced compared to the control in all treated groups, except for the group treated with 0.5iAsmg alone. Our results indicate that ATR has deleterious effects on dopaminergic neurons and that the combination of ATR and iAs does not exacerbate these effects.

  3. Chronic exposure to low levels of inorganic arsenic causes alterations in locomotor activity and in the expression of dopaminergic and antioxidant systems in the albino rat.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Verónica Mireya; Limón-Pacheco, Jorge Humberto; Carrizales, Leticia; Mendoza-Trejo, María Soledad; Giordano, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have associated chronic arsenicism with decreases in IQ and sensory and motor alterations in humans. Likewise, studies of rodents exposed to inorganic arsenic ((i)As) have found changes in locomotor activity, brain neurochemistry, behavioral tasks, oxidative stress, and in sensory and motor nerves. In the current study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of (i)As (0.05, 0.5 mg (i)As/L) and to a high dose (50 mg (i)As/L) in drinking water for one year. Hypoactivity and increases in the striatal dopamine content were found in the group treated with 50 mg (i)As/L. Exposure to 0.5 and 50 mg (i)As/L increased the total brain content of As. Furthermore, (i)As exposure produced a dose-dependent up-regulation of mRNA for Mn-SOD and Trx-1 and a down-regulation of DAR-D₂ mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens. DAR-D₁ and Nrf2 mRNA expression were down-regulated in nucleus accumbens in the group exposed to 50 mg (i)As/L. Trx-1 mRNA levels were up-regulated in the cortex in an (i)As dose-dependent manner, while DAR-D₁ mRNA expression was increased in striatum in the 0.5 mg (i)As/L group. These results show that chronic exposure to low levels of arsenic causes subtle but region-specific changes in the nervous system, especially in antioxidant systems and dopaminergic elements. These changes became behaviorally evident only in the group exposed to 50 mg (i)As/L.

  4. Neonatal injections of methoxychlor decrease adult rat female reproductive behavior.

    PubMed

    Bertolasio, Jennifer; Fyfe, Susanne; Snyder, Ben W; Davis, Aline M

    2011-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC), a commonly used pesticide, has been labeled as an endocrine disruptor. To evaluate the impact of neonatal exposure to MXC on female reproduction, female Sprague-Dawley rats were given subcutaneous injections on postnatal days 1, 3, and 5. The injections contained 1.0mg MXC, 2.0mg MXC, 10 μg 17β-estradiol benzoate (positive control), or sesame oil (vehicle). The injections of MXC had no effect on anogenital distance or day of vaginal opening. Treatment with either 2.0mg MXC or estradiol significantly increased the total number of days with vaginal keratinization. Treatment with MXC had no effect on ability to exhibit a mating response as an adult female, although the high dose MXC (2.0) and the positive control (estradiol) animals demonstrated a decrease in degree of receptivity, a decrease in proceptive behavior and an increase in rejection behavior. These data suggest that higher doses of MXC given directly to pups during the neonatal period can act as an estrogen and alter aspects of the nervous system, impacting adult reproductive characteristics.

  5. Evaluation of antidiabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum in male Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Salwe, Kartik J.; Sachdev, Devender O.; Bahurupi, Yogesh; Kumarappan, Manimekalai

    2015-01-01

    Background: We investigated anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin induced diabetic Wister rats were used in this study consisting of seven groups of six animals each. Groups (1) normal control, (2) diabetic control, (3) leaves extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (4) leaves extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (5) fruit peel extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (6) peel extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum and (7) glibenclamide respectively. Fasting blood sugar was recorded on 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day. At the end of the experiment Lipid profile and levels of antioxidants were determined. Safety profile of both extracts was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. Results: Higher dose of fruit peel extract of P. granatum (PEPG) and glibenclamide significantly lowered blood glucose level from 7th day onwards however glibenclamide was found to be more effective. Leaves extract at higher dose and fruit extract at lower dose also significantly lowered blood glucose level from 14th day onwards. Leaves extract at lower dose also significantly lowered blood glucose level from 21st day onwards. Glibenclamide and higher dose of fruit PEPG extract significantly reduced the total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and significantly increased the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Glibenclamide followed by higher dose was found more effective in reducing plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and increasing levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase). No toxicity was observed even when both extracts were administered at 10 times of higher dose used in this study and no significant changes were seen when it were used chronically. Conclusion: Leaves and fruit PEPG possesses significant anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant properties. This study supports the traditional use of P

  6. Effect of MDMA (ecstasy) on activity and cocaine conditioned place preference in adult and adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Aberg, Maria; Wade, Dean; Wall, Erin; Izenwasser, Sari

    2007-01-01

    MDMA (ecstasy) is a drug commonly used in adolescence, and many users of MDMA also use other illicit drugs. It is not known whether MDMA during adolescence alters subsequent responses to cocaine differently than in adults. This study examined the effects of MDMA in adolescent and adult rats on cocaine conditioned reward. At the start of these experiments, adolescent rats were at postnatal day (PND) 33 and adult rats at PND 60. Each rat was treated for 7 days with MDMA (2 or 5 mg/kg/day or vehicle) and locomotor activity was measured. Five days later cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) was begun. Rats were trained for 3 days, in the morning with saline and in the afternoon with 10 mg/kg cocaine in 30 min sessions, and tested on the fourth day. MDMA stimulated activity in both age groups, but with a greater effect in the adult rats. Sensitization to the locomotor-stimulant effects of the lower dose of MDMA occurred in adult rats and in both groups to the higher dose. Cocaine did not produce a CPP in vehicle-treated adolescent rats, but a significant CPP was observed subsequent to treatment with MDMA. In contrast, cocaine-induced CPP was diminished after MDMA in adult rats. These effects were still evident 2 weeks later upon retest. Thus, under the present conditions, MDMA increased cocaine conditioned reward in adolescent and decreased it in adult rats. These findings suggest that exposure to MDMA during this critical developmental period may carry a greater risk than during adulthood and that male adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the risk of stimulant abuse after use of MDMA.

  7. The "Inscrutable Albino" in Contemporary Ethnic Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TuSmith, Bonnie

    1993-01-01

    In both canonical European American literature and contemporary ethnic American literature, there exists a counterpart to the "inscrutable Oriental" stereotype, the "inscrutable Albino." The albino motif is explored in some ethnic works to demonstrate how the trope functions in each and what this says about the author's world view. (SLD)

  8. Retinal compensatory changes after light damage in albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Montalbán-Soler, Luis; Alarcón-Martínez, Luis; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Galindo-Romero, Caridad; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrízio; García-Ayuso, Diego; Avilés-Trigueros, Marcelino; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the anatomic and functional changes triggered by light exposure in the albino mouse retina and compare them with those observed in the albino rat. Methods BALB/c albino mice were exposed to 3,000 lx of white light during 24 h and their retinas analyzed from 1 to 180 days after light exposure (ALE). Left pupil mydriasis was induced with topical atropine. Retinal function was analyzed by electroretinographic (ERG) recording. To assess retinal degeneration, hematoxylin and eosin staining, the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) technique, and quantitative immunohistofluorescence for synaptophysin and protein kinase Cα (PKCα) were used in cross sections. Intravenous injection of horseradish peroxidase and Fluoro-Gold™ tracing were used in whole-mounted retinas to study the retinal vasculature and the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) population, respectively. Results Light exposure caused apoptotic photoreceptor death in the central retina. This death was more severe in the dorsal than in the ventral retina, sparing the periphery. Neither retinal vascular leakage nor retinal ganglion cell death was observed ALE. The electroretinographic a-wave was permanently impaired, while the b-wave decreased but recovered gradually by 180 days ALE. The scotopic threshold responses, associated with the inner retinal function, diminished at first but recovered completely by 14 days ALE. This functional recovery was concomitant with the upregulation of protein kinase Cα and synaptophysin. Similar results were obtained in both eyes, irrespective of mydriasis. Conclusions In albino mice, light exposure induces substantial retinal damage, but the surviving photoreceptors, together with compensatory morphological/molecular changes, allow an important restoration of the retinal function. PMID:22509098

  9. Nocturnal food-related hyperdipsia in the adult spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Kraly, F S; Moore, A F; Miller, L A; Drexler, A

    1982-05-01

    Male adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) ate the same but drank more and had a higher water to food ratio (W:F) than did Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats in 24-hr when they had continuous access to standard laboratory pellets and tap water. When rats ate in the day phase of a 12:12 light/dark cycle after 24-hr food deprivation, SHR rats ate and drank the same ad did WKY rats in a 60-min test. When the same rats ate at night after 24-hr food deprivation, however, SHR rats were hyperdipsic: They ate the same as did WKY rats, but SHR rats drank more and had a higher W:F. This relative hyperdipsia reflected the increased ability of ingestion of food to stimulate drinking in SHR, because when food was absent for a 60-min test at night SHR drank the same as did WKY rats. Three dipsogens which are candidate components for eating-elicited drinking in the rat, cellular dehydration, histamine and angiotensin II, elicited drinking differentially in SHR and WKY rats: SHR drank more than did WKY rats in response to (1) cellular dehydration produced by IP hypertonic saline, (2) large doses of SC histamine, and (3) SC angiotensin II. These results demonstrate that SHR exhibit a nocturnal food-related hyperdipsia which may reflect differential sensitivity to stimuli important for eating-elicited drinking such as increased osmolality and endogenous histamine or angiotensin.

  10. Differences in Response Initiation and Behavioral Flexibility Between Adolescent and Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Nicholas W.; Gregory, Timothy A.; Wood, Jesse; Moghaddam, Bita

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of increased vulnerability to psychiatric illnesses such as addiction, mood disorders, and schizophrenia. Rats provide a useful animal model for investigating the differences in behavior and biology between adults and adolescents that stem from ongoing brain development. We developed the Cued Response Inhibition Task, or CRIT, to assess response inhibition and initiation processes by measuring the ability of rodents to withhold a response during an inhibitory cue and then to respond promptly after cue termination. We found no difference between adult and adolescent rats in the ability to appropriately inhibit a response during cue presentation. Adolescents, however, were unable to initiate a response as quickly as adults after cue termination. Further, we observed that this difference in responding was abolished after adolescent rats aged to adulthood with no additional training. In a separate experiment, adult and adolescent rats were trained in CRIT and then trained in another protocol in which the response inhibitory cue from CRIT was used as a Pavlovian cue predictive of reward. Adolescents demonstrated more reward-seeking behavior during the previously inhibitory Pavlovian cue than adults, indicative of greater behavioral flexibility. Taken together, these data suggest that, compared with adults, adolescent rats (a) are less able to initiate a response after response inhibition, (b) equally inhibit behavioral responses, and (c) are more adept at flexibly switching behavioral patterns. Furthermore, this study characterizes a task that is well suited for future pharmacological and electrophysiological investigations for assessing neuronal processing differences between adolescents and adults. PMID:23398439

  11. Accumulation of glycogen in axotomized adult rat facial motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Takezawa, Yosuke; Baba, Otto; Kohsaka, Shinichi; Nakajima, Kazuyuki

    2015-06-01

    This study biochemically determined glycogen content in the axotomized facial nucleus of adult rats up to 35 days postinsult. The amounts of glycogen in the transected facial nucleus were significantly increased at 5 days postinsult, peaked at 7 days postinsult, and declined to the control levels at 21-35 days postinsult. Immunohistochemical analysis with antiglycogen antibody revealed that the quantity of glycogen granules in the axotomized facial nucleus was greater than that in the control nucleus at 7 days postinjury. Dual staining methods with antiglycogen antibody and a motoneuron marker clarified that the glycogen was localized mainly in motoneurons. Immunoblotting and quantification analysis revealed that the ratio of inactive glycogen synthase (GS) to total GS was significantly decreased in the injured nucleus at about 1-3 days postinsult and significantly increased from 7 to 14 days postinsult, suggesting that glycogen is actively synthesized in the early period postinjury but suppressed after 7 days postinsult. The enhanced glycogen at about 5-7 days postinsult is suggested to be responsible for the decrease in inactive GS levels, and the decrease of glycogen after 7 days postinsult is considered to be caused by increased inactive GS levels and possibly the increase in active glycogen phosphorylase.

  12. Adolescent and adult male spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) respond differently to acute and chronic methylphenidate (Ritalin).

    PubMed

    Barron, Elyssa; Yang, Pamela B; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum

    2009-01-01

    Eight groups of male adolescent and adult spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) were used in a dose response (saline, 0.6, 2.5, and 10 mg/kg) experiment of methylphenidate (MPD). Four different locomotor indices were recorded for 2 hours postinjection using a computerized monitoring system. Acutely, the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD did not elicit an increase in locomotor activity in either the adolescent or in the adult male SHR. The 2.5 and the 10.0 mg/kg doses increased activity in the adolescent and the adult rats. Chronically, MPD treatment when comparing adolescent and adult gave the following results: the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD failed to cause sensitization in the adolescent group but caused sensitization in the adult group, while the 2.5 and 10 mg/kg both caused sensitization in the adolescent and adult groups.

  13. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides promotes in vivo proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Wang, Ning-li; Wang, Si-ying; Lu, Qing-jun; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-fai

    2015-01-01

    Lycium barbarum is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine prescription for protection of optic nerve. However, it remains unclear regarding the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides, the main component of Lycium barbarum, on in vivo proliferation of adult ciliary body cells. In this study, adult rats were intragastrically administered low- and high-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (1 and 10 mg/kg) for 35 days and those intragastrically administered phosphate buffered saline served as controls. The number of Ki-67-positive cells in rat ciliary body in the Lycium barbarum polysaccharides groups, in particular low-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides group, was significantly greater than that in the phosphate buffered saline group. Ki-67-positive rat ciliary body cells expressed nestin but they did not express glial fibrillary acidic protein. These findings suggest that Lycium barbarum polysaccharides can promote the proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells and the proliferated cells present with neuronal phenotype. PMID:26889185

  14. Effect of nutritional recovery with soybean flour diet on body composition, energy balance and serum leptin concentration in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Cheim, Loanda Maria G; Oliveira, Elisângela A; Arantes, Vanessa C; Veloso, Roberto V; Reis, Marise Auxiliadora B; Gomes-da-Silva, Maria Helena G; Carneiro, Everardo M; Boschero, Antonio C; Latorraca, Márcia Q

    2009-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in early life is associated with obesity in adulthood and soybean products may have a beneficial effect on its prevention and treatment. This study evaluated body composition, serum leptin and energy balance in adult rats subjected to protein restriction during the intrauterine stage and lactation and recovering on a soybean flour diet. Methods Five groups of the Wistar strain of albino rats were used: CC, offspring born to and suckled by mothers fed a control diet and fed the same diet after weaning; CS, offspring born to and suckled by mothers fed a control diet and fed a soybean diet with 17% protein after weaning; LL, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet and fed the same diet after weaning; LC, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet, but fed a control diet after weaning; LS, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet, but fed a soybean diet with 17% protein after weaning. Food intake, body, perirenal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue were measured in grams. Leptin was quantified using the Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) and insulin by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Carcass composition was determined by chemical methods and energy expenditure was calculated by the difference between energy intake and carcass energy gain. Data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results The LC and LS groups had higher energetic intake concerning body weight, lower energy expenditure, proportion of fat carcass and fat pads than CC and CS groups. The LS group showed reduced body weight gain and lower energy efficiency, which was reflected in less energy gain as protein and the proportion of carcass protein, and lower energy gain as lipid than in the LC groups, although both groups had eaten the same amount of diet and showed equal energy expenditure. Serum leptin did not differ among groups and was unrelated to food or energy intake and energy expenditure. Serum insulin was higher in the LS than in the LC group. Conclusion Protein

  15. Effects of long-term methylphenidate treatment in adolescent and adult rats on hippocampal shape, functional connectivity and adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    van der Marel, K; Bouet, V; Meerhoff, G F; Freret, T; Boulouard, M; Dauphin, F; Klomp, A; Lucassen, P J; Homberg, J R; Dijkhuizen, R M; Reneman, L

    2015-11-19

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a widely prescribed stimulant drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. Its use in this age group raises concerns regarding the potential interference with ongoing neurodevelopmental processes. Particularly the hippocampus is a highly plastic brain region that continues to develop postnatally and is involved in cognition and emotional behavior, functions known to be affected by MPH. In this study, we assessed whether hippocampal structure and function were affected by chronic oral MPH treatment and whether its effects were different in adolescent or adult rats. Using behavioral testing, resting-state functional MRI, post-mortem structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and immunohistochemistry, we assessed MPH's effects on recognition memory, depressive-like behavior, topological features of functional connectivity networks, hippocampal shape and markers for hippocampal neurogenesis and proliferation. Object recognition memory was transiently impaired in adolescent treated rats, while in animals treated during adulthood, increased depressive-like behavior was observed. Neurogenesis was increased in adolescent treated rats, whereas cell proliferation was decreased following adult treatment. Adolescent treated rats showed inward shape deformations adjacent to ventral parahippocampal regions known to be involved in recognition memory, whereas such deformations were not observed in adult treated animals. Irrespective of the age of treatment, MPH affected topological features of ventral hippocampal functional networks. Thus, chronic oral treatment with a therapeutically relevant dose of MPH preferentially affected the ventral part of the hippocampus and induced contrasting effects in adolescent and adult rats. The differences in behavior were paralleled by opposite effects on adult neurogenesis and granule cell proliferation.

  16. Differential Effects of Acute Alcohol on EEG and Sedative Responses in Adolescent and Adult Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pian, Jerry P.; Criado, Jose R.; Walker, Brendan M.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2008-01-01

    Age-related developmental differences in sensitivity to the acute effects of alcohol may play an important role in the development of alcoholism. The present study was designed to evaluate the acute effects of alcohol on cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) in adolescent (P36) and adult (P78) Wistar rats. Five minutes of EEG was recorded after administration of 0, 0.75 or 1.5 g/kg alcohol. The righting reflex was performed to measure the sedative effects of alcohol (3.5 g/kg) and total sleeping time for each rat. Our results showed that alcohol (1.5 g/kg) increased power in the 1–2 Hz band and decreased the power in the 32–50 Hz band in the parietal cortical region of adolescent rats. Alcohol (1.5 g/kg) also increased stability of the EEG power in the slow-wave frequency bands (2–4 Hz, 4–6 Hz, and 6–8 Hz) of adolescent rats. In the frontal cortex of adult rats, but not in adolescent rats, alcohol (1.5 or 0.75 g/kg) decreased the power in the 16–32 Hz frequency band. Alcohol (1.5 g/kg) differentially increased power in a multiple of slow-wave frequency bands (2–4 Hz and 4–6 Hz) in the parietal cortex of adult rats as compared to adolescent rats. Adolescent rats were shown significantly shorter sleeping time and higher blood alcohol levels after regaining reflex than adult rats. Our results provide additional evidence of age-related differences in the effects of acute alcohol on cortical EEG, sedation and tolerance. PMID:18191821

  17. Daily patterns of ethanol drinking in peri-adolescent and adult alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Sable, Helen J K; Schultz, Jonathon A; Hsu, Cathleen C; Lumeng, Lawrence; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among adolescents continues to be a major health problem for our society. Our laboratory has used the peri-adolescent alcohol-preferring, P, rat as an animal model of adolescent alcohol abuse. Even though peri-adolescent P rats consume more alcohol (g/kg/day) than their adult counterparts, it is uncertain whether their drinking is sufficiently aggregated to result in measurable blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). The objectives of this study were to examine daily alcohol drinking patterns of adolescent and adult, male and female P rats, and to determine whether alcohol drinking episodes were sufficiently aggregated to result in meaningful BECs. Male and female P rats were given 30 days of 24 h free-choice access to alcohol (15%, v/v) and water, with ad lib access to food, starting at the beginning of adolescence (PND 30) or adulthood (PND 90). Water and alcohol drinking patterns were monitored 22 h/day with a "lickometer" set-up. The results indicated that (a) peri-adolescent P rats consumed more water and total fluids than adult P rats, (b) female P rats consumed more water and total fluids than male P rats, (c) there were differences in alcohol, and water, licking patterns between peri-adolescent and adult and female and male P rats, (d) individual licking patterns revealed that alcohol was consumed in bouts often exceeding the amount required to self-administer 1 g/kg of alcohol, and (e) BECs at the end of the dark cycle, on the 30th day of alcohol access, averaged 50 mg%, with alcohol intakes during the last 1 to 2 h averaging 1.2 g/kg. Overall, these findings indicate that alcohol drinking patterns differ across the age and sex of P rats. This suggests that the effectiveness of treatments for reducing excessive alcohol intake may vary depending upon the age and/or sex of the subjects being tested.

  18. Reversible antispermatogenic and antisteroidogenic activities of Feronia limonia fruit pulp in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Dhanapal, Ramaiyan; Ratna, J.Vijaya; Sarathchandran, I.; Gupta, Malaya

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the antispermatogenic and testicular antisteroidogenic activities of Feronia limonia fruit pulp southern India. Methods Fourty Wistar male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were equally divided into four groups. Experimental groups were administered with the ethanolic extract of Feronia limonia (F. limoni) fruit pulp at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight once daily for 55 days. All treated rats had corresponding recovery groups. At the end of each treatment periods, various spermatological indices, tissue biochemicals and testicular enzymes levels were analysed. Blood profiles were also estimated. Results Compared with the control, the F. limonia fruit pulp at both dose levels did not decrease body weight, which were associated with decline in epididymal sperm count, motility, viability and increased percent of abnormal sperm. Further, F. limonia fruit pulp at 500 mg/kg body weight markedly reduced the epididymal and testicular protein content by 24.58% and 29.86%, respectively, as well as the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and Δ5-3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase) levels by 42.82% and 38.08%, respectively, while a significant elevation was observed in testicular cholesterol and ascorbic acid content. A gradual recovery of all parameters was observed after 55 days of treatment withdrawal. No significant alterations in haematological indices were observed. Conclusions The present findings indicate that F. limonia fruit pulp may have reversible antispermatogenic and antisteroidogenic properties, and could partially support the traditional use as male contraceptive. PMID:23569995

  19. The effects of acute alcohol on motor impairments in adolescent, adult, and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, Laura C; Novier, Adelle; Van Skike, Candice E; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2015-03-01

    Acute alcohol exposure has been shown to produce differential motor impairments between aged and adult rats and between adolescent and adult rats. However, the effects of acute alcohol exposure among adolescent, adult, and aged rats have yet to be systematically investigated within the same project using a dose-dependent analysis. We sought to determine the age- and dose-dependent effects of acute alcohol exposure on gross and coordinated motor performance across the rodent lifespan. Adolescent (PD 30), adult (PD 70), and aged (approximately 18 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested on 3 separate motor tasks: aerial righting reflex (ARR), accelerating rotarod (RR), and loss of righting reflex (LORR). In a separate group of animals, blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) were determined at multiple time points following a 3.0 g/kg ethanol injection. Behavioral tests were conducted with a Latin square repeated-measures design in which all animals received the following doses: 1.0 g/kg or 2.0 g/kg alcohol or saline over 3 separate sessions via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. During testing, motor impairments were assessed on the RR 10 min post-injection and on ARR 20 min post-injection. Aged animals spent significantly less time on the RR when administered 1.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adult rats. In addition, motor performance impairments significantly increased with age after 2.0 g/kg alcohol administration. On the ARR test, aged rats were more sensitive to the effects of 1.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adolescents and adults. Seven days after the last testing session, animals were given 3.0 g/kg alcohol and LORR was examined. During LORR, aged animals slept longer compared to adult and adolescent rats. This effect cannot be explained solely by BEC levels in aged rats. The present study suggests that acute alcohol exposure produces greater motor impairments in older rats when compared to adolescent and adult rats and begins to establish a

  20. Testosterone differentially alters cocaine-induced ambulatory and rearing behavioral responses in adult and adolescent rats

    PubMed Central

    Minerly, AnaChristina E.; Wu, Hui Bing K.; Weierstall, Karen M.; Niyomchai, Tipyamol; Kemen, Lynne; Jenab, Shirzad; Quinones-Jenab, Vanya

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the physiological and behavioral effects of testosterone when co-administered with cocaine during adolescence. The present study aimed to determine whether exogenous testosterone administration differentially alters psychomotor responses to cocaine in adolescent and adult male rats. To this end, intact adolescent (30-days-old) and adult (60-day-old) male Fisher rats were pretreated with vehicle (sesame oil) or testosterone (5 or 10 mg/kg) 45 minutes prior to saline or cocaine (20 mg/kg) administration. Behavioral responses were monitored 1 hour after drug treatment, and serum testosterone levels were determined. Serum testosterone levels were affected by age: saline- and cocaine-treated adults in the vehicle groups had higher serum testosterone levels than adolescents rats, but after co-administration of testosterone the adolescent rats had higher serum testosterone levels than the adults. Pretreatment with testosterone affected baseline activity in adolescent rats: 5 mg/kg of testosterone increased both rearing and ambulatory behaviors in saline-treated adolescent rats. After normalizing data to % saline, an interaction between hormone administration and cocaine-induced behavioral responses was observed; 5 mg/kg of testosterone decreased both ambulatory and rearing behaviors among adolescents whereas 10 mg/kg of testosterone decreased only rearing behaviors. Testosterone pretreatment did not alter cocaine-induced behavioral responses in adult rats. These findings suggest that adolescents are more sensitive than adults to an interaction between testosterone and cocaine, and, indirectly, suggest that androgen abuse may lessen cocaine-induced behavioral responses in younger cocaine users. PMID:19822170

  1. Unpredictable chronic stress in juvenile or adult rats has opposite effects, respectively, promoting and impairing resilience.

    PubMed

    Ricon, T; Toth, E; Leshem, M; Braun, K; Richter-Levin, G

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of early maternal deprivation (MD; age 7-14 days) alone or in combination with unpredictable chronic stress (UCS; MDUN; 28-84 days) on anxiety and learning in 90 days old adult rats. We hypothesized that exposure to both stressors (MDUN) would be more detrimental than exposure to one or neither. Unexpectedly, adult rats from the MDUN group did not differ from control animals, whereas adult MD animals exhibited impaired avoidance learning. We next investigated the effect of juvenile-onset (30-90 days) versus adult-onset (60-90 days) stress on avoidance learning in adulthood (90 days). We found that adult-onset chronic stress impaired avoidance learning and memory whereas juvenile-onset stress did not. Thus, the results again indicate that juvenile exposure to UCS induces resilience rather than impairment.

  2. Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species

    PubMed Central

    Amrein, Irmgard; Becker, Anton S.; Engler, Stefanie; Huang, Shih-hui; Müller, Julian; Slomianka, Lutz; Oosthuizen, Maria K.

    2014-01-01

    African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) are small to medium sized, long-lived, and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN) correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of 1 year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin). Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis), social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae), and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean rodents. PMID

  3. Ethanol facilitation of short-term memory in adult rats with a disturbed circadian cycle.

    PubMed

    Mikolajczak, P; Okulicz-Kozaryn, I; Nowaczyk, M; Kaminska, E

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 3-month ethanol treatment on olfactory social memory test performance using two inter-exposure intervals [30 min: short-term recognition (STR); or 120 min: long-term recognition (LTR)] in adult rats with a disturbed circadian cycle (DCC). Ethanol treatment both in ethanol-preferring and -non-preferring groups improved the STR task compared to control rats. However, LTR procedure triggered the opposite tendency. Moreover, no differences between control rats with DCC and those with normal diurnal rhythm in STR and LTR paradigms were observed. Our results suggest that, under some conditions, alcohol facilitates short-term memory in adult rats. PMID:11468127

  4. Adaptations of young adult rat cortical bone to 14 days of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vailas, A. C.; Vanderby, R., Jr.; Martinez, D. A.; Ashman, R. B.; Ulm, M. J.; Grindeland, R. E.; Durnova, G. N.; Kaplanskii, A.

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether mature humeral cortical bone would be modified significantly by an acute exposure to weightlessness, adult rats (110 days old) were subjected to 14 days of microgravity on the COSMOS 2044 biosatellite. There were no significant changes in peak force, stiffness, energy to failure, and displacement at failure in the flight rats compared with ground-based controls. Concentrations and contents of hydroxyproline, calcium, and mature stable hydroxylysylpyridinoline and lysylpyridinoline collagen cross-links remained unchanged after spaceflight. Bone lengths, cortical and endosteal areas, and regionl thicknesses showed no significant differences between flight animals and ground controls. The findings suggest that responsiveness of cortical bone to microgravity is less pronounced in adult rats than in previous spaceflight experiments in which young growing animals were used. It is hypothesized that 14 days of spaceflight may not be sufficient to impact the biochemical and biomechanical properties of cortical bone in the mature rat skeleton.

  5. Regeneration of central cholinergic neurones in the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Svendgaard, N A; Björklund, A; Stenevi, U

    1976-01-30

    The regrowth of lesioned central acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-positive axons in the adult rat was studied in irides implanted to two different brain sites: in the caudal diencephalon and hippocampus, and in the hippocampal fimbria. At both implantation sites the cholinergic septo-hippocampal pathways were transected. At 2-4 weeks after lesion, newly formed, probably sprouting fibres could be followed in abundance from the lesioned proximal axon stumps into the iris transplant. Growth of newly formed AChE-positive fibres into the transplant was also observed from lesioned axons in the anterior thalamus, and to a minor extent also from the dorsal and ventral tegmental AChE-positive pathways and the habenulo-interpeduncular tract. The regrowth process of the sprouting AChE-positive, presumed cholinergic fibres into the iris target was studied in further detail in whole-mount preparations of the transplants. For this purpose the irides were removed from the brain, unfolded, spread out on microscope slides, and then stained for AChE. During the first 2-4 weeks after transplantation the sprouting central fibres grew out over large areas of the iris. The new fibres branched profusely into a terminal plexus that covered maximally about half of the iris surface, and in some areas the patterning of the regenerated central fibres mimicked closely that of the normal autonomic cholinergic innervation of the iris. In one series of experiments the AChE-staining was combined with fluorescence histochemical visualization of regenerated adrenergic fibres in the same specimens. In many areas there was a striking congruence in the distributional patterns of the regenerated central cholinergic and adrenergic fibres in the transplant. This indicates that - as in the normal iris - the sprouting cholinergic axons (primarily originating in the lesioned septo-hippocampal pathways) and adrenergic axons (primarily originating in the lesioned axons of the locus neurones) regenerate together

  6. Dose related effects of nicotine on oxidative injury in young, adult and old rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anshu; Flora, S J S

    2012-03-01

    Nicotine affects a variety of cellular process ranging from induction of gene expression to secretion of hormones and modulation of enzymatic activities. The objective of the present study was to study the dose dependent toxicity of nicotine on the oxidative stress in young, adult and old rats which were administered 0.75, 3 and 6 mg kg(-1) nicotine as nicotine hydrogen tartarate intraperitoneally for a period of seven days. No changes were observed in blood catalase (CAT) activity and level of blood reactive oxygen species (ROS) in any of the age group at the lowest dose of nicotine. However, at the highest dose (6 mg kg(-1) nicotine) ROS level increased significantly from 1.17 to 1.41 microM ml(-1) in young rats and from 1.13 to 1.40 microM ml(-1) in old rats. However, no change was observed in blood ROS levels of adult rats. Administration of 3 mg kg(-1) nicotine resulted in an increase in level of reduced glutathione (GSH) in rats of all the age groups. The young animals were the most sensitive as a dose of 6 mg kg(-1) resulted in decline in the levels of reduced GSH to 0.89 mg ml(-1) as compared to normal control (1.03 mg ml(-1)). The antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT were sensitive to a dose of 6 mg kg(-1) as it resulted in decline of the enzymatic activity in all age group animals. Also, administration of nicotine at a lower dose of 3 mg kg(-1) inhibited SOD activity from 1.48 to 1.20 units min(-1) mg(-1) protein in old rats. Catalase activity showed a similar trend at a dose of 3 mg kg(-1). Administration of nicotine also increased the blood lipid peroxidation levels at all three doses in young and old rats dose dependently. Nicotine exposure also increased ROS in brain at the doses of 3 and 6 mg kg(-1) in all the three age groups. Brain GSH decreased significantly at high dose of nicotine (6 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) in adult rats (4.27 mg g(-1)) and old rats (3.68 mg g(-1)) but in young rats level increased to 4.40 mg g(-1) at the lower dose (0.75 mg kg nicotine

  7. Methylphenidate treatment increases Na(+), K (+)-ATPase activity in the cerebrum of young and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Emilene B S; Matté, Cristiane; Ferreira, Andréa G K; Gomes, Karin M; Comim, Clarissa M; Mattos, Cristiane; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L; Wyse, Angela T S

    2009-12-01

    Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is a membrane-bound enzyme necessary to maintain neuronal excitability. Considering that methylphenidate effects on central nervous system metabolism are poorly known and that Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is essential to normal brain function, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of this drug on Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in the cerebrum of young and adult rats. For acute administration, a single injection of methylphenidate (1.0, 2.0, or 10.0 mg/Kg) or saline was given to rats on postnatal day 25 or postnatal day 60, in the young and adult groups, respectively. For chronic administration, methylphenidate (1.0, 2.0, or 10.0 mg/Kg) or saline injections were given to young rats starting at postnatal day 25 once daily for 28 days. In adult rats, the same regimen was performed starting at postnatal day 60. Our results showed that acute methylphenidate administration increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum of young and adult rats. In young rats, chronic administration of methylphenidate also enhanced Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, but not in striatum. When tested in adult rats, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity was increased in all cerebral structures studied. The present findings suggest that increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity may be associated with neuronal excitability caused by methylphenidate.

  8. Perinatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters the functional differentiation of the adult rat uterus.

    PubMed

    Bosquiazzo, Verónica L; Vigezzi, Lucía; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Luque, Enrique H

    2013-11-01

    The exposure to endocrine disrupters and female reproductive tract disorders has not been totally clarified. The present study assessed the long-term effect of perinatal (gestation+lactation) exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) on the rat uterus and the effect of estrogen replacement therapy. DES (5μg/kg bw/day) was administered in the drinking water from gestational day 9 until weaning and we studied the uterus of young adult (PND90) and adult (PND360) females. To investigate whether perinatal exposure to DES modified the uterine response to a long-lasting estrogen treatment, 12-month-old rats exposed to DES were ovariectomized and treated with 17β-estradiol for 3 months (PND460). In young adult rats (PND90), the DES treatment decreased both the proliferation of glandular epithelial cells and the percentage of glandular perimeter occupied by α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells. The other tissue compartments remained unchanged. Cell apoptosis was not altered in DES-exposed females. In control adult rats (PND360), there were some morphologically abnormal uterine glands. In adult rats exposed to DES, the incidence of glands with cellular anomalies increased. In response to estrogens (PND460), the incidence of cystic glands increased in the DES group. We observed glands with daughter glands and conglomerates of glands only on PND460 and in response to estrogen replacement therapy, independently of DES exposure. The p63 isoforms were expressed without changes on PND460. Estrogen receptors α and β showed no changes, while the progesterone receptor decreased in the subepithelial stroma of DES-exposed animals with estrogen treatment. The long-lasting effects of perinatal exposure to DES included the induction of abnormalities in uterine tissues of aged female rats and an altered response of the adult uterus to estradiol.

  9. CYP 450 enzyme induction by chronic oral musk xylene in adult and developing rats.

    PubMed

    Suter-Eichenberger, R; Boelsterli, U A; Conscience-Egli, M; Lichtensteiger, W; Schlumpf, M

    2000-04-10

    Developmental and adult toxicity of musk xylene was studied in Long Evans (LE) rats fed with chow containing musk xylene (MX) in food pellets in concentrations of 1 mg, 10 mg, 33 mg, 100 mg and 1000 mg MX per 1 kg chow corresponding to a daily intake of 0.07-0.08 mg MX/kg up to 70-80 mg MX/kg body weight. Adult male and female rats were MX exposed for a minimum of 10 weeks before mating. Exposure continued throughout pregnancy, birth and lactation. The effects of MX on CYP1A1/1A2 were studied in liver microsomes by EROD (7-ethoxyresorufin-rosomes deethylase) for CYP1A1 and by MROD (methoxyresorufin-o-demethylase) for CYP1A2 activity and by Western blotting. MX induced these enzymes dose dependently in adult and developing rats at PN (postnatal day) 1 and 14. The lowest effective maternal dose was 2-3 mg MX/kg/day. Western blot data of CYP2B and CYP3A indicated the induction of both P450 enzyme proteins in developing rats at PN 14 at the higher dose of 70-80 mg MX/kg/day. In contrast, upon high MX exposure CYP2B but not CYP3A was found to be induced in adult first generation male and female rats, indicating differential sensitivity to MX in development.

  10. CYP 450 enzyme induction by chronic oral musk xylene in adult and developing rats.

    PubMed

    Suter-Eichenberger, R; Boelsterli, U A; Conscience-Egli, M; Lichtensteiger, W; Schlumpf, M

    1999-12-20

    Developmental and adult toxicity of musk xylene was studied in Long Evans (LE) rats fed with chow containing musk xylene (MX) in food pellets in concentrations of 1 mg, 10 mg, 33 mg, 100 mg and 1000 mg MX per 1 kg chow corresponding to a daily intake of 0.07-0.08 mg MX/kg up to 70-80 mg MX/kg body weight. Adult male and female rats were MX exposed for a minimum of 10 weeks before mating. Exposure continued throughout pregnancy, birth and lactation. The effects of MX on CYP1A1/1A2 were studied in liver microsomes by EROD (7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase) for CYP1A1 and by MROD (methoxyresorufin-o-demethylase) for CYP1A2 activity and by Western blotting. MX induced these enzymes dose dependently in adult and developing rats at PN (postnatal day) 1 and 14. The lowest effective maternal dose was 2-3 mg MX/kg/day. Western blot data of CYP2B and CYP3A indicated the induction of both P450 enzyme proteins in developing rats at PN 14 at the higher dose of 70-80 mg MX/kg/day. In contrast, upon high MX exposure CYP2B but not CYP3A was found to be induced in adult first generation male and female rats, indicating differential sensitivity to MX in development.

  11. Comparison of catalase immunoreactivity in the hippocampus between young, adult and aged mice and rats

    PubMed Central

    AHN, JI HYEON; CHEN, BAI HUI; SHIN, BICH-NA; LEE, TAE-KYEONG; CHO, JEONG HWI; KIM, IN HYE; PARK, JOON HA; LEE, JAE-CHUL; TAE, HYUN-JIN; LEE, CHOONG-HYUN; WON, MOO-HO; LEE, YUN LYUL; CHOI, SOO YOUNG; HONG, SEONGKWEON

    2016-01-01

    Catalase (CAT) is an important antioxidant enzyme and is crucial in modulating synaptic plasticity in the brain. In this study, CAT expression as well as neuronal distribution was compared in the hippocampus among young, adult and aged mice and rats. Male ICR mice and Sprague Dawley rats were used at postnatal month (PM) 1, PM 6 and PM 24 as the young, adult and aged groups, respectively (n=14/group). CAT expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. In addition, neuronal distribution was examined by NeuN immunohistochemistry. In the present study, the mean number of NeuN-immunoreactive neurons was marginally decreased in mouse and rat hippocampi during aging, although this change was not identified to be significantly different. However, CAT immunoreactivity was significantly increased in pyramidal and granule neurons in the adult mouse and rat hippocampi and was significantly decreased in the aged mouse and rat hippocampi compared with that in the young animals. CAT protein levels in the hippocampus were also lowest in the aged mouse and rat hippocampus. These results indicate that CAT expression is significantly decreased in the hippocampi of aged animals and decreased CAT expression may be closely associated with aging. PMID:27221506

  12. Vitamin A Kinetics in Neonatal Rats vs. Adult Rats: Comparisons from Model-Based Compartmental Analysis12

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Libo; Green, Michael H; Ross, A Catharine

    2015-01-01

    A critical role for vitamin A (VA) in development is well established, but still relatively little is known about whole-body VA metabolism in early postnatal life. Recently, methods of mathematical modeling have begun to shed light on retinol kinetics in the postnatal growth period and on the effect of retinoid supplementation on retinol kinetics. Comparison of kinetic parameters from tracer studies in neonatal rats with those previously determined in models of VA metabolism in the adult suggests both similarities and differences in the relative transfer rates of plasma retinol to extrahepatic tissues, resulting in similarities and differences in kinetic parameters and inferences about physiologic processes. Similarities between neonatal and adult models include the capacity for efficient digestion and absorption of VA; characteristics of a high-response system; extensive retinol recycling among liver, plasma, and extrahepatic tissues; and comparable VA disposal rates. Differences between neonatal and adult models include that, in neonates, retinol turnover is faster and retinol recycling is much more extensive; there is a greater role for extrahepatic tissues in the uptake of chylomicron VA; and the intestine plays an important role in chylomicron VA uptake, especially in neonatal rats treated with a supplement containing VA. In summary, retinol kinetic modeling in the neonatal rat has provided a first view of whole-body VA metabolism in this age group and suggests that VA kinetics in neonatal rats differs in many ways from that in adults, perhaps reflecting an adaption to the lower VA concentration found in neonates compared with adults. PMID:25540407

  13. Prenatal choline availability alters the context sensitivity of Pavlovian conditioning in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lamoureux, Jeffrey A; Meck, Warren H; Williams, Christina L

    2008-12-01

    The effects of prenatal choline availability on Pavlovian conditioning were assessed in adult male rats (3-4 mo). Neither supplementation nor deprivation of prenatal choline affected the acquisition and extinction of simple Pavlovian conditioned excitation, or the acquisition and retardation of conditioned inhibition. However, prenatal choline availability significantly altered the contextual control of these learned behaviors. Both control and choline-deprived rats exhibited context specificity of conditioned excitation as exhibited by a loss in responding when tested in an alternate context after conditioning; in contrast, choline-supplemented rats showed no such effect. When switched to a different context following extinction, however, both choline-supplemented and control rats showed substantial contextual control of responding, whereas choline-deficient rats did not. These data support the view that configural associations that rely on hippocampal function are selectively sensitive to prenatal manipulations of dietary choline during prenatal development.

  14. Prenatal choline availability alters the context sensitivity of Pavlovian conditioning in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Lamoureux, Jeffrey A.; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of prenatal choline availability on Pavlovian conditioning were assessed in adult male rats (3–4 mo). Neither supplementation nor deprivation of prenatal choline affected the acquisition and extinction of simple Pavlovian conditioned excitation, or the acquisition and retardation of conditioned inhibition. However, prenatal choline availability significantly altered the contextual control of these learned behaviors. Both control and choline-deprived rats exhibited context specificity of conditioned excitation as exhibited by a loss in responding when tested in an alternate context after conditioning; in contrast, choline-supplemented rats showed no such effect. When switched to a different context following extinction, however, both choline-supplemented and control rats showed substantial contextual control of responding, whereas choline-deficient rats did not. These data support the view that configural associations that rely on hippocampal function are selectively sensitive to prenatal manipulations of dietary choline during prenatal development. PMID:19050158

  15. Histological effects of chronic consumption of soda pop drinks on kidney of adult Wister rats

    PubMed Central

    Adjene, Josiah Obaghwarhievwo; Ezeoke, Joseph Chigozie; Nwose, Ezekiel Uba

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health concerns over soda pop drinks have been severally report. However, histological perspectives are not very common. Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate histological effect of chronic consumption of soda pop drinks on the kidney of adult Wistar rats. Materials and methods: The rats of both sexes (n = 24), with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatment (A & B) (n=16) and Control (c) (n=8) groups. The rats in the treatment group (A) received a brand of soda pop drink on a daily basis for thirty days. The rats in treatment group (B) received another brand of soda drink, while the control group (C) received equal amount of water for the same period. The rats were given the drinks as well as feeds liberally for thirty days, and sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the thirty-first day of the experiment. The kidney was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study. Results: The findings indicate that rats in the treated groups (A&B) showed some varying degree of distortion and disruption of the renal structure. There are observable diffuse signs of glomerulonephritis with some congestion and tubular necrosis as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Chronic consumption of soda pop drinks may affect the microanatomy of the kidney of adult Wistar rats. Further study aimed at corroborating these observations in humans is warranted. PMID:22574291

  16. The Effects of Inflammatory Tooth Pain on Anxiety in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Raoof, Maryam; Ebrahimnejad, Hamed; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Amirkhosravi, Ladan; Raoof, Ramin; Esmaeili Mahani, Saeed; Ramazani, Mohsen; Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Khoshkhounejad, Mehrfam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to examine the effects of induced inflammatory tooth pain on anxiety level in adult male rats. Methods: The mandibular incisors of 56 adult male rats were cut off and prefabricated crowns were fixed on the teeth. Formalin and capsaicin were injected intradentally to induce inflammatory tooth pain. Diazepam treated group received diazepam 30 minutes before intradental injection. The anxiety-related behavior was evaluated with elevated plus maze test. Results: Intradental application of chemical noxious stimuli, capsaicin and formalin, significantly affected nociceptive behaviors (P<0.001). Capsaicin (P<0.001) and formalin (P<0.01) significantly increased the anxiety levels in rats by decrease in the duration of time spent in open arm and increase in the duration of time spent in closed arm. Rats that received capsaicin made fewer open arm entries compared to the control animals (P<0.05). Capsaicin (P<0.001) and formalin (P<0.01) treated rats showed more stretch attend postures compared to the control and sham operated animals. In diazepampretreated rats, capsaicin induced algesic effect was prevented (P<0.001). Conclusion: Inflammatory pulpal pain has anxiogenic effect on rats, whereas diazepam premedication showed both anxiolytic and pain reducing effects. PMID:27563419

  17. Different adaptation of the motor activity rhythm to chronic phase shifts between adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Albert, Nerea; da Silva, Crhistiane; Díez-Noguera, Antoni; Cambras, Trinitat

    2013-09-01

    Chronic phase shifts is a common feature in modern societies, which may induce sleep alterations and other health problems. The effects of phase shift on the circadian rhythms have been described to be more pronounced in old than in young animals. However, few works address the effects of chronic phase shifts during adolescence. Here we tested the development of the motor activity circadian rhythm of young rats under chronic phase shifts, which consisted on 6-h advances (A), 6h delays (D) or 6h advances and delays alternated every 5 days (AD) during the first 60 days after weaning. Moreover, the rhythmic pattern was compared to that of adult rats under the same lighting conditions. Results indicate that adolescent rats, independently on the lighting environment, developed a clear circadian rhythm, whose amplitude increased the first 50 days after weaning and showed a more stable circadian rhythm than adults under the same lighting conditions. In the case of A and AD groups, circadian disruption was observed only in adult rats. In all groups, the offset of activity correlated with light pattern better than the onset, and this correlation was always higher in the case of the rhythm of the pubertal rats. When AD groups were transferred to constant darkness, the group submitted to this condition during adolescence showed shorter period than that submitted in their adulthood. In conclusion, differently from adult rats, adolescent rats submitted to chronic phase shifts did not show circadian disruption and developed a single circadian rhythm, suggesting permanent changes in the circadian system.

  18. Different adaptation of the motor activity rhythm to chronic phase shifts between adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Albert, Nerea; da Silva, Crhistiane; Díez-Noguera, Antoni; Cambras, Trinitat

    2013-09-01

    Chronic phase shifts is a common feature in modern societies, which may induce sleep alterations and other health problems. The effects of phase shift on the circadian rhythms have been described to be more pronounced in old than in young animals. However, few works address the effects of chronic phase shifts during adolescence. Here we tested the development of the motor activity circadian rhythm of young rats under chronic phase shifts, which consisted on 6-h advances (A), 6h delays (D) or 6h advances and delays alternated every 5 days (AD) during the first 60 days after weaning. Moreover, the rhythmic pattern was compared to that of adult rats under the same lighting conditions. Results indicate that adolescent rats, independently on the lighting environment, developed a clear circadian rhythm, whose amplitude increased the first 50 days after weaning and showed a more stable circadian rhythm than adults under the same lighting conditions. In the case of A and AD groups, circadian disruption was observed only in adult rats. In all groups, the offset of activity correlated with light pattern better than the onset, and this correlation was always higher in the case of the rhythm of the pubertal rats. When AD groups were transferred to constant darkness, the group submitted to this condition during adolescence showed shorter period than that submitted in their adulthood. In conclusion, differently from adult rats, adolescent rats submitted to chronic phase shifts did not show circadian disruption and developed a single circadian rhythm, suggesting permanent changes in the circadian system. PMID:23792134

  19. Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in neonatal and adult Sprague-Dawley rats

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, Daniel R.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2010-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 suggests ubiquitous and frequent exposure. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult and neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats by oral and injection routes. Deuterated BPA was used to avoid issues of background contamination. Linear pharmacokinetics were observed in adult rats treated orally in the range of 0-200 {mu}g/kg bw. Evidence for enterohepatic recirculation of conjugated, but not aglycone, BPA was observed in adult rats. Significant inverse relationships were observed between postnatal age and measures of internal exposures to aglycone BPA and its elimination. In neonatal rats treated orally, internal exposures to aglycone BPA were substantially lower than from subcutaneous injection. The results reinforce the critical role for first-pass Phase II metabolism of BPA in gut and liver after oral exposure that attenuates internal exposure to the aglycone form in rats of all ages. The internal exposures to aglycone BPA observed in adult and neonatal rats following a single oral dose of 100 {mu}g/kg bw are inconsistent with effects mediated by classical estrogen receptors based on binding affinities. However, an impact on alternative estrogen signaling pathways that have higher receptor affinity cannot be excluded in neonatal rats. These findings emphasize the importance of matching aglycone BPA internal dosimetry with receptor affinities in experimental animal studies reporting toxicity.

  20. Thyroxine binding to serum thyronine-binding globulin in thyroidectomized adult and normal neonatal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.A.; Meyers, B.; Alex, S.; Fang, S.L.; Braverman, L.E.

    1988-05-01

    The amount of tracer (125I)T4 bound to serum thyronine-binding globulin (TBG) was measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in adult thyroidectomized (TX) rats and normal 1-day to 4-week-old rat puts. Thyroidectomy was associated with the appearance of significant amounts of (125I)T4 binding to serum TBG in lean rats, but not in obese Zucker rats. Treatment of the TX rats in vivo with replacement doses of T4 prevented this increase in TBG binding, but enrichment of serum from TX rats with T4 did not. Significant amounts of tracer (125I)T4 binding to TBG was present in serum from 1- to 3-week-old normal rat pups, but not in 1-day- or 4-week-old pups. There were significantly higher levels of TBG binding of (125I)T4 in serum from 2-week-old rat pups raised in litters of 16 pups compared to those raised in litters of 4 pups. All manipulations that result in the appearance of TBG in rat serum also result in either weight loss or a slowing in the rate of growth, suggesting that the appearance of TBG in rat serum has a nutritional component. This possibility is further supported by the observations that increases in TBG binding of (125I)T4 are not found in obese Zucker rats fed a low protein-high carbohydrate diet for 14 days or fasted for 7 days, or after thyroidectomy, perhaps owing to the large stores of fuel in the obese rat.

  1. Reinstatement of cocaine seeking induced by drugs, cues, and stress in adolescent and adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale In human and animal studies, adolescence marks a period of increased vulnerability to the initiation and subsequent abuse of drugs. Adolescents may be especially vulnerable to relapse, and a critical aspect of drug abuse is that it is a chronically relapsing disorder. However, little is known of how vulnerability factors such as adolescence are related to conditions that induce relapse, triggered by the drug itself, drug-associated cues, or stress. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare adolescent and adult rats on drug-, cue-, and stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Methods On postnatal days 23 (adolescents) and 90 (adults), rats were implanted with intravenous catheters and trained to lever press for i.v. infusions of cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) during two daily 2-h sessions. The rats then self-administered i.v. cocaine for ten additional sessions. Subsequently, visual and auditory stimuli that signaled drug delivery were unplugged, and rats were allowed to extinguish lever pressing for 20 sessions. Rats were then tested on cocaine-, cue-, and yohimbine (stress)-induced cocaine seeking using a within-subject multicomponent reinstatement procedure. Results Results indicated that adolescents had heightened cocaine seeking during maintenance and extinction compared to adults. During reinstatement, adolescents (vs adults) responded more following cocaine- and yohimbine injections, while adults (vs adolescents) showed greater responding following presentations of drug-associated cues. Conclusion These results demonstrated that adolescents and adults differed across several measures of drug-seeking behavior, and adolescents may be especially vulnerable to relapse precipitated by drugs and stress. PMID:19953228

  2. Extract of Moringa oleifera leaves ameliorates streptozotocin-induced Diabetes mellitus in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Yassa, Hanan Dawood; Tohamy, Adel Fathy

    2014-06-01

    Medicinal plants attract growing interest in the therapeutic management of Diabetes mellitus. Moringa oleifera is a remarkably nutritious vegetable with several antioxidant properties. The present study assessed the possible antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of an aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves in treating streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats. The antidiabetic effects of aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves were assessed histomorphometrically, ultrastructurally and biochemically. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was monitored and morphometric measurements of β-cells of islets of Langerhans (modified Gomori's stain) and collagen fibers (Mallory's trichrome stain) were performed. The antioxidant effects of M. oleifera leaves were determined by measuring the reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, in pancreatic tissue. M. oleifera treatment significantly ameliorated the altered FPG (from 380% to 145%), reduced glutathione (from 22% to 73%) and malondialdehyde (from 385% to 186%) compared to control levels. The histopathological damage of islet cells was also markedly reversed. Morphometrically, M. oleifera significantly increased the areas of positive purple modified Gomori stained β-cells (from 60% to 91%) and decreased the area percentage of collagen fibers (from 199% to 120%) compared to control values. Experimental findings clearly indicate the potential benefits of using the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves as a potent antidiabetic treatment. PMID:24657072

  3. Extract of Moringa oleifera leaves ameliorates streptozotocin-induced Diabetes mellitus in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Yassa, Hanan Dawood; Tohamy, Adel Fathy

    2014-06-01

    Medicinal plants attract growing interest in the therapeutic management of Diabetes mellitus. Moringa oleifera is a remarkably nutritious vegetable with several antioxidant properties. The present study assessed the possible antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of an aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves in treating streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats. The antidiabetic effects of aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves were assessed histomorphometrically, ultrastructurally and biochemically. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was monitored and morphometric measurements of β-cells of islets of Langerhans (modified Gomori's stain) and collagen fibers (Mallory's trichrome stain) were performed. The antioxidant effects of M. oleifera leaves were determined by measuring the reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, in pancreatic tissue. M. oleifera treatment significantly ameliorated the altered FPG (from 380% to 145%), reduced glutathione (from 22% to 73%) and malondialdehyde (from 385% to 186%) compared to control levels. The histopathological damage of islet cells was also markedly reversed. Morphometrically, M. oleifera significantly increased the areas of positive purple modified Gomori stained β-cells (from 60% to 91%) and decreased the area percentage of collagen fibers (from 199% to 120%) compared to control values. Experimental findings clearly indicate the potential benefits of using the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves as a potent antidiabetic treatment.

  4. The functional role of some tomato products on lipid profile and liver function in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hoda Salama; Ahmed, Lamiaa Ali; El-din, Maha Mohamed Essam

    2008-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the functional role of lycopene obtained from powder prepared from fresh tomato, tomato paste, and ketchup that contained equal amounts of lycopene based on levels of intake on body weight gain (BWG), feed intake, feed efficiency ratio (FER), lipid profiles, atherogenic index, and liver enzymes of hyperlipidemic rats. Forty-eight male albino rats were divided into two main groups: the first group (n = 6 rats) was kept on the basal diet as a normal control, while the second group (n = 42 rats) was fed a hyperlipidemic diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. The latter group was divided into seven subgroups: the first subgroup was the positive control group, while the others were supplemented with one of the tomato products at one of two levels (10 or 20 mg of lycopene/kg of diet). BWG, feed intake, and FER were calculated, and blood samples were collected to determine total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein fractions, atherogenic index, and liver function in sera. Relative organ weights were also calculated. Results revealed that administration of various tomato products produced a significant reduction in feed intake except for the hyperlipidemic group that supplemented with the lower lycopene level from tomato paste. In addition, BWG and FER were not influenced by addition of tomato products at any level of intake. Hyperlipidemic rats supplemented with tomato powder, tomato paste, or ketchup showed significant improvement in almost all the parameters studied compared to the positive control group. Results showed that the higher lycopene level from tomato paste produced significant improvement in all lipid parameters, followed by 10 mg of lycopene/kg from tomato paste, which caused significant elevation in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol comparable to that of the negative control group. The lowest atherogenic index was achieved by addition of the lower lycopene level from tomato paste followed by

  5. Regulatory Mechanism of Muscle Disuse Atrophy in Adult Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    During the last phase of NAG 2-386 we completed three studies. The effects of 14 days of weightlessness; the vastus medialis (VM) from flight rats in COSMOS 2044 was compared with the VM from tail suspended rats and other controls. The type I and II fibers in the mixed fiber portion of the VM were significantly reduced in flight rats and capillary densities paralleled the fiber density changes. The results of this project compared favorably with those in the extensor digitorum longus following seven days of flight in SL 3. The cardiovascular projects focused on the blood pressure changes in head down tilted rats (HDT) and non-head down tilted (N-HDT) rats. Blood pressures (MAP, SP and DP) were significantly elevated through seven days of HDT and rapidly returned to control levels within one day after removal from the HDT position. The N-HDT showed some slight rise in blood pressure but these were not as great and they were not as rapid. The HDT rats were characterized as exhibiting transient hypertension. These results led to some of the microvascular and vascular graduate student projects of Dr. Bernhard Stepke. Also our results refute or, at least, do not agree with previous reports from other laboratories. Each animal, in our blood pressure projects, served as its own control thereby providing more accurate results. Also, our experiments focused on recovery studies which can, in and of themselves, provide guidelines for flight experiments concerned with blood pressure changes. Another experiment was conducted to examine the role of testicular atrophy in whole body suspended (WBS) and tail suspended (TS) rats. We worked in conjunction with Dr. D.R. Deaver's laboratory at Pennsylvania State University and Dr. R. P. Amann at Colorado State University. In the TS rats the testes are retracted into the abdominal cavity, unless a ligature is placed to maintain them in the external scrotal sac. The cryptorchid condition in TS rats results in atrophy of the testes and

  6. Nickel nanoparticles exposure and reproductive toxicity in healthy adult rats.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lu; Tang, Meng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Dayong; Hu, Ke; Lu, Weiqi; Wei, Chao; Liang, Geyu; Pu, Yuepu

    2014-01-01

    Nickel is associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the reproductive toxicity of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between nickel nanoparticle exposure and reproductive toxicity. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including sex hormone levels, sperm motility, histopathology, and reproductive outcome etc. Experimental results showed nickel nanoparticles increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and lowered etradiol (E2) serum levels at a dose of 15 and 45 mg/kg in female rats. Ovarian lymphocytosis, vascular dilatation and congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increase in apoptotic cells were found in ovary tissues in exposure groups. For male rats, the weights decreased gradually, the ratio of epididymis weight over body weight increased, the motility of rat sperm changed, and the levels of FSH and testosterone (T) diminished. Pathological results showed the shedding of epithelial cells of raw seminiferous tubule, disordered arrangement of cells in the tube, and the appearance of cell apoptosis and death in the exposure group. At the same time, Ni NPs resulted in a change of the reproductive index and the offspring development of rats. Further research is needed to elucidate exposure to human populations and mechanism of actions. PMID:25407529

  7. Nickel Nanoparticles Exposure and Reproductive Toxicity in Healthy Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lu; Tang, Meng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Dayong; Hu, Ke; Lu, Weiqi; Wei, Chao; Liang, Geyu; Pu, Yuepu

    2014-01-01

    Nickel is associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the reproductive toxicity of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between nickel nanoparticle exposure and reproductive toxicity. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including sex hormone levels, sperm motility, histopathology, and reproductive outcome etc. Experimental results showed nickel nanoparticles increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and lowered etradiol (E2) serum levels at a dose of 15 and 45 mg/kg in female rats. Ovarian lymphocytosis, vascular dilatation and congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increase in apoptotic cells were found in ovary tissues in exposure groups. For male rats, the weights decreased gradually, the ratio of epididymis weight over body weight increased, the motility of rat sperm changed, and the levels of FSH and testosterone (T) diminished. Pathological results showed the shedding of epithelial cells of raw seminiferous tubule, disordered arrangement of cells in the tube, and the appearance of cell apoptosis and death in the exposure group. At the same time, Ni NPs resulted in a change of the reproductive index and the offspring development of rats. Further research is needed to elucidate exposure to human populations and mechanism of actions. PMID:25407529

  8. Cocaine self-administration punished by intravenous histamine in adolescent and adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Nathan A.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional phase marked by a heightened vulnerability to substances of abuse. It has been hypothesized that both increased sensitivity to reward and decreased sensitivity to aversive events may drive drug-use liability during this phase. To investigate possible age-related differences in sensitivity to the aversive consequences of drug use, adolescent and adult rats were compared on self-administration of cocaine before, during, and after a 10-day period in which an aversive agent, histamine, was added to the cocaine solution. Adult and adolescent female rats were trained to self-administer intravenous cocaine (0.4 mg/kg/infusion) over 10 sessions (2 h/session; 2 sessions/day). Histamine (4 mg/kg/infusion) was then added directly into the cocaine solution for the next 10 sessions. Finally, the cocaine/histamine solution was replaced with a cocaine-only solution, and rats continued to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) for 20 sessions. Compared with adolescent rats, adult rats showed a greater decrease in cocaine self-administration when it was punished with intravenous histamine compared with their baseline cocaine self-administration rates. These results suggest that differences in the sensitivity to negative consequences of drug use may partially explain developmental differences in drug use vulnerability. PMID:25769092

  9. Impact of prenatal and acute methamphetamine exposure on behaviour of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Schutová, B; Hrubá, L; Pometlová, M; Slamberová, R

    2009-01-01

    Psychostimulants have been shown to alter behaviour in both rats and humans. The aim of the present study was: (1) to assess the effect of prenatal and acute methamphetamine (MA) administration on behaviour in adult male rats and (2) to find out if the prenatal exposure to MA increases sensitivity to acute MA application in adulthood. Behaviour of adult male rats prenatally exposed to MA (5 mg/kg) or no drug was tested in Open field (OF) and Elevated plus maze (EPM). Half of the animals were injected with MA (1 mg/kg) subcutaneously 30 minutes prior to testing. Locomotion, exploration, comforting behaviour and anxiety were evaluated in the OF, while anxiety and exploratory behaviour were assessed in the EPM. Our results showed that prenatal MA did not have an effect on baseline behaviour in either of the tests. By contrast, acute MA increased overall psychomotor activity by increasing locomotion and exploratory behaviour and decreasing comforting behaviour. Moreover, adult rats prenatally exposed to MA were more sensitive to the effects of acute MA on exploration. In addition, acute MA application decreased anxiety in the OF as well as in the EPM. Our present study, thus, demonstrates that acute MA increases overall psychomotor activity and decreases anxiety to novel environment. To further support our hypothesis that prenatal MA exposure increases sensitivity to drugs in adulthood, studies investigating the levels of dopamine in the rat brain after prenatal MA exposure are planned.

  10. Muscle mechanical properties of adult and older rats submitted to exercise after immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Fábio Yoshikazu; Camargo, Regina Celi Trindade; Job, Aldo Eloizo; Ozaki, Guilherme Akio Tamura; Koike, Tatiana Emy; Camargo Filho, José Carlos Silva

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe the effects of immobilization, free remobilization and remobilization by physical exercise about mechanical properties of skeletal muscle of rats of two age groups. Methods 56 Wistar rats divided into two groups according to age, an adult group (five months) and an older group (15 months). These groups were subdivided in: control, immobilized, free remobilized and remobilized by physical exercise. The pelvic limb of rats was immobilized for seven days. The exercise protocol consisted of five swimming sessions, once per day and 25 minutes per session. The gastrocnemius muscle was subjected to tensile tests, and evaluated the properties: load at the maximum limit, stretching at the maximum limit and stiffness. Results The immobilization reduced the values of load at the maximum limit and the remobilization protocols were not sufficient to restore control levels in adult group and older rats. The stretching at the maximum limit differs only in the older group. Conclusions The immobilization reduces the muscle's ability to bear loads and exercise protocol tends to restore the default at control values in adult and older rats. The age factor only interfered in the stretching at the maximum limit, inducing a reduction of this property in the post-immobilization. Level of Evidence II, Investigating the Results of Treatment. PMID:24453606

  11. Cocaine self-administration punished by intravenous histamine in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Nathan A; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2015-06-01

    Adolescence is a transitional phase marked by a heightened vulnerability to substances of abuse. It has been hypothesized that both increased sensitivity to reward and decreased sensitivity to aversive events may drive drug-use liability during this phase. To investigate possible age-related differences in sensitivity to the aversive consequences of drug use, adolescent and adult rats were compared on self-administration of cocaine before, during, and after a 10-day period in which an aversive agent, histamine, was added to the cocaine solution. Adult and adolescent female rats were trained to self-administer intravenous cocaine (0.4 mg/kg/infusion) over 10 sessions (2 h/session; 2 sessions/day). Histamine (4 mg/kg/infusion) was then added directly into the cocaine solution for the next 10 sessions. Finally, the cocaine/histamine solution was replaced with a cocaine-only solution, and rats continued to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) for 20 sessions. Compared with adolescent rats, adult rats showed a greater decrease in cocaine self-administration when it was punished with intravenous histamine compared with their baseline cocaine self-administration rates. These results suggest that differences in the sensitivity to negative consequences of drug use may partially explain developmental differences in drug use vulnerability.

  12. Restricted feeding facilitates time-place learning in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lukoyanov, Nikolai V; Pereira, Pedro A; Mesquita, Rui M; Andrade, José P

    2002-08-21

    Many species can acquire time-of-day discrimination when tested in food reinforced place learning tasks. It is believed that this type of learning is dependent upon the ability of animals to consult their internal circadian pacemakers entrained by various environmental zeitgebers, such as light-dark cycles and scheduled restricted feeding. In the present study, we examined, (1) whether rats can acquire time-of-day discrimination in an aversively motivated water maze task wherein an escape platform is located in one position in the morning and in another position in the afternoon; (2) whether time-of-day cues provided by the light- and feeding-entrainable pacemakers may have divergent impacts upon the ability of rats to learn this task. Two groups of rats, both maintained on 12-h light:12-h dark cycle, were used; in one group, animals had free access to food, whereas in the other, they were subjected to a restricted feeding protocol (60% of food consumed by rats fed ad libitum, once daily). Despite the heightened difficulty of the task, food-restricted rats were apparently able to acquire associations between two different platform positions and two different times of day, as indicated by the fact that the percentage of discrimination errors in this group declined progressively, as a function of training, and stabilized at the level of 22+/-9%. In contrast, rats that were fed ad libitum, even after extensive training, failed to perform the task above level of chance. These data indicate that time-place learning is a universal, reward-nonspecific, cognitive phenomenon. They furthermore suggest that the ability of animals to integrate spatial and temporal information can be dependent on the access to timing stimuli provided by the feeding-entrainable circadian system.

  13. Trading new neurons for status: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in eusocial Damaraland mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Oosthuizen, M K; Amrein, I

    2016-06-01

    Diversity in social structures, from solitary to eusocial, is a prominent feature of subterranean African mole-rat species. Damaraland mole-rats are eusocial, they live in colonies that are characterized by a reproductive division of labor and a subdivision into castes based on physiology and behavior. Damaraland mole-rats are exceptionally long lived and reproductive animals show delayed aging compared to non-reproductive animals. In the present study, we described the hippocampal architecture and the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis of wild-derived, adult Damaraland mole-rats in relation to sex, relative age and social status or caste. Overall, Damaraland mole-rats were found to have a small hippocampus and low rates of neurogenesis. We found no correlation between neurogenesis and sex or relative age. Social status or caste was the most prominent modulator of neurogenesis. An inverse relationship between neurogenesis and social status was apparent, with queens displaying the lowest neurogenesis while the worker mole-rats had the most. As there is no natural progression from one caste to another, social status within a colony was relatively stable and is reflected in the level of neurogenesis. Our results correspond to those found in the naked mole-rat, and may reflect an evolutionary and environmentally conserved trait within social mole-rat species. PMID:26979050

  14. Effects of neonatal treatment with the TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin, on adult rat brain and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Newson, Penny N; van den Buuse, Maarten; Martin, Sally; Lynch-Frame, Ann; Chahl, Loris A

    2014-10-01

    Treatment of neonatal rats with the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel agonist, capsaicin, produces life-long loss of sensory neurons expressing TRPV1 channels. Previously it was shown that rats treated on day 2 of life with capsaicin had behavioural hyperactivity in a novel environment at 5-7 weeks of age and brain changes reminiscent of those found in subjects with schizophrenia. The objective of the present study was to investigate brain and behavioural responses of adult rats treated as neonates with capsaicin. It was found that the brain changes found at 5-7 weeks in rats treated as neonates with capsaicin persisted into adulthood (12 weeks) but were less in older rats (16-18 weeks). Increased prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle was found in these rats at 8 and 12 weeks of age rather than the deficit commonly found in animal models of schizophrenia. Subjects with schizophrenia also have reduced flare responses to niacin and methylnicotinate proposed to be mediated by prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). Flare responses are accompanied by cutaneous plasma extravasation. It was found that the cutaneous plasma extravasation responses to methylnicotinate and PGD2 were reduced in capsaicin-treated rats. In conclusion, several neuroanatomical changes observed in capsaicin-treated rats, as well as the reduced cutaneous plasma extravasation responses, indicate that the role of TRPV1 channels in schizophrenia is worthy of investigation.

  15. Prenatal Choline Availability Alters the Context Sensitivity of Pavlovian Conditioning in Adult Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamoureux, Jeffrey A.; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of prenatal choline availability on Pavlovian conditioning were assessed in adult male rats (3-4 mo). Neither supplementation nor deprivation of prenatal choline affected the acquisition and extinction of simple Pavlovian conditioned excitation, or the acquisition and retardation of conditioned inhibition. However, prenatal choline…

  16. Prenatal exposure to vapors of gasoline-ethanol blends causes few cognitive deficits in adult rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental exposure to inhaled ethanol-gasoline fuel blends is a potential public health concern. Here we assessed cognitive functions in adult offspring of pregnant rats that were exposed to vapors of gasoline blended with a range of ethanol concentrations, including gasoli...

  17. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.

    Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.

    Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  18. Radial glia-like cells persist in the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Gubert, Fernanda; Zaverucha-do-Valle, Camila; Pimentel-Coelho, Pedro M; Mendez-Otero, Rosalia; Santiago, Marcelo F

    2009-03-01

    During development, radial glia cells contribute to neuronal migration and neurogenesis, and differentiate into astrocytes by the end of the developmental period. Recently, it was demonstrated that during development, radial glia cells, in addition to their role in migration, also give rise to neuroblasts. Furthermore, radial glial cells remain in the adult brain as adult neural stem cells (NSC) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) around the lateral ventricles (LVs), and generate new neurons continuously throughout adulthood. In this study, we used immunohistochemical and morphological methods to investigate the presence of radial glia-like cells around the LVs during the postnatal development period until adulthood in rats. In all ages of rats studied, we identified cells with morphological and immunocytochemical features that are similar to the radial glia cells found in the embryonic brain. Similarly to the radial glia, these cells express nestin and vimentin, and have a radial morphology, extending perpendicularly as processes from the ventricle wall. These cells also express GFAP, GLAST, and Pax6, and proliferate. In the brains of adult rats, we identified cells with relatively long processes (up to 600 mum) in close apposition with migrating neuroblasts. Our results showed that the radial glia-like cells present in the adult rat brain share several morphological and functional characteristics with the embryonic radial glia. We suggest that the embryonic radial glia cells located around the LV walls do not complete their transformation into astrocytes, but rather persist in adulthood.

  19. The role of apelin in the modulation of gastric and pancreatic enzymes activity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Antuschevich, H; Kapica, M; Krawczynska, A; Herman, A; Kato, I; Kuwahara, A; Zabielski, R

    2016-06-01

    Apelin is considered as important gut regulatory peptide ligand of APJ receptor with a potential physiological role in gastrointestinal cytoprotection, regulation of food intake and drinking behavior. Circulating apelin inhibits secretion of pancreatic juice through vagal- cholecystokinin-dependent mechanism and reduces local blood flow. Our study was aimed to determine the effect of fundectomy and intraperitoneal or intragastric administration of apelin-13 on pancreatic and gastric enzymes activities in adult rats. Fundectomy is a surgical removal of stomach fundus - maine site apelin synthesis. Three independent experiments were carried out on Wistar rats. In the first and second experiment apelin-13 was given by intragastric or intraperitoneal way twice a day for 10 days (100 nmol/kg b.w.). Control groups received the physiological saline respectively. In the third experiment the group of rats after fundectomy were used. Fundectomized rats did not receive apelin and the rats from control group were 'sham operated'. At the end of experiment rats were sacrificed and blood from rats was withdrawn for apelin and CCK (cholecystokinin) radioimmunoassay analysis and pancreas and stomach tissues were collected for enzyme activity analyses. Intragastric and intraperitoneal administrations of apelin-13 increased basal plasma CCK level and stimulated gastric and pancreatic enzymes activity in rats. In animals after fundectomy decreased activity of studied enzymes was observed, as well as basal plasma apelin and CCK levels. In conclusion, apelin can effects on CCK release and stimulates some gastric and pancreatic enzymes activity in adult rats while fudectomy suppresses those processes. Changes in the level of pancreatic lipase activity point out that apelin may occurs as a regulator of lipase secretion.

  20. The role of apelin in the modulation of gastric and pancreatic enzymes activity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Antuschevich, H; Kapica, M; Krawczynska, A; Herman, A; Kato, I; Kuwahara, A; Zabielski, R

    2016-06-01

    Apelin is considered as important gut regulatory peptide ligand of APJ receptor with a potential physiological role in gastrointestinal cytoprotection, regulation of food intake and drinking behavior. Circulating apelin inhibits secretion of pancreatic juice through vagal- cholecystokinin-dependent mechanism and reduces local blood flow. Our study was aimed to determine the effect of fundectomy and intraperitoneal or intragastric administration of apelin-13 on pancreatic and gastric enzymes activities in adult rats. Fundectomy is a surgical removal of stomach fundus - maine site apelin synthesis. Three independent experiments were carried out on Wistar rats. In the first and second experiment apelin-13 was given by intragastric or intraperitoneal way twice a day for 10 days (100 nmol/kg b.w.). Control groups received the physiological saline respectively. In the third experiment the group of rats after fundectomy were used. Fundectomized rats did not receive apelin and the rats from control group were 'sham operated'. At the end of experiment rats were sacrificed and blood from rats was withdrawn for apelin and CCK (cholecystokinin) radioimmunoassay analysis and pancreas and stomach tissues were collected for enzyme activity analyses. Intragastric and intraperitoneal administrations of apelin-13 increased basal plasma CCK level and stimulated gastric and pancreatic enzymes activity in rats. In animals after fundectomy decreased activity of studied enzymes was observed, as well as basal plasma apelin and CCK levels. In conclusion, apelin can effects on CCK release and stimulates some gastric and pancreatic enzymes activity in adult rats while fudectomy suppresses those processes. Changes in the level of pancreatic lipase activity point out that apelin may occurs as a regulator of lipase secretion. PMID:27512001

  1. Juvenile play conditions sexual partner preference in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Miquel, Marta; Manzo, Jorge; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2011-10-24

    Rats can display a conditioned partner preference for individuals that bear an odor previously associated with sexual reward. Herein we tested the possibility that odors associated with the reward induced by social play in prepubescent rats would induce a conditioned partner preference in adulthood. Two groups of 31-day-old, single-housed female rats were formed, and were given daily 30-min periods of social play with scented females. In one group, almond scent was paired with juvenile play during conditioning trials, whereas lemon scent functioned as a novel odor in the final test. The counterbalanced group received the opposite association. At age 42, females were tested for play partner preference with two males, one almond-scented and one lemon-scented. In both groups females displayed a play partner preference only for males scented with the paired odor. They were ovariectomized, hormone-primed, and at age 55 were tested for sexual partner preference with two scented stud males. Females displayed a sexual preference towards males scented with the paired odor as observed with more visits, solicitations, hops and darts, intromissions and ejaculations. These results indicate that olfactory stimuli paired with juvenile play affects later partner choice for play as well as for sex in female rats.

  2. Adversity before Conception Will Affect Adult Progeny in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shachar-Dadon, Alice; Schulkin, Jay; Leshem, Micah

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated whether adversity in a female, before she conceives, will influence the affective and social behavior of her progeny. Virgin female rats were either undisturbed (controls) or exposed to varied, unpredictable, stressors for 7 days (preconceptual stress [PCS]) and then either mated immediately after the end of the stress…

  3. Effect of Phaleria macrocarpa on Sperm Characteristics in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Parhizkar, Saadat; Yusoff, Maryam Jamielah; Dollah, Mohammad Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Phaleria macrocarpa (PM) on male fertility by assessing its effect on the sperm characteristics which included the sperm count, motility, viability and morphology. Methods: Eighteen male rats were equally divided into three groups. Each group of rats was orally supplemented for 7 weeks either with PM aqueous extract (240 mg/kg), distilled water (0 mg/kg) or testosterone hormone, Andriol® Testocaps™ (4 mg/kg) respectively. On the last day of supplementation period, the rats were sacrificed and sperm was obtained from cauda epididymis via orchidectomy. The sperm count, motility, viability and morphology were determined. Results: PM aqueous extract significantly increased (p<0.05) the percentage of sperm viability. However, there was no significant effect of PM on the percentage of both sperm motility and morphology. The mean of body weight declined significantly in rats supplemented with PM aqueous extract compared to control groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that PM significantly increased sperm viability without changing the sperm motility and morphology. Hence, this study suggests that PM offers an alternative way to improve male fertility by improving the sperm quality. PMID:24312859

  4. Prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure increases depression-like behaviors and reduces hippocampal neurogenesis in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Lung; Wang, Sabrina

    2014-02-01

    Major depression is one of the most prevalent mental disorders in the population. In addition to genetic influences, disturbances in fetal nervous system development might be a contributing factor. Maternal infection during pregnancy may affect fetal brain development and consequently lead to neurological and mental disorders. Previously, we used low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure on embryonic day 10.5 to mimic mild maternal infection in rats and found that dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons were reduced in the offspring. The offspring also showed more anxiety-like behavior and an enhanced stress response. In the present study we used forced swim test and chronic mild stress challenge to assess depression-like behaviors in the affected offspring and examined their adult hippocampal neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration. Our results showed that prenatally LPS-exposed rats (LPS rats) displayed more depression-like behaviors and had reduced adult neurogenesis and BDNF. The behavioral abnormalities and reduction in adult neurogenesis could be reversed by chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. This study demonstrates that during the critical time of embryonic development LPS exposure can produce long-term behavioral changes and reduction in adult neurogenesis. The findings of enhanced depression-like behaviors, reduced adult neurogenesis, and their responsiveness to chronic antidepressant treatment suggest that prenatal LPS exposure could serve as an animal model of depression.

  5. Dermal penetration of [14C]captan in young and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Fisher, H L; Hall, L L; Sumler, M R; Shah, P V

    1992-07-01

    Age dependence in dermal absorption has been a major concern in risk assessment. Captan, a chloroalkyl thio heterocyclic fungicide, was selected for study of age dependence as representative of this class of pesticides. Dermal penetration of [14C]captan applied at 0.286 mumol/cm2 was determined in young (33-d-old) and adult (82-d-old) female Fischer 344 rats in vivo and by two in vitro methods. Dermal penetration in vivo at 72 h was about 9% of the recovered dose in both young and adult rats. The percentage penetration was found to increase as dosage (0.1, 0.5, 2.7 mumol/cm2) decreased. Two in vitro methods gave variable dermal penetration values compared with in vivo results. A static system yielded twofold higher dermal penetration values compared with in vivo results for both young and adult rats. A flow system yielded higher dermal penetration values in young rats and lower penetration values in adults compared with in vivo results. Concentration in body, kidney, and liver was less in young than in adult rats given the same absorbed dosage. A physiological pharmacokinetic model was developed having a dual compartment for the treated skin and appeared to describe dermal absorption and disposition well. From this model, tissue/blood ratios of captan-derived radioactivity for organs were found to range from 0.35 to 3.4, indicating no large uptake or binding preferences by any organ. This preliminary pharmacokinetic model summarizes the experimental findings and could provide impetus for more complex and realistic models.

  6. Desvenlafaxine may accelerate neuronal maturation in the dentate gyri of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Asokan, Aditya; Ball, Alan R; Laird, Christina D; Hermer, Linda; Ormerod, Brandi K

    2014-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been linked to the effects of anti-depressant drugs on behavior in rodent models of depression. To explore this link further, we tested whether the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) venlafaxine impacted adult hippocampal neurogenesis differently than its primary active SNRI metabolite desvenlafaxine. Adult male Long Evans rats (n = 5-6 per group) were fed vehicle, venlafaxine (0.5 or 5 mg) or desvenlafaxine (0.5 or 5 mg) twice daily for 16 days. Beginning the third day of drug treatment, the rats were given a daily bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU; 50 mg/kg) injection for 5 days to label dividing cells and then perfused 2 weeks after the first BrdU injection to confirm total new hippocampal cell numbers and their phenotypes. The high desvenlafaxine dose increased total new BrdU+ cell number and appeared to accelerate neuronal maturation because fewer BrdU+ cells expressed maturing neuronal phenotypes and more expressed mature neuronal phenotypes in the dentate gyri of these versus vehicle-treated rats. While net neurogenesis was not increased in the dentate gyri of rats treated with the high desvenlafaxine dose, significantly more mature neurons were detected. Our data expand the body of literature showing that antidepressants impact adult neurogenesis by stimulating NPC proliferation and perhaps the survival of neuronal progeny and by showing that a high dose of the SNRI antidepressant desvenlafaxine, but neither a high nor low venlafaxine dose, may also accelerate neuronal maturation in the adult rat hippocampus. These data support the hypothesis that hippocampal neurogenesis may indeed serve as a biomarker of depression and the effects of antidepressant treatment, and may be informative for developing novel fast-acting antidepressant strategies.

  7. Dentate gyrus-specific knockdown of adult neurogenesis impairs spatial and object recognition memory in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Jessberger, Sebastian; Clark, Robert E.; Broadbent, Nicola J.; Clemenson, Gregory D.; Consiglio, Antonella; Lie, D. Chichung; Squire, Larry R.; Gage, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    New granule cells are born throughout life in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. Given the fundamental role of the hippocampus in processes underlying certain forms of learning and memory, it has been speculated that newborn granule cells contribute to cognition. However, previous strategies aiming to causally link newborn neurons with hippocampal function used ablation strategies that were not exclusive to the hippocampus or that were associated with substantial side effects, such as inflammation. We here used a lentiviral approach to specifically block neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of adult male rats by inhibiting WNT signaling, which is critically involved in the generation of newborn neurons, using a dominant-negative WNT (dnWNT). We found a level-dependent effect of adult neurogenesis on the long-term retention of spatial memory in the water maze task, as rats with substantially reduced levels of newborn neurons showed less preference for the target zone in probe trials >2 wk after acquisition compared with control rats. Furthermore, animals with strongly reduced levels of neurogenesis were impaired in a hippocampus-dependent object recognition task. Social transmission of food preference, a behavioral test that also depends on hippocampal function, was not affected by knockdown of neurogenesis. Here we identified a role for newborn neurons in distinct aspects of hippocampal function that will set the ground to further elucidate, using experimental and computational strategies, the mechanism by which newborn neurons contribute to behavior. PMID:19181621

  8. Effect of prenatal programming and postnatal rearing on glomerular filtration rate in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lozano, German; Elmaghrabi, Ayah; Salley, Jordan; Siddique, Khurrum; Gattineni, Jyothsna; Baum, Michel

    2015-03-01

    The present study examined whether a prenatal low-protein diet programs a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and an increase in systolic blood pressure (BP). In addition, we examined whether altering the postnatal nutritional environment of nursing neonatal rats affected GFR and BP when rats were studied as adults. Pregnant rats were fed a normal (20%) protein diet or a low-protein diet (6%) during the last half of pregnancy until birth, when rats were fed a 20% protein diet. Mature adult rats from the prenatal low-protein group had systolic hypertension and a GFR of 0.38 ± 0.03 versus 0.57 ± 0.05 ml·min(-1)·100 g body wt(-1) in the 20% group (P < 0.01). In cross-fostering experiments, mothers continued on the same prenatal diet until weaning. Prenatal 6% protein rats cross-fostered to a 20% mother on day 1 of life had a GFR of 0.53 ± 0.05 ml·min(-1)·100 g body wt(-1), which was not different than the 20% group cross-fostered to a different 20% mother (0.45 ± 0.04 ml·min(-1)·100 g body wt(-1)). BP in the 6% to 20% group was comparable with the 20% to 20% group. Offspring of rats fed either 20% or 6% protein diets during pregnancy and cross-fostered to a 6% mother had elevated BP but a comparable GFR normalized to body weight as the 20% to 20% control group. Thus, a prenatal low-protein diet causes hypertension and a reduction in GFR in mature adult offspring, which can be modified by postnatal rearing.

  9. Altered differentiation of CNS neural progenitor cells after transplantation into the injured adult rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Onifer, S M; Cannon, A B; Whittemore, S R

    1997-01-01

    Denervation of CNS neurons and peripheral organs is a consequence of traumatic SCI. Intraspinal transplantation of embryonic CNS neurons is a potential strategy for reinnervating these targets. Neural progenitor cell lines are being investigated as alternates to embryonic CNS neurons. RN33B is an immortalized neural progenitor cell line derived from embryonic rat raphe nuclei following infection with a retrovirus encoding the temperature-sensitive mutant of SV40 large T-antigen. Transplantation studies have shown that local epigenetic signals in intact or partially neuron-depleted adult rat hippocampal formation or striatum direct RN33B cell differentiation to complex multipolar morphologies resembling endogenous neurons. After transplantation into neuron-depleted regions of the hippocampal formation or striatum, RN33B cells were relatively undifferentiated or differentiated with bipolar morphologies. The present study examines RN33B cell differentiation after transplantation into normal spinal cord and under different lesion conditions. Adult rats underwent either unilateral lesion of lumbar spinal neurons by intraspinal injection of kainic acid or complete transection at the T10 spinal segment. Neonatal rats underwent either unilateral lesion of lumbar motoneurons by sciatic nerve crush or complete transection at the T10 segment. At 2 or 6-7 wk postinjury, lacZ-labeled RN33B cells were transplanted into the lumbar enlargement of injured and age-matched normal rats. At 2 wk posttransplantation, bipolar and some multipolar RN33B cells were found throughout normal rat gray matter. In contrast, only bipolar RN33B cells were seen in gray matter of kainic acid lesioned, sciatic nerve crush, or transection rats. These observations suggest that RN33B cell multipolar morphological differentiation in normal adult spinal cord is mediated by direct cell-cell interaction through surface molecules on endogenous neurons and may be suppressed by molecules released after SCI

  10. Juvenile stress affects anxiety-like behavior and limbic monoamines in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao-Min; Yuan, San-Na; Guan, Xi-Ting; Xie, Xi; Shao, Feng; Wang, Wei-Wen

    2014-08-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that childhood and adolescent maltreatment is a major risk factor for mood disorders in adulthood. However, the mechanisms underlying the manifestation of mental disorders during adulthood are not well understood. Using a recently developed rat model for assessing chronic variable stress (CVS) during early adolescence (juvenility), we investigated the long-term effects of juvenile CVS on emotional and cognitive function and on monoaminergic activities in the limbic areas. During juvenility (postnatal days 27-33), rats in the stress group were exposed to variable stressors every other day for a week. Four weeks later, anhedonia was tested in the sucrose test, anxiety-like behaviors were assessed in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and open field (OF) tests, and cortically mediated cognitive function was evaluated during an attentional set-shifting task (AST). After the behavioral tests, the rats were decapitated to determine limbic monoamine and metabolite levels. Adult rats stressed during juvenility exhibited higher anxiety-like behaviors, as evidenced by reduced locomotion and rearing behavior in the OF and fewer entries into the open arms in the EPM. There were no differences between the stressed rats and the controls in depressive-like anhedonia during the sucrose preference test or in cognitive function during the AST test in adulthood. In addition, the previously stressed rats exhibited increased dopamine (DA) and decreased 5-HIAA in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and decreased noradrenaline in the amygdala compared with controls. Furthermore, DA levels in the mPFC were correlated with adult anxious behaviors in the OF. These results suggest that juvenile stress induces long-term changes in the expression of anxiety-like behaviors and limbic monoaminergic activity in adult rats.

  11. Functional Myotube Formation from Adult Rat Satellite Cells in a Defined Serum-free System

    PubMed Central

    McAleer, Christopher W.; Rumsey, John W.; Stancescu, Maria; Hickman, James J.

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript describes the development of a culture system whereby mature contracting myotubes were formed from adult rat derived satellite cells. Satellite cells, extracted from the Tibialis Anterior (TA) of adult rats, were grown in defined serum-free growth and differentiation media, on a non-biological substrate, N-1[3-trimethoxysilyl propyl] diethylenetriamine. Myotubes were evaluated morphologically and immunocytochemically, using MyHC specific antibodies, as well as functionally using patch clamp electrophysiology to measure ion channel activity. Results indicated the establishment of the rapid expression of adult myosin isoforms that contrasts to their slow development in embryonic cultures. This culture system has applications in the understanding and treatment of age related muscle myopathy, muscular dystrophy, and for skeletal muscle engineering by providing a more relevant phenotype for both in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:25683642

  12. Physiological and behavioral effects of acute ethanol hangover in juvenile, adolescent, and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Brasser, Susan M; Spear, Norman E

    2002-04-01

    This study examined differential responding of juvenile, adolescent, and adult rats after intoxication from an acute alcohol challenge. Experiment I generated blood ethanol curves for subjects 25, 35, or 110 days postnatal, after doses of 2.0 or 4.0 g/kg, assessing elimination rates and time of drug clearance. Experiment 2 compared ethanol's initial hypothermic and delayed hyperthermic effect across age by 48-hr temperature measurement with telemetry. At clearance or 24 hr after alcohol exposure, Experiment 3 tested subjects for changes in acoustic startle reactivity and ultrasonic vocalization (USV). Younger rats showed an absent or reduced tendency for residual hyperthermia, and adults showed alterations in USV observed as aftereffects of intoxication, despite greater initial blood alcohol levels and ethanol hypothermia in the former. The lesser ethanol hangover effects in weanlings and adolescents may be due in part to faster ethanol elimination at these ages compared with adults.

  13. Effect of seven days of spaceflight on hindlimb muscle protein, RNA and DNA in adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of seven days of spaceflight on skeletal muscle (soleus, gastrocnemius, EDL) content of protein, RNA and DNA were determined in adult rats. Whereas total protein contents were reduced in parallel with muscle weights, myofibrillar protein appeared to be more affected. There were no significant changes in absolute DNA contents, but a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in DNA concentration (microgram/milligram) in soleus muscles from flight rats. Absolute RNA contents were significantly (P less than 0.025) decreased in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of flight rats, with RNA concentrations reduced 15-30 percent. These results agree with previous ground-based observations on the suspended rat with unloaded hindlimbs and support continued use of this model.

  14. Impairment of male reproduction in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate in utero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushpalatha, T.; Ramachandra Reddy, P.; Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    Hydroxyprogesterone caproate is one of the most effective and widely used drugs for the treatment of uterine bleeding and threatened miscarriage in women. Hydroxyprogesterone caproate was administered to pregnant rats in order to assess the effect of intraperitoneal exposure to supranormal levels of hydroxyprogesterone caproate on the male reproductive potential in the first generation. The cauda epididymal sperm count and motility decreased significantly in rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during embryonic development, when compared with control rats. The levels of serum testosterone decreased with an increase in follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during the embryonic stage. It was suggested that the impairment of male reproductive performance could be mediated through the inhibition of testosterone production.

  15. Perinatal taurine exposure alters renal potassium excretion mechanisms in adult conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Malila, Pisamai; Lerdweeraphon, Wichaporn; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Wyss, J Michael

    2010-08-24

    Perinatal taurine exposure has long-term effects on the arterial pressure and renal function. This study tests its influence on renal potassium excretion in young adult, conscious rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow and given water alone (C), 3% beta-alanine in water (taurine depletion, TD) or 3% taurine in water (taurine supplementation, TS), either from conception until delivery (fetal period; TDF or TSF) or from delivery until weaning (lactation period; TDL or TSL). In Experiment 1, male offspring were fed normal rat chow and tap water, while in Experiment 2, beta-alanine and taurine were treated from conception until weaning and then female pups were fed normal rat chow and 5% glucose in drinking water (CG, TDG or TSG) or water alone (CW, TDW or TSW). At 7-8 weeks of age, renal potassium excretion was measured at rest and after an acute saline load (5% of body weight) in conscious, restrained rats. Although all male groups displayed similar renal potassium excretion, TSF rats slightly increased fractional potassium excretion at rest but not in response to saline load, whereas TDF did the opposite. Plasma potassium concentration was only slightly altered by the diet manipulations. In female offspring, none of the perinatal treatments significantly altered renal potassium excretion at rest or after saline load. High sugar intake slightly decreased potassium excretion at rest in TDG and TSG, but only the TDG group displayed a decreased response to saline load. The present data indicates that perinatal taurine exposure only mildly influences renal potassium excretion in adult male and female rats.

  16. The role of testicular hormones and luteinizing hormone in spatial memory in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Sarah E A; Alla, Juliet; Wheat, Elizabeth; Romeo, Russell D; McEwen, Bruce; Thornton, Janice E

    2012-04-01

    Attempts to determine the influence of testicular hormones on learning and memory in males have yielded contradictory results. The present studies examined whether testicular hormones are important for maximal levels of spatial memory in young adult male rats. To minimize any effect of stress, we used the Object Location Task which is a spatial working memory task that does not involve food or water deprivation or aversive stimuli for motivation. In Experiment 1 sham gonadectomized male rats demonstrated robust spatial memory, but gonadectomized males showed diminished spatial memory. In Experiment 2 subcutaneous testosterone (T) capsules restored spatial memory performance in gonadectomized male rats, while rats with blank capsules demonstrated compromised spatial memory. In Experiment 3, gonadectomized male rats implanted with blank capsules again showed compromised spatial memory, while those with T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or estradiol (E) capsules demonstrated robust spatial memory, indicating that T's effects may be mediated by its conversion to E or to DHT. Gonadectomized male rats injected with Antide, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist which lowers luteinizing hormone levels, also demonstrated spatial memory, comparable to that shown by T-, E-, or DHT-treated males. These data indicate that testicular androgens are important for maximal levels of spatial working memory in male rats, that testosterone may be converted to E and/or DHT to exert its effects, and that some of the effects of these steroid hormones may occur via negative feedback effects on LH.

  17. Histological effects of chronic administration of Phyllanthus amarus on the kidney of adult Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Adjene, Josiah Obaghwarhieywo; Nwose, Ezekiel Uba

    2010-01-01

    Background: Phyllanthus amarus is commonly used for treatment such as in gastro, urogenital diseases and infection. However, it is speculated to have some toxic effects such as renal tubular damage. Aims: This study was to investigate the histological effects of chronic administration of the herb on kidney of adult Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Rats of both sexes (n = 24), with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatments (A and B) and control (C) groups of 8 rats each. Rats in treatment groups (A) and (B) respectively received daily administration of 400mg and 800mg of aqueous Phyllanthus amarus, per 70kg body weight for 30days through the orogastric tube. The control group received distilled water through the same route. All rats were fed with grower's mash and given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the thirty-first day of the experiment and the kidneys were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study. Results: The observations indicate that rats in the treated groups showed some varying degree of distortion and disruption in microanatomy of the kidney including interstitial oedema and tubular necrosis, when compared to the control section. Conclusion: This report provides further evidence that medicinal use of Phyllanthus amarus has a potential adverse effect. This warrants further studies to establish or rule out any untoward side-effect of chronic renal dysfunctions. PMID:22624139

  18. Effects of neonatal methamphetamine treatment on adult stress-induced corticosterone release in rats.

    PubMed

    Grace, Curtis E; Schaefer, Tori L; Herring, Nicole R; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V

    2012-01-01

    In rats, neonatal (+)-methamphetamine (MA) exposure and maternal separation stress increase corticosterone during treatment and result in learning and memory impairments later in life. Early-life stress also changes later responses to acute stress. We tested the hypothesis that neonatal MA exposure would alter adult corticosterone after acute stress or MA challenge. Rats were treated with MA (10 mg/kg × 4/day), saline, or handling on postnatal (P) days 11-15 or 11-20 (days that lead to learning and memory impairments at this dose). As adults, corticosterone was measured before and after 15 min forced swim (FS) or 15 min forced confinement (FC), counterbalanced, and after an acute MA challenge (10 mg/kg) given last. FS increased corticosterone more than FC; order and stress type interacted but did not interact with treatment; treatment interacted with FS but not with FC. In the P11-15 regimen, MA-treated rats showed more rapid increases in corticosterone after FS than controls. In the P11-20 regimen, MA-treated rats showed a trend toward more rapid decrease in corticosterone after FS. No differences were found after MA challenge. The data do not support the hypothesis that neonatal MA causes changes in adult stress responsiveness to FS, FC, or an acute MA challenge.

  19. Beer promotes high levels of alcohol intake in adolescent and adult alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Garth A; Wang, Emyo Y J; Lawrence, Andrew J; McGregor, Iain S

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that high levels of alcohol consumption can be obtained in laboratory rats by using beer as a test solution. The present study extended these observations to examine the intake of beer and equivalent dilute ethanol solutions with an inbred line of alcohol-preferring P rats. In Experiment 1, male adolescent P rats and age-matched Wistar rats had access to either beer or equivalent ethanol solutions for 1h daily in a custom-built lickometer apparatus. In subsequent experiments, adolescent (Experiment 2) and adult (Experiment 3) male P rats were given continuous 24-h home cage access to beer or dilute ethanol solutions, with concomitant access to lab chow and water. In each experiment, the alcohol content of the beer and dilute ethanol solutions was gradually increased from 0.4, 1.4, 2.4, 3.4, 4.4, 5 to 10% EtOH (vol/vol). All three experiments showed a major augmentation of alcohol intake when rats were given beer compared with equivalent ethanol solutions. In Experiment 1, the overall intake of beer was higher in P rats compared with Wistar rats, but no strain difference was found during the 1-h sessions with plain ethanol consumption. Experiment 1 also showed that an alcohol deprivation effect was more readily obtained in rats with a history of consuming beer rather than plain ethanol solutions. In Experiments 2 and 3, voluntary beer intake in P rats represented ethanol intake of 10-15 g/kg/day, among the highest reported in any study with rats. This excessive consumption was most apparent in adolescent rats. Beer consumption markedly exceeded plain ethanol intake in these experiments except at the highest alcohol concentration (10%) tested. The advantage of using beer rather than dilute ethanol solutions in both selected and nonselected rat strains is therefore confirmed. Our findings encourage the use of beer with alcohol-preferring rats in future research that seeks to obtain high levels of alcohol self-administration.

  20. Cross-sensitization between testosterone and cocaine in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Engi, Sheila A; Cruz, Fabio C; Crestani, Carlos C; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2015-11-01

    Cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids are substances commonly co-abused. The use of anabolic steroids and cocaine has increased among adolescents. However, few studies investigated the consequences of the interaction between anabolic-androgenic steroids in animals' model of adolescence. We examined the effects of acute and repeated testosterone administration on cocaine-induced locomotor activity in adult and adolescent rats. Rats received ten once-daily subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of testosterone (10mg/kg) or vehicle. Three days after the last testosterone or vehicle injections rats received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) challenge injection of either saline or cocaine (10mg/kg). A different subset of rats was treated with a single injection of testosterone (10mg/kg) or vehicle and three days later was challenged with cocaine (10mg/kg, i.p.) or saline. Immediately after cocaine or saline injections the locomotor activity was recorded during forty minutes. Our results demonstrated that repeated testosterone induced locomotor sensitization to cocaine in adolescent but not adult rats.

  1. Behavioral changes in preweaning and adult rats exposed prenatally to low ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, S.

    1986-04-01

    Seven behavioral tests were used to evaluate the postnatal behavior of rats after exposure on gestational Day 15 to 0, 25, 50, 75, or 125 r, whole body irradiation of the pregnant rat. Three tests were administered in the first 2 postnatal weeks (righting reflex, negative geotaxis, and reflex suspension); three tests were administered on postnatal Day 21 (modified open field, spatial maze, and continuous corridor). As adults, the rats were retested with the same tests as at 21 days and also in the running wheel. Dose-response decreases in body weight were greater in the younger rats. Some behavioral tests were not altered by irradiation, while others showed clear dose-response relationships, starting as low as 25 r. The early changes were characterized by light body weight, delays in behavioral development and hypoactivity, followed by recovery of some parameters with maturation. Eventually hyperactivity developed in adult rats after gestational irradiation. However, it cannot be concluded that either morphological or behavioral tests are more sensitive than neonatal body weight change for detection of damage from gestational irradiation.

  2. Aging-Dependent Changes in the Radiation Response of the Adult Rat Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, Matthew K. Forbes, M. Elizabeth; Robbins, Mike E.; Riddle, David R.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of aging on the radiation response in the adult rat brain. Methods and Materials: Male rats 8, 18, or 28 months of age received a single 10-Gy dose of whole-brain irradiation (WBI). The hippocampal dentate gyrus was analyzed 1 and 10 weeks later for sensitive neurobiologic markers associated with radiation-induced damage: changes in density of proliferating cells, immature neurons, total microglia, and activated microglia. Results: A significant decrease in basal levels of proliferating cells and immature neurons and increased microglial activation occurred with normal aging. The WBI induced a transient increase in proliferation that was greater in older animals. This proliferation response did not increase the number of immature neurons, which decreased after WBI in young rats, but not in old rats. Total microglial numbers decreased after WBI at all ages, but microglial activation increased markedly, particularly in older animals. Conclusions: Age is an important factor to consider when investigating the radiation response of the brain. In contrast to young adults, older rats show no sustained decrease in number of immature neurons after WBI, but have a greater inflammatory response. The latter may have an enhanced role in the development of radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction in older individuals.

  3. Cross-sensitization between testosterone and cocaine in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Engi, Sheila A; Cruz, Fabio C; Crestani, Carlos C; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2015-11-01

    Cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids are substances commonly co-abused. The use of anabolic steroids and cocaine has increased among adolescents. However, few studies investigated the consequences of the interaction between anabolic-androgenic steroids in animals' model of adolescence. We examined the effects of acute and repeated testosterone administration on cocaine-induced locomotor activity in adult and adolescent rats. Rats received ten once-daily subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of testosterone (10mg/kg) or vehicle. Three days after the last testosterone or vehicle injections rats received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) challenge injection of either saline or cocaine (10mg/kg). A different subset of rats was treated with a single injection of testosterone (10mg/kg) or vehicle and three days later was challenged with cocaine (10mg/kg, i.p.) or saline. Immediately after cocaine or saline injections the locomotor activity was recorded during forty minutes. Our results demonstrated that repeated testosterone induced locomotor sensitization to cocaine in adolescent but not adult rats. PMID:26150134

  4. Does prenatal methamphetamine exposure affect the drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats?

    PubMed

    Slamberová, Romana; Schutová, Barbora; Hrubá, Lenka; Pometlová, Marie

    2011-10-10

    Methamphetamine (MA) is one of the most frequently used illicit drugs worldwide and also one of the most common drugs abused by pregnant women. Repeated administration of psychostimulants induces behavioral sensitization in response to treatment of the same or related drugs in rodents. The effect of prenatal MA exposure on sensitivity to drugs in adulthood is not yet fully determined. Because our most recent studies demonstrated that prenatal MA (5mg/kg) exposure makes adult rats more sensitive to acute injection of the same drug, we were interested whether the increased sensitivity corresponds with the increased drug-seeking behavior. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of prenatal MA exposure on drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats tested in the conditioned place preference (CPP). The following psychostimulant drugs were used as a challenge in adulthood: MA (5mg/kg), amphetamine (5mg/kg) and cocaine (10mg/kg). All psychostimulant drugs induced increased drug-seeking behavior in adult male rats. However, while MA and amphetamine-induced increase in drug-seeking behavior did not differ based on the prenatal drug exposure, prenatally MA-exposed rats displayed tolerance effect to cocaine in adulthood. In addition, prenatally MA-exposed rats had decreased weight gain after administration of MA or amphetamine, while the weight of prenatally MA-exposed rats stayed unchanged after cocaine administration. Defecation was increased by all the drugs (MA, amphetamine and cocaine), while only amphetamine increased the tail temperature. In conclusion, our results did not confirm our hypothesis that prenatal MA exposure increases drug-seeking behavior in adulthood in the CPP test.

  5. Effect of ammonia on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Casey, C. J.; Furst, A.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC /50/ values were determined for Swiss albino male mice exposed to different concentrations of ammonia in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC/50/ for a 30 minute exposure was 21,430 ppm.

  6. Prolonged performance of a high repetition low force task induces bone adaptation in young adult rats, but loss in mature rats.

    PubMed

    Massicotte, Vicky S; Frara, Nagat; Harris, Michele Y; Amin, Mamta; Wade, Christine K; Popoff, Steven N; Barbe, Mary F

    2015-12-01

    We have shown that prolonged repetitive reaching and grasping tasks lead to exposure-dependent changes in bone microarchitecture and inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats. Since aging mammals show increased tissue inflammatory cytokines, we sought here to determine if aging, combined with prolonged performance of a repetitive upper extremity task, enhances bone loss. We examined the radius, forearm flexor muscles, and serum from 16 mature (14-18 months of age) and 14 young adult (2.5-6.5 months of age) female rats after performance of a high repetition low force (HRLF) reaching and grasping task for 12 weeks. Young adult HRLF rats showed enhanced radial bone growth (e.g., increased trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, bone formation rate, and mid-diaphyseal periosteal perimeter), compared to age-matched controls. Mature HRLF rats showed several indices of radial bone loss (e.g., decreased trabecular bone volume, and increased cortical bone thinning, porosity, resorptive spaces and woven bone formation), increased osteoclast numbers and inflammatory cytokines, compared to age-matched controls and young adult HRLF rats. Mature rats weighed more yet had lower maximum reflexive grip strength, than young adult rats, although each age group was able to pull at the required reach rate (4 reaches/min) and required submaximal pulling force (30 force-grams) for a food reward. Serum estrogen levels and flexor digitorum muscle size were similar in each age group. Thus, mature rats had increased bone degradative changes than in young adult rats performing the same repetitive task for 12 weeks, with increased inflammatory cytokine responses and osteoclast activity as possible causes. PMID:26517953

  7. Prolonged performance of a high repetition low force task induces bone adaptation in young adult rats, but loss in mature rats.

    PubMed

    Massicotte, Vicky S; Frara, Nagat; Harris, Michele Y; Amin, Mamta; Wade, Christine K; Popoff, Steven N; Barbe, Mary F

    2015-12-01

    We have shown that prolonged repetitive reaching and grasping tasks lead to exposure-dependent changes in bone microarchitecture and inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats. Since aging mammals show increased tissue inflammatory cytokines, we sought here to determine if aging, combined with prolonged performance of a repetitive upper extremity task, enhances bone loss. We examined the radius, forearm flexor muscles, and serum from 16 mature (14-18 months of age) and 14 young adult (2.5-6.5 months of age) female rats after performance of a high repetition low force (HRLF) reaching and grasping task for 12 weeks. Young adult HRLF rats showed enhanced radial bone growth (e.g., increased trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, bone formation rate, and mid-diaphyseal periosteal perimeter), compared to age-matched controls. Mature HRLF rats showed several indices of radial bone loss (e.g., decreased trabecular bone volume, and increased cortical bone thinning, porosity, resorptive spaces and woven bone formation), increased osteoclast numbers and inflammatory cytokines, compared to age-matched controls and young adult HRLF rats. Mature rats weighed more yet had lower maximum reflexive grip strength, than young adult rats, although each age group was able to pull at the required reach rate (4 reaches/min) and required submaximal pulling force (30 force-grams) for a food reward. Serum estrogen levels and flexor digitorum muscle size were similar in each age group. Thus, mature rats had increased bone degradative changes than in young adult rats performing the same repetitive task for 12 weeks, with increased inflammatory cytokine responses and osteoclast activity as possible causes.

  8. Plasticity in the prefrontal cortex of adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, Bryan; Gibb, Robbin

    2015-01-01

    We review the plastic changes of the prefrontal cortex of the rat in response to a wide range of experiences including sensory and motor experience, gonadal hormones, psychoactive drugs, learning tasks, stress, social experience, metaplastic experiences, and brain injury. Our focus is on synaptic changes (dendritic morphology and spine density) in pyramidal neurons and the relationship to behavioral changes. The most general conclusion we can reach is that the prefrontal cortex is extremely plastic and that the medial and orbital prefrontal regions frequently respond very differently to the same experience in the same brain and the rules that govern prefrontal plasticity appear to differ for those of other cortical regions. PMID:25691857

  9. The effects of quinapril and atorvastatin on artery structure and function in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lufang; Gao, Yu-Jing; Lee, Robert M K W

    2005-08-22

    We studied the combined treatment effects of quinapril and atorvastatin on blood pressure and structure and function of resistance arteries from adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY rats). Apoptotic cells were identified by in situ end labeling using the terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. Vascular structure was measured using a morphometric protocol and confocal microscopy and a pressurized artery system was used to study vascular functions. We found that a combined treatment with quinapril and atorvastatin lowered systolic blood pressure in both adult SHR and WKY rats and decreased medial thickness and volume and the number of smooth muscle cell layers in mesenteric arteries, as well as media-to-lumen ratio in the interlobular arteries from SHR but not in those from WKY rats. The number of apoptotic smooth muscle cells was higher in the mesenteric arteries from control WKY rats than control SHR and treatment increased the number of apoptotic smooth muscle cells in the arteries from both SHR and WKY rats. Treatment with quinapril and atorvastatin reduced ventricular weight in SHR and normalized the augmented contractile responses to norepinephrine but did not alter the contraction to electric field stimulation. Relaxation responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were not affected by the treatment. We conclude that a combined treatment with quinapril and atorvastatin lowered blood pressure and improved cardiac and vessel hypertrophy and vessel function. An increase in apoptotic smooth muscle cells may be one of the mechanisms underlying the structural improvement.

  10. Regional distribution of neuropeptide processing endopeptidases in adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Berman, Y L; Rattan, A K; Carr, K; Devi, L

    1994-01-01

    Many peptide hormone and neuropeptide precursors undergo post-translational processing at mono- and/or dibasic residues. An enzymatic activity capable of processing prodynorphin at a monobasic processing site designated 'dynorphin converting enzyme' has been previously reported in rat rain and bovine pituitary. In this study the distribution of dynorphin converting enzyme activity in ten regions of rat brain has been compared with the distribution of subtilisin-like processing enzymes and with the immuno-reactive dynorphin peptides. The distribution of dynorphin converting enzyme activity generally matches the distribution of immuno-reactive dynorphin B-13 in most but not all brain regions. The regions that are known to have a relatively large number of immuno-reactive dynorphin-neurons also contain high levels of dynorphin converting enzyme activity. The distribution of dynorphin converting enzyme activity does not match the distribution of subtilisin-like processing enzyme or carboxypeptidase E activities. Taken together the data support the possibility that the dynorphin converting enzyme is involved in the maturation of dynorphin, as well as other neuropeptides, and peptide hormones.

  11. Effect of dietary caffeine and theophylline on urinary calcium excretion in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Whiting, S J; Whitney, H L

    1987-07-01

    The chronic effects of dietary caffeine or theophylline on urinary calcium excretion were investigated in the adult male rat. When caffeine was added at two concentrations, 0.75 and 1.50 g/kg diet, 24-h urinary calcium excretion rose 300 and 450% on d 7, and 200 and 330% on d 14, respectively. There were no changes in the 24-h urinary excretion of phosphate, sulfate, sodium and cAMP nor did urine volume change. The high dose of caffeine was compared to an equimolar dose of theophylline (1.39 g/kg diet) in both Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats. Urinary calcium excretion in theophylline-treated rats was significantly greater than in caffeine-treated rats on all sampling days and in both strains of rat; the calciuric effect lasted at least 22 d. When rats were given indomethacin (3.3 mg/kg diet) the calciuria induced by caffeine and theophylline was abolished, and sodium excretion in all groups was reduced by 35-50%, but urine volume was unchanged. The calciuria of methylxanthine feeding may result from a prostaglandin-mediated process distinct from diuresis. PMID:3612301

  12. Temporal expression of mutant LRRK2 in adult rats impairs dopamine reuptake.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongxia; Huang, Cao; Tong, Jianbin; Hong, Weimin C; Liu, Yong-Jian; Xia, Xu-Gang

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) results from progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Most PD cases are sporadic, but some have pathogenic mutation in the individual genes. Mutation of the leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 (LRRK2) gene is associated with familial and sporadic PD, as exemplified by G2019S substitution. While constitutive expression of mutant LRRK2 in transgenic mice fails to induce neuron death, transient expression of the disease gene by viral delivery causes a substantial loss of dopaminergic neurons in mice. To further assess LRRK2 pathogenesis, we created inducible transgenic rats expressing human LRRK2 with G2019S substitution. Temporal overexpression of LRRK2(G2019S) in adult rats impaired dopamine reuptake by dopamine transporter (DAT) and thus enhanced locomotor activity, the phenotypes that were not observed in transgenic rats constitutively expressing the gene throughout life time. Reduced DAT binding activity is an early sign of dopaminergic dysfunction in asymptomatic subjects carrying pathogenic mutation in LRRK2. Our transgenic rats recapitulated the initiation process of dopaminergic dysfunction caused by pathogenic mutation in LRRK2. Inducible transgenic approach uncovered phenotypes that may be obscured by developmental compensation in constitutive transgenic rats. Finding in inducible LRRK2 transgenic rats would guide developing effective strategy in transgenic studies: Inducible expression of transgene may induce greater phenotypes than constitutive gene expression, particularly in rodents with short life time. PMID:21698001

  13. Associative and non-associative blinking in classically conditioned adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Derick H; Vogel, Richard W; Steinmetz, Joseph E

    2009-03-01

    Over the last several years, a growing number of investigators have begun using the rat in classical eyeblink conditioning experiments, yet relatively few parametric studies have been done to examine the nature of conditioning in this species. We report here a parametric analysis of classical eyeblink conditioning in the adult rat using two conditioned stimulus (CS) modalities (light or tone) and three interstimulus intervals (ISI; 280, 580, or 880 ms). Rats trained at the shortest ISI generated the highest percentage of conditioned eyeblink responses (CRs) by the end of training. At the two longer ISIs, rats trained with the tone CS produced unusually high CR percentages over the first few acquisition sessions, relative to rats trained with the light CS. Experiment 2 assessed non-associative blink rates in response to presentations of the light or tone, in the absence of the US, at the same ISI durations used in paired conditioning. Significantly more blinks occurred with longer than shorter duration lights or tones. A higher blink rate was also recorded at all three durations during the early tone-alone sessions. The results suggest that early in classical eyeblink conditioning, rats trained with a tone CS may emit a high number of non-associative blinks, thereby inflating the CR frequency reported at this stage of training. PMID:19071146

  14. Micro-CT analysis of myocardial blood supply in young and adult rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Heather M.; Beighley, Patricia E.; Eaker, Diane R.; Vercnocke, Andrew J.; Ritman, Erik L.

    2009-02-01

    This study addresses whether the vasculature grows in proportion to the myocardium as the rat heart develops. The volume of myocardium and coronary vessels were estimated from micro-CT images of the hearts injected with Microfil(R) contrast agent. Young (n=5) and adult (n=5) hearts were scanned, resulting in 3D images comprised of 20μm on-a-side cubic voxels. The myocardial muscle and vessel lumen volumes were measured for all vessels 40 to 320μm in diameter by an erosion and dilation method applied to the binary images in which the contrast in the vessels were assigned "1" and all non-opacified entities were assigned "0". The average total muscle volume increases by 50%, 129.4 to 237.4mm3, from young to adult rats, while the luminal volume increases by 10%, 16.6 to 18.6mm3. The vessel volume is 12% of the total muscle volume in young and 8% in adults. For a given vessel volume, the muscle volume in the young is 82% of the muscle volume in adults. We conclude that as the heart matures, the myocardium grows more rapidly than the vasculature. This may result in greater angles of separation between vessel branches, and the increase in myocardial coronary volume. The ratio suggests either higher blood flow velocity or a lower metabolic rate in adults.

  15. Effect of the antioxidant dibunol on adrenocortical, thyroid, and adenohypopyseal function in adult and old rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gorban', E.N.

    1986-04-01

    This paper studies the effect of dibunol (4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) (D) on the function of the adrenal cortex, thyroid gland, and adenhypophysis, which produces trophic hormones for the other two glands. Experiments were carried out on adult rats. After injection of D concentrations of corticosterone (CS), triodothyronine (T/sub 3/), ACTH, and thyrotrophin (TSH) in the blood plasma and the CS concentration in tssue of the adenohypophysis were determined. It is shown that injection of D caused biphasic changes in the CS concentration in both tissues studied in adult and old animals.

  16. Adolescent social defeat disturbs adult aggression-related impulsivity in wild-type rats.

    PubMed

    Coppens, Caroline M; Coolen, Alex; de Boer, Sietse F; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2014-10-01

    Adolescence is generally considered as a developmental period during which adverse social experiences may have lasting consequences in terms of an increased vulnerability to affective disorders. This study aimed at determining the individual susceptibility to adolescent social stress using a rat model. We used rats of the Wild-type Groningen strain, which are characterized by a broad variation in adult levels of aggression and impulsivity. We hypothesized that experience of social defeat in adolescence results in heightened aggression and impulsivity levels in adulthood. In contrast to our expectation, adolescent social defeat did not lead to a difference in the average adult level of aggression and impulsivity, but the significant correlation between offensive aggression and impulsivity found in control animals was not present in animals defeated during adolescence.

  17. Some factors influencing cadmium-manganese interaction in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gruden, N.; Matausic, S. )

    1989-07-01

    Recent data show that even a low dose of cadmium (20 {mu}g/day/rat) significantly suppresses manganese transduodenal transport when administered during a three-day period. The inhibitory effect of cadmium upon manganese absorption is enhanced by concurrently administered iron-fortified milk diet. This suggests that the (synergistic) action of cadmium and iron upon manganese and the competition between these (three) ions in the intestine depend on their relative concentrations and affinity for the binding sites within the intestinal mucosa. For this reason the authors considered it worthwhile examining whether this inhibitory effect of cadmium would be affected by simultaneously administered manganese-fortified milk. Since the absorption of heavy metals and, at the same time, the demand for manganese is higher in the young than in the old animals, they also studied how this interaction depends upon the animals' age and sex and whether it is the same in the whole small intestine.

  18. Perfluorooctane sulfonate effects on the reproductive axis in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    López-Doval, S; Salgado, R; Pereiro, N; Moyano, R; Lafuente, A

    2014-10-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a neurotoxic agent and it can disrupt the endocrine system activity. This work was undertaken to evaluate the possible effects of PFOS exposure on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis (HPT) in adult male rats, and to evaluate the possible morphological alterations induced by PFOS in the endocrine tissues of this axis. Adult male rats were orally treated with 0.5; 1.0; 3.0 and 6.0 mg of PFOS/kg/day for 28 days. After PFOS exposure, hypothalamic noradrenaline concentration increased in the anterior hypothalamus and in the median eminence, not changing in the mediobasal hypothalamus. PFOS treated rats presented a decrease of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) gene expression, increasing the mRNA levels of the luteinizing hormone (LH) in rats treated with all doses administered except with the dose of 6 mg/kg/day. PFOS also induced a raise of the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) gene expression in the animals exposed to 0.5 and 1.0 mg of PFOS/kg/day. After PFOS exposure, hypothalamic GnRH concentration was modified, LH and testosterone release was inhibited and FSH secretion was stimulated. Moreover, PFOS induced several histopathological alterations in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and testis. The results obtained in the present study suggest in general terms that PFOS can inhibit the physiological activity of the reproductive axis in adult male rats, which could be explained, at least in part, by the structural alterations showed in the animals exposed to this chemical: very dense chromatin, condensed ribosomes and a loss of the morphology in the hypothalamus; a degeneration of the gonadotrophic cells, as well as a loss and degeneration of the spermatozoids and a very marked edema in the testis.

  19. Airborne particles of the california central valley alter the lungs of healthy adult rats.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kevin R; Kim, Seongheon; Recendez, Julian J; Teague, Stephen V; Ménache, Margaret G; Grubbs, David E; Sioutas, Constantinos; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that airborne particulate matter (PM) with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm (PM10) is associated with an increase in respiratory-related disease. However, there is a growing consensus that particles < 2.5 microm (PM2.5), including many in the ultrafine (< 0.1 microm) size range, may elicit greater adverse effects. PM is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds; however, those components or properties responsible for biologic effects on the respiratory system have yet to be determined. During the fall and winter of 2000-2001, healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in six separate experiments to filtered air or combined fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine portions of ambient PM in Fresno, California, enhanced approximately 20-fold above outdoor levels. The intent of these studies was to determine if concentrated fine/ultrafine fractions of PM are cytotoxic and/or proinflammatory in the lungs of healthy adult rats. Exposures were for 4 hr/day for 3 consecutive days. The mean mass concentration of particles ranged from 190 to 847 microg/m3. PM was enriched primarily with ammonium nitrate, organic and elemental carbon, and metals. Viability of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from rats exposed to concentrated PM was significantly decreased during 4 of 6 weeks, compared with rats exposed to filtered air (p< 0.05). Total numbers of BAL cells were increased during 1 week, and neutrophil numbers were increased during 2 weeks. These observations strongly suggest exposure to enhanced concentrations of ambient fine/ultrafine particles in Fresno is associated with mild, but significant, cellular effects in the lungs of healthy adult rats. PMID:12782490

  20. The effects of undernutrition on connectivity in the cerebellar cortex of adult rats.

    PubMed Central

    Yucel, F; Warren, M A; Gumusburun, E

    1994-01-01

    The effects of a 30 d period of undernutrition, followed in some animals by nutritional rehabilitation, on neuronal connectivity in adult rat cerebellum were investigated using the disector method. There was no significant difference between well fed (719 +/- 74, mean +/- S.E.) and undernourished (709 +/- 53) synapse-to-neuron ratios in 134-d-old rat cerebellar cortex, nor was there a significant difference in synapse-to-neuron ratios between control animals (941 +/- 71) and previously undernourished rats (813 +/- 42) at 175 d of age. However, the age-related changes were significant (P < 0.05) in the controls, but not in the experimental group. It may be that the period of undernutrition caused subtle changes in the rehabilitating group which reduced the capacity for growth seen in well fed, matched control animals. PMID:8157493

  1. Altered hypothalamic-pituitary function in the adult female rat with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Spindler-Vomachka, M; Johnson, D C

    1985-01-01

    Infertility associated with anovulation and loss of regular oestrous cyclicity is a consequence of diabetes mellitus in the rat. In an attempt to define loci of altered function, studies were undertaken to examine various aspects of hypothalamic-pituitary function in rats treated with streptozotocin. Medial basal hypothalamic fragments from adult female diabetic rats contained the same amount of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone but, with depolarization, released slightly but insignificantly (p greater than 0.05) more than did those from control animals. Furthermore, release of luteinizing hormone from pituitaries exposed to hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone was not altered by diabetes. Removal of the negative feedback effect of gonadal steroids upon the hypothalamic-pituitary axis produced an increase in luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone concentrations in the serum of normal rats within 6h (p less than 0.05), whereas 24h were required for similar increases in diabetic rats. However, the same concentrations of gonadotrophins were found in diabetic and control animals 120 h after ovariectomy. The inhibitory action of oestradiol benzoate on the secretion of gonadotrophins was more pronounced in ovariectomized diabetic than in control rats. A 74% depression in serum luteinizing hormone (p less than 0.01) was produced by 0.5 microgram oestradiol benzoate per day in diabetic rats, while 5 micrograms was required in control animals. Similar reductions in follicle stimulating hormone concentrations (50%, p less than 0.05) were obtained by injecting 5 micrograms of the oestrogen into diabetic or 50 micrograms into control rats. Increases in serum prolactin were greater in the control animals however.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Testosterone potentiates the hypoxic ventilatory response of adult male rats subjected to neonatal stress.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Sébastien; Gulemetova, Roumiana; Joseph, Vincent; Kinkead, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Neonatal stress disrupts development of homeostatic systems. During adulthood, male rats subjected to neonatal maternal separation (NMS) are hypertensive and show a larger hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), with greater respiratory instability during sleep. Neonatal stress also affects sex hormone secretion; hypoxia increases circulating testosterone of NMS (but not control) male rats. Given that these effects of NMS are not observed in females, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone elevation is necessary for the stress-related increase of the HVR in adult male rats. Pups subjected to NMS were placed in an incubator for 3 h per day from postnatal day 3 to 12. Control pups remained undisturbed. Rats were reared until adulthood, and the HVR was measured by plethysmography (fractional inspired O2 = 0.12, for 20 min). We used gonadectomy to evaluate the effects of reducing testosterone on the HVR. Gonadectomy had no effect on the HVR of control animals but reduced that of NMS animals below control levels. Immunohistochemistry was used to quantify androgen receptors in brainstem areas involved in the HVR. Androgen receptor expression was generally greater in NMS rats than in control rats; the most significant increase was noted in the caudal region of the nucleus tractus solitarii. We conclude that the abnormal regulation of testosterone is important in stress-related augmentation of the HVR. The greater number of androgen receptors within the brainstem may explain why NMS rats are more sensitive to testosterone withdrawal. Based on the similarities of the cardiorespiratory phenotype of NMS rats and patients suffering from sleep-disordered breathing, these results provide new insight into its pathophysiology, especially sex-based differences in its prevalence.

  3. Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Arrant, Andrew E; Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2013-11-01

    The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28-34) and adult (PN67-74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the α₂ adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence.

  4. Reproductive toxicity of a single dose of 1,3-dinitrobenzene in two ages of young adult male rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB). Young adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24,...

  5. Impact of distillery soil leachate on haematology of Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Subhasini; Sharma, Arti; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Soni, Pratima; Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, Pradeep; Sharma, K P

    2007-09-01

    This study reports significant alterations in various haematological parameters such as red and white blood corpuscles counts, haemoglobin content and packed cell volume in adult Swiss albino mice orally administered with diluted distillery soil leachate (5%-20%) for 30 days. Soil leachate also affected red blood cell morphology (poikilocytosis). The haematology of exposed mice improved in the reversal groups. Present study infers contamination potential of distillery soil leachate in the groundwater.

  6. Effects of estradiol and methoxychlor on Leydig cell regeneration in the adult rat testis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingbing; Chen, Dongxin; Jiang, Zheli; Li, Jingyang; Liu, Shiwen; Dong, Yaoyao; Yao, Wenwen; Akingbemi, Benson; Ge, Renshan; Li, Xiaokun

    2014-05-06

    The objective of the present study is to determine whether methoxychlor (MXC) exposure in adulthood affects rat Leydig cell regeneration and to compare its effects with estradiol (E2). Adult 90-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS) to eliminate the adult Leydig cell population. Subsequently, rats were randomly assigned to four groups and gavaged with corn oil (control), 0.25 mg/kg E2 and 10 or 100 mg/kg MXC daily from days 5 to 30 post-EDS treatment. The results showed that MXC and E2 reduced serum testosterone levels on day 58 post-EDS treatment. qPCR showed Hsd17b3 mRNA levels were downregulated 7-15 fold by E2 and MXC, indicating that development of the new population of Leydig cells was arrested at the earlier stage. This observation was supported by the results of histochemical staining, which demonstrated that Leydig cells in MXC-treated testis on day 58 post-EDS treatment were mostly progenitor Leydig cells. However, Pdgfb mRNA levels were downregulated, while Lif transcript levels were increased by MXC. In contrast, E2 did not affect gene expression for these growth factors. In conclusion, our findings indicated that both MXC and E2 delayed rat Leydig cell regeneration in the EDS-treated model, presumably acting by different mechanisms.

  7. Effects of Estradiol and Methoxychlor on Leydig Cell Regeneration in the Adult Rat Testis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bingbing; Chen, Dongxin; Jiang, Zheli; Li, Jingyang; Liu, Shiwen; Dong, Yaoyao; Yao, Wenwen; Akingbemi, Benson; Ge, Renshan; Li, Xiaokun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine whether methoxychlor (MXC) exposure in adulthood affects rat Leydig cell regeneration and to compare its effects with estradiol (E2). Adult 90-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS) to eliminate the adult Leydig cell population. Subsequently, rats were randomly assigned to four groups and gavaged with corn oil (control), 0.25 mg/kg E2 and 10 or 100 mg/kg MXC daily from days 5 to 30 post-EDS treatment. The results showed that MXC and E2 reduced serum testosterone levels on day 58 post-EDS treatment. qPCR showed Hsd17b3 mRNA levels were downregulated 7–15 fold by E2 and MXC, indicating that development of the new population of Leydig cells was arrested at the earlier stage. This observation was supported by the results of histochemical staining, which demonstrated that Leydig cells in MXC-treated testis on day 58 post-EDS treatment were mostly progenitor Leydig cells. However, Pdgfb mRNA levels were downregulated, while Lif transcript levels were increased by MXC. In contrast, E2 did not affect gene expression for these growth factors. In conclusion, our findings indicated that both MXC and E2 delayed rat Leydig cell regeneration in the EDS-treated model, presumably acting by different mechanisms. PMID:24806340

  8. Neonatal Maternal Separation Augments Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Adult Males but Not Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Soliz, Jorge; Tam, Rose; Kinkead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity. Using an isolated and perfused ex vivo carotid body preparation from adult rats we compared carotid sinus nerve (CSN) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid bodies harvested from adult rats that either experienced control conditions (no experimental manipulation) or were subjected to NMS (3 h/day from postnatal days 3 to 12). In males, the CSN response to hypoxia measured in preparations from NMS males was 1.5 fold higher than controls. In control rats, the female's response was similar to that of males; however, the increase in CSN activity measured in NMS females was 3.0 times lower than controls. The CSN response to hypercapnia was not influenced by stress or sex. We conclude that NMS is sufficient to have persistent and sex-specific effects on the carotid body's response to hypoxia. Because NMS also has sex-specific effects on the neuroendocrine response to stress, we propose that carotid body function is influenced by stress hormones. This, in turn, leads to a predisposition toward cardio-respiratory disorders. PMID:27729873

  9. Perinatal thiamine restriction affects central GABA and glutamate concentrations and motor behavior of adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Vieira, Talita Hélen; de Freitas-Silva, Danielle Marra; Ribeiro, Andrea Frozino; Pereira, Sílvia Rejane Castanheira; Ribeiro, Ângela Maria

    2016-03-23

    The purposes of the present study were to investigate the effects of perinatal thiamine deficiency, from the 11th day of gestation until the 5th day of lactation, on motor behavior and neurochemical parameters in adult rat offspring, using 3-month-old, adult, male Wistar rats. All rats were submitted to motor tests, using the rotarod and paw print tasks. After behavioral tests, their thalamus, cerebellum and spinal cord were dissected for glutamate and GABA quantifications by high performance liquid chromatography. The thiamine-restricted mothers (RM) group showed a significant reduction of time spent on the rotarod at 25 rpm and an increase in hind-base width. A significant decrease of glutamate concentration in the cerebellum and an increase of GABA concentrations in the thalamus were also observed. For the offspring from control mothers (CM) group there were significant correlations between thalamic GABA concentrations and both rotarod performance and average hind-base width. In addition, for rats from the RM group a significant correlation between stride length and cerebellar GABA concentration was found. These results show that the deficiency of thiamine during an early developmental period affects certain motor behavior parameters and GABA and glutamate levels in specific brain areas. Hence, a thiamine deficiency episode during an early developmental period can induce motor impairments and excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter changes that are persistent and detectable in later periods of life. PMID:26836141

  10. Impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adult male and female rats following neonatal hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lumbroso, Delphine; Joseph, Vincent

    2009-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that neonatal exposure to hypoxia alters acclimatization to chronic hypoxia later in life. Rat pups were exposed to normobaric hypoxia (12% O(2); nHx group) in a sealed chamber, or to normoxia (21% O(2); nNx group) from the day before birth to postnatal day 10. The animals were then raised in normal conditions until reaching 12 wk of age. At this age, we assessed ventilatory and hematological acclimatization to chronic hypoxia by exposing male and female nHx and nNx rats for 2 wk to 10% O(2). Minute ventilation, metabolic rate, hypoxic ventilatory response, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were measured both before and after acclimatization. We also quantified right ventricular hypertrophy as an index of pulmonary hypertension both before and after acclimatization. There was a significant effect of neonatal hypoxia that decreases ventilatory response (relative to metabolic rate, VE/VCO(2)) to acute hypoxia before acclimatization in males but not in females. nHx rats had an impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia characterized by altered respiratory pattern and elevated hematocrit and hemoglobin levels after acclimatization, in both males and females. Right ventricular hypertrophy was present before and after acclimatization in nHx rats, indicating that neonatal hypoxia results in pulmonary hypertension in adults. We conclude that neonatal hypoxia impairs acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adults and may be a factor contributing to the establishment of chronic mountain sickness in humans living at high altitude.

  11. Basic fibroblast growth factor protects against excitotoxicity and chemical hypoxia in both neonatal and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, P B; Henshaw, R; Weise, J; Trubetskoy, V; Finklestein, S; Schulz, J B; Beal, M F

    1995-07-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a polypeptide growth factor that promotes neuronal survival. We recently found that systemic administration of bFGF protects against both excitotoxicity and hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal animals. In the present study, we examined whether systemically administered bFGF could prevent neuronal death induced by intrastriatal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or chemical hypoxia induced by intrastriatal injection of malonate in adult rats and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in neonatal rats. Systemic administration of bFGF (100 micrograms/kg) for three doses both before and after intrastriatal injection of either NMDA or malonate in adult rats produced a significant neuroprotective effect. In neonatal rats, bFGF produced dose-dependent significant neuroprotective effects against MPP+ neurotoxicity, with a maximal protection of approximately 50% seen with either a single dose of bFGF of 300 micrograms/kg or three doses of 100 micrograms/kg. These results show that systemic administration of bFGF is effective in preventing neuronal injury under circumstances in which the blood-brain barrier may be compromised, raising the possibility that this strategy could be effective in stroke.

  12. A spaceflight study of synaptic plasticity in adult rat vestibular maculas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    Behavioral signs of vestibular perturbation in altered gravity have not been well correlated with structural modifications in neurovestibular centers. This ultrastructural research investigated synaptic plasticity in hair cells of adult rat utricular maculas exposed to microgravity for nine days on a space shuttle. The hypothesis was that synaptic plasticity would be more evident in type II hair cells because they are part of a distributed modifying macular circuitry. All rats were shared with other investigators and were subjected to treatments unrelated to this experiment. Maculas were obtained from flight and control rats after shuttle return (R + 0) and nine days post-flight (R + 9). R + 9 rats had chromodacryorrhea, a sign of acute stress. Tissues were prepared for ultrastructural study by conventional methods. Ribbon synapses were counted in fifty serial sections from medial utricular macular regions of three rats of each flight and control group. Counts in fifty additional consecutive sections from one sample in each group established method reliability. All synapses were photographed and located to specific cells on mosaics of entire sections. Pooled data were analyzed statistically. Flown rats showed abnormal posture and movement at R + 0. They had statistically significant increases in total ribbon synapses and in sphere-like ribbons in both kinds of hair cells; in type II cells, pairs of synapses nearly doubled and clusters of 3 to 6 synapses increased twelve-fold. At R + 9, behavioral signs were normal. However, synapse counts remained high in both kinds of hair cells of flight maculas and were elevated in control type II cells. Only counts in type I cells showed statistically significant differences at R + 9. High synaptic counts at R + 9 may have resulted from stress due to experimental treatments. The results nevertheless demonstrate that adult maculas retain the potential for synaptic plasticity. Type II cells exhibited more synaptic plasticity, but

  13. Hyperforin alleviates mood deficits of adult rats suffered from early separation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Minghui; Liu, Chunhua; Qin, Xuan; Yang, Zhuo

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of hyperforin (Hyp) on adult rats suffered from early separation. Wistar infant rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group (CON), early separation from parents group (ESP), and early separation from parents+treatment with 3mg/kg/day Hyp group (ESP+Hyp). Postnatal rats of ESP group and ESP+Hyp group were separated from their mothers for 6h every day on the 14th day after birth, and this separation lasted for 3 weeks, while rats of CON group had no separation. Hyperforin was intragastric administrated on the 21th day after birth, and lasted for 2 weeks in ESP+Hyp group. After separation, adult rats were evaluated by using the open field test (OFT), novelty suppressed feeding test (NSF) and forced swimming test (FST). In OFT, time spent in central grids was much shorter in ESP group compared with that of CON group. After treatment with hyperforin, time spent in central area was much longer compared with that of ESP group. In NSF, the feeding latency of ESP group was much longer than that of CON group. After treatment with hyperforin, the feeding latency was shorter compared with that of ESP group. In FST, score of ESP group was markedly higher than that of CON group. Interestingly, the score was obviously lower in ESP+Hyp group than that of ESP group. In conclusion, these results suggest that hyperforin is able to alleviate anxiety and remit depression in ESP rats. PMID:26420027

  14. A new protocol for cultivation of predegenerated adult rat Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Pietrucha-Dutczakv, Marita; Marcol, Wiesław; Francuz, Tomasz; Gołka, Dariusz; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize the methodology of cultivation of predegenerated Schwann cells (SCs). SCs were isolated from 7-day-predegenerated sciatic nerves of adult rats. We applied commercially available culture medium for cultivation of endothelial cells endothelial cell culture medium (EBM-2) instead of Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium commonly used to culture adult Schwann cells. Additionally, cell culture medium was supplemented with factors specifically supporting SCs growth as: bovine pituitary extract (5 μg/ml), heregulin (40 ng/ml) and insulin (2.5 ng/ml). Similarly to the reports of others authors, we did not observe any beneficial effects of Forskolin application, so we didn't supplement our medium with it. Cell culture purity was determined by counting the ratio of GFAP, N-Cadherin and NGFR p75-positive cells to total number of cells. About 94-97 % of cells were confirmed as Schwann cells. As a result, we obtained sufficient number and purity of Schwann cells to be applied in different experimental models in rats. EBM-2 medium coated with fibronectin was the best for cultivation of adult rat Schwann cells.

  15. Caffeine in the neonatal period induces long-lasting changes in sleep and breathing in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Montandon, Gaspard; Horner, Richard L; Kinkead, Richard; Bairam, Aida

    2009-11-15

    Caffeine is commonly used clinically to treat apnoeas and unstable breathing associated with premature birth. Caffeine antagonizes adenosine receptors and acts as an efficient respiratory stimulant in neonates. Owing to its persistent effects on adenosine receptor expression in the brain, neonatal caffeine administration also has significant effects on maturation of the respiratory control system. However, since adenosine receptors are critically involved in sleep regulation, and sleep also modulates breathing, we tested the hypothesis that neonatal caffeine treatment disrupts regulation of sleep and breathing in the adult rat. Neonatal caffeine treatment (15 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) was administered from postnatal days 3-12. At adulthood (8-10 weeks old), sleep and breathing were measured with a telemetry system and whole-body plethysmography respectively. In adult rats treated with caffeine during the neonatal period, sleep time was reduced, sleep onset latency was increased, and non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep was fragmented compared to controls. Ventilation at rest was higher in caffeine-treated adult rats compared to controls across sleep/wake states. Hypercapnic ventilatory responses were significantly reduced in caffeine-treated rats compared to control rats across sleep/wake states. Additional experiments in adult anaesthetized rats showed that at similar levels of arterial blood gases, phrenic nerve activity was enhanced in caffeine-treated rats. This study demonstrates that administration of caffeine in the neonatal period alters respiratory control system activity in awake and sleeping rats, as well as in the anaesthetized rats, and also has persistent disrupting effects on sleep that are apparent in adult rats.

  16. Brain Pathology in Adult Rats Treated With Domoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Vieira, A C; Alemañ, N; Cifuentes, J M; Bermúdez, R; Peña, M López; Botana, L M

    2015-11-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin reported to produce damage to the hippocampus, which plays an important role in memory. The authors inoculated rats intraperitoneally with an effective toxic dose of DA to study the distribution of the toxin in major internal organs by using immunohistochemistry, as well as to evaluate the induced pathology by means of histopathologic and immunohistochemical methods at different time points after toxin administration (6, 10, and 24 hours; 5 and 54 days). DA was detected by immunohistochemistry exclusively in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus at 6 and 10 hours after dosing. Lesions induced by DA were prominent at 5 days following treatment in selected regions of the brain: hippocampus, amygdala, piriform and perirhinal cortices, olfactory tubercle, septal nuclei, and thalamus. The authors found 2 types of lesions: delayed death of selective neurons and large areas of necrosis, both accompanied by astrocytosis and microgliosis. At 54 days after DA exposure, the pathology was characterized by still-distinguishable dying neurons, calcified lesions in the thalamus, persistent astrocytosis, and pronounced microgliosis. The expression of nitric oxide synthases suggests a role for nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of neuronal degeneration and chronic inflammation induced by DA in the brain.

  17. CYTOPLASMIC INCLUSIONS RESEMBLING NUCLEOLI IN SYMPATHETIC NEURONS OF ADULT RATS

    PubMed Central

    Grillo, Mary A.

    1970-01-01

    A distinctive cytoplasmic inclusion consisting of a convoluted network of electron-opaque strands embedded in a less dense matrix was identified in the neurons, but not in the supporting cells, of rat sympathetic ganglia. This ball-like structure, designated "nematosome," measures ∼ 0.9 µ and lacks a limiting membrane. Its strands (diameter = 400–600 A) appear to be made of an entanglement of tightly packed filaments and particles ∼ 25–50 A thick. Cytochemical studies carried out with the light microscope suggest the presence of nonhistone proteins and some RNA. Usually only one such structure is present in a cell, and it appears to occur in most ganglion cells. Although they can be seen anywhere in the cell body, nematosomes are typically located in the perinuclear cytoplasm, where they are often associated with smooth-surfaced and coated vesicles. In fine structure and stainability, they bear a resemblance to the fibrous component of the nucleolus. Subsynaptic formations, which are a special feature of some of the synapses in sympathetic ganglia, appear similar to the threadlike elements in the nematosomes. The possibility that these three structures—nucleolus, nematosome, and subsynaptic formation—may be interrelated in origin and function is discussed. PMID:5458990

  18. Behavioral deficits in adult rats treated neonatally with glutamate.

    PubMed

    Hlinák, Zdenek; Gandalovicová, Dana; Krejcí, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated long-term behavioral consequences of neonatal monosodium-l-glutamate (MSG) treatment in rats. The pups received MSG (3 mg/g sc) daily from postnatal day (PD) 5-12. Data from an automatic activity monitor showed that locomotion of MSG-treated females and males aged 56 and 84 days was significantly reduced. Beginning PD 120, three behavioral tests were performed. As compared to the controls, in the elevated plus maze test, modified to evaluate the adaptive form of spatial memory, MSG-treated animals of both sex had significantly prolonged start and transfer latencies. In the social recognition test, assessing olfactory working memory, MSG-treated males displayed a reduced interest in the juvenile conspecific as the stimulus partner during both the initial exposure and re-exposure performed 30 min later. In the open field test, a significant decrease in the habituation rate was found in MSG-treated animals. Sex-dependent differences in behavioral performance were suggested in the open field and elevated plus maze tests. Behavioral changes are discussed in light of the deficits in perception and processing of visual and olfactory stimuli.

  19. Distribution of melanopsin positive neurons in pigmented and albino mice: evidence for melanopsin interneurons in the mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Valiente-Soriano, Francisco J.; García-Ayuso, Diego; Ortín-Martínez, Arturo; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Galindo-Romero, Caridad; Villegas-Pérez, Maria Paz; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Vugler, Anthony A.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Here we have studied the population of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in adult pigmented and albino mice. Our data show that although pigmented (C57Bl/6) and albino (Swiss) mice have a similar total number of ipRGCs, their distribution is slightly different: while in pigmented mice ipRGCs are more abundant in the temporal retina, in albinos the ipRGCs are more abundant in superior retina. In both strains, ipRGCs are located in the retinal periphery, in the areas of lower Brn3a+RGC density. Both strains also contain displaced ipRGCs (d-ipRGCs) in the inner nuclear layer (INL) that account for 14% of total ipRGCs in pigmented mice and 5% in albinos. Tracing from both superior colliculli shows that 98% (pigmented) and 97% (albino) of the total ipRGCs, become retrogradely labeled, while double immunodetection of melanopsin and Brn3a confirms that few ipRGCs express this transcription factor in mice. Rather surprisingly, application of a retrograde tracer to the optic nerve (ON) labels all ipRGCs, except for a sub-population of the d-ipRGCs (14% in pigmented and 28% in albino, respectively) and melanopsin positive cells residing in the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) of the retina. In the CMZ, between 20% (pigmented) and 24% (albino) of the melanopsin positive cells are unlabeled by the tracer and we suggest that this may be because they fail to send an axon into the ON. As such, this study provides the first evidence for a population of melanopsin interneurons in the mammalian retina. PMID:25477787

  20. Chronic systemic administration of 5-HT produces weight loss in mature adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S

    1995-09-01

    Adult male rats were allowed to free-feed until their body weights had stabilised. They were next trained onto a 4 h per day feeding regimen, until further stabilisation occurred. All rats then received saline injections for 5 days, to establish baseline body weights. One group was then injected with 5.0 mg/kg 5-HT daily for 30 days while the other group continued with saline. Progressive and significant weight loss occurred in the drug-treated animals. After 30 days, the 5-HT-treated rats had lost 7.0% of their baseline body weights, whereas the control group had gained 1.3%. At this point, the 5-HT treated rats were switched back to saline injections to investigate rebound effects. Although the group that had received 5-HT treatment showed evidence of rebound weight gain, mean weights at the end of the 10 day rebound period were still 4.5% lower than baseline values. These data clearly indicate that chronic systemic administration of 5-HT can produce considerable weight loss in rats.

  1. Effect of restraint and copper deficiency on blood pressure and mortality of adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Klevay, L.M.; Halas, E.S. )

    1989-02-01

    The etiology of most hypertension is unknown; stress is thought to elevate blood pressure. Male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a purified diet plus a drinking solution containing 10{mu}g Zn and 2{mu}g Cu/ml (acetate sulfate, respectively). Systolic blood pressure was measured without anesthesia. After being matched by mean weight (280g) and blood pressure into 4 groups of 15, groups 1 and 2 received a drinking solution without copper. After 24 days rats in groups 2 and 4 were restrained for 45 min. daily (A.M.) for 23 days in a small plastic cage (19{times}6{times}6 cm). Final pressures were affected both by stress and dietary Cu: group 1, 119; group 2, 131; group 3, 114; group 4, 123 mm Hg. One rat in each of groups 1, 3, 4 and 10 rats in group 2, died. Among these latter hemorrhage was prominent, blood being found in bladder (2), gut (2), peritoneum (2) and scrotum (1). Copper deficiency decreased cooper in both adrenal gland and liver by 58% and in heart by 29% restraint was without effect. Cardiac sodium was increased 6% only by deficiency. Results confirm the hypertensive effect of copper deficiency in adult rats and reveal that the stress of restraint increases blood pressure. Copper deficiency plus stress is harmful.

  2. γ/δ Cells in Fetal, Neonatal, and Adult Rat Lymphoid Organs

    PubMed Central

    Kühnlein, P.; Vicente, A.; Varas, A.; Hünig, T.

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, we have analyzed the appearance and maturation of γ/δ T cells, recognized with a new mAb V65, in the central and peripheral lymphoid organs of fetal, neonatal, and adult Wistar rats. Cytofluorometrical analysis demonstrated the first V65+ γ/δ T cells in the thymus of 16-17-day embryonic rats, although by immunohistology, they were identified only in 19-day rat embryos in both the cortico-medullary border and thymic medulla. Phenotypically, γ/δ thymocytes from fetal and neonatal thymus expressed CD3, CD2, and CD5, but only 60-80% were CD8+ and approximately 40-50% expressed the α chain (p55) of the IL-2R. In the periphery, the immunohistological study identified for the first time ,γ/δ T cells in the splenic white pulp and the gut of 21-day fetal rats, where they occurred within the epithelium as well as in the lamina propria. After birth, γ/δ lymphocytes appeared in the skin, where they were present as dendritic epidermal T cells in increasing numbers during postnatal life. Whereas these γ/δ T cells formed the predominant T-cell population in the rat skin, γ/δ T cells in peripheral lymphoid organs, BALT, or the gut only represented a minor T-cell population. These results are discussed in comparison to γ/δ T cells of other vertebrate species. PMID:8770557

  3. Myocardial infarction induces cognitive impairment by increasing the production of hydrogen peroxide in adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunhua; Liu, Ye; Yang, Zhuo

    2014-02-01

    Accumulating clinical evidence has shown a causal relationship between heart diseases and cognitive impairment in clinical, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, rats with myocardial infarction (MI) were used to investigate cognition-related synaptic function and proteins. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to MI by ligating of left anterior descending artery (LAD) and the infarct size of rat heart was measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazoium chloride (TTC) staining. In this study, results showed that compared with control group, long-term potentiation was suppressed in dentate gyrus area, the contents of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde were significantly increased, whereas the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase activity and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 2B were attenuated in hippocampus of MI rats. Interestingly, it was observed that the PI3K/Akt pathway was activated in MI rats. Therefore, this study suggests that H2O2 plays an important role in cognitive dysfunction induced by MI.

  4. Early deprivation reduced anxiety and enhanced memory in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuliang; Wang, Bo; Jin, Jing; An, Shuming; Zeng, Qingwen; Duan, Yanhong; Yang, Liguo; Ma, Jing; Cao, Xiaohua

    2014-09-01

    The effects of early deprivation (ED, which involves both dam and littermate deprivation) on anxiety and memory are less investigated in comparison with maternal separation (MS), and it is not yet clear how ED affects long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal Schaffer collateral pathway. By using a series of behavioral tests, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and field potential recording, we explored the effect of pre-weaning daily 3-h ED on anxiety, memory and potential mechanisms in adult male rats. Compared with control, ED rats spent longer time in open arms of elevated plus maze and in light compartment of light-dark transition box. Consistently, stress-induced blood plasma corticosterone level was also lower in ED rats. Moreover, ED rats showed better performance in social recognition and Morris water maze test. In accordance with results in memory tests, the threshold of LTP induction in hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway of ED rats was also reduced. Our results indicate ED reduced anxiety, but enhanced social recognition and spatial reference memory. We suggest the diminished hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response and facilitated hippocampal LTP may contribute to the anxiety-reducing and memory-enhancing effects of ED, respectively.

  5. The developmental effects of extremely low frequency electric fields on visual and somatosensory evoked potentials in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Gok, Deniz Kantar; Akpinar, Deniz; Hidisoglu, Enis; Ozen, Sukru; Agar, Aysel; Yargicoglu, Piraye

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the developmental effects of extremely low frequency electric fields (ELF-EFs) on visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) and to examine the relationship between lipid peroxidation and changes of these potentials. In this context, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were determined as an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Wistar albino female rats were divided into four groups; Control (C), gestational (prenatal) exposure (Pr), gestational+ postnatal exposure (PP) and postnatal exposure (Po) groups. Pregnant rats of Pr and PP groups were exposed to 50 Hz electric field (EF) (12 kV/m; 1 h/day), while those of C and Po groups were placed in an inactive system during pregnancy. Following parturition, rats of PP and Po groups were exposed to ELF-EFs whereas rats of C and Pr groups were kept under the same experimental conditions without being exposed to any EF during 68 days. On postnatal day 90, rats were prepared for VEP and SEP recordings. The latencies of VEP components in all experimental groups were significantly prolonged versus C group. For SEPs, all components of PP group, P2, N2 components of Pr group and P1, P2, N2 components of Po group were delayed versus C group. As brain TBARS levels were significantly increased in Pr and Po groups, retina TBARS levels were significantly elevated in all experimental groups versus C group. In conclusion, alterations seen in evoked potentials, at least partly, could be explained by lipid peroxidation in the retina and brain.

  6. Acute lethal graft-versus-host disease stimulates cellular proliferation in the adult rat liver.

    PubMed

    Klein, R M; Clancy, J; Stuart, S

    1982-11-01

    The present investigation was designed to analyse the effects of acute lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in adult (DA x LEW)F1 rats on cellular proliferation within the liver. The influence of the host thymus on GVHD-induced proliferation was also assessed. From 1-28 days after initiation of GVHD [3H]thymidine ([3H]-TdR) was injected i.v. and rats were killed one hour later. Percentage labelled cells (LI) of periportal infiltrating cells (PIC), hepatocytes (H), and sinusoidal lining cells (SC) were counted. Mean values for control rats were 0.3 +/- 0.1% (H), 0.4 +/- 0.1% (SC) and 0.2 +/- 0.1% (PIC). GVHD rats demonstrated a significant increase in LI of PIC (days 1-21), SC (days 2-17) and H (days 2-17). Most labelled cells in PIC were large lymphocytes. Peak LI values were 7.0 +/- 1.0% PIC (day 17), 6.8 +/- 0.9% SC (day 17), and 5.2 +/- 0.9% H (day 7), with all cellular compartments returning to near normal LI values by day 28. Stimulation of cellular proliferation occurred in all three liver cell compartments in neonatally thymectomized (TXM) rats. The intensity of GVHD-induced cell proliferation was significantly decreased at day 7 in all compartments and PIC was dramatically decreased at day 21 in TXM-GVHD rats as compared to non-TXM-GVHD rats. It is hypothesized that the general stimulation of hepatocyte cell proliferation in GVHD is related to the secretion of lymphokines by primarily donor and secondarily host T cells in the periportal infiltrate. PMID:7172201

  7. Hypothyroidism increases prolactin secretion and decreases the intromission threshold for induction of pseudopregnancy in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Tohei, A; Taya, K; Watanabe, G; Voogt, J L

    In order to understand the mechanism by which thyroid hormones alter prolactin (PRL) secretion, we investigated the role of tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons and pituitary and hypothalamus vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in thiouracil- (0. 03% in drinking water for 16 days) induced-hypothyroid adult female rats. The intromission threshold for induction of pseudopregnancy also was examined to evaluate the PRL response to coital stimulation in hypothyroid rats. Hypothyroidism in adult female rats did not affect TIDA neuronal activity as measured by tyrosine hydroxylase activity (DOPA accumulation 30 min after administration of m-hydroxybenzylhydrazine dihydrochloride, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) in the stalk-median eminence compared with that in euthyroid rats, whereas pituitary concentration of VIP was dramatically increased. Plasma concentration of PRL was higher at 1100 h of proestrus and estrus in hypothyroid rats as compared with that of euthyroid rats. The proportion of female rats exhibiting pseudopregnancy was higher in hypothyroid animals (100%) receiving seven intromissions than in euthyroid animals (43%). Administration of L-thyroxine in hypothyroid rats decreased the proportion of pseudopregnancy (40%) to the level of euthyroid animals. These results indicate that the increased level of pituitary VIP probably affects PRL secretion in a paracrine or autocrine manner and account for the hyperprolactinemia induced in hypothyroid female rats. No role for TIDA neurons in PRL elevation can be ascribed. A decrease in the intromission threshold for induction of pseudopregnancy might be due to increased levels of PRL in hypothyroid female rats.

  8. Antidepressant Activity of Brahmi in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kadali, SLDV Ramana Murty; M.C., Das; Rao A.S.R., Srinivasa; Sri G, Karuna

    2014-01-01

    Context: In traditional system of medicine brahmi has been used to enhance memory. Recently it has been reported to have action in psychiatric disorders. With these backgrounds the work has been undertaken to study antidepressant activity of brahmi in albino mice. Aim: To evaluate antidepressant activity of brahmi in experimental models. Materials and Methods: The antidepressant activity was studied in albino mice using forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and shock induced depression (SID). Imipramine (10mg/kg), fluoxetine (30mg/kg) were used as standard drugs and brahmi (10, 20, 30mg/kg) was used as test drug. Results: Brahmi exhibited significant decrease in duration of immobility in FST and reduced the shock induced decrease in activity in SID models. It didn’t show any activity in the TST model. Conclusion: Brahmi has shown antidepressant activity in FST and SID. PMID:24783074

  9. Circadian rhythm of intraocular pressure in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Diana C; Hartwick, Andrew T E; Twa, Michael D

    2015-05-01

    Ocular hypertension is a risk factor for developing glaucoma, which consists of a group of optic neuropathies characterized by progressive degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and subsequent irreversible vision loss. Our understanding of how intraocular pressure damages the optic nerve is based on clinical measures of intraocular pressure that only gives a partial view of the dynamic pressure load inside the eye. Intraocular pressure varies over the course of the day and the oscillator regulating these daily changes has not yet been conclusively identified. The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast the circadian rhythms of intraocular pressure and body temperature in Brown Norway rats when these animals are housed in standard light-dark and continuous dim light (40-90 lux) conditions. The results from this study show that the temperature rhythm measured in continuous dim light drifted forward relative to external time, indicating that the rhythm was free running and being regulated by an internal biological clock. Also, the results show that there is a persistent, but dampened, circadian rhythm of intraocular pressure in continuous dim light and that the circadian rhythms of temperature and intraocular pressure are not synchronized by the same central oscillator. We conclude that once- or twice-daily clinical measures of intraocular pressure are insufficient to describe intraocular pressure dynamics. Similarly, our results indicate that, in experimental animal models of glaucoma, the common practice of housing animals in constant light does not necessarily eliminate the potential influence of intraocular pressure rhythms on the progression of nerve damage. Future studies should aim to determine whether an oscillator within the eye regulates the rhythm of intraocular pressure and to better characterize the impact of glaucoma on this rhythm.

  10. Differential Effects of Inhaled Toluene on Locomotor Activity in Adolescent and Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Batis, Jeffery C.; Hannigan, John H.; Bowen, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    Inhalant abuse is a world-wide public health concern among adolescents. Most preclinical studies have assessed inhalant effects in adult animals leaving unclear how behavioral effects differ in younger animals. We exposed adolescent (postnatal day [PN] 28) and adult (PN90) male rats to toluene using 1 of 3 exposure patterns. These patterns modeled those reported in toluene abuse in teens and varied concentration, number and length of exposures, as well as the inter-exposure interval. Animals were exposed repeatedly over 12 days to toluene concentrations of 0, 8,000 or 16,000 parts per million (ppm). Locomotor activity was quantified during toluene exposures and for 30 min following completion of the final daily toluene exposure. For each exposure pattern, there were significant toluene concentration-related increases and decreases in locomotor activity compared to the 0-ppm “air” controls at both ages. These changes depended upon when activity was measured – during or following exposure. Compared to adults, adolescents displayed greater locomotor activity on the first day and generally greater increases in activity over days than adults during toluene exposure. Adults displayed greater locomotor activity than adolescents in the “recovery” period following exposure on the first and subsequent days. Age group differences were clearest following the pattern of paced, brief (5-min) repeated binge exposures. The results suggest that locomotor behavior in rats during and following inhalation of high concentrations of toluene depends on age and the pattern of exposure. The results are consistent with dose-dependent shifts in sensitivity and sensitization or tolerance to repeated toluene in the adolescent animals compared to the adult animals. Alternate interpretations are possible and our interpretation is limited by the range of very high concentrations of toluene used. The results imply that both pharmacological and psychosocial factors contribute to the teen

  11. Alterations in cytochrome P-450 levels in adult rats following neonatal exposure to xenobiotics

    SciTech Connect

    Zangar, R.C. Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA ); Springer, D.L. ); Buhler, D.R. )

    1993-01-01

    Neonatal exposure to certain xenobiotics has been shown to alter hepatic metabolism in adult rats in a manner that indicates long-term changes in enzyme regulation. Previously, the authors have observed changes in adult testosterone metabolism and in cytochrome P-450 (P-450) mRNA levels in animals neonatally exposed to phenobarbital (PB) or diethylstilbestrol (DES). In order to test for other enzyme alterations, they used Western blot procedures for specific P-450s to analyze hepatic microsomes from adult rats (24 wk old) that had been exposed neonatally to DES, PB, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), or pregnenolone 16[alpha]-carbonitrile (PCN). The most striking effects were observed in the DES-treated males: P-4502C6 and an immunologically similar protein were increased 60 and 90%, respectively, relative to control values, but P-4503A2 was decreased by 44%. No changes were observed in the DES-treated males in levels of P-4502E1, P-4502B, or the male-specific P-4502C13. Adult males neonatally treated with PB had 150% increase in levels of anti-P4502B-reactive protein without significant changes in the other enzymes. The DES- and DMBA-treated females had increased levels of the female-specific P-4502C12 of 38 and 48%, respectively, but no other observed alterations. The results confirm that neonatal exposure to DES or PB can cause alterations in adult hepatic cytochrome P-450 levels but show that these chemicals act on different enzymes. Neonatal DMBA resulted in changes in adult females similar to those produced by the synthetic estrogen DES, but did so at about two-thirds lower dose. 37 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Prenatal exposure to dexamethasone alters Leydig cell steroidogenic capacity in immature and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Page, K C; Sottas, C M; Hardy, M P

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the effects of prenatal exposure to dexamethasone (DEX) on postnatal testosterone production in male rats. Pregnant female rats were treated on gestation days 14-19 with DEX (100 microg/kg body weight per day; n = 9) or vehicle (n = 9). Results show that 35-day-old male offspring from DEX-treated pregnant females (n = 42) had decreased levels of serum testosterone (45.6% lower, P < .05) compared with control offspring (n = 43), although serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were not significantly altered. These findings suggest that a direct programming of developing gonadal cells occurs in response to high levels of maternal glucocorticoid. Indeed, testosterone production was significantly reduced in Leydig cells isolated from immature offspring of DEX-treated pregnant females compared with controls (48.3%, P < .001), and LH stimulation of these cells did not compensate for the lowered steroidogenic capacity. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis was also affected, because significant reductions in both serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 26.2%, P < .001) and corticosterone (CORT; 32.3%, P < .001) were measured in DEX-exposed immature male offspring. In contrast, adult male offspring from DEX-treated dams had significantly higher levels of serum ACTH (39.2%, P <. 001) and CORT (37.8%, P < .001). These same animals had higher serum testosterone (31.6%, P < or = .05) and a significant reduction in serum LH (30.8%, P < .001). Moreover, Leydig cells isolated from these adult offspring exhibited an increased capacity for testosterone biosynthesis under basal (38.6%, P < .001) and LH-stimulated conditions (33.5%, P < .001). In summary, sustained changes in steroidogenic capacity were observed in male rats exposed to high levels of glucocorticoid during prenatal development. More specifically, DEX exposure in utero perturbed Leydig cell testosterone production in both pubertal and adult rats.

  13. Infrasound increases intracellular calcium concentration and induces apoptosis in hippocampi of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaohui; Gong, Li; Li, Xiaofang; Ye, Lin; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jing; Qiu, Jianyong; Jiao, Huiduo; Zhang, Wendong; Chen, Jingzao; Wang, Jiuping

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the effect of infrasonic exposure on apoptosis and intracellular free Ca²⁺ ([Ca²⁺]i) levels in the hippocampus of adult rats. Adult rats were randomly divided into the control and infrasound exposure groups. For infrasound treatment, animals received infrasonic exposure at 90 (8 Hz) or 130 dB (8 Hz) for 2 h per day. Hippocampi were dissected, and isolated hippocampal neurons were cultured. The [Ca²⁺]i levels in hippocampal neurons from adult rat brains were determined by Fluo-3/AM staining with a confocal microscope system on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 following infrasonic exposure. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide double staining. Positive cells were sorted and analyzed by flow cytometry. Elevated [Ca²⁺]i levels were observed on days 14 and 21 after rats received daily treatment with 90 or 130 dB sound pressure level (SPL) infrasonic exposure (p<0.01 vs. control). The highest levels of [Ca²⁺]i were detected in the 130 dB SPL infrasonic exposure group. Meanwhile, apoptosis in hippocampal neurons was found to increase on day 7 following 90 dB SPL infrasound exposure, and significantly increased on day 14. Upon 130 dB infrasound treatment, apoptosis was first observed on day 14, whereas the number of apoptotic cells gradually decreased thereafter. Additionally, a marked correlation between cell apoptosis and [Ca²⁺]i levels was found on day 14 and 21 following daily treatment with 90 and 130 dB SPL, respectively. These results demonstrate that a period of infrasonic exposure induced apoptosis and upregulated [Ca²⁺]i levels in hippocampal neurons, suggesting that infrasound may cause damage to the central nervous system (CNS) through the Ca²⁺‑mediated apoptotic pathway in hippocampal neurons. PMID:21946944

  14. Perinatal iron deficiency affects locomotor behavior and water maze performance in adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Bourque, Stephane L; Iqbal, Umar; Reynolds, James N; Adams, Michael A; Nakatsu, Kanji

    2008-05-01

    Iron deficiency during early growth and development adversely affects multiple facets of cognition and behavior in adult rats. The purpose of this study was to assess the nature of the learning and locomotor behavioral deficits observed in male and female rats in the absence of depressed brain iron levels at the time of testing. Adult female Wistar rats were fed either an iron-enriched diet (>225 mg/kg Fe) or an iron-restricted diet (3 mg/kg Fe) for 2 wk prior to and throughout gestation, and a nonpurified diet (270 mg/kg Fe) thereafter. Open-field (OF) and Morris water maze (MWM) testing began when the offspring reached early adulthood (12 wk). At birth, perinatal iron-deficient (PID) offspring had reduced (P < 0.001) hematocrits (-33%), liver iron stores (-83%), and brain iron concentrations (-38%) compared with controls. Although there were no differences in iron status in adults, the PID males and females exhibited reduced OF exploratory behavior, albeit only PID males had an aversion to the center of the apparatus (2.5 vs. 6.9% in controls, P < 0.001). Additionally, PID males required greater path lengths to reach the hidden platform in the MWM, had reduced spatial bias for the target quadrant, and had a tendency for greater thigmotactic behavior in the probe trials (16.5 vs. 13.0% in controls; P = 0.06). PID females had slower swim speeds in all testing phases (-6.2%; P < 0.001). These results suggest that PID has detrimental programming effects in both male and female rats, although the behaviors suggest different mechanisms may be involved in each sex.

  15. Efficacy of Retigabine on Acute Limbic Seizures in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, LK; Slomko, AM; Wongvravit, JP; Naseer, Z; Hu, S; Wan, WY; Ali, SS

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The efficacy of retigabine (RGB), a positive allosteric modulator of K+ channels indicated for adjunct treatment of partial seizures, was studied in two adult models of kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus to determine it’s toleratbility. Methods: Retigabine was administered systemiclly at high (5 mg/kg) and low (1–2 mg/kg) doses either 30 min prior to or 2 hr after KA-induced status epilepticus. High (1 µg/µL) and low (0.25 µg/µL) concentrations of RGB were also delivered by intrahippocampal microinjection in the presence of KA. Results: Dose-dependent effects of RGB were observed with both models. Lower doses increased seizure behavior latency and reduced the number of single spikes and synchronized burst events in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Higher doses worsened seizure behavior, produced severe ataxia, and increased spiking activity. Animals treated with RGB that were resistant to seizures did not exhibit significant injury or loss in GluR1 expression; however if stage 5–6 seizures were reached, typical hippocampal injury and depletion of GluR1 subunit protein in vulernable pyramidal fields occurred. Conclusions: RGB was neuroprotective only if seizures were significantly attenuated. GluR1 was simultaneously suppressed in the resistant granule cell layer in presence of RGB which may weaken excitatory transmission. Biphasic effects observed herein suggest that the human dosage must be carefully scrutinized to produce the optimal clinical response. PMID:26819936

  16. Histomorphometric evaluation of renal glomeruli exposed to sustained delivery of estrogen using adult ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Naiel A; Benghuzzi, Hamed; Tucci, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    Hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) has shown to be efficacious in treatment and preventing of heart disease, osteoporosis and reducing mortality in postmenopausal and ovariectomized females. Several attempts to utilize the native estrogen and its analogs such as Depo-Provera, conjugated estrogen and estrogen benzoate have shown different physiological responses. In addition, the route of administration and its mode of action is lacking in the literature. The specific objective of this study was to investigate the role of sustained delivery of estrogen on the functional and structural capacity of the kidney using adult female rats as a model. A total of 24 adult female rats were subdivided into four equal groups. Groups I and II were ovariectomized (OVX) by following standard laboratory surgical procedures. Each rat in groups II and III (intact) were implanted with tricalcium phosphate lysine (TCPL) drug delivery system loaded with 40 mg of estrogen. Rats in group IV were unimplanted and untreated to be served as a control group. At the end of 45 days post treatment the animals were sacrificed by using overdose of Halothane and assured by cervical dislocation. Vital and reproductive organs were retrieved, weighed and subjected to H&E staining procedure. The results of this investigation suggest: (i) TCPL delivery system released estrogen at a sustained level for 45 days without any untoward response, (ii) the wet weights of kidneys (normalized to body weight) were increased (p < 0.05) in intact rats treated with estrogen compared to control, (iii) sustained delivery of estrogen resulted in a maintenance of kidney weights compared to the control level, however, the lack of estrogen treatment resulted in a remarkable regression in the kidney weights of OVX rats, (iv) the ratio of renal arteries-diameter (normalized to arterial wall thickness) was significantly increased in intact rats treated with estrogen compared to the control and other experimental groups, (v

  17. Diethyl hexyl phthalate-induced changes in insulin signaling molecules and the protective role of antioxidant vitamins in gastrocnemius muscle of adult male rat

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, Chinnapaiyan; Khan, Adam Ismail; Balaji, Venkataraman; Selvaraj, Jayaraman; Balasubramanian, Karundevi

    2011-12-15

    Diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an endocrine disruptor, it influences various organ systems in human beings and experimental animals. DEHP reduced the serum testosterone and increased the blood glucose, estradiol, T{sub 3} and T{sub 4} in rats. However, the effect of DEHP on insulin signaling and glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle is not known. Adult male albino rats were divided into four groups: Group I: Control; Groups II and III: DEHP treated (dissolved in olive oil at a dose of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days); and Group IV: DEHP (100 mg/kg body weight) plus vitamins E (50 mg/kg body weight) and C (100 mg/kg body weight) dissolved in olive oil and distilled water, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days. On completion of treatment, animals were euthanized and perfused (whole body); gastrocnemius muscle was dissected out and subjected to assessment of various parameters. DEHP treatment increased the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, hydroxyl radical levels and lipid peroxidation which disrupt the membrane integrity and insulin receptor. DEHP impaired the insulin signal transduction, glucose uptake and oxidation through decreased expression of plasma membrane GLUT4, which may partly be responsible for the elevation of fasting blood glucose level. The present study suggests that DEHP exposure affects glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle and is mediated through enhanced lipid peroxidation, impaired insulin signaling and GLUT4 expression in plasma membrane. Antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have a protective role against the adverse effect of DEHP. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DEHP treatment significantly decreased serum insulin and testosterone levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased ROS and decreased glucose uptake were observed in DEHP treated animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impaired insulin signaling in gastrocnemius muscle was observed in DEHP treatment. Black

  18. Environmental enrichment alters glial antigen expression and neuroimmune function in the adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Lauren L; Chao, Agnes; Bilbo, Staci D

    2012-03-01

    Neurogenesis is a well-characterized phenomenon within the dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult hippocampus. Environmental enrichment (EE) in rodents increases neurogenesis, enhances cognition, and promotes recovery from injury. However, little is known about the effects of EE on glia (astrocytes and microglia). Given their importance in neural repair, we predicted that EE would modulate glial phenotype and/or function within the hippocampus. Adult male rats were housed either 12 h/day in an enriched environment or in a standard home cage. Rats were injected with BrdU at 1 week, and after 7 weeks, half of the rats from each housing group were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and cytokine and chemokine expression was assessed within the periphery, hippocampus and cortex. Enriched rats had a markedly blunted pro-inflammatory response to LPS within the hippocampus. Specifically, expression of the chemokines Ccl2, Ccl3 and Cxcl2, several members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β were all significantly decreased following LPS administration in EE rats compared to controls. EE did not impact the inflammatory response to LPS in the cortex. Moreover, EE significantly increased both astrocyte (GFAP+) and microglia (Iba1+) antigen expression within the DG, but not in the CA1, CA3, or cortex. Measures of neurogenesis were not impacted by EE (BrdU and DCX staining), although hippocampal BDNF mRNA was significantly increased by EE. This study demonstrates the importance of environmental factors on the function of the immune system specifically within the brain, which can have profound effects on neural function.

  19. A Microdialysis Study of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex of Adolescent and Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Staiti, Amanda M.; Morgane, Peter J.; Galler, Janina R.; Grivetti, Janice Y.; Bass, Donna C.; Mokler, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of the rat has become a key focus of studies designed to elucidate the basis of behavior involving attention and decision making, i.e. executive functions. The adolescent mPFC is of particular interest given the role of the mPFC in impulsivity and attention, and disorders such as attentional deficit disorder. In the present study we have examined the basal extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitters 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the ventral portion of the mPFC (vmPFC) in both adolescent (post-natal day 45–50) and adult, and male and female rats using in vivo microdialysis. We have also examined both the left and right vmPFCs given reports of laterality in function between the hemispheres. Basal extracellular concentrations of 5-HT differed significantly between male and female rats. Extracellular DA also differed significantly between male and female rats and between the left and the right vmPFC in adult males. No differences were seen in basal extracellular NE. There was a significant age difference between groups in the laterality of extracellular NE levels between right and left vmPFC. Infusion of 100 µM methamphetamine through the dialysis probe increased the extracellular concentration of all the monoamines although there were no differences between groups in methamphetamine stimulated release. The findings from this study demonstrate that there are differences in monoaminergic input to the mPFC of the rat based on age, gender and hemisphere. This work sets the neurochemical baseline for further investigations of the prefrontal cortex during development. PMID:21527264

  20. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity.

    PubMed

    van de Heijning, Bert J M; Kegler, Diane; Schipper, Lidewij; Voogd, Eline; Oosting, Annemarie; van der Beek, Eline M

    2015-07-08

    Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN) Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control). A 50%-75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed.

  1. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity

    PubMed Central

    van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Kegler, Diane; Schipper, Lidewij; Voogd, Eline; Oosting, Annemarie; van der Beek, Eline M.

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN) Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control). A 50%–75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed. PMID:26184291

  2. Histological correlates of N40 auditory evoked potentials in adult rats after neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion: animal model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Romero-Pimentel, A L; Vázquez-Roque, R A; Camacho-Abrego, I; Hoffman, K L; Linares, P; Flores, G; Manjarrez, E

    2014-11-01

    The neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL) is an established neurodevelopmental rat model of schizophrenia. Rats with NVHL exhibit several behavioral, molecular and physiological abnormalities that are similar to those found in schizophrenics. Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric illness characterized by profound disturbances of mental functions including neurophysiological deficits in brain information processing. These deficits can be assessed by auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), where schizophrenics exhibit abnormalities in amplitude, duration and latency of such AEPs. The aim of the present study was to compare the density of cells in the temporal cerebral cortex and the N40-AEP of adult NVHL rats versus adult sham rats. We found that rats with NVHL exhibit significant lower amplitude of the N40-AEP and a significant lower number of cells in bilateral regions of the temporal cerebral cortex compared to sham rats. Because the AEP recordings were obtained from anesthetized rats, we suggest that NVHL leads to inappropriate innervation in thalamic-cortical pathways in the adult rat, leading to altered function of cortical networks involved in processing of primary auditory information.

  3. Ghrelin modulates testicular germ cells apoptosis and proliferation in adult normal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kheradmand, Arash; Dezfoulian, Omid; Alirezaei, Masoud; Rasoulian, Bahram

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerous studies have documented the direct action of ghrelin in the modulation of apoptosis in different cell types. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ghrelin may be considered as a modulator of spermatogenesis in normal adult rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ghrelin may be potentially implicated for abnormal spermatogenesis in some testicular germ cell tumors. -- Abstract: Under normal condition in the most mammals, spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. The present study was designed to determine the effects of ghrelin treatment on in vivo quality and quantity expression of apoptosis and proliferation specific indices in rat testicular germ cells. Twenty eight adult normal rats were subdivided into equal control and treatment groups. Treatment group received 3 nmol of ghrelin as subcutaneous injection for 30 consecutive days or vehicle to the control animals. The rats from each group (n = 7) were killed on days 10 and 30 and their testes were taken for immunocytochemical evaluation and caspase-3 assay. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the accumulations of Bax and PCNA peptides are generally more prominent in spermatocytes and spermatogonia of both groups. Likewise, the mean percentage of immunoreactive spermatocytes against Bax increased (P < 0.01) in the ghrelin-treated group on day 10, while despite of 30% increment in the Bax level of spermatocytes in the treated rats on day 30, however, it was not statistically significant. During the experimental period, only a few spermatogonia represented Bax expression and the changes of Bax immunolabling cells were negligible upon ghrelin treatment. Likewise, there were immunostaining cells against Bcl-2 in each germ cell neither in the control nor in the treated animals. In fact

  4. Impacts of prenatal nanomaterial exposure on male adult Sprague-Dawley rat behavior and cognition.

    PubMed

    Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Stalnaker, Jessica J; Ren, Xuefang; Hu, Heng; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; McBride, Carroll R; Yi, Jinghai; Engels, Kevin; Simpkins, James W

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that gestational xenobiotic exposures result in systemic consequences in the adult F1 generation. However, data on detailed behavioral and cognitive consequences remain limited. Using our whole-body nanoparticle inhalation facility, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (gestational day [GD] 7) were exposed 4 d/wk to either filtered air (control) or nano-titanium dioxide aerosols (nano-TiO2; count median aerodynamic diameter of 170.9 ± 6.4 nm, 10.4 ± 0.4 mg/m(3), 5 h/d) for 7.8 ± 0.5 d of the remaining gestational period. All rats received their final exposure on GD 20 prior to delivery. The calculated daily maternal deposition was 13.9 ± 0.5 µg. Subsequently, at 5 mo of age, behavior and cognitive functions of these pups were evaluated employing a standard battery of locomotion, learning, and anxiety tests. These assessments revealed significant working impairments, especially under maximal mnemonic challenge, and possible deficits in initial motivation in male F1 adults. Evidence indicates that maternal engineered nanomaterial exposure during gestation produces psychological deficits that persist into adulthood in male rats.

  5. Environmental enrichment for adult rats: effects on trait and state anxiety.

    PubMed

    Goes, Tiago Costa; Antunes, Fabrício Dias; Teixeira-Silva, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that enriched environment (EE) induces neurobiological and behavioural alterations. EE in early life improves learning and memory and reduces trait and state anxiety. However, the effect of EE established in adulthood has rarely been investigated. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of modifying the levels of trait and/or state anxiety of adult rats exposed to EE. Seventy adult Wistar male rats were first tested in the free-exploratory paradigm (FEP) and were categorized according to their levels of trait anxiety (high, medium and low). Subsequently, half of the animals from each category returned to their home cages (standard condition: SC) and the other half was transferred to an enriched environment (enriched condition: EC). After three weeks, all animals were again tested in FEP. Seven to 10 days later, fifty of the seventy animals were tested on the elevated plus-maze test (EPM). In FEP, EE reduced locomotor activity in the second exposition independently of the anxiety category and, it decreased the levels of trait anxiety of highly anxious rats. No effect of EE was observed on EPM. In conclusion, EE established in adulthood was able to reduce high trait anxiety, a major risk factor for anxiety disorders.

  6. Unilateral eye enucleation in adult rats causes neuronal loss in the contralateral superior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    SMITH, S. A.; BEDI, K. S.

    1997-01-01

    Several studies have reported the morphological changes induced by unilateral enucleation during early neonatal life on the developing visual system. This study has examined cellular changes in the superior colliculi by removal of a single eye in adult rats. Anaesthetised male hooded rats aged 90 d had their right eyes removed. Groups of nonenucleated control and enucleated rats were killed when aged either 150 or 390 d. The brains were removed and both the right and left superior colliculi dissected out. The volume of the stratum griseum superficiale (SGS) within these colliculi was estimated stereologically by light microscopy, as well as the numerical density and total number of neurons within this cell layer. The volume of the cell layer was reduced by about 40% on the side contralateral to the enucleated eye but not on the ipsilateral side at both survival periods examined. The numerical density of neurons within the SGS was unaffected by the enucleation so that the colliculi contralateral to the enucleated eye showed a substantial loss of neurons within this cell layer. This study demonstrates the importance of the retinal ganglion cell input, even in adult animals, for maintaining the viability of neurons in the SGS layer of the superior colliculus. PMID:9183672

  7. Maternal separation is associated with DNA methylation and behavioural changes in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Anier, Kaili; Malinovskaja, Kristina; Pruus, Katrin; Aonurm-Helm, Anu; Zharkovsky, Alexander; Kalda, Anti

    2014-03-01

    Early life stress is known to promote long-term neurobiological changes, which may underlie the increased risk of psychopathology. Maternal separation (MS) is used as an early life stressor that causes profound neurochemical and behavioural changes in the pups that persist into adulthood. However, the exact mechanism of how MS alters these behavioural changes is not yet understood. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, are critical regulators of persistent gene expression changes and may be related to behavioural disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether early life stress on rats could alter cocaine-induced behavioural sensitisation in adulthood via aberrant DNA methylation. We have three main findings: (1) MS increased DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of infant and adult rats; (2) MS induced DNA hypomethylation on a global level in the NAc, and hypermethylation of the promoter regions of the protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit (PP1C) and adenosine A2Areceptor (A2AR) genes, which was associated with their transcriptional downregulation in the NAc; (3) MS-induced molecular changes paralleled an increased response to cocaine-induced locomotor activity and exploratory behaviour in adult rats. Thus, our results suggest that stressful experiences in early life may create a background, via aberrant DNA methylation, which promotes the development of cocaine-induced behavioural sensitisation in adulthood. PMID:23972903

  8. Impacts of prenatal nanomaterial exposure on male adult Sprague-Dawley rat behavior and cognition.

    PubMed

    Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Stalnaker, Jessica J; Ren, Xuefang; Hu, Heng; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; McBride, Carroll R; Yi, Jinghai; Engels, Kevin; Simpkins, James W

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that gestational xenobiotic exposures result in systemic consequences in the adult F1 generation. However, data on detailed behavioral and cognitive consequences remain limited. Using our whole-body nanoparticle inhalation facility, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (gestational day [GD] 7) were exposed 4 d/wk to either filtered air (control) or nano-titanium dioxide aerosols (nano-TiO2; count median aerodynamic diameter of 170.9 ± 6.4 nm, 10.4 ± 0.4 mg/m(3), 5 h/d) for 7.8 ± 0.5 d of the remaining gestational period. All rats received their final exposure on GD 20 prior to delivery. The calculated daily maternal deposition was 13.9 ± 0.5 µg. Subsequently, at 5 mo of age, behavior and cognitive functions of these pups were evaluated employing a standard battery of locomotion, learning, and anxiety tests. These assessments revealed significant working impairments, especially under maximal mnemonic challenge, and possible deficits in initial motivation in male F1 adults. Evidence indicates that maternal engineered nanomaterial exposure during gestation produces psychological deficits that persist into adulthood in male rats. PMID:27092594

  9. Evidence of lactoferrin transportation into blood circulation from intestine via lymphatic pathway in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Takashi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Harada, Etsumori

    2004-05-01

    Using adult rats, the characteristic transporting system for lactoferrin (LF) from intestinal lumen into the blood circulation was investigated. The rats were randomly divided into two groups, a non-collected thoracic lymph (NC) group and a collected thoracic lymph (LC) group. Peripheral blood and thoracic lymph were collected from a jugular vein and a thoracic lymph duct, respectively, under anaesthesia. Bovine LF (bLF) was infused into the duodenal lumen by needle over a 1-min period at a dose of 1 g kg(-1). The transported bLF in the plasma and lymph was assayed quantitatively by double-antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Morphological investigation was also carried out in the intestine, lymph node, and liver. Following intraduodenal administration of bLF, the transported bLF in the NC group was detected in the plasma, and reached a peak value at 2 h. Furthermore, the bLF concentration in the thoracic duct lymph fluid in the LC group increased significantly, and peaked 2 h after the administration. In addition, bLF was not detected in the plasma of the LC group. Immunohistochemical analysis clearly showed anti-bLF positive particles in the epithelial cells of the apical villi. The striated border and baso-lateral membrane were also bLF positive. These results suggest that intraduodenally infused bLF is transported into the blood circulation via the lymphatic pathway, not via portal circulation in adult rats.

  10. Gender differences in the effect of adult amphetamine on cognitive functions of rats prenatally exposed to methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Macúchová, E; Nohejlová, K; Slamberová, R

    2014-08-15

    Psychostimulants have been shown to affect brain regions involved in the process of learning and memory consolidation. It has been shown that females are more sensitive to the effects of drugs than males. The aim of our study was to investigate how prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure and application of amphetamine (AMP) in adulthood would affect spatial learning of adult female and male rats. Mothers of the tested offspring were exposed to injections of MA (5mg/kg) or saline (SA) throughout the entire gestation period. Cognitive functions of adult rats were evaluated in the Morris Water Maze (MWM) tests. Adult offspring were injected daily with AMP (5mg/kg) or SA through the period of MWM testing. Our data from the MWM tests demonstrates the following. Prenatal MA exposure did not change the learning ability of adult male and female rats. However, AMP administration to adult animals affected cognitive function in terms of exacerbation of spatial learning (increasing the latency to reach the hidden platform, the distance traveled and the search error) only in female subjects. There were sex differences in the speed of swimming. Prenatal MA exposure and adult AMP treatment increased the speed of swimming in female groups greater than in males. Overall, the male subjects showed a better learning ability than females. Thus, our results indicate that the adult AMP treatment affects the cognitive function and behavior of rats in a sex-specific manner, regardless of prenatal exposure.

  11. Integrated phrenic responses to carotid afferent stimulation in adult rats following perinatal hyperoxia.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, L; Olson, E B; Vidruk, E H; Mitchell, G S

    1997-01-01

    1. Hypoxic ventilatory responses are greatly attenuated in adult rats exposed to moderate hyperoxia (60% O2) during the first month of life (perinatal treated rats). The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that perinatal hyperoxia impairs central integration of carotid chemoreceptor afferent inputs, thereby diminishing the hypoxic ventilatory response. 2. Time-dependent phrenic nerve responses to electrical stimulation of the carotid sinus nerve (CSN) and steady-state relationships between CSN stimulation frequency and phrenic nerve output were compared in control and perinatal treated rats. The rats were urethane anaesthetized, vagotomized, paralysed and artificially ventilated. End-tidal CO2 was monitored and maintained at isocapnic levels; arterial blood gases were determined. 3. Two stimulation protocols were used: (1) three 2 min episodes of CSN stimulation (20 Hz, 0.2 ms duration, 3 x threshold), separated by 5 min intervals; and (2) nine 45 s episodes of CSN stimulation with stimulus frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 20 Hz (0.2 ms duration, 3 x threshold), separated by 4 min intervals. 4. The mean threshold currents to elicit phrenic responses were similar between groups. Burst frequency (f, burst min-1), peak amplitude of integrated phrenic activity (integral of Phr), and minute phrenic activity (integral of Phr x f) during and after CSN stimulation were not distinguishable between groups in either protocol at any time or at any stimulus intensity (P > 0.05). 5. Perinatal hyperoxia does not alter temporal or steady-state phrenic responses to CSN stimulation, suggesting that the central integration of carotid chemoreceptor afferent inputs is not impaired in perinatal treated rats. It is speculated that carotid chemoreceptors per se are impaired in perinatal treated rats. PMID:9161991

  12. Impaired contextual fear extinction and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in adult rats induced by prenatal morphine exposure.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ji-Wei; Duan, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Ding, Ze-Yang; Jing, Liang; Cao, Jun; Wang, Li-Ping; Mao, Rong-Rong; Xu, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal opiate exposure causes a series of neurobehavioral disturbances by affecting brain development. However, the question of whether prenatal opiate exposure increases vulnerability to memory-related neuropsychiatric disorders in adult offspring remains largely unknown. Here, we found that rats prenatally exposed to morphine (PM) showed impaired acquisition but enhanced maintenance of contextual fear memory compared with control animals that were prenatally exposed to saline (PS). The impairment of acquisition was rescued by increasing the intensity of footshocks (1.2 mA rather than 0.8 mA). Meanwhile, we also found that PM rats exhibited impaired extinction of contextual fear, which is associated with enhanced maintenance of fear memory. The impaired extinction lasted for 1 week following extinction training. Furthermore, PM rats exhibited reduced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze and light/dark box test without differences in locomotor activity. These alterations in PM rats were mirrored by abnormalities in synaptic plasticity in the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses of the hippocampus in vivo. PS rats showed blocked long-term potentiation and enabled long-term depression in CA1 synapses following contextual fear conditioning, while prenatal morphine exposure restricted synaptic plasticity in CA1 synapses. The smaller long-term potentiation in PM rats was not further blocked by contextual fear conditioning, and the long-term depression enabled by contextual fear conditioning was abolished. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence suggesting that prenatal morphine exposure may increase vulnerability to fear memory-related neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood.

  13. Nuclear transfer of adult and genetically modified fetal cells of the rat.

    PubMed

    Hayes, E; Galea, S; Verkuylen, A; Pera, M; Morrison, J; Lacham-Kaplan, O; Trounson, A

    2001-04-27

    The present study examines the handling, activation, and micromanipulation of rat eggs in an attempt to produce live young using nuclear transfer (NT) of adult and genetically modified rat fetal cells. Mature rat eggs cultured in calcium-free medium showed reduced rates (24%) of chromosomal dispersion ("spontaneous activation" characteristic of this species) compared with eggs cultured in calcium-containing medium (47%), but failed to survive micromanipulation procedures. High rates of parthenogenetic cleavage were obtained with chemical activation using ethanol/cycloheximide (65%) compared with other standard chemical activation methods (4-28%). This type of activation was also effective in reestablishing cleavage capability (19-71%), in a time-dependent manner, of spontaneously activated eggs arrested at a second prophase-like state. At most, two of four tested micromanipulation procedures were effective in producing NT embryos capable of morula or blastocyst development (14-16%) in vivo following transfer to mouse oviducts. NT blastocysts produced from cumulus cells and transfected rat fetal fibroblasts appeared morphologically and karyotypically normal (2n = 42). Nocodazole-assisted metaphase enucleation and piezoelectric-assisted donor cell injection produced significant and equivocal effects on survival and cleavage rates of reconstructed embryos but failed to significantly improve in vivo morula/blastocyst development rates (16-28%) compared with unassisted micromanipulation (16%). Live births have not yet been obtained from early cleavage stage embryos (n = 269) transferred to pseudopregnant recipient rat oviducts. Improvements in reconstituted NT embryo culture and transfer are required for these methods to be an effective means of transgenic rat production.

  14. Biochemical and molecular studies on the possible influence of the Brassica oleracea and Beta vulgaris extracts to mitigate the effect of food preservatives and food chemical colorants on albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Mohammed A A; Shati, Ali A; Elsaid, Fahmy G

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biochemical influence of broccoli and beet extracts on selected individual additives NaNO2 or sunset yellow treated rats, in addition to the gene expression of some antioxidant enzymes. Forty-two male rats were assigned to seven groups of six rats in each group. The control group was fed a diet without an additive for four weeks. Group (2) received NaNO2, groups (3) received NaNO2 co-administered with broccoli extract (4) NaNO2 co-administered with beet extracts, Group (5) received sunset yellow, Group (6) received sunset yellow co-administered with broccoli extract, and Group (7) received sunset yellow co-administered with beet extract, for four weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood, liver, kidney, and brain samples were taken for biochemical and/or molecular analysis. The mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes was determined by reversing transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The obtained results revealed that rats co-administered with beet or broccoli extracts had a significant decrease in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, urea, total lipids, and triglycerides, as well as a significant increase in reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities, compared to the normal control group. Oral administration of NaNO2 or sunset yellow caused a significant increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, urea, total lipids, and triglycerides, as well as a significant decrease in GSH, GSH-px, and SOD compared to the positive group. In conclusion, this study showed that broccoli and beet extracts have a protective effect against NaNO2 or sunset yellow in rat treated groups.

  15. Homeostatic regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in aging rats: long-term effects of early exercise

    PubMed Central

    Merkley, Christina M.; Jian, Charles; Mosa, Adam; Tan, Yao-Fang; Wojtowicz, J. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is highly responsive to environmental and physiological factors. The majority of studies to date have examined short-term consequences of enhancing or blocking neurogenesis but long-term changes remain less well understood. Current evidence for age-related declines in neurogenesis warrant further investigation into these long-term changes. In this report we address the hypothesis that early life experience, such as a period of voluntary running in juvenile rats, can alter properties of adult neurogenesis for the remainder of the animal's life. The results indicate that the number of proliferating and differentiating neuronal precursors is not altered in runners beyond the initial weeks post-running, suggesting homeostatic regulation of these processes. However, the rate of neuronal maturation and survival during a 4 week period after cell division was enhanced up to 11 months of age (the end of the study period). This study is the first to show that a transient period of physical activity at a young age promotes changes in neurogenesis that persist over the long-term, which is important for our understanding of the modulation of neurogenesis by exercise with age. Functional integration of adult-born neurons within the hippocampus that resist homeostatic regulation with aging, rather than the absolute number of adult-born neurons, may be an essential feature of adult neurogenesis that promotes the maintenance of neural plasticity in old age. PMID:25071426

  16. Astrocytes in the Rat Medial Amygdala Are Responsive to Adult Androgens

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ryan T.; Schneider, Amanda; DonCarlos, Lydia L.; Breedlove, S. Marc; Jordan, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) exhibits numerous sex differences including differences in volume and in the number and morphology of neurons and astroctyes. In adulthood, gonadal hormones, including both androgens and estrogens, have been shown to play a role in maintaining the masculine character of many of these sex differences, but whether adult gonadal hormones maintain the increased number and complexity of astrocytes in the male MePD was unknown. To answer this question we examined astrocytes in the MePD of male and female Long Evans rats that were gonadectomized as adults and treated for 30 days with either testosterone or a control treatment. At the end of treatment brains were collected and immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein. Stereological analysis revealed that adult androgen levels influenced the number and complexity of astrocytes in the MePD of both sexes, but the specific effects of androgens were different in males and females. However, sex differences in the number and complexity of adult astrocytes persisted even in the absence of gonadal hormones in adulthood, suggesting that androgens also act earlier in life to determine these adult sex differences. Using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, we found robust androgen receptor immunostaining in a subpopulation of MePD astrocytes, suggesting that testosterone may act directly on MePD astrocytes to influence their structure and function. PMID:22581688

  17. Anti-Nogo-A Immunotherapy Does Not Alter Hippocampal Neurogenesis after Stroke in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Daniel J.; Tsai, Shih-Yen; O'Brien, Timothy E.; Farrer, Robert G.; Kartje, Gwendolyn L.

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of adult disability, including cognitive impairment. Our laboratory has previously shown that treatment with function-blocking antibodies against the neurite growth inhibitory protein Nogo-A promotes functional recovery after stroke in adult and aged rats, including enhancing spatial memory performance, for which the hippocampus is critically important. Since spatial memory has been linked to hippocampal neurogenesis, we investigated whether anti-Nogo-A treatment increases hippocampal neurogenesis after stroke. Adult rats were subject to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion followed 1 week later by 2 weeks of antibody treatment. Cellular proliferation in the dentate gyrus was quantified at the end of treatment, and the number of newborn neurons was determined at 8 weeks post-stroke. Treatment with both anti-Nogo-A and control antibodies stimulated the accumulation of new microglia/macrophages in the dentate granule cell layer, but neither treatment increased cellular proliferation or the number of newborn neurons above stroke-only levels. These results suggest that anti-Nogo-A immunotherapy does not increase post-stroke hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:27803646

  18. Sodium metabisulfite-induced changes on testes, spermatogenesis and epididymal morphometric values in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Shekarforoush, Shahnaz; Ebrahimi, Zahra; Hoseini, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sulphites are widely used as a preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Many types of biological and toxicological effects of sulphites in multiple organs of mammals have been shown in previous studies. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium metabisulfite (SMB) on testicular function and morphometric values of epididymis in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 rats were randomly divided into four groups. The experimental groups received SMB at doses of 10 mg/kg (S10), 100mg/kg (S100), and 260 mg/kg (S260) while an equal volume of normal saline was administered to the control group via gavage. The rats were anaesthetized after 28 days and the left testis with the head of epididimis was excised following abdominal incision for histological observation using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Serum samples were collected for assay of testosterone level. The initial epididymis was analyzed for motility, morphology, and the number of sperms. Result: The results of this study showed that normal morphology, count, and motility of sperms and testosterone level were decreased in the SMB treated groups. In comparison with the control group, SMB resulted in a lower total number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, spermatids, and Leydig cells. Conclusion: It is suggested that SMB decreases the sperm production and has the potential to affect the fertility adversely in male rats. PMID:27141536

  19. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J.; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  20. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818