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Sample records for adult albino wistar

  1. Effect of amlodipine, a calcium channel antagonist, on gonadal steroid of male Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Onwuka, FC; wuanyanwu, KC Patrick-I; Nnodu, CK; Erhabor, O

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of prolonged intake of calcium-channel blocker amlodipine, an antihypertensive drug on gonadal steroid hormone (testosterone) of male albino rats. Three different concentrations of amlodipine (0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to three different groups (B, C, and D) of experimental male Wistar albino rats (n = 8) for six weeks. Group A rats were fed normal diet without amlodipine (n = 8) served as the control. The administration of amlodipine significantly reduced testosterone level in the following order, group A (0.22 ± 0.01) > B (0.18 ± 0.01) > C (0.14 ± 0.01) > D (0.10 ± 0.01). The reduction in testosterone levels corresponded with an increase in the concentration of amlodipine administered to male Wistar albino rats. The observation in this study reveals that long-term treatment of male Wistar rats with calcium-channel blocker and antihypertensive (amlodipine) produces a significant reduction in the level of testosterone a hormone associated with decreased ability of men to enjoy sex and to develop good quality erections. There is the need for a large scale study to investigate the potential effect of long-term antihypertensive therapy with amlodipine on sexual dysfunction in men.

  2. Antilithiatic effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in male albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Christina, A J M; Ashok, K; Packialakshmi, M; Tobin, G C; Preethi, J; Murugesh, N

    2005-11-01

    The ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. was evaluated for its inhibitory potential on lithiasis (stone formation), induced by oral administration of 0.75% ethylene glycolated water to adult male albino Wistar rats for 28 days. The ionic chemistry of urine was altered by ethylene glycol, which elevated the urinary concentration of crucial ions viz. calcium, oxalate, and phosphate, thereby contributing to renal stone formation. The ethanolic extract, however, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the elevated level of these ions in urine. Also, it elevated the urinary concentration of magnesium, which is considered as one of the inhibitors of crystallization. The high serum creatinine level observed in ethylene glycol-treated rats was also reduced, following treatment with the extract. The histopathological findings also showed signs of improvement after treatment with the extract. All these observations provided the basis for the conclusion that this plant extract inhibits stone formation induced by ethylene glycol treatment. PMID:16357948

  3. Effect of alcohol and kolanut interaction on brain sodium pump activity in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Obochi, G O; Abara, A E; Malu, S P; Obi-Abang, M; Edu, F E; Eteng, M U; Umoh, I B

    2007-01-01

    Effect of alcohol-kolanut interaction on sodium pump activity in wistar albino rats was studied. Thirty wistar albino rats were divided into six groups of five (5) rats per group and used for the study. The control group (1) received via oral route a placebo (4 ml of distilled water). Groups 2 to 6 were treated for a period of 21 days, with (10% v/v) of alcohol (group 2), 50mg/kg body weight of kolanut (group 3), 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine (group 4), 4 ml of 10% v/v of alcohol and 50 mg/kg body weight kolanut (group 5), 4 ml of 10% v/v of alcohol and 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine in 4.0 ml of the vehicle via gastric intubation respectively. A day after the final exposure, the brain of each rat was harvested and processed to examine several biochemical parameters, i.e., total ATpase, ouabain-insensitive ATpase, ouabain sensitive ATpase (Na(+)-K(+)ATPase), non-enzymatic breakdown of ATP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) released. The results showed that the essential enzyme of the brain responsible for neuronal function, Na(+)-K(+)ATPase, was inhibited by alcohol-kolanut co-administration relative to control, resulting in a decrease in Na(+)-K(+)ATPase activity, ATP production, ion transport and action potential, leading to loss of neuronal activities. PMID:18379627

  4. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  5. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  6. Ulcerogenic and intestinal motility/transit stimulating actions of nevirapine in albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Umoren, Elizabeth Bassey; Obembe, Agona Odeh; Osim, Eme Effiom

    2013-09-01

    The antiretroviral is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of nevirapine (NVP) administration on gastric acid secretion, pepsin secretion, mucosal secretion, intestinal motility, and transit using apparently healthy albino Wistar rats. Eighty albino Wistar rats (50-125 g body weight) from the start of the experiment were used for the study. Rats in the control group were fed normal rodent chow, while the NVP group was fed by gavage NVP (0.4 mg/kg body weight) two times daily (07:00 and 18:00 hours) in addition to normal rodent chow for 12 weeks. All animals were allowed free access to clean drinking water. Mean basal gastric output and peak acid output following histamine administration in the NVP-treated group were significantly higher (p < 0.001, respectively) compared to the control. Following cimetidine administration, there was significant decrease (p < 0.001) in peak acid output in the NVP-treated group compared to the control. The concentration of gastric pepsin, adherent mucus secretion, and mean value for ulcer score were significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to their control group, respectively. There were significant increases (p < 0.05, respectively) in intestinal motility and basal contraction (p < 0.05) and increase in intestinal transit of the ileum of NVP-treated rats compared to their control, respectively. Results of the study suggest that NVP administration might provoke gastric ulceration in rats which may be caused by high pepsin, high basal acid output, and increased intestinal motility and transit. PMID:23536414

  7. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Nfambi, Joshua; Bbosa, Godfrey S.; Sembajwe, Lawrence Fred; Gakunga, James; Kasolo, Josephine N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, Moringa oleifera is used by different communities to treat various ailments including modulation of the immune system though with limited scientific evidence. Aim To study the immunomodulatory activity of M. oleifera methanolic leaf extract in Wistar albino rats. Methods An experimental laboratory-based study was done following standard methods and procedures. Nine experimental groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX) each comprising of six animals were used. Group I received normal saline. Groups II to IX received 200 mg/kg bwt cyclophosphamide at the beginning of the study. Group III received 50 mg/kg bwt of an immunostimulatory drug levamisole. Groups IV to IX were dosed daily for 14 days with extract at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg bwt, respectively, using an intragastric tube. Complete blood count (CBC), delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH), neutrophil adhesion test, and hemagglutination antibody titer were determined using standard methods and procedures. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad prism 5.0a Software. Results There was an increment in WBC, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts at a dose of 1000 mg/kg bwt similar to the levamisole-positive control group. The neutrophil adhesion was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) for treatment groups that received 1000 mg/kg bwt (29.94%) and 500 mg/kg bwt at 17.28%. The mean percentage increment in footpad thickness was highest (26.9%) after 8 h of injection of antigen in the footpad of rats dosed 500 mg/kg bwt and this later reduced to 25.6% after 24 h. There was a dose-dependent increment in the mean hemagglutination antibody titer to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) from 10.73±0.57 HA units/μL for the 250 mg/kg bwt to 26.22±1.70 HA units/μL for the 1000 mg/kg bwt. Conclusions Methanolic leaf extract of M. oleifera caused a significant immunostimulatory effect on both the cell-mediated and humoral immune systems in the Wistar albino rats. PMID:26103628

  8. In-vivo anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of Manilkara zapota leaves in albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Amlan; Al Mahmud, Zobaer; Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir; Rahman, SM Abdur

    2013-01-01

    Objective To screen ethanolic extracts of Manilkara zapota leaves (Family: Sapotaceae) and its different solvent soluble fractions for possible anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic activities in experimental albino Wistar rats. Methods Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan induced paw edema method; anti-pyretic potential was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia method in albino Wistar rats. Results In evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity the crude ethanolic (300 mg/kg) and ethyl acetate extract (300 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of paw edema by 91.98% and 92.41% (P<0.001) respectively at 4th h compared to standard diclofenac (86.08% inhibition). In anti-pyretic study by yeast-induced pyrexia in albino Wistar rats, the ethanol extract (300 mg/kg) reduced temperature from 37.90 °C to 37.41 °C (P<0.01) and 37.07 °C (P<0.001) in 3rd and 4th h respectively. Similarly, both petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited significant anti-pyretic property (P<0.001). The maximum body temperature lowering effect (36.86 °C) was noticed by petroleum ether fraction. Conclusions The findings of the studies demonstrated both anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of the leaves of Manilkara zapota which could be the therapeutic option against inflammatory disease and pyrexia.

  9. Pharmacological Investigation of the Wound Healing Activity of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nagar, Hemant Kumar; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Rajnish; Kurmi, Madan Lal; Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Ranawat, Mahendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was aimed at investigating the wound healing effect of ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) leaves (EECN) using excision and incision wound model. Methods. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated) considered as control, group II (ointment base treated) considered as negative control, group III treated with 5% (w/w) povidone iodine ointment (Intadine USP), which served as standard, group IV treated with EECN 2% (w/w) ointment, and group V treated with EECN 5% (w/w) ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. The wound healing effect was assessed by percentage wound contraction, epithelialization period, and histoarchitecture studies in excision wound model while breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the incision wound model. Result. Different concentration of EECN (2% and 5% w/w) ointment promoted the wound healing activity significantly in both the models studied. The high rate of wound contraction (P < 0.001), decrease in the period for epithelialization (P < 0.01), high skin breaking strength (P < 0.001), and elevated hydroxyproline content were observed in animal treated with EECN ointments when compared to the control and negative control group of animals. Histopathological studies of the EECN ointments treated groups also revealed the effectiveness in improved wound healing. Conclusions. Ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (EECN) leaves possesses a concentration dependent wound healing effect. PMID:27018126

  10. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Passiflora edulis on Biochemical and Hematological Parameters of Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Devaki, K.; Beulah, U.; Akila, G.; Gopalakrishnan, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Passiflora edulis is traditionally used in folk lore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of P. edulis in Wistar albino rats. Acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral administration of 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of the animal. In subacute study, they were administered with various doses of aqueous extract of P. edulis (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg body weight) to evaluate its toxicity for a period of 7 days. The effect of aqueous extract of P. edulis on organ weight, hematological, renal, and hepatic markers were analyzed. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was seen with in 24 h of the administration of P. edulis extract. No signs of neurological and behavioral changes were noticed with in 72 h. In the subacute study, the extract intake has not changed the hematological parameters such as RBC, WBC, and platelets and it was also found that the plasma level of amino transferases, ALP, urea, uric acid and, creatinine were also not altered by the administration of P. edulis extract throughout the study. The weight of organ was found to be unaltered in all the doses selected. The acute toxicity study reveals that the oral administration of the extract was found to be safe up to the dose level of 2000 mg/kg. The subacute study indicates that the extract is safe on the bone marrow function and it is neither hepatotoxic nor nephrotoxic. This supports the safety use of the aqueous extract of P. edulis in pharmacological studies. PMID:22736906

  11. Ameliorative Effects of Acacia Honey against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Oxidative Stress in Some Viscera of Male Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Sani; Inuwa, Hajiya M.; Sallau, Abdullahi B.; Abbas, Olagunju; Aimola, Idowu A.; Habila, Nathan; Uche, Ndidi S.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and its development is frequently associated with oxidative stress-induced by carcinogens such as arsenicals. Most foods are basically health-promoting or disease-preventing and a typical example of such type is honey. This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effects of Acacia honey on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative stress in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups of five rats each were administered distilled water, Acacia honey (20%), sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg body weight), Acacia honey, and sodium arsenite daily for one week. They were sacrificed anesthetically using 60 mg/kg sodium pentothal. The tissues were used for the assessment of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities, protein content and lipid peroxidation. Sodium arsenite significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase activities with simultaneous induction of lipid peroxidation. Administration of Acacia honey significantly increased (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities with concomitant suppression of lipid peroxidation as evident by the decrease in malondialdehyde level. From the results obtained, Acacia honey mitigates sodium arsenite induced-oxidative stress in male Wistar albino rats, which suggest that it may attenuate oxidative stress implicated in chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:24368942

  12. Analysis of anti-depressant potential of curcumin against depression induced male albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xue-Run; Wang, Li; Li, Jing; Wu, Dian-Shui

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the antidepressant potential of curcumin in olfactory bulbectomy and forced swimming test models of depression in male albino rats under chronic treatment. The experimental animals were divided into four groups, and curcumin was administered for 45 days. Our results showed that the curcumin significantly reduced olfactory bulbectomy-induced behavioral abnormalities including deficits in step-down passive avoidance, increased activity in the open area and immobility time. Chronic administration of curcumin significantly reversed levels of 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, noradrenaline, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus region of male albino rats. Also, curcumin normalizes the levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the frontal cortex of rats. Taking all these results together, it may suggest that curcumin is potent compound acting against the depression in the male albino rats. PMID:26972530

  13. Amelioration of excision wounds by topical application of green synthesized, formulated silver and gold nanoparticles in albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Kumari, P Lakshmi; Das, Raunak Kumar; Sivakumar, A; Patil, Sagar Hindurao; Andhalkar, Vaibhav Vilas

    2016-05-01

    Wound healing, a complex biological process, has attained a lot of attention as dermatologists are primarily interested in stimulated wound closure without formation of scar or a faint scar. The recent upsurgence of nanotechnology has provided novel therapeutic materials in the form of silver and gold nanoparticles which accelerate the wound healing process. The effect of formulated nanoparticles using Coleus forskohlii root extract (green synthesized) has been tried out for ameliorating full thickness excision wounds in albino Wistar male rats. The evaluation of in vivo activity of nanoparticles in wound healing was carried out on open wounds made by excision on the dorsal sides of albino Wistar rats under anesthesia, and the healing of the wounds was assessed. Histological aspects of the healing process were studied by a HE (Hematoxylin and Eosin) staining method to assess various degrees of re-epithelialization and the linear alignment of the granulation tissue whereas Van Gieson's histochemical staining was performed to observe collagen fibers. The healing action shown by the formulated nanoparticles was remarkable during the early stages of wound healing, which resulted in the substantial reduction of the whole healing period. Topical application of formulated gold nanoparticles was found to be more effective in suppressing inflammation and stimulating re-epithelialization compared to silver nanoparticles during the healing process. The results throw light on the amelioration of excision wounds using nanoparticles which could be a novel therapeutic way of improving wound healing in clinical practice. The mechanism of advanced healing action of both types of nanoparticles could be due to their antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26952426

  14. Ascorbic acid treatment elevates follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone plasma levels and enhances sperm quality in albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Okon, Uduak Akpan; Utuk, Ikponoabasi Ibanga

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility issues have been linked to the effect of oxidative reaction in the reproductive system. This study evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid, on fertility parameters of male albino Wistar rats was studied. Materials and Methods: Eighteen albino Wistar rats weighed between 178 g and 241 g were used, randomly assigned into three groups. Group 1 was the control group; oral gavaged 5 ml of distilled water; Groups 2 and 3 were administered medium dose (250 mg/kg) and high dose of ascorbic acid (400 mg/kg), respectively; twice daily for 21 days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture, and blood serum was obtained for hormonal assay, and the testes were harvested for sperm analysis. Results: Follicle stimulating hormone levels significantly increased in the high-dose group as compared to both the control and medium dose groups. Luteinizing hormone levels in the medium dose group decreased significantly as compared to the control group. Testosterone significantly increased in both the medium- and high-dose groups as compared to the control group. Sperm motility increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to both control and medium-dose groups. Percentage sperm concentration decreased significantly in the medium-dose group when compared to the control and increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to the medium-dose group. For percentage normal morphology, there was a dose-dependent increase in the test groups when compared to control group. Conclusion: These results are indicative of a positive influence of ascorbic acid on male fertility modulators and may therefore, serve as a potential adjuvant treatment for male infertility cases. PMID:27185976

  15. Inhibition of pathogenic bacterial growth on excision wound by green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles leads to accelerated wound healing activity in Wistar Albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Renu; Baskaran, Athmanathan; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2015-07-01

    An impaired wound healing is one of the major health related problem in diabetic and non-diabetic patients around the globe. The pathogenic bacteria play a predominant role in delayed wound healing, owing to interaction in the wound area. In our previous work we developed green chemistry mediated copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract. In the present study we make an attempt to evaluate the anti-bacterial, and wound healing activity of green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles in male Wistar Albino rats. The agar well diffusion assay revealed copper oxide nanoparticles have substantial inhibition activity against human pathogenic strains such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, which were responsible for delayed wound healing process. Furthermore, the analyses results of wound closure, histopathology and protein profiling confirmed that the F. religiosa leaf extract tailored copper oxide nanoparticles have enhanced wound healing activity in Wistar Albino rats. PMID:26194977

  16. Does rosmarinic acid treatment have protective role against sepsis-induced oxidative damage in Wistar Albino rats?

    PubMed

    Bacanlı, M; Aydın, S; Taner, G; Göktaş, H G; Şahin, T; Başaran, A A; Başaran, N

    2016-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species are believed to be involved in the development of sepsis. Plant-derived phenolic compounds are thought to be possible therapeutic agents against sepsis because of their antioxidant properties. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic compound commonly found in various plants, which has many biological activities including antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of RA on sepsis-induced DNA damage in the lymphocytes and liver and kidney cells of Wistar albino rats by alkaline comet assay with and without formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase protein. The oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and total glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver and kidney tissues and an inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) level in plasma were also evaluated. It is found that DNA damage in the lymphocytes, livers, and kidneys of the RA-treated rats was significantly lower than that in the sepsis-induced rats. RA treatment also decreased the MDA levels and increased the GSH levels and SOD and GSH-Px activities in the livers and kidneys of the sepsis-induced rats. Plasma TNF-α level was found to be decreased in the RA-treated rats. It seems that RA might have a role in the attenuation of sepsis-induced oxidative damage not only by decreasing the DNA damage but also by increasing the antioxidant status and DNA repair capacity of the animals. PMID:26429925

  17. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma in healthy and hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    El-Newary, Samah A; Sulieman, A M; El-Attar, S R; Sitohy, M Z

    2016-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Hyperlipidemia increases the incidence of myocardial ischemia and cardiac events. This study evaluated the potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant action of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma ("CDNP extract"). In vivo studies were performed for 10 weeks on dietary hyperlipidemic and healthy Wistar albino rat models that received two dose levels of the CDNP extract (0.50 and 1.00 g/kg body weight). Serum lipid profiles were determined for the experimental animals. Dietary hyperlipidemic rats were characterized by an elevated lipid profile compared to the healthy control, i.e., increased levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and triglycerides (TG), although the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) was reduced. Levels of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), were significantly higher in the dietary hyperlipidemic rats than in the normal healthy ones, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly lower. Force-feeding hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats with the CDNP extract at two doses decreased TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and TG to normal levels. The risk ratio, which was as high as 870 % for the hyperlipidemic rats was decreased by the treatment to levels close to that calculated for the healthy control rats. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were very low in the hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats but increased significantly when CDNP extract was adminstered, attaining similar HDL-C levels to those of healthy control rats. Treatment with the CDNP extract also improved the levels of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, GPx, SOD, and CAT) in hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats. Thus, the CDNP extract improves the lipid

  18. Hematological effects of repeated graded doses of the methanol extract of Paullinia pinnata (Linn.) leaves in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemo-Salami, Oluwatoyin A.; Ewuola, Emmanuel O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Paullinia pinnata is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various diseases, including anemia in West Africa. Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of increasing doses of the methanolic leaves extract of P. pinnata on hematological parameters in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were grouped into six groups of six animals each. Five doses; 50,100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of the P. pinnata extract were administered separately to five groups. The sixth group served as a control and received only the vehicle (70% physiological saline: 30% Tween 80 [v/v]). Administration was done orally daily for 28 days at 24 h interval. On day 29, the animals were made inactive, blood was then collected from the heart and various hematological parameters were evaluated. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance was employed. Results: The packed cell volume and red blood cell count increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treatment groups except at 200 mg/kg dose. The hemoglobin concentration increased in all the treatment groups. The values for the neutrophils at 50, 100, 200 and 800 mg/kg doses were higher than that of the control. The white blood cell count increased significantly (P < 0.05) at 50 and 400 mg/kg doses compared to the control and exceeded the normal physiological range. Conclusion: The maximum tolerable dose is 200 mg/kg body weight of the methanolic leaves extract of P. pinnata and the extract has anti-anemic property with the ability to increase neutrophils count. PMID:26109785

  19. Enhancement of Hippocampal CA3 Neuronal Dendritic Arborization by Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract Treatment in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, Kosuri Kalyan; Avadhani, Ramakrishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) (family: Leguminosae) have been in clinical use for centuries. Aim: In the present study, we investigated the role of aqueous extract of root of Gg treatment on the dendritic morphology of hippocampal Cornu Ammonis area three (CA3) neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory, in 1- month- old male Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of root of Gg was administered orally in four doses (75, 150, 225 and 300 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. After the treatment period, all experimental animals were subjected to spatial learning (Morris water maze, Hebb-William's maze and elevated plus maze) tests. At the end of the spatial memory tests, the rats were deeply anesthetized with Pentobarbitone and killed their brains were removed rapidly and fixed in rapid Golgi fixative. Hippocampal CA3 neurons were traced using camera lucida, and dendritic arborization and intersections were quantified. These data were compared to those of age-matched control rats. Results: The aqueous root extract of Gg in the dose of 150 and 225 mg/kg/p.o showed a significant (P < 0.01) enhancement of dendritic arborization (dendritic branching points) and dendritic intersections along the length of both apical and basal dendrites in hippocampal (CA3) pyramidal neurons is comparable to control. Conclusion: Based on our results obtained, we conclude that constituents present in aqueous root extract of Gg have neuronal dendritic growth stimulating properties. PMID:24678192

  20. Absence epileptic activity changing effects of non-adenosine nucleoside inosine, guanosine and uridine in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk rats.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Z; Kékesi, K A; Dobolyi, Á; Lakatos, R; Juhász, G

    2015-08-01

    Adenosine (Ado) and non-adenosine (non-Ado) nucleosides such as inosine (Ino), guanosine (Guo) and uridine (Urd) may have regionally different roles in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological processes in the central nervous system (CNS) such as epilepsy. It was demonstrated previously that Ino and Guo decreased quinolinic acid (QA)-induced seizures and Urd reduced penicillin-, bicuculline- and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. It has also been demonstrated that Ino and Urd may exert their effects through GABAergic system by altering the function of GABA(A) type of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAA receptors) whereas Guo decreases glutamate-induced excitability through glutamatergic system, which systems (GABAergic and glutamatergic) are involved in pathomechanisms of absence epilepsy. Thus, we hypothesized that Ino and Guo, similarly to the previously described effect of Urd, might also decrease absence epileptic activity. We investigated in the present study whether intraperitoneal (i.p.) application of Ino (500 and 1000mg/kg), Guo (20 and 50mg/kg), Urd (500 and 1000mg/kg), GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (1 and 3mg/kg), GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (2 and 4mg/kg), non-selective Ado receptor antagonist theophylline (5 and 10mg/kg) and non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo (a,d) cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801, 0.0625 and 0.1250mg/kg) alone and in combination have modulatory effects on absence epileptic activity in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. We found that Guo decreased the number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) whereas Ino increased it dose-dependently. We strengthened that Urd can decrease absence epileptic activity. Our results suggest that Guo, Urd and their analogs could be potentially effective drugs for treatment of human absence epilepsy. PMID:26037802

  1. Guanosine may increase absence epileptic activity by means of A2A adenosine receptors in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk rats.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Renáta Krisztina; Dobolyi, Árpád; Todorov, Mihail Ivilinov; Kékesi, Katalin A; Juhász, Gábor; Aleksza, Magdolna; Kovács, Zsolt

    2016-06-01

    The non-adenosine nucleoside guanosine (Guo) was demonstrated to decrease quinolinic acid(QA)-induced seizures, spontaneously emerged absence epileptic seizures and lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-evoked induction of absence epileptic seizures suggesting its antiepileptic potential. It was also described previously that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 20 and 50mg/kg Guo decreased the number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in a well investigated model of human absence epilepsy, the Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats during 4th (20mg/kg Guo) and 3rd as well as 4th (50mg/kg Guo) measuring hours. Guanosine can potentially decrease SWD number by means of its putative receptors but absence epileptic activity changing effects of Guo by means of increased extracellular adenosine (Ado) cannot be excluded. An increase in the dose of i.p. injected Guo is limited by its low solubility in saline, therefore, we addressed in the present study whether higher doses of Guo, diluted in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, have more potent antiepileptic effect in WAG/Rij rats. We confirmed that i.p. 50mg/kg Guo decreased but, surprisingly, i.p. 100mg/kg Guo enhanced the number of SWDs in WAG/Rij rats. Combined i.p. injection of a non-selective Ado receptor antagonist theophylline (5mg/kg) or a selective Ado A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonist SCH 58261 (7-(2-phenylethyl)-5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine) (1mg/kg) and a cyclooxygenase 1 and 2/COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor indomethacin (10mg/kg) with 100mg/kg Guo decreased the SWD number compared to i.p. 100mg/kg Guo alone. The results suggest that i.p. 100mg/kg Guo can increase SWD number by means of the adenosinergic system. PMID:27154620

  2. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Adewale, Osonuga Odusoga; Oduyemi, Osonuga Ifabunmi; Ayokunle, Osonuga

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats. Methods Twenty adult, healthy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: low dose (LD), moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum. Result Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively. Conclusion Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility. PMID:25183143

  3. Exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration affects anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Shehu, Abubakar; Mohammed, Aliyu; Magaji, Rabiu Abdussalam; Muhammad, Mustapha Shehu

    2016-04-01

    Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in open arm duration in all the experimental groups when compared to the control. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) was also observed in catalase activity in group IV and V when compared to the control. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicates that 4 weeks exposure to electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats. PMID:26546224

  4. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kaksha J.; Panchasara, Ashwin K.; Barvaliya, Manish J.; Purohit, Bhargav M.; Baxi, Seema N.; Vadgama, Vishal K.; Tripathi, C. B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with G. indica 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline 85 mg/kg on day 20 and 21. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 21 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers (serum troponin-I, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase-MB, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde level) and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract showed significant antioxidant property. Isoprenaline produced significant myocardial ischemia as compared to normal control group (P<0.05). Administration of G. indica in both the doses did not significantly recover the altered electrocardiogram, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological myocardial damage as compared to disease control group (P>0.05). The aqueous extract of G. indica was not found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury. Further study with more sample size and higher dose range may be required to evaluate its cardioprotective effect. PMID:26752987

  5. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kaksha J; Panchasara, Ashwin K; Barvaliya, Manish J; Purohit, Bhargav M; Baxi, Seema N; Vadgama, Vishal K; Tripathi, C B

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with G. indica 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline 85 mg/kg on day 20 and 21. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 21 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers (serum troponin-I, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase-MB, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde level) and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract showed significant antioxidant property. Isoprenaline produced significant myocardial ischemia as compared to normal control group (P<0.05). Administration of G. indica in both the doses did not significantly recover the altered electrocardiogram, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological myocardial damage as compared to disease control group (P>0.05). The aqueous extract of G. indica was not found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury. Further study with more sample size and higher dose range may be required to evaluate its cardioprotective effect. PMID:26752987

  6. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris L. fruit aqueous extracton lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in male albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sailaja, K V; Shivaranjani, V Leela; Poornima, H; Rahamathulla, S B Md; Devi, K Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Tribulus terrestris fruit aqueous extract (TTFAEt) on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in albino Wistar rats. Albino Wistar rats were divided into normal control, TTFAEt alone treated, ISO control and pretreated (TTFAEt+ISO) groups. The extract was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 40 days orally by gavage and ISO was administered at a dose of 85 mg/kg body weight for two consecutive days intraperitoneally at an interval of 24 h. ISO induced myocardial infarction (MI) was confirmed by disturbances in serum lipid profile, heart tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. There was a significant increase in the levels of serum total cholesterol (32.60 %), triglycerides (41.30 %), very low density lipoproteins (81.81 %), low density lipoproteins (84%) and phospholipids (38.88 %) and a significant decrease in the levels of high density lipoproteins (33.33 %) in the ISO control group when compared to normal controls. Additionally, there is a significant decrease in the levels of heart tissue antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and depletion of reduced glutathione, which indicates enhanced lipid peroxidation(172 %). Pretreatment with extract significantly showed a protective effect against ISO altered lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. The present study showed therapeutic effect of TTFAEt on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in experimental rats. PMID:26417233

  7. Gender Difference in the Role of Posterodorsal Amygdala on the Regulation of Food Intake, Adiposity and Immunological Responses in Albino Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lalitha, Venugopal; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Pal, Pravati; Parija, Subash Chandra; Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu

    2016-01-01

    Lesion of posterodorsal amygdala (PDA) has been known to produce hyperphagia and obesity in animal models. However, the influence of gender on food intake (FI), body weight (BW) and immunological parameters following PDA lesion is not yet known. The present work was carried out to study the effect of gender on the regulation of FI, BW and immunological parameters following lesions of PDA in albino Wistar rats. Twenty-four albino Wistar rats were divided equally into 2 groups - PDA group and control group - with 6 male and 6 female rats in each. In the experimental group, bilateral electrolytic lesion of the respective nuclei was performed by stereotaxy and post-lesion parameters were recorded. In the control group, sham lesion was made. Male-female difference in each parameter was determined. Following PDA lesion, FI increased significantly in both male (p < 0.001) and female rats (p < 0.01) but the percentage increase in FI was significantly more in female rats (p < 0.001). BW also increased in both the sexes but the increase in BW was significant only in male rats (p < 0.05). Both male and female rats showed increase in the concentration of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), but the significant increase in CD4 concentration (p < 0.01) was seen only in male rats. CD8 concentration increased significantly in male rats (p < 0.05). The liver weight-BW ratio was significantly greater in female rats (p < 0.001) following PDA lesions. Lesion of PDA results in accentuation of FI and BW gain and activation of immunity. There is a gender difference in the inhibitory control of PDA on FI, BW and immunity.

  8. Antioxidative Role of Hatikana (Leea macrophylla Roxb.) Partially Improves the Hepatic Damage Induced by CCl4 in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Samina; Rahman, Md. Atiar; Aklima, Jannatul; Hasan, Md. Rakibul; Hasan Chowdhury, J. M. Kamirul

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the protective role of Leea macrophylla extract on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla (Roxb.) crude extract were subjected to analysis for antioxidative effects. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as normal control, hepatic control, and reference control (silymarin) group and treatment group. Evaluations were made for the effects of the fractions on serum enzymes and biochemical parameters of CCl4-induced albino rat. Histopathological screening was also performed to evaluate the changes of liver tissue before and after treatment. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla showed very potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing effect, superoxide scavenging effect, and iron chelating effect. Carbon tetrachloride induction increased the level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and other biochemical parameters such as lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. In contrast, treatment of Leea macrophylla reduced the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities as well as biochemical parameters activities. L. macrophylla partially restored the lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. Histopathology showed the treated liver towards restoration. Results evidenced that L. macrophylla can be prospective source of hepatic management in liver injury. PMID:26221590

  9. Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. against DEN and Fe NTA Induced Liver Necrosis in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tabernaemontana divaricata against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis in rats. Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tabernaemontana divaricata at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight and 5-fluorouracil (standard drug) was orally administered to male Wistar Albino rats once daily for 24 weeks, simultaneously treated with the carcinogen DEN and Fe NTA. In simultaneously treated animals, the plant extract significantly decreased the levels of uric acid, bilirubin, AST, ALT, and ALP in serum and increased the levels of liver marker enzymes in liver. Treatment with the extracts resulted in a significant increase in the levels of antioxidants accompanied by a marked reduction in the levels of malondialdehyde when compared to DEN and Fe NTA treated group. When compared with 200 mg/kg bw rats, 400 mg/kg bw rats and 5-fluorouracil treated rats showed better results in all the parameters. The histopathological studies confirmed the protective effects of extract against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis. Thus, it could be concluded that the use of Tabernaemontana divaricata extract in the treatment of carcinogen induced hepatic necrosis. PMID:25136566

  10. Protective effect of ethanolic extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis in Wistar Albino rats.

    PubMed

    Poornima, Kannappan; Chella Perumal, Palanisamy; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniappan

    2014-01-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tabernaemontana divaricata against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis in rats. Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tabernaemontana divaricata at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight and 5-fluorouracil (standard drug) was orally administered to male Wistar Albino rats once daily for 24 weeks, simultaneously treated with the carcinogen DEN and Fe NTA. In simultaneously treated animals, the plant extract significantly decreased the levels of uric acid, bilirubin, AST, ALT, and ALP in serum and increased the levels of liver marker enzymes in liver. Treatment with the extracts resulted in a significant increase in the levels of antioxidants accompanied by a marked reduction in the levels of malondialdehyde when compared to DEN and Fe NTA treated group. When compared with 200 mg/kg bw rats, 400 mg/kg bw rats and 5-fluorouracil treated rats showed better results in all the parameters. The histopathological studies confirmed the protective effects of extract against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis. Thus, it could be concluded that the use of Tabernaemontana divaricata extract in the treatment of carcinogen induced hepatic necrosis. PMID:25136566

  11. Design and development of ethosomal transdermal drug delivery system of valsartan with preclinical assessment in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Bhosale, Sagar S; Avachat, Amelia M

    2013-06-01

    Valsartan (VLT) is a highly selective and orally active antihypertensive drug. However, its oral administration is associated with drawbacks like low bioavailability. The objective of this study was to design and develop a transdermal delivery system for VLT using ethosomal carriers to investigate their enhanced transdermal delivery potential. VLT ethosomes were prepared by cold method. VLT ethosomes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The prepared ethanolic liposomes were characterized to be spherical having low polydispersity of nano-size range with good entrapment efficiency. ETC5 ethosomal suspension with 4% of phospholipon 90H and 40% of ethanol was found to have highest entrapment efficiency, i.e. 80.230 ± 0.8748%. The permeation study of ethosomes was evaluated by ex vivo diffusion study through rat abdominal skin using Franz's diffusion cells and ETC5 ethosomal suspension was found to have highest permeation with flux of 92.819 ± 1.539 µg/cm²/h, when compared to the permeation profiles of drug solutions either in water or in a water-ethanol mixture. Transdermal application of ethosomal VLT on Wistar rats showed better and prolonged antihypertensive activity in comparison to orally administered VLT suspension by virtue of transdermal permeation through Wistar rat skin. Histopathological study of skin applied with ETC5 showed intercellular permeation across skin by dissolving intercellular lipids in epidermis without causing any rigorous changes in the skin cellular structure. In conclusion, ethosomes enabled the transdermal permeation of VLT, which amply proves its superiority over oral administration for antihypertensive treatment. PMID:23324030

  12. Effect of papaya (Carica papaya linn) on pregnancy and estrous cycle in albino rats of Wistar strain.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, M; Rajasekharasetty, M R

    1978-01-01

    The antifertility effects of Carica papaya were investigated by feeding adult cycling and pregnant rats with different components of its fruits. No attempt was made to force-feed the animals. The results indicate that unripe fruits of papaya interrupt estrous cycle and induce abortions. The abortifacient property seems to decrease as the fruit becomes stale or ripe. Exogenous progesterone counteracts partially the adverse effects on pregnancy and the surviving foeti are without any distinct malformations. PMID:680941

  13. Evaluation of effects of T and N type calcium channel blockers on the electroencephalogram recordings in Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij rats, an absence epilepsy model

    PubMed Central

    Durmus, Nedim; Gültürk, Sefa; Kaya, Tijen; Demir, Tuncer; Parlak, Mesut; Altun, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: It is suggested that excessive calcium entry into neurons is the main triggering event in the initiation of epileptic discharges. We aimed to investigate the role of T and N type calcium channels in absence epilepsy experimental model. Materials and Methods: Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij (WAG/Rij) rats (12–16 weeks old) were randomly allocated into four groups; sham, mibefradil (T type calcium channel blocker), w-Conotoxin MVIIA (N type calcium channel blocker), and mibefradil + w-Conotoxin MVIIA. Beta, alpha, theta, and delta wave ratios of EEG recordings and frequency and duration of spike wave discharges (SWDs) were analyzed and compared between groups. Results: Beta and delta recording ratios in 1 μM/5 μl mibefradil group was significantly different from basal and other dose-injected groups. Beta, alpha, and theta recordings in 0.2 μM/5 μl w-Conotoxin MVIIA group was significantly different from basal and other dose-injected groups. In w-Conotoxin MVIIA after mibefradil group, beta, alpha, and theta recording ratios were significantly different from basal and mibefradil group. Mibefradil and w-Conotoxin MVIIA significantly decreased the frequency and duration of SWDs. The decrease of frequency and duration of SWDs in mibefradil group was significantly different from w-Conotoxin MVIIA group. The frequency and duration of SWDs significantly decreased in w-Conotoxin MVIIA after mibefradil group compared with basal, mibefradil, and w-Conotoxin MVIIA groups. Conclusions: We concluded that both T and L type calcium channels play activator roles in SWDs and have positive effects on frequency and duration of these discharges. These results are related with their central effects more than peripheral effects. PMID:25821308

  14. 6-gingerol ameliorates gentamicin induced renal cortex oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Ahmed M S; Mosaed, Mohammed M; Elshafey, Saad H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-06-01

    Ginger or Zingiber officinale which is used in traditional medicine has been found to possess antioxidant effect that can control the generation of free radicals. Free radicals are the causes of renal cell degeneration that leads to renal failure in case of gentamicin induced toxicity. This study was done to evaluate the possible protective effects of 6-gingerol as natural antioxidant on gentamicin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and were randomly divided into four groups, control group; 6-gingerol treated group; gentamicin treated group and protected group (given simultaneous 6-gingerol and gentamicin). At the end of the study, blood samples were drawn for biochemical study. Kidney sections were processed for histological, and immunohistochemical examination for caspase-3 to detect apoptosis and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) to detect oxidative damage. Gentamicin treated rats revealed a highly significant increase in renal function tests, tubular dilatation with marked vacuolar degeneration and desquamation of cells, interstitial hemorrhage and cellular infiltration. Immunohistochemically, gentamicin treated rats showed a strong positive immunoreaction for caspase-3 and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47). Protected rats showed more or less normal biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical pictures. In conclusion, co-administration of 6-gingerol during gentamicin 'therapy' has a significant reno-protective effect in a rat model of gentamicin-induced renal damage. It is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections. PMID:27036327

  15. Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD) were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine possible gender-related differences and the possible protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid supplementation on high cholesterol diet induced nephrotoxicity. Methods 96 young male and female Wistar albino rats were used. HCD supplemented animals were treated with rutin alone or in combination with ascorbic acid for 6 weeks. Creatinine plasma level was estimated. Furthermore, kidney levels of nucleic acids, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), total cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Finally, kidney tissues were used for histopathological examination. Results HCD supplementation decreased kidney level of nucleic acids, which was more prominent in female animals. Both vitamin combination significantly attenuated HCD induced decrease in nucleic acids. Moreover, kidney level of MDA was significantly altered by HCD in both genders, which was inhibited by rutin and ascorbic acid alone or in combination in male groups and by both vitamins in female groups. There was a reduction in kidney level of GSH by HCD, especially in male groups, which was attenuated by rutin and ascorbic acid combination. Kidney levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased by HCD supplementation in both genders. Coadministration with rutin and/or ascorbic acid protected from such increase, which was more obvious in both vitamins combination. Histopathological investigation supported vitamins protective effect, which was

  16. Exploring the Potential Role of Chemopreventive Agent, Hesperetin Conjugated Pegylated Gold Nanoparticles in Diethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Gokuladhas, Krishnan; Jayakumar, Subramaniyan; Rajan, Balan; Elamaran, Ramasamy; Pramila, Chengalvarayan Subramani; Gopikrishnan, Mani; Tamilarasi, Sasivarman; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2016-04-01

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer and is still one of the leading causes of death world wide, due to food additives, alcohol, fungal toxins, air, toxic industrial chemicals, and water pollutants. Chemopreventive drugs play a potential role in liver cancer treatment. Obviously in the production of anticancer drugs, the factors like poor solubility, bioavailability, biocompatibility, limited chemical stability, large amount of dose etc., plays a major role. Against this backdrop, the idea of designing the chemopreventive nature of bio flavanoid hesperetin (HP) drug conjugated with pegylated gold nanoparticles to increasing the solubility, improve bioavailability and enhance the targeting capabilities of the drug during diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in male wistar albino rats. The dose fixation studies and the toxicity of pure HP and HP conjugated gold nanoparticles (Au-mPEG(5000)-S-HP) were analysed. After concluded the dose fixation and toxicity studies the experimental design were segregated in six groups for the anticancer analysis of DEN induced HCC for 16 weeks. After the experimental period the body weight, relative liver weight, number of nodules and size of nodules, the levels of tumor markers like CEA, AFP and the level of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were assessed. The administration of DEN to rats resulted in increased relative liver weight and serum marker enzymes aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase. The levels of lipid peroxides elevated (in both serum and tissue) with subsequent decrease in the final body weight and tissue antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidise, and glutathione reductase. HP supplementation (20 mg/kg b.wt) significantly attenuated these alterations, thereby showing potent anticancer effect in liver cancer and the

  17. Sub-acute effects of ethanol extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius root on some physiologically important electrolytes in serum of normal Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Enemor, V H A; Okaka, A N C

    2013-12-01

    Sarcocephalus latifolius (Synonym, Nauclea latifolia) is a shrub commonly seen in the South East of Nigeria. It is widely applied as herbal remedy in the treatment of various illnesses. The effect of ethanol extract of the root of the plant on some serum electrolytes was studied. A total of thirty Wistar albino rats were used to determine serum concentrations of K+, Ca2+, Cl- and HCO3-. The animals were divided into six groups of five rats each. Five groups labeled A, B, C, D and E, were administered orally with graded doses of root extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius at concentration of 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 mg kg(-1) body weight, respectively. The sixth group (Group F) was used as the control and its animals were simply sustained on normal diet and water. Administration of the extract lasted for twenty-one days after which the animals were sacrificed by cardiac puncture. K+, Ca2+, Cl- and HCO3- were determined from each sample and the mean concentration was calculated for each dose and the control. Potassium, calcium and chloride determination were done by colorimetric methods while determination of bicarbonate concentration was done by simple titration. Na+ was separately assayed, by flame photometer, from a set of 18 rats of six animals in each of three groups. For K+, non dose dependent increases were observed which was non-significant (p > 0.05), for A, D and E but significant (p < 0.05) for B and C. Ca2+ showed a dose dependent and significant (p < 0.05) decreases, except for A (p > 0.05). Decreases (p < 0.05) for C, D, E and (p > 0.05) for A and B were observed for Cl-. Serum bicarbonate appeared almost completely unaffected by the extract, showing no significant changes. Na+ levels were depressed for the two test groups, A and B compared with the control (group C), with test group B showing a significant decrease (p < 0.05). From the analysis, it could be concluded that Sarcocephalus latifolius has the capacity to influence various electrolytes to

  18. Effect of bisphenol A on morphology, apoptosis and proliferation in the resting mammary gland of the adult albino rat.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Elbakry, Reda H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a non-significant increase in ER-α expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer. PMID:26877094

  19. Neonatal handling causes impulsive behavior and decreased pharmacological response to methylphenidate in male adult wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lazzaretti, Camilla; Kincheski, Grasielle Clotildes; Pandolfo, Pablo; Krolow, Rachel; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Couto-Pereira, Natividade de Sá; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Galvalisi, Martin; Costa, Gustavo; Scorza, Cecilia; Souza, Tadeu Mello E; Dalmaz, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal handling has an impact on adult behavior of experimental animals and is associated with rapid and increased palatable food ingestion, impaired behavioral flexibility, and fearless behavior to novel environments. These symptoms are characteristic features of impulsive trait, being controlled by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Impulsive behavior is a key component of many psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), manic behavior, and schizophrenia. Others have reported a methylphenidate (MPH)-induced enhancement of mPFC functioning and improvements in behavioral core symptoms of ADHD patients. The aims of the present study were: (i) to find in vivo evidence for an association between neonatal handling and the development of impulsive behavior in adult Wistar rats and (ii) to test whether neonatal handling could have an impact on monoamine levels in the mPFC and the pharmacological response to MPH in vivo. Therefore, experimental animals (litters) were classified as: "non-handled" and "handled" (10[Formula: see text]min/day, postnatal days 1-10). After puberty, they were exposed to either a larger and delayed or smaller and immediate reward (tolerance to delay of reward task). Acute MPH (3[Formula: see text]mg/Kg. i.p.) was used to suppress and/or regulate impulsive behavior. Our results show that only neonatally handled male adult Wistar rats exhibit impulsive behavior with no significant differences in monoamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, together with a decreased response to MPH. On this basis, we postulate that early life interventions may have long-term effects on inhibitory control mechanisms and affect the later response to pharmacological agents during adulthood. PMID:26620193

  20. Protective Effects of Extract from Sclerotium of the King Tuber Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus tuberregium (Higher Basidiomycetes) on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Alagbaoso, Chidube A; Osubor, Christopher C; Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of 50% ethanol extract from the sclerotia of Pleurotus tuberregium on hepatocellular integrity of albino rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Activities of hepatic enzymes alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST) were determined in serum. Antioxidant enzyme activities, total protein, and level of malondialdehyde (MDA) were assayed in liver homogenate from treated rats. Oral administration of CCl4 (2 ml/kg body weight/day) for 7 consecutive days caused hepatotoxicity. There was a significant increase in the activity of serum ALT, AST, and ALP and the level of MDA in the liver. However, the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase, which are antioxidant enzymes, were significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Concomitant treatment with 250 mg/kg body weight of extract and CCl4 for 7 consecutive days resulted in a significant decrease in the activity of liver marker enzymes [46% (ALT), 67.25% (AST), and 68.51% (ALP)]. These activities were further decreased [68.24% (ALT), 78.39% (AST), and 75.38% (ALP)] when the extract was increased to 500 mg/kg body weight. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, total protein, and MDA content of the liver were improved to levels that are not significantly different from the control. These findings, therefore, suggest that ethanol extract from the sclerotia of P. tuberregium has a protective action against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:26854100

  1. Antioxidative and antidiabetic activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Oseni, O. A.; Odesanmi, O. E.; Oladele, F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The nutritional and medicinal importance of watermelon has been emphasized and its diseases preventive and curative power must be evaluated. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidative and antidiabetic potentials of watermelon. Materials and Methods: The in vivo assay was carried out on 15 male albino rats which were divided into groups of three stages. In stage I, all animals received normal feeds and water for 1-week after, which five animals were selected and sacrificed for biochemical analyses which form the nondiabetic control, group. The remaining animals were fasted for 24 h before injected intra-peritoneally with a freshly prepared solution of alloxan at a dosage of 35 mg/kg body weight. Five out of the 10 rats were sacrificed as diabetic group while last five animals were fed with water melon juice for a week after, which they were sacrificed to form the treated group animals. In all the groups, body weights, fasting blood sugar, total protein level in the blood, and other biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration; catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) % inhibition activities were determined. Results: The results of the biochemical analyses showed a significant increase in the concentration of blood glucose level after treatment with alloxan, which indicates that diabetic was induced. Hence, watermelon juice caused increased in weight, hypoglycemia; and increases in GSH, GPx, catalase, and SOD % inhibition activities with reduced MDA concentration after treatments. Conclusion: The watermelon juice resulted in the restoration of impaired conditions of the rats. PMID:26759513

  2. Adolescent alcohol exposure decreased sensitivity to nicotine in adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Boutros, Nathalie; Semenova, Svetlana; Markou, Athina

    2016-07-01

    Many adolescents engage in heavy alcohol use. Limited research in humans indicates that adolescent alcohol use predicts adult tobacco use. The present study investigated whether adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure alters nicotine sensitivity in adulthood. Adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 28-53) were exposed to AIE exposure that consisted of 5 g/kg of 25 percent ethanol three times per day in a 2 days on/2 days off regimen. Control rats received water with the same exposure regimen. In adulthood, separate groups of rats were tested for nicotine intravenous self-administration (IVSA), drug discrimination and conditioned taste aversion (CTA). The dose-response function for nicotine IVSA under a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement was similar in AIE-exposed and control rats. However, AIE-exposed rats self-administered less nicotine at the lowest dose, suggesting that low-dose nicotine was less reinforcing in AIE-exposed, compared with control rats. AIE-exposed rats self-administered less nicotine under a progressive-ratio schedule, suggesting decreased motivation for nicotine after AIE exposure. The discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine were diminished in AIE-exposed rats compared with control rats. No group differences in nicotine CTA were observed, suggesting that AIE exposure had no effect on the aversive properties of nicotine. Altogether, these results demonstrate that AIE exposure decreases sensitivity to the reinforcing, motivational and discriminative properties of nicotine while leaving the aversive properties of nicotine unaltered in adult rats. These findings suggest that drinking during adolescence may result in decreased sensitivity to nicotine in adult humans, which may in turn contribute to the higher rates of tobacco smoking. PMID:25950618

  3. Neocortical neurodegeneration in young adult Wistar rats prenatally exposed to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Fakoya, Francis Adelade; Caxton-Martins, Ezekiel Ademola

    2006-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the persistence of neurodegeneration in the cerebral cortex of adult Wistar rats following prenatal ethanol exposure. Timed pregnant rats maintained on standard mouse chow (Ladokun Feeds, Ibadan, Nigeria) and water ad libitum were used for the study. The rats were divided randomly into groups A and B (n-6) and C (n = 4). Group A received a daily ethanol dose of 5.8 g/Kg body weight/day, on the 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th days of gestation by intragastric intubation, at 16.00 h (PEE) group B was pair-fed with the ethanol dams on isocaloric solution of sucrose for the same duration (PF), while group C received standard chow (C) and water ad libitum. At birth, the pups were weighed and weaned at 30 days of age. Wet brain weights of adult offsprings were determined at 42 days of age. Following whole body perfusion-fixation after anaesthesia, specimens of the neocortex were processed routinely for paraffin embedding and sections of 6 mum thickness stained for neurohistology from each group. Another set of specimens was cryosectioned at -23 degrees C and evaluated for apoptosis by the TUNEL method. The study showed a significantly sustained 44% reduction in brain weight. Neurodegeneration was evident in the layer V, consisting of mostly pyknotic pyramidal neurons, with broken dendrites, collapsed cell bodies, obliterated nuclei and nucleoli. There was a 55% decrease in the normal pyramidal neuron cell pack density. The negative TUNEL signals in both groups suggest that apoptosis may play no role in the mechanism of action occurring at this age of the animals. These sustained changes may underlie the neurobehavioural deficits that have been variously reported. PMID:16503114

  4. Persistent neocortical astrogliosis in adult wistar rats following prenatal ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Fakoya, Francis Adelade

    2005-06-01

    Timed pregnant wistar rats were divided randomly into groups A and B (n=6) each and C (n=4). Group A received a daily ethanol dose of 5.8 g/kg body weight per day, at 16.00 h on days 9-12th of gestation by intragastric intubations. Group B was pair-fed along with the treated rats and received an isocaloric solution of sucrose to substitute for the ethanol in the experimental group, for the same duration, while group C received standard chow and water ad libitum. The adult offsprings at 42 days of age, (n=10) from each group were sacrificed by whole body perfusion-fixation, after anaesthesia by an overdose of pentothal intraperitoneally. Specimens of neocortical samples were processed routinely for paraffin embedding and sections of 6 microm thickness stained for neurohistology. Another set of specimens was cryosectioned at -23 degrees C after cryoprotection in 30% sucrose/PBS and evaluated for GFAP immunohistochemistry. The study showed a distortion of the microanatomy of the neocortex in the treatment group A, particularly of layer V pyramidal neurons, which revealed mostly pyknotic pyramidal neurons with broken dendrites, collapsed cell bodies, obliterated nuclei and nucleoli. No differences were found between the brains from rats in groups B and C. There were widespread focal areas of reactive astrogliosis, more prominent within the layer V. Astrocytes demonstrated highly stained GFAP-positive immunoreactivity with heavy fibrillary processes in the neocortex of group A offsprings compared to the controls. The sub-pial regions were, however, sparse. In conclusion, this study confirms the hypothesis that microanatomical and microchemical changes following prenatal ethanol exposure persist into adulthood in rats. PMID:15862187

  5. Monosodium Glutamate Dietary Consumption Decreases Pancreatic β-Cell Mass in Adult Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Boonnate, Piyanard; Waraasawapati, Sakda; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi; Pethlert, Supattra; Sharma, Amod; Selmi, Carlo; Prasongwattana, Vitoon; Cha’on, Ubon

    2015-01-01

    Background The amount of dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG) is increasing worldwide, in parallel with the epidemics of metabolic syndrome. Parenteral administration of MSG to rodents induces obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, the impact of dietary MSG is still being debated. We investigated the morphological and functional effects of prolonged MSG consumption on rat glucose metabolism and on pancreatic islet histology. Methods Eighty adult male Wistar rats were randomly subdivided into 4 groups, and test rats in each group were supplemented with MSG for a different duration (1, 3, 6, or 9 months, n=20 for each group). All rats were fed ad libitum with a standard rat chow and water. Ten test rats in each group were provided MSG 2 mg/g body weight/day in drinking water and the 10 remaining rats in each group served as non-MSG treated controls. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed and serum insulin measured at 9 months. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3, 6, or 9 months to examine the histopathology of pancreatic islets. Results MSG-treated rats had significantly lower pancreatic β-cell mass at 1, 6 and 9 months of study. Islet hemorrhages increased with age in all groups and fibrosis was significantly more frequent in MSG-treated rats at 1 and 3 months. Serum insulin levels and glucose tolerance in MSG-treated and untreated rats were similar at all time points we investigated. Conclusion Daily MSG dietary consumption was associated with reduced pancreatic β-cell mass and enhanced hemorrhages and fibrosis, but did not affect glucose homeostasis. We speculate that high dietary MSG intake may exert a negative effect on the pancreas and such effect might become functionally significant in the presence or susceptibility to diabetes or NaCl; future experiments will take these crucial cofactors into account. PMID:26121281

  6. Nigerian bonny-light crude oil induces alteration in testicular stress response proteins and caspase-3 dependent apoptosis in albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ebokaiwe, Azubuike P; D'Cruz, Cynthia S; Jubendradass, R; Amala Rani, Judith S; Mathur, Premendu P; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2015-02-01

    In the past few decades, there has been much concern about the adverse health effects of environmental contaminants in general and Crude Oil in particular around the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where all the crude Oil exploration is taking place. Studies have shown the repro-toxic effects of Bonny-light crude oil (BLCO). However, the insight into the mechanisms of gonadal toxicity induced by BLCO is not well known. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanism(s) underpinning the gonadal effects within hours of exposure to BLCO. Experimental rats were divided into five groups of four each. Animals were orally administered with a single dose of BLCO (800 mg/kg body weight) and killed at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 72 h post-treatment. The levels and time-course of induction of stress response proteins and apoptosis-related proteins like cytochorome C, caspase 3 and procaspase 9, Fas-FasL, NF-kB and TNF-α were determined to assess sequential induction of apoptosis in the rat testis. DNA damage was assessed by TUNEL assay. Administration of BLCO resulted in a significant increase in the levels of stress response proteins and apoptotis- related proteins as early as 6 h following exposure. Time-dependent elevations in the levels of the proteins were observed. The DNA damage was measured and showed time-dependent increase in the TUNEL positive cells of testicular cells. The study demonstrates induction of testicular apoptosis in adult rats following exposure to a single dose of BLCO. PMID:24106129

  7. Advantage of Guaraná (Paullinia cupana Mart.) supplementation on cadmium-induced damages in testis of adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Leite, Rodrigo P; Predes, Fabrícia S; Monteiro, Juliana C; Freitas, Karine M; Wada, Ronaldo S; Dolder, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Paullinia cupana is an Amazonian bush whose seeds have long been used in folk medicine. However, most of the therapeutic properties attributed to this plant are broad and nonspecific, although an antioxidant activity has been reported.  On the other hand, cadmium is a heavy metal known for increasing free radicals, hence resulting in cellular oxidative damages. This study was designed to evaluate whether Paullinia cupana is able to reduce cadmium-induced morphological impairment in Wistar rat testis. Adult male Wistar rats 110 days old were ip injected with cadmium (1.15 mg/kg BW [body weight]) and subsequently treated with P. cupana during 56 days.  Furthermore, groups receiving either P. cupana extract or cadmium are mentioned. After the treatment period, testis samples were subjected to histological and stereological analyses. Moderate to severe testicular impairments were shown by the animals exposed to cadmium. However, the animals supplemented with P. cupana after cadmium exposure showed a significant decrease in the proportion of damaged seminiferous tubules. Also, P. cupana supplementation was effective in maintaining the number of Leydig cells per testis in the animals exposed to cadmium. In conclusion, P. cupana supplementation was partially efficient in preventing cadmium from damaging the testis of adult Wistar rats. PMID:22659242

  8. Some histological effects of chronic administration of chloroquine on the medial geniculate body of adult wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Adjene, J O; Caxton-Martins, A E

    2006-06-01

    Some histological effects of chronic administration of chloroquine commonly used for prophylaxis or treatment of malaria. rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus on the medial geniculate body (MGB) of adult wistar rats was carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n= 18), average weight of 184g were randomly assigned into treatment (n= 10) and control (n=7) groups. The rats in the treatment group received 2mg/kg body weight of chloroquine base dissolved in distilled water daily for fourteen days through the orogastric tube administration while the control rats received equal volume of distilled water daily through the same route. The rats were fed with rat pellets purchased from Topfeed Ltd. Sapele. Delta State. Nigeria and given water liberally and were then sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The MGB were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H & E and thionin methods. The histological findings after H & E methods indicated that the treated sections of the MGB showed faintly reduced nuclei size, with the presence of many autophagic vacuoles and degenerative neurons when compared to the control sections. On the other hand. the thionin method indicated that the treated sections showed sparsely distributed neurons, which stain less intensely when compared with the control. The nissl substance in some of the neurons appeared degenerative while some hypertrophied with some vacuolations. These findings indicated that chronic administration of chloroquine has a deleterious effect on the neurons and nissl substance of the MGB. Chloroquine may probably have adverse effects on auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells and nissl substances of the MGB of the adult wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out. PMID:17209307

  9. Functional and morphological effects of laser-induced ocular hypertension in retinas of adult albino Swiss mice

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Alarcón-Martínez, Luis; Valiente-Soriano, Francisco Javier; Ortín-Martínez, Arturo; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Avilés-Trigueros, Marcelino; Villegas-Pérez, María Paz; de la Villa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of laser photocoagulation (LP)-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) on the survival and retrograde axonal transport of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), as well as on the function of retinal layers. Methods Adult albino Swiss mice (35–45 g) received laser photocoagulation of limbal and episcleral veins in the left eye. Mice were sacrificed at 8, 17, 35, and 63 days. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in both eyes was measured with a Tono-Lab before LP and at various days after LP. Flash electroretinogram (ERG) scotopic threshold response (STR) and a- and b-wave amplitudes were recorded before LP and at various times after LP. RGCs were labeled with 10% hydroxystilbamidine methanesulfonate (OHSt) applied to both superior colliculi before sacrifice and in some mice, with dextran tetramethylrhodamine (DTMR) applied to the ocular stump of the intraorbitally transected optic nerve. Retinas were immunostained for RT97 or Brn3a. Retinas were prepared as whole-mounts and photographed under a fluorescence microscope. Labeled RGCs were counted using image analysis software, and an isodensity contour plot was generated for each retina. Results IOP increased to twice its basal values by 24 h and was maintained until day 5, after which IOP gradually declined to reach basal values by 1 wk. Similar IOP increases were observed in all groups. The mean total number of OHSt+ RGCs was 13,428±6,295 (n=12), 10,456±14,301 (n=13), 12,622±14,174 (n=21), and 10,451±13,949 (n=13) for groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively; these values represented 28%, 23%, 26%, and 22% of the values found in their contralateral fellow retinas. The mean total population of Brn3a+ RGCs was 24,343±5,739 (n=12) and 10,219±8,887 (n=9), respectively, for groups I and III; these values represented 49% and 20%, respectively, of the values found in their fellow eyes. OHT retinas showed an absence of OHSt+ and DTMR+ RGCs in both focal wedge-shaped and diffuse regions of the retina. By 1

  10. Differential effects of alprazolam and clonazepam on the immune system and blood vessels of non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Elmesallamy, Ghada E.; Abass, Marwa A.; Ahmed Refat, Nahla A.G.; Atta, Amal H.

    2011-01-01

    Benzodiazepines belongs to one of the most commonly used anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drugs in the world. Full description of toxic effects on different organs is lacking for nearly all the current benzodiazepines. The aim of the current work was to study the immunologic and vascular changes induced by sub-chronic administration of alprazolam and clonazepam in non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats. Forty-two adult male albino rats were divided into 6 groups (I): (Ia) Negative control rats, (Ib): Positive control rats received distilled water, (II): Stressed rats, (III): Non-stressed rats received daily oral dose of clonazepam (0.5 mg/kg), (IV): Stressed rats received daily oral dose of clonazepam (0.5 mg/kg), (V): Non-stressed rats received daily oral dose of alprazolam (0.3 mg/kg). (VI): Stressed rats received daily oral dose of alprazolam (0.3 mg/kg). At the end of the 4th week, total leukocyte count (WBCs) and differential count were determined, anti-sheep RBC antibody (Anti-SRBC) titer and interleukin-2 (IL-2) level were assessed, thymus glands, lymph nodes, spleens and abdominal aortae were submitted to histopathological examination. Alprazolam was found to induce a significant increase in neutrophil count and a significant decrease in lymphocytes, anti-SRBC titer and IL-2 level with severe depletion of the splenic, thymal and nodal lymphocytes, accompanied by congestion and eosinophilic vasculitis of all organs tested in comparison to clonazepam treated rats. Stress enhanced the toxic effects. It was concluded that the immune system and blood vessels can be adversely affected to a greater extent by short-term chronic administration of alprazolam than by clonazepam, and these toxic effects are aggravated by stress. PMID:22058654

  11. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats

    PubMed Central

    Sailani, M. R.; Moeini, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. Result: The statistical results showed that the ethanol extracts of these plants reduced the number of sperms significantly (P=0.00) in the treatment groups in comparison to the control group. The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. graveolens reduced spermatogenesis more than the group treated by extracts of C. sativa. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. graveolens and C. sativa in the adult male wistar rats but more studies are necessary to reveal the mechanism of action that is involved in spermatogenesis. PMID:19718326

  12. Interaction between the antioxidant activity of curcumin and cholinergic system on memory retention in adult male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarlak, Zeynab; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Moghaddasi, Mehrnoush

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The cholinergic system plays an important role in learning and memory. This study investigated the effects of curcumin (turmeric extract) and the cholinergic system and their interaction on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: At first, an injection cannula was implanted in right ventricles of the animals. One week after the surgery, the animals were trained with a shuttle box set up. Post-training, injections were performed in all experiments. Administration of curcumin increased memory retention. Also administrations of nicotine and pilocarpine, the cholinergic receptor agonists, increased memory retention, while it is decreased by succinylcholine and scopolamine, the cholinergic receptor antagonists. Then co-administration of curcumin and cholinergic drugs were performed. Intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injections were applied for the curcumin and cholinergic drugs, respectively. Results: Co-administration of curcumin (45 mg/kg) with a low dose of nicotine (0.1 µg/rat) or pilocarpine (0.5 µg/rat) increased memory retention significantly. Effects of succinylcholine (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 µg/rat) or scopolamine (0.1, 1 and 5 µg/rat) were attenuated by curcumin markedly (45 mg/kg). Conclusion: The results suggest that curcumin has a close interaction with cholinergic system in memory retention process. PMID:26019804

  13. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on emotional behavior and biochemical parameters in adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Amara, Salem; Khemissi, Wahid; Mrad, Imen; Rihane, Naima; Ben Slama, Imen; Mir, Lassaad E; Jeljeli, Mustapha; Ben Rhouma, Khemais; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Sakly, Mohsen

    2013-06-01

    The rapidly developing field of nanotechnology is becoming a potential source for human exposure to nanoparticles. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have been widely produced in industrial processes for several years. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on plasmatic biochemical parameters and the emotional behavior in adult Wistar rats. Rats were treated by intraperitoneal injection of TiO2 nanoparticles (20-30 nm) at a dose of 25 mg/kg. For toxicity evaluation of nanoparticles sample, body weight, organ coefficient, blood biochemistry panel assay (AST, ALT, LDH, uric acid, creatinine, and glucose content) and emotional behavior parameters were determined. Sub-acute TiO2 nanoparticles treatment decreased the body weight, but increased the relative brain weight. Biochemical assessment in plasma samples showed that TiO2 nanoparticles injection increased uric acid concentration and AST activity in rats. However, the same treatment decreased the creatinine level, but had no effect on glucose concentration, ALT and LDH activity. The emotional behavior of control and treated rats was tested in elevated plus-maze. Interestingly, our results showed that TiO2-treated rats spent more time in the secured closed arms and entered the anxiogenic open arms less frequently than control. Our results suggest that TiO2 nanoparticles intoxication could altered biochemical parameters related to changes in organ function and leads to emotional behavior impairment of rats. PMID:23682022

  14. Structural and Ultrastructural Characteristics of Bone-Tendon Junction of the Calcaneal Tendon of Adult and Elderly Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Diego Pulzatto; Dias, Fernando José; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Watanabe, Ii-sei

    2016-01-01

    Tendons are transition tissues that transfer the contractile forces generated by the muscles to the bones, allowing movement. The region where the tendon attaches to the bone is called bone-tendon junction or enthesis and may be classified as fibrous or fibrocartilaginous. This study aims to analyze the collagen fibers and the cells present in the bone-tendon junction using light microscopy and ultrastructural techniques as scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Forty male Wistar rats were used in the experiment, being 20 adult rats at 4 months-old and 20 elderly rats at 20 months-old. The hind limbs of the rats were removed, dissected and prepared to light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The aging process showed changes in the collagen fibrils, with a predominance of type III fibers in the elderly group, in addition to a decrease in the amount of the fibrocartilage cells, fewer and shorter cytoplasmic processes and a decreased synthetic capacity due to degradation of the organelles involved in synthesis. PMID:27078690

  15. Effect of different doses of monosodium glutamate on the thyroid follicular cells of adult male albino rats: a histological study

    PubMed Central

    Khalaf, Hanaa A; Arafat, Eetmad A

    2015-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a major flavor enhancer used as a food additive. The present study investigates the effects of different doses of MSG on the morphometric and histological changes of the thyroid gland. 28 male albino rats were used. The rats were divided into four groups: group I control, group II, III and IV treated with MSG (0.25 g/kg, 3 g/kg, 6 g/kg daily for one month) respectively. The thyroid glands were dissected out and prepared for light and electron microscopic examination. Light microscopic examination of thyroid gland of group II revealed increase in follicular epithelial height. Groups III & IV showed decrease in the follicular diameter and irregularity in the shape of some follicles with discontinuity of basement membrane. Follicular hyperplasia was detected in some follicles with appearance of multiple pyknotic nuclei in follicular and interfollicular cells and multiple exfoliated cells in the colloid. In addition, areas of loss of follicular pattern were appeared in group IV. Immunohistochemical examination of BCL2 immunoexpression of the thyroid glands of groups III & IV reveals weak positive reaction in the follicular cells cytoplasm. Ultrathin sections examination of groups III & IV revealed follicular cells with irregular hyperchromatic nuclei, marked dilatation of rER and increased lysosomes with areas of short or lost apical microvilli. In addition, vacuolation of mitochondria was detected in group IV. The results displayed that MSG even at low doses is capable of producing alterations in the body weights and thyroid tissue function and histology. PMID:26884820

  16. Comparison of apoptosis between adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum from susceptible (BALB/c mice) and less-susceptible (Wistar rats) hosts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Guo, Xiaoyong; Hong, Yang; Han, Hongxiao; Cao, Xiaodan; Han, Yanhui; Zhang, Min; Wu, Miaoli; Fu, Zhiqiang; Lu, Ke; Li, Hao; Zhao, Zhixin; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2016-10-30

    Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health concern in China. BALB/c mice are susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection, whereas the Wistar rats are less susceptible. Apoptosis phenomenon was observed in 42d adult worms of S. japonicum from both rats and mice at the morphologic, DNA, cellular, and gene levels by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis, fluorescein isothiocyanate-annexin-V/propidium iodide staining flow cytometry (FCM) analysis, and real-time PCR. The results showed that the apoptotic state in worms from two different susceptible hosts was diverse. Several classical hallmarks of apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and lunate marginalization, splitting of the nucleoli, nuclear shrinkage and apoptotic body formation were observed by TEM. TUNEL analysis showed that there were much more apoptosis spots in adult worms from rats than those from mice. Statistical analysis revealed that the degree of apoptosis and percentage of necrotic cells in adult worms from Wistar rats were significantly greater (P<0.01) than those from BALB/c mice by flow cytometry. A total of 15 apoptosis-associated genes including the major components of an intrinsic cell-death pathway were identified from S. japonicum in this study, suggested that a similar apoptosis pathway might occur in S. japonicum. Real-time PCR analyses revealed that the expression levels of most of the tested apoptosis-associated genes, except CASP7, were significantly higher or at the similar level in adult worms from Wistar rats, as compared to those from BALB/c mice. The results obtained in this study collectively demonstrated that differential development of adult S. japonicum in less-susceptible rats and susceptible mice was significantly associated with apoptosis in the worm, and provided valuable information to guide further investigations of the mechanisms governing

  17. Spontaneous Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2) Expression in the Cochlea of Adult Albino Rat and Its Up-Regulation after Cisplatin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Trinidad, Almudena; Ramil, Elvira; Sánchez-López, Antonio J.; Coronado, Maria José; Martínez-Martínez, Esther; García, José Miguel; García-Berrocal, José Ramón; Ramírez-Camacho, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    We provide evidence for the presence of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in some cellular types of the cochlea of the adult albino rat. Cannabinoids and their receptors are increasingly being studied because of their high potential for clinical use. As a hyperspecialized portion of the peripheral nervous system, study of the expression and function of cannabinoid receptors in the hearing organ is of high interest. Stria vascularis and inner hair cells express CB2 receptor, as well as neurites and cell bodies of the spiral ganglion. Cellular types such as supporting cells and outer hair cells, in which the expression of other types of functional receptors has been reported, do not significantly express CB2 receptors in this study. An up-regulation of CB2 gene expression was detected after an ototoxic event such as cisplatin treatment, probably due to pro-inflammatory events triggered by the drug. That fact suggests promising potential of CB2 receptor as a therapeutic target for new treatments to palliate cisplatin-induced hearing loss and other ototoxic events which triggers inflammatory pathways. PMID:27564061

  18. Spontaneous Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2) Expression in the Cochlea of Adult Albino Rat and Its Up-Regulation after Cisplatin Treatment.

    PubMed

    Martín-Saldaña, Sergio; Trinidad, Almudena; Ramil, Elvira; Sánchez-López, Antonio J; Coronado, Maria José; Martínez-Martínez, Esther; García, José Miguel; García-Berrocal, José Ramón; Ramírez-Camacho, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    We provide evidence for the presence of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in some cellular types of the cochlea of the adult albino rat. Cannabinoids and their receptors are increasingly being studied because of their high potential for clinical use. As a hyperspecialized portion of the peripheral nervous system, study of the expression and function of cannabinoid receptors in the hearing organ is of high interest. Stria vascularis and inner hair cells express CB2 receptor, as well as neurites and cell bodies of the spiral ganglion. Cellular types such as supporting cells and outer hair cells, in which the expression of other types of functional receptors has been reported, do not significantly express CB2 receptors in this study. An up-regulation of CB2 gene expression was detected after an ototoxic event such as cisplatin treatment, probably due to pro-inflammatory events triggered by the drug. That fact suggests promising potential of CB2 receptor as a therapeutic target for new treatments to palliate cisplatin-induced hearing loss and other ototoxic events which triggers inflammatory pathways. PMID:27564061

  19. Genetic and developmental studies of albino chorus frogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Albino (amelanic) adult chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) occurred with frequencies of 7 percent in 1981 and 12 percent in 1982 in breeding aggregations at a pond in the foothills of the Colorado Front Range. Laboratory matings and examination of albino egg masses suggest that the absence of melanin is due to a recessive allele. The albino phenotype displayed no deficiencies in survival of embryos, rates of embryo or larval development, or rates of growth of juvenile frogs. The absence of abnormalities in development or growth suggests that the a allele in P. triseriata has an action different from albino alleles studied previously in anurans.

  20. Protective effect of curcumin against experimentally induced aflatoxicosis on the renal cortex of adult male albino rats: a histological and immunohisochemical study

    PubMed Central

    El-Mahalaway, Abeer M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxin contamination of foods is a worldwide problem. Chronic aflatoxin exposure is associated with kidney damage. Curcumin is a herbal agent, used in medicine with a wide range of beneficial therapeutic effects. Objective: to evaluate the effect of curcumin against experimentally induced aflatoxicosis on the renal cortex of adult male albino rats. Materials and methods: Forty adult male rats were included and they were divided equally into 4 groups (10 rats each): Group I (control group), group II (Curcumin group): The rats received curcumin (200 mg/kg b.w.) orally by gastric tube for 5 days/week, group III (Aflatoxin B1 group): The rats received aflatoxin B1 (250 μg/kg b.w./day) orally by gastric tube 5 days/week for 4 weeks, group IV (Aflatoxin B1 and Curcumin group): The rats received aflatoxin and curcumin orally by gastric tube 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Kidney specimens were prepared and sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson’s trichrome, Periodic acid Schiff, immunohistochemical detection of desmin and Bcl2. Results: The tubules of group III showed degenerative and necrotic changes with disruption of basal lamina. There was a significant decrease Bcl2 expression in the tubules, but the glomeruli showed an enlargement with dilation of their capillaries lumina in some areas, while the other areas showed glomerular atrophy with obliteration of their capillaries lumina. There was a significant increase in desmin expression in the glomerular cells. The interstitium showed hemorrhage and cellular infiltration. Group IV showed improvement of the histological and immunohistochemical changes described before. Conclusion: Aflatoxin B1 has deleterious effects of on the histological structure of the rat’s renal cortex and curcumin minimized these effects as it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic activities. We advise eating nutritious diets that contain sufficient amounts of curcumin and regulation must implement to

  1. Effect of nano-zinc oxide on doxorubicin- induced oxidative stress and sperm disorders in adult male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Badkoobeh, Puran; Parivar, Kazem; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi; Hosseini, Seyed Davood; Salabat, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antibiotic, is a widely used anticancer agent. In spite of its high antitumor efficacy, the use of DOX in clinical chemotherapy is limited due to diverse toxicities, including gonadotoxicity. Objective: We investigated the protective effect of nano-zinc oxide (nZnO) as an established antioxidant on DOX-induced testicular disorders. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 24 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups including one control and three experimentals (6 rats per group). They received saline (as control), DOX alone (6 mg/kg body weight, i.p.), nZnO alone (5 mg/kg body weight, i.p.), and nZnO followed by DOX. Animals were sacrificed 28 days after treatment and evaluations were made by sperm count and measuring sex hormone levels in plasma. Also total antioxidant power (TAP) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in plasma were tested. Data was analyzed with SPSS-14 and one way ANOVA test. P<0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: In the DOX-exposed rats significant differences were found compared with the control group (p=0.001) in plasma total antioxidant power (TAP) (425.50±32.33 vs. 493.33±18.54 mmol/mL), Lipid peroxidation (LPO) (3.70±0.44 vs. 2.78±0.68 μmol/mL), plasma testosterone (3.38±0.69 vs. 5.40±0.89 ng/dl), LH (0.26±0.05 vs. 0.49±0.18 mlU/mL), sperm count (157.98±6.29 vs. 171.71±4.42×106/mL) and DNA damage (11.51±3.45 vs. 6.04±2.83%). Co-administration of nZnO significantly improved DOX-induced changes (p=0.013) in plasma TAP (471.83±14.51 mmol/mL), LPO (2.83±0.75 μmol/mL), plasma testosterone (5.00±1.07 ng/dl), LH (0.52±0.08 mlU/mL), sperm count (169.13±5.01×106/mL) and DNA damage (7.00±1.67%). Conclusion: At the dose designed in the present investigation cytoprotective role of nano-zinc oxide through its antioxidant potential is illuminated in DOX-induced male gonadotoxicity. PMID:24639766

  2. The effects of different levels of peppermint alcoholic extract on body-weight gain and blood biochemical parameters of adult male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Mesbahzadeh, Behzad; Akbari, Mohsen; kor, Nasroallah Moradi; Zadeh, Jalal Bayati

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peppermint is an efficient medicinal plant for the treatment of diseases, and it also can be used to produce raw materials in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of various levels of peppermint alcoholic extract on body-weight gain and blood biochemical parameters in adult male Wistar rats. Methods This experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD). Fifty adult, healthy, male Wistar rats (ages of 2.5–3 months; weights of 190–210 g) were allocated randomly into five groups. T1 was the control group in which the rats received 0.3 ml of distilled water). Groups T2, T3, T4, and T5 received 75, 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg of peppermint extract, respectively. The rats received daily pretreatment by oral gavages for 21 days. We recorded body weights at the beginning and at the end of the study to determine the changes in the body weights. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, albumin, globulin, and total protein. Statistical analysis of the data was done by SAS software. The data statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), which was conducted through Dennett’s multiple comparison post-test. Results The results indicated that the rats treated with peppermint gained more weight (p < 0.05) and also decreased the serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, and glucose in T3, T4 and T5 than the other groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion Peppermint extract had a positive effect on body-weight gain and some blood parameters in adult male Wistar rats. The findings showed that peppermint is a crucial substance at high temperature, and future research should be focused on determining the details of the mechanisms involved in producing the observed effects of peppermint extract. PMID:26516445

  3. Electroencephalographic and behavioral effects of intracerebroventricular or intraperitoneal injections of toxic honey extract in adult Wistar rats and GAERS.

    PubMed

    Kuru, Pinar; Torun, Merve; Halac, Hande Melike; Temiz, Gozde; Iskender, Ece; Karamahmutoglu, Tugba; Idrizoglu, Medine Gulcebi; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz

    2014-12-01

    Toxic honey, containing grayanotoxin, is obtained from nectar and polen of rhododendron. Consumed in excess it produces seizures and convulsions. In order to investigate whether the toxic honey extract can be used as a seizure model, we examined the electroencephalographic (EEG) and motor effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) or intraperitoneal (ip) injection of toxic honey extract in Wistar rats or in genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). Male Wistar rats or GAERS were stereotaxically implanted with bilateral cortical recording electrodes in all ip groups and cannula in the icv groups. Based on the previous study, an extract was obtained from the non-toxic and toxic honey. After the injection of the non-toxic or toxic honey extract, seizure stages and changes in EEG were evaluated from 9 am to noon. The icv administration of toxic honey extract produced stage 4 seizures and bilateral cortical spikes within 30-60 min and these effects disappeared after 120 min in Wistar rats or GAERS. The mean of bilateral cortical spike acitivity in EEG of Wistar rats was 804.2 ± 261.0 s in the 3-h period. After the icv administration of toxic honey extract to GAERS, the mean duration of spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) in GAERS significantly decreased during the first 60 min and then returned to baseline level. Ip injection of toxic honey extract caused no seizure and no change in EEG in either GAERS or Wistars. These results suggest that the icv administration of toxic honey extract can be used as a seizure model. PMID:25120202

  4. Effect of Potassium Bromate on the Liver of Adult Male Albino Rat and A Possible Protective Role of Vitamin C: Histological, Immunohistochemical, and Biochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Bayomy, Naglaa A; Soliman, Gehan M; Abdelaziz, Eman Z

    2016-09-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3 ) is a food additive which is used primarily as a maturing agent for flour. It is proved as a toxic agent with significant reduction in the activities of antioxidant capacity. The therapeutic efficacy of vitamin C as antioxidant may provide a possible solution to KBrO3 mediated oxidative damage. Twenty four adult male albino rats were used to evaluate the protective role of vitamin C against KBrO3 induced hepatotoxicity and divided into four groups; Group 1 (control), Group 2: received 30 mg/Kg/day vitamin C orally for 4 weeks, Group 3: received 20 mg/Kg/dose KBrO3 orally twice weekly for 4 weeks and Group 4: received both KBrO3 and vitamin C. Liver specimens were processed for histological study by light and electron microscopes and stained immunohistochemically to detect glial fibriller acidic protein (GFAP). Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were estimated as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in all dissected tissues were determined. KBrO3 induced histological alterations in the form of degeneration, cellular infiltration and significant increase in collagen deposition in portal tracts with a significant increase in immunoexpression of GFAP. Significant rise in serum levels of AST, ALT, and MDA in liver tissues were recorded. However, levels of GSH and SOD were significantly decreased. Most of these changes were improved by vitamin C treatment. In conclusion, vitamin C ameliorates the histological and biochemical alterations of the liver induced by KBrO3 . Anat Rec, 299:1256-1269, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27373450

  5. Oral supplementation of Ocimum basilicum has the potential to improves the locomotory, exploratory, anxiolytic behavior and learning in adult male albino mice.

    PubMed

    Zahra, K; Khan, M A; Iqbal, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this project was to determine the effect of 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of Ocimum basilicum leaf extract on neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory, locomotory and short-term memory formation in male albino mice. Five weeks old, male albino mice were used as the experimental animals in order to demonstrate the effect of O. basilicum's extract on learning and memory. Each male albino mouse was weighted and orally treated either with 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of O. basilicum leaf extract or with commercially available saline solution (Otsuka, Pakistan) for 7 days. Behavioral observations were made by applying a series of neurological tests (Elevated plus maze, Light and dark box, Open field and Rota rod). Dose supplementation continued during neurological testing. It was observed that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract improves neuromuscular co-ordination and male albino mouse performance in open field, light dark box and during novel object test when compared with control group. We concluded that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract has the potential to improve neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory behavior, object recognition ability and transfer latency in male albino mice and can be safely administrated orally. PMID:25082078

  6. Lycopene supplementation prevents reactive oxygen species mediated apoptosis in Sertoli cells of adult albino rats exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Gunasekaran; Selvakumar, Kandaswamy; Venkataraman, Prabhu; Elumalai, Perumal

    2013-01-01

    Sertoli cell proliferation is attenuated before attaining puberty and the number is fixed in adult testes. Sertoli cells determine both testis size and daily sperm production by providing physical and metabolic support to spermatogenic cells. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exposure disrupts functions of Sertoli cells causing infertility with decreased sperm count. On the other hand, lycopene is improving sperm count and motility by reducing oxidative stress in humans and animals. Hence we hypothesized that PCBs-induced infertility might be due to Sertoli cell apoptosis mediated by oxidative stress and lycopene might prevent PCBs-induced apoptosis by acting against oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis, animals were treated with vehicle control, lycopene, PCBs and PCBs + lycopene for 30 days. After the experimental period, the testes and cauda epididymidis were removed for isolation of Sertoli cells and sperm, respectively. We observed increased levels of oxidative stress markers (H2O2 and LPO) levels, increased expression of apoptotic molecules (caspase-8, Bad, Bid, Bax, cytochrome C and caspase-3), decreased anti-apoptotic (Bcl2) molecule and elevated apoptotic marker activity (caspase-3) in Sertoli cells of PCBs-exposed animals. These results were associated with decreased sperm count and motility in PCBs exposed animals. On the other hand, lycopene prevented the elevation of Sertoli cellular apoptotic parameters and prevented the reduction of sperm parameters (count and motility). The data confirmed that lycopene as an antioxidant scavenged reactive oxygen substances, prevented apoptosis, maintained normal function in Sertoli cells and helped to provide physical and metabolic support for sperm production, thereby treating infertility in men. PMID:24179434

  7. Developmental differences in EEG and sleep responses to acute ethanol administration and its withdrawal (hangover) in adolescent and adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Desikan, Anita; Wills, Derek N

    2013-12-01

    Age-related differences in sensitivity to the acute effects of alcohol may play an important role in the increased risk for the development of alcoholism seen in teens that begin drinking at an early age. The present study evaluated the acute and protracted (hangover) effects of ethanol in adolescent (P33-P40) and adult (P100-P107) Wistar rats, using the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG). Six minutes of EEG was recorded during waking, 15 min after administration of 0, 1.5, or 3.0 g/kg ethanol, and for 3 h at 20 h post ethanol, during the rats' next sleep cycle. Significantly higher overall frontal and parietal cortical power was seen in a wide range of EEG frequencies in adolescent rats as compared to adult rats in their waking EEG. Acute administration of ethanol did not produce differences between adolescents and adults on behavioral measures of acute intoxication. However, it did produce a significantly less intense acute EEG response to ethanol in the theta frequencies in parietal cortex in the adolescents as compared to the adults. At 20 h following acute ethanol administration, during the rats' next sleep cycle, a decrease in slow-wave frequencies (1-4 Hz) was seen and the adolescent rats were found to display more reduction in the slow-wave frequencies than the adults did. The present study found that adolescent rats, as compared to adults, demonstrate low sensitivity to acute ethanol administration in the theta frequencies and more susceptibility to disruption of slow-wave sleep during hangover. These studies may lend support to the idea that these traits may contribute to increased risk for alcohol use disorders seen in adults who begin drinking in their early teenage years. PMID:24169089

  8. Protective effect of Guaraná (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis) pre-treatment on cadmium-induced damages in adult Wistar testis.

    PubMed

    Leite, Rodrigo Paula; Wada, Ronaldo Seichi; Monteiro, Juliana Castro; Predes, Fabrícia Souza; Dolder, Heidi

    2011-06-01

    Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) is an Amazonian plant. Its antioxidant potential was demonstrated to be due to the high polyphenol concentration. On the other hand, one of the mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced cellular damage is free radical mediated, resulting in increased oxidative processes. This study investigated P. cupana's potential to attenuate cadmium-induced damages in Wistar rat testis. Adult male Wistar rats were either pre-treated with 2 mg/g body weight (BW) of powdered P. cupana seed during 56 days and/or injected with cadmium chloride at a dose of 1.15 mg/kg BW. After cadmium exposition (48 h), testes samples were evaluated by histological and stereological analyses. Both groups exposed to cadmium presented evident morphological alterations relative to control animals. A few rodents showed massive cell death in the seminiferous epithelium and intertubular space, indicating that some animals are more sensitive to cadmium. Despite the alterations observed in both groups, pre-treatment with P. cupana was effective in attenuating morphological changes in Leydig cells, as well as reducing inflammatory response, relative to animals exclusively exposed to the metal. Animals treated only with P. cupana presented a significant increase in plasma testosterone levels and a significant increase in volumetric proportions of seminiferous tubules, which are indicative of spermatogenic stimulation. PMID:20495888

  9. Electroencephalographic changes in albino rats subjected to stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercier, J.; Assouline, G.; Fondarai, J.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty one albino Wistar rats were subjected to stress for 7 hours. There was a significant difference in the slopes of regression lines for 7 nonulcerous rats and those for 14 ulcerous rats. Nonulcerous rats subjected to stress showed greater EEG curve synchronization than did ulcerous rats. If curve synchronization can be equated to a relaxed state, it may therefore be possible to explain the protective action of hypnotics, tranquilizers and analgesics on ulcers.

  10. Differences in MITF gene expression and histology between albino and normal sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Heling; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Huan; Liu, Shilin; Wang, Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Albino Apostichopus japonicus occur both in the wild and in captivity. The offspring of albino A. japonicus also suffer from albinism. The formation of melanin in the melanocytes is dependant on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). To investigate the role of MITF in controlling albinism, we cloned the full-length MITF cDNA from A. japonicus and compared MITF mRNA expression in albino and normal A. japonicus. In addition, we used light and electron microscopy to compare histological samples of normal and albino A. japonicus. The body wall of albino adults was characterized by significantly lower levels of MITF expression and lower numbers of epidermal melanocytes, which also contained less melanin. In albino juvenile offspring, MITF expression levels were significantly lower 32 d after fertilization and there were fewer, and less developed, epidermal melanocytes. Thus, we conclude that albino A. japonicus have fewer melanocytes and a reduced ability to synthesize melanin, likely because of lower expression of MITF.

  11. Altered Health Outcomes in Adult Offspring of Sprague Dawley and Wistar Rats Undernourished During Early or Late Pregnancy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gestational undernutrition in humans can result in birth weight reductions (an indicator of a suboptimal intrauterine environment) and predisposition to adult disease in offspring including high blood pressure, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and obesity (key components ...

  12. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved. PMID:23088901

  13. Acute tryptophan depletion potentiates 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced cerebrovascular hyperperfusion in adult male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    van Donkelaar, Eva L; Kelly, Paul A T; Dawson, Neil; Blokland, Arjan; Prickaerts, Jos; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Ferrington, Linda

    2010-05-15

    The serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) dysfunction found in depression may affect not only brain function (mood) but also cerebrovascular control. Similar, but possibly occult, disturbances may also be induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity (MDMA, or "ecstasy"). Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) is widely used to identify vulnerability to depression, and we hypothesized that repeated MDMA administration would increase the sensitivity of rats to this acute serotonergic challenge. In this study, male Wistar rats were injected with MDMA (20 mg kg(-1), twice daily for 4 days) and challenged 3 weeks later with ATD, induced by intragastric administration of a nutritional mixture with tryptophan (TRP) removed. Cerebral metabolism (CMRG) and blood flow (CBF) were measured in parallel groups of animals following ATD by using quantitative [(14)C]2-deoxyglucose and [(14)C]iodoantipyrine autoradiographic techniques, respectively. A significant reduction in paroxetine binding to 5-HT transporter sites in MDMA-treated rats indicated 5HT terminal depletion, whereas the plasma TRP/sum large neutral amino acids ratio was reduced by 40% following ATD. Under all experimental conditions, the normal close correlation between CBF and metabolic demand was maintained. However, a global analysis of all brain regions revealed a significant decrease in the overall ratio of CBF to CMRG after ATD in control animals, whereas a higher ratio was observed after ATD in the MDMA-treated group. This increase in blood flow relative to cerebral metabolism suggests an ATD-induced loss of cerebrovascular tone in MDMA-treated animals that could have pathophysiological consequences and might conceivably contribute to the behavioral dysfunction of depression. PMID:19998482

  14. The brainstem efferent acoustic chiasm in pigmented and albino rats.

    PubMed

    Reuss, Stefan; Closhen-Gabrisch, Stefanie; Closhen, Christina

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined whether structural peculiarities in the brain-efferent pathway to the organ of Corti may underlie functional differences in hearing between pigmented and albino individuals of the same mammalian species. Pigmented Brown-Norway rats and albino Wistar rats received unilateral injections of an aqueous solution of the retrograde neuronal tracer Fluorogold (FG) into the scala tympani of the cochlea to identify olivocochlear neurons (OCN) in the brainstem superior olivary complex. After five days, brains were perfusion-fixed and brainstem sections were cut and analyzed with respect to retrogradely labeled neurons. Intrinsic neurons of the lateral system were located exclusively in the ipsilateral lateral superior olive (LSO) in both groups. Shell neurons surrounding the LSO and in periolivary regions, which made up only 5-8% of all OCN, were more often contralaterally located in albino than in pigmented animals. A striking difference was observed in the laterality of neurons of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) system, which provided more than one third of all OCN. These neurons, located in the rostral periolivary region and in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, were observed contralateral to 45% in pigmented and to 68% in albino animals. Our study, the first to compare the origin of the olivocochlear bundle in pigmented and albino rats, provides evidence for differences in the crossing pattern of the olivocochlear pathway. These were found predominantly in the MOC system providing the direct efferent innervation of cochlear outer hair cells. Our findings may account for the alterations in auditory perception observed in albino mammals including man. PMID:26657095

  15. Neurobehavioral Toxicity of a Repeated Exposure (14 Days) to the Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fluorene in Adult Wistar Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Peiffer, Julie; Cosnier, Frédéric; Grova, Nathalie; Nunge, Hervé; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Decret, Marie-Josèphe; Cossec, Benoît; Rychen, Guido; Appenzeller, Brice M. R.; Schroeder, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Fluorene is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air and may contribute to the neurobehavioral alterations induced by the environmental exposure of humans to PAHs. Since no data are available on fluorene neurotoxicity, this study was conducted in adult rats to assess the behavioral toxicity of repeated fluorene inhalation exposure. Male rats (n = 18/group) were exposed nose-only to 1.5 or 150 ppb of fluorene 6 hours/day for 14 consecutive days, whereas the control animals were exposed to non-contaminated air. At the end of the exposure, animals were tested for activity and anxiety in an open-field and in an elevated-plus maze, for short-term memory in a Y-maze, and for spatial learning in an eight-arm maze. The results showed that the locomotor activity and the learning performances of the animals were unaffected by fluorene. In parallel, the fluorene-exposed rats showed a lower level of anxiety than controls in the open-field, but not in the elevated-plus maze, which is probably due to a possible difference in the aversive feature of the two mazes. In the same animals, increasing blood and brain levels of fluorene monohydroxylated metabolites (especially the 2-OH fluorene) were detected at both concentrations (1.5 and 150 ppb), demonstrating the exposure of the animals to the pollutant and showing the ability of this compound to be metabolized and to reach the cerebral compartment. The present study highlights the possibility for a 14-day fluorene exposure to induce some specific anxiety-related behavioral disturbances, and argues in favor of the susceptibility of the adult brain when exposed to volatile fluorene. PMID:23977039

  16. Defective renal dopamine function and sodium-sensitive hypertension in adult ovariectomized Wistar rats: role of the cytochrome P-450 pathway.

    PubMed

    Di Ciano, Luis A; Azurmendi, Pablo J; Colombero, Cecilia; Levin, Gloria; Oddo, Elisabet M; Arrizurieta, Elvira E; Nowicki, Susana; Ibarra, Fernando R

    2015-06-15

    We have previously shown that ovariectomy in adult Wistar rats under normal sodium (NS) intake results in an overexpression of the total Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (NKA) α1-subunit (Di Ciano LA, Azurmendi PJ, Toledo JE, Oddo EM, Zotta E, Ochoa F, Arrizurieta EE, Ibarra FR. Clin Exp Hypertens 35: 475-483, 2013). Upon high sodium (HS) intake, ovariectomized (oVx) rats developed defective NKA phosphorylation, a decrease in sodium excretion, and an increment in mean blood pressure (MBP). Since NKA phosphorylation is modulated by dopamine (DA), the aim of this study was to compare the intracellular response of the renal DA system leading to NKA phosphorylation upon sodium challenge in intact female (IF) and oVx rats. In IF rats, HS caused an increase in urinary DA and sodium, in NKA phosphorylation state, in cytochrome P-4504A (CYP4A) expression, and in 20-HETE production, while MBP kept normal. Blockade of the D1 receptor (D1R) with the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH 23390 in IFHS rats shifted NKA into a more dephosphorylated state, decreased sodium excretion by 50%, and increased MBP. In oVxNS rats, D1R expression was reduced and D3R expression was increased, and under HS intake sodium excretion was lower and MBP higher than in IFHS rats (both P < 0.05), NKA was more dephosphorylated than in IFHS, and CYP4A expression or 20-HETE production did not change. Blockade of D1R in oVxHS rats changed neither NKA phosphorylation state nor sodium excretion or MBP. D2R and PKCα expression did not vary among groups. The alteration of the renal DA system produced by ovariectomy could account for the defective NKA phosphorylation, the inefficient excretion of sodium load, and the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:25925257

  17. Histopathological studies of acute and chronic effects of Calliandra portoricensis leaf extract on the stomach and pancreas of adult Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Ofusori, David A; Adejuwon, Adebomi O

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the consequence of oral administration of Calliandra portoricensis (C. portoricensis) leaf extract on the stomach and pancreas in Swiss albino mice. Methods Three groups of mice (B, C and D) were treated with 4 mg/kg of C. portoricensis extract. Group A was the control and received an equivalent volume of distilled water. Group B received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 7 days, Group C received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 14 days, and Group D received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 28 days. At different stages in the study, the mice were sacrificed and the stomach and pancreas were excised and fixed in 10% formol saline for histological analysis. Results The result showed a normal microstructural outline in groups B and C as compared with the control. However, animals in group D showed disorganization of the mucosa and discontinuation of epithelial lining of the stomach while the islets of Langerans in the pancreas were at various degree of degeneration as compared with the control mice. Conclusions The present finding suggests that chronic administration (28 days as seen in this study) of C. portoricensis leaf extract may inhibit the proper function of the stomach and pancreas. PMID:23569755

  18. Behavioral toxicity and physiological changes from repeated exposure to fluorene administered orally or intraperitoneally to adult male Wistar rats: A dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Julie; Grova, Nathalie; Hidalgo, Sophie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Rychen, Guido; Bisson, Jean-François; Appenzeller, Brice M R; Schroeder, Henri

    2016-03-01

    Fluorene is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment by reason of its high volatility. Demonstrated to be a neurotoxicant through inhalation, it was also identified as a contributive PAH to food contamination. Since no data are available on its oral neurotoxicity, the purpose of the present study was to assess the behavioral and physiological toxicity of repeated oral administration of fluorene to adult Wistar male rats. Animals were daily treated with fluorene at 1, 10 or 100mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days. Administration was intraperitoneal (i.p.) or oral (p.o.) to evaluate the influence of the route of exposure on fluorene toxicity. Following this period of treatment, animals in both groups were subjected to similar cognitive evaluations, namely anxiety (elevated-plus maze), locomotor activity (open-field) and learning and memory abilities (eight-arm maze and avoidance test of an aversive light stimulus), as well as physiological measurements. The behavioral testing occurred from the 28th to the 60th day of the experiment during which fluorene treatment continued uninterrupted. At the end of this period, the concentration levels of fluorene and of three of its monohydroxylated metabolites in blood and brain were determined using a GC-MS/MS method. The results demonstrated a reduction in rat anxiety level at the lowest doses administered (1 and 10mg/kg/day) regardless of the treatment route, whereas locomotor activity and learning abilities remained unchanged. Moreover, a less significant weight gain was noticed in animals i.p.- and p.o.-treated with 100mg/kg/day during the 28-day period of treatment, which, upon comparison with the three other groups, induced a body weight gap that was maintained throughout the experiment. Significant increases in relative liver weight were also observed in a dose-dependent manner in orally treated rats and only in animal treated i.p. with 100mg/kg/day. According to the dose, higher

  19. Sundarban Honey Confers Protection against Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Nurul; Hossain, Md. Sabir; Alam, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Sundarban honey (SH) in rats with isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction. Adult male Wistar Albino rats were pretreated with Sundarban honey (5 g/kg) daily for a period of 6 weeks. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected into the rats at 24 h intervals for 2 days. ISO-induced myocardial damage was indicated by increased serum cardiac specific troponin I levels and cardiac marker enzyme activities including creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Significant increases in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were also observed, along with a reduction in the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. In addition to these diagnostic markers, the levels of lipid peroxide products were significantly increased. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were significantly decreased in the hearts after ISO-induced myocardial infarction. However, pretreatment of ischemic rats with Sundarban honey brought the biochemical parameters to near normalcy, indicating the protective effect of Sundarban honey against ISO-induced ischemia in rats. Histopathological findings of the heart tissues further confirmed the biochemical findings, indicating that Sundarban honey confers protection against ISO-induced oxidative stress in the myocardium. PMID:27294126

  20. Sundarban Honey Confers Protection against Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Rizwana; Tanvir, E M; Karim, Nurul; Hossain, Md Sabir; Alam, Nadia; Gan, Siew Hua; Khalil, Md Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Sundarban honey (SH) in rats with isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction. Adult male Wistar Albino rats were pretreated with Sundarban honey (5 g/kg) daily for a period of 6 weeks. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected into the rats at 24 h intervals for 2 days. ISO-induced myocardial damage was indicated by increased serum cardiac specific troponin I levels and cardiac marker enzyme activities including creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Significant increases in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were also observed, along with a reduction in the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. In addition to these diagnostic markers, the levels of lipid peroxide products were significantly increased. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were significantly decreased in the hearts after ISO-induced myocardial infarction. However, pretreatment of ischemic rats with Sundarban honey brought the biochemical parameters to near normalcy, indicating the protective effect of Sundarban honey against ISO-induced ischemia in rats. Histopathological findings of the heart tissues further confirmed the biochemical findings, indicating that Sundarban honey confers protection against ISO-induced oxidative stress in the myocardium. PMID:27294126

  1. Impaired Spatial Memory Performance in Adult Wistar Rats Exposed to Low (5-20 cGy) Doses of 1 GeV/n (56)Fe Particles.

    PubMed

    Britten, Richard A; Jewell, Jessica S; Miller, Vania D; Davis, Leslie K; Hadley, Melissa M; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    Prolonged deep space missions to planets and asteroids will expose astronauts to galactic cosmic radiation, comprised of low-linear energy transfer (LET) ionizing radiations, high-energy protons and high-Z and energy (HZE) particles, such as (56)Fe nuclei. In prior studies with rodents exposed to HZE particle radiation at doses likely to be encountered during deep space missions (<20 cGy) investigators reported impaired hippocampal-dependent neurocognitive performance and further observed substantial variation among the irradiated animals in neurocognitive impairment, ranging from no observable effects to severe impairment. These findings point to the importance of incorporating quantitative measures of interindividual variations into next generation risk assessment models of radiation risks on neurocognition. In this study, 269 male proven breeder Wistar rats were exposed to 1 GeV/n (56)Fe at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 cGy, and tested for spatial memory performance on the Barnes maze at three months after exposure. The radiation response data were compared using changes in mean cohort performance and by the proportion of poor responders using the performance benchmark of two standard deviations below the mean value among the sham-irradiated cohort. Acute exposures to mission-relevant doses of 1 GeV/n (56)Fe reduced the mean spatial memory performance at three months after exposure (P < 0.002) and increased the proportions of poor performers, 2- to 3-fold. However, a substantial fraction of animals in all exposure cohorts showed no detectable change in performance, compared to the distribution of sham-irradiated animals. Our findings suggest that individualized metrics of susceptibility or resistance to radiation-induce changes in neurocognitive performance will be advantageous to the development of probabilistic risk assessment models for HZE-induced neurocognitive impairment. PMID:26943453

  2. Experimental model of heterotopic ossification in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Zotz, T.G.G.; de Paula, J.B.; Moser, A.D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a metaplastic biological process in which there is newly formed bone in soft tissues adjacent to large joints, resulting in joint mobility deficit. In order to determine which treatment techniques are more appropriate for such condition, experimental models of induced heterotopic bone formation have been proposed using heterologous demineralized bone matrix implants and bone morphogenetic protein and other tissues. The objective of the present experimental study was to identify a reliable protocol to induce HO in Wistar rats, based on autologous bone marrow (BM) implantation, comparing 3 different BM volumes and based on literature evidence of this HO induction model in larger laboratory animals. Twelve male Wistar albino rats weighing 350/390 g were used. The animals were anesthetized for blood sampling before HO induction in order to quantify serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). HO was induced by BM implantation in both quadriceps muscles of these animals, experimental group (EG). Thirty-five days after the induction, another blood sample was collected for ALP determination. The results showed a weight gain in the EG and no significant difference in ALP levels when comparing the periods before and after induction. Qualitative histological analysis confirmed the occurrence of heterotopic ossification in all 12 EG rats. In conclusion, the HO induction model was effective when 0.35 mL autologous BM was applied to the quadriceps of Wistar rats. PMID:22473322

  3. Sex differences in adult Wistar rats in the voluntary consumption of ethanol after pre-exposure to ethanol-induced flavor avoidance learning.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, M Lourdes; Escarabajal, M Dolores; Agüero, Ángeles

    2015-10-01

    Vulnerability to ethanol abuse may be a function of the balance between the opposing (aversive and rewarding) motivational effects of the drug. The study of these effects is particularly important for understanding alcohol addiction. Research in this field seems to point out that ethanol effects are determined by a set of internal factors (sex, ethanol intake history, etc.), as well as by environmental conditions surrounding the individual (i.e., stress) and, of course, the interactions between all these factors. This work explores sex differences in sensitivity to aversive effects of ethanol using the procedure of flavor avoidance learning (FAL), as well as the effect of this learning experience on subsequent voluntary ethanol consumption, in adult rats. The results obtained indicated a slight sex based difference in the amount of FAL acquired in that females acquisition was weaker (experiment 1), and a differing influence of previous experience with the aversive effects of ethanol on the voluntary consumption of the drug for each sex (experiment 2). In particular, it was observed that female ethanol-naive rats showed a higher intake level and preference for ethanol than both ethanol-experienced female rats and ethanol-naive male rats. In contrast, the ethanol-experienced male rats showed a greater consumption of and preference for ethanol than ethanol-naive male rats and ethanol-experienced female rats. These data are discussed noting a range of possible explicative factors (sex hormones, hedonic processing, etc.), but further studies are warranted to elucidate the mechanisms by which ethanol pre-exposure influences the subsequent intake of ethanol differently by sex. PMID:26216835

  4. Maternal Separation during Breastfeeding Induces Gender-Dependent Changes in Anxiety and the GABA-A Receptor Alpha-Subunit in Adult Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    León Rodríguez, Diego Armando; Dueñas, Zulma

    2013-01-01

    Different models of rodent maternal separation (MS) have been used to investigate long-term neurobiological and behavioral changes, associated with early stress. However, few studies have involved the analysis of sex-related differences in central anxiety modulation. This study investigated whether MS during breastfeeding affected adult males and females in terms of anxiety and brain GABA-A receptor-alpha-subunit immunoreactivity. The brain areas analyzed were the amygdale (AM), hippocampus (HP), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), medial preoptic area (POA) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Rats were housed under a reversed light/dark cycle (lights off at 7∶00 h) with access to water and food ad libitum. Animals underwent MS twice daily during the dark cycle from postnatal day 1 to postnatal day 21. Behavior was tested when rats were 65–70 days old using the elevated plus maze and after brains were treated for immunohistochemistry. We found that separated females spent more time in the open arms and showed more head dipping behavior compared with controls. The separated males spent more time in the center of the maze and engaged in more stretching behavior than the controls. Immunohistochemistry showed that separated females had less immunostained cells in the HP, mPFC, PVN and POA, while separated males had fewer immunolabeled cells in the PFC, PVN and AM. These results could indicate that MS has gender-specific effects on anxiety behaviors and that these effects are likely related to developmental alterations involving GABA-A neurotransmission. PMID:23826356

  5. Induction of epoxide hydrolase, glucuronosyl transferase, and sulfotransferase by phenethyl isothiocyanate in male Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Mohd Noor, Noramaliza; Konsue, Nattaya

    2014-01-01

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is an isothiocyanate found in watercress as the glucosinolate (gluconasturtiin). The isothiocyanate is converted from the glucosinolate by intestinal microflora or when contacted with myrosinase during the chopping and mastication of the vegetable. PEITC manifested protection against chemically-induced cancers in various tissues. A potential mechanism of chemoprevention is by modulating the metabolism of carcinogens so as to promote deactivation. The principal objective of this study was to investigate in rats the effect of PEITC on carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems such as sulfotransferase (SULT), N-acetyltransferase (NAT), glucuronosyl transferase (UDP), and epoxide hydrolase (EH) following exposure to low doses that simulate human dietary intake. Rats were fed for 2 weeks diets supplemented with PEITC at 0.06 µmol/g (low dose, i.e., dietary intake), 0.6 µmol/g (medium dose), and 6.0 µmol/g (high dose), and the enzymes were monitored in rat liver. At the Low dose, no induction of the SULT, NAT, and EH was noted, whereas UDP level was elevated. At the Medium dose, only SULT level was increased, whereas at the High dose marked increase in EH level was observed. It is concluded that PEITC modulates carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems at doses reflecting human intake thus elucidating the mechanism of its chemoprevention. PMID:24592387

  6. Prenatal and developmental toxicity study of meclizine and caffeine combination in female albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sandeep, M; Alvin, Jose M

    2014-12-01

    Meclizine and caffeine combination is used for the treatment of morning sickness. Both compounds are teratogenic and caffeine is known to possess anti-fertility activity also. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the reproductive toxic effect of meclizine and caffeine combination. Three doses were taken for the study; low dose (LD; meclizine 3.7 mg/kg and caffeine 3 mg/kg) was selected from commercially available formulation, middle dose (MD; meclizine 37 mg/kg and caffeine 30 mg/kg) and high dose (HD; meclizine 370 mg/kg and caffeine 300 mg/kg). The mixture was administered 1-7 days and 8-14 days for fertility and embryotoxic studies respectively. Laparotomy was done on 10t day of gestation period. Number of implants and corpora lutea were counted, pre and post-implantation losses were determined. In embryo toxicity study fetuses were evaluated for external, skeletal and visceral examination. High dose was removed from both fertility and embryotoxicity studies due to its severe toxicity to the dam. Significant anti-fertility activity was observed at middle dose. Embryotoxicity study showed significant reduction in fetal body weight, body length and body mass index, dam body weight gain on gestation day 14. Absolute kidney weight in MD and absolute and relative spleen weight in both LD and MD were significantly reduced. There was no increase in external or internal congenital anomalies at both LD and MD. The, results suggest that prescription of meclizine and caffeine for morning sickness in early pregnancy should be reviewed carefully. PMID:25651609

  7. Safety Evaluation of Unani Formulation: Capsule Shaqeeqa in Albino Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghazanfar, Khalid; Ahmad Dar, Showkat; Akbar, Seema; Nazir, Tazeen; Hamdani, Mariya; Siddiqui, Khalid M.; Kumar, Pawan; Masood, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Capsule Shaqeeqa, Unani formulation, is prescribed for the clinical treatment of diseases like sinusitis, headache, and migraine. The safety evaluation data of it is not available; in order to provide the safety data the present study was carried out. The study was carried out on four groups of rats (n = 5). Two groups (one male and one female group) as normal controls were orally given water while the other two groups were orally given daily doses of drug at the dose level of 150 mg/kg of body weight for duration of 90 days. Physiological parameters like body weight, feed consumption, water consumption, and clinical signs were regularly monitored and recorded. Organs were collected, examined, and weighed and specimens were taken for histopathological studies. The results showed that the drug did not alter the physiological parameters. There was no mortality or any morbidity found in drug treated rats. There was no statistical significant change found in any haematological or biochemical parameter of rats orally fed with Shaqeeqa. A statistically insignificant association verified that haematological and biochemical parameters were rendered unaffected by the drug. Moreover histological investigations of essential key organs demonstrated that the drug did not prompt any histopathological change. These observations demonstrate the safety of Capsule Shaqeeqa at the studied dosage levels. PMID:27190679

  8. Induction of Epoxide Hydrolase, Glucuronosyl Transferase, and Sulfotransferase by Phenethyl Isothiocyanate in Male Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Noor, Noramaliza; Konsue, Nattaya

    2014-01-01

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is an isothiocyanate found in watercress as the glucosinolate (gluconasturtiin). The isothiocyanate is converted from the glucosinolate by intestinal microflora or when contacted with myrosinase during the chopping and mastication of the vegetable. PEITC manifested protection against chemically-induced cancers in various tissues. A potential mechanism of chemoprevention is by modulating the metabolism of carcinogens so as to promote deactivation. The principal objective of this study was to investigate in rats the effect of PEITC on carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems such as sulfotransferase (SULT), N-acetyltransferase (NAT), glucuronosyl transferase (UDP), and epoxide hydrolase (EH) following exposure to low doses that simulate human dietary intake. Rats were fed for 2 weeks diets supplemented with PEITC at 0.06 µmol/g (low dose, i.e., dietary intake), 0.6 µmol/g (medium dose), and 6.0 µmol/g (high dose), and the enzymes were monitored in rat liver. At the Low dose, no induction of the SULT, NAT, and EH was noted, whereas UDP level was elevated. At the Medium dose, only SULT level was increased, whereas at the High dose marked increase in EH level was observed. It is concluded that PEITC modulates carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems at doses reflecting human intake thus elucidating the mechanism of its chemoprevention. PMID:24592387

  9. Sub-acute Toxicity of Aqueous Fruit Pulp Extract of Hunteria umbellata in Albino Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Igbe, Ighodaro; Eze, Gerald Ikechi; Ojameruaye, Oghenekevwe

    2013-01-01

    Hunteria umbellata K. Schum (Apocynaceae) is used in herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes, peptic ulcers, piles, yaws, dysmenorrhea, fevers, infertility, and helminthic infections. The present study investigated the in vivo sub-acute toxicity of the aqueous fruit pulp extract of Hunteria umbellata (H. umbellata). Sub-acute toxicity was evaluated after administering daily oral doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of H. umbellata extract, for 28 days to the rats. Anthropometric, biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were assessed using standard procedures. There were significant reductions (p<0.01) in the pattern of weight gain in 200 and 400 mg/kg H. umbellata -treated rats but no significant differences in the organ weight index between control and treated animals. Hematological and biochemical analysis showed no marked differences in any of the parameters examined in either the control or treated groups but there was significant (p<0.05) thrombocytosis. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. H. umbellata led to activation of the reticulo endothelial tissue of the spleen as evidenced by proliferation of the sinus histocytes and activation of the lymphoid aggregates in the lungs, indicating activation of the local immune system of the lungs. H. umbellata fruit pulp is relatively nontoxic in animals but there is increased tendency to cause thrombocytosis on prolonged use. PMID:23955412

  10. Distribution of melanopsin positive neurons in pigmented and albino mice: evidence for melanopsin interneurons in the mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Valiente-Soriano, Francisco J.; García-Ayuso, Diego; Ortín-Martínez, Arturo; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Galindo-Romero, Caridad; Villegas-Pérez, Maria Paz; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Vugler, Anthony A.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Here we have studied the population of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in adult pigmented and albino mice. Our data show that although pigmented (C57Bl/6) and albino (Swiss) mice have a similar total number of ipRGCs, their distribution is slightly different: while in pigmented mice ipRGCs are more abundant in the temporal retina, in albinos the ipRGCs are more abundant in superior retina. In both strains, ipRGCs are located in the retinal periphery, in the areas of lower Brn3a+RGC density. Both strains also contain displaced ipRGCs (d-ipRGCs) in the inner nuclear layer (INL) that account for 14% of total ipRGCs in pigmented mice and 5% in albinos. Tracing from both superior colliculli shows that 98% (pigmented) and 97% (albino) of the total ipRGCs, become retrogradely labeled, while double immunodetection of melanopsin and Brn3a confirms that few ipRGCs express this transcription factor in mice. Rather surprisingly, application of a retrograde tracer to the optic nerve (ON) labels all ipRGCs, except for a sub-population of the d-ipRGCs (14% in pigmented and 28% in albino, respectively) and melanopsin positive cells residing in the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) of the retina. In the CMZ, between 20% (pigmented) and 24% (albino) of the melanopsin positive cells are unlabeled by the tracer and we suggest that this may be because they fail to send an axon into the ON. As such, this study provides the first evidence for a population of melanopsin interneurons in the mammalian retina. PMID:25477787

  11. Dose- and time-dependent effects of Garcinia kola seed extract on sexual behaviour and reproductive parameters in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sewani-Rusike, C R; Ralebona, N; Nkeh-Chungag, B N

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a crude extract of Garcinia kola on male sexual function after subchronic and chronic treatment periods at different sublethal doses. Adult male Wistar rats were treated orally with 100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) of a 70% ethanolic extract of G. kola daily for 56 days. Sexual behaviour studies were performed on days 28 and 50. At termination on day 56, organ weights, sperm count, reproductive hormone levels and testicular histology were assessed. Subchronic and chronic treatment of normal male rats with G. kola extract resulted in overall increase in components of libido, erection and ejaculation in treated rats - with lower doses being more efficient than the higher dose. There was a slight reduction in some components of sexual behaviour with prolonged time of treatment. G. kola treatment at all doses resulted in increased testicular weights, increased sperm count with no change in motility and increased serum testosterone levels with no change in gonadotropin levels. Gross testicular histology was not affected by treatment. We conclude that G. kola seed extract possesses potent aphrodisiac activity in male albino rats with resultant increase in sperm count and testosterone levels. PMID:26123866

  12. Study on the diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis Buch.-Ham. in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, B. K.; Bhat, Savitha D.; Shukla, V. J.; Ravishankar, B.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis root powder in Wistar strain albino rats. Randomly selected animals were divided into three groups of six animals each. The root powder was suspended in distilled water and administered orally at a dose of 90 mg/kg therapeutically equivalent dose (TED) and 180 mg/kg (TED × 02) to overnight fasted rats. The diuretic activity was evaluated by determination of urine volume and urinary electrolyte concentrations. Test drug showed significant increase in urine volume and urinary electrolyte excretion in a dose-dependant manner. Thus, from this study, it can be concluded that roots of E. fusiformis possess diuretic activity. PMID:22529656

  13. Determination of the antiulcer properties of sodium cromoglycate in pylorus-ligated albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Vivek; Viswanathaswamy, A.H.M.; Mohan, Govind

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To study the ulcer protective property of sodium cromoglycate in pylorusligated rats and the biochemical role in ulcer protection by various biochemical tests. Materials and Methods: The ulcer protective effect of sodium cromoglycate was studied using a Pyloric Ligation Model using Wistar albino rats. The antiulcer effect of sodium cromoglycate 40 mg/kg b.w., i.p., was compared with the reference drug ranitidine 27 mg/kg b.w., i.p. The ulcer index was calculated and other biochemical parameters like free acidity, total acidity, pH, mucin, pepsin and volume of gastric juice were determined. Results: Pylorus ligation showed a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index as compared to the control. Conclusion: Sodium cromoglycate has activity equipotent to ranitidine. PMID:20871772

  14. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    PubMed Central

    Horký, Pavel; Wackermannová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics. PMID:27114883

  15. Effect of chronic usage of tramadol on motor cerebral cortex and testicular tissues of adult male albino rats and the effect of its withdrawal: histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Khalaf, Hanaa A; Elsamanoudy, Ayman Z; Helaly, Ahmed N

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the histopathological and biochemical changes in rat cerebral cortex and testicles due to chronic usage of tramadol and the effect of withdrawal. Thirty adult male rats weighing 180-200 gm were classified into three groups; group I (control group) group II (10 rats received 50 mg/kg/day of tramadol intraperitoneally for 4 weeks) and group III (10 rats received the same dose as group II then kept 4 weeks later to study the effect of withdrawal). Histological and immunohistochemical examination of cerebral cortex and testicular specimens for Bax (apoptotic marker) were carried out. Testicular specimens were examined by electron microscopy. RT-PCR after RNA extraction from both specimens was done for the genes of some antioxidant enzymes .Also, malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured colourimetrically in tissues homogenizate. The results of this study demonstrated histological changes in testicular and brain tissues in group II compared to group I with increased apoptotic index proved by increased Bax expression. Moreover in this group increased MDA level with decreased gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes revealed oxidative stress. Group III showed signs of improvement but not returned completely normal. It could be concluded that administration of tramadol have histological abnormalities on both cerebral cortex and testicular tissues associated with oxidative stress in these organs. Also, there is increased apoptosis in both organs which regresses with withdrawal. These findings may provide a possible explanation for delayed fertility and psychological changes associated with tramadol abuse. PMID:25550769

  16. Ommochrome genesis in an albino strain of a terrestrial isopod.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Y; Negishi, S; Naito, J; Ikeda, R; Hasegawa, H; Nagamura, Y; Ishiguro, I

    1999-01-01

    The contents of tryptophan (Trp) metabolites and the activities of the enzymes involved in ommochrome biosynthesis were measured in an albino strain of a terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. There was little difference between the Trp content in the albino mutant and that in the wild type, although the contents of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-OH-Kyn), 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-OH-AA) and xanthommatin in the albino were significantly lower than those in the wild type. Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) activity in the albino was extremely low, while the activities of Kyn-3-hydroxylase and kynureninase did not differ significantly between the two phenotypes. The extremely low activity of TDO is probably one of main reasons why almost no ommochrome pigment is produced in the albino mutant. PMID:10721113

  17. Tolerance of an albino fish to ultraviolet-B radiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabacher, D.L.; Little, E.E.; Ostrander, G.K.

    1999-01-01

    We exposed albino and pigmented medaka Oryzias latipes to simulated solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to determine if albino medaka were less tolerant of UVB radiation than medaka pigmented with melanin. There was no difference in the number of albino and pigmented medaka that died during the exposure period. Spectrophotometric analyses of the outer dorsal skin layers from albino and pigmented medaka indicated that, prior to exposure, both groups of fish had similar amounts of an apparent colorless non-melanin photoprotective substance that appears to protect other fish species from UVB radiation. Our results indicate that albino medaka were as tolerant of UVB radiation as pigmented medaka because they had similar amounts of this photoprotective substance in the outer layers of the skin.

  18. Antispermatogenic and androgenic activities of various extracts of Hibiscus rosa sinesis in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Reddy, C M; Murthy, D R; Patil, S B

    1997-11-01

    The benzene chloroform and alcoholic extracts of the flowers of H.r.sinensis were administered (i.p.) at two different dose levels of 125 and 250 mg/kg body weight to adult male albino mice for 20 days. The results have shown decrease in the spermatogenic elements of testis and epididymal sperm count. High content of testicular cholesterol may be due to lowered androgen synthesis. The increase in the weight of accessory reproductive organs indicates the androgenicity of the plant extract itself, which is proved in the present study by testing the benzene extract in immature mice. PMID:9567744

  19. Protective effects of Capparis sepiaria root extracts against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, V; Pandey, Ajay Shankar; Murali, Anita; Yoganarasimhan, S N

    2012-01-01

    Capparis sepiaria L. known as Himsra is an important drug in Ayurveda. In this study extracts of the root of C. sepiaria were evaluated for their hepatoprotective potential on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in albino Wistar rats. The extent of hepatoprotection was evaluated by estimating the serum levels of hepatic transaminases (SGPT and SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), and bilirubin (total and direct). Aqueous and ethanol extracts of C. sepiaria significantly reduced the increased liver weight as well as serum levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and bilirubin, and normalized the reduced serum protein levels in the treated rats. These observations were supported by the results of histopathology studies as well. The extracts were also subjected to preliminary organic analysis and chromatographic studies including HPTLC finger print studies. The results indicate that the roots of C. sepiaria show significant hepatoprotective effect on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity, thus substantiating its use as a potential hepatoprotective drug. PMID:22718675

  20. Metabolic rate and thermal insulation in albino and hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Mount, L. E.

    1971-01-01

    1. Rates of oxygen consumption of albino and hairless mice were measured in a metabolism chamber during periods of approximately 5 or 24 hr. Rectal temperature was measured before and after each period. The chamber temperatures used were 22, 30 and 32° C for both albino and hairless, and in addition 34 and 36° C for the hairless mice. 2. The mean age and body weight of the albino mice were 102 days and 34·6 g; the corresponding values for the hairless mice were 87 days and 32·8 g. 3. The mean minimum rates of oxygen consumption (ml./kg.min) were 31·0 for the albino and 38·8 for the hairless mouse; the corresponding estimated critical temperatures were in the ranges 30-32° C for the albino mouse and 32-34° C for the hairless mouse. 4. The mean values for core-ambient thermal insulation (° C.m2.hr/kcal) were 0·418 and 0·328 for the albino mouse, and 0·275 and 0·221 for the hairless mouse, at 22 and 30° C respectively in each case. PMID:5097602

  1. Using the Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino Zebrafish Line to Characterize In Vivo Expression of neurod

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jennifer L.; Ochocinska, Margaret J.; Hitchcock, Peter F.; Thummel, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used a newly-created transgenic zebrafish, Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino, to further characterize the expression of neurod in the developing and adult retina and to determine neurod expression during adult photoreceptor regeneration. We also provide observations regarding the expression of neurod in a variety of other tissues. In this line, EGFP is found in cells of the developing and adult retina, pineal gland, cerebellum, olfactory bulbs, midbrain, hindbrain, neural tube, lateral line, inner ear, pancreas, gut, and fin. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we compare the expression of the nrd:egfp transgene to that of endogenous neurod and to known retinal cell types. Consistent with previous data based on in situ hybridizations, we show that during retinal development, the nrd:egfp transgene is not expressed in proliferating retinal neuroepithelium, and is expressed in a subset of retinal neurons. In contrast to previous studies, nrd:egfp is gradually re-expressed in all rod photoreceptors. During photoreceptor regeneration in adult zebrafish, in situ hybridization reveals that neurod is not expressed in Müller glial-derived neuronal progenitors, but is expressed in photoreceptor progenitors as they migrate to the outer nuclear layer and differentiate into new rod photoreceptors. During photoreceptor regeneration, expression of the nrd:egfp matches that of neurod. We conclude that Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino is a good representation of endogenous neurod expression, is a useful tool to visualize neurod expression in a variety of tissues and will aid investigating the fundamental processes that govern photoreceptor regeneration in adults. PMID:22235264

  2. Effect of Stem Cell Therapy on Amiodarone Induced Fibrosing Interstitial Lung Disease in Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Zaglool, Somaya Saad; Zickri, Maha Baligh; Abd El Aziz, Dalia Hussein; Mabrouk, Doaa; Metwally, Hala Gabr

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The fibrosing forms of interstitial lung disease (ILD) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. ILD may be idiopathic, secondary to occupational, infection, complicate rheumatic diseases or drug induced. Efficacy of antifibrotic agents is as far as, limited and uncertain. No effective treatment was confirmed for pulmonary fibrosis except lung transplantation. The present study aimed at investigating the possible effect of human cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy on fibrosing ILD. This was accomplished by using amiodarone as a model of induced lung damage in albino rat. Methods and Results: Seventeen adult male albino rats were divided into 3 groups. Rats of amiodarone group were given 30 mg/kg of amiodarone orally 6 days/ week for 6 weeks. Rats of stem cell therapy group were injected with stem cells in the tail vein following confirmation of lung damage and left for 4 weeks before sacrifice. Obstructed bronchioles, thickened interalveolar septa and thickened wall of pulmonary vessels were found and proved morphometrically. Reduced type I pneumocytes and increased area% of collagen fibers were recorded. All findings regressed on stem cell therapy. Conclusions: Cord blood MSC therapy proved definite amelioration of fibrosing interstitial lung disease provided therapy starts early in the development of the pathogenesis. PMID:24298346

  3. Premature Ejaculation – Dose and Duration Dependent Effect of Fluoxetine: A Histological Study on Seminal Vesicle of Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jethani, SL; Rohatagi, RK; Kalra, Juhi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fluoxetine is a prototype drug of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Its active demethylated metabolite has a half life of 7-10 d. Fluoxetine is used to treat depression and is also prescribed in premature ejaculation. Aim: In the present study dose and duration dependent effects of Fluoxetine on histology of seminal vesicle of the albino rats were observed. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 36 adult male albino rats. Fluoxetine was administered intraperitoneally for 2 wk, 4 wk and 12 wk with mild (10mg/kg/day), moderate (20mg/kg/day) and severe doses (40mg/kg/day). Histological slides of Seminal vesicle were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. Results: On examination through the light microscope, the proliferation of primary, secondary and tertiary villi, increased crypt/alveoli, increased thickness of lamina propria, decreased epithelial cell height, metaplasia, changes in the amount of luminal eosinophilic secretory material in the form of scanty secretion in lumen of seminal vesicle. Conclusion: Low doses for long duration and high doses for short duration of Fluoxetine produce histological changes in seminal vesicle of albino rats. PMID:25386416

  4. Anti-hyperbilirubinemic and wound healing activity of aqueous extract of Calotropis procera leaves in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rupali Arun; Makwana, Aakash B.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bilirubin lowering and wound healing property of aqueous extract of Calotropis procera (AECP) leaves in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Albino Wistar rats of either sex were used for the study. Bilirubin lowering property of C. procera leaves was evaluated using phenylhydrazine and paracetamol as inducing agents followed by measuring the concentration of serum total bilirubin in hyperbilirubinemic rats. Wound healing property was evaluated using incision and excision models by measuring tensile breaking strength, percentage wound contractions, and epithelization days, respectively. Statistical Analysis: Statistical comparison between groups in each experiment was done with one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: AECP showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in concentrations of serum total bilirubin in hyperbilirubinemic rats as well as significant (P < 0.05) increase in breaking strength and percentage wound contractions with decreased epithelization period when compared to control groups. Conclusions: AECP showed significant bilirubin lowering and wound healing property in Wistar rats. PMID:26288472

  5. Neuroprotective Effect of Lercanidipine- A Novel Calcium Channel Blocker in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Adhimoolam, Mangaiarkkarasi; Perumal, Deepa Kameswari; Rajamohammed, Meher Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background The available conventional antiepileptics do not afford cure or prophylactic treatment and henceforth there is always a quest to explore new targets for management of convulsions. In this perspective, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers have been investigated in various animal models of epilepsy. Lercanidipine, a newer dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, is a potential candidate with its favourable lipid profile and longer duration of action. Objective (1) To evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of lercanidipine alone and in combination with standard drug in adult male Swiss albino mice. (2) To evaluate the muscle relaxant and spontaneous locomotor activity of lercanidipine in adult male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods Adult male Swiss albino mice weighing 20-30g were used to study the anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and spontaneous locomotor activity using electroconvulsometer, rotarod and actophotometer apparatus respectively. The mice were divided into six groups of six animals in each group. Group 1 and 2 served as control (vehicle treated) and standard group respectively. Standard drug used to evaluate anticonvulsant effect is phenytoin sodium 25 mg/kg I.P. whereas muscle relaxant activity and locomotor activity is diazepam 4 mg/kg I.P., Group 3 and 4 received lercanidipine 1 and 3 mg/kg I.P., respectively. Anticonvulsant models included group 5 and 6 and they were given combination of phenytoin sodium 12.5 mg/kg I.P., with lercanidipine 1 and 3 mg/kg i.p, respectively. Abolition or reduction of tonic hind limb extension was considered as index of anticonvulsant activity whereas the balancing time of the animals in rod was recorded to asses muscle relaxant activity. The locomotor activity was recorded for 5 minutes. The data were analysed with one-way Analysis of Variance followed by post-hoc ‘Dunnett t-test’. Results Lercanidipine given alone in a dose of 1 and 3 mg/kg had significantly reduced the tonic hind limb extension

  6. Image chorioretinal vasculature in albino rats using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qing; Liu, Tan; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhang, Hao F.

    2014-01-01

    We imaged the microvascular network in both the retina and the choroid in an albino rat eye using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy guided by optical coherence tomography. Relying on optical absorption and ultrasonic detection, photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy can image both retinal and choroidal vessel networks with high contrast. PMID:24744503

  7. Effect of carbon monoxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. These values are compared to values reported in the literature. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was 3570 ppm CO.

  8. Hematological Characteristics of the BB Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Wright, J R; Yates, A J; Shah, N T; Neff, J C; Covey, D W; Thibert, P

    1983-01-01

    Complete blood counts, differential white blood cell and platelet counts were performed on male and female BB Wistar diabetic rats (BBWd), their nondiabetic siblings (BBWnd) and outbred Wistar rats of the line from which the BB Wistar rats were derived. Most of the observed changes were strain-related (those present in both BBWd and BBWnd but not in control rats) rather than diabetes-related (those in BBWd but neither BBWnd nor control rats) and therefore probably due to the inbreeding process. The BBW strain had significantly lower numbers of white cells and platelets, as well as markedly changed differential white cell counts. Differential counts showed a pattern of lymphopenia, neutrophilia, monocytosis and eosinophilia. It is possible that these white blood cell changes contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection reported for the BBW strain. No significant difference in serum immunoglobulin concentrations was found in any of these three groups of rats. There- fore, hypogammaglobutinemia cannot account for the increased susceptibility to infections, but it is not possible to rule out an abnormality in the distribution of immunoglobulin fractions as an etiological factor. PMID:15311399

  9. Hypoglycaemic and Tissue-Protective Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Persea Americana Seeds on Alloxan-Induced Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    EZEJIOFOR, Anthonet Ndidi; OKORIE, Abednego; ORISAKWE, Orish Ebere

    2013-01-01

    Background: The tissue-protective potential of Persea americana necessitated a look into the histopathological effects of the plant extract on the pancreas, liver, and kidneys. This study was conceived and designed based on the gaps in the research that has been performed and what is known about the plant. The hypoglycaemic and tissue-protective effects of hot aqueous Persea americana (avocado pear) seed extracts on alloxan-induced albino rats were investigated. Methods: Persea americana seeds were extracted using hot water, and different concentrations of the extract were prepared. The effects of different concentrations (20, 30, 40 g/L) of the hot aqueous P. americana seed extract on alloxan-induced Wistar albino rats were compared with those of a reference drug, glibenclamide. The glucose level of the rats was measured daily, and the weight of the animal was monitored on a weekly basis for 21 days. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes, and the histopathologies of the liver, kidneys, and pancreas were investigated. Phytochemical analysis of P. americana seed extracts indicated the presence of glycosides, tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, and alkaloids. Results: The results showed that the extract possessed a significant hypoglycaemic (P < 0.05) effect and reversed the histopathological damage that occurred in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, comparable to the effects glibenclamide. The seeds of P. americana also had anti-diabetic and protective effects on some rat tissues such as the pancreas, kidneys, and liver. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study provides a pharmacological basis for the folkloric use of the hot-water extract of P. americana seeds in the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:24643349

  10. Retinal compensatory changes after light damage in albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Montalbán-Soler, Luis; Alarcón-Martínez, Luis; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Galindo-Romero, Caridad; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrízio; García-Ayuso, Diego; Avilés-Trigueros, Marcelino; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the anatomic and functional changes triggered by light exposure in the albino mouse retina and compare them with those observed in the albino rat. Methods BALB/c albino mice were exposed to 3,000 lx of white light during 24 h and their retinas analyzed from 1 to 180 days after light exposure (ALE). Left pupil mydriasis was induced with topical atropine. Retinal function was analyzed by electroretinographic (ERG) recording. To assess retinal degeneration, hematoxylin and eosin staining, the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) technique, and quantitative immunohistofluorescence for synaptophysin and protein kinase Cα (PKCα) were used in cross sections. Intravenous injection of horseradish peroxidase and Fluoro-Gold™ tracing were used in whole-mounted retinas to study the retinal vasculature and the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) population, respectively. Results Light exposure caused apoptotic photoreceptor death in the central retina. This death was more severe in the dorsal than in the ventral retina, sparing the periphery. Neither retinal vascular leakage nor retinal ganglion cell death was observed ALE. The electroretinographic a-wave was permanently impaired, while the b-wave decreased but recovered gradually by 180 days ALE. The scotopic threshold responses, associated with the inner retinal function, diminished at first but recovered completely by 14 days ALE. This functional recovery was concomitant with the upregulation of protein kinase Cα and synaptophysin. Similar results were obtained in both eyes, irrespective of mydriasis. Conclusions In albino mice, light exposure induces substantial retinal damage, but the surviving photoreceptors, together with compensatory morphological/molecular changes, allow an important restoration of the retinal function. PMID:22509098

  11. Maturation of convulsogenic activity induced by leptazol in the albino rat

    PubMed Central

    De Casrilevitz, Mira; Engelhardt, E.; Esbérard, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    1. Maturation of the excitatory and inhibitory neuromechanisms at various levels of the central nervous system was demonstrated by the convulsogenic activity induced by leptazol in the developing albino rat. 2. The somatomotor end points considered (myoclonic jerk, myoclonic seizure, tonic seizure and catalepsy) were not observed in all age groups. Tonic seizure was seen at birth, myoclonic jerks at 2 weeks of age, myoclonic seizure and catalepsy at 3 weeks of age. 3. The convulsive sequences described presented three different patterns, defining three age groups: the infant pattern (infant group: newborn-1 week old animals); the transitional pattern (transitional group: 2 week old animals); and the adult pattern (adult group: 3 week old-adult animals). 4. Effective doses were determined for the three types of convulsive sequence: MJ50 for the myoclonic major sequence (maximal end point: myoclonic jerk), MS50 for the myoclonic major sequence (maximal end point: myoclonic seizure) and the TS50 for the myoclonic-tonic-clonic sequence (maximal end point: tonic seizure). 5. The correlation of the convulsive patterns with the dose and latency variations suggests that: (a) the neuromechanisms responsible for the tonic seizure and clonic seizure, located at brainstem and spinal cord levels, function at birth and reach maturity at 3 weeks of age; (b) the neuromechanisms responsible for the myoclonic manifestations and for catalepsy, located at the striato-thalamocortical level, start functioning at 2-3 weeks of age, indicating the later maturation of the more cephalic structures. PMID:5104003

  12. Generation of albino Xenopus tropicalis using zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Keisuke; Nakajima, Taeko; Takase, Minoru; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2012-12-01

    To generate albino lines of Xenopus tropicalis, we injected fertilized eggs with mRNAs encoding zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) targeting the tyrosinase coding region. Surprisingly, vitiligo was observed on the skin of F0 frogs that had been injected with ZFN mRNAs, indicating that both tyrosinase genes in the genome were disrupted in all melanocytes within the vitiligo patches. Mutation analysis using genomic DNA from the skin revealed that two mosaic F0 frogs underwent spatially complex tyrosinase gene mutations. The data implies that the ZFN-induced tyrosinase gene ablations occurred randomly over space and time throughout the entire body, possibly until the young tadpole stage, and that melanocyte precursors lacking functional tyrosinase proliferated and formed vitiligo patches. Several albino X. tropicalis, which are compound heterozygotes for biallelic tyrosinase mutations, were obtained by mating the mosaic F0 frogs. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the albino vertebrates generated by the targeted gene knockout. PMID:23106502

  13. Effects of Different Concentrations of Fluoride in Oral Mucosal Cells in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, P.Ajay; Rao, T.Madhusudhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fluoride has been described to be physiologically essential for the normal development and growth of human beings. However, it is well known that excessive fluoride causes skeletal, nonskeletal and dental complications. Therefore, outlining the cytogenetic effects induced by fluorosis is necessary. Objectives To evaluate the cytomorphology of exfoliated oral mucosal cells among various concentrations of fluoride. Study design: Study group comprised of 12 Albino Wistar rats, categorized into A,B and C groups (fed with 25 ppm,50 ppm and 100 ppm concentration of NaF), each group consisting of 4 rats, with 4 controls (fed with 1ppm concentration of NaF in distilled water). Each group was fed for a period of 42 days. Materials and Methods Cytological smears were taken from the buccal mucosa of each group after 42 days of fluoride administration. The samples were stained with the papanicolaou method and assessed for Cytomorphometrical changes in maximum diameter of nucleus, minimum diameter of nucleus, perimeter of the nucleus, maximum diameter of the cell, minimum diameter of the cell and perimeter of the cell by image analysis software and the results were statistically analysed using SPSS software. Results Mean values of maximum diameter, minimum diameter and perimeter of the nucleus increased in fluoride induced study groups when compared to controls and the results showed that p-value was statistically significant (p-value: 0.000, 0.001). Mean value of maximum diameter, minimum diameter and perimeter of the cell decreased in fluoride induced subjects when compared with controls which were statistically not significant (p-value: 0.791, 0.600 & 0.719). A continuous increase in the nuclear size and decrease in the cell size was identified in fluoride induced groups as compared to controls. Conclusion The observations of our present study revealed that cellular changes occur with severity of fluorosis. These cellular morphological changes may possibly

  14. Displaced retinal ganglion cells in albino and pigmented rats

    PubMed Central

    Nadal-Nicolás, Francisco M.; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma; Villegas-Pérez, María P.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

    2014-01-01

    We have studied in parallel the population of displaced retinal ganglion cells (dRGCs) and normally placed (orthotopic RGCs, oRGCs) in albino and pigmented rats. Using retrograde tracing from the optic nerve, from both superior colliculi (SC) or from the ipsilateral SC in conjunction with Brn3 and melanopsin immunodetection, we report for the first time their total number and topography as well as the number and distribution of those dRGCs and oRGCs that project ipsi- or contralaterally and/or that express any of the three Brn3 isoforms or melanopsin. The total number of RGCs (oRGCs+dRGCs) is 84,706 ± 1249 in albino and 90,440 ± 2236 in pigmented, out of which 2383 and 2428 are melanopsin positive (m-RGCs), respectively. Regarding dRGCs: i/ albino rats have a significantly lower number of dRGCs than pigmented animals (0.5% of the total number of RGCs vs. 2.5%, respectively), ii/ dRGCs project massively to the contralateral SC, iii/ the percentage of ipsilaterality is higher for dRGCs than for oRGCs, iv/ a higher proportion of ipsilateral dRGCs is observed in albino than pigmented animals, v/ dRGC topography is very specific, they predominate in the equatorial temporal retina, being densest where the oRGCs are densest, vi/ Brn3a detects all dRGCs except half of the ipsilateral ones and those that express melanopsin, vii/ the proportion of dRGCs that express Brn3b or Brn3c is slightly lower than in the oRGC population, viii/ a higher percentage of dRGCs (13% albino, 9% pigmented) than oRGCs (2.6%) express melanopsin, ix/ few m-RGCs (displaced and orthotopic) project to the ipsilateral SC, x/ the topography of m-dRGCs does not resemble the general distribution of dRGCs, xi/ The soma size in m-oRGCs ranges from 10 to 21 μm and in m-dRGCs from 8 to 15 μm, xii/ oRGCs and dRGCs have the same susceptibility to axonal injury and ocular hypertension. Although the role of mammalian dRGCs remains to be determined, our data suggest that they are not misplaced by an

  15. Preventive Effect of Phytic Acid on Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brindha, E.; Rajasekapandiyan, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the preventive role of phytic acid on membrane bound enzymes such as sodium potassium- dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na+ /K+ ATPase), calcium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Ca2+ ATPase) and magnesium- dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Mg2+ ATPase) and glycoproteins such as hexose, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with phytic acid (25 and 50 mg/kg, respectively) for a period of 56 days. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected to rats at an interval of 24 h for 2 days. ISO-induced rats showed a significant decrease in the activity of Na+ /K+ ATPase and increase in the activities of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase in the heart and a significant (P<0.05) increase in the levels of glycoproteins in serum and the heart were also observed in ISO-induced rats. Pretreatment with phytic acid for a period of 56 days exhibited a significant (P<0.05) effect and altered these biochemical parameters positively in ISO-induced rats. Thus, our study shows that phytic acid has cardioprotective role in ISO-induced MI in rats.

  16. Evaluation of Toxicity Effects of Asafetida on Biochemical, Hematological, and Histological Parameters in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Yadegari, Maryam; Mirjalily, Aghdas; Rezvani, Mohammd Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Asafetida is traditionally used in folklore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of asafetida in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral administration of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg body weight of the animal. In chronic study, animals were administered with various doses of asafetida (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 6 weeks. At end of experiment, the effects of asafetida on hematological, renal, and hepatic markers and histological parameters were analyzed. Results: In acute toxicity study, no mortality was seen up to 72 h of the administration of asafetida. No signs of neurological and behavioral changes were noticed within 24 h. In the chronic study, the asafetida intake has changed the hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), hematocrit (HCT), and platelets. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in treated animals. The plasma level of urea and creatinine were not altered by the administration of asafetida throughout the study. Histopathology study indicates hepatotoxicity, but no signs of prominent pathological changes in kidney. Conclusions: Asafetida did not show any acute toxicity, but chronic administration could have undesirable effects on hepatocytes and hematological factors. PMID:26862262

  17. Amelioration of ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats by diallylsulfide.

    PubMed

    Ansar, S; Iqbal, M

    2016-03-01

    Garlic contains diallylsulfide (DAS) and other structurally related compounds that are widely believed to be active agents in preventing cancer. This study shows the effect of DAS (a phenolic antioxidant used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products) on ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 125-150 g were given a single dose of Fe-NTA (9 mg kg(-1) body weight, intraperitoneally) after 1 week of treatment with 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) DAS in corn oil respectively administered through the gavage. Fe-NTA administration led to 2.5-fold increase in the values of both alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase, respectively, and 3.2-fold increase in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, microsomal lipid peroxidation to approximately 2.0-fold compared to saline-treated control. The activities of glutathione (GSH) and other antioxidant enzymes decreased to a range of 2.2-2.5-fold. These changes were reversed significantly (p < 0.001) in animals receiving a pretreatment of DAS. DAS protected against hepatic lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide generation, preserved GSH levels, and GSH metabolizing enzymes to 60-80% as compared to Fe-NTA alone-treated group. Present data suggest that DAS can ameliorate the toxic effects of Fe-NTA and suppress oxidant-induced tissue injury and hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:25904316

  18. Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) Induced Weight Changes: A Dose and Duration Dependent Study on Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jethani, S.L.; Rohatgi, R.K.; Kalra, Juhi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most significant and safe drugs among the antidepressants. Fluoxetine is the prototype drug of SSRIs. Various clinical studies showed that SSRI causes change in body weight in patients. This study was conducted to know the extent of weight change with different doses for different durations. Aim The aim of this study was to find out whether fluoxetine causes weight gain or weight loss, and to deduce the comparative weight change after intraperitoneal injection of fluoxetine for different duration and doses. Materials and Methods Present study was conducted on 72 adult (36 males and 36 females) albino rats, in 3 phases of 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 12 weeks duration. Each phase consisted of 24 (12 males and 12 females) albino rats. These 24 rats were further randomly subdivided into 4 Groups of 6 albino rats each (3 males & 3 females). Group 1(Control) received normal saline (vehicle). Rest 18 rats of each phase were experimental rats, of Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4 (6 rats each). Group 2, group 3 and group 4 experimental rats received 10mg/kg, 20 mg/kg and 40mg/kg of intraperitoneal injection of fluoxetine respectively. All rats were weighed on each day for growth monitoring. Data was subjected to statistical analysis (Mean, standard deviation and Student’s t-Test). Results All experimental group rats which received fluoxetine showed decrease of body weight. Rats which received high doses of fluoxetine could not tolerate the drug for more than two weeks and died due to excessive body weight loss, loose stools and muscle twitching. Conclusion Present study conclude that SSRIs can cause weight change in the form of decrease of body weight. This property of SSRIs can be used clinically by prescribing these drugs to obese psychiatric patient without any fear of withdrawal of drug. PMID:27134853

  19. Hematologic and immunological indicators are altered by chronic intake of flaxseed in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Medeiros de França Cardozo, L; Leal Soares, L; Cardozo Brant, L H; Alves Chagas, M; Alves Pereira, V; Coca Velarde, L G; Teles Boaventura, G

    2011-01-01

    This work sought to evaluate the effects of chronic intake of flaxseed upon hematologic parameters and immunological findings on body development of Wistar rats. Female Wistar rats were used after gestation. They were randomly assigned into two groups during lactation period: Control group (CG), fed with casein based diet, made up of 17% protein and flaxseed group (FG), fed with casein based diet with the addition of 25% flaxseed. At weaning, 12 male pups of each group continued to receive the experimental diets of their mothers (with only 10% of protein) until adult age, when they were killed at 250 days of life aiming at blood collection. At 250 days old FG presented significant reduction in body mass (p<0.000) and higher levels of hemoglobin (p=0.019) and albumin (p=0.030) than CG. It was observed smaller percentage of segmented lymphocytes (p=0.016) in rats from FG and bigger percentage of segmented leucocytes (p=0.023) when compared to CG. The chronic consumption of flaxseed altered hematologic and immunological indicators in adult Wistar rats. Supplementation with flaxseed seems to be beneficial to maintenance or reduction of body mass. PMID:22072357

  20. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis. PMID:27551436

  1. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis. PMID:27551436

  2. Spatiotemporal features of early neuronogenesis differ in wild-type and albino mouse retina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rachel, Rivka A.; Dolen, Gul; Hayes, Nancy L.; Lu, Alice; Erskine, Lynda; Nowakowski, Richard S.; Mason, Carol A.

    2002-01-01

    In albino mammals, lack of pigment in the retinal pigment epithelium is associated with retinal defects, including poor visual acuity from a photoreceptor deficit in the central retina and poor depth perception from a decrease in ipsilaterally projecting retinal fibers. Possible contributors to these abnormalities are reported delays in neuronogenesis (Ilia and Jeffery, 1996) and retinal maturation (Webster and Rowe, 1991). To further determine possible perturbations in neuronogenesis and/or differentiation, we used cell-specific markers and refined birth dating methods to examine these events during retinal ganglion cell (RGC) genesis in albino and pigmented mice from embryonic day 11 (E11) to E18. Our data indicate that relative to pigmented mice, more ganglion cells are born in the early stages of neuronogenesis in the albino retina, although the initiation of RGC genesis in the albino is unchanged. The cellular organization of the albino retina is perturbed as early as E12. In addition, cell cycle kinetics and output along the nasotemporal axis differ in retinas of albino and pigmented mice, both absolutely, with the temporal aspect of the retina expanded in albino, and relative to the position of the optic nerve head. Finally, blocking melanin synthesis in pigmented eyecups in culture leads to an increase in RGC differentiation, consistent with a role for melanin formation in regulating RGC neuronogenesis. These results point to spatiotemporal defects in neuronal production in the albino retina, which could perturb expression of genes that specify cell fate, number, and/or projection phenotype.

  3. Oral toxicity of Madhuca butyracea Macb. saponins to albino rats.

    PubMed

    Lalitha, T; Vishwanatha, S; Venkataraman, L V

    1990-07-01

    Saponins, isolated from M. butyracea, were assessed for their acute and subacute oral toxicity in albino rats. Acute doses of saponins caused mortalities and LD50 and LD90 values were 330 and 430 mg/kg body wt respectively. Severe diarrhoea, restlessness and histopathological changes were observed in liver and kidney. Diets containing saponins at 0,250,500 and 1000 ppm for 14 weeks did not affect food intake, growth or organ weights, but induced mild histological changes in liver and kidney and altered the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol and proteins, particularly in female rats. PMID:2272650

  4. A comparative study on chronic administration of Go Ghrita (cow ghee) and Avika Ghrita (ewe ghee) in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Dipali J; Vyas, Hitesh A; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar; Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B

    2012-07-01

    Ghrita (ghee) is the foremost substance of Indian cuisine from centuries. Ayurvedic classics described eight kinds of ghee from eight different animal milk, among them ghee made from cow milk is said to be the superior and ghee of ewe milk is said to be the inferior and also detrimental to heart. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chronic administration of cow ghee (Go Ghrita) and ghee of ewe milk (Avika Ghrita) to experimental animals. Experiment was carried out on Wistar strain albino rats and study was done at two dose levels. The test drugs were administered orally for 45 consecutive days. Parameters, such as gross behavior, body weight, weight of important organs, total fecal fat content, electrocardiogram, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathology of different organs were studied. Both the test drugs did not alter the gross behavior, body weight, weight of organs, and cytoarchitecture of different organs to significant extent. Avika Ghrita at a low dose significantly decreased triglyceride content, significantly prolonged QTc and at both dose levels it significantly shortened the PR interval. This study shows chronic administration of Avika Ghrita and Go Ghrita has no marked differences between them except the QTc prolongation in Avika Ghrita. This may be the basis for the classics to categorize Avika Ghrita as Ahridya. PMID:23723655

  5. Acute and subacute oral toxicity study on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ekeanyanwu, Raphael Chukwuma; Njoku, Obioma Uzoma

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed on the haematology, histopathology and liver profile of Wistar albino rats. Methods Toxicity study was investigated on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia in rats administered different concentrations orally for 28 d using standard laboratory procedures. Results The LD50 of the flavonoid rich fraction was found to be above 5 000 mg/kg body weight in mice observed for 48 h. After the Day 14, biochemical markers of liver injury such as serum alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase decreased significantly (P<0.05 at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight and P<0.01 at 400 mg/kg) while serum alkaline phosphatase increased non-significantly (P>0.05). There was non-significant (P>0.05) effect observed across the groups in the levels of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine. The result of histological examination showed various degrees of peribiliary hepatitis after the Day 14 which fizzled out after the Day 28. Conclusions The result therefore suggests that the seed extract is potentially safe. PMID:25182437

  6. Renal effects of Anchomanes difformis crude extract in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ataman E, Jacob; Idu, MacDonald

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Anchomanes difformis is a member of the plant family Araceae which is used as a diuretic but also has other medicinal applications. This study investigates the dietary effects of A. difformis on the kidneys of adult wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Sixteen rats were used and were weighed, before and after the experiment. All rats were randomly divided into four groups. All groups were treated with the following regimen for two weeks. The control group (A) was fed on feed mash and water ad libitum throughout the period. The treatment groups B, C, and D received feed mash mixed with crude extract of A. difformis in the following proportions: 25:75(g), 50:50(g), and 75:25(g), respectively. The kidneys of the experimental animals were histologically examined for morphologic changes. Results: Results showed a significant difference (p<0.05) in the kidney weight of the treatment groups compared with the control. Histological examination of the renal tissues also showed considerable lesions such as inflammation, focal cortical and interstitial hemorrhage, and fibrosis in the treated rats compared with the control. Conclusion: The current study results suggest renal toxicity with excessive consumption of A.difformis. PMID:25767753

  7. [Thoracic duct valves in man and albino rat].

    PubMed

    Petrenko, V M; Kruglov, S V

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the number, structure and position of valves along the whole length of thoracic duct in man and albino rat. The study was performed using the material obtained from 30 human corpses of men and women aged 17 to 60 years with no history of cardiovascular pathology and from 60 outbred albino rats of both sexes aged 5 to 12 months. Material was fixed in 10% neutral formalin. Anterior wall of thoracic duct was longitudinally dissected. Thoracic duct of 30 rats was stained with gallocyanin-chrome alum, in the remaining animals it was studied after its injection with blue Gerota's mass. In most cases, the valves consisted of two semilunar cusps. Thoracic duct was found to contain on the average 14.7+/-0.2 valves in man and 11.9+/-0.2 valves in rat. Most of all valves were found in the upper (anterior) 1/3 of the thoracic duct, least--in its middle part. This seems to be determined by anatomo-topographic features of the different parts of thoracic duct. PMID:15839250

  8. Effect of Atorvastatin on Memory in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    M.C., Das; Rao A.S.R., Srinivasa; Kadali, SLDV Ramana Murty

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim and objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on learning and memory in albino mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty Swiss albino mice were divided into 5groups (n=6). In group2, group4 and group5 hyperlipidemia was induced by high fat diet (HFD) orally for 28days. Atrorvastatin was given to group3, group4 and group5 orally for 14 d. Learning and memory was evaluated with Hebb Williams’s maze, Elevated plus maze, Y maze and Step through latency. Continuous data were analyzed by one way ANOVA followed by Scheffe multiple range test, discrete data were analyzed by Kruskal - Wallis test. The level of significance was 5% (p ≤ 0.05). Result and Conclusion: HFD treatment had shown significant increase in body weight, significant impairment in learning and memory (p < 0.05). Only atorvastatin treated group had shown better learning and memory in comparison to HFD group. Atorvastatin 10mg/kg and 20 mg/kg had reversed the HFD induced impairment of learning and memory but there was no significant difference between the doses (p > 0.05). PMID:25584244

  9. Ameliorating effect of Allium Sativum on high-fat diet induced fatty liver in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Aisha; Usmani, Ambreen; Waqar, Humera; Siddiqui, Asma; Kumar, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the hepatoprotective effect provided by fresh garlic on fatty liver induced by high-fat diet. Methods: This experimental study was carried out at BMSI, JPMC from October to November 2008. Thirty adult albino rats, 200-240 gram weight, were divided into three groups. Group A received control diet, Group B received high-fat diet (20 mg butter/100 gm diet) and Group C received high-fat diet with fresh garlic (20 mg butter with 6 gm fresh garlic/100 gm diet). The groups were further divided on the basis of duration of treatment, four weeks and eight weeks respectively. The rats were sacrificed, liver removed, weighed and relative liver weight calculated. Hepatic tissue was processed and tissue slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Results: There was significant increase in relative liver weight in group B animals as compared to the control animals, which decreased significantly in group C. Haematoxylin and eosin stained sections revealed ballooned hepatocytes having vesicular appearance with pyknotic nuclei in high-fat group which were preserved to a great extent in group C animals. Conclusion: This study has shown that use of fresh garlic along with high-fat diet prevents its damaging effects on liver to a great extent. PMID:27182249

  10. Possible Therapeutic Effect of Stem Cell in Atherosclerosis in Albino Rats. A Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Kawi, Samraa H; Hashem, Khalid S

    2015-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death worldwide. there are no effective approaches to regressing atherosclerosis due to not fully understood mechanisms. Recently, stem cell-based therapies have held promises to various diseases, including vascular diseases. Aim The present study aimed at investigating the possible effect of cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy on atherosclerosis. Material and Methods Eighty adult male albino rats were divided into control group (I), atherogenic group (II): subjected to high cholesterol fed diet (200~300 mg/kg body weight) for 12 weeks and 1.8 million units of vitamin D / kg of diet for 6 weeks. Stem cell therapy group (III): injected with stem cells in the tail vein following confirmation of atherosclerosis. Histological, Immunohistochemical and morphometric studies were performed were conducted. Results Atherogenic group (II) showed increased aortic thickness, intimal proliferation, smooth muscle proliferation and migration. Increased area % of collagen fibers, iNOS and vimentin immunoreactions were recorded and proved morphometrically. All findings regressed on stem cell therapy. Conclusion A definite therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells was found on atherosclerosis. PMID:26634068

  11. Histological and histochemical observations on the testis and epididymis of the albino rat treated with ACTH 1-39 and dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, A; Ricciardi, M P

    1983-01-01

    We analysed the modifications induced in the testis and epididymis of the adult male albino rat by drugs stimulating (ACTH) and inhibiting (dexamethasone) the steroidogenesis of the adrenal cortex. After stopping treatment, observations were continued for several days in order to follow up the possible long-term effects of these drugs. Morphological examination showed that the greatest damage in the testis was produced a few days after suspension of treatment by small doses of ACTH and that, with dexamethasone, the testis and epididymis were damaged, especially after discontinuing treatment. No noteworthy histochemical modifications were observed. PMID:6305865

  12. The 'evil albino' stereotype: an impediment to the right to equality.

    PubMed

    Mswela, Maureen

    2013-03-01

    This article address the 'evil albino' plot device or albino bias as portrayed in films and explores how such labelling stimulates societal intolerance and discrimination against People Living With Albinism. The article reveals how media perpetuates stereotypes of albinism through their portrayal of role players and argues that the continued existence of such stereotypes is a failure to see albinism for what it is: a medical condition. The article further discusses Albinism related stigma and discrimination against the backdrop of the 'evil albino' plot device. PMID:23781766

  13. Gastroprotective activity of ginger zingiber officinale rosc., in albino rats.

    PubMed

    al-Yahya, M A; Rafatullah, S; Mossa, J S; Ageel, A M; Parmar, N S; Tariq, M

    1989-01-01

    The cytoprotective and gastric anti-ulcer studies of ginger have been carried out in albino rats. Cytodestruction was produced by 80% ethanol, 0.6M HC1, 0.2M NaOH and 25% NaCl. Whereas gastric ulcers were produced by ulcerogenic agents including indomethacin, aspirin and reserpine, beside hypothermic restraint stress and by pylorus ligated Shay rat technique. The results of this study demonstrate that the extract in the dose of 500 mg/kg orally exert highly significant cytoprotection against 80% ethanol, 0.6M HC1, 0.2M NaOH and 25% NaCl induced gastric lesions. The extract also prevented the occurrence of gastric ulcers induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and hypothermic restraint stress. These observations suggest cytoprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effect of the ginger. PMID:2589236

  14. Antipyretic activity of Guduchi Ghrita formulations in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.; Prajapati, P. K.; Bhat, Savitha D.

    2010-01-01

    The present pharmacological investigation was undertaken to study the anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations in albino rats against yeast induced pyrexia. Seven groups of six animals were used for the experiment. The yeast induced pyrexia method was standardized first by injecting 12.5% yeast suspension (s.c) followed by recording the rectal temperature at regular intervals. Then the evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations was carried out by using this standard procedure. Both the Guduchi ghrita samples including vehicle significantly attenuated the raise in temperature after three hours of yeast injection. After 6 and 9 hours of yeast injection also both the Guduchi ghrita samples attenuated the raise in temperature in a highly significant manner in comparison to both yeast control and vehicle control groups. The data generated during study shows that both the Guduchi ghrita formulations having significant anti-pyretic activity. PMID:22131741

  15. Influence of Momordica charantia on oxidative stress-induced perturbations in brain monoamines and plasma corticosterone in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Naga; Babu, S. Manohar; Rao, M.E. Bhanoji

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the antistress activity of Momordica charantia (MC) fruit extract on stress-induced changes in albino rats and also to explore attenuating effects of MC on in vitro lipid peroxidation in rat brain. Materials and Methods: In this study, Wistar albino rats (180–200 g) were used. Plasma corticosterone and monoamines—5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and dopamine (DA) in cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus regions of brain were determined in animals under different stressful conditions. Ethanolic fruit extract of MC, at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, was used. The oxidative stress paradigms used in in vivo models were acute stress (AS) and chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Panax quinquefolium (PQ) was used as a standard in in vivo models and ascorbic acid was used as a reference standard in the in vitro method. Results: Subjecting the animals to AS (immobilization for 150 min once only) resulted in significant elevation of plasma corticosterone levels and brain monoamine levels. Pretreatment with MC at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. significantly countered AS-induced changes and a similar effect was exhibited by PQ at 100 mg/kg p.o. In the CUS regimen (different stressors for 7 days), plasma corticosterone levels were significantly elevated whereas the levels of 5-HT, NE, E, and DA were depleted significantly. Pretreatment with MC (200 and 400 mg/kg) attenuated the CUS-induced changes in the levels of above monoamines in cortex, hypothalamus, and hippocampus regions of brain and plasma corticosterone in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, MC extract (1000–5000 μg/mL) exhibited a significant quenching effect on in vitro lipid peroxidation indicating its strong antioxidant activity which was compared with ascorbic acid. Conclusions: This study reveals the antistress activity of MC as it significantly reverted the stress-induced changes, and the activity might be attributed

  16. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nabil M; Eweis, Esam A; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat's blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk. PMID:23569832

  17. Metabolic and cardiac autonomic effects of high-intensity resistance training protocol in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    de Deus, Ana Paula; de Oliveira, Claudio Ricardo; Simões, Rodrigo Polaquini; Baldissera, Vilmar; da Silva, Carlos Alberto; Rossi, Bruno Rafael Orsini; de Sousa, Hugo Celso Dutra; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of metabolic and autonomic nervous control on high-intensity resistance training (HRT) as determined by pancreatic glucose sensitivity (GS), insulin sensitivity (IS), blood lactate ([La]), and heart rate variability (HRV) in rats. Thirty male, albino Wistar rats (292 ± 20 g) were divided into 3 groups: sedentary control (SC), low-resistance training (LRT), and HRT. The animals in the HRT group were submitted to a high-resistance protocol with a progressively increasing load relative to body weight until exhaustion, whereas the LRT group performed the same exercise regimen with no load progression. The program was conducted 3 times per week for 8 weeks. The [La], parameters related to the functionality of pancreatic tissue, and HRV were measured. There was a significant increase in peak [La] only in the HRT group, but there was a reduction in [La] when corrected to the maximal load in both trained groups (LRT and HRT, p < 0.05). Both trained groups exhibited an increase in IS; however, compared with SC and LRT, HRT demonstrated a significantly higher GS posttraining (p < 0.05). With respect to HRV, the low-frequency (LF) band, in milliseconds squared, reduced in both trained groups, but the high-frequency band, in milliseconds squared and nu, increased, and the LF in nu, decreased only in the HRT group (p < 0.05). The HRT protocol produced significant and beneficial metabolic and cardiac autonomic adaptations. These results provide evidence for the positive benefits of HRT in counteracting metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction. PMID:22067239

  18. Evaluation of wound healing property of Terminalia catappa on excision wound models in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Khan, A A; Kumar, V; Singh, B K; Singh, R

    2014-05-01

    Wound is defined as the loss of breaking cellular and functional continuity of the living tissues. Management of wounds is frequently encountered with different problems. Drug resistance and toxicity hindered the development of synthetic antimicrobial agents with wound healing activity. Many plants with potent pharmacological activities may offer better treatment options viz. Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica and Phyllanthus emblica formulations have shown healing activities on wounds.The present study was planned to investigate the wound healing activity of Terminalia catappa on excision wound model in rats. Ointment was prepared by using bark extract of Terminalia catappa in soft paraffin and preservative. Wistar albino rats (200-250 gm) of either sex were used in the present study. A circular wound of 2 cm in diameter was made on the depilated dorsal thoracic region of the rats under ether anesthesia in aseptic conditions. The ointment was applied for 18 days and percent wound closure observed along with the parameters viz. Epithelization, granuloma weight and scar formation. Animals were observed on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th and 18th post-wounding day.Wound healing activity was compared with that of control and Betadine ointment as standard drug. Animals treated with Terminalia catappa ointment exhibited 97% reduction in wound area as compared to the control animals (81%). Ointment treated wounds were found to induce epithelization faster compared to the control. In conclusion, Terminalia catappa ointment promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation of this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:24132703

  19. Influence of dihydroergotoxine, bromocriptine, and ergotamine on penile erection in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Radosavljevic, Milovan; Pajovic, Bogdan; Radunovic, Miodrag; Radojevic, Nemanja; Bjelogrlic, Bojana

    2012-01-01

    The pilot study presented was conducted to determine as to whether ergot alkaloids (alpha-adrenergic blockers) have a potential effect on penile erectile function. The influence of dihydroergotoxine, bromocriptine, and ergotamine was studied on the erection ability in intact, two-grade outbred male Wistar albino rats that were out of their estrous phase. The experimental animals were injected intrapenially with the substances under examination: dihydroergotoxine mesylate (0.1 mg/0.1 mL, 0.3 mg/0.1 mL, and 1 mg/0.1 mL), bromocriptine mesylate (0.3 mg/0.1 mL, 1 mg/0.1 mL, and 3 mg/0.1 mL), and ergotamine tartrate (0.1 mg/0.1 mL, 0.3 mg/0.1 mL, and 1mg/0.1 mL). Every dose was tested on a pattern of 30 rats. These mentioned substances were injected in the amount of 1 mm to the left of the proximal part of the superficial dorsal vein of the penis, in the region of the penis root. After injection, the animals were then observed within the next 90 minutes. In the trial, the following was observed: the number of rats with an erection achieved, the period of time from intrapenial application to the appearance of the first erection, and the duration of the erection. Ultimately, the research results confirm the efficiency of dihydroergotoxine and bromocriptine as erectogenic agents, as well as ergotamine as a detumescent compared with saline solutions. PMID:22441761

  20. Biochemical effects of vepacide (from Azadirachta indica) on Wistar rats during subchronic exposure.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M F; Siddiqui, M K J

    2004-11-01

    We investigated the effect of Vepacide (from Azadirachta indica), a neem-based pesticide, on acid (AcP) and alkaline (AkP) phosphatase in different tissues of male and female albino Wistar rats. Subchronic doses of Vepacide in coconut oil (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg; maximum volume of 0.2 mL) were administered orally for 45 or 90 days. The administration of Vepacide resulted in a significant increase in AcP and AkP in serum, kidney, lung, and liver tissue (AkP only in liver), whereas a significant decrease of AcP in liver was observed in male and female rats after 45 and 90 days of treatment with moderate and high doses. The alterations in serum, liver, kidney, and lung tissues of both male and female rats caused by this compound were statistically significant, and the changes were also dose and time dependent. The alterations in male rats were not statistically significant when compared with female rats, indicating that there were no sexual differences. The withdrawal study (28 days post-treatment) revealed significant recovery, indicating reversal of the toxic symptoms once the toxicant was removed. There was a high degree of positive correlation between results for serum as compared to those for kidney, lung, and liver (AkP only for liver). However, there was a high negative correlation between AcP results for serum as compared with those for liver. The alterations in these enzymes indicated that lung tissue was the most susceptible, followed by liver and kidney. AcP and AkP are marker enzymes, and their increase in serum, with parallel increases in different tissues, might be due to the increased permeability of plasma membranes. The decrease in liver AcP may be due to the necrosis of cellular tissues. The changes observed in these enzyme activities could be useful as biomarkers of exposure to Vepacide. PMID:15388273

  1. Comparison of spatial learning in the partially baited radial-arm maze task between commonly used rat strains: Wistar, Spargue-Dawley, Long-Evans, and outcrossed Wistar/Sprague-Dawley.

    PubMed

    Gökçek-Saraç, Çiğdem; Wesierska, Malgorzata; Jakubowska-Doğru, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    Strain-related differences in animals' cognitive ability affect the outcomes of experiments and may be responsible for discrepant results obtained by different research groups. Therefore, behavioral phenotyping of laboratory animals belonging to different strains is important. The aim of the present study was to compare the variation in allothetic visuospatial learning in most commonly used laboratory rat strains: inbred Wistar (W) and Sprague-Dawley (SD), outcrossed Wistar/Sprague-Dawley (W/SD), and outbred Long Evans (LE) rats. All rats were trained to the arbitrary performance criterion of 83 % correct responses in the partially baited 12-arm radial maze allowing for simultaneous evaluation of both working and reference memory. In the present study, testing albino versus pigmented and inbred versus outcrossed rats revealed significant strain-dependent differences with the inbred SD rats manifesting lower performance on all learning measures compared to other strains. On the other hand, the outcrossed W/SD rats showed a lower frequency of reference memory errors and faster rate of task acquisition compared to both LE and W rats, with W rats showing a lower frequency of working memory errors compared to other strains. In conclusion, albinism apparently did not reduce the animals' performance in the allothetic visuospatial learning task, while outcrossing improved the spatial learning. A differential effect of strain on the contribution of each error type to the animals' overall performance was observed. The strain-dependent differences were more pronounced between subpopulations of learning-deficient individuals ("poor" learners), and generally the reference memory errors contributed more to the final behavioral output than did the working memory errors. PMID:25537841

  2. Endurance training enhances LXRα gene expression in Wistar male rats.

    PubMed

    Kazeminasab, Fatemeh; Marandi, Mohammad; Ghaedi, Kamran; Esfarjani, Fahimeh; Moshtaghian, Jamal

    2013-09-01

    Liver X receptor α (LXRα) is a member of the ligand-activated transcription factor of nuclear hormonal receptor superfamily, whose activation leads to modulation in the expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis including ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), which plays a crucial role in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) remodeling. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether endurance training enhanced the expression level of liver LXRα gene. Twelve adult male Wistar rats (200-220 g) were divided into control and training groups. Training group received exercise on a motor-driven treadmill at 28 m/min (0 % grade) for 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Twenty-four hours after the last exercise session, the rats were killed and blood was taken from the right ventricle of each rat. Plasma was collected for HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), TC and TG measurements. Furthermore, a portion of the liver of each rat was excised and washed in ice-cold saline and frozen in liquid nitrogen for assessment of LXRα and ABCA1 mRNA levels. Data indicated significant increase in both LXRα and ABCA1 mRNA levels in trained rats, compared to control rats. Plasma HDL-C concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in trained rats at the end of treadmill exercise. However, there was a significant decrease in LDL-C (P < 0.003), TG, TC concentration, TC/HDL-C and LDL/HDL-C ratios in trained rats compared with those in the control group (P < 0.001). In conclusion, we found that endurance training induced significant elevation in LXRα gene expression, which correlated with enhanced levels of ABCA1 mRNA and plasma HDL-C concentration. PMID:23674092

  3. Determination of quality constituents in the young leaves of albino tea cultivars.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Gao, Ming-Jun; Hou, Ru-Yan; Hu, Xiao-Yi; Zhang, Liang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu

    2014-07-15

    Albino tea has received increased attention due to its brisk flavour. To identify changes in the key chemical constituents conveying important qualities to albino tea, the metabolite profiles of four albino cultivars and one green tea cultivar were analysed. Compared to the green tea control, significantly decreased contents of chlorophyll (Chl) (p<0.01), total carotenoids (p<0.05), caffeine (p<0.01), and total catechins (p<0.05) were found in albino tea leaves with a few exceptions, whereas increases were noted in the Chl a/b ratio and the contents of both zeaxanthin and free amino acids, including theanine. Multivariate analysis identified catechins and carotenoids as the most important contributors to the metabolic profile variance between the albino and green tea cultivars. High levels of amino acids, along with low levels of chlorophylls, catechins and caffeine, contribute to the qualities of albino tea, which include reduced astringency and bitterness, along with a strong umami taste. PMID:24594160

  4. Termination of Nutrient Import and Development of Vein Loading Capacity in Albino Tobacco Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Robert

    1984-01-01

    The sink-source conversion in developing leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was studied to determine whether import termination is caused by the onset of export or is related to achievement of positive carbon balance. Albino shoots were grown in vitro and grafted to detopped stems of green tobacco plants. Termination of import was studied by providing mature leaves of the stock plant with 14CO2 and detecting the presence of labeled nutrient in developing albino leaves by whole-leaf autoradiography. In albino leaves, import terminated progressively in the basipetal direction at the same stage of development as in leaves of green shoots. Starch was not present in the plastids of mesophyll cells of mature albino leaves but starch was synthesized when discs were cut from these leaves and incubated on 3 millimolar sucrose. Import ceased progressively in developing green leaves even when photosynthesis was prevented by darkening. It was concluded that cessation of import does not require achievement of positive carbon balance and is not the direct result of export initiation. To determine whether vein loading capacity develops in albino leaves, discs were cut from mature leaves and floated on [14C]sucrose solution. Uptake of label into the veins was detected by autoradiography and this uptake was sensitive to the phloem loading inhibitor p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid. However, the amount of label taken up by veins in albino leaves was less than that taken up by veins of mature green leaves. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16663820

  5. Garlic and alpha lipoic supplementation enhance the immune system of albino rats and alleviate implications of pesticides mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Darwish, Nevine S; Shokry, Dina A; El-Aal, Aly GE Abd; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, Abd-Alhamed; Ziada, Reem M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate age dependent immune-system response versus exposure to different doses of mixture of (chlorpyrifos, profenofose, and fenitrothion) and/or combined with 60 and 250 mg kg-1 alpha lipoic acid and garlic, respectively. 120 males of albino rats were divided to two groups according to age; weaning group (2 months age and 60-80 gm.), adult (6 months and 180-200 gm). Each age was divided into 6 subgroups treated orally for 3 months , G1 (control), G2 high dose (HDPM) CPF10 mg kg-1, PRO 3 mg kg-1, FEN 6 mg kg-1, G3 low dose (LDPM) CPF 1 mg kg-1, PFN 0.3 mg kg-1 and FEN 0.6 mg kg-1, G4 AOX (alpha lipoic + Garlic), G5 HDPM + AOX and G6 LDPM + AOX. Results showed significant inhibition in serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE), elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA) concurrent with reduction in total reduced glutathione (GSH) in both ages was recorded as well as, decrease in IGG, IGM, Lymphocyte transformation and Phagocytosis humeral and cellular immunity confirmed by alteration in lymph nodes architecture. This study was concluded that the supplementation with alpha lipoic acid and garlic improved previous alternations slightly to be more or less near the control level in both adult and weaning rats. It seems that, immune-responses of both adult and weaning rats were slightly similar. PMID:26221319

  6. Protective effect of olive oil and colocynth oil against cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Amamou, Fouzia; Nemmiche, Saïd; Meziane, Radjaa Kaouthar; Didi, Amal; Yazit, Sidi Mohamed; Chabane-Sari, Daoudi

    2015-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most common heavy metal pollutants. It is accumulated particularly in liver and kidney. The present study examined the possible protective effect of olive oil and colocynth oil consumption against Cd-induced damage on plasma lipids and stress biochemical parameters of rats. Male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 5 animals each and treated orally with Cd (50 mg/l), olive oil and colocynth oil (4%) alone or in combination with cadmium for 8 weeks. It was shown that Cd exposure induced significant increases in the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lipid peroxidation levels (MDA) and protein carbonyl contents in exposed groups of rats compared to control group while the antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione and vitamins (C, A and E) were significantly decreased. Co-treatment with olive oil or colocynth oil significantly improved the oxidative damage induced by Cd. The antioxidant potential in plasma and liver were markedly restored with a significant decline in MDA levels and activity of transaminases. In conclusion, these results suggest that olive oil or colocynth oil consumption could protect the rat liver against Cd-induced injury by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reducing oxidative stress. PMID:25617810

  7. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, AA; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. Methods: To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via drinking water for 3 months. Blood samples were collected monthly, and the animals were dissected for liver and pancreas’s examination at the end of the experiment. Lambda cyhalothrin administration was associated with the elevation in lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduction in SH-protein a major marker for antioxidant, as well as basel paraoxonase (PON) in both treated groups throughout the experimental periods. Results: In addition, significant elevations in liver enzymes alanin amino transferase, (ALT), and aspartate amino transferase (AST), as well as plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glucose level. While, significant reduction in insulin level through the experimental periods. Results of histopathological and histochemical studies showed that lambda cyhalothrin exposure induces liver and pancreatic tissues damage and depletion in glycogen content was pronounced in liver of both treated groups. Conclusions: In conclusion subchronic intoxication with lambda cyhalothrin formulation induced remarkable changes in the examined parameters. PMID:26221269

  8. Reproductive toxic potential of panmasala in male Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Kumari, A; Mojidra, Bn; Gautam, Ak; Verma, Y; Kumar, Sunil

    2011-09-01

    Some ingredients of panmasala have the ability to penetrate the blood-testis barrier but the reproductive toxic potential of panmasala has not been studied. This study is aimed to assess the possible damage caused by panmasala to male reproductive system in mice. Swiss albino male mice were randomly divided into 7 groups receiving either standard control diet or panmasala-containing diet. Three doses (0.5%, 1.5% and 3%) of panmasala plain (PMP) as well as panmasala with tobacco (PMT)-gutkha were given for a period of 6 months. Assessment of organ weight, sperm count and morphology, spermatid count, sperm production, testicular 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) activity and histology were conducted. A nonsignificant decrease in absolute and relative weight of testis and epididymis was observed. Spermatid count, sperm count and production were significantly decreased and 17β-HSD activity was found considerably declined at 3% of both PMP- and PMT-treated groups as compared to control. The histological observations revealed panmasala induced testicular damage. Abnormal morphology of sperm head shape was significantly elevated in higher doses of both types of panmasala-treated groups than control. The results suggests that panmasala has reproductive toxic potential and more alteration is seen with gutkha as compared to panmasala plain, indicating that similar effects might also be possible in humans. PMID:21343226

  9. Mistletoes and mutant albino shoots on woody plants as mineral nutrient traps

    PubMed Central

    Lo Gullo, M. A.; Glatzel, G.; Devkota, M.; Raimondo, F.; Trifilò, P.; Richter, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Potassium, sulphur and zinc contents of mistletoe leaves are generally higher than in their hosts. This is attributed to the fact that chemical elements which are cycled between xylem and phloem in the process of phloem loading of sugars are trapped in the mistletoe, because these parasites do not feed their hosts. Here it is hypothesized that mutant albino shoots on otherwise green plants should behave similarly, because they lack photosynthesis and thus cannot recycle elements involved in sugar loading. Methods The mineral nutrition of the mistletoe Scurrula elata was compared with that of albino shoots on Citrus sinensis and Nerium oleander. The potential for selective nutrient uptake by the mistletoe was studied by comparing element contents of host leaves on infected and uninfected branches and by manipulation of the haustorium–shoot ratio in mistletoes. Phloem anatomy of albino leaves was compared with that of green leaves. Key Results Both mistletoes and albino leaves had higher contents of potassium, sulphur and zinc than hosts or green leaves, respectively. Hypothetical discrimination of nutrient elements during the uptake by the haustorium is not supported by our data. Anatomical studies of albino leaves showed characteristics of release phloem. Conclusions Both albino shoots and mistletoes are traps for elements normally recycled between xylem and phloem, because retranslocation of phloem mobile elements into the mother plant or the host is low or absent. It can be assumed that the lack of photosynthetic activity in albino shoots and thus of sugars needed in phloem loading is responsible for the accumulation of elements. The absence of phloem loading is reflected in phloem anatomy of these abnormal shoots. In mistletoes the evolution of a parasitic lifestyle has obviously eliminated substantial feeding of the host with photosynthates produced by the mistletoe. PMID:22442343

  10. Evaluation of Antinociceptive Activity of Aqueous Extract of Bark of Psidium Guajava in Albino Rats and Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jayasree, T.; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. Aim: To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Materials and Methods: Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. Results: The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. Conclusion: AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms. PMID:25386462

  11. A new, albino-beige mouse: giant granules in retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Robison, W G; Kuwabara, T

    1978-04-01

    Albino-beige mice were produced in order to combine two experimentally useful characteristics, albinism and lysosomal dysfunction, in the same animal. The retinal pigment epithelium of albino-beige mice formed giant intracellular granules. Exposure of albino-beige mice to white light of 150 foot-candles for 3 to 10 hr induced marked phagocytosis of rod outer segment fragments by the retinal pigment epithelium, resulting in intracellular accumulations of undigested disk membranes within the giant granules. Additional, incompletely processed membranes accumulated as the mice aged or were exposed to 150 foot-candle light for longer periods. Such accumulations of ingested membranes were not observed in the pigment epithelium of exposed or aging albino mice heterozygous for the beige gene. Because of its altered processing of ingested outer segment membranes, this new albino mouse should be useful for studying the possible roles of the retinal pigment epithelium in the maintenance of photoreceptor cells and in their recovery from light damage and other insults. PMID:640784

  12. Evaluation of antidiabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum in male Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Salwe, Kartik J.; Sachdev, Devender O.; Bahurupi, Yogesh; Kumarappan, Manimekalai

    2015-01-01

    Background: We investigated anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin induced diabetic Wister rats were used in this study consisting of seven groups of six animals each. Groups (1) normal control, (2) diabetic control, (3) leaves extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (4) leaves extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (5) fruit peel extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (6) peel extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum and (7) glibenclamide respectively. Fasting blood sugar was recorded on 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day. At the end of the experiment Lipid profile and levels of antioxidants were determined. Safety profile of both extracts was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. Results: Higher dose of fruit peel extract of P. granatum (PEPG) and glibenclamide significantly lowered blood glucose level from 7th day onwards however glibenclamide was found to be more effective. Leaves extract at higher dose and fruit extract at lower dose also significantly lowered blood glucose level from 14th day onwards. Leaves extract at lower dose also significantly lowered blood glucose level from 21st day onwards. Glibenclamide and higher dose of fruit PEPG extract significantly reduced the total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and significantly increased the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Glibenclamide followed by higher dose was found more effective in reducing plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and increasing levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase). No toxicity was observed even when both extracts were administered at 10 times of higher dose used in this study and no significant changes were seen when it were used chronically. Conclusion: Leaves and fruit PEPG possesses significant anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant properties. This study supports the traditional use of P. granatum in diabetes. Fruit peel which is normally thrown by many while eating pomegranate fruit is having anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and Antioxidant activity. Furthermore high therapeutic index is safe for chronic use. PMID:25810635

  13. Identification of Differential Protein Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Induced Wistar Albino Rats by 2D Electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS Analysis.

    PubMed

    Vedarethinam, Vadanasundari; Dhanaraj, Karthik; Soundherrajan, Ilavenil; Sivanesan, Ravikumar

    2016-04-01

    Hepato cellular carcinoma (HCC) is a type of malignant tumor. To investigate the proteins in cancer molecular mechanism and its role in HCC, we have used proteomic tools such as 2DE and MALDI-TOF-MS. Our investigation ravels that, plasma α-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen levels were elevated in DEN induced rats and gradually decreased after the treatment with 1,3BPMU. 2DE and MALDI-TOF-MS tool offers to identify the up and down regulation of proteins in HCC. Proteomic study reveals that, five differentially expressed proteins were identified in DEN induced rats and 1,3BPMU treated rats i.e. three up regulated protein such as T kininogen, NDPKB, PRMT1 (DEN induced rats), RGS19 and PAF (1,3BPMU treated rats) in 3BPMU treated rats, activation of transcription of a single gene from multiple promoters provides flexibility in the controlled gene expression. The regulations of hepatocyte stimulating factor were slow down the proliferation of hepatic cell and uncontrolled hepatic cell growth and also molecular signals strongly argue for a patho-physiological role in liver metastasis to control the cell aggression. This indicates that, anti cancer property of 1,3BPMU can be used as potent anti cancer agent. The present study also shows the proteomic approach helps to elucidate the tumor maker as well as regulatory marker proteins in HCC. PMID:27069327

  14. Protective Effects of Pinus halepensis L. Essential Oil on Aspirin-induced Acute Liver and Kidney Damage in Female Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Samout, Noura; Amani, Etaya; Mbarki, Sakhria; Tlili, Zied; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Talarmin, Hélène; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-08-01

    Aromatic and medicinal plants are sources of natural antioxidants thanks to their secondary metabolites. Administration of Pinus halepensis L. (Pinaceae family) in previous studies was found to alleviate deleterious effects of aspirin-induced damage on liver and kidney. The present study, carried out on female rats, evaluates the effects of P. halepensis L. essential oil (EOP) on aspirin (A)-induced damage to liver and kidney. The animals used in this study were rats (n=28) divided into 4 groups of 7 each: (1) a control group (C); (2) a group given NaCl for 56 days then treated with (A) (600 mg/kg) for 4 days (A); (3) a group fed with (EOP) for 56 days then (A) for 4 days; and a group fed with only (EOP) for 56 days and given NaCl for 4 days. Estimations of biochemical parameters in blood were determined using kit methods (Spinreact). Lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were determined. Histopathological study was done by immersing pieces of both organs in a fixative solution followed by paraffin embeddeding and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Under our experimental conditions, Aspirin at dose 600 mg/kg body weight induced an increase of serum biochemical parameters as well as an oxidative stress in both organs. An increase occurred in TBARS by 108% and 55%, a decrease in SOD by 78% and 53%, CAT by 53% and 78%, and GPx by 78% and 51% in liver and kidney, respectively, compared to control. Administration of EOP given to rats enabled correction in these parameters. It could be concluded that the treatment with P. halepensis L. essential oil inhibited aspirin-induced liver and kidney damage. PMID:27430382

  15. Effect of scoparia dulcis (Sweet Broomweed) plant extract on plasma antioxidants in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in male albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Pari, L; Latha, M

    2004-07-01

    Clinical research has confirmed the efficacy of several plants in the modulation of oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. Scoparia dulcis plant extract is tried for prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by streptozotocin injection. A single dose of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg body weight) produced decrease in insulin, hyperglycemia, increased lipid peroxidation (Thiobarbituric reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides) and decreased antioxidant levels (vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione, ceruloplasmin). Oral administration of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis plant (200 mg/kg body weight) for 6 weeks to diabetic rats significantly increased the plasma insulin and plasma antioxidants and significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. The effect of Scoparia dulcis plant extract at 200 mg/kg body weight was better than that of glibenclamide, a reference drug. PMID:15296095

  16. Bilirubin UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity of wistar rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Foliot, A; Christoforov, B; Petite, J P; Etienne, J P; Housset, E; Dubois, M

    1975-08-01

    Wistar rat kidneys have been shown to possess a bilirubin glucuronyltransferase (BGT) activity capable of conjugating about 3/5 of the total pool of unconjugated bilirubin within 48 h of being grafted to Gunn rat hosts. Bilirubin conjugated by the kidney is taken up by the liver and excreted in the bile. Except when the bile duct is ligated, no conjugated bilirubin appears in the plasma or urine. Renal BGT activity is about 1/20th of the hepatic activity on a weight basis in Wistar rats. The Gunn rat's hyperbilirubinemia probably causes an induction of the renal enzyme since its activity doubles in 48 h. PMID:808968

  17. Neonatal proinflammatory challenge in male Wistar rats: Effects on behavior, synaptic plasticity, and adrenocortical stress response.

    PubMed

    Tishkina, Anna; Stepanichev, Mikhail; Kudryashova, Irina; Freiman, Sofia; Onufriev, Mikhail; Lazareva, Natalia; Gulyaeva, Natalia

    2016-05-01

    Effects of neonatal proinflammatory stress (NPS) on the development of anxiety and depressive-like behavior, stress responsiveness, hippocampal plasticity and conditioned fear response were studied in adolescent and adult male Wistar rats. On PND 3 and PND 5, the pups were subcutaneously injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50 μg/kg). In the open field test, signs of increased anxiety were demonstrated in adolescent (PND 32), but not in adult (PND 101) rats. In the elevated plus maze, no changes could be detected in adolescent rats, however, in the adults the number of entries into the open arms decreased suggesting increased anxiety after NPS. Signs of "behavioral despair" in the forced swim test, expressed in adolescent rats as a trend, became significant in the adults indicating depression-like behavior. In the majority of brain slices from PND 19-PND 33 rats subjected to NPS, deficit of LTP in the hippocampal CA1 field was detected, this deficit being associated with the impaired mechanisms of LTP induction. In the adult rats, NPS enhanced fear conditioning promoting improved formation of the novel context-foot shock association in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm without effect on cued fear conditioning. NPS significantly impaired functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA), resulting in an elevated corticosterone level maintained in the adolescents but not in the adults and in modified corticosterone response to behavioral sub-chronic stress in both adolescent and adult rats. Thus, NPS induces "perinatal malprogramming" resulting in development of depression-like behaviors, associated with abnormalities in functioning of the HPAA, impaired hippocampal neuroplasticity (LTP) and changes in hippocampus-dependent memory formation. PMID:26851557

  18. Antidepressant behavior in thyroidectomized Wistar rats is induced by hippocampal hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    da Conceição, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Laureano-Melo, Roberto; Oliveira, Kelen Carneiro; de Carvalho Melo, Maria Clara; Kasamatsu, Tereza Sayoko; de Barros Maciel, Rui Monteiro; de Souza, Janaina Sena; Giannocco, Gisele

    2016-04-01

    Thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure indicated in cases of several maligned or benign thyroid diseases, thus, the aim of our study was to verify how the hypothyroidism induced by thyroidectomy influences behavioral parameters and its relation to thyroid hormones metabolism and neurogenesis at hippocampus. For this purpose, Adult male Wistar rats underwent to thyroidectomy to induce hypothyroidism. Behavioral tests, the thyroid profile and hippocampal gene expression were evaluated in control and in thyroidectomized animals. It was observed that thyroidectomized group had a significant increasing in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and a decreasing in thyroxine (T4) levels as well as in triiodothyronine (T3) serum level. It was also observed reduction of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8), thyroid hormone receptor alfa (Trα1), deiodinase type 2 (Dio2), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (Enpp2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) mRNA expression in hippocampus of thyroidectomized animals. In the forced swimming test, it was verified that thyroidectomy promotes a decrease in time of immobility and climbing when compared with the control group. In summary, we demonstrated that antidepressant behavior in thyroidectomized Wistar rats is induced by hippocampal hypothyroidism. This effect could be associated to an impaired neuronal activity in acute stress response as it is observed in forced swimming paradigm. PMID:26861177

  19. Amelioration Effect of Zinc and Iron Supplementation on Selected Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Liver and Kidney of Cadmium-Treated Male Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Jamakala, Obaiah; Rani, Usha A.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic, nonessential heavy metal with many industrial uses that can contribute to a well-defined spectrum of diseases in animals as well as in humans. The present study examines the effect of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) supplementation on oxidative stress enzymes in Cd-treated rats. Wistar strain male albino rats were treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 1/10th LD50/48 h, that is, 22.5 mg/kg body weight for 7, 15, and 30 days (d) time intervals. The 15d Cd-treated rats were divided into three groups. The first group received Zn (12 mg/kg), second group Fe (40 mg/kg) alone, and third group supplemented with both Zn and Fe and observed for 7, 15, and 30d. After the specific time intervals, rats were decapitated and oxidative stress enzymes like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assayed in liver and kidney. Simultaneously lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were also measured. A significant elevation in LPO levels with decreased activity levels of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST were observed during Cd intoxication. With Zn and/or Fe supplementation, a significant reversal in the oxidative stress enzymes was observed. Our study reveals that combination of Zn and Fe supplementation is effective in detoxifying the Cd body burden from the test tissues. PMID:26862254

  20. Effect of palonosetron (5HT-3 antagonist) and pantoprazole (proton pump inhibitor) against surgical esophagitis induced by forestomach and pylorus ligation in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Gautam, S; Rawat, J K; Singh, M; Saraf, S A; Kaithwas, G

    2016-01-01

    This study was embarked upon to evaluate the effects of pantoprazole and palonosetron on experimental esophagitis in albino wistar rats. Groups of rats, fasted for 36 h, were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation, supervened by treatment with normal saline (3 ml/kg, po, sham control), esophagitis control (3 ml/kg, po), pantoprazole (30 mg/kg, po), palonosetron (0.5 mg/kg, po), and their combination. Animals were sacrificed after 12 h and appraised for the volume of gastric juices, total acidity, free acidity, and esophagitis index. Esophageal tissues were further figured out biochemically for markers of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators. The combination therapy comparably inhibited the esophagitis index (52.86%), gastric volume (66.04%), free acidity (43.76%), and total acidity (42.60%) in comparison with toxic control. The combination therapy also subsidized the biochemical and inflammatory markers to the purview less than toxic control. The morphological changes were scrutinized by scanning electron microscopy and were observed to demonstrate momentous protection by the amalgamation therapy. Combination therapy with pantoprazole and palonosetron flaunted sententious protection against experimental esophagitis. PMID:25743726

  1. Amelioration Effect of Zinc and Iron Supplementation on Selected Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Liver and Kidney of Cadmium-Treated Male Albino Rat.

    PubMed

    Jamakala, Obaiah; Rani, Usha A

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic, nonessential heavy metal with many industrial uses that can contribute to a well-defined spectrum of diseases in animals as well as in humans. The present study examines the effect of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) supplementation on oxidative stress enzymes in Cd-treated rats. Wistar strain male albino rats were treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 1/10(th) LD50/48 h, that is, 22.5 mg/kg body weight for 7, 15, and 30 days (d) time intervals. The 15d Cd-treated rats were divided into three groups. The first group received Zn (12 mg/kg), second group Fe (40 mg/kg) alone, and third group supplemented with both Zn and Fe and observed for 7, 15, and 30d. After the specific time intervals, rats were decapitated and oxidative stress enzymes like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assayed in liver and kidney. Simultaneously lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were also measured. A significant elevation in LPO levels with decreased activity levels of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST were observed during Cd intoxication. With Zn and/or Fe supplementation, a significant reversal in the oxidative stress enzymes was observed. Our study reveals that combination of Zn and Fe supplementation is effective in detoxifying the Cd body burden from the test tissues. PMID:26862254

  2. Genetic and Physical Interaction Studies Reveal Functional Similarities between ALBINO3 and ALBINO4 in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Trösch, Raphael; Töpel, Mats; Flores-Pérez, Úrsula; Jarvis, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ALBINO3 (ALB3) is a well-known component of a thylakoid protein-targeting complex that interacts with the chloroplast signal recognition particle (cpSRP) and the cpSRP receptor, chloroplast filamentous temperature-sensitive Y (cpFtsY). Its protein-inserting function has been established mainly for light-harvesting complex proteins, which first interact with the unique chloroplast cpSRP43 component and then are delivered to the ALB3 integrase by a GTP-dependent cpSRP-cpFtsY interaction. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a subsequently discovered ALB3 homolog, ALB4, has been proposed to be involved not in light-harvesting complex protein targeting, but instead in the stabilization of the ATP synthase complex. Here, however, we show that ALB3 and ALB4 share significant functional overlap, and that both proteins are required for the efficient insertion of cytochrome f and potentially other subunits of pigment-bearing protein complexes. Genetic and physical interactions between ALB4 and ALB3, and physical interactions between ALB4 and cpSRP, suggest that the two ALB proteins may engage similar sets of interactors for their specific functions. We propose that ALB4 optimizes the insertion of thylakoid proteins by participating in the ALB3-cpSRP pathway for certain substrates (e.g. cytochrome f and the Rieske protein). Although ALB4 has clearly diverged from ALB3 in relation to the partner-recruiting C-terminal domain, our analysis suggests that one putative cpSRP-binding motif has not been entirely lost. PMID:26265777

  3. [Evaluation of the biological effects of chemical substances on albino rat offspring].

    PubMed

    Rukavishnikov, V S; Sosedova, L M; Kapustina, E A

    2011-01-01

    The paper provides the results of experimental studies of the impact of vinyl chloride or sublimate intoxication in male albino rats on the functional state of the nervous system of their offspring. Retarded sensorimotor development was revealed in the neonatal offspring. The pubertal offspring showed behavioral pattern disintegrity that was characterized by changes in motor activity and orientative-exploratory responses and by anxiety. There was abnormal impulse conduction in the neuromuscular apparatus of the hind legs of albino rats and morphological changes in the structure of nervous tissue. PMID:22250396

  4. Effects of lithium chloride on testicular steroidogenic and gametogenic functions in mature male albino rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, D.; Chaudhuri, A.; Biswas, N.M.; Ghosh, P.K. )

    1990-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of lithium, on steroidogenic and gametogenic functions of testis in the rat. Adult male rats of Wistar strain were injected with lithium chloride at the dose of 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg, and 0.4 mg/100 g body weight/day for 21 days. All the treated animals along with the vehicle treated controls were sacrificed 24 hours after the last injections. Testicular steroidogenic activity was evaluated by measuring the activities of two steroidogenic key enzymes, {Delta}{sup 5}-3{beta} hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase ({Delta}{sup 5} -3{beta}-HSD) and 17{beta} hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17{beta} -HSD). Gametogenic capacity was determined by counting the number of germ cells at stage VII of seminiferous cycle. Plasma levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Administration of lithium chloride at a dose of 0.1 mg/100g body wt. for 21 days led to insignificant changes of plasma FSH, LH, PRL and T along with unaltered activities of testicular {Delta}5 -3{beta}-HSD, 17 {beta}-HSD activities and gametogenesis.

  5. Metabolic Profile of Offspring from Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Mentha piperita (Peppermint)

    PubMed Central

    Barbalho, Sandra M.; Damasceno, Débora C.; Spada, Ana Paula Machado; da Silva, Vanessa Sellis; Martuchi, Karla Aparecida; Oshiiwa, Marie; Machado, Flávia M. V. Farinazzi; Mendes, Claudemir Gregório

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating glycemia and lipid profile of offspring from diabetic Wistar rats treated with Mentha piperita (peppermint) juice. Male offspring from nondiabetic dams (control group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) and from dams with streptozotocin-induced severe diabetes (diabetic group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) were used. They were treated during 30 days, and, after the treatment period, levels of glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and fractions were analyzed in the adult phase. The offspring from diabetic dams treated with peppermint showed significantly reduced levels of glucose, cholesterol, LDL-c, and triglycerides and significant increase in HDL-c levels. The use of the M. piperita juice has potential as culturally appropriate strategy to aid in the prevention of DM, dyslipidemia, and its complications. PMID:21647314

  6. Toxicity study of Lauha Bhasma (calcined iron) in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Namrata; Dash, Manoj Kumar; Dwivedi, Laxmikant; Khilnani, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lauha Bhasma (LB) is a complex herbomineral preparation widely used as an Ayurvedic hematinic agent. It is an effective remedy for chronic fever (jīrṇa jvara), phthisis (kṣaya), Breathlessness (śvāsa) etc., and possesses vitality enhancing (vājīkara), strength promoting and anti aging (rasāyana) properties. Objectives: The present work was conducted to establish the safety aspects of the use of Lauha bhasma. Setting and Design: LB was prepared by Ayurvedic procedures of purification (śodhana), sun drying (bhānupāka), sthālīpāka, followed by repeated calcination (māraṇa) and “nectarization” (amṛtīkaraṇa). The resultant product was subjected to acute and sub acute toxicity studies. Materials and Methods: Acute and subacute toxicity study of LB was conducted in albino rats. Criteria for assessment included ponderal changes, change in biochemical parameters viz., LFT and KFT and hematological parameters. Histopathological studies of different organs including liver, kidney, spleen, testis etc., were also conducted to observe pathological changes if any. Results: In the acute toxicity study, the animal group did not manifest any signs of toxicity and no mortality was observed up to 100 times the therapeutic dose (TD). Significant increase in blood urea (27.83%, P < 0.01), serum creatinine (30.92%, P < 0.05), Aspartate aminotransferase (15.09%, P < 0.05), and serum alkaline phosphatase (27.5%, P < 0.01) was evident in group IV (10 TD). A significant increase in serum total protein (6.04%, P < 0.05) level was observed in group III (5 TD). Histopathological examination of livers in group IV (10 TD) showed mild inflammation in terms of bile stasis, peri-portal hepatic inflammation and sinusoidal congestion; lymphocyte infiltration in kidney and intracellular deposits in the splenic tissue. Conclusion: Lauha Bhasma was found to be safe at the therapeutic dose and also at five times the therapeutic dose levels. However, alteration in

  7. Ostracism of an Albino Individual by a Group of Pigmented Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Maciak, Matúš

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis), to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual’s exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics. PMID:26018869

  8. [Phase morphometric differences among Locusta migratoria cinerascens, Locusta migratoria migratorioides, and their mutant albinos (Orthoptera)].

    PubMed

    Rakotondrainibe, K; Nicolas, G; Fuzeau-Braesch, S

    1975-12-22

    A first canonical variate analysis (factor analysis) of two geographic strains of L. m. shows that the same axes distinguish crowded from isolated animals as well as their geographical origins. Two other analyses between normal and albino strains of both localities show no differences for one strain; however for the other strain, the pigmentary mutation coincides with a solitary tendency. PMID:816517

  9. Ostracism of an albino individual by a group of pigmented catfish.

    PubMed

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Maciak, Matúš

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis), to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual's exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics. PMID:26018869

  10. Generation of Albino Cynops pyrrhogaster by Genomic Editing of the tyrosinase Gene.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Keisuke; Nakajima, Taeko; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Albino animals are useful for in situ hybridization experiments that demonstrate gene expression in embryos and organs, for the immunological rejection of skin grafts transplanted to host animals, and to identify tissues with regenerative ability during limbs and retina regeneration processes. Cynops pyrrhogaster has extensive regenerating capacities. To facilitate regenerative research, in the present study, we produced albino C. pyrrhogaster using genomic editing. The DNA fragment containing part of the tyrosinase gene from C. pyrrhogaster was amplified using degenerate primers corresponding to evolutionarily conserved nucleotide sequences among several species, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. We designed a transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) that targets a candidate of the C. pyrrhogaster tyrosinase gene. Fertilized eggs were injected with TALEN mRNA, and albinos of C. pyrrhogaster were obtained. The results of the present study demonstrated that TALEN can be used effectively for genomic editing in C. pyrrhogaster and that the candidates of the tyrosinase gene that were cloned by us are essential for melanin synthesis. The albino newts created in the present study can be used as versatile experimental material. PMID:27268983

  11. Neurochemical impact of bisphenol A in the hippocampus and cortex of adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Khadrawy, Yasser A; Noor, Neveen A; Mourad, Iman M; Ezz, Heba S Aboul

    2016-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, is widely used in the manufacture of polycarbonated plastics and epoxy resins and line metal beverage cans. Growing evidence suggests that BPA acts directly on neuronal functions as it is lipophilic and could accumulate in the brain. The present study aims to investigate the effect of two doses of BPA (10 mg/kg for 6 and 10 weeks and 25 mg/kg for 6 weeks) on excitatory (glutamate and aspartate) and inhibitory (γ-aminobutyric acid, glycine, and taurine) amino acid neurotransmitter levels in the cortex and hippocampus. This study extends to investigate the effect of BPA on acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and some oxidative stress parameters in the two regions. In the cortex, a significant increase in the excitatory and a significant decrease in the inhibitory amino acids occurred after BPA (10 mg/kg for 10 weeks and 25 mg/kg for 6 weeks). This was accompanied by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and reduced glutathione after 6 weeks of BPA (25 mg/kg). In the hippocampus, a significant increase in the excitatory and inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitters occurred after 6 weeks of BPA. Hippocampal lipid peroxidation increased significantly after BPA exposure and hippocampal reduced glutathione increased significantly after 6 weeks of BPA exposure (10 mg/kg). BPA induced a significant increase in cortical and hippocampal AchE activity. The present neurochemical changes in the cortex and hippocampus suggest that BPA induced a state of excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. This may raise concerns about the exposure of humans to BPA due to its wide applications in industry. PMID:25903087

  12. The albino chick as a model for studying ocular developmental anomalies, including refractive errors, associated with albinism.

    PubMed

    Rymer, Jodi; Choh, Vivian; Bharadwaj, Shrikant; Padmanabhan, Varuna; Modilevsky, Laura; Jovanovich, Elizabeth; Yeh, Brenda; Zhang, Zhan; Guan, Huanxian; Payne, W; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2007-10-01

    Albinism is associated with a variety of ocular anomalies including refractive errors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ocular development of an albino chick line. The ocular development of both albino and normally pigmented chicks was monitored using retinoscopy to measure refractive errors and high frequency A-scan ultrasonography to measure axial ocular dimensions. Functional tests included an optokinetic nystagmus paradigm to assess visual acuity, and flash ERGs to assess retinal function. The underlying genetic abnormality was characterized using a gene microarray, PCR and a tyrosinase assay. The ultrastructure of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was examined using transmission electron microscopy. PCR confirmed that the genetic abnormality in this line is a deletion in exon 1 of the tyrosinase gene. Tyrosinase gene expression in isolated RPE cells was minimally detectable, and there was minimal enzyme activity in albino feather bulbs. The albino chicks had pink eyes and their eyes transilluminated, reflecting the lack of melanin in all ocular tissues. All three main components, anterior chamber, crystalline lens and vitreous chamber, showed axial expansion over time in both normal and albino animals, but the anterior chambers of albino chicks were consistently shallower than those of normal chicks, while in contrast, their vitreous chambers were longer. Albino chicks remained relatively myopic, with higher astigmatism than the normally pigmented chicks, even though both groups underwent developmental emmetropization. Albino chicks had reduced visual acuity yet the ERG a- and b-wave components had larger amplitudes and shorter than normal implicit times. Developmental emmetropization occurs in the albino chick but is impaired, likely because of functional abnormalities in the RPE and/or retina as well as optical factors. In very young chicks the underlying genetic mutation may also contribute to refractive error and eye shape abnormalities

  13. Cognitive effects of acute restraint stress in male albino rats and the impact of pretreatment with quetiapine versus ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Amin, Shaimaa Nasr; Gamal, Sarah Mahmoud; Esmail, Reham Shehab El Nemr; Aziz, Tarek Mohamed Abdel; Rashed, Laila Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Stress is any condition that seriously affects the balance of the organism physiologically and psychologically. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) releasing glucocorticoid hormones that produce generalized effects on different body systems including the nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the effect of acute restraint stress (ARS) on cognitive performance by measuring spatial working memory in Y-maze, behavior (anxiety and exploratory behavior) in open field test, expression of synaptophysin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the hippocampus by immunohistochemistry, dopaminergic receptors (D2) in the basal ganglia by gene expression and comparing the effect of ghrelin and quetiapine on the previous parameters. 36 adult male albino rats constituted the animal model of this work and have been divided into six groups: control group, control group exposed to ARS, quetiapine group, quetiapine group exposed to ARS, ghrelin group and ghrelin group exposed to ARS. We demonstrated more neuroprotective effect for quetiapine compared to ghrelin on stress response, anxiety behavior and working spatial memory impairment due to ARS. PMID:25391717

  14. Ameliorative Effects of Curcumin on Artesunate-Induced Subchronic Toxicity in Testis of Swiss Albino Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Dhrupadsinh K.; Patel, Pragnesh B.; Highland, Hyacinth N.

    2015-01-01

    India is one of the endemic areas where control of malaria has become a formidable task. Artesunate is the current antimalarial drug used to treat malaria, especially chloroquine resistant. The objective of the present study was to investigate the dose-dependent effect of oral administration of artesunate on the oxidative parameters in testes of adult male Swiss albino mice and ameliorative efficacy of curcumin, a widely used antioxidant. An oral dose of 150 mg/kg body weight (bwt; low dose) and 300 mg/kg bwt (high dose) of artesunate was administered for a period of 45 days to male mice, and ameliorative efficacy of curcumin was also assessed. The results revealed that artesunate caused significant alteration in oxidative parameters in dose-dependent manner. Administration of artesunate brought about significant decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, whereas lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase activity were found to be significantly increased. The results obtained show that oxidative insult is incurred upon the intracellular antioxidant system of testis tissue by artesunate treatment. Further, administration of curcumin at the dose level of 80 mg/kg bwt along with both doses of artesunate attenuated adverse effects in male mice. PMID:26673878

  15. Expression of distinct α1-adrenoceptor phenotypes in the iris of pigmented and albino rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Muramatsu, I; Suzuki, F; Nishimune, A; Anisuzzaman, ASM; Yoshiki, H; Su, T-H; Chang, C-K; Morishima, S

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: The expression of multiple pharmacological phenotypes including α1L-adrenoceptor has recently been reported for α1-adrenoceptors. The purpose of the present study was to identify α1-adrenoceptor phenotypes in the irises of pigmented and albino rabbits. Experimental approach: Radioligand binding and functional bioassay experiments were performed in segments or strips of iris of pigmented and albino rabbits, and their pharmacological profiles were compared. Key results: [3H]-silodosin at subnanomolar concentrations bound to intact segments of iris of pigmented and albino rabbits at similar densities (approximately 240 fmol·mg−1 protein). The binding sites in the iris of a pigmented rabbit were composed of a single component showing extremely low affinities for prazosin, hydrochloride [N-[2-(2-cyclopropylmethoxyphenoxy)ethyl]-5-chloro-α,α-dimethyl-1H-indole-3-ethamine hydrochloride (RS-17053)] and 5-methylurapidil, while two components with high and low affinities for prazosin, RS-17053 and 5-methylurapidil were identified in irises from albino rabbits. In contrast, specific binding sites for [3H]-prazosin were not clearly detected because a high proportion of non-specific binding and/or low affinity for prazosin occurred. Contractile responses of iris dilator muscle to noradrenaline were antagonized by the above ligands, and their antagonist affinities were consistent with the binding estimates at low-affinity sites identified in both strains of rabbits. Conclusions and implications: A typical α1L phenotype with extremely low affinity for prazosin is exclusively expressed in the iris of pigmented rabbits, while two distinct phenotypes (α1A and α1L) with high and moderate affinities for prazosin are co-expressed in the iris of albino rabbits. This suggests that a significant difference in the expression of phenotypes of the α1-adrenoceptor occurs in the irises between the two strains of rabbits. PMID:19466984

  16. Retinal image degradation by optical aberrations and light scatter in normal and albino chick eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yibin; Shieh, Kevin; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2007-02-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of retinal image quality requires that light scatter as well as optical aberrations be considered. In investigating how retinal image degradation affects eye growth in the chick model of myopia, we developed a simple method based on Shack-Hartmann images for evaluating the effects of both monochromatic aberrations and light scatter on retinal image quality. We further evaluated our method in the current study by applying it to data collected from both normal chick eyes and albino eyes that were expected to show increased intraocular light scatter. To analyze light scatter in our method, each Shack-Hartmann dot is treated as a local point spread function (PSF) that is the convolution of a local scatter PSF and a lenslet diffraction PSF. The local scatter PSF is obtained by de-convolution, and is fitted with a circularly symmetric Gaussian function using nonlinear regressions. A whole-eye scatter PSF also can be derived from the local scatter PSFs for the analyzed pupil. Aberrations are analyzed using OSA standard Zernike polynomials, and aberration-related PSF calculated from reconstructed wavefront using fast Fourier transform. Modulation transfer functions (MTFs) are computed separately for aberration and scatter PSFs, and a whole-eye MTF is derived as the product of the two. This method was applied to 4 normal and 4 albino eyes. Compared to normal eyes, albino eyes were more aberrated and showed greater light scatter. As a result, overall retinal image degradation was much greater in albino eyes than in normal eyes, with the relative contribution to retinal image degradation of light scatter compared to aberrations also being greater for albino eyes.

  17. Psammomys obesus and the albino rat--two different models of nutritional insulin resistance, representing two different types of human populations.

    PubMed

    Kalman, R; Ziv, E; Shafrir, E; Bar-On, H; Perez, R

    2001-10-01

    Animal models for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are required for the study of the mechanism of these phenomena and for a better understanding of diabetes complications in human populations. Type 2 diabetes is a syndrome that affects 5-10% of the adult population. Hyperinsulinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, obesity and hypertension, all form a cluster of risk factors that increase the risk of coronary artery disease, and are known as insulin resistance syndrome or syndrome X. The gerbil, Psammomys obesus is characterized by primary insulin resistance and is a well-defined model for dietary induced type 2 diabetes. Weanling Psammomys and Albino rats were held individually for several weeks on high energy (HE) and low energy (LE) diets in order to determine the development of metabolic changes leading to diabetes. Feeding Psammomys on HE diet resulted in hyperglycaemia (303 +/- 40 mg/dl), hyperinsulinaemia (194 +/- 31 microU/ml) and a moderate elevation in body weight, obesity and plasma triglycerides. Albino rats on HE diet demonstrated an elevation in plasma insulin (30 +/- 4 microU/ml), hypertriglyceridaemia (170 +/- 11 mg/dl), an elevation in body weight and obesity, but maintained normoglycaemia (98 +/- 6 mg/dl). Psammomys represent a model that is similar to human populations, with primary insulin resistance expressed in young age, which leads to a high percentage of adult type 2 diabetes. Examples for such populations are the Pima Indians, Australian Aborigines and many other Third World populations. The results indicate that the metabolism of Psammomys is well adapted towards life in a low energy environment, where Psammomys takes advantage of its capacity for a constant accumulation of adipose tissue that will serve for maintenance and breeding in periods of scarcity. This metabolism known as 'thrifty metabolism', is compromised at a high nutrient intake. PMID:11669319

  18. Protective effect of betaine on changes in the levels of lysosomal enzyme activities in heart tissue in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Anandan, Rangasamy

    2009-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is one of the most common manifestations of cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of betaine, a potent lipotropic molecule, on changes in the levels of lysosomal enzymes and lipid peroxidation in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats, an animal model of myocardial infarction in man. Male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with betaine (250 mg/kg body weight) daily for a period of 30 days. After the treatment period, isoprenaline (11 mg/100 g body weight) was intraperitoneally administered to rats at intervals of 24 h for 2 days. The activities of lysosomal enzymes (β-glucuronidase, β-galactosidase, β-glucosidase, and acid phosphatase) were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in plasma with a concomitant decline in the activities of these enzymes in heart tissue of isoprenaline-administered rats. Also, the level of lipid peroxidation was higher in heart lysosomes of isoprenaline-injected rats. Pretreatment with betaine daily for a period of 30 days to isoprenaline-induced rats prevented the changes in the activities of these lysosomal enzymes. Oral treatment with betaine (250 mg/kg body weight) to normal control rats did not show any significant effect in all the biochemical parameters studied. Thus, the results of our study show that betaine protects the lysosomal membrane against isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction. The observed effects might be due to the free radical-scavenging and membrane-stabilizing properties of betaine. PMID:19294532

  19. Cannabidiol reduces host immune response and prevents cognitive impairments in Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Barichello, Tatiana; Ceretta, Renan A; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Moreira, Ana Paula; Simões, Lutiana R; Comim, Clarissa M; Quevedo, João; Vilela, Márcia Carvalho; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José A; Teixeira, Antônio Lucio

    2012-12-15

    Pneumococcal meningitis is a life-threatening disease characterized by an acute infection affecting the pia matter, arachnoid and subarachnoid space. The intense inflammatory response is associated with a significant mortality rate and neurologic sequelae, such as, seizures, sensory-motor deficits and impairment of learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute and extended administration of cannabidiol on pro-inflammatory cytokines and behavioral parameters in adult Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis. Male Wistar rats underwent a cisterna magna tap and received either 10μl of sterile saline as a placebo or an equivalent volume of S. pneumoniae suspension. Rats subjected to meningitis were treated by intraperitoneal injection with cannabidiol (2.5, 5, or 10mg/kg once or daily for 9 days after meningitis induction) or a placebo. Six hours after meningitis induction, the rats that received one dose were killed and the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained to assess cytokines/chemokine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. On the 10th day, the rats were submitted to the inhibitory avoidance task. After the task, the animals were killed and samples from the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained. The extended administration of cannabidiol at different doses reduced the TNF-α level in frontal cortex. Prolonged treatment with canabidiol, 10mg/kg, prevented memory impairment in rats with pneumococcal meningitis. Although descriptive, our results demonstrate that cannabidiol has anti-inflammatory effects in pneumococcal meningitis and prevents cognitive sequel. PMID:23085269

  20. Serological cross-reactivity between Strongyloides venezuelensis and Syphacia muris in Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    de Sousa, José Eduardo N; de Carvalho, Edson Fernando G; Levenhagen, Marcelo A; de Faria, Lucas S; Gonçalves-Pires, Maria do R F; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2016-04-01

    One of the problems frequently faced in laboratory facilities is the possibility of the natural parasitic infection of lab animals, which can interfere with biomedical research results. The present study aimed to evaluate cross-reactivity among serum samples from Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) naturally infected with Syphacia muris and experimentally infected with Strongyloides venezuelensis. Forty rats were divided into four groups of ten animals each. Parasite load was evaluated by quantifying the adult worms from both helminthes species recovered from the intestines and the S. venezuelensis eggs eliminated in feces. Serological cross-reactivity by parasite-specific IgG detection was tested via enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and immunoblotting. The results demonstrated that the quantity of S. venezuelensis eliminated eggs and parthenogenetic females decreased significantly in cases of co-infection with S. muris. ELISA revealed 100% cross-reactivity of serum samples from both species against the opposing antigen. IgG cross-reactivity was confirmed by IFAT using tissue sections of S. venezuelensis larvae and adult S. muris. Immunoblotting showed that IgG antibodies from the sera of animals infected with S. muris recognized eight antigenic bands from S. venezuelensis saline extract and that IgG antibodies from the sera of animals infected with S. venezuelensis recognized seven bands from S. muris saline extract. These results demonstrate the serological cross-reactivity between S. muris and S. venezuelensis in infected rats. PMID:26601618

  1. Recovery of Green Plantlets from Albino Shoot Primordia Derived from Anther Culture of Indica Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mohiuddin, Abul Kashem Md.; Karim, Nilufer Hye; Sultana, Shahanaz; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2011-01-01

    A simple method was developed to permit albino plant regeneration from anther culture of Hobigonj Boro (Hbj B) IV and Hbj B VI, two local varieties of aromatic indica rice from Bangladesh. Three crucial factors were identified for the albino shoot primordia to change into green plantlets in culture; components of M10 induction medium, callus size (range 0.2–0.4 cm long) and height of shoot primordia (range 2–3 mm). Immediate transfer of shoot primordia (2–3 mm) from M10 medium to regeneration medium followed by continuous incubation under fluorescent light (100-lux, 25±1°C) triggered albino shoot primordia to turn green in 2–3 days. Callus size did not show any effect on the change. Albino plantlets derived from anther callus cultured in KA, KB, KC, KD and KE media did not recover in both the varieties. Transfer of albino shoot primordia shorter or longer than 2–3 mm from the above 5 cultures to regeneration medium did not cause the shoot primordia to turn green. 100% albino shoot primordia initiated from Hbj B VI and 79% from Hbj B IV in M10 medium changed to green plantlets upon transfer to regeneration medium. Subsequent culture and subculture of green plantlets showed rapid formation of many new green plantlets. PMID:24575205

  2. Development of dog mammary tumor xenograft in immunosuppressed Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Rajmani, R S; Singh, Prafull Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Kumar, G Ravi; Sahoo, Aditya P; Santra, Lakshman; Saxena, Shikha; Singh, Lakshya Veer; Chaturvedi, Uttara; Saxena, Lovleen; Desai, G S; Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Jadon, N S; Tiwari, Ashok K

    2014-10-01

    Development and study of dog mammary tumour xenograft in immunosuppressed Swiss Albino Mice adds a new dimension in cancer research as dog tumors have many similarities with human tumors regarding progression, histopathology, molecular mechanism, immune response and therapy. Failure of the immune system to recognize and eliminate cancer cells leads to cancer progression and the fight between immune cells and cancer cells has a great role in understanding the mechanism of cancer progression and elimination. Rejection and acceptance of tumour xenograft depends on efficiency of CD4+, CD8+ and NK cell populations. In the present investigation, dog mammary tumor xenograft in cyclosporine-A and gamma-irradiated, immunosuppressed Swiss Albino mice was developed and the immune cell status of graft accepted and rejected mice was assessed. It was observed that all the major immune cells (CD4+, CD8+ and NK cells) play an equal role in tumour rejection. PMID:25345242

  3. Precipitating antibody against Aeromonas salmonicida in serums of inbred albino Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Douglas P.; Klontz, George W.

    1970-01-01

    Precipitins in albino rainbow trout serums were demonstrated by gel diffusion after a single parenteral exposure to the soluble antigens of Aeromonas salmonicida. The fraction of the serum containing antibody activity against the presented antigens was shown by immunoelectrophoresis to be in the nonmigrating region. This corresponded to the beta-2 fraction of rabbit serum. An antibody-containing component comparable with rabbit gamma globulin was not detected.

  4. Beliefs and practices concerning twins, hermaphrodites, and albinos among the Bamana and Maninka of Mali.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Gavin H; Imperato, Pascal James

    2006-06-01

    The Bamana and Maninka of Mali greatly value twins, and have elaborated a range of cultural beliefs and practices to assure their survival. Rates of twinning among these two ethnic groups average from 15.2/1000 to 17.9/1000 births compared to 10.5/1000 births (without assisted reproduction) in the United States and Great Britain. Twins (flaniw) are regarded as extraordinary beings with unusual powers, and as a gift from the supreme deity. A small altar (sinzin) is maintained in the home of twins, and periodic sacrifices of chicken blood, kola nuts, millet paste and millet beer regularly made to assure their protection. Albinos (yéfeguéw) and true and pseudo-hermaphrodites (tyéténousotéw) are also considered twin beings. However, they are believed to be the result of aberrant parental social behavior. The Bamana and Maninka believe that all four groups (twins, albinos, hermaphrodites, and pseudo-harmaphrodites) are closely linked to Faro, an androgynous supernatural being who provides equilibrium in the world. Faro is the original albino and hermaphrodite who gave birth to the first pair of twins after self-impregnation. Whenever a twin dies, a small wooden statue is sculpted called a flanitokélé (twin that remains). This commemorative figure is kept close to the surviving twin, reflecting a belief in the inseparability of twins. Eventually, the surviving twin takes responsibility for the figure. When a surviving twin marries, another figure is often sculpted in the opposite sex from the deceased twin, and placed with the original sculpture. Such commemorative sculptures are not created upon the death of those who are albinos, hermaphrodites, or pseudo-hermaphrodites. In recent years, transformational belief patterns have evolved as increasing numbers of Bamana and Maninka embrace Islam. Traditional beliefs are often given Islamic myths of origin. However, even in this Islamic context, many practices that assure twin survival are maintained. PMID:16830507

  5. Evaluation of Musa (Paradisiaca Linn. cultivar)--"Puttubale" stem juice for antilithiatic activity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Prasad, K V; Bharathi, K; Srinivasan, K K

    1993-10-01

    The fresh juice of Musa stem (Puttubale) was tested for its antilithiatic activity. Zinc discs were implanted in the urinary bladder of albino rats to induce urolithiasis. The stones formed were mainly of magnesium ammonium phosphate with traces of calcium oxalate. Musa stem juice (3 mL/rat/day orally) was found to be effective in reducing the formation and also in dissolving the pre-formed stones. PMID:8112813

  6. A Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Wild and Albino Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoting; Shi, Zechao; Lin, Li; Ouyang, Gang; Zhang, Guirong; Zheng, Huan; Wei, Kaijian; Ji, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Body colours are important and striking features for individual survival and reproductive success, in particular in vertebrates where mating behaviour and mate preference may be strongly influenced by non-normal phenotypes. Pigmentation disorders may be generated by disruption of one or many independent genes as well as by environmental factors. The first discovery of albino yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Richardson) with golden skin colour from fish farms in China provides us valuable material to study the molecular mechanism underlying the abnormalities of pigmentation. In this study, transcriptome sequencing of fin tissues corresponding to the distinct body colours, wild type and mutant albino yellow catfish, were performed using Illumina sequencing technology. Based on next-generation sequencing technology and de novo assembly, we generated a transcriptome of P. fulvidraco. A number of genes differentially expressed between the wild types and albinos were identified, suggesting their contribution to the different phenotypes and fitness. However, non-synonymous mutations result from single nucleotide substitutions residing in coding regions may not contribute to such differences. Based on the high-throughput expression data generated for the two different types of P. fulvidraco, we found that alterations of expression pattern may be more common than non-synonymous mutations. The transcriptome of P. fulvidraco will be an invaluable resource for subsequent comparative genomics and evolutionary analyses of this economically important fish. PMID:26114548

  7. A Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Wild and Albino Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

    PubMed

    Zou, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoting; Shi, Zechao; Lin, Li; Ouyang, Gang; Zhang, Guirong; Zheng, Huan; Wei, Kaijian; Ji, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Body colours are important and striking features for individual survival and reproductive success, in particular in vertebrates where mating behaviour and mate preference may be strongly influenced by non-normal phenotypes. Pigmentation disorders may be generated by disruption of one or many independent genes as well as by environmental factors. The first discovery of albino yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Richardson) with golden skin colour from fish farms in China provides us valuable material to study the molecular mechanism underlying the abnormalities of pigmentation. In this study, transcriptome sequencing of fin tissues corresponding to the distinct body colours, wild type and mutant albino yellow catfish, were performed using Illumina sequencing technology. Based on next-generation sequencing technology and de novo assembly, we generated a transcriptome of P. fulvidraco. A number of genes differentially expressed between the wild types and albinos were identified, suggesting their contribution to the different phenotypes and fitness. However, non-synonymous mutations result from single nucleotide substitutions residing in coding regions may not contribute to such differences. Based on the high-throughput expression data generated for the two different types of P. fulvidraco, we found that alterations of expression pattern may be more common than non-synonymous mutations. The transcriptome of P. fulvidraco will be an invaluable resource for subsequent comparative genomics and evolutionary analyses of this economically important fish. PMID:26114548

  8. Diuretic activity of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum extract in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad; Jabeen, Qaiser; Abdul-Majid, Amin Malik-Shah; Atif, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum on urinary electrolytes, pH and diuretic activity in normal albino rats. Moreover, acute toxicity of the gum extract was assessed using mice. Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses of crude extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. The Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant diuretic, kaliuretic and natriuretic effects were observed in the treated groups in a dose dependent manner. Diuretic index showed good diuretic activity of the crude extract. Lipschitz values indicated that the crude extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, showed 44 % diuretic activity compared to the reference drug. No lethal effects were observed among albino mice even at the higher dose of 3000 mg/kg. It is concluded that aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata oleo gum, at the dose of 50 mg/kg showed significant effects on urinary volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes with no signs of toxicity. PMID:25362605

  9. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extracts of leaves of Basella alba in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Das, Saibal; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjib; Ramasamy, Anand; Mondal, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate possible hepatoprotective effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Basella alba in comparison with silymarin in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Six groups of six albino rats each received orally for 6 weeks, vehicle, paracetamol (2 g/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus silymarin (50 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (60 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (80 mg/kg/day) and paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (100 mg/kg/day). Hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by comparing serum bilirubin, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, proteins, alkaline phosphatase and liver histopathology. Results were represented as mean ± SEM. One-way ANOVA was done followed by post hoc Tukey's test with a highly significance level of P < 0.001. Aqueous leaf extracts of B. alba 100 mg/kg/day orally had significant hepatoprotective effect in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The results were well comparable and even in some respects superior to standard drug silymarin. PMID:25347929

  10. Sex Differences in Physiological Acclimatization after Transfer in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arts, Johanna W. M.; Kramer, Klaas; Arndt, Saskia S.; Ohl, Frauke

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary This study in laboratory rodents shows a sex specific effect of breeder to research facility transfer on several physiological parameters, such as heart rate and blood pressure. We recommend at least 8 days of acclimatization time after transfer in male rats and at least two weeks in female rats, before using these animals in research. Abstract Most laboratory animals used in research are vendor-bred and transferred to research facilities. Transfer procedures might have considerable and unintended effects on research results. In the present study we compared physiological and behavioral parameters before and after external and internal transfer, as well as between transferred and non-transferred Wistar rats. The impact of both external and internal transfer on body weight, plasma corticosterone levels, heart rate, blood pressure, and locomotor activity was studied in both male and female Wistar rats, taking into account the sex differences in stress responsivity. External transfer was found to decrease body weight, increase plasma corticosterone, increase activity, increase heart rate in female rats, but decrease heart rate in male rats. Parameters showed differences between the sexes and light phases. This study shows that acclimatization after transfer is sex-specific and researchers should take the sex into consideration when determining the acclimatization period. It is recommended to allow for acclimatization of at least 8 days in males and two weeks in females after external transfer and timely (2 days before starting experiments) transfer the animals internally to the testing room. PMID:26479007

  11. Analysis of the Albino-Locus Region of the Mouse. I. Origin and Viability

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Liane B.; Russell, W. L.; Kelly, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    Numerous specific-locus experiments designed to test the mutagenic effect of external radiation have yielded, in over 3,600,000 animals observed, altogether 119 presumed mutations involving the c locus. Of these, 55 were viable and albino (cav), 13 were viable and of various intermediate pigment types (cxv), four were subvital (cas and cxs), seven were neonatally lethal albinos (cal), 28 prenatally lethal albinos (cal); 12 died untested. All of the prenatally lethal and at least one of the neonatally lethal c-locus mutations (cal classes) are probably deficiencies that we have analyzed extensively in other experiments. Since absence of the locus mimics albino in phenotype, the intermediates (cxv and cxs groups) probably resulted from intragenic changes. The class of viable albino mutants (cav) might include, in addition to intragenic changes, some extremely small deficiencies.—The effects on viability of c-locus lethals (cal's) in heterozygous condition are not drastic enough to be perceived in stocks of mixed genetic background except in the case of the two longest known deficiencies and a few others.—Analysis of the relation between radiation treatment and type of c-locus mutants obtained shows that the relative frequency of viable mutations, for each germ-cell type, is greater for low-LET than for neutron irradiation; however, the difference for any individual cell type is not significant. The majority (66.7%) of mutations derived from X- or γ-ray irradiated spermatogonia are viable, and the proportion of "intermediates" among these viables is similar to that among presumed spontaneous c-locus mutations. No significant dose-rate effect on the proportion of lethals could be demonstrated within the set of mutants induced by low-LET irradiation of spermatogonia. Although sets from other germ-cell stages are too small for statistical tests, the results for oocytes are similar, as far as they go. Furthermore, most of the c-locus mutations induced in

  12. Cerebellar Structure and Function in Male Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) rat strain may model some of the behavioral features associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have shown that, in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning, WKHA emit eyeblink CRs with shortened onset latencies. To further characterize the shortened CR onset latencies seen in WKHA rats, we examined 750-ms delay conditioning with either a tone CS or a light CS, we extended acquisition training, and we included Wistar rats as an additional, outbred control strain. Our results indicated that WKHAs learned more quickly and showed a shortened CR onset latency to a tone CS compared to both Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) and Wistars. WKHAs and Wistars show a lengthening of CR onset latency over conditioning with a tone CS and an increasing confinement of CRs to the later part of the tone CS (inhibition of delay). WKHAs learned more quickly to a light CS only in comparison to WKHTs and showed a shortened CR onset latency only in comparison to Wistars. Wistars showed an increasing confinement of CRs to the late part of the light CS over conditioning. We used unbiased stereology to estimate the number of Purkinje and granule cells in the cerebellar cortex of the three strains. Our results indicated that WKHAs have more granule cells than Wistars and WKHTs and more Purkinje cells than Wistars. Results are discussed in terms of CS processing and cerebellar cortical contributions to EBC. PMID:23398437

  13. Vitamin D3 May Ameliorate the Ketoconazole Induced Adrenal Injury: Histological and Immunohistochemical Studies on Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Mahmoud Salah

    2015-01-01

    Ketoconazole (KZ) is used widely for treating the superficial, systemic fungal activities and hyperandrogenemic states. Its uses are limited by its deleterious effect on histological structure and function of the adrenal cortex. This study investigates whether vitamin D3 supplement can ameliorate the morphological changes induced by KZ. Thirty four adult male albino rats were randomized into control group (Group I) which was subdivided into: control 1 (n=7) and control 2 (n=7): In control 1, rats were intraperitoneal (I.P) injected once with 1 ml of polyethylene glycol-400 for 15 consecutive days and control 2 rats were injected I.P with (1 μg/kg) of vitamin D3 for the same period. Group II (n=10): rats were I.P injected with KZ (10 mg/100 g of body weight) once daily for 15 days; Group III (n=10): rats were I.P concomitantly injected with KZ and vitamin D3 similar doses to animals in groups II and control 2 respectively. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma ACTH, corticosterone and aldosterone levels. The right adrenal specimens sections were stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin and Masson Trichrome for histological studies and treated with Bax, Ubiquitin and vitamin D receptors for immunohistochemical studies. KZ induced adrenal cortical morphological changes in forms of disturbed adrenocorticocyte cytological architecture, nuclear changes, and intracellular lipid accumulation. KZ also increased adrenal Bax and Ub but decreased the vitamin D receptors immunopositive staining expression, in addition to increased plasma ACTH as well as decreased corticosterone and aldosterone levels. These changes were ameliorated by supplementing with vitamin D3. PMID:26379312

  14. White versus blue: Does the wild 'albino' bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) differ in fruit quality compared to the blue one?

    PubMed

    Zorenc, Zala; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Koron, Darinka; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2016-11-15

    Wild albino and blue bilberry fruit were analyzed to compare different fruit characteristics linked to the composition of primary and secondary metabolites. Compounds were identified using HPLC-MS and standard quality parameters were determined. Albino berries were significantly smaller, accumulated less water and were characterized by 23% higher dry weight. Soluble solids content and pH value were higher in albino bilberry and their surface was lighter and characterized by a yellow hue. Both bilberry forms accumulated identical individual sugars and organic acids; however, the albino form had 33% higher content of total sugars and 9% higher content of total organic acids compared to the blue type. Fifteen anthocyanins were identified in both forms, but in albino bilberries, individual anthocyanins were only detected in traces. Blue bilberry contained 1.6-fold higher levels of flavanols, 2.1-fold higher levels of flavonols, 2.5-fold higher levels of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and consequently, 4.6-fold higher total phenolic content. PMID:27283708

  15. The effect of multivitamin-multimineral supplementation on the health status of inbred Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rat strains.

    PubMed

    Höfler, Rosemarie U; Channa, Mahendra L; Nadar, Anand

    2016-01-01

    The nutraceutical industry has proliferated in recent years, with the most popular form of supplementation being the multivitamin-multimineral (MVMM) supplement. In the animal health sector, supplement use has also expanded. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of MVMM supplementation, beneficial or otherwise, on the general health status of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) strain, an animal model used in hypertension research. A commercially prepared MVMM supplement was given tri-weekly via oral dosing for 8 weeks to two groups of seven adult female SHR and Wistar rats. Their corresponding control groups were dosed with deionised water only. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, growth rate and food and water intake were measured weekly. At the end of 8 weeks, the animals were euthanased and a full blood profile, urine sodium to potassium ratio, blood urea nitrogen levels and total plasma cholesterol was measured for all groups. The results indicated that growth rate was higher for the SHR supplemented group. Supplementation also decreased diastolic blood pressure in both Wistar and SHR groups and increased red blood cell count and decreased total cholesterol in the SHR group. No adverse effects on the general health status of the animals were observed. MVMM supplementation may therefore be useful in aiding growth and delaying the onset of hypertension and its effects. It may also assist in the longevity of the breeding stock of SHR rats. PMID:27381881

  16. Spontaneous malignant craniopharyngioma in an aged Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Heinrichs, Martin; Ernst, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are extremely rare epithelial tumors of the sellar region in human beings and domestic and laboratory animals. A craniopharyngioma, 0.6 cm in diameter, was observed grossly in the sellar and parasellar regions of an untreated 23-month-old male Wistar-derived rat sacrificed moribund. The tumor was composed of cords, columns, and nests of neoplastic stratified squamous epithelium with marked hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis. Neoplastic cells formed solid or cystic areas, infiltrating the base of the skull, brain, and pituitary gland. Immunocytochemical evaluation revealed a strong cytoplasmic reaction for pan-cytokeratin in all tumor cells. Malignant craniopharyngioma should be considered a differential diagnosis in the rat when a tumor with stratified squamous epithelial features and a locally aggressive growth pattern is observed in the sellar or suprasellar region. PMID:27559246

  17. Ulcer Protective Activity of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Arumugam Ramamoorthy; Daniel, Epison Prabu; Ilavarasan, Raju; Venkataraman, S.; Vijayakumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several synthetic drugs are useful in the treatment of peptic ulcer, but almost of these drugs are used in prolonging time, it may cause several adverse reactions. However, the herbal medicines are more potent to the treatment and minimize the side effects. Objective: To evaluate the methanol extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. (MEJG) for gastro protective activity against Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Anti-ulcer potency of MEJG (100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w.) was assessed using aspirin (200 mg/kg, p.o.) plus pylorus ligation ulcer model and the parameters studied were ulcer index (UI), gastric juice volume, pH, total acidity, and total acid output. Same extract was studied by ethanol-induced (80%, 5 mL/kg, intragastrically) ulcer model, and the UI and biochemical parameters were studied. Results: The oral administration of MEJG (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.001) attenuated the ulcer score and anti-secretary parameters (such as the volume of gastric content, free acidity, total acidity, and total acid output) in the aspirin plus pylorus ligation rats. The extract also significantly attenuated (P < 0.001) ulcer score in ethanol-induced ulcer model and lipid peroxidation level and significantly increased the level of glutathione peroxides, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity. The MEJG may possess active constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and terpenes, which may play a major role in gastroprotective effect in Wistar rats. Conclusion: The present study provides scientific support for the anti-ulcer activities of extracts of JG and also claimed that antioxidant potential of the extracts. However, substantiates the traditional claims for the usage of this drug in the treatment of gastric ulcer. SUMMARY The methanolic extract of jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. for gastro protective activity against aspirin plus pyloric ligation and ethanol induced ulcer models was studied in Wistar rats. JG shows significantly

  18. Spontaneous malignant craniopharyngioma in an aged Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, Martin; Ernst, Heinrich

    2016-07-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are extremely rare epithelial tumors of the sellar region in human beings and domestic and laboratory animals. A craniopharyngioma, 0.6 cm in diameter, was observed grossly in the sellar and parasellar regions of an untreated 23-month-old male Wistar-derived rat sacrificed moribund. The tumor was composed of cords, columns, and nests of neoplastic stratified squamous epithelium with marked hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis. Neoplastic cells formed solid or cystic areas, infiltrating the base of the skull, brain, and pituitary gland. Immunocytochemical evaluation revealed a strong cytoplasmic reaction for pan-cytokeratin in all tumor cells. Malignant craniopharyngioma should be considered a differential diagnosis in the rat when a tumor with stratified squamous epithelial features and a locally aggressive growth pattern is observed in the sellar or suprasellar region. PMID:27559246

  19. In vivo wireless ethanol vapor detection in the Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Cheney, C. Parks; Srijanto, B.; Hedden, D. L.; Gehl, A.; Ferrell, T. L.; Schultz, J.; Engleman, E. A.; McBride, W. J.; O'Connor, S.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional alcohol studies measure blood alcohol concentration to elucidate the biomedical factors that contribute to alcohol abuse and alcoholism. These measurements require large and expensive equipment, are labor intensive, and are disruptive to the subject. To alleviate these problems, we have developed an implantable, wireless biosensor that is capable of measuring alcohol levels for up to six weeks. Ethanol levels were measured in vivo in the interstitial fluid of a Wistar rat after administering 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg ethanol by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. The data were transmitted wirelessly using a biosensor selective for alcohol detection. A low-power piezoresistive microcantilever sensor array was used with a polymer coating suitable for measuring ethanol concentrations at 100% humidity over several hours. A hydrophobic, vapor permeable nanopore membrane was used to screen liquid and ions while allowing vapor to pass to the sensor from the subcutaneous interstitial fluid. PMID:20161283

  20. A parametric analysis of the growing CFHB (Wistar) rat.

    PubMed Central

    Pullen, A H

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of body weight and body, tail and hindlimb lengths were made at various times during the postnatal development of the CFHB-Wistar rat using simple techniques which avoided unnecessary stress being applied to the animal. All the graphical relationships studied using these measurements indicated that growth was divided into two phases which meet at 16 days. This was particularly noticeable when either body length or hindlimb length was plotted against either age or body weight. Body weight appeared to be a better indication of maturity than time; and linear relationships were found when measurements of body lengths were plotted against the square root of body weight. Curvilinear graphs were obtained when body weight was plotted on alternative scales. Results suggest that prior to 16 days metabolism is probably directed more towards attaining sufficient maturity to enable the animal to survive independently, than to increasing its stature; but after 16 days this situation is reversed. PMID:931783

  1. Treadmill exercise induces age and protocol-dependent epigenetic changes in prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Cechinel, Laura Reck; Basso, Carla Giovana; Bertoldi, Karine; Schallenberger, Bruna; de Meireles, Louisiana Carolina Ferreira; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2016-10-15

    Some studies have linked age-related beneficial effects of exercise and epigenetic mechanisms. Although, the impact of treadmill exercise on histone acetylation, histone and DNA methylation marks in aged cortices yet remains poorly understood. Considering the role of frontal cortex on brain functions, we investigated the potential of different exercise protocols, single session and daily exercise, to modulate epigenetic marks, namely global H4 acetylation, histone methyltransferase activity (HMT H3K27) and levels of DNA methytransferase (DNMT1 and DNMT3b) in prefrontal cortices from 3 and 21-months aged Wistar rats. The animals were submitted to two treadmill exercise protocols, single session (20min) or daily moderate (20min/day during 14days). The daily exercise protocol induced an increased in histone H4 acetylation levels in prefrontal cortices of 21-months-old rats, without any effects in young adult group. DNMT3b levels were increased in aged cortices of animals submitted to single session of exercise. These results indicate that prefrontal cortex is susceptible to epigenetic changes in a protocol dependent-manner and that H4 acetylation levels and DNMT3b content changes might be linked at least in part to exercise-induced effects on brain functions. PMID:27418438

  2. Probiotic cheese attenuates exercise-induced immune suppression in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lollo, P C B; Cruz, A G; Morato, P N; Moura, C S; Carvalho-Silva, L B; Oliveira, C A F; Faria, J A F; Amaya-Farfan, J

    2012-07-01

    Intense physical activity results in a substantial volume of stress and hence a significant probability of immunosuppression in athletes, with milk proteins being, perhaps, the most recommended protein supplements. Consumption of a probiotic cheese can attenuate immune suppression induced by exhausting exercise in rats. A popular Brazilian fresh cheese (Minas Frescal cheese) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA14 and Bifidobacterium longum BL05 was fed for 2wk to adult Wistar rats, which then were brought to exhaustion on the treadmill. Two hours after exhaustion, the rats were killed and material was collected for the determination of serum uric acid, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction, total protein, triacylglycerols, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and blood cell (monocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and leukocyte) counts. Exercise was efficient in reducing lymphocyte counts, irrespective of the type of ingested cheese, but the decrease in the group fed the probiotic cheese was 22% compared with 48% in the animals fed regular cheese. Monocyte counts were unaltered in the rats fed probiotic cheese compared with a significant decrease in the rats fed the regular cheese. Most importantly, ingestion of the probiotic cheese resulted in a >100% increase in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a 50% decrease in triacylglycerols. We conclude that probiotic Minas Frescal cheese may be a viable alternative to enhance the immune system and could be used to prevent infections, particularly those related to the physical overexertion of athletes. PMID:22720913

  3. Effect of Cyclosporine-A on Paraoxonase Activity in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Argani, H.; Ghorbanihaghjo, A.; Rashtchizadeh, N.; Seifirad, S.; Rahbarfar, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many adverse effects have been reported on using cyclosporine (CSA) in organ transplantation. Objective: To investigate the effects of CSA on paraoxonase (PON) activity and lipid peroxidation metabolites in early and late-stage of peroxidation and also total antioxidant (TA). Methods: Twenty 220-250 g adult male Wistar rats were included in the study. The animals were stored for one week in the animal room before the initial injection to habituate with temperature, humidity, and circadian rhythm of day (12 h) and night (12 h). The temperature was kept at 23 °C. Animals had access to food and water ad libitum. Results: A significant (p=0.002) increase in the serum levels of conjugated diones was observed in the case compared to the control group. At the end of the study, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in CSA group was significantly (p=0.01) higher than the control group. Serum PON1 activity was significantly (p=0.004) lower in the case than the control group. Conclusion: CSA administration could impair oxidant-antioxidant pathways and increase oxidative stress. Antioxidant therapy could be beneficial in patients treated with CSA. PMID:25013591

  4. A Multidimensional Magnetic Resonance Histology Atlas of the Wistar Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, G. Allan; Calabrese, Evan; Badea, Alexandra; Paxinos, George; Watson, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We have produced a multidimensional atlas of the adult Wistar rat brain based on magnetic resonance histology (MRH). This MR atlas has been carefully aligned with the widely used Paxinos-Watson atlas based on optical sections to allow comparisons between histochemical and immuno-marker data, and the use of the Paxinos-Watson abbreviation set. Our MR atlas attempts to make a seamless connection with the advantageous features of the Paxinos-Watson atlas, and to extend the utility of the data through the unique capabilities of MR histology: a) ability to view the brain in the skull with limited distortion from shrinkage or sectioning; b) isotropic spatial resolution, which permits sectioning along any arbitrary axis without loss of detail; c) three-dimensional (3D) images preserving spatial relationships; and d) widely varied contrast dependent on the unique properties of water protons. 3D diffusion tensor images (DTI) at what we believe to be the highest resolution ever attained in the rat provide unique insight into white matter structures and connectivity. The 3D isotropic data allow registration of multiple data sets into a common reference space to provide average atlases not possible with conventional histology. The resulting multidimensional atlas that combines Paxinos-Watson with multidimensional MRH images from multiple specimens provides a new, comprehensive view of the neuroanatomy of the rat and offers a collaborative platform for future rat brain studies. PMID:22634863

  5. Royal jelly modulates oxidative stress and tissue injury in gamma irradiated male Wister Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Khaled Shaaban; Bashandy, Mohamed; Salem, Mahmoud; Ahmed, Osama; Tawfik, Zaki; Helal, Hamed

    2011-01-01

    Background: Royal jelly is a nutritive secretion produced by the worker bees, rich in proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Aim: The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of royal jelly against radiation induced oxidative stress, hematological, biochemical and histological alterations in male Wister albino rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wister albino rats were exposed to a fractionated dose of gamma radiation (2 Gy every 3 days up to 8 Gy total doses). Royal jelly was administrated (g/Kg/day) by gavages 14 days before exposure to the 1st radiation fraction and the treatment was continued for 15 days after the 1st irradiation fraction till the end of the experiment. The rats were sacrificed 3rd, equivalent to 3rd post 2nd irradiation fraction, and equivalent to 3rd day post last irradiation fraction. Results: In the present study, gamma- irradiation induced hematological, biochemical and histological effects in male Wister albino rats. In royal jelly treated irradiated group, there was a noticeable decrease recorded in thiobarbituric reactive substances concentration when compared to γ-irradiated group. Also, the serum nitric oxide concentration was significantly improved. The administration of royal jelly to irradiated rats according to the current experimental design significantly ameliorates the changes induced in serum lipid profile. Moreover, in royal jelly treated irradiated group, there was a noticeable amelioration recorded in all hematological parameters along the three experimental intervals. The microscopic examination of cardiac muscle of royal jelly treated irradiated rats demonstrated structural amelioration, improved nuclei and normal features of capillaries and veins in endomysium when compared to gamma-irradiated rats. Conclusion: It was suggested that the biochemical, hematological and histological amelioration observed in royal jelly (g/Kg/day) treated irradiated rats might be due to the antioxidant

  6. Temperature-sensitive albino gene TCD5, encoding a monooxygenase, affects chloroplast development at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Jianhui; Shi, Xiaoliang; Peng, Yu; Li, Ping; Lin, Dongzhi; Dong, Yanjun; Teng, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Chloroplasts are essential for photosynthesis and play critical roles in plant development. In this study, we characterized the temperature-sensitive chlorophyll-deficient rice mutant tcd5, which develops albino leaves at low temperatures (20 °C) and normal green leaves at high temperatures (32 °C). The development of chloroplasts and etioplasts is impaired in tcd5 plants at 20 °C, and the temperature-sensitive period for the albino phenotype is the P4 stage of leaf development. The development of thylakoid membranes is arrested at the mid-P4 stage in tcd5 plants at 20 °C. We performed positional cloning of TCD5 and then complementation and knock-down experiments, and the results showed that the transcript LOC_Os05g34040.1 from the LOC_Os05g34040 gene corresponded to the tcd5 phenotype. TCD5 encodes a conserved plastid-targeted monooxygenase family protein which has not been previously reported associated with a temperature-sensitive albino phenotype in plants. TCD5 is abundantly expressed in young leaves and immature spikes, and low temperatures increased this expression. The transcription of some genes involved in plastid transcription/translation and photosynthesis varied in the tcd5 mutant. Although the phenotype and temperature dependence of the TCD5 orthologous mutant phenotype were different in rice and Arabidopsis, OsTCD5 could rescue the phenotype of the Arabidopsis mutant, suggesting that TCD5 function is conserved between monocots and dicots. PMID:27531886

  7. Temperature-sensitive albino gene TCD5, encoding a monooxygenase, affects chloroplast development at low temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Jianhui; Shi, Xiaoliang; Peng, Yu; Li, Ping; Lin, Dongzhi; Dong, Yanjun; Teng, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts are essential for photosynthesis and play critical roles in plant development. In this study, we characterized the temperature-sensitive chlorophyll-deficient rice mutant tcd5, which develops albino leaves at low temperatures (20 °C) and normal green leaves at high temperatures (32 °C). The development of chloroplasts and etioplasts is impaired in tcd5 plants at 20 °C, and the temperature-sensitive period for the albino phenotype is the P4 stage of leaf development. The development of thylakoid membranes is arrested at the mid-P4 stage in tcd5 plants at 20 °C. We performed positional cloning of TCD5 and then complementation and knock-down experiments, and the results showed that the transcript LOC_Os05g34040.1 from the LOC_Os05g34040 gene corresponded to the tcd5 phenotype. TCD5 encodes a conserved plastid-targeted monooxygenase family protein which has not been previously reported associated with a temperature-sensitive albino phenotype in plants. TCD5 is abundantly expressed in young leaves and immature spikes, and low temperatures increased this expression. The transcription of some genes involved in plastid transcription/translation and photosynthesis varied in the tcd5 mutant. Although the phenotype and temperature dependence of the TCD5 orthologous mutant phenotype were different in rice and Arabidopsis, OsTCD5 could rescue the phenotype of the Arabidopsis mutant, suggesting that TCD5 function is conserved between monocots and dicots. PMID:27531886

  8. Nicotine Exposure during Adolescence Enhances Behavioral Sensitivity to Nicotine during Adulthood in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bracken, Amy L.; Chambers, R. Andrew; Berg, Sarah A.; Rodd, Zachary A.; McBride, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Drug use during adolescence is associated with an increased propensity for drug dependency during adulthood. Therefore, the effects of adolescent exposure to nicotine on adult behavioral responsiveness to nicotine are of particular importance. Objectives The objective of the current study was to determine if adolescent nicotine exposure would enhance behavioral sensitivity and development of sensitization to nicotine during adulthood. Materials and Methods Male Wistar rats were assigned to one of three groups that received subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of nicotine (0, 0.25, or 0.5 mg/kg) in the home cage for 12 consecutive days during adolescence, PD 31–42. Starting on PD 80, distance traveled, rearing, and stereotypy were recorded in locomotor activity chambers each day for 10 days, following s.c. injections of 0, 0.25, or 0.5 mg/kg nicotine. One week later, a final challenge session took place during which rats were injected with 0.5 mg/kg nicotine. Results Rats exposed to nicotine during adolescence displayed a greater locomotor response to a novel environment than saline-treated rats. Adolescent nicotine treatment also resulted in context-independent sensitization to the acute locomotor activating properties of nicotine, including distance traveled and stereotypy, as measured on the first day of adulthood nicotine exposure. Adolescent nicotine-treated rats displayed increased sensitivity to repeated nicotine exposures during adulthood, compared to adolescent saline-treated rats, as measured by distance traveled, rearing, and stereotypic behaviors. Finally, rats treated with nicotine only during adolescence were more sensitive to a final nicotine challenge during adulthood than rats treated with nicotine only previously during adulthood. Conclusions Overall, the results suggest that adolescent nicotine treatment predisposes adult rats to develop increased behavioral sensitivity to chronic nicotine treatment and to be more sensitive to the initial

  9. Activation of the Albino Sterlet Acipenser ruthenus Eggs by UV-Irradiated Bester Hybrid Spermatozoa to Provide Gynogenetic Progeny.

    PubMed

    Fopp-Bayat, D; Ocalewicz, K

    2015-08-01

    Meiotic gynogenesis was induced in the albino form of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus by activation of eggs with UV-irradiated bester (Huso huso x Acipenser ruthenus) spermatozoa followed by inhibition of the second meiotic division performed by a heat shock. Obtained putative gynogenetic progeny were all albinos. The genetic verification based on three microsatellite DNA markers confirmed the only maternal inheritance of the progeny from the gynogenetic experimental groups. Cytogenetic analysis proved the gynogenetic sterlets were diploids. Application of the albino phenotype together with the molecular and the cytogenetic diagnostic approaches enabled to evaluate the efficiency of the spermatozoa irradiation and application of the heat shock to restore diploid state in the gynogenetic zygotes. PMID:25858073

  10. /sup 22/Na+ and /sup 86/Rb+ transport in vascular smooth muscle of SHR, Wistar Kyoto, and Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kuriyama, S.; Denny, T.N.; Aviv, A.

    1988-06-01

    To gain further insight into differences in cellular Na+ and K+ regulation between the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), Wistar Kyoto (WKY), and American Wistar (W) rats, 22Na+ and 86Rb+ washouts were performed under steady-state conditions in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells from the three rat strains. SHR vascular smooth muscle cells showed significantly higher bumetanide sensitive 86Rb+ washout rate constant (x 10(-4)/min; mean +/- SEM) than WKY cells (-38.6 +/- 2.84 and -23.8 +/- 3.58, respectively; p less than 0.005). SHR vascular smooth muscle cells also exhibited significantly higher values than WKY cells in the total 22Na+ washout rate constant (x 10(-2)/min) (-61.0 +/- 1.57 vs. -53.8 +/- 1.24; p less than 0.005). The amiloride sensitive component of the 22Na+ washout rate constant accounted for these differences (-18.6 +/- 1.04 for SHR and -12.1 +/- 2.00 for WKY; p less than 0.05). There were no apparent differences in cellular Na+ concentrations between WKY and SHR cells. In general, the 86Rb+ and 22Na+ washout parameters of W rat cells were quite similar to those of cells from SHR. We conclude that the bumetanide-sensitive 86Rb+ washout (the Na+ K+-cotransport), the overall, and the amiloride-sensitive 22Na+ washout (the latter primarily represents the Na+/H+ antiport) are higher in SHR than WKY rat vascular smooth muscle cells. These findings indicate innate differences in cellular Na+ and K+ transport in vascular smooth muscle cells of the SHR and WKY rat. The mechanisms responsible for these differences are yet to be determined.

  11. Neonatally induced mild diabetes: influence on development, behavior and reproductive function of female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neonatal STZ treatment induces a state of mild hyperglycemia in adult rats that disrupts metabolism and maternal/fetal interactions. The aim of this study was investigate the effect of neonatal STZ treatment on the physical development, behavior, and reproductive function of female Wistar rats from infancy to adulthood. Methods At birth, litters were assigned either to a Control (subcutaneous (s.c.) citrate buffer, n = 10) or STZ group, (streptozotocin (STZ) - 100 mg/kg-sc, n = 6). Blood glucose levels were measured on postnatal days (PND) 35, 84 and 120. In Experiment 1 body weight, length and the appearance of developmental milestones such as eye and vaginal opening were monitored. To assess the relative contribution of the initial and long term effects of STZ treatment this group was subdivided based on blood glucose levels recorded on PND 120: STZ hyperglycemic (between 120 and 300 mg/dl) and STZ normoglycemic (under 120 mg/dl). Behavioral activity was assessed in an open field on PND 21 and 75. In Experiment 2 estrous cyclicity, sexual behavior and circulating gonadotropin, ovarian steroid, and insulin levels were compared between control and STZ-hyperglycemic rats. In all measures the litter was the experimental unit. Parametric data were analyzed using one-way or, where appropriate, two-way ANOVA and significant effects were investigated using Tukey’s post hoc test. Fisher’s exact test was employed when data did not satisfy the assumption of normality e.g. presence of urine and fecal boli on the open field between groups. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05 for all data. Results As expected neonatal STZ treatment caused hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia in adulthood. STZ-treated pups also showed a temporary reduction in growth rate that probably reflected the early loss of circulating insulin. Hyperglycemic rats also exhibited a reduction in locomotor and exploratory behavior in the open field. Mild hyperglycemia did

  12. Comparative assessment of the timing of sexual maturation in male Wistar Han and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Campion, Sarah N; Carvallo, Francisco R; Chapin, Robert E; Nowland, William S; Beauchamp, David; Jamon, Raul; Koitz, Rebecca; Winton, Timothy R; Cappon, Gregg D; Hurtt, Mark E

    2013-07-01

    Given the increasing use of Wistar Han (WH) rats in regulatory toxicology studies, these studies were performed to characterize the onset of sexual maturation in maturing WH rats as compared to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Beginning on postnatal day (PND) 38 through PND 91 groups (n=8) of untreated WH rats were evaluated for maturation of the male reproductive system. Testicular spermatid head counts increased beginning on PND 42 until PND 70. Sperm were detected in the caput, corpus, and cauda epididymis on PND 45, 49, and 49, respectively, and counts increased through PND 91. Sperm motility was at adult levels by PND 63. The morphology of the testis/epididymis of all animals at day 70 or older was consistent with qualitative sexual maturity. Based on these endpoints, WH rats were determined to be sexually mature at PND 70, and many of these endpoints evaluated in SD rats exhibited nearly identical trends. PMID:23434729

  13. Antiarthritic effects of Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth. in acute and chronic models of arthritis in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Kaithwas, Gaurav; Gautam, Raju; Jachak, Sanjay M; Saklani, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antiarthritic activity of Ajuga bracteosa using albino rats. Methods The antiarthritic activity of 70% ethanolic extract of Ajuga bracteosa (EEAB) was evaluated against turpentine oil- and formaldehyde- induced acute non immunological and complete freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced chronic immunological arthritis in albino rats. Results EEAB showed a significant (P<0.05) and dose dependent inhibitory effect against acute and chronic models of arthritis. EEAB exhibited better antiarthritic activity than the standard aspirin. Conclusions EEAB exhibits a significant and promising antiarthritic activity against acute and chronic arthritis and supports the traditional use of Ajuga bracteosa for rheumatism and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:23569895

  14. Hepatoprotective effect of Arctium lappa root extract on cadmium toxicity in adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    de Souza Predes, Fabricia; da Silva Diamante, Maria Aparecida; Foglio, Mary Ann; Camargo, Camila de Andrade; Camargo, Camila Almeida; Aoyama, Hiroshi; Miranda, Silvio Cesar; Cruz, Bread; Gomes Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra; Dolder, Heidi

    2014-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of Arctium lappa (Al) to protect against cadmium damage in the rat liver. Male rats received a single i.p. dose of CdCl2 (1.2 mg/kg body weight (BW)) with or without Al extract administered daily by gavage (300 mg/kg BW) for 7 or 56 days. After 7 days, Al caused plasma transaminase activity to diminish in groups Al (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT)) and CdAl (GPT). After 56 days, GOT and GPT plasma activities were reduced in the Cd group. No alteration in plasma levels of creatinine, total bilirubin, and total protein were observed. GOT liver activity increased in the Cd group. No alteration was observed in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and malondialdehyde (MDA) dosage. In the Cd group, hepatocyte proportion decreased and sinusoid capillary proportion increased. In the Al and CdAl groups, the nuclear proportion increased and the cytoplasmic proportion decreased. The hepatocyte nucleus density reduced in Cd and increased in the Al group. After 56 days, there was no alteration in the Cd group. In Al and CdAl groups, the nuclear proportion increased without cytoplasmic proportion variation, but the sinusoid capillary proportion was reduced. The hepatocyte nucleus density decreased in the Cd group and increased in the Al and CdAl groups. In conclusion, the liver function indicators showed that A. lappa protected the liver against cadmium toxicity damage. PMID:24929543

  15. Synthesis and Anti-inflammatory Performance of Newly Cyclizine Derivatives on Adult Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Abbas; Khalili, Mohsen; Chavrogh, Shahnaz; Nahri-Niknafs, Babak

    2012-01-01

    Cyclizine (1-benzhydryl-4-methyl-piperazine, CAS 82-92-8, CYC, I), a piperazine derivative, belongs to H1 antihistamine group of drugs that shows such pharmacological properties as anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and anti-platelet effects, similar to other H1-receptor antagonists. In this study, two new tolyl and cumene derivatives of I (1-ethyl- 4-[(p-isopropylphenyl) (p-tolyl) methyl]-piperazine, II and 1-[3, 4-dichlorophenyl]-4-[[p-isopropylphenyl] [p-tolyl] methyl]-piperazine, III) were synthesized to investigate their acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities in formalin and histamine-induced rat paw edema. In addition, the vascular permeability in formalin and histamine-induced paw edema, xylene-induced ear edema, and peritonitis due to acetic acid application into peritoneal cavity were measured. The cotton pellet-induced granuloma model was chosen for inducing chronic inflammation in rats. Findings proved reduction in formalin-induced rat paw edema and vascular permeability (acute inflammation) by I and II at 30 min after the injection. In addition, results in histamine-induced rat paw edema showed anti-inflammatory effects of all drugs started 60 min after the injection as these effects continued for a longer period by II and III comparing to I, as discussed above. In addition, the data on vascular permeability in xylene-induced ear edema and acetic acid-induced to peritoneal cavity confirmed that substitutions on cyclizine molecule were more effective and could decrease the vascular permeability and acute inflammation. However, the results from the cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats revealed that none of the drugs (I-III) were effective to reduce the reactions and intermediates of chronic inflammation. PMID:24250533

  16. Differential long-term effects of social stress during adolescence on anxiety in Wistar and wild-type rats.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Jose; Buwalda, Bauke; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2011-06-01

    Severe and chronic stress may interfere with adolescent neuronal plasticity that turns the juvenile brain into an adult brain increasing the vulnerability to develop anxiety disorders. It is well-known from adult stress research that there is a large individual differentiation in stress vulnerability. The current study is aimed at the individual resilience and vulnerability to adolescent social stress. Two strains of rats that differ in social behavioral skills were subjected to social stress during adolescence. In three experiments we studied short and long term effects of adolescent social stress using a water conflict test in different contexts. Wistar rats which had been socially defeated on postnatal days 45 and 46 showed, following water deprivation, a strong decrease in the total amount of water consumed and time spent drinking when tested 2 days and 3 weeks later in the context where they received the defeat experience. Also a strong increase in drinking latency was noticed in the context of the previous defeat. No differences in these parameters were found between defeated and non-defeated wild-type rats. The results of the water conflict test in an environment where no association with the previous defeat experience was present showed that the adolescent social stress did not induce a generalized anxiety. In conclusion, the water conflict test is a useful tool to measure the influence of social defeat on the motivation to obtain resources under conditions with different stimulus properties. In addition, our data suggest the importance of the strain used in adolescent stress experiments. The fact that Wistar rats showed a strong association with the context at adulthood whereas no effect was observed in the wild-type rats shows that victim characteristics are important determining factors for the long term effects of adolescent social stress. PMID:21443935

  17. Detecting DNA synthesis of neointimal formation after catheter balloon injury in GK and in Wistar rats: using 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neointimal formation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. Recently, some studies have shown that 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation can serve as a novel alternative to the 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) antibody detection method for detection of DNA synthesis in regenerating avian cochlea, chick embryo and the adult nervous system. However, few studies have been performed to assess the suitability of EdU for detecting DNA synthesis in vascular neointima. Methods The carotid artery balloon injury model was established in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) and Wistar rats. A Cell-LightTM EdU Kit was used to detect EdU-labeled cell nuclei of common carotid arteries at day 7 after catheter balloon injury. Different methods of injecting EdU were tested. The protein levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and p-Akt (Ser473), as well as the mRNA levels of PCNA were evaluated by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), respectively. Immunohistochemical staining was also employed to visualize PCNA-positive cells. Results At day 7 after catheter balloon injury, far more EdU-positive and PCNA-positive cells were observed in GK rats. When comparing groups that received different EdU doses, it was found that the percentage of EdU-positive cells at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight was than at doses of 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg. The number of positive cells was significantly higher in the repeated injection group compared to the single injection group. Further, after balloon injury DNA synthesis in GK rats was more notable than in Wistar rats. Neointimal formation in GK rats was more obvious than in Wistar rats. The protein levels of PCNA and p-Akt (Ser473) and the mRNA levels of PCNA were increased in injured rats as compared to uninjured rats, and were significantly higher in GK rats than in Wistar rats. Conclusion By

  18. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological alterations induced by abamectin and Bacillus thuringiensis in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Eissa, F I; Zidan, N A

    2010-03-01

    The renal- and hepato-toxicity induced by abamectin pesticide (Vertimec) and a commercial form of a bio-insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Agerin) in male albino rats were evaluated. Blood picture and blood glucose level were investigated. Male albino rats were administered dietary doses each equivalent to 1/10 or 1/100 of the LD50 values of each toxicant for 30 consecutive days. Abamectin was found to pose risks of renal- and hepato-toxicity in rats, since the biochemical parameters of liver function (i.e. aspartate aminotransferase activity, alanine aminotransferase activity, acid phosphatase activity, albumin, and total protein levels) and kidney function (uric acid and creatinine concentration) were severely affected. These effects were verified by histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues. Likewise, some haematological indices (i.e. erythrocyte count, leukocyte count and haemoglobin concentration) were also influenced; in addition abamectin might cause hypoglycaemia. On the other hand, the above-mentioned lesions were less pronounced in the case of Bacillus thuringiensis -treated rats. PMID:20194097

  19. Effect of Tectona grandis Linn. seeds on hair growth activity of albino mice.

    PubMed

    Jaybhaye, Deepali; Varma, Sushikumar; Gagne, Nitin; Bonde, Vijay; Gite, Amol; Bhosle, Deepak

    2010-10-01

    The seeds of Tectona grandis Linn. are traditionally acclaimed as hair tonic in the Indian system of medicine. Studies were therefore undertaken in order to evaluate petroleum ether extract of T. grandis seeds for its effect on hair growth in albino mice. The 5% and 10% extracts incorporated into simple ointment base were applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino mice. The time required for initiation of hair growth as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control. The result of treatment with minoxidil 2% is 49% hair in anagenic phase. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts compared to control animals. The treatment was successful in bringing a greater number of hair follicles (64% and 51%) in anagenic phase than standard minoxidil (49%). The results of treatment with 5% and 10% petroleum ether extracts were comparable to the positive control minoxidil. PMID:21455447

  20. Biochemical and immunological changes on oral glutamate feeding in male albino rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.

    High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

  1. Antihyperglycaemic Effect of Tetracarpidium Conophorum Nuts in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Female Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Onwuli, Donatus Onukwufor; Brown, Holy; Ozoani, Harrison Anaezichukwuolu

    2014-01-01

    The antihyperglycaemic activity of Tetracarpidium conophorum nut (walnut) was investigated in albino rats. A total of 20 albino rats were used for the study. The rats were divided into five groups (A–E) of four rats each. Diabetes were induced in the rats except four which served as the positive control group A. Groups B (negative control), C, D, and E contain diabetic rats each with blood sugar level ≥17.00 mmol/L. Groups A and B were fed on 85.2 g of top feed grower over the test period. Test groups C, D, and E were fed on 21.3 g, 42.6 g, and 85.2 g of walnuts, respectively, and their fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels were checked on daily basis. Fasting blood glucose levels of the test groups were significantly lower than negative control P < 0.05, for 3rd, 7th, and 10th days of the test. There were also significant increase in the body weight and hemoglobin concentration and a decreased urine output of the test group compared with the controls. These results indicate that Tetracarpidium conophorum nut (walnut) has an antihyperglycemic effect in diabetic rats. PMID:24944826

  2. Dietary Yucca schidigera supplementation reduces arsenic-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Turkmen, Ruhi; Demirel, Hasan Huseyin; Sever, Emine

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of dietary supplementation with Yucca schidigera (Ys) on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in arsenic-exposed mice. Forty Swiss albino male mice were divided into five equal groups. Group I (control group) was given normal diet and tap water for 28 days. Group II (arsenic group) was given normal diet and 100 mg/L arsenic along with drinking water for 28 days. Groups III-V were given three different doses of Ys (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) in supplemented diet and arsenic (100 mg/L) along with drinking water throughout the entire period of 28 days. The arsenic significantly increased serum biochemical parameters and malondialdehyde levels in blood and tissue. However, arsenic significantly decreased tissue glutathione concentration, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. In contrast, dietary supplementation of Ys, in a dose-dependent manner, resulted in reversal of arsenic-induced oxidative stress, LPO and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, Ys also exhibited protective action against the arsenic-induced focal gliosis and hyperemi in brain, necrosis and degeneration in liver, degeneration and dilatation in Bowman's capsule of kidney and hyaline degeneration in heart tissue of mice. Consequently, our results demonstrate that Ys especially high-dose supplementation in diet decreases arsenic-induced oxidative stress and enhances the antioxidant defence mechanism and regenerate of tissues in Swiss albino mice. PMID:22609855

  3. Effect of imatinib on the biochemical parameters of the reproductive function in male Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, A.M.; Ramnarayan, K.; Nalini, K.; Bairy, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Treatment of cancers with cytotoxic agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibiting drugs often, but not always, result in transient to permanent testicular dysfunction. Germ cells are important targets of many chemicals. Most of the drugs are genotoxins and induce irreversible effect on genetic makeup. These mutagenic changes are proportionally related to carcinogenesis. This is alarmingly dangerous in youth and children, since these effects last longer, affecting fertility or forming basis for carcinogenesis. There is paucity of reports on planned studies of imatinib on the testicular function. Hence, the study was planned to assess the effects of imatinib on biochemical markers of testicular functions in male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were treated with imatinib and sacrificed at the end of first, second, fourth, fifth, seventh, and tenth week after the last exposure to imatinib. The testis were removed, weighed, and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P<0.001) reduced in treated groups and severe effect was observed on week 4 and 5. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was significantly increased by imatinib in all treated groups up to week 5. Conclusion: Imatinib does affect testosterone and LDH level significantly, but this effect is reversible once the drug is withdrawn. This finding may help the clinicians to plan and address the fertility-related issues in young patients of reproductive age who are being treated with imatinib for gastrointestinal tumors and chronic myeloid leukemia. PMID:21844991

  4. Nephroprotection of lacidipine against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Sahar

    2010-01-01

    Aim Gentamycin, a widely-used aminoglycoside antibiotic, is recognized as possessing significant nephrotoxic potential in human beings. Gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity is suggested to be mediated via reactive oxygen species. The present study investigated the possible antioxidant nephroprotective effect of lacidipine as a calcium-channel blocker in a gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity model in albino rats. Methods Albino rats were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 received normal saline. Group 2 received gentamycin 80 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 14 days. Group 3 received lacidipine 1 mg/kg intraperitoneally 3 days before and 14 days concurrently with gentamycin. This dose does not affect the blood pressure of rats, as evidenced in the pilot study. Results Gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity was evidenced by a marked reduction in creatinine clearance. Treatment with lacidipine improved creatinine clearance compared to the gentamycin-treated group. In addition, it reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, as an index of lipid peroxidation, with significant increases in superoxide dismutase enzyme in erythrocyte lysates and kidney catalase enzyme activities. Conclusion This study recommends the use of lacidipine in prophylaxis against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity.

  5. Ameliorative effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, Saber Abdelruhman; Zoil, Mohamed El-said; El-shafey, Samraa Samy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ameliorative role of grapefruit juice on the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiarrythmic drug amiodarone in albino rats. Methods Animals were divided into four groups. Group I was considered as control. Group II was given grapefruit juice at a dose level of 27 mL/kg body weight. Group III was orally administered amiodarone (18 mg/kg body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed after 5 weeks of treatment. Bone marrow was collected from the femurs for analysis of chromosomal aberrations and mitotic indices. Testes were removed and stained with H&E for histological examination. Sperms were collected from epidedymis for detection of sperm head abnormalities. Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage. Results Amiodarone treatment caused a significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index and increased DNA damage. The testis showed many histopathological alterations, inhibition of spermatogenesis and morphometric changes. The number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice caused a reduction in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by amiodarone. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that grapefruit juice ameliorates the cytotoxicty and testicular alterations induced by amiodarone in albino rats and this is may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components. PMID:23836512

  6. Effects of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Maruthappan, V.; Shree, K. Sakthi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Hypercholesterolemia was induced in albino rats by administration of atherogenic diet for 2 weeks. Experimental rats were divided into different groups: normal, hypercholesterolemic control and P. reticulatus treated (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses for 45 days). After the treatment period of 45th day triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Results: The aqueous extract of P. reticulatus (250 mg and 500 mg/kg) produced significant reduction (P < 0.05) in triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) while increased HDL-cholesterol in atherogenic diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats at the end of the treatment period (45 days). However, the reduction in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic control. Thus, aqueous extract of P. reticulatus is effective in controlling TC, lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic animals. Conclusion: The results suggest the aqueous extract of P. reticulatus can be utilized for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients. PMID:21189912

  7. Evaluation of skeletal muscle relaxant activity of aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Tirumalasetti, Jayasree; Patel, Maulik; Shaikh, Ubedulla; Harini, K.; Shankar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Nerium oleander is traditionally used in various diseases because of its medicinal properties. One of its uses is in musculoskeletal disorder. The aim of the study was to evaluate the skeletal muscle relaxant activity of the aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers (AENOF) in albino rats in comparison with diazepam. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 Swiss albino rats aged 6–7 weeks, of either sex, weighing about 100–150 g, were taken, and after acute toxicity studies two different doses were selected. The animals were divided into four different groups. The first group was kept as the control (normal saline), second as the standard (diazepam) and the remaining two groups as Test I and Test II, and given different doses of the AENOF. Skeletal muscle relaxant activity (motor coordination) on Rotarod and locomotor activity on photoactometer was performed. Statistical analysis was carried out by using analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett's multiple comparison tests. Results: The result from the Actophotometer test and Rotarod test showed that the extract of AENOF significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the motor coordination of the tested animals. Conclusions: Our data indicates that AENOF possesses skeletal muscle relaxant activities. PMID:26288474

  8. Assessment of imidacloprid-induced mutagenic effects in somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

    PubMed

    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil K

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides are being used for plant protection to increase food protection and to reduce insect-borne diseases worldwide. Exposure to the pesticides may cause genotoxic effects on both the target and nontarget organisms, including man. Therefore, the mutagenicity evaluation of such pesticides has become a priority area of research. Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in agriculture either alone or in combination with other insecticides. A combined approach employing micronucleus test (MNT) and chromosomal aberrations assay (CA) was utilized to assess the mutagenicity of imidacloprid in bone marrow of Swiss albino male mice. IMI suspension was prepared in 3% gum acacia and administered at doses of 5.5, 11 and 22 mg/kg body weight for 7, 14 and 28 days to mice. IMI treatment resulted in a dose and time-dependant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei per cell and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. A statistically significant increase in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei/cell was found only after daily treatment of IMI at highest selected dose (22 mg/kg body weight) for longest selected time period (28 days) compared to the control group. Thus, daily exposure of imidacloprid at a dose level of 22 mg/kg body weight for 28 days caused mutagenic effects on the somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice. PMID:26823062

  9. Hair growth promoting activity of Eclipta alba in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, R K; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, V K

    2008-08-01

    Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk. is a well-known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. In the reported work attempts were undertaken to evaluate petroleum ether and ethanol extract of E. alba Hassk. for their effect on promoting hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous cream (water in oil cream base) and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats. The time (in days) required for hair growth initiation as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control for comparison. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts, as compared to control animals. The time required for complete hair growth was also significantly reduced. Quantitative analysis of hair growth after treatment with petroleum ether extract (5%) exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase (69 +/- 4) which were higher as compared to control (47 +/- 13). The result of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were better than the positive control minoxidil 2% treatment. PMID:18478241

  10. Antipsychotic-like effects of zolpidem in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mierzejewski, Pawel; Kolaczkowski, Marcin; Marcinkowska, Monika; Wesolowska, Anna; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Pawlowski, Maciej; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2016-02-15

    Aside from their use in the treatment of anxiety disorders and insomnia, benzodiazepines and other GABAA receptor positive modulators are widely used as add-on treatments in schizophrenic and non-schizophrenic psychoses. However, there is relatively little direct clinical or pre-clinical evidence for antipsychotic effects of GABAergic medications. Previous studies have indicated that zolpidem, a GABAergic drug acting preferentially at α1-containing GABAA receptors, may produce catalepsy through interactions with dopaminergic neurotransmission. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of zolpidem in experimental models of antipsychotic activity and extrapyramidal side effects in Wistar rats. Effects of zolpidem were compared with that of a classic benzodiazepine drug, diazepam and a second-generation antipsychotic medication, risperidone. High doses of risperidone (10.0mg/kg, i.p.) and zolpidem (10.0mg/kg, i.p.), but not diazepam, induced relatively short-lasting cataleptic responses in the bar test. Zolpidem and risperidone, but not diazepam, produced some antipsychotic-like effects at doses, which produced no catalepsy and did not inhibit spontaneous locomotor activity and apomorphine-induced stereotypies. The present results tend to indicate that zolpidem exerts some neuroleptic-like effects at doses, which do not produce motor side effects. Our findings may provide further rationale for the development of new subtype-selective GABAA receptor modulators for the treatment of psychotic symptoms. PMID:26825544

  11. Effects of hippocampal lesioning on experimental periodontitis in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Breivik, T; Thrane, P S; Gjermo, P; Cools, A; Myhrer, T

    2002-10-01

    The hippocampus, which is a brain structure involved in learning and memory processes, plays a key role in the feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic sympathetic nervous system, and the subsequent secretion of immuno-modulatory hormones in response to pathogenic microorganisms. Dysregulation of these brain-neuroendocrine-immune regulatory networks, which act in concert to maintain homeostasis, is found to be of critical importance to the host defence against pathogens, as well as susceptibility to diseases, including periodontal disease. The present study was designed to determine the effects of hippocampal lesioning on the progression of periodontitis. Experimental ligature-induced periodontitis was induced in 16 Wistar rats, which were bilaterally lesioned in their hippocampal region with an aspiration technique that is well documented to impair learning and memory, as well as in 15 sham-operated control rats. The disease progression was evaluated radiographically and histometrically. The results revealed that the hippocampal lesioned rats developed significantly more destruction of the periodontium than did the sham-operated controls. This finding supports recent studies that indicate that inappropriate brain-neuroendocrine regulation of inflammatory responses to infectious agents may play an important role in disease susceptibility and progression. PMID:12366859

  12. Sperm chromatin dispersion by formaldehyde in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Betancourt-Martínez, N D; Jiménez-Villarreal, J; Carranza-Rosales, P; Guzmán-Delgado, N E; Leyva Orasma, C; Viveros Valdez, E; Morán-Martínez, J

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an environmental xenobiotic, which is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans and animals; it induces DNA damage, mutations, and clastogenicity during critical cytogenetic events. FA-mediated oxidative stress is an important mechanism that has been associated with the induction of cytotoxic and genotoxic damage. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the dispersion of sperm chromatin and reproductive parameters induced by exposure to different concentrations of FA in Wistar rats. Compared to the percentage of sperm with fragmented DNA in the control group (18.10 ± 8.62%), the percentage of sperm with fragmented DNA increased following exposure to 5, 10, and 30 mg FA/kg body weight (29.60 ± 8.44, 85.20 ± 20.94 and 96.0 ± 7.87, respectively; P = 0.0001). Histopathological alterations were evident, especially in the seminiferous tubules. In conclusion, this study provides experimental evidence concerning the genotoxicity of FA, with particular reference to the decreased sperm concentration and motility and increased dispersion of DNA chromatin in rats. PMID:26400310

  13. Placental and fetal toxicity of albendazole sulphoxide in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Teruel, Miriam T; Felipe, Antonio E; Solana, Hugo D; Sallovitz, Juan M; Lanusse, Carlos E

    2003-06-01

    This work characterized the effects of albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) on placental and fetal parameters in Wistar rats on day 20 of gestation. ABZSO was fed in laboratory chow at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 or 30 mg/kg/d from day 6 to 15 of gestation to pregnant rats. Data of resorptions, placental and fetal characteristics and fetal skeletal malformations were recorded. Resorption percentages in the 20 and 30 mg/kg/d groups were significantly higher compared to the control group. Placentas of ABZSO-treated rats had lower weight and smaller size than untreated rats. The fetal weight and size were lower in the 5 mg/kg/d dose compared to no treatment. In the 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg/d groups, reductions in ossification process were observed. ABZSO induced malformations and/or fetal death when orally administered to pregnant rats. This data contributes to characterization of the reproductive toxicity of ABZSO, the main active metabolite of albendazole. PMID:12776788

  14. Variability in the Cardiac Venous System of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Krešáková, Lenka; Purzyc, Halina; Schusterová, Ingrid; Fulton, Benjamin; Maloveská, Marcela; Vdoviaková, Katarina; Kravcová, Zuzanna; Boldižár, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Rats are often used as animal models in experimental cardiology for studying myocardial infarctions and various cardiologic procedures. Currently the cardiac venous system is a target for the delivery of drugs, gene vectors, angiogenetic growth factors, stem cells, and cardioprotective reagents. The purpose of this study was to describe the anatomic configuration and variability of the cardiac venous system in Wistar rats, by using the corrosion cast method and perfusion of colored latex. The distribution of veins in the rat heart disagrees with prior descriptions for other mammals, except mice, which have a similar pattern. Coronary venous drainage in the 36 rats examined consistently involved the left cardiac, left conal, major caudal, right cardiac, and right conal veins. Other veins involved inconsistently included the cranial cardiac vein (58.3% of cases), minor caudal veins (16.7%), conoanastomotic vein (66.7%), and left atrial vein (75%). In 4 cases (11.1%), the collateral veins were located between the left conal and left cardiac veins. In this study, high morphologic variability between cases was manifested by differences in the arrangement, size, mode of opening, and formation of the common root and affected all regions of the heart but primarily the right ventricle. PMID:25651085

  15. Subacute Toxicity Profile of Lacidipine Nanoformulation in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shirodkar, Rupesh; Misra, Chandrasekhar; GH, Chethan; Shetty, Pallavi; Mutalik, Srinivas; Lewis, Shaila

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the safety of Lacidipine (LCDP) loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) in Wistar rats. NLCs were formulated using ultrasound dispersion technique. Animals were orally treated once daily with NLCs containing 0.140 mg, 0.350 mg, and 0.875 mg of LCDP as low, medium, and high dose per kg body weight, respectively, during 28 days along with blank formulation and pure LCDP. Control rats were fed with water. Animals were observed throughout experiment period and their body weight was recorded once weekly. Overnight fasted rats were sacrificed on the 29th day. Study revealed no signs or symptoms of toxicity or morbidity. No significant changes in the body weight were observed between treated and control group. Significant increase in left testis weight and liver weight was observed in male and female rats, respectively. Haematological estimation revealed significant decrease in haemoglobin count in male rats while female rats showed significant increase in granulocyte count. All the serum clinical parameters were within the normal range and no gross histopathological changes were observed. No delayed effect was noted in satellite group. The results indicate that developed LCDP loaded NLCs are safe when administered orally in rats. PMID:26101786

  16. Characterization and comparison of proteomes of albino sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) by iTRAQ analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chang-ge; Zhang, Dijun; Ma, Chengnv; Zhou, Jun; He, Shan; Su, Xiu-rong

    2016-04-01

    Sea cucumber is a commercially important marine organism in China. Of the different colored varieties sold in China, albino sea cucumber has the greatest appeal among consumers. Identification of factors contributing to albinism in sea cucumber is therefore likely to provide a scientific basis for improving the cultivability of these strains. In this study, two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling was used for the first time to quantitatively define the proteome of sea cucumbers and reveal proteomic characteristics unique to albino sea cucumbers. A total of 549 proteins were identified and quantified in albino sea cucumber and the functional annotations of 485 proteins have been exhibited based on COG database. Compared with green sea cucumber, 12 proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the intestine and 16 proteins in the body wall of albino sea cucumber. Among them, 5 proteins were up-regulated in the intestine and 8 proteins were down-regulated in body wall. Gene ontology annotations of these differentially expressed proteins consisted mostly of 'biological process'. The large number of differentially expressed proteins identified here should be highly useful in further elucidating the mechanisms underlying albinism in sea cucumber. PMID:26707782

  17. Effects of audio-visual stimulation on the incidence of restraint ulcers on the Wistar rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. S.; Martin, F.; Lambert, R.

    1979-01-01

    The role of sensory simulation in restrained rats was investigated. Both mixed audio-visual and pure sound stimuli, ineffective in themselves, were found to cause a significant increase in the incidence of restraint ulcers in the Wistar Rat.

  18. THE MECHANISM OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)-ASSOCIATED ZINC IN CARDIAC INJURY IN WISTAR KYOTO RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have recently found that inhaled combustion particulate matter (PM) with leachable zinc causes myocardial damage without significant pulmonary inflammation or remodeling; this damage is histologically demonstrable in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Cardiac injury from PM exposure can...

  19. Chlorotriazine Herbicides and Metabolites Activate an ACTH-Dependent Release of Corticosterone in Male Wistar Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously, we reported that atrazine (ATR) alters steroidogenesis in male Wistar rats resulting in elevated serum corticosterone (CORT), progesterone, and estrogens. The increase in CORT indicated that this chlorotriazine herbicide may alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal ax...

  20. Ozone-Induced Metabolic Impairment is Attenuated in Adrenalectomized Wistar Kyoto Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Air pollutants have been linked to increased incidence of metabolic syndrome however the mechanisms are poorly understood. We have recently shown that ozone exposure induces significant hyperglycemia together with elevated serum leptin and epinephrine in the Wistar Ky...

  1. The effect of mycotoxins found in some herbal plants on biochemical parameters in blood of female albino mice.

    PubMed

    Alwakeel, Suaad S

    2009-04-15

    In this study, twenty five samples ofwell-known herbs in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were collected and analyzed for Total Fungi Count (TFC). Mycotoxins were extracted and screened using SMKY liquid medium. One hundred and thirty adult female albino mice were grouped into three wherein one group (n = 110) was fed with an aqueous extract from herbal plants. The second group (n = 15) was fed with an aqueous extract of the isolated fungal species. The third group comprised the control group which was given water only (n = 5). All mice were fed with mice breeding diet by Pillsbury, UK. After 5 weeks, mice were fasted and blood was withdrawn for biochemical analysis including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), serum creatinine and urea. Calligonum comosum with 2 x 10(5) cfu g(-1) fungus spore, grained mixed herbs (24 x 10(3) cfu g(-1)) and Salvia officinalis (23 x 10(3) cfu g(-1)) were the most contaminated samples. The genus Aspergillus was the most dominant genus recovered (142 isolates) followed by Penicillium (14 isolates) and these two genera were found in 85.0 and 11.0% of the samples analyzed. Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus were the most dominant and frequently isolated (47.3, 46.5 and 18.1%, respectively), followed by Aspergillus citrinum (11.0%). Aspergillus ochraceus had 21.7 microg kg(-1) of Aflatoxin B2 and 7.25 microg kg(-1) of ochratoxin A, whereas Aspergillus flavus had 7.45 microg kg(-1) of Aflatoxin B2 and Aspergillus fumigatus had 3.5 microg kg(-1) of Aflatoxin B2 and 3.8 microg kg(-1) of ochratoxin A. Mean creatinine, urea, ALT, AST and GGT were higher in mice fed or treated with herbal and fungal extracts group than the control group. This study confirms previous studies demonstrating the predominance of Aspergillus species in herbal and medicinal plants and its capability in the production of aflatoxin with induction of nephrotoxicity and hepatoxicity in

  2. Immunopathological and antimicrobial effect of black pepper, ginger and thyme extracts on experimental model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Nassan, M A; Mohamed, E H

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed prominent antimicrobial activity of various plant extracts on certain pathogenic microorganisms, therefore we prepared crude aqueous extracts of black pepper, ginger and thyme and carried out an in vitro study by measuring antimicrobial activity of these extracts using the agar well diffusion method. An in vivo study was carried out on 50 adult healthy male albino rats which were divided into 5 groups, 10 rats each. Group 1: negative control group which received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 2: Positive control group, injected with mixed bacterial suspension of S.aureus and E.coli as a model of pyelonephritis, then received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 3: injected with the same dose of mixed bacterial suspension, then received 100 mg/kg/day black pepper extract intragastrically; Group 4: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day ginger extract intragastrically. Group 5: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day thyme extract intragastrically. All groups were sacrificed after either 1 or 4 weeks. Serum and blood samples were collected for lysozyme activity estimation using agarose lysoplate, measurement of nitric oxide production, and lymphocyte transformation test as well as for counting both total and differential leukocytes and erythrocytes. Kidney samples were tested histopathologically. Both in vivo and in vitro results confirm the efficacy of these extracts as natural antimicrobials and suggest the possibility of using them in treatment procedures. PMID:25572733

  3. Comparative evaluation of standardized alcoholic, hydroalcoholic, and aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn. against galactosamine-induced hepatopathy in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ilyas, U. K.; Katare, Deepshikha P.; Aeri, Vidhu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phyllanthus maderaspatensis species (Euphorbiaceae) has been used in folk medicine of many countries as a remedy against several pathological conditions including jaundice and hepatitis. This study is an attempt to evaluate hepatoprotective activity of P. maderaspatensis against galactosamine-induced toxicity and also investigation of polyphenols in each extract. Materials and Methods: The extraction of P. maderaspatensis as per Ayurveda was simultaneously standardized and quantified for biochemical markers viz., polyphenols: Kaempferol, quercetin, catechin, rutin, and ellagic acid by high-performance thin layer chromatography. Hepatotoxicity was induced albino adult rats by intraperitoneal injection of galactosamine (400 mg/kg). The quantified aqueous, hydroalcoholic and alcoholic extract of P. maderaspatensis (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day) were compared for evaluation of hepatoprotective potential, which were assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage, change in serum enzymes such as aspartate amino transaminase, alanine amino transaminase and alkaline phosphatase and increase thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results and Discussion: The hydroalcoholic extract was found to contain comparatively high amount of kaempferol, quercetin, catechin, rutin, and ellagic acid which are responsible for hepatoprotection. Antioxidant parameters such as glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity in liver tissues were restored toward the normalization more significantly by the hydroalcoholic extract when compared with other extracts. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination. Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract standardized with respect to known biomarkers may be considered as a potent extract against hepatotoxicity. PMID:25829765

  4. Development of regulation of the cardiac chronotropic function in albino rats during the early postnatal ontogeny according to the results of spectral analysis of heart rhythm variability.

    PubMed

    Kurjanova, E V; Teplyj, D L; Zereninova, N V

    2012-04-01

    Regulation of the cardiac chronotropic function was studied by spectral analysis of cardiac rhythm variability in HF, LF, and VLF bands in rats at various stages of the early postnatal ontogeny. The inadequacy of the regulatory mechanisms during the first days of life manifested by low power of all waves (particularly HF) in the cardiac rhythm variability spectrum. On day 14 of life, the cardiointerval variability was formed by HF waves, their low power together with increasing heart rate indicating more intense sympathetic effects. On day 21 of life, a potent elevation of the VLF power reflected a stronger centralization of regulation from higher autonomic centers. The age of 28 days was characterized by a sharp increase of HF activity and could be regarded as the turning point in the development of parasympathetic effects and activity of the autonomic regulation contour. From the age of 35 days, the wave power and the proportion of the spectral components of cardiac rhythm variability in albino rats corresponded to the adult pattern; a trend to the central regulation predominance and to greater rigidity of cardiac rhythm formed only with the onset of sexual maturation. PMID:22803162

  5. Anti-arthritic Activity of Dashanga Ghana (An Ayurvedic Compound Formulation) Against Freund's Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Charles Foster Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ruknuddin, Galib; Patgiri, B. J.; Prajapati, P. K.; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Arthritis is the most common cause of disability, limiting the activities of adults throughout the world. Apart from the conventional treatment strategies using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and glucocorticoids, newer and safer drugs are continuously being searched, as long-term usage of these drugs have resulted in adverse effects. Besides this, currently a number of medicinal plants are under scientific evaluation to develop a promising remedy in these cases. There is a need to investigate the complete therapeutic potential of these herbals for providing newer and safer treatment options with minimum side effects. Considering this, a polyherbal Ayurvedic compound formulation (Dashanga Ghana) has been studied in experimental animals to evaluate anti-arthritic activity. Materials and Methods: Dashanga Ghana has been prepared in the laboratory by following standard guidelines. Charles Foster albino rats were used to evaluate the activity through Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis model. Results and Conclusions: Dashanga Ghana is found to possess significant anti-arthritic activity. Further studies are required to identify and characterize exact active phyto-constituents and to elucidate the exact mechanism of action, which is responsible for the observed pharmacological profile. PMID:26862275

  6. [Blood flow changes in the optic nerve head of albino rabbits following intravenous administration of brovincamine fumarate, an improver of cerebral circulation and metabolism].

    PubMed

    Nirei, M

    1996-02-01

    The blood flow changes in the optic nerve head in adult albino rabbits following intravenous administration of brovincamine fumarate, an improver of cerebral circulation and metabolism, were investigated employing the hydrogen clearance method. In the brovincamine fumarate (0.1 mg/kg)-administered group, the blood flow in the optic nerve head increased soon after injection and reached the maximal value of 124.2 +/- 7.3% against the value before injection, at 20 minutes after injection, followed by a gradual decrease in the blood flow. Statistical analysis showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the blood flow at 10 to 40 minutes after injection, compared with the value before injection in the brovincamine fumarate (0.1 mg/kg)-administered group, but no significant increases in the blood flow were observed in either the brovincamine fumarate (0.5 mg/kg)-administered group or the control group given no brovincamine fumarate throughout the course. No significant changes in the mean values of the blood pressure in the femoral artery, pulse rate, respiratory rate or rectal temperature were observed in any group through the experiment. To learn the mechanism of the different efficacy of the two doses, further studies are needed in light of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) changes induced by brovincamine fumarate administration or in light of the receptor responsiveness to the drug concentration. PMID:8851150

  7. Metabolic brain activity underlying behavioral performance and spatial strategy choice in sedentary and exercised Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sampedro-Piquero, P; Zancada-Menendez, C; Cuesta, M; Arias, J L; Begega, A

    2014-12-01

    We have studied the performance of a spatial reference memory task, the navigation strategy and the changes in the cytochrome c oxidase activity (COx) in different brain regions in exercised (forced exercise, 10 consecutive days, 15min/day) and non-exercised adult Wistar rats. The spatial learning task was carried out in the radial-arm water maze (RAWM) for four days with six daily trials, and on the fifth day, a probe session was run, in which we rotated the position of the distal cues 90° in a clockwise direction. During the four days of training, the exercised group showed shorter latency and distance traveled to find the platform, as well as fewer memory errors and reduced use of non-appropriate navigation strategies according to the protocol of the task (egocentric). Interestingly, the rotation of the cues did not affect the performance of the exercised group, in contrast to the non-exercised group, which spent more time in the center of the maze and traveled longer distance to find the platform. Finally, higher COx activity in the cingulate and the retrosplenial cortices, as well as in the dorsal CA1 and CA3 was found in the exercised group. All in all, it seems that the exercise favored the configuration of an efficient and accurate cognitive map of the environment, which was supported by our finding that the rotation of the cues, without altering their overall configuration, did not affect performance. The brain regions with higher COx activity in the exercised group seem to be involved in this function. PMID:25281878

  8. Repeated transcranial direct current stimulation reduces food craving in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Macedo, I C; de Oliveira, C; Vercelino, R; Souza, A; Laste, G; Medeiros, L F; Scarabelot, V L; Nunes, E A; Kuo, J; Fregni, F; Caumo, W; Torres, I L S

    2016-08-01

    It has been suggested that food craving-an intense desire to consume a specific food (particularly foods high in sugar and fat)-can lead to obesity. This behavior has also been associated with abuse of other substances, such as drugs. Both drugs and food cause dependence by acting on brain circuitry involved in reward, motivation, and decision-making processes. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can be activated following evocation and is implicated in alterations in food behavior and craving. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive brain stimulation technique capable of modulates brain activity significantly, has emerged as a promising treatment to inhibit craving. This technique is considered safe and inexpensive; however, there is scant research using animal models. Such studies could help elucidate the behavioral and molecular mechanisms of eating disorders, including food craving. The aim of our study was to evaluate palatable food consumption in rats receiving tDCS treatment (anode right/cathode left). Eighteen adult male Wistar rats were randomized by weight and divided into three groups (n = 6/group): control, with no stimulation; sham, receiving daily 30 s tDCS (500 μA) sessions for 8 consecutive days; and tDCS, receiving daily 20 min tDCS (500 μA) sessions for 8 consecutive days. All rats were evaluated for locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. A palatable food consumption test was performed at baseline and on treatment completion (24 h after the last tDCS session) under fasting and feeding conditions and showed that tDCS decreased food craving, thus corroborating human studies. This result confirms the important role of the prefrontal cortex in food behavior, which can be modulated by noninvasive brain stimulation. PMID:26972354

  9. Physical exercise versus fluoxetine: antagonistic effects on cortical spreading depression in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mirelle Costa Monteiro, Heloísa; Lima Barreto-Silva, Nathália; Elizabete Dos Santos, Gracyelle; de Santana Santos, Amanda; Séfora Bezerra Sousa, Mariana; Amâncio-Dos-Santos, Ângela

    2015-09-01

    The antidepressant fluoxetine and physical exercise exert similar effects on the serotoninergic system by increasing brain serotonin availability, and both show antagonistic action on cortical excitability. Here we provide the first assessment of the interaction of the two together on cortical spreading depression (CSD) in young adult rats. Wistar rats (40-60 days of life) received fluoxetine (10mg/kg/d, orogastrically) or an equivalent volume of water. Half of the animals from each condition were assigned to perform physical exercise in a treadmill, and the other half formed the sedentary (non-treadmill) control groups. Body parameters (Lee index and thoracic and abdominal circumferences) and the velocity of CSD propagation were investigated. Fluoxetine+exercise animals had less weight gain (78.68±3.19g) than either the fluoxetine-only (93.34±4.77g) or exercise-only group (97.04±3.48g), but body parameters did not differ among them. The velocity of CSD propagation was reduced in the fluoxetine-only and exercise-only groups compared to sedentary water controls (3.24±0.39mm/min). For the fluoxetine+exercise group, CSD velocity values were significantly lower (2.92±0.22mm/min) than for fluoxetine only (3.03±0.35mm/min); however, they were similar to values for the exercise-only group (2.96±0.23mm/min). These findings confirm the similar effects of fluoxetine and exercise and suggest a greater effect of physical exercise in reducing brain excitability. PMID:26004534

  10. A standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba prevents locomotion impairment induced by cassava juice in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Eduardo; Vázquez-Luna, Alma; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan F.; Díaz-Sobac, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The long-term consumption of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) juice produce neurotoxic effects in the rat, characterized by an increased motor activity in the open field test and presence of uncoordinated swim (i.e., lateral swimming), in the swim test; which has been associated with damage in the hippocampus (CA1). On the other hand, flavonoids content in the Ginkgo biloba extract has been reported to produces neuroprotective effects at experimental level; therefore we hypothesized that G. biloba extract may prevents the motor alterations produced by cassava juice and reduce cellular damage in hippocampal neurons of the rat. In present study the effect of vehicle, cassava juice (linamarin, 0.30 mg/kg), G. biloba extract (dry extract, 160 mg/kg), and combination of treatment were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor and hippocampal alterations in adult male Wistar rats. All treatments were administered once per day, every 24 h, for 28 days, by oral rout. The effect was evaluated at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of treatment. The results show that cassava group from day 14 of treatment increase crossing and rearing in the open field test, as compared with the vehicle group; while in the swim test produces an uncoordinated swim characterized by the lateral swim. In this same group an increase in the number of damage neurons in the hippocampus (CA1) was identified. Interestingly, both behavioral and neuronal alterations produced by cassava juice administration were prevented by treatment with G. biloba extract. The results shown that G. biloba extract exert a protective effect against behavioral and neuronal damage associated with consumption of cassava juice in the rat. These effects are possibly related with flavonoid content in the G. biloba extract. PMID:25309441

  11. Water Soluble Vitamin E Administration in Wistar Rats with Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tzanetakou, Irene P; Doulamis, Ilias P; Korou, Laskarina-Maria; Agrogiannis, George; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Pantopoulou, Alkisti; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Patsouris, Efstratios; Vlachos, Ioannis; Perrea, Despina N

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A diet rich in fat is associated with hepatic fat deposition [steatosis; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)]. The exact cause of NAFLD however, is still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a water-soluble formulation of vitamin E on a dietary-induced-NAFLD animal model. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (n=20) were allocated to 2 groups: Controls (Group A, n=6), which received a standard chow diet for 24 weeks and a High Cholesterol group (HC: n=14), which received a standard chow diet enriched with cholesterol for the first 14 weeks of the experiment (t1). At t1, the HC group was divided into: Group HC(B), which received a high-saturated-fat/high-cholesterol (HSF/HCH) diet and Group HC(C), which followed the same HSF/HCH diet but was also administered water soluble vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight/day), for 10 more weeks. Results: At the end of the study, group HC(C) exhibited significantly lower mean total cholesterol (T-CHOL) than group HC(B) (p<0.001). No significant differences were observed between HC(C) and Control groups in blood glucose and serum lipid concentrations. Liver Function Tests did not vary between all groups at the end of the study. Animals in group HC(B) exhibited higher SGOT at the end of the study compared with the beginning of the study (p<0.05). Group HC(B) exhibited the highest scores in steatosis, and grading (according to the NAFLD scoring system) in the histopathological analysis (p≤0.001 in all cases). Conclusions: Vitamin E seems to exert a hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective role in the presence of a HSF/HCH atherogenic diet in a rat model. PMID:22930662

  12. Immunomodulatory activities of Yoyo bitters: recommended dose precipitated inflammatory responses in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Oyewo, E B; Adetutu, A; Adebisi, J A

    2013-12-15

    This study investigated the immunomodulatory capabilities of the sub-chronic administration of Yoyo bitters in male Wistar rats. Eighteen rats weighing 86.2 +/- 4.43 g were randomly picked into three equal groups. The rats were acclimatized for 14 days, after which 0.308 and 0.462 mL kg(-1) b.wt. of Yoyo bitters were administered once daily to groups B and C respectively for 56 days, while group A received distilled water. The feed intake, body weight, blood glucose, interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), haematological parameters, serum lipid profile and uric acid, liver reduced glutathione and malodialdehyde were determined. The feed intake, body weight and blood glucose concentrations were reduced (p < 0.05) at the doses. No changes were recorded in the concentration of serum IL-2 (p > 0.05), but IL-6 decreased (p < 0.05) in group B and increased (p < 0.05) in group C, while TNF-alpha were increased (p < 0.05) dose dependent. The haematological parameters were decreased at all the doses (p < 0.05), except the ESR, WBC and lymphocytes that were increased (p < 0.05) and platelets in group C (p < 0.05). The serum total cholesterol, TAG, LDL-C and atherogenic index were decreased (p < 0.05) and HDL-C increased (p < 0.05) in group B only. Serum uric acid was reduced (p < 0.05) in group B, but increased in group C with the concentration of liver MDA (p < 0.05). The study, therefore, established that a dose lower than the manufacturer's recommended dose presented the desired immunomodulatory activities and the habitual use of Yoyo bitters at the adult recommended dose calls for caution. PMID:24517005

  13. Repercussions of mild diabetes on pregnancy in Wistar rats and on the fetal development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Experimental models are necessary to elucidate diabetes pathophysiological mechanisms not yet understood in humans. Objective: To evaluate the repercussions of the mild diabetes, considering two methodologies, on the pregnancy of Wistar rats and on the development of their offspring. Methods In the 1st induction, female offspring were distributed into two experimental groups: Group streptozotocin (STZ, n = 67): received the β-cytotoxic agent (100 mg STZ/kg body weight - sc) on the 1st day of the life; and Non-diabetic Group (ND, n = 14): received the vehicle in a similar time period. In the adult life, the animals were mated. After a positive diagnosis of pregnancy (0), female rats from group STZ presenting with lower glycemia than 120 mg/dL received more 20 mg STZ/kg (ip) at day 7 of pregnancy (2nd induction). The female rats with glycemia higher than 120 mg/dL were discarded because they reproduced results already found in the literature. In the mornings of days 0, 7, 14 and 21 of the pregnancy glycemia was determined. At day 21 of pregnancy (at term), the female rats were anesthetized and killed for maternal reproductive performance and fetal development analysis. The data were analyzed using Student-Newman-Keuls, Chi-square and Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) Tests (p < 0.05). Results STZ rats presented increased rates of pre (STZ = 22.0%; ND = 5.1%) and post-implantation losses (STZ = 26.1%; ND = 5.7%), reduced rates of fetuses with appropriate weight for gestational age (STZ = 66%; ND = 93%) and reduced degree of development (ossification sites). Conclusion Mild diabetes led a negative impact on maternal reproductive performance and caused intrauterine growth restriction and impaired fetal development. PMID:20416073

  14. The addition of whole soy flour to cafeteria diet reduces metabolic risk markers in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Soybean is termed a functional food because it contains bioactive compounds. However, its effects are not well known under unbalanced diet conditions. This work is aimed at evaluating the effect of adding whole soy flour to a cafeteria diet on intestinal histomorphometry, metabolic risk and toxicity markers in rats. Methods In this study, 30 male adult Wistar rats were used, distributed among three groups (n = 10): AIN-93 M diet, cafeteria diet (CAF) and cafeteria diet with soy flour (CAFS), for 56 days. The following parameters were measured: food intake; weight gain; serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS); humidity and lipid fecal content; weight and fat of the liver. The villous height, the crypt depth and the thickness of the duodenal and ileal circular and longitudinal muscle layers of the animals were also measured. Results There was a significant reduction in the food intake in the CAF group. The CAFS showed lower serum concentrations of triglycerides and serum TBARS and a lower percentage of hepatic fat, with a corresponding increase in thickness of the intestinal muscle layers. In the CAF group, an increase in the HbA1c, ALT, lipid excretion, liver TBARS and crypt depth, was observed associated with lower HDL-c and villous height. The addition of soy did not promote any change in these parameters. Conclusions The inclusion of whole soy flour in a high-fat diet may be helpful in reducing some markers of metabolic risk; however, more studies are required to clarify its effects on unbalanced diets. PMID:24119309

  15. Myofibroblasts and colonic anastomosis healing in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The myofibroblasts play a central role in wound healing throughout the body. The process of wound healing in the colon was evaluated with emphasis on the role of myofibroblasts. Methods One hundred male Wistar rats weighing 274 ± 9.1 g (mean age: 3.5 months) were used. A left colonic segment was transected and the colon was re-anastomosed. Animals were randomly divided into two groups. The first group experimental animals (n = 50) were sacrificed on postoperative day 3, while the second group rats (n = 50) were sacrificed on postoperative day 7. Healing of colonic anastomosis was studied in terms of anastomotic bursting pressure, as well as myofibroblastic reaction and expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), adhesion formation, inflammatory reaction and neovascularization. Results The mean anastomotic bursting pressure increased from 20.6 ± 3.5 mmHg on the 3rd postoperative day to 148.8 ± 9.6 Hg on the 7th postoperative day. Adhesion formation was increased on the 7th day, as compared to the 3rd day. In addition, the myofibroblastic reaction was more profound on the 7th postoperative day in comparison with the 3rd postoperative day. The staining intensity for α-SMA was progressive from the 3rd to the 7th postoperative day. On the 7th day the α-SMA staining in the myofibroblats reached the level of muscular layer cells. Conclusions Our study emphasizes the pivotal role of myofibroblasts in the process of colonic anastomosis healing. The findings provide an explanation for the reduction in the incidence of wound dehiscence after the 7th postoperative day. PMID:21366898

  16. Toxicological evaluation of ametryn effects in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Santos, Tamires; Cancian, Graziela; Neodini, Daniella N R; Mano, Deiviston R S; Capucho, Cristina; Predes, Fabrícia S; Barbieri, Renata; Oliveira, Camila A; Pigoso, Acácio A; Dolder, Heidi; Severi-Aguiar, Grasiela D C

    2015-10-01

    São Paulo state, Brazil, is one of the main areas of sugar cane planting in the world. Extensive use of ametryn, a triazine herbicide, in sugar cane agriculture and the properties of this herbicide suggest it could be present in the environment as a potential contaminant of soil, surface water, groundwater, and river sediment. In order to clarify the mechanism through which ametryn could be toxic, an in vivo study with Wistar rats was conducted using hematological, biochemical, molecular, morphological and genotoxic approaches. For this purpose, two sub-lethal ametryn concentrations (15 mg and 30 mg/kg/day) were administered to 42 rats divided into three groups (n=12) by gavage during 56 days, whereupon blood, liver and bone marrow were collected. The results showed ametryn genotoxic activity by in vivo micronuclei testing. This event probably occurred as consequence of oxidative stress induction demonstrated by GSTM1 transcript levels increase (indicating complexation between ametryn and/or metabolites with GSH) and by SOD activity decrease. Also, Mn-SOD transcripts were increased, probably avoiding mtDNA damage caused by EROS. These mechanisms displayed hepatic stellate cell (HSCs) activation because two major biomarkers were regulated, connexin and cadherin. N-cad transcripts were increased on both exposed groups while E-cad decreased in the T1 group, indicating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In addition, Cx43 transcripts were decreased suggesting an increase in collagen content. Volumetric proportion of sinusoids was significantly decreased in T1 group and no significant alteration in hepatocyte volume was observed, indicating an increase in the space of Disse, due to fibrosis. Hepatocyte nuclei showed significant decrease in diameter and volume. Few hematological alterations were found. We emphasize the importance of other approaches, such as cell death and proliferation assays, so that ametryn toxicity can better be understood. PMID:26310382

  17. Multi walled carbon nano tubes induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Kumud Kant; John, P J; Awasthi, Anjali; Awasthi, Kamlendra

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. Swiss albino mice were orally administered with single dose of 60 and 100 mg/kg body weight of purified and functionalized MWCNTs suspended in water. The mice were autopsied on 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post exposure. Liver was taken out and part of it fixed in Bouin's solution for histopathological examinations. The remaining part was immersed in cold saline, blotted dry, weighed quickly and homogenized in ice cold buffer. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was immediately measured in the supernatant. The MWCNTs in liver led to pathological changes, including injury to macrophages, cellular swelling, unspecific inflammation, spot necrosis and blood coagulation. Estimation of SOD and CAT showed altered levels in the experimental groups as compared to controls. Therefore, MWCNTs from manufactured and combustion sources in the environment can have adverse effects on human health. PMID:23000350

  18. Survival of some photoreceptor cells in albino rats following long-term exposure to continuous light.

    PubMed

    La Vail, M M

    1976-01-01

    Fischer albino rats, seven weeks of age, were exposed to continuous light at 65 foot-candle incident illuminance for up to 264 days. Other Fischer rats, seven months of age, were exposed to continuous light at 140 foot-candle incident illuminance for up to 147 days. In all cases, a small percentage of the photoreceptors survived. The identification of the surviving cells as photoreceptors was made by light microscopy on the basis of nuclear heterochromatin pattern and staining and by electron microscopy by the presence of ribbon synapses and ciliary basal bodies with ciliary filaments. No outer segment membranes were observed. The percentage of cones progressively increased from the normal 1.5 per cent to about 60 per cent with increasing exposure time, indicating that cone cells are more resistant than rods to destruction by constant light. PMID:1245384

  19. Identification of the gregarization-associated dark-pigmentotropin in locusts through an albino mutant

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Amer I.; Tanaka, Seiji; De Loof, Arnold; Schoofs, Liliane; Baggerman, Geert; Waelkens, Etienne; Derua, Rita; Milner, Yoram; Yerushalmi, Yoram; Pener, M. Paul

    1999-01-01

    In response to crowding, locusts develop characteristic black patterns that are well discernible in the gregarious phase at outbreaks. We report here a dark-color-inducing neuropeptide (dark-pigmentotropin) from the corpora cardiaca of two plague locusts, Schistocerca gregaria and Locusta migratoria. The chromatographic isolation of this neuropeptide was monitored by using a bioassay with an albino mutant of L. migratoria. The neurohormone, consisting of 11 amino acids, is identical to [His7] corazonin, previously isolated from corpora cardiaca of another acridid without known function. The present results show that even in isolated (solitary) nymphs, [His7] corazonin induces gregarious black patterns. Its primary structure shows some similarity with the vertebrate melanophore stimulating hormone. PMID:10359842

  20. Anti-ulcer activity of ethanol extract of Terminaliapallida Brandis. in Swiss albino rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M; Mazumder, U K; Manikandan, L; Bhattacharya, S; Senthilkumar, G P; Suresh, R

    2005-02-28

    Ethanol extract of Terminalia pallida Brandis. (EETP) was evaluated for its anti-ulcer activity against various models of ulcers, such as drug-induced ulcers, histamine-induced ulcers and ethanol-induced ulcers in Swiss albino rats. The EETP at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg per os (p.o.) exhibited significant protection against ulcers produced by indomethacin, histamine and the effect was comparable to that of the reference drug famotidine (30 mg/kg b.w) orally. The extract also afforded significant protection against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. Meanwhile, EETP significantly lowered the elevated lipid peroxide level (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) and restored the altered glutathione level in ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. The present investigation revealed that the EETP exhibited significant anti-ulcer activity by enhancing antioxidant potential of the gastric mucosa, thereby reducing mucosal damage. PMID:15707782

  1. Capsaicin provokes apoptosis and restricts benzo(a)pyrene induced lung tumorigenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Anandakumar, P; Kamaraj, S; Jagan, S; Ramakrishnan, G; Devaki, T

    2013-10-01

    Capsaicin (CAP), a constituent of red chilli and red pepper is exposed to exert compelling anticarcinogenic effects. In the present study, we examined the anti-tumorigenic potential of CAP on benzo(a)pyrene-induced mice lung tumorigenesis by analyzing the markers of apoptosis. Intraperitoneal administration of CAP (10mg/kg body weight) to Swiss albino mice suppressed the development of lung carcinoma by amending the protein expressions of apoptotic regulators p53, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3. The apoptotic-inducing nature of CAP was further confirmed by DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, transmission electron microscopic study and ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining. The results obtained from the present study show that CAP inhibits the development of mice lung carcinogenesis through its ability to induce apoptosis. Our present findings provide the basis for further clinical exploration of CAP as an anti-carcinogenic compound against lung carcinogenesis. PMID:23747734

  2. Evaluation of radioprotective effects of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) extract in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Anita; Kumar, Ashok

    2005-06-01

    The radioprotective efficacy of aqueous extract of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) leaves against whole body gamma radiation was studied in Swiss albino mice. The oral administration of Rajgira extract at 800 mg/kg body weight/day for 15 consecutive days before whole body exposure to radiation was found to be effective with the LD50/30 values of 6.33 and 8.62 Gy for irradiation alone and Rajgira+irradiation group, respectively, giving a dose reduction factor of 1.36. This effect of Rajgira accompanied the increased endogenous spleen colonies and the spleen weight without any side effect or toxicity, as well as the modulation of the radiation-induced decrease of reduced glutathione and the radiation-induced increase in lipid peroxidation assessed in the liver and the blood. PMID:15988142

  3. Contraceptive studies of isolated fractions of Cuminum cyminum in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Poonam; Gupta, Rajnish; Gupta, R S

    2015-01-01

    The contraceptive efficacy of Cuminum cyminum isolated fractions (CcFr) in male albino rats was investigated. Oral dose of CcFr at 50 mg/rat/day for 60 days revealed no significant changes in body weight, while marked abnormalities in spermatogenesis were observed with decreased counts (P ≤ 0.001) in round spermatids, preleptotene spermatocytes and secondary spermatocytes. Cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells as well as number of mature Leydig cell were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.001). Testicular as well as accessory sex organ biochemical parameters were significantly changed (P ≤ 0.001). Sperm motility, density and morphology were resulted in 100% negative fertility. Testosterone levels were declined significantly. In conclusion, Cuminum cyminum inhibited spermatogenesis in rats, indicating the possibility of developing an herbal male contraceptive. PMID:25675391

  4. Anti-seizure activity of flower extracts of Nepeta bractaeta in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Aslam, Mohammad; Ansari, Shahid; Nizami, Qudsia; Khanam, Razia; Siddiqui, Aisha; Ahmad, Mohd Aftab

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked, recurring seizures that disrupts the nervous system and can cause mental and physical dysfunction. Based on the ethno pharmacological information of the plant, the methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bractaeta was evaluated for its antiepileptic activity. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bracteata were observed for their antiepileptic activity by increased current Electroshock seizures (ICES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in ICES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. In ICES model, NBAE at higher dose showed 16.7 % and NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure and in PTZ model, NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure. From the experiments performed, it can be said that Nepeta bractaeta does possess anticonvulsant property.

  5. Impact of acute and chronic stress hormone on male albino rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Han, Li-Li; Chen, Ling; Dong, Zhi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to evaluate the acute and chronic effect of stress (stress hormone) in male albino rat brain. Nor-epinephrine was used for the treatment and saline used for the control. Nor-epinephrine was dissolved in the saline and administered orally to the rats. Following nor-epinephrine administration, the brain was removed surgically at 6 h, 12 h and 45 days. Alanine tansaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly altered in the rats. Lipid peroxidation was measured as malondialdehyde (MDA), showed altered lipid peroxidation. Hematological markers such as packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cells (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocytes and hemoglobin were significantly altered compared to controls. Altered serum biochemical and hematological markers, lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities leads to adverse effect in the cellular metabolism and physiological activities of rats. PMID:26261571

  6. Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Jyoti; Yadav, Mridul; Sood, Sushma; Dahiya, Kiran; Singh, Veena

    2010-10-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent. PMID:21455446

  7. Anti-seizure activity of flower extracts of Nepeta bractaeta in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Aslam, Mohammad; Ansari, Shahid; Nizami, Qudsia; Khanam, Razia; Siddiqui, Aisha; Ahmad, Mohd Aftab

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked, recurring seizures that disrupts the nervous system and can cause mental and physical dysfunction. Based on the ethno pharmacological information of the plant, the methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bractaeta was evaluated for its antiepileptic activity. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bracteata were observed for their antiepileptic activity by increased current Electroshock seizures (ICES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in ICES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. In ICES model, NBAE at higher dose showed 16.7 % and NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure and in PTZ model, NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure. From the experiments performed, it can be said that Nepeta bractaeta does possess anticonvulsant property. PMID:27540346

  8. Salty solutions: their effects on thermal set points in behavioral repertoires of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vitulli, W F; Aker, R; Howard, S W; Jones, W M; Kimball, M W; Quinn, J M

    1994-08-01

    Salt (sodium chloride) has been linked to increased blood pressure and a rise in core body temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate the role played by salt in altering behavioral thermoregulation in albino rats. Different doses of sodium chloride were administered (ip) prior to fixed-interval 2-min. schedules of microwave reinforcement in rats tested in a cold Skinner Box. Three Sprague-Dawley rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with 5-sec. exposures of MW reinforcement in a repeated-measures reversal design. Friedman's non-parametric test showed significant differences among sodium chloride doses and physiologically normal saline. Post hoc sign tests showed that all doses of NaCl suppressed operant behavior for heat except 60 mg/kg. The hypothesis that sodium chloride lowers hypothalamic set point for heat was partially supported. PMID:7991311

  9. Anticonvulsant activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Melissa parviflora in experimentally induced Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Nizami, Qudsia; Asiaf, Asia; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Ahmad, Shiekh Tanveer; Aslam, Mohammad; Khanam, Razia; Mujeeb, Mohammad; Umar, Sadiq; Siddiqi, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of whole plant extracts of Melissa parviflora using MES and PTZ induced seizures models. The dried whole plant was subjected to extraction in methanol and water. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical tests and the carbohydrate, flavonols, coumarins, glycosides and steroid were found to be present. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant of Melissa parviflora were observed for their anticonvulsant activity by Maximal Electroshock seizures (MES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in MES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. From the literature surveys as well experiments performed, it can be said that Melissa parviflora does pose anticonvulsant property. PMID:27298604

  10. Effect of Stem Cell Therapy on Induced Diabetic Keratopathy in Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Zickri, Maha Baligh; Ahmad, Nagwa Abdel Wahab; Maadawi, Zeinab Mohamad El; Mohamady, Yasmin Kamal; Metwally, Hala Gabr

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a prevalent disorder. Diabetic keratopathy is a well-known ocular complication secondary to type 2 DM. Topical insulin application did not affect apoptosis and necrosis levels in corneal epithelium. Autologous cell transplantation is not a viable option for diabetic patients with bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency. The present study aimed at assessing the possible effect of hemopoeitic stem cell (HSC) therapy on induced diabetic keratopathy in albino rat. Methods and Results: Fifteen male albino rats were divided into control group of 2 rats, diabetic group of 8 rats receiving single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). 3 animals were sacrificed 6 weeks following confirmation of diabetes to confirm keratopathy and 5 rats were sacrificed 4 weeks following confirmation of keratopathy. SC therapy group included 5 rats injected with HSCs 6 weeks following confirmation of diabetes and sacrificed 4 weeks following SC therapy. Cord blood collection, stem cells isolation and labeling were performed. Eye specimens were subjected to histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, morphometric and statistical studies. In diabetic group, the central cornea showed multiple cells with vacuolated cytoplasm and dark nuclei, focal epithelial discontinuity, reduced corneal thickness and less number of layers of corneal and conjunctival epithelia. In stem cell therapy group, few cells with vacuolated cytoplasm and dark nuclei were found in the corneal and conjunctival epithelia with more number of epithelial layers. Conclusions: A definite ameliorating effect of HSC therapy was detected on diabetic keratopathy. The therapeutic cells were effective in limiting corneal epithelial changes. PMID:24298355

  11. Albino Leaf1 That Encodes the Sole Octotricopeptide Repeat Protein Is Responsible for Chloroplast Development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zemin; Tan, Jianjie; Shi, Zhenying; Xie, Qingjun; Xing, Yi; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Qiaoling; Zhu, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Zhang, Jingliu; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-06-01

    Chloroplast, the photosynthetic organelle in plants, plays a crucial role in plant development and growth through manipulating the capacity of photosynthesis. However, the regulatory mechanism of chloroplast development still remains elusive. Here, we characterized a mutant with defective chloroplasts in rice (Oryza sativa), termed albino leaf1 (al1), which exhibits a distinct albino phenotype in leaves, eventually leading to al1 seedling lethality. Electronic microscopy observation demonstrated that the number of thylakoids was reduced and the structure of thylakoids was disrupted in the al1 mutant during rice development, which eventually led to the breakdown of chloroplast. Molecular cloning revealed that AL1 encodes the sole octotricopeptide repeat protein (RAP) in rice. Genetic complementation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) rap mutants indicated that the AL1 protein is a functional RAP. Further analysis illustrated that three transcript variants were present in the AL1 gene, and the altered splices occurred at the 3' untranslated region of the AL1 transcript. In addition, our results also indicate that disruption of the AL1 gene results in an altered expression of chloroplast-associated genes. Consistently, proteomic analysis demonstrated that the abundance of photosynthesis-associated proteins is altered significantly, as is that of a group of metabolism-associated proteins. More specifically, we found that the loss of AL1 resulted in altered abundances of ribosomal proteins, suggesting that RAP likely also regulates the homeostasis of ribosomal proteins in rice in addition to the ribosomal RNA. Taken together, we propose that AL1, particularly the AL1a and AL1c isoforms, plays an essential role in chloroplast development in rice. PMID:27208287

  12. Effect of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Surekha Devadasa; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady

    2015-01-01

    The issue of male germ line mutagenesis and the effects on developmental defects in the next generation has become increasingly high profile over recent years. Mutagenic substance affects germinal cells in the testis. Since the cells are undergoing different phases of cell division and maturation, it is an ideal system to study the effect of chemotherapeutic agents. There are lacunae in the literature on the effect of sorafenib on gonadal function. With background, a study was planned to evaluate the effects of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice. Male Swiss albino mice were used for the study. The animals were segregated into control, positive control (PC) and three treatment groups. PC received oral imatinib (100 mg/kg body weight) and treatment groups received 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of sorafenib orally for 7 consecutive days at intervals of 24 h between two administrations. The control group remained in the home cage for an equal duration of time to match their corresponding treatment groups. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 1(st), 2(nd), 4(th), 5(th), 7(th), and 10(th) weeks after the last exposure to drug, respectively. Sperm suspensions were prepared and introduced into a counting chamber. Total sperm count and motility were recorded. There was a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm motility by sorafenib which was comparable with the effect of PC imatinib. Sorafenib adversely affects sperm count and sperm motility which are reversible after discontinuation of treatment. PMID:26605157

  13. Duration sensitivity of neurons in the primary auditory cortex of albino mouse.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Qi, Qiaozhen; Huang, Caifei; Chomiak, Taylor; Luo, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Many neurons in the central auditory system of a number of species have been found to be sensitive to the duration of sound stimuli. While previous studies have shown that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic inhibitory input is important for duration sensitivity in the inferior colliculus (IC), it is still unknown whether (GABA)-ergic inhibitory input plays an important role in generating duration sensitivity in the cortex. Using free-field sound stimulation and in vivo extracellular recording, we investigated duration sensitivity in primary auditory cortical (AI) neurons of the Nembutal anesthetized albino mouse (Mus musculus, Km) and examined the effect of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline on AI neuron duration sensitivity. A total of 63 duration tuning curves were measured in AI neurons. Of these, 44% (28/63) exhibited duration sensitive responses, while 43% (27/63) lacked duration sensitivity. The remaining 13% (8/63) exhibited long-pass properties likely reflecting both duration sensitive and insensitive features. We found that duration sensitive neurons had shorter first spike latency (FSL) and longer firing duration (FD) when stimulated with best duration (p < 0.05), while duration insensitive neurons had invariable FSL and FD at different sound durations (p>0.05). Furthermore, 60% (6/10) of duration sensitive neurons and 75% (3/4) long-pass neurons lost duration sensitivity following bicuculline application. Taken together, our results show that cortical neurons in the albino mouse are sensitive to sound duration, and that GABAergic inhibition may play an important role in the formation of de novo duration sensitivity in AI. The possible mechanism and behavioral significance of duration sensitivity in AI neurons is discussed. PMID:26529681

  14. Effect of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Surekha Devadasa; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady

    2015-01-01

    The issue of male germ line mutagenesis and the effects on developmental defects in the next generation has become increasingly high profile over recent years. Mutagenic substance affects germinal cells in the testis. Since the cells are undergoing different phases of cell division and maturation, it is an ideal system to study the effect of chemotherapeutic agents. There are lacunae in the literature on the effect of sorafenib on gonadal function. With background, a study was planned to evaluate the effects of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice. Male Swiss albino mice were used for the study. The animals were segregated into control, positive control (PC) and three treatment groups. PC received oral imatinib (100 mg/kg body weight) and treatment groups received 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of sorafenib orally for 7 consecutive days at intervals of 24 h between two administrations. The control group remained in the home cage for an equal duration of time to match their corresponding treatment groups. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, and 10th weeks after the last exposure to drug, respectively. Sperm suspensions were prepared and introduced into a counting chamber. Total sperm count and motility were recorded. There was a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm motility by sorafenib which was comparable with the effect of PC imatinib. Sorafenib adversely affects sperm count and sperm motility which are reversible after discontinuation of treatment. PMID:26605157

  15. Aloe vera toxic effects: expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in testis of Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Asgharzade, Samira; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud; Mirzaeian, Amin; Reiisi, Somaye; Salimzadeh, Loghman

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Nitric oxide (NO), a product of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), contributes in germ cell apoptosis. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of Aloe vera gel (AVG) on male Wistar rat reproductive organ, serum NO level, and expression of iNOS gene in leydig cells. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (n=36) were used for experiments in three groups. The experimental groups were orally administered with the AVG extract solution once-daily as follow: 150 mg.kg-1; group A, 300 mg.kg-1; group B, and only normal saline; group C (control group). They were mated with untreated females and the reproductive and chemical parameters were assessed for each group, including semen quality, serum testosterone, sperm fertility, gonad and body weight, serum NO concentration (by the Griess method), and iNOS gene expression (using RT-PCR). Results: The testes weight, serum testosterone, as well as sperm count and fertility of the AVG treated groups were significantly reduced when compared to the control (P<0.001). Concentration of serum NO was significantly increased (37.1±4.63 µM) in the administrated group with higher AVG concentration, compared to the control group (P<0.001; 10.19±0.87 µM); however, iNOS mRNA expression was increased in the treated animals (P<0.001). Conclusion: iNOS may play a functional role in spermatogenesis via apoptosis, reducing sperm count, but further studies are needed to illustrate the mechanisms by which AVG exerts its negative effects on spermatogenesis and sperm quality. PMID:26730330

  16. Effects of post-weaning social isolation and environment al enrichment on exploratory behavior and ankiety in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tanaś, Łukasz; Ostaszewski, Paweł; Iwan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Adverse early experience is generally regarded as a risk factor for both externalizing and internalizing behavioral disorders in humans. It can be modeled in rats by a post-weaning social isolation procedure. Effects of social isolation might possibly be ameliorated by environmental enrichment. In the current study, 24 male Wistar rats were divided post-weaning into four rearing conditions: control, environmental enrichment (EE), social isolation (SI) and a combination of the two experimental conditions; (EE+SI). Two observations of the effects of rearing conditions on the rate of social and object interactions were conducted during the juvenile and post-pubertal stages of development. The SI condition led to a marked increase of social interactions during the juvenile phase, but did not affect object interactions. The EE condition increased the level of social interactions during both the juvenile and post-pubertal measurements. The effects of early rearing conditions on adult exploratory behavior were less clear, with a significant difference between the groups obtained in one of three behavioral tests. Results suggest a general robustness in the development of adult exploratory behavior and anxiety when rats were exposed to early social isolation and provided brief opportunities for social play during the juvenile period. Further studies, aimed at distinguishing play-related protective factors serving against long-term adverse effects of juvenile social isolation, are suggested. PMID:25856524

  17. Urantide alleviates monocrotaline induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yifang; Jin, Hong; Tian, Wei; Wang, Hao; Wang, Han; Zhao, Yanping; Zhang, Zhiyi; Meng, Fanchao

    2011-08-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a serious disorder with poor prognosis. Urotensin II (UII) has been confirmed to be powerful vasoconstrictor than endothelin-1, which may play an important role in PAH development. The aim of this study is to observe the effects of urantide, a UII receptor antagonist, on monocrotaline (MCT) induced PAH in rats. 60 male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. For early treatment experiment, rats were divided into normal control group, MCT(4w) model group (MCT + saline × 3 wks from the 8th day of MCT injection) and urantide early treatment group (MCT + urantide 10 μg/kg/d × 3 wks, 1 week after MCT injection once). For late treatment experiment, rats were divided as controls, MCT(6w) model group (MCT + saline × 2 wks, 4 weeks after MCT injection once) and urantide late treatment group (MCT + urantide 10 μg/kg/d × 2 wks, 4 weeks after MCT injection once). At the end of experiments, mean pulmonary arterial pressures (mPAP) and mean blood pressure (MBP) of rats in each group were measured by catheterization. Right ventricular weight ratio was also weighed. Relaxation effects of urantide on intralobar pulmonary arterial rings of normal control and MCT(4w) model rats were investigated. Pulmonary artery remodeling was detected by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemistry analysis. Serum nitric oxide (NO) levels in all six groups were assayed by ELISA kits. Urantide markedly reduced the mPAP levels of MCT induced PAH in both early and late treatment groups. It didn't change the MBP. Urantide dose-dependently relaxed the pulmonary arterial rings of normal control and MCT(4w) model rats. Moreover, N(G)-Nitro-l-arginine Methyl Ester (l-NAME) blocked the dilation response induced by urantide. In addition, urantide inhibited the pulmonary vascular remodeling remarkably. Serum NO level elevated in both early and late treatment rats with urantide infusion. These results suggest that urantide effectively alleviated

  18. Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Oller, Adriana R. Kirkpatrick, Daniel T.; Radovsky, Ann; Bates, Hudson K.

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m{sup 3} nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 {mu}m, GSD = 2.4 {mu}m) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m{sup 3} nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies.

  19. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    PubMed Central

    Siouda, Wafa; Abdennour, Cherif

    2015-01-01

    . Conclusion: Nettle leaves have not only played a clear protective role during Hg intoxication, but it also enhanced hepatic, renal and testicular GSH level of Wistar rats. PMID:27047060

  20. Behavioral, Ventilatory and Thermoregulatory Responses to Hypercapnia and Hypoxia in the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) Strain

    PubMed Central

    Giusti, Humberto; Oliveira, José Antonio; Glass, Mogens Lesner; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the behavioral, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses elicited by acute exposure to both hypercapnic and hypoxic environments in Wistar audiogenic rats (WARs). The WAR strain represents a genetic animal model of epilepsy. Methods Behavioral analyses were performed using neuroethological methods, and flowcharts were constructed to illustrate behavioral findings. The body plethysmography method was used to obtain pulmonary ventilation (VE) measurements, and body temperature (Tb) measurements were taken via temperature sensors implanted in the abdominal cavities of the animals. Results No significant difference was observed between the WAR and Wistar control group with respect to the thermoregulatory response elicited by exposure to both acute hypercapnia and acute hypoxia (p>0.05). However, we found that the VE of WARs was attenuated relative to that of Wistar control animals during exposure to both hypercapnic (WAR: 133 ± 11% vs. Wistar: 243 ± 23%, p<0.01) and hypoxic conditions (WAR: 138 ± 8% vs. Wistar: 177 ± 8%; p<0.01). In addition, we noted that this ventilatory attenuation was followed by alterations in the behavioral responses of these animals. Conclusions Our results indicate that WARs, a genetic model of epilepsy, have important alterations in their ability to compensate for changes in levels of various arterial blood gasses. WARs present an attenuated ventilatory response to an increased PaCO2 or decreased PaO2, coupled to behavioral changes, which make them a suitable model to further study respiratory risks associated to epilepsy. PMID:27149672

  1. Evaluation of protein undernourishment on the condylar process of the Wistar rat mandible correlation with insulin receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    CAVALLI, Marcelo Arthur; GONÇALVES, Aline; PEREIRA, Joice Naiara Bertaglia; SILVA, Jodonai Barbosa; BOLDRINI, Silvia de Campos; LIBERTI, Edson Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    The mandible condylar process cartilage (CP) of Wistar rats is a secondary cartilage and acts as a mandibular growth site. This phenomenon depends on adequate proteins intake and hormone actions, including insulin. Objectives The present study evaluated the morphological aspects and the expression of the insulin receptor (IR) in the cartilage of the condylar process (CP) of rats subjected to protein undernourishment. Material and Methods The nourished group received a 20% casein diet, while the undernourished group (U) received a 5% casein diet. The re-nourished groups, R and RR, were used to assess the effects of re-nutrition during puberty and adulthood, respectively. CPs were processed and stained with picro-sirius red, safranin-O and azocarmine. Scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry were also performed. Results The area of the CP cartilage and the number of cells in the chondroblastic layer decreased in the U group, as did the thickness of the CP layer in the joint and hypertrophic layer. Renourishment during the pubertal stage, but not during the adult phase, restored these parameters. The cell number was restored when re-nutrition occurred in the pubertal stage, but not in the adult phase. The extracellular matrix also decreased in the U group, but was restored by re-nutrition during the pubertal stage and further increased in the adult phase. IR expression was observed in all CPs, being higher in the chondroblastic and hypertrophic cartilage layers. The lowest expression was found in the U and RR groups. Conclusions Protein malnutrition altered the cellularity, the area, and the fibrous cartilage complex, as well as the expression of the IRs. PMID:26018304

  2. Changes in the blood lipid profile after administration of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaves in the normal albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, A; Lavania, S C; Pandey, D N; Pant, M C

    1994-10-01

    Administration of fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) mixed as 1 g and 2 g in 100 gms of diet given for four weeks, brought about significant changes in the lipid profile of normal albino rabbits. This resulted in significant lowering in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid and LDL-cholesterol levels and significant increase in the HDL-cholesterol and total faecal sterol contents. PMID:7883302

  3. Effect of green tea (camellia sinensis l.) leaf extract on reproductive system of adult male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Shyamal Kanti; Karmakar, Soumendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    Green tea leaf extract (GTLE), used in this experiment has shown great influence on male reproductive system functionally as well as morphologically. The extract was prepared according to the method of Wei. H. et al. The extract was given to two different experimental animal groups with two different doses during 26 consecutive days. After treatment it was found that, the weight of the testis was markedly reduced instead of normal weight gain of all the animals. The sperm count and motility were reduced for the treated groups as compared with control animal group. The enzymes like SGPT and SGOT were as usual and other blood parameters like glucose and protein were also as usual comparing with controlled group. Testosterone level was reduced in the treated groups. FSH and LH levels were also altered accordingly in treated groups. Histological examination showed inhibition of spermatogenesis as evidenced by disintegration of seminiferous tubules of testis. Result of this study showed that GTLE has potent castrative effect on male reproductive system in dose dependent manner. PMID:27073594

  4. Zinc sulphate and vitamin E alleviate reproductive toxicity caused by aluminium sulphate in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Rawi, Sayed M; Seif Al Nassr, Fatma M

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the reproductive toxicity of aluminium sulphate and the therapeutic effects of administration of zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination against the toxic effect caused by aluminium (Al) in male albino rats. The animals were divided into five groups: group 1 received distilled water and served as control; group 2 received only aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)); group 3 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) plus zinc sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.); group 4 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) and vitamin E (15 mg/kg b.w.); group 5 received aluminium sulphate plus a combination of zinc sulphate and vitamin E in similar doses as above. Doses were administered orally once daily for 45 consecutive days. The results revealed that aluminium sulphate induced significant decrease in body weight gain and testis weight and significant increase in Al level in both serum and testes of male rats. Biochemical analysis showed significant decrease in serum total protein and phospholipids levels, while serum total lipid was significantly elevated post Al treatment. In addition, significant decrease in total protein, phospholipids and cholesterol levels in the testes of Al-treated rats was recorded. The data also showed significant decrease in the levels of serum testosterone, leutinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone and significant increase in the level of serum prolactin in Al-intoxicated rats. Moreover, histological examination showed that aluminium sulphate caused apparent alterations in the testicular structure of the treated animals. Treatment with zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination ameliorated the harmful effects of Al, which was proved histopathologically by the noticeable improvement in the testicular tissues. We can conclude that the tested dose of aluminium sulphate induced toxic effect on the reproductive system of male albino rats and the treatment with

  5. Vertebral muscles of the back and tail of the albino rat (Rattus norvegicus albinus).

    PubMed

    Brink, E E; Pfaff, D W

    1980-01-01

    The dorsal and ventral vertebral muscles of the back and the tail of the albino Norway rat are described and discussed. These muscles were analyzed because they are undoubtably used during the sexual posturing, lordosis, of the female rat, as well as participating in a variety of other behaviors. The muscles are described by region (thoracic-lumbar or sacrocaudal), and the classifications of Vallois are followed where possible. Of the epaxial (dorsal) muscles, the three longitudinal systems of muscles, the transversospinalis, the longissimus, and the iliocostalis systems, can be identified in the albino rat. Muscles of the transversospinalis system are fused in the lumbar region, distinct and specialized in the thoracic region, and form the tail muscle extensor caudae medialis caudally. The iliocostalis system of the lumbar region is fused with one component of the lumbar longissimus system to form lateral longissimus. Anteriorly, iliocostalis thoracis and cervicis represent the iliocostalis system. The lumbar longissimus system is represented by the longissimus component of lateral longissimus, medial longissimus, and a short-fiber component. Longissimus dorsi is the anterior continuation of the longissimus portion of the lateral longissimus. The short-fiber component also continues into the thoracic region, where it becomes difficult to separate out from longissimus dorsi. Medial longissimus represents the excursion into the lumbar region of the long, tendinous, tailbase-tail muscle, longissimus caudae; the caudal portion of this muscle is extensor caudae lateralis. The remaining dorsal muscle described is the tail muscle, abductor caudae dorsalis. The hyposomal (ventral) muscles described are quadratus lumborum and the intertransversarii, present in the lumbar region; the muslces iliococcygeus, pubococcygeus and coccygeus which arise from the medial face of the pelvis and insert onto the proximal tail; the long, tendinous, tail muscles, flexor caudae brevis and

  6. Evaluation of Diuretic Activity of Alcoholic Extract of Roots of Cissampelos Pareira in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khanwelkar, Chitra C.; Nimmagadda, Venkat Rao; Dasi, Jeevan Mani Babu; Chavan, Vasant R.; Kutani, Aruna; Kotagiri, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Background: In congestive heart failure, nephritis, toxemia of pregnancy, premenstrual tension and hypertension associated with oedema diuretic compounds are much helpful to relieve these conditions. Aims: To study the diuretic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira by Lipschitz method in albino rats. Methods and Material: Five groups of Albino rats were used to evaluate the diuretic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira by using metabolic cages. The group I serves as normal control received vehicle (2% CMC in normal saline), group II with Furosemide (10 mg/Kg, p.o), Groups III, IV and V with low (100 mg/kg), medium (200 mg/kg), and high (400 mg/kg) doses of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira respectively. Immediately after the alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira treatment all the rats were hydrated with saline (15 ml/kg, p.o) and 2 animals placed in each metabolic cage, kept at 21°C±0.5°C. No food and water was made available to animals for 5 hour. The total volume of urine collected with each metabolic cage was measured at the end of 5 hour. Various parameters like total urine volume and concentration of different ions i.e.; Sodium, Potassium , Chloride in the urine were measured. Results: In this model when compared to control group the alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira treated groups at different dose levels (100,200 and 400 mg/kg) have noted with significant increase in the urine volume and also significantly enhanced the excretion of Sodium, Potassium and Chloride ions in urine. Conclusion: Results showed that single dose administration of standard Furosemide and alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira significantly (p<0.05*, p<0.01**, p<0.001***) increased the urine output along with an increase in elimination of Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride ions. Alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira 400 mg/Kg produced a comparable diuretic activity with

  7. Mortality associated with using medetomidine and ketamine for general anesthesia in pregnant and nonpregnant Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Lauren M; Ross, Simone M; Jones, Megan L; Musk, Gabrielle C

    2014-06-01

    Medetomidine and ketamine are injectable drugs that can be used in combination to induce general anesthesia in rats. After noticing a high incidence of morbidity and mortality in pregnant Wistar rats given medetomidine and ketamine for anesthesia, the authors further investigated the effects of this combination of anesthetic drugs in both pregnant and nonpregnant Wistar rats. The time to recumbency and the duration of general anesthesia were similar between pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Pregnancy status did not affect the rats' pulse rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, oxygen saturation or perfusion index during 2 h of anesthesia. Pregnant rats had significantly lower blood glucose concentrations than nonpregnant rats at all time points, though blood glucose concentrations increased in both groups. The mortality rate was ∼15% both for nonpregnant rats and for pregnant rats. Researchers using medetomidine and ketamine to anesthetize Wistar rats should carefully monitor the rats in order to minimize mortality. PMID:24845007

  8. Effect of Phyllanthus amarus on serum biochemical changes in azaserine induced pancreatic cancer in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Ankit S.; Raval, Sunant K.; Sinha, Suprita; Varia, Tapan N.; Mashiyava, Parimal H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was performed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus amarus extracts on serum biochemical changes in azaserine induced pancreatic cancer in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Pancreatic cancer was developed in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of azaserine (cancer inducer) for 21 days at the concentration of 5 mg/kg body weight. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts were given to rats of different groups as per protocol. Results: The results data revealed that oral administration of P. amarus extracts had a significant change in pancreatic amylase, lipase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase activity. Conclusion: We concluded that extract of P. amarus possessed chemoprotective activity against azaserine induced pancreatic cancer in Wistar rats. PMID:27047180

  9. Assessment of Immunotoxicity of Dextran Coated Ferrite Nanoparticles in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Syama, Santhakumar; Gayathri, Viswanathan; Mohanan, Parayanthala Valappil

    2015-01-01

    In this study, dextran coated ferrite nanoparticles (DFNPs) of size <25 nm were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and oxidative stress by in vitro and in vivo methods. Cytotoxicity was performed in vitro using splenocytes with different concentrations of DFNPs. Gene expression of selected cytokines (IL-1, IL-10, and TNF β) secretion by splenocytes was evaluated. Also, 100 mg of DFNPs was injected intraperitoneally to 18 albino mice for immunological stimulations. Six animals each were sacrificed at the end of 7, 14, and 21 days. Spleen was subjected to immunotoxic response and liver was analyzed for antioxidant parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase). The results indicated that DFNPs failed to induce any immunological reactions and no significant alternation in antioxidant defense mechanism. Also, mRNA expression of the cytokines revealed an increase in IL-10 expression and subsequent decreased expression of IL-1 and TNF β. Eventually, DNA sequencing of liver actin gene revealed base alteration in nonconserved regions (10–20 bases) of all the treated groups when compared to control samples. Hence, it can be concluded that the DFNPs were nontoxic at the cellular level and nonimmunotoxic when exposed intraperitoneally to mice. PMID:26576301

  10. Experimental transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi through the genitalia of albino mice.

    PubMed

    Herrera, L; Urdaneta-Morales, S

    2001-07-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is usually transmitted by contact with the excreta of infected Triatominae; among non-vectorial infections, direct transmission through coitus has been proposed. We investigated this possibility by instilling, through the external meatus of the vagina and the penis of previously anesthetized NMRI albino mice, blood of mice infected with strains isolated from Didelphis marsupialis (opossum, strain CO57), Rattus rattus (rat, strain CO22) and human (strain EP). Some animals were allowed to copulate the same day of the instillation. In other experiments, the strains were inoculated in the scrotum. To determine the effect of immunosuppression, some mice were treated with cyclophosphamide 30 days post-instillation. Controls were instilled orally and ocularly. Vaginal instillation with strain CO22 produced systemic infection with tropism to the heart, skeletal muscle, skin, duodenum, pancreas, ovary and sternum. Scrotal inoculation with strain EP likewise invaded liver, spleen, lung, lymph nodes and urogenital organs; while strain CO57 invaded skeletal and cardiac muscle, pancreas, testis, and vas deferens. Penile infection with strain CO22 was detected by xenodiagnosis. Immunosuppression did not increase parasitemia of vaginally infected mice or controls. Mating did not produce infection. Our results show that contact of blood trypomastigotes of T. cruzi with genital mucosa can produce blood and tissue infections. These results are discussed in relation to reports of frequent experimental tropism of T. cruzi toward urogenital organs. PMID:11500777

  11. Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Extract Ameliorates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lodhi, Poonam; Tandan, Neeraj; Singh, Neera; Kumar, Divyansh; Kumar, Monu

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis or green tea extract (AQGTE) in chronic ethanol-induced albino rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups in the study for a 5-week duration. 50% ethanol was given orally to the rats with two doses (5 mg/kg bw and 10 mg/kg bw) of AQGTE. Ethanol administration caused a significant increase in the levels of plasma and serum enzymatic markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and nonenzymatic markers (cholesterol and triglycerides), lipid peroxidation contents, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and decreased the activities of total proteins, albumin, and cellular antioxidant defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD). The elevation and reduction in these biochemical enzymes caused the damage in hepatocytes histologically due to the high production of ROS, which retards the antioxidant defense capacity of cell. AQGTE was capable of recovering the level of these markers and the damaged hepatocytes to their normal structures. These results support the suggestion that AQGTE was able to enhance hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in vivo against ethanol-induced toxicity. PMID:25254057

  12. Neuroprotective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium toxicity in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    El-Tarras, Adel El-Sayed; Attia, Hossam Fouad; Soliman, Mohammed Mohamed; El Awady, Mohammed Abdelhamid; Amin, Adnan Abelghani

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium toxicity can disturb brain chemistry leading to depression, anxiety, and weakened immunity. Cadmium disturbs the neurotransmitter dopamine, resulting in low energy, lack of motivation, and depression, which are predisposing factors for violence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the brain of 40 male albino rats after exposure to cadmium chloride (Cd) toxicity. The rats were separated into either the control group, the Cd group, the GSE group, or the GSE and Cd mixture (treated) group. The cerebrum showed evidence of degeneration of some nerve fibers and cells. Fibrosis, vacuolations, and congestion in the blood vessels were demonstrated. Satelletosis was located in the capsular cells. Immunohistochemical expression of Bax was strongly positive in the Cd group and decreased in the treated group. These histopathological changes were decreased in the brain tissue of the treated group, but a few blood vessels still had evidence of congestion. Cadmium administration increased the level of MDA and decreased MAO-A, acetylcholinesterase, and glutathione reductase (GR), while the treatment with GSE affected the alterations in these parameters. In addition, cadmium downregulated the mRNA expression levels of GST and GPx, while GSE treatment normalized the transcript levels. The expression of both dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter was downregulated in the rats administered cadmium and the addition of GSE normalized the expression of these aggression associated genes. PMID:27271977

  13. Inhibition of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma by Manilkara zapota L. stem bark in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Osman, M Abu; Rashid, M Mamunur; Aziz, M Abdul; Habib, M Rowshahul; karim, M Rezaul

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antitumor activity of Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) L. stem bark against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods The in vivo antitumour activity of the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. (EASM) was evaluated at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg bw against EAC using mean survival time. After administration of the extract of M. zapota, viable EAC cell count and body weight in the EAC tumour hosts were observed. The animal was also observed for improvement in the haematological parameters (e.g., heamoglobin content, red and white blood cells count and differential cell count) after EASM treatment. Results Intraperitoneal administration of EASM reduced viable EAC cells, increased the survival time, and restored altered haematological parameters. Significant efficacy was observed for EASM at 100 mg/kg dose (P<0.05). Conclusions It can be concluded that the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. possesses significant antitumour activity. PMID:23569811

  14. Antitumour effect of Diospyros cordifolia bark on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudipta; Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Pramanik, Goutam; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2012-01-01

    Diospyros cordifolia Roxb. (Ebenaceae), commonly known as Indian ebony, is used traditionally for several medicinal purposes. In this study, the methanol extract of D. cordifolia bark (MEDC) was evaluated for its antitumour effect against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing Swiss albino mice. Twenty-four hours after intraperitoneal inoculation of tumour (EAC) cells in mice, MEDC was administered intraperitoneally at 25 and 50 mg kg⁻¹ bodyweight for 9 consecutive days. On the 10th day, half of the mice were sacrificed to determine the tumour volume, viable and non-viable tumour cell counts, and rest were kept alive for the assessment of median survival time and increase in life span. Haematological profiles were also determined. MEDC exhibited a marked decrease in tumour growth parameters and increased the survival rate of EAC-bearing animals. MEDC normalised the haematological parameters as compared with the EAC control mice. Therefore, this study demonstrated that D. cordifolia bark possessed remarkable antitumour efficacy. PMID:21985607

  15. Microspore embryogenesis: assignment of genes to embryo formation and green vs. albino plant production.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Amatriaín, M; Svensson, J T; Castillo, A M; Close, T J; Vallés, M P

    2009-08-01

    Plant microspores can be reprogrammed from their normal pollen development to an embryogenic route in a process termed microspore embryogenesis or androgenesis. Stress treatment has a critical role in this process, inducing the dedifferentiation of microspores and conditioning the following androgenic response. In this study, we have used three barley doubled haploid lines with similar genetic background but different androgenic response. The Barley1 GeneChip was used for transcriptome comparison of these lines after mannitol stress treatment, allowing the identification of 213 differentially expressed genes. Most of these genes belong to the functional categories "cell rescue, defense, and virulence"; "metabolism"; "transcription"; and "transport". These genes were grouped into clusters according to their expression profiles among lines. A principal component analysis allowed us to associate specific gene expression clusters to phenotypic variables. Genes associated with the ability of microspores to divide and form embryos were mainly involved in changes in the structure and function of membranes, efficient use of available energy sources, and cell fate. Genes related to stress response, transcription and translation regulation, and degradation of pollen-specific proteins were associated with green plant production, while expression of genes related to plastid development was associated with albino plant regeneration. PMID:19229567

  16. Vetiver oil (Java) attenuates cisplatin-induced oxidative stress, nephrotoxicity and myelosuppression in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sonali; Jothiramajayam, Manivannan; Ghosh, Manosij; Jana, Aditi; Chatterji, Urmi; Mukherjee, Anita

    2015-07-01

    Clinical efficacy of the widely used anticancer drug cisplatin is limited due to its adverse side effects in normal tissues mediated by oxidative stress. This study was aimed to investigate the protective effects of vetiver acetate oil, Java (VO) against cisplatin-induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice. The ameliorating potential was evaluated by orally priming the animals with VO at doses 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg bw for 7 days prior to cisplatin treatment. Acute toxicity in mice was induced by injecting cisplatin (3 mg/kg bw) intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days. Significant attenuation of renal toxicity was confirmed by histopathological examination, lowered levels of serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and reduced DNA damage. VO also compensated deficits in the renal antioxidant system. VO intervention significantly inhibited DNA damage, clastogenic effects, and cell cycle arrest in the bone marrow cells of mice. Hematological parameters indicated attenuation of cisplatin-induced myelosuppression. Overall, this study provides for the first time that VO has a protective role in the abatement of cisplatin-induced toxicity in mice which may be attributed to its antioxidant activity. PMID:25910835

  17. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

  18. The acute lethal dose 50 (LD50) of caffeine in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Richard H

    2016-10-01

    An acute LD50 is a statistically derived amount of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of the animals when given by a specified route as a single dose and the animals observed for a specified time period. Although conducting routine acute toxicity testing in rodents has been criticized, it can serve useful functions and also have practical implications. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) will reflect the acute toxicity of a substance and may require workers to wear protective gear, if appropriate, based on the LD50. There is no information in the scientific published literature which calculates a mean LD50 and standard deviation for caffeine administered orally to rats, using studies performed under good laboratory practice (GLP) or equivalent. This report does that and should be useful to manufacturers, packagers, transporters and regulators of this material. Using data from studies that are reproducible and reliable, the most accurate estimate of the acute LD50 of caffeine administered orally in male albino rats is hereby reported to be 367/mg/kg. PMID:27461039

  19. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K.; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  20. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K

    2010-03-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  1. Radiomodulatory influence of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) leaf extract in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Maharwal, J; Samarth, R M; Saini, M R

    2003-12-01

    Radiomodulatory effect of Rajgira leaf extract against 6, 8 and 10 Gy gamma radiation has been evaluated by 30 day survival of Swiss albino mice. Animals of control groups (untreated irradiated) showed diarrhoea, ruffled hairs, epilation, facial edema and consistent decrease in body weight. These signs were less severe/absent in experimental groups (Rajgira treated irradiated), and recovery in body weight was also early and faster. Thirty day survivability was 66 per cent in control group, exposed to 6 Gy, whereas no animal survived beyond 14 and 10 days after irradiation with 8 and 10 Gy gamma rays respectively. However, 100, 60 and 25 percent survivability was observed in experimental groups at 6, 8 and 10 Gy respectively. Regression analysis of survival data showed that the LD50/30 values were 6.33 and 8.62 Gy for control and experimental animals respectively. The dose reduction factor (DRF) was computed as 1.36. A significant decrease in GSH content and increase in LPO level was observed in control animals, whereas in Rajgira pretreated irradiated animals the level of GSH was recorded significantly higher but LPO level decreased significantly. The results from the present study suggest that Rajgira pretreatment provide protection against gamma irradiation in mice. PMID:14669247

  2. Antispermatogenic Activity of the Benzothiazoline Ligand and Corresponding Organoantimony(V) Derivative in Male Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pankaj K.; Rehwani, H.; Rai, A. K.; Gupta, R. S.; Singh, Y. P.

    2006-01-01

    Triphenylantimony(V) derivative, Ph3Sb(OPri) [SC6H4N : C(CH3)CH2C(O)CH3], 1b, and the corresponding benzothiazoline ligand [1, 2], HNC6H4SC⎴(CH3)CH2C(O)CH3, 1a, have been tested for their effects on the reproductive system of male albino rats. The oral administration of both 1a and 1b at the dose level of 10 mg/rat/day produced significant reduction in the weights of testes, epididymides, seminal vesicles, and ventral prostate. Significant decrease in sperm motility as well as in sperm density resulted in 100% sterility. Significant (P < .01) alterations were also found in biochemical parameters of reproductive organs in treated male rats as compared to the control group. Production of preleptotene, pachytene, and secondary spermatocytes was decreased by 42%, 43%, 39%, and by 44%, 49%, 55% in the ligand, 1a, and organoantimony(V) derivative, 1b, treated rats, respectively. These results indicate that both compounds 1a and 1b are antispermatogenic in nature and on oral administration in male rats, and finally caused sterility. A comparison indicates that the organoantimony(V) derivative 1b is more effective pertaining to its antispermatogenic activity than the corresponding ligand 1a. PMID:17496999

  3. Antiplasmodial Effect of Anthocleista vogelii on Albino Mice Experimentally Infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei (NK 65)

    PubMed Central

    Gboeloh, Lebari Barine; Okon, Okpok Eta; Udoh, Samuel Effiong

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiplasmodial effect of the ethanolic stem bark extract of Anthocleista vogelii at different doses in albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei (NK 65). Thirty-six mice were divided into six groups of six mice each. Five groups (B1–B3, D, and G) were infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei parasitized red blood cells. Groups D, H, and G served as the controls. Six days after infection, mice in groups B1, B2, and B3 were treated orally with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight of Anthocleista vogelii, respectively, for six executive days. Group D was treated with 5 mg/kg body weight of chloroquine while Group G was given distilled water. Group H was not infected and was not treated. It served as the normal control. The extracts exhibited significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent chemosuppression of P. berghei. The extract exhibited average chemosuppressive effects of 48.5%, 78.5%, and 86.6% at dose levels of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Phytochemical screening of the plant extract revealed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, and steroid. The acute toxicity (LD50) of the plant was estimated to be 3162 mg/kg body weight. It showed that the stem bark of A. vogelii possesses antiplasmodial property. PMID:24900913

  4. In vivo DNA damaging and apoptotic potential of silver nanoparticles in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Al Gurabi, Mohammed A; Ali, Daoud; Alkahtani, Saad; Alarifi, Saud

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles can potentially cause adverse effects on organs, tissue, cell levels, and protein levels because of their physicochemical properties. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are being used on a wide scale in world consumer markets; their potential hazards for humans remain largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the intraperitoneal toxicity of AgNPs (26 mg per kg of body weight, 52 mg per kg of body weight, and 78 mg per kg of body weight) over 72 hours in Swiss albino mice. AgNPs induced a significant increase in serum liver injury markers including alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Induction of DNA damage was also studied in mice injected with AgNPs. Apoptosis (detected by using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphatase nick end labeling assay method) in liver tissue and DNA strand breaks (detected by using the comet assay method) in lymphocytes revealed that a concentration of 78 mg of AgNPs per kg body weight can cause significant apoptosis and DNA damage. The DNA damage and apoptosis raise the concern about the safety associated with application of the AgNPs. Significantly more alterations were induced in the hepatocytes of animals exposed to AgNP doses than in the control animals. The induced histological and apoptotic changes may be due to AgNP toxicity. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural of AgNP. PMID:25674004

  5. Autoradiographic localization of tritiated dihydrotestosterone in the flank organ of the albino hamster

    SciTech Connect

    Lucky, A.W.; Eisenfeld, A.J.; Visintin, I.

    1985-02-01

    In the hamster flank organ, the growth of hair and growth of sebaceous glands are androgen-dependent functions. Although dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is known to be a potent stimulator of flank organ growth, there is no information about localization of DHT receptor sites in this organ. The purpose of this study was to use steroid autoradiography to localize DHT receptors in the hamster flank organ. Because steroid hormones are functional when translocated to nuclear receptors, nuclear localization by autoradiography defines receptor sites. In order to be able to visualize autoradiographic grains from radiolabeled androgens around hair follicles, albino hamsters were studied to avoid confusion between the grains and pigment granules which are abundant in the more common Golden Syrian hamster. Mature male hamsters castrated 24 hours earlier were given tritium-labeled dihydrotestosterone ( (/sup 3/H)DHT). Using the technique of thaw-mount steroid autoradiography, 4-micron unfixed frozen sections were mounted in the dark onto emulsion-coated glass slides and allowed to develop for 4-6 months. (/sup 3/H)DHT was found to be concentrated over sebocyte nuclei. The label was present peripherally as well as in differentiating sebocytes. There was no nuclear localization of (/sup 3/H)DHT in animals pretreated with excessive quantities of unlabeled DHT. Steroid metabolites of (/sup 3/H) DHT were assessed by thin-layer chromatography in paired tissue samples. Most of the label remained with DHT. Uptake was inhibited in the flank organ of hamsters pretreated with unlabeled DHT.

  6. Learning and memory impairment in albino rats after potassium ethylxanthogenate. Effects of nootropic agents.

    PubMed

    Genkova-Papasova, M; Lazarova-Bakarova, M

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the nootropic agents piracetam, aniracetam, meclofenoxate and fipexide on the cognitive functions impaired after potassium ethylxanthogenate, inhibitor of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, were tested in experiments on albino rats. The changes in learning and memory were traced by the active conditioned avoidance method with negative reinforcement (shuttle-box) and the passive avoidance method (step-down). Potassium ethylxanthogenate, injected intraperitoneally in a dose of 100 mg/kg, markedly impaired learning and memory with both methods used. Piracetam (600 mg/kg), aniracetam (50 mg/kg), meclofenoxate (100 mg/kg) and fipexide (10 mg/kg), administered orally five days before and five days during shuttle-box training, as well as five days before step-down training, completely prevented the impairing effect of potassium ethylxanthogenate on the cognitive processes. The role of the noradrenergic neurotransmitter system and of other brain transmitter systems for memory disturbances caused by potassium ethylxanthogenate, as well as the protective effect of the nootropic drugs used, are discussed. PMID:1668136

  7. Clastogenic Effects of Glyphosate in Bone Marrow Cells of Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Srivastava, Smita; Singh, Madhulika; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2009-01-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, C3H8NO5P), a herbicide, used to control unwanted annual and perennial plants all over the world. Nevertheless, occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides can pose a threat to nontarget species including human beings. Therefore, in the present study, genotoxic effects of the herbicide glyphosate were analyzed by measuring chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MN) in bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice. A single dose of glyphosate was given intraperitoneally (i.p) to the animals at a concentration of 25 and 50 mg/kg b.wt. Animals of positive control group were injected i.p. benzo(a)pyrene (100 mg/kg b.wt., once only), whereas, animals of control (vehicle) group were injected i.p. dimethyl sulfoxide (0.2 mL). Animals from all the groups were sacrificed at sampling times of 24, 48, and 72 hours and their bone marrow was analyzed for cytogenetic and chromosomal damage. Glyphosate treatment significantly increases CAs and MN induction at both treatments and time compared with the vehicle control (P < .05). The cytotoxic effects of glyphosate were also evident, as observed by significant decrease in mitotic index (MI). The present results indicate that glyphosate is clastogenic and cytotoxic to mouse bone marrow. PMID:20107585

  8. Patulin in apple juice and its risk assessments on albino mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Hazmi, Mansour A

    2014-07-01

    The contamination of apple juice with patulin mycotoxin is a major risk factor in food safety. This study focuses to assess the biochemical and histopathological effects of patulin in apple juice samples collected from different outlets retailing in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. On the basis of the selected dose level, 152.5 ppb patulin/ml was administered daily orally for up to 6 weeks to male albino mice. The exposure to contaminated samples revealed significant elevation of all the studied blood parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities as well as creatinine, urea and uric acid contents). On the other hand, and with regard to the accumulated neuronal toxicity of the tested dose level, the toxic signs were recorded as significant increase in the aggressive and locomotor behavioral changes. In addition, the brain areas monoamines concentration revealed variable increased changes. The potential maximal changes in norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin5-hydroxytryptamine levels attained in cortex, hypothalamus, striatum, hippocampus, midbrain and pons and medulla were assessed. Moreover, the histological examination revealed degeneration and necrosis in liver tissues and degenerated glomeruli and hemorrhage between the tubules of the cortical region in kidney tissues. The study declared that patulin-contaminated (152.5 ppb) apple juice exhibited liver, kidney and neurotoxicological effects in 6 weeks orally administered mice. PMID:23012343

  9. The genome sequencing of an albino Western lowland gorilla reveals inbreeding in the wild

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The only known albino gorilla, named Snowflake, was a male wild born individual from Equatorial Guinea who lived at the Barcelona Zoo for almost 40 years. He was diagnosed with non-syndromic oculocutaneous albinism, i.e. white hair, light eyes, pink skin, photophobia and reduced visual acuity. Despite previous efforts to explain the genetic cause, this is still unknown. Here, we study the genetic cause of his albinism and making use of whole genome sequencing data we find a higher inbreeding coefficient compared to other gorillas. Results We successfully identified the causal genetic variant for Snowflake’s albinism, a non-synonymous single nucleotide variant located in a transmembrane region of SLC45A2. This transporter is known to be involved in oculocutaneous albinism type 4 (OCA4) in humans. We provide experimental evidence that shows that this amino acid replacement alters the membrane spanning capability of this transmembrane region. Finally, we provide a comprehensive study of genome-wide patterns of autozygogosity revealing that Snowflake’s parents were related, being this the first report of inbreeding in a wild born Western lowland gorilla. Conclusions In this study we demonstrate how the use of whole genome sequencing can be extended to link genotype and phenotype in non-model organisms and it can be a powerful tool in conservation genetics (e.g., inbreeding and genetic diversity) with the expected decrease in sequencing cost. PMID:23721540

  10. Behavioral effects of microwave reinforcement schedules and variations in microwave intensity on albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vitulli, W F; Lambert, J K; Brown, S W; Quinn, J M

    1987-12-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to determine the interactive effects of fixed-ratio scheduling of microwave reinforcement in tandem with changes in microwave intensity. Nine albino rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with microwave radiation while living in a Skinner (operant conditioning) Box in which the ambient temperature was about 27.13 degrees F at the beginning of the session. Each rat obtained a 6-sec. exposure of microwave radiation on a fixed-ratio schedule of MW reinforcement, the values of which varied from FR-1 to FR-30. Intensities of MW radiation were 62.5 W, 125 W, 250 W, and 437.5 W. Sessions lasted for 8 to 9 hr. over an approximate 13-mo. period. The effects of the intensity of microwave reinforcement varied as a function of the ratio value of the schedule used. Continuous reinforcement (FR-1) produced the lowest over-all rates, whereas FR-15, and FR-25 produced the highest over-all rates. Relatively higher thermal-behavior rates occurred under 62.5 W than under any of the other MW intensities for FR-1, FR-15, and FR-25, whereas FR-10 and FR-30 ratios produced intermediate rates of thermal responding which were constant for all values of MW intensity. These data are explained in terms of interactive effects between the "local" satiation or deprivation properties of the MW intensity and the ratio requirements of the schedule of MW reinforcement. PMID:3438124

  11. Behavioral effects of microwave reinforcement schedules and variations in microwave intensity on albino rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vitulli, W.F.; Lambert, J.K.; Brown, S.W.; Quinn, J.M.

    1987-12-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to determine the interactive effects of fixed-ratio scheduling of microwave reinforcement in tandem with changes in microwave intensity. Nine albino rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with microwave radiation while living in a Skinner (operant conditioning) Box in which the ambient temperature was about 27.13 degrees F at the beginning of the session. Each rat obtained a 6-sec. exposure of microwave radiation on a fixed-ratio schedule of MW reinforcement, the values of which varied from FR-1 to FR-30. Intensities of MW radiation were 62.5 W, 125 W, 250 W, and 437.5 W. Sessions lasted for 8 to 9 hr. over an approximate 13-mo. period. The effects of the intensity of microwave reinforcement varied as a function of the ratio value of the schedule used. Continuous reinforcement (FR-1) produced the lowest over-all rates, whereas FR-15, and FR-25 produced the highest over-all rates. Relatively higher thermal-behavior rates occurred under 62.5 W than under any of the other MW intensities for FR-1, FR-15, and FR-25, whereas FR-10 and FR-30 ratios produced intermediate rates of thermal responding which were constant for all values of MW intensity. These data are explained in terms of interactive effects between the local satiation or deprivation properties of the MW intensity and the ratio requirements of the schedule of MW reinforcement.

  12. Tuftsin Augments Antitumor Efficacy of Liposomized Etoposide against Fibrosarcoma in Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Arif; Khan, Aijaz A; Dwivedi, Varun; Ahmad, Manzoor G; Hakeem, Seema; Owais, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Anticancer drugs are generally plagued by toxic manifestations at doses necessary for control of various forms of cancer. Incorporating such drugs into liposomes not only reduces toxicity but also enhances the therapeutic index. Some antioxidants and potent immunomodulators have also been shown to impart significant antitumor activity presumably by nonspecific activation of the host immune system. In the present study, we evaluated augmentation of the antitumor activity of etoposide (ETP) by the immunomodulator tuftsin in Swiss albino mice with fibrosarcoma. The efficacies of the free form of ETP, liposomized ETP (Lip-ETP), and tuftsin-bearing liposomized ETP (Tuft-Lip-ETP) formulations were evaluated on the basis of tumor regression, effect on expression level of p53wt and p53mut, and survival of the treated animals. Tuft-Lip-ETP, when administered at a dosage of 10 mg/kg body weight/day for five days, significantly reduced tumor volume, delayed tumor growth, and also up-regulated the expression of p53wt. In contrast, although Lip-ETP delayed tumor growth, it did not decrease tumor size. The results of the present study suggest that tuftsin incorporation in drug-loaded liposomes is a promising treatment strategy for various forms of cancers, including fibrosarcoma. PMID:17622310

  13. [Comparative efficacy of albendazole and mebendazole oily suspensions in albino mice with experimental larval alveococcosis].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, F P; Kukhaleva, I V; Shkoliar, N A; Legon'kov, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    The comparative efficacy of albendazole and mebendazole oily suspensions (AOS and MOS) was studied in an experimental model of experimental larval alveococcosis in albino mice. The animals were intragastrically injected with the agents once daily for 40 days on day 35 after intraperitoneal inoculation with E. multilocularis acephalocysts. They were dissected 29 days after treatment termination (103 days following inoculation) and the rate of infestation and viability and the degree of maturity of developed alveococcosis larvocysts (AL) were determined. The AOS and MOS efficiency estimated by the mean mass of AL per animal was 83.3 and 98.1%, respectively; whereas the similar indicator calculated by one largest AL weight per animal found among all the animals in the compared groups was equal to 57.7 and 96.9%, respectively. Under the equal conditions of solubilization in vegetable oil, the biological activity and bioavailability of mebendazole were shown to increase to a much greater extent than those of albendazole. The findings suggest that the use of mebendazole is promising for designing new vegetable oil-based formulations of the agent. PMID:24003516

  14. [EFFICACY OF A NEW MEBENDAZOLE FORMULATION FOR EXPERIMENTAL ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUS LARVAL INVASION IN ALBINO MICE].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, F P; Kukhaleva, I V; Shkolyar, N A; Legonkov, Yu A; Musaev, G Kh; Bulanova, T E; Samochatova, E I

    2015-01-01

    The problem of echinococcosis has acquired special urgency in Russia in the last 10 years. The dramatically worse epidemiological situation of echinococcosis in the country is suggested by just frequent cases of cystic echinococcosis in the indigenous population of Moscow and its region, including children. Currently, albendazole that is less toxic than mebendazole remains the drug of choice, However, some authors note that E. granulosus larval cysts are moresusceptible to mebendazole than to albendazole. Both drugs mainly show parasitological activity and have no larvicidal effect particularly in larval alveococcosis. Analysis of the results of chemotherapy, with a group of benzimidazole carbamates for echinococcosis in 6 clinical centers from 5 European countries (Italy, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, and Turkey) over the past 30 years showed that the evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness was overestimated; thus, 40% of all parasitic larval cysts that were considered dead became active again after, 2 years after the treatment. The original oil micronized mebendazole suspension tested by us in albino mice with late-stage larval cystic echinococcosis showed the properties of a highly effective and safe systemic larvicide that caused prompt death in the entire parasite population in the treated animals even in extreme hyperinvasion when the baseline parasite weight was greater than the host's one. PMID:26827585

  15. Bisphenol A exposure and healing effects of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. plant extract (APE) in bisphenol A-induced reproductive toxicity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Balal; Amina; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Ruwei; Qadir, Abdul; Ali, Muhammad Ubaid; Kanwal, Qudsia; Munir, Bushra; Asmatullah; Abbas, Zaigham

    2016-06-01

    The current study presents the bisphenol A exposure and the ameliorative effects of Adiantum capillus-veneris on testicular toxicity induced by bisphenol A. Adult male albino rats were divided into five groups of five animals each: A (control), B (vehicle control), C (toxic), D (protective), and E (ameliorative) were served distilled water, olive oil, bisphenol A (BPA) at 100 mg/kg body weight, A. capillus-veneris plant extract at 25 mg/kg body weight, and BPA + A. capillus-veneris, respectively. All of the doses were administered orally for 15 days, and the rats were then sacrificed. Blood samples for the testosterone assay and both testes were collected for histological examination. The body weight, paired testes weight, relative tissue weight index, Johnsen scoring of tubules, and level of serum testosterone decreased in BPA-treated rats. Similarly, histological examination of the testes in BPA-treated animals revealed a lower number of Leydig cells, an irregular basement membrane, sloughing of germinal layers, vacuolization, a lower number of spermatocytes, and debris in the lumen. However, co-administration of A. capillus-veneris with BPA increased the total antioxidative capacity (330.82 ± 22.46 μmol/mg protein) of the testes and restored the serum testosterone level (1.70 ng/ml); histological features showed restoration in the stages of spermatogenesis. Conclusively, A. capillus-veneris plant extract overcomes the estrogenic effects of BPA on the reproductive system of rats and protects rats' testes against BPA-induced injury/damage via an antioxidative mechanism that appears to be conciliated. PMID:26936479

  16. Histological Study on Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy on Experimental Renal Injury Induced by Ischemia/Reperfusion in Male Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Eman Mostafa; Afifi, Noha Mohamed; Elfattah, Lamiaa Ibrahim Abd; Mohsen, Manal Ali Abd-El

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Acute kidney injury (AKI) represents a major clinical problem with high mortality and limited treatment protocols. This study was planned to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of bone marrow - derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) AKI. Methods and Results This study was carried out on thirty adult male albino rats. Animals were divided equally into three groups. Group I (control sham-operated group) (n=10), were subdivided equally into two subgroups; Ia and Ib. The experimental group (n=20) were all subjected to I/R injury by clamping both renal pedicles for 40 minutes. Half of the I/R animals did not receive MSC therapy (group II) [non-MSC treated group]. The other half of the I/R animals received single intravenous injection of PKH26 labelled BM-MSCs immediately after removal of the clamps and visual confirmation of reflow (group III) [MSC treated group]. Animals were sacrificed 24 hrs (subgroups IIa & IIIa) and 72 hrs (subgroups IIb & IIIb) after intervention. Serological measurements included serum urea and creatinine. Kidney specimens were processed for H&E, PAS and PCNA. Mean % of renal corpuscles with affected glomeruli, mean % of affected tubules, mean area % of PAS-positive reaction and mean area % of PCNA immunoreactivity were measured by histomorphometric studies and statistically compared. MSCs-treated group exhibited protection against renal injury serologically and histologically. Conclusions Results of the present study suggest a potential reno-protective capacity of MSCs which could be of considerable therapeutic promise for cell-based management of clinical AKI. PMID:24298374

  17. Impact of an Energy Drink on the Structure of Stomach and Pancreas of Albino Rat: Can Omega-3 Provide a Protection?

    PubMed Central

    Ayuob, Nasra; ElBeshbeishy, Rana

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives A controversy developed between the benefits of energy drinks (EDs) versus the possible health threats since its revolution. Lack of information was a call to assess the effect of chronic consumption of Power Horse (PH) as one of the EDs, on the structure of pancreas and fundic mucosa of stomach in rats, and possible protective role of Omega-3. Materials and Methods Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups; control received group which only received a standard diet, Omega-3 group, PH group which given PH and PH plus Omega-3 group received both PH plus Omega-3 for 4 weeks. Biochemical assessment of blood glucose, serum insulin, gastrin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) was performed. The antioxidant activity and histopathological examination of both pancreatic tissue and fundic mucosa of stomach were assessed. Results Administration of PH significantly increased serum insulin and glucose levels while it significantly reduced serum gastrin level compared to control. PH also caused oxidants/antioxidants imbalance in both pancreas and fundic mucosa. The latter revealed degenerative changes and increased apoptosis which was evident by increased caspase-3 immunoexpression. Pancreas exhibited signs of β-cells overstimulation. Fundic mucosa showed reduced number of parietal cells, gastrin hormone expression compared to control group. Omega-3 administration could alleviate, to some extent, these changes. It significantly decreased TNF-α, iNOS and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as significantly increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities compared to the group which received PH alone. Conclusion Power Horse intake significantly injures islet cells, pancreatic acini as well as the glandular cells of the fundic mucosa. Omega-3 decreases these detrimental effects mostly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action. PMID

  18. Evaluation of Glycemic and Lipid Profile of Offspring of Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Malpighia emarginata Juice

    PubMed Central

    Barbalho, Sandra M.; Damasceno, Débora C.; Spada, Ana Paula Machado; Palhares, Miréia; Martuchi, Karla Aparecida; Oshiiwa, Marie; Sazaki, Viviane; da Silva, Vanessa Sellis

    2011-01-01

    Knowing that maternal diabetes is related to hyperglycemia and fetal hyperinsulinemia, which affect the lipid metabolism, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Malpighia emarginata (acerola) juice on the glycemic and lipid profile of offspring of diabetic and nondiabetic Wistar rats. The adult offspring of non-diabetic dams and of dams with severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes were divided into groups: G1, offspring (of control dams) treated with water, G2, offspring (of diabetic dams) treated with water, G3, male offspring (of control dams) treated with acerola juice, and G4, male offspring (of diabetic dams) treated with acerola juice. The offspring of diabetic dams treated with acerola juice showed significantly decreased levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and increased HDL-c. The use of acerola juice is a potential strategy to aid in the prevention of DM and dyslipidemia and its complications or to act as an auxiliary in the treatment of these diseases. PMID:21318139

  19. Effect of the acupoints ST-36 (Zusanli) and SP-6 (Sanyinjiao) on intestinal myoelectric activity of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tabosa, A; Yamamura, Y; Forno, E R; Mello, L E A M

    2002-06-01

    Despite its ancient use as a therapeutic tool to treat several ailments, acupuncture still faces the challenge of scrutiny by Western science both in terms of its efficacy and in terms of the characterization of its effects and mechanisms of actions underlying these effects. We investigated under well-controlled and carefully characterized conditions the influence of electrical stimulation of acupuncture points ST-36 (Zusanli) and SP-6 (Sanyinjiao) on the myoelectric activity of the small intestine of 38 adult male Wistar rats. Electrical recordings obtained by means of four electrodes chronically implanted in the small intestine were used to assess the effects of acupuncture (electroacupuncture stimulation set at 2 Hz, intermittent stimulation, 1 V, for 30 min). Immobilization of the animals was associated with a consistent decrease (-8 +/- 7%) in the myoelectric activity of the small intestine as measured by means of the root mean square. Conversely, acupuncture was able to significantly increase (overshoot) this activity compared to baseline (+44 +/- 7%). In contrast, immobilized animals subjected to sham acupuncture had only modest (nonsignificant) increases in myoelectric activity (+9 +/- 6%). Using carefully controlled conditions we confirmed previous noncontrolled studies on the ability of acupuncture to alter intestinal motility. The characterization of the topographic and temporal profiles of the effects observed here represents a basis for future dissection of the physiological and pharmacological systems underlying these effects. PMID:12045840

  20. Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn) Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elberry, Ahmed A.; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Abdel Sattar, Essam; Ghareib, Salah A.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Gabr, Salah A.

    2014-01-01

    Red onion scales (ROS) contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH) was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day) and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg) as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4′-β-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-β1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. PMID:24829522

  1. ATRAZINE STIMULATES THE RELEASE OF ACTH AND ADRENAL STEROIDS IN MALE WISTAR RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously, we reported that atrazine (ATR) alters steroidogenesis in male Wistar rats resulting in increased serum corticosterone (C), progesterone (P), androgens and estrogens. The observation of increased C following single or multiple doses of ATR (up to 21 days of dosing) su...

  2. Intrahippocampal Insulin Improves Memory in a Passive-Avoidance Task in Male Wistar Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babri, Shirin; Badie, Hamid Gholamipour; Khamenei, Saeed; Seyedlar, Mehdi Ordikhani

    2007-01-01

    The main impacts of insulin favor the peripheral organs. Although it functions as a neuropeptide, insulin possesses also some central effects. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intrahippocampal infusion of insulin on passive avoidance learning in healthy male rats. Thirty male wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 10…

  3. THE EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE METABOLITES ON PUBERTY AND THYROID FUNCTION IN THE MALE WISTAR RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Effects of Atrazine Metabolites on Puberty and Thyroid Function in the Male Wistar Rat. Stoker, T.E1., Guidici, D.L.2, Laws, S.C.2 and Cooper, R.L.2 Gamete and Early Embryo Biology Branch and 2 Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Envir...

  4. The mitochondrial genome sequence of a diabetes disease Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yu-Xiao; Dong, Yao-Zhong; Wang, Ji-Chang; Meng, Xiao-Mei

    2016-05-01

    We sequenced a diabetic Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain mitochondrial genome for the first time (GenBank Accession No. KM114608). Its mitogenome was 16,311 bp and coding 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes. This mitogenome sequence will provide definite genetic information for diabetes disease. PMID:25317643

  5. BRAIN ACONITASE ACTIVITY IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SHR) AND WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models of susceptibility are critical for human health risk assessment. Previous studies indicate that spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats are more sensitive than Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats to the cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors such as carbaryl and chlorpyrifos. This diffe...

  6. Pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol induces cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats determined by echocardiography and histology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol on heart health was determined in Wistar rats. Animals were randomly assigned to either C (control, n = 11) or E (alpha-tocopherol, n = 11) group. Animals received corn oil (C) or alpha-tocopherol dissolved in corn oil (250 mg alpha-tocopherol/[...

  7. Pulmonary carcinogenesis in the F344 and Wistar rat after inhalation of plutonium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.L. |

    1995-11-01

    Pulmonary carcinogenesis was compared in female F344 and Wistar rats after inhalation of high-fired {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. Plutonium particle aggregation, as determined by quantitative light and scanning electron microscopic autoradiography, was greater for the F344 strain than for the Wistar strain. The median survival times were similar in control and low-dose (0.8-1.0 Gy) groups of both strains, but were significantly decreased in the high-dose (34-37 Gy) groups of both strains. Squamous metaplasia was not found in control or low-dose groups of either strain, but was found in 62-65% of high-dose groups of both strains. Adenomatous metaplasia was considerably higher in control and low-dose groups of F344 rats than in Wistar rats. A total of 87 lung tumors were found in 140 exposed F344 rats and 46 lung tumors in 176 exposed Wistar rats. The incidence of lung tumors in F344 rats was 1.7% in controls, 20% in the low-dose group and 82% in the high-dose group. The incidence of lung tumors in Wistar rats was 0.1% in controls, nil in the low-dose group and 68% in the high-dose group. The median survival times of rats of both strains in the high-dose groups that died with lung tumors were greater compared with rats in these groups that died without lung tumors. In contrast, these differences did not occur among rats in the low-dose groups. The absolute risk was 1900 lung tumors per 10{sup 4} Rat-Gy for F344 rats but about 210 lung tumors per 10{sup 4} Rat-Gy for high-dose groups of both strains. The adenomatous tumor phenotype predominated in the F344 strain, while the squamous tumor phenotype predominated in the Wistar strain. Risk of squamous tumors was similar for both strains. Overall, the F344 strain appears to be more {open_quotes}sensitive{close_quotes} than the Wistar strain to formation of lung tumors at low to moderate doses from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. 31 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  8. Profiling and comparison of color body wall transcriptome of normal juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) and those produced by crossing albino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Deyou; Yang, Hongsheng; Sun, Lina

    2014-12-01

    Sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) is one of the most important aquaculture animals in China. Usually its normal body color is black that fits its living environment. The juvenile individuals obtained by crossing albino sea cucumber segregated in body color. To document the transcriptome difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control, we sequenced their transcriptomes with RNA-seq. Approximately, 4.790 million (M) and 4.884 M reads, 200 nt in length, were generated from the body wall of albino associating sea cucumber and the control, respectively, from them, 9550 (46.81%) putative genes were identified. In total, 583 genes were found to express differentially between albino associating sea cucumber and the control. Of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 4.8% changed more than five-folds. The expression levels of eight DEGs were confirmed with real-time PCR. The changing trend of these DEGs detected with real-time PCR agreed well with that detected with RNA-seq, although the change degree of some DEGs was different. Four significantly enriched pathways were identified for DEGs, which included phagocytosis, Staphylococcus aureus infection, ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion. These pathways were helpful for understanding the physiological difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control.

  9. Hypoglycaemic and anorexigenic activities of an alpha-amylase inhibitor from white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tormo, M A; Gil-Exojo, I; Romero de Tejada, A; Campillo, J E

    2004-11-01

    An inhibitor of alpha-amylase was isolated and purified from an extract of white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The acute oral administration of the inhibitor (50 mg/kg body weight) to adult Wistar rats together with a starch load (2 g/kg body weight suspended in NaCl (9 g/l)) reduced the increase in glycaemia over the basal value (NaCl, 222 (SEM 49); inhibitor, 145 (SEM 16) mmol/l x 180 min; P<0.05) without modifying the insulin response. On administering the inhibitor orally (50 mg/kg body weight dissolved in NaCl (9 g/l)) for 21 d to rats fed on a standard diet, a decline was observed in the glycaemia values on day 0 (NaCl, 5.53 (SEM 0.12); inhibitor, 5.25 (SEM 0.16) mmol/l) relative to those obtained on days 10 (NaCl, 5.00 (SEM 0.14); inhibitor, 4.60 (SEM 0.08) mmol/l; P<0.05) and 21 (NaCl, 5.22 (SEM 0.22); inhibitor, 4.50 (SEM 0.12) mmol/l; P<0.01) of treatment, without modifying the plasma concentration of insulin. There was found to be a significant anorexigenic action of the inhibitor; there was reduced food intake (NaCl, 23.07 (SEM 0.31); inhibitor, 19.50 (SEM 0.49) g/d; P<0.01), a reduced weight gain (NaCl, 52 (SEM 3); inhibitor, -1.33 (SEM 8.9) g/21 d; P<0.01), as well as changes in the activity of some intestinal enzymes such as maltase (NaCl, 87 (SEM 7); inhibitor, 127 (SEM 11) U/g proteins; P<0.05). The present study has shown, for the first time, that the prolonged administration of an alpha-amylase inhibitor reduces blood glucose levels and body-weight gain in Wistar rats. PMID:15533267

  10. Aqueous extract of Senecio candicans DC induce liver and kidney damage in a sub-chronic oral toxicity study in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Hariprasath; Raman, Jegadeesh; Pandian, Arjun; Kuppamuthu, Kumaresan; Nanjian, Raaman; Sabaratam, Vikineswary; Naidu, Murali

    2016-08-01

    Senecio candicans DC. (Asteraceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcer and stomach pain in the Nilgiris, district, Tamil Nadu. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicity of an aqueous extract of Senecio candicans (AESC) plant in Wistar albino rats. The study was conducted in consideration of the OECD 408 study design (Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents) and the extract was administered via gavage at doses of 250, 500 or 750 mg/kg body weight per day for 90-days. Hematological, biochemical parameters were determined on days 0, 30, 60 and 90 of administration. Animals were euthanized after 90 d treatment and its liver and kidney sections were taken for histological study. The results of sub-chronic study showed significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum uric acid, creatinine, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALP) levels. Histological examination of liver showed mild mononuclear infiltration in the portal trait, enlarged nucleus around the central vein and mild loss of hepatocyte architecture in rats treated with 750 mg/kg of AESC. Histological examination of kidney showed focal interstitial fibrosis, crowding of glomeruli and mild hydropic change with hypercellular glomeruli in rats treated with 750 mg/kg of AESC. However, no remarkable histoarchitectural change in hepatocytes and glomeruli were observed in rats treated with lower concentrations (250 and 500 mg/kg b.w.) of AESC compared to control group animals. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of AESC in the present study was 500 mg/kg b.w. Signs of toxic effects are evident from the current study. Although AESC contains low concentrations of PA, findings from this study suggest that regular consumers of herbal remedies derived from this plant may develop kidney and liver toxicity. Further studies on the isolation and characterization of PAs are necessary to determine the safe dose level of the extract for therapeutic use

  11. Hazardous effects of fried potato chips on the development of retina in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayyad, Hassan I; Sakr, Saber A; Badawy, Gamal M; Afify, Hanaa S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the hazardous effects of fried potato chips upon the retina of two developmental stages of the albino rats aged 7 and 14 days from parturition. Methods Pregnant rats were arranged into two groups: control pregnant rats and consequently their delivered newborns until reaching 7 and 14 days old from parturition and fried potato chips group in which pregnant rats at the 6th day of gestation maintained on diet formed of fried potato chips supplied from the market mixed with standard diet at a concentration of 50% per each till 7 and 14 post-partum. Three fold integrated approaches were adopted, namely, histological, ultrastructural and proteomic analysis. Results Histological examination of the retina of the experimental offsprings revealed many histopathological changes, including massive degeneration, vacuolization and cell loss in the ganglion cell layer, as well as general reduction in retinal size. At the ultrastructural level, the retina of experimental offsprings exhibited number of deformities, including ill differentiated and degenerated nuclear layer, malformed and vacuolated pigment epithelium with vesiculated and fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, degenerated outer segment of photoreceptors, as well as swollen choriocapillaris and loss of neuronal cells. Proteomic analysis of retina of the two experimental developmental stages showed variations in the expressed proteins as a result of intoxication which illustrated the adverse toxic effects of fried potato chips upon the retina. Conclusions It can be concluded that the effect of fried potato chips on the development of retina in rats may be due to the presence of acrylamide or its metabolite. PMID:23569770

  12. Antitumor and antioxidant status of Terminalia catappa against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Naitik B.; Tigari, Prakash; Dupadahalli, Kotresha; Kamurthy, Hemalatha; Nadendla, Rama Rao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antitumor and antioxidant status of ethanol extract of Terminalia catappa leaves against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: The leaves powder was extracted with Soxhlet apparatus and subjected to hot continuous percolation using ethanol (95% v/v). Tumor bearing animals was treated with 50 and 200 mg/kg of ethanol extract. EAC induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of EAC cells 1 × 106 cells/mice. The study was assed using life span of EAC-bearing hosts, hematological parameters, volume of solid tumor mass and status of antioxidant enzymes such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Total phenolics and flavonoids contents from the leaves extract were also determined. Results: Total phenolics and flavonoids contents from the leaves extract were found 354.02 and 51.67 mg/g extract. Oral administration of ethanol extract of T. catappa (50 and 200 mg/kg) increased the life span (27.82% and 60.59%), increased peritoneal cell count (8.85 ± 0.20 and 10.37 ± 0.26) and significantly decreased solid tumor mass (1.16 ± 0.14 cm2) at 200 mg/kg as compared with EAC-tumor bearing mice (P < 0.01). Hematological profile including red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hemoglobin (11.91 ± 0.47 % g) and protein estimation were found to be nearly normal levels in extract-treated mice compared with tumor bearing control mice. Treatment with T. catappa significantly decreased levels of LPO and GSH, and increased levels of SOD and CAT activity (P < 0.01). Conclusion: T. catappa exhibited antitumor effect by modulating LPO and augmenting antioxidant defense systems in EAC bearing mice. The phenolic and flavonoid components in this extract may be responsible for antitumor activity. PMID:24130380

  13. Evaluation of antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal properties of Manilkara zapota leaves in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Amlan; Al Mahmud, Zobaer; Kumar Saha, Sajal; Abdur Rahman, S M

    2016-08-01

    Context Manilkara zapota (L.). P. Royen. (Sapotaceae) has been used in folk medicine to treat pain, diarrhoea, inflammation, arthralgia, and other disorders. Objective Screening of Manilkara zapota leaves ethanol extract and its different solvent soluble fractions for possible antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities in Swiss albino mice. Materials and methods The extract and various fractions (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight; p.o.) were tested for peripheral and central antinociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing and radiant heat tail-flick method, respectively; castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model was used to evaluate antidiarrhoeal activity at both doses. All the samples were administered once in a day and the duration of study was approximately 5 h. Results Ethanol extract (400 mg/kg), petroleum ether fraction (400 mg/kg), and ethyl acetate fraction (400 mg/kg) showed significant peripheral antinociceptive activity having 59.89, 58.24, and 46.7% (p < 0.001) of writhing inhibition, respectively, which is comparable with that of standard diclofenac (59.34% inhibition). The ethanol extract (400 mg/kg) and petroleum ether fraction (400 mg/kg) also showed promising central analgesic activity having 74.15 and 82.15% (p < 0.001) elongation of reaction time, respectively, at 90 min after administration of sample which is also similar to that obtained by morphine (85.84% elongation). In antidiarrhoeal activity screening, ethanol extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of defecation by 53.57 and 60.71%, respectively (p < 0.001) compared with that of loperamide (71.42%). Discussion and conclusion The findings of the studies demonstrated antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities of M. zapota leaves which could be the therapeutic option against pain and diarrhoeal disease. PMID:26799747

  14. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activity of Xanthium indicum stem extract in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Xanthium indicum stem is used in folk medicine of Bangladesh to control sugar in diabetic patients and to alleviate pain. The objective of the study was to evaluate antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of Xanthium indicum stems (XISE) in mice. Methods Antihyperglycemic activity was measured by oral glucose tolerance tests in glucose-loaded Swiss albino mice. Antinociceptive activity was determined by observed decreases in abdominal constrictions in acetic acid-induced gastric pain model in mice. Results The methanol extract of stems showed dose-dependent and statistically significant antihyperglycemic activity at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight (p values, respectively, < than 0.01, 0.01, 0.005, and 0.01). Highest reduction in blood glucose level (31.2%) was observed with the highest dose (400 mg) of the extract. A standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, reduced blood glucose levels by 46.2%, when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight. In antinociceptive activity tests, the extract when administered at the afore-mentioned four doses, reduced the number of abdominal constrictions in mice, respectively, by 41.7, 50.0, 54.2, and 61.0%. In comparison, a standard antinociceptive drug, aspirin, when administered at a dose of 200 mg per kg body weight, reduced the number of abdominal constrictions by 37.5%. Conclusion The experimental results obtained in the present study validate the use of X. indicum stems in folk medicines of Bangladesh to lower blood sugar in diabetic patients and to alleviate pain. PMID:24171758

  15. Phytochemical and acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of Enantia chlorantha (oliv) stem bark in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Abatan, Mathew O.

    2013-01-01

    It is presumed that drugs sourced from herbs have lesser side effects than allopathic drugs. Enantia chlorantha is widely used in herbal medicine for the treatment of several ailments such as jaundice, malaria, fever, infective hepatitis, etc. However its toxicity profiles are not well documented. The effects of ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark on body weight changes, biochemical and haematological parameters as well as histology of vital organs (heart, kidneys and liver) were assessed. Also, the phytochemical constituent of the plant was analysed. Albino rats of both sexes were randomly divided into five groups (A–E) of five rats each and the ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark extract was administered by oral gavage in a single dose. Group A rats were administered 500 mg/kg of the extract, group B; 1000 mg/kg, group C; 2000 mg/kg, group D; 3000 mg/kg and group E rats received distilled water (10 ml/kg) and served as control. The extract caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in the levels of packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and red blood cell counts in a dose dependent manner. Further, significant alterations were not observed in the serum biochemical parameters analysed (AST, ALP, ALT, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, globulin and bilirubin). In addition, the extract at 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg caused congestion in the heart and kidney of experimental rats. These results suggest that oral administration of E. chlorantha may produce severe toxic effects at relatively high doses, thus caution should be exercised in its use. PMID:24678252

  16. Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Haggag, Mohammad El-Sayed Yassin El-Sayed; Elsanhoty, Rafaat Mohamed; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. Methods The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. Results The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r: 0.743; P<0.001) and between blood MDA and liver MDA (r: 0.897; P<0.001). The results showed also negative correlations between blood MDA on one hand and SOD, GPx, vitamin E and TAC on the other hand. Conclusions The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage. PMID:24144131

  17. Skin cancers among Albinos at a University teaching hospital in Northwestern Tanzania: a retrospective review of 64 cases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Skin cancers are a major risk associated with albinism and are thought to be a major cause of death in African albinos. The challenges associated with the care of these patients are numerous and need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to outline the pattern and treatment outcome of skin cancers among albinos treated at our centre and to highlight challenges associated with the care of these patients and proffer solutions for improved outcome. Methods This was a retrospective study of all albinos with a histopathological diagnosis of skin cancer seen at Bugando Medical Centre from March 2001 to February 2010. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results A total of 64 patients were studied. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The median age of patients was 30 years. The median duration of illness at presentation was 24 months. The commonest reason for late presentation was financial problem. Head and the neck was the most frequent site afflicted in 46(71.8%) patients. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histopathological type in 75% of cases. Surgical operation was the commonest modality of treatment in 60 (93.8%) patients. Radiotherapy was given in 24(37.5%) patients. Twenty-seven (42.2%) of the patients did not complete their treatment due to lack of funds. Local recurrence following surgical treatment was recorded in 6 (30.0%) patients. Only thirty-seven (61.7%) patients were available for follow-up at 6–12 months and the remaining patients were lost to follow-up. Conclusions Skin cancers are the most common cancers among albinos in our environment. Albinism and exposure to ultraviolet light appears to be the most important risk factor in the development of these cancers. Late presentation and failure to complete treatment due to financial difficulties and lack of radiotherapy services at our centre are major challenges in the care of these patients. Early institution of preventive measures, early

  18. Lipid peroxidation in various organs and tissues of albino rats with cadmium intoxication in winter and summer.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, S V; Sokolova, N G; Kotelnikov, A V

    2008-09-01

    The effect of cadmium chloride on lipid peroxidation in the liver, kidneys, brain, and gonads of outbred albino rats was studied in winter and summer. Cadmium chloride in a daily dose of 2 mg per 100 g body weight was administered intragastrically for 15 days. Administration of cadmium chloride was followed by an increase in peroxide radical production in the liver during the summer period. Lipid peroxidation remained unchanged in the liver, but increased in the ovaries of animals receiving the same dose of cadmium chloride during the winter period. PMID:19240842

  19. Effects of isosaline extracts of tetrapleura tetrapetra and olax subscorpioides on certain biochemical parameters of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Olagunju, J A; Oyedapo, O O; Onasanya, B A; Osoba, O O; Adebanjo, O O; Eweje, O; Shodeinde, A B

    2000-01-01

    The effects of isosaline extracts of Tetrapleura tetrapetra and Olax subscorpioides were investigated in albino rats. The treatment of rats with these extracts resulted in an increase in the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, liver aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. The extract of Tetrapleura tetrapetra caused a significant increase in blood glucose and liver glycogen levels while the extract of Olax subscorpioides caused a slight reduction but not statistically significant in the levels of blood glucose and liver glycogen. Both extracts exhibited a significant reduction of protein in the livers of treated rats. PMID:21214460

  20. Transcription profiling using RNA-Seq demonstrates expression differences in the body walls of juvenile albino and normal sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Deyou; Yang, Hongsheng; Sun, Lina; Chen, Muyan

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus are one of the most important aquaculture species in China. Their normal body color is black to fit their surroundings. Wild albinos are rare and hard to breed. To understand the differences between albino and normal (control) sea cucumbers at the transcriptional level, we sequenced the transcriptomes in their body-wall tissues using RNA-Seq high-throughput sequencing. Approximately 4.876 million (M) and 4.884 M 200-nucleotide-long cDNA reads were produced in the cDNA libraries derived from the body walls of albino and control samples, respectively. A total of 9 561 (46.89%) putative genes were identified from among the RNA-Seq reads in both libraries. After filtering, 837 significantly differentially regulated genes were identified in the albino library compared with in the control library, and 3.6% of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to have changed those more than five-fold. The expression levels of 10 DEGs were checked by real-time PCR and the results were in full accord with the RNA-Seq expression trends, although the amplitude of the differences in expression levels was lower in all cases. A series of pathways were significantly enriched for the DEGs. These pathways were closely related to phagocytosis, the complement and coagulation cascades, apoptosis-related diseases, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and cell adhesion. The differences in gene expression and enriched pathways between the albino and control sea cucumbers offer control targets for cultivating excellent albino A. japonicus strains in the future.

  1. High-fat diet-induced obesity Rat model: a comparison between Wistar and Sprague-Dawley Rat

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Cláudia; Meireles, Manuela; Norberto, Sónia; Leite, Joana; Freitas, Joana; Pestana, Diogo; Faria, Ana; Calhau, Conceição

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the past decades, obesity and associated metabolic complications have reached epidemic proportions. For the study of these pathologies, a number of animal models have been developed. However, a direct comparison between Wistar and Sprague-Dawley (SD) Rat as models of high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity has not been adequately evaluated so far. Wistar and SD rats were assigned for 2 experimental groups for 17 weeks: standard (St) and high-fat (HF) diet groups. To assess some of the features of the metabolic syndrome, oral glucose tolerance tests, systolic blood pressure measurements and blood biochemical analysis were performed throughout the study. The gut microbiota composition of the animals of each group was evaluated at the end of the study by real-time PCR. HF diet increased weight gain, body fat mass, mesenteric adipocyte's size, adiponectin and leptin plasma levels and decreased oral glucose tolerance in both Wistar and SD rats. However, the majority of these effects were more pronounced or earlier detected in Wistar rats. The gut microbiota of SD rats was less abundant in Bacteroides and Prevotella but richer in Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus comparatively to the gut microbiota of Wistar rats. Nevertheless, the modulation of the gut microbiota by HF diet was similar in both strains, except for Clostridium leptum that was only reduced in Wistar rats fed with HF diet. In conclusion, both Wistar and SD Rat can be used as models of HF diet-induced obesity although the metabolic effects caused by HF diet seemed to be more pronounced in Wistar Rat. Differences in the gut microbial ecology may account for the worsened metabolic scenario observed in Wistar Rat. PMID:27144092

  2. Adult Compacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This bulletin focuses on adult compacts, three-way agreements among employers, potential employees, and trainers to provide the right kind of quality training to meet the employers' requirements. Part 1 is an executive summary of a report of the Adult Compacts Project, which studied three adult compacts in Birmingham and Loughborough, England, and…

  3. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sial, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P < 0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats. PMID:24648836

  4. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sial, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P < 0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats. PMID:24648836

  5. Nephroprotective action of Peucedanum grande against cadmium chloride induced renal toxicity in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Mohammad; Ahmad, Shiekh Tanveer; Dayal, Rameshver; Javid, Kalim; Umar, Sadiq; Asiaf, Asia; Nafees, Sana; Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Wani, Arjumand; Samim, Mohammad; Singh, Surender

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is a known industrial pollutant which accumulates in the kidney and its exposure leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective effects of Peucedanum grande against CdCl2 induced renal toxicity in Wistar rats. Wistar rats were subjected to oral pre-treatment of P. grande (60 and 120 mg/kg b.wt) against the renal toxicity induced by administration of CdCl2 (3mg/kg b.wt). Efficacy of P. grande against the renal toxicity was evaluated in terms of biochemical estimation of antioxidant enzyme activities and histopathological changes. P. grande pretreatment prevented deteriorative effects induced by CdCl2 through a protective mechanism that involved reduction of increased oxidative stress as well as by restoration of histopathological changes against CdCl2 administration.

  6. [Seasonal peculiarities of the ground squirrel (Spermophilus undulatus) and Wistar rats circadian activity].

    PubMed

    Semenova, T P; Spiridonova, L A; Zakharova, N M

    2014-09-01

    The seasonal peculiarities of the circadian activity of hibernator, Yakutian long tail ground squirrels (S. undulatus) (n = 35) and non hibernator, Wistar rats (n = 35), were studied. The locomotor activity was registered in each subject individually during 5-17 days by means of "Animex" in the different periods of annual cycle. It was shown that ground squirrels were animals with daily type of activity. On the contrary, the Wistar rats demonstrated nocturne type of locomotors activity. The active period in rats was longer than in ground squirrels. It included not only at night, but morning time in spring, and daytime--in summer. The circadian differences between hibernators and non-hibernators were kept during all annual cycle at night time, but in daytime--only in spring and summer time. PMID:25697015

  7. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by municipal effluent in multiple organs of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; de Moura, Carolina Foot Gomes; Ribeiro, Flavia Andressa Pidone; Cesar, Augusto; Pereira, Camilo Dias Seabra; Silva, Marcelo Jose Dias; Vilegas, Wagner; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in multiple organs of rats induced by municipal effluent released by submarine outfall in city of Santos. A total of 20 male Wistar rats were exposed to effluents by drinking water ad libitum at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, and 100 % for 30 days. Microscopic analysis revealed severe lesions such as necrosis and hemorrhagic areas in liver and kidney from animals exposed to effluent at 50 and 100 % concentration. DNA damage in peripheral blood, liver, and kidney cells were detected by comet assay at higher concentrations of effluent. Moreover, a decrease DNA repair capacity was detected in liver cells. Significant statistical differences (p<0.05) for micronucleated cells from liver were noticed at 50 % concentration of effluent. Taken together, our results demonstrate that municipal effluent is able to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in multiple organs of Wistar rats. PMID:24996946

  8. The therapeutic effect of curcumin in male albino rats and its putative mechanisms on cerebral microvascular flow.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jie; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Qi-Mei; Zheng, Zheng; Han, Zhong-Mou

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of curcumin on hypertension and its putative mechanisms in the cerebral microcirculation. The surgical preparation was made to generate a cranial window for observation of the capillary network in the cerebral cortex region. Digital image processing, intravital videomicroscopy, and laser Doppler flow meter were used in this investigation. The number of open capillaries, arterial blood pressure, red cell velocity, microvascular diameter, circulating endothelial cells, relative blood flow and frequency were determined. Control rats showed severe dysfunction in the microcirculation with increased blood pressure. In curcumin treated mice, the blood pressure significantly reduced compared to their respective controls. Curcumin significantly increased blood velocity and LDF flow in hypertensive and normotensive rats. Curcumin significantly altered the circulating endothelial cells and open capillaries number in the male albino rats. Our results suggested that the curcumin exerts its therapeutic effect in male albino rats by regulating vasomotion function, increasing blood perfusion, releasing the peripheral resistance and opening efficiently capillaries. Taking all these data together, it is concluded that the curcumin might be useful in the regulation of the cerebral microcirculatory function and hypertension. PMID:27017961

  9. An experimental study of the effects of Matricaria chamomilla extract on cutaneous burn wound healing in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Jarrahi, Morteza

    2008-03-20

    Previous studies conducted on the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) extract led us to study the effect of topical chamomile extract on burn wound healing in albino rats. Thirty male albino rats (250-300 g) were randomly divided into three groups, as control, vehicle, and treatment. Second-degree burning was induced in 20% of whole surface area of animal body by placing the back of animal into boiling water for 8s. Animals of control group received no treatment. Animals of vehicle and treatment groups were treated topically by olive oil and extract dissolved in olive oil twice a day respectively from the first day of burn induction to complete wound healing. The percentage of wound healing was calculated weekly. The results showed that there was significant difference (p < 0.05) between vehicle and treatment groups. So we concluded that the chamomile extract in the form of rubbing oil had a good potential for acceleration of burn wound healing in rats. PMID:18404562

  10. Effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida Linn. on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Swarnamoni; Kanodia, Lalit; Mukherjee, Apurba; Hakim, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Paederia foetida (EEPF) was prepared by percolation method. Acute toxicity test was done by using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines. Albino rats were divided into four groups of five animals each. Groups A and B received 3% gum acacia. Groups C and D received EEPF 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 5-aminosalisylic acid 100 mg/kg BW respectively. Colitis was induced by transrectal administration of 4% acetic acid on 5th day. All animals were sacrificed after 48 h of colitis induction and distal 10 cm of the colon was dissected. Colon was weighed for disease activity index (DAI) and scored macroscopically and microscopically. Biochemical assessment of tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was done in colonic tissue homogenate and malondialdehyde (MDA) was estimated in serum. Results: P. foetida showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in DAI, macroscopic and microscopic lesion score as well as significant (P < 0.05) improvement in MPO, MDA, CAT, and SOD level as compared to Group B. Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of leaves of P. foetida showed significant amelioration of experimentally induced colitis, which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property. PMID:24130378

  11. Protective effects of ginger toward cadmium-induced testes and kidney lipid peroxidation and hematological impairment in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Onwuka, Frank C; Erhabor, Osaro; Eteng, M U; Umoh, I B

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral dietary supplementation with ginger on cadmium-induced toxic effects on biochemical, hematological, and pathophysiological indices of albino rats. The effect of cadmium and cadmium/ginger treatment on lipid peroxidation was measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in testes and kidney; serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzyme were investigated alongside hematological indices. The results showed that cadmium induces a significant increase in both testicular and kidney MDA, whereas cadmium/ginger treatment produced a significant reversal of the effect of lipid peroxidation (P=.004). Cadmium treatment induced 75%, 78%, and 22% increases in activities of ACP, PAP, and ALP, respectively, whereas the cadmium/ginger-treated group reversed these values for enzyme activities (P=.001). Results of organ weight and hematological indices analysis in the cadmium-treated rats showed a decrease in organ weight and distortion of the hemopoietic features, whereas the cadmium/ginger-treated rats showed an improvement in organ weight and hematological indices (P=.04 and .001, respectively). The reversal of the toxic effects of cadmium in the cadmium/ginger-treated albino rats heralds the antioxidant potency of ginger toward cadmium toxicity-associated oxidative stress. PMID:21476888

  12. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Ghanashyam Keshav; Mahajan, Raghunath Totaram; Mahajan, Arun Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of Ipomoea digitata (ID) based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P < 0.01) along with increase in the testis, and epididymes weight in neem-oil induced infertile rats treated with ID at both dose levels. This effect is vis-à-vis to serum hormonal levels. Presence of β-sitosterol in the root of ID likely to enhance the process of spermatogenesis as it is evident from histomorphological studies. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation reveal that ID is a good candidate for the management of male infertility. PMID:26401398

  13. Bioassay of Eucalyptus extracts for anticancer activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (eac) cells in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Farhadul; Khatun, Hasina; Ghosh, Soby; Ali, MM; Khanam, JA

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antineoplastic activity of Eucalyptus extract (EuE) against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods Preliminary examination of four plant extracts (namely Eucalyptus, Costus, Azadirachta, Feronia) has been done by observing the reduction ability of number of EAC cells in previously inoculated Swiss albino mice. Among them as EuE showed maximum capability, the whole study has been conducted with EuE only. Important parameters viz. enhancement of life span, reduction of average tumor weight etc. have been studied. In addition the effects of EuE on hematological parameters in both normal and EAC inoculated mice have been measured. Effect of EuE on normal peritoneal cells has also been studied. Results : EuE reduced tumor burden remarkably. It reduced the tumor growth rate and enhanced the life span of EAC bearing mice noticeably. It reversed back the hematological parameters towards normal, reduced the trasplantability of EAC cells and enhanced the immunomodulatory effects in mice. The host toxic effect of EuE in mice is minimum and mostly reversible with time. All such data have been compared with those obtained by running parallel experiments with bleomycin at dose 0.3 mg/kg (i.p.). Conclusions The Eucalyptus extract may be considered as a potent anticancer agent for advanced researches. PMID:23569937

  14. Molecular analysis of radiation-induced albino (c)-locus mutations that cause death at preimplantation stages of development

    SciTech Connect

    Rinchik, E.M. ); Toenjes, R.R.; Paul, D. ); Potter, M.D. )

    1993-12-01

    Deletion mutations at the albino (c) locus have been useful for continuing the development of fine-structure physical and functional maps of the Fes-Hbb region of mouse chromosome 7. This report describes the molecular analysis of a number of radiation-induced c deletions that, when homozygous, cause death of the embryo during preimplantation stages. The distal extent of these deletions defines a locus, pid, (preimplantation development) genetically associated with this phenotype. The proximal breakpoints of eight of these deletions were mapped with respect to the Tyr (tyrosinase; albino) gene as well as to anonymous loci within the Fah-Tyr region that are defined by the Pmv-31 viral integration site and by chromosome-microdissection clones. Rearrangements corresponding to the proximal breakpoints of two of these deletions were detected by Southern blot analysis, and a size-altered restriction fragment carrying the breakpoint of one of them was cloned. A probe derived from this deletion fusion fragment defines a locus, D7Rn6, which maps within (or distal to) the pid region, and which discriminates among the distal extents of deletions eliciting the pid phenotype. Extension of physical maps from D7Rn6 should provide access both to the pid region and to loci mapping distal to pid that are defined by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced lethal mutations. 36 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Effects of composite root extract on histological structures of graffian follicle and endometrial epithelium in albino rat.

    PubMed

    Sarma, H N; Mahanta, H C

    2000-05-01

    This study attempted in vivo testing of a group of plant root extracts in composite form on the reproductive organs of the female albino rat. These roots in composite form have been used by the folk women of Assam to prevent pregnancy. Firsthand knowledge revealed that the dry powder of these roots in composite form can induce sterility in women temporarily (reversible) or permanently which is dose-dependent when taken through oral route. The study revealed that administration of ethanolic crude extract of these composite roots in a dose of 1000 mg/kg/day, consecutively for 12 days, can modulate histological changes in the structures of ovary and uterus. This dose has previously been detected as the threshold dose to induce sterility (reversible) in albino rat. The ovarian follicle showed structural disparity in thecal cells and granulosa cells, and formation of zona pellucida. In the uterus, the endometrial epithelium on the luminal surface showed pseudostratification, vacuolation of the cells, and irregular desquamation from the stroma. Infiltration of a large number of polymorphs in the endometrial stroma and necrosis of endometrial gland tissues indicated structural and functional aberrations of the uterus. PMID:10906505

  16. [Effect of benzene and chromium on the trace element composition in biosubstrates in Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlova, I V; Smoliagin, A I; Boev, V M

    2012-01-01

    The chronic effects of benzene and chromium on the level of trace elements in the biospheres of Wistar rats were studied for 45, 90, and 135 days. As compared to the controls, the experimental groups of patients were found to have lower concentrations of copper (in blood) and iron (in blood and spleen) and higher levels of zinc (in blood, spleen) and chromium (in blood, spleen). PMID:23088133

  17. The Effect of Intravitreal Azithromycin on the Albino Newborn Rabbit Retina

    PubMed Central

    Cam, Duygu; Saatci, Ali Osman; Micili, Serap Cilaker; Ergur, Bekir Ugur; Karabag, Revan Yildirim; Durak, Ismet; Berk, Ayse Tulin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of intravitreal azithromycin on the retina in a newborn rabbit model. Methods: Twelve, two-week old New Zealand albino rabbits were divided into two groups (six in each). The right eyes of six rabbits received 0.75 mg (0.05 mL) azithromycin and the right eyes of the remaining six rabbits 1.5 mg (0.1 mL) azithromycin intravitreally. Left eyes were served as the control and received the same volume of saline. All eyes were enucleated at the third postinjection week. Retinal histology was examined by light microscopy. Apoptosis of the retinal cells was further evaluated by immunohistochemical staining for caspase-3 and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) of DNA fragments. Results: Light microscopy demonstrated no retinal abnormalities in all eyes. However, retinal nuclear DNA fragmentation was evident in both study groups (33.6% with 1.5 mg and 21.4% with 0.75 mg azithromycin) with the TUNEL method. TUNEL staining ratio was statistically higher only in the second group treated with 1.5 mg azithromycin when compared to the control group (p=0.01 Mann Whitney U test). The ratio of caspase-3 positive cells in the two study groups was 21.5% and 20.2%, respectively. Caspase-3 staining ratio was statistically higher in both study groups when compared to the control eyes (p=0.00, p=0.00 respectively). The difference of TUNEL staining ratio between the two study groups was statistically significant (p=0.028), but there were no statistically significant differences in the two study groups by caspase-3 staining (p=0.247). Conclusion: In newborn rabbits, intravitreal azithromycin injection resulted in an apoptotic activity in the photoreceptor, bipolar and ganglion cells. Immunohistochemical analysis suggested that doses of 0.75 mg and 1.5 mg azithromycin, administered intravitreally might be toxic to the newborn rabbit retina. PMID:27014381

  18. Lethality, accumulation and toxicokinetics of aluminum in some tissues of male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Rawy, Sayed M; Morsy, Gamal M; Elshibani, Majda M

    2013-04-01

    In the present work, the lethality percentiles including median lethal doses (LD50), accumulation, distribution and toxicokinetics of aluminum in the liver, kidney, intestine, brain and serum of male albino rats, following a single oral administration were studied throughout 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. The estimated LD50 at 24 h was 3.45 g Al/kg body weight (b.wt.). The utilized dose of Al was 1/50 LD50 (0.07 g Al/kg b.wt.). Aluminum residues, in Al-treated rats, were significantly decreased in response to the experimental periods and were negatively correlated with time. In addition, the hepatic, renal, intestinal, brain and serum Al contents were significantly higher than the corresponding controls at all experimental periods, except the brain that showed significant depletion when compared with its corresponding control after 28 days. Kinetically, the highest average of Al area under concentration - time curves (AUCtotal, μg/g day) and area under moment concentration - time curves (AUMCtotal, µg/g day(2)) recorded in the brain followed by kidney, serum, intestine and liver. The longest elimination half-life time (t 1/2, day) and the mean residence time (MRT, day) were recorded in the brain followed by the liver, kidney, serum and intestine. On the other hand, the slowest clearance rates (Cls, L/day) of Al, in order, were recorded in brain, kidney, serum, intestine and the liver. The elimination rate constant (Lz, day(-) (1)) of Al from the brain was less than that in the intestine and serum was less than that in the liver and kidney. The computed maximum concentrations (C max) of Al in the intestine > kidney > serum > brain > liver were recorded after 3, 3.8, 2.2, 5.4 and 3.8 days, respectively. The computed starting concentration (C 0, μg) of Al in serum was higher than its level in the intestine followed by the brain, kidney and liver. PMID:22317823

  19. Studies on fate and toxicity of nanoalumina in male albino rats: Lethality, bioaccumulation and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Gamal M; El-Ala, Kawther S Abou; Ali, Atef A

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to follow-up the distribution, lethality percentile doses (LDs) and bioaccumulation of aluminium oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3-NPs, average diameter 9.83 ± 1.61 nm) in some tissues of male albino rats, and to evaluate its genotoxicity to the brain tissues, during acute and sublethal experiments. The LDs of Al2O3-NPs, including median lethal dose (LD50), were estimated after intraperitoneal injection. The computed LD50 at 24 and 48 h were 15.10 and 12.88 g/kg body weight (b.w.), respectively. For acute experiments, the bioaccumulation of aluminium (Al) in the brain, liver, kidneys, intestine and spleen was estimated after 48 h of injection with a single acute dose (3.9, 6.4 and 8.5 g/kg b.w.), while for sublethal experiments it was after 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days of injection with 1.3 g/kg b.w. once in 2 days. Multi-way analysis of variance affirmed that Al uptake, in acute experiments, was significantly affected by the injected doses, organs (brain, liver, kidneys, intestine and spleen) and their interactions, while for sublethal experiments an altogether effect based on time (1, 3, 7, 14, 28 days), doses (0 and 1.3 g), organs and their interactions was reported. In addition, Al accumulated in the brain, liver, kidney, intestine and spleen of rats administered with Al2O3-NPs were significantly higher than the corresponding controls, during acute and sublethal experiments. The uptake of Al by the spleen of rats injected with acute doses was greater than that accumulated by kidney>brain>intestine>liver, whereas the brain of rats injected with sublethal dose accumulated lesser amount of Al followed by the kidney

  20. Histomorphometry of the tibia and mandible of healthy female Wistar rats at different stages of growth

    PubMed Central

    Nenda, María M.; Lewicki, Marianela; Mandalunis, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Female Wistar rats are frequently used in experimental models to study hormone and bone pathologies and treatments. Most experimental studies involving histomorphometric evaluation assessed long bones, and few reports also studied mandibular bone. The aim of this work was to clarify and distinguish the age-related histomorphometric changes that occur in the tibia (subchondral bone) and in the mandible (interradicular bone), and thus obtain reference histomorphometric data of healthy female Wistar rats at different growth stages. Three groups of 8 healthy female Wistar rats were euthanized at 6 (GI), 10 (GII), and 14 (GIII) weeks. The tibiae and mandible were resected and histologically processed to obtain H&E stained sections of the tibia and the lower first molar to analyze the following histomorphometric parameters: Bone volume, trabecular width, trabecular number (Th.N)(1/mm), growth cartilage width, hypertrophic cartilage width and number of osteoclasts per area in the tibiae, and bone volume and number of osteoclasts per area N.Oc/mm2 in the interradicular bone of the first lower molar. A significant decrease in subchondral bone volume as a result of a decrease in trabecular number and growth cartilage width was observed in 14-week-old rats. Conversely, interradicular bone volume was found to increase with age. The results highlight the importance of analyzing both types of bone to better understand the response of two different trabecular bones, contributing in turn to decision making regarding treatment strategies and disease management. PMID:26568145

  1. Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Bahekar, Satish E.; Kale, Ranjana S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Use of Manihot esculenta Crantz (MEC) plant has been mentioned in literature of Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute and many others. It is also known commonly as tapioca, continues to be a crop of food security for the millions of people, especially in the developing countries of the globe including India. Medicinal uses of this plant including diarrhea have been mentioned in literature, but scientific evidence is lacking. Objective: The objective was to study antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of MEC in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg were used in Wistar rats of either sex. Experimental models used were castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation and charcoal passage test. Loperamide and atropine sulfate were the standard drugs used in these models respectively. Results: MEC extracts decreased intestinal fluid volume in dose dependent manner no extract group was comparable with standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg). MEC extracts also significantly inhibited gastrointestinal motility in dose dependent manner. MEC (100 mg/kg) and MEC (200 mg/kg) were comparable with standard drug atropine sulfate (5 mg/kg) in this aspect. <0.05 were considered to be significant. Conclusions: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves exhibited significant antidiarrheal activity by decreasing intestinal fluid accumulation and the gastrointestinal motility in Wistar rats. PMID:25878462

  2. Stimulus-controlled responding for ethanol in AA and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hyytiä, P; Sinclair, J D

    1991-01-01

    A method for establishing stimulus control of ethanol responding was developed. After acquisition of lever pressing for oral ethanol, rats of the high-drinking AA (Alko, Alcohol) line and of the moderate-drinking Wistar strain were subjected to alternating 20-min alcohol access periods signaled by a stimulus light, and 40-min nonaccess periods with no light. Ethanol responding during access periods progressively increased and decreased during nonaccess. These changes were faster in the AAs than the Wistars, probably related to differential reinforcement from ethanol. In a second experiment, rats responding under stimulus control were given periods of alcohol deprivation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, indicated by a stimulus light. Deprivations shorter than 24 h increased the first-hour intake after renewed access by the AAs, but the Wistars showed no increase until after a 24-h deprivation. The results show stimulus control of ethanol responding and demonstrate the applicability of the procedure for causing ethanol responding to occur at a time chosen by the experimenter. PMID:2069738

  3. Depressed glucose utilization in lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Uhal, B.D.; Moxley, M.A.; Longmore, W.J.

    1986-03-05

    Lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats were perfused with (/sup 14/C(U))glucose in modified Krebs Ringer bicarbonate medium for 1.5 hours. Lungs from non-diabetic BB Wistar rats were perfused simultaneously and served as controls. The perfusions were terminated by rapid freezing of the tissue in liquid N/sub 2/ followed by separation of surfactant and residual lung fractions. The rates of glucose incorporation into surfactant DSPC, PG, and PE were decreased 4.7, 2.4 and 2.5-fold, respectively, in lungs of spontaneously diabetic rats when expressed as final product specific activities. The rate of glucose incorporation into residual PC was also reduced by 2.3-fold. Expressed as moles incorporated per gram wet weight of lung, incorporations into surfactant DSPC, PG and residual PC were also reduced by 4.1, 6.3 and 3.8-fold respectively. These data; (1) agree with previous studies of the lungs of streptozotocin and alloxan-diabetic rats; (2) show that the depressed glucose utilization for lipid synthesis observed previously is not due to streptozotocin or alloxan toxicity; (3) suggest that the BB Wistar rat will provide a useful model for the study of the effects of insulin-dependent diabetes on lung metabolism.

  4. Histomorphometry of the tibia and mandible of healthy female Wistar rats at different stages of growth.

    PubMed

    Nenda, María M; Lewicki, Marianela; Mandalunis, Patricia M

    2016-05-20

    Female Wistar rats are frequently used in experimental models to study hormone and bone pathologies and treatments. Most experimental studies involving histomorphometric evaluation assessed long bones, and few reports also studied mandibular bone. The aim of this work was to clarify and distinguish the age-related histomorphometric changes that occur in the tibia (subchondral bone) and in the mandible (interradicular bone), and thus obtain reference histomorphometric data of healthy female Wistar rats at different growth stages. Three groups of 8 healthy female Wistar rats were euthanized at 6 (GI), 10 (GII), and 14 (GIII) weeks. The tibiae and mandible were resected and histologically processed to obtain H&E stained sections of the tibia and the lower first molar to analyze the following histomorphometric parameters: Bone volume, trabecular width, trabecular number (Th.N)(1/mm), growth cartilage width, hypertrophic cartilage width and number of osteoclasts per area in the tibiae, and bone volume and number of osteoclasts per area N.Oc/mm(2) in the interradicular bone of the first lower molar. A significant decrease in subchondral bone volume as a result of a decrease in trabecular number and growth cartilage width was observed in 14-week-old rats. Conversely, interradicular bone volume was found to increase with age. The results highlight the importance of analyzing both types of bone to better understand the response of two different trabecular bones, contributing in turn to decision making regarding treatment strategies and disease management. PMID:26568145

  5. Differences in the estrous cycles of Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Souza, Ana Rosa Wakim; Firetto, Chiara; Pérez-Arana, Gonzalo; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso María; Prada-Oliveira, José Arturo

    2016-03-22

    Goto-Kakizaki rats are an important model of type 2 diabetes, but it is difficult to maintain and expand colonies of these rats because they exhibit poor fertility. In this work, we studied the estrous cycle of Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar rats to characterize differences that might underlie these reproductive difficulties. We monitored rats from weaning to vaginal opening to assess pubertal development, and we monitored the estrous cycle and basal glycemia of each rat for 20 days at 1 month of age and at 6 months of age. At an early age we found no differences between Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar rats with respect to the onset of puberty or the periodicity of the estrous cycle. However, at 6 months Goto-Kakizaki rats spent more time in proestrus and less time in estrus each cycle, compared to Wistar rats. This delay in proceeding from proestrus to estrus could reflect a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, accompanying progression of the diabetic condition. It might also cause anovulatory cycles, which could explain the reduced reproductive capacity of Goto-Kakizaki rats. PMID:27003354

  6. The Establishment of Metabolic Syndrome Model by Induction of Fructose Drinking Water in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thent, Zar Chi; Sapri, Shaiful Ridzwan; Sahruddin, Natasya Nadia; Mohd Yusof, Mohd Rafizul; Haji Suhaimi, Farihah

    2014-01-01

    Background. Metabolic syndrome can be caused by modification of diet by means of consumption of high carbohydrate and high fat diet such as fructose. Aims. To develop a metabolic syndrome rat model by induction of fructose drinking water (FDW) in male Wistar rats. Methods. Eighteen male Wistar rats were fed with FDW 20% and FDW 25% for a duration of eight weeks. The physiological changes with regard to food and fluid intake, as well as calorie intake, were measured. The metabolic changes such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and hyperglycaemia were determined. Data was presented in mean ± SEM subjected to one-way ANOVA. Results. Male Wistar rats fed with FDW 20% for eight weeks developed significant higher obesity parameters compared to those fed with FDW 25%. There was hypertrophy of adipocytes in F20 and F25. There were also systolic hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperglycemia in both groups. Conclusion. We conclude that the metabolic syndrome rat model is best established with the induction of FDW 20% for eight weeks. This was evident in the form of higher obesity parameter which caused the development of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:25045660

  7. Antiarthritic activity of a polyherbal formulation against Freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritis in Female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Petchi, R. Ramesh; Parasuraman, S.; Vijaya, C.; Gopala Krishna, S. V.; Kumar, M. Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To formulate a polyherbal formulation and evaluate its antiarthritic activity against Freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritis in Female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Glycosmis pentaphylla, Tridax procumbens, and Mangifera indica are well-known plants available throughout India and they are commonly used for the treatment of various diseases including arthritis. The polyherbal formulation was formulated using the ethanol extracts of the stem bark of G. pentaphylla, whole plant of T. procumbens, and leaves of M. indica. The polyherbal formulation contains the ethanol extracts of G. pentaphylla, T. procumbens, and M. indica in the ratio of 2:2:1. The quality of the finished product was evaluated as per the World Health Organization's guidelines for the quality control of herbal materials. Arthritis was induced in female Wistar rats using Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), and the antiarthritic effect of polyherbal formulation was studied at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. The effects were compared with those of indomethacin (10 mg/kg). At the end of the study, blood samples were collected for biochemical and hematological analysis. The radiological examination was carried out before terminating the study. Results: Polyherbal formulation showed significant antiarthritic activity at 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, and this effect was comparable with that of indomethacin. The antiarthritic activity of polyherbal formulation is supported by biochemical and hematological analysis. Conclusion: The polyherbal formulation showed signinicant antiarthritic activity against FCA-induced arthritis in female Wistar rats. PMID:26229343

  8. Imaging of Spontaneous Ventriculomegaly and Vascular Malformations in Wistar rats: implications for Preclinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Tsang-Wei; Turtzo, L. Christine; Williams, Rashida A.; Lescher, Jacob D.; Dean, Dana D.; Frank, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Wistar rats are widely used in biomedical research and commonly serve as a model organism in neuroscience studies. In most cases when noninvasive imaging is not utilized, studies assume a consistent baseline condition in rats that lack visible differences. While performing a series of traumatic brain injury studies, we discovered mild spontaneous ventriculomegaly in 70/162 (43.2%) of Wistar rats that had been obtained from 2 different vendors. Advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, including MR angiography and diffusion tensor imaging, were utilized to evaluate the rats. Multiple neuropathologic abnormalities, including presumed arteriovenous malformations, aneurysms, cysts, white matter lesion and astrogliosis were found in association with ventriculomegaly. Postmortem micro-CT and immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. Diffusion tensor imaging significant decreases in fractional anisotropy and increases in mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity in multiple white matter tracts (p < 0.05). These results could impact the interpretation, e.g. of a pseudo-increase of axon integrity and a pseudo-decrease of myelin integrity, based on characteristics intrinsic to rats with ventriculomegaly. We suggest the use of baseline imaging to prevent the inadvertent introduction of a high degree of variability in preclinical studies of neurological disease or injury in the Wistar rats. PMID:25383642

  9. Exposition to tannery wastewater did not alter behavioral and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Moysés, Felipe dos Santos; Bertoldi, Karine; Spindler, Christiano; Sanches, Eduardo Farias; Elsner, Viviane Rostirola; Rodrigues, Marco Antonio Siqueira; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2014-04-22

    There are scarce data on the neurotoxicity in mammalian induced by tannery wastewaters. Previously, the anxiogenic effect of tannery wastewater was demonstrated in mice, while wastewater submitted to photoelectrooxidation (PEO) process treatment did not affect the anxiety state. Considering that species may response differently to xenobiotics, the aim of the present work was to study the effects of exposure to tannery wastewaters (non-PEO or PEO-treated) on behavioral and neurochemical markers in another species of laboratory animals, specifically Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats were given free access to water bottles containing non-PEO or PEO-treated tannery wastewaters (0.1, 1 and 5% in drinking water). During the exposure, behavioral tests of anxiety (elevated plus-maze, neophobia, open field and light-dark box), depression (forced swimming) and memory (inhibitory avoidance, novel object and discriminative avoidance) were performed. On the 30th day, brain structures were dissected out to evaluate cellular oxidative state (hippocampus, cerebellum and striatum) and acetylcholinesterase activity (hippocampus and striatum). Exposure to tannery effluent with or without photoelectrochemical treatment did not alter any behavioral and neurochemical parameters evaluated. Our data indicate that Wistar rats may not be an adequate species for ecotoxicological studies involving tannery effluents and that POE treatment did not generate other toxic compounds. PMID:24548682

  10. Effect of lithium chloride on spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis in mature albino rats: Duration dependent response

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, P.K.; Biswas, N.M.; Ghosh, D. )

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of the different varieties of germ cells at stage VII of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, namely type-A spermatogonia (ASg), preleptotene spermatocytes (pLSc), midpachytene spermatocytes (mPSc) and step 7 spermatids (7 Sd) along with Leydig cell nuclear area (LCNA) and radioimmunoassay of plasma levels of gonadotrophins (FSH and LH), prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T), activities of testicular, {Delta}{sup 5}-3{beta} hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ({Delta}{sup 5}-3{beta}-HSD) and 17{beta}-hydroxyteroid dehydrogenase (17{beta}-HSD) were measured in mature rats of the Wistar strain following treatment with lithium chloride at a dose of 200 ug/100 g body wt/day for 7, 14 and 21 days. A remarkable reduction in plasma levels of FSH, LH, PRL and T along with significant diminution in the activities of testicular {Delta}{sup 5}-3{beta}-HSD and 17 {beta}-HSD were observed following lithium treatment for 14 and 21 days. 21 days of treatment also resulted in a marked degree of degeneration of ASg and 7Sd at stage VII but 14 days of treatment did not exhibit any significant effect on testicular gametogenesis. LCNA was decreased after lithium chloride treatment for 14 and 21 days. 7 days of treatment did not exert any notable result in the above parameters.

  11. Effect of antioxidant mineral elements supplementation in the treatment of hypertension in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, S A; Bilbis, L S; Saidu, Y; Adamu, Y

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic renal disease. The current work was designed with the aim of investigating the potentials of antioxidants copper, manganese, and zinc in the treatment of hypertension in Wistar rats. The rats were fed 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and treatment with supplements in the presence of the challenging agent for additional 4 weeks. The supplementation significantly decreased the blood pressure as compared with hypertensive control. The result also indicated significant decreased in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, insulin and increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total antioxidant activities, and nitric oxide of the supplemented groups relative to the hypertensive control. The average percentage protection against atherogenesis indicated 47.13 ± 9.60% for all the supplemented groups. The mean arterial blood pressure showed significant positive correlation with glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, insulin resistance and malondialdehyde while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and total antioxidant activities showed negative correlation. The result therefore indicated strong relationship between oxidative stress and hypertension and underscores the role of antioxidant minerals in reducing oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance associated with hypertension. PMID:22966412

  12. Hepatotoxicity Induced by Subchronic Exposure of Fluoride and Chlorpyrifos in Wistar Rats: Mitigating Effect of Ascorbic Acid.

    PubMed

    Raina, Rajinder; Baba, Naseer Ahmad; Verma, Pawan K; Sultana, Mudasir; Singh, Maninder

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the ameliorative properties of ascorbic acid against the subchronic effect of co-exposure of fluoride (F) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) on oxidative damage markers such as lipid peroxidation (MDA) and antioxidant defense system in the liver of adult Wistar rats. The animal groups were provided with either vehicle or ascorbic acid (60 mg/kg, b.w.) or NOAEL dose of fluoride (1 ppm) or CPF (1 mg/kg, b.w.) or ten times of such doses orally alone and in combination or pre-treated with ascorbic acid along with co-exposure of F and CPF every consecutive day for 28 days. Hepatic damage marker analysis in blood revealed that aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly (P < 0.05) increased with single or combined exposure of F or CPF at either dose levels. Significant increased oxidative damage of hepatocytes as indicated by increased MDA levels with decrease in tissue ascorbate and free radical scavenging enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase was observed in groups treated with either F or CPF as well as in combinedly treated animals as compared to control animals. Supplementation of ascorbic acid restored the hepatic specific marker enzymes in blood following co-exposure of F and CPF at lower doses which were otherwise increased in the F and CPF co-exposed rats. The results show that ascorbic acid supplementation with F and CPF prevents or diminishes the hepatic damage in rats co-exposed to toxicants and may act as a putative protective agent against toxicant-induced liver tissue injury. PMID:25669166

  13. Chronic effects of soft drink consumption on the health state of Wistar rats: A biochemical, genetic and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Salah-Eldin, Alaa-Eldin; Ismail, Tamer Ahmed; Alshehiri, Zafer Saad; Attia, Hossam Fouad

    2016-06-01

    The present study was performed to examine the effects of chronic soft drink consumption (SDC) on oxidative stress, biochemical alterations, gene biomarkers and histopathology of bone, liver and kidney. Free drinking water of adult male Wistar rats was substituted with three different soft drinks: Coca‑Cola, Pepsi and 7‑Up, for three consecutive months. The serum and organs were collected for examining the biochemical parameters associated with bone, liver and kidney functions. Semi‑quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to observe the changes in the expression of genes in the liver and kidney, which are associated with oxidative stress resistance. Histopathological investigations were performed to determine the changes in bone, liver and kidney tissues using hematoxylin and eosin stains. SDC affected liver, kidney and bone function biomarkers. Soft drinks increased oxidative stress, which is represented by an increase in malondialdehyde and a decrease in antioxidant levels. SDC affected serum mineral levels, particularly calcium and phosphorus. Soft drinks downregulated the expression levels of glutathione‑S‑transferase and super oxide dismutase in the liver compared with that of control rats. Rats administered Coca‑Cola exhibited a hepatic decrease in the mRNA expression of α2‑macroglobulin compared with rats administered Pepsi and 7‑Up. On the other hand, SDC increased the mRNA expression of α1‑acid glycoprotein. The present renal studies revealed that Coca‑Cola increased the mRNA expression levels of desmin, angiotensinogen and angiotensinogen receptor compared with the other groups, together with mild congestion in renal histopathology. Deleterious histopathological changes were reported predominantly in the bone and liver of the Coca‑Cola and Pepsi groups. In conclusion, a very strict caution must be considered with SDC due to the increase in oxidative stress biomarkers and disruption in the expression

  14. Chronic effects of soft drink consumption on the health state of Wistar rats: A biochemical, genetic and histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    ALKHEDAIDE, ADEL; SOLIMAN, MOHAMED MOHAMED; SALAH-ELDIN, ALAA-ELDIN; ISMAIL, TAMER AHMED; ALSHEHIRI, ZAFER SAAD; ATTIA, HOSSAM FOUAD

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine the effects of chronic soft drink consumption (SDC) on oxidative stress, biochemical alterations, gene biomarkers and histopathology of bone, liver and kidney. Free drinking water of adult male Wistar rats was substituted with three different soft drinks: Coca-Cola, Pepsi and 7-Up, for three consecutive months. The serum and organs were collected for examining the biochemical parameters associated with bone, liver and kidney functions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to observe the changes in the expression of genes in the liver and kidney, which are associated with oxidative stress resistance. Histopathological investigations were performed to determine the changes in bone, liver and kidney tissues using hematoxylin and eosin stains. SDC affected liver, kidney and bone function biomarkers. Soft drinks increased oxidative stress, which is represented by an increase in malondialdehyde and a decrease in antioxidant levels. SDC affected serum mineral levels, particularly calcium and phosphorus. Soft drinks downregulated the expression levels of glutathione-S-transferase and super oxide dismutase in the liver compared with that of control rats. Rats administered Coca-Cola exhibited a hepatic decrease in the mRNA expression of α2-macroglobulin compared with rats administered Pepsi and 7-Up. On the other hand, SDC increased the mRNA expression of α1-acid glycoprotein. The present renal studies revealed that Coca-Cola increased the mRNA expression levels of desmin, angiotensinogen and angiotensinogen receptor compared with the other groups, together with mild congestion in renal histopathology. Deleterious histopathological changes were reported predominantly in the bone and liver of the Coca-Cola and Pepsi groups. In conclusion, a very strict caution must be considered with SDC due to the increase in oxidative stress biomarkers and disruption in the expression of certain genes

  15. Long-term mequindox treatment induced endocrine and reproductive toxicity via oxidative stress in male Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ihsan, Awais; Wang Xu; Liu Zhaoying; Wang Yulian; Huang Xianju; Liu Yu; Yu Huan; Zhang Hongfei; Li Tingting; Yang Chunhui; Yuan Zonghui

    2011-05-01

    Mequindox (MEQ) is a synthetic antimicrobial chemical of quinoxaline 1, 4-dioxide group. This study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that MEQ exerts testicular toxicity by causing oxidative stress and steroidal gene expression profiles and determine mechanism of MEQ testicular toxicity. In this study, adult male Wistar rats were fed with MEQ for 180 days at five different doses as 0, 25, 55, 110 and 275 mg/kg, respectively. In comparison to control, superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were elevated at 110 and 275 mg/kg MEQ, whereas the malondialdehyde (MDA) level was slightly increase at only 275 mg/kg. Furthermore, in LC/MS-IT-TOF analysis, one metabolite 2-isoethanol 4-desoxymequindox (M11) was found in the testis. There was significant decrease in body weight, testicular weight and testosterone at 275 mg/kg, serum follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) at 110 and 275 mg/kg, while lutinizing hormone (LH) levels were elevated at 110 mg/kg. Moreover, histopathology of testis exhibited germ cell depletion, contraction of seminiferous tubules and disorganization of the tubular contents of testis. Compared with control, mRNA expression of StAR, P450scc and 17{beta}-HSD in testis was significantly decreased after exposure of 275 mg/kg MEQ while AR and 3{beta}-HSD mRNA expression were significantly elevated at the 110 mg/kg MEQ group. Taken together, our findings provide the first and direct evidence in vivo for the formation of free radicals during the MEQ metabolism through N {yields} O group reduction, which may have implications to understand the possible mechanism of male infertility related to quinoxaline derivatives.

  16. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) Strain

    PubMed Central

    Fazan, Rubens; Silva, Carlos Alberto A.; Oliveira, José Antônio Cortes; Salgado, Helio Cesar; Montano, Nicola; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Risk factors for life-threatening cardiovascular events were evaluated in an experimental model of epilepsy, the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strain. Methods We used long-term ECG recordings in conscious, one year old, WAR and Wistar control counterparts to evaluate spontaneous arrhythmias and heart rate variability, a tool to assess autonomic cardiac control. Ventricular function was also evaluated using the pressure-volume conductance system in anesthetized rats. Results Basal RR interval (RRi) was similar between WAR and Wistar rats (188±5 vs 199±6 ms). RRi variability strongly suggests that WAR present an autonomic imbalance with sympathetic overactivity, which is an isolated risk factor for cardiovascular events. Anesthetized WAR showed lower arterial pressure (92±3 vs 115±5 mmHg) and exhibited indices of systolic dysfunction, such as higher ventricle end-diastolic pressure (9.2±0.6 vs 5.6±1 mmHg) and volume (137±9 vs 68±9 μL) as well as lower rate of increase in ventricular pressure (5266±602 vs 7320±538 mmHg.s-1). Indices of diastolic cardiac function, such as lower rate of decrease in ventricular pressure (-5014±780 vs -7766±998 mmHg.s-1) and a higher slope of the linear relationship between end-diastolic pressure and volume (0.078±0.011 vs 0.036±0.011 mmHg.μL), were also found in WAR as compared to Wistar control rats. Moreover, Wistar rats had 3 to 6 ventricular ectopic beats, whereas WAR showed 15 to 30 ectopic beats out of the 20,000 beats analyzed in each rat. Conclusions The autonomic imbalance observed previously at younger age is also present in aged WAR and, additionally, a cardiac dysfunction was also observed in the rats. These findings make this experimental model of epilepsy a valuable tool to study risk factors for cardiovascular events in epilepsy. PMID:26029918

  17. The Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Chitosan Gel on Full Thickness Skin Wound Healing in Albino Rats: Histological, Immunohistochemical and Fluorescent Study

    PubMed Central

    El Sadik, Abir O.; El Ghamrawy, Tarek A.; Abd El-Galil, Tarek I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Wound healing involves the integration of complex biological processes. Several studies examined numerous approaches to enhance wound healing and to minimize its related morbidity. Both chitosan and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were used in treating skin wounds. The aim of the current work was to compare MSCs versus chitosan in wound healing, evaluate the most efficient route of administration of MSCs, either intradermal or systemic injection, and elicit the mechanisms inducing epidermal and dermal cell regeneration using histological, immunohistochemical and fluorescent techniques. Material and Methods Forty adult male Sprague Dawley albino rats were divided into four equal groups (ten rats in each group): control group (Group I); full thickness surgical skin wound model, Group II: Wound and chitosan gel. Group III: Wound treated with systemic injection of MSCs and Group IV: Wound treated with intradermal injection of MSCs. The healing ulcer was examined on day 3, 5, 10 and 15 for gross morphological evaluation and on day 10 and 15 for histological, immunohistochemical and fluorescent studies. Results Chitosan was proved to promote wound healing more than the control group but none of their wound reached complete closure. Better and faster healing of wounds in MSCs treated groups were manifested more than the control or chitosan treated groups. It was found that the intradermal route of administration of stem cells enhanced the rate of healing of skin wounds better than the systemic administration to the extent that, by the end of the fifteenth day of the experiment, the wounds were completely healed in all rats of this group. Histologically, the wound areas of group IV were hardly demarcated from the adjacent normal skin and showed complete regeneration of the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis and underlying muscle fibers. Collagen fibers were arranged in many directions, with significant increase in their area percent, surrounding fully regenerated hair

  18. Validation of Reference Genes for RT–qPCR Analysis in Noise–Induced Hearing Loss: A Study in Wistar Rat

    PubMed Central

    Melgar–Rojas, Pedro; Alvarado, Juan Carlos; Fuentes–Santamaría, Verónica; Gabaldón–Ull, María Cruz; Juiz, José M.

    2015-01-01

    The reverse transcriptase–quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT–qPCR) requires adequate normalization in order to ensure accurate results. The use of reference genes is the most common method to normalize RT–qPCR assays; however, many studies have reported that the expression of frequently used reference genes is more variable than expected, depending on experimental conditions. Consequently, proper validation of the stability of reference genes is an essential step when performing new gene expression studies. Despite the fact that RT–qPCR has been widely used to elucidate molecular correlates of noise–induced hearing loss (NIHL), up to date there are no reports demonstrating validation of reference genes for the evaluation of changes in gene expression after NIHL. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the expression of some commonly used reference genes (Arbp, b–Act, b2m, CyA, Gapdh, Hprt1, Tbp, Tfrc and UbC) and examined their suitability as endogenous control genes for RT–qPCR analysis in the adult Wistar rat in response to NIHL. Four groups of rats were noise–exposed to generate permanent cochlear damage. Cochleae were collected at different time points after noise exposure and the expression level of candidate reference genes was evaluated by RT–qPCR using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software to determine expression stability. The three independent applications revealed Tbp as the most stably expressed reference gene. We also suggest a group of top–ranked reference genes that can be combined to obtain suitable reference gene pairs for the evaluation of the effects of noise on gene expression in the cochlea. These findings provide essential basis for further RT–qPCR analysis in studies of NIHL using Wistar rats as animal model. PMID:26366995

  19. ANTIDEPRESSANT-LIKE EFFECTS OF LOW KETAMINE DOSE IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED HIPPOCAMPAL AMPA/NMDA RECEPTOR DENSITY RATIO IN FEMALE WISTAR-KYOTO RATS

    PubMed Central

    Tizabi, Yousef; Bhatti, Babur H; Manaye, Kebreten F; Das, Jharna R; Akinfiresoye, Luli

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical as well as limited clinical studies indicate that ketamine, a non-competitive glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist, may exert a quick and prolonged antidepressant effect. It has been postulated that ketamine action is due to inhibition of NMDA and stimulation of AMPA receptors. Here, we sought to determine whether ketamine would exert antidepressant effects in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, a putative animal model of depression and whether this effect would be associated with changes in AMPA/NMDA receptor densities in the hippocampus. Adult female WKY rats and their control Wistar rats were subjected to acute and chronic ketamine doses and their locomotor activity (LMA) and immobility in the forced swim test (FST) were evaluated. Hippocampal AMPA and NMDA receptor densities were also measured following a chronic ketamine dose. Ketamine, both acutely (0.5–5.0 mg/kg ip) and chronically (0.5–2.5 mg/kg daily for 10 days) resulted in a dose-dependent and prolonged decrease in immobility in the FST in WKY rats only, suggesting an antidepressant-like effect in this model. Chronic treatment with an effective dose of ketamine also resulted in an increase in AMPA/NMDA receptor density ratio in the hippocampus of WKY rats. LMA was not affected by any ketamine treatment in either strain. These results indicate a rapid and lasting antidepressant-like effect of a low ketamine dose in WKY rat model of depression. Moreover, the increase in AMPA/NMDA receptor density in hippocampus could be a contributory factor to behavioral effects of ketamine. These findings suggest potential therapeutic benefit in simultaneous reduction of central NMDA and elevation of AMPA receptor function in treatment of depression. PMID:22521815

  20. Induction of a heparin-stimulated serine proteinase in sex accessory gland tumors of the Lobund-Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael J; Lind, Jeremy; Sinha, Akhouri A

    2015-08-01

    Induction of new proteinase activities that may process growth factors, modify cell surface receptors, cleave extracellular matrix proteins, etc. is considered fundamental in carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel proteinase activity induced in sex accessory gland cancers (about 70% in seminal vesicles) of adult male Lobund-Wistar rats by a single injection of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU; 25mg/kg) followed by implanted testosterone propionate (45mg in silastic tubing every 2months) treatment for 10-14months. A 28kDa proteinase activity was detected in tumor extracts using SDS-gelatin gel zymography with incubations done without CaCl2. Its activity was stimulated 15 fold by heparin (optimal activity 1.5-3.0μg/lane) added to the tissue extract-SDS sample buffer prior to electrophoresis. No 28kDa heparin-stimulated proteinase (H-SP) was found in the dorsal, lateral and anterior (coagulating gland) prostate lobes or seminal vesicles of untreated adult rats, but there was a 26-30kDa Ca(2+)-independent proteinase activity in the ventral prostate that showed limited heparin stimulation. The 28kDa H-SP was completely inhibited by 1.0mM 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonylfluoride (AESBF) indicating that it was a serine-type proteinase. Other types of proteinase inhibitors were without effect, including serine proteinase inhibitors benzamidine, tranexamic acid and ε-aminocaproic acid. Proteinase activities of about 28kDa were found with casein, fibrinogen or carboxymethylated transferrin as substrate, however, these activities were not stimulated by heparin. Similar levels of activities of the 28kDa H-SP were found in primary tumors and their metastases, but little/no activity was detected in serum, even from rats with large tumor volume and metastases. These data demonstrate overexpression of a heparin-stimulated 28kDa serine proteinase in the primary tumors of sex accessory gland cancers and their metastases. This proteinase either does not

  1. Qualitative study of young, adult, and aged Wistar rats temporomandibular synovial membrane employing light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Duro, Christiano Cony; Ciena, Adriano Polican; De Almeida, Sonia Regina Yokomizo; Righetti, Marta Maria Da Silva; Grisolia, Débora De Freitas; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira; Watanabe, Ii-Sei

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the rat temporomandibular joint (TMJ) synovial membrane at different ages using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Under light microscopic analysis, the TMJ structures were observed such as condyle, capsule, disk, the synovial membrane collagen type, and cells distribution. In the scanning electron microscopy, the synovial membrane surface exhibited a smooth aspect in young animals and there was an increase with ageing in the number of folds. The transmission electron microscopic analysis showed more synoviocytes in the synovial layer in the young group and still a great number of vesicles and cisterns dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum in the aged group. In the three groups, a dense layer of collagen fibers in the synovial layer and cytoplasmic extensions were clearly seen. It was possible to conclude that synovial membrane structures in aged group showed alterations contributing to the decrease in joint lubrication and in the sliding between disk and joint surfaces. These characteristic will reflect in biomechanics of chewing, and may cause the TMJ disorders, currently observed in clinical processes. PMID:22791633

  2. Lack of cardioprotection by single-dose magnesium prophylaxis on isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in adult Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Garson, Christie; Kelly-Laubscher, Roisin; Gwanyanya, Asfree; Blackhurst, Dee

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim Magnesium (Mg2+) is effective in treating cardiovascular disorders such as arrhythmias and pre-eclampsia, but its role during myocardial infarction (MI) remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated the effects of Mg2+ pre-treatment on isoprenaline (ISO)-induced MI in vivo. Methods Rats divided into four groups were each pre-treated with either MgSO4 (270 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or an equivalent volume of physiological saline, prior to the ISO (67 mg/kg subcutaneously) or saline treatments. One day post-treatment, the electrocardiogram and left ventricular blood pressures were recorded. Infarcts were determined using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, and serum markers of lipid peroxidation were measured with spectrophotometric assays. Results Mg2+ pre-treatment neither altered the ISO-induced infarct size compared with ISO treatment alone (p > 0.05), nor reversed the low-voltage electrocardiogram or the prominent Q waves induced by ISO, despite a trend to decreased Q waves. Similarly, Mg2+ did not prevent the ISO-induced decrease in peak left ventricular blood pressure or the decrease in minimal rate of pressure change. Mg2+ did not reverse the ISO-induced gain in heart weight or loss of body weight. Neither ISO nor Mg2+ altered the concentrations of lipid peroxidation markers 24 hours post MI induction. Conclusion Although Mg2+ had no detrimental effects on electrical or haemodynamic activity in ISO-induced MI, the lack of infarct prevention may detract from its utility in MI therapy. PMID:26212925

  3. Effects of Arctium lappa on Cadmium-Induced Damage to the Testis and Epididymis of Adult Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Predes, Fabricia de Souza; Diamante, M A S; Foglio, M A; Dolder, H

    2016-10-01

    The protective role of Arctium lappa (AL) on the testes of rats acutely exposed to cadmium (Cd) was tested. The rats were randomly divided into a control group (C-group) and three major experimental groups, which were further subdivided into minor groups (n = 6) according to the experimental period (7 or 56 days). The C-group was subdivided into C-7 and C-56 [receiving a single saline solution, intraperitoneal (i.p.), on the first day]; the AL-group, AL-7, and AL-56, received AL extract (300 mg/kg/daily); the Cd group, Cd-7 and Cd-56, received a single i.p. dose of CdCl2 (1.2 mg/kg body weight (BW)) on the first day; the CdAL group, CdAL-7 and CdAL-56, received the same Cd dose, followed by AL extract. Water or AL extract was administered daily by gavage. After either 7 or 56 days, the testis and accessory glands were removed after whole-body perfusion. Exposure to Cd and CdAL decreased the weight of the testis and epididymis, the gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubular (ST) diameter, and ST volumetric proportion, and increased the volumetric proportion of interstitium after 56 days. In the epididymis caput, the tubular volumetric proportion decreased along with an increase of interstitial volumetric proportion and epithelium height after 56 days. The alterations observed were less severe only after 7 days. A progressive testicular damage resulted mainly in tubules lined only by Sertoli cells. The sperm number and cell debris decreased in the epididymis. We demonstrated that the testicular damage induced by single acute i.p. exposure to Cd occurred despite the daily oral intake of AL extract. PMID:26926909

  4. Diabetes and alcohol: Double jeopardy with regard to oxidative toxicity and sexual dysfunction in adult male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Himabindu, B; Madhu, P; Reddy, P Sreenivasula

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether diabetic rats exposed to alcohol demonstrate a higher degree of reproductive toxicity and suffer with elevated oxidative toxicity when compared with alcohol exposed control rats. Diabetes was induced by injecting single dose of streptozotocin and alcohol was administered through orogastric tube once daily for a period of 55 days. Daily sperm production, epididymal sperm count, motile, viable and HOS-tail coiled sperms, serum testosterone levels and testicular 3β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity levels were significantly decreased in diabetic rats. Significant reduction in testicular and epididymal superoxide dismutase and catalase activity levels, and elevation in lipid peroxidation products were observed in diabetic rats. Similar reproductive and oxidative toxicity was observed in alcohol treated control rats. Further, alcohol exposed diabetic rats showed additional deterioration in reproductive endpoints and noteworthy elevation in oxidative toxicity suggesting that treatment with alcohol further deteriorates sexual dysfunction in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:25541261

  5. THE EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE AND ITS METABOLITE DACT ON HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS ACTIVATION IN ADULT MALE WISTAR RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that a single administration of atrazine (ATR), a chloro-s-triazine herbicide that is used extensively throughout the USA and world, is able to induce a dose-dependent increase in plasma ACTH, with maximal concentrations observed at 15 mi...

  6. THE CONSUMPTION OF RED PUPUNHA (BACTRIS GASIPAES KUNTH) INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND REDUCES WEIGHT GAIN OF LACTATING AND POST-LACTATING WISTAR RATS

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, R. Piccolotto; Lemos, J.R. Gonzaga; de Aquino Sales, R. Souza; Martins, M. Gassen; Nascimento, C.H.; Bayona, M.; Marcon, J.L.; Monteiro, J. Barros

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The lactating and post-lactating periods are marked by large metabolic change. Production of milk is 60% lipid dependent. We reported in a recent scientific meeting that Red pupunha palm tree fruit increases HDL cholesterol in lactating rats. This study evaluated if consumption of Red Pupunha by adult female rats has a beneficial impact on the lipid metabolism of lacting and post-lacting adult rats. Objective Evaluate if consumption of red pupunha has a beneficial effect in the lipid metabolism of lacting and post-lacting adult Wistar rats. Research Methods Four groups including two for control; (1) control adult lactating rats, (2) control adults post-lactating rats; and two experimental groups; (3) pupunha adults lactating rats and (4) pupunha adult post-lactating rats were evaluated and compared regarding: weight gain, food consumption, plasma total protein, glucose, total lipid, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean difference and its 95% confidence intervals were used for group comparisons. Group comparisons were evaluated by using analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA). The statistical significance of the pairwise differences among groups was assessed by using the two-sided Tukey test. Results There were no important differences in food consumption, plasma glucose, total lipids and triglycerides among groups. The red pupunha lactating group gain less weight showing lower body mass index (BMI) than controls (p < 0.05). Total cholesterol was lower in red pupunha lactating than in controls but not in the red pupunha post-lactating group as compared to controls. Triglycerides were lower in the post-lactating red pupunha group as compared to the control group (p = 0.039) but not for the lactating groups. Red pupunha lactating and post-lactating groups had higher HDL-cholesterol than their corresponding control groups (p ≤ 0.01). Conclusion Original findings include the beneficial effect of red pupunha in post

  7. Urinary tract infection - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... to the hospital if you: Are an older adult Have kidney stones or changes in the anatomy ...

  8. Effect of Monotherapy and Combination Therapy of Pantoprazole and Aprepitant in Gastric Esophageal Reflux Disease in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Kamleshwar; Raj, Prince; Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Mukesh; Kaithwas, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of pantoprazole and aprepitant on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. Groups of rats, fasted overnight, received normal saline (3 mL/kg, sham control) or toxic control (3 mL/kg) or pantoprazole (30 mg/kg) or aprepitant (10 mg/kg), or their combinations and were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 8 h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index, and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with pantoprazole and aprepitant significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The treatment also helped to restore the altered levels oxidative stress parameters to normal. PMID:24790551

  9. Influence of teak (Tectona grandis; family: Verbenaceae) seed protein on some enzymes and liver lipids of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Laskar, S; Ghosh-Majumdar, S; Basak, B; Maity, C R

    1985-09-01

    The influence of protein, isolated from teak (Tectona grandis) seed upon albino rats with respect to some of their serum, liver and intestinal enzymes and liver lipids has been studied. The protein in question contains aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, lysine, phenylalanine, histidine and arginine as determined by amino acid analyser. After feeding experiment an increase in body weight including the liver weight was noted in the test animals due to excess protein in the diet. A marked increase was observed in G.O.T., G.P.T. and total lipid of liver, whereas G.O.T. and G.P.T. of serum were decreased. The observed increased concentration of lipid in liver may be due to excess addition of protein in diet. The overall observation is an indication of probable fatty infiltration in liver of test animals. PMID:4070763

  10. Protective effect of a high protein diet against the toxicity of some organophosphorus compounds in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A K; Kaveeshwar, U

    1991-10-01

    The present investigation deals with determining the efficacy of a high protein diet (HPD) in combating toxicity in albino rats of some organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) that follow dissimilar metabolic patterns in a living system. As assessed by an increase or decrease in the levels of some biochemical and nutritional parameters, the high protein diet containing 59% protein seems to have a beneficial effect in alleviating toxicity of low but prolonged doses of OPCs over the standard diet (SD) containing 19% protein. OPCs undergoing direct detoxication in a living system like diisopropyl phosphoro-fluoridate (DFP) appear to be more susceptible to HPD than those undergoing biotoxication like EPN (O-ethyl O-p-nitrophenyl phenyl-phosphonothioate) and malathion (S-(1,2-dicarbethoxyethyl) O,O-dimethyldithiophosphate). PMID:1812296

  11. [THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITY OF MICRONIZED MEBENDAZOLE IN THE MUSCULAR PHASE OF EXPERIMENTAL TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS INVASION IN ALBINO MICE].

    PubMed

    Kukhaleva, I V; Kovalenko, F P; Shkolyar, N A; Legonkov, Yu A; Musaev, A Kh; Bulanova, T E; Samochatova, E I

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of trichinosis in Russia was 0.07 per 100,000 population in 2014, which was 2.9-fold higher than that in 2013. Two WHO recommended medications mebendazole and albendazole are now used to treat humari trichinosis. The drugs are active against only mature helminths and non-encysted muscle larvae. The original oil suspension of micronized mebendazole was.found to have 100% efficacy against trichinosis in albino mice in the late muscular phase (encysted larvae) of hyperinvasion after intensive therapy under lifetime diagnostic guidance during and after a treatment cycle. The lifetime diagnostic method used to evaluate the larvicidal activity of anti-trichinosis agents in animals with experimental trichinosis revealed the signs of viaility, established a trend for deatih of Trichinella larvae, and determined their destructive changes. PMID:26827586

  12. Cardioprotective potential of Punica granatum extract in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Mahalaxmi; Patankar, Pankaj; Ghadi, Prakash; Kasture, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the protective role of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) seed juice extract and its butanolic fraction on heart rate, electrocardiographic patterns, vascular reactivity to catecholamines, cardiac marker enzymes, antioxidant enzymes together with morphologic and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The effects of Punica granatum seed juice extract (100 mg/kg, p.o. and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and butanolic fraction of Punica granatum seed juice extract (100 mg/kg., p.o.) on cardiac parameters were studied. Isoproterenol hydrochloride was used to induce myocardial infarction in Wistar rats. At the end of the experiment, heart rate, ECG, pressure rate index and cardiac marker enzyme levels were assessed. Results: Rats treated with isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, administered subcutaneously twice at an interval of 24 h) showed a significant increase in heart rate, ST elevation in ECG, pressure rate index and a significant increase in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes- lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase in serum. Isoproterenol significantly reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and increased vascular reactivity to various catecholamines. Pretreatment with PJ (100 mg/kg, p.o. and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and B-PJ (100 mg/kg., p.o.) for a period of 21 days significantly inhibited the effects of ISO on heart rate, PRI, ECG patterns, levels of LDH, CK, SOD, CAT, and vascular reactivity changes. Treatment with PJ (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) and B-PJ (100 mg/kg., p.o.) alone did not alter any of the parameters as compared to vehicle-treated Wistar rats. Punica granatum-treated animals showed a lesser degree of cellular infiltration in histopathological studies. Conclusion: Punica granatum ameliorates cardiotoxic effects of isoproterenol and may be of value in the treatment of MI. PMID:21808588

  13. Phenotypic characterization of type II collagen-induced arthritis in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    SONG, HOU-PAN; LI, XIN; YU, RONG; ZENG, GUANG; YUAN, ZHEN-YI; WANG, WEI; HUANG, HUI-YONG; CAI, XIONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine a more specific, efficient and simple method for the induction of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. Different strains of rats were injected at the base of the tail with bovine type II collagen (CII) emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). The onset and severity of arthritis were evaluated by clinical assessment. The established CIA model was analyzed using a comprehensive examination of clinical, hematological, histological and radiological parameters. The results demonstrated that Wistar rats were the most susceptible strain to CIA followed by Wistar Furth rats, with Sprague Dawley rats being the least susceptible. Following primary and booster immunization, female Wistar rats developed severe arthritis, with an incidence of >83% and low variability in clinical signs. The development of arthritis was accompanied by a significantly elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate compared with that in the control rats. The radiographic examination revealed bone matrix resorption, considerable soft tissue swelling, periosteal new bone formation and bone erosion in the arthritic joints of the CIA rats. Histopathologically, the synovial joints of CIA rats were characterized by synovial hyperplasia, pannus formation, marked cellular infiltration, bone and cartilage erosion and narrowing of the joint space. The administration of an intradermal injection of only 200 µg bovine CII emulsified in IFA at the base of the tail therefore leads to the successful development of a CIA rat model. This well-characterized CIA rat model could be specifically used to study the pathophysiology of human rheumatoid arthritis as well as to test and develop anti-arthritic agents for humans. PMID:26622511

  14. Estrogenic activity of a hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves on female wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Jawaid, Talha; Awasthi, Akanksha; Kamal, Mehnaz

    2015-01-01

    To study the estrogenic activity of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves (HEBA) in female Wistar rats. The dried powdered leaves were extracted with hydroalcoholic mixture (60%), and the resultant extract was subjected for phytochemical analyses to identify different phytoconstituents. HEBA were administered to ovariectomized rats for 7 days at three different doses (viz., 200, 300, 400 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) and their estrogenic activity were compared with each of daily treatment with 0.2 mg/kg body weight, i.p. conjugated equine estrogen as a positive control or olive oil as a negative control. Estrogenic activity was evaluated by doing uterotropic assay, vaginal cytology and measurement of vaginal opening in female Wistar rats. Oral administration of HEBA in ovariectomized immature and mature female Wistar rats in a dose of 400 mg/kg b.w. resulted in significant increase in the uterine wet weight (in mg) (224.82 ± 7.01) and (912.25 ± 27.22) when compared with ovariectomized control rats (111.52 ± 3.17) and (506.67 ± 21.39). HEBA (400 mg/kg b.w., p.o.) treated rats, showing only cornified epithelial cells which was an indication of the presence of the estrogen and also showed 100% vaginal opening. It was observed that HEBA possess significant estrogenic activity at 400 mg/kg b.w., p.o. which was evident by uterotropic assay, measurement of vaginal opening, and histopathological changes. PMID:25709965

  15. Behavioural and neurotoxic effects of ayahuasca infusion (Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis) in female Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Pic-Taylor, Aline; da Motta, Luciana Gueiros; de Morais, Juliana Alves; Junior, Willian Melo; Santos, Alana de Fátima Andrade; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio; Mortari, Marcia Renata; von Zuben, Marcus Vinicius; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2015-09-01

    Ayahuasca, a psychoactive beverage used by indigenous and religious groups, is generally prepared by the coction of Psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caapi plants containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and β-carboline alkaloids, respectively. To investigate the acute toxicity of ayahuasca, the infusion was administered by gavage to female Wistar rats at doses of 30X and 50X the dose taken during a religious ritual, and the animals observed for 14 days. Behavioural functions were investigated one hour after dosing at 15X and 30X using the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Neuronal activation (c-fos marked neurons) and toxicity (Fluoro-Jade B and Nissl/Cresyl staining) were investigated in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN), amygdaloid nucleus, and hippocampal formation brain areas of rats treated with a 30X ayahuasca dose. The actual lethal oral dose in female Wistar rats could not be determined in this study, but was shown to be higher than the 50X (which corresponds to 15.1mg/kg bw DMT). The ayahuasca and fluoxetine treated groups showed a significant decrease in locomotion in the open field and elevated plus-maze tests compared to controls. In the forced swimming test, ayahuasca treated animals swam more than controls, a behaviour that was not significant in the fluoxetine group. Treated animals showed higher neuronal activation in all brain areas involved in serotoninergic neurotransmission. Although this led to some brain injury, no permanent damage was detected. These results suggest that ayahuasca has antidepressant properties in Wistar female at high doses, an effect that should be further investigated. PMID:26049017

  16. Chronic liquid nutrition intake induces obesity and considerable but reversible metabolic alterations in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mikuska, Livia; Vrabcova, Michaela; Tillinger, Andrej; Balaz, Miroslav; Ukropec, Jozef; Mravec, Boris

    2016-06-01

    We have previously described the development of substantial, but reversible obesity in Wistar rats fed with palatable liquid nutrition (Fresubin). In this study, we investigated changes in serum hormone levels, glycemia, fat mass, adipocyte size, and gene expression of adipokines and inflammatory markers in adipose tissue of Wistar rats fed by Fresubin (i) for 5 months, (ii) up to 90 days of age, or (iii) after 90 days of age to characterize metabolic alterations and their reversibility in rats fed with Fresubin. An intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test was also performed to determine levels of serum leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and C-peptide in 2- and 4-month-old animals. In addition, mesenteric and epididymal adipose tissue weight, adipocyte diameter, and gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines and other markers were determined at the end of the study. Chronic Fresubin intake significantly increased adipocyte diameter, reduced glucose tolerance, and increased serum leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and C-peptide levels. Moreover, gene expression of leptin, adiponectin, CD68, and nuclear factor kappa B was significantly increased in mesenteric adipose tissue of Fresubin fed rats. Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels increased in mesenteric adipose tissue only in the group fed Fresubin during the entire experiment. In epididymal adipose tissue, fatty acid binding protein 4 mRNA levels were significantly increased in rats fed by Fresubin during adulthood. In conclusion, chronic Fresubin intake induced complex metabolic alterations in Wistar rats characteristic of metabolic syndrome. However, transition of rats from Fresubin to standard diet reversed these alterations. PMID:26939586

  17. Alleviation of metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats by Spirulina maxima

    PubMed Central

    Jarouliya, Urmila; Anish, Zacharia J.; Kumar, Pravin; Bisen, P.S.; Prasad, G.B.K.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Several natural products have been isolated and identified to restore the complications of diabetes. Spirulina maxima is naturally occurring fresh water cyanobacterium, enriched with proteins and essential nutrients. The aim of the study was to determine whether S. maxima could serve as a therapeutic agent to correct metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats. Methods: Oral administration of 10 per cent fructose solution to Wistar rats (n=5 in each group) for 30 days resulted in hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Aqueous suspension of S. maxima (5 or 10%) was also administered orally once daily for 30 days. The therapeutic potential of the preparation with reference to metformin (500 mg/kg) was assessed by monitoring various biochemical parameters at 10 day intervals during the course of therapy and at the end of 30 days S. maxima administration. Results: Significant (P<0.001) reductions in blood glucose, lipid profile (triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL, VLDL) and liver function markers (SGPT and SGOT) were recorded along with elevated level of HDL-C at the end of 30 days therapy of 5 or 10 per cent S. maxima aquous extract. Co-administration of S. maxima extract (5 or 10% aqueous) with 10 per cent fructose solution offered a significant protection against fructose induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. Interpretation & Conclusions: The present findings showed that S. maxima exhibited anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activity in rats fed with fructose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms. PMID:22561632

  18. Albino Leaf1 That Encodes the Sole Octotricopeptide Repeat Protein Is Responsible for Chloroplast Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jianjie; Xing, Yi; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Qiaoling; Zhu, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Zhang, Jingliu; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast, the photosynthetic organelle in plants, plays a crucial role in plant development and growth through manipulating the capacity of photosynthesis. However, the regulatory mechanism of chloroplast development still remains elusive. Here, we characterized a mutant with defective chloroplasts in rice (Oryza sativa), termed albino leaf1 (al1), which exhibits a distinct albino phenotype in leaves, eventually leading to al1 seedling lethality. Electronic microscopy observation demonstrated that the number of thylakoids was reduced and the structure of thylakoids was disrupted in the al1 mutant during rice development, which eventually led to the breakdown of chloroplast. Molecular cloning revealed that AL1 encodes the sole octotricopeptide repeat protein (RAP) in rice. Genetic complementation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) rap mutants indicated that the AL1 protein is a functional RAP. Further analysis illustrated that three transcript variants were present in the AL1 gene, and the altered splices occurred at the 3′ untranslated region of the AL1 transcript. In addition, our results also indicate that disruption of the AL1 gene results in an altered expression of chloroplast-associated genes. Consistently, proteomic analysis demonstrated that the abundance of photosynthesis-associated proteins is altered significantly, as is that of a group of metabolism-associated proteins. More specifically, we found that the loss of AL1 resulted in altered abundances of ribosomal proteins, suggesting that RAP likely also regulates the homeostasis of ribosomal proteins in rice in addition to the ribosomal RNA. Taken together, we propose that AL1, particularly the AL1a and AL1c isoforms, plays an essential role in chloroplast development in rice. PMID:27208287

  19. Effect of aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchonii rhizome on some kidney and liver functional indicies of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Nafiu, Mo; Akanji, M A; Yakubu, M T

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchonii Hook. Ef. x Planch rhizome was investigated for its toxic effects in albino rats using some liver and kidney functional indices as 'markers'. Thirty six albino rats weighing 200.08 ± 10.21 were randomly assinged into six groups (A-F) of six animals each. Animals in groups A-E were orally administered on daily basis with 1 ml of the extract corresponding to 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract for 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 days while those in the control group received orally 1 ml of distilled water. Rats in all the groups were sacrificed 24 hours after the completion of their respective doses. The extract significantly (P<0.05) decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in the liver leading to 80.95% loss by the end of the experimental period. While there was no consistent pattern in the kidney ALP activity and serum bilirubin level, the serum enzyme compared well (P>0.05) with the control value. There was no effect (P>0.05) on the acid phosphatase activity of the tissues and serum of the animals. The extract also reduced the urea, albumin and creatinine content in the serum of the animals. The alterations in the biochemical parameters by the aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchoni may have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the liver and kidney of the animals. Therefore, the 50 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchoni rhizome may not be completley safe as an oral remedy. PMID:22238479

  20. Spontaneous otitis media in Wistar rats: an overlooked pathology in otological research.

    PubMed

    Verdaguer, José María; Trinidad, Almudena; González-García, José Angel; García-Berrocal, José Ramón; Ramírez-Camacho, Rafael

    2006-11-01

    The rat is commonly employed in otological research, but spontaneous ear infections can confound the results of experimental procedures--wasting time, money, and animals. The authors focus on the incidence of spontaneous otitis media in Wistar rats. They compare disease incidence in animals housed in standard cages with those housed in barrier units, showing that 20% of their conventionally housed animals developed spontaneous otitis media, whereas only 5% of their animals housed in isolated units were infected. These results underscore the importance of strict control of the shipping, housing conditions, and manipulation of animals to be used in otological research. PMID:17077834

  1. Spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of experimental Wistar rats and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Nataraju, G J; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Kothule, Viren R; Kadam, Shekhar B; Ravichandra, B V; Bhatnagar, Upendra; Jain, Mukul R

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken at Zydus Research Centre to understand the incidences of spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of Wistar rats and beagle dogs. The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. The lesions in various endocrine glands were classified according to the species and age of the animals at termination of study. Among the endocrine glands, the highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were observed in adrenal glands followed in descending order by pituitary, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and parathyroid glands in Wistar rats. In beagle dogs, highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were seen in adrenals followed by thyroid, endocrine pancreas, pituitary and parathyroid gland. In adrenal glands of Wistar rats, the incidences of cortical cell vacuolation, hemorrhages and hemangiectasis/peliosis were increased with age. Incidence of peliosis at ∼110 weeks of age was higher in female rats. Among the proliferative lesions in rats, higher incidences of cortical cell hyperplasia was observed followed by medullary hyperplasia, complex pheochromocytoma, cortical cell adenoma and cortical adenocarcinoma. In beagle dogs, the incidences of hemangiectasis and cortical cell vacuolation in adrenal glands were higher in 18-21 months aged dogs in both the sexes as compared to 10-12 months of age. In pituitary gland, the incidences of cystic changes were higher in older rats and dogs and the incidences were more in beagles as compared to rats. In thyroid glands, C-cell (parafollicular cells) hyperplasia/complex was observed more frequently in both the species. Few incidences of cystic changes were observed in parathyroid of 18-21 months aged beagle dogs. In endocrine pancreas, few incidences of islet-cell vacuolation, atrophy and hyperplasia were observed in both the species. The

  2. Supplier-dependent differences in intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Shima; Segerström, Lova; Roman, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a worldwide public health problem and a polygenetic disorder displaying substantial individual variation. This work aimed to study individual differences in behavior and its association to voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone in a seamless heterogenic group of animals. Thus, by this approach the aim was to more accurately recapitulate the existing heterogeneity within the human population. Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHan™:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and Charles River GmbH, Crl:WI) were used to create a heterogenic group for studies of individual differences in behavior, associations to intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone. The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for 6 weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over 4 weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar rats are diverse with regard to voluntary alcohol intake and preference in a supplier-dependent manner; higher in RccHan™:WI relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI. The results also revealed supplier-dependent differences in the effect of naltrexone that were dose- and time-dependent; evident differences in high-drinking RccHan™:WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHan™:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone and

  3. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Manihot esculenta Crantz in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Bahekar, Satish Eknath; Kale, Ranjana Sushil

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The study aimed to explore the antioxidant activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves (MEC) in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg were used in wistar rats of either sex. The oxidative stress was produced by overdose of acetaminophen and estimation of serum concentration of various enzymes such as malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT) were measured by standard biochemical methods. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as a standard drug for assessment of antioxidant status. Statistical Analysis Used: Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Student's unpaired t-test. Results: When compared with the standard antioxidant silymarin, MEC extract did not exhibit antioxidant activity in terms of MDA level reduction. However, it significantly increased serum levels of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH, and CAT) exerting a potent antioxidant effect in a graded manner. Conclusions: The observed results suggest that MEC could be a potential source of antioxidants. However, further studies are required to explore this therapeutic property of plant. PMID:27134463

  4. Aloe vera gel and thyroid hormone cream may improve wound healing in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Norouzian, Mohsen; Zarein-Dolab, Saeed; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Mohsenifar, Jaleh; Gazor, Roohollah

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic effects of various treatment options in wound healing have been one of the most controversial issues in surgical science. The present study was carried out to examine and compare the effects of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine cream onsutured incisions in Wistar rats. In a randomized controlled trial, thirty-six Wistar male rats, 250 to 300 g, received surgical incisions followed by topical application of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine 1%. To assess the efficacy of each treatment technique, a histological approach was used to evaluate the mean number of fibroblasts, macrophages, neutrophils, blood vessel sections and thickness of the regenerating epithelium and dermis on days 4, 7 and 14. Re-epithelialization and angiogenesis were significantly improved in Aloe vera gel group compared with the other treatments while thyroid hormone cream had positive effects on day 4 (P≤0.05). Topical administration of Aloe vera gel is recommended as the treatment of choice for surgical incisions. PMID:23094205

  5. Effects of dietary apple polyphenol on adipose tissues weights in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Koichi; Song, Hongsun; Waga, Toshiaki

    2006-07-01

    In this study, we investigated whether dietary apple polyphenol (APP) had an effect on adipose weights.Twenty-four Wistar male rats (10 weeks of age) were assigned to three groups: (1) the 5%APP group (diet containing 5% APP, N=8); (2) the 0.5%APP group (diet containing 0.5% APP, N=8); and (3) the control group (N=8) so that average weights of the groups were the same. After a three-week experimental period, adipose tissue weights were measured. Pathological and plasma characteristics were also examined. Retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissue weights in the 5%APP group were significantly lower than those of the control (P<0.05). Pathological examination showed that form-like cells were observed only in the control group, suggesting the existence of proliferating pre-adipocytes only in the control group. Lipid-related plasma profiles showed no statistical differences. Dietary polyphenol did not induce any anorectic effects as reported in studies concerning tea polyphenol. We conclude that dietary APP has an anti-adipogenic effect in Wistar rats without any anorectic phenomenon. PMID:16880686

  6. Ultrasound method applied to characterize healthy femoral diaphysis of Wistar rats in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fontes-Pereira, A; Matusin, D P; Rosa, P; Schanaider, A; von Krüger, M A; Pereira, W C A

    2014-05-01

    A simple experimental protocol applying a quantitative ultrasound (QUS) pulse-echo technique was used to measure the acoustic parameters of healthy femoral diaphyses of Wistar rats in vivo. Five quantitative parameters [apparent integrated backscatter (AIB), frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB), time slope of apparent backscatter (TSAB), integrated reflection coefficient (IRC), and frequency slope of integrated reflection (FSIR)] were calculated using the echoes from cortical and trabecular bone in the femurs of 14 Wistar rats. Signal acquisition was performed three times in each rat, with the ultrasound signal acquired along the femur's central region from three positions 1 mm apart from each other. The parameters estimated for the three positions were averaged to represent the femur diaphysis. The results showed that AIB, FSAB, TSAB, and IRC values were statistically similar, but the FSIR values from Experiments 1 and 3 were different. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation coefficient showed, in general, strong correlations among the parameters. The proposed protocol and calculated parameters demonstrated the potential to characterize the femur diaphysis of rats in vivo. The results are relevant because rats have a bone structure very similar to humans, and thus are an important step toward preclinical trials and subsequent application of QUS in humans. PMID:24838643

  7. The Effect of Parathion on Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase in the Wistar Rat

    PubMed Central

    Bunya, Naofumi; Sawamoto, Keigo; Benoit, Hanif

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a significant problem worldwide. Research into new antidotes for these acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and even optimal doses for current therapies, is hindered by a lack of standardized animal models. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of the OP pesticide parathion on acetylcholinesterase in a Wistar rat model that included comprehensive medical care. Methods. Male Wistar rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated and then poisoned with between 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of intravenous parathion. Upon developing signs of poisoning, the rats were treated with standard critical care, including atropine, pralidoxime chloride, and midazolam, for up to 48 hours. Acetylcholinesterase activity was determined serially for up to 8 days after poisoning. Results. At all doses of parathion, maximal depression of acetylcholinesterase occurred at 3 hours after poisoning. Acetylcholinesterase recovered to nearly 50% of baseline activity by day 4 in the 20 mg/kg cohort and by day 5 in the 40 and 60 mg/kg cohorts. At day 8, most rats' acetylcholinesterase had recovered to roughly 70% of baseline. These data should be useful in developing rodent models of acute OP pesticide poisoning. PMID:27418928

  8. The Effect of Parathion on Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase in the Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Bunya, Naofumi; Sawamoto, Keigo; Benoit, Hanif; Bird, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a significant problem worldwide. Research into new antidotes for these acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and even optimal doses for current therapies, is hindered by a lack of standardized animal models. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of the OP pesticide parathion on acetylcholinesterase in a Wistar rat model that included comprehensive medical care. Methods. Male Wistar rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated and then poisoned with between 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of intravenous parathion. Upon developing signs of poisoning, the rats were treated with standard critical care, including atropine, pralidoxime chloride, and midazolam, for up to 48 hours. Acetylcholinesterase activity was determined serially for up to 8 days after poisoning. Results. At all doses of parathion, maximal depression of acetylcholinesterase occurred at 3 hours after poisoning. Acetylcholinesterase recovered to nearly 50% of baseline activity by day 4 in the 20 mg/kg cohort and by day 5 in the 40 and 60 mg/kg cohorts. At day 8, most rats' acetylcholinesterase had recovered to roughly 70% of baseline. These data should be useful in developing rodent models of acute OP pesticide poisoning. PMID:27418928

  9. Cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats: protective role of Tribulus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Poonam; Huq, Amir Ul; Singh, Rambir

    2013-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate role of ethanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris (EETT) against alpha-cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. 24 male Wistar rats weighing about 250-300g were divided in four groups. Group-I was control. alpha-cypermethrin (3.38 mg kg-1b.wt.) was given to group-IlI for 28 days. In Group-Ill, alpha-cypermethrin and EETT (100 mg kg -1b.wt.) were administered in combination for 28 days. Rats in group-IV were given EETT for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, testes and epididymis were removed and sperm characteristics, sex hormones and various biochemical parameters were studied. Decrease in weight of testes and epididymis, testicular sperm head count, sperm motility, live sperm count, serum testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leutinizing hormone (LH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total protein content and increase in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was observed in rats exposed to cypermethrin. In combination group-Ill, EETT treatment ameliorated alpha-cypermethrin induced damage. EETT treatment in group-IV increased testes and epididymis weight, sperm head counts, sperm motility, live sperm counts, testosterone, FSH, LH, GSH, CAT, SOD, GST, GR, GPx and total protein content. The study suggested that Tribulus terrestris plant possess reproductive system enhancement and antioxidant activity. PMID:24558798

  10. Antibacterial microemulsion prevents sepsis and triggers healing of wound in wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Vijayalakshmi; Saranya, S; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2013-05-01

    Microemulsions are thermodynamically stable isotropic systems comprising of oil, surfactant and water. Cinnamon oil (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) microemulsion was formulated using non-ionic surfactant Tween 20 and water. With oil to surfactant (v/v) ratio of 1:4, cinnamon oil microemulsion (CMF4) was formulated having droplet diameter of 5.79 and kinetically stable for 240 days. TEM images confirmed the spherical morphology of emulsion droplets. Surfactant concentration demonstrated a negative correlation with droplet diameter and turbidity but positive correlation with stability and viscosity. Formulated microemulsion (CMF4) was evaluated for bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus by dose and time dependent killing experiment. SEM analysis suggested that microemulsion treatment resulted in alteration of permeability and surface features of bacterial cell membrane which lead to lysis and cell death. CMF4 showed no erythema for skin irritation test in wistar rats and triggered wound-healing process in wistar rats. Control group without any treatment, cinnamon oil only and neomycin treated group healed in 20, 16 and 16 days, whereas cinnamon oil formulation (CMF4) treated group was healed in 14 days. PMID:23357738

  11. High-resolution in vivo Wistar rodent brain atlas based on T1 weighted image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Su; Lu, Zhongkang; Huang, Weimin; Seramani, Sankar; Ramasamy, Boominathan; Sekar, Sakthivel; Guan, Cuntai; Bhakoo, Kishore

    2016-03-01

    Image based atlases for rats brain have a significant impact on pre-clinical research. In this project we acquired T1-weighted images from Wistar rodent brains with fine 59μm isotropical resolution for generation of the atlas template image. By applying post-process procedures using a semi-automatic brain extraction method, we delineated the brain tissues from source data. Furthermore, we applied a symmetric group-wise normalization method to generate an optimized template of T1 image of rodent brain, then aligned our template to the Waxholm Space. In addition, we defined several simple and explicit landmarks to corresponding our template with the well known Paxinos stereotaxic reference system. Anchoring at the origin of the Waxholm Space, we applied piece-wise linear transformation method to map the voxels of the template into the coordinates system in Paxinos' stereotoxic coordinates to facilitate the labelling task. We also cross-referenced our data with both published rodent brain atlas and image atlases available online, methodologically labelling the template to produce a Wistar brain atlas identifying more than 130 structures. Particular attention was paid to the cortex and cerebellum, as these areas encompass the most researched aspects of brain functions. Moreover, we adopted the structure hierarchy and naming nomenclature common to various atlases, so that the names and hierarchy structure presented in the atlas are readily recognised for easy use. It is believed the atlas will present a useful tool in rodent brain functional and pharmaceutical studies.

  12. Dorsal root ganglia microenvironment of female BB Wistar diabetic rats with mild neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Zochodne, D W; Ho, L T; Allison, J A

    1994-12-01

    Abnormalities in the microenvironment of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) might play a role in the pathogenesis of sensory abnormalities in human diabetic neuropathy. We examined aspects of DRG microenvironment by measuring local blood flow and oxygen tension in the L4 dorsal root ganglia of female BB Wistar (BBW) diabetic rats with mild neuropathy. The findings were compared with concurrent measurements of local sciatic endoneurial blood flow and oxygen tension. Diabetic rats were treated with insulin and underwent electrophysiological, blood flow and oxygen tension measurements at either 7-11 or 17-23 weeks after the development of glycosuria. Nondiabetic female BB Wistar rats from the same colony served as controls. At both ages, BBW diabetic rats had significant abnormalities in sensory, but not motor conduction compared to nondiabetic controls. Sciatic endoneurial blood flow in the diabetic rats of both ages was similar to control values, but the older (17-23 week diabetic) BBW diabetic rats had a selective reduction in DRG blood flow. Sciatic endoneurial oxygen tensions were not significantly altered in the diabetic rats. DRG oxygen tension appeared lowered in younger (7-11 week diabetic) but not older (17-23 week diabetic) BBW rats. Our findings indicate that there are important changes in the DRG microenvironment of diabetic rats with selective sensory neuropathy. PMID:7699389

  13. Effect of Coadministration of Neurovite and Lamivudine on the Histomorphology of the Cerebellum of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Peter, A. I.; Ekong, M. B.; Davies, K.; Azu, O. O.; Bassey, R. B.; Ugwu, L. O.; Umoh, I. U.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Lamivudine is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor antiretroviral agent used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. This study was to investigate the effects of coadministration of neurovite and lamivudine on the histomorphology of the cerebellum of Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Twenty Wistar rats were divided equally into four groups. Group A animals were the control treated with distilled water. Groups B, C, and D animals were treated, respectively, with therapeutic dose of lamivudine (4.28 mg/kg), a combination of lamivudine (4.28 mg/kg) and neurovite (7.05 mg/kg), and neurovite (7.05 mg/kg) alone, daily. The rats were sacrificed using chloroform inhalation, processed, and stained using H&E method. Results. There was severe cellular degeneration with dystrophic changes, vacuolization in the molecular and granular layers, and aggregation of swollen Purkinje cells in group B animals compared with group C animals which showed only slight cellular dystrophy and inflammation. The mean cellular population was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the treatment groups compared with the control. Conclusion. There was amelioration of damage of the cerebellum in the animals treated with neurovite and lamivudine combination compared to animals treated with only lamivudine. Therefore, there is need to give neurovite to patients on lamivudine therapy. PMID:24967314

  14. Cocaine self-administration in Wistar-Kyoto rats: a behavioral and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Joanna; Frankowska, Małgorzata; Szumiec, Łukasz; Sadakierska-Chudy, Anna; Haduch, Anna; Smaga, Irena; Bystrowska, Beata; Daniel, Wladyslawa A; Filip, Małgorzata

    2015-10-15

    Depression and cocaine abuse disorders are common concurrent diagnoses. In the present study, we employed Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats that showed a depressive-like phenotype to study intravenous cocaine self-administration and extinction/reinstatement procedures. We also investigated the basal tissue level of neurotransmitters, their metabolites and plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations in WKY rats, bulbectomized (OBX) rats, and control rats. The WKY rats exhibited an attenuation of the cocaine-associated lever presses and cocaine intake during the acquisition/maintenance of cocaine self-administration only under specific conditions. Active lever presses exhibited by the WKY rats and control animals did not differ during the extinction training and cocaine-seeking behaviors. The WKY rats demonstrated alterations in the basal levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in selected brain structures involved in depression and drug addiction. The changes in the level of neurotransmitters in these animals refer not only to the control (Wistar) rats but also to bulbectomized animals, which represent another depression model. Furthermore, we identified unchanged levels of CORT in the WKY and OBX rats during the light phase and free-stress conditions. This finding suggests that WKY rats should not be used to investigate the co-occurrence of depression and cocaine addiction, as this rat strain does not show an enhanced risk of relapse. PMID:26192911

  15. Changes in the Immune System of Female Wistar Rats After Exposure to Immunosuppressive Treatment During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kabat-Koperska, J; Kolasa-Wołosiuk, A; Wojciuk, B; Wojciechowska-Koszko, I; Roszkowska, P; Krasnodębska-Szponder, B; Paczkowska, E; Safranow, K; Gołembiewska, E; Machaliński, B; Ciechanowski, K

    2016-06-01

    This experimental study assessed the impact of medications frequently used after kidney transplantation on the immune system of pregnant female Wistar rats. The study evaluates medications, both approved and contraindicated during pregnancy in common therapeutic combinations. The study was conducted on 32 female Wistar rats, subjected to immunosuppressive regimens most commonly used in therapy of human kidney transplant recipients (cyclosporine A, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone; tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone; and cyclosporine A, everolimus and prednisone). The animals received drugs by oral gavage 2 weeks before pregnancy and at 3 weeks of pregnancy. We found drug regimen-dependent differences in cytometry from spleen. Many subpopulations of lymphocytes were suppressed in rats treated with cyclosporine A, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone and tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone; the number of NK cells was increased in group of rats treated with cyclosporine A, everolimus and prednisone. We also found changes in histological examination of thymus and spleen of all treated dams. In cytokine assay, we noticed increasing levels of IL-17 with increasing doses of concanavalin A in control group and in group of dams treated with cyclosporine A, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. This increase was blocked in rats treated with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone and cyclosporine A, everolimus and prednisone. Qualitative, quantitative and morphological changes of immune system in pharmacologically immunosuppressed females have been observed. Thymus structure, spleen composition and splenocytes IL-17 production were mostly affected in drug regimen-dependent manner. PMID:27007325

  16. Adult Strabismus

    MedlinePlus

    ... will likely improve the double vision and depth perception. Also, strabismus affects adults in emotional, social, and ... muscle surgery is usually not severe. Headache, pulling sensation with eye movement and foreign body sensation in ...

  17. Growth performance of weanling Wistar rats fed on accessions of cooked Colocasia esculenta-based diets.

    PubMed

    Lewu, Muinat N; Yakubu, Toyin M; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2011-09-01

    The growth performance of weanling albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) maintained on different accessions (offspring of a variety that was planted/collected at a specific location and time but differing in certain morphologic characteristics) of cooked Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam)-based diets (UFCe1-UFCe7) for 28 days was investigated. Proximate analysis of the formulated diets revealed that UFCe3, UFCe4, UFCe5, UFCe6, and UFCe7 had significantly (P<.05) higher moisture contents than the corn starch-based diet (control). All the accession-based diets of C. esculenta had higher ash contents. Similarly, all the accessions of the C. esculenta-based diet had lower crude lipid content, whereas UFCe3-UFCe7 had significantly lower protein content. Although the crude fiber content was significantly higher in UFCe2, UFCe4, and UFCe5, only UFCe3 had significantly higher carbohydrate content among all the accessions of C. esculenta-based diets. UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 increased the average weekly water intake, feed consumption, total body weight, liver-body weight ratio, and kidney-body weight ratio of the animals; UFCe3 and UFCe7 decreased these measures. Overall, UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 are recommended as diets with promise to enhance growth performance in the animals. PMID:21554124

  18. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Premna serratifolia L. leaf and its anticancer activity in CCl4-induced hepato-cancerous Swiss albino mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arockia John Paul, J.; Karunai Selvi, B.; Karmegam, N.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we report the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the ethanolic leaf powder extract of Premna serratifolia L. and its anticancer activity in carbon tetra chloride (CCl4)-induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice (Balb/c). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD analyses. The Debye-Scherrer equation was used to calculate particle size and the average size of silver nanoparticles synthesized from P. serratifolia leaf extract was 22.97 nm. The typical pattern revealed that the sample contained cubic structure of silver nanoparticles. FTIR analysis confirmed that the bioreduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles is due to reduction by capping material of the plant extract. The silver nanoparticles of P. serratifolia leaf extract were effective in treating liver cancer in Swiss albino mice when compared with P. serratifolia leaf extract with isoleucine.

  19. Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress

    SciTech Connect

    Mel'nik, E.I.; Lupandin, A.V.; Timoshin, S.S.

    1985-05-01

    The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress.

  20. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... the upper airway for obstructive sleep apnea in adults. Sleep . 2010;33:1408-1413. PMID: 21061864 www. ...

  1. Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in Wistar rats reduces sperm quality with disruption of ERK signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Mao, Rui; Zhou, Qin; Ding, Ling; Tao, Jin; Ran, Mao-Mei; Gao, Er-Sheng; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Jin-Tao; Hou, Li-Fang

    2016-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic environmental toxin widely used in the production of plastics and ubiquitous human exposure to this chemical has been proposed to be a potential risk to human health. Exposure to BPA can negatively impact sperm quality. However, the mechanism remains largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to assess the role of BPA on sperm quality and explore the possible mechanisms. The Wistar male rats (aged 28 days) were administered BPA by oral gavage for 28 days at dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day; meanwhile, the negative control with corn oil (0 mg/kg/day BPA) and positive control with E2 at the dose of 100 μg/kg/day. The sperm density, sperm activity and sperm survival rate were analyzed byCASA system, and the sperm abnormality rate was analyzed by improved Papanicolaou stained. The protein expression levels of Src/p-Src, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2 and CREB/p-CREB were detected by Western bolt. The results showed that the body weight gain, testes weight, testis coefficient, sperm density, sperm activity, sperm survival rate and protein expression levels of p-ERK1, p-ERK2 and p-CREB decreased, but the sperm abnormality rate increased with increasing BPA concentrations. There were positive correlations between sperm density, sperm activity and sperm survival rate with protein expression levels of p-ERK1, p-ERK2 and p-CREB, and negative correlations between sperm abnormality rate with the protein expression levels of p-ERK1, p-ERK2 and p-CREB. Results from the structural equation model demonstrated that BPA retained a significant negative effect to p-ERK, whereas p-ERK retained a significant positive effect to sperm quality and acted as the mediate variable. This study provides a novel insight regarding the potential role of p-ERK1 and p-ERK2 protein kinase on reproductive toxicity of BPA. The adverse effects of BPA on adult male sperm quality may be through the induction of the disruption of ERK signal pathway. However, additional

  2. Generating Chimeric Mice by Using Embryos from Nonsuperovulated BALB/c Mice Compared with Superovulated BALB/c and Albino C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Esmail, Michael Y; Qi, Peimin; Connor, Aurora Burds; Fox, James G; García, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    The reliable generation of high-percentage chimeras from gene-targeted C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells has proven challenging, despite optimization of cell culture and microinjection techniques. To improve the efficiency of this procedure, we compared the generation of chimeras by using 3 different inbred, albino host, embryo-generating protocols: BALB/cAnNTac (BALB/c) donor mice superovulated at 4 wk of age, 12-wk-old BALB/c donor mice without superovulation, and C57BL/6NTac-Tyr(tm1Arte) (albino B6) mice superovulated at 4 wk of age. Key parameters measured included the average number of injectable embryos per donor, the percentage of live pups born from the total number of embryos transferred to recipients, and the number of chimeric pups with high embryonic-stem-cell contribution by coat color. Although albino B6 donors produced significantly more injectable embryos than did BALB/c donors, 12-wk-old BALB/c donor produced high-percentage (at least 70%) chimeras more than 2.5 times as often as did albino B6 mice and 20 times more efficiently than did 4-wk-old BALB/c donors. These findings clearly suggest that 12-wk-old BALB/c mice be used as blastocyst donors to reduce the number of mice used to generate each chimera, reduce the production of low-percentage chimeras, and maximize the generation of high-percentage chimeras from C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells. PMID:27423145

  3. Simple generation of albino C57BL/6J mice with G291T mutation in the tyrosinase gene by the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Seiya; Dinh, Tra Thi Huong; Kato, Kanako; Mizuno-Iijima, Saori; Tanimoto, Yoko; Daitoku, Yoko; Hoshino, Yoshikazu; Ikawa, Masahito; Takahashi, Satoru; Sugiyama, Fumihiro; Yagami, Ken-ichi

    2014-08-01

    Single nucleotide mutations (SNMs) are associated with a variety of human diseases. The CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing system is expected to be useful as a genetic modification method for production of SNM-induced mice. To investigate whether SNM-induced mice can be generated by zygote microinjection of CRISPR/Cas9 vector and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) donor, we attempted to produce albino C57BL/6J mice carrying the Tyr gene SNM (G291T) from pigmented C57BL/6J zygotes. We first designed and constructed a CRISPR/Cas9 expression vector for the Tyr gene (px330-Tyr-M). DNA cleavage activity of px330-Tyr-M at the target site of the Tyr gene was confirmed by the EGxxFP system. We also designed an ssDNA donor for homology-directed repair (HDR)-mediated gene modification. The px330-Tyr-M vector and ssDNA donor were co-microinjected into the pronuclei of 224 one-cell-stage embryos derived from C57BL/6J mice. We obtained 60 neonates, 28 of which showed the ocular albinism and absence of coat pigmentation. Genomic sequencing analysis of the albino mice revealed that the target of SNM, G291T in the Tyr gene, occurred in 11 mice and one founder was homozygously mutated. The remaining albino founders without Tyr G291T mutation also possessed biallelic deletion and insertion mutants adjacent to the target site in the Tyr locus. Simple production of albino C57BL/6J mice was provided by C57BL/6J zygote microinjection with px330-Tyr-M DNA vector and mutant ssDNA (G291T in Tyr) donor. A combination of CRISPR/Cas9 vector and optional mutant ssDNA could be expected to efficiently produce novel SNM-induced mouse models for investigating human diseases. PMID:24879364

  4. A comparison of the phototumorigenic potential of 8-MOP and 5-MOP in hairless albino mice exposed to solar simulated radiation.

    PubMed

    Young, A R; Magnus, I A; Davies, A C; Smith, N P

    1983-05-01

    Hairless albino mice have been treated with topically applied 8-methoxypsoralen and 5-methoxypsoralen at two concentrations and exposed to solar simulated radiation. Both these compounds significantly increased the incidence of cutaneous tumours when compared with controls irradiated after treatment with vehicle. This effect was related to psoralen concentration and at the two concentrations investigated there was no significant difference between the compounds. PMID:6849820

  5. Ficus platyphylla promotes fertility in female Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ficus platyphylla Delile (family- Moracea) commonly called gutta percha tree is a deciduous plant found in savannah areas. It grows widely in the Northern part of Nigeria, up to 60 ft. high and is known as 'gamji' by the Hausas. The seeds, bark and leaves have been used traditionally in combination to promote fertility. Scientifically, the plant has been shown to have analgesic, anti-inflammatory and CNS effects. The present study was to validate the use of this plant to promote fertility in female Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain using various fertility parameters. Methods Female Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain weighing between 150-180 g were randomly selected and divided into two major groups. Each group was subdivided into 5 treatment groups of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg BW of aqueous extract of F. platyphylla and a control group of 5 ml/kg of distilled water. A positive control of clomiphene citrate was used. Treatment of the first group was discontinued after 15 days prior to mating (pre-mating treatment group), while the other was treated continuously till delivery (continuous treatment group). At the 10th day, females were sacrificed and implantation sites were checked and embryos counted. Upon delivery, litter sizes were determined and the pups weighed and checked for deformities. Other reproductive indices were calculated. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and students T-test. Proportions were analysed by Chi square. Statistical evaluations were performed using STATS programs and Graphpad prism, and a difference was considered statistically significant at P < 0.05. Results There was a significant reduction in the percentage post implantation losses of both the pre-treatment and the continuous treatment groups when compared to their distil water controls. The litter size of the pre-treatment group was similar to the distil water group while at 400 mg/kg, the continuous treatment group showed an increase in the litter size similar to that

  6. Hyperglycaemic effect of Artocarpus communis Forst (Moraceae) root bark aqueous extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Adewole, S O; Ojewole, J O

    2007-01-01

    Decoctions and infusions of Artocarpus communis (Forst) (family: Moraceae) root bark are traditionally used among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria as folk remedies for the management, control and treatment of an array of human diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although numerous bioactive prenylflavonoids have been isolated from the roots, stem bark and leaves of A communis, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of the plant's root bark extract on animal models of diabetes mellitus have hitherto not been reported in the biomedical literature. In our pilot study, we observed that A communis root bark aqueous extract (ACE) raised blood glucose concentrations in rats. In view of this finding, the present study was undertaken to investigate the glycaemic effect of ACE in comparison with that of streptozotocin (STZ) in Wistar rats. Four groups (A, B, C and D) of Wistar rats, each group consisting of 10 rats, were used in this study. Group A rats received distilled water in quantities equivalent to the volume of ACE administered. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the animals in groups B and C by intraperitoneal (ip) injections of STZ (75 mg/kg body weight). The rats in group C were additionally treated with ACE (50 mg/kg body weight ip) from the third to the tenth day following STZ treatment. Group D rats received ACE (12.5-100 mg/kg body weight ip) only. The effects of ACE were compared with those of STZ on blood glucose concentrations, serum and pancreatic insulin levels, hepatic hexokinase (HXK) and glucokinase (GCK) activities, and hepatic glycogen contents in the experimental animal paradigm used. The rats in treated groups B, C and D exhibited pronounced polyuria, hypo-insulinaemia and hyperglycaemia. Group D rats developed significant hyperglycaemia (p < 0.05) immediately after ACE administration, whereas groups B and C rats became hyperglycaemic 24 to 72 hours post STZ and STZ + ACE treatments, when compared with the control group A

  7. Anti-diabetic properties of rice-based herbal porridges in diabetic Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Senadheera, Senadheera Pathirannehelage Anuruddhika Subhashinie; Ekanayake, Sagarika; Wanigatunge, Chandanie

    2014-10-01

    The present study aims to investigate anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and toxic effects of long-term consumption of selected green leafy porridges in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rat model. Porridges made with Asparagus racemosus Willd. (AR), Hemidesmus indicus (L) R. Br. W. T. Aiton (HI), Scoparia dulcis L. (SD) and coconut milk porridge (CM) were incorporated into diets of diabetic Wistar rats. Diabetic control (DM) and normal control groups (NC) were provided with standard rat diet. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c , C reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), liver enzymes and creatinine were measured. Feed and water intake among diabetic groups were significantly high when compared with those of NC (p < 0.05). All rats in SD (mean = 39 ± 19 g) and NC (mean = 114 ± 7 g) groups gained weight, whereas most rats in other diabetic groups lost weight. Among the diabetic groups, SD group had the lowest mean FBG, FBG increment percentage (45%) and HbA1c (5.8 ± 2.1). FBG increment percentage and HbA1c of SD group were not significantly different to those of NC (38%; 4.7 ± 0.7) (p > 0.05). Among the diabetic groups, lowest TC (119 ± 20.6 mg/dL) and highest HDL-C (33 ± 6.3 mg/dL) were also detected in SD group. Alanine transaminase and creatinine were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among diabetic groups but significant when compared with those of NC. When compared with those of NC, aspartate transaminase levels were significantly (p < 0.05) high in SD, CM and DM groups. Body weight : liver weight and body weight : pancreas weight ratios and CRP were not significantly different among all groups. The study proved that SD porridge reduced weight loss, elicited hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic properties, and caused no toxicity in diabetes-induced Wistar rats. PMID:24840113

  8. Effects of astaxanthin supplementation on chemically induced tumorigenesis in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Astaxanthin (ASTA) is a fat-soluble xanthophyll with powerful antioxidant functions. It is extracted from e.g. salmon, an important food source for certain human populations known to have a reduced risk of tumor development. It is possible that ASTA plays a role in cancer chemoprevention in such populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary ASTA on chemically induced mammary tumorigenesis using N-methyl-N-nitroso-urea (MNU) in immature Wistar rats. Methods Thirty-six 37 days old juvenile female Wistar rats were at random allocated to 4 groups of which Groups 1 and 2 received a single dose of 55 mg MNU/kg body weight. The effects of ASTA was evaluated by giving rats of Groups 2 and 4 a dose of 50 mg ASTA/kg/day for the entire duration of the study. Group 3 rats received feed added alimentary oil. Necropsy and histopathological examinations were carried out on each rat 14 months after the administration of MNU. Haematological values and antioxidative status were determined. Oxidative stress was evaluated by monitoring superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in hepatic tissue. Lipid peroxidation and carbonylation of proteins was determined in protein extracts from the liver. Results Tumor development occurred only in rats of Groups 1 and 2, i.e. MNU exposed animals. Frequency of tumor development in general and average number of tumors per animal were insignificant between these two groups. Mammary gland tumors developed in equal frequencies in Group 1 and 2 rats, respectively. Although only rather few tumors were found in the mammary glands, a substantial number of other tumors were found in Group 1 and 2 rats, but at equal rates. Biochemical analyses showed significant higher levels of GPx, malondialdehyde and dinitrophenylhydrazine in Group 1 rats that for rats in all other groups thus indicating protective effects of ASTA on MNU induced hepatic oxidative stress. Conclusions

  9. Platelets of the Wistar Furth rat have reduced levels of alpha-granule proteins. An animal model resembling gray platelet syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, C W; Hutson, N K; Steward, S A; Saito, N; Cramer, E M

    1991-01-01

    Rats of the Wistar Furth (WF) strain have hereditary macrothrombocytopenia (large mean platelet volume [MPV] with increased platelet size heterogeneity and reduced platelet count). Ultrastructural studies suggest that this anomaly results from erratic subdivision of megakaryocyte cytoplasm into platelets. In this study, we have examined protein profiles of platelets of WF rats for biochemical abnormalities associated with this anomaly. Marked decreases in protein bands with an Mr of 185, 57, 53, 16, 13, and 8 kd were observed in one-dimensional reduced SDS-PAGE gels in WF platelets compared with platelets of Wistar, Long Evans, and Sprague-Dawley rats. These proteins were released into the supernatant when washed platelets were treated with thrombin suggesting that they were alpha-granule proteins. These abnormalities were not present in offspring of crosses between Wistar Furth and Wistar rats; however, they were present in platelets of offspring with large MPV derived from backcrosses of (WF X Wistar) F1 males to WF females, but not in backcross offspring with normal platelet size. Immunoblotting confirmed decreased levels of thrombospondin, fibrinogen, and platelet factor 4 in WF platelets. Electron microscopic examination revealed that platelet alpha granules were usually smaller in Wistar Furth than in Wistar rats. In addition, immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that the surface connected canalicular system of the large Wistar Furth platelets, contained dense material composed of alpha-granule proteins, not present in Wistar platelets. From these results, we conclude that the Wistar Furth rat platelet phenotype of large mean platelet volume and decreased levels of alpha-granule proteins represents an animal model resembling gray platelet syndrome. The autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of the large MPV phenotype and platelet alpha-granule protein deficiencies suggests that a component common to both formation of platelet alpha granules, and

  10. Effects of dietary creatine supplementation for 8 weeks on neuromuscular coordination and learning in male albino mouse following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ali, Muhammad; Akbar, Atif; Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-05-01

    Creatine monohydrate (Cr) is a dietary supplement known to improve cognitive functions and has positive therapeutic results under various clinical conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 2 % Cr supplementation on learning, memory formation, neuromuscular coordination, exploratory and locomotory in male albino mice following hypoxic ischemic insult. At postnatal day, 10 male albino mice pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8 % hypoxia for 25 min. On postnatal day 20, male mice were separated from the litter and divided into two groups on the basis of special diet supplementation. One group was supplemented with 2 % Cr in diet while the other group was raised on ordinary rodent chow for 8 weeks. Behavioral observations were made during rota rod, open field and Morris water maze test for both treatments. It was observed that supplementation with 2 % Cr for 8 weeks following neonatal brain damage resulted in enhanced muscular strength, neuromuscular coordination and improved body weight. In Morris water maze test, it was observed that Cr supplementation significantly improved mean swimming speed and mice on 2 % Cr diet covered more distance but the spatial memory was not improved significantly following hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). Open field parameters and percentage of infarct volume remained unaffected following Cr supplementation. We concluded that 2 % dietary Cr supplementation has a potential to improve the muscle strength and body weight in male albino mice following (HIE) and should be considered for the treatment of neurological ailments. PMID:25511980

  11. Phytic Acid Exposure Alters AflatoxinB1-induced Reproductive and Oxidative Toxicity in Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    PubMed Central

    Abu El-Saad, Abdelaziz S.

    2009-01-01

    The increased use of feed in Egypt's aquaculture and animal industries raises concerns about the possible presence of mycotoxins in feedstuffs. The use of alternative medicine, such as botanicals and nutritional supplements, has become popular with inflammatory cases. The present study aimed to testify the role played by phytic acid (IP6) in enhancing the reproductive and oxidative toxicity induced in aflatoxinB1 (AFB1) treated white male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) throughout treatment and withdrawal periods. One hundred and twenty white male albino rats were grouped into four groups. Group 1, was injected with 300 μg kg−1 body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and left uninjected for another 15 days to study the withdrawal effect. Group 2, was injected with 300 μg kg−1 body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and treated simultaneously with IP6 daily for another 15 days. Group 3, was treated daily with IP6 (40 mg kg−1 body wt) for 15 days and with no treatment for other 15 days. Group 4, injected with equivalent volume of sterile phosphate buffer saline solution as a control group. Sera were taken at the experimental intervals and assayed for testosterone hormone, follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to determine the toxicological impact of AFB1 and the possibility of amelioration by phytic acid on the reproductive performance of the studied animal. The effects of AFB1 treatment on the absolute and relative weight of testis as well as its histopathologic effect on the testis and the possibility of amelioration by IP6 treatment were evaluated. The activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants, in addition to lipid peroxidation were measured in the testis’ homogenate of AFB1-treated rats. A decrease in sex hormone levels, an increase in testicular lipid peroxidation product levels and a significant decrease in testicular glutathione content, catalase and total peroxidase and superoxide dismutase

  12. Poorly differentiated salivary gland carcinoma with prominent squamous metaplasia in a pregnant Wistar Hannover rat.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Yuko; Yoshida, Toshinori; Takahashi, Naofumi; Akema, Satoshi; Soma, Katsumi; Ohnuma-Koyama, Aya; Sato, Akira; Kuwahara, Maki; Harada, Takanori

    2016-06-01

    A subcutaneous pale brown-colored mass was observed macroscopically in the ventral neck of a 16-week-old Wistar rat on day 18 of gestation. The mass was well demarcated from the adjacent tissues with partial invasion into connective tissues. Necrosis and hemorrhage were evident throughout the mass. The mass comprised a diffuse sheet and a nest-like structure of epithelial cells with prominent squamous metaplasia. The neoplastic cells tested immunopositive for keratin, vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein and p63. A portion of the neoplastic cells exhibited a similar immunoreaction of prominin-1 to the ductal and acinar cells in normal submandibular and parotid glands. Collectively, the tumor was diagnosed as a poorly differentiated carcinoma derived from epithelial/myoepithelial lineages in the submandibular and/or parotid glands. PMID:26782134

  13. Effects of memantine on latent inhibition of active avoidance in wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Loskutova, L V; Kostjunina, N V

    2009-06-01

    Latent inhibition of active avoidance reaction was acquired by mature Wistar rats. It manifested in marked delay of habit acquisition after preexposure to the conditional stimulus in the first experimental session. Single dose of NMDA-receptor antagonist memantine (10 and 14 mg/kg) was applied 60 min before training in the second session. Failure of latent inhibition formation was registered after administration of the higher memantine dose; it manifested in accelerated attaining of the criterion (7 successive conditioned avoidance reactions) compared to training results after administration of the lower dose or physiological saline. The effects of memantine on attention were found to depend on the presence of pathology. It was hypothesized that the preparation can produce a positive effect on memory in Alzheimer-type dementia due to primary recovery of the inhibitory aspect of attention. PMID:19902058

  14. Effect of feeding graded doses of Citrinin on clinical and teratology in female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, N D; Sharma, A K; Patil, R D; Rahman, S; Leishangthem, G D; Kumar, M

    2014-02-01

    Citrinin is the one of the well-known mycotoxins, which is possibly spread all over the world. The graded doses of citrinin (1, 3 and 5 ppm CIT in feed) in female Wistar rats 10 weeks prior to mating, during mating and during organogenesis resulted in resorptions and post implantation losses, decreased fetal body weights and crown-rump lengths in fetuses of all groups. Various developmental anomalies recorded in fetuses of treated rats included gross (wrist drop, curled tail, stretched forelimb, subcutaneous haematoma), skeletal (incomplete ossification of skull bones, incomplete fusion of vertebral bodies, complete and partial agenesis of sternaebrae, metacarpals, metatarsals and phalanges, fused ribs and swing out ribs) and visceral (internal and external hydrocephalus, cerebellar hypoplasia, microphthalmia, roundening of heart, contracted kidneys, dilated renal pelvis and cryptorchid testes). The results suggest that CIT has adverse effects on fetal development which may be due to the longer bioavailability of citrinin in the animals. PMID:24597149

  15. Poorly differentiated salivary gland carcinoma with prominent squamous metaplasia in a pregnant Wistar Hannover rat

    PubMed Central

    SHIMADA, Yuko; YOSHIDA, Toshinori; TAKAHASHI, Naofumi; AKEMA, Satoshi; SOMA, Katsumi; OHNUMA-KOYAMA, Aya; SATO, Akira; KUWAHARA, Maki; HARADA, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    A subcutaneous pale brown-colored mass was observed macroscopically in the ventral neck of a 16-week-old Wistar rat on day 18 of gestation. The mass was well demarcated from the adjacent tissues with partial invasion into connective tissues. Necrosis and hemorrhage were evident throughout the mass. The mass comprised a diffuse sheet and a nest-like structure of epithelial cells with prominent squamous metaplasia. The neoplastic cells tested immunopositive for keratin, vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein and p63. A portion of the neoplastic cells exhibited a similar immunoreaction of prominin-1 to the ductal and acinar cells in normal submandibular and parotid glands. Collectively, the tumor was diagnosed as a poorly differentiated carcinoma derived from epithelial/myoepithelial lineages in the submandibular and/or parotid glands. PMID:26782134

  16. Relationship between Mast Cells and the Colitis with Relapse Induced by Trinitrobenzesulphonic Acid in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Luchini, Ana Carolina; Costa de Oliveira, Déborah Mara; Pellizzon, Cláudia Helena; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio; Gomes, José Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the role of mast cells in colitis with relapse induced in Wistar rats by trinitrobenzenosulphonic acid. Colitis induction increased the histamine concentration in the colon, which peaked on day 26. The number of mast cells, probably immature, was ten times higher on day 8. Different from animals infected with intestinal parasites, after colitis remission, mast cells do not migrate to the spleen, showing that mast cell proliferation presents different characteristics depending on the inflammation stimuli. Treatment with sulfasalazine, doxantrazole, quercetin, or nedocromil did not increase the histamine concentration or the mast cell number in the colon on day 26, thereby showing absence of degranulation of these cells. In conclusion, although mast cell proliferation is associated with colitis, these cells and their mediators appear to play no clear role in the colitis with relapses. PMID:19436763

  17. Toxicology and immunology of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides in Kunming mice and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianjun; Gao, Xia; Pan, Yaogang; Xu, Nuo; Jia, Le

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, the toxicology and immunology of polysaccharides from fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum (GPs) were investigated. No abnormal clinical-symptoms or deaths and no significant difference in body weight and food in-taking rate were found in Wistar rats during the 30-day feeding administration. No significant differences were found in each hematology value, clinical chemistry value and organ/body weight ratio, either. It had no mutagenicity due to the negative experimental results of Ames test, micronucleus test of polychromatic erythrocyte, sperm abnormality test, and chromosome aberration test in Kunming mice, respectively. The immune experiments indicated that high-dose GPs had immune effects in increasing the degree of toe swelling and enhancing the primary immune response to SRBC (P<0.01). But no-significant influence of GPs on the phagocytic function of mononuclear macrophages (MΦ) could be obtained. PMID:26763176

  18. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation. [X-ray

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.J.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  19. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  20. Subchronic dermal exposure to T-2 toxin produces cardiac toxicity in experimental Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Islam, Johirul; Goyary, Danswrang; Agnihotri, Amit; Karmakar, Sanjev; Banerjee, Subham; Singh, Lokendra; Veer, Vijay

    2016-03-01

    Our study aimed to determine the cardiac toxicities of T-2 toxin, a representative mycotoxin that frequently contaminates maize, cereals, and other agricultural products, harvested and stored under damp and cold conditions. Dermal exposure to T-2 toxin caused severe cardiotoxicity in experimental Wistar rats. Electrocardiography studies showed the conduction abnormalities including prolongation of the QT and corrected QT interval, shortening of the PR interval, and tachycardia. Biochemical studies also reported the toxicity of T-2 toxin. T-2 toxin induced acute cardiotoxicity in rats and characterized by significant (p < 0.05) elevation of serum troponin I, creatine kinase (CK) isoenzyme MB, CK isoenzyme NAC, and lactate dehydrogenase as compared to control rats. It is concluded that cardiotoxicity effects of T-2 toxin are thought to be due to direct action on electrocardiac potentials and biochemical changes. PMID:24193048

  1. Learned helplessness and social avoidance in the Wistar-Kyoto rat

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyungwoo; Clinton, Sarah M.; Jackson, Nateka L.; Kerman, Ilan A.

    2014-01-01

    The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is an established depression model characterized by elevated anxiety- and depression-like behavior across a variety of tests. Here we further characterized specific behavioral and functional domains relevant to depression that are altered in WKY rats. Moreover, since early-life experience potently shapes emotional behavior, we also determined whether aspects of WKYs' phenotype were modifiable by early-life factors using neonatal handling or maternal separation. We first compared WKYs' behavior to that of Sprague–Dawley (SD), Wistar, and Spontaneously Hypertensive (SHR) rats in: the open field test, elevated plus maze, novelty-suppressed feeding test, a social interaction test, and the forced swim test (FST). WKYs exhibited high baseline immobility in the FST and were the only strain to show increased immobility on FST Day 2 vs. Day 1 (an indicator of learned helplessness). WKYs also showed greater social avoidance, along with enlarged adrenal glands and hearts relative to other strains. We next tested whether neonatal handling or early-life maternal separation stress influenced WKYs' behavior. Neither manipulation affected their anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, likely due to a strong genetic underpinning of their phenotype. Our findings indicate that WKY rats are a useful model that captures specific functional domains relevant to clinical depression including: psychomotor retardation, behavioral inhibition, learned helplessness, social withdrawal, and physiological dysfunction. WKY rats appear to be resistant to early-life manipulations (i.e., neonatal handling) that are therapeutic in other strains, and may be a useful model for the development of personalized anti-depressant therapies for treatment resistant depression. PMID:24744709

  2. Early ovarian follicular development in prepubertal Wistar rats acutely exposed to androgens.

    PubMed

    Paixão, L; Velez, L M; Santos, B R; Tusset, C; Lecke, S B; Motta, A B; Spritzer, P M

    2016-08-01

    Androgens may directly modulate early ovarian follicular development in preantral stages and androgen excess before puberty may disrupt this physiological process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of follicular morphology and circulating androgen and estradiol levels in prepubertal Wistar rats acutely exposed to androgens. Prepubertal female Wistar rats were distributed into three groups: control, equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) intervention and eCG plus dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) intervention (eCG+DHEA). Serum DHEA, testosterone and estradiol levels were determined, and ovarian morphology and morphometry were assessed. The eCG+DHEA group presented increased serum estradiol and testosterone levels as compared with the control group (P<0.01), and higher serum DHEA concentration v. the eCG-only and control groups (P<0.01). In addition, the eCG+DHEA group had a higher number of, and larger-sized, primary and secondary follicles as compared with the control group (P<0.05). The eCG group presented intermediate values for number and size of primary and secondary follicles, without significant differences as compared with the other two groups. The number of antral follicles was higher in the eCG+DHEA and eCG groups v. controls (P<0.05). The number of primordial, atretic and cystic follicles were similar in all groups. In conclusion, the present experimental model using an acute eCG+DHEA intervention was useful to investigate events involved in initial follicular development under hyperandrogenic conditions, and could provide a reliable tool to study defective follicular development with possible deleterious reproductive consequences later in life. PMID:27256620

  3. Arecoline augments cellular proliferation in the prostate gland of male Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Indraneel; Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Mondal, Anushree; Maiti, Bishwa Ranjan; Chatterji, Urmi

    2011-09-01

    Areca nut chewing is the fourth most popular habit in the world due to its effects as a mild stimulant, causing a feeling of euphoria and slightly heightened alertness. Areca nuts contain several alkaloids and tannins, of which arecoline is the most abundant and known to have several adverse effects in humans, specially an increased risk of oral cancer. On evaluating the effects of arecoline on the male endocrine physiology in Wistar rats, it was found that arecoline treatment led to an overall enlargement and increase in the wet weight of the prostate gland, and a two-fold increase in serum gonadotropin and testosterone levels. Since the prostate is a major target for testosterone, the consequences of arecoline consumption were studied specifically in the prostate gland. Arecoline treatment led to an increase in the number of rough endoplasmic reticulum and reduction of secretory vesicles, signifying a hyperactive state of the prostate. Increased expression of androgen receptors in response to arecoline allowed for enhanced effect of testosterone in the prostate of treated animals, which augmented cell proliferation, subsequently confirmed by an increase in the expression of Ki-67 protein. Cellular proliferation was also the outcome of concomitant over expression of the G{sub 1}-to-S cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1 and CDK4, both at the transcriptional and translational levels. Taken together, the findings provide the first evidence that regular use of arecoline may lead to prostatic hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and eventually to disorders associated with prostate enlargement. - Highlights: > Effect of arecoline was investigated on the endocrine physiology of male Wistar rats. > Increase observed in prostate size, wet weight, serum testosterone and gonadotropins. > Arecoline increased RER, expression of androgen receptor and cellular proliferation. > Upregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 seen at transcriptional and translational levels. > It may cause

  4. Even a Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia Affects Membrane Fluidity and Lipoperoxidation in Placental Mitochondria in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-García, María del Consuelo; Espinosa-García, María Teresa; Martinez-Montes, Federico; Palomar-Morales, Martín; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    It is known the deleterious effects of diabetes on embryos, but the effects of diabetes on placenta and its mitochondria are still not well known. In this work we generated a mild hyperglycemia model in female wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 48 hours-old rats. The sexual maturity onset of the female rats was delayed around 6-7 weeks and at 16 weeks-old they were mated, and sacrificed at day 19th of pregnancy. In placental total tissue and isolated mitochondria, the fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and lipoperoxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Membrane fluidity in mitochondria was measured with the excimer forming probe dipyrenylpropane and mitochondrial function was measured with a Clark-type electrode. The results show that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia increases lipoperoxidation and decreases mitochondrial function in placenta. Simultaneously, placental fatty acids metabolism in total tissue is modified but in a different way than in placental mitochondria. Whereas the chronic mild hyperglycemia induced a decrease in unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U/S) in placental total tissue, the ratio increased in placental mitochondria. The measurements of membrane fluidity showed that fluidity of placenta mitochondrial membranes increased with hyperglycemia, showing consistency with the fatty acids composition through the U/S index. The thermotropic characteristics of mitochondrial membranes were changed, showing lower transition temperature and activation energies. All of these data together demonstrate that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy of early reproductive Wistar rats, generates an increment of lipoperoxidation, an increase of placental mitochondrial membrane fluidity apparently derived from changes in fatty acids composition and consequently, mitochondrial malfunction. PMID:26630275

  5. Even a Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia Affects Membrane Fluidity and Lipoperoxidation in Placental Mitochondria in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-García, María del Consuelo; Espinosa-García, María Teresa; Martinez-Montes, Federico; Palomar-Morales, Martín; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    It is known the deleterious effects of diabetes on embryos, but the effects of diabetes on placenta and its mitochondria are still not well known. In this work we generated a mild hyperglycemia model in female wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 48 hours-old rats. The sexual maturity onset of the female rats was delayed around 6–7 weeks and at 16 weeks-old they were mated, and sacrificed at day 19th of pregnancy. In placental total tissue and isolated mitochondria, the fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and lipoperoxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Membrane fluidity in mitochondria was measured with the excimer forming probe dipyrenylpropane and mitochondrial function was measured with a Clark-type electrode. The results show that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia increases lipoperoxidation and decreases mitochondrial function in placenta. Simultaneously, placental fatty acids metabolism in total tissue is modified but in a different way than in placental mitochondria. Whereas the chronic mild hyperglycemia induced a decrease in unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U/S) in placental total tissue, the ratio increased in placental mitochondria. The measurements of membrane fluidity showed that fluidity of placenta mitochondrial membranes increased with hyperglycemia, showing consistency with the fatty acids composition through the U/S index. The thermotropic characteristics of mitochondrial membranes were changed, showing lower transition temperature and activation energies. All of these data together demonstrate that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy of early reproductive Wistar rats, generates an increment of lipoperoxidation, an increase of placental mitochondrial membrane fluidity apparently derived from changes in fatty acids composition and consequently, mitochondrial malfunction. PMID:26630275

  6. Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) supports intravenous self-administration in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Aarde, Shawn M; Angrish, Deepshikha; Barlow, Deborah J; Wright, M Jerry; Vandewater, Sophia A; Creehan, Kevin M; Houseknecht, Karen L; Dickerson, Tobin J; Taffe, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Recreational use of the drug 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone; 4-MMC) became increasingly popular in the United Kingdom in recent years, spurred in part by the fact that it was not criminalized until April 2010. Although several fatalities have been associated with consumption of 4-MMC and cautions for recreational users about its addictive potential have appeared on Internet forums, very little information about abuse liability for this drug is available. This study was conducted to determine if 4-MMC serves as a reinforcer in a traditional intravenous self-administration model. Groups of male Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats were prepared with intravenous catheters and trained to self-administer 4-MMC in 1-hour sessions. Per-infusion doses of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg were consistently self-administered, resulting in greater than 80% discrimination for the drug-paired lever and mean intakes of about 2-3 mg/kg/hour. Dose-substitution studies after acquisition demonstrated that the number of responses and/or the total amount of drug self-administered varied as a function of dose. In addition, radiotelemetry devices were used to show that self-administered 4-MMC was capable of increasing locomotor activity (Wistar) and decreasing body temperature (Sprague-Dawley). Pharmacokinetic studies found that the T1/2 of 4-MMC was about 1 hour in vivo in rat plasma and 90 minutes using in vitro liver microsomal assays. This study provides evidence of stimulant-typical abuse liability for 4-MMC in the traditional pre-clinical self-administration model. PMID:23363010

  7. Dietary restriction does not adversely affect bone geometry and mechanics in rapidly growing male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Jennifer; Lamothe, Jeremy M; Zernicke, Ronald F; Auer, Roland N; Reimer, Raylene A

    2005-02-01

    The present study assessed the effects of dietary restriction on tibial and vertebral mechanical and geometrical properties in 2-mo-old male Wistar rats. Two-month-old male Wistar rats were randomized to the ad libitum (n=8) or the 35% diet-restricted (DR) feeding group (n=9) for 5 mo. Tibiae and L6 vertebrae were dissected out for microcomputed tomography (microCT) scanning and subsequently fractured in biomechanical testing to determine geometrical and mechanical properties. The DR group had significantly lower mean tibial length, mass, area, and cross-sectional moment of inertia, as well as vertebral energy to maximal load. After adjustment for body mass, however, DR tibial mean maximal load and stiffness, and DR vertebral area, height, volume, and maximal load were significantly greater, relative to ad libitum means. No significant differences were found between the DR and ad libitum mineral ash fractions. Because the material properties of the tibiae between the two groups were not significantly different, presumably the material integrity of the bones was not adversely affected as a consequence of DR. The similar material characteristics were consistent with mineral ash fractions that were not different between the two groups. Vertebral maximal load and stiffness were not significant between the DR and ad libitum animals. Importantly, we show that a level of dietary restriction (35%) that is less severe than many studies (40%), and without micronutrient compensation does not adversely affect tibial and vertebral mechanical properties in young growing male rats when normalized for body mass. PMID:15585686

  8. Effects of 0. 6-Gy prenatal X irradiation on postnatal neurophysiologic development in the Wistar rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1986-04-01

    Forty-one pregnant Wistar strain rats were irradiated with 0.6-Gy X rays or were sham irradiated on the 9th or 17th days of gestation to determine if this dosage level would result in alterations in postnatal neurophysiologic development. Half of the mothers were sacrificed at term, and the developmental status of 221 newborns was evaluated. The remaining mothers delivered and raised their litters. The 161 offspring were observed for the age of attainment of the following physiologic parameters: pinna detachment, eye opening, testes opening. Offspring were also tested for the acquisition of the following selected reflexes: surface righting, negative geotaxis, auditory startle, air righting, and visual placing. Term fetal weight was lower than the controls in the group irradiated on the 9th day but was recuperable postnatally. None of the 9 developmental tests performed postnatally were abnormal in the animals irradiated on the 9th day. Thus, at least with regard to these measures, the surviving embryos exposed during the all-or-none period could not be differentiated from the controls. Offspring irradiated on the 17th day exhibited retarded growth which persisted during neonatal life. The three-day-mean neonatal weight was significantly lower in the group irradiated on the 17th day compared to controls. There were no significant maternal body weight or organ/weight differences between the groups. Rats exposed in utero on the 17th day had a significantly delayed acquisition of air righting. These results demonstrate that 0.6-Gy in utero irradiation on the 17th day of gestation can cause subtle alterations in growth and development of the Wistar strain rat during postnatal life.

  9. Crocin reduced acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rat through inhibition of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Mehri, Soghra; Abnous, Khalil; Khooei, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi; Shariaty, Vahideh Motamed; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Acrylamide (ACR) has many applications in different industries. ACR damages the central and the peripheral nervous system in human and animals. Importance of ACR-induced neurotoxicity encouraged researchers to find both different mechanisms involved in ACR neurotoxicity and potent neuroprotective agents. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of crocin, an active constituent of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on ACR-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were treated with ACR (50 mg/kg, IP) 11 days for induction neurotoxicity. Crocin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg, IP) were used during treatment with ACR. At the end of treatment, gait score examination was performed. Then, rats were sacrificed and the severity of damage in brain tissue was determined using pathological tests. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) content were evaluated in cerebral cortex and cerebellum to determine the role of oxidative stress in this model. Results: Exposure to ACR induced severe gait abnormalities and pathological changes, but administration of crocin markedly improved behavioral index and histopathological damages. The elevation of lipid peroxidation parallel with reduction of GSH level was observed in cerebral cortex and cerebellum following exposure to ACR. Treatment with crocin markedly decreased MDA level, while elevated GSH content in nervous system as compared to ACR-treated animals. Conclusion: The administration of crocin markedly improved behavioral and histopathological damages in Wistar rats exposed to ACR. Reduction of oxidative stress can be considered as an important mechanism of neuroprotective effects of crocin against ACR-induced toxicity. PMID:26523222

  10. Environmental manipulation affects depressive-like behaviours in female Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Mileva, Guergana R; Bielajew, Catherine

    2015-10-15

    While the efficacy of pharmacological interventions to treat depression has been well-studied in animal models, much less work has been done to shed light on how changes in the immediate environment can impact behaviour. Furthermore, most studies have focused on male rodents despite the prevalence of mood disorders in women. In this study, 36 Wistar Kyoto (validated animal model of depression) and 36 Wistar (control) female rats were used to examine the effects of environmental manipulation on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours. Animals were assigned to one of three groups: standard (3 rats/cage), enriched (6 rats/cage plus physical enrichment), and isolation (1 rat/cage) housing. The elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST) were conducted prior to, and four weeks after environmental assignment to measure anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviours, respectively. Sucrose preference assessed anhedonia both before and after environmental assignment. Weight was measured every week to monitor weight-gain over time. Post-environment sucrose preference was significantly increased in animals in enriched housing as compared to those in isolated housing in both strains. While there were significant differences between strains in measures of open arm duration in the EPM and immobility in the FST, there appeared to be no differences between environmental groups. The results of this study highlight the importance of environmental factors in the expression of anhedonia. Enrichment appears to reduce anhedonia while isolation increases anhedonia. These effects should be studied further to assess whether longer periods of social and physical enrichment alleviate other symptoms of depression. PMID:26215574

  11. Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) supports intravenous self-administration in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Aarde, S. M.; Angrish, D.; Barlow, D.J.; Wright, M. J.; Vandewater, S. A.; Creehan, K.M.; Houseknecht, K. L.; Dickerson, T. J.; Taffe, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Recreational use of the drug 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone; 4-MMC) became increasingly popular in the United Kingdom in recent years, spurred in part by the fact it was not criminalized until April of 2010. Although several fatalities have been associated with consumption of 4-MMC and cautions for recreational users about its addictive potential have appeared on Internet forums, very little information about abuse liability for this drug is available. This study was conducted to determine if 4-MMC serves as a reinforcer in a traditional intravenous self-administration model. Groups of male Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats were prepared with intravenous catheters and trained to self-administer 4-MMC in one hour sessions. Per infusion doses of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg were consistently self-administered resulting in greater than 80% discrimination for the drug-paired lever and mean intakes of about 2–3 mg/kg/hr. Dose-substitution studies after acquisition demonstrated that the number of responses and/or the total amount of drug self-administered varied as a function of dose. In addition, radiotelemetry devices were employed to show that self-administered 4-MMC was capable of increasing locomotor activity (Wistar) and decreasing body temperature (Sprague-Dawley). Pharmacokinetic studies found the T1/2 of 4-MMC was about an hour in vivo in rat plasma and 90 minutes using in vitro liver microsomal assays. This study provides evidence of stimulant-typical abuse liability for 4-MMC in the traditional preclinical self-administration model. PMID:23363010

  12. Limited Nesting Stress Alters Maternal Behavior and In Vivo Intestinal Permeability in Male Wistar Pup Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moussaoui, Nabila; Larauche, Muriel; Biraud, Mandy; Molet, Jenny; Million, Mulugeta; Mayer, Emeran; Taché, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    A few studies indicate that limited nesting stress (LNS) alters maternal behavior and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis of dams and offspring in male Sprague Dawley rats. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of LNS on maternal behavior in Wistar rats, and on the HPA axis, glycemia and in vivo intestinal permeability of male and female offspring. Intestinal permeability is known to be elevated during the first week postnatally and influenced by glucocorticoids. Dams and neonatal litters were subjected to LNS or normal nesting conditions (control) from days 2 to 10 postnatally. At day 10, blood was collected from pups for determination of glucose and plasma corticosterone by enzyme immunoassay and in vivo intestinal permeability by oral gavage of fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran 4kDa. Dams exposed to LNS compared to control showed an increase in the percentage of time spent building a nest (118%), self-grooming (69%), and putting the pups back to the nest (167%). LNS male and female pups exhibited a reduction of body weight by 5% and 4%, adrenal weights/100g body weight by 17% and 18%, corticosterone plasma levels by 64% and 62% and blood glucose by 11% and 12% respectively compared to same sex control pups. In male LNS pups, intestinal permeability was increased by 2.7-fold while no change was observed in females compared to same sex control. There was no sex difference in any of the parameters in control pups except the body weight. These data indicate that Wistar dams subjected to LNS during the first postnatal week have an altered repertoire of maternal behaviors which affects the development of the HPA axis in both sexes and intestinal barrier function in male offspring. PMID:27149676

  13. Tinospora crispa Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by High Fat Diet in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kamarapani, Norathirah; Nor Hussein, Fuzina; Wan Ismail, Wan Iryani; Hassan, Hamzah Fansuri

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic properties of Tinospora crispa, a local herb that has been used in traditional Malay medicine and rich in antioxidant, were explored based on obesity-linked insulin resistance condition. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely, the normal control (NC) which received standard rodent diet, the high fat diet (HFD) which received high fat diet only, the high fat diet treated with T. crispa (HFDTC), and the high fat diet treated with orlistat (HFDO). After sixteen weeks of treatment, blood and organs were harvested for analyses. Results showed that T. crispa significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the body weight (41.14 ± 1.40%), adiposity index serum levels (4.910 ± 0.80%), aspartate aminotransferase (AST: 161 ± 4.71 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (ALT: 100.95 ± 3.10 U/L), total cholesterol (TC: 18.55 ± 0.26 mmol/L), triglycerides (TG: 3.70 ± 0.11 mmol/L), blood glucose (8.50 ± 0.30 mmo/L), resistin (0.74 ± 0.20 ng/mL), and leptin (17.428 ± 1.50 ng/mL) hormones in HFDTC group. The insulin (1.65 ± 0.07 pg/mL) and C-peptide (136.48 pmol/L) hormones were slightly decreased but within normal range. The histological results showed unharmed and intact liver tissues in HFDTC group. As a conclusion, T. crispa ameliorates insulin resistance-associated with obesity in Wistar rats fed with high fat diet. PMID:25821506

  14. Neuroethological study of status epilepticus induced by systemic pilocarpine in Wistar audiogenic rats (WAR strain).

    PubMed

    Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Rossetti, Franco; Oliveira, José A C; Furtado, Marcio de A

    2004-08-01

    The administration of pilocarpine (PILO) is widely recognized as resulting in an experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy; it is characterized by induction of status epilepticus (SE) and spontaneous recurrent seizures after a latent period. We provide in this work a neuroethological description of the SE induced by PILO. Behavioral evaluations were made in Wistar Audiogenic Rats (WARs) and Wistar resistant (R) animals. The experimental group (R) and WARs were pretreated with methyl scopolamine (1mg/kg ip) and injected with PILO (R animals, 340-380 mg/kg ip; WARs, 240-280 mg/kg ip). Among R animals, 36% developed SE, and among WARs, 53%. The control group (R animals and WARs) was injected only with methyl scopolamine plus saline. The ETHOMATIC method was used for evaluation of seizures. Sequences included in the analysis were chosen using (1) fixed observation windows and (2) behavioral triggers. The R group showed that the threshold for seizure is variable, so seizure onset and behavioral evolution were better described using behavioral triggers than fixed observation windows. The observation windows selected in similar duration intervals do not characterize the seizures. Sequential analysis in the WAR group showed high mortality after SE and greater susceptibility to PILO, compared with R animals. We conclude that with neuroethological tools it is possible to better map the sequence and evolution of SE induced by PILO compared to only using behavioral and arbitrary seizure severity scales. This sequence is faster and stronger in severity when WARs are compared with R animals. Although the WARs underwent an evolution of SE in some way equivalent to that of R animals, some rats presented tonic-clonic convulsions after PILO injection, very similar to acute audiogenic seizures, a brainstem-dependent model. The current data also point to the PILO-plus-WAR combination as a suitable protocol to study the genetic-epilepsy connection in experimental temporal lobe

  15. The Effect of Ovariectomy and Orchiectomy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Root Resorption in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Massoud; Ezzati, Baharak; Saedi, Sara; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Root resorption (RR) after orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is known as a multifactorial complication of orthodontic treatments. Hormonal deficiencies and their effect on bone turnover are reported to have influences on the rate of tooth movement and root resorption. Purpose This study was designed to evaluate the effect of female and male steroid sex hormones on tooth movement and root resorption. Materials and Method Orthodontic appliances were placed on the right maxillary first molars of 10 ovariectomized female and 10 orchiectomized male Wistar rats as experimental groups and 10 female and 10 male healthy Wistar rats as control groups. NiTi closed-coil springs (9mm, Medium, 011"×.030", Ortho Technology®; Tampa, Florida) were placed between the right incisors and the first right maxillary molars to induce tipping movement in the first molars with the application of a 60g force. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed and tooth movement was measured by using a digital caliper (Guanglu, China). Orthodontic induced root resorption (OIRR) was assessed by histomorphometric analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining of sections of the mesial root. Results The rate of tooth movement was significantly higher in all female rats, with the root resorption being lower in the experimental group. The rate of tooth movement in experimental male rats was significantly higher than the control group (p= 0.001) and the rate of root resorption was significantly lower in the experimental group (p= 0.001). Conclusion It seems that alterations in plasma levels of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone hormones can influence the rate of OTM and RR. The acceleration in tooth movement increased OTM and decreased RR. PMID:26636117

  16. Ethanol-Extracted Brazilian Propolis Exerts Protective Effects on Tumorigenesis in Wistar Hannover Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Naomi; Fujioka, Masaki; Doi, Kenichiro; Gi, Min; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted over a course of 104 weeks to estimate the carcinogenicity of ethanol-extracted Brazilian green propolis (EEP). Groups of 50 male and 50 female Wistar Hannover rats, 6-week-old at commencement were exposed to EEP at doses of 0, 0.5 or 2.5% in the diet. Survival rates of 0.5% and 2.5% EEP-treated male and female rats, respectively, were significantly higher than those of respective control groups. Overall histopathological evaluation of neoplasms in rat tissues after 2 years showed no significant increase of tumors or preneoplastic lesions in any organ of animals administered EEP. Significantly lower incidences of pituitary tumors in 0.5% EEP male and 2.5% EEP female groups, malignant lymphoma/leukemia in both 2.5% EEP-treated males and females and total thyroid tumors in 0.5% EEP male group were found. Administration of EEP caused significant decreases of lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus and lymph nodes in 2.5% EEP-treated rats, tubular cell hyperplasia of kidneys in all EEP groups, and cortical hyperplasia of adrenals in EEP-treated females. In the blood, significant reduction of neutrophils in all EEP-treated males and band neutrophils in 2.5% EEP-treated females was found indicating lower levels of inflammation. Total cholesterol and triglicerides levels were significantly lower in the blood of 2.5% EEP-treated female rats. In conclusion, under the conditions of the 2-year feeding experiment, EEP was not carcinogenic, did not induce significant histopathological changes in any organ, and further exerted anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic effects resulting in increase of survival of Wistar Hannover rats. PMID:27391589

  17. Effects of chronic social isolation on Wistar rat behavior and brain plasticity markers.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Jelena; Djordjevic, Ana; Adzic, Miroslav; Radojcic, Marija B

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress is a contributing risk factor in the development of psychiatric illnesses, including depressive disorders. The mechanisms of their psychopathology are multifaceted and include, besides others, alterations in the brain plasticity. Previously, we investigated the effects of chronic social stress in the limbic brain structures of Wistar rats (hippocampus, HIPPO, and prefrontal cortex, PFC) and found multiple characteristics that resembled alterations described in some clinical studies of depression. We extended our investigations and followed the behavior of stressed animals by the open field test (OFT) and forced swimming test (FST), and the expression and polysialylation of synaptic plasticity markers, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and L1, in the HIPPO and PFC. We also determined the adrenal gland mass and plasma corticosterone (CORT) as a terminal part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Our data indicated that stressed animals avoided the central zone in the OFT and displayed decreased swimming, but prolonged immobility in the FST. The animals exhibited marked hypertrophy of the adrenal gland cortex, in spite of decreased serum CORT. Simultaneously, the stressed animals exhibited an increase in NCAM mRNA expression in the HIPPO, but not in the PFC. The synaptosomal NCAM of the HIPPO was markedly polysialylated, while cortical PSA-NCAM was significantly decreased. The results showed that chronic social isolation of Wistar rats causes both anxiety-like and depression-like behavior. These alterations are parallel with molecular changes in the limbic brain, including diminished NCAM sialylation in the PFC. Together with our previous results, the current observations suggest that a chronic social isolation model may potentially be used to study molecular mechanisms that underlie depressive symptomatology. PMID:22814229

  18. Chronic social isolation suppresses proplastic response and promotes proapoptotic signalling in prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Ana; Adzic, Miroslav; Djordjevic, Jelena; Radojcic, Marija B

    2010-08-15

    Successful adaptation to stress involves synergized actions of glucocorticoids and catecholamines at several levels of the CNS, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Inside the PFC, hormonal signals trigger concerted actions of transcriptional factors, such as glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB), culminating in a balanced, proadaptive expression of their common genes, such as proplastic NCAM and/or apoptotic Bax and Bcl-2. In the present study, we hypothesized that chronic stress may compromise the balance between GR and NFkappaB signals and lead to an altered/maladaptive expression of their cognate genes in the PFC. Our results obtained with Wistar rats exposed to chronic social isolation indicated alterations of the GR relative to the NFkappaB, in favor of the GR, in both the cytoplasmic and the nuclear compartments of the PFC. Although these alterations did not affect the induction of proplastic NCAM gene, they decreased the NCAM sialylation necessary for plastic response and caused marked relocation of the mitochondrial membrane antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein to its cytoplasmic form. Moreover, the compromised PSA-NCAM plastic response found under chronic stress was sustained after exposure of animals to the subsequent acute stress, whereas the proapoptotic signals were further emphasized. It is concluded that chronic social isolation of Wistar animals leads to a maladaptive response of the PFC, considering the diminishment of its plastic potential and potentiating of apoptosis. Such conditions in the PFC are likely to compromise its ability to interact with other CNS structures, such as the hippocampus, which is necessary for successful adaptation to stress. PMID:20623537

  19. Tinospora crispa Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by High Fat Diet in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Abu, Mohd Nazri; Samat, Suhana; Kamarapani, Norathirah; Nor Hussein, Fuzina; Wan Ismail, Wan Iryani; Hassan, Hamzah Fansuri

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic properties of Tinospora crispa, a local herb that has been used in traditional Malay medicine and rich in antioxidant, were explored based on obesity-linked insulin resistance condition. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely, the normal control (NC) which received standard rodent diet, the high fat diet (HFD) which received high fat diet only, the high fat diet treated with T. crispa (HFDTC), and the high fat diet treated with orlistat (HFDO). After sixteen weeks of treatment, blood and organs were harvested for analyses. Results showed that T. crispa significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the body weight (41.14 ± 1.40%), adiposity index serum levels (4.910 ± 0.80%), aspartate aminotransferase (AST: 161 ± 4.71 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (ALT: 100.95 ± 3.10 U/L), total cholesterol (TC: 18.55 ± 0.26 mmol/L), triglycerides (TG: 3.70 ± 0.11 mmol/L), blood glucose (8.50 ± 0.30 mmo/L), resistin (0.74 ± 0.20 ng/mL), and leptin (17.428 ± 1.50 ng/mL) hormones in HFDTC group. The insulin (1.65 ± 0.07 pg/mL) and C-peptide (136.48 pmol/L) hormones were slightly decreased but within normal range. The histological results showed unharmed and intact liver tissues in HFDTC group. As a conclusion, T. crispa ameliorates insulin resistance-associated with obesity in Wistar rats fed with high fat diet. PMID:25821506

  20. The influence of gemfibrozil on malondialdehyde level and paraoxonase 1 activity in wistar and fisher rats.

    PubMed

    Macan, Marija; Marija, Macan; Konjevoda, Paško; Paško, Konjevoda; Lovric, Jasna; Jasna, Lovrić; Koprivanac, Marijan; Marijan, Koprivanac; Kelava, Marta; Marta, Kelava; Vrkic, Nada; Nada, Vrkić; Bradamante, Vlasta; Vlasta, Bradamante

    2011-06-01

    There are diverse experimental data about the influence of gemfibrozil (GEM) on the production of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and antioxidant enzymes. We investigated the influence of GEM treatment on the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) level in tissues of normolipidaemic Wistar and Fisher rats which is an index of lipid peroxidation. Because serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an important enzyme with specific protective function on metabolism of lipid peroxides, we examined the influence of GEM on PON1 activity in liver and serum. MDA level and enzyme activities were also determined 10 days after withdrawal of GEM treatment. The significantly increased levels of MDA in liver, kidney and heart of both rat strains were obtained after 3 weeks of GEM treatment. We propose two possibilities for the increase of MDA levels caused by GEM, induction of peroxisome proliferation and activities of enzymes that participated in occurrence of H(2)O(2) and possible reduction of enzyme activities including in H(2)O(2) metabolism. Ten days after withdrawal of GEM treatment, MDA levels in all tissue levels of both rat strains were less in comparison with GEM treatment. GEM caused a significant drop of PON1 activity in serum and liver of Fisher rats, and in liver of Wistar rats. We suggest that GEM, through induction of lipid peroxidation, caused the damage of hepatocytes with consequent reduction of PON1 synthesis. The increase in PON1 activity in serum and tissues of both rat strains 10 days after withdrawal of GEM treatment shows the fast recovery of enzyme synthesis. PMID:21223511

  1. Pathogenesis of hyperglycemia in genetically obese-hyperglycemic rats, Wistar fatty: presence of hepatic insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Y; Shimura, Y; Ikeda, H

    1989-02-01

    The present studies were designed to clarify the contribution of the liver to the development of hyperglycemia in Wistar fatty rats. The hepatic activities of insulin-inducible enzymes involved in glycolysis (glucokinase; GK and pyruvate kinase) and lipogenesis (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), were higher in fatty rats than in lean rats at 4 and 8 weeks of age because of the higher insulin levels in the former. Thereafter, the GK activities of fatty rats decreased slightly in spite of severe hyperinsulinemia, and did not differ from those of lean rats. In addition, fatty rats had higher levels of insulin-suppressible gluconeogenic enzymes, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and fructose-1, 6-diphosphatase. These findings indicate that the hepatic enzymes of fatty rats are resistant to insulin. This postulation was supported by the fact that the hepatic enzyme activities of fatty rats showed a lower response to changes in plasma insulin levels produced by fasting and refeeding. The G6Pase/GK ratio, which indicates net glucose handling in the liver, increased in fatty rats and decreased in lean rats with advancing age, suggesting that hepatic glucose production in fatty rats becomes dominant with advancing age. The changes in hepatic glycolytic intermediates supported this suggestion; the glycolytic steps both from glucose to glucose-6-phosphate and from phospho-enolpyruvate to pyruvate in fatty rats were accelerated at 5 weeks of age, but suppressed at 12 weeks of age. These results indicate that insulin resistance in the hepatic enzyme regulation may contribute to the development of hyperglycemia in Wistar fatty rats. PMID:2543549

  2. Prolonged consumption of flaxseed flour increases the 17β-estradiol hormone without causing adverse effects on the histomorphology of Wistar rats' penis.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Ludmila Ferreira Medeiros de França; Boaventura, Gilson Teles; Brant, Lívia Hipólito Cardozo; Pereira, Vivian Alves; Velarde, Luis Guillermo Coca; Chagas, Maurício Alves

    2012-11-01

    Consumption of foods rich in phytoestrogens such as flaxseed has increased due to its chemoprotective effects, especially those related to the cardiovascular system. The flaxseed has components that can interfere with development of male reproductive system. This study aims to investigate the possible effects of prolonged consumption of flaxseed flour on hormonal and histomorphologic penis parameters of adult Wistar rats. Rat dams were divided into two groups during lactation period: the control group that was fed with diet based on casein and the flaxseed group that was fed with diet based on casein containing 25% of flaxseed . At weaning, 10 male offspring from each group continued to receive the experimental diets until 250 days old. Rats fed with diet containing flaxseed showed increased concentrations of 17β-estradiol (p=0.01) but no changes in testosterone concentrations. With regard to histomorphometric analysis of the penis, supplemented rats had lower values for the total area of the corpus spongiosum (p=0.01). All other analyzed parameters wer e similar as the control. Results showed that the use of flaxseed flour did not cause adverse effects on the penis morphology but increases the 17β-estradiol hormone, when consumed in integral form for a prolonged period. PMID:22943974

  3. Effect of nucleus accumbens shell 5-HT4 receptors on the impairment of ACPA-induced emotional memory consolidation in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Khodayar, Ebrahim; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Nasehi, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigates the effects of 5-HT4 receptors of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell on the impairment of emotional memory consolidation induced by cannabinoid CB1 receptor stimulation. The elevated plus maze test-retest paradigm was used to assess memory in adult male Wistar rats. Intra-NAc shell administration of ACPA (selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist 0.006 µg/rat) and RS23597 (5-HT4 receptor antagonist 0.01 µg/rat), immediately after training, decreased emotional memory consolidation, suggesting a drug-induced amnesia, whereas post-training intra-NAc shell microinjections of RS67333 (5-HT4 receptor agonist 0.016 µg/rat) increased emotional memory consolidation. Interestingly, RS67333 exerted a dual effect on ACPA-induced behaviors, potentiating and restoring amnesia caused by the subthreshold and effective doses of ACPA, respectively. However, neither RS23597 nor AM251 (CB1 receptor antagonist 30, 60 and 120 ng/rat) affected emotional memory consolidation. Nonetheless, a subthreshold dose of AM251 (120 ng/rat) reversed the amnesia induced by ACPA (0.006 µg/rat) and RS23597 (0.01 µg/rat). None of the above doses altered the locomotor activity. In conclusion, our results suggest that the NAc-shell 5-HT4 receptors are involved in the modulation of ACPA-induced amnesia. PMID:26340366

  4. Flavonoid mixture ameliorates increase in erythrocyte osmotic fragility and malondialdehyde concentration induced by Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infection in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kobo, Patricia I; Ayo, Joseph O; Aluwong, Tagang; Zezi, Abdulkadir U; Maikai, Victor; Ambali, Suleiman F

    2014-02-01

    The experiment was performed with the aim of investigating the effect of a flavonoid mixture, Daflon® 500 mg (DF) on the erythrocyte fragility and lipoperoxidative changes, induced by Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in Wistar rats. Fifty adult male rats randomly divided into five groups of 10 animals each were used. Rats in the control group were administered (1 mL/kg) distilled water only, while the other groups were infected with T. brucei brucei and treated with Daflon® 500 mg and/or Diminazene aceturate. At the end of 5 weeks, EDTA-blood samples and serum samples were collected from the rats, and were used to determine erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration respectively. The results showed that EOF and MDA concentration significantly (P<0.05) increased in the infected untreated group when compared to the treatment groups. Treatment with Daflon® 500 mg and Diminazene aceturate significantly (P<0.05) reduced trypanosome-induced increases in EOF and lipoperoxidative changes, suggesting possible antioxidant properties of Daflon® 500 mg and its therapeutic value in trypanosomosis. PMID:24332272

  5. Clinico-pathology, diagnosis and management of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta co-infection in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Y. Damodar; Arya, Rahul Singh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the pathology and control of sudden unexplained mortality in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a colony of 25 male wistar rats where there was mortality of nine rats. The dead rats were subjected to thorough post-mortem examination and necropsy samples were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining for histopathological studies. Faecal samples of live rats were studied for the presence of parasitic eggs. Treatment with anthelmintics was given to manage the mortality and infections. Results: The investigation revealed a natural co-infection of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta in wistar rats, which were pathogenic enough to cause mortality. Typical lesions associated with the parasites were found in the dead rats. The mortality and infection were managed with common anthelmintics. Conclusion: C. fasciolaris and H. diminuta infection can cause mortality in wistar rats even when individually they cause asymptomatic infection. The mortality and infection can be managed with common anthelmintics. PMID:27047007

  6. Sweet taste of saccharin induces weight gain without increasing caloric intake, not related to insulin-resistance in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Melo Batista, Bruna Aparecida; Neves, Alice Magagnin; de Matos Feijó, Fernanda; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Marques Ribeiro, Maria Flávia; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we showed that saccharin can induce weight gain when compared with sucrose in Wistar rats despite similar total caloric intake. We now question whether it could be due to the sweet taste of saccharin per se. We also aimed to address if this weight gain is associated with insulin-resistance and to increases in gut peptides such as leptin and PYY in the fasting state. In a 14 week experiment, 16 male Wistar rats received either saccharin-sweetened yogurt or non-sweetened yogurt daily in addition to chow and water ad lib. We measured daily food intake and weight gain weekly. At the end of the experiment, we evaluated fasting leptin, glucose, insulin, PYY and determined insulin resistance through HOMA-IR. Cumulative weight gain and food intake were evaluated through linear mixed models. Results showed that saccharin induced greater weight gain when compared with non-sweetened control (p = 0.027) despite a similar total caloric intake. There were no differences in HOMA-IR, fasting leptin or PYY levels between groups. We conclude that saccharin sweet taste can induce mild weight gain in Wistar rats without increasing total caloric intake. This weight gain was not related with insulin-resistance nor changes in fasting leptin or PYY in Wistar rats. PMID:26555482

  7. CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPs) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS.
    UP Kodavanti, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, LC Walsh, PS Gilmour, MI Gilmour, WP Watkinson, JP Nolan, JH Richards, D Andrews, DL Costa. US EPA...

  8. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N

    2015-09-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and vLDL. Feeding on POME led to significant increase (p < 0.05) in cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL levels in brain tissues. Increased hepatic LDL level was also observed in POME fed rats. Except for hepatic triglyceride and tissues HDL level, a rather reduced level of the studied lipids was observed in the serum and tissues of palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent. PMID:27441210

  9. Lipidomic Modulation in Stressed Albino Rats Is Altered by Yolk and Albumen of Quail (Coturnix japonica) Egg and Poultry Feed

    PubMed Central

    Oluwafemi Ibukun, Emmanuel; Oludare Oladipo, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Cold and immobilization stressors can generate oxidative stress as well as skeletal muscle fatigue. Free radicals cause oxidative degradation of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates molecules, thereby compromising cell integrity and function. Quail egg had been described as being very functional biochemically, due to the essential biomolecules it contains in very regulated quantity. This study was aimed for evaluating the dietary effect of the egg on lipid profile parameters on selected tissues. The antilipidemic properties of the egg yolk and albumen and poultry (layers) feed were determined in selected tissues in male albino rats assaulted with cold immobilization stress induced on them at 4°C for 2 hours, while diazepam was used as standard antistress drug. Antilipidemic activities were evaluated by lipid profile modulation (HDL, LDL, TRIG., and T-CHOL.). Quantitative and qualitative analyses of fatty acids profile of the yolk hexane-extract were determined by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS). The ameliorative impacts of diazepam (2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL/kg BW), yolk (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), albumen (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), and the feed (5–10 mg/kg BW) were competitively (p < 0.05) specific for each of the tissues. The result of the study suggested yolk and albumen of quail egg and poultry feed as antistress agents as well as lipid modulators. PMID:26942009

  10. Modulatory effect of whey proteins in some cytokines involved in wound healing in male diabetic albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Bahaa Kenawy Abuel-Hussien

    2014-10-01

    The anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necroses factor-alpha (TNF-α)) have important functions in wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with whey protein could enhance normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic rats. In this study, male albino rats were divided into a wounded control group, a wounded diabetic group, and a wounded diabetic group supplemented with whey protein orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Tested rats showed increasing wound closure in rats treated with whey protein. In addition, after 4 days of wound, modulation in IL-4, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were detected. Statistical analysis of data showed significant difference between the whey-protein-treated group and either control or diabetic groups (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with whey protein enhances the normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic rats by modulating the levels of some anti-inflammatory and inflammatory cytokines. PMID:24760706

  11. Evaluation of anti-depressant and anxiolytic activity of Rasayana Ghana Tablet (A compound Ayurvedic formulation) in albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Deole, Yogesh S.; Chavan, Sulakshan S.; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.; Thakar, A. B.; Chandola, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, many Ayurvedic formulations are being researched to provide an effective antidepressant and anxiolytic drug in the field of psycho-pharmacology. The present study was planned to evaluate the anti-depressant and anxiolytic activity of Rasayana Ghana Tablet comprising three herbs Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers), Aamalaki (Emblica officinal